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REPORT OF THE Department of Recreation and Conservation containing the reports of the GENERAL ADMINISTRATION,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1970

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Hon. W. K. Kiernan, Minister H. G. McWilliams, Deputy Minister
REPORT OF THE
Department of Recreation
and Conservation
containing the reports of the
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION, FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH,
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH, BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, AND COMMERCIAL
FISHERIES BRANCH
Year Ended December 31
1969
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1970
  Victoria, British Columbia, February 19, 1970.
To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C., O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department
of Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1969.
W. K. KIERNAN,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 Victoria, British Columbia, February 18, 1970.
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation,
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1969.
H. G. McWILLIAMS,
Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 Page
CONTENTS
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation        7
General Administration     9
Fish and Wildlife Branch  13
Provincial Parks Branch  35
British Columbia Provincial Museum  55
Commercial Fisheries Branch  71
 1
-   I
i
 Report of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation, 1969
H. G. McWilliams, Deputy Minister and Commissioner of Fisheries
INTRODUCTION
For the first time, since the Department was formed in 1957, three branches,
along with the Deputy Minister's office, are now located together in the newly
renovated Dogwood Building. This has proved to be of great assistance in increasing the efficiency of administration for the whole Department and made possible a
much better liaison between the branch personnel.
To help meet the need and the demand for more recreational facilities in all
parts of the Province, a Regional Park Officer was appointed to Fort St. John and
a District Park Officer appointed to look after the Lower Mainland area from
offices in Vancouver. Park use continues to climb at an alarming rate, with more
than 7,000,000 visits to our parks in 1969. A few years ago we estimated that
we would not reach this figure until 1973.
The museum staff, in their new building, are meeting the challenge with exciting plans to develop displays for a living museum over a period of years, as funds
become available. At the end of the year the Curatorial Tower was completed,
which will enable many of the curators to expand their research work in the various
phases of human and natural history. It was a busy year and one of progress
toward the ultimate goal for an outstanding Provincial Museum.
The participation of the Commercial Fisheries Branch in cost-sharing agreements with the oyster industry and the Federal Department of Fisheries are proving
to be very beneficial. The depuration plant at Ladysmith now in operation is an
example of a successful venture. The development of equipment by industry to
harvest aquatic plants made considerable progress during the year and indications
are that at least one company will be in operation in the immediate future.
The activities of the Fish and Wildlife Branch continue to expand along with
the increased use by hunters and fishermen of these resources. The Hunter-training
Programme has been most successful and a large number of instructors are now
qualified to conduct classes in many localities throughout the Province on safety in
the woods.
The Departmental publication Wildlife Review ended the year with about
31,000 paid subscriptions. Additional special bulk purchases, mostly by the Canadian Forestry Association and the four Branches of the Department, brought the
average circulation of the quarterly magazine to 34,000. This publication, edited
by Mr. W. T. Ward, continues to draw favourable comment from around the world
and its conservation theme results in a large volume of requests being received for
information and education material on conservation generally.
DR. G. CLIFFORD CARL
As Director of the Provincial Museum for nearly 30 years, Dr. Carl requested
to be relieved of the administration responsibilities so that he could devote his full
time to research in marine biology. This will include the planning and construction
of a Hall of the Sea, which will be a dramatic display of the ecology of our seashore.
Dr. Carl's decision to spend his full time on this work will be a lasting benefit to
the museum.
7
  GENERAL
ADMINISTRATION
  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969
CC 11
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
General Administration consists of the Deputy Minister's Office, the attached
Public Information Officer, and the Accounts and Personnel Office.
The staff of General Administration works closely with all branches, including
the Department of Travel Industry, in such Departmental matters as putting policy
into effect, office and work facilities, personnel, and finance.
The Personnel Section of General Administration processed 57 requisitions to
the Civil Service Commission for the purpose of obtaining new and replacement
positions for all Branches of the Department. It was deemed necessary to increase
the establishment of the Department of Recreation and Conservation by the addition of the following 10 new positions:—
Fish and Wildlife Branch—one Research Officer 3, two Wildlife Assistants 3.
Parks Branch—one Park Assistant 6, one Park Assistant 4.
Provincial Museum—one Clerk 5, one Curator 3 (Biology), one Museologist.
General Administration—one Clerk 2, one Clerk 3.
This section also processed 97 Civil Service Commission requisitions for the
Department of Travel Industry.
The personnel officer sat in on many interviewing panels for the selection of
these candidates.
One employee in this Department completed the three-year Executive Development Course and two employees in this Department were selected for the one-year
Basic Public Administration Course. Two employees in the Fish and Wildlife
Branch were awarded 25-year continuous-service certificates.
Examinations for positions of conservation officers in the Fish and Wildlife
Branch were held in various cities in British Columbia for the purpose of establishing an eligibility list to fill current and future vacancies.
Regular meetings are held with employees of the Parks Branch and the Fish
and Wildlife Branch for the purpose of reviewing personnel accidents and seeking
methods of improving safety.
  FISH and WILDLIFE
BRANCH
 Outlet stream of Ruby Lake prior to improvement.   Natural and
man-made debris clogs stream bed.
Improved spawning-channel provides optimum conditions of gravel, water velocity,
and depth for spawning cutthroat trout, and side channels for rearing fry.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1969 CC 15
FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
J. Hatter, Director
A number of highlights which characterized the year 1969 are summarized as
follows:—
(1) Reintroduction of sea-otter to the west coast of Vancouver Island.
(2) Establishment of a Governmental land use committee to make recommendations re best use of land.
(3) There was a record collection of 15,000,000 wild eggs from trout and
kokanee.
(4) Mostly in the underdeveloped northern half of the Province, 135 lakes
were surveyed for fisheries potential.
(5) The Hunter-training Programme was activated and trained 289 instructors, who completed 20 student courses containing 258 students.
(6) Mr. R. Goodlad was appointed Regional Supervisor in the Prince George
Region.
(7) Mr. F. Harper was appointed Regional Wildlife Biologist for the Peace
River, with headquarters at Fort St. John.
(8) Enforcement activity was increased on many Interior lakes.
(9) Branch revenue was $2,705,000 for fiscal year 1968/69, an increase of
$429,000 over 1967/68.
(10) New guiding regulations were established to provide a better basis for
administration of guide outfitters.
(11) Commencement of wetland developments in the Creston Valley Wildlife
Management Area.
Branch activities were once more expanded in 1969 due to a $300,000 increase
in funds, plus the addition of three permanent positions. Increased liaison with
other resource agencies at the planning as well as operation level was the greatest
administrative achievement during the year. The opportunity to work more closely
with field officials of Water Resources, the Lands Branch, and especially the Forest
Service, substantially improved the Branch's ability to maintain and protect fish
and wildlife habitat.
To the many Provincial and Federal Departments, the British Columbia Wildlife Federation, Ducks Unlimited, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and the
many other agencies whose advice, assistance, and co-operation were so useful, our
thanks are gratefully extended.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Wildlife-management activities in the Province can be broadly described as
having two purposes—the regulation of use and the preservation of the resource.
The regulation of use is an important part of a management programme, and
one which the public is often the most conscious of through their experience in
hunting. Activities aimed at the preservation of wildlife and its habitat often go
unnoticed by the public but are of the greatest consequence in the long run.
It is the purpose of this annual report of the Wildlife Management Division to
provide some measure of our success and failures in achieving these major objectives—the regulation of use and the preservation of wildlife in this Province.
 CC 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Public Use of Wildlife Resources in British Columbia
The number of hunters, their hunting success, and their opinions about hunting have traditionally been an important measure of public appreciation of wildlife
resources and of the management of these resources. The activities of the Fish and
Wildlife Branch have in the past been financed solely by sportsman revenue, and
the Branch is the only Government agency charged with the responsibility of managing wildlife resources in the Province, including the many non-game species comprising our wildlife endowment. Under these circumstances, wildlife management
activities have in the past been oriented to hunting and the hunter. Virtually no
measure of the nature and extent of non-consumptive use of wildlife exists in the
Province, and there are, consequently, few criteria by which public need for non-
consumptive use of wildlife can be expressed or rationally accommodated.
The Hunter in British Columbia.—The number of licensed hunters increased
2 per cent in 1968, to a total of 145,052 residents and 7,093 non-residents. Table
1 shows the trend in hunter numbers for the past five years in the Province.
Table 1.—Number of Licensed Resident and Non-resident Hunters in
British Columbia, 1964-68
1968_.
1967_.
1966..
1965-.
1964_
Residents
145,052
143,021
134,351
134,448
130,151
Non-residents
7,093
6,933
6,635
5,797
5,265
Game Harvests in British Columbia.—Harvest statistics for the 1969 hunting
season are not yet available for publication in this report. Those for the past several
years are presented in Table 2, and illustrate a general upward trend for most kinds
of game. Elk and bighorn sheep harvest estimates have tended to show a decline
in recent years, reflecting a decline in the population of these animals, mainly in
the East Kootenay region of the Province.
Table 2,
-Summary of the Game Harvests by Residents of
British Columbia, 1950-67
Species
1950
1955
1960
1965
1966
1967
1968
18,165
3,330
50,918
6,198
1,594
58,572
11,293
2,669
56,877
15,183
1,800
521
1,967
242
474,670
39,223
621,162
134,448
76,692
19,940
1,970
798
1,762
225
491,493
29,207
508,514
134,351
70,534
19,397
1,709
1,577
1,191
221
483,182
32,324
978,485
143,048
77,013
22,469
Elk__         -   •
2,257
-
830
	
1,661
390,004
46,611
343,962
113,203
267
316,175
31,475
222,100
67,396
305,358
36,788
186,552
82,459
381,819
23,531
623,979
145,052
Hunter Success in British Columbia.—The seasonal success of hunters in the
Province provides an additional indication of hunting quality and trends in the
Province. This information is given in Table 3 for deer and moose, the major big-
game species harvested. As shown in this table, success in recent years has remained
relatively stable, further indicating that, despite a steady increase in hunter numbers,
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969
CC 17
wildlife populations have been capable of sustaining this use. Figures for 1969 are
not yet available for inclusion in Table 3. For reasons explained elsewhere, success
will be lower in 1969.
Table 3.—Season Success for Deer and Moose Expressed As the Per Cent of Hunters Hunting These Species Who Bagged One or More Animals (Some Hunters
Bag More than One of Each Species). Moose
(Per Cent)
1968.
1967.
1966_
1965.
1964_
44
50
49
45
42
Deer
(Per Cent)
79
74
82
61
78
The sex and age composition of the harvest, as contained in Table 4, has
remained fairly stable for the past several years. Despite changing season lengths
and variations in opportunity caused by weather, the male/antlerless ratio in most
big-game harvests has remained stable.
Data relating to hunter numbers, their success, and wildlife harvests indicate
that, on the average, wildlife resources in the Province are capable of sustaining
present levels of use at least. Local variations are not shown by these data, nor is
the distribution of hunting pressure and harvests. In the main, local variations and
trends in harvests and populations of game are not a cause for concern, with the
exception of the East Kootenay Region.
Table 4.—Composition of the Game Harvest, Expressed in Per Cent
Male and Antlerless Animals
Year
Ratio
Caribou*
Elk
Moose
Goati
Deer
1964
Male 	
Antlerless	
78
22
37
63
59
41
53
47
66
34
1965
Male -	
Antlerless —
76
23
48
50
57
40
55
42
67
33
1966
Male 	
Antlerless— —
75
23
66
33
54
43
53
45
70
30
63
35
63
35
52
45
57
42
65
1967
32
1968
Male
Antlerless	
74
26
57
42
56
44
54
45
71
29
1 Antlerless (females and young of the year).
Hunting success for the 1969 season will fall below the past five years' average
in most areas of the Province. A severe winter in 1968/69 caused widespread
mortality in big-game populations in southern areas of the Province, while northern
regions were more fortunate. The effects of this winter on game were reported in
a Wildlife Management Division publication, " 1968/69 Winter Hard on Deer," by
Ian Smith, wildlife biologist, available from the Branch on request.
The decreased success on big game in 1969 is partly attributable to unusually
mild fall weather throughout the Province.
Road-check results have indicated reduced success in 1969. Vancouver
Island and Mainland Coast checks showed about a 50-60 per cent reduction in
success, and it is expected the season harvest will decline by about 40 per cent.
2
 CC 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
South Okanagan and Kootenay region road checks similarly indicated reduced
success, about 40 per cent.
Hunter-success data from the Cache Creek check (Table 5) is mainly derived
from the more northern management areas of the Province, and illustrates less
decline in hunter success than was experienced in southern management areas in
1969.
Table 5.—Cache Creek Check-station Results
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
5,931
2,232
138
54
149
213
13
7,118
5,894
17,424
3,384
7,264
3,008
197
74
138
414
22
7,265
6,494
19,123
4,093
7,258
3,635
183
63
121
514
21
6,720
17,482
20,503
4,106
6,661
2,678
163
59
209
366
43
6,298
14,399
19,198
3,908
5,336
2,761
148
Goat 	
Sheep.    —   	
49
135
351
Elk       _
20
6,967
23,715
20,919
3,610
Grouse         	
Non-residents    	
Non-resident Hunting.—Table 6 summarizes non-resident hunter activity in
the Province over the past 19 years. As shown, there is a gradual increase in the
annual participation by non-residents, and a corresponding increase in wildlife
harvested. Most non-resident hunting centres on the trophy species, usually in the
more remote areas of the Province. For this reason there is a minimum of conflict
between non-resident and resident hunters in the pursuit of the rare species of big
game, such as thinhorn sheep, caribou, and grizzly bear.
Table 6.-
-Big-game Harvest in British Columbia by Non-residents, 1950-68
Year
Licence
Sales
Deer
Moose
Elk
Goat
Sheep
Caribou
Grizzly
Bear
Bear
Black
1950       	
2,535
3,333
1,018
3,211
2,675
2,639
2,897
3,186
2,989
3,392
3,767
3,826
4,370
5,226
5,265
5,797
6,635
6,933
7,093
379
396
59
306
306
353
310
263
318
357
407
393
435
467
427
307
352
417
383
1,012
1,389
104
1,140
1,015
1,164
1,245
1,287
1,268
1,368
1,649
1,878
2,047
2,436
2,512
2,817
3,266
3,328
3,285
109
114
26
113
100
111
123
121
169
140
145
137
176
214
178
194
184
182
205
238
198
192
257
212
235
203
330
305
259
445
392
433
560
439
580
692
569
621
90
101
71
116
105
85
108
136
147
119
192
191
214
312
271
390
376
392
415
60
75
57
85
70
87
88
129
98
150
217
197
270
290
331
397
578
492
611
90
112
78
97
110
104
95
127
104
141
153
128
184
166
193
241
212
181
268
123
1951.    	
164
1957
102
1953
166
1954               —     -
176
1055
136
1956 	
149
1957              -
186
1958
108
1QSQ
220
I960        -
190
1961      	
132
1962
206
1963             -   -
163
1964
183
1965
1966
250
1967             ..    _
1968 	
152
368
The regulation of the consumptive use of wildlife resources in the Province
has been effective in two ways. Hunter success is generally high throughout the
Province, and wildlife populations have been able to sustain the use to which they
have been put. Annual census programmes, game checks, hunter samples, and
other information systems have become a routine and effective means of acquiring
data, enabling continuation of public use of wildlife.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969
CC 19
Protection of Wildlife Resources in British Columbia
Protection of wildlife and its habitat is the more important of the two major
components of wildlife management. This role is more diverse in terms of the
activities associated with it, and is often the more difficult in many ways to achieve.
The preservation of habitat is of paramount importance in protecting wildlife,
and the loss of habitat is the most common event likely to occur in the rapidly
evolving social and economic trends in British Columbia. Strip mining, river basin
developments, settlement of land for both rural and urban development, widespread use of pesticides, and use of range by domestic live stock are examples of
the social and economic forces in the Province having a profound impact on wildlife
populations and their habitat, and which for many reasons are an inevitable consequence of human population growth and behaviour.
Management of wildlife must recognize that loss of populations and habitat is
inevitable, but must on the other hand tailor its endeavour to meet public needs for
the resource. This process implies that we must be able to identify the public need
for wildlife, and that conflicting demands on wildlife habitat must be curtailed when
the supply of wildlife falls short of public demand for the resource. Improved production techniques and improved rationing of the resource are important and
continuing needs in management, the former of which we are just beginning to
attempt.
The Wildlife Management Division has conducted a variety of activities relating to the protection of the resource.
Economic Studies
These continued in 1969 with the completion of a study on the non-resident
hunting industry, the commencement of economic studies of the resident hunting
industry, and economic consequences of the Creston wildlife developments within
the Creston Valley Management Area. These studies will complete a series of such
studies that have been conducted in recent years, the results of which have been
published and which are available in limited supply.
River Basin Study Activities
Several major hydro dam projects have been undertaken in the Province in
recent years, all of which greatly influence wildlife resources. In 1969, studies on
the effect of the Libby project on wildlife were completed, and methods of mitigating
losses were proposed. Similar work has been done this year in the Ross project
area near Hope, and studies of the post-impoundment effects of the Peace River
project on moose populations were continued.
While no mitigation measures have yet been undertaken as a result of this
work, experience in assessing the effects of impoundment on wildlife has been
gained, and the extent of wildlife-resource losses documented.
It is anticipated that the Libby project will displace about 6,000 whitetail deer
and 500 elk, and that displacement of settlement, roads, and other amenities will
further reduce wildlife capabilities of the area.
Habitat Inventory Activities
The Wildlife Management Division has continued to provide advisory service
to the ungulate sector of the Canada Land Inventory staff, and to participate in
various committees established for the inventory programme. Mapping of land
capability for ungulates has now been done over much of the Province, the results
of which will be integrated with other resource capabilities and subsequently in-
 CC 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
eluded in published maps of primary land capabilities. This information will
provide a useful technical basis for land-use planning in the Province, including
wildlife resources.
Land-use Activities
Numerous activities and events have occurred in the past year that can most
conveniently be described under " land use."  These include:—
(a) A continuous review of applications for the purchase and lease of lands
throughout the Province is maintained in co-operation with the Lands
Branch, resulting in recommendations designed to protect wildlife resources from conflicts with other land uses. In many instances, arising
from this work, applications for land purchase and lease are disallowed,
thereby affording protection to wildlife resources.
(b) Reserves are frequently established on areas of particular importance to
wildlife in co-operation with the Lands Branch and other agencies in
Government. Many of these include wetlands and coastal marshes of
importance to waterfowl and waterfowl hunting. A total of 12 such
reserves of varying status was created in 1969, covering some 96,000
acres.   A total of 44 such reserves now exists in the Province.
(c) For the second year, an extensive survey of wildlife winter ranges in the
Peace River region has been conducted in co-operation with the Lands
Branch and Grazing Division, resulting in the establishment of four major
reserves, with provision for multiple-resources use, including wildlife
resources. These reserves are new in their concept and status, and should
provide long-term protection of important wildlife habitat in the event
they become permanently allocated under reserve status.
(d) In 1969 the Government announced that a Ministers' Committee on land
use, and other committees for this purpose, had been established to review
land-use matters in the Province. The Wildlife Management Division has
contributed technical information on wildlife for this programme. This is
the first time that a comprehensive arrangement in Government has been
made to study land use with wildlife resource needs included in such
considerations.
Pesticide Study Activities
The Division received 167 samples of fish, birds, mammals, and shellfish. Of
these, 119 or 71 per cent contained residues of DDT, DDD, DDE Dieldrin, Aldrin,
Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide, Lindane, and mercury.
Waterfowl Management
Waterfowl resources are largely under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government; however, the Province has traditionally been very much involved in the
preparation of migratory bird regulations, preservation of wetland habitat, and
assessment of waterfowl harvests.
These activities were continued in 1969, in co-operation with the Canadian
Wildlife Service.
Ducks Unlimited (Canada) established a working staff in the Province for the
first time in 1969, and initiated several wetland development works during the year.
A Technical Committee on Waterfowl Management was established in the
Province in 1969, consisting of representatives of the Canadian Wildlife Service,
Fish and Wildlife Branch, and Ducks Unlimited (Canada). This committee is
structured to co-ordinate waterfowl management programmes in the Province, re-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969
CC 21
view technical programmes and results, and to maintain a constant review of matters affecting migratory bird populations and the hunting of this resource.
Several events of note respecting waterfowl resources occurred during 1969.
These include:—
(a) The commencement of wetland developments in the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area.
(b) Internal pothole and dyke construction works on the Serpentine Marsh
unit.
(c) The construction and seeding of islands in the Pitt Marsh for nesting
habitat.
(d) A contracted study of waterfowl habitat and hunting opportunity in the
Lower Mainland Region.
(e) Engineering studies of the Duck, Barber, and Woodward Island Marshes
in the Fraser River. These studies have been designed to indicate development possibilities, and the costs of such work for waterfowl habitat
improvement.
(/) Plans are being formulated for a comprehensive programme of waterfowl
habitat improvement in the Lower Mainland Region, including the development of hunting opportunity.
Technical Wildlife Management Activities
The annual operation of the Cache Creek Checking Station provides important
information on the moose and deer populations of the Central and Northern Interior.
Increased numbers of hunters predicated a fundamental change in the method of
recording the data. Based on a preliminary trial in late 1968, the 1969 operations
of Cache Creek were compiled on a computer. The change-over required renovations to the station and retraining of branch personnel. The new method worked
very well and the results of Cache Creek were available two weeks after the station
closed, instead of several months later.
The fourth year of the five-year mule deer trapping and tagging programme
was completed on the Dewdrop ranges, north and west of Kamloops. Over 150
deer captures and recaptures had been made, and thus far returns of 19 marked
deer have been received from hunters. The conclusion so far is that the members
of the mule deer population being studied are remarkably faithful to small territories on a specific winter range.
The experimental burning for production of moose winter range was continued
in Wells Gray Park. Over 600 acres of Green Mountain were burned before hot,
dry weather forced a cancellation.
Wildlife Management's involvement in waterfowl was expanded into the
Cariboo area where a pothole fencing project was initiated on the Beecher's Prairie
area west of Williams Lake. Three potholes were fenced in an effort to assess the
possible effects of cattle on the ability of these potholes to produce waterfowl.
The effects of the severe winter were expressed most significantly in the
Okanagan area through heavy losses in the introduced upland game birds of the
Okanagan. Up to 90 per cent of the quail population was believed lost due to
extremely cold temperatures and deep snowfall.
Wildlife Research
An assessment of the parasite burdens of several bands of Rocky Mountain
bighorn sheep form the major component of one investigation. Results indicate
few differences in the parasitic species present, but showed a positive role of certain
 CC 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
parasites in the die-off of East Kootenay sheep. The lungworm plays an important
role and for the first time quantitative proof has been provided to support a longstanding suspicion. The roles of other abundant parasites are not clear, but it is
suspected that they may have substantially increased the stress placed upon bighorns
by a deteriorating environment.
The maintenance of captive bighorns has provided useful information about
parasitic infections. Development of a lungworm infection in a lamb born in captivity provided some evidence for a direct pre- or post-natal transfer of infective
larva.. The seasonal production of parasitic larvae in captive sheep provided quantitative results useful in the interpretation of field assessments of lungworm burdens
in wild bighorns.
Since 1965, five important big-game winter ranges in the Rocky Mountain
Trench have been intensively studied. Basic ecological descriptions, which include
soil surveys, an assessment of climatological variables in relation to range production, and measurements of range condition and utilization by domestic and wild
stock have been completed. Reseeding and fertilizer trials were included in this
investigation to assess methods suitable for revegetation programmes. Currently,
results obtained from the past four years are being analysed and prepared, together
with recommendations for management programmes for each range. Additionally,
a large number of plant samples are being chemically analysed to determine the
nutritive quality of the untreated plant species as well as those which have been
fertilized to increase production.
Winter counts of bighorn-sheep bands which suffered losses during the die-off
have continued for four consecutive winters. No severe losses were recorded last
winter, even though it was one of the worst on record. The bands affected in the
1965/67 die-off have recovered to different degrees, with no signs of improvement
noted at Premier Ridge, Columbia Lake, or on the Bull River range. In terms of
numbers and productivity, some recovery has been recorded for the Estella Mountain and Radium bands, with the Wigwam band still in the best condition with
relatively high lamb production compared to other bands.
In March, a total of 16 bighorn lambs and ewes were trapped on the Wigwam
winter range. Of these, four lambs were tagged and released and 12 ewes were
shipped to the Research Section at the University of British Columbia for intensive
study.
The tooth-annulation method of aging deer was verified by the use of a series
of known-age jaws of black-tailed deer from Vancouver Island. This information,
together with the age analysis of a large collection of jaws from deer of unknown
age, by both annulations and tooth wear, will permit an evaluation of this latter
method.
A similar study was carried out on moose jaws obtained from the Cache Creek
Checking Station. From jaws aged by tooth wear a series of incisors were extracted,
decalcified, sectioned, and stained. Initial examinations have verified the inherent
errors of age estimation by tooth wear.
The Wildlife Research and Technical Services Section has been involved in
five student programmes which have completed one summer's field activities, seven
investigations which are more advanced and include two or more years of active
student research, and was involved with two research projects which were completed
in 1969.
General Conservation Activities
In perhaps the most widely publicized branch project, a total of 29 sea otters
was released at Bunsby Islands in an attempt to reintroduce this rare species to
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 23
Canadian waters. The original population was exterminated prior to 1930 by the
fur trade. Sea otters were obtained from Amchitka Island in Alaska through the
co-operation of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game and the United States
Atomic Energy Commission. A similar number of animals was released at the
same time off the coast of Washington. Subsequent surveys indicate that both
introduced populations dispersed immediately. Scattered reports indicate that at
least some of the animals were still alive by December, 1969.
In a departure from previous years, all collections of young Peale's peregrine
falcons on the Queen Charlotte Islands were carried out by Fish and Wildlife Branch
personnel. A total of nine birds was collected and these were distributed by lottery
among those residents who had applied for permits. A fee of $200 per bird was
assessed. In past years, collecting had been done by the falconers themselves, but
it was felt that this procedure led to undue disturbance of nest sites in addition to
allowing a greater opportunity for outside poaching. Under the new regulations,
only Fish and Wildlife Branch personnel have legitimate reasons for being in the
nesting areas during the hatching period.
Public Relations Activities
In addition to regular staff meetings, wildlife biologists attended and participated in meetings of British Columbia Waterfowl Society, Canada Land Inventory,
Northwest Section of the Wildlife Society, British Columbia Wildlife Federation,
Western Association of State Game and Fish Commissioners, and British Columbia
Association of Foresters.
Publications
Boag, D. A., and K. M. Sumanik. Characteristics of Drumming Sites Selected by
Ruffed Grouse in Alberta.   Jour. Wild. Man., 33 (3):   621-628.
Cowan, I. McT., and P. J. Bandy (1969). Observations on the ha.matology of
several races of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Can. Jour. Zool.,
47 (5):   1021-1024.
Finegan, R. H. P. (1969). Pesticide Uses in Relation to Fish and Wildlife. Wildlife Management Rept. No. 2, 1-5.
  (1969). Environmental Contamination by Pesticides in British Columbia—Summary of Pesticide Analysis Reports. Wildlife Management Rept.
No. 3, 1-27.
  (1969).    Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Residues in Game Birds.    Wildlife
Management Rept. No. 4, 1-11.
(1969).    Comparison of the Federal and Provincial Waterfowl Harvest
Analyses for British Columbia,  1968.    Wildlife Management Rept. No. 6,
1-12.
Harper, F. E. (1969).    Effects of Certain Climatic Factors on the Productivity
and Availability of Forages on the Ashnola Bighorn Winter Ranges.    M.Sc.
thesis, Dept. of Plant Science, U.B.C.
Smith, I. D., and R. A. Demarchi (1969).   Submission on Grazing to the Select
Standing Committee on Forestry and Fisheries.    Wildlife Management Rept.
No. 1, 28 pp.
  (1969).    The Ungulate Resources  of the Libby Reservoir.    Wildlife
Management Publ. No. 5, 1-15.
Smith, I. D., and A. S. Harrison.    The Waterfowl and Fur-bearer Resources of
the Libby Reservoir.    Wildlife Management Rept. No. 7, 1-11.
 CC 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Smith, I. D., R. A. Demarchi, and D. Eastman (1969).   The Wildlife Livestock
Interactions of the East Kootenay Region.   Wildlife Management Rept. No. 8,
1-33.
Spalding, D. J., and J. N. Bone (1969).    California Bighorn Sheep of the South
Okanagan Valley.   Wildlife Management Publ. No. 3, 1-45.
The Division wrote an information pamphlet on the mountain sheep for the
Information and Education Section. Staff biologists also wrote numerous articles
for publication in the popular press.
Personnel
During the year there were three changes in personnel. Mr. D. A. Blood
resigned his position in Nanaimo to assume duties as the Chief Wildlife Ecologist
with the Saskatchewan Natural Resources Department. Mr. I. D. Smith assumed
Mr. Blood's position as Regional Wildlife Biologist for Vancouver Island. Mr.
R. A. Halladay assumed Mr. Smith's position as Project Biologist responsible for
waterfowl in Victoria.
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Revenue from the sale of angling licences of all types exceeded $1,000,000 for
the first time in the 1968/69 fiscal year. The total revenue from the sale of angling
licences for the preceding two years (1966/67 and 1967/68) was $738,662 and
$763,204 respectively. The increase in revenue was due largely to the increase in
licence fees which took place in 1968, but was also the result of a steady increase
in the numbers of all types of licences sold. Sales of angling licences to residents
of British Columbia have increased to 186,744 from 134,690 in 1959, while the
numbers of anglers from other Canadian provinces have increased from 8,709 to
21,954 during the same period.
A total of 103 full lake surveys and 35 partial surveys was completed in 1969.
The two-man crews travelled over 25,000 miles between May and October in surveying water in virtually all parts of the Province. Most of the lakes surveyed were
in the Northern Region (53), while 35 were completed in the Okanagan, 20 on
Vancouver Island, 15 in the Kootenays and 12 in the Mainland-Coast Region.
Areas where no surveys had previously been carried out included Northern Vancouver Island, the Lillooet-Pemberton area, and the McBride Region of Northern
British Columbia. In addition to mapping and sounding each lake, samples of water
and plant and animal life were collected, and water temperatures and dissolved
oxygen levels were determined. Collections of fish were also made from most lakes,
and livers from most of these were preserved and forwarded to the Department of
Geology, University of British Columbia, to assist in their studies of the distribution
of heavy metals in the Province.
In the course of compiling Province-wide steelhead catch and angler-use information, questionnaires were sent to 22,968 of 39,775 licensed steelhead anglers in
March of 1969. The response was excellent and replies were received from 10,239
people. Computer analysis of these provided a reliable indication of the extent and
character of this almost unique fishery.
Results indicate that only 19,789 licensees actually went fishing for steelhead
in 1968/69, and of these only 7,834 people were successful at landing a steelhead.
However, those who were successful took a total of 41,672 of these large sea-run
rainbow trout. It is estimated that anglers spent over 189,000 days in pursuit of
steelhead in 252 rivers and streams of the Province. Top steelhead-producing rivers
were the Vedder, with a catch of 3,677; the Thompson, 2,609; the Bella Coola,
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969
CC 25
1,499, and the Cowichan, 1,346.    Information of this kind is a great aid to the
Branch in managing and protecting the steelhead populations of the Province.
Through the courtesy of the Fisheries Service, Canada Department of Fisheries
and Forestry, studies of the steelhead and the steelhead fishery of the Big Qualicum
River continued through the 1968/69 season. Information gathered on the spawning activity of this species included time of spawning, distribution of " redds " or
nests, and the depth, velocity, and temperature of the water at the redd sites. Age
and growth studies based on scale measurements were continued. The 1969 fence
count of steelhead was 531. Total catch both below and above the fence approximated 250 fish, some 40 fish less than the preceding year.
Habitat Protection
Surface mining continued to be of particular concern during much of 1969,
because stream pollution is often the major adverse ecological effect of this industrial activity. The Branch participated directly in drafting of regulations under the
Mines Regulation Act which require reclamation of lands and protection of watercourses affected by surface mining. The Branch is also represented on the Advisory
Committee on Reclamation, a group of persons from several Departments who are
responsible for administration of the reclamation regulations. The regulations
require that mines using surface-mining methods must submit reports which include
plans for reclamation and conservation of mined lands, considering the location of
the land, live-stock grazing, wildlife, watercourses, farms, inhabitated places in the
vicinity, and esthetics. To date, mining companies have generally complied well
with these regulations.
Construction of roads and railroads to serve various industrial sites has caused
some concern. In the Kootenay region, sloughing and siltation from two logging-
roads near Kootenay Lake have resulted in degradation of fish habitat in Lardeau
River and in the Meadow Creek spawning-channel. At both sites, interim corrective measures have been undertaken to alleviate the problem until more permanent
solutions can be effected. Plans for highway construction from Williams Lake to
Bella Coola (adjacent to Atnarko River) have been reviewed by the Branch and
habitat protection measures recommended. Similar measures were recommended
for a road planned to run adjacent to a fish-producing stream between Gold River
and Tahsis. Two new railroad spur-lines are planned to service recently reopened
coal fields in Elk Valley near Fernie; in both instances the constructing companies
have agreed to undertake special fish habitat protection measures. Some channel
" improvement" work to facilitate relocation of a railroad at St. Mary River was
reviewed and approved.
Two major water-storage proposals were investigated. The Canadian portion
of the future Libby Dam pondage was surveyed to determine the likely sport-fishing
use of the area and to determine if steps might be taken to compensate for the loss of
the sport fishery in lower Kootenay River. Production of sport fish will likely be
poor in the reservoir because of extreme annual water-level fluctuations; therefore,
compensation measures will be difficult to devise within the reservoir. A preliminary survey of the intended 125-foot water level increase at Ross Lake reservoir
near Hope has shown that about 10 miles of excellent spawning-gravels and sport-
fishing opportunity in the Skagit River will be lost through inundation. Substitute
spawning-grounds could be developed in other tributaries to the reservoir, if necessary, but the high-quality stream sport fishery could not be replaced.
A co-operative study was begun with the Fisheries Service, Department of
Fisheries and Forestry, of the ecological effects of a proposal by Greater Campbell
 CC 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
River Water District to obtain domestic water supplies from Quinsam River near
Campbell River. The study will provide suggestions for alternative sources of supply
and methods of preserving the valuable commercial and sport-fish populations of
the lake and river system.
At Keenleyside (Arrow Lake) Dam, previously unforeseen problems of obstruction of fish runs have arisen at the dam itself, where runs of large rainbow trout
and Dolly Varden char appear to congregate at spawning time. At Inonoaklin River,
at Edgewood on Arrow Lake, approximately 22,000 kokanee were halted in their
spawning migration from the lake by a waterfall which now, after flooding, is
situated at the lakeshore. Previously, these fish spawned between the lake and the
falls.   Negotiations to correct these problems are in progress.
Control of " outfall" type industrial pollution is now the responsibility of
the Pollution Control Branch. The Branch, and primarily the Habitat Protection
Section, now serves as an adviser to the Pollution Control Branch in matters of
protection of fish, wildlife, and recreation related to industrial pollution. This
Branch reviews each application which the Pollution Control Branch receives for
disposal of wastes. During the year, measures for protection of wildlife and recreation were included in several permits at our request. The most important of these
were in permits for Utah Construction and Mining Company and Reeves MacDonald
Mines Limited to discharge ore milling wastes to Rupert Inlet (west coast of Vancouver Island) and Pend-d'Oreille River (Kootenay Region) respectively, as well
as for Hiram Walker and Sons Distillery to discharge cooling water effluent to
Vernon Creek near Winfield, and for the Village of Houston to discharge sewage
wastes to Bulkley River.
Monitoring surveys of the effects of waste discharges on aquatic organisms are
undertaken as it appears appropriate, primarily to provide information to the Pollution Control Branch. During 1969 these surveys continued on Columbia and
Kootenay Rivers to monitor effects of pulp-mill effluents, and on the Similkameen
River to establish background data in the event of future mining development. A
new survey was begun on the Elk River near Fernie to monitor the effects of nearby
surface mining for coal. In other programmes, fish samples were analyzed for
pesticide and heavy metal content.
At intervals, bioassays of materials which are suspected of being toxic to fish
are conducted. To date, materials tested include pulp-mill wastes and various
pesticides. These tests provide information for setting standards for treatment of
industrial wastes and for other control measures. A serious limitation of the
standard 96-hour bioassay is that it does not consider the long-term sublethal or
disabling effects which a toxicant may inflict on fish without killing them directly.
These disabling effects may limit the ability of a fish to compete for food, make fish
more susceptible to attack by predators, or decrease reproductive success. Other
subtle but harmful changes in physiology and normal response may also occur.
Using a relatively unique technique, responses of salmonid fish to sublethal quantities of a toxicant are now being studied in our laboratory. An artificial stream
with a cobble bottom and flowing water has been built to duplicate stream conditions
as closely as possible. Activities and responses of fish in polluted and unpolluted
conditions are compared. The results of these studies will aid in defining water
quality standards to assure the safety of fish.
Some very worth-while relationships have been developed with other resource
management agencies within Government and with representatives of some industries. As stated previously, the Branch has worked with the Department of Mines
in drafting and administering surface mining regulations. Federal and Provincial
fisheries agencies are developing arrangements with the Forest Service for involve-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969
CC 27
ment in approval of logging plans. The Department of Highways provides this
Branch with notice of most new road construction plans for advice on wildlife and
recreation protection. Continuing contact is also maintained with several large
mining and logging companies.
Habitat Improvement
A large number of proposals for improving trout waters have been reviewed
during the two-year existence of this Section. Surveys have been made and project
priorities established on the basis of developing the most angling opportunity for
the least cost.
Construction in 1969 included the provision of shallow holding and rearing
areas for cutthroat fry in the Ruby Lake spawning-channel on the Sechelt Peninsula.
This type of desirable habitat in which the fry could hold and (or) develop had been
unavailable in the natural stream course, or in the artificial spawning section.
At 83 Creek in the Cariboo, a study showed that large rainbow trout from
Green Lake entered the creek to spawn during spring freshets, became stranded by
subsequent low flows, and both they and their eggs were lost. During 1969, extensive channel improvements were made in the lower reaches of this stream and 900
square yards of gravel were provided for spawning trout. A small spring immediately above this improved section will provide enough cool water to sustain at
least a small percentage of the adults and fry. Test wells were drilled to explore a
possible groundwater supply to augment stream flows, but present indications do not
justify a production well.
A proposal is being reviewed for the diversion of part of the flow of Mutton
Creek into Alces Lake in the Kootenay Region. Stagnant water in this lake adversely affects the quality of the adult rainbow trout. An introduced stream would
allow natural spawning to take place, thus obviating the necessity to stock the lake.
Conditions for growth of trout in the lake would also be improved. A rediversion
of Alces Lake out-flow to nearby Whiteswan Lake would provide the adult rainbow
there with a similar spawning opportunity. Experience gained on past projects
indicates particular promise for spawning improvements such as this on streams
situated between lakes. The upper lake acts as a buffer to reduce stream freshets
which tend to erode gravels and wash out facilities, and the lower lake acts as a
catch basin for fry which move downstream.
The largest run of Meadow Creek kokanee ever actually enumerated by the
Branch moved into the stream from Kootenay Lake during the fall of 1969. A total
of 250,500 adult fish were counted through the fence at the lower end of the spawning-channel, and 127,000 of these were allowed to pass through the upper fence to
the upstream portions of the creek. Approximately 150,000 more kokanee
spawned in the lower reaches of the stream between the Duncan River and the
spawning-channel. An additional 8,400 fish spawned in John Creek, a small
tributary to the channel. Studies of egg survival and fry emergence will be carried
out to determine the relative efficiency of the natural and improved areas of the
stream, with particular attention being paid to the progeny of the 123,000 adults
which spawned in the channel.
The chemical treatment phase of the rehabilitation of Allison (One Mile) chain
of lakes near Princeton was completed in early September. The Allison chain
consists of five highly productive lakes adjacent to Highway No. 5 north of Princeton. They are Allison Lake, Dry Lake, Borgeson Lake, Laird Lake, and McCaffrey
Lake, plus peripheral streams and swamps. Although easily accessible to the fishing
public, this system has rated as a poor fishery for some time for the reason common
to many Interior lakes. The presence of coarse fish—five species—resulted in slow
 CC 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
growth and poor survival of trout. During autumn of 1968, members of the Princeton Fish and Game Association, under the direction of the Fish and Wildlife Branch,
completed a concrete coarse-fish barrier downstream from the lake system. In
spring and summer of 1969, Branch fishery workers surveyed the lakes and the
peripheral streams and swamps for water volume and fish species present, and
organized men, material, and equipment for the rehabilitation project. This project
was one of the largest rehabilitations undertaken by the Fish and Wildlife Branch in
recent years. Eighteen Branch workers and 22 Princeton game club members actively assisted in the field. Eradication of coarse fish in all waters of the system
required 4,860 gallons of liquid toxicant at an approximate cost of $17,000.
Fish Culture
Permanent hatcheries at Abbotsford, Summerland, and Wardner are administered by a Fish and Wildlife Branch staff of 16 permanent and six to eight seasonal
employees. A seasonal hatchery near Clinton, and, depending upon annual egg
requirements, 10 to 15 egg-collecting stations, are operated in the spring and fall
months. Species of fish cultured in 1969 included rainbow, coastal and Yellowstone
cutthroat, eastern brook, lake trout, and kokanee. Public interest in our fish cultural
activities remained high as over 16,000 people visited the three permanent hatcheries
during the year.
Successful collections of rainbow, cutthroat, and kokanee eggs provided over
15 million eggs in 1969. More than 9 million rainbow trout eggs were obtained from
tributary streams of Beaver (Swalwell), Bouleau, Niskonlith, Pennask, Premier, and
Tunkwa Lakes. As a result of low numbers of spawning kokanee in the Eagle
River in 1967 and 1968, alternate sites for collecting kokanee were selected in 1969.
Another poor run occurred in the Eagle this year, but 5.7 million eggs were collected
at other sites such as Lamb Creek (Moyie), Middle Shuswap River, Okanagan
River, Upper Shuswap River, and Paleface Creek (Chilliwack). About 62 per
cent of all eggs came from the Okanagan River near Penticton. Adequate numbers
of Yellowstone cutthroat eggs (300,000) were collected from Kiakho Lake (Cranbrook), but additional sites were explored in 1969 for possible operation in 1970.
About 6 million eggs were shipped to other fisheries agencies as part of an exchange
programme for species which we are unable to collect at present in this Province.
A total of 405 lakes were planted with 4,707,000 (42,500 pounds) fish varying
in age from two to 16 months, and in size from 1 to 11 inches. The numbers of lakes
and fish stocked were less than in 1968, but the average size of fish planted in 1969
(111 per pound) was almost twice the 1968 average (202 per pound). Aircraft
were used to release 1.3 million fish in about one-half of all lakes planted this year.
The total number and weight of each species liberated or stocked were as follows:—
Number Pounds
Cutthroat      139,700 897
Eastern brook     679,300 2,124
Lake trout        97,500 3,225
Rainbow   3,790,419 36,341
4,706,919 42,587
For the first time, small numbers of Yellowstone cutthroat were successfully
raised to one year of age. Prior to 1969, this species was planted in lakes at a much
smaller size owing to high mortality among fish held after two months. A second
planting of 97,500 lake trout, 4 to 6 inches in length, was completed in 1969 in an
attempt to establish this species in Alouette Lake in the Lower Mainland Region.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 29
Construction of an aeration tower, started last year at Kootenay Hatchery, was
completed and functional in December, 1969. Well water flowing through a series
of wooden slats becomes saturated with oxygen before being conveyed into the
hatchery troughs and ponds. Design of Fraser Valley Hatchery commenced in
August, when a firm of consulting engineers was retained to prepare preliminary
plans for development of a new hatchery to replace the one presently located at
Abbotsford. Topographic and soil surveys have been completed and several wells
have been drilled and tested. Groundwater exploration will continue in 1970 to
assure the necessary minimum water requirements of 5 million gallons a day. An
enlarged hatchery at Abbotsford will relieve the demand presently placed on existing
facilities at Fraser Valley Hatchery, as well as reduce the strain placed on the restricted rearing capacity of Summerland Hatchery. New traps and a fence (weir)
were built at Pennask Creek to replace facilities destroyed during high water in
1968. Staff residence at Pennask, site of a late-maturing run of spawning rainbow,
was renewed along with minor changes to the water system supplying egg incubation
troughs. Maintenance of Summerland Hatchery was absorbed in 1969 by the
Department of Public Works, which in November stationed a staff member at this
hatchery for maintenance purposes.
Late in 1969 a used 3,200-gallon trailer tank was purchased, which, after
conversion for transporting fish, will be used for fish transfers between hatcheries
and for specified fish plantings requiring large numbers of fish in highly accessible
lakes. The Alouette stocking in 1968 and 1969 involved in each year six trucks
and 12 men, whereas the new tank, pulled by a tractor truck, could transport the
same weight of fish, with one fish culturist accompanying the driver.
Trout foods from two companies are being compared at Summerland and
Kootenay hatcheries by feeding large numbers of rainbow on equal food rations of
each food type. Growth and mortality of experimental lots will be compared, as
will the pesticide residues in the food and fish. Marked members of fish raised on
each food type will be released into the same lakes to evaluate survival to maturity.
A study of the effects of high and low temperatures on incubation of rainbow-
trout eggs was started but had to be terminated when equipment designed to control
water temperatures failed. Preliminary results indicated at least twice the mortality
in eggs incubated at 38° and 62° F. compared with 42° and 58° F. This study will
be repeated when suitable equipment is available.
Experimental rearing-ponds were constructed at Summerland to test the rearing
capacities of circular and raceway type ponds. At Fraser Valley, fish are being
held in groundwater, which is being pumped from the recently completed wells, in
order to test the quality of this water for fish-culture purposes.
The biologist in the Fish Culture Section spent three weeks in Sweden gathering
facts related to fish culture methods in that country.
Fisheries Research and Technical Services
Studies were continued at Loon Lake outlet on the factors which regulate
juvenile trout production in rearing-streams. In spite of the large number and size
of spawners in 1969 compared to 1968, numbers of fry entering the lake were
lower than the former year (10,500 compared to 15,600), probably because of
severe egg mortality caused by high stream temperatures and low subgravel oxygen
levels. Yearlings and two-year-old juveniles did not appear to be severely affected,
however, and production to the lake from these age-groups was above that in 1968.
Effects of food supply on distribution and movement of juvenile trout have been
examined experimentally.
 CC 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Results of biochemical analysis of enzymes in trout populations living above
and below waterfalls on a stream tributary to Kootenay Lake strongly suggest genetic
differences between the two stocks. Differences in migratory behaviour are also
appearing between these and other stocks tested in experimental flumes. Such
evidence indicates that genetic differences may occur between specific strains which
could be of profound importance in their use in fish culture and management.
Studies were continued to determine survival and growth of different sizes of
hatchery-reared young trout stocked into Interior lakes. Fin-clipping appeared to
have no significant effect on survival or growth of the young trout.
Oxygen requirements of newly fertilized eggs developing at different temperatures were determined in experiments at Summerland Hatchery. Older eggs at
higher temperatures used more oxygen than younger eggs at comparable temperatures. Deterioration of dead eggs used as much oxygen as live eggs. Oxygen requirements of developing kokanee eggs from Skaha Lake were determined at different temperatures. Consumption of oxygen by kokanee eggs was much lower
at all temperatures than that of rainbow-trout eggs.
An experimental introduction of young rainbow and brook trout into Yellow
Lake indicated that brook trout survived better than rainbow during severe summer
conditions (high temperature, low oxygen, heavy algal blooms) and could reach
catchable size by late summer. An attempt to artificially circulate the lake in order
to increase its over-winter oxygen supply and permit year-round maintenance of
trout populations proved unsuccessful. The survival and growth of brook trout
stocked into several lakes where conditions are poor for maintaining populations
of rainbow trout have been studied. Results to date indicate that this species
survives better than rainbow under such marginal conditions.
Spatial distribution and feeding of cutthroat trout have been examined in
coastal lakes where they either live alone or with Dolly Varden. In lakes where
the species occur together, each occupies a distinct zone during the summer, cutthroat largely inhabiting shallow, near-shore regions, while Dolly Varden are most
abundant in deeper, offshore areas. These differences in distribution markedly affect
their catch by anglers and suggest special considerations for management. Distribution, feeding, and growth of rainbow trout adults were studied in several coastal
lakes and reservoirs where they live with cutthroat trout and Dolly Varden. This
work was conducted by Dr. Nils-Arvid Nilsson from the Institute of Freshwater
Research, Sweden, as part of a co-operative research exchange programme.
Publications
Fraser, F. J., and T. G. Halsey. The application of an air-percolation system for
water temperature reduction in Robertson Creek. The Can. Fish. Cult.,
40:41-49.
Hartman, G. F. (1968). Processes of change, and variability within the Salmo
gairdneri complex.   Forum, 2 (5-6): 3 3-3 5.
    Reproductive biology of the Gerrard stock rainbow trout, 53-67.    In,
T. G. Northcote (Ed.), Salmon and Trout in Streams. H. R. MacMillan lectures in fisheries, U.B.C.
Larkin, P. A., and T. G. Northcote. Fish as indices of eutrophication. In, Eu-
trophication: causes, consequences, corrections. Proceedings of Int. Symposium on Eutrophication, Madison, Wisconsin, 1967, 256-273. Nat. Acad.
Sci., Washington, D.C., 1969.
Leggett, J. W. The reproductive biology of the Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus
malma Walbaum).   M.Sc. thesis, Univ. of Victoria, 110 pp.
Northcote, T. G.   Limnology.   Forum, 3 (1) :8-10.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 31
Northcote, T. G. Patterns and mechanisms in the migratory behaviour of juvenile
trout. In, T. G. Northcote (Ed.), Salmon and Trout in Streams. H. R. MacMillan lectures in fisheries, 181-204, U.B.C.
  Lakeward migration of young rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in the upper
Lardeau River, British Columbia.   J. Fish. Res. Bd., Canada, 26 (l):33-45.
Northcote, T. G., and T. G. Halsey. Seasonal changes in the limnology of some
meromictic lakes in Southern British Columbia. J. Fish. Res. Bd., Canada,
26 (7):1763-1787.
Pearse, Peter H., and Michael E. Laub. The value of the Kootenay Lake sport
fishery. An Economic Analysis. Study Rept. No. 3 on the economics of
wildlife and recreation, 58 pp.
Peterson, G. R., and R. C. Thomas. Steelhead trout sport fishery analysis 1967/68.
Fisheries Management Rept. No. 59, 38 pp.
Schutz, D. C. An experimental study of feeding behaviour and interaction of
coastal cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki clarki) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus
malma).   M.Sc. thesis, U.B.C, 81 pp.
Smith, S. B., T. G. Halsey, G. E. Stringer, and R. A. H. Sparrow. The development and initial testing of a rainbow trout stocking formula in British Columbia.
Fisheries Management Rept. No. 60.
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
The gradual increase in public interest in the wildlife resources of the Province
is indicated by the increasing number of inquiries received each year by the Information and Education Section. During the past year, over 9,600 various types of
mail inquiries were handled. The number of telephone inquiries and the number of
people visiting the office have also shown a sharp increase. The majority of inquiries
are related to hunting and fishing; however, it is pleasing to report a great increase
in the number of school teachers and students seeking general and specific information on fish and wildlife, and general conservation topics.
Through the co-operation of the Department of Education, 8,000 copies of
conservation posters and classroom lessons were sent to schools in the Province
during National Wildlife Week (April 6th to 12th).
Several news releases were prepared each month covering Branch programmes,
season openings, and other topics of current interest to outdoorsmen. These releases
are sent to all radio and television stations and newspapers in the Province.
The Monthly Activity Report is a summary of the activities of the various
sections of the Branch. It is sent to all staff members, all newspapers (both daily
and weekly), radio and television stations, rod and gun clubs, other branches of
Government, as well as to interested members of the general public. Circulation
at the present time is 900 each month.
Two new pamphlets, " Trout Hatcheries in British Columbia," and " The
Sheep of British Columbia," were completed and made available for general distribution.
The portable public information display panels and sample " skin " mounts
of the upland game birds, migratory birds, hawks, owls, and eagles have been in
continuous use at various sport shows and by conservation officers in the six regions
of the Province.
Conservation officers in various districts throughout the Province continue to
carry out more and more public information and education programmes. Assistance
in the form of display materials, films, slides, and printed information is supplied
by this section.
 CC 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HUNTER-TRAINING PROGRAMME
The Hunter-training Programme is being accepted by British Columbia sportsmen, adult education, and other organizations with much interest and enthusiasm.
Organizations represented in the programme are fish and game, rifle and pistol
clubs, Armed Forces and Armed Forces Cadets, Girl Guides, Boy Scouts and Ventures, men's clubs (Kiwanis, Kinsmen, and Rotary), fire departments, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Canadian Legion, junior chambers of commerce, conservation
groups, ski patrol clubs, cruising clubs, Guides Association, British Columbia
Teachers' Federation, Dominion of Canada Rifle Association, British Columbia
Corporation of Land Surveyors, British Columbia Safety Council, British Columbia
Workmen's Compensation Board, British Columbia Mining Association, Canadian
Petroleum Association, and British Columbia Institute of Technology.
The first instructors' course was conducted in February at Victoria, using the
new training manual. Fifteen instructors' courses were conducted in 1969, qualifying a total of 289 instructors. These courses were held in Victoria, Vancouver,
Campbell River, Nanaimo, Duncan, Kimberley, Creston, Trail, Winfield, Kelowna,
Vernon, Penticton, Vanderhoof, Chilliwack, and Richmond.
The qualified instructors to date have completed 20 student courses, qualifying
a total of 258 students. There are 20 student courses in progress at the time of
writing this report.   Eighty-four per cent of the students passed the course.
Enforcement
The usual enforcement activities, road checks, patrols and special investigations produced about 100,000 contacts with hunters, fishermen, trappers, guides,
etc. This resulted in 812 prosecutions, up slightly from the 762 prosecutions in
1968, while fines increased to $31,094 from $29,645.
There were several projects aimed at improving the Branch's enforcement
activities:—
Temporary conservation officers were used during peaking situations in the
Cariboo, Kamloops, and North Okanagan Regions. Six ex-R.C.M.P. or
conservation officers were used to increase surveillance on lakes of the
Interior. Sheridan Lake, in particular, as well as Bridge, Loon, Heffley,
Paul, Tunkwa, Lac Le Jeune, Niskonlith Lakes, and many others were
checked repeatedly. Over 3,580 fishermen were contacted, leading to
42 prosecutions and 69 warnings. Three temporary conservation officers
for special enforcement duties were used in the hunting season at Burns
Lake and the East Kootenays.
Kootenay Lake fishermen were subject to an enforcement study to measure
the level of law observance by residents and non-residents. Local conservation officers, conservation officers from other areas, and R.C.M.P.
checked fishermen by a set pattern so that results could be compared. The
standards for the violation rate per 100 contacts will provide for better
assessment of enforcement problems and how to handle them through
better deployment of our staff.
The wildlife ticket was put into practice during the fall. It is similar to the
traffic ticket under the Motor-vehicle Act, and provides a convenience to
all concerned.
The addition of six more mobile radio communications sets brings added
coverage to the previous 14 sets. Vehicles so equipped with these valuable
aids to enforcement are located throughout the Lower Mainland, two on
Vancouver Island, and others at Kamloops and Prince George.
 Hatchery tank trucks loading lake trout at Kootenay Hatchery for release in Alouette Lake.
'::.        :
The sea otter is released in British Columbia waters
after an absence of 40 years.
 Beechers Prairie Potholf Study
:-■     .■■-.'•■■   ••"   .' '":'.
FOR PUBUC ENJOYMENT
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sttliif!
The disturbance by cattle of both the vegetation and the ducks while nesting is suspected as causing an area like this to produce fewer ducks than possible. The fence will
keep the cattle away from the water and enable the Fish and Wildlife Branch to examine
other natural factors which affect waterfowl production.
- .       : :: i N; :::..':
,:..:.:    :;""._- A.i M.'; :'-;j: :->'..r*!."ias..,.:*.Ti!i
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'■■■":.* -..:'''?': :.'.. .■ ■.^?Sl..MRMsisF'
Snow geese (dark birds are young), produced in the Soviet Arctic, over the Reifel
Refuge foreshore in British Columbia while migrating south to Oregon and California
wintering areas.
 PROVINCIAL
PARKS
BRANCH
 Passengers get a nostalgic view of restored buildings of Fort Steele as the stagecoach
clatters along Riverside Avenue in this popular East Kootenay Park.
Park naturalist David Stirling talks about plants and their berries with two visitors
at Miracle Beach Provincial Park.
 -._'._::__■:■:_:
*ke of the Hanging Glacier, focal point of a park proposal in the Purcell Mountains.
Line-ups for the Theatre Royal's lively stage shows indicate the summer popularity of
educational and entertaining Barkerville Historic Park.
 CC 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
R. H. Ahrens, Director
In 1969, the Provincial Parks Branch moved its headquarters to new offices
in the Dogwood Building, 1019 Wharf Street, Victoria.
Fine spring weather advanced the season for heaviest public use of the parks.
Some parks were fully used early in May. This reinforced a discernible trend whereby people, increasingly, are using Provincial Parks earlier in the spring and later
into the autumn than hitherto. Participation in winter sports also continues to climb.
The advent of popular ownership of the camper and travel trailer, together with
improved equipment for travel, has contributed to this. The ramifications for park
maintenance costs are obvious.
The Parks Branch capital development budget was augmented early in the
year, which enabled, amongst other things, an increase of 8 per cent this year in
the camp-site capacity of the Provincial Park system. Groundwork was completed
for a new chair-lift and T-bar in Gibson Pass Winter Recreation Zone, Manning
Park.
The Vancouver Park District Office and the Peace River Regional Office were
posted for full-time staffing. A new position, Public Safety Officer, was filled and
a programme put in motion to improve park supervisor training in public security,
rescue, and police liaison.
A Young Men's Conservation Programme was initiated late in 1969 to serve
as a work-training programme for unemployed and unskilled young men 18 years
old and over. Training is being coupled with development of Rathtrevor Beach
Park. Separate from this programme was the now-familiar Youth Crew Programme, which was expanded this year to 180 boys in nine camps widely dispersed
through the Province.
Significant additions to the Provincial Park system include purchased property
for a multi-recreation park at Nisconlith Lake, near Kamloops; acquisition through
land-for-timber exchange of some private inholdings in a proposed natural-area
park of outstanding attractiveness and potential at Cape Scott, Vancouver Island;
and a beauty spot at Kelly Lake in the Cariboo District donated to the people of
British Columbia by Mr. C. S. Downing.
Park master plans preparation focused on Strathcona and Mount Assiniboine
Parks this year, while attention to site and facilities design focused on Claybanks
Beach and Rathtrevor Beach Provincial Parks, as well as the Gibson Pass Winter
Recreation Zone, Manning Park.
In 1969, the Park Interpretation Programme was extended to the Northern
Park District with assignment of a naturalist to Crooked River and Ten Mile Lake
Parks. The Parks Branch also operated an in-service training course for its own
summer staff.
Parks Branch Extension Services included contact, in connection with Regional
Park System studies or area provision, with 14 out of the 27 regional districts, or
regional park districts, in British Columbia. The Parks Branch contributed funds
and advisory assistance to the work of the newly created North Vancouver Island
Work Committee on Multiple Use Development. The committee is arranging provision of public recreational facilities by various agencies, public and private, north
of Gold River. A programme of contacting all Class C Park Boards to review their
position and activate, or assist, their efforts was begun. An inventory of non-urban
recreation facilities in British Columbia was organized to be carried forward with
ARDA support.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969
CC 39
The Parks Branch in 1969 maintained its direct contact with the Canadian
Council of Resource Ministers in laying plans for a 1973 National Conference on
Outdoor Recreation in an Integrated Resource-use Context. The Branch also participated in the Eighth Federal-Provincial Parks Conference at Jasper, Alberta,
where the theme embodied a position review of parks and outdoor recreation areas
and agencies in Canadian society. As well, the Branch again contributed to the
Fifth International Short Course on Administration of National Parks and Equivalent Reserves.
The Parks Branch was most fortunate in having a field staff willing and able to
work long hours at a wide variety of tasks in a year when our construction forces
were fully extended and organization changes were working themselves out.
PLANNING DIVISION
Park System Planning Section
Successful discussions between the Federal and Provincial Governments led to
an agreement this year to create a national park on Vancouver Island's west coast.
Extensive field studies and discussions were then undertaken to determine a boundary suitable to both Governments.
Land examinations were undertaken in the Lower Fraser, Squamish, and the
Tchaikazan Valleys, and in the Sechelt Peninsula. Because of public interest in
Vancouver Island's West Coast Trail, the Parks Branch, with assistance from the
Department of Highways, undertook to begin reopening it from Port Renfrew
northward.
Eight new Class A parks, containing 2,089 acres, and one Class C park, containing 31 acres, were created in 1969. An internationally known mountaineering
area in the Purcell Range, consisting of 61,800 acres, was designated as the Bugaboo
Alpine Recreation Area. International Ridge Recreation Area of 5,140 acres near
Chilliwack and Nancy Greene Recreation Area of 19,980 acres near Rossland were
also established during the year.
Seven Class A parks were enlarged by a total of 2,960 acres and two of these
parks were reduced by a total of 28 acres. Strathcona Park and Muncho Lake
Park of Class B were reduced by 120 acres and 139 acres respectively. Later in
1969, Strathcona Park was enlarged by 202 acres, which resulted in a net increase
of 82 acres for this park. Within Strathcona Park, a 12,100-acre area on the eastern
side of Buttle Lake was reclassified from Class B to Class A status. Tow Hill Park
Class B and Tlell Park Class C on the Queen Charlotte Islands were both reclassified
to Class A. A new Class C park of 31 acres at Kersey Lake, near Clinton, was
created and two other Class C parks were enlarged by a total of one acre.
During 1969, the co-operation and assistance of other Governmental departments made it possible for 83 sites, containing 28,950 acres, to be reserved for
public recreation. Meanwhile 19 recreational reserves, containing 7,550 acres,
were cancelled. For its residents, British Columbia now has 2,524 reserves for
public recreation, containing 439,280 acres.
The residents of British Columbia are indebted to the following people for
their generous donations of land for park purposes, involving 108 acres:—
(1) Mrs. H. Herold, a wayside park at Toms Lake, near Dawson Creek.
(2) Mr. C. S. Downing, a potential lakeside park at Kelly Lake, near
Clinton.
 CC 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Park Master Plans Section
Two members of the planning staff worked on master plans during most of
1969. They were assisted during the summer by four university students employed
for this purpose. Field work was carried out in Tweedsmuir Park, Strathcona Park,
and Bowron Lake Park.
Park planners made a reconnaissance of the Atnarko Valley in Tweedsmuir
Park, between Knot Lake and Young Creek, to assess the recreational potentiality
of this area. This included a study of in-holdings and a selection of campgrounds
along the projected Mackenzie Highway. Planners also traversed the route of this
highway through the Hotnarko Valley to ensure that the location would not unduly
impair recreational values. A master plan for Tweedsmuir Park was completed in
1969.
Planning staff sought solutions to the serious problems of grazing and trail
erosion by horses in Mount Assiniboine Park. A similar problem was studied in
Mount Robson Park, where horseback trips to Berg Lake have long been an
established form of recreation. In both parks there is conflict when horses and
hikers use the same trails.
A two-year survey aimed at the production of a master plan was started for
Strathcona Park, but an interim plan for a minimum development of Forbidden
Plateau in 1970 was a more immediate goal. Campgrounds and an integrated trail
system will be part of the plans for the plateau.
The remarkable popularity of Bowron Lake Park for canoeing made it the
subject of some master planning efforts in 1969. New plans called for a quota
system, and possibly travel permits, to preserve the wilderness atmosphere in the
face of heavy public use.
In the dying weeks of the year, planners assisted with the production of a park
system plan for the Vancouver Island Region. This plan, which was being produced
at the request of the Minister, was designed to inventory park land and put forth
long-term requirements for the region.
Site-planning Section
The Parks Branch standard camping unit was redesigned for today's camper
needs. This new design was established to accommodate more suitably the camping
equipment in vogue today.
A revision of the parks standard furniture book was initiated, and publication
in a new format is scheduled for April 1, 1970.
Particular attention was given by site planning to the northern area of British
Columbia in 1969. The Alaska Highway at last received recognition, with facilities
being developed at Charlie Lake, Buckinghorse River, Kledo Creek, Mile 115,
Racing River, and Hyland River. A new design for facilities at these locations was
drawn up, oriented to providing overnight accommodations, or merely a brief rest-
over for the travelling tourist. This new concept was designated a " wayside rest
area " in order to differentiate between it and our standard camp and picnic grounds.
Plans were drawn up for the varied stage developments in the following parks:
Sudeten, Mount Robson, Pinnacles, Claybanks Beach, Alta Lake, Pitt Lake, Chilliwack Lake, Rathtrevor Beach, China Creek, Gordon Bay, Matheson Lake, and
Paul Lake. A development plan for immediate expansion of the Gibson Pass Ski
Area facilities was concluded. Technical advice and assistance on park planning
matters was given to several agencies.
A mapping crew surveyed and mapped at the following places, where future
park development is expected:  Matheson Lake, Gordon Bay, China Creek, Mac-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969
CC 41
Donald Park, Paul Lake, Gibsons Pass Ski Area, Summit Creek, Yahk, Princeton,
Ganges Harbour, Mahood Lake, Pinnacles, and Sheep Lake.
A comprehensive survey was made of our marine parks with the intention of
establishing a new policy for them that would result in a new sign system and govern
the extent and type of facilities provided in these parks.
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
During 1969 the need for more and better information and education materials
was emphasized by the fact that written inquiries received were up by a third over
the previous year. To help meet this ever-increasing demand, new brochures were
prepared and printed for Golden Ears and Goldstream Parks, while completely
revised editions of the Wells Gray and Garibaldi folders were sent to the printers
and will be ready for distribution in 1970. In addition, Bowron Lake, Princess
Louisa, Manning, Mount Seymour, Mount Assiniboine, Kokanee Glacier, Vancouver Island, Fraser Canyon-Okanagan, and Marine Park folders, as well as the
Stop-of-interest booklet, were updated and reprinted. The 'Ksan folder was revised
in preparation for the official opening of the project. At the request of the management of Manning Park Lodge, a place-mat and menu-cover were designed, and a
ski-facilities map of the Gibsons Pass area produced.
In co-operation with the other branches of the Department of Recreation and
Conservation, an informational insert was prepared for the Canadian Forestry
Association's Resource Reader. This reader is being distributed to all schools in
British Columbia.
To further provide information on Provincial Parks for the general public,
displays were prepared, set up, and manned at Victoria, Vancouver, Revelstoke,
and Vernon. In July, and again in August, a presentation was made on the British
Columbia Television Broadcasting System Limited series, " Summertime," from
Vancouver. Taped commentaries were made for Radio Station CKNW and an
appearance made on the Radio Station CKWX afternoon " Open Line " show with
Barrie Clark. Numerous news releases and speeches were prepared throughout the
year.
As in previous years, a special presentation on parks was given to the annual
Travel Counsellor's School in Vancouver. There were also a number of talks delivered to interested groups. In March, the Public Information Officer was seconded
to the Department of Travel Industry as the Provincial representative for the North
Country Adventures promotion of Western Airlines.
HISTORIC PARKS AND SITES DIVISION
Barkerville Historic Park
The two most noticeable changes at Barkerville during the past year were the
removal of the power poles and lines from the main street with the accompanying
switch to underground wiring, and the enlarging of the Wake-Up-Jake Cafe by the
addition of the J. H. Todd Store. With respect to the latter change, the store now
houses the cafe's new kitchen and restrooms, while the original cafe building is now
entirely dining area.
Seasonal-staff housing has been improved with the completion of the Nicol
Hotel. Expansion and renovation of the bakery has enabled tripling the production
of sour-dough bread, which is sold daily to tourists. Improvements were made to
various service buildings, including the carpenter shop, the plumber's shop, the
paint shop, and the lunchroom.   A first-aid room has also been completed.
 CC 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
New exhibits were introduced to Barnard's Express, Denny Saloon, Cariboo
Sentinel Office, Dr. Watt's kitchen, and additions were made to the J. P. Taylor
Drug Store.
Attendance was estimated to be up about 15 per cent over 1968 for a total of
about 115,000 visitor-days; however, still not up to the peak year of 1966.
Cottonwood House Historic Park
Foundations and wall log replacements have now been completed for all
buildings and attention is now being given toward interior finishing and exhibits.
Construction of a caretaker's residence has been postponed pending finalization of
highway relocation, which will bypass the buildings. It is anticipated that the bypass
will eliminate some of the " accidental" traffic which presently stops because of
curiosity while driving between the buildings. However, this will be considerably
offset by the removal of vehicular traffic from the building area, thereby enabling
undisturbed enjoyment of the historic setting.
Fort Steele Historic Park
The past year has been a very busy one at Fort Steele, with an estimated use
of approximately 125,000 visitor-days. The museum was open seven days a week
from May 1 to October 31, and nearly 94,000 visitors were tallied during that time.
It was gratifying to note that during May and June school groups came from such
distant places as Golden, Rossland, Salmo, Fernie, and from Montana in the United
States.
The 120,000-gallon reinforced-concrete reservoir was put into service and the
sash-and-door factory complex was completed. The latter comprises a number of
exhibit areas which serve as false fronts for the project's workshop and storage
areas for vehicles and construction materials.
The Fort Steele Railroad Station was constructed and officially opened at
ceremonies on June 14 by the Provincial Secretary, the Honourable W. D. Black.
A second-hand coach was acquired from the British Railways to replace the antique
saloon car of the Duke of Sutherland's 1895 steam train. With the extra passenger
space provided by the larger coach, 23,000 passengers were hauled by the Dunrobin,
as compared with 19,000 in 1968. A 3,000-gallon wood-stave water tank was installed near the station as water supply for the Dunrobin's boiler.
A full-size replica of the Fort Steele Water Tower has been completed, overlooking the junction of the Kootenay and St. Mary Rivers. It serves as a spectacular
viewpoint for those willing to climb the two storys to its observation platform.
Bleasdell's Drug Store was constructed and the interior finishing and exhibit
installation will proceed in the coming year.
The museum's outside balcony was completed and has added immeasurably
to the finished look of this popular building.
The mining exhibit on the main floor of the museum was completed. A start
was made on the second-floor exhibit with introduction of cases showing the history
of glass and bottle manufacture and uses.
An old log cabin was moved to the park from Wolf Creek, north of Wasa
Lake. The building, reputed to have been used by William Fernie, required replacement of foundations and some wall logs.
Stop-of-interest Markers
Two new plaques were placed during the year, bringing the total in the
Province to 106.   Ten more are being readied for placement and will go out next
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1969 CC 43
year. An acceleration of the programme is anticipated for 1971 in connection
with the Centennial commemoration of British Columbia's entry into Canadian
Confederation.
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
As in previous years, public use of Provincial parks showed a substantial
increase in 1969. This is a trend which is having its effect on every park system
in North America. In many aspects of operation and maintenance it is not possible
to cope with the pressure put on the park organization by the increased demand for
outdoor leisure-time activities.
Yearly, administration grows more complex as vehicles are developed to
penetrate wild lands hitherto only accessible on foot. Numerous requests to open
parklands to helicopter ski-ing/hiking, snowmobiles, tote goats, motor-cycles, ski-
bobs, and four-wheel-drive vehicles are made annually. If such requests were
freely granted, Provincial parks as originally conceived would soon cease to exist.
To cope with the increased administrative burden being placed on the organization, it has been necessary to appoint a District Park Officer, Mr. J. C. Leman,
to administer the Vancouver District. Mr. Leman's similar position in Prince
George will be filled at an early date.
The collection of camping fees continues as in the past, but in an effort to
streamline collection practices and free men for maintenance work the experimental
use of an automatic vending-machine to dispense camping tickets was tried at
Bamberton Park, Vancouver Island. It came through a trouble-free summer and
was well accepted by the public. Up to six more will be installed in Vancouver
Island Parks in 1970. If successful in these more complicated situations, they will
be used Province-wide.
Vancouver Management District
With approximately 20 per cent of the Provincial park facilities located in
the Vancouver District, this District sustains about 40 per cent of the Provincial
day-use visitations and about 20 per cent of the camper use. Contributing heavily
to day-use are Cultus Lake Park; Mount Seymour Park, which is the foremost
day-use park in the Province; Golden Ears Park; Alice Lake Park; and Manning
Park. Camper-use is heavy in Cultus Lake Park, second in this category in importance in the Province; Golden Ears Park, third in Provincial camper use;
Manning Park; and Alice Lake Park.
The relative importance of the Vancouver District parks in the Provincial
park organization is quite apparent from this summary and ties in with their strategic
location in relation to the heaviest Provincial population concentration, the Lower
Mainland.
Cultus Lake Park is a very popular lakeside retreat for both campers and
picnickers. It has had a severe problem of hoodlumism from time to time which
has initiated action in 1970 which it is hoped will abruptly terminate this behaviour.
Mount Seymour and Manning Parks have a common denominator, year-round
recreational activity. No sooner does fall activity taper off than winter sets the
stage for ski-ing and related winter sports. Mount Seymour Park has a notably
complex winter sports operation with as many as 8,000 persons on the slopes in
a single day on any week-end throughout the winter. Manning Park ski development is at Gibson Pass, six miles from Manning Park lodge. At the pass, a compactly planned development with new day lodge, chair-lift, and rope tows, all under
Government management, caters to family groups numbering up to 1,400 persons
on a winter Sunday.   Additional facilities for use in 1970 are under construction.
 1
CC 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Golden Ears Park near Haney is one of the major camping and day-use parks
of the Lower Mainland. Situated on a rejuvenated section of a flooded stump-
strewn lake, it commonly caters to a summer Sunday assembly of 3,000 to 4,000
sun-seekers. Throughout the summer the compact 300-unit camp-site, more often
than not, wears a " camp-site full " sign.
Alice Lake Park, in the Squamish Valley, is well known to many Vancouverites.
Its mountain lake attractions annually draw " park full" crowds. Attractive lifeguards, here and at Cultus Lake, an innovation this year, add to the safety of the
park user.
Garibaldi Park, the gem of the Provincial system, now easily accessible via
the Black Tusk Meadows by well-graded trail, is in danger of over-use destruction
of fragile alpine flora. This problem is receiving the best efforts of park experts
in all phases of park management.
Peace Arch Park on the border near White Rock is one of the unique parks of
this type in Canada. It memorializes the friendship and understanding which has
always existed between the two neighbouring countries of Canada and the United
States of America. This year, joint financing has made it possible to flood-light the
symbol of this friendship, the Peace Arch, with banks of mercury-vapour lamps.
The effect is striking.
Vancouver Island Management District
Vancouver Island Provincial Park facilities comprise just over one-quarter of
the Provincial total, being edged out of first place by Kamloops District. In day-use
visitations it ranks second, to tie with Kamloops District, both being less than half,
however, of Vancouver District's total day use. In camp-site use, Vancouver Island
vies with Kamloops District for first place Provincially, each receiving 28 per cent
of total use.
Miracle Beach Park leads Island parks in user-visits, ranking eighth in standing in the Province in number of day-visitors and seventh in camping-visits. Sproat
Lake Park, Little Qualicum Falls, and Ivy Green Park follow closely behind Miracle
Beach Park in Provincial day-use standing, while Goldstream Park outranks
Miracle Beach Park in camper-use, being fifth in importance in the Province, closely
followed by Wickaninnish Park and Rathtrevor Beach Park.
Two relatively undeveloped parks on Vancouver Island, Wickaninnish and
Rathtrevor Beach, continue to absorb an undue amount of management effort.
Both sprang into almost instantaneous popularity before development was initiated. Development is now proceeding at Rathtrevor Beach Park and will ease
operation and maintenance problems when completed; the creation of a national
park at Long Beach will ease the other difficulty.
In addition to the operation of an old and sophisticated park system on Vancouver Island proper, a marine park operation is also administered from the Vancouver Island office. The small number of service craft carrying out related maintenance duties has been augmented this year by the addition of the Sea Wolf V, a
former 32-foot ferry, most kindly made available by the British Columbia Ferry
Authority. Marine parks consist of Montague Harbour, Tent Island, Beaumont,
Newcastle Island, Sidney Spit, and Rebecca Spit. A simple listing of their names
pays poor service to their sparkling beauty and beach-combing allure. To keep
them this way requires persistence, organization, dedicated personnel, and a
sympathetic public.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 45
Kamloops Management District
Emphasis continued during the 1969/70 fiscal year on the rehabilitation and
modernization of our parks and their basic facilities, rather than on their expansion
or the development of new parks. New projects were initiated at only two locations, Lac Le Jeune Park, near Kamloops, and Claybanks Beach Park, near
Summerland. Claybanks Beach is an entirely new project that will open 2,000
feet of sand beach to public use for the 1970 season.
With the continued and excellent co-operation of the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police, together with increased patrols by our own staff, rowdyism was held in
check, and only two serious incidents were recorded.
Use patterns follow established trends, with the number of trailers and campers
increasing steadily. Visitors still outnumber facilities, and, as an example, at
Shuswap Lake Park with 265 camp-sites available, we have had to turn away as
many as 400 vehicles in one day. An average of 200 cars are turned away every
day during July and August.
Northern Management District
During 1969 an extensive capital development programme resulted in the
establishment and development of several new parks, and the continued expansion
and rehabilitation of existing parks.
In the recently created Peace River Region, new wayside parks were established and developed on the Alaska Highway at Buckinghorse River, 115 Creek,
Racing River, and Hyland River. Continuing expansion of facilities at Charlie
Lake Park, Sudeten Park, and Moberly Lake Park increased the available park
facilities in this region to 405 units.
At Mount Robson Park, the entrance portal and picnic-site were completed
at Portal Lake. In conjunction with our Youth Crew Programme, construction
of the first phase of development of the Robson Meadows Campground was undertaken, and 47 camp-sites were completed.
Continuing expansion and redevelopment of facilities in the Lakelse Region
resulted in additional camp-sites being completed at Furlong Bay Park, Exchamsiks
River Park, and Maclure Lake Park.
In conjunction with our Youth Crew Programme at Crooked River Park,
stage three of the rehabilitation programme was undertaken, with 36 camp-sites
being completely renovated.
Bowron Lake Campground was developed to the extent of 22 camp-sites,
toilet facilities, information shelter, parking-lot, and a trail to the canoe-dewatering
terminus.
District personnel continue to provide advisory and consultive assistance to
regional district planning committees and other public groups seeking advice on
outdoor recreational matters.
During the year, maintenance and operational staff, in addition to their normal
duties, assumed responsibility for numerous capital development projects. With
these added responsibilities, plus the task of managing and operating a park system,
the complexities of park management and operations continue to expand and
demand the undivided attention of the District Park Officer.
Nelson Management District
The Kootenays experienced a 5-per-cent increase above the Provincial average
in park attendance in its 20-odd parks.
 CC 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Although now new camp-site facilities were added to the established parks,
the final phase of the four-year campground reconstruction programme was completed at Wasa Park. An extension of Champion Lakes picnic terrace along the
beach was readied for completion next season.
A co-operative Summit Creek channelization project with the Duck Lake
Waterfowl Management Area Authority was completed in preparation for the
eventual development of a campground and picnic-ground. The main access road
through the proposed park was constructed and prepared for final top dressing.
In Kokanee Glacier Park the Administration Cabin was completed and some
alterations made to the public shelter. The Kokanee Creek Youth Crew completed
the first phase in the long-range trail improvement programme for this wilderness
park.
At Kokanee Creek Park the channelization of Kokanee Creek was undertaken
to prevent any future flooding of the campground and further erosion of the site
selected for the Nature Interpretation Centre. The first 14 camp-sites of the large
campground planned for the Hamilton property, purchased 1961, were constructed
and readied for installation of park furniture and flush-toilets for public use next
season.
In an effort to meet the great need for improved water and sewage facilities,
flush-toilets were installed in Boundary Creek Park and the second stage in the
Moyie Lake Park water system was completed, allowing park visitors reasonable
access to good water.
The 1969 season saw the introduction of a revitalized Youth Crew Programme at both the new camp in Kokanee Creek Park and at the old camp in
Champion Lakes Park. It proved to be one of the most satisfying experiences
for the staff as the boys adapted well and tackled every task with much enthusiasm.
The programme was designed to help these young men discover and develop their
own abilities by presenting circumstances in their work and recreation programmes
whereby they were required to meet numerous challenges. Once the boys were
brought into the outdoor atmosphere they were kept there through hunter-training
courses, mountaineering classes, and sessions with trappers and naturalists.
The district staff continued to provide consultive services on matters of parks
and land use to regional and municipal governments and to other Federal and
Provincial agencies involved in management of natural resources.
Interpretation
The 1969 Park Interpretation Programme served over 275,000 park visitors.
Nature houses at Manning, Miracle Beach, and Shuswap Lake Parks recorded
70,000 visitors, while 44,000 more took part in morning walks and evening camp-
fire talks. During July and August, 2,418 people braved the dangers of boating
in Georgia Strait to visit remote Mitlenatch Island, a seabird colony, and one of
British Columbia's two nature parks. The Goldstream salmon run, now a close
second in terms of visitor interest to the Adams River run, brought 32,000 Vancouver Islanders to watch. Park Naturalist Freeman King guided 40 school classes
and 4,000 others to a better understanding of the salmon's role in stream life at
Goldstream Park.
Interpretation programmes were conducted for the first time in Ten Mile Lake
and Crooked River Parks near Prince George.
On Vancouver Island, Rathtrevor Beach, Little Qualicum Falls, and Englishman River Falls Parks were surveyed for their interpretive potential. Pilot programmes were carried out in each of these parks.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 47
In the Okanagan, once again a travelling naturalist conducted walks and
talks in Ellison, Okanagan Lake, and Haynes Point Parks for 10,000 visitors.
Near Nelson, at Kokanee Creek and Champion Lakes Parks, another travelling
naturalist served park visitors in a pilot programme.
Fifteen naturalists were employed for the summer programmes. These fine,
dedicated people included teachers, university students, and several people retired
from other professions.
Park naturalist workshops were held at Miracle Beach and Manning Parks
from June 2nd to June 8th to introduce park methods of interpretation to new
naturalists. The Vancouver Centennial Museum and the Provincial Museum sent
observers to the workshop to learn from and participate in interpretive techniques.
Wildlife protection in parks was advanced this year through co-operation
with the Fish and Wildlife Branch in the designation of a protected area for grizzly
bear in Tweedsmuir Park. This area includes the grizzly's main feeding areas along
the Bella Coola and Talchako Rivers.
The Langford interpretation workshop planned and created 29 major displays
for nature houses and outdoor information shelters throughout the Province.
New interpretive pamphlets designed to inform park visitors about commonly
seen plants and animals include: " Some Mammals of Manning Provincial Park,"
" Some Insects of Manning Provincial Park," and for coastal parks, " Seaweeds of
Miracle Beach Park." Two other pamphlets of general interest to park visitors
are " Some Mosses of Provincial Parks," and " Moon Watching."
The success of the 1969 park interpretation programme depended upon the
park naturalists' high standards of performance and upon the public's increasing
support.
Youth Crew Programme
The Youth Crew Programme was more extensive this year than previously,
with 180 boys employed in nine camps, as follows: Little Qualicum Falls Park,
30 boys; Green River Park, 15 boys; Garibaldi Park, 15 boys; Manning Park,
30 boys; Crooked River Park, 15 boys; Mount Robson Park, 15 boys; Kokanee
Park, 15 boys; Champion Lakes Park, 15 boys; Wells Gray Park, 30 boys. The
crews, each under the direction of a foreman and assistant foreman, carried out
a variety of work, including camp-site reconstruction, trail construction, new park
development, park maintenance, safety fencing, carpentry work, landscaping, footbridge construction, cement pouring and finishing, and firewood production. An
extensive training programme to familiarize the boys with life in the outdoors
is featured annually at each camp. In addition to this, safe working habits are
stressed and some philosophy of the conservation movement is imparted. The
entire programme is very popular with the boys and with participating park
personnel.
For the first time this year, each boy was the recipient, at a closing ceremony,
of a certificate of merit and a group photo. The presentations were made at the
separate camps by very fine people—officials from the surrounding communities,
members of the Legislative Assembly, or Government employees. Their presence
contributed a great deal to the success of the ceremony.
ENGINEERING DIVISION
Vancouver Island Region
Rebecca Spit Park was converted to random camping, access and control were
improved, and a summer residence added.   A water system extension was prepared
 CC 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
for Quinsam Campground, Elk Falls Park, and the replacement programme continued at Miracle Beach Park. Initial work at Rathtrevor Beach included completion of the park entrance, sanitary services for the ticket office, installation of
a temporary water service to the beach area, construction of a 30-man all-weather
camp, design of an equipment shed, and commencement on the access roads and
parking-lots in conjunction with the Young Men's Conservation Programme. Prefabricated bridges were designed and purchased to replace old structures at Englishman River Falls and Little Qualicum Falls Parks. The Goldstream Park sani-
station was completed, and working plans begun for a new entrance bridge. China
Creek Picnic Ground development continued, with parking-lot and table additions;
a drilled-well test-hole failed, and a gravity water supply was selected. Gordon
Bay Campground development began with a drilled-well installation, and winter
construction was planned to include water service and a toilet building.
Mount Seymour Region
Princess Louisa Marine Park main float and ramp were replaced under contract and a flush-toilet system supplied for 1970 installation. At Mount Seymour
Park, the road reconstruction was completed and paved from Mile 2 to Mile 3,
road shoulders and drainage repaired over the first 2 miles, and a major equipment
shed erected under contract. Maintenance and public safety was improved by
modifications to ski tows and electrical service. A regional district water service
was initiated for Roberts Creek Park.
Garibaldi Region
The Nairn Falls Campground was completed in conjunction with the Youth
Crew Programme and a drilled well with handpump installed. At Alto Lake a
picnic ground was established with a parking-lot and table layout.
Alouette Region
A major improvement of the picnic-ground water supply at Golden Ears Park
was completed with the addition of a pumping-station to the 1968 drilled well.
The campground sani-station was completed and a contract advertised for road-
shoulder repairs on the park entrance road.
Manning Region
In Manning Park a 1-mile section of Blackwall Road was reconstructed, a
permanent diversion dam installed on Lightning Lake, and traffic barriers fabricated
for the beach parking-lot. An expansion of the Gibson Pass ski area required
completion of the day-lodge contract, bus-parking extension, slope improvements,
rope-tow modifications, auxiliary building renovation, and electrical service extension. A new T-bar installation is under way and an initial design and contract
completed for a second chair-lift. At Manning Lodge, improvements were made
to the cabin-colony, service-station, and main building. The annual electrical inspection led to maintenance improvements and a new generating station at the
construction camp. The nature museum was served by a new water extension, a
drilled well, and handpump installed at Coldspring Campground, and an irrigation
design completed for Lighting Lake Picnic Ground. A prefabricated bridge for
the Lightning Lake narrows was purchased for 1970 installation. Staff quarters
were provided at Emory Creek Park with the erection of a prefabricated building.
 department of recreation and conservation, 1969      cc 49
Cultus Region
Entrance Bay, Cultus Lake Park, was converted from gravity water supply
to well service with the addition of a pumping-station. Maple Bay was improved
with a water extension to the picnic area, coupled with access and parking reconstruction. A boat-launching site was developed at Paleface Creek on Chilliwack
Lake.
Shuswap Region
The Lac Le Jeune Park redevelopment was implemented with access improvement, additional camp-sites, and new construction standards. Paul Lake Park was
opened to camping and expansion work continued with beach improvement in conjunction with the Attorney-General's inmate programme. The first stage in converting the portable irrigation system at Shuswap Lake Park to permanent underground service was completed. Final work was completed for the sani-stations at
Shuswap Lake and Yard Creek Parks. A new reservoir was added to Victor Lake
Park in preparation for flush-toilets, sewage-disposal revisions were made at Mara
Lake Park, and a picnic shelter was begun at Yard Creek Park. Lac la Hache Park
service area was protected with a security fence.
Okanagan Region
A utility building was completed at Okanagan Falls Park, along with improvements to the sewage disposal, and the addition of change-houses to Haynes Point
Park commenced. Claybanks Beach Park development was initiated with security
fence work and then expanded to include a full development, consisting of parking-
lots, playground, toilet and change building, and picnic tables. Full irrigation
and domestic water service, sewerage, and power supply are included along with
extensive landscaping and planting. Soorimpt Picnic Ground pumping-station and
irrigation system was installed, using the new drilled-well supply. At Okanagan
Lake Park a new campground well supply was established and pumping revisions
planned.
Cariboo Region
Skihist Park sani-station, with flush-toilet facilities, was added to the campground, and in the picnic area interim flush-toilets were commenced. Plans are
under way for a permanent installation.
Wells Gray Region
The road approach near the Murtle River crossing in Wells Gray Park was
improved with a major reduction in grade, plus improvement in width and alignment. An electric generating system was installed to serve the Mahood Lake Youth
Crew camp.
Bowron Lake Region
A workshop and warehouse were initiated at the Bowron Lake Park service
area, and plans begun for staff quarters.
Mount Robson Region
Sewerage improvements were planned for Mount Robson headquarters. An
electric generating system was installed at Lucerne Lake Youth Crew camp and an
electrical survey carried out for headquarters power.
 CC 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Lakelse Region
Furlong Bay Park camping was expanded, the boat-launching ramp remodelled, and a lake-intake pumping-station installed. Drilled wells and hand-
pumps were established at Oliver Lake, Exchamsiks River, and Prudhomme Lake
Parks.
Bear Lake Region
Parking, trails, and lookout were developed at the Pinnacles Viewpoint near
Quesnel. The Ten Mile Lake Park sani-station was completed for 1969 use, along
with two change-houses. The latter were also constructed at Bear Lake and
Beaumont Parks.
Peace River Region
Charlie Lake Park Campground was completed as planned and the water
system installed. A workshop was erected under contract as a regional centre
and the service area protected by security fence. Boat-launching facilities were
added at the lakeshore. An Alaska Highway roadside rest-area system was developed with campground work at Buckinghorse Creek, Kledo Creek, 115 Creek,
Racing River, and Hyland River. Moberly Lake Park facilities were expanded
with campground additions, picnic improvements, and a boat-launching site, along
with provision for change-houses and landscaping. A water system was designed
and installed for Sudetan Park rest area and campground.
Kokanee Region
Boundary Creek Park hand-pump water service was converted to an automatic
pressure system with flush-toilets. At Kokanee Creek Park the Sandspit campground development was begun with design continuing for water service and flush-
toilets in 1970.
Wasa Region
The Wasa Lake Park service area water service was replaced for frost protection and design continued for future park service. A pumping-station was added
to Moyie Lake Park to serve public outlets and the future expansion designed.
'Ksan (ARDA)
The trailer park, campground, and Indian village were completed with full
water, power, and sewer services, including a toilet building contract. Training of
maintenance and operation staff was included in the construction programme.
Historic Parks
An elevated water tank for train service, reinforced-concrete reservoir, and
irrigation design were completed for Fort Steele Historic Park. Spring repairs,
Wake-up-Jake sewerage counsel, and alternate water-supply survey were carried
out for Barkerville Historic Park.
Workshop Section
The Langford establishment manufactured and distributed more than 3,000
items in about 60 categories, ranging from major production of park tables, carved
signs, marine buoys, number posts, and toilets, to unique items such as office furniture, carved entrance portals, and historic park displays. Traditional woodwork
dominated output, but emphasis increased for fibreglass and steel products.   A new
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1969
CC 51
fireplace was developed. In addition, the workshop operated the Victoria headquarters' car pool and exported artisans to field projects, notably the Mount Robson
portals and Fort Steele displays.
Survey Section
The primary work undertaken by this Section is classed under boundary surveys, topographic mapping, and engineering control of field projects. As such it
was an integral part of the preceding capital works and created a substantial portion
of the base plans used by Planning Division. Major control works were Mount
Seymour, Manning, and Wells Gray roads. In addition, the Section played an
increasing role in field investigations, feasibility surveys, estimates, road location,
and hydraulic studies.
Draughting Section
More than 100 individual projects were completed for all sections of the
Branch. These included park systems layouts, site-development plans, working
drawings for construction, and publicity. Only 40 per cent were directly related
to Engineering Division commitments. A major portion of park standards was
revised in a new format. Topographic map production was enhanced with closer
ties to the Survey Section. Eventual conversion to microfilm recording was augmented by adopting standard plan sizes coupled to photo reduction.
Equipment Section
High equipment maintenance and operation standards were achieved through
continuing attention to in-service training, safety programmes, and prevention-
repair schedules. Technical jurisdiction for all Branch mechanical equipment resides
in this Section, and its technicians played key roles in support of aerial tramway
and electrical projects.
Construction Section
This Section served as one of three basic means available to the Division for
the execution of capital works, the others being regional forces and outside contracts. A policy of close liaison and project-sharing between all three was pursued
with the Section handling 29 major projects representing about 50 per cent of the
Branch work in terms of capital worth. In addition, it was responsible for the
training and guidance of the Young Men's Conservation Programme at Rathtrevor
Beach Park, which commenced in the fall of 1969.
Design Section
This Victoria group formed the basic planning strength of the Division, with
Draughting Section as an integral component. Its engineers and technicians were
supplemented by the specialized skills of the Vancouver-based technicians in Equipment, Construction, and Survey Sections. Provincial commitments were centralized for design and supervision, but decentralized for execution. A shift from the
traditional static pyramidal-organization was continued toward flexible project
teams selected from the technician cadre and headed by an engineer co-ordinator.
While primarily responsible for capital works, Engineering Division also supplied
Management Division with technical support for its staff training and maintenance
programme. A general policy of undermanned status was particularly noticeable
in 1969, a heavy year. To maintain output, consulting engineers were retained
on 14 projects, varying from feasibility studies through design services to complete
field control.
 CC 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
SUMMARY OF ALL PROVINCIAL PARKS
TO DECEMBER 31, 1969
Classification Number
Class A parks  190
Nature conservancy areas in B parks (5)	
Total protected park acreage  	
Class B parks
Class C parks
Total parks
Recreation areas	
77
275
5
Total Acreage
1,817,729    1,817,729
1,457,794
3,275,523
4,632,971
28,959
6,479,659
102,266
Nature conservancy areas in A parks (1)—North Garibaldi (Garibaldi
Park)
Nature conservancy areas in B parks (5)—
Big Den (Strathcona Park)  29,784
Central Strathcona (Strathcona Park)   215,000
Comox Glacier (Strathcona Park)   58,010
Eutsuk (Tweedsmuir Park)   629,300
Murtle Lake (Wells Gray Park)  525,700
44,032
1,457,794
Total, nature conservancy areas (6)     1,501,826
 A load of gravel, and this youth crew will soon refurbish this camp-site at Crooked River Park.
Youth crew members unload supplies at Garibaldi Lake in a setting of magnificent grandeur.
 ANNUAL   ATTENDANCE
I-     o
1959  1960 1961    1962 1963 1964   1965 1966  1967 1968 1969
YEAR
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL
MUSEUM
 "I
124,265
100,000.
visitors
MUSEUM  ATTENDANCE
NOV. 1968 to OCT. 1969
541,000
20,000.
NOV. DEC.  JAN.  FEB. MAR. APRIL MAY JUNE JULY   AUG. SEPT. OCT.
400,000-
visitors
MUSEUM ATTENDANCE
1950 to September 1969
100,000-
 r
HH
Victoria Vancouver     Edmonton      Calgary Regina London, Eng.
30:10 & Toronto      9:10 2:10 20:10 1:10
4:10
Museum attendance (dotted area) in relation to metropolitan population  (solid black),
based on data for 1968/69.
Model of part of " Historical Visit," in the planning stage.
 CC 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
G. Clifford Carl, Director
The year 1969 will be remembered by museum personnel as one of pressing
deadlines, complicated moves, and staff reclassifications. It was also highlighted
by several successful displays, the establishment of a lively education programme,
the launching of a new scientific journal, and by the highest attendance record in
the history of the institution. These events, plus several significant additions to the
staff, have resulted in a very active year as is recorded in the following pages.
FIELD WORK
Field work was somewhat curtailed during 1969, particularly in human history,
because of the need to devote time and staff to organizing collections for an impending move into new quarters. Nevertheless, some important and fruitful work was
carried on in the Hazelton area in connection with a totem pole restoration programme there, several archaeological sites in other areas were studied, and numerous
routine field trips were made to various centres to collect specimens and other
materials.
In the natural history field, fairly intensive small mammal and bird collecting
was carried on around islands in Barkley Sound and botanical material was gathered
from the Long Beach area, Mount Arrowsmith, Revelstoke National Park, Glacier
National Park, and other parts of the Province. One trip was made to the Princeton
area in late spring to collect two goats for use in a diorama in the planning stage.
In late May the Director was a guest on board M.V. G. B. Reed, from the Biological
Station at Nanaimo, on a marine collecting trip to the west coast of Vancouver
Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands. During the season, Dr. J. B. Foster
managed to make three short visits to the Queen Charlotte Islands to pursue sea-bird
and small mammal studies, to visit falcon nesting areas on Langara Island, and to
examine potential ecological reserves.
Details of these and other field collecting trips are on file in the Departmental
office.
DISPLAY PREPARATION
Significant advances made in the exhibit galleries during 1969 included the
completion of three dioramas and the installation of a " Hall of Vertebrates."
Dioramas completed were the Dry Interior Biotic Area (bighorn sheep), Gulf
Islands Biotic Area (Coast deer and cougar), and Northern Alplands (caribou). A
fourth diorama showing a portion of the coast forest and featuring a group of wapiti
in a clearing remains to be completed in 1970.
Of far-reaching importance, too, was the engagement of Mr. Jean Andre as
Chief Designer in the Display Division. Under his guidance, newly installed displays
have already taken on a " new look," and exciting plans for future installations have
been developed. Chief among the latter is a detailed plan and a miniature scale
model of an exhibit gallery designed to take the viewer back through time from the
present to the prehistoric period by a series of exhibits highlighting significant eras
in the history of British Columbia. To be included are full-size replicas and reconstructions of early-style buildings, a water wheel, lumber mill, copper mine, and a
portion of a sailing ship. The proposed gallery is scheduled for completion and
official opening in 1971 as part of the Province's Centennial celebration.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 59
In April we were fortunate in having the services of Dr. Stephan Borhegyi,
Director of the Milwaukee Public Museum, as a consultant and an adviser regarding
our display programme. As an internationally recognized authority in the museum
field, Dr. Borhegyi was able to instil new enthusiasm among all staff members
involved and to recommend a course of action that has been most productive indeed.
It was with great sadness that we learned of his sudden death as a result of a car
accident on September 26.
Partly stemming from Dr. Borhegyi's visit was the decision to set up an interim
exhibit to display " The Vertebrates of British Columbia," using the old mounted
birds and mammals and the models of amphibians, reptiles, fish, and marine mammals formerly on view in the old building but displaying them in an entirely new
environment. The project was designed and installed in record time and since its
opening on August 7th it has received a great deal of praise from viewers.
Visitor enjoyment has also been enhanced by the addition of sound to certain
portions of the public galleries. By the use of earphones, spectators may listen to
taped commentaries plus natural sounds related to exhibits being viewed, and in the
vertebrate hall bird song, wolf howls, wave action, and other sounds provide atmosphere appropriate to the displays.
TEMPORARY EXHIBITS
Following the policy of presenting a series of temporary shows, the following
were on view during 1969:—
"Art Is Fun," a collection of paintings by Indian children of Canada;  held
over from December, 1968, to February 17, 1969.
" Wildlife Illustrated," a display featuring the work of several local wildlife
artists; March to April.
" Fine Arts Festival," a large show of art work, handicrafts, and other arts
involving entries from all schools of the Greater Victoria area; May 1st to
22nd.
" Annual Show," an exhibit of work of Victoria Sketch Club Members, celebrating their 50th anniversary; May 24th to June 14th.
" Slide Show," a continuous showing of slides by the Victoria Pentax Club;
summer season.
" Spinning and Weaving," a display and demonstration sponsored and manned
by members of the Victoria Weavers' Guild; July and August.
" Victoria, British Columbia:  Life Styles, Building Styles, and Urban Growth,
1843-1929," a display of pictures, postcards, and objects from several
sources, arranged by Mr. E. Thorn and Mr. D. Gallacher, Curator of
History; July to August 18th.
"Wildlife Paintings, by Allan Brooks," a display of over 100 paintings and
other items in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the birth of
Major Allan Brooks; August 23rd to Setpember 30th.
" Canadian Artists," a survey of painting and graphics through 300 years, a
collection of paintings, prints, and other objects from the National Gallery
in Ottawa, the Victoria Art Gallery, the Provincial Archives, and private
individuals; October 15th to November 30th.
" National Print Show," an exhibition of outstanding work presented by the
Professional Photographers of Canada; December 30th to January 11th,
1970.
For each show the local press has provided excellent coverage, and attendance
has been good.
 CC 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES
Natural History Divisions
Activities under this heading have been far from routine this year because of
the move to new quarters. Much time was spent by curators and assistants in
preparing for this event and then in supervising the actual move of the collections.
As a preliminary operation, the entire old building and its contents were
fumigated by local professionals, following which specimens which required special
care were boxed or otherwise prepared for handling. At the time of the move,
botanical material was transported directly to the new quarters in the Curatorial
Building, but since other natural history floors were not yet ready for occupancy all
other natural history collections had to be taken to temporary storage areas in the
Exhibit Building. Likewise, staff members had to find temporary office space
elsewhere until the contractors officially turned over the building to the Government
in early December. Despite the disruptions caused by these moves, over 4,900
plant specimens were mounted during the year, bringing the total herbarium collection to 54,103 items.
Human History Divisions
Much the same situation was experienced by this Division as in the case of
Natural History, but added problems because of the extremely varied nature of the
objects involved.   In most cases double moves have been necessary.
Early in the year most of the archaeological collections were transported to
temporary work and storage space on the third floor of the Exhibit Building from
which they were moved to their permanent location on the sixth floor of the Curatorial Building in October. In between times, staff have devoted their energies to
bringing site files up to date, cleaning and cataloguing artifacts, and other routine
activities.
Ethnological material for the most part has fared better. Collections formerly
housed in the old building were removed after fumigation directly to the new building (seventh floor), although storage cases and shelving were still lacking. Other
portions of the collections which have been in storage elsewhere have been left
until facilities are available to take care of them.
Several important additions have been acquired during the year, including
Kwakiutl dancing head-dresses with ermine skin trailers, an eulachon cooking tank,
and several superb silver bracelets.
In general, historical material has presented more problems than have other
collections because of the size of some individual items, because of a relatively
fragile nature in some cases, or simply because there was no suitable storage area
available. As a consequence, until permanent quarters are ready, objects are
stored in a variety of places, including a warehouse some miles from the city.
However, the problem of storage of extra large objects may shortly be solved;
part of an old hangar will eventually be made available for this purpose, making it
possible to actively encourage the acquisition of such items as aircraft, farm vehicles,
and other bulky objects.
Noteworthy among additions to the collections is a 1929 " Pumper " fire truck,
which gave long and heavy service at Essondale before its retirement. The vehicle
was placed on view outside the Museum Building for some weeks before being
stored; it forms the nucleus of what is expected to become a major collection of
objects relating to the history of science and technology in British Columbia.
In October, Mr. Dan T. Gallacher, Curator of History, was honoured by being
invited by the American Association of State and Local History to attend as their
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 61
guest a seminar on " Management of History Museums " presented in Albany, N.Y.
He was the only British Columbian representative at the gathering and profited
greatly from the experience.
Conservation Division
Mr. P. R. Ward, Chief Conservator, has had a busy time supervising the
checking and testing of fumigation facilities within the Exhibit Building, followed
by organizing the fumigating, packing, and removal of collections from the old
building to new quarters. He was also assigned the time-consuming task of organizing a security system for both buildings, involving the hiring and training of guards
(provided by the Department of Public Works) and working out a key combination
for the new building.
On two occasions during the year Mr. Ward made out-of-Province visits as a
guest of other institutions. In early April he attended a conference in Whitehorse
under the auspices of the Alaska State Museum and in June he travelled to Ottawa
to confer with officials at the National Museum of Man and to make a brief study
of their storage facilities.
The last month or so of the year was devoted to overseeing installation of
equipment in the new conservation laboratory and in settling into the new quarters.
RESEARCH
Apart from a certain amount of field collecting and routine or casual office
research, the following special projects were carried on:—
Human History.—Inquiries into the nature, use, and value of historical objects;
preparation of story-line for proposed exhibits; sources of material for
articles being prepared for publication; Salishan social organization and
" spirit" dances;  dating of materials from middens.
Natural History.—Taxonomy of Rosacea and catkin-bearing plants; flora of
Saanich peninsula.
Conservation.—Identification of adhesives by ultra-violet fluorescence; effects
of fluctuating environment conditions on antique furniture; native methods of totem pole preservation.
Display.—Preserving methods for vegetation; application of fire-resisting substances to artificial or preserved vegetation.
THUNDERBIRD PARK
The time of our two carvers, Mr. Henry Hunt and Mr. Tony Hunt, has been
completely occupied in producing poles and other carvings as well as original two-
dimensional designs. Major items were two totem poles, one for erection at the
World's Fair in Osaka, Japan, and another for the J. Alsford Company, Timber
Importers, in London, England. After removal of the latter pole, the carving area
was cleared of chips and readied for projects planned for 1970.
Although the Kwakiutl house under construction on the third floor of the
Exhibit Building was incomplete, a dedication ceremony was observed by Chief
Jonathan Hunt and Mrs. Hunt on May 30th, a necessary formality since the building will eventually house ceremonial objects obtained from the Hunt family. Certain carvings and two-dimensional designs remain to be provided to complete the
structure.
 CC 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES
The newly established Educational Services Division has experienced rapid
growth under the energetic encouragement of Mrs. Wilma Wood. Commencing in
January, an intensive course of instruction was given to about 30 persons aspiring
to be volunteer docents (museum guides), and from this group a work corps was
selected to take on subsequent assignments. A similar course repeated in the fall
produced another group of willing and talented people, augmenting the number of
volunteer workers to 45.
Thanks largely to these helpers, a large number of school classes were given
tours of the Museum, some of them under special headings such as " Trapper's
Cabin " and " Seashore Life." In addition, two summer activity programmes called
" Kumtuks " and " Discovery " were carried on in July and August. Over 11,500
children took part in these combined programmes during the year.
The docents are now organized into an association, with Mrs. Dorothy Hanson
as chairman, and consideration is being given to enlarging the group to include
other organizations affiliated with the Museum, for mutual advantage.
The facilities of Newcombe Auditorium have been used extensively during the
year, both by outside organizations and Government agencies. The following
Museum-sponsored programmes have been offered:—
" Noon Hour Concerts," a series extending through January.
" Heritage Court Presents " series:—
"Eagle Research," Mr. David Hancock, January 17th.
"Arctic Adventure," Mr. Clarence Tillenius, January 21st.
" Wolves," Mr. John Theberge, February 14th.
" Victoria, Day Before Yesterday," Mr. Ainslie Helmcken, February 28th.
" Charles Edenshaw, Haida Artist," Mr. Wilson Duff, March 14th.
"Are Salmon Obsolete?," Dr. John Mclnerney, November 7th.
"Reindeer in Newfoundland," Dr. Arthur T. Bergerud, November 21st.
" Wanderings of a Naturalist with a Camera," Miss Enid K. Lemon,
November 28th.
" Seashore Smorgasbord," Mr. Wayne Campbell, December 12th.
" Chilkat Dancers " (with British Columbia Arts and Welfare Society), Major
Carl Heinmiller and Company from Haynes, Alaska, March 18th.
" School Bands " (with Greater Victoria School Board), concert and opening
ceremonies in connection with the Fine Arts Festival, May 1st.
" Swiftsure Film Festival " (with National Film Board), May 30th, 31st, and
June 1st.
" Salad Days " (with Bastion Theatre), nightly except Sundays, June 30th to
August 22nd.
" On the Track of the White Bear," Mr. Clarence Tillenius, December 7th.
"A Christmas Special," Films for children of all ages (sponsored by the
National Film Board), December 17th.
A short course in palaeontology, called " Fun With Fossils " was also offered
to youngsters under the direction of Mr. Gary Green, Museum Apprentice.
EXTENSION SERVICE
With the appointment of Mr. John Kyte to the Museum's Adviser post on
January 1st, a new programme of service to the museums of the Province got under
way. Since the effectiveness of the service depends to a very large extent upon
personal contact, Mr. Kyte's first objective was to visit as many museums and
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 63
sponsoring bodies as possible. By the year's end he had covered all areas of the
Province, except a few of the more isolated communities, and had visited about
90 museums.
He also instituted a newsletter, which is being mailed to every museum of the
Province of which we have a record. Five issues, plus several information supplements, have been produced to date.
In September, Mr. Kyte took an active part in the meetings of the British
Columbia Museums Association held in Vancouver at the Centennial Museum,
where he was able to make further contacts with museum people.
OTHER SERVICES
In April, the concession to operate the Tea Room was awarded to Mr. Bud
French, of Victoria. The service has been well patronized right from the start,
especially on week-ends, and on all days during the tourist season. The staff also
provided catering for special group meetings on several occasions during the year.
Starting in June, and continuing through the summer months, the sales counter
in the main lounge was operated as a special service to visitors. The counter was
staffed largely by volunteers from the British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare
Society, through the efforts of Mrs. Harriet Esselmont, President of the organization. Besides museum publications, articles offered for sale included a variety of
handicrafts by Indians of the Province.   Sales in general were good.
PUBLICATIONS
The following contributions to literature have appeared in 1969:—
Abbott, Donald N.    Recording Archaeological Data in British Columbia.
British Columbia Provincial Museum Ann. Rept., 1968.
Brayshaw, T. C.    Review of " Flora of Queen Charlotte Islands " by Calder,
Taylor, and Mulligan.   Syesis, Vol. 2, Parts 1 and 2, 1969.
Carl, G. Clifford.   Foreword.  Syesis, Vol. 1, Parts 1 and 2, 1-3, 1968 (1969).
 " Your Future in Museums " (review).  Museum Round-up, No. 34,
p. 42.
 Watch Out For This One.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 26, No. 3, p. 31.
 Survival.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 26, No. 4, 37-38.
 Treasures from the Northwest Coast.    Canadian Antiques Collector,
Vol. 4, No. 11, November 1969, 42-43.
-Review " Year of the Whale " by V. B. Scheffer. Victoria Daily Times,
December 6, 1969.
Gallacher, Daniel T.    First Thoughts on the Albany Seminar, 1969.   Museum
Round-up, No. 36, 37-38.
 The Secret Visit of R.M.S. Queen Elizabeth to Esquimalt in 1942—
The Last in a Series of Notable Events in the Area.   Report of the British Columbia Provincial Museum for 1968.
Kyte, John.    John Kyte's Notebook.    Museum Round-up, No. 33, p. 20;
Museum Round-up, No. 34, p. 37.
Schofield, W. B.    Some Common Mosses of British Columbia.    Provincial
Museum Handbook, No. 23, 1-262.
Szczawinski, Adam F.    Arbutus—the Tree that Sheds its Skin.    Beautiful
British Columbia magazine, Fall, 1969, p. 46.
■ The Garry Oak.   Beautiful British Columbia magazine, Winter, 1969,
p. 47.
 CC 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Thorn, Erik.    Review of " Help for the Small Museum " by A. Neal.   Museum
Round-up, No. 34, 38-39.
 Making Artificial Plants for Museums.   Museum Round-up, No. 36,
20-26.
Ward, Philip.    Indian Act Has Teeth.   Museum Round-up, No. 35, 56-57.
 Mipofolie and Booklon, an Evaluation of the Physical Properties of
Two Self-adhesive Plastic Films.    Museum Round-up, No. 36, 69-71.
Wood,  Wilma.    Docent  Program  at  the  Provincial  Museum.     Museum
Round-up, No. 34, 14-15,
In addition to the above, two publications, " Guide to Marine Life " (Handbook No. 21), and "Grasses of British Columbia" (Handbook No. 9), were
reprinted; a general information pamphlet was produced, numerous lesson outlines
were distributed by the Education Division, and five newsletters were issued by the
Museum's Adviser.
Of special significance in this field of activity was the appearance of the first
volume of Syesis, a journal designed to act as a vehicle for technical articles in both
human and natural history related to British Columbia. Copies of the first issue
have been distributed to institutions and professionals on a complimentary basis.
Subsequent numbers will be available through subscription.
The demand for museum publications has been steadily rising in recent years
and was exceptionally heavy in 1969, possibly as a result of an unusually high
attendance this year. As a result, stock has become depleted and many publications
are actually out-of-print. To remedy this situation, permission has been obtained
to reprint those in greatest demand, and these are expected to be available early in
1970.
STAFF CHANGES
First of several additions to the Museum staff made in 1969 was Mr. John
Kyte, who commenced duties as Museum's Adviser on January 2nd. As an active
associate of the Campbell River Museum during its formative period, he brings
with him several years of practical experience dealing with problems connected with
local institutions, which should be of great value in his new field.
In April, Mr. Daniel T. Gallacher joined the staff as Curator of History, a
position which was vacant since Miss Carolyn Case left in early 1968. After a number of years in the R.C.A.F., Mr. Gallacher returned to the University of Victoria,
from which institution he obtained a bachelor's degree with honours in history,
followed by a master's degree in 1969. His thesis, a history of the depression period
in Victoria, was given the Leon Ladner Award for the best master's thesis in Canadian history for 1969. Since assuming office he has been busy acquiring additional
historical material, supervising the cataloguing and removal of the collections, and
assisting in the planning of a new gallery projected for 1971 opening.
About the same time we were fortunate in obtaining the services of Mr. Jean
Andre, who was given the responsibility of directing the display programme. Mr.
Andre is a professional designer with a well-established reputation; his special flair
is already evident in the newly installed Vertebrate Hall on the second floor and in
the plans for the gallery scheduled for installation in 1970.
Other recent appointees include Mr. Douglas Lockhart as Clerk 5, a newly
created post to take care of office business and personnel affairs; Mrs. Margaret
Billings, General Office staff; Mr. Ewald Lemke, Taxidermist and Preparator in
the Bird and Mammal Division; Mrs. Flo Scaplen, Office Assistant in the Educational Services Division; Mr. David Gillett, Assistant in History; Mrs. Susan
Douglass, Assistant in Ethnology;  Mr. Phillip Nott, Technician in Biology;  Mr.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 65
Monte Wright, Technician in History; Miss Kathy Jamieson, Assistant in Archaeology; and Mr. C. A. Russell, Assistant Conservator.
Student assistants for the summer months included Mr. John Hall, Miss Susan
Barre, Miss Kathy Jamieson, and Miss Toni Kirkpatrick.
In September, Mr. Alan Hoover, Assistant Curator in Ethnology, left on a
year's leave of absence in order to complete university training. His post is being
temporarily filled by Mrs. Susan Douglass.
After more than 35 years in the Government employ, Miss Margaret Crummy
retired on March 31st. Miss Crummy entered the Service in 1934 as an Instructor,
Elementary Correspondence School, and transferred to the Museum in 1936 when
Mr. Francis Kermode was Director. Associates and friends attended a luncheon
served in the museum to honour her as the senior staff member in terms of service,
and at this time she was presented with a meritorious service diploma and with
mementos from fellow staff members.
The Museum has again been fortunate in receiving help from a number of
volunteers during the year. High on the list is the hard-working band of persons
who have acted as docents in our educational programmes and without whose help
it would have been impossible to function. Their contribution of time and knowledge has been greatly appreciated.
Of special note is the assistance of Mrs. Dorothy Hanson and Mrs. Joan
Ruskowski, who have acted as Chairman and First Assistant, respectively, for the
newly formed British Columbia Provincial Museum Docents' Association. On
December 5th, each received charter certificates after one-year apprenticeships in
the organization. Thanks are also due to Mr. David Young, who so ably supervised
the summer programme, " Kumtuks."
Grateful acknowledgment is also made of the volunteer assistance given in the
archaeological field by Alan Carl, Dennis St. Claire, Box Cox, and John Pollitt.
On December 31st, another significant event took place when Dr. Carl stepped
out of the Directorship of the Museum, a post which he had held since 1940. In
January, 1970, he will take over the position of Curator of Marine Biology, with
fewer administrative responsibilities.
ATTENDANCE
A considerable increase in attendance was experienced following the opening
of the new building in August, 1968. An increase was anticipated, but the attendance figures have continued to mount through 1969 beyond all expectations. In
fact, an all-time record of well over half-a-million visitors has been established,
distributed over the year, as follows:—
January  11,661 August   124,265
February  19,808 September  47,423
March  28,201 October   26,113
April   33,357 November   24,072
May   39,714 December   17,391
June  52,867                                                 	
July  99,761                        Total    524,633
It will be noted that peak attendance occurred in August, which is the usual
pattern. On some days during this month more than 5,000 persons passed through
the building.
 CC 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
It should also be noted that the total shown does not include the many persons
who attended programmes in the Auditorium or meetings in the classroom of
which no record was kept, nor does it include about 30,000 school children served
by the Education Division.
Beyond the fact that the attendance figures are surprisingly high, another
interesting fact came to light when they were closely examined. When compared
with the resident population of Greater Victoria, the proportion of visitors is many
times higher than is the case with other leading museums for which we have
figures. In other words, more persons visited the Provincial Museum in proportion
to the local population than in the case of any of the other five museums used in
the survey. The reason for this, of course, is that tourist traffic through the City of
Victoria is exceedingly heavy and the Museum is located in an exceedingly
attractive area.
Despite the high public response, at no time was the building overly crowded;
the escalators and the flow pattern through the galleries seemed to take care of the
crowds adequately.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
The Curatorial Building, the third unit in the Museum-Archives Complex,
called " Heritage Court," was completed and turned over to the British Columbia
Government by Burns and Dutton, Contractors, on December 4th. Actually, the
second, sixth, and seventh floors had been finished in October and had been occupied by Museum staff on a more or less temporary basis. Following Government
acceptance of the building, staff members were able to move themselves and collections into permanent locations.
As economy measures, certain items have been omitted; these include a freight
elevator, partitions between certain offices, washroom fixtures, and other plumbing
on some floors, and some scientific equipment. Hopefully, these structures and
services can be added later.
As the name implies, the Curatorial Building has been planned to accommodate the scientific and technical services of the Museum, and consequently it is
unique in design. The basement area, which is continuous with the Archives Building, will house shared services such as a photographic division; the Central Microfilm Bureau is also located here.
On the ground floor is a large preparation room for biological specimens, including a taxidermy shop, cold room, and other facilities. Adjacent to this is a
modern laboratory equipped for the conservation and restoration of historical
material.   Offices are also provided.
The remaining six floors are each devoted to a division or discipline in the
Museum's field of activities in the following ascending order: Botany, Birds and
Mammals, Marine (including lower vertebrates, insects, and fossils), Biology,
History, Archaeology and Ethnology. Each of these floors is also provided with
a mezzanine for additional storage and office space. A combined illustration studio
and workshop is located on the second floor.
Architecturally, the building fits the site admirably, its tall, rectangular shape
neatly complimenting the two other structures forming the complex. The use of
the same Haddington Island sandstone and Italian marble on the exterior and the
same designs in doors and other fixtures as used in the other buildings also enhances
the feeling of unity. A landscaping programme using native shrubs and trees provides a pleasing setting for the whole concept.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 67
OBITUARIES
Regretfully we record here the passing of the following persons:—
Professor C. W. Lowe—botanist and long-time staff member of the University of
Manitoba; Past President of the Victoria Natural History Society.   April 18th.
Mr. Claude G. Briggs—former attendant of the Provincial Museum; retired in 1968.
April 26th.
Inspector George C. Stevenson—formerly of the British Columbia Fish and Wildlife Branch and panel member on " Outdoors with the Experts " radio programme.   June 7th.
Dr. Stephan F. Borhegyi—Director of the Milwaukee Museum and Technical Consultant for the British Columbia Provincial Museum.    September 26th.
 (Photo—Department of Travel Industry.)
Curatorial Building, completed in December, 1969.
 (Photo—John Barnard.)
Part of the gallery featuring the vertebrates of British Columbia.
n
(Photo—John Barnard.)
Interior of " Trapper's Cabin " in the " Vertebrates of British Columbia " exhibit.
  COMMERCIAL
FISHERIES
BRANCH
 WSBKSBBBM^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^BSBKSSBXKS^^^^^jM
PUIL1C
FORESHORE
RESERVE
Public foreshore reserve, between Union Bay and Buckley Bay on Vancouver Island, is for
recreational use by the public, where primary attraction is gathering of shellfish.
11 >    ' '    :
Ferro-cement salmon troller, relatively new on the British Columbia coast.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 73
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
R. G. McMynn, Director
GENERAL
1969 was an interesting as well as satisfying year for the Commercial Fisheries
Branch. This was especially true because of our involvement in the management
of the marine resources of British Columbia from both a commercial and a recreational viewpoint. This involvement in the recreational use of the Province's marine
resources is somewhat handicapped, however, by the Branch's name " Commercial
Fisheries Branch." Nevertheless, our policy of dealing with both commercial and
recreational aspects has been well received. Increasingly, we are finding other
Provincial Government departments, which may be involved in the administration
and development of the Province's natural resources, contacting the Commercial
Fisheries Branch concerning potential resource-use conflicts. Further improvements
are still anticipated. Perhaps it is our own objectivity, together with the fact that
the Director serves as a member of the Pollution Control Board, that has fostered
this inter-discipline approach. Whatever the reason, it is evident that a " total
environmental viewpoint " in resource-use development is becoming more and more
evident in the Branch's daily relationship with other resource users. Along the
same lines, it is very gratifying to find the Branch's participation and advice in both
national and international fishery matters being more and more recognized and
called upon by Federal and international fishery agencies.
Some of the more important activities and developments occurring in 1969
are outlined briefly below.
1. Increased oyster patrol and enforcement activity was permitted through
improvements to the M.V. Marten. Due to heavy recreational demands, coupled
with the decreasing availability of wild oysters in southern gulf waters south of
Nanaimo, the Branch prohibited the commercial taking of all oysters in that area
from vacant Crown foreshore after June 1, 1969. This policy is reviewed periodically.
2. Successful results in the depuration (cleansing) of oysters at the Ladysmith
experimental plant were achieved in the late fall and winter of 1969. Oysters
polluted by high faecal bacterial counts were completely cleansed within a 24-hour
period by ultra-violet irradiation. If the process can be proven to be economical,
and this looks rather promising at this stage, then all oysters produced in polluted
areas should be acceptable for market purposes without the expensive process of
having to be first relayed or transferred to oyster leases located in areas of approved
water quality. This would give a new lease on life for the commercial oyster
growers who still hold leases in such bacterially contaminated areas as Ladysmith
Harbour, Sooke Harbour, Esquimalt Lagoon, Pender Harbour, Comox Harbour,
and Deep Bay. There is a distinct possibility that several strategically located
depuration plants, together with a legal requirement that all oysters must pass
through such a plant prior to marketing, could eliminate the expensive administrative and enforcement activities that should be associated with relaying oysters to
approved leases.
3. A significant increase in inquiries from high schools and university students
concerning various aspects of fisheries and other marine resources was noted in
1969. Over 4,000 copies of the Branch's publication, British Columbia Ocean
Harvest, 7,000 bulletins, and 4,000 Harvest Beneath the Sea were requested and
 CC 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
distributed.    These important public information activities are increasingly time-
consuming for the staff.
4. The first half of a shared $200,000 industry-government (Federal, Provincial, Fisheries Council of Canada) Fishery Product Marketing Study was completed by Stevenson and Kellogg Limited in 1969. The purpose of the two-year
study is to study consumer tastes, requirements, and attitudes with respect to fish
and fish products, so that recommendations for increasing the present low per
capita fish consumption—some 12 to 13 pounds per person per year—can be made
to the fishing industry.
5. The development of a kelp harvester and a kelp dryer by Inter-Tidal
Industries Ltd. progressed in 1969 to the stage where some 1,000 tons of Nereo-
cystis (bull kelp) was cut and dried off the coast of British Columbia. The drying
apparatus was not entirely satisfactory, thus delaying large-scale cutting. One of
the largest of the four companies currently holding aquatic-plant cutting-areas proceeded in its production schedule by building a large processing plant at Masset,
Queen Charlotte Islands, as well as a harvesting vessel in North Vancouver. Two
prospective companies holding licences in 1968 did not receive renewals of their
licences in 1969 because of their inactivity in the production of seaweed products.
Some initial plans were made in 1969 by a large and well-established seaweed
processing company to explore some of the British Columbia coast with the view
in mind of establishing a red-algae industry on this coast.
6. The oyster industry was subjected to an economic analysis, commencing in
September and to be completed by April, 1970. This study, by Western Consultants, followed the more general study made in 1968 by C. Planta. The Planta
Report, financed solely by the Federal Government, has been received, but the
results have not been made public. The present study is being jointly financed by
Government (Federal-Provincial) and the British Columbia Oyster Growers Association. This latter study should result in some concrete recommendations concerning the marketing and production problems confronting the growers.
Wholesale Value of Fish and Fish
Products
1964  $92,117,000
1965  84,666,000
1966  118,000,000
1967  99,800,000
1968  119,255,000
Value of Gear
1964  $ 10,711,000
1965     12,281,000
1966     11,414,000
1967     11,637,000
1968     13,032,000
Number of Licensed
Fishermen
1962  15,060
1963  15,370
1966  11,977
1967  12,117
1968  12,133
Number of Licensed Boats
1963  9,745
1964  9,343
1966  7,435
1967  7,639
1968  7,548
BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY
The canned-sadmon pack for 1969 was 621,856 48-pound cases, 1,125,133
less than the 1968 pack of 1,746,989 cases. This was the smallest production
since 1960, when 631,150 cases were packed.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 75
Fifteen salmon canneries were licensed to operate in 1969. The locations were
as follows: Skeena River and Prince Rupert, 5; Central Area, 1; Vancouver
Island, 2; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 7. In 1968, 21 canneries were
licensed; this year saw the permanent closing of two canneries on the Skeena River,
one in the Central Area, and one on the Fraser River, due to cessation of operations
by two old-established canning companies and consolidation of operations by
another. A cannery in West Vancouver has been razed, but the company is still
active and expects to rebuild at a future date. A new cannery was built at Westview
on the Lower Mainland coast, but did not start operating until late in the season.
Comparative Pack by Species (48-pound Cases)
Sockeye 	
Chinook	
Steelhead 	
Blueback 	
Coho 	
Pink	
Chum 	
1968
1969
611,011
358,505
7,416
5,300
933
584
10,389
2,146
177,205
55,566
669,347
153,386
270,688
46,369
HERRING PRODUCTION
Once again the herring fishery was closed for reduction purposes. Herring
stocks in southern areas are showing signs of recovery, but surveys indicate they are
not yet large enough to reopen the fishery. During 1970 there will be no change
in the current closure.
HALIBUT FISHERY
According to a preliminary report from the International Pacific Halibut Commission, the total Pacific halibut catch of 1969 was nearly 9,000,000 pounds more
than that of 1968.
Halibut landings by British Columbia fishermen amounted to 32,882,000
pounds, compared to 29,467,000 pounds in 1968. United States fishermen took
24,632,000 pounds, compared to 19,372,000 pounds last year.
Area 3a showed the best landings with a total of 30,424,000 pounds, compared
to 27,215,000 in 1968.
PACIFIC OYSTER BREEDING,  1969
Pacific oyster breeding in British Columbia in 1969 was a commercial failure
as it was in the State of Washington. Production in Japan was considerably less
than average.
Pendrell Sound
As early as May 24th the water temperature in Pendrell Sound exceeded 68 °
F. to a depth of 10 feet, and in mid-June it was as high as 75° F. The salinity at
this time was satisfactory in Pendrell Sound itself (20 per cent), but outside in
Waddington Channel it was down to 10 per cent. As a result of a small spawning
on June 15th, there were early-stage larvae in the water. Plankton on June 24th
indicated another small spawning had occurred, and from the total number of
larvae a modest commercial set was predicted. Partly because the industry was still
in preparation and major spawnings were yet to come, the advice was against
cultching for this set.
 CC 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
By June 30th, larvae from the earliest spawning were up to 250 microns in
length or five-sixths grown. Test cultch exposed July 8th had collected six spat per
shell by July 14th and 36 spat per shell by July 17th, indicating a relatively long
larval period. Salinity during the period July 1st to 17th had dropped from 15 per
cent to 12 per cent, for on July 14th a considerable amount of white glacier water
from Toba Inlet was observed in Waddington Channel and a large cloud inside the
entrance to the sound. It wasn't until about July 24th that salinity had increased
to 16 per cent.
By July 21st the larvae from the early spawnings had disappeared from the
plankton, but there were 1,000 per gallon of early-stage larvae spawned about July
15th. The industry was advised to cultch, for all conditions appeared satisfactory.
However, by August 7th, larval numbers were reduced considerably but there were
still enough for a commercial set. They were slightly more than two-thirds grown
at this time. By August 13th, however, there were few larvae remaining in the
plankton and only a very few spat were collected. From this time on the weather
deteriorated and no further spawning occurred. Thus, there was a complete
commercial failure.
The early set which amounted to 50 spat per shell had reached a diameter of
only one-eighth inch by the end of summer, when normally it would have been at
least 1 inch. This indicates the possibility of a food problem. Associated with the
fresh-water influx was a significant phytoplankton bloom, an abnormal situation
in Pendrell Sound in summer. This bloom may have inhibited the production of
the particular food organisms required by advanced-stage larvae and small spat.
There is little doubt the influx of fresh water in the sound was in some way responsible for the failure.
Ladysmith Harbour
There was no significant setting in Ladysmith Harbour, in spite of several
good spawnings.
It is doubtful if British Columbia growers will be seriously affected by the lack
of seed in 1969, but there may be an impact on the export market, particularly to
Europe.
SPORT-CAUGHT FISH CANNERIES
Four canneries designed to custom-can sport-caught fish operated during 1969.
They were located at Brentwood, Campbell River, Nanaimo, and Quadra Island.
Production to the end of December, 1969, was 90,495 cans, a decrease of 53,068
cans from the previous year's total. This figure reflects the comparatively poor
sports-fishery in the northern Vancouver Island region; another factor was the
closure of the cannery located in Madeira Park. A total of 3,120 sportsmen used
these facilities, of whom 2,432 were residents and 688 non-residents. The following
number and species offish were canned: Coho, 3,884; chinook, 3,788; pinks, 858;
sockeye, 316; trout, 107; steelhead, 40; chum, 12. In addition, the canneries
smoke-cured a total of 2,246 pounds of sport-caught fish.
REVIEW OF FISHERIES PRODUCTION, 1968
The total wholesale value of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1968
amounted to a record high of $119,300,000, and was $20,200,000 above the 1967
returns. Salmon landings of 18,200,000 pounds were the highest since 1953.
Salmon products accounted for 83.8 per cent of the total wholesale value for the
Province. Halibut landings amounted to 29,400,000 pounds. The wholesale value
of halibut landed at British Columbia ports was up 1 million dollars.   Due to the
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969 CC 77
low level of herring stocks, the reduction fishery was closed in 1968. Production
was limited to bait and experimental fishing, with the value of landings amounting
to only $331,000.
As marketed wholesale, the principal species were salmon, with a value of
$99,956,000; and halibut, with a value of $8,385,000.
The landed value of the 1968 halibut catch was $5,768,000, as compared to
$5,068,000 in 1967.
In 1968 the total wholesale value of shellfish amounted to $3,343,000. The
value of the clam production was $222,000; oyster production, $743,000; crab
and shrimp production, $2,378,000.
Gear and Equipment
The 1968 inventory of fishing-gear included 11,470 salmon gill-nets, 493
salmon purse-seines, 12 salmon drag-seines, 129 herring gill-nets, 97 herring purse-
seines, and 16 herring trawl-nets, with a total value of $8,830,000. Wire, cotton,
and nylon trolling-lines were valued at $581,000.
Salmon-cannery Operations
Twenty-one salmon canneries were licensed to operate in 1968. The locations
were as follows: Skeena River and Prince Rupert, 7; Central Area, 3; Vancouver
Island, 2; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 9. For the first time in many years
the plant on the Queen Charlotte Islands did not operate as a salmon cannery.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia, according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by canners licensed to operate in 1968, amounted
to 1,746,989 cases, 281,281 more than the 1967 pack and worth a record $67,400,-
000. This pack was 31-per-cent greater than the 1959-68 average of 1,333,444
cases.
Sockeye Salmon
The 1968 sockeye pack was 611,011 cases. This was an increase of 52,120
cases over 1967 and was the largest since 1958. The sockeye pack was worth
$30,600,000, the highest ever.
Pink Salmon
Although pink-salmon fishermen delivered 55,600,000 pounds of round fish,
the pack was only 669,347 cases, due to abnormally small fish. The pink pack had
a wholesale value of $22,000,000, far below the big years of 1966 and 1962 when
it was worth $28,100,000 and $30,600,000 respectively.
Coho Salmon
There was an excellent coho run in 1968 and the pack, worth $7,700,000, was
187,594 cases, 40,917 more than 1967. Again, most of the coho was marketed in
frozen form, with the total wholesale value of the species being $19,700,000, about
$1,000,000 under the record year of 1966.
Chinook Salmon
The canned pack of chinook salmon in 1968 was 7,416 cases, 7,263 less than
the 1967 pack. Here again, main utilization of this species was in the frozen
dressed form, with a value of $7,254,710 as compared with the 1967 total of
$6,374,850.
 CC 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Steelhead
The 1968 steelhead pack amounted to 933 cases, 363 less than the 1967 pack
of 1,296 cases. Although steelhead are not salmon, some are canned each year,
principally those caught incidental to fishing other species.
Other Canneries
Shellfish Canneries.—In 1968, six shellfish canneries were licensed to operate
in British Columbia and produced the following pack: Clams, 7,532 cases; crabs,
4,441V_. cases; smoked oyster stew, 9,656 24/10-ounce cases; oysters, 195 cases.
Specialty Products.—Sundry processing plants produced the following: Fish
spreads, 44,579 24/2^-ounce cases and 140 12/2-ounce cases; smoked oysters,
75 gallons; creamed salmon, 6,150 cases; creamed tuna, 2,987 cases; sliced
salmon in oil, 8,908 21/_t-ounce tins; pickled salmon, 4 24/8-ounce cases; smoked
sliced salmon, 330 60/2Vi-ounce cases; pickled salmon, 4 24/8-ounce cases.
Fish-curing
Sixteen smoke-houses process the following: Herring (kippers, 47,837 pounds;
bloaters, 4,900 pounds); cod, 412,239 pounds; salmon, 362,428 pounds; sable
sole, 51,960 pounds; mackerel, 6,540 pounds; eels, 6,000 pounds; eulachons,
2,500 pounds; snox, 2,540 pounds; steelhead, 647 pounds.
Pickled Herring
Three plants put up the following: 7,043 cases of 12/12-ounce jars; 4,230
cases of 12/16-ounce jars; 650 cases of 12/32-ounce jars; 399 cases of 4/128-
ouncejars; 15 cases of 24/8-ounce jars; 505 25-pound kits; and 2,665 100-ounce
tins.
Frozen Herring Bait
Seven firms reported a total production of 933,900 pounds of frozen bait in
1968.
Mild-cured Salmon
Three plants were licensed to operate in 1968 and produced 466 tierces, for
a total of 3,775 hundredweight. In 1967, three plants were licensed and produced
427 tierces for a total of 3,618 hundredweight.
Salmon Roe
Eight plants reported the following production for 1968: 159,477 pounds;
144,000 3-ounce jars; 7,860 24-jar cartons; and 2,950 26-pound kegs of salmon-
roe caviar; 386,171 pounds of salted salmon roe; 3,650 pounds of salmon-roe bait;
386,171 pounds of salted salmon roe; and 1,286,200 pounds of salmon roe, use
not specified.
Halibut
Because of poor prices and a scarcity of fish, the 1968 halibut fishery remained
depressed; in spite of this there was some improvement over 1967. British Columbia fishermen landed 60.7 per cent of the total Pacific catch of 48,400,000
pounds. The wholesale value of halibut landed at British Columbia ports was
$8,400,000, compared with $7,400,000 in 1967.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1969
CC 79
Fish Oil and Meal
There was no herring fishery for reduction purposes and a negligible amount
was taken for bait purposes. The fishery is not expected to be opened for seining
before 1971, and possibly the closure will extend beyond this point.
Fish-offal Reduction.—During the 1968 season, nine plants were licensed to
operate and they produced 2,378 tons of meal and 171,127 gallons of oil. In
addition, 23,424 pounds of salmon oil were produced. In 1967, nine plants produced 1,408 tons of meal and 170,886 gallons of oil.
STATISTICAL TABLES
Table I.—Licences Issued and Revenue Collected, 1965 to 1969, Inclusive
Licence
1965
Number
Revenue
1966
Number
Revenue
1967
Number
Revenue
1968
Number
Revenue
1969
Number
Revenue
Salmon cannery	
Herring cannery...	
Herring reduction	
Tierced salmon	
Fish cold storage	
Fish-processing	
Shellfish cannery	
Tuna-fish cannery	
Fish-offal reduction _
Fish-liver reduction.
Whale reduction	
Herring dry-saltery...
Fish-buyers-
Pickled-herring plant	
Province  of  British Columbia receipts —
Custom canneries.
Aquatic-plant harvesting ..
Oyster-picking permits	
Aquatic-plant processing-
Totals	
22
12
5
21
54
9
3
9
3
1
404
548
$4,400
1,200
500
2,100
54
9
3
9
3
100
10,100
72
23
19
59
11
3
9
3
1
1
400
1
10
3
26
19
$4,600
900
400
1,900
59
11
3
9
3
100
100
10,000
100
363
75
260
190
22
3
19
86
11
1
9
1
1
387
145
4
44
189
2
$18,550
601
$19,073
932
$4,400
800
300
1,900
86
11
1
9
1
100
9,675
2,375
100
440
1,890
20
$22,108
21
1
3
19
65
5
1
9
363
1
97
5
44
133
3
$8,400
400
300
3,275
2,130
500
100
450
18,125
25
2,278
125
1,330
600
15
3
21
61
7
2
5
295
2
1,048
4
31
103
3
$6,000
300
3,325
2,300
700
200
250
14,750
50
4,001
100
1,550
1,030
600
770    | $38,038
1,600 | $35,156
Table II.—Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia,
1964 to 1968, Inclusive
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
Salmon-
Herring..
Halibut-
Crabs and shrimps-
Lingcod	
Grey cod	
Oysters	
Sole	
Black cod-
Clams	
Miscellaneous-
Totals	
$63,103,000
11,561,000
8,056,000
1,751,000
549,000
1,160,000
647,000
662,000
273,000
190,000
4,110,000
$92,117,000
$52,071,000
11,752,000
10,191,000
1,740,000
723,000
1,800,000
708,000
661,000
321,000
296,000
4,197,000
$84,475,000
$86,572,000
8,305,000
10,741,000
2,079,000
797,000
1,837,000
964,000
1,126,000
451,000
383,000
4,704,000
$79,747,000
2,638,000
7,353,000
2,469,000
801,000
972,000
765,000
1,023,000
347,000
421,000
3,117,000
$117,984,000 I $96,536,000
$99,956,000
331,000
8,385,000
2,378,000
995,000
1,122,000
743,000
1,183,000
349,000
222,000
3,591,000
$119,255,000
 CC 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1964 to 1968, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned
(48-pound cases.)
1964
Area
Species
Districts
Nos. 1 and 3
District
No. 2
Total
200,203
1,823
9531
1,906
438
36,259
90,665
140,4751
76,990
143,1551
777
2,0761
1,5911
824
343,3581
2,600
3,030
3,4971
1,262
36,259
77,8081
323,631
155,7311
168,4731
Pink                    	
464,1061
232,7211
549,713
705,5951
1,255,3081
1965
Species
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
Total
Sockeye	
Red spring	
Pink spring-—
White spring..
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho	
Pink	
Chum..
Totals..
165,0951
4,682
1,5671
5,998
3371
19,522
172,7481
121,543
17,161
80,702
1,718
3,003}
1,9221
506
1,778
101,235
166,382
48,0541
508,655
405,3011
245,7971
6,400
4,571
7,9201
8431
21,300
273,9831
287,925
65,2151
913,9561
1966
Sockeye 	
Red spring	
Pink spring—
White spring .
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho	
Pink	
Chum.
Totals-
287,3191
4,2541
1,583
2,054
4571
20,989
136,7501
252,773
36,078
742,259
120,6291
1,7431
2,905
2,045
2,0221
98
123,785}
699,021
124,706
1,076,956
407,949
5,998
4,488
4,099
2,480
21,087
260,536
951,794
160,784
1,819,215
1967
Sockeye	
Red spring	
Pink spring—
White spring _
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho	
Pink	
Chum.
Totals..
355,6831
3,445}
1,843
1,988
322
7,799
87,892
503,470
20,587}
50,986
146,672
73,435
558,891}
5,849}
5,147
3,683
1,296
7,799
138,878
650,142
94,0221
983,030}
482,678        |     1,465,708}
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1969
CC 81
Table III.—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1964 to 1968, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned—Continued
(48-pound cases.)
1968
Species
Area
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
Total
Sockeye	
Red spring	
Pink spring	
White spring-
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho 	
Pink	
Chum.
398,438
852}
1,471
823}
263
10,389
92,619
227,893}
79,225
212,573
802}
2,332}
1,134
670
84,586}
441,453
191,462}
611,011
1,655
3,803}
1,957}
933
10,389
177,205}
669,346}
270,6871
Totals..
811,974} 935,014 1,746,988}
  //
jm    yC
f |:|: j; j » <
Exterior of the oyster-depuration plant at Ladysmith, a joint Federal-Provincial pilot
project.   Interior is seen below.
 Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1970
2,030-270-1859

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