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REPORT of the FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1969 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1970

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister J. S. Stokes, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of the
FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1969
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1970
  Victoria, British Columbia, March, 1970.
To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C., O.B.E., Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I respectfully submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of the
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for 1969.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
 The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, British Columbia.
Sir,—This is the Annual Report of the Forest Service for 1969.
J. S. STOKES,
Deputy Minister of Forests.
 )ur Forest Resources.
P*
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  CONTENTS
1. Chief Forester's Report..
Paoe
. 11
2. Inventory Division-
Highlights	
1969 Progress.
DevelopmentS-
3. Research Division...
.... 13
.... 13
.... 13
.... 15
  17
Tree Improvement Studies  17
Data Processing  18
Seedling Physiology Studies  18
Soil Classification  18
Ecology  19
Canada Land Inventory  19
Silviculture  19
Vancouver Forest District  19
Prince Rupert Forest District  19
Prince George Forest District  20
Kamloops Forest District  20
Nelson Forest District  20
4. Reforestation Division.
Forest Nurseries—
  21
  21
Improvements  21
Forest Tree Seed  21
Planting  22
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  23
Co-operation    24
Interdepartmental Forestry and Corrections Camp Programme  24
5. Information Division  27
    27
  27
  28
  28
  28
  28
Photography	
Motion Pictures-
Library	
Film Library	
Displays	
Education	
Forest Service Museum  28
Signs  28
Advertising  28
7
 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
6. Management Division.
Page
. 29
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  29
Stumpage Adjustments  30
Sustained-yield Programme-
Certified Tree Farms	
Tree-farm Licences	
Silviculture	
Scaling	
30
31
31
31
31
Flood Basins  32
Peace River  32
Mica  32
Libby  32
7. Grazing Division..
33
General Conditions  33
Range  33
Hay  33
Markets and Prices  33
Range and Pasture Management  33
Range Surveys  34
  34
Range and Pasture Improvements.
Co-operation (with other agencies)    35
Administration  35
Grazing Permits  3 5
Grazing Fees  35
Control and Enforcement  35
8. Engineering Division  37
Engineering Surveys  37
Design  37
Management Engineering Section  37
Construction Section  37
Building and Marine Services  37
Mechanical Section  38
Forest Service Maintenance Depot  38
Radio Section  39
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969 9
Page
9. Protection Division  41
Weather  41
Fires  41
Occurrence and Causes  41
Cost of Fire-fighting  41
Damage  41
Fire-suppression Crews  41
Aircraft  42
Roads and Trails  42
Slash Disposal  42
Snag Disposal—Vancouver Forest District  42
Fire-law Enforcement  43
Forest-use Restrictions  43
Suspension of Campfire Permits  43
Protection Planning and Research  43
Fire Statistics  43
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks  43
Insect Survey and Control  43
Research Projects  44
10. Training-school-
Basic Courses (of 1969).
45
45
Extra Courses and Functions  45
Construction  46
11. Accounting Division-
Fiscal	
47
47
Administration  47
12. Personnel Division-
49
Communications and Training  49
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  49
Classifications, Salaries, and Working Conditions  50
13. Personnel Directory, 1969    53
14. Appendix—Detailed Statements to Supplement the Report of the Forest
Service    55
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1969
CHIEF FORESTER'S REPORT
For the British Columbia Forest Service, 1969 was a significant year for several
reasons. The year presented new harvest and production records; an expanded
programme of close utilization of forest resources, particularly in the Interior; and
some streamlining of general policy.
The year also marked the start of a new era for the Forest Service—direct
involvement with programmes involving multiple use of (Crown) wooded land.
Some highlights:—
• The estimated net value of forest industry products was $1,107,900,000, an
increase of 5 per cent over 1968. The pulp, paper, and allied industries'
production was up 10 per cent over the previous year.
• The 1969 timber harvest of 1,890,000,000 cubic feet is the highest on
record, exceeding last year's production by about 190,000,000 cubic feet.
• Forest Service revenue from all sources was $89,479,300, an increase of
66.2 per cent over the previous year.
• Weight-scaling of logs in the Interior continued to increase, with this
measurement method applied to 59 per cent of the 1969 harvest. Weight-
scaling also commenced on the Coast and it is anticipated this method of
sample scaling will continue to increase in both Interior and Coast regions.
• About 23,740,000 board feet of commercially valuable drift logs were salvaged, a drop of almost 5,000,000 f.b.m. from 1968.
• Log exports accounted for 155.6 million board feet—1.4 per cent of the
1969 total cut; compared with 1.8 per cent the previous year. Of this total,
approximately 63.9 million board feet came from Crown grants with export
privileges, and nearly 91.7 million board feet deemed surplus or unsuitable
for the requirements of industry.
• A new advisory committee was established to assist in the control of chip
exports, to ensure British Columbia pulp-mills receive an adequate supply.
During 1969, 241,715 units of chips were exported—4 per cent of the total
production.
• During 1969 there were 2,318 forest fires in British Columbia, 271 more
than in 1968. They burned approximately 407,000 acres, compared with
34,000 in 1968; and timber damage totalled $7,400,000. The 1968 damage was $6,800,000. Direct costs of fighting the fires totalled $3,700,000,
compared with $790,000 in 1968.
• During the year, 25,733,800 seedlings were planted throughout the Province by the Forest Service and by industry, with all young trees provided by
Forest Service nurseries. For the first time, planting on Interior Crown
lands exceeded such work in the Coast region. It is still hoped to meet a
planned production and planting schedule of 75,000,000 trees by 1975.
• Information to unit standard is now available on 84,000,000 acres of established public sustained-yield units, and it's planned to have similar information available for all such new units proposed for northern extremities of the
Province by 1975.
11
 12 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
• Clearing operations for navigation channels and harbour-sites were started
in the Mica Dam pondage area, and clean-up work continued on Lake
Williston. Clearing also started on the Canadian section of the Libby Dam
pondage area.
• Increased production in practically all avenues of public communication
was attained by the Information Division—formerly known as the Public
Information and Education Division.
• Its public relations programme was aimed at both internal and external
audiences; and the CTV television network used three Forest Service
presentations.
• During 1969 the Forest Service adopted a new symbol featuring a single
tree on an outline of the Province.
• The Forest Service assisted the Cowichan Valley Forest Museum Society
in development and land expansion of a forest museum (near Duncan, on
Vancouver Island) which features the past, present, and future of the
forest industry.
• The year marked the 50th anniversary of Crown range administration by
the Forest Service.
• On July 31, F. S. McKinnon retired as Deputy Minister of Forests, and
was succeeded by J. S. Stokes.
• Permanent force personnel with the Forest Service at the end of the year
totalled 906.
• Forty-eight men graduated from two basic courses conducted by the Forest
Service training-school at " Green Timbers " in Surrey.
 inventor
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1969
13
INVENTORY DIVISION
HIGHLIGHTS
Surveys on public sustained-yield units (P.S.Y.U.) continued throughout 1969,
and information to unit standard is now available for 84,000,000 acres. All
established public sustained-yield units, and the proposed northern units, should be
surveyed to unit standard by 1975.
Allowable annual cuts for units surveyed in 1968 were calculated to show the
wood available at close utilization under varying conditions—(1) when no one
(past); (2) a portion (present); and (3) all (future) are operating to close
utilization standard.
Forest Inventory Statistics of British Columbia was published and provided
volumes (by unit) to two levels of utilization, areas by cover class, mean annual
increments, rotations, allowable cuts, and other related information. This report
replaces the following previous forest inventory reports of British Columbia: Forests
of British Columbia, by H. N. Whitford and R. D. Craig, 1918; The Forest Resources of British Columbia, by F. D. Mulholland, 1937; and Continuous Forest
Inventory of British Columbia, by H. M. Pogue, 1957.
The latest report was compiled from available individual unit standard surveys
and it is no longer necessary to obtain a unit report for units already completed to a
unit standard. It is planned to revise the statistical report every few years rather
than wait for completion of the Province-wide survey.
1969 PROGRESS
Classification and sampling of mature and immature stands, derivation of loss
factors, and determination of the growth and yield of immature stands continued
throughout 1969.
The division also completed field work to unit standard on nine public sustained-yield units, one proposed public sustained-yield unit, and'the Kyuquot portion
of the Kingcome P.S.Y.U. A total of 13,477,541 acres was brought to unit standard.
Table A.—1969 Field Work
Unit Standard Inventory
Public Sustained-yield   Unit
Maps
Classified
Number of Samples
Total
Estimated
Acreage
Immature
Mature
31
25
30
160
11
104
21
91
44
129
23
89
36
41
294
1
136
139
41
153
154
108
257
98
75
165
19
195
48
193
212
220
40
661,259
410,321
485,521
4,052,925
101,979
2,253,063
319,654
1,018,628
978,315
Wapiti
2,868,564
327,312
Totals	
669
1,192
1,522
13,477,541
Loss Factors
Eagle-
Longworth-
Robson	
Spallumcheen..
Totals-
13
10
3
2
281
i Felled samples.
 14
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table A.—1969 Field Work—Continued
Growth and Yield
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Maps
Classified
Number of Samples
Total
Estimated
Acreage
Immature
Mature
982
26
17
	
Totals               _   .
1413
2 Twenty-three samples were in plantations.
3 Permanent samples.
A private agency established an additional 92 samples in co-operation with the
Division, which compiled the agency samples in return for using them in the Forest
Service programme. While private samples may not apply to stands in areas of
current field work, they provide supplementary information on similar forest types
in public sustained-yield units.
Several tracked " swamp " vehicles and large-wheel bush bikes were used on
seismic lines in the Fontas and Wapiti P.S.Y.U.s.
The Division completed compilation of all 1968 units in Table B by December,
1969, and reports were released.
Table B.—Production of Final Forest-cover Maps for 1968 Projects
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Number
of Maps1
Forest and Non-forest Area in Acres
Volume in
M Cu. Ft.
Crown
Alienated
Total
for Mature
Crown Area
Adams  	
35
224
67
118
20
58
105
38
2
584,686
4,751,019
805,980
2,287,243
295,057
875,448
1,966,175
149,904
35,819
6,830
39,778
437,452
90,312
66,655
152,260
57,132
129,831
591,516
4,790,797
1,243,432
2,377,555
361,712
1,027,708
2,023,307
279,735
35,819
946,3772
1,470,4832
619,1362
2,353,3802
Niskonlith   	
342,0672
1,726,9293
6,787,9522
112,9512
58,4753
Totals	
667
11,751,331
980,250
12,731,581
14,417,750
1 With exception of two Tzeo River maps, at 40 chains, all others are at scale of 1 inch=20 chains.
2 Volume at 7.1"+d.b.h. close utilization less decay.
3 Volume at 9.1"-j-d.b.h. close utilization less decay.
Decay studies continued in the hemlock-cedar wet belt. Compilation of previous field work has produced local loss factors for large inventories or for timber
sale cruising. These are shown by forest district, public sustained-yield unit, and
species.
Vancouver—
Dewdney—hemlock, balsam, Douglas fir, western red cedar.
Nootka—hemlock.
Soo—hemlock, balsam, Douglas fir, western red cedar.
Prince Rupert—
Babine, Morice, Smithers—spruce, hemlock.
Bell-Irving—hemlock.
Skeena (Hazelton portion)—hemlock, red cedar.
 PUBLIC SUSTAINED YIELD UNITS (P.S.Y.U.'s)
PUBLIC SUSTAINED YIELD UNITS
P.S.Y.U. 's | ^Inside Pulpwood Harvesting Areas
P.R
.A.
NO.
1
9.
Big Valley
43.
Naver
71.
Stuart Lake
IS.
Carp
44.
Nechako
77.
Westlake
20.
Crooked River
32.
Parsnip
79.
Willow River
NO.
2
1.
Adams
45.
Nehalllston
59.
Rait
5.
Barriere
46.
Nicola
63.
Salmon Arm
6.
Barton Hill
47.
Nlskonlith
64.
Shuswap
11.
Botanie
49.
North Thompson
70.
Spallumcheen
23.
Eagle
NO.
3
12.
Bowron
39.
Monkman
61.
Robson
37,
Longworth
55.
Purden
NO.
4
4.
Babine
40.
Morlce
68.
Smithers
13.
Burns Lake
NO.
S
17.
Cottonwood
42.
Narcosli
58.
Quesnel Lake
NO.
7
S3.
Peace
69.
Takla
P.S.Y.U.
■b i"7~]°ut;
side Pulpwood Harvesting
Areas
2.
Arrowhead
26.
Finlay
56.
Quadra
3.
Ashnola
29.
Gran by
57.
Queen Charlotte
7.
Bell-Irving
30.
Hecate
60.
Rivers Inlet
8.
Big Bar
32.
Kettle
62.
Salmo
10.
Blueberry
33.
Kinbasket
65.
Similkameen
14.
Canoe
34.
Kingcome
66.
Skeena
16.
Chilko
35.
Lac la Hache
67.
Slocan
18.
Cranbrook
36.
Lardeau
69.
Soo
19.
Creston
38.
Moberly
72.
Stum
21.
Dean
41.
Nakusp
74.
Upper Kootenay
22.
Dewdney
48.
Nootka
75.
Vancouver
24.
Edgewood
50.
Okanagan
76.
Wapiti
25.
Fernie
51.
Ootsa
78.
80.
81.
Williams Lake
Windermere
Yalakom
SPECIAL SALE AREAS
27. Fort St. James (0-I-C 1888/6S)
28. Furry Creek (0-I-C 3909/67)
31. Kamloops Region (0-I-C 1826/66)
54. Prince George (0-I-C 2811/62)
TREE FARM LICENCES
T.F.L.
No.
21. MacMillan, Bloedel Industries Ltd.
22. British Columbia Forest Products
Limited
23. Celgar Limited
24. Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
25. Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
26. The Corporation of the District of
Mission
27. British Columbia Forest Products
Limited
12. Bendickson Logging Ltd. 30. Sinclair Spruce Lumber Company Ltd.
13. Calloway Lumber Company Ltd.       32. Vernon Box & Pine Lumber Co. Ltd.
14. Crestbrook Forest Industries Ltd.   33. Shuswap Timbers Ltd.
15. Oliver Sawmills Limited 35. B.C. Interior Sawmills Ltd.
16. Pondosa Pine Lumber Company. Ltd.    36. F. & R. Logging Co. Ltd.
17. British Columbia Forest Products Ltd. 37. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.
18. Clearwater Timber Products Ltd.     38. Empire Mills Limited
19. Tahsis Company. Ltd. 39. MacMillan, Bloedel Limited
20. MacMillan, Bloedel Industries Ltd.   40. Skeena Kraft Limited
41, Eurocan Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd.
MAJOR PARKS
STATUS OF SUSTAINED-YIELD FORESTRY PROGRAMME
AS AT DECEMBER 31, 1969
     REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
17
RESEARCH DIVISION
A detailed report on the research programme for 1969 will appear in the
annual Forest Research Review compiled at the end of the fiscal year.
TREE IMPROVEMENT STUDIES
At the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station, the preparation of land for clone-
bank use continues, with 30 additional acres being cleared.
A fourth series of intraspecific crosses of Douglas fir were established on two
test-sites on Vancouver Island. A total of 4,533 seedlings was planted in the
spring. Survival on completion of the first growing season was 98 per cent. Measurements of current growth and total height were taken on the 12 test-sites established in 1966 and 1967. In spite of browsing and disease, survival and growth
are satisfactory.
There were not sufficient male and female strobili in the breeding arboretum at
Cowichan Lake for any pollinations to be made. A further 56 provenances of
Douglas fir from Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and British Columbia were established
in the arboretum.
A paper was given at the Second World Consultation on Forest Tree Breeding
held in Washington, D.C.
In a provenance study of coastal Douglas fir, three additional test-sites were
established over a broad range of climate. A total of 80 acres has now been
planted in this project. Ten additional test-sites were selected and prepared for
planting in the spring of 1970.
In a species trial, Sitka spruce and western hemlock performed better, in terms
of both survival and height growth, than all other species tested. Performance of
western red cedar and 10 Douglas fir provenances was poor, due primarily to heavy
browsing by deer.
Use of Arcotal as a deer repellent appears promising from preliminary tests.
The research nursery and greenhouse was completed at the Red Rock Nursery
and Research Centre near Prince George. A start has been made in the preparation
of a clone-bank area.
Progress of the Interior spruce improvement programme proceeded satisfactorily in 1969—930 scions from 176 selected trees were grafted onto potted spruce
rootstock in April, of which 634 (68 per cent) were still alive in September.
Wind-pollinated seed from all selected trees were spring-sown in the research
nursery. The seedlings are growing well and will be used for a small-scale progeny
trial when they become plantable.
During the summer, 132 additional trees were selected in the East Kootenay
region of the Nelson Forest District. Scions were collected in the fall from each and
grafted in the greenhouse in November.   A total of 378 grafts were made.
Twenty-six lots of seed, representing 12 different species of spruce, were sown
in flats last winter and grew well during the summer. They will be outplanted in
1971 in our northern picetum at Red Rock.
Lodgepole pine, of 144 provenances and 147 wind-pollinated families, was
sown in research nurseries at Cowichan Lake and Red Rock. Detailed assessments
of morphology and growth behaviour were made and striking differences are already
apparent.   A breeding arboretum at Red Rock wil contain material selected from
 18 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1969
these sowings, together with selections from supplementary sowings of 645 half-sib
families.
The form and structure of cones and needles from field collections are being
examined in the laboratory to determine the pattern of variation in wild populations.
DATA PROCESSING
Almost all research data are processed through the computing facilities of the
Data Processing Centre, using our statistical programmes.
Most of our field and laboratory data are directly recorded onto 80-column
recording forms, eleminating copying errors and extra work.
Computer programmes have been developed to plot graphs, response surfaces,
and perspective projections, offering visual interpretation to some experimental
results.
The process of random allocation of experimental units has been simplified by
a computer-generated randomization process.
An objective assessment of plant ecological samples is achieved by using a computer programme that divides samples into groups of similar composition.
The Kamloops and Prince Rupert Forest Districts have completed coding data
required for stumpage-adjustment programmes. The data have been forwarded to
Vancouver, punched on cards, and added to the disk file records. Modifications
were made to programmes to cater to local variations in methods, and all adjustments are now done in Vancouver.
Since early 1969 all Prince Rupert Coast tallies have been computed in Vancouver and programmes have been modified to rate and print accounts for the Prince
Rupert Forest District.
Assistance has been given the Management Division in investigating and documenting the present system of handling weight-scaling as a first stage in organizing
computer programmes.
SEEDLING PHYSIOLOGY STUDIES
Work on mineral nutrition of Douglas fir and Sitka spruce has resulted in the
establishment of tissue N, P, and K limits of 1-0 nursery stock necessary for satisfactory growth. It was noted satisfactory growth of a species may occur when tissue
nutrient concentrations vary between quite wide limits. Evidence was obtained to
show this may be partly due to inherent differences in mineral nutrient concentration
related to provenance.
Controlled environment work confirms that short photoperiods and cool nights
hasten development of frost hardiness in Douglas fir seedlings. On the other hand,
subjecting seedlings to moisture stress does not increase frost hardiness and, under
short photoperiods, reduced water supply may even retard hardiness development.
SOIL CLASSIFICATION
It has been previously reported a soil classification system was developed with
the intent to use it for interpreting tree response to various management practices.
A study has been completed of two industrial fertilizer experiments. In one case
different soils showed different growth response to varying amounts of the same
fertilizer. In the second case it was impossible to segregate a response to urea because of technical problems associated with variable stand conditions.
A new study was initiated with industrial co-operation in which the major soils
of the San Juan valley, Vancouver Island, were mapped. An attempt will be made
to interpret the soils for management and silvicultural purposes.
 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
19
ECOLOGY
A new method of analysing association tables of vegetation data by a computer
programme is being tested. If successful, the method will simplify site classification
by vegetation.
CANADA LAND INVENTORY
The Research Division continues to be associated with several Provincial and
Federal organizations in the British Columbia programme of the Canada Land Inventory by participating in the Intersector Analysis Committee. A field project was
undertaken to assess the role of aspen for rating the capability for forestry in northern areas characterized by an absence of coniferous species.
SILVICULTURE
Vancouver
The study of Douglas fir planting stock on high-site lands subject to dense plant
cover (initiated in 1962) was completed. Although no brush competition developed, the study showed large stock and transplant stock grew faster and reached a
greater total height than did the small stock and 2-0 stock. An experiment, established in the Say ward Forest in 1948 to compare large and small stock was re-
measured to support or refute the results reported above and provide data for
economic analysis.
A 10-year study of seedfall of western hemlock, western red cedar, and amab-
ilis fir on the West Coast of Vancouver Island was terminated. It showed that seed
crops, germinative capacity, and time of seedfall were all irregular. Heavy crops
were recorded in 1959/60, 1966/67, and 1968/69. In general, germinative capacity varied in direct proportion to the size of the seed crop, and the time of hemlock
seedfall was much more clearly definable than cedar.
The second in a series of plots comparing bare-root and mudpack seedlings was
established at three locations on the coastal Mainland. Planting was carried out at
regular intervals throughout the spring, summer, and fall. Preliminary results from
the 1968 test indicate mudpack seedlings have no advantage in terms of survival,
regardless of time of planting.
The schedule of spacing and thinning, commenced in 1952 and 1959 in two
13-year-old Douglas fir plantations, was continued at Cowichan Lake and Campbell
River. Twenty-five experimental plots were thinned and 47 remeasured. The plot
management is providing samples of different levels of growing stock which have
formed as the results of various combinations of early, delayed, single, or repeated
thinnings. The research is giving new knowledge of the relative values and relationships of height/diameter breast height from the excessive densities of 2,000 or 3,000
trees per acre to that of free-growing individuals (q.v., Research Review, 1969, p.
93).
Prince Rupert
Two new research projects were initiated. The major study was a Province-
wide co-ordinated investigation of container, bare-root, and mudpack planting of
lodgepole pine and Interior white spruce. The spruce replications are established
near Chapman Lake, while the pine blocks are located south of Burns Lake.
The second project compares spring-lifted, cold-stored lodgepole pine seedlings,
when planted at different periods during the summer season. Test areas are located
near Hazelton and Chapman Lake.
 20 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
Prince George
Study of the feasibility of planting white spruce throughout the growing season
was continued on a high site near McLeod Lake north of Prince George. Despite
a dry May and June, 1969 survival of seedlings planted in 1968 remained above 80
per cent for all plantings. The second annual replication was established during the
summer of 1969, and assessment in autumn indicated the high level of survival with
freshly lifted bare-root stock can be achieved provided stock is handled with reasonable care. Planting will be continued during the summer of 1970. Early results
indicate it may be practical to plant 2-0 bare-root white spruce throughout most of
the summer in fresh to moist sites in the central Interior.
Kamloops
A new rehabilitation study in overmature decadent cedar-hemlock stands was
started near Mabel Lake, where approximately 600 acres were downed and are
ready for burning in 1970.
Plantings of 2-0 and 2-1 bare-root stock and 2-0 stock with roots encased in
mudpacks were made at two-week intervals between mid-May and early August in
the Southern Interior. These were to determine whether planting of stock with roots
protected by mudpacks might be a method of extending the normal spring planting
season. These studies showed that, regardless of the drought conditions and date of
planting, survival of both Engelmann spruce and Douglas fir bare-root stock was
better than that for mudpacked stock The failure of mudpacked stock to respond
as expected may have been partially due to method of storage and to the mudpacking
operation.
Nelson
The rehabilitation study in overmature decade stands of cedar and hemlock
continued.   In the Blaeberry valley, planting has commenced.
A second annual replication of a study in extending the planting season in the
Engelmann spruce zone saw plantations established at Monk, Rodd, and Cedar
creeks at intervals during the entire snow-free period.
Preliminary results of a comparison of mudpack and bare-root spruce and fir
seedlings indicate that mudpack seedlings have a poorer survival and are selectively
preferred by rabbits. The poorer survival of the mudpacks may be due to storage
conditions.
 division
  REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
21
REFORESTATION DIVISION
FOREST NURSERIES
Adverse weather conditions affected all phases of nursery operations early in
in 1969, delaying lifting, sowing, and transplanting. Snow arrived before low
temperatures, however, and nursery stock was protected. Winter losses were light,
except for Sitka spruce seed beds killed by frost heaving. A late spring resulted in
1,000,000 trees being heeled-in and held over for fall planting.
Rainfall during the growing season was light, and this, coupled with late
sowing, created a critical period for germination. As a result, inventories of 1-0
stock indicate a 17-per-cent reduction with western hemlock and coastal-sown
spruce inventories about 50 per cent. It is unlikely the planned production of 54.5
million trees will be achieved in 1971.
Except for the Telkwa Nursery, all seed was drill-sown in 1969. A total of
663,178 lineal feet of seed bed (13,264 beds) was sown, including 44,570 lineal
feet sown in the fall of 1968. An additional 87,050 lineal feet of bed was sown
in the fall of 1969.
Forest Service nurseries shipped 28,520,516 trees in 1969. Approximately
67 per cent of these were coastal Douglas fir, an increase of about 8,000,000 trees
over 1968.
At the Surrey Nursery, first sowings were made in 1969, but late spring and
other problems produced limited success.
A serious weed and root-disease problem was encountered at the Duncan
Nursery.
Vandalism occurred at several nurseries, the most serious at Surrey Nursery.
IMPROVEMENTS
Development continues in the nursery programme with sites and facilities being
prepared for the annual production of 75,000,000 trees by 1975.
Most of this work is under way at new nursery-sites located at Red Rock,
Chilliwack, Surrey, and Campbell River, where " instant" nurseries are being
created.
New cold-storage facilities at Red Rock, Chilliwack, Campbell River, and
Rayleigh Nurseries will have a combined storage capacity of about 12,000,000
seedlings. A second unit with a capacity of 3,000,000 trees was started at Red
Rock.
At Campbell River, Red Rock, and Surrey approximately 90 acres were cleared
for seed bed and transplant area, and an additional 35 acres were ploughed at the
Surrey Nursery.
At Chilliwack, fencing, drains, and power-lines were installed; and at Campbell River irrigation mains and a water system were completed. At older nurseries
the improvement programme continued at a reduced rate.
FOREST TREE SEED
No major collectable crops were reported in 1969. Approximately 3,800
bushels of lodgepole pine were harvested.
Extraction of the 11,931 bushels harvested by the Forest Service in 1968 was
completed during 1969 and provided 2,264.400 kilograms of seed. An additional
755.862 kilograms were delivered to storage by industry.
J
 22
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
Seed yield from the 1968 collection was:—
Kilograms of Seed Extracted in 1969
Forest District
Douglas
Fir
Sitka
Spruce
Interior
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Other
Species
Total
66.865
124.685
175.760
405.640
413.060
1,186.010
547.157
6.510
45.330
645.380
43.565
228.255
969.040
120.245
73.375
35.985
47.035
9.570
253.035
0.835
831.545
449.205
35.985
79.245
15.925
16.760
8.900
657.240
56.605
0.315
2,264.400
755.862
At the Campbell River Seed Orchard, grafted stock losses were replaced with
half-sib seedlings. Approximately 7,000 half-sib seedlings were transplanted at
Duncan for replacement stock at Campbell River, stock for a Mainland high-elevation orchard, and stock for a North Coast orchard.
Sixty thousand container-grown seedlings (primarily Douglas fir) from 470
genetic crosses were produced at the Duncan container nursery for co-operators on
the Tree Improvement Board.
Seed handled at the Duncan seed centre for sowing in 1969 amounted to
1,156.622 kilograms (2,545 pounds).
Kilograms of Seed Sown in 1969
Coast
Douglas
Fir
Interior
Douglas
Fir
Western
Hemlock
Sitka
Spruce
Interior
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Other
Species
Total
Spring- 	
Fall	
1          1          !
636.864    1    64.676    j    25.888    j    33.419
57.538    |       1.333    !      5.051            5.972
160.835
79.575
30.603
54.868
	
1,007.153
149.469
Total
694.402     [     66.009
i
30.939    |    39.391
1
240.410
30.603
54.868    |     1,156.622
1
The seed centre conducted 856 seed tests during 1969.
The tree-seed inventory on December 31, 1969, was 16,550.031 kilograms
(almost 19 tons). Critical seed shortages exist in the Prince Rupert and Kamloops
Forest Districts and at higher elevations in the Vancouver Forest District.
PLANTING
Planting reached a new high in 1969, and despite an extended planting season,
it was necessary to heel-in and store approximately 3,000,000 trees planned for
planting during 1969.
Of the 25,733,800 trees planted on 66,979 acres, the Forest Service planted
9,598,900 trees (37 per cent) on 22,188 acres. Crown planting in the Interior
almost doubled 1968 and for the first time exceeded Crown planting on the Coast.
(See Summary of Planting, Table 22 in the Appendix.)
On the Coast, because of inclement weather, approximately 580,000 trees
allocated for spring planting were heeled-in and carried over to the fall. In the
Vancouver Forest District, 10 contracts totalling 917,000 trees were issued.
Production planting trials with mudpack stock in the Vancouver District continued in 1969 and some 631,000 mudded trees were planted in 13 locations.
Performance of mudpacked seedlings still varies according to planting conditions
 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
23
and further trials are necessary to properly evaluate this type of stock. Effects of
late lifting are a major factor in survival of this stock.
In the Interior districts, high temperatures and low rainfall during May and
June reduced the survival and initial growth of plantations established during the
spring. However, cool, moist weather late in the growing season offset this effect
and fall planting areas were in prime condition.
Interior planting on Crown Lands reached a record of more than 5,000,000
trees in 1969. Planting contracts, issued for the first time in the Interior, totalled
over 900,000 trees. All contracts were successfully completed and an additional
11 contracts were advertised for the spring of 1970.
Planting-out trials with containerized seedlings continued in 1969 with nearly
50,000 plants set out in six locations of the Vancouver District over a period of
seven months. These trials are to determine the survival of this stock type in
relation to bare-root and mudpack seedlings when planted at different periods
during the frost-free season. Their application to high-elevation planting areas is
of particular interest.
Detailed records of planting conditions and seedling performance are kept
up-to-date by constant plot re-examination. General observations to date are
encouraging and indicate containerized seedlings may be successful in extending
the planting season. The quality and size of the containerized seedlings are significant factors of survival and it is probable " plugs " (contents of the container)
planted without the container may be even more successful. Formal trials with
containers and mudpacks were initiated in all Interior districts to determine the
extent and significance of differences related to time of planting and ground conditions. This technique of raising planting stock opens up an extensive field of
investigation. Present trials involve considerable time in nursery production, out-
planting, assessment work, and evaluation of results.
In the 1969 planting programme, field crews established 7,388 semi-permanent
survival sample plots, and an additional 9,033 plots established in earlier plantations
were re-examined.
In co-operation with the Research Division, a direct seeding project was conducted early in 1969 in the Cedarflat Creek drainage area, where 600 acres of
burned cutover land were seeded with 450 pounds of treated Douglas fir seed.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
With emphasis on the planting of current not-satisfactorily restocked lands
and recently denuded areas, the need for formal regeneration surveys has diminished.
During 1969, crews in the Vancouver District examined 22,979 acres of current logging and prepared prescriptions for 60 per cent of this area—about 13,800
acres. In addition, 13,000 acres of backlog area were examined and of this, 8,137
acres (62.2 per cent) required planting, including 700 acres requiring site preparation prior to planting.
In the Prince George District, regeneration studies were conducted on machine-scarified areas before or after logging. A total of 25,135 acres were examined,
and 2,674 acres were not satisfactorily stocked. Further site preparation is needed
on 806 acres, while 580 acres are readily plantable. The balance of the understocked area is unplantable. About 90 per cent of these scarified areas are adequately restocked and this reflects the value of recent seed crops in this district.
Survey crews in the Nelson District examined 29,744 acres in 1969 and found
12,620 acres (42.5 per cent) needed restocking. Of this area, 3,510 acres require
site preparation, while 4,400 acres are readily plantable.
 24 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
Regeneration studies were made on 5,416 acres in the Prince Rupert District,
and of the understocked 1,962 acres (36 per cent), 1,158 acres require site
preparation before planting.
All districts are reviewing existing backlog and current areas to determine
future reforestation requirements.
CO-OPERATION
Divisional personnel co-operated with the Canada Department of Fisheries and
Forestry in developing a container seedling system. A small pilot nursery was
established at Duncan to produce container seedlings for the 1969/70 field trials.
Considerable progress was made in the production of these plants with regard to
facilities required and in determining suitable nutrient schedules for incorporation
in irrigation procedures.
Other Forest Service divisions have helped the reforestation programme.
Training of field staff in the districts has contributed considerably to a spirit of
co-operation, which in turn has increased nursery production.
Forest nurseries are becoming increasingly popular with the public, and
nurserymen are now scheduling tours.
Training instruction continued at the University of British Columbia and at
the Forest Service Training-school.
INTERDEPARTMENTAL FORESTRY AND CORRECTIONS
CAMP PROGRAMME
Severe weather early in 1969 affected the work programme, but camps operated at near capacity and by the end of the year most projects were on schedule.
Training of corrections officers determines the success of this co-operative
programme; and classes in fire suppression and reforestation again proved beneficial. For the first time, Forest Service personnel instructed inmates in log-scaling
and four candidates received scaling licences.
Nursery work occupied most man-days, but the highlights of the year were
the achievements of inmate fire-suppression crews which helped fight 23 fires. The
largest was the " Rock " fire near Wellbore Channel, where about 40 inmates
worked on initial action and mopping-up operations.
Inmate crews continued their major role in development of new nurseries in
the Chilliwack Valley, Campbell River, Alouette River, and Red Rock areas. Their
work embraced clearing, burning, fencing, installation of irrigation and drainage
systems, soil preparation, and the construction of equipment and storage sheds.
Inmates were involved in nursery production and they transplanted nearly 1,000,000
seedlings and lifted almost 3,000,000 trees for shipping to planting projects.
Priority was given to nursery work and not all camps handled field planting.
Inmate crews planted 128,000 trees on 220 acres during 1969.
Approximately 200 bushels of lodgepole pine cones were collected by men
from the Hutda Lake and Clearwater camps.
Correction camp crews maintained and improved many miles of roads and
trails in the Chilliwack, Blue Mountain, and Sayward Forests. More than 6 miles
of road were improved in the Naver Forest by a crew from Prince George Regional
Gaol.
Recovery of usable wood from river jams, lakeshore rehabilitations, blowdown,
and right-of-way cleanup enabled camp sawmills to produce more than 500,000
board feet of lumber.   This was used for camp buildings and for the construction
 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
25
of buildings and bridges. Shakes, shake-bolts, fence-posts, stakes, and slab wood
for camp use were also produced at the inmates' camps.
Crews were also active on other projects, such as campground servicing and
cleanup, maintenance work at Ranger Stations, clearing brush for experimental
planting, and small construction projects. One crew from the Kamloops Regional
Gaol built 16 miles of fence on the Sullivan Valley range improvement project.
Establishment of a new 60-man camp at Pine Lake in 1969 proves the success
of this programme—in terms of both achievement and human betterment.
  formatio
division
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"   ^ACCURATEVE
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  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969 27
INFORMATION DIVISION
Increased production in practically all avenues of public communication was
among highlights of 1969 for the Information Division, formerly known as the
Public Information and Education Division.
In addition to increasing its output of news releases, magazine articles, special
features, radio broadcasts, and several television shows, the Division also developed
a stronger liaison with forest resource industry, business, and other related organizations.
Its public relations programme was aimed at both internal and external audiences; and the broadened scope of operations resulted in one Information Officer
being added to the staff.
The Division was also responsible for the creation of a new Forest Service
symbol.
PHOTOGRAPHY
Production increased in 1969 and, to cope with expansion in colour-slide production and heavy demands for prints, little time was devoted to motion-picture
work. A large portion of laboratory work went to commercial photo-finishers,
enabling the staff to handle technical assignments.
A total of 17,218 prints was made, 908 of these being colour. More than
6,000 prints accompanied news releases.
The photographic library added 455 black-and-white negatives, 500 colour
negatives, and 539 35-mm. slides.
A total of 3,357 duplicate colour 35mm. transparencies was made during the
year, representing a major portion of the section's work. Ten copies of the 120-slide
presentation " Fire Season " were made for the five forest districts. A second show,
comprising 80 slides, was produced (" Logs to Osaka ") and 14 copies were made.
A show illustrating Peace pondage-clearing is nearing completion, and will be
sound-taped early in 1970. Preliminary work was done on a slide presentation dealing with slash disposal.
Major assignments included coverage of the Mica and Libby pondage-clearing
projects, and close utilization illustrations in the Nelson Forest District.
Facilities are still provided for processing X-ray films for the Research Division.
Heavy demand continues for 70-mm. film positives, with 3,050 being produced.
MOTION PICTURES
Neither funds nor time were available for a full-scale motion-picture production
programme.   A total of 3,000 feet of colour 16-mm. film was shot.
A special assignment in the Terrace-Kitimat area required footage for use in
local fire-prevention messages. Footage of women planters at work in the Hope
area was used during a television programme on reforestation.
Two 25-second and one 55-second fire-prevention clips were distributed to
television stations throughout the Province for use during high fire-hazard periods.
Four subjects photographed in 1968 were sounded—all produced for the Inventory Division's safety training programme. One, "Axe Facts," won the Canadian
Forestry Association award in the training-film category, held at this year's Pacific
National Exhibition; and an award of distinction in the International Festival of
Forest Fire Control films, sponsored in Ottawa by the F.A.O.
 28 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
LIBRARY
The librarian visited the Prince George District to help organize material available for foresters in that area.
The mailing-list for the monthly accession list now totals 390. They are sent
to personnel of the Forest Service, industry in British Columbia and Alberta, and to
consulting foresters in British Columbia. From these lists the library received about
1,500 requests per month.
FILM LIBRARY
Throughout 1969 the Forest Service film library issued 1,065 films on loan—
and they were seen by a combined adult and student audience of 252,428. These
figures compare with 833 loans and 217,847 viewers the previous year.
The films were used by a wide variety of organizations throughout Canada and
the United States, and included forest district staffs, universities, technical schools,
service clubs, and schools of all grade levels.
It was difficult to find appropriate subjects for inclusion in the library. Of 37
films from outside sources which were previewed, only four were selected. A total
of 33 films were added to the library during 1969, of which 29 were Forest Service
productions.
DISPLAYS
The reforestation unit of a new exhibit was installed in the British Columbia
Building at the Pacific National Exhibition during 1969. It's a permanent display,
which will also feature a research presentation.
At the Pacific National Exhibition's Festival of Logging, the Forest Service
lookout tower attracted more than 24,000 visitors.
A special display featuring close utilization of forest resources was exhibited at
the annual meeting of the Canadian Institute of Forestry held in Prince George. The
display was also used at the Pacific Logging Congress in Vancouver.
EDUCATION
The libraries of 68 schools were provided with Forest Service information
material; a number of schools were visited, and where time permitted, lectures were
presented.
Revised editions of the Illustrated Forest Activities pamphlet series were distributed to schools throughout the Province, and will be used in a resource reader being
prepared by the British Columbia branch of the Canadian Forestry Association.
FOREST SERVICE MUSEUM
Late in 1969, Information Officer D. E. Adderley assumed duties of honorary
curator of the museum. Some items have been catalogued and stored; and it's
hoped to have a display area soon for the various Forest Service artifacts.
SIGNS
With the introduction of a new symbol, a number of Forest Service signs are
being redesigned. A prototype of the new Ranger Station sign will be ready early
in 1970, and new signs for other purposes will replace old designs when time and
funds permit.
ADVERTISING
Again in 1969, paid advertising was restricted to " public-awareness messages "
relating to the fire season. Approximately 40 radio stations throughout the Province
carried such announcements between late June and early September.
   REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
29
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
While all other parts of the Province registered increases in over-all production,
the Vancouver District showed a drop in the total amount of timber scaled in 1969,
off 1.5 per cent.
The Nelson Forest District recovered from the low of 1968 due to the 1967/68
I.W.A. strike in the Southern Interior.
The timber scale for all products was up 52.5 per cent. This, together with
strong increases in the Prince George and Kamloops Forest Districts, gave a total
Provincial scale of 1,890,052,232 cubic feet, an increase of 11 per cent over 1968
production. Of this increase, the Interior of the Province contributed 94.6 per cent,
and supplied 47.4 per cent of the total scale of the Province.
There was a marked increase in the number of operators in the Prince Rupert,
Prince George, and Kamloops Forest Districts converting to timber sale harvesting
licences and close-utilization operations during the year. A number of " third
band " sales were awarded during the year and, in some sustained-yield units this
meant the full allowable annual cut to close-utilization standards was committed.
The general trend to close-utilization operations was emphasized by the increase
in the number of mills which added chipping and barking facilities during the year.
At the end of 1968 there were 186 mills with chippers, and this figure had remained
relatively constant for three years. In 1969 there were 41 new chippers added and
30 new barkers. The reported production of 5,609,974 units of chips was an increase of nearly 900,000 units over the 1968 figure. With conversion of logging
operations to close-utilization standards, operators have found it necessary to install
milling facilities capable of economically processing the smaller logs.
It was the first full year that waste-assessment procedures were applied throughout the Province. When an area has been logged, sample plots are established by
inspecting officers. Standing and felled material included in the sampling depends
upon the contract utilization specifications. The individual pieces measured are also
classified as to whether they were " avoidable " or " unavoidable." All volumes
measured are recorded against the allowable cut for the timber licence and " avoidable " volumes are billed monetarily in accordance with contract conditions.
An epidemic of spruce bark beetles, found in 1968, spread considerably in the
Fernie and Cranbrook P.S.Y.U.s, with some outbreaks doubling in area. A number
of Forest Service sales were being processed at the close of the year.
Where the form of tenure held by a purchaser or occupier of Crown land does
not give authority to cut and remove timber on the area, a licence to cut may be
issued under section 24, of the Forest Act. The checking, issuance, and inspection of
these licences has added measurably to the work load in some districts. Some 680
licences were issued or renewed during the year, 375 of them in the Prince George
District. The demand for agricultural land in the Quesnel-Prince George-Vanderhoof
area has been responsible for the majority of licences, but mining exploration and
development work throughout the Province has created a considerable demand for
licences to cut.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber prices generally continued to increase through the first quarter of the
year, hit their peak in March, then dropped back. The year-end prices were $40 to
$50 per MBM below the levels reached in March.
 30 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Log prices increased through the first quarter, peaked in May, then fell off to
stabilize approximately at the January, 1969, level.
Stumpage prices followed the market to record highs in the first part of the year,
then fell off with the market. Notwithstanding the sharp decline in the market,
average stumpage prices for the year were significantly higher than in previous years.
The average price bid for Crown timber was $9.02 per 100 cubic feet, which
compares with an average $6.26 in 1968, and the averages for the years 1963-67,
inclusive, when stumpage rates were $3.36, $4.09, $4.20, $4.25, and $3.21 respectively per 100 cubic feet.
The weighted average price per 100 cubic feet for licences sold in the Interior
increased from $5.86 in 1968 to $8.84 in 1969, and the comparable average price
on the coast increased from $7.38 to $9.60.
The average stumpage-price detail shown in Table 63 in the Appendix includes the volume sold at "salvage value only" rates, plus the volumes included
in close-utilization licences and cutting permits at a standard 55 cents per 100
cubic feet.
The average stumpage price per 100 cubic feet for all species, excluding close
utilization and salvage wood, was $10.20 on the Coast, compared with $7.49 in
1968 and $11.20 in the Interior, compared with $7.41 in 1968.
STUMPAGE ADJUSTMENTS
As a result of the violent fluctuations in average market values, there were a
total of 22,728 upward stumpage adjustments, followed by 27,309 downward
adjustments. The stumpage adjustments are now processed through the data processing equipment in the Vancouver office.
SUSTAINED-YIELD PROGRAMME
Public Sustained-yield Units
As indicated by Table No. 50, there was no change in the number of public
sustained-yield units during 1969, but over-all statistics have altered as a result of
new inventories for some units. An error in 1968 statistics has been corrected by
transfer to the Prince George Forest District of the area and allowable annual cut of
that portion of the Chilko P.S.Y.U. within that district. A corresponding reduction
has been made in these statistics for the Kamloops District, but to avoid an error in
the total number or units in the Province, the unit has been included in the Kamloops
list only.
The programme of conversion from timber sale licences to timber sale harvesting licences continued, as more licensees realized the advantages of the conversion
and their operations approached the condition where conversion to close utilization
would be feasible.
In conjunction with this programme, and as chip markets have developed in
some Interior units to the extent that conversion to complete close utilization in
logging and manufacturing has become feasible the Forest Service has undertaken
the distribution of the portion of the close-utilization cut not previously committed
in those units.
In view of the heavy demand for land for agriculture and settlement, it has
become necessary to gain better control of the alienation of forest land and, to
accomplish this, the Inventory Division has undertaken a programme of creating
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
31
forest reserves over the areas included in public sustained-yield units. It is not the
intention of the Forest Service to impede the alienation of arable land or land legitimately required for settlement, but rather to control haphazard settlement and the
alienation of forest land which will be of marginal value for agriculture.
During 1969, forest reserve status was approved for 13 public sustained-yield
units, nine of which had previously been designated as pulp-harvesting forests. This
reduced the number of pulp-harvesting forests to 13.
CERTIFIED TREE FARMS
Certificates were cancelled for two tree farms, one on sale of the property and
one by request of the owner, while one new tree farm was certified. The total
number of tree farms was reduced from 45 to 44, as indicated by Table 48. There
have also been additions and deletions of area included in existing tree farms and, as
additions have exceeded deletions, a slight increase in area and productive capacity
has resulted.
TREE-FARM LICENCES
The utilization and production of wood continues to improve on tree-farm
licences as 25 licensees log to close-utilization standards. The allowable cut for all
licences now totals 543,257,000 cubic feet.
During the year, 10 new working plans were submitted and reviewed.
The amalgamation of Tree-farm Licences 8 and 11 has been completed. The
amalgamation of Tree-farm Licences 1 and 40 and the extension of Tree-farm Licence 2 are under negotiation.
SILVICULTURE
Silviculture treatments and methods continue to evolve with the trend to larger
clear-cuts. Partial stand treatments remain, however, in most Interior regions supplemented by machine-scarification, using a blade or dragchain and other post-
logging treatment such as cable downing of residual trees, burning, and planting
where necessary.
A reduction in the scarification programme for natural regeneration was necessary because of the poor seed-year. Drag scarification in lodgepole pine and
mechanical site-preparation (M.S.P.) for planting in spruce-balsam accounts for
most of the 2,949 acres done in 1969. The total scarification by all agencies in the
Prince George District since such treatment was initiated is now 100,452 acres.
The rehabilitation projects in the Noisy Creek drainage and Blaeberry River
Valley continued, and 545 acres were treated in Noisy Creek. The treatments include downing with chain, cat blade, and power saw, together with other secondary
treatments such as windrowing, bunching, and planting trails. Planting and seeding
projects will continue in both projects in 1970. A final report on the project embodying a benefit-cost analysis should be available in 1972.
SCALING
Conversion from manual scaling to weight-scaling continued in 1969, as illustrated by the number of new weigh-scales established during the year.
 32
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Forest District
Number of Weigh Scales by December 31st—
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1
1
9
4
1
1
1
16
12
3
5                 5
4
8
21
17
4
10
27
19
20
16
31
20
20
16
40
55
81
91
The conversion is further illustrated by the increase in volume being weigh-
scaled. In 1968, of the total sawlog production in the Prince George District, 56
per cent was weigh-scaled. In 1969 the figure rose to 67 per cent. In Nelson the
percentage rose 10 points to 60. By the end of the year the percentage had risen
to 50 in Prince Rupert and is expected to go to 80 in 1970.
FLOOD BASINS
Peace River
Clearing operations under timber sale contract and recovery of logs resulting
from clearing contracts continued at a high level during 1969—26,714,553 cubic
feet were scaled as compared to a little over 23 million feet in 1968. To December
31, 1969, a total of approximately 113 million cubic feet have been scaled out of
the Peace River pondage.
Mica
In 1968, deadline dates were set for logging of timber licence areas. This,
together with the increase in operations on the Mica Dam project itself, resulted in a
marked increase in logging operations in the Mica pondage, where 11,428,000 cubic
feet were scaled and billed in 1969, nearly double the 1968 figure.
LiBBY
Seven sales of decked logs resulting from clearing contracts were made during
the year. These sales, with production from salvage timber sales, gave a 1969 total
of 742,000 cubic feet.
 grazing
division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
33
GRAZING DIVISION
March 29, 1969, marked the 50th anniversary of the passage of the Grazing
Act, which made the Forest Service responsible for the administration of Crown
range, more than 80 per cent of which is forested. The Act created active control
of Crown range and resulted in the Forest Service's first step into integrated use of
forest land.
Over the last 50 years many changes in range-management techniques were
necessary, to accommodate larger numbers of live stock and ever-growing demands
for other uses of forest range land.
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The severe winter of 1968/69 resulted in feed shortages and forced some operators to reduce herds early in 1969. Fortunately, prices were relatively high.
Despite variable weather during the grazing season, range forage production was
good, except in the Okanagan and Peace River areas. A mild fall saw cattle come
off ranges in good condition. Cattle prices increased considerably but were offset
by rising production costs. Ranch labour is scarce, particularly competent range-
riders.
For the first time in many years, the number of cattle permitted on Crown
range decreased significantly, and horses and sheep are now insignificant. Administrative problems increased due to expanding land use.
Range
Range readiness for grazing developed earlier than usual in most areas. May
and June were dry, but soil moisture reserves from heavy winter snow ensured
good early production. Subsequent rainfall resulted in good yields in most areas.
Exceptions were the Okanagan Valley, where drought conditions persisted, and the
Peace River area, which suffered frost damage.
An extensive seeding project in the East Kootenay Valley, which appeared to
be a complete failure as a result of severe drought in 1967, showed modest establishment in 1969.
Water for stock was adequate and losses from toxic plants and predatory
animals were normal. Rustling on Crown range increased, particularly during the
hunting season.
Hay
Hay growth was good, but wet weather hampered operations in northern areas.
Many ranchers converted their crops to silage.
Markets and Prices
Cattle prices were higher in 1969. The weighted average price received by
cattlemen through the B.C. Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association was
$27.35 per hundredweight, compared to $22.37 in 1968, a rise of $4.98. The
export of feeder cattle to grain-producing areas for finishing was particularly heavy.
RANGE AND PASTURE MANAGEMENT
Ranges are subject to many valuable and rapidly increasing uses with which
domestic grazing must be co-ordinated. Management of Crown range has improved
over the years, but conditions are far from satisfactory on many ranges—particularly
the co-ordination of the various uses.
 34 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
During 1969 numerous meetings were held with other "user" groups and
some progress toward integration of uses was made.
Promotion of improved management techniques continued with illustrated slide
talks at live-stock association meetings, field-days, and other means. The appointment of a range-extension specialist to the Department of Agriculture will help
development of improved management of all range lands, both Crown and private.
Concentrating grazing on smaller areas for short periods on a rotational basis
avoids over- and under-utilization on units containing variable range types, and is
an effective means of rehabilitating depleted range. Rotation grazing requires
costly fencing plus considerable adjustment by permittees and will be a gradual
process.
To provide increased range use, pasture-development techniques were developed in several areas. This involved control of water-levels on swamp meadows;
brush control; the clearing, breaking, and seeding of suitable upland sites; and
fertilizing previously improved pastures.
Biological control of goat-weed (Hypericum perforatum) has been achieved
and the weed is no longer an economic threat. It has taken 18 years for the introduced Chrysolina spp. beetles to establish a satisfactorily low-level equilibrium with
the plants.    Attention is now being directed to other troublesome range weeds,
notably the knapweeds.
Range Surveys
The range survey programme continued with field work on the Green Lake-
North Bonaparte and the Deadman Creek Stock Ranges, and the Bedard Lake and
McLean Lake Units of the Ashcroft Stock Range. Maps and reports were completed for surveys on the Lillooet Stock Range, the Coldwater-Iron Mountain Unit
of the Nicola Stock Range, and the Joe Rich and Greystokes Units of the North
Okanagan Stock Range.
Range and Pasture Improvements
During 1969, $165,374 was spent from the Range Improvement Fund. Net
assistance to the range improvement programme from the Fund was $162,529. In
addition, $21,100 was spent on pasture development in the Peace River area from
special funds provided for this purpose.
Structural improvements included 109 miles of trail and road, 124 miles of
fencing, 17 water developments, 4 bridges or culverts, 32 cattle-guards, 7 corrals,
1 herder's cabin, 1 holding-ground, and 5 enclosures for experimental studies or
demonstration purposes. Routine maintenance was carried out on 6 buildings, 83
nvles of fence, 66 miles of trail and road, and 14 water developments within Peace
River pastures.
Nearly 600 acres of swamp meadow were ditch-drained, and beaver-control
projects were conducted in co-operation with the Fish and Wildlife Branch on seven
sites to reduce the flooding of meadows. Prescribed burns were made on 28,500
acres in the Peace River area to suppress range brush, and 50 acres were similarly
treated in the East Kootenay Valley in an effort to control bitterbrush. A total of
923 acres in various locations was cleared, broken, and seeded.
Herbicides were used on 780 acres—on 115 acres to control toxic plants and
on 665 acres of cultivated pasture to control invading brush. Fifty thousand pounds
of fertilizer were spread on 500 acres of cultivated pasture.
Range seeding was a major activity in 1969. Nearly 91,000 pounds of grass
and legume seed were used, the most to date. Some 41,000 pounds were sown on
ground denuded by logging and other industrial activity and on sites especially
cleared for seeding.  Approximately 49,890 pounds of seed were sown aerially on
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
35
12,000 acres of Crown range destroyed by wild fire. The range land-drill was used
to seed 160 acres.
A system, introduced in 1968, for recording range improvements was extended
to all grazing districts in 1969.
CO-OPERATION
Range live-stock associations provide valuable liaison with industry in the
management of grazing on Crown range. There are 67 such associations recognized
under the provisions of the Grazing Act. During 1969, 188 meetings of these
groups were attended by Forest Service officers.
Close contact was maintained with the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers'
Association, and the British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association supplied live stock price figures to calculate grazing fees. This producer-owned
marketing agency sold approximately 50.8 million pounds of beef animals from the
range area this year.
ADMINISTRATION
Use of Crown range for grazing was reduced in 1969, but other factors added
to the work load. An increase in competing uses of range land necessitated more
contacts with other user groups to resolve or avoid conflicts.
The issue of new grazing leases under the Land Act was discontinued in the
Kamloops, Nelson, and Prince George grazing districts. The grazing use of remaining Crown Lands is now administered under provisions of the Grazing Act, except
under special conditions. This is designed to avoid a multiplicity of tenures in range
units and to facilitate integration of uses.
A brief on the management of Crown range was submitted to the Select Standing Committee on Fisheries and Forestry.
Grazing Permits
During the year, 2,018 grazing permits were issued permitting 180,579 cattle,
5,545 horses, and 5,106 sheep on Crown ranges. There were 7,604 less cattle than
in 1968, the first significant drop in many years. The number of horses and sheep
is also down.  (See Table No. 70 in the Appendix.)
The total use authorized for all classes of stock amounted to 837,405 animal-
unit-months (the equivalent of one mature cow for one month), 19,814 less than
the previous y?ar.
A total of 206 hay-cutting permits were issued for the harvesting of 2,087 tons
of hay.
Grazing Fees
Grazing fees are based on a sliding scale on prices received by producers the
previous year. Except for developed pastures in the Peace River area, grazing fees
(per head, per month) were 45 cents for cattle, 56lA cents for horses, and 11V4
cents for sheep, a slight increase over the previous year. The separate scale for
fenced and reserved pastures in the Peace River area remained at 50 cents per head
per month for cattle, 62Vi cents for horses, and 12V2 cents for sheep for natural
forage; and $1 per head per month for cattle, $1.25 for horses, and 25 cents for
sheep on cultivated pasture. The hay-cutting fee remained at $1 per ton.
Control and Enforcement
Control of Crown range poses many problems due to its extent, rugged nature,
and proximity of private property. Constant vigilance was required to prevent
unauthorized use. Numerous range inspections and stock counts were made; the
number of infractions was low; and most were promptly rectified.
  division
  REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
37
ENGINEERING DIVISION
ENGINEERING SURVEYS
Field crews completed 144 miles of road location in addition to special surveys.
District engineering work included development studies in the Parsnip and
Stuart P.S.Y.U.s, access studies in the Barton Hills and Okanagan P.S.Y.U.s, Tree-
farm Licence road evaluations, road reconnaissance in conjunction with timber sale
cruising, investigation of a road route on the west side of Kootenay Lake, and a
study of log-dump sites at the north end of Kootenay Lake.
The work load connected with the acquisition of rights-of-way and other properties continued to grow during the year.
DESIGN
Designs, drawings, and specifications were prepared for pressure-creosoted timber bridges for Goat River, Kispiox River, Likely-Keithley Creek, and Black Creek-
Bosk Lake Forest Roads.
Preliminary sketches and estimates were made for bridges on the Willow River-
Cale Creek Forest Road, and for the upgrading of existing structures on the Willow
River road system to meet increased load requirements. Design work was started
on the Nass River bridge near the mouth of the Meziadin River.
MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING SECTION
Development work on 70-mm. fixed-airbase stereophotography continued, and
boom suspension and camera mounts were improved. An inventory of the floating
timber on Williston Lake was completed using this equipment.
Studies on salvage and disposal of reservoir timber are continuing.
CONSTRUCTION SECTION
Road work included completion of 7.5 miles of new grade on the Bowron River
road and reconstruction of 36 miles of existing grade on the Harrison West, Goat
River, and Elk River roads. Permanent-type timber bridges were erected over
Haggen Creek, North Thompson River, Cariboo River, Halfway River, and Goat
River.
Clearing work continued on Williston Lake. Work was concentrated in the
Parsnip River section, where 14,700 acres were treated. Non-merchantable wood
material on 5,200 acres was burned. A permanent camp for all future work was
established near Mackenzie.
Site-preparation work was started on the Canadian portion of the Libby Reservoir. Of approximately 9,000 acres of forested land requiring treatment, 3,800
acres were placed under treatment and 2,500 acres were completed. Operations
were conducted from a camp established at Waldo. Site-preparation work also
commenced on the Mica Reservoir. Camps were established at Valemount and
Bush River, from which 6,150 acres of forest land were placed under treatment.
BUILDING AND MARINE SERVICES
The long-term expansion programme of the Reforestation Division, together
with other programmes, required increased services.
In addition to general maintenance, major building construction included a
warehouse and mechanical maintenance building for the new Cariboo Forest District
 38 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
headquarters, refrigerator buildings at Campbell River and Red Rock nurseries, an
office bunkhouse building at Campbell River, and the first phase of a seedling-
sorting building at Red Rock. An experimental portable residence was constructed
and transported to one of the remote stations for evaluation.
The substitution of small, trailer-mounted, fast launches for the larger, slower,
displacement launches in the Ranger Districts has continued.
A new, fast, diesel launch was provided for transporting sealers in Prince
Rupert harbour. Jet boats and riverboats were assigned to the clearing work behind
the Mica Dam and one of the redundant Department of Highways ferries from the
Arrow Lakes was transferred to Kinbasket Lake.
Twenty-nine units of mobile accommodation were purchased, ranging from tent
trailers for project crews to large mobile homes for staff in remote regions. In
addition, 21 semi-mobile buildings were acquired for long-term occupancies. Five
refrigerated trailers were purchased for on-site storage of tree seedlings. Bunk-
houses and washcar porta-buildings for 100 men were leased for camps in the
Mica and Libby Pondage areas.
MECHANICAL SECTION
The light-vehicle inventory increased by 22, and included sedans, station-
wagons, panels, four-wheel drives (all types), and two-wheel drives up to 10,000
pounds G.V.W. The significant change in this category is the increase of 42
two-wheel drive pick-up trucks, while station-wagons, sedan deliveries, and panel
trucks dropped 23 and four-wheel drive units dropped three. Sedans increased by
six, replacing some station-wagons.
An appreciable turnover of older heavy-type trucks was effected with the purchase of 11 new units ranging from 14,000 pounds G.V.W. to 50,000 pounds
G.V.W. Four used tanker-trucks were purchased, two of which were used as fuel
trucks on engineering projects, and two converted to fire-suppression tankers for the
Nelson District.
Five rubber-tired tractors were purchased for the Reforestation Division, including one special four-wheel drive unit for the new Surrey Nursery. The Engineering Division acquired three large crawler tractors and a 200-cu.-yd.-per-hr. screening plant and an elevating scraper.
The extreme adverse winter conditions of January, 1969, increased the use of
snow toboggans and 12 new ones were purchased. Testing of muskeg transporters
continues.
FOREST SERVICE MAINTENANCE DEPOT
Modernization of the depot facilities continued with the completion of major
alterations to the main office, modification to all the shops, with the installation of
new machines and equipment acquired to help increase the efficiency of the depot.
The mechanical programme included continuing overhaul of equipment and the
purchase and testing of new equipment. The coupling of 290,000 feet of fire hose
was completed.
Twenty-three new vehicle units were fitted out to meet Forest Service requirements and 46 miscellaneous repair and fabrication jobs were completed.
Work in the machine-shop included the machining and assembly of 2,662 hose,
pump, and valve fittings, and all welding and machining required in connection with
repairs to marine, construction, and other mechanical equipment.
The marine programme included overhaul and refit work on 28 launches, four
jet boats, and 35 miscellaneous small craft.   Fitting-out work was completed on 13
 36
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
39
vessels, including the new seating boat, the Northern Scaler, for Prince Rupert, and
the launch Cherry II for the Prince George district.
The 40-foot steel tug Forest Engineer was overhauled and modified at the
depot, disassembled and trucked to Williston Lake, where it was reassembled,
launched, and underwent trials.
Carpenter-shop activities included the rebuilding and repair work to 19 trailers
and porta-buildings, together with a host of miscellaneous projects.
RADIO SECTION
The programme of improving and expanding communications continued
throughout 1969, and included the purchase of 391 radio units. Remotely controlled base stations were installed in several Ranger Districts. In the Houston,
Southbank, and Horsefly Ranger Districts, where suitable sites for remote control
were not available, F.M. repeaters were installed to increase field coverage.
On the Mica and Libby pondage-clearing projects, two additional V.H.F. frequencies were obtained to permit local communication without interfering with
Forest District networks.
At Prince George and Kamloops District Headquarters, all radio equipment
was remotely controlled.
■ The preventive-maintenance programme introduced in 1968 resulted in improved service in 1969. Two Forest Districts have furthered the programme by
providing van-type vehicles equipped with a service bench with all necessary test
equipment built in for field servicing.
 I
'Btxmtr
The twin-screw, shallow-draught tug Forest Engineer. The 40-foot vessel, which can
be split in half lengthwise, is now busy transporting equipment being used to clear the
Lake Williston reservoir.
This powerful pumphouse installation
serves the irrigation system at the Red Rock
nursery. It was among the Engineering Division's many projects of 1969.
   REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969 41
PROTECTION DIVISION
WEATHER
After a cool and wet April, a ridge of high pressure developed off the Coast
during May and most of June, bringing hot, dry conditions to most of the Province.
This ridge eliminated most of the normal June rains and the fire hazard rapidly
became critical in most areas. Some rain fell late in June and major fires were
controlled.
July and August were generally cooler, but with lower precipitation in the Bella
Coola, Peace River, Lower Mainland coast, and the Southern Okanagan Valley
regions.
The first half of September was warm and dry, but rain came later to most
areas and the fire season ended on September 30th.
Lightning activity was below normal throughout the Interior districts.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
The summer of 1969 produced 2,318 fires, slightly more than the 10-year
average of 2,257 and 671 more than in 1968. Normally about 34 per cent of the
fires occur prior to July, but in 1969 more than half of them occurred during this
period. Lightning was the major cause of fires, but was responsible for only 28 per
cent of them—this well below 43 per cent in 1968 and the 10-year average of 37 per
cent.   (See Tables 102, 103, and 104 in the Appendix.)
Cost of Fire-fighting
Suppression costs to the Forest Service averaged $2,579 per fire, compared
with $741 in 1968. The total fire-fighting cost for 1969 was $4,600,000, of which
$3,300,000 was paid by the Forest Service and $1,300,000 by other agencies. The
10-year average is $3,100,000.
Lightning fires, although only 28 per cent of the total, caused 69 per cent of the .
burned area, 32 per cent of the cost, and 71 per cent of the damage.   (See Tables
106 and 110 in the Appendix.)
Damage
The 406,763 acres of forest burned were almost 53 per cent over the 10-year
average of 265,923 acres. The damage to forest cover was $6,776,020, compared
with the 10-year average of $3,512,707, the increased acreage and damage due
mainly to a number of large fires in extreme northern regions of the Province. (See
Tables 107 and 109 in the Appendix.)
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Thirteen fire-suppression crews, ranging from 6 to 10 men each, were employed this year, one crew less than in 1968.
Initial attack crews (one to three men) were located throughout the Province
as far north as Fort Nelson, and this combined force of 100 men helped fight 361
fires.   At other times the crews were employed in other essential protection duties.
 4 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
AIRCRAFT
A decision by the Air Transport Committee to categorize Forest Service helicopter contracts into Class 4 made long-term contracts uneconomical, and all districts were allotted funds to hire locally available machines as required. In the
Prince Rupert, Prince George, and Kamloops Districts the system worked well, but
in the Vancouver and Nelson Districts machines were often unavailable when
required.
One helicopter accident claimed the life of an Assistant Ranger and the pilot
when a glider collided with the helicopter in mid-air near Hope.
Two contracts for fixed-wing aircraft provided three aircraft for general flying
and six light aircraft for fire-detection purposes.
Three new air tanker-types were introduced into British Columbia in 1969.
The Douglas A-26 was used in the Kamloops District in June; a Canadair C.L. 215
was demonstrated on fires in the Vancouver, Prince George, and Nelson Districts;
and a deHavilland Twin Otter made demonstration drops at several points in the
Province.
Four contracts provided eight Avenger air tankers, three Canso air tankers, and
five bird-dog aircraft. They were used on 233 targets and dropped over IVa million
gallons of chemical retardants.
ROADS AND TRAILS
A modest programme of road and trail construction, reclamation, and maintenance continued, with some 1,974 miles of road and 86 miles of trail treated.
SLASH DISPOSAL
In the Vancouver Forest District, sporadic periods of suitable slash-burning
weather in September and early October resulted in a normal number of acres being
treated. Slash reports covered 85,549 acres of logged-over land, and 51,649 were
exempted from burning. In addition to the 44,450 acres slash-burned, an additional
7,740 acres of old slash were considered abated to satisfactory levels by other means.
Burning periods were marginal in the Prince Rupert District, where a dry spring
was followed by a wet summer and fall. The Forest Service prepared 6,966 acres
and burned 1,440. Industrial operators were instructed to burn 14,918 acres, but
were able to treat only 7,626.
The summer and fall for most of the Prince George District were wetter than
the adjoining Prince Rupert District. The Forest Service burned 1,805 of a planned
8,282 acres, and industry burned 2,355 of 13,749 acres planned for such treatment.
In the Kamloops District, most burning was conducted in the Cariboo area.
High-hazard conditions in southern areas followed by quick wetting made it impossible to burn. The Forest Service treated 634 of a planned 2,616 acres, and industrial operators burned 5,301 of the 9,527 acres planned.
The Nelson District was also plagued with the sudden change from too dry to
too wet and burned only 1,447 acres. Industrial operators were required to burn
13,869 acres, but were only able to treat 3,461.
SNAG DISPOSAL
Vancouver Forest District
In the Vancouver Forest District, snags on 3,020 acres were felled—1,310
acres under contract and 1,710 by Forest Service crews.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
43
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
Prosecutions resulted in 21 charges. Eight involved burning without a permit,
eight for refusing to render assistance in fire-fighting, and the remainder for other
offences.
FOREST-USE RESTRICTIONS
The early serious hazard situation resulted in industrial forest-use restrictions
and travel and recreation restrictions being imposed in June. Campfire permits
were suspended in all districts except Nelson.   Details of restrictions follow:—
Forest-use Restrictions, 1969
Area
Forest District-
Type of Restriction
Effective
Date
Termination
Date
Zones 1, 2, 6 to 10	
Vancouver.—	
Prince Rupert
Prince Rupert
Prince George.
Prince George
Prince George
Restricted industrial -	
Restricted industrial	
Travel and recreation
Travel and recreation
Restricted industrial	
Restricted industrial.   	
June 17
June 17
June 17
June 18
June 18
June 19
June 23
June 23
June 23
SUSPENSION OF CAMPFIRE PERMITS
Forest District Effective Date Termination Date
Vancouver  June 17 June 23
Prince Rupert  June 18 June 23
Prince George  June 18 June 23
Kamloops   June 18 June 23
PROTECTION PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Statistics
The Provincial Fire Atlas was maintained, and together with summaries and
fire files, is a valuable reference for other divisions and agencies. Fire statistics are
being coded in conjunction with the Fire Atlas.
A joint Federal-Provincial computer study, using 10-year fire and weather
data, is being developed to test and adjust the new Federal danger index system for
use by all Forest Districts in 1970.
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks
Fuel-moisture indicator sticks were tested at Ashcroft to determine acceptable
tolerances. Of the 1,242 sets distributed in 1969, 62 per cent went to industry,
3 per cent to the Canada Forestry Service, and 35 per cent to the British Columbia
Forest Service.
In November, 1,720 sets of sticks were manufactured at the Federal Forest
Products Laboratory in Vancouver for the 1970 fire season.
Insect Survey and Control
Liaison with other Provincial Government and Federal agencies and joint
government-industry committees was maintained.
 44 report of lands, forests, and water resources
Research Projects
Major research and development projects of 1969 were as follows:—
Fire-training Simulators.—A prototype was developed to operational standards,
and five additional models were constructed—one for each Forest District.
Handbooks.—A Forest Protection Handbook series was initiated in 1969.
Two handbooks, A Guide to Effective Use of Air Tankers for Forest
Officers and A Guide to Broadcast Burning of Logging Slash in British
Columbia have been distributed. A Handbook on Forest Fire Suppression,
Proper Care and Use of Fire Weather Instruments, and a Handbook for
Lookoutmen will be available soon.
Fire Danger Indices.—In co-operation with the Victoria Federal Research
Laboratory and the Vancouver Fire Weather Unit, special weather-recording station's were established to provide research information on the new
Federal Fire Weather and Buildup Indices. These index values were
calculated daily by computer and telexed to districts by the Fire Weather
Unit.   Analysis of results is under way.
Mobile Flame-throwers.—Two more experimental flame-throwers were developed and field-tested.
Hand-tool Containers.—Pilot models of expendable cardboard containers for
axes and pulaskis were developed and sent to districts for field-testing.
They hold four of each type of tool, and were designed for easy transportation and increased safety.
Emergency Rations.—Preparation of two-man, two-day, fire-ration packs was
standardized, and 240 were distributed to districts.
Lake-water Analysis.—Water samples from 42 major lakes in the Province
were tested to evaluate their pH, hardness, and mixing properties with
gelgard fire retardant to determine the best mix for amphibious air tankers.
Ignition Device.—An economical hand-thrown ignition device was tested for
use with the standard drip torch.
Equipment and product evaluation and testing continued on a variety of protection equipment.
Liaison continued with other agencies in areas of mutual interest. These
included pest control, meteorology, fire protection, fire-danger indices, fire
statistics; and representation on various protection subcommittees of the
National Research Council and on the Rehabilitation Committee of the
Forest Service.
 training
school
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
45
TRAINING SCHOOL
The eighth class of basic trainees (Basic Course No. 8), consisting of 24 men,
enrolled on January 6th and completed the course on April 3rd. The ninth class of
basic trainees (Basic Course No. 9), consisting of 24 men, enrolled on September
10th and completed the course on December 19th. The number of graduates from
the basic course is now 196 and the advanced course 319—for a grand total of 515.
Subjects covered for each course (Basic Courses Nos. 8 and 9) were as
follows:—
BASIC COURSES Nos. 8 AND 9
Subject Days Allotted
Opening        Vi
Mathematics   2 Vi
Surveying   6
Photogrammetry     3
Fire Suppression  14
Pre-suppression   8
Forest Protection Policies and Procedures  Wz
Forest Management Policies and Procedures  7
Mapping  1
Measurements   6 Vi
Reforestation   1 Vi
Silviculture   3
Mechanical Equipment Maintenance and Operation  10
Exams   2
Spare   1
Closing        V2
Total days  71
A daily 45-minute physical-training session was included in each course.
EXTRA COURSES AND FUNCTIONS
The following extra courses and functions were held at the school:—
Course for Lookoutmen.—The school provided room, board, facilities,
and instruction for 12 men from the Vancouver Forest District between May 27th and 30th.
Course for Fieldmen of the Forest Inventory Division.—The school provided room, board, facilities, and minor assistance with instruction
for this course. Two-and-one-half-day sessions for three different
groups were attended by 72 men between May 8th and 14th.
During the year the school's instructional facilities were used intermittently by
the Vancouver scaling classes.
A one-week workshop course conducted by P. A. Bell, of the Protection Division, was held on the maintenance and field repair of fire weather instruments. One
man from each Forest District attended.
The Canadian Forestry Association conducted one week of outdoor classroom
lectures for 500 elementary students from the surrounding area.
Two instructors examined fire simulators and discussed programme-making in
Salem and Corvallis, Oregon.
 46 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The annual T.F.O. 2 and T.F.O. 3 examinations were prepared and marked.
The reading course on the Forest Act was amended and 475 copies were distributed to the districts and divisions, along with 340 copies of the Mathematics
reading course.
CONSTRUCTION
Renovation of the heating system in the administration building was completed.
Roofs were retarred on the dormitory building, lounge, and drying-rooms.
 (counting I division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
47
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
FISCAL
Forest products enjoyed favourable market conditions well into 1969, with
unprecedented highs attained in the spring; this resulted in a corresponding increase
in stumpage rates.
The market declined steadily for the balance of the year, but the early-period
highs resulted in a new record for Forest Service revenue. Contributing factors, in
addition to stumpage revenue, were the 11-per-cent increase in timber scaled, an
increase in royalties and we:ght-scaling collections.
By the end of 1969 the declined market levelled off, with no significant improvement expected until economic conditions improved in major market areas.
Amounts charged against logging operations increased by 59.1 per cent (over
1968) to $92,363,938 (Appendix, Table 142).
The largest gain of 109.6 per cent was recorded in the Nelson Forest District;
followed by Prince George (99.4 per cent), Kamloops (92.1 per cent), Vancouver
(34.5 per cent), and Prince Rupert (17.9 per cent).
Direct forest revenue in 1969 was up 66.2 per cent for a total of $89,479,313
(Appendix, Table 141). Timber-sale stumpage contributed $78,293,115, up 76.3
per cent from 1968. Timber-sale rentals and fees, together with timber-sale cruising
and advertising, dropped 1.9 per cent and 14.7 per cent respectively, as the absorption of timber sales into timber-sale harvesting licences continued.
Timber royalties increased 27.7 per cent to $6,329,417, as operators attempting to avoid high stumpage rates apparently turned to cutting where only royalties
applied.
Timber-licence rentals and fees, and timber-lease rentals and fees, recorded
identical increases of 3.9 per cent, probably due to some late payments from 1968.
Timber-berth rentals and fees declined 9.1 per cent as logged areas were eliminated.
Grazing permits and fees gained 9.6 per cent after a small increase in fees.
Forest-protection tax was up 4.8 per cent, again possibly including payments due in
1968. Miscellaneous collections declined 9.5 per cent and weight-scaling payments
rose 62.5 per cent to $1,033,160. Weight-scaling is becoming an increasingly
acceptable form of scale by industry.
Financial tables (Appendix, Tables 143 to 145) cover operations on a 1968/69
fiscal-year basis. Detailed expenditure information is published annually by the
Department of Finance in the Public Accounts.
ADMINISTRATION
The heavier-than-average fire season, expansion of the reforestation programme, and increased pondage-clearing projects kept expenditure accounting at a
high level. The increase in personnel to be paid, and changes in the Unemployment
Insurance regulations gave special problems to the payroll section.
Timber-sale accounting increased. The surrender of timber sales for inclusion
in timber-sale harvesting licences accelerated and became a major activity of the
timber-sale accounting section. Fluctuating market conditions caused frequent
changes in stumpage rates and resulted in a record number of adjustments to licence
records and notices to licensees.
 48 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The revenue section work load was also affected by the inclusion of timber sales
in timber-sale harvesting areas, through frequent refunds and adjustments of carrying charges.
Accounts receivable were reasonably current until late in the year. " Tight-
money " conditions severely affected some operators, who reported credit from
normal sources was being drastically curtailed due to anti-inflationary policies. It
appears there will be no easing of the situation for some time.
Reduction of marine hazards by removal of drift logs continued, with 23,739,-
928 board feet (down 5,000,000 feet board measure from 1968) marketed through
Gulf Log Salvage Co-operative Association (licensee of the log receiving station).
Low floating logs and deadheads recovered by permittees increased approximately
3,500,000 to 9,500,000 board feet. Low-grade logs recovered remained at approximately 5,000,000 board feet.
Log clearance from beaches continued with the sale of six licences on the
Queen Charlotte Islands, where 290,000 cubic feet were removed, and six licences
on the West Coast of Vancouver Island, from which 235,000 cube feet were
" harvested."
In the Interior districts, two licences were sold—one on Stuart Lake, which
has produced 22,392 cubic feet; and one for a log jam on the Lardeau River, from
which no logs have yet been removed.
The Division is co-operating with a Log Security Committee, established by
the forest industry, to study ways to prevent escape and loss of towed and stored
logs.
Export of logs controlled under Part X of the Forest Act varied considerably
during the year. With log stocks low early in the year and high in latter months,
76 per cent of " non-exportable " logs, approved for export, left the Province in the
last three months of the year. Log Export Advisory Committee continues to provide effective control of log surpluses.
   REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
49
PERSONNEL DIVISION
On July 31st, F. S. McKinnon retired as Deputy Minister of Forests and
assumed duties as full-time chairman of the Pollution Control Board. J. S. Stokes
was appointed Deputy Minister of Forests, and N. A. McRae was appointed
Assistant Chief Forester. W. Young was appointed District Forester for the Prince
George Forest District.
Under the new organization, the Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and the two
Assistant Chief Foresters form an executive committee to determine Forest Service
policy. Some changes in organization resulted in a more equitable distribution of
supervision at the executive level. Expansion continued in the Reforestation Division with the addition of eight new professional Foresters.
In employee relations, the Chief Forester and Personnel Officer met with
representatives of various employee groups to discuss matters related to overtime
regulations. A general salary increase for all employees (effective April 1st) caused
some pay anomalies, most of which were resolved by the end of the year.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
No formal meeting of District Foresters was held in Victoria, but District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters spent a week discussing specific problems
with various headquarters divisions concerned. Ranger meetings were held in the
Vancouver and Nelson Forest Districts, with local or zone meetings held in the
Kamloops, Prince George, and Prince Rupert Districts. A bi-annual meeting of
Protection Officers was held at Victoria, and District Reforestation Officers met
with the Reforestation Division to discuss mutual problems. District Mechanical
Supervisors met with the headquarters staff, and a one-day training meeting was held
with District Foresters in attendance to discuss the extent and scope of a proposed
service-wide training programme.
The Personnel Officer and Assistant Personnel Officer took part in vocation-
day programmes, as did other Forest Officers throughout the Province. Various
seminars were attended by several staff at the senior and middle management levels.
Three Foresters, one Engineer, and one Technical Forest Officer were selected for
Class XIV of the Public Administration Course under the Executive Development
Training Programme, and two employees, both Engineers, graduated from Class XI
of this programme.
Four employees were selected for Class VI of the Correspondence Course in
Basic Public Administration and four employees graduated from Class V of this
course. Informal training continued for junior Foresters and junior Engineers and
the District Training Officers set up some formal training programmes for District
field staff.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent establishment of the Forest Service was increased from 884 to
906, with the addition of eight Forester positions, nine clerical positions, two mapping assistants, one Technical Forest Officer, one Draughtsman, and one Programmer Analyst. During the year, 153 persons received Civil Service appointments and
152 left the Service. Seven Forest Service 25-year certificates and badges were
earned. Eight employees were guests of the Provincial Executive Council at a
luncheon, where four were awarded certificates for 25 years' continuous Government
 50 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
service and four others were awarded gold watches in recognition of 40 years' service
with the Provincial Government.
There were 19 retirements and 57 transfers of permanent staff. Fourteen
graduate Foresters and five graduate Engineers left the service, while 13 graduate
Foresters and six graduate Engineers were hired.
Turnover of Civil Service appointed staff, including full-time casual staff, was
12.3 per cent—compared with 10.9 per cent in 1968. Prince Rupert again suffered
the greatest disruption at 24.1 per cent, followed by Vancouver Scaling, Kamloops,
and Prince George with 15.3 per cent, 14.3 per cent, and 12.7 per cent respectively.
Victoria headquarters and Vancouver had 9.9 per cent and 9.6 per cent, while
Nelson was lowest with a 5.9-per-cent turnover.
Professional staff turnover increased to 6.6 per cent from 4.6 per cent in 1968,
as did the technical staff at 7.7 per cent, compared to 5.3 per cent in 1968. Highest
turnover was in the clerical group at 20.0 per cent, with figures ranging from 38.5
per cent for Prince Rupert District to 11.4 per cent for Nelson.
In discipline, two permanent employees were suspended with the intent to
dismiss, but both resigned. One permanent employee was demoted to a lesser
position, more in keeping with his capabilities, and one temporary employee was
dismissed.
A number of disciplinary suspensions were imposed for breaches in safety
regulations and failure to properly complete assignments, and two of these employees
were warned a repetition would result in a dismissal. Two employees had annual
merit increases withheld.
There were 1,039 written applications for employment received and processed
by the Personnel office in addition to those handled by District and Divisional staff.
Promotional examinations were held by the Civil Service Commission for
Draughtsmen and Mapping Assistants to the advantage of a number of our staff.
Written examinations were held for one competition and oral examinations were
held at panel interviews to fill 52 positions. The Personnel Officer and the Assistant
Personnel Officer participated in filling 153 other positions. A total of 420 candidates sat for the annual Technical Forest Officer 1 examination and 121 qualified
for 14 vacancies. At the same time, 108 candidates wrote an examination for
Technical Forest Officer 2, of which 43 qualified. Two employees in the service
branch wrote an examination for Technical Forest Officer 3 and both qualified.
Forty-eight employees completed the basic-training course at the Forest Service
Training-school.
CLASSIFICATIONS, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Classification reviews were requested for 41 positions. By year's end 24 had
been approved, five rejected, and 12 were still under discussion. An organizational
review was conducted on the administrative office in the Vancouver Forest District,
with some improvement in work flow and distribution of duties indicated.
Seven employees were registered as Professional Foresters, and one graduate
Engineer became registered. General working conditions were unchanged, but
there were changes in the overtime regulations affecting the Department. The subject
is still under review to standardize implementation.
A total of 379 accidental injuries suffered by employees, of which 82 were to
temporary fire-fighters and 29 to temporary tree planters and cone collectors. Of
the 268 for the regular staff, 86 were time-loss and 182 required medical aid only.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
51
Our time-loss frequency was 16.8 per million man-hours worked, a considerable increase over 9.9 for 1968. Time-loss accidents for regular staff were 32 per
cent of the total accidents for this group as compared with 19.4 per cent in 1968.
Six British Columbia Safety Council awards of merit were earned by various
groups in the Service, the most notable of which was the silver award to the Kamloops Forest District, which also qualified for the Prime Minister's safety award.
There were two fatal accidents in the Forest Service during 1969.
  REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
53
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1969
(As of December 31st)
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
J. S. Stokes  Deputy Minister of Forests
L. F. Swannell       Chief Forester
I. T. Cameron Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations
N. A. McRae      -        - Assistant Chief Forester i/c Services
Staff Division Heads:
Cooper, C. Forest Counsel
Hicks, W. V.        Departmental Comptroller
Operation Branch Division Heads:
Phillips, W. C.  Forester i/c Protection Division
Hughes, W. G.  Forester i/c Management Division
Young, W. E. L.  -  Forester i/c Inventory Division
Pendray, W. C. - -       Director, Grazing Division
Services Branch Division Heads:
Robinson, E. W.  -       -       -       -       -       -       -   Forester i/c Reforestation Division
Spilsbury, R. H.   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        - Forester i/c Research Division
Lyons, E. H. Forester i/c Information Division
Lehrle, L. W. W. - - - - - Forester i/c Forest Service Training-school
Hemphill, P. J. J. - - - - Engineer i/c Engineering Services Division
McKeever, A. E. Personnel Officer
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver Forest District
H. B. Forse District Forester
J. A. K. Reid      -         Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Lorentsen, L. H. (Cultus Lake); McArthur, E. J. (Hope); Wilson, R. S. (Harrison Lake);
Nelson, J. N. (Mission); Mudge, M. H. (Port Moody); Neighbor, M. N. (Squamish);
Chamberlin, L. C. (Sechelt); Northrup, K. A. (Pender Harbour); Hollinshead, S. B. (Powell River); Doerkson, V. J. (Lund); Stefanac, G. (Campbell River N.); Archer, W. C. (Say-
ward); Campbell, R. A. (Echo Bay); Moss, R. D. (Port McNeill); Teindl, A. J. (Port
Hardy); Brooks, T. (Campbell River); Hannah, M. (Courtenay); Norbeirg, H. (Parks-
ville); Howard, W. G. (Nanaimo); Sykes, S. J. (Duncan); Antonelli, M. W. (Langford);
Thomas, R. W. (Lake Cowichan); Haley, K. (Alberni); Hawkey, G. F. (Tofino); Gill,
D. E. (Pemberton); de Hart, D. E. (Gold River).
Prince George Forest District
W. Young District Forester
Bishop, W. G. -. Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Graham, J. G. (McBride); Little, J. H. (Valemount); McRae, M. A. (Prince George East);
Meents, T. G. (Prince George North); Espenant, L. G. (Fort St. James); York, G. H.
(Quesnel); Barbour, H. T. (Dawson Creek); Amonson, D. A. (Aleza Lake); Osborne, H.
(Vanderhoof); Bate, V. G. (Fort St. John); Griffiths, P. F. (Fort Fraser); Gibbs, T. R.
(Summit Lake); Doerksen, D. B. (Fort Nelson); Magee, G. E. (Prince George); Wallin,
D. F. (Hixon); Hewitt, E. W. (Quesnel); Rohn, K. (Quesnel); McQueen, L. (Chetwynd);
Magee, K. W. (Mackenzie).
 54
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
Kamloops Forest District
A. H. Dixon
Boulton, L.
B. B.
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Hopkins, H. V. (Lumby); Monteith, M. E. (Birch Island); Wittner, D. J. (Barriere); Craig,
V. D. (Chase); Jackson, R. C. (Salmon Arm); Jones, G. G. (Sicamous); Wanderer, J.
(Lillooet); Cameron, A. G. (Vernon); McDaniel, R. W. (Penticton); Baker, F. M. (Princeton); Petty, A. P. (Clinton); Ward, J. G. (Williams Lake); Bouchard, E. A. (Alexis Creek);
Pearce, F. (Kelowna); Noble, J. O. (Ashcroft); Berard, R. K. M. (Merritt); Reiter, D.
(Blue River); Loomer, I. M. (Enderby); Schmidt, J. T. (100 Mile North); Weinard, J. P.
(Kamloops North); Lynn, J. F. (Horsefly); Donnelly, R. W. (100 Mile South); Perry,
W. R. (TatlaLake).
Prince Rupert Forest District
H. M. Pogue District Forester
W. F. Tuttle        --------- Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Vacant (Queen Charlotte City); Parsey, O. D. (Prince Rupert); Harvie, T. (Terrace);
Quast, H. W. (Hazelton); Gilgan, N. P. (Kitwanga); Pement, A. R. (Smithers); Weinard,
R. H. (Houston); Jaeger, J. F. (Burns Lake); Hardwick, E. O. (Bella Coola); Jones, W. H.
(Southbank); Neal, D. J. (Lower Post);  Waldron, W. C. (Kitimat).
Nelson Forest District
R. Johnston
Isenor, M. G.
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Taft, L. G. (Invermere); Humphrey, J. L. (Fernie); Anderson, S. E. (Golden); Gierl, J. B.
(Cranbrook East); Ross, A. I. (Creston); Allin, G. B. (Kaslo); Benwell, G. L. (Lardeau);
Robinson, R. E. (Nelson); Jupp, C. C. (New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Nakusp); Wood, H. R.
(Castlegar); Russell, P. F. (Grand Forks); Anderson, W. R. (Kettle Valley); Cartwright,
G. M. (Canal Flats); Benwell, W. G. (Mica); Trenaman, R. G. (Fauquier); Dodd, G. F.
(Elko); Webster, G. R. (Spillimacheen); Hamann, L. O. (Cranbrook West); Thompson,
H. B. (Beaverdell);  Bellmond, C. N. (Salmo);  Hamilton, H. D. (Revelstoke).
 APPENDIX
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO  SUPPLEMENT
THE REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
57
CONTENTS
RESEARCH DIVISION
Table
No. Page
11. Status of Research Projects in 1969  59
12. Research Publications, 1969  59
REFORESTATION DIVISION
22. Summary of Planting, 1960-69  60
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
47. Summary of Basic Data for Tree-farm Licences (Private Sustained-yield
Units)  61
48. Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-farms (Private Sustained-yield
Units over Crown-granted Lands)  61
49. Summary of Basic Data for Farm Wood-lot Licences (Private Sustained-
yield Units)  62
50. Summary of Basic Data for Public Sustained-yield Units  62
51. Total Amount of Timber Scale Billed in British Columbia during Years
1968 and 1969 in Cubic Feet    62
52. Species Cut, All Products, 1969, in Cubic Feet  63
53. Total Scale of All Products Billed in 1969 in Cubic Feet (Segregated by
Land Status and Forest Districts)  63
54. Timber Scale Billed in British Columbia during 1969 (by Months and
Forest Districts)  64
55. Number of Acres Operating under Approved Annual Allowable Cuts,
1960-69  65
56. Total Scale of All Products from Areas Operated under Approved Annual
Allowable Cuts, 1960-69  66
57. Logging Inspections, 1969  67
58. Trespasses, 1969 L._ 68
59. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1969  69
60. Timber-sale Licence Record, 1969  69
61. Competition for Timber Sales Awarded, 1969  70
62. Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1969  71
63. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Timber Sales during 1969, per C C.F. Log Scale  72
64. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Timber Scaled on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits during 1969.— 73
65. Timber Cut and Billed from Timber Sales and Timber Sale Harvesting
Licences, 1969  74
66. Wood-processing Plants of the Province, 1969  75
67. Export of Logs (inF.B.M.), 1969  76
68. Shipments of Poles and Other Minor Products, 1969  76
69. Timber Marks Issued, 1960-69  77
 58 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
GRAZING DIVISION
Table
No. Page
70. Grazing Permits Issued, 1969  77
PROTECTION DIVISION
102. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1969  78
103. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1969    78
104. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last 10 Years  78
105. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1969  79
106. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1969  80
107. Damage to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1969—Parts I and IL.76, 81
108. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1969 . 82
109. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last 10 Years  83
110. Fires Classified by Forest District and Cost per Fire of Fire-fighting, 1969 84
111. Areas of Logging Slash Disposed, 1969  85
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
141. Forest Revenue, 1965-69  85
142. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1969  86
143. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1968/69   87
144. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1968/69    88
145. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1968/69  88
146. Scaling Fund  89
147. Grazing Range Improvement Fund    89
148. Peace River Power Timber Salvage  89
PERSONNEL DIVISION
151. Distribution of Personnel, 1969   90
 (11)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
STATUS OF RESEARCH PROJECTS IN 1969
Active at beginning of year
Terminated 	
New projects	
Active at end of year	
59
96
5
12
103
Research Projects by Districts
Subject
Land classification	
Tree breeding —-	
Plant ecology	
Silvicultural systems	
Natural regeneration	
Choice and trial of species _
Nursery practice	
Direct seeding	
Planting..
Forest fertilization	
Tending of stands	
Statistics	
Management:   Economics .
Totals	
Vancouver
7
14
1
8
2
9
2
50
Prince
Rupert
2
10
17
Prince
George
12
Kamloops
Nelson
10
(12)
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS, 1969
Armit, D. (1969):   A Natural Nursery Produces Plantable Wildlings.    Research Note No. 46,
6 pp., British Columbia Forest Service.
Clark, M. B. (1969):   Direct Seeding Experiments on an Operational Scale—Working Plan.
In-service Report, 22 pp., British Columbia Forest Service.
  (1969): Direct Seeding Experiments in the Southern Interior Region of British Columbia.   Research Note No. 49, 19 pp., British Columbia Forest Service.
Forest Research Review for Year Ended March, 1969. 116 pp., British Columbia Forest Service.
Hetherington, J. C. (1969): An Economic Evaluation of Alternative Stand Treatments in
Relation to the Development of Understorey Vegetation and Subsequent Regeneration
Costs.   Forestry, 42(1):47-68.
Orr-Ewing, A. L. (1969): A Clone Bank of Douglas-fir. Research Note No. 45, 13 pp.,
British Columbia Forest Service.
  (1969):   Inbreeding to the S->  Generation in Douglas-fir.    FAO/IUFRO 2nd World
Consultation on Forest Tree Breeding, Wash., invited paper, 13 pp.
 (1969):   The Development of a Program for the Genetic Improvement of Douglas-fir
in British Columbia.   Forestry Chronicle 45(6).
van den Driessche, R. (1969):   Measurement of Frost Hardiness in Two-year-old Douglas-fir
Seedlings.   Can. J. Plant Sci. 49:159-172.
  (1969): Tissue Nutrient Concentrations of Douglas-fir and Sitka Spruce. British Columbia Forest Service Research Note No. 47, p. 42.
   (1969):   Relationship between Douglas-fir Seedling Growth and Levels of Some Soil
and Tissue Nutrients.   Forestry Chron. 45(4) :273-277.
  (1969):   Forest Nursery Handbook.    British Columbia Forest Service Research Note
No. 48, p. 44.
  (1969):'  Influence of Moisture Supply,  Temperature, and Light on Frost Hardiness
Changes in Douglas-fir Seedlings.   Can. J. Bot. 47( 11): 1765-1772.
 60
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
61
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR TREE-FARM LICENCES (PRIVATE
<f7) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Forest District
Number
of
Tree-farm
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Cut (M
Cu. Ft.)
Schedule
Bi
Schedule
A2
Total
173
63
2
7
5
2,471,227
3,452,387
461,625
725,369
1,271,485
1,205,113
168,111
1,599
1,841
47,833
3,676,340
3,620,498
463,224
727,210
1,319,318
6,588,909
10,741,284
521,617
776,669
2,680,392
333,030
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
137,817
12,350
17,655
Nelson  _ 	
42,405
Totals	
35
8,382,093
1,424,497
9,806,590
21,308,871
543,257
i Schedule B is vacant Crown land.
2 Schedule A is land for which the tree-farm licence-holder has cutting rights other than those conveyed by
the tree-farm licence agreement. This may include lands held in fee simple or temporary tenures; e.g., timber
leases, licences, and berths. Following removal of the mature timber, lands held under temporary tenure are
transferred to Schedule B.
3 Two tree-farm licences located in both districts.
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS (PRIVATE
(48) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS OVER CROWN-GRANTED LANDS)
Within Tree-farm Licences
Number
of
Tree-farms
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Estimated
Productive
Canacity
(MCu.
Ft.)
Forest District
Mature
Immature
N.S.R.
and
N.C.C.
Total
Vancouver -	
Prince George -	
11
1
2
77,468
188
1,155
203,675
790
3,114
33,258
243
416
314,401
1,221
4,685
352,110
1,280
4,925
31,801
46
187
Totals	
14
78,811
207,579
33,917
320,307 |     358,315
1
32,034
Not Included within Tree-farm Licences
Vancouver	
Nelson -	
21        1 128,459
9         |  126,008
1
275,233
157,716
35,485
86,306
439,177
370,030
467,348
491,185
36,595
9,266
(327,831)
Totals  	
30        | 254,467 | 432,949
121,791
809,207
958,533
45,861
(327,831)
44         1  333.278  1  640.528
155,708
1,129,514
1,316,848
77,895
|
(327,831)
Figures in parentheses are Christmas trees.
 62
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
(*9) (PRIVATE SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Forest District
Number
of Farm
Wood-lot
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Annual
Cut (M
Cu. Ft.)
Crown
Private
Total
Vancouver  	
14
5
14
4
6
1,990
1.570
258
235
2,248
1,805
3,368
1,261
2,473
3,155
3,261
3,589
1,420
2,629
81.6
33.2
3,203    |         165
1,115              146
1,633    |         840
102.8
Kamloops 	
Nelson	
26.0
33.4
Totals	
43
9,511    ;      1,644
1
11,155
14,054
277.0
(SO)   SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR PUBLIC SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS
Number
of
Units
Productive Area (Acres)
Total Area
(Including
Non-forest)
(Acres)
Approved
Forest District
Mature
Immature
Total
Productive
(Includes
N.S.R. and
N.C.C.)
Allowable
Annual
Cut
(M Cu. Ft.)
6
4
7
23
23
14
3,271,110
4,327,545
5,750,543
15,078,7071
8,868,2182
2.757.295
1,484,813
324,254
3,154,641
13,746,5541
10,703,7692
5.006.090
5,236,751
4,720,399
9,297,931
30,577,4231
20,673,5642
8.652.801
10,370,526
11,616,283
14,272,760
43,276,1951
27,379,7262
14.321.712
159,432
43,449
Prince Rupert (Interior).
Prince George	
Kamloops -	
54,053
226,369
140,586
71,331
Totals           	
77         1    40.053.418
34,420,121
79,158,869
121,237,202
695,220
1 Area of 23 units, plus Prince George part of Chilko P.S.Y.U.
2 Area of 23 units, including Kamloops part of Chilko P.S.Y.U.
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
(51) DURING YEARS  1968 AND  1969 IN CUBIC FEET
Forest District
10-year
Average,
1960-69
1968
1969
Increase
Decrease
Net
Increase
732,263,139
111,201,018
858,050,382
126.771.774
845,336,234
149.076.083
22,304,309
12,714,148
Totals, Coast	
843,464,157 |     984,822,156 |     994,412,317
22,304,309 |    12,714,148  |      9,590,161
74,583,901
212,520,625
229,457,356
139,884,220
105,535,580
274,080,612
218,461,023
119,555,481
117,515,468
333,228,284
262,700,510
182,195,653
11,979,888
59,147,672
44,239,487
62,640,172
	
	
Totals, Interior	
656,446,102 |     717,632,696
895,639,915
178,007,219
	
178,007,219
1,499,910,259
1,702,454,852
1,890,052,232
187,597,380
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
63
(52)
SPECIES CUT, ALL PRODUCTS, 1969, IN CUBIC FEET
Forest District
Fir
Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
Vancouver -	
Prince Rupert (C.)..
208,545,627
4,553,413
175,351,447
25,924,625
14,170,223
30,581,199
138,762
424,640
290,192,855
67,005,788
131,722,919
15,291,728
4,796,995
Totals, Coast
213,099,040|   201,276,072
44,751,422|          563,402
357,198,643|   147,014,647
4,796,995
Prince Rupert (I.)._.
Prince George 	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
102,948|       8,032,772
25,926,925           834,545
116,980,786       11,189,184
22,720,5741     24,524,969
34,279,152
205,433,123
73,259,191
63,558,621
19,619,565
82,809,109
26,205,119
13,111,693
36,005,4881     16,244,047
91,129      16,003,830
8,370,978|     14,300,145
22,256,136      16,697,755
24,629
2,065,338
4,877,124
Totals, Interior
165,731,233|     44,581,470
376,530,087
141,745,486
66,723,7311     63,245,777[       6,967,091
Grand totals
378,830,273
245,857,542
421,281,509
142,308,888
423,922,374
210,260,424
11,764,086
Forest District
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
12,010
13,669,114
495,703
1,411,504
30,187
3.518.119
1.806.659
845,336,234
Prince Rupert (C.)..
4.768.8001 	
149,076,083
8.286.919
12,010)     14,164,817
1,441,691
1.806.6591   994.412.317
Prince Rupert (I.)
52,587
82,612
233,926
24,690
3,178,909
2,022,382
266,415
117,515,468
Prince George
7,532,176
1,352,086
878847262
333,228,284
Kamloops	
	
2,297,252
12,507,369
262,700,510
Nelson 	
564,636
- 	
182,195,653
14,804,621
393,815
6,032,342|  ....
895,639,915
Grand totals
8,896,2721     14,164,817
1
14,804,621
1,835,506
14,319,261[       1,806,659| 1,890,052,232
1                       1
(53)
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN  1969 IN CUBIC FEET
(SEGREGATED BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Timber licences	
Timber berths	
Timber leases	
Pulp leases 	
Pulp licences 	
Farm wood-lots	
Timber sales	
Tree-farm licences ...
Beachcomb, trespass
No mark visible	
Miscellaneous	
Sub-totals, Crown
lands	
Federal lands	
Crown grants—
To 1887	
1887-1906.	
1906-14 	
1914 to date 	
Totals....	
140,612,614
14,511,209
39,233,916
37,290,016
8,620,549
104,489
180,939,115
130,949,754
8,485,931
47,528,727
596,294
36,544,097
3,746,045
9,387,634
43,036,618   55,888,611
44,906,3331 47,758,521
4,917,264|    3,179,879
608,872,614j 142,537,991 106,827,011
7,892,109;    2,097,420!     1,794,958
190,775,170| 19,123
11,824,675) 490,294) 201,509
4,218,422| 1,257,789, 3,105,368
21,843,244] 2,673,466] 5,586,622
845,336,234! 149,076,083] 117,515,468
4,634,255
4,679,782
11,111,230
7,011,645
4,323,075
151,450 9,972
277,872,089     176,532,093
11,882,679!      16,023,192
22,568
94,628,782
50,725,431
17,132,926]       7,941,542
5,352,303
193,482,393
29,945,514
39,233,916
41,036,061
18,008,183
288,479
828,897,308
302,245,910
8,485,931
47,528,727
39,120,208
311,673,399)   216,297,811 162,063,804)  1,548,272,630
1,466,795)       5,099,888)       118,248|       18,379,418
65,301
10,250,149
1
2,058,027|
203,167,770
55,389
3,161,369
9,577,550]
25,310,786
2,760,835
5,922,582
2,244,079)
19,509,075
17,206,565
21,968,711
6,133,945|
75,412,553
333,228,284]   262,700,510] 182,195,653]  1,890,052,232
 64
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1969
LOGGING INSPECTIONS,  1969
67
Type of Tenure Operated
Number of Inspections Made
Forest District
Timber
Sale
Licences
Cutting
Permits
(Tree-farm
Licences,
Farm
Wood-lot
Licences,
and
Timber Sale
Harvesting
Licences)
Leases,
Licences,
Crown
Grants,
and
Other
Tenures
Total
Timber
Sale
Licences
and
Cutting
Permits
Other
Tenures
Total
848
325
1,107
646
585
218
222
109
195
132
1,769
642
2,554
1,114
1,279
2,835
1,189
3,770
1,955
1,996
2,709
1,647
7,161
4,047
1,954
2,741
849
973
2,682
1,437
5,450
2,496
8,134
6,729
3,391
Totals, 1969	
3,511
876
7,358
11,745
17,518
8,682
26,200
Totals, 1968	
4,719
(!)
7,758
12,477
17,480    |    10,092
27,572
Totals, 1967	
5,118    |         (1)         |    7,431
12,549
17,663    | ,    9,488
27,151
Totals, 1966	
5,566
(J)
6,174
11,740
18,593    |     9,576
28,169
Totals, 1965	
6,231
C1)
6,514
12,745
17,869    |      6,365
24,234
Totals, 1964	
6,557
w
6,560
13,117
17,789    |    13,311
31,100
Totals, 1963-.-.-	
6,926
(!)
7,168
14,094
18,021    |      7,189
25,210
Totals, 1962	
7,079
C1)
6,645
13,724
18,602    |      6,353
24,955
Totals, 1961	
7,088
C1)
6,463
13,551
18,330    |      6,242
24,572
Totals, 1960	
7,249
(!)
5,120
12,369
(2)              (2)
26,151
Ten-year average, 1960-69
	
6,719
12,811
	
26,531
i Figures not available prior to 1969.
2 No breakdown made prior to 1961.
 68
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES,  1969
69
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(M C.F.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords)
Car Stakes,
Ties, Posts,
Shakes,
Etc.
(No.)
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George ..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals, 1969.
Totals, 1968 .
Totals, 1967-
Totals, 1966-
Totals, 1965..
Totals, 1964..
Totals, 1963-
Totals, 1962-
Totals, 1961..
Totals, 1960 _
Ten-year average, 1960-69..
323
78
163
95
73
732
890
848
998
1,357
1,709
1,862
1,871
1,892
2,122
1,428
43,226
16,379
102,043
34,058
37,785
233,491
314,595
310,325
361,021
496,254
661,821
716,699
615,500
720,144
767,351
519,720
84,889
72,135
186,800
53,779
47,523
445,126
673,885
549,807
679,486
951,995
1,107,428
1,165,976
921,710
1,027,243
1,142,479
866,514
10,000
5,300
7,207
3,520
500
1,375
790
5,745,920
121,200
141,000
39,812
2,608,000
15,300
13,392
2,910,012
3,269,400
6,769
704,950
6,014,850
12,352
319,450
3,674,100
25,675
837,244
2,650,400
7,616
987,100
2,944,004
25,154
478,520
3,887,525
32,519
656,680
18,508,084
19,340
564,865
7,687,920
14,798
1,419,285
8,807,614
29,050
1,419,179
18,667
1,029,729
(60)
TIMBER-SALE LICENCE RECORD,  1969
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total
Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest
Protection
Tax (Acres)
Total
Security
Deposit
Vancouver 	
297
71
177
133
61
291
222
193
292
81
1,000
343
825
997
396
352,205
137,037
454,085
628,756
424,769
330,824
118,886
389,854
598,635
402,284
$4,588,150.86
762,643.48
3,374,324.62
3,066,831.10
1,903,220.51
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals  _	
739
588
1,079
3,561
1,996,852            1,840,483
       |
$13,695,170.57
1,327
       1       	
 r
70
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 76 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(67) EXPORT OF LOGS (IN F.B.M.), 1969
Species
Grade
No. 1
Grade
No. 2
Grade
No. 3
Ungraded
and
Lumber
Reject
Total
Exportable!
Exported
under
Permits
Fir _.. 	
Cedar 	
2,882
200,903
795,530
2,148,096
472,204
839,809
4,190,037
9,249,773
2,388,762
5,751,244
17,894,864
60,760,109
2,863,848
6,791,956
22,880,431
72,157,978
30,163,252
1,894,422
15,240,195
78,432
3,577,130
1
1,764,422 |       1,099,426
3.046.543   1       3.745.411
3,108,412
33,095,020
10,849,488
1,424,057
19,772,019
Hemlock -	
30,163,252
39,062,958
19,313 764
19.401
696.828
1,178,193
12,345,410
3,306,322
470,365
Cypress -	
352,783 ]    2,542,002
73,377 ]       197,431
78,432
8,027,341
78,432
2.538.377
7,212,854
1 038 751
Totals, 1969 .
3,592,972 |   18,188,084
103,624,904
30,241,684
155,647,644
63,932,092
91,715,552
Totals, 1968 ._
21,717,373 j  26,897,011
120,670,517
16,173,878
185,458,779
97,590,782
87,867,997
Totals, 1967 —
12,128,244 | 41,320,799
128,995,437
20,972,835
203,417,315
68,513,476
134,903,839
Totals, 1966 ...
9,751,031  | 27,322,739
88,001,394
16,931,247
142,006,411
44,092,921
97,913,490
Totals, 1965 ..
3,355,224 |   10,766,201
35,846,770
8,640,629
58,608,824
38,753,555
19,855,269
Totals, 1964 .
3,748,377 |   14,590,533
30,789,610
3,825,697
52,954,217
28,446,668
24,507,549
Totals, 1963
3,468,986 i   16,149,811
62,790,^i0
10,382,520
92,791,527
51,109,835
41,681,692
Totals, 1962
3,773,734 |   11,215,447
46,151,663
13,839,528
74,980,372
44,255,041
30,725,331
Totals, 1961
9,216,534 | 28,611,982
48,009,763
15,513,919
101,352,198
31,272,030
70,080,168
Totals, 1960
1,391,803  I    5,351,398
20,872,330
12,695,679
40,311,210
28,299,271
12,011,939
Ten-year average, 1960-69
1
7,214,428 j 20,041,400
1
68,575,260
14,921,762
110,752,850
49,626,567
61,126,283
1 Export privilege—exported from lands Crown-granted prior to March 13, 1906.
2 Exported under permit from Crown lands and lands granted after March 12, 1906, under authority of section 97 of Forest Act.
(68)
SHIPMENTS OF POLES AND OTHER MINOR PRODUCTS,  1969
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where Marketed
Forest District and Produc
Canada
United
States
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Jin. ft.
6,208,314
2,132,155
455
21,147,566
17,837
221,994
336,050
301,800
2,420
30,066
14,361
482,630
11,620
191
69,952
371,005
150,376
267,246
206
120
22
1,169,820
562,912
325,062
5,360
$1,589,555.00
424,293.00
70.00
2,960,659.00
32,988.00
4,883,868.00
184,827.50
176,100.00
1,210.00
14,676.50
148,636.35
313,709.50
5,229.00
8,595.00
48,756.40
190,462.30
36,090.24
5,344.92
14,008.00
5,400.00
426.80
795,477.60
365,892.80
29,255.40
42,880.00
76,865
59,945
4,042,648
21,100
455
20,705,741
17,487
221,994
134,420
47,800
2,088,801
Piling	
pieces
2,051,110
Fence-posts	
220,825
350
221,000
Prince Rupert—
..lin. ft.
201,630
254,000
2,420
30,066
14,361
98,350
11,620
4,760
247,930
150,376
193,288
52
120
7
84,420
539,059
5,360
Prince George—
pieces
Piling	
Kamloops—
..lin. ft.
384,280
Piling	
191
64,892
123,075
pieces
lin. ft.
cords
Nelson—
73,958
154
Shake and shingle bolts 	
-     -
15
1,085,400
23,853
325,062
Christmas trees	
pieces
... units
	
Pulp chips.	
	
Total value, 1969	
     | $12,278,411.31
 	
Total value, 1968	
	
$9,377,521.35
	
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
77
(69)
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED, 1960-69
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
10-year
Average,
1960-69
Old Crown grants	
Crown grants, 1887-
1906	
315
115
123
517
116
1
4
15
2,136
113
1
	
268
121
121
470
117
3
4
8
2,141
91
5
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300
150
164
589
109
9
12
20
1,991
90
5
2
313
125
161
608
141
13
12
18
2,183
97
356
148
164
672
149
7
9
27
2,281
121
328
150
172
649
133
8
14
24
1,614
153
3
341
130
144
679
63
3
10
27
20
1,126
117
12
4
277
147
163
680
61
6
4
11
214
1,149
95
4
1
328
173
190
805
48
9
1
24
347
1,241
101
5
1
361
159
203
781
48
13
11
30
502
1,327
143
2
2
319
142
Crown grants, 1906-
1914	
Section 58, Forest Act
Stumpage reservations
161
645
98
7
Timber berths	
Indian reserves	
Section 24, Forest Act
8
20
108
1,719
Special marks and
rights-of-way	
Pulp-leases	
112
4
1
Totals	
3,456
3,349
3,441
3,671
3,934
3,248
2,676
2,812
3,273
3,582
3,344
Transfers and changes
794
691
809
725
802
740
908
593
773
554
739
(70)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED, 1969
Forest District
Number
of Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
Kamloops	
1,188
451
374
5
142,937
23,045
14,450
147
3,126
1,043
1,358
18
4,192
666
248
Totals, 1969
2,018
180,579
5,545
5,106
Totals, 1968	
2,053
188,183
6,338
7,090
Tot?'*, 1967
2,114
188,126
6,837
6,272
Totals, 1066
2,244
189,286
6,572
8,970
Totals, 1965
2,218
188,339
6,677
12,509
Totals, 1964
2,104
173,677
6,231
22,478
Totals, 1963 _.. ..    -
1,951
158,840
5,860
25,366
Totals, 1962 _	
1,924
146,830
5,007
23,370
Totals; IQfif
1,825
132,749
4,985
21,309
Totals, 1960	
1,726
127,148
4,504
19,460
 78
(102)
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS, 1969
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert	
2
5
13
7
9
5
93
91
118
172
34
71
103
109
323
110
95
48
89
154
90
60
19
54
157
159
30
3
1
43
46
2
1
1
1
351
273
377
872
445
15.1
11.8
16.3
Kamloops	
37.6
19.2
Totals	
20
21
508
716
476
449
123
5
2,318
100.0
0.8
0.9
21.9
30.9
20.5
19.5
5.3
0.2
100.0
Ten-year average,
1960-69 	
25
69
307
374
672
620
168
22
2,257
Per cent 	
1.1
3.1
13.6
16.6
29.8
27.5
7.4
0.9
100.0
(103)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES, 1969
Forest District
60
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48
39
43
82
16
13
58
1
47
4
351
15.1
Prince Rupert   	
48
31
9
44
28
8
19
34
3
47
2
273
11.8
109
38
16
43
41
36
8
35
2
45
4
377
16.3
Kamloops 	
233
48
111
142
41
84
12
56
12
124
9
872
37.6
Nelson	
208
32
59
63
7
23
1
50
2
445
19.2
Totals 	
646
188
238
374
133
128
52
206
19
313
21
2,318
100.0
27.9
8.1
10.3
16.1
5.8
5.5
2.2
8.9
0.8
13.5
0.9
100.0
	
Ten-year average,
1960-69	
831
221
163
271
95
116
51
163
36
263
47
2,257
36.8
9.8
7.2
12.0
4.2
5.1
2.3
7.2
1.6
11.7
2.1
100.0
(104)    NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE LAST 10 YEARS
Causes
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
Total
1,166
241
245
257
82
87
36
137
54
271
59
1,426
269
154
336
86
179
36
194
49
290
83
615
182
41
162
60
62
35
109
25
183
62
1,144
221
65
220
82
95
24
141
62
250
41
277
144
51
129
66
79
11
81
45
178
59
1,000
315
89
310
89
193
89
223
24
309
44
374
230
170
281
156
149
101
164
14
292
36
958
288
455
464
128
138
93
248
42
348
54
708
131
121
179
65
53
34
126
23
193
14
1
646      8.314
188
238
374
133
128
52
206
19
313
21
2,209
Railroads operating	
1,629
2,712
947
1,163
511
Brush-burning (not railway or right-
of-way clearing)	
Road,  power-,  telephone-,  and  pipe-
Industrial operations (logging, etc.)
Incendiary	
Miscellaneous known causes	
Unknown causes	
1,629
357
2,627
473
Totals	
2,635
3,102
1,536
2,345
1,120
2,685
1,967
3,216
1,647
2,318 |22,571
1
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
79
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REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS, 1969
Forest District
Forest
Products
Cut, Logs,
Lumber,
Etc
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of
Total
$184,221
103,903
17,094
18,384
58,785
$50
150
1,600
29,600
4,650
$103,980
79,388
400
7,600
4,500
$1,470
13,717
700
32,285
700
$289,721
197,158
19,794
87,869
68,635
43.7
29.7
Prince George  	
3.0
13.2
Nelson	
10.4
Totals	
$382,387             $36,050      |    $195,868
$48,872      |    $663,177
100.0
57.7      |               5.4      |             29.5
7.4      i          100.0           	
Ten-year average, 1960-69
$151,000      |      $40,704      |    $163,664
$31,758      |    $387,126      |     	
39.0      1             10.5      1            42.3
8.2
100.0
DAMAGE TO FOREST COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES,
(107)—Parti 1969—PART I1
Merchantable Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
Net
Stumpage
Loss
Net Area
Killed
Present
Value
Vancouver- _
Acres
394
63,479
9,901
12,108
1,320
M Cu. Ft.
2,655
111,803
21,698
19,729
2,262
M Cu. Ft.
1,774
1,930
8,748
8,293
754
$
99,548
3,463,740
486,342
330,624
66,269
Acres
391
2,202
73,081
11,457
2,491
$
16,139
59,590
1,809,410
Kamloops.	
270,080
72,651
Totals	
87,202
158,147
21,499
4,446,5231    |      90,622
2,227,8701
21.5      |         100.0      ]          13.6
65.6       j           22.3       ]             32.8
Ten-year average, 1960-69
49,979      j      90,221      |      33,871
1,856,971      !      58,749      |  1,374,563
18.8
100.0
37.5
52.8
22.1
39.1
i The dollar value of  losses in merchantable and immature timber represents only stumpage loss to the
Crown.   Actual payroll loss to the Province is 10 times these figures.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
81
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 84
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ON
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 (Ill)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
AREAS OF LOGGING SLASH DISPOSED, 1969
85
Forest District
Acres Abated
by Industry
Acres Abated
by Forest
Service
Total
44,450
7,626
2,355
5,301
3,461
44,450
1,440
1,830
634
1,477
8,066
3,885
5,935
4,938
Total	
59,732
5,381
67,274
(141)
FOREST REVENUE, 1965-69
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1965
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1966
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1967
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1968
12 months
to Dec. 31,
1969
Timber-licence rentals and
fees	
Timber-berth rentals and fees
Timber-lease rentals and fees
Timber-sale rentals and fees
Timber-sale stumpage -	
Timber-sale cruising and advertising 	
Timber royalties	
Grazing permits and fees ....
Forest protection tax	
Miscellaneous -	
Weight scaling ___ -	
Totals	
$720,919.31
15,024.33
86,230.58
765,651.17
42,031,437.70
325,847.00
2,629,476.11
151,079.95
559,007.55
273,738.16
I
$771,170.84
14,368.5z
106,852.12
948,568.96
42,643,936.30
223,236.17
3,079,058.68
153,507.63
570,202.65
245,350.02
212,275.98
$825,100.86
13,436.63
76,121.31
881,812.16
34,732,239.51
229,857.61
3,509,720.06
310,718.84
579,928.17
394,388.82
396,894.14
$47,558,411.86     $48,968,527.87 I $41,950,218.11
$676,038.52
141,074.38
87,083.55
899,849.28
44,390,570.94
250,745.80
4,954,555.27
350,351.93
947,389.12
473,324.50
635,742.30
$703,048.63
128,103.62
90,500.60
882,229.95
78,293,115.07
213,844.25
6,329,417.22
384,123.83
993,509.64
428,260.52
1,033,160.25
$53,806,725.59
$89,479,313.58
 86
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
On
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OOOOOOOO
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969
87
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 88
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(144)
FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1968/69
Timber-licence rentals and fees .
Timber-berth rentals and fees	
Timber-lease rentals and fees _
Timber-sale rentals and fees	
Timber-sale stumpage
Timber-sale cruising and advertising .
Timber royalties	
Grazing permits and fees	
Forest protection tax	
Miscellaneous    	
Weight scaling   	
$691
187.
100
952
53,853
226
5,509
374
1,118
460
844
,742.55
028.81
,687.37
,363.63
,720.57
,357.34
.684.03
324.29
,005.91
,015.73
,845.16
Total.
$64,318,775.39
(145)
FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1968/69
Reforestation and forest nurseries
Forest research	
Public information and education .
Forest Service training-school	
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association .
General administration, protection, and management of forests  $15,496,478.78
717.25
198.52
679.83
371.03
500.00
Engineering services and forest-development roads       3,478,279.54
422.76
474.97
414.34
018.55
000.00
934.73
Fire suppression 	
Forest inventory	
Silviculture 	
Grazing Range Improvement Fundl	
Peace River community pastures 	
Forestry and Correction Camp Programme .
Total	
1,705,'
159,
62,(
126,:
17,:
1,209,'
844,-
1,408,.
174,1
20,t
12,!
$24,715,490.30
1 Statement provided elsewhere.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1969 89
(146) SCALING FUND
Deficit, April 1, 1968        $141,098.59
Collections, fiscal year 1968/69          2,287,875.54
$2,146,776.95
Expenditures, fiscal year 1968/69      2,379,891.27
Deficit, March 31, 1969           $233,114.32
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1969  __      1,914,797.14
$1,681,682.82
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1969       1,936,684.14
Deficit, December 31, 1969       $255,001.32
(147) GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Surplus, April 1, 1968  $1,930.57
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act)          177,584.11
$179,514.68
Expenditures, fiscal year 1968/69  _       174,018.55
Surplus, March 31, 1969 ....  $5,496.13
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act)         187,162.14
$192,658.27
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1969         118,178.11
Surplus, December 31, 1969         $74,480.16
(14S) PEACE RIVER POWER TIMBER SALVAGE
Expenditures, fiscal year 1968/69  $2,491,773.32
Recovered from British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority     1,000,000.00
Balance   $1,491,773.32
 90 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(151) DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1969
Personnel
Vancouver!
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant Chief
Foresters	
2
13
3
105
15
133
27
6
5
96
8
43
17
37
10
3
14
2
9
1
2
73
1
27
2
1
3
32
4
8
33
3
2
11
2
16
2
2
109
65
6
6
40
7
44
1
4
2
2
14
6
1
1
125
3
3
41
1
6
4
6
34
5
47
3
3
10
2
11
2
2
2
118
26
3
4
26
4
26
2
3
4
8
3
102
29
5
34
7
21
3
40
8
30
104
72
2
17
27
23
135
4
8
3
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters
10
165
Agrologists and Agrologists-in-Training	
10
33
15
564
18
163
Scalers, Official, temporary...	
160
8
44
3
45
8
Draughtsmen and Mapping Assistants -
54
332
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Maintenance Depot.	
8
135
27
204
46
35
175
537
214
306
315
231
674
2,277
Seasonally Employed
8
4
32
4
54
5
21
1
3
18
23
1
4
1
5
10
32
3
20
8
2
2
6
6
32
4
69
4
22
10
70
1
1
41
6
44
5
7
1
85
2
1
1,966
35
73
84
106
.   273
27
5
161
18
187
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc.—	
1,971
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineering Aides
116
95
Miscellaneous 3 _	
457
150
34
83
217
191
2,540
3,215
687
248
389
532
422
3,214
5,492
1 Includes Vancouver Scaling and Forest Service Maintenance Depot.
2 Includes Stockmen, Cooks, Flunkeys, Key Punch and Data-processing Operators, Photographers, Programmer Analysts, Building Service Workers, Watchmen, Mechanics, Launch Captains and Crew, Property
Negotiators, Utilitymen, and Painters and Labourers.
3 Includes Bridgemen, Powdermen, Carpenters, Power-saw Operators. Launch Crew, Mechanics, Watchmen,
Rock Drillers, Cooks, Flunkeys, Timekeepers, Construction Accountants, Painters, and Labourers.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1970
2,500-270-1732
 90 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(151) DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1969
Personnel
Vancouver!
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant Chief
Foresters	
2
13
3
105
15
133
27
6
5
96
8
43
17
37
10
3
14
2
9
1
2
73
1
27
2
1
3
32
4
8
33
3
2
11
2
16
2
2
109
65
6
6
40
7
44
1
4
2
2
14
6
1
1
125
3
3
41
1
6
4
6
34
5
47
3
3
10
2
11
2
2
2
118
26
3
4
26
4
26
2
3
4
8
3
102
29
5
34
7
21
3
40
8
30
104
72
2
17
27
23
135
4
8
3
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters
10
165
Agrologists and Agrologists-in-Training	
10
33
15
564
18
163
Scalers, Official, temporary...	
160
8
44
3
45
8
Draughtsmen and Mapping Assistants -
54
332
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Maintenance Depot.	
8
135
27
204
46
35
175
537
214
306
315
231
674
2,277
Seasonally Employed
8
4
32
4
54
5
21
1
3
18
23
1
4
1
5
10
32
3
20
8
2
2
6
6
32
4
69
4
22
10
70
1
1
41
6
44
5
7
1
85
2
1
1,966
35
73
84
106
.   273
27
5
161
18
187
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc.—	
1,971
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineering Aides
116
95
Miscellaneous3 _	
457
150
34
83
217
191
2,540
3,215
687
248
389
532
422
3,214
5,492
1 Includes Vancouver Scaling and Forest Service Maintenance Depot.
2 Includes Stockmen, Cooks, Flunkeys, Key Punch and Data-processing Operators, Photographers, Programmer Analysts, Building Service Workers, Watchmen, Mechanics, Launch Captains and Crew, Property
Negotiators, Utilitymen, and Painters and Labourers.
3 Includes Bridgemen, Powdermen, Carpenters, Power-saw Operators. Launch Crew, Mechanics, Watchmen,
Rock Drillers, Cooks, Flunkeys, Timekeepers, Construction Accountants, Painters, and Labourers.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1970
2,500-270-1732

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