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1981 Annual Report Ministry of Agriculture and Food British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1982

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Annual Report
histry of Agriculture and Food
Province of British Columbia
(ILB.C. 1982
 British Columbia Cataloguing in Publication Data
British Columbia.    Ministry of Agriculture and Food.
Annual report.—1980—
Cover title.
Continues: British Columbia.    Ministry of Agriculture.
Annual report.    ISSN 0702-9993
ISSN 0710-8664 = Annual report—Ministry of Agriculture and Food (Victoria)
1. British Columbia.    Ministry of Agriculture and
Food.    2. Agriculture British Columbia—Periodicals.
S141.B76   * 354.7110682'33
 Ministry of Agriculture andFood—1981 Annual Report
To Colonel the Honourable
Lieutenant-Governor of the
Province of British (Sojumbia
I have the honour to submit for your consideration the Annual Report of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food for the year 1981.
James J. Hewitt
Minister of Agriculture and Food
  Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Table of
Report of the Deputy Minister of
Agriculture and Food
Organization Chart 6
Ministry Executive and Directors 1981 7
Agriculture Review 9
Policy Development and Planning 12
Executive Officer 13
Finance/and Administration Services 14
Information Services Branch 15
KSistant Deputy Minister
jljielcl Operations
Regional Extension Services 20
Peace River 20
Central 22
Thompson-Cariboo 24
Okanagan-Kootenay 26
South Coastal 28
Specialist and Regulatory Services
Crop Protection
Youth Development
Production Services
Farmland Resources
Field Crops
Assistant Deputy Minister
Economics and Marketing
Marketing 66
Economics 70
Assistant Deputy Minister
Financial Assistance Programs
Agriculture and Rural Development 78
Agricultural Credit 80
Crop Insurance 82
Farm Income Insurance 84
Farm Products Finance 85
Property Management 87
Legislation Administered by Ministry 89
Ministry Office Locations 91
  Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
the Honourable James J. Hewitt,
lister of Agriculture and Food
\m pleased to present the 1981 annual report
ifie British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture
r Food. This report summarizes activities of
v ministry for the 12 months ending Decem-
■(31, 1981.
many respects, 1981 can be described as a
I of challenge. All sectors of the agricultiSrajj
cmunity faced these challenges as a result of
ijply increasing production costs in the face of
fa erratic or decreasing commodity prices and
inually adverse weather conditions early in the
:U/ing season. Despite good yields in some sec-
oi the agricultural economy mirrored the gen-
Tieconomic climate across the counHfcvhich
airecord high interest rates and the effects of
llnon erode to some extent the advancement
rf e province's food production system. Nev-
Srtiless, the provincial agriculture and food in-
iu-y continued to progress as a result of pro-
luir perseverance and government commit-
rut to the goal of full utilization of our
igiultural resources.
pldressing the adversities required ingenuity
tfi'innovative programmes by your ministry
fa In conjunction with the agricultural com-
WM staff implemented these programs to
rtmize the negative economic effects and max-
5»i the positive conditions by exploiting those
^modifies and markets in which we have a
SWrarative advantage. To this end, the ministry
Report of the
Deputy Minister
made good progress in developing new programs
to meet thaBanagement and financial needs of
B.C. farmers—several second generation commodity plans were added to the farm income
insurance program, new equipment at several of
the ministry's laboratories enabled farmers to
make use of advanced technology in maintaining
milk quality and determining soil deficiencies, a
swine herd health program was formulated and
implemented for hog producers, and an extensive weed control and public relations program
was mounted toymiimize the spread of harmful
plants such as knapweed—to mention only a few
of the many ministry accomplishments of note.
1981 also marked the first full year of regional
programming and adrrJiEigfiation: although some
ttgnning will continue to be needed, regional planning and program delivery worked well in dealing
Iwitn the unique agricultural character and needs
of farmers in each region.
Your stjSfJ|>ntinued to work with diligence and
dedication in carrying out the wide variety of
ministry programs thus ensuring that British Columbia farmers had the latest in cultural and management techniques at their disposal.
Respectfully submitted,
S. B. Peterson,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Food
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Organization Chart
Province of British Columbia
Ministry of Agriculture and Food
—   Vetennary - Brands
Farm Business
& Regional
Farm Finance
-j      General Office
& Data Processing
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
linistry Executive
ImSter Hon. James J. Hewitt
Lputy Minister S. B. Peterson
distant Deputy Minister Economics and Marketing; Dr. G. A. MacEachern
fsistant Deputy Minister Financial Assistance Programs I. C. Carne
■sistant Deputy Minister Field Operations E. M. King
lecutive Director Finance and Administration J. Newman
fecutive Director Policy Development and Planning D. M. Matviw
Eecutive Director Production Services M. G. Oswell
Eecutive Director Specialist and Regulatory Services R. J. Miller
-jional Director Central R. N. Kohlert
rjional Director Okanagan-Kootenay B. A. Hodge
Fjional Director Peace River B. E. Baehr
->jional Director Thompson-Caribm A. N. Isfeld
ijional Director South Coastal W. E. A. Wickens
SStlture and Rural Development J. R. Steele
^cultural Credit M. K. Thompson
^culture J. Corner
insurance P. R. Humphry-Baker
:>p Protection Dr. H. J. O'Reilly (retired June/81)
J. C. Arrand (appointed July/81)
ry... D.J Blair
Kmics B. A. Hackett (until Oct/81)
lineering T A. Windt
jHrave Officer P. H. Pettyfer
jffljinance Programs (Coordinator) J. E. Hall (retired June/81)
B. A. Hackett (appointed Oct/81)
tin Income Insurance ! S. Thomson (resigned Oct/81)
;m Products Finance J. B. Phillips
inland Resources J. D. Anderson
id Crops J V Zacharias
jjmtlture     A. C. Carter
nrmation Services  R. A. Sera
]»>ck J. A. Pelter
tang D. A. Rugg
WW Dr H. C. Carlson
foerty Management B. R. Richardson
|S. R. S. Bertrand
Urinary Dr. R. J. Avery
ftth Development D. E. Freed
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Distribution of Farm Cash Receipts,
Cattle & cal
/\.     Other farm 1    oilseeds
/           \ cash receipts!      'I'd
/                 \    7.3%       1                 /
/          Poultry and eggs        \       1      /
/                   16.3%                  \    1    /    /
$881 7 million
.s     /\.
Fruits            \
10.0%            \
Special crops,
including        j
floriculture &      /
nursery crops    /
\9.8%          /
ves              /
\                 Dairy produce       /         \
\                    21.9%            /          \
N.                           /     Hogs    \
\                    /    5.8%    \
Fable I   Distribution of Farm Cash
1981—British Columbia
$ Million
Per Cei
Grain and oilseeds
Specialty crops, including floriculture and nursery crops
Cattle and calves
Dairy products
Poultry and eggs
Other farm cash receipts
Source: Statistics Canada, January 1982
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
981 Agricultural
{irm Cash Receipts
ables I and II)
liHTJsh Columbia's farmers continued to pro-
j:e and market an increasing volume of farm
: ducts in 1981. Farm cash receipts rose to a
n.< high level of $884.7 million, 18.6 per cent
jive that recorded in 1980.
'ash receipts from field crops rose to $63.1
nion, a 20 persGeriWincrease from the year
bore. Under the stimulus of rising prices, sigraflp
11 expansion occurred in the acreage and out-
p of grains that more than offset reduced plant-
15 of oilseed caused by a depressed price
d look for that commodity.
>ry late summer and fall weather conditions in
i Peace Region, which reduced yields of later
ids, resulted in improvements in the quality of
jn marketed. Cash receipts from vegetables
Beased by 13.7 per cent, despite declines in
iduction caused by extensive weather damage
me Lower Mainland. Higher prices were pri-
Tily responsible for the increased receipts. Pes' prices in particular recovered significantly
SnTtheir levels of the previous year. Fruit sales
nsased by 4.7 per cent, reflecting some in-
aise in production, especially of berry crops,
vie receipts from greenhouse and nursery
ids increased by 14.3 per cent, due mainly to
wer prices.
ales of livestock and livestock products, which
aount for more than half of all the farm cash
teipts, grew to an estimated $542.5 million, an
paaase of 16 per cent from the 1980 level. As in
l'O, cash receipts from hog sales rose substantia/—by 66.3 per cent—to $50.9 million, due
pnarily to increased marketings, as well as to
firer prices stemming from buoyant demand by
scsumers faced with continuing high beef
i ash receipts from poultry also improved
Enkedly—by 24.4 per cent—due to higher
pr:s to producers and the shifting of consumer
m and. Cash receipts from dairy products im-
pred by 11.5 per cent to reach an estimated
Wl.l million, largely because of increases in
ETjs and to some extent an increase in produc-
$cin both the fluid and industrial milk sectors.
Farm Operating Expenses
(Table III)
The crjnlof farming continued to escalate in
1981. When compared with 1980, aggregate expenses rose at an even more rapid rate than the
Igorisumer pricamdex, reflecting increases in the
price and the volume of purchased inputs.
Whereas the Vancouver CPI increased by 14.0
per cent, farm production expenses climbed by
27 per cent to a total of $678.7 million. Significant
increases were noted'in farm rent—up by 12.8
per cent; fertilizer and lime—up by 18.3 per cent;
electricity and telephone—up by 21.3 per cent;
feed—up by 23.7 per cent and interest on farm
debt—up by 60.5 per cent.
The major factors in the increase in input costs
were energy and financing costs. The miriistEpIsi
Partial Interest Reimbursement Program afforded
farmers a measure of relief in servicing farm debt.
Operating under changed criteria in 1981, the
program paid $12.4 million in interest reimbursement benefits to farmers on 1980 loans.
Farmland and Number of
The area of cultivated farmlajnaliri British Columbia increased by 8,100 hectares in 1981, to a
total of 830,000 hectares. The total number of
agricultural holdings in 1981 remained stable at
20,800. The trend of increasing farm numbers in
the province was largely constrained by record
high interest rates which pushed up threshold
costs to new farmers.
Food Processing (Table IV)
As of December 1981, there were 590 firms
processing food and beverages in British Columbia, compared with 609 firms in the year before.
High interest rates and financial difficulties accounted for the closure of several establishments
during the year. The estimated value of agricultural commodities marketed by food and beverage manufacturing firms in the period January
to October 1981 reached a new high of $2,159
million—up by 14 per cent over the same period
a year earlier.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Retail Food Prices
British Columbia's retail food prices, in nominal            In real terms, however, British Columbia's m
terms, rose by 8.4 per cent in 1981. Major in-        food prices declined by 4.9 per cent. The deci
creases occurred in the prices of poultry—up by        was even greater in the real price of foogll
12.1 per cent; dairy products—up by 12.2 per        home consumption which dropped by 5.^
cent and fruit and vegetables—up by 9.5 per        cent in British Columbia.
Table II   British Columbia Farm Cash Receipts,
(Thousands of Dollars)
Per Cffl
+ 116..
+ lO.'
+ 15.
Crop insurance and cash advance
+ 33..
- 49.
+ 44.-
+ 4.
+ 13.
Horticulture and nursery
+ 14.
Other crops
+ 29.
+ 15.
Cattle and calves
+ 5.
+ 66.
Sheep and lambs
+ 5.
Dairy products
+ 11.
+ 24 i
+ 14.
+ 92.
Other livestock and products
+ 5.
+ 16.
Farm woodlot sales
- 14.
Farm income insurance
+ 403.
Dairy supplement payments
+ 7.
Deficiency payments
+ 1,2M
Miscellaneous payments
+ 150.
+ 18.
*Payments on grain embargo.
Source: Statistics Canada, January 1982.
Note: Totals may not add due to rounding.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
lble III   British Columbia Farm Operating Expenses
and Depreciation Charges
(Thousands of Dollars)
Per Cent
+ 7.3
Gross farm rent
+ 12.8
A/ages to farm labour
+ 7.0
Herest on indebtedness
+ 60.5
Total machinery expenses
+ 28.1
Utilizer and lime
+ 18.3
Other crop expenses
+ 8.2
I -eed
+ 23.7
1 IKber livestock expenses
+ 7.6
Repairs to buildings
+ 8.2
Ktricity and telephone
+ 21.3
+ 24.0
+ 27.0
depreciation on buildings
- 2.0
Depreciation on machinery
+ 12.6
+ 24.5
Iffie: Statisticgtpanada, January 1982.
I^of an adjustment of $12.4 million for Provincial interest reimbursement.
lble IV   Number of Food and Beverage Industries—
Columbia, 1981
aughtering and meat processors                  97
Biscuit and confectionary manufact
urers        19
[ffljtry processors                                          15
jg processors                                              20
sh products industry                                   93
Sugar and honey processors
t uit and vegetable canners, preservers and
Miscellaneous food processors
frozen fruit and vegetable processors          72
Soft drink manufacturers
11 liry products industry                                 38
3ur and breakfast cereal industry                 16
11 ed industry                                                 56
Sirce: Marketing Branch, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, January 1982.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Policy Development
and Planning
Policy Development and Planning Division is
responsible, within the ministry, for the development, analysis and evaluation of government policies and programs, and developing strategies for
the agriculture and food industry in the province.
The major emphasis of Policy Development
and Planning during 1981 was directed toward
long-term planning and the formulation of development strategy. The stimulus for this activity
came from the need to re-evaluate the opportunities and constraints facing the B.C. agriculture
and food sector in the coming decade, and to
review the ministry's policies and programs in
order to ensure that these reflect the challenges.
Future Trends
Various market factors point to an improvement in the competitiveness of agriculture in the
1980's. At the international level, a rapid increase
in consumer demand, resulting from rising world
populations and per capita incomes, will be a
major factor. At the local level, increases in
provincial population, rising incomes, increasing
tourism and continued industrial growth, are factors favouring growth.
Potential for an expansion of output exists in
livestock, grain, oilseeds, vegetables, soft fruits
and nursery crops. Lesser growth can be expected in dairy, poultry and tree fruits. Specific
opportunities for expanded production of frozen,
speciality and convenience foods are also
The ability of farmers and processors to intensify production will be hampered by large financial outlays, greater economic instability, a projected greater variability in prices, and land use
and environmental constraints.
Development Strategy
A preliminary development strategy was formulated, in which an industry outlook was projected, specific constraints were analyzed, and a
strategy—including a set of initial program initiatives—to enhance the position of the agriculture
and food sector in the economy, was develci
for explicit review by industry representatives!!
the general public. Preliminary work was 1
commenced on developing a conceptual frae-
work for undertaking sectoral and regional ltl
range strategies.
Project Analysis
The Policy Development and Planning fi
sion provided analytical support to the minia|
the regional level. Efforts were initiated to
hance the ability of the ministry to support
agricultural sector in resolving land allocatirf I
sues. Work was also commenced on analul
costs and benefits for various alternative fif
cultural activities throughout the province. I
A major activity arising from the project xe\|
function, consisted of the preparation of a 'I e
paper' entitled Agricultural ConsideratiorMi
the British Columbia Utilities Commission'src I
lie review of the B.C. Hydro's proposed hlf
electric project Site 'C in the Peace River Regs
This paper highlighted the impacts of thenf
posed project on the agricultural sector andr
eluded a summary of the project's physical
pacts, estimates of the potential economic HI
agriculture, and an indication of the possible m-
sures to compensate and mitigate project imps j
Work was also directed toward helping rests
problems impacting on the costs of farrnffljfl
British Columbia. In particular, the division
tinued to be actively involved in evalualg.
federal feed grain and grain transportatiofml
icies, as well as energy allocation andM
servation programs.
 Executive Officer
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
I The Executive Officer is responsible for the
L isolidation of legislative matters within the min-
ly. In 1981, 55 Orders-in-Council were promised relating to 18 Acts.
j The Executive Officer serves as secretary to the
■Eh Columbia Agricultural Aid to Developing
Knptries Advisory Committee which, during
1131, recommended support, in conjunction
Lh sponsorship by 24 charitable organizations,
i 62 projects and four disaster operations in 38
i this, the first year during which World Food
p was commemorated, the Executive Officer
ki the coordinator for British Columbia, which
lolved a great deal of organizational work
p ond normal activities. The activities on World
id Day, October 16, 1981, featured public
feints primarily in the Vancouver area. Univer-
Ei s, federal research stations, non-govemmen-
B>rganizations and schools played key roles in
pitJng public awareness of the event, which was
highlighted with visitations by ambassadors of
third-world countries.
The Executive Offt^mislalso responsible for the
administration of the ministry's policy of financial
assistance to agricultural associations. Under this
policy, operating grants were made to fair and
exhibition associations, to the Provincial
Women's Institute, district Farmers' Institutes and
others. As superintendent of Farmers' Institutes,
he provided liaison services for their members
with the ministry, and organized the annual meeting of the Farmers' Instif^gpAdvisory Board.
Additional duties of the Executive Officer included that oflsecretarv at senior management
meetings and secretary to the B.C. Agricultural
Services Coordinating Committee which, with assistance from its six lead committees, monitored
iagrieultural developments in the province and
encouraged the organization of seminars, workshops and research to identify and overcome
problems of importance to the agricultural
lierthe Agricultural Aid Program, $3,500 was allocated to a com production project in Peru designed to identify viruses causing
%Q- in com. Elimination of these diseases will increase com yields in Peru where over six million people depend on com as a
189 J food source.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Finance and
The Finance and Administration Division is responsible for finance, personnel, communications, building occupancy, mail and courier services, publications, vehicles and general administrative support for the ministry. The
major branches that comprise the division
are: Accounts, Personnel, Publications and
Each of the major services within the ministry is
accountable for the expenditures of a portion of
the ministry's budget. The budget allocation for
the 1981/82 fiscal year is shown in the following
Agriculture and Food:
Fiscal 1981-82
Budget Estimates
Minister's Office $     160,971
Deputy Minister's Office 1,091,714
Finance and Administration 1,736,900
Field Operations 10,809,073
Economics and Marketing Services    1,348,293
Financial Assistance Programs 46,458,103
Information Services 258,097
Milk Board 267,160
Provincial Agricultural
Land Commission 1,661,067
ICBC—Senior Citizens' Grant 6,130,000
Building Occupancy Charges 3,840,000
Computer and Consulting Charges       421,450
Less efficiencies achieved to
control government growth 1,025,000
Total $73,157,828
The Personnel Branch provides advisory service and assistance to management and em-
ployees on recruitment and selection, org|
tion and classification analysis, contract adf
istration, staff development and training, occe
tional health and safety, employee relationss
benefits, leave management and manpce
A total of 559 permanent staff, consisting c j
management personnel, 135 Licensed Pn£
sionals and 366 B.CG.E.U. members are Iocs
in the ministry's 33 offices and 3 institutional1|
locations throughout the province. Appp
imately 200 auxiliaries and 101 students wefl
staff during the 81/82 fiscal period to assist}]
ministry programs.
While the ministry staff establishmen e
mained relatively stable there was a signifii
increase in the number of competitions and els
fication reviews as the ministry continued tee
gionalize its programs. A total of 15 commd
coordinator positions were established in thee
regions to take lead roles in the developme «
extension programs for the particular commt j
in the regions.
Staff development and training activities a
increased in order to maintain highly quala
and skilled employees thoughout the minial
General Office and
Administration and Financial Services is jB]
responsible for the ministry's printing needs!
maintains close liaison with the ministry's 1!|
mation Services Branch in allocating fundjj
printed publications.
The general office responded to reques9l
Held offices for all stationery needs, office sup J
and office small equipment purchases. The y
lications office handled hundreds of requests 0
ing 1981 from the public, schools and go\B
ment agencies for ministry publications relattfe
agricultural and home garden production, a|
ited supply of federal agricultural publications!
also kept to supplement requests for informiM
whenever appropriate.
 nformation Services
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
HThe function of the Information Services
tianch is to act as the ministry's communications
in by providing communications expertise to
llministry specialists across the province, thus
Hlping them disseminate their experience and
lowledge to the farm community. The branch
ko develops public relations programs to create
I* awareness among the rural and urban com-
litnities, of the importance and significance of
pi's agriculture and food industry.
This function is carried out in two major
sieres of activity:
Ii technical information for the farm audience
\: public relations programs aimed at both the
\r rural and urban audiences.
Public Relations
A total of 43 news releases were prepared during the 1981 calendar year and sent to more than
1,500 recipients across Canada, most of whom
were in BritisnIColumbia. A total of 13 joint
Federal-Provincial news releases were also prepared to announce funding approval for projects
under the ARDSA program—Agriculture and
Rural Development Subsidiary Agreement.
Staff prepared agricultural information packages for use in reply to the most commonly asked
questions received by the branch. The branch's
series of eight Agrifact information bulletins were
also being revised at year-end to summarize the
Many ministry publications were printed for commercial producers and home gardeners.
All publications are available at ministry offices.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
agricultural industry in each of the five administrative regions.
In addition to the branch's normal advertising
program, special full-page advertisements were
prepared for insertion in certain issues of British
Columbia's farm magazine, Country Life. The
pages highlighted key ministry people or programs in specific areas of the province.
A major public relations campaign was
mounted to describe B.C.'s knapweed problem
and government efforts to control this prolific
weed. Large ads were designed and sent to
weekly and daily newspapers in regions having
knapweed infestations. A feature article and special photographs of both knapweed species were
sent to the same newspapers in support of the ad
campaign. A short film on B. C's knapweed problem was also completed by branch staff.
Numerous feature articles were
prepared or edited by branch staff
and sent to newspapers.
Branch staff helped the B.C. Federation of Agriculture with their Agriculture Week promotion,
held October 4-10,1981. Article ideas and photographs depicting the diversity and economic
benefits of B.C. agriculture within the provincial
economy were sent to Vancouver-area newspapers for special supplements.
Numerous feature articles were prepared or
edited by branch staff and sent to newspapers or
other agricultural publications in Canada and the
United States. These articles dealt with a range of
topics such as the ministry's financial assistance
programs, knapweed control efforts, the hazards
of raw milk consumption and the Oliver Test
Several slide-tape and film presentations were
prepared for promotional use. A seven-minute
film version of the popular slide-tape presentation
Food in Perspective was prepared and duplicated
for distribution to all regional offices and government film libraries.
Work began on a two-year film project to promote the British Columbia tree fruit industry.
A slide-tape presentation entitled Finding a
Balance, using a two-projector dissolve unit to
gain maximum impact was produced. The presentation, later dubbed to video-tape, described
the judicious use of chemical and non-chemical
methods of pest control in modern agriculture.
Technical Information
A total of 44 ministry publications were prm
or revised during 1981.
It was decided that the 1982 Productl
Guides would be converted to metric onhSI
though this required significant change tew
manuscripts, the conversion to metric unifj
made to coincide with the agricultural chemi!
industry's conversion to metric designations!
labels of chemical containers.
A revision to the ministry's Guide to AgricuB|
Services publication was in the late stages of m
aration at year end and was expected to be av
able in spring 1982 under the new title, B
cultural Services Guide.
The branch coordinates most of the factsrnl
published by branches throughout the minfil
The factsheets, designed primarily for theffl
audience, provide updated information onml
techniques in animal or crop production, finml
management and agricultural markets. (MJ
factsheets relate to product prices and home
dening. A total of 90 factsheets were issued duitj
the year.
The branch's media production centre at II
owna prepared several film and slide-tape presl
tations for use by the ministry specialist sffflg
extension activities. A short film on the raa
seeder equipment, designed and construct®!
the ministry's Engineering Branch, was Sf
pleted and shown to farmers and agricultural!!
cials interested in range renovation equipmerai
Canada and the U.S.A. Films on wetland
velopment, a community pasture in centralffil
and identification of milk vetch poisoning in|t|
cattle were started.
Slide-tape presentations either completed ctji
stages of production dealt with: crop insuraii
the Agricultural Land Commission, the ARH
program, overwintering of cauliflower, Ccpi j
Farm, pesticide safety, and soil sampling. W
Color slides and black and white photograj
were shot and processed by staff members. BIjT
and white pictures were used primarily in mijji||
publications while large quantities of duMi
photos were made to accompany articles^
Near year-end, detailed planning began f'fi
live television broadcast on British ColumljT
Knowledge Network. The one-hour broadcasts
the basics of beef cattle management was tc%
co-hosted by the Information Branch director it
the provincial beef cattle specialist at Kamloi jl
Scheduled for televising on March 27, 198:1]
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
gnals the beginning of the delivery phase for
Ler 60 management information packages
med at B.C.'s beef industry as proposed by the
Ipstry's Beef Industry Technical Committee.
I As the ministry's communications and public
I lations arm, the Information Branch provided
ritten material for visiting delegations, and re
sponded to general inquiries from within B.C.,
Canada and abroad. Information kits were prepared to service this need.
The branch participated in a six-month field
trial of the inter-active television system, Telidon,
which provides consumer information via a network of video display terminals and screens located in high public access areas. Information of
interest to consumers, which was provided included facts on the agricultural regions of the
province, seasonal gardening hints and a list of
available ministry publications.
   Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Regional Extension Services
Peace River Region
The Peace River Region is the major cereal,
forage seed, and oilseed producing area of the
province. The area in crops increased in 1981,
however, the drought conditions that prevailed
throughout the growing season reduced overall
production by 11 per cent.
In addition, softening world markets reduced
the estimated value of the crop by 17 per cent
compared to 1980. This combination of factors,
along with high interest rates and higher input
costs, had a serious effect on the agricultural
economy of the region. Livestock producers did
not fare well and faced low prices for their products. On the positive side, cereal grain quality was
the highest in many years.
A number of specific events and programs related to financial management and marketing
were presented to farmers by ministry staff in
addition to ongoing programs and activities. Two
commodity-oriented committees, field crops and
livestock, were established to coordinate ministry
extension efforts in the region.
Horticultural activities declined. Some progress appeared to have been made towards the
establishment of a major greenhouse operation at
Taylor which could utilize waste heat from a
nearby refinery.
Extension events offered to producers incltS
a pasture management seminar, beef and swf
financial management courses, a commuS
pasture demonstration project field day, a she
marketing and lamb evaluation workshop, bei
breeders field day, two beef buy/sell decisis
seminars, and two mastitis control workshops, c
Development work continued on all sS|
community pastures in the Peace River regirS
the value of $380,000 of which $220,000 v.
contributed by ARDSA and $16,000 by the Mi |
istry of Forests. A total of 156 beef producers h
10,500 head on the pastures during the summi
Drought conditions severely limited fall grazirs
Work continued on schedule on the Upper Cac
Coordinated Plan, a $ 1.75 million range develc s
ment program to be completed in 1982.
Specific events and programs
related to financial management
and marketing were presented t(
farmers . . .
The distance to market for lambs contintfiffll
be the major constraint to development of I
sheep industry. If returns are to be maxitral
large numbers of uniform quality lambs are -t
quired for shipping at regular intervals taHl
packers. However, the size and diversity of I
industry has frustrated efforts of producers to tl
together and improve their marketing options!
Milk production remained the same as inMSl
but fluid milk sales dropped by nine per a,
largely due to the drop in population. This ha il
serious effect on a few of the newer dairyrri
with insufficient quotas.
The swine industry appears to be strength'!
ing under the stabilizing effect of the farm inc.0|
insurance program. Ministry staff hope to addit
other problems including facilities, nutrition ck
herd health.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
special Extension Activities
Radio tapes on a variety of topics were pre-
ffid three times per week for airing on radio
Sons in Dawson Creek, Fort St. John and
In 1981 a new type of seminar was successfully
iTOduced by staff members. More than 100
Sere attended "Managing Your Farm in the
0s" which featured speakers from across west-
fflfcanada. Topics included foreign ownership,
imi computers, banking, and coping with stress.
The dugout filling pump rental program was
five again during the year, largely due to the
<treme drought; a total of 26 farmers made use
[the equipment. Extension staff were assisted by
it Engineering Branch in operating the
ixtension staff became more
ivolved in inter-agency activities
K981 ...
ffiorts were renewed to encourage the use of
ie on Peace River area soils. Soil sample resul^l
th a low pH over the last 10 years were plotted
i a map to show the extent of the problem, and
rfhcentive program proposal was prepared.
Surface rights continue to be of major concern,
laminar was held and an inter-ministry referral
:§||m was initiated for exploration permitsT™
Under the leadership of the 4-H specialist, the
ig decline in 4-H enrolment was reversed,
lere are now 346 members in 28 clubs.
Extension staff became more involved in inter-
iency activities in 1981 including resource plan-
ng, problem wildlife management, weed con-
jflj and inter-ministry approvals on a variety of
hd-use applications. Although these activities
Mot related to extension directly, they are es-
|||al in ensuring that future options for agricul-
te are maintained.
The Peace River Region is the province's major cereal producing
area; grain quality in 1981 was the highest in many years.
Field Crops
Much of the extension work in the past year
and most of the demonstration plot work was
carried out by Field Crops Branch staff, with regional extension services staff also involved. More
than 1,000 field visTtsland office consultations
related to field crops were dealt with.
Wheat plantings expanded to 50,000 hectares
but barley was still the most popular choice at
102,000 hectares, up from 72,000 in 1980. Can-
ola plantings were further reduced in 1981 to
35,000 hectares compared to 108,000 in 1979.
The continuing reduction of bee pasture is of
concern to beekeepers who may wish to expand.
The drought had its effect on the honey flow,
producing an average yield of 46 kg per colony
compared to the long-term average of 68 kg.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Central Region
The Central agricultural region of British Columbia contains approximately 17 per cent of the
province's land base for agriculture. The region,
because of its size and complexity, presents a
challenge to the ministry in providing technical
support to the farming population scattered from
Quesnel to the Queen Charlotte Islands.
In addition to office consultations and meetings, regional personnel made more than 1.500
farm calls during 1981 in response to inquiries
from producers. The 4-H program, also involving
regional staff, worked actively with 52 clubs and
880 leaders and members.
Land-Use Planning
As in recent years, staff members were called
upon during 1981 to spend increasingly more
time representing agriculture in resource planning
activities with other ministries. Indications are
strong that this non-extension activity will increase markedly in proportion to increased demands on the land base. About 60,000 hectares
will be added to the agricultural land base in the
Prince George area as a result of inter-agency
planning of resource use—an example of the
importance of a strong agricultural voice in resource planning.
Field Crops
Staff worked with farmers in the Vanderhoof
area on cereal demonstration plots to study the
effects of factors such as seeding date, varietta
fertilizers and seed-bed preparation.
Staff members, in conjunction with the B.Cj
Federation of Agriculture, were involved in a soil
crop-fertilizer correlation study which was <E|
signed to develop new fertilizer recommendati^
for the Cariboo-Central Interior area.
A field day attended by 125
farmers was organized . . .
resulting in many farmers buying*
the recommended seed varieties*
In cooperation with federal officials and th
Richardson Seed Company, staff worked on '
seed evaluation project at Engen which was d< j
signed to evaluate five forage and six seed tria
for their suitability in the Vanderhoof area. A fiel
day attended by 125 fanners was organize™!
conjunction with the trials resulting in many fanr
ers buying the recommended seed varieties. ■
District agriculturists and a ministry dairy spe
cialist conducted a program to increase produjs
awareness of unchecked bovine mastitis in the
herds; producer response was very positive.
Bovaid tags containing certain chemicals wen
given to farmers to observe effects when the fag
were placed on livestock. The tags proved tS
useful in controlling flies on livestock and ar.
peared to help in the control of pink eye.
Expansion of the horticultural industry haf
continued in the Smithers and Prince Georg
districts. During 1981, 100 hedfafes were seede:
to 20 different varieties of vegetables.
Public Awareness
Staff prepared and entered a ministry displaJK
local fairs and exhibitions. The display, withra
theme "Agriculture Produces", featured loci
fruits and vegetables as well as information on th
area's agricultural significance.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Sta/jf designed numerous extension programs aimed at the regions predominant livestock industry.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
The Thompson-Cariboo region, with offices at
Kamloops and Williams Lake, encompasses a
large portion of the province's open rangeland.
Beef cattle enterprises comprise about 90 per
cent of the region's agricultural activity and represent about 40 per cent (1976 census) of the
provincial beef herd. Alfalfa hay farming, corn
production and fruit and vegetable enterprises,
with the benefit of irrigation, contribute to the
area's agriculture industry.
Field Crops
During 1981, hay crops in the Kamloops district suffered from cool, wet weather for the first
cut resulting in some poor quality hay. Second
and third cuts came off in good condition as
weather improved. Good weather in July and
August in the Williams Lake district resulted in
good harvests.
Staff members conducted
demonstrations and trials of new
crop varieties, products and
production techniques to
determine their best application.
Cereal crop acreage increased significantly in
the region as a result of the warm, moist weather
and open fall. These crops were used for hay.
silage or grain. This need to keep hay products!
at a high level is encouraging the use of alterrraj
crops in rotation resulting in increased fang
interest in alternate crops.
Interest in horticultural crops continued to grc j
as shown by increased production of sweet cW
and potatoes in the northern part of the regal
and of sweet corn, tomatoes, peppers, meloal
asparagus and small fruits in the south.
Beef cattle producers experienced the seem
year of declining prices and increased costs. ffi\
pie supplies of fodder and a slight drop in baS
prices encouraged some local producers toH
calves in feedlots. The open fall allowed cattljj
stay on range, cutting down on the feed needed
the early part of the winter.
Dairy production remained very small in sffl|
of the potential. Swine, poultry and sheep pr
duction remained static, with some evidence of;
increasing interest in sheep.
Extension Activities
Regional staff arranged for field days and me«
ings and developed a variety of other exteng
Alfalfa Management Project
In cooperation with the B.C. Cattlemen's M
ciation, and with funding from the Feed Frfl
Assistance Adjustment Fund, a series of lecOT
were presented throughout the southern intjB
to over 500 producers. Plots were seeded and
number of field days held. A bulletin and a set
slides were produced for future extension ih
Irrigation Field Day
With the cooperation of a local ranch, eqtj
ment dealers and manufacturers, and the nam
try's Engineering Branch, a variety of irngf|
equipment was demonstrated to over 21
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Vetland Meadow Water Control Workshop
fel water control workshop was held at the Alkali
Re Indian Reserve. This workshop explained
jithods of controlling water levels for improved
Induction of natural forage on wetland
Information presented has been developed on
[Bpntinuing wetland development project con-
|ieted in cooperation with the Engineering
[ranch and Agriculture Canada.
Ither Activities
I A number of crop and financial management
IHmshops were conducted by staff members
Uio also continued to provide assistance and
IfflSce to 4-H clubs and their leaders.
Regular contact with producers was facilitated
(irough other programs such as the Beef Record
f Performance and the Agriculture Land De-
iipptnenf Act inspections.
I Staff members conducted demonstrations and
I ials of new crop varieties, products and produc-
L m techniques in order to determine their best
pplication. The following subjects were among
I lose covered:
• Wetland Meadow Management
• Irrigated Pasture Project
• Variety trials for corn, sorghum sudangrass,
alfalfa, orchardgrass, barley, etc.
• Lime trial
• Musk thistle biological controlillj
• Fertilizer crop response
Land-Use Planning
Land use planning continued to place an increased workload on district extension staff and
other field officers. Regional personnel have been
active on several committees involving Crown
land plans, deferred planning areas, forest reserves, regional district development of zoning
bylaws, and the development of policy regarding
the urban-agricultural interface. In response to
resource management committee requests, staff
were heavily involved in regular planning and
review meetings to ensure a strong agricultural
presence during any planning decisions affecting
land use.
Regional staff arranged field days on fence construction, range development, irrigation, etc.,
to inform farmers of newly developed techniques.
 Ministry of Agriculture andFood—1981 AnnualReport
The Okanagan-Kootenay region takes in the
southeast comer of B.C. and encompasses eight
district offices. The regional office is located at
Field Crops
Programs aimed at increasing forage potential
and thereby expanding the livestock industry in
the East Kootenays were an important part of staff
responsibilities. Seminars and field days were
held to increase rancher awareness of factors in
range development.
Efficient dairy-forage production was encouraged among the 140 producers who attended a
competition and tour in the North Okanagan.
Field staff worked on the alfalfa management
project which is part of a five-year program to
increase producer understanding of sound alfalfa
agronomic practices.
Some reduction in knapweed infestation was
achieved particularly in the Creston district where
the ministry, in cooperation with the Creston Valley Beef Grower's Association, initiated a control
With the cooperation of producer organizations, two dairy cow mastitis programs and two
dairy short courses were held. Field staff demon-
strated the benefits of mineral nutrition in bS
cattle feeding, and as a result a second, comme
cial mineral mix satisfying local requirements, vS
made available.
Staff members conducted demonstration p»
grams to evaluate the effects of early/late gra3
on rangelands, to show the benefits of fertilizm
and reseeding rangelands and to evaluate raH
grass varieties.
Tree Fruit
Programs presented in the region to serve th
tree fruit industry included seminars on nutrinal
and pollination, sprayer calibration workshcS
pruning clinics and a spring horticulture sun
posium featuring apple thinning and growth Sj
ulator technology.
Specific needs were met by field personnel i
programs such as irrigation scheduling and trirM
irrigation workshops held in the water defitS
areas of the South Okanagan.
One major objective of extension programs i
to transfer technology to producers and agri-tM
ness fieldmen. For example, a codling mot
monitoring program is now seeing producers wH
can interpret codling moth traps and use the inffl
mation in their own control programs.
District horticulturists were involved withfffl
tree fruit industry in forecasting crop maturatia|
and in arranging the Horticultural Forurrrar
tended by 400 producers.
The vegetable industry which is in an expan
sion stage has benefited from a comprehend
program which included asparagus variety eral
uation, production technique demonstratwH
identification of market opportunities, fusafM
wilt surveys and asparagus aphid control,   j
The vegetable industry, in an
expansion stage, benefited irorm
comprehensive program . . .
Three district offices used a Code-a-PI^p
service which handled several thousand call
from growers; specific, timely production ifflffll
mation was made available on a 24-hour bSI
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
"e^sst. \ i "We* ■ \~ajT 5b«U     X. t. & .fT
fc§fe. &$& ate ^s^^«
, Pruning and other horticu/tura/ techniques are demonstrated in growers' orchards.
 Ministry of Agriculture andFood—1981 Annual Report
South Coastal
The ministry's reorganization and regionaliza-
tion, initiated in late 1980, became fully operational in 1981. This feature dominated the region's administration work, staff working-relationships, planning processes and extension programming. Cooperative efforts and extensive
dialogue among field staff, coupled with support
from the ministry's executive, were responsible
for the relatively smooth adjustment to the new
The weather played havoc with crop production; high interest rates—peaking at 22.75 per
cent adversely affected farm finances, and inflation running as high as 13 per cent added further
pressures on farm operators. It was a year of
constraint, financial adjustment, and reduced
farm incomes in the South Coastal Region.
. . . over 50 workshops, seminars,
field days and short courses were
organized by regional staff.
The ministry opened a new district office at
Sidney on the Saanichton Research Station early
in 1981. In addition, and as an integral part of the
regionalization process, five commodity extension committees were appointed, and coordinators selected. These committees of the ministry
are responsible for identifying producer program
needs and working with others in agri-business
and farm organizations; as well as referring re-
search needs, developing extension program
planning and delegating project action grotra
and evaluating ministry programs.
The five committees, each responsible for m
commodity, concentrated on developing a cohi
sive team framework, creating a basic unde
standing of the commodities and the status of tl
industry, and identifying producer needs.
The wide diversity of crops and livestock, th
large number of farming operations, the intent
concentration of producers and the complexffl
frastructure of agri-business presents a challeffl
to extension staff of the region.
A highly successful group of over 50 woffl
shops, seminars, field days and short coura
were organized by region staff. Examples of sen
of these programs include:
• Fruit and vegetable production workshop $
KATZ farm co-op (Indian Reservation)   I
• a growers' short course in co-operation v3
the Lower Mainland Horticultural Imprcffl
ment Association
• sprayer calibration workshops for cole cro;
• a Fraser Valley tour for Washington Sm
vegetable processors
• taxation tip seminars in Courtenay an>
• sheep field day on Saltspring Island
• dairy manure management workshop
• swine producers' spring short cours^
• a dairy manure storage and handling ct
• corn and forage field days throughout th
Fraser Valley
• blueberry growers' field day in RichmS
• carrot fertilization trial field day
• greenhouse growers' seminar
• dairy producers' short course sponsored i
co-operation with the dairy educatio
Among the many miscellaneous extension rm
jects was the establishment of a regional agri-^l I
board for listing all agriculture-oriented acthjffl
in the region.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
In addition to basic extension work, applied
lesearch and demonstration projects were an in-
egral part of the ministry's regional activity; most
|l|ional extension service staff were involved
Ifyfi specialist staff on various projects designed
IBoelp farmers view new or improved techniques
Ii crop and livestock production.
>op Conditions
I Record rainfall occurred throughout the region
I nd along with lack of sunlight and mild tempera-
[jres, caused root rot, fruit rot, pest problems,
low growth, poor maturity and difficult harvest
Iffiditions. Horticulture and forage crop plant-
jigs were delayed by weather in some cases until
lid-July. Standing water in fields destroyed
I [ants, forcing farmers in some instances to re-
l^it. In other cases growth was slow and spo-
IMc, reducing yield and quality. Some crops
I ere not harvested.
I The Rain Damaged Crop Assistance Program
I troduced by the ministry resulted in 192 ap-
:lications, for an approximate value of
$9,650,000 in operating loans that would qualify
for special interest reimbursement benefits under
the Agricultural Credit Act.
Pea, bean, sweet corn and root crops all suffered from wet growing conditions which reduced
yields to one-half of average. First plantings of
many cole crops were lost due to the wet weather
and subsequent production was well down. Many
fields had to be replanted several times.
Late plantings matured slowly or not at all in the
cool, wet fall weatnp-; resultant diseases also
caused serious losses^
Late plantings matured slowly or
not at all in the cool, wet fall
weather, resultant diseases also
caused serious losses.
The federal government's ban, effective 1982,
on potato growing due to golden nematode infestation in the Central Saanich area, caused crop
disruption in that area.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Mushroom production was relatively steady
throughout the year. Energy costs, off-shore imports of canned mushrooms, labor, interest rates
and environmental concerns about compost,
continued to be of major concern to the mushroom industry. Total production for 1981 is estimated at 8 820 tonnes.
Potato acreage was down over previous years
with some intended acreages not planted due to
weather conditions. Late blight infected the potato crop in June—the earliest on record—and
some plantings were lost. A supply of the restricted fungicide Ridomil saved the crop.
Berry producers suffered from the adverse
weather conditions. Many growers reported their
yields down by 25-50 per cent. Total production
of the 1981 crop was only 77 per cent—7 310
tonnes—of original production estimates.
Raspberries suffered from water-logged soils during the spring and summer rains; root rot was
evident, yields were depressed due to poor fruit
set and some fields were all but lost. The 7 985
tonne total raspberry crop in the Fraser Valley was
about 80 per cent of the estimated 9 980 tonne
potential crop.
A new berry processing facility was opened by
the East Chilliwack Co-operative allowing top
quality berries to be individually quick frozen.
Of all the horticultural commodities, mushrooms and cranberries were the only crops to
make significant production gains over previous
years. Except for cranberries, there was very little
new land cleared for additional horticultural
Except for some minor pollination problems,
due to poor weather and slight hail damage,
growth in the cranberry bogs was near normal.
The crop was slightly higher than expected, being
projected at 6 600 tonnes.
The blueberry crop was down considerably;
reduction was due mainly to mummy berry disease which growers were unable to control due to
rain during the spray period.
Livestock Production
Livestock producers in the South Coastal Region suffered from increased cost of production,
poor weather and low prices during 1981. Despite these drawbacks, the level of production
remained relatively stable for swine, sheep, and
Beef production activity—notably in ffl
feedlot sector—was reduced over the yearm
some feedlots went out of production.
Swine production in the South Coastal regffl
is expected to exceed 165.000 market hogs du
ing 1981.
There was little change in sheep productS
during 1981. Although there seems to be a reii
sonable degree of interest in sheep, there has n< i
been an increase in the number of flocks, w^
mand for breeding stock remained good an
there are quite a number of purebred breedei
throughout this region.
Dairying remained the largest
agricultural industry in the regioiSI
The veal industry showed little change durinf
the year. In spite of the interest in veal productiot
in the South Coastal Region, there were sev^l
obstacles in the way of stable marketing situatiSI
that must be overcome and will be addressed it.
the future. The veal industry has good poter®
for development since much of the veal now sol
in B. C. outlets is imported from Quebec while th
region's dairy industry produces a large nurra
of calves for veal purposes.
Dairying remained the largest agricultural
dustry in the region. Although the industryffi!
mained stable, it was eroded somewhat by ffll
interest rates and a pricing formula that permiffijl
prices for fluid milk to increase at a slower rati
than total production cost increases. Herd sSI
remained relatively constant with an average II
65 to 75 cows per herd.
Construction of new milking parlors, barns an 5
bunker silos continued. Dairymen who had i
cently undertaken large capital expansion wet|
the hardest hit by the high interest charges an
some were forced to sell quota and cows tf^
duce their debts.
While returns to producers in the egg and pjju |
try industry remained favorable, disruption of th
processing industry placed a considerable strai
in that industry.
Land Use
Land use issues remain a constant concer
throughout the region and the pressures orsjfl
Agriculture Land Reserve from rural develw
 Bit, industry, highways, etc. remain great. Con-
iderable time was spent studying and reviewing
roposals regarding the Annacis Island Highway
nd the east-west connection through Richmond.
Land use issues dealt with by technical planing committees, resource management commit-
:es and special task groups included: the pro-
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
posed natural gas pipeline to Vancouver Island,
Fraser River Estuary Study, Common Utility Corridor on the east coast of Vancouver Island,
Boundary Bay Airport Reactivation, fish and
wildlife conflicts, Burnaby Big Bend area, and
identification of deferred planning areas in proposed provincial forests.
   Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Crop Protection
The name of the branch was changed in 1981
to more accurately reflect the function of providing information on current and ecologically
sound methods of insect, plant disease and vertebrate pest management in agricultural crops.
General Pest Conditions
Pest and disease control on crops in the South
Coastal and southern interior regions was dramatically affected by the exceptionally cool, wet
weather throughout spring and early summer.
Vegetable Crops—Adverse weather conditions
delayed or prevented the seeding of vegetable
crops, resulting in poor growth and making it
impossible to apply the necessary pesticide
sprays on time. Early and severe outbreaks of
potato blight would have destroyed the crop had
it not been for Ridomil sprays and drier weather in
late July.
Growers are extremely concerned over the Eu
ropean asparagus aphid which was found in ffl|
Okanagan and as far east as Grand Forks. Ara^
other recently introduced pest, the lettuce aphid
was found, in the Cloverdale area. Projects Si
being initiated by the branch to develop an inS
grated pest management program.
Migratory waterfowl, primarily mallard, piriffl
and widgeon ducks, caused extensive damag^
cole crops in the Fraser Delta area. Branch staf
participated in an inter-agency study concluding
that pesticides caused no waterfowl deaths prj
agricultural land during the October 1980 tc
March 1981 study period.
Tree Fruits—Abnormally wet weather resultetffl
inadequate pollination, poor growth and an increase in fungal diseases of fruit trees. DefoliaticB
caused by fungal diseases, was severe in ™
South Coastal region. The most serious outbreak'
of fireblight since 1971 occurred in several Ba
tlett pear orchards in the Okanagan.
Crop Protection staff monitored ornamental greenhouse crops for leaf miners.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annua/ Report
Mild winter temperatures and light snow cover
ffne Okanagan caused an early emergence and
Sjffivity of orchard insect pests resulting in mistim-
ng of many insecticidal sprays,
wligratory flocks of grosbeaks and finches were
Kimated to have caused more economic
damage to tree fruits than E&bins and starlings.
small Fruits—Spray programs at blossoming and
iffi/ September weather reduced botrytis bunch
■ot of grapes in the Okanagan. Survey results
{Seated that grape phylloxera is slowly spread-
ng in the Okanagan Valley. Growers have been
idvised by branch staff to avoid infested land, to
tse only clean planting stock and to clean off
Schinery that has been used on infested fields.
iAbnormally wet weather resulted
^inadequate pollination, poor
jrowth and an increase in fungal
diseases of fruit trees . . . fruit and
mi rots were major problems in
wiall fruit crops this past year.
I^ttuit and root rots were major problerr^iriC
mall fruit crops this past year. Growers were
OBcerned because Captan, a fungicide used for
•uit rot control, was under threat of suspension
y the federal government. No replacement
tngicide for Captan is available as yet.
rjPlastic netting, yellow streamers and distressl
all tapes have been devised and implemented by
i ranch staff members to control bird damage in
5 rape and berry crops.
ield Crops—European alfalfa varieties, resistant
l| Verticillium wilt, performed well in field trails
I 2t up by Agriculture Canada in co-operation with
ranch .staff members.
I A survey of 97 alfalfa fields showed that 11 per
tent were infested with the alfalfa stem
ii ematode. No infestations were discovered in the
ootenay, Yellowhead or Peace River areas.
I As part of an effort to revive the alfalfa seed
■ idustry in B.C. an alfalfa-seed insect survey was
j inducted by branch staff. The ultimate goaifisife
establish an integrated pest management pro-
I am for that crop.
| During the year, a number of abnormal crop
2st and disease situations occurred requiring
ose monitoring by branch staff. These include:
• Severe wet weather in Creston caused serious loss of cereals as a result of waterlog-
■ging, root rot and leaf rust.
• Larvae of a recently introduced potential cereal pest, the Essex skipper, were collected at
several locations in the Shuswap area.
• A leafmining shore fly caused severe damage
to several late seeded barley fields in Creston.
• Blackbirds and starlings caused severe
damage to corn crops in the central interior
and the lower Fraser Valley.
• Forage crops in the East Kootenays and the
Creston Valley were seriously damaged by
In all cases, staff attempted to deal with the
problem by recommending immediate or future
corrective measures in conjunction with other
f0jggnhouse Vegetable and Ornamentals—In
1981, a survey conducted by staff showed that
powdery mildew was present in 13 out of 16
Staff members distributed biological control
agents for mites and whiteflies to greenhouse
cucumber and tomato growers. Growers were
trained in the proper use of these biological
(agents and compatible chemical spray programs.
A number of chemicals were tested for their effect
on the biological control agents and their use in
an integrated pest management program.
Leafminer is rapidly becoming a major pest in
greenhouses particularly on flower crops.
w^^tock Insects—Although face fly and horn fly
numbers were low throughout the province,
branch staff continued to work on developing
more effective controls for nuisance flies, which
included the evaluation of commercial fly baits.
Advice on the control of sheep keds, hog lice,
cattle grubs, face and barnflies, stable flies, ticks,
black flies, mink lice, chicken mites and lice, was
extended to livestock producers.
Mosquitoes—Mosquitoes occurred in below
average numbers in the Fraser Valley and in average numbers in the rest of the province. There
were no confirmed cases of human or horse encephalitis or other mosquito-vectored diseases.
A newly developed insecticidal bacteria was
found by branch members to be effective against
British Columbia mosquito species.
Staff members gave numerous lectures, training courses and field demonstrations for farmers,
nursery operators, students and home gardeners
on modern pest control techniques, sprayer cal-
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
ibration and the safe use of pesticides. A special
training course on similar topics, providing 50
hours of instruction, was organized for retail nursery employees in the Fraser Valley.
Branch staff prepared extension bulletins,
growers newsletters and pest control notes for use
throughout the province.
Diagnostic  and Advisory
Cloverdale, Victoria and Summerland branch
offices answered over 5,000 inquiries from home
gardeners. Hundreds of additional contacts with
commercial growers and subsequent field calls
were made by extension staff. In this way, staff
members effectively monitored pest outbreaks in
agricultural crops in British Columbia.
Another service provided by branch staff at
Cloverdale, was a hot-water seed treatment to
help growers control seed-borne pathogens of
vegetable crops. This service may be expanded in
response to grower demands.
Regulatory actions were taken to prevent the
introduction and spread of harmful diseases and
insects in British Columbia.
The 1981 survey for little cherry disease in the
Okanagan was carried out by branch staff in cooperation with the B.C. Fruit Growers Association. They reported 86 infected trees compared to
116 the previous year. Spray programs against
the mealybug vector and tree removal programs
developed by branch staff members appear to be
deterring the spread of little cherry disease. A
clean-up of infected cherry trees in urban areas of
the Okanagan is making headway under staff
The removal of pear-trellis-rust-infected
junipers in residential areas over the past seven
years has allowed the certification of several nurseries thus allowing them to ship junipers into
other areas.
Regulations requiring inspection and certification of nursery stock for European pine shoot
moth were rescinded in June, 1981. As a result,
no nursery inspections were carried out by
branch staff as in the past.
Branch staff conducted deer repellent trials to
minimize damage in orchards.
Research Activities
Field trials and demonstrations were per-j
formed by staff members to evaluate insect, disease and vertebrate control methods. Rag
ommendations in the ministry's production guide;
publications are based in part on the results on
these field trials. In 1981 the Fraser Valley carrofl
growers and the crop protection staff wereffl
volved in projects to investigate the cause of ca\ffl
spot and develop control measures. Field triM
will be repeated in 1982 because cavity spot eg
not develop this past season.
The ultimate goal is to establish
an integrated pest managementj
program . . .
Branch staff were also actively involved in t^
ing several fungicides to determine their effectiffl
ness in controlling diseases such as onion blast,
powdery mildew of cucumbers and applfi;
brown rot of cherry, grape powdery mildew, ^m
 The branch, in cooperation with Agriculture
Canada, demonstrated that strawberry plants of
soor quality are being imported from the United
states. Appropriate steps are being taken to assure growers of better quality plants in the future.
Strawberry fields were surveyed by staff members for two-spotted mite and its predator. The
Sits provided information on the timing of con-
rol sprays.
fletaff members investigated biological control
)f horn flies. Indigenous and imported parasites
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
were released but were not recovered at the end
of the experiment. Monitoring will continue in
Various toxic baits suited for use in integrated
pest management programs were tested to control flies in poultry barns. Based on the results of
this investigation, recommendations can be made
to farmers regarding the most effective materials
for fly contrql^ffl
Dairy Branch
The goal of the dairy branch is to ensure that
he consuming public is supplied with fresh,
wholesome milk and to promote efficient and
irofitable production and processing of milk and
mk products.
flilk Production
■yiilk production in the province increased by
.5 per cent to 471.7 million litres, in spite of the
lust there were 11 fewer farms in production at
le end of the year. The provincial dairy herd
ecreased by 2.6 per cent to 111,000 dairy cows
nd heifers.
jEluid milk retail sales in milk board areas of
reduction increased 2.4 per cent to 302 miluon|
res while butter production was down 5.8 per
cent at 2 196 tonnes. Cheddar cheese production was up 4.3 per cent to 2 488 tonnes. Ice
cream production remained the same as last year
at 20 436 kilolitres.
Farm cash receipts from the sale of dairy products were estimated at $194 million. The price
paid to the producer for milk used in fluid retail
sales increased by $3.60/hL to $50.28/hL. Using
the basis of 3.6 kilograms of butterfat per hectolitre (100 litres) of milk, a butterfat differential of
40 cents for each point (0.10 kg) change, up or
down, in butterfat content was used to calculate
the producer's final price.
The nationally set target price paid to producers for their industrial milk was $38.06/hL for
the new dairy production year which begins
August 1st each year. This price included the
federal subsidy of $6.03/hL for industrial milk as
paid to Canadian dairy producers.
Five Year Production Fluid Utilization Summary
for Milk Board Areas
Millions of Litres
Per Cent
Per Cent
1981 (est.)
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
! H| 11
*-**•  .    ^Bi
**   |
^^JWS^i.l | 1 j
t^a-^            *"
3 I
A neiu/y purchased somatic cell counter, installed at the
branch's dairy laboratory, proved very popular among
growers as a means of identifying animals with sub-clinical
Milk Quality
The first priority of branch field staff pertains to
regulatory duties including the annual inspection
of all farm premises, the inspection of dairy plants
and dairy product depots and the inspection and
approval of milking and milk handling
A significant change was made in
the classification of finished
products for the purpose of
establishing safe, microbiological
In the past year, 1,580 official farm inspections
were made as well as 1,606 inspections related to
equipment, quality problems and other matters.
Considerable effort went towards updating the
regulations pursuant to the Milk Industry Act
which had not been revised since 1968. Farm
premises standards were revised early in the yea
and by year end a total revision had been ccflH
pleted. A significant change was made in th
classification of finished products for the purpos
of establishing safe, microbiological standards™
major benefit is that the new classification sysS
includes all existing dairy products as wellB
those yet to be developed.
Farm milk samples are analyzed regularly at ra
central laboratory for total plate count, the pres
ence of inhibitors, extraneous water, as wellB
somatic cell count. There was a reduction in th
amount of levies during the year, indicatingra
improvement in farm milk, the results of a protm
application of corrective measures. The nurcB
of composition analyses totalled 388,218m
1981, an increase of 20.6 per cent. Efforts
improve milk quality by reducing the incidence
inhibitor contamination met with consideram
success. Almost every tanker load of farm miffl
now tested daily. This screening is being done b|
receiving dairies and as a result, the numbem
inhibitor violations has been reduced.
All complaints regarding the sale of raw milli
were investigated by branch staff.
Mastitis Control
A total of 9.019 cows in 150 herds ww\
checked in the mastitis control program, w\
5,087 milk samples were submitted to the jBf
erinary laboratory for diagnostic analysis-. Pro
ducer education was advanced by the acquisiM
and promotion of a comprehensive slide presen
tation developed by the National Mastitis Council
A Coulter Somatic Cell Counter was pS
chased and installed in the dairy laboratory. Tjffl
instrument has the capability to screen milk sam
pies and identify individual animals with ^gl
clinical mastitis. A program to provide herd mans
agement information to dairymen whose herdi
are enrolled on central tested milk recording m|
grams was being organized.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
(Demonstration of Agricultural Technology
mid Economics)?^
Ijhe D.A.T.E. (Demonstration of Agricultural
Technology and Economics) program continued
in 1981 to fund projects aimed at demonstrating
new advances in agricultural technology.;1^'
Among the programs that merit special note
• Trials on improved range demonstrated that
'   by seeding rangeland the forage yield can be
increased seven times, while seeding and fer-
^Kuzing range increased production by 24
[ times. Cattle performed satisfactorily on the
E   range and a direct hay saving was possfElefr:
• One hundred virus-free grape p'ants each of
20 varieties were propagated by the tissue
culture method to provide stock for a mother
I block for the grape industry.
• Work on the establishment of horticultural
[   recommendations for the Stikine Valley in
northwestern B.C. was begun. Selected varieties of potatoes, onions, corn and heat-loving crops such as squash and pumpkin
thrived in the valley.
An investigation to determine the cause of the
high mortality rate among the imported certified strawberry plants revealed that digging
and planting dates, as well as plant cleanliness and handling were significant factors
affecting plant survival.
An evaluation of factors contributing to the
occurrence of cavity spot in carrots was undertaken. Ttials will continue so that control
recommendations can be developed.
Successful cauliflower variety trials were
completed and guidelines on production
techniques were sent to commercial growers.
Virus-free grape plants were propagated by the tissue culture method to provide mother stock.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Engineering Branch
The Engineering Branch provides engineering
design and advisory service to farmers and
ranchers in the province. The advisory service
covers most aspects of on-farm engineering
needs: drainage, irrigation, farm structures,
mechanization, waste management and land and
range development.
Engineering offices are now located in most
major agricultural regions of the province,
• Abbotsford—Fraser Valley
• Victoria—Vancouver Island
• Summerland—Okanagan/Kootenay
• Kamloops—Kamloops/Cariboo
• Dawson Creek—Peace River and Central
Advisory services are provided through direct
producer consultation, short courses, field days,
engineering plans, publications and press
Although advisory services remained a priority,
there was increased involvement in implementation of regional water management schemes
funded by ARDSA. Branch staff aided implementation of these projects by providing liaison between farm groups and ARDSA.
One hundred and six drainage project inquiries, involving 3,000 acres were handled during
1981. Recommended improvements to this land
involve expenditures of $800,000.
Wetland meadow development, primarily in
the Cariboo and central interior regions, received
increased emphasis. This work involves putting a
line of equipment together that will cover the full
range of development work—brush removal, di-
tching, water control, land breaking and
New farmland drainage technology will be
published during 1982 in a "Drainage Design
Manual" in preparation at year-end.
Despite the wet spring and summer of 1981,
demands for irrigation continued to be high. Two
hundred and thirty-one irrigation requests, invol-
ving an estimated potential expenditure of $2
million were dealt with during the year.
High energy costs and water shortages in some
areas of the province have prompted branch staj
to emphasize energy and waste efficiency. %
pump efficiency testing program was initiated
with the co-operation of B.C. Hydro to encoun
age farmers to maximize the performance ano
efficiency of their irrigation systems. Interest in
trickle irrigation continued among orchardiss
and small fruit growers. Branch staff were also
involved in planning for effluent irrigation systems
in Knutsford and Kamloops.
Farm Structures
The farm structures advisory service continued
to be one of the most popular branch program
with several hundred enquiries handled. The estimated value of farm buildings for which plannOT
assistance was provided, amounted to $ll
To meet this demand for information in 1981,
technology was surveyed across North Amelia
engineering notes updated, and full use made of
the branch's stock plans. Plans are developed in
the form of working drawings and cover a wide
range of farm structures and accessory equJa
ment—beef, dairy, swine, poultry, fruit and vega
tables, and a series on special structures. Tjjffl
branch continually upgrades these plans by de-i
veloping new ones or revising the older drawin§f|
into a more attractive and informative formafJH
Most farm building activity took place in ffl
dairy sector in the Fraser Valley with very liflB|
new construction occurring in the somewhat depressed swine industry. Several new feedlots aw
backgrounding facilities were built in the intefBj
partially meeting the cattlemen's objective of
finishing more beef cattle in the province.
Waste Management
The waste management advisory servffl
provides farmers with up-to-date technical advH
on waste management systems, including coIIJhI
tion, storage, handling and disposal of w^gj
water, manure and dead animals.
 ■New dairy manure management guidelines for
ffd application were presented to ministry staff,
B-business and producers. Interest in their use
Sarong and a greater information effort will be
Ide in 1982.
■The branch, through research projects, field
Rionstrations and published extension mate-
ffi continued to direct its efforts to develop ma-
ffie-handling systems that are environmentally
afe and will reduce nuisances. Emphasis in 1981
ffi placed on odour control in swine manure
nanagement systems.
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Mechanization and
Agricultural Land
The mechanization advisory service covers a
broad range of items, including general farmstead
mechanization, forage handling equipment, fruit
and vegetable production equipment, tillage
methods, and cereal grain handling systems.
Staff placed emphasis on supporting the mini-
^^^^illage work in the Peace River Region,
native wetland development equipment in the
Cariboo, farm safety, and field sprayer extension
Testing and improvements to the range-seeding equipment continued. As a result of a very
productive seeding program in 1981, a total of
8 080 hectares of range and community pasture
have been seeded since the start of the program
in 1976.
jRe-seeded range and pasture can show dramatic yield
increases in just two years.
Since 1976, over 8,000 hectares of range and community pasture have been seeded by a
heavy-duty seeder designed by the Engineering Branch.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Soils Branch
The Soils Branch develops and implements
projects and programs which ensure the protection, maintenance, development, and effective
use of the agricuitural soils resource in B.C.
Branch staff activities in 1981 included: advising
growers, agri-business, industry, and other government agencies on all aspects of soils; demonstrating soil management techniques to growers,
and investigating soil and water related problems;
operating the provincial Soil, Feed, and Tissue
Testing Laboratory and providing technical services to the Provincial Agricultural Land
Advisory Services
Branch staff, located in Cloverdale, Kelowna
and Prince George, advised the agricultural industry and other agencies on aspects of soil and
water management. They estimated available
water storage capacity and maximum irrigation
rates on 120 routine soil samples and on 80
samples from proposed effluent irrigation sites.
Staff also conducted 32 land drainage survey
and prepared farm drainage plans for 1 000 hes
tares located in four of the five agricultural regicffl
of B.C. Drain installation increased from 500 001
metres in 1980 to 550 000 metres in 1981.1
study of drainage feasibility in the lower Frasl
Valley indicated that costs averaged $940 pe
hectare. The provincial drainage specialist ccffl
eluded that, when viewed over the life of a draffl
age system, drainage forms a relatively small peffl
tion of the costs of production and should be
regarded as an essential management input,   j
Branch specialists discovered a serious soil ea
sion problem in upland areas of the Fraser VallS
A bulletin outlining soil erosion processes, a$\
fected soils, and conservation practices tH
The branch initiated a provincial soil test/pm
yield correlation program in response to the main
recommendation of a soil fertility workshop held
in 1981. Soil fertility trials will be initiate
throughout the province to upgrade recommefH
ations issued by the Soil, Feed, and Tissue Tesfffl
i   -. _ - ■
Branch specialists prepared bulletins and met with farmers to correct serious soil erosion problems,
particularly in areas of the Fraser Valley.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Branch personnel prepared a folio on spray
Rgation projects detailing ministry involvement,
Hpblems, and plans relative to 12 on-going or
proposed projects. They also completed manure
management guidelines for dairy manure applied
Hcorn and grassland. The guidelines provide
ffifforrnation on effects of manure management
on quality, quantity required for crop production,
jmH fertilizer required to make up the difference
between nutrients supplied by manure and that
required by the crop.
Demonstration and
The Soils Branch initiated or participated in
Bjects to demonstrate aspects of soil and water
management and to investigate soil and water
Sated problems. In the Cariboo area, staff deter-
truned the response of mixed tame grass—native
sedge forage—to added nitrogen, phosphorous
and potassium. Native sedge species did not respond to fertilizer, however, the tame grass por-
Bi of the mixed stand increased where fertiUzatfl
ion was high.
■Staff initiated a D.A.T.E. project to determine
^^rability of using sewage effluent to irrigate a golf
ijourse at Osoyoos. Initial results indicate that the
affluent is suitable for irrigation.
As a check on accuracy, staff carried out a
lumber of projects to evaluate the recommend-
itions issued by the|s„oils lab in Kelowna. At
Jkanagan Falls, alfalfa yields were not signifi-
gntly increased by phosphorous or potassium
^itions in excess of the recommendations issued by the lab. In coastal B.C., soils with a high
evel of plant nutrients were studied as to their
leed for additional fertilizer. The provincial lab
[ffiaictions of no response to added fertilizer were
'erified by these trials. Further extension work is
equired to demonstrate that fertilizer applications
an be reduced when soil test nutrient levels are
At Boundary Bay Airport in Delta, staff initiated
hjproject to determine the effects of water man-
r The branch initiated a provincial
(soil test/plant yield correlation
urogram. . .
agement on water table status and yield of a
number of crops. Results are expected to provide
practical answers to many water management
problems in the Fraser Valley.
Soils staff investigated cadmium uptake by lettuce and radishes grown on sewage sludge. Uptake was substantial which brings into question
the use of sludge for production of agricultural
Staff assisted Ministry of Health officials to determine the agricultural significance of enhanced
uranium in surface soils of some wetlands in the
Okanagan and concluded that the levels involved
are not a health hazard.
At a wetland meadow in the Cariboo area, staff
members completed a project to determine the
effectiveness of a drainage system in contram^H
the water table. A wide drain spacing of 60 metres
lowered the water table by 0.5 metres, and in the
spring the water table in drained areas began to
fall 21 days sooner than in undrained areas.
These results show that it is feasible to control the
water table at low cost ($250 per hectare). Studies
of the effect of drainage on crop yield will
Soil, Feed, and Tissue Testing
gjKpie soil laboratogareceived 16,800 samples in
1981. Sixty-five per cent were from growers requesting fertilizer and lime recommendations and
35 per cent were in support of demonstration and
applied research projects, related to soil fe|tili|y>'
and plant nutrition, conducted by B.C.M.A.F,
Agriculture Canada, B.C. Forest Service, and
iMinistrv of Environment. Sample^"turn around"
time ranged from less than two weeks to four
The feed and plant tissue laboratory received
6,218 samples in 1981, an increase of 20 per cent
from 1980. Forty per cent of samples were from
growers and producers and 60 per cent in support of project and diagnostic work related to soil
Jrentijity, plant nutrition, and animal nutrition.
Two laboratory staff, H.H Chuah and Dan
Flegel, received recognition under the proyjncyal
Suggestion Awards Program for developing a
new technique for determining soil sulphur levels.
The new method is more than three times faster
than the previous method.
The laboratory has implemented two new analytical; services; selenium content of feed stuffs
and micronutrient levels in soils.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Technical Services to the
Provincial Agricultural Land
Staff provided technical services to the Provincial Agricultural Land Commission on soils, agricultural capability, land use, and related matters.
As a result of applications to the commission for
exclusion from or non-agricultural use within the
Agricultural Land Reserve, staff carried out 16
on-site inspections.
Agricultural capability reviews were conducted
in six areas where the available soil capability
information was inadequate or where the commission had received requests for inclusion of
lands into the Agricultural Land Reserve. Branch
specialists prepared updated capability reports,
maps, and recommendations for each area.
The commission accepted the branch-de
veloped methodology for assessing forage land J
in the Bulkley-Nechako Regional District; bw[
maps for the area were prepared.
Branch staff prepared guidelines for turf mam
agement and for issuing turf management pSI
mits. Commission staff will use these as the medal
anism for ensuring that turf farms are operated ir
a manner that will not lower long tern
The branch assisted local governments, re
gional districts and the Provincial Agricultural
Land Commission with administration of the i3l
Conservation Act. Eighteen on-site inspecticHI
were carried out and reports submitted relativefflf
soil removal from, or placement of, fill on Iamj
within the Agricultural Land Reserve. Repcffl
contained recommendations on whether or not tc
allow the application and, if permitted, details Sal
acceptable soil removal and filling procedura
and methods of site reclamation.
Veterinary Branch
The Veterinary Branch includes field operations and administration, the veterinary laboratory and the livestock brands division. Duties are
carried out under the Livestock Disease Control
Act, the Meat Inspection Act, the Fur Farm Act,
the Livestock Public Sale Act, the Livestock
Brand Act and the Pharmacists Act.
The branch administers the Cattle Horn Act,
the Livestock Lien Act, the Livestock Industry
Development Act, the Veterinary Laboratory Act
and the pound district regulations of the Livestock
The branch initiates and administers programs
to control the spread of disease, offers a diagnostic service to veterinarians and livestock owners
and provides information on the treatment and
prevention of disease. Branch staff regulate the
distribution of drugs and biological products used
in veterinary medicine through "lay" outlets.
They monitor the sale and distribution of meat
and meat products in the designated areas and
licence—under the Livestock Brand Act—all
slaughterhouses and abattoirs, and provide a
brand inspection service.
Meat Inspection
One plant closed and was removed from in-ii
spection while a new plant was added to the
Federal-Provincial domestic meat inspection sys-1
tern. There are now three plants on VancouS|
Island and four plants in the Fraser Valley, twrSi
which kill and process poultry.
Inspection fees were raised to $6.35 for regular!,
hours in 1981 from $5 in 1980 whereas the $8,202
per hour charge for premium hours remained theft
same. This resulted in a 35 per cent increase of |
revenue to $59,700 from $43,500.
Animal Health
There were no major outbreaks of animal dis- i
ease in the province during the past year.
Hemophilus pneumonia in swine, diagnoSjl
in the province for the first time in 1979 has noli
recurred; however, the usual intestinal and reSI
ratory diseases were still present. A Certifffll
Swine Herd Plan was initiated and it is hoped thatl
this will provide the hog growers with improved I
breeding stock from disease-free, well-managed j
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
■race mineral deficiencies are still evident in all
lories of animals although the industry is making
good use of the branch's laboratory to diagnose
these problems. For the most part, adequate use
{^available supplementary diets is sufficient to
jounteract deficiencies.
The branch took part in numerous
Dresentations on disease control
for livestock owners and
students . . .
An outbreak of sarcoptic mange in the upper
3ache Creek area was diagnosed in January. As
m is a "named" disease under the Agriculture
Canada Contagious Disease and Protection Act,
gnosis, quarantine and supervision of treat-
rent, using the B.C. Cattlemen's AssocianorS
ffiy-dip chute, was carried out. Ministry staff at
)awson Creek and Fort St. John helped Federal
fficials and Alberta Agriculture treat all animals
Kore they were turned out to summer pasture,
latpsequent checking at the Dawson Creek sales
'ard revealed no new cases.
A mastitis bulletin and several disease informa-
ion sheets were prepared and distributed. Vet
erinary and brand demonstrations were presented to groups of ranchers in the interior. The
branch took part in numerous presentations on
the subject of disease control for livestock owners,
and students at Fraser Valley College, and University of British Columbia.
Branch staff made numerous visits to mink
ranches but no major disease outbreaks were
reported. There was a reduction in the number of
animals on ranches and the number of ranches
There was a slight reduction in the number of
licenses issued under the veterinary drug and
medicated feed regulations. Staff members made
more than 250 visits to veterinary drug outlets.
These visits appear to be obtaining desired results, as KSut-of-date or unauthorized products
found in stock, have beenjtgonsiderably reduced.
Veterinary Laboratory
The diagnostic workload and preventative
ffmgaicme projects became more production-animal-oriented due to a new fee schedule introduced on April 1. The thrust is to accept herd and
flock samples at a set fee. This has resulted in a
marked increase in populations at risk represented by the submissionlpi.e.: 64 per cenffirE|
Veterinary laboratory specialistguse sophisticated equipment such as thismtomic absorption spectrophotometer to diagnose the
kpcity or deficiency of trace minerals and heavy metals in blood or animal tissue. During 1981, the Veterinary Laboratory analyzed
pr 75,000 individual specimens.
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
crease in production animals and a five per cent         Livestock Brands Division
increase in poultry) _ Small companion animal            Thg ^ UvestQck Bmnd Act and |       ■
submissions were reduced by 17 per cent.                  tions and ^ ngw Livestock Act and | ^J
A highlight of the preventative medicine pro-         tions were proclaimed in February,
gram was the erradication of hemorrhagic enter-            Since the B.C. Cattlemen's Associate
itis in 80,000 turkeys. This was accomplished by         strongly opposed an increase in brand inspects
using a vaccine produced by the veterinary labo-         {ees to $i.io_based on 1980 expenditures^
ratory staff.                                                                 the Minister ordered an independent review of ffl
The ministry matched $16,070 donated to the         level of service being provided to the livestoa
Veterinary Infectious Disease Organization by         industry. The report was completed and vJm
several provincial livestock and poultry         being reviewed by the B.C. Cattlemen's Assocra
associations.                                                                tion and ministry staff at year-end.
Youth Development
4-H, farm vacations and the International Agri-            4-H members have the opportunity to acquire!
:ultural Exchange program are the three areas        skills in several areas:
administered by the Youth Development Branch.            . technical skills related to the management
and care of their project
l-Jri                                                                              • social skills as a result of the interaction tra
The 4-H program is a personal growth program               occurs with others
or young people. Membership is open to persons            * communication and leadership skills as a re-
rom 9 to 19 years of age with 4-H clubs formed               suit of the public speaking and demonstration)
around one of 24 different project areas. Adults              program.
rom the local communities provide leadership            During 1981. more than 3,700 young people:
or 4-H clubs in co-operation with regional 4-H        participated in 258 clubs with 882 volunKgH
specialists.                                                                   ieader?.
Youth Development Branch Program Participation Statistics
4-H Programs—member
Farm Vacations—No. of guests
—vacation days
IAEA—trainees to B.C.
—trainees from B.C.
 |>rovincial 4-H Club Week is the major senior
1-H event held each June. Forty-three members
deselected at the 1981 club week to participate
IBjrovincial, national and international travel and
Hminar programs. Members participated in na-
IBEal conferences, interprovincial exchanges, in-
Ifflnational exchanges as well as the National 4-H
I inference in Washington, D.C Through these
Kgrams. 4-H members in British Columbia
ffined insight into subjects such as energy use in
he food system, Canadian government, life in
Bign countries, and rural life in other provinces
™h the U.S.
Drogress was made in developing
14-H program on Indian
B-'rogress was made in developing a 4-H pro-
jram on Indian reservations. Western Indian Ag-
ffiltural Corporation staff, in co-operation with
he Youth Development Branch staff, started 12
Bnve Indian 4-H clubs.
The British Columbia 4-H Foundation fund
mched just under $90,000. The interest revenue
rom the foundation goes toward funding of
:oundation One, a provincial seminar for 13 and
.4-year-old 4-H members.
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Farm Vacation Program
During the year, more than 500 people enjoyed
holidays in rural British Columbia. During the
past several years, the participating farm hosts
have been mainly hobby or part-time operations
as opposed to full-time commercial farmers. The
rural vacation option is essentially a tourism activity and arrangements were made with the Ministry of Tourism to take over the program effective
International Agricultural
Exchange Association
The Youth Development Branch acts is British
Columbia's coordinator for the international
youth program. The International Agricultural
Exchange program gives rural young people the
opportunity to travel to other countries and to
work for a specified period on farms in their host
The main objective of the I.A.E.A. program is
to provide the participants with training in the
agriculture of another coun^^^artjcihants live as
trainees with their host farnflies. In 1981, British
Columbia hosted an orientation seminar in Kamloops for trainees coming into the province. Fifty-
two trainees from western Europe, Australia and
New Zealand, were hosted in B.C.
4-H achievement days are just one of many yearly highlights for the 3,700 young people in B.C.'s 4-H clubs.
   Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 AnnualReport
Apiculture Branch
The Apiculture Branch provides specialist service and advice to honey producers, processing
and marketing firms and organizations as well as
to fruit growers and seed growers concerned with
pollination programs. It undertakes microscopic
analysis of bee diseases as well as quality determination of honey and other apiarian products.
Crop Review
In spite of rising costs of supplies, there was a
substantial increase in the number of hives in
1981. The total honey crop amounted to 2 174
tonnes, an increase of 403 tonnes over 1980. The
number of active beekeepers increased by 103
for a total of 5,529.
Total value of the honey crop was $4.585.112.
Wholesale prices for honey ranged from $1.43 to
$1.48/kg. while honey sold at the farmgate
brought $2.42/kg. The value of related products
amounted to $216,147 for beeswax and
$150,000 each for pollen and pollination rental.
Market potential for fireweed honey which sold
at a price of $3.30 to $4.40/kg continued to be
The supply of package bees and queens was
plentiful although prices continued to escalate.
Branch Programs
Extension and Applied Research—Losses
due to bear predation dropped to 186 hives in
1981 from 300 the year before. The value of
honey lost was $27,766, a decrease of $6,854
from 1980. To compensate for losses dueH
bears, producers were once again provided wl
financial assistance under the "Beeyard BearPS
tection Incentive Program". Grants helped pre
ducers finance construction of bear-proof eletS
fences and other protective devices.
A stock improvement project
continued to produce honey bee
stock that would adapt to
Canadian conditions . . .
A significant increase in apple yields was note I
in a demonstration project aimed at showing th
value of honeybees to agriculture. Using pd
lenizer bouquets and eight hives of bees, equip
ped with beehive inserts, hand-collected polle
was placed in the inserts and distributed by th
bees through the orchard bloom. The maximal
yield of 40 bins in 1980 was increased to 18
A honeybee stock improvement project begu:
in 1978 continued with a program to produc
honeybee stock that would adapt to Canaffl
conditions, provide increased honey production
and demonstrate improved wintering.
A total of 206 test and support colonies,^ I
breeder queen colonies, 210 nuclei colonies.1na|
30 Carniolan colonies were established for hole:
ing breeders, testing and selecting stock and man
Beekeepers place hand-collected pollen in beehive inserts for the bees to distribute throughout the orchards.
 ng queens. The program, a co-operative effort
fith the B.C. Honey Producers' Association, was
Bated as a DATE project and continues with
\RDSA assistance.
tthree alfalfa seed-producing projects were es-
^Mished at Alexandria, Hanceville and
mnstrong using leafcutter bees, Megachile ro-
Mfog, for pollination.
Kpiculture staff was also involved in a project
or overwintering of honeybee queens for com-
Ecial use; in the cultivation and testing of a
oney plant, Phacelia tanacetifolia, in plots
ffiughout the province; in pesticide applicator's
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
courses and in seminar and lab sessions at Simon
Fraser University.
Regulation—The incidence of American
Foulbrood disease increased from 2.66 per cent
in 1980 to 3.67 per cent of 14,324 colonies inspected during 1981.
Contingency plans have been prepared in case
exotic mites or other pests or diseases of the
honeybee not currently found in Canada should
be introduced into the country. Neither the African Brazilian hybrid bee, or the mites, Acarapis
woodi and Varroa jacobsoni are confirmed as
being present in Canada or the Unites States at
this time.
Farmland Resources
This branch completed its second year of oper-
I tion serving as a clearing-house in the ministry
| yt a variety of land-use planning and resource
Ii management issues. The major emphasis con-
nued to be review of legislation, policy, project
I litiatives of other agencies, and industrial, en-
f rgy, or transportation, project proposals.
.and Use Issues
Ml and Gas Exploration
Farmers in the Peace River Region expressed
Ijffipem regarding oil and natural gas exploration,
imesponse, the Provincial Agricultural Land
[gpmission proposed to amend the General
'rder regulating such land use. Coincidently, the
<rovince of Alberta carried out a comprehensive
:view of surface rights. Its report, published in
. bvember 1981, will provide valuable reference
e ) an inter-ministry committee reviewing a pro-
> osed Surface Right Act for thisProvince.
arm and Stream
Branch staff were successful in developing new
jSBiinistrative arrangements whereby farmers
ill be able to legally drain their fields or divert
reams and creeks. Unfortunately, during late
980 and early 1981, several farmers were
I larged for violations under the Fisheries Act
when they undertook field drainage projects. A
recent amendment to the Water Act, delegating
responsibility for approvals to the regional manager of Water Resources, should greatly streamline the application process. By the end of the
year, several projects received approval indicating
that, with proper pre-planning, agricultural operations can co-exist with fishery resources.
Environmental Impact Assessment
The branch reviewed numerous proposals for
their impact on agriculture. These included pro-
iposa'ls regarding: six metal mines, nine coal
;mines, four transmission lines, one natural gas
pipeline, one highway, one railway, and three
liquified natural gas/petrochemcial projects.
These reviews outlined the ministry's position,
alternate locations or routes, and suggestions on
methods to minimize the project's impact on operations of producers',,; I
Well documented inputs from
ministry staff and local producer
groups and institutes ensured that
the needs of agriculture were
clearly identified.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
During 1981, B.C. Hydro released environmental impact statements for the proposed dam/
generation project at Site "C" on the Peace River
and the Hat Creek Thermal Plant. Under provisions of the Public Utilities Act, public hearings
were held regarding Site "C". The branch was
responsible for providing details on the amount of
agricultural land that would be lost to this project.
Given that Hat Creek would be the first major
thermal plant in the province, assessment of its
impact required careful study. The branch has
been coordinating preliminary review by staff of
the Field Crops, Livestock, Soils and Engineering
Deferred Area Planning
In late 1980 difficulties developed among government ministries in establishing provincial forests and making suitable Crown land available for
agricultural development, settlement and recreational use. Several areas of the province were
identified and the deferred area planning program was set up. Of some 40 deferred area plans,
21 included lands suitable for agricultural
One example of the deferred area planning
process was the Prince George Special Area
which represented a major step in the allocation
of a large block of Crown land among competing
demands from forestry, wildlife, agriculture and
recreation. The plan was prepared by regional
staff of all agencies and included representation
by several public interest groups. Well-documented inputs from ministry staff and local producer groups and institutes ensured that the
needs of agriculture were clearly identified. The
plan, as approved by the Environment and Land
Use Committee in December, will see 65 000
hectares of land available for disposition to agricultural uses.
Range Tenures
Staff represented the ministry on an interagency committee that developed administrative
procedures to reinstitute grazing leases. Prior to
1981 the policy was to phase out all former leases
under the Land Act—approximately 1,800
leases including 275 000 hectares—for replacement by licences and permits issued under the
Range Act. Strong representation by the B.C.
Cattlemen's Association resulted in a change to
that policy and development of a proposal to
allow ranchers the right to purchase portions of
leased land.
Planning Legislation
During the year, the provincial government ar;
nounced its intention to prepare comprehensOT
legislation regarding land-use planning and dc |
velopment. A draft Land Use Act was tab*
requiring municipal governments to prepSl
land-use bylaws respecting intensive agriculrf^r
operations (i.e.: mushroom raising, poulml
farms, livestock). The ministry's green zone pre
gram would now have a statutory framework^
Green Zone Program
The most important consideration for 198
was inclusion of a section in the proposed Lot
Use Act defining the scope and content of log
bylaws regulating intensive agricultural operel
tions. Under the proposal, local government ria|
not prohibit such farm operations but only regi
late their siting and distance separation from otta|
A survey for resident attitudes was conducra
in several Fraser Valley neighbourhoods loeffl
near existing beef f eedlots, swine bams and pou
try farms. The survey clearly demonstrated tffil
odors, noise and other negative factors dimim
with distance and that most people are contenJ|
live near a farm in a rural setting.
Agricultural Land Reserve
Fine Tuning Program
The agricultural land reserve fine tuning proi
gram continued through its second year as a co
operative venture among the Provincial Agrij
cultural Land Commission, Ministry of AgritS1
ture and Food, and the Environmental MinistB
Terrestrial Studies Branch. Work began on a w|
Chilcotin climate study, a soil moisture studuM:
the Duncan area and a hydrology study for tfl
east coast of Vancouver Island. Reviews of tS
Saltair-Chemanius and Powell River areas ret
suited in the inclusion of 674 hectares in raj
reserve and the exclusion of 1,609 hectares.■
Local Government Applications and
Private Appeals
Under the provisions of the Agricultural Land
Commission Act, the Cabinet decides upon a!
applications by local government to amentl
boundaries of the Agricultural Land Reserve. Furl
ther, private citizens may apply to the ministry^!
leave to appeal decisions of the land commissioi j
regarding exclusion of land. The branch is re.
sponsible for organizing and compiling all sucli
applications for review by the Minister or Cabinet*
 e branch rewews proposals for land use to determine the projects' impact on agricultural production throughout the province.
roblem Wildlife
Bring past years producers have been report-
3 increased problems from losses caused by
ffife (i.e.: cattle-wolf, orchard-deer, forage-elk,
®s-waterfowl). Ministry staff asked Ministry of
Environment staff to respond to reports of
There is growing pressure that producers
should be able to consider claims for damages
where animal control measures fail. Staff have
reviewed compensation programs in place in
other provinces and have outlined a suitable
framework for B.C.
ield Crops Branch
ri The Field Crops Branch is involved in applied
search and extension activities designed to as-
t farmers and ranchers in field crop production
d management, range management and weed
■Snrol. The branch also administers the Weed
vmtroi Act.
1981 will be remembered by coastal farmers as
< e of the worst ever for field crop production. An
unusually wet, late spring delayed planting, and
persistenferains caused widespread damage to
crops. In the interior, conditions were slightly better. Range condition throughout the interior
greatly improved as a result of above average
rainfall. The Peace River region experienced
summer drought which caused a reduction in
yield of all crops. Harvesting in the Peace was
completed by the end of September.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Cereal and Oilseed
Total production was down in all major cereal
and oilseed crops. Acreage devoted to wheat and
feed grains increased while the acreage of canola
(rapeseed) declined.
Estimated 1981 acreage and yields were as
Wheat                   135,000 54 700
Oats                       78,000 31 600
Barley                   283,000 114 600
Canola (rapeseed)   88,000 35 600
Variety tests conducted in the Peace River
region in co-operation with the Beaverlodge, Alberta Research Station of Agriculture Canada
have led to the licensing of an early maturing
barley variety, OTAL. This variety is similar in
maturity to Gateway 63 but is higher yielding. In
the Fraser Valley co-operative testing with the
Agassiz Research Station has resulted in the regional licensing of high yielding feed wheats Opal,
Vernon and Dundas. In addition to these trials,
tests were conducted at 10 other locations.
In the Peace River area, three fields of barley,
two of wheat and one of canola were seeded in
the spring of 1981 comparing zero tillage with
conventional tillage. Two plot areas of winter
wheat were established with the zero till method,
one at Fort Nelson and one at Dawson Creek.
Under conditions experienced in 1981, barley
performed better under zero till than the other
Zero till trials showed that barley performed better under
zero till than other crops. Although needing more study, zero
till is a promising technique to reduce unnecessary moisture
loss and soil compaction during the seeding process.
Forage Crop Production
Total provincial production was estimates
1,897,500 tons of hay equivalent, slightly M
than 1980 production. The reduction was d:
mainly to drought conditions in the Peace Ral
region. Imports of alfalfa from Washington forMf
first nine months were 82,919 tons and w«
expected to be about equal to the 1980 toCTl
108,565 tons.
A total of 199 users pastured 13,354 head
cattle on 12 B.C. community pastures situated
the Peace River and Central B.C. regions. Ti
ARDSA pasture demonstration project was rS
tined. This year, seeded pastures supported co' I
and calves for 140 days with an average daily g
of 0.45 lbs. for the cows and 2.14 lbs. fori
calves. Species evaluation, climatology studii|
and brush control continued.
Another major project was the fertilizer corrH
tion study in Central B.C. and the Chilcotia
carried out in co-operation with the Soils Brffl
and the B.C. Federation of Agriculture. Comcffl
reports will be available at the end of the 19!
Staff conducted Verticillium Wilt resistanj
falfa variety demonstrations at 10 locations in t'
southern interior. This work has led to a licetg|
application for the variety VERTUS.
Orchardgrass and Perennial Ryegrass vari^l
were evaluated at two locations in the Frasf
Valley. These trials will be conducted form
more year after which a decision will be made
to which varieties should be licensed.
At Redstone in the Chilcotin, 10 varieties!
irrigated alfalfa seeded with Climax timothy ha:
been evaluated over a three-year period. M
highest yielding mixture produced an average
5 tons per acre annually.
Other studies with forage crops, involving fenl
ity trials and variety trials, were carried out in .
different locations.
Silage Corn Production
In coastal areas com planting was sericsl
delayed and growth was slow resulting in saw
dry matter crop. At two locations where corn tri<
have been conducted for the past three yearsffi
matter yields have dropped by more than 50 p
cent. In the interior most fields reached accep:
able levels of maturity.
The acreage planted in 1981 increased to j
estimated 26,000 acres with an average cBI
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
weight of 16.45 tons per acre. In co-operation
Btth regional extension staff, corn hybrid trials
were planted at 27 different locations.
Forage Seed Production
Total acreage devoted to forage seeds was estimated at 46,000 acres of which 44,000 were
located in the Peace River region. According to
the Canadian Seed Growers Association, there
were 11,273 acres devoted to pedigreed forage
seed. The major species was Creeping Red Fes-
|Se followed by Timothy, Alsike Clover, Red
glover, Alfalfa and Bromegrass.
■The Field Crops Branch coordinated the dis-
Hbution of foundation forage seeds in British
Columbia for the Canadian Forage Seed Project.
Considerable interest is developing in the production of alfalfa seed utilizing leafcutter bees as
pollinators. At Dawson Creek, the hot, dry
Kather was conducive to good bee activity. Al-
:hough drought and severe winter injury had
Ksed a reduction in bloom, trials conducted by
he branch produced 300 pounds of seed per
ffie. Similar results were obtained in trials conducted at Kelowna. Results at Hanceville were
jspecially encouraging.
•Forage seed plots established under the B.C.
Seed Evaluation Project funded jointly by the
i.C. Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Agriculture
Canada—New Crop Development Fund and the
:eed trade continued to be monitored in 1981.
These plots have attracted considerable interest
nnd have already resulted in some new seed
jrowers in areas such as Vanderhoof, McBride
ind Creston.
Using leafcutter bees as pollinators, alfalfa seed tria/sfqon~:
t acted by the branch resulted in 300 pounds of seed per
k ~re—a marked yield increase over traditional methods.
A bee hiv^psert showing the leafcutter bee cells.
Range Development
High summer precipitation throughout the major range areas, reseeding of deteriorated ranges
and proper stock management have all helped to
bring about improved range conditions on Crown
The three range specialists on staff were directly involved with coordinated resource management planning. In the Cariboo Region, 18
plans were under active development. In Thomp-
son-Okanagan, eight plans were started bringing
the total to 48.
Staff assisted the Engineering Branch in the
effective utilization of two range disc-seeder-
packer units in operation.
All seedings were monitored under ARDSA
Project 271008. Observations in varieties of
rangeland grasses seeded under this project show
that Crested Wheatgrass is one of the highest
producing grasses on all sites.
The Semlin Ranch project near Cache Creek
has produced some extraordinary results. Average annual forage production from 1978 to 1981
inclusive was as follows:
Native Range 68 lbs./acre
Unfertilized Crested Wheatgrass     499 lbs./acre
Fertilized Crested Wheatgrass       1608 lbs./acre
At Dog Creek and Alkali Lake, Nordan Crested
Wheatgrass and Rangelander Alfalfa showed
good early growth.
The total potato acreage increased to approximately 8,200 acres as compared to 7,500 in
1980. Good prices for the 1980 crop resulted in
significant increases in the southern interior areas.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
The provincial average acreage per farm was 34.7
acres. The largest grower had 315 acres.
Yields in 1981 were down significantly due to
weather conditions. B.C. potatoes accounted for
50.9 per cent of the total market sales in the
Weed Control
Grants to regional districts and municipalities
involved in weed control activities were continued. In 1981, ministry grants of $370,000 resulted in $900,000 of expenditures on weed control by the various agencies.
A proposal to accelerate all activities related to
knapweed control was approved by Cabinet in
April, 1981. The four main projects addressed in
the $250,000 special budget were publicity and
advertising, equipment and materials, professional services and weed control grants.
Publicity and advertising included brochures,
bumper stickers, range signs, knapweed alert
posters, information kits, film distribution, radio
and television interviews.
Biological weed control programs
involving 10 bio-control agents
were carried out. . .
Funds for equipment and materials were used
to purchase sprayers and materials for loan to
individual ranchers.
Professional services included a grant for Biological Control Research, Allelopathy Studies ana
a grant to B.C. Research for a satellite-basea
remote sensing program for more accurate mapping of infestation. Grants totalling $104,000
were also paid to livestock associations willing m
undertake control programs within their stock
Biological weed control programs involving fl
bio-control agents were carried out in co-operS
tion with Agriculture Canada.
Weed control projects in such crops as cereals]
corn, potatoes, beans, peas, cranberries, bluebei
ries, Christmas trees, pasture, alfalfa, turf, onion,
cucumbers, hops and strawberries were cofa
ducted at more than 50 sites.
General Extension Activities
Staff members were active in many minis™
regional extension programs including field days,!
seminars, meetings and tours. They also serv^
on many provincial and national committees sum
as the B.C. Range Committee, B.C. Com Com-1
mittee, B.C. Forage Crops Advisory Counts"
Canada Expert Committee on Weeds, CanadiS|
Seed Growers Association and the B.C. Pesticida
Staff members were involved with other agem
cies and ministries in various programs including
pesticide applicators courses and advisory weed-
control committees.
Horticulture Branch
The Horticulture Branch is concerned with
both the art and the science of horticulture in its
broadest sense. It provides specialist services in
the production of fruits, vegetables, berries, nursery and greenhouse stock and grapes. Horticulturists and other staff members not only
provide producers and ministry regional staff with
specialist services but promote and develop all
aspects of horticulture in the province. As well as
providing leadership in the culture of crops,
branch staff prepare production guides for publication, participate in applied research and demonstration projects, and provide crop reports, es-
timates and statistics. An urban horticulturist tffl
added to the staff during the year.
Staff members were hard pressed to deal wiffl
complexity of problems experienced by producers during the year many of which resuffll
from dull, rainy weather conditions. Greenhofig
and nursery crops suffered from the poor ligh j
conditions, apples did not size normally, grapes,
in a number of vineyards, failed to reach the sum
standard and berry crops were below estimatesit
production. Vegetable growers had one of tg|
poorest years on record.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Tree Fruits
■More apples were harvested during the year
En in 1980 but the smaller sizes, due to lack of
warm weather following blossom, resulted in a
Sailer crop—estimated at 412,194,000 lbs.
A heavy fruit set put a demand on growers to
chemical thin and then to hand thin, and a shortage of experienced labor resulted in many orchards being inadequately thinned. Spartan and
Red Delicious were hardest hit by this problem.
The branch is giving special
attention to research in fruit quality
through nutrition and pruning.
■The main pest and disease problems experienced by growers were apple scab, leafroller,
powdery mildew, leafhoppers, and scale. Hail
: damage was a factor in the Summerland, Pentic-
ton and Kootenay areas.
■Average crops of peaches, pears, cherries and
Mines were produced with associated problems.
J&icots were down to half the volume of the
1980 crop, but 1982 looks better with young
ffintings coming into producaoTjKjS
The branch is giving special attention to research in fruit quality through nutrition and pruning. Orchard replant problems are also being
carefully considered.
■Projects aimed at determining the extent of the
|ffiBnatode problem in tree fruit nurseries and or-
^rds were established. They include chemical
Bjmtrol in nursery stock and orchard fumigation
of replant orchards. Data collected will help for-
[mulate future recommendations for controls
ffiere nematodes are indentified as being critical.
Weed control trials in tree fruit nurserfes using
l^bicide combinations were carried out suc-
l^sfully in co-operation with the weed specialist
it the Summerland Research Stattion.
■special attention and research time was derated to Spartan apples as they continued to
uffer declining grades and poor color, nutrition
find growing conditions,
"jstaff members conducted numerous pruning
e rials and training demonstrations to educate
growers in these techniques.
■i   Branch members initiated a project to deter-
Ijme the potential for growing processing apples.
I \ committee studied the market, varieties suita-
I )le for processing, areas suitable for production
I ind special markets such as cider and wine. It was
i ound that limited opportunities exist for more
I irocessing apples.
Although more apples were harvested during 1981, they
were smaller in size due to lack of warm weather in the spring,
resulting in a smaller crop than the previous year.
Weather conditions affected winery grapes and
fresh market grape production. Yields in most
vineyards were lower than anticipated, in some
cases 50 per cent lower than last year. Fresh
market grapes such as Patricia and Campbell
Early were late to develop sufficient color and
sugar content. Several producers were forced off
this market due to poor bunch appearance and
Ifpeased fruit. The quality of shipments was generally less than satisfactory. The winery market
had a good beginning with an early settlement of
grape prices. Contributing to this was the accuracy of the cost of production study completed
by the branch grape specialist and an economist
from the Economics Branch.
Some of the research areas involving the grape
specialist during the year included: a climate and
soil atlas for grapes, testing of German varieties
(the Becker project), grape variety trials, and wine
quality evaluations and cultural trials.
Quality of early maturing varieties was generally good to excellent while late maturing varieties
such as De Chaunac, Rougeon, Verdelet and
Okanagan Riesling developed problems.
Berry Crops
The unusually heavy rainfall had a major impact on the volume of berries harvested and the
costs incurred to produce them.
Strawberry plantings overwintered well in all
areas. Spring growth and flowering were earlier
than normal, but the heavy rains greatly hampered routine field activities such as cultivation,
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
fertilization and spraying. As a result, weed control was very difficult. The 1981 production was
just over 16 million pounds with 91 per cent of the
total being produced in the Fraser Valley. The
grower price from processors was 52.5 cents per
pound in 1981 compared to 47 cents in 1980.
Raspberry production in British Columbia totalled 18 million pounds, of which 17.6 million
pounds originated in the Fraser Valley. More than
16.4 million pounds were processed.
Several new developments in the field of mechanical harvesting took place with 35 new
raspberry harvesters in operation in the Fraser
Valley making a total of 95 harvesters operating
on 1,000 acres.
The estimated weighted average grower price
from the processors was 70 to 72 cents per pound
compared with 39 cents in 1980. The farm gate
value of the provincial crop is estimated at $12.8
The production of black currents, blackberries,
loganberries and other berries has declined
sharply over the past two decades, however, a
reversal of the trend was evident. During the past
few years, prices have improved and several new
plantings of these crops have been set out in botti
the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island.
The estimated farm gate value of filberts wS
$267,000 compared to $434,000 the previous
year. Growers received 85 cents per pound,   j
Wet weather between March and July causS
vegetable crops to suffer. Acreage was down
crops matured late and unevenly, the volume wffi
low, and with it the continuity that holds buyersffl
a source of supply.
Horticulture branch staff worked on programs
geared to extend the length of the selling season
by means of earlier cropping and longer storaga
They worked to improve quality, weed contS
and disease control. Staff members conducfiSi
variety trials and tested fertilizer treatments.   I
Considerable branch work was aimed at improving carrot quality. This involved soil andl
tissue analyses of material from disease-infectedj
Staff conducted innovative trials to determine the overwintering ability of certain varieties of cauliflower which could extend the
growing season and availability of this popular vegetable.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
ffils, using data from other areas with similar
ffiblems and testing varieties for resistance. A
fflEjstrv specialist chaired a vegetable storage
Bmittee which studied storage problems of
The asparagus variety adaptation trial at
Rssiz was in its third year and was considered to
Sufficiently well established to allow a five
teek harvest. Top yielding varieties were Lim-
Ria, Lucullus, Schwet Meist and Rutger's
■eacon—all harvested later in the season.
A test of 14 varieties of broccoli was carried out
nd the variety Emperor out performed the
andard commercial variety, Premium Crop.
Staff members obtained much information on
le maturity date of cauliflower using five different
I >eding and harvesting times. Co-operative work
tlrcpntinuing with Agriculture Canada at Agassiz
n the storage of vegetables, especially cabbage
id carrots.
Jreenhouse Crops
, Tomato production declined during 1981 and
I ore hybrid varieties were grown. A comparison
It production costs and dollar return on these
I t^eties was initiated into the testing program of
I e branch.
It Management has improved with each succes-
I /e year of cropping cucumbers in sawdust, but
|v)wdery mildew continued to be the main threat
I: that crop. Branch specialists were in the process
evaluating cultural and biological controls for
|] e problem.
llMore growers are using supplementary
rumination for greenhouse ornamentals and
psreby improving quality and production. An
li creased number of producers specialized in
ol-season crops in an effort to minimize energy
Ifensumption; however, production in the later
t Dnths of 1981 was reduced because of poor
i. During the year, staff members focused more
Mention on contact with groups of growers. The
L'ower Notes newsletter also continued to re-
Kiive excellent response from growers. Specialists
lid meetings for growers to discuss the branch's
itiato variety trials. A survey indicated that over
> 0 growers, cropping some 170 acres, are oper-
mg greenhouses in British Columbia.
b f\ pre-arranged tour of Holland and England
■jive the greenhouse specialist an opportunity to
I- (serve first-hand the products of their research
■ greenhouse crops which could benefit the in-
frstry in B.C.
Nursery Stock
Ornamental nursery stock production continued to increase, both on the coast and in the
southern interior of B.C. The estimated value in
1981 was $28million at the farm gate with much
of the production sold out-of-province.
In 1981, branch staff conducted a total of 15
trials using ornamental nursery stock at various
locations. These included herbicide and fungjejc|||
trials, fertilizer and top-dressing trials, and propagation testing.
A display booth was prepared and manned for
the First Annual Western Canada Horticultural
Trade Show in July 1981.
The tree-fruit specialist administered the Tree
Fruit Certification program in 1981 and performed all the rootstock and variety indentifica-
tions while other staff members assisted in assessments and color coding. Three nurseries participating in the certification program produced a
total of 337,981 trees, up 97,219 from 1980.
Apple trees made up 59 per cent of this total.
Urban Horticulture
The urban horticultural specialist position was
established to help ministry staff respond to the
needs of urban clientele. To this end, a new newsletter, Urban Gardener, was developed.
The urban horticulturist made plans for the
launching of the Master Gardener program in the
province. The program recruits local experienced
gardeners to take extensive free training in gardening. After passing an examination, certified
Master Gardeners volunteer to assist people in
the community with their gardening problems.
The specialist completed variety evaluations of
bedding plants for the AU-American Selection
^^^in co-operation with the Department of
Plant Science, University of British Columbia.
Allotment Gardens
The allotment garden program continued to be
popular among urban dwellers as a means of
growing their own produce and enjoying the recreational and social benefits of gardening. About
420 plots were used in the Victoria area and 375
in Burnaby. During the year, plans were finalized
to turn over the administration of this community-
oriented program to the site committees effective
January 1, 1982. The ministry will continue to
provide advice to plot users as the need arises.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Livestock Branch
The goal of the Livestock Branch is to improve
efficiency of livestock production, to administer
programs that identify animals of superior genetic
value, to identify and publicize improved feeding
and management practices, to maintain a corps of
specialized commodity advisors and to develop
and administer legislation related to activities of
the branch.
Average prices for beef cattle fell below those of
1980 and 1979 by an estimated 16 per cent and
25 per cent respectively, and approximated 1978
levels. This, coupled with continuing increases in
most input costs, plus interest costs, caused cattlemen to re-consider options to enable them to
remain in business.
The total 1981 kill of cattle of B.C. origin at
approved plants was 73,658 head. This was up
11.9 per cent over 1980, and considerably ex
ceeded the national increase of 4.7 per cent B
1981. Most of the B.C. grown cattle were slaugh
tered in the province.
. . . "extension information
packages". . . prepared by the
beef technical committee . . . had]
been put forward to regional
livestock committees for approval.
The beef cattle industry responded to the 19^
ARDSA-funded "Strategic Plan for Intensihffl
the Beef Cattle Industry in British Columbia"ffl|
formation of the Beef Industry Counciljfl
achieve the goals stated in the report. The braffl
responded to the need to develop "extensm
information packages" by forming a Beef Tecra|
cal Committee. This committee is made upm
branch directors whose staff assisted in their ai^l
Auerage prices for beef cattle during 1981 were about 16 per cent lower than the previous year combined
with continuing increases in most production costs.
 of expertise. By October the committee had put
forward 56 "packages" to regional livestock committees for approval.
The branch and Information Services explored
ways of using the Knowledge Network to reach
The Beef Feeding and Management Guide was
updated for publication.
■The branch, in co-operation with the B.C. Cattlemen's Association installed a computer at Kamloops to provide cattlemen with herd analysis
Rorts on a continuing basj|||p
■Two projects funded from the Cattle Horn
gnd were being supervised by the branch and
Information Services. The first involved a film
project with the Kamloops Research Station while
the other was a study of the advantage of feeding
^mlanted bulls to finish.
■Plans were underway for an information booth
Wmprove the public image of the Tranquille Bull
Test Station. Central testing of bulls there, is now
Khly accepted by breeders, with space con-
Imauallv oversubscribed.
i Swine
Hogs of B.C. origin slaughtered at approved
Iffiints totalled 338,579, up 29.7 per cent as com-
Ipared to 1980. Canadian slaughter for 1981 was
(down by 0.8 per cent.
■The Canadian weighted average price for 100
index hogs was 71.3 cents per cwt. compared to
(50.5 cents per cwt. for 1980. The Hog Income
Iffiurance Program played a vital role in stabilizing returns to B.C. producers whose indemnities
n amounted to more than 19 cents per pound in
ISly spring and to above four cents in the fall.
Colony Farm, after eight years of continuous
jming, demonstrated what can be done in reduc-
I ng backfat and days required to achieve 90 kg
IKveight. In 1973, average backfat thickness of
he Colony gilt herd was 22.4 mm and age to 90
i tg was 194 days. In 1981, these were 17.8 mm
ind 158 days respectively. Breed selection based
i )n record of performance data, rather than man-
ptgement changes, was effective in making this
e:hange. Such characteristics are genetic and
iemonstrate that a more productive herd was
I leveloped in the eight years.
IKharges for the R.0. P. (record of performance)
-■rogram were initiated at an expected 25 per cent
ljI|osts during the year and will be increased to
I >0 per cent of costs in 1982. Breeder enrolment
I vas 15 at year-end, down three as compared to
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
The Hog Quality Program continues to be popular. The program administered by the ministry
swine specialist has been computerized to reduce
staff administration time. The winner of the competition marketed 938 animals, of which 90 per
cent indexed 105 or better.
Dairy Cattle
Enrolment on the Dairy Herd Improvement
program stood at 534—more than half the milk
producers in B.C. The dairy cattle specialist assisted the administrator of the Dairy Herd Improvement Program in designing upgrading programs for staff associated with the D. H. I. services.
The specialist continued to assist staff arid producers across B.C., in providing up-to-date expertise in dairy cattle management.
The dairy cattle specialist worked directly with producers
mcrossflhe province to provide up-to-date expertise in dairy
cattle management.
Sheep and lambs of B.C. origin slaughtered at
approved plants during the year totalled 11,059,
up 52 per cent over 1980, but average prices for
both slaughter and breeding stock were lower for
most of the year as compared to 1980.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
The branch continued to assist the industry in
the development of education programs and
services to producers. This will be enhanced by
the Sheep and Wool Commission and the B.C.
Sheep Producers Co-operative jointly appointing
a full-time secretary-manager.
Initial branch efforts to assist the sheep industry
in establishing a ram test station were reduced
when the B.C. Purebred Sheep Breeders advised
they were not prepared to support the idea at this
Dogs and predators continued to be a problem
restricting the development of the sheep industry
in many regions of the province. A few regional
districts are making an improved effort to develop
and administer dog control programs.
To assist the control process, the ministry in cooperation with the Ministry of Municipal Affairs,
prepared a brochure clarifying the necessary legislation for dog control.
The long-term results of these efforts will be
beneficial to the sheep and cattle industries.
British Columbia veal slaughtered at approved
plants totalled 14,195 head, up 19.8 per cent
over 1980. Most of this slaughter took place in the
lower mainland region. The dairy livestock specialist will be assisting the Lower Mainland Regional Livestock Committee in developing a regional program for the commodity.
The British Columbia Horse Council was given
a grant of $5,000 to assist in developing educational programs for the horse industry. In this
endeavour they are working closely with the
Youth Development Branch of the ministry.
During 1981 the Canadian Goat Society rel
quested and received a fee schedule for D.H.I.D.
supervised milk sampling on each test dag
However, they also applied to the Canadian Mils
Recording Board for official approval of a partially;
supervised milk recording program which, if apl
proved, could lead to a request for partial
D.H.I.D. supervision.
During the year, all branch responsibility^
administering regulations under the Beef Graditra
Regulations of the Agricultural Produce Grading
Act, was transferred to the Marketing Branch.
The Livestock Branch now administers the Live-,
stock Act (Bill 50) and Regulations proclaimed in
February 1981, replacing the Animals Act and tha
Livestock Act (RS Chapter 240 1979). With rel
spect to the Act, the branch administers the seel
tion dealing with livestock districts, bull contra
areas and artificial insemination of domestia
Branch administration of the Livestock Protection Act should be enhanced by a jointly authored
policy bulletin produced in co-operation with the
Ministry of Municipal Affairs. The branch assisted!
the executive director of production services in
developing the ministry position to the Ministry^
Environment in proposed amendments to tffl
Wildlife Act.
Other Extension Activities
All staff, but particularly the beef cattle speciM
ist and nutritionist, were actively involved in finaS
cial management training workshops developed
under ARDSA and have represented the branch
director on National Record of Performance Advisory and Technical Committees relevant to th^
subject specialties.
Poultry Branch
The Poultry Branch provides a specialist extension service to all segments of the poultry, egg and
rabbit industries in the province. Staff members
help producers solve production problems and
assist in the development of modern and efficiM|
production units. The branch provides advice^
government programs, new techniques and conducts and disseminates information on researjl
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
applicable to poultry operations. It acts as a liaison between producers, marketing boards, national agencies and other industry associations,
ffihe staff works closely with other branches of the
ministry and other government agencies.
■ Branch specialists in the production of poultry
and rabbits are located at the Poultry Test Station
in Abbotsford. The fields of specialty include
Bcken broiler and hatching egg production, egg
production, turkey, rabbit, waterfowl and game
ffid production as well as poultry health.
ln addition to conducting the various tests and
projects at the test station the specialists on staff
conducted numerous visits to hatcheries, producers, processing plants and other segments of
the poultry industry of the province. Branch staff
Knducted 809 farm visits, attended 262 industry
Rganization meetings and particpated in 59 sem-
Kirs and other specialist conferences.
.. . specialists on staff conducted
numerous j^lits to hatcheries,
producers, processing plants and
other segments of the poultry
industry . . .
Problems in the processing industry dominated
rativites in the poultry and rabbit sectors. The
province's second largest broiler processing and
Hatching plant announced plans to close early in
1982. The largest turkey processing plant in B.C.
changed hands because of financial difficulties. It
iizas taken over by the turkey producers in the fall
©1 has been a financially marginal operation
^Brie only rabbit processing plant in B.C. experienced financial difficulties and at year's entwffireii.
Babbit Producers' Association was attemptingjtoi;
purchase the plant and keep it in operation^p
■The ministry proposed to the industry a comfe-;
Blhensive poultry health program that would be
KHntly funded by the Provincial Government and
me industry. At year end, no decision had been
made on its implementation.
Poultry Test Station
■The branch maintains a modern poultry farm
i st Abbotsford, for the purpose of conducting ex-
aerimental and demonstration^projects for the
I Droduction of broilers, layers, turkeys and rabbits.
The poultry specialist at the branch's poultry test station in
Abbotsford examines egg quality in a project to study the
effect of change in the hours of light for laying birds.
The following is a list of the projects carried out
at the test station during 1981:
1. A test using rabbits to determine the quality of
hay that was causing problems to cattle
feeders in the Peace River District.
2. A test to see if any detrimental effects could be
observed in rabbits from consuming wild Im-
patiens plants.
3. Study of the effect of varied energy levels in
Vibrp.iler diets on health and performance of
broiler chickens.
4. A comparison of the performance of an American manufactured broiler feed versus a Canadian feed and their impact on the incidence of
"sudden death syndrome".
5. The effect of change in the hours of light when
laying birds reach 42 weeks of age.
6. Studies to determine the possibility of decreased egg production resulting from feed
problems on commercial farms.
7. A study on forced moulting of laying hens.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
The Turkey Industry
The turkey industry in British Columbia was in
a depressed state in 1981—not only were there
heavy carryovers of turkey on January 1st, but
also the turkey processing industry was in a state
of uncertainty for much of the year.
Production marketed in 1981 was some
900 000 kg less than in 1980. Birds placed on
farms included 720,000 head of broiler turkeys in
1981 as compared to 730,000 head in 1980, and
767,000 head of heavies in 1981 compared to
894,000 in 1980.
The average weighted price for turkey broilers
was 65C lb. (29c; kg), for hens 66C lb. (30C kg), for
toms 66C lb. (30c kg). The price increased by
6.25 cents per pound (2.8C kg) on toms to producers for the year. At the same time the retail
price was $1.29 per pound (59C kg) at the beginning of the year and $1.30 per pound (59C kg) at
year's end.
Turkey grades will be studied by the poultry
branch in 1982.
Waterfowl and Rabbits
The waterfowl industry became a reality in
1981 with the opening of a waterfowl processing
plant, and the establishment of two commercial
duck farms. The rabbit industry had a difficult
year with the producer having to curtail his production as well as contend with a reduction in
price from 80 cents per pound live weight to 65.
Rabbit imports from China also had their effect
on the B.C. industry.
Broiler Industry
Chicken meat production in British Columbia
was up 10 per cent over 1980 and was slightly
higher than the record production of 39.9 million
kilograms eviscerated weight in 1979.
There were 2 835 000 kg of roasters produced, an increase of 29 per cent over the previous year and there were 37 260 000 kg of
broilers produced, an increase of 10 per cenff
British Columbia overproduced its 1981 quota
allocation of 39 million kg.
Year-end holdings of broilers were excessive al
1.4 million kilograms compared to only 384 00(1
kg in January, 1981. Roaster storage was 94 00™
kg compared to 45 000 kg a year earlier.
Preliminary reports on 1981 broiler chic^fl
sales at 36.4 million kilograms show an increase
of 5.6 per cent over sales of 34 million kilogram!
for 1980. Roasting chicken sales in 1981 at 2.79
million kilograms showed an increase of 27 per
cent over sales of 2.2 million kilograms in 19801
Egg Production
British Columbia's allocation of the national
egg production quota is 12 per cent of the tota
number of layers in the country. There was 3
quota reduction of 3.5 per cent which went inra
effect November 1, 1981, however, the ministry
supported efforts of the British Columbia Ega
Marketing Agency to obtain an increase inalH
quota. B.C.'s fresh egg marketings were soma
300,000 dozen short of requirements in 1981
with the result that eggs were imported.
The prices per dozen at the farm gate at the end
of the year were: extra large $1.02, large $1,021
medium 94 cents, small 51 cents.
Poultry Health
A serious outbreak of viral arthritis occurredHJ
broiler chickens during the spring and early summer of the year. Birds, at a younger age tha
usual, were being seriously affected with the com
dition and a program of vaccination of breecra
flocks and commercial flocks was recommendeg
and instigated in co-operation with the Veteriri^B
Branch. By the end of the year the conditM
appeared under control.
Of particular significance was the continuicH
problem of Staphylococcus infection, particul^H
concerning the broiler breeder industry. This<M
ganism is routinely cultured from leg lesions ajpj
has caused considerable financial loss to the^B
dustry, notwithstanding treatment.
 if  .     Assistant
Economics and
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Marketing Branch
The Marketing Branch researches and analyzes
market situations and opportunities for agricultural products. These opportunities are encouraged through market development and commodity promotion.
The branch regulates the agriculture product
markets through the Agricultural Produce Grading Act and the Natural Products Marketing Act
and undertakes national and international liaison
on marketing and market access situations. Extension services are provided to the food processing, retailing, and hotel, restaurant and institutional sectors of the industry through market
development activities.
The marketing of agricultural products during
1981 had some particular bright spots. These
included good raspberry and cranberry prices,
strengthening apple and soft fruit prices, potato
returns higher than had been seen for some time,
strengthened pork prices over 1980 and moderately stable market patterns for the regulated
poultry and dairy products with the exception of
turkeys. Beef continued to experience poor market returns with few expectations for change in
Retail food prices continued to move up during
1981, but had a much slower growth rate than
had been experienced in either of the previous
two years. Increased use of the market research
and analysis publication, B.C. Food Markets,
which reports these changes on a monthly basis,
has been made by the British Columbia media in
reporting the reasons for price increases.
Branch staff worked on market
analysis of asparagus and field
Federal-provincial market development activities were reviewed in early June at a major
national conference held in Victoria. Emanating
from that were discussion papers on federal-
provincial coordination for market information
systems and development. Feedback was given
to the federal government on its proposed
CANAGREX agriculture export marketing corporation. At the federal-provincial meeting in Victoria, a decision was made to produce a four-
western-province Export Trade Show for Safeway officials from around the world. Some 48
British Columbia food firms made presentation
at the show which took place in September 198!
This is the first time that the western province
have co-operated in such a major undertakffl
the potential export trade generated by this a!
tivity should benefit a number of British Colun
bia food processing firms and their primary-prM
uct suppliers.
The branch provided significant assistanc^
incoming trade delegations from Australia an
Japan. Prospects appear bright for increaS
sales of fruit and vegetable products to both <
these countries as a result.
Market Research and
The market research and analysis unit unga
took a heavy program in 1981 resulting inM
production on a regular basis of: The Fresh fa
and Vegetable Report, the Agrimarket Reporte
reporting input and output prices for seler^
items and B.C. FoodMarkets reporting retail fool
The B.C. Vegetable Marketing Guide was up
dated for 1981 along with the Food andBevetm
Directory. A weekly report was distributed derag
ing prices and movement of all produce itffl
pertinent to B.C. markets. This information wa
updated on a daily basis and placed on a 24 hon
telephone recorder for use by the various marffl
ing agencies and individual producers withinm
province. This service, in effect from May thrqOT
to November, averaged 30 calls per day fronj|
areas of the province.
A major program of the unit is the monitoriipB
import commodity prices for possible applicatB
of surtax. This monitoring indicated early inlM
year that surtax should be applied against U.S
tomatoes entering the B.C. market. Thoughm
pricing situation corrected itself before acffl
could be taken it did allow for testing of the sysCT
and the coordination with federal officials.
The Research and Analysis Unit carried out i
number of extension programs in co-operafw
with field staff. Particular market opportunity ana
lyses for certain commodities were developet
and presented at three meetings in northern B.C.
a vegetable producers' meeting in the soffit
Okanagan, and at Vancouver Island produc^
 ■JAs part of its regular public awareness campaign, the branch conducted over 200 food demonstrations at retail outlets.
|c Branch staff worked on market analyses of
tiparagus and field tomatoes. Detailed analyses
t potentials involved in the processed peas,
;ans and corn markets were provided to both
ocessors and producers prior to negotiations for
e 1981 price.
II The unit completed an overview of the intema-
s mal raspberry production and marketing situa-
||. The information has proved to be extremely
p iportant in delineating the opportunities for this
■Ming industry.
I A Cattle Marketing Guide was completed for
iblication and work began on a major review of
i e characteristics of the hotel, restaurant and
Igutional food markets in British Columbia.
I The United States Department of Agriculture
tild a series of trade policy hearings in 1981
:t cusing primarily on complaints of unfair compe-
nion from Canadian raspberry and blueberry
oducers and processors. The branch monitored
I ese hearings, provided information for U.S. of-
ials and interveners with the result that trade
: nctions were not imposed.
The unit undertook detailed analyses of market
opportunities for various individuals wishing to
enter an agricultural enterprise, and provided
marketing management expertise for their endeavours. In addition, the unit answered some
2,000 enquiries for market information and analysis from all sectors of agriculture, food processing, financial, consulting, educational and gov-
ernmentjinstitutions throughout the country.
Market Development
The Marketing Branch continued a program
jwroltne B.C. Ferries corporation and the B.C.
Purchasing Commission in testing of foodstuffs
for use in the ferry cafeterias. This program was
combined with promotion of various B.C. products, when in season, to provide product exposure to travellers.
The market for B.C. produced rabbits was
given a major boost during the year with the
printing of a brochure of rabbit recipes, a shared
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
advertising program with the rabbit producers
and a number of instore demonstrations utilizing
the product.
The branch worked closely with B.C. food producers and processors in producing brochures
and developing trade show displays for local and
foreign markets. A major display by the B.C.
Seed Potato Growers Association at a northwest
U.S. trade show during 1981, is an example.
The branch also placed a display featuring
many B.C. commodities and processed products
in the B.C. Restaurant Association Trade Show.
This display was a major new approach to the
restaurant industry which now takes close to 40
per cent of the consumer food dollar.
Food demonstrations included preparation of all types of B.C.
home grown food products.
The B.C. Food Festival was inaugurated as a consumer
display in Vancouver's Robson Square as a joint project by the
Ministry of Industry and Small Business Development and the
Ministry of Agriculture and Food.
Home Economics
The branch home economist continued to ml
duce the Quarterly Recipe Books, produced 2
recipe information sheets for distribution thr<8
retailers, wrote monthly press releases featurir
B.C. food products, and answered hundreds i
consumer enquiries on food preparation, safet
and nutrition.
A major program was the dissemination i
school information packages on B.C. food prot
ucts and their use to home economic teache
throughout the province.
The home economist worked with the B.(
Ministry of Health and the B.C. Nutrition Com
in preparing information on B.C. products dum
Nutrition Week. Major articles were prepared ft
Western Living and Vancouver Calendar Magi
zine on preparation and use of British Columb
food products. A metric booklet to educate coi
sumers using metric measures in recipes w<
Food Promotion
The Food Promotion Program in 1981 cei:
tered around the "Taste the Seasons" theme vA\i
four seasonal posters distributed to retail stan
and schools. About 300,000 Quarterly Red:
and Home Gardening booklets, were distributed
The B.C. Food Festival was inaugurated as
consumer display in Vancouver's Robson Squa i
in co-operation with the Ministry of Industry aj;
Small Business. It was considered an overwh||j|
ing success with over 30,000 visitors to the shoi
The retail instore food demonstration progra j
was expanded in 1981 with some 210 food der
onstrations carried out to assist 22 companies I
commodity groups. The mushroom industry ||
stituted a program of weekly food demonstrate
as a direct result of this program.
The branch assisted with the inception of App
Month which was February 1981. The promotic:
campaign carried out by the industry in conjun
tion with the Fresh For Flavour Foundation pn
duced major benefits during a normally toutc
marketing period of the year. Food product tes
ing continued for a wide range of products®;
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
temm \<
A variety of instore promotional display, cards are used to
create public awareness of specialty commodities or featured
B.C. products.
Market Regulation
Under the Agricultural Produce Grading Act,
the branch ensures effective enforcement of grading regulations through 120 inspectors supplied
by the federal Departments of Agriculture and
Consumer and Corporate Affairs. As well, the
branch determines the short term changes which
may be required in order to meet particular commodity marketing circumstances such as those
required for rain-damaged cherries or sliSffiKI
substandard apples.
Marketing problems and their effect on the
poultry processors dominated the attention of
government in relation to the turkey industry
throughout 1981. Pricing and marketing problems contributed to a major buildup in frozen
turkey inventory. After substantial financial problems at the processing level, a majority of B.C.
turkey producers purchased control of the Pan
Ready processing plant and now operate it as a
co-operative turkey processing facility.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
The review, assessment and communication of
British Columbia's poultry industry needs and the
status of the three national marketing plans (Egg,
Chicken and Turkey) required considerable attention by the branch. For all three commodities,
the question of provincial quota allocation with
respect to increased provincial needs was a major
issue dealt with and discussed in federal-provincial meetings. The inability of the three national
marketing plans to respond to national population shifts, changing per capita consumptions,
and increasing transportation costs was of major
concern and caused considerable stress within
the three plans.
Throughout the year several of the commodity
boards experienced internal operational diffi
culties which required ministry and B.C. MarH
ing Board assistance in resolving. Recurring prob
lems of this nature have resulted in initiamB
being taken by the branch, the B.C. Markeffl
Board and the Council of Marketing Boards ti
plan an educational seminar for 1982 whichBB
assist in educating commodity board direcw
and managers on the principles of marketing pg
The Marketing Branch undertook a number c
analyses on regulated marketing problems fonB
by the ministry, the B. C. Marketing Board and th
industry during the year. Particular emphasisB
being placed on the poultry industry wifa
branch publication of a monthly report on chang
ing conditions.
Economics Branch
The Economics Branch provides leadership
and support services to farm managers, agri-business, commodity and farm organizations and
guidance to ministry and other government agencies in the following areas:
• farm business management
• production economics
• resource economics
• agricultural statistics
• data processing
• special projects
The branch prepares booklets and factsheets
on farm management topics, conducts economic
studies and surveys, provides farm business education in the form of courses and workshops,
provides leadership in the delivery of farm planning techniques and offers client counselling in
these program areas.
Farm Business Management
The primary purpose of this program is to improve the business management skills and practices of farm managers in the province.
During 1981 this was accomplished through a
full range of activities including:
Preparation and Publication of
Resource Material Factsheets
Two factsheets were published each month to
present economic, financial and legislative infor-
mation to farm families and field staff. Tools, cor
cepts and information to assist in maximizing^
farm income through better decision-malffl
skills were stressed.
Major Publications
The publications Taxation and theB.C. Faiw
and Farm Business Partnerships in B.C. wet
reviewed and updated. However, due to majc
changes in the November 12, 1981 Federal Buc
get, further updating will be required prieM
Sources of Farm Credit in B.C. and a referenci
manual on Liquidation and Bankruptcy wer
Other publications in preparation were Privat
Aspects of Agricultural Leases. Sample Leas
Agreements for Various Commodities and Estal\
Planning Considerations for B.C. Farmers.
Farm Financial
Management Training
The second year of this ARDSA-funded pre 3
gram was completed in 1981. The projei
provides a training program to update the final r
cial management skills of farmers. Courses wei;
offered on a commodity basis to farmer
ranchers and orchardists at each of three level,;
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
ie Introductory Course covered basic concepts
d tools involved in compiling, analyzing and
:orporating financial statements into the plan-
lg process. A one-day tax planning session was
o offered. The Intermediate Level Course of-
■ed more advanced concepts, including finance
d debt management, paper handling, machin-
iBsosts, marketing strategies, production for
jafit, business organization and estate planning.
. the Economics Branch
upplies the British Columbia
jriculture and food industry with
levant, timely and accurate data
«i the size and nature of the
Mistry. This information is
(.sential for good decision-
Ming . . .
1e Advanced Course was desHed to cover
nre specific topics in-depth, such as economics
Csattle feeding, business analysi^f ecord-keep-
ii and business organization strategie^Due to
t enthusiastic response to the specifics-depth
he of course the topic offerings are being ex-
jhded for 1982/83.
||e three levels of workshops, using a case
sdy approach, offered a progressive learning
Ipprtunity to farmers. With group sizes of 12 to
f, good interaction was achieved and post-
etrse follow-up encouraged. Approximately 40
eirses were held throughout the province with
£D farmers participating. (Table I and II).
firm Business Challenges
* "Re "Farm Business Challenges of the 80's"
pierence held in Vancouver during January
111 attracted 225 participants including com-
nxial farmers, consultants and advisors, agri-
fliness representatives and staff from other
Bncies. Prominent 'leaders' in the area of busies management, from both Canada and the
ted States, identified and discussed the chal-
^3es facing farm business managers in the
The Economics Branch involved other ministry
representatives, B.C. Federation of Agriculture,
University of British Columbia and agri-business
representatives in the organization of this successful conference.
Workshops and Short
In addition to acting in an advisory capacity to
farmers, staff and other individuals, the regional
farm economists and farm business management
technicians assisted in planning courses, workshops and seminars related to farm business management and agricultural economics.
Information, Survey
and Research projects
In an attempt to establish benphrnark information from which program needs may be identified'
and developed, three regional farmfkconomists
fwjthin the branch led the following projects:
Labor Management Survey—172 farmer interviews and subsequent analysis relating to wage
rates, fringe benefits, training practices and other
employer-employee arrangements were
Lease Survey—A preliminary analysis and
comparison was completed in 1981 regarding
rental rates and arrangements and ownership
costs for various types of agricultural assets.
Farm Business Practices Survey—270 farmers
were surveyed by area and commodity to provide
benchmark data concerning managerial expertise. Preliminary analysis has been completed.
A number of background papers were prepared for the branch and ministry, including
"Farm Management Requirements, Needs and
Expectations Over the Next Decade" and the
development of a program strategy for the ministry following the privatization of Canfarm.
As part of the ongoing challenge to utilize new
technology, several micro-computers and appropriate software packages were tested in order to
determine their application to farm business management decision-making and advisory work. A
library of software is being compiled and systems
have been demonstrated to farmers, staff and
agri-business groups.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Table I    Workshop Numbers,  1978/79 to
1981/82, by Levels
81/82   ■
Table II Workshop and Student Numbers,
1981/82, by Commodity and Course
and Type
Number of
Number of
—business analysis
Mixed Farm—I
s/-.v5;.:-".o    »s.i-;-r-,'?.-j-,*.>^
In addition to workshops, seminars and short courses, farm management specialisWdeal directly with farmers
to evaluate the cost effectiveness of irrigation systems and other similar crop production equipment.
'roduction Economics
The production economics program carries out
i 3St and return studies for specific commodities
j r agricultural processes, develops and maintajpl
s data bank for economic co-efficients and factor
ISts and assists other branches within the minis-
I win carrying out production economic analysis
I n selected demonstrations or research.
I Program highlights included:
I Consensus Data Studies—This inexpensive
lethod of researching production costs was uti-
I :ed to obtain and publish 10 reports covering the
Ijffiawing commodities: grain crops, alfalfa hay
ra| silage, grapes, field tomatoes, potatoes,
Islet corn, lettuce, cabbage, peppers and veal.
I j|griculture Input Cost Study-^iput costs and
i /ailability of 46 items were surveyed monthly in
three reporting regions within the province. Requests for specific time series data show an increase as the data bank expands.
Other specific studies included:
• A range-forest fertilization project in the interior to determine and demonstrate the feasibility of fertilizing native range.
• Hay production data in the interior related to
timothy clover hay production and large
round bale harvesting systems.
• A fertilizer crop correlation study continued,
with joint funaing from the Feed Freight Assistance Adjustment Fund Agreement.   .
• A zero till demonstration project, funded by
ARDSA, continued. The Economics Branch
assisted with the establishment of this ongoing demonstration and provided an economic analysis of the system.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 AnnualReport
Resource Economics
The resource economics program is designed
to provide leadership and support to ministry staff
involved with questions relating to resource allocation and use; to provide a methodological
back-up to assist those carrying out benefit-cost
analysis and to serve on various related task
In 1981, the branch converted one of its positions to a resource economist in order to provide a
focal point for leadership in this subject area.
Program highlights included:
• A preliminary analysis was completed on the
proposed drainage system in the Pitt Meadows area. A second report was initiated during 1981 to examine the disadvantages occurring from a drainage system failure.
• A preliminary cost-benefit study was initiated
to determine the feasibility of the proposed
drainage system in the Hatzic Prairie area.
This study was undertaken prior to an engineering study of the area required for an
ARDSA-funded improvement project.
Branch staff reviewed and advised the Agn
cultural Economics Department of the Uffl
versity of British Columbia regarding a pra
liminary land use study of the McMurffl
Benches. This study, contrasting the returnffl
land devoted to agricultural and forestry pm
duction. is expected to have an importffl
impact on long-range land-use decisions it
the Kootenays.
Branch staff was involved in the determine
tion of the agricultural potential in the Sloca|
Valley area. The project group determine
that considerable agricultural potential exm
and that a land-base be ensured to enabk
such development to occur.
Agriculture Statistics
The statistics unit of the Economics Branch
supplies the British Columbia agriculture and
food industry with relevant, timely and accurate
data on the size and nature of the industry. 13
information is essential for good decision making
and policy formulation (see Table III).
Table III   Key B.C. Economic Indicators—Agriculture
and Food
Percentage  1
of Change
Human Population
+ 2.6
Food Processing
$2.4 bil.
$2.7 bil.
+ 12.5
Number of Farms
Cultivated Farmland
2.03 mil. ac.
2.05 mil. ac.
+ 1.0
Farm Expenses
$613.7 mil.
$764.2 mil.
+ 24.5
Farm Cash Receipts
$746.1 mil.
$884.7 mil.
+ 18.6
Milk Sales by Volume
463.0 mil. L.
476.0 mil. L.
+ 2.8
Poultry Sales
104.4 mil. lbs.
112.8 mil. lbs.
+ 8.0
Egg Production
62.5 mil. doz.
62.5 mil. doz.
Apple Production
463.5 mil. lbs.
412.0 mil. lbs.
Vegetable Receipts
$53.9 mil.
$64.3 mil.
+ 19.3  1
Floriculture and Nursery
$40.7 mil.
$46.6 mil.
+ 14.5
Honey Production
3.9 mil. lbs.
4.6 mil. lbs.
+ 17.9
Cattle Numbers
749,500 head
773,000 head
+ 3.1
Pig Numbers
220,000 head
245,000 head
+ 11.4
Sheep Numbers
60.000 head
62.000 head
+ 3.3
Wheat Production
170 000 tonnes
125 000 tonnes
Barley Production
220 000 tonnes
209 000 tonnes
- 5.0   j
 Close liaison was maintained with Statistics
lanada and improved during the year through
BLse of MAILBOX, a computer-based method
Rending and receiving correspondence. This
/stem permits the rapid transmission of short
tessages at reasonable cost and was introduced
flagricultural statisticians in Canada at the re-
flfst of British Columbia.
■Buring 1981, the following factsheets and re-
ffis were produced:
■{\griculture Statistics Factsheets
HCrop Report
HAgri-Stats Factsheets
• Production and Consumption of Red Meats
in B.C.
'A number of special projects were conducted
iffihq the year. These included assisting Statistics
anada in an experiment to use satellite imagery
Ktimate canola acreages in the Peace River
istrict and a report on the size and importance of
ie horse industry in B.C.
The Economics Branch provided expertise in
.e development of computer programs for the
ffistry and manages the ministry's data-proving budget and activities.
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annua/ Report
The total number of projects increased from 20
in 1980 to 35 in 1981. Highlights included expansion of terminal equipment at regional and district
offices, introduction of the MAILBOX message
switching system, and expansion of word-processing capabilities. Data-processing was used in
the following programs: Dairy herd improvement
analysis program, feed analysis program, hog
marketing system, animal pathology project
(there was a total of 8,380 submissions processed
in 1981 which resulted in 23,804 reports), brands
registration project (there was a total of 7,323
brand owners in 1981 and a total of 1,689 new
certificates issued).
Special Projects
Staff of the branch provided input into many
inter-agency committees and project groups including: the Feed Freight Assistance Adjustment
Fund Agreement, Beef Industry Technical Committee, Expert Committee on Farm Management
Services, B.C. Farm Business Management Advisory Committee and the Social Science Lead
 SMinktry of Agriculture and Food—1981 AnnualReport
ARDA Branch
The Agriculture and Rural Development Subsidiary Agreement (ARDSA) is managed and administered by the ARDA Branch. This federal-
provincial program provides joint funding of up to
$60 million from the federal Department of Regional Economic Expansion (DREE) and the
B.C. Ministry of Agriculture and Food, committed
in a five-year period which began August 1,1977
and ends July 31, 1982.
The ARDSA program's over-all objectives are
to increase the quality and quantity of British
Columbia's food production and to create new
employment opportunities in the agriculture and
food industry.
ARDSA funds are directed into four key areas:
During 1981, ARDSA assistance
of $7,260,827 was committed to
37 new projects . . . These
projects represent new land
development. . .
Part I—Research, planning, training and market promotion to help identify and develop new
opportunities for the province's agricultural and
food-oriented industries.
Part II—Coordinated resource manac:
ment—with the co-operation of other resoSj||
users—develops the grazing potential of Cro1
rangelands which are best suited for livestock
Part III—Primary resource developrrre
funds for irrigation and drainage projects vm
increase the agricultural productivity of la
Part IV—Support service and communittSi
velopment funds assist secondary food pi]
cessors and the agricultural support senfSr
needed to improve rural economic stability afral
create jobs.
Installation of water supply and drainage systems form
cultural use, is one of a wide variety of project types funaw
the ARDSA program.
August 1, 1977 to December 31, 1981
Part I Research, planning, training and
market promotion
Part II Coordinated Resource Development
Management (Range Improvement)
Part III       Primary Resource Development
(Drainage and Irrigation)
Part IV       Support Services and Community
13,075,377 |
 rogram Evaluation
The ARDSA program, now in its fifth year of
leration in the province, was being subjected to
ligorous evaluation during 1981. The main pur-
I se of the evaluation is to establish a measure of
> benefits accrued to date from the projects
[rried out and to determine which types of pro-
Its are returning the greatest benefits for the
Vestments made.
IKis information will be available, coupled with
leview of agriculture's goals and objectives, in
■Shrining the future direction for an ARDSA-
be program in British Columbia and in directing
Ii most effective investments for the remainder
!jne existing agreement.
ew Development, New
pproaches, New Jobs
[During 1981, ARDSA assistance of
B 260,827 was committed to 37 new projects.
Be ARDSA program from its inception has com-
tted $43,823,232 to assist 318 approved pro-
I^These projects represent new land develop-
rnt through drainage, irrigation, and range
iorovements, as well as new job creation and
rny new approaches to problems in the B.C.
lid industry.
lart I—Research, Planning,
aining and Market
SFjve projects were approved in 1981, for which
)®SA contributed $354,512, bringing the total
Irt 1 ARDSA commitment to $4,794,356 for 57
lalcts. At year-end, a total of 23 projects were
n ARDSA funded diking project protects agricultural land
r>» le Pemberton Valley Diking District and in the Mount
Cne Indian Reservation.
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Two applied research and demonstration projects were approved. The B.C. Honey Producers'
Association in conjunction with the Apiculture
Branch, undertook a three-year project to select
and produce an improved honeybee stock. Another project in queen and package bee production was also initiated.
The B.C. Seed Potato Growers' Association
will demonstrate techniques of virus-free seed
potato production to producers in the Pemberton
and Cariboo seed potato control areas. This work
involves the production of virus free mother
plants and the propagation of stem cuttings, as
well as support to growers in greenhouse operation and management.
Part II—
Coordinated Resource
Management Planning
ARDSA provided funds for $2.7 million of development work in 68 coordinated resource management plans and community pasture projects.
The financial committment involved approximately $2 million on works scheduled for
1981/82, $500,000 on overdue works, and
$200,000 on new projects:*"
Construction problems in the first year of the
agreement caused ARDSA to begin 1981 with a
$2.4 million backlog of uncompleted work, in
ffiBMjbh to the $2 million of scheduled projects.
Cash flow constraints permitted funding for only
two new projects, at a cost of $350,000. Work
was concentrated on overdue construction and
resulted in completion of 20 projects, and reduced the backlog of work to about $1.9 million
which will be funded over the next two years.
Proposals for new projects amounting to $5.9
million were received during the year, and will be
considered for funding for the duration of the
Staff members study proposals for land use under ARDSA's
co-ordinated resource management planning program and
consider the needs of present and potential users of the land.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
Part III—Primary Resource
Main emphasis was placed on construction of
previously approved projects, although six new
projects were approved for a gross value of approximately $5 million of which ARDSA will fund
75 per cent. There were two drainage projects
and one combination drainage irrigation project
in the Fraser Valley, irrigation projects at Ashcroft
and Vernon, and a diking project on the Similka-
meen River.
In addition to new construction projects, Part III
helped fund feasibility studies for other potential
projects at a cost to ARDSA of about $200,000.
These could result in construction projects worth
$5 million if approved.
Late 1980, and early 1981, was a time of escalating construction costs and Part III had to accept
cost overruns on 11 projects totalling of $667,000
gross, $500,000 net. These expenditures and
commitments bring Part Ill's shareable commitment to approximately $11 million.
Part IV—Support Services
and Community
During the year, 19 projects with an estimated
cost of $12.5 million were granted assistance of
$1.67 million. Projects assisted included abattoirs, tree fruit and berry cooperatives, a jam
factory, a lysozyme extraction plant and rural
electrification projects.
An efficient drainage outlet system protects farmland
in Surrey from the ravages of spring flooding,    g
ARDSA funds helped fund the freezer storage units (ir^S
ground of picture) at Trans Pacific Fish Ltd. in Ucluelm
Vancouver Island. Workers strip the roe from herrinS:
quick-freeze the fish with the new equipment
Agricultural Credit
The Agricultural Credit Branch has approved
financial assistance to farmers under provisions of
the Agricultural Credit Act and the Agricultural
Land Development Act throughout 1981 in the
following forms:
a) Provincial government guarantees to chartered banks or credit unions as supplement
support security to loans made to farmers.
b) Reimbursement of a portion of the 1c
interesjfcosts paid by farmers in 198M
loans from approved lenders to effecra
reduce the cost of farm loans.
c) Incentives in the form of additional reiffl
sement of interest paid on farm loarS
encourage farmers to participate in spB
production programs in the province.™
 kin-damaged crop program for
e South Coastal Region . . . was
Slblished to assist growers who
iffered losses ... as a result of
cord rainfalls . . .
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
poration, the Federal Business Development
Bank and the Director of the Veterans' Land Act.
A total of $62,607,532 has been distributed to
farm operators of British Columbia since the inception of this program in 1974.
Special Programs
1) The establishment of a Rain Damaged Crop
Program for growers in the South Coastal
Region who suffered severe losses as a re-
Bsultof record rainfalls in the spring of 1981.
ik Direct loans to a maximum of $25,000 to
■finance the cost of work and materials relative to land development throughout the
uaranteed Loan
In 1981, chartered banks and credit unions of
1 province received provincial government
jirantees as support security on 36 farm loans,
bse guarantees totalled $4,859,807. Farm op-
;tors involved in aquaculture and mariculture
serprises were eligible for this form of assistance
|Ke first time in 1981. Since the inception of
i program in 1974, there have been 338 guar-
lees placed, totalling $33,801,128.
I Dne claim was made by a lender and approved
jler the guarantee covenant in 1981 for a total
50,000. To date 11 claims have been made
sder the program since 1974, totalling
hrtial Interest
timbursement Program
he branch processed and approved 6,350
jilications for partial reimbursement of loan insist costs incurred by farm operators in 1980.
h resulted in benefits of $12,399,092.
Ifte program reduced-interest costs in 1980 to
[affective interest rate of approximately 12.36
p cent or 2 per cent below the bank average
Pne lending rate for the year. An additional
a roved lender was added in 1981—the West-
? Indian Agricultural Corporation Limited. approved lenders in the program are char-
t<-d banks, credit unions, the Farm Credit Cor-
Grapevine Assistance Program 1978—79
This program was initiated in 1979 to assist
farm operators in re-establishing grapevines destroyed, or-severely damaged, by frost in the
winter of 1978-79. Financial assistance took the
form of a reduction of loan interest costs to 4 per
cent for the calendar years 1980-1982 based on
eligible loans of $1,000 per acre per year.
Eleven farm operators participated in the program in 1981 receiving benefits of $16,900 relative to 1980 interest costs. Through this program,
216 acres of grapevines are being re-established.
Ten participants remain in the program and ex-
^^^Kmbursement benefits for 1981 amounting
to $58,000.
Over 200 acres of grapevines were re-established as a result
of the special grapevine assistance program which was designed to help farmers re-establish vines lost by frost damage
during the harsh winter of 1978-79.
Asparagus Production Incentive Program
This program to stimulate an increase in the
production of asparagus in British Columbia was
launched in 1980. Financial assistance took the
form of reimbursement of all, or a portion of, the
interest costs paid by the farmer over a four year
crop establishment period. There are eight farm
operators enrolled representing new asparagus
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
production on 255 acres. Eligible loans are based
on $400 per acre. Reimbursement benefits paid
in 1981 amounted to $3,213 and are expected to
increase to $14,000 in 1982.
Rain-Damaged Crop Program—
South Coastal Region
The program announced on August 28, 1981
was established to assist growers who suffered
losses on eligible crops as a result of record rainfalls in the South Coastal Region. Eligible crops
included vegetables and annually seeded forage
crops not insurable under the Crop Insurance
Financial assistance will be reimbursement of
loan interest ranging from 25-50 per cent of the
chartered bank average prime rate on those loans
contracted for operating purposes. The eligible
bank loans are based on 1981 crop acreages that
could not be planted or harvested, or acreages on
which non-insurable crops yielded less than 60
per cent.
To date, 118 farm operators are registered
the program involving approximately $5.5 n
lion in operating loans.
Agricultural Land Development Act
Major changes in this program in 1981
eluded increased funding of approximately
million, an increase in the maximum loan linm
$25,000 per farm operator from $15,000,f|
the adoption of an interest rate on loans wffl
equates to one-half of the chartered bank aveS
prime lending rate.
There were 613 contracts issued through t
program in 1981 for a total value of $5,642,(1
The program is to assist farmers by way of dml
loans in meeting the cost of work and materi;
relative to land development. ALDA continu®
be a poular program with loan requests faml
ceeding the available funding. This resulted iraj|
closing of applications this year on May 31, 19
when the program became fully committedB
Crop Insurance
The function of the Crop Insurance Branch is to
administer the B.C. Insurance for Crops Act.
Within the context of this Act, the objectives of the
branch are:
1. To reduce the fluctuations in net income of
individual producers who suffer crop losses
due to weather and other uncontrollable
2. To maintain an effective system for administration of crop insurance programs for selected commodities.
3. To reduce the need for ad hoc assistance
programs in crop loss situations.
The crop insurance program involves the participation of the farmer, the provincial government and the federal government.
The fanner and the federal government each
contribute 50 per cent of the total cost of the
premium involved, while the provincial government contributes the cost of administering the
The six groups of crops covered by existing
crop insurance plans include: berries, forage,
grain, grapes, tree fruits and vegetables.
The winter was generally mild, with lowerffll
average rain and snowfall. There was no siffljl
cant damage to grape vines or fruit treesHI
there was some local killing of forage stands in |]
There were abnormally heavy and freqffll
rain showers in the Fraser Valley during the sprl
and early summer. This caused losses to stal
berry and raspberry plantings when nornS!
suitable soils became water-logged. The "sot!
the blueberry crop was also adversely affected|
the wet conditions.
The crop insurance program
involves the participation of thJ
farmer, the provincial governing
and the federal government.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
n the Okanagan, the weather during cherry            Recorded rainfall in the Peace River Region
ffig was unfavourable resulting in widespread         was 68 per cent of the 1980 level. Severe hail-
Iplitting. Heavy and repeated hailstorms re-         storms were        ^ | fte South peace Qn Ju
Sid in the Summerland-Naramata areas, with
Ired storms further south and in Creston,         27th and Au9>Jst 27th. These two storms ac-
icaused crop damage and loss.                             counted for most of the damage.
Miile the southeast of the province was un-
W/ wet, the Peace River area was extremely            Good weather in the fall allowed most of the
1' between spring cultivation and mid-August.          harvesting to be completed without delay.
::atus of Crop Insurance Fund at March 31, 1981
March 31/81
March 31/80
1 )ue from Government of Canada
1 merest on Fund
Israin Program
Iree Fruit Program
perry Program
| Srape Program
brage Program
I'egetable Program
(   219,001.45)*
(   610,607.92)
(   78,599.06)
(   784,774.05)
(   416,864.41)
i 'rop Insurance Fund Balance
; racket denotes credit.
he: This statement shows the actual status of the Crop Insurance Fund as of March 31, 1981 by fisca
year and on a cumulative basis. The above figures will not necessarily agree with those of the
B individual program which are by crop year, since the time periods do not correspond.
pimmary of Loss Experience
Per Cent Loss
to Premium
1980    r#?fK
loss experience for all programs
1 irain Program
•ee Fruit Program
I. erry Program
Ifepe Program
Drage Program
vegetable Program
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
April 1, 1980
March 31, 1981
April 1, 1979 ]
March 31, 19801
Provincial Administrative Costs
Federal Government Premium Contribution
Administration Cost to Federal Contribution
Administration Costs to Total Coverage
Administration Costs to Total Claims
Farm Income
Insurance Branch
The Farm Income Insurance Branch administers the income insurance program comprised of
a number of commodity plans which protect producers against income loss due to low market
returns or rapid changes in farm input costs. The
plans are based on the insurance concept and
require that sufficient premiums be submitted to
cover the indemnities paid over the long term.
Premiums are shared between the participant
and the Provincial Government. Producer participation is voluntary.
Plans for 12 commodities were implemented in
the period 1973 to 1977, most for a term of five
years. All of the 12 original plans have now expired and new, ongoing plans have been implemented for nine commodities.
The total cost for all plans in the 1981 calendar
year was $21,853,993. This consisted of
$15,943,514 of government premiums and a further $5,910,479 paid from reserve funds established under the plan.
The sheep plan provided
coverage ... for 130 producer^*
while the blueberry plan provided
coverage for 129 producers and
the greenhouse vegetable plan
covered 90 producers.
Three new plans were established in 19811
der the terms and policy of the new farm inca
insurance agreements for a "second generaw
of plans—greenhouse vegetables, (tot-nata""
glish cucumbers and white spine cucumbe
blueberry, and sheep plans. The other plans
for beef, tree fruits, swine, strawberries for p
cessing, vegetables for processing (peas, be;
and corn) and broiler hatching eggs.
The sheep plan provided coverage eff^
January 1, 1980 for 130 producers whi^
blueberry plan provided coverage for 129 p
ducers and the greenhouse vegetable plan c
ered 90 producers. Work is continuing on
development of second generation plans iffl
potato and raspberry commodity groups. I
To the end of the calendar year, there w
4,105 participants registered in nine new plaJ
The enrolment included:
Beef 1,55;!
Blueberry 12!
Broiler Hatching Egg 4!
Greenhouse 9(
Potatoes pendifjt
Processing Strawberries 7!
Processing Vegetables 4.
Raspberries penaM]
Sheep 13j
Swine 25
Tree Fruit 1,78!
The farm income insurance program provit 1
a significant level of protection to producers frf
low market returns or rapidly increasing in'
costs beyond the individual participant's cont
 V^a result of low returns, beef producers benefited significantly from the farm income insurance program during 1981.
Over 1,500 beef producers were enrolled.
hrm Products
Finance Branch
he Farm Products Finance Branch is responsi-
llfor a broad financial assisTance program un-
jtthe Farm Product Industry Act. It provides the
pultural and food processing industry with
ois, loan guarantees, grants and finanBial ad-
ry services.
hancial Assistance
jknty increased significantly during 1981
H 61 organizations requesting financial assis-
3i e, a 35 per cent increase over 1980. Financial
Bininations were undertaken on 37 proposals
Siting in approval of assistance totalling ap
proximately $2.4 million for 10 organizations.
■Hiqneainterest rates, raw material and labor costs
caused serious financial problems for agricultural
Four guarantees totalling $3.6 million were ter-
^fflHed. One for the British Columbia Development Corporation/South Peace Dehy-Products
Ltd. operation, in the amount of $500,000 was
paid up. The three others were cancelled at the
request of the organizations concerned because
their financial circumstances had improved.
Those organizations were: 1) Tree Fresh CA Storage Ltd., Kelowna, $2,000,000, guarantee approved in 1975; 2) Keremeos Growers' Co-oper-
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
ative Association, Keremeos, $780,000, guarantee approved in 1975; 3) Top Shelf Feeds Inc.,
Duncan, $300,000, guarantee approved in
1975. These guarantees were required because
the organizations could not arrange bank loans
on reasonable terms due to lack of proven suc
cessful financial performance or adequateB
curity being available.
A total of $2,377,535 was provided in dia
financial assistance during 1981 with a total
$6,384,793 in assistance outstanding af theH
of the year.
Direct Financial Assistance Approved During the Year
Pan Ready Poultry (1980) Ltd.
British Columbia Dev. Corp.
Rabbit Producers' Assn. of B.C.
B.C. Fruit Growers' Test Orchard
Kootenay Dehydrators Ltd.
Royal City Foods
B.C. Cattlemen's Association
B.C. Strawberry Growers' Assn.
Sun Dew Foods Ltd.
Branch activites of a particular interest incliB| |
the following programs:
Pan Ready Poultry (1980) Ltd.
Branch staff met with the Bank of Montreal]!
B.C. Turkey Marketing Board and the fedei
Agricultural Products Board with the resulffl1
successful re-financing allowed the plant, mm\
had gone into receivership, to re-open. A guar<£
Under the farm products finance program, numerous food
processing firms are given financial help and advice.
The Creston Valley Dairymen's^
Association, concerned over thg|
future of the dairy industry,
requested a study be undertakgl
in their area. The branch retain||
a consultant for an in-depth
investigation . . .
tee of $1,000,000 was provided to the bankfl
operating funds provided to the company!^
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
ico Poultry Cargill Ltd.
raff was actively involved in efforts by the
ffiry industry to keep this plant open since it
cessed a substantial portion of the B.C. broiler
^n, turkey and spent fowl production. The
S|unfortunately closed later in the year caus-
financial difficulties for the poultry industry.
rth Peace Dehy-Products Ltd.
Riinistry has been involved in the settlement
his company's financial affairs and was re-
fed to pay $500,000 to the British Columbia
telopment Corporation, representing one half
feses incurred in providing financing to the
:»ecial Studies
I he Creston Valley Dairymen's Association,
Icerned over the future of the dairy industry,
requested a study be undertaken in their area.
The branch retained a consultant for an in-depth
investigation and a report will be evaluated early
in 1982.
The branch retained a consulting industrial engineer to investigate the economics of using wood
waste as an alternative fuel to natural gas in drying
alfalfa at dehydration plants. The study was undertaken because increased fuel costs threatened
the operation of Kootenay Dehydrators Ltd. in
Eight other investigations were also financed.
Product Development
Staff members held discussions with members
of the British Columbia Research Council with
the intention of developing a basis for sharing
costs and criteria for a program of new product
anagement Branch
he Property Management Branch manages
Jirms and agricultural properties administered
(he government.
Lase Program
I terest of tenants in purchasing leased proper-
Kdeclined when interest rates climbed to high
tscause of the great variation occurring in
herty values during the year, it was necessary
Jarry out an extensive number of land ap-
tials to maintain current information for re-
ping rental rates, and for the sale of property.
II le total number of properties involved in the
Biram increased to 130 from 129. Although
3'ral properties have been sold, eight new farm
b were added when 300 acres of the Langley
|is property, which had been held on a yearly
?! basis, were made available. Revenue from
pie of properties amounted to $1,411,107.
fctnue for rentals and sale of improvements
increased to $477,922, reflecting the result of the
26 rental reviews and numerous improvement
evaluations which occurred during the year. During this same period 12 new leases were
The British Columbia Beef Cattle
Test Station 1980-81 test period
accommodated 161 privately-
owned biflM. . .
Development of special project properties continued throughout the year. Arrangements were
made to turn over 126 rrectares of non-agricultural land and the lodge on the Minnekhada
property to the Greater Vancouver Regional District for the establishment of a public nature park.
The Spray Irrigation Advisory Committee associated with the Vernon effluent program on Prop-
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
erty No. 49 set up various field crop trials to
determine appropriate crops suited to effluent
The branch co-operated with regional staff and
the lessee of Property No. 48 at Armstrong to
establish, on behalf of the North Okanagan Farmers' Institute, a research plot area to study regional
field crop varieties. Arrangements were made
with Cloverdale Lettuce Co-operative, tenant on
Property No. 6, to allow construction by Western
Greenhouse Growers Co-operative of a new storage and distribution facility on the property. A
farm produce market was built by the tenant on
Property No. 47 in Saanich on Vancouver Island.
During the year, 18 major appraisals were completed which included detailed projects on land
and improvement values at Colony and Tran-
quille Farms.
The branch, at the request of the Agricultural
Land Commission, undertook major land planning surveys and reports, including: The Bowen
Island Study, the Big Bend Area Report, Imperial
Development Lands in Delta. Boundary Bay Airport Land Study, and the Kamloops A.L.R. Fine-
Tuning Study.
A farm produce market was built by the tenant
on branch-administered land in Saanich.
Farm Operations Program
Excessive rainfall during the spring and early
summer caused many cropping and management difficulties.
East Kootenay Ranches
A total of 2,818 animal-unit-months (A.U.M.)
were provided during the 1981 grazing season to
cattle directed to the ranches by the Grazing Divi
sion of the Ministry of Forests. In addition, M
A.U.M.s of surplus pasture were sold on the oS
An additional 19 hectares on the Steepli
Ranch were reworked and seeded to an irrigS
pasture-seed mixture and 34 hectares at the Poi
Vee Bar Ranch were seeded to a dry land grfi
Research and demonstration projects un*
way at the Steeples Ranch in 1981 included*
Forage variety trials and seeding rates; 2) Tot
year of the cattle weighing project; 3) A he,
health program for cattle; 4) Demonstration of tl
effect on cattle weight from the use of the grow
hormone, synavex.
The annual field day, which was well attende
took place July 30.
Institution Farms
Production levels have been maintained on tl
institution farms during the year despite <m
culties caused by the weather.
The demand for breeding stock from the ar
mal production units remained constant althom
the drop in the market price of swine causS
downward demand trend.
The swine herds at both farms were enrolled
the B.C. Certified Swine Herd Health progra!
established by the Veterinary Branch.
The management committees were active
examining project proposals of a research ar
demonstration nature. Significant additions toH
five projects included: 1) Seed potato certificMl
disease detection in co-operation with Agricuffl
Canada and the Field Crops Branch; 2) B.I:
Institute of Technology student practicum pa
gram; 3) Irrigated pasture management triarajl
co-operation with Thompson-Cariboo regiaj
staff and; 4) Assessment of the BPAC-P s3|
vaccine in co-operation with the Veterinal
Other projects that received approval in piffll
pie from the committees were: 1) Sheep pastu
management trials—South Coastal regional sal
2) Dairy cattle breeding efficiency project—Ml
versity of British Columbia; 3) Use of Tranqgl
livestock by Cariboo College for the Animi
Health Technology course.
The British Columbia Beef Cattle Test S™|
1980-81 test period accommodated 161 p:
vately-owned bulls achieving a station averait
gain of 3.17 pounds per day.
A major review of all farm operations was co)
ducted. This process included a report frorffljl
outside consultant followed by the establish™!
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 AnnualReport
ffininistry farms review committee. The final
East Kootenay Ranches, was to result in an
ffpmendations, which concerned the opera-
orientation of activities to more directly address
I of Colony and Tranquille Farms, along with
ministry's goals and objectives.
lets Administered by
,C. Ministry of Agriculture
id Food
listry of Agriculture and Food
Deputy Minister
IBltural and Rural Development (B.C.)
I cultural Credit
Agricultural Credit
IRltural Land Commission
Land Commission
Iffiltural Land Development
Agricultural Credit
1 cultural Produce Grading
Deputy Minister
lie Horn
In Distress Assistan^^g
Deputy Minister
In Income Insurance
Farm Income Insurance
an Product Industry
Farm Products Finance
Iffirs' and Women's Institutes^Jj
Executive Officer
■giopper Control
Crop Protection
I ranee for Crops
Crop Insurance
i'stock Brand
Bffijck Disease Control
Bstock Industry
i'stock Lien
■stock Protection
■Sack Public Sale
l<t Inspection
Ii Industry
Dairy/Milk Board
K:ral Products Marketing (B.C.)
Veterinary (part)
Bt Protection
Crop Protection/Horticulture
Bl Grower
Field Crops
ftl Potato
Field Crops
K Conservation
Hffiary Laboratory
B j Control
Field Crops
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
DUNCAN •N        0.~-,*r,,.
• Cffll
• CRGl
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1981 Annual Report
bices of the
ritish Columbia Ministry of
griculture and Food
\D OFFICE: Victoria—808 Douglas Street, Nootka Court,
Ding Address: Parliament Buildings, Victoria, V8W 2Z7, Phone: 387-5121
strict Offices
205, 33780 Laurel Street, V2S 1X4, 859-5281
Engineering Branchj§3832 South Fraser Way, V2S 2C5, 853-6451
Poultry Test Station, 32916 Marshall Road, V2S 1K2, 853-3671
Veterinary Lab, (Box 100), V2S 4N8, 853-1161
Dairy Lab, 3705 Willingdon Avenue V5G 3H3, 434-3326
5, 8635 Young Road South V2P 4P3, 795-9471
17720—57th Avenue, Surrey V3S 4P9, 576-2911
209, 420 Cumberland Road V9N 5M6, 338-7465
202, 135—10th Avenue South VIC 2N1, 489-3521
456 Northwest Boulevard V0B 1G0, 428-5371
ISm Creek:
1201—103rd Avenue V1G 4J2, 782-5931
238 Government Street V9L 1A5, 746-6183
|St. John:
201, 9711—100th Avenue V1J 1Y2, 787-1111
162 Oriole Road V2C 4N7, 374-3614
1873 Spall Road V1Y 4R2, 860-3588
210, 20316—56th Avenue V3A 3Y7, 530-5381
Courthouse, (Box 940), V0H 1T0, 498-2420
477 Martin Street V2A 5L2, 493-2749
B:e George:
Experimental Farm (RR 8), RMD7, V2N 4M6, 963-9685
208, 350 Barlow Avenue V2J 2C1, 992-5591
Bion Arm:
Samara Building (Box 639), V0E 2T0, 832-2088
Building 20, Saanichton Research Station,
8801 East Saanich Road V8L 1H3, 656-0941
Government Building, Bag 5000, V0J 2N0, 847-4411
Research Station (Box 198), V0H 1Z0, 494-0401
Food Information Services, Marketing Branch,
10344 East Whalley Ring Road V3T 4H4, 584-7691
Church Avenue (Box 987), V0J 3A0, 567-2111
4607—23rd Street V1T 4K7, 545-1387
Iffiis Lake:
540 Borland Street V2G 1R8, 392-6261
91 '


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