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REPORT of the LANDS SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1964 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1965

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._ R. G. WmusTON, Minister E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lan
of the
  Victoria, B.C., January 31, 1965.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Lands Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for the
year ended December 31, 1964.
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
 Victoria, B.C., January 31, 1965.
The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Lands Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for the
12 months ended December 31, 1964.
Deputy Minister of Lands.
   Introduction by the Deputy Min
Accounting Division	
Lands Branch—
Superintendent of Lands	
Land Inspection Division-
Surveys and Mapping Branch—
Legal Surveys Division	
Topographic Division	
Geographic Division	
Air Division	
University Endowment Lands	
Land Settlement Board	
Personnel Office	
Mail and File Room__
Hi     I
 Report of the British Columbia Lands Service
E. W. Bassett, B.A.Sc, B.C.R.F., Deputy Minister of Lands
It is the responsibility of the Lands Service to administer lands held by the
Crown in the right of the Province of British Columbia, and to develop and maintain the framework of surveys and maps necessary for orderly settlement and economic growth. The areal magnitude of the Province reveals the immensity of these
tasks. Of British Columbia's 366,255 square miles of land and water, the area
currently alienated to private ownership is 19,751 square miles. Another 3,883
square miles are Federal lands, while the remaining 342,621 square miles consist
of Provincial Crown lands.
While the size of the Province is mathematically stable, the population is increasing at a rate faster than that of any other Canadian Province. In October,
1964, the estimated population of British Columbia was 1,758,000, a gain of nearly
130,000 since the census of 1961. This increasing population adds to the complexity of Crown-land delineation and ac_ministration.
Lands Service revenues increased sharply in 1964. Compared with 1963, collections were more than $552,000 higher, a rise of 27 per cent. A substantial
growth of new accounts and higher returns from land rentals were major factors
responsible for the increase. Furthermore, sales of Crown lands were $195,000
greater than in 1963, and proceeds from the sale of maps and aerial photographs
were up more than $21,000.
The Province's industrial prosperity is spreading in an ever-widening radius
away from the traditional cores in the major cities. Expansion of the mining and
forest industries has stimulated the alienation of blocks of Crown lands as the basis
for the private planning and development of entirely new communities. Examples
of such new communities based on mineral resources are at Hendrix Lake, Topley
Landing, Fraser Lake, and Gowing Island, while Rumble Beach and Gold River
have been founded as the result of growth of the forest industry.
In co-operation with other Government departments and services, notably the
Department of Highways, Department of Recreation and Conservation, and the
Forest Service, strip .reserves from alienation, ranging in width from 5 to 20 chains,
were established in 1964 applicable to all Crown lands along the Blueberry Creek-
Paulson and Salmo-Creston sections of the Southern Trans-Canada Highway and
on Highway No. 3b (Sheep Lake-Rossland). The system of strip reserves allows
areas most suitable for public and private use to be examined and set aside. In particular, it makes possible the preservation of aesthetic values so easily lost through
unco-ordinated development.
The Lands Service continued its policy of establishing Crown subdivisions in
unorganized territory where general public demand indicates the need. Subdivisions
were created at Dease Lake, Bednesti Lake, Port Hardy, 70 Mile House, Ryder
Lake, Hendrix Lake, and Berman Lake, and had reached the planning stage at
Beaver Harbour, Apex Mountain, Hart Lake, Cluculz Lake, Simon Bay of Fraser
Lake, and along the road to Beatton River.
Approximately 740,000 acres of land were examined by personnel of the Land
Inspection Division in 1964. The total of 5,174 separate inspections represented
a 22-per-cent increase over the previous year. The total of annual repeat inspections, such as review of leases, Crown-grant applications, and pre-emption inspections, is expected to increase in the future, primarily as the result of a trend toward
more alienation by leasehold.
To ease the work load of the Land Inspection Division, three Land Inspectors
were added to the staff and a new district office was established at Victoria.
The Legal Surveys, Topographic, Geographic, and Air Divisions of the Surveys and Mapping Branch were very active during 1964.
The Legal Surveys Division issued 1,199 sets of instructions for the survey of
Crown lands, an increase of 278 over 1963. This is the first time that more than
1,000 sets of instructions have been issued in a year.
Sets of field-notes returned to the Legal Surveys Division totalled 660, and
covered 910 lots surveyed under the Land Act and 78 under the Mineral Act. Surveys made under the Land Registry Act accounted for another 562 plans received
from land surveyors. Among the field surveys completed by Divisional staff were
479 home-site lots, of which 205 were on lake-frontage; 75 town lots; and 5,200
acres of section blocks or acreage lots. Other surveys included park-sites at Sproat
Lake, Christina Lake, Summerland, Windermere, Galiano Island, Driftwood Creek,
and Spectacle Lake, and 67.7 miles of main highway.
Field crews of the Topographic Division placed 350 co-ordinate survey monuments in the northern part of Surrey Municipality and 60 at Dawson Creek. Using
the vessel " B.C. Surveyor," a helicopter, and four-wheel-drive vehicle, another field
party established a perimeter control survey of Graham Island. Field control was
also conducted in the Peace River power-project reservoir area. Among other
achievements were 170 miles of levelling north of Fort St. John, horizontal and vertical control for a Forest Service access road south-west from Riske Creek, field
control and plan of a proposed Forest Service bridge over Slesse Creek, and field
control for a study by the Water Resources Service on the Sechelt Peninsula. Eight
standard National Topographic Series map-sheets covering approximately 2,930
square miles and 16 large-scale projects were processed in the Photogrammetric
Section of the Topographic Division.
The staff of the Geographic Division produced six entirely new map-sheets, of
which three were National Topographic series maps at 1:250,000 scale and one at
l-inch-to-2-miles scale. These sheets show the status of Crown-land alienation to
the date of issue. Another new map was a second edition of Map 1 j, a very popular sheet covering the Province at l-inch-to-30-miles scale. A specially prepared
map, Ijps, also at l-_nch-to-30-miles scale, was prepared to accompany a bulletin
published by the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
A list of new place-names and name changes for British Columbia was sent to
Ottawa for printing in a revised edition of the Provincial Gazetteer.
Maps distributed to other Government departments and the public numbered
88,322, an average of 350 during each working-day of the year.
Final interim maps covering 3,200 square miles at 4-inches-to-l-mile (20-
chain) scale were produced for general distribution by the Air Division, while principal-point lay-downs were completed for 13,200 square miles at 4-inches-to-l-mile
scale and 1,400 square miles at 2-inches-to-l-mile (40-chain) scale.
A significant increase in performance efficiency was noted in 1964, the first
full year of operation of the converted Beechcraft D 18 (Expeditor) aircraft.
Though weather was generally poor during the flying season, a brief period of optimum conditions enabled an aerial photographic unit to obtain, for the first time,
complete coverage of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Several special photographic
assignments were also completed; for example, a series of time-interval photo flights
was made for a Pollution-control Board study in Cordova Bay and a major landslide was photographed on the Chilcotin River.
A new electronic contact printer in the film-processing laboratory helped to
boost reprint production to 162,210, a new record.
While the British Columbia Forest Service continues to be the largest single
user of aerial photographs, requisitions from other public and private sources are
substantial; for example, mining companies requested 14,126 standard 9- by 9-inch
loans and reprints in 1964, while forest industries requisitioned 14,904. Other
private users include schools and universities, individuals, commercial air surveys,
and real-estate companies.
At the University Endowment Lands, plans for a new access road were completed and work continued on improvements to the water-supply system.
The Land Settlement Board recorded collections of $92,113 in 1964, of which
$67,960 was derived from the sale and rental of Doukhobor lands in the Southeastern Interior.
More detailed descriptions of the work of the branches and divisions of the
Lands Service during 1964 are set out in the following pages.
M. B. Maclean, B.Com., Departmental Comptroller
The continued high level of economic activity in the Province is reflected in
the demand for Crown lands.   The Department's policy in the Peace River area of
alienating lands by lease, with option to purchase, is well emphasized by the very
substantial increase in lease accounts.
Collections on purchase accounts has been exceptionally good during the past
year. While there was a 40-per-cent increase in new accounts—783 in 1963 and
1,099 in 1964—the number of active accounts at the end of the year had increased
by only 5 per cent. This is indicative of a fairly large turnover in purchase accounts
—as new ones are being created, old ones are being completed. During 1964, cancellations for non-payment have been the lowest on record.
The Accounting Division has again managed to deal with a very substantial
increase in volume of work without increasing staff. This has only been possible
through good co-operation from staff members and a continuous scrutiny of methods, systems, and practices with streamlining and short cuts wherever possible, yet
maintaining sufficient records for statistical and audit purposes.
Lease Accounts
December 31, 1963 6,202
December 31, 1964 7,417
Increase, 19V_. percent, compared to 14 per cent in 1963.
Increase, 5 per cent.
New certificates of purchase, 1963	
New certificates of purchase, 1964	
Increase, 40 pi
lcrease, 27 per cent over 1963.
Statistical Tables
Sale of maps and air photos 3S £________.  119,433.33
Total  $2,587,110.34
1955 —I i               3'SMBS^T_j«gi_ $1,398,313.16
1956 —         i           i ii—— 1,437,130.44
1957 _______■—■  1,302,065.35
1958 __■■                    1,340,045.76
1959 ______________-___-_-___l 1,323,877.29
1960 ■_____—■■ li    I'lll-t 1,714,220.41
1961 ■■■ i ii i                       'li !■—_■__■ 1,765,207.54
1962 ____________________________■__-_-_ 1,847,457.83
1963 ■_______■     I i «_»:_---__'_i__t3____________i 2,034,841.80
1964 _______________-_-_-__----____-_----_____l   2,587,110.34
. $16,750,269.92
Ten-year average, $1,675,026.99.
Table 3.—Classification of Revenue Collections for the Year Ended
December 31,1964
Land sales—
Country lands  $840,134.14
Town lots                                 138,285.05
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc.—
Foreshore leases—
Booming and log storage  $353,094.26
Commercial (marinas, etc.)     267,523.73
Oyster  12,056.95
Miscellaneous  (foreshore protection, etc.)  1,943.30
Land leases—
Grazing and (or) agriculture $100,288.81
Quarrying   (limestone,  sand  and
gravel)          38,952.14
Camp-site (lodge, fishing)        7,090.09
Home-site 1,465.88
Miscellaneous (residential, etc.) _    142,741.02
Land-use permits  3,380.15
Licences of occupation       10,882.85
Royalty collections  __    137,840.86
Easement collections—
Annual rentals        $3,285.23
Outright considerations  _      89,364.47
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc.—Cor
Crown grant 	
Miscellaneous (lease, search, g
.tc.) ...
Sale of maps and air photos—
Legal Division	
Geographic Division	
Air Division 	
- $1,485,539.13
. $2,587,110.34
Table 4.—Comparh
I   1,485,539.13
. $8,160,221.48
Table 5.—Comparison of Land Sales for 10-ye
Period 1955-64, Inclusive
At the time of the Fraser River gold-rush in 1858 the demand for land in British
Columbia was greatly intensified and pre-emptions predated surveys. Within four years
254 pre-emptors had taken up more than 50,000 acres of land. To facilitate the transfer
of real estate and provide for the registration of titles, the Land Registry Act was passed
in 1860. The Government of the Province of British Columbia was now in the real-
estate business in a big way; the more than 366,000 square miles of land and water that
constitutes British Columbia was the real estate in question.
With the entrance of British Columbia into Confederation in 1871, the demand for
land quickened to a rush, and over the next thirty years the land-settler (and the promoter) succeeded the gold-miner in importance. Railroads were built and land grants
passed, cities came into being, and companies became established. Land was at the core
of all developments.
The task of land administration became very heavy and necessitated the formation
of a Department of Lands in 1908. In 1912 a Forest Branch was included in the Department of Lands. Today the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources exercises
control of more than 90 per cent of the surface of British Columbia.
How does the Lands Branch fit into the total organization of the British Columbia
Lands Service of today? The relation may be expressed briefly. The Lands Branch
has jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the disposition of Crown land, and is
present and future, of the Province must be protected at all times.
When an individual, or group, desires to purchase or lease Crown land, the application is directed to the Superintendent of Lands, head of the Lands Branch. His authority governs the following matters:—
Sale, lease, and pre-emption of Crown lands for such purposes as agricultural,
industrial, commercial, and home-sites.
Preparation and issuance of Crown grants under the Land Act and the Mineral
Preparation and issuance of right-of-way easements for power, telephone, pipe
Reservation of suitable Crown lands and foreshore for national defence, use
and enjoyment of the public, forestry experimentation, fisheries research
work, highways, etc.
Granting railway rights-of-way under various Statutes.
Protection of historic sites from alienation.
Reservation and conveying of Crown lands for such purposes as school-sites,
cemeteries, and fair grounds.
Leasing of land and foreshore for such varied purposes as wharf-sites, booming-
grounds, canneries, oyster and other mollusc fisheries, and for boat-houses,
quarry-sites, cattle-ranching, trappers' cabins, ship-building, and aircraft
To perform these and other functions efficiently, the Lands Branch works in close
co-operation with a great number of other agencies, such as municipal and city administrations, town-planning authorities, the British Columbia Forest Service, the Water Resources Service, the Surveys and Mapping Branch within the British Columbia Lands
Service, and all the departments in the Government of the Province, notably Highways,
Education, Attorney-General, and Agriculture.
Outside the Provincial departments there is much business transacted with Federal
departments, such as the Department of National Defence, the Veterans' Land Settlement
Act administration, the Public Works Department, and the Indian Affairs Branch of the
Department of Citizenship and Immigration.
Direct service to the people of British Columbia is the first duty of the Lands Branch
and this takes the bulk of the time of the Lands Branch personnel. Associated with this
prime duty is the important function of the maintenance of the records, which in many
cases are the only ones in British Columbia showing the correct legal status of the surface of the Province.
D. Borthwick, B.S.A., B.Ed., A.A.C.I., Superintendent of Lands
Upon reviewing the activities of the Lands Service over the past year, it is
clearly evident that the steadily increasing interest in Crown lands reported in 1963
has been maintained in 1964. This activity can be attributed to a large extent to
the expanding economy of the Province. The incoming mail increased from 32,133
pieces in 1963 to 35,199 pieces in 1964, or 9.5 per cent. Land Act collections
increased from $1,936,834 in 1963 to $2,452,891 in 1964, or an increase of 26.6
per cent. The Land Inspection Division completed 5,174 field examinations, comprising a total of 740,000 acres of Crown land. Increased interest in Crown lands
has generally occurred in those areas of the Province where considerable industrial
expansion is taking place. As a result of the rapid expansion of the forest industry
in Central British Columbia, the greatest land activity over the past year has occurred
in the Prince George to Terrace region, where many agricultural and home-site
applications are being processed.
The expanding mining and logging industries have resulted in the creation of
a number of new townsites throughout the Province. Most of these new communities are in relatively remote locations close to the particular resource being developed.
Generally speaking, the industrial company acquires a block of Crown land from
the Department and then proceeds to develop same with the aid of town planners.
Many of these townsites are developed complete with sewer and water services
before the lots are disposed of. Most of the companies, while underwriting the
initial capital expenditures to get the townsite under way, intend to dispose of the
lots to their employees in order that the small community becomes a responsible
corporate body rather than a company town. Communities of this nature are being
developed at Rumble Beach, Hendrix Lake, Gold River, Fraser Lake, Topley
Landing, and Gowing Island.
Agricultural applications in the Peace River District have tapered off over the
past year. This is largely due to the fact that most of the desirable readily accessible
arable lands have already been taken up and prospective settlers must now seek
arable lands in more remote and less accessible areas of the district. All agricultural
lands in this area are now being disposed of on a lease basis, with an option to purchase if and when a reasonable amount of development work has been completed.
Generally speaking, only those lands that are at least 50 per cent arable are considered for agricultural leases. Grazing lands in the Peace River District are being
handled almost entirely on a grazing permit basis rather than on a lease basis.
In order to curtail strip development along new major Provincial highways,
the Lands Service has instituted a policy of reconnoitring these highways for the
purpose of selecting suitable sites to be made available to the public for commercial
and residential development. The remainder of the Crown land fronting on the
highway is reserved for aesthetic purposes and for the use, recreation, and enjoyment
of the public. Strip reserves of this nature, ranging from 5 to 20 chains wide, were
established along the Blueberry-Paulson, Sheep Lake-Rossland, and Salmo-Creston
Highways this past year. Similar reserves have already been established along the
Hope-Princeton and Rogers Pass Highways.
Completion of the Stewart-Cassiar Road to the Stikine River Crossing enabled
the Department to lift the highway reserve over this section of road. Here again,
prior to lifting the reserve, a reconnaissance carried out by the Land Inspector and
the Park Inspector resulted in the establishment of public reserves at strategic
 locations. Furthermore, following numerous inquiries for residential lots at the
junction of the Stewart-Cassiar Road and the Telegraph Creek Road, the Lands
Service undertook a Crown subdivision in this locale. Sites within the subdivision
have been set aside for the Forest Service, the Department of Highways, and the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police. It is anticipated the remaining lots in the subdivision will be disposed of by public competition early in 1965.
The Department has continued its policy of laying out Crown subdivisions in
unorganized areas of the Province when public demand has become apparent. In
addition to the Dease Lake subdivision referred to above, subdivisions were laid
out at Bednesti Lake, Port Hardy, 70 Mile House, Ryder Lake, Hendrix Lake,
and Berman Lake.
Crown subdivisions are also in the planning stage at Beaver Harbour, Apex
Mountain, Hart Lake, Cluculz Lake, Simon Bay on Fraser Lake, and along the
Beatton River Airport Road.
A brief summary of the activities of the various sections of the Administration
Division of the Lands Branch is set out hereunder:—
Lease Section.—The number of new lease applications decreased from
2,719 in 1963 to 2,374 in 1964. This decrease can be attributed
to the fact that the majority of lease applications are originating in
the Peace River District, where the readily accessible lands have
already been alienated. The bulk of the remaining Crown land in
this area is either quite remote or of a marginal nature for agricultural purposes, and hence there has been a decline in the number
of applications filed.
Purchase Section.—The work load of this Section has remained fairly
constant. The number of purchase applications received in 1964
was 2,326, as compared to 2,367 in 1963. Since the Department's
land policy is oriented toward lease, performance and then purchase,
it is anticipated that the number of purchase applications will decline
for the next few years and then keep pace with the lease applications
as the various lessees prove up and make application to purchase.
Crown Grants Section.—The volume of work in the Crown Grant Section
has shown a significant increase in 1964. There were 1,163 Crown
grants issued in 1964, as compared to 1,042 in 1963, or an increase
of 11 per cent. This increase can be attributed mainly to the fact
that the Department sold 180 more town lots in 1964 than it did in
Pre-emption and Reserve Section.—There was a further decrease in the
number of applications for pre-emptions and reserves, from a total
of 594 in 1963 to 551 in 1964. However, there was a sharp rise
in the number of inquiries handled by this Section, from 2,571 in
1963 to 3,145 in 1964, or an increase of 22 per cent.
Status Section.—The number of statuses completed increased from 17,710
in 1963 to 24,172 in 1964, or 31 per cent. Most of this increase
occurred in the statusing of town lots.
Easement Section.—The number of easements granted in 1964 increased
by 28 per cent. Most of the additional easements granted were in
the gas and oil pipe-line and well-site categories.
General Activity.—During 1964 a total of 30 acreage parcels were
tendered for sale, of which 19 parcels were sold for the sum of
$20,246. Twenty-six acreage parcels of agricultural lands were
offered for lease by tender.
Twenty public lease auctions involving 276 waterfront lots were
held in 1964. One hundred and sixty-two lots were leased at the
time of the auction, and many more of the remaining lots subsequently disposed of by direct application.
One hundred and ninety-one town lots were offered for sale by
public auction. One hundred of these parcels were sold, from which
was realized the sum of $170,000.
The following tables indicate in detail the work carried out by the various
tions of the Lands Service in 1964.
Table 1.—Country Land Sales, 1964
Table 2.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1964
Fort Fraser	
Fort George....
Fort St. John I
Kaslo .
New Westminster _
Pouce Coupe 	
Prince Rupert	
Telegraph Creek _
Table 3.—Town Lots Sold, 1964
Barriere  13 $2,300.00
Baynes Lake  1 75.00
Beaverdell Station  3 300.00
Beck Lake  2 200.00
Brackendale  8 13,770.00
Campbell River       1 100.00
Chetwynd  1 580.00
Coalmont   30 1,940.00
Cobble Hill  1 50.00
Elko                   4 150.00
Endako  1 50.00
Extension  6 725.00
Fort Fraser  46 3,555.00
Fort Nelson  10 6,030.00
Fraser Lake  337 10,025.00
Golden  1 2,205.55
Hazelton  70 8,800.00
Hedley                     1 110.00
Hope _..___^___3                                2 610.00
Houston Z,  21 3,305.00
Hudson Hope  1 1,500.00
Huntingdon  1 200.00
Iago Station  1 12.29
Jewel Lake                                          2 500.00
Kitchener              ..     _ 10 100.00
Lardeau  2 75.00
Masset  5 600.00
Midway  28 3,350.00
Moyie      3 300.00
Nanaimo  1 6,625.00
Nelson . 1 50.00
New Denver *  2 150.00
Pemberton  1 280.00
Port Clements  72 3,600.00
Port Coquitlam  17 656.51
Port Edward _______!__!  25 7,625.00
Prince George  27 37,095.00
Prince Rupert  26 13,455.00
Retallack Station  15 375.00
Rock Creek  1 200.00
Savona  5 2,700.00
Silverton  9 125.00
Slocan  3 90.00
Smithers  71 12,065.00
South Wellington  8 1,100.00
Squakum Lake  1 600.00
Stewart  11 5,015.00
Table 3.—Town Lots Sold, 1964—Continued
Tulameen  15 $3,975.00
Vananda  2 460.00
Vernon  1 75.00
Walhachin  6 1,160.00
Wells                                         - 21 2,800.00
Wilmer                            6 510.00
Windermere Lake  1 710.00
Wonowon  1 255.00
Ymir  6 105.00
Zeballos  3 1,800.00
Miscellaneous  86 28,135.20
Table 4.—New Leases Issued, 1964
Agriculture  280 122,661.53
Hay and grazing (pasture and hay-cutting) 419 143,353.14
Quarrying (sand, gravel, limestone, etc.) 15 690.42
Home-site (section 78, Land Act)    . 12 142.60
Residential                     ._ 490 652.05
Miscellaneous (resorts, service-stations,
campsites, mill-sites, etc.)   71 1,977.54
Booming, log storage, log-dumping, etc.  99 1,707.79
Oyster and shellfish  9 82.52
Industrial (canneries, mill-sites, wharves,
etc.)  10 112.02
Quarrying (sand, gravel from river-beds) 1 6.95
Commercial (boat rentals, marinas, marine
service-stations, etc.)  38 54.25
Miscellaneous (private wharves and boat-
houses, etc.)   30 77.94
Total 1,474 271,518.75
Table 5.—Temporary Tenure Leases Renewed, 1964
Number  317
Acreage _. 57,568.43
Table 6.—Land-use Permits Issued, 1964
Number         46
Acreage ! 168.78
Table 7.—Licences to Occupy Issued, 1964
Number  18
Acreage  '.  4,059.25
Table 8.—Assignments Approved, 1964
se permits, licences of occupation	
Table 9.—Easements Granted, 1964
4 500
Ground-bed sites j	
Licences o, Occupation
Radio site and power-line	
•n Grants Issued, 1964
Purchases (country lands) _
Purchases (town lots)	
Pre-emptions I
Pacific Great Eastern Railway _
Supplementary timber grants	
Certified copies of Crown grants issued, 1
Table 11.—Crown Grants Issued for Past Ten Years
Ten-year average, 1,271.
Table 12.—Total Area Deeded by Crown Grant, 1964
Purchases (country lands)  86,803.07
Pre-emptions  4,335.90
Pacific Great Eastern Railway Company i  217.58
Supplementary timber grants  330.93
Miscellaneous  1,143.58
Table 13.—Pre-emption Records, 1964
Land Recordset
Lillooet (Clinton)	
Similkameen (Penticton)                                                  I
VWnriT* "	
Williams Lake	
Table 14.—Reserves, 1964       A
Use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public	
British Columbia Department of Highways (rights-of-
way, gravel pits, bridge-sites, etc.) _
Federal Government (defence purposes, wharf-sites, etc.)
British Columbia Forest Service (Ranger stations, grazing, radio-sites, reforestation, etc.) 	
Miscellaneous (Game Branch, water-power projects, garbage dumps, school-si
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L. D. Fraser, B.Sc.A., P.Ag., A.A.C.I., Chief Land Inspector
The trend established in past years toward an ever-increasing volume of work
handled by this Division continued during 1964. Reference is made to the attached
Table 3, which represents an analysis of requests processed by this Division during
the years 1960 to 1964, inclusive, for the various inspection districts. The increase
in volume over last year is 15 per cent. The increase in volume over 1960 amounted
to 55 per cent. The completion of 5,174 inspections this past year involved the
examination of about 740,000 acres of land (see Table 2).
Table 2 represents an analysis of inspections completed and those outstanding
at the end of the year for each district for the past five years. The total number of
inspections completed for the past year was 5,174, up 19 per cent over 1963. The
outstanding backlog for the Division at the year-end was 1,319 inspections, an
increase of 202 over the previous year.
Although the volume of work is increasing rapidly, the type of inspection work
is remaining about the same (see Table 1). It is anticipated, however, that applications to purchase for agriculture purposes will decrease in relation to the total in
coming years due to the present policy in the Peace River District which restricts
applications to lease, leading to purchase at a future date. At the same time, it is
anticipated that the " repeat" type of inspection work will increase. This type of
work includes lease reviews, applications for Crown grants, home-site lease inspections, and pre-emption inspections. This kind of inspection presently represents
23 per cent of the total work load, but this should increase due to the trend toward
leasing rather than purchasing Crown lands.
This Division again examined properties and submitted appraisal reports for
many Government departments and agencies. Specifically, appraisals were completed for the Land Settlement Board, Southern Okanagan Lands Project, Pacific
Great Eastern Railway, Department of Social Welfare, Water Rights Branch, and
Indian Affairs Branch.
The summer and fall of this past year was one of the wettest in many years,
which severely hampered access to the more remote portions of the Province.
Assistance in this respect was given by the British Columbia Forest Service, who
examined 69 requests in the Smithers and Prince George Districts. A large number of these inspections were in the more isolated portions of the districts.
In the north Peace River area, applications for land have been encouraged by
the continued extension and construction of oil-exploration roads, which provide
access to otherwise inaccessible areas. Settlement has now extended over 40 miles
north of the rail-head at Fort St. John. However, the quality of these roads is generally poor, which poses a very real problem of access during wet periods and spring
In the Peace River Block, a change in policy this year has resulted in the disposition of land mainly by lease tenure, leading to purchase upon completion of
adequate improvement work. This policy has been met by a general ready acceptance by the public.
In the south Peace River area, there has been a slight decline in inspection
work. This is an older, more established farming area with lesser amounts of arable
farm land available for disposition. Most applications are from established farmers
wishing to consolidate their existing holdings.
In the Prince George District, the volume of completed inspections increased
40 per cent over 1963 and involved the examination of 90,000 acres. This is largely
attributable to taking a third Inspector on staff for this district. There was also a
noticeable increase in the repeat type of inspection, which involves the re-examination of a previously inspected property for the purpose of issuing a Crown grant.
It may also involve a lease review, annual pre-emption inspection, or home-site
lease inspection.
To meet the demand for summer-home sites, five Crown subdivisions involving
275 lots were proposed on lakes in the Prince George area.
Land values in the vicinity of Prince George have continued to rise rapidly.
At Crown auction sales, prices have been paid representing up to double the upset
Due to the very marked continued increase in demand for lands in the Prince
George area, an effort was made in the Victoria office to reduce the number of
requests being sent to the district office. To this end, all applications involving timbered areas were first referred to the Forest Service Inventory Office, who in turn
supplied inventory data relative to cover and volume, which determined whether or
not the land in question was statutory timber land. If the area was shown to be
timber land, the application was then disallowed without further examination.
Again, the volume of the work load has increased in the Smithers district.
The increase amounted to 22 per cent over 1963 (see Table 3). Applications for
new farm and ranch establishments were received, mainly in the Hazelton and
Southbank areas, whereas in the remainder of the district most applications were
from established farmers wishing to extend or consolidate their holdings.
Numerous applications in the Smithers District were initiated by the proposed
pulp-mills at Kitimat, Prince Rupert, and Hazelton. The Endako and Granisle
mining developments have also done much to create a demand for Crown lands.
In the Quesnel area, 90 per cent of all applications are from local residents,
which results in a fairly orderly and controlled pattern of land alienation. As more
access roads are built into the forested areas, it is anticipated that applications for
Crown lands will follow.
Over 50 per cent of all applications in the Williams Lake area involve the
ranching industry. Joint examinations between Land Inspection Division and
Grazing Division officials are often necessary in an effort to reconcile the many and
varied problems arising.
The year-end saw the ranching industry in a depressed condition due to lower
cattle prices and an acute shortage of feed caused by a wet summer. This has
resulted in the forced sale of breeding stock at low prices.
The forest industry is continuing to expand in the Williams Lake area, with
many small operations being bought out by larger operators. The advent of chipping plants and the opening of a veneer plant are indicative of the growth of this
In the Clinton and Kamloops areas there is an ever-increasing demand for
lake-shore properties due to demands from both the Vancouver and Calgary areas,
the latter occasioned by the new Trans-Canada Highway link between Revelstoke
and Golden. The ranching industry in these two districts still, however, presents
the greatest problems and creates the basis for most of the work load.
A marked increase in activity has been noted this past year in the Penticton,
Kelowna, and Kettle Valley areas of the Kelowna Inspection District. Private real-
estate listings are at an all-time high and land values have increased at a spectacular
A new subdivision for ski-cabin sites has been planned for an area near the
ski lodge on Apex Mountain. It is anticipated that these sites will be readily disposed of next year, following the subdivision survey and necessary road construction.
The Kootenay region of British Columbia in the past few years has not shared
in the boom growth and development which has been a standard for most of the
Province. However, a trend is now being established for extension of this activity
into the Kootenays. The Columbia River development has precipitated this interest.
At present, properties are being bought up on the Arrow Lakes and Duncan Lake
at replacement cost to facilitate this development.
A new pulp-mill is proposed for Canal Flats, and there are rumours of one
being established at or near Nelson. In addition, a new lumber-mill is being built
at Slocan City.
Castlegar, Cranbrook, and Golden are the most active centres in terms of construction, real-estate, and population increases. A new community college is proposed for Castlegar. A new bridge is under construction at Kinnaird to by-pass
Nelson and Trail, and will form a new link in the Southern Trans-Canada Highway
No. 3. In addition, a new highway (No. 3b) was opened this year which connects
Rossland to the main highway, joining the highway at Sheep Lake.
The tourist traffic in this region is increasing following the slump which followed
the opening of the Golden-Revelstoke section of the Trans- Canada Highway. It
is anticipated that this trend should show a marked increase in the immediate future
with the proposed developments under construction. Although a land of lakes, the
number of summer-home site applications in the Nelson area is very low. This is
due to the lack of suitable Crown land being available for this purpose. This, in
turn, is due to existing reserves on the Upper Arrow Lake, Lower Arrow Lake,
Duncan Lake, and Trout Lake in favour of the British Columbia Hydro and Power
Authority. The existence of steep topography and the presence of railways skirting
the lake-shore on Kootenay, Moyie, Columbia, and Windermere Lakes also serves
to limit suitable Crown lands for this purpose.
There has been a marked increase in applications for Crown land in the Vancouver District. This was most noticeable in the Squamish-Pemberton area, which
has developed as a result of the completion of the Pemberton Highway as far as
Green Lake. The Alta Lake-Green Lake area along this highway has promise of
being developed as both a summer and winter playground area, and, being only 65
miles from Vancouver, should have this promise realized.
The construction of a chemical plant at Squamish and the possibility of a pulp-
mill at this centre has and will create a demand for lands in this area. The proposed
consolidation of the Squamish-Brackendale area into a district municipality should
do much to ensure an orderly development of both private and Crown lands.
In the Courtenay District, the number of requests for examination exceeded
300 for the first time since the office opened in 1953. The number of completed
examinations was also up, due, in part, to the use of aircraft in reaching the more
remote or inaccessible portions of the district.
The extension, construction, and making available to public use of logging-
roads on the north end of Vancouver Island has created a demand for Crown lands
in the Port Alice to Port Hardy area.
The number of requests'for examinations received in the New Westminster
office remains low in relation to the remainder of the Province. It is proposed to
amend the district boundaries to incorporate a portion of the present Vancouver
District. This will serve to relieve the pressure of work in this latter district and
at the same time equalize the work load between Inspectors.
During the past year, several changes were made in the location and employment of field staff. Mr. H. Boas transferred to this Division as Land Inspector 2
from the British Columbia Forest Service, where he had been employed as Acting
Forester 3. He commenced employment in the Smithers district, effective July 15,
1964. Mr. R. N. Bose was employed, effective July 20, 1964, as Land Inspector 1
and was assigned to the Fort St. John office. Mr. Bose graduated this year from
the University of British Columbia in the Faculty of Agriculture. Mr. F. J. Walchli
came on staff on August 1, 1964, and commenced work in the Prince George
district as a Land Inspector 2. Mr. Walchli had previously been employed by the
City of Prince George in its assessment office. Mr. R. Brown was appointed to the
Pouce Coupe office, effective January 30, 1964, as Land Inspector 2. Mr. Brown
had previous experience in various parts of the Province when employed by the
Department of Agriculture.
A new inspection district was established on the lower end of Vancouver Island
with headquarters at Victoria. This district was taken over by Mr. A. F. Smith,
who transferred from the New Westminster office, effective August 1, 1964. Mr.
A. Paulsen was promoted to Land Inspector 3 and transferred to the New Westminster office, effective January 1, 1965. The Kelowna office is now vacant but
will be filled by Mr. H. D. Kent, who will be transferring to this office early in 1965.
At the same time, Mr. W. V. Lowry will transfer from the Fort St. John office to
the Prince George office.
Several Inspectors spent varying periods of time in other districts with large
outstanding backlogs in an attempt to reduce the work loads. Messrs. A. F. Smith,
D. Snider, and J. Esler assisted in the Smithers district. Mr. Thom assisted in the
Quesnel office. Mr. Brown was attached to the Fort St. John office for approximately six months.   Mr. A. F. Smith also assisted in the Courtenay district.
This Division now has 21 Land Inspectors stationed in various districts.
Three Land Inspectors were successful in obtaining their accreditation with
the Appraisal Institute of Canada. There is now a total of seven Inspectors together
with the Chief and Assistant Chief Land Inspector who are accredited appraisers.
One Land Inspector and the Assistant Chief Land Inspector have successfully
completed the Executive Administration Course sponsored by the Civil Service
Commission, and two Inspectors are now completing their third and final year.
Table 1, as attached, represents a summary of the number and type of inspections completed in the Province by this Division during 1964. Table 2 represents
a comparison, on a year-to-year basis, of the volume of field work completed and
requests outstanding at the end of the year for the period 1960 to 1964, inclusive.
Table 3 represents an analysis of requests for inspections processed by this Division
for the years 1960 to 1964, inclusive.
Table 1.—Types of Inspections, 1964
Agriculture (other than grazing)     6<
Access (roads, etc.)       1
Commercial (resorts, service-stations, hotels, airfields, etc.)..
Community (cemeteries, church-sites, parking areas, etc.) —
Grazing (pasture, range) ...     2;
Home-sites (permanent)        4'
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants, etc.)       ':
Summer-home or camp sites        i
Wood-lots or tree-farms —
Purchase Crown F.S 	
Agriculture (other than grazing) 55
Commercial (resorts, service-stations, hotels, airfields,
etc.) _._  !   _
Community (parks, cemeteries, dump-sites, etc.)        1
Grazing (pasture, range, hay-cutting, etc.)     4'
Home-sites (section 78 of the Land Act)             1
Home-sites (permanent, other than section 78 of the
Land Act)        :
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants,
etc.) £
Summer-home or camp sites 3(
Quarrying (sand, gravel, limestone, diatomaceous earth,
etc.)       I
Reviews (rental and (or) diligent use)     4:
Others        1
Booming and log storage or log-dumping 13
Commercial   (boat rentals,  marine  service-stations,
wharves, etc.)       (
Industrial (mill-sites, canneries, factory-sites, wharves,
etc.)        1
Quarrying (sand and gravel from river-beds) 	
Oyster and shellfish       1
Private (floats, boat-houses) 1
Reviews (rentals and (or) diligent use)       1"/
Land-use permits ....   A
Licence of occupation 1
Easements and (or) rights-of-way 1
Applications         t
Annual inspections (including applications for Crown grant)     12
Valuations         1
Table 1.—Types of Inspections, 1964—Continued
Veterans' Land Act _
Land Settlement Boat
Classifications ._
Doukhobor lands ...
Southern Okanagan Lands Project _.
Pacific Great Eastern Railway	
Department of Social Welfare I
Other agencies—Indian Affairs and Water Rights Branch _.
Miscellaneous inspections—
Delinquent a
Escheats Act ..
Lake re
Land-use surveys	
Land values (current market values) ■  -    '''*'■■&
Section 53 (2) of Land Act (verifying improvements)	
Section 65 of Land Act (free grants)   .
Section 78 of Land Act (re compliance with provisions of)
Section 130 of Land Act (lands vested in Crown under
Taxation Act) .
Section 131b of Land Act (cases of doubt regarding inclusion
of body of water in Crown grant)	
Trespass (land)	
Trespass (water)	
Quieting Titles Act " 8___E1      "-~.>!!"- :*£
Others—Land exchange, site improvement, amplifying previous reports, and checking squatters	
Table 2.—Analysis of Inspections Completed and Inspections Outstanding a
Year-end for the Years 1960 to 1964, Inclusive
New Requests Received during-
.96,  |   ,962
+ 17
+ 155
The framework of maps and surveys so necessary for the orderly development and
settlement of British Columbia is provided through the Surveys and Mapping Branch.
That such scientific foundations were necessary even in the earliest days is shown by the
fact that in 1851 the position of Colonial Surveyor for the young Crown Colony of
Vancouver Island was created. In more than 100 years which have passed since Joseph
Despard Pemberton was appointed first Surveyor-General, British Columbia has expanded
immensely in all spheres of human endeavour. Much of the foundation for the way of
life we have in British Columbia today rests on the reliability of our basic surveys. As-
British Columbia has progressed through time, so the surveys and maps of the Province
have increased in magnitude and complexity.
It is the responsibility of the Surveys and Mapping Branch, through the Boundary
Commissioner, to establish and maintain co-operatively the boundaries between this
Province and the other adjacent Provinces and Territories of Canada. Within the Province, the Branch has established and is ever extending a basic network of triangulation
surveys which are fundamental to determining geographical locations' and co-ordinating
property boundaries. The surveying procedures vary according to the intended purposes.
Topographic surveys are constantly improving the portrayal of various physical features.
Cadastral (legal) surveys, on the other hand, delineate the parcels of Crown lands subject
to alienation under the Land Act. Finally, it is necessary to show on published maps the
combined survey effort in order to give a visual account of the position of land alienation
and geographic features of British Columbia. Maps must satisfy a wide range of uses,
whether it be by the sportsman searching for an untapped valley or virgin lake, the homesteader seeking unsettled lands, or the industrialist planning new ways and new places to
develop the resources of this Province.
So much for the uses of maps and surveys and their necessity. Also interesting is the
great variety of techniques and equipment which must support our complex surveying and
mapping organization. This includes photography from aircraft using precise cameras
calibrated to less than a thousandth of an inch, modern optical surveyors' theodolites
which read directly to seconds of arc, other instruments such as the tellurometer (a
distance-measuring device which operates on a principal similar to radar), and plotting
devices which are capable of precise mapping directly from aerial photographs. Helicopters and other aircraft speed surveyors to the remotest locations. Surveying is also
expanding into the realm of electronic computers which can process the contents of field-
notes in seconds compared with hours by manual methods. In all these ways, the science
of surveying and mapping continues to serve the people by keeping pace with their needs
and with the continual technological advances of our age.
The following is a brief summary of the functions of the various divisions of the
Surveys and Mapping Branch:—
/. Administration.—General co-ordination of the four divisions of the Branch, being
Legal Surveys, Geographic, Topographic, and Air; delineation and maintenance of
boundaries under the Provincial Boundary Commissioner—namely, (a) Alberta-British
Columbia Boundary and (b) British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary;
interdepartmental and intergovernmental liaison.
//. Legal Surveys Division.—Regulations for surveys under the various Provincial
Acts, such as Land, Land Registry, Mineral, Petroleum and Natural Gas; instructions to
British Columbia land surveyors regarding surveys of Crown lands and subsequent check
of field-notes and plans of same; preparation and custody of official plans; preparation
and maintenance of Departmental reference maps, mineral reference maps, and composite
(cadastral) maps; processing for status of all applications concerning Crown lands; field
surveys of Crown lands, highway rights-of-way, etc.; preparation of legal descriptions;
operation of blue-print and photostat sections;  computational scrutiny of certain land
///. Geographic Division.—Map compilation, drawing and negative engraving, editing, and reproduction; map checking, distribution, geographical naming—Gazetteer of
British Columbia; field and culture surveys for preparation of land bulletins and maps;
preparation of legal descriptions for and delineation of administrative boundaries; compilation and distribution of annual Lands Service Report; trigonometric computation and
recording of geographic co-ordinates; general liaison between this Department and Federal and other mapping agencies' on exchange of survey and mapping data; checking well-
site survey plans under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act.
IV. Topographic Division.—Propagation of field survey control—namely, triangulation, traverses, and photo-topographic control; operation of Beaver float-plane and M.V.
" B.C. Surveyor "; helicopters on charter; compilation and fair drawing of manuscripts
for standard topographic mapping; special field control for composite and photogram-
metric mapping and other special projects; precise mapping from aerial photographs
through the use of the most modem plotting-machines.
V. Air Division.—Aerial photographic operations involving maintenance and operation of three aircraft; photographic processing, air-photo distribution, and Provincial airphoto library; compilation of interim base maps, primarily for the forest inventory;
air-photo control propagation; instrument-shop for the repair, maintenance, and develop-
 Portage Mountain Dam on Peaci
G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., B.C.L.S., F.R.G.S.,
Director, Surveyor-General, and Boundaries Commissioner
A comprehensive synopsis of this Branch's activities for 1964 has been given
by the Deputy Minister of Lands in preceding pages, and in following sections the
four divisions of the Branch present individual reports in more detail. Increases
continue in practically all phases of our work, reflecting the steady growth of the
Province and the close intimacy of surveys and mapping with that growth. These
activities, by their rationalization of new physical knowledge of the Province, no
doubt catalyse further growth, and in turn are themselves stimulated by still greater
demands arising from this growth—in effect a chain reaction.
Equipment is ever an important and often a complicated aspect of survey and
mapping operations. It is gratifying to report some important advances in this
area during the year. The purchase of a second Wild RC8 air camera with a 6-inch
Aviogon lens of special apochromatic design fills out the potential of the second
photo aircraft for rigorous mapping photography. Now each of the two photo
aircraft operated by this Branch can perform either 6-inch or 12-inch photography
wherever it may be operating in the Province. The chromatic refinement of the new
Aviogon lens ensures high resolution and low distortion through the visible spectrum
and infra-red, so that in addition to the normal panchromatic photography, special
projects in colour and infra-red may be taken on with the assurance of high-quality
The gap in distance measuring equipment for lengths under 5 miles in propagating local control, such as for survey integration, reported last year, was filled by
the acquisition of two sets of the new short-range M.R.A. 3 tellurometer units,
early enough for use during the full 1964 field season. The computational reduction and adjustment of a large amount of M.R.A. 3 field data obtained, with a
number of rechecks in the field, indicate, however, that we still need more experience
in the operation, maintenance, and adjustment of this instrument to achieve the
claims of its makers for 1/10,000 precision in distances down to 200 metres. Adverse influences, especially in urban and suburban areas, such as power-lines,
traffic congestion, and random reflections, appear to detract significantly from the
reputed accuracy for lengths shorter than about one-half mile. Therefore, until
and unless further experience indicates otherwise, we must now specify that distances
under one-half mile be determined by other methods.
The acquisition of a second Wild T3 theodolite improved the balance of equipment for major control surveys by the Topographic Division. The T3 reads angles
directly to one-tenth second of arc, which represents the thickness of a lead pencil
at a distance of about 1 mile, or a tangential ratio in the order of 1/300,000. However, other sources of error, such as pointing, centring, illumination, and atmospheric
turbulence, call for special procedures to realize an approximation of the full potential accuracy of the instrument.
While the change-over from the original I.B.M. 650 computer to the I.B.M.
1620 was reported in 1963, the use of this facility was greatly extended during the
current year, in both volume and efficiency. A special 1620 programme for the
least-squares adjustment of major control survey data called GROOM (general
reduction of observed material) was obtained from the Geodetic Survey of Canada.
This programme handles triangulation, trilateration, and traverse data, and it yields
the adjusted positions of control points expressed in spherical co-ordinates of lati-
hide and longitude to less than one one-thousandth second of arc; that is, about
one-tenth foot or less. (This does not mean that the absolute co-ordinates of such
points, as recorded in St. Peter's Book, forever secret to mortals, are approximated
that closely!) Due to certain variations in details of the Provincial 1620 set-up
and that used in Ottawa, some special modifications to the GROOM programme
for our use were necessary, and in this connection Mr. Michael Perks, B.C.L.S.,
our programming officer, was sent to Ottawa during June for a week's personal
discussion with the Federal experts. This liaison helped greatly to successfully
apply the GROOM programme to our particular needs and faculties in British
While the GROOM programme has proven effective in the reduction of data
for major control networks, say, down to 3- or 5-mile sides, its use for adjusting the
data for the much larger number of local control points, spaced in the order of 1,000
feet apart, and normally tied by traverse to the major control points, was found to
be somewhat cumbersome, involved, and not very efficient in terms of computer-
machine time required. Mr. Perks has therefore been perfecting a companion
programme, which he calls BRIDE (balanced reduction of interlocking data elements), which caters especially to the adjustment of the local control points, and
yields the values in terms of rectangular lineal co-ordinates based on a local poly-
conic projection. The BRIDE programme appears to reduce machine time by
about one-third, a worth-while saving. At the year's end the debugging process for
BRIDE was still in hand, but with every expectation that the combination of BRIDE
and GROOM will be prolific of valuable results in the propagation of survey control,
especially in the field of survey integration. The helpful and interested co-operation
of the Federal authority in Ottawa has been of great assistance and has been carried
out on the usual cordial personal basis.
The contrivance and application of these new computational facilities to control
survey data is indeed a venture into new untrodden ground, in the true sense of
exploration. Due to the limits of human imagination, all the factors cannot be
anticipated, so that the element of trial and error is present, and this in turn implies
the occasional need to back-track and reorient in a new direction. Never before
have we had the advantage of observational data offering adjustment by trilateration
as well as those for triangulation. Although so much of the technique falls into the
realm of arbitrary mathematical sophistication, there is still the scope as well as
the necessity for the use of common-sense logic, as, for example, in weighting the
various source data. All this takes time and indicates the exercise of patience and
confidence, so that, in the fullness of time and the use of the new facilities at our
disposal, the best answers will be produced in the best manner. For example, the
field control operations for survey integration in both Dawson Creek and a selected
part of the Surrey Municipality were completed, in good time, by the advent of the
autumn season. At the year's end, however, we are still experimenting with various
methods of computational adjustment, which has delayed acceptance of final coordinates for the control stations, as well as the use of this control in the original
concept of integrated survey procedures. The feeling is, however, better to exercise
a degree of restraint and patience at this stage than to plunge heedlessly ahead with
the risk of a retraction of the initial values.
The legislation anticipated in my report a year ago to set up survey integration
on a sound statutory basis was duly promulgated in the passage last March by the
Legislature of Bill No. 61, introduced by the Honourable the Minister of Lands,
Forests, and Water Resources. This Bill, in the form of an amendment to the
Official Surveys Act, provides for the Proclamation by Order in Council of integrated
survey areas within duly defined boundaries, when, upon the recommendation of
the Surveyor-General, sufficient survey control monuments have been suitably
established and co-ordinated. Thereafter all new legal surveys under the Land
Registry Act within the said area must be co-ordinated to the common control.
It had been hoped that by the end of the 1964 calendar year, one or possibly
two integrated survey areas could have been proclaimed under the amended Official
Surveys Act. However, for reasons already discussed, this dramatic step has been
restrained, with the anticipation that in the coming year it may be taken with reasonable confidence, and desired effect.
Meanwhile the gospel of integrated surveys has been gaining ground. The
writer was invited to present a paper on the subject to the joint annual convention
of the Canadian Institute of Surveying and the Association of Ontario Land Surveyors in Ottawa on January 22, 1964. The statutory approach in which, by the
aforementioned legislation, British Columbia appears to be taking a lead in Canada
was emphasized in this presentation, which was well received. Another trip to
Ottawa in July afforded the writer an opportunity to visit the city engineering departments of Montreal and Calgary, where extensive control surveys for integration have
been carried out. Valuable information on the problems of control surveys in areas
of dense urban traffic and installation of control monuments was obtained.
In September a second paper on survey integration especially prepared from
the viewpoint of city and municipal engineering administration was presented to the
Annual Convention of the British Columbia Public Works Association in Cranbrook.
This paper embodied the added experience of this Branch in establishing integrated
survey control as well as that of other agencies.
En route to Cranbrook in September, the writer was able to accept an invitation by the City of Trail to participate in preliminary discussions on integration of
surveys at a meeting presided over by the Acting Mayor of Trail and comprising
representatives from that city and adjoining corporate areas. The broad conception
of survey integration, the practical aspects of control monument installation, and
other considerations were explained. The extent of possible assistance by the Provincial survey agency was suggested, and the extent of the obligation to be assumed
by the participating corporate areas was outlined. It was also agreed that one or
two staff surveyors from the Department would visit the Trail area at an early date
to examine the terrain and assist with the design layout of a suitable network of
control monuments. This was done. Subsequently practically all corporate areas
in that district have signified the desire to participate in a scheme of survey integration, and their willingness to carry out the obligations implied. It is hoped that the
major control surveys for that area may be established early in the 1965 field season.
Interest has also been shown by Kimberley in the East Kootenay.
In the Lower Mainland area, in addition to Surrey, the Municipalities of Burnaby and the District of North Vancouver have shown interest in survey integration.
Experience with Surrey, however, indicates that the setting-up of adequate major
control for integration in the Greater Vancouver area is such a large job that assistance from the Federal Department of Mines and Technical Surveys should be
sought, and it is believed that once the majority of corporate areas in this region
register willingness to participate in an over-all scheme a request to the Federal
agency would receive sympathetic consideration.
By virtue of experience to date, some broad clarification of a standing basis
of co-operation among the local corporate areas, the Province, and the Federal
Government is taking shape, with, however, a necessary degree of flexibility to suit
particular areas and cases. The normal pattern of co-operation now envisaged is
as follows:—
(1) The local corporate area formally undertakes to install a net of control
monuments at spacings of about 1,000 feet, according to general specifications set out by the Surveyor-General. The local authority also undertakes to have these local monuments co-ordinated to a net of major control monuments by a qualified British Columbia land surveyor, either on
staff or engaged for the purpose. Maintenance of the system of control
monuments after establishment is also the responsibility of the local
(2) The Provincial agency undertakes to establish a major net of control
monuments, say, at 1 mile spacing in the area. This major net will be
derived from the nearest available first-order geodetic control stations
previously established by the Geodetic Survey of Canada.
(3) The Federal agency will expand the primary geodetic network to suitably
serve areas being set up under (1) and (2) above. In special cases, such
as the Greater Vancouver area, the Federal survey agency may be asked
also to assist with the second-order control envisaged in (2) above.
Generally speaking, the selection of areas for survey integration will depend
mainly on the order in which bona fide willingness to participate is shown by each
local community; that is, first come, first served. However, for the major control
operations, concentrated groups of individual local authorities would be handled as
a group unit, with sufficient flexibility for an individual area to complete its part of
the programme as and when practicable, from budgetary and other considerations.
Obviously the spread of survey integration to all communities of the Province will
take some time to achieve, on the basis of existing facilities. The process could
always be accelerated by the provision of added potential, which is simply a matter
of government policy at all levels. Any community which wishes to accelerate its
progress to survey integration sufficiently to provide the necessary funds itself could
do so by engaging private surveyors suitably equipped and qualified to undertake
the major control, under specifications and technical supervision of the Surveyor-
General's office.
We sustained loss by the retirement on superannuation of Mr. Alfred Hugh
Phipps, from the position of Draughtsman 4 in the Air Division, who attained the
statutory age on December 27, 1964. Mr. Phipps's continuous service dates from
1946, when he joined the Railway Department, transferring to this Branch in 1948.
However, during the late 1920's he had been employed seasonally on exploratory
surveys for the Government under Messrs. F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S., and G. J.
Jackson, B.C.L.S. Mr. Phipps served his country during two wars, having been
overseas with 58th Field Battery, R.C.A., 1914-19, and in Canada again with the
Royal Canadian Artillery, 1939-46. He holds the highest esteem of all who were
associated with him in the Department.
A pleasant and interesting variation in the normal routine of this Branch has
been provided on several occasions by the attachment, for observational training,
of a student or fellow from far away, under the auspices of the United Nations or
of the Canadian External Aid office. The most recent of these, sponsored by the
latter, was Miss Chaleuysri Siricharoen, B.Com., from Thailand, who was interested
in cartography, photogrammetry, and statistical geography. Miss Siricharoen spent
July and August of 1963 and May of 1964 with this Branch, the intervening period
having been spent in academic studies at the University of British Columbia. She
then proceeded to Ottawa for attachment to the Federal mapping agencies and the
Dominion Bureau of Statistics.
As distinct from more casual visitors from many lands who have made courtesy
calls of short duration, we have now had four fellows assigned to us for significant
training visits as in the following tabulation:—
Land o, Origin
Period of Attachment
Mi* Chaleuysri _______	
Canadian External Aid Office	
Advice from the three first-mentioned fellows in the above list, now back in
their home lands, confirms that they are making valuable use of the training they
received in Canada. As of December 31, 1964, Miss Siricharoen is still engaged
in her programme in Ottawa. It is a pleasure to report that all of these assignees
made a very favourable impression among us by their intelligence, conscientious
application to the study programme, as well as personal charm. This speaks well
for the system of selection used by the sponsoring agencies concerned.
In addition to items of extramural liaison already mentioned, the following
contacts were made by the writer:—
(1) Mexico, March, 1964: (a) Director-General de Catastro, Secretaria del
Patrimonio National; (b) Institute de Investigaciones Forestales; (c)
Director-General de Geografia y Meteorologia. These were arranged
through the courtesy of the Canadian Embassy in Mexico.
(2) Ottawa, July, 1964: National Research Council, Advisory Committee on
Survey Research at Canadian Universities.
(3) Winnipeg, October, 1964: Meetings of Federal and Provincial survey
Acknowledgment is gratefully made of the industry, skill, and devotion to duty
of the staff; of the co-operation and support of the administration and other segments of the Lands Service, the sister services of Forests and Water Resources in
this Department; other Provincial departments and agencies; the land surveying
profession in British Columbia; and the Federal agencies, especially the Department
of Mines and Technical Surveys, the Department of National Defence, and the
National Research Council of Canada; as well as private and public agencies in the
sister Provinces.
D. Pearmain, Chief
The Legal Surveys Division, under the direction of the Surveyor-General, is
responsible for cadastral surveys of all Crown lands of the Province. This entails
the issuing of instructions to the land surveyors engaged to make each survey and
supplying them with copies of the field-notes and plans of adjoining or adjacent surveys. After the completion of the survey, the returns are forwarded to this office
for checking and plotting. Included in the above returns are all right-of-way surveys, including those for highways, railways, and transmission-lines. During the
year 1,199 sets of the above instructions were issued. It is interesting to note that
this phase of our work has increased nearly fivefold in the 10 years since 1955, when
the number of instructions issued was 252.
In 1964, 660 sets of field-notes covering the survey of 988 lots were received
in this office and duly indexed, checked, plotted, and official plans prepared therefrom. This is an increase of 83 and 42 respectively over 1963. Of the above-
mentioned surveys, 910 were made under the Land Act and 78 under the Mineral
Act. At the present time there are approximately 98,580 sets of field-notes on record in our vaults.
There were 562 plans received from land surveyors covering subdivision and
rights-of-way surveys which were made under the Land Registry Act. These were
duly indexed and checked, and certified copies deposited in the respective Land
Registry Offices.
In order that a graphic record may be kept of alienations of both surveyed and
unsurveyed Crown lands together with reserves, a set of 210 reference maps covering the whole of the Province must be maintained. These show all cadastral surveys which are on file in the Department, and are kept up to date by adding new
information as it accrues from day to day. Prints are available to the public (see
Indexes 1 to 7 in the envelope attached to the back cover of this Annual Report).
It must be reported again this year that through the pressure of other work it has
been impossible to carry out the necessary renewing and redrawing of the reference
maps which become worn through constant use and handling. Whereas we should
be renewing a minimum of 25 of these maps each year, only four could be done in
1964, and these only by a makeshift mechanical process.
All applications to purchase or lease Crown lands or foreshore which are received by the Lands Branch and all applications to purchase Crown timber received
by the Forest Service are channelled through this Division for clearance. The
orderly processing of these applications requires that an exhaustive status be made
from the reference maps, official plans, and Land Registry Office plans. From the
reference maps, together with other information and facilities maintained by this
Division, it is possible to give an up-to-the-minute status on any parcel of Crown
land in the Province.
It was necessary during the year, for status and compilation purposes, to obtain
4,286 plans from the various Land Registry Offices.
This Division co-operates with the other departments of Government by preparing and checking legal descriptions which they require. Those assisted in this
way were the Attorney-General's Department (descriptions of Small Debt Courts),
the Department of Agriculture (descriptions of disease-free areas and pound districts), the Department of Municipal Affairs (descriptions for the incorporation or
amendment of municipal areas), the Forest Service (descriptions of tree-farm
licences and working circles), and the Lands Branch (descriptions for gazetted
reserves, etc.). During the year 141 of the above descriptions were prepared, and
this entailed 313 man-hours.
The Legal Surveys Division, through this Section, continues to supply a service
to all departments of Government and to the public, as well as supplying all the
prints and photostats, etc., required by the Surveys and Mapping Branch. The
total number of prints made during the year was 249,678, in the preparation of
which 187,600 yards or 106.5 miles of paper and linen were used. The number
of photostats, films, and autopositives made was 137,515.
Of the 249,678 prints made, 69,992 were for the Surveys and Mapping Branch,
61,525 for other branches of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, 105,392 for other departments of Government, and 12,769 for the public.
Likewise, of the 137,515 photostats, films, etc., made, 39,199 were for thejggjvj^s
and Mapping Branch, 73,253 for other branches of the Department, 17,395 for
other departments of Government, and 7,668 for the public.
The multilith machine turned out 280,670 copies during 1964.
This Section is responsible for the compilation and fair drawing of composite
maps, mostly at a scale of 500 feet to 1 inch, of the more densely subdivided areas
of the Province and especially where they occur in unorganized territory.
No new composite maps were completed during the year, but all maps were
revised, with the exception of those situated within the Kamloops Land Registration
District, the reason for this being that this Division is experiencing some difficulty
in obtaining the registered plans from the Kamloops office.
This Section is responsible for the preparation of plans for the use of the Land
Inspectors in their examination of applications for Crown lands. These plans are
a consolidation of all the information available in this Department and pertinent
to the applications requiring inspection,
this Section during the past six years is £
1959 2,473      1962 2,941
1960 2,609      1963  _____  2,944
1961 2,660      1964 2,827
This Section supplies a service to the Land Registry Offices at Victoria, Kamloops, Nelson, and Prince Rupert by giving a thorough mathematical check to plans
tendered for deposit in the said offices.
This check is accomplished through the use of the electronic computer which
is available to the Division.
During the year 2,216 plans received this check, as compared with 1,558
during 1963.
The receiving and distribution of survey-posts, which are stored at 859 Devonshire Road, has operated smoothly and efficiently. The following synopsis shows
the quantities of posts shipped during the past year and to whom:—
Standard     Driveable Standard B.C.L.S
|      Pipe |      Pipe     | Rock    | Bars
Purchased by private surveyors from headquarters           253              379 142 375
Supplied to Departmental surveyors 75              798 31 2,675
Number of field-books received
_      2,741
.      3,837
.      5,290
.      5,706
.      1,654
.      6,195
.      2,944
.      4,582
. 104,973
_ 300,415
!         lots plotted
,         lots gazetted
„       mineral-claim field-books prepared	
„       reference maps compiled or renewed _
„       applications for purchase cleared	
„       applications for pre-emption cleared._
,       applications for lease cleared	
,       Crown-grant applications cleared	
,        cancellations made.
,       inquiries cleared |   	
land-examination plans
,       Crown-grant and lease tracings made_
,       miscellaneous tracings made   ..
,       photostats made
,        blueprints made
,       offset prints made
Subdivision of Crown Land
Surveys of rural Crown land with road access for home-site purposes were
carried out at Port Hardy, where 66 lots were laid out along the Airport Road. At
the south end of Dease Lake at the junction of the Telegraph Creek and Stewart-
Cassiar Roads, 104 lots were provided, including sites for several Government administration purposes. Forty-six lots were laid out overlooking Windermere Lake,
and another 46 at 70 Mile House on the Cariboo Highway were set back from the
highway, with their own subdivision road system. Resubdivision of a few large
lots at 150 Mile House was necessary because of relocation of the highway, and
this produced 11 home-sites. One lot was surveyed near Chetwynd. Lake-front
subdivisions produced 205 summer-home site lots, the largest being at Moberly
Lake, where 79 were surveyed. The others were on Bednesti and Berman Lakes
near Prince George, at Gun Lake in the Bridge River Valley, at Sproat Lake on
Vancouver Island, at Christina Lake in the West Kootenay, and at Dewar Lake and
Cottonwood River in the Central Cariboo District.   At Port Hardy again six town
lots were surveyed, with a 66-lot townsite at Hendrix Lake and three town lots at
the University Endowment Lands. Five and one-half sections of land in the Peace
River District with V/i sections on Saltspring Island and acreage lots at Sheep Lake
between Christina Lake and Kinnaird, at two locations near Vancouver, at Fort
Steele, and a large six-lot agricultural subdivision at Osoyoos in the Southern Okanagan Lands Project totalled 5,200 acres surveyed.
Surveys for this purpose were performed at Sproat Lake where two park areas
were created, one at Christina Lake, two at Summerland on Trout Creek, one each
at Windermere, Galiano Island, Driftwood Creek near Smithers, and on the Malahat
Drive around Spectacle Lake.
Forest Service Roads and Sites
Only one foreshore reserve at Port Hardy and a half a mile of right-of-way
through an Indian reserve near Lytton were completed this year. An access problem to one other Indian reserve where a survey is required made it necessary to
delay that survey to the following year.
Repostings and Restorations
Highway surveys were responsible for the restoration of 232 old district lot or
section corners, a slight increase over that of last year. A number of areas were
given attention in the general programme. A district lot on Sakinaw Lake and one
at Alberni were reposted. The work between Shirley and Sooke was continued,
where five more lots were restored. The main reposting efforts were at McBride,
Gabriola Island, China Gulch, and New Hazelton. The Departmental total of section and district lots restored was 340, but, in addition, town lots at Lower Post
and Prince George were resurveyed, as well as 108 subdivision block corners in
New Hazelton.
On the Northern Trans-Provincial Highway 16.9 miles in the vicinity of Rose
Lake were surveyed, with 6.3 miles near Telkwa and 4.4 near Hazelton. On the
Southern Trans-Canada Highway 11.1 miles near Princeton, 3.9 miles at Midway,
3.5 miles at Goatfell, 3.2 miles at Sparwood, and 2.2 miles at Morrissey, and on
the Kootenay-Columbia Highway 3.9 miles at Fort Steele Junction with 12.3 miles
on either side of Radium Junction were completed. On the Okanagan Highway at
Trout Creek 1.3 miles were surveyed, making a total of 69 miles for the Department.
Inspections and Miscellaneous
Inspection surveys were made in the vicinity of Victoria, Cowichan Bay, Vernon, and Shannon Lake at the request of various agencies. A parcel of tidal lands
at French Creek was surveyed for return to the Crown. A survey up the Ashnola
River for the Department of Highways and in Victoria for the Department of Public
Works for a precinct parking-lot, with a cemetery-site at Moyie, completed the wide
variety of surveys.
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief
There were two separate co-ordinate surveys worked on during the year. The
first and largest was the continuation of the Lower Fraser Valley scheme, on which
the triangulation breakdown from the geodetic had been completed during the past
two years.   The second was a complete layout for the City of Dawson Creek.
Work on the Lower Fraser Valley co-ordinate survey was confined to North
Surrey in the Whalley and adjacent districts, because of the impossibility of completing such a large area as Surrey Municipality in one summer's field operation.
Using our newly acquired M.R.A. 3 tellurometers, a crew of four co-ordinated a
total of 350 monuments. Five hundred and fifty tellurometer distances were measured throughout the course of the four-month field season. During the same period
a two-man level crew completed close to 175 miles of levels that covered almost all
of the municipality.
The minimum tellurometer distance measured was 200 metres, which, according to the makers, would ensure an accuracy of at least 1 part in 10,000, or better;
any shorter distances were double-chained. All trial closures made during the field
operation indicated the accuracy attained was well above this requirement.
By the use of interconnected tellurometer traverses, a series of co-ordinated
monuments was set along the Fraser River. They will be used to reference a new
proposed municipal boundary that will supersede the old centre-line boundary of
the river. One hundred and one concrete monuments and 11 iron pins were set in
the series, as well as tying in 25 legal survey posts, 11 Federal Department of Public
Works monuments, 6 special survey (integrated survey) and 8 old concrete monuments. The area covered by this control extended from Tilbury Island to Barnston
Island, and up the Pitt River to De Boville Slough.
The City of Dawson Creek operation was small, but a model of simplicity.
We expanded the triangulation from the well-situated geodetic stations Bear-East
Base to bring control into the city, where 60 monuments provided an adequate grid
to the required density.
Graham Island, which is the most northerly island in the Queen Charlotte
group, was the location for a control survey (see Fig. 1). The " B.C. Surveyor "
sailed approximately 2,950 miles during the operation that produced 106 identified
stations and 32 barometer points. Eight lot ties and three lot corner replacements
were also made during the season. After many years of dependable service, the
engine of the " B.C. Surveyor " has finally reached the replacement stage. Difficulties during the early part of the season were finally climaxed by the engine suddenly
stopping on several occasions. When allowed to cool, the engine would restart and
run at reduced speed long enough to reach port. A diesel expert from Vancouver
was sent to make repairs as well as a report. He was able to do both, and recommended that while the ship could continue to operate, it must be at a reduced speed,
and in his opinion the ship should not be out in open water. This meant the west
coast of the island could not be worked by the boat. To do this portion of the area,
we used 68 flying-hours on a Bell Super G helicopter from Okanagan Helicopters
Limited. This most difficult portion of the work was completed in 18 days. A Land
Rover was used on the eastern portion of the island, running the beaches wherever
possible when there were no roads available.
Five of our personnel were engaged on a three-month field control survey on
the Peace River power project. Control was obtained for photogrammetric bridging covering the proposed flooding of the watersheds of the Peace, Parsnip, and
Finlay Rivers. The photogrammetric bridging in turn provided secondary control
to establish photogrammetric elevations on points of detail, recoverable in the field,
from which the flood-line, navigable channels, and harbour-sites could be planned
and marked on the ground by the Forest Engineering Section of the Forest Service.
The information required for field use was marked on a series of 20-chain uncontrolled mosaics assembled by our personnel.
One hundred and seventy miles of levels were run in the area to the north of
Fort St. John as the result of a request from the oil industry. Forty-eight benchmarks were established, using a 5- or 6-foot length of %-inch reinforcing steel. After
the rod was driven into the ground, a piece of 1-inch-diameter copper pipe was
crimped to the top, and a standard rock post then driven into the copper pipe.   To
reference each bench-mark, a 5-foot length of Vi-inch reinforcing steel with a metal
flag attached to the top was driven into the ground alongside. Where trees were available, they were blazed as well. Fifty-eight section and lot corners were levelled to
and three triangulation stations were tied into the net. The levels were run along
the seismic lines when there were not any roads. Much of the route lay in the
muskegs, and here it was necessary to move camp by helicopter. Availability of
these flying packhorses was no problem; Okanagan Helicopters had four based at
Fort St. John all season, and very prompt service was rendered. For this type of
move a Hiller helicopter was found to be more economical due to its larger pay load.
Numerous smaller survey jobs were completed during the year for various
departments. Horizontal and vertical control was obtained for a proposed route
for an access road from Riske Creek south-westward toward Kloakut Lake for the
Forest Service. Considerable difficulty was experienced on this project with wet
roads that became almost impassable by the continuous rain. The four-wheel-drive
Land Rovers had to be winched out of difficult spots four or five times a day, slowing progress considerably. For the same Department we obtained control and prepared a plan of a proposed bridge-site over Slesse Creek. The Water Rights Branch
requested a large-scale plan for a water study in the Sechelt Peninsula, for which
we did the necessary field control.
For the Public Works Department we completed the field work and prepared
a plan for each of three proposed sites for vocational schools at Burnaby, Kamloops,
and Terrace, as well as building-sites at Saltair, Parksville, and Ladysmith.
Field control was obtained and a map drawn for the Parks Branch of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation of an area in the Black Tusk Meadows
in Garibaldi Park. The Department's De Havilland Beaver aircraft flew a crew
of two and their equipment to Garibaldi Lake to commence this project. The aircraft worked on the Peace River pondage area for the balance of the season.
Eight National Topographic Series map-sheets, totalling approximately 2,930
square miles, were completed in the Photogrammetric Section. In addition, there
were 16 large-scale projects ranging in scale from 100 to 1,320 feet to 1 inch. These
include revision and reconnaissance maps, as well as detailed plans for various
building and bridge sites.
The Draughting Section reports the completion of 16 standard topographic
manuscripts at the scale of 2 inches to 1 mile and 78 large-scale mapping plans at
various scales. In addition, the plotting of the cadastral survey on 53 Federal Government 1:500,000 manuscripts was completed. Forty-seven mosaics were assembled and rephotographed to the scale required by the department involved.
The Federal Government now has 92 of our 1:500,000 scale manuscripts on
hand for printing, which are in various stages of reproduction.
Copies of the photogrammetric large-scale mapping and the completed manuscripts listed following this report are available upon request (see Indexes 4 and 6
contained in envelope attached to the back cover of this Annual Report).
List of Large-scale Mapping
Agassiz     _
Upper McGregorRiver	
Spot heights
  cc 56   department of lands, forests, and water resources
List of British Columbia Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed
List of British Columbia Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed—Continued
List of British Columbia Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed—Continued
Each year the variety of lithographed Provincial maps available for public
distribution continues to grow.
Six entirely new sheets were added in 1964. Publication of sheet 82G/NW-NE
(Cranbrook) at l-inch-to-2-miles scale brings to 27 the number of lithographed
maps available in this very useful series. At the end of the year another four new
l-inch-to-2-miles sheets were in production or lithography (see Table I). Release
of the Cranbrook map completes the replacement of former Degree Series Maps 4d
(Fernie) and 4c (Cranbrook), and they will no longer be circulated. The last editions of the Fernie and Cranbrook degree sheets were printed in 1950 and 1936
Three new seven-colour status maps at 1:250,000 scale were prepared and
reproduced (see Table G). These were 93f (Nechako), 103I-J (Prince Rupert-
Terrace), and 103p (Nass River). Map 93 f completes the filling of an area formerly covered by Pre-emptor Series Map 3b (Nechako). In this series there were
five new maps in production or lithography at the end of this year.
Besides the status editions at 1 inch to 2 miles, a complete revision was done
of Map 1j (British Columbia) at l-inch-to-30-miles scale. A solid cream base
with green tones highlighting Provincial and National parks were added to it.
An important accomplishment in new map production was the printing of
special Landform Map 1 jps (British Columbia, Physiographic Subdivisions). This
l-inch-to-30-miles sheet was prepared and printed for the Department of Mines
and Petroleum Resources to accompany that Department's Bulletin No. 48, " Land-
forms of British Columbia." The landforms base without the physiographic divisions was lithographed separately in brown as Map ljp (British Columbia, Physical), and will be distributed by the Geographic Division.
The landforms base of Maps 1 jp and 1 jps was prepared by joining and reducing to l-inch-to-30-miles scale, then harmoniously adjusting the tone values of the
six regional landforms sheets of British Columbia (Ibl, Idl, Iel, Ifl, Igl, and
Ikl) . To accentuate the higher elevations, an overprinting was made of those areas
above 6,000 feet in a darker tone. This cartographic technique produced a very
attractive impression of the valleys, plains, plateaux, and mountains of the Province.
Other new work accomplished during 1964 was road revisions to Maps 2c
(Northerly Vancouver Island) and 92g (Vancouver), and status overprints of
82L/SE (Sugar Lake) and 92H/NW (Yale). Another overprint showing a revision to the elevation of Nechako Reservoir was effected for Maps 93f (Nechako),
If (West Central British Columbia), and 1g (East Central British Columbia).
Maps produced in Ottawa by the Army Survey Establishment during 1964
included two Provincial Government sheets and four A.S.E. sheets at 1:50,000
scale. Major stocks were received of the aforementioned prints. The Department
of Mines and Technical Surveys published another 34 sheets at 1:50,000 scale,
together with two maps at 1:250,000 scale. At the end of the year the number of
Provincial Government topographic manuscripts awaiting publication by Ottawa
agencies was 92 sheets (see Table J).
The following is a quotation from an information circular prepared by the
Canadian Permanent Committee on Geographical Names at Ottawa and applied
to the Toponymy Division of the Geographical Branch:—
" Inquiries concerning geographical names in Canada answered by the Toponymy Division average between 60 and 70 per month or about three each working day. Some inquiries are answered immediately by quick reference to the records; others may involve a search of old files and considerable correspondence; a few
may take several days of research into a variety of references. The time spent averages over 30 hours a month. These inquiries originate from CPCGN members,
government agencies, outside organizations and private citizens. During the investigation, additional information on other names is often disclosed and incorporated
into the records."
The above remarks apply with equal validity to the Gazetteer Section of this
Division. Although exact figures have not been recorded in Victoria until comparatively recently, indications are that while Ottawa's average number of inquiries
has been three per working-day, here the average will be somewhere between 7
and 10.
Our inquiries originate from similar sources, such as Government departments,
newspapers, industrial concerns, and private citizens. Some can be answered immediately with little effort; others may require considerable research involving many
hours of work. They vary between the following extremes: " What is the height
of Mount Robson? " and " Please supply me with a list of all geographical names
in British Columbia that are of Swedish origin, together with details of those named
for individuals."
During 1964 the list of names to be added or changed in the new Gazetteer
of British Columbia was dispatched to Ottawa. The existing Gazetteer, published
in 1953, is now considerably deficient in names, and it is expected that the new
edition will relieve some of the pressure of inquiries regarding the location and
spelling of geographical names. Other work done by the Gazetteer Section is summarized in Table C.
After decreasing in 1963, the number of maps issued to Government departments and the public rose this year to 88,322, a 13-per-cent increase over the previous year. This is clearly demonstrated in the addition to statistical Table D, which
now shows the number of requisitions received and dealt with over a six-year period.
The value of maps issued also increased substantially, being 20 per cent higher than
in 1963 (see Table D). Each working-day during the year an average of 350 maps
was distributed over the counter or through the mail.
A notable event in 1964 was the improvement and consolidation of Divisional
office space. The Trigonometric Control Section and the Research Officer moved
into newly renovated offices on the ground floor of No. 1 Temporary Building, while
the Map Compilation and Gazetteer Room was substantially enlarged and improved.
In the summer of 1964 the Research Officer made a two-week field trip to
Bella Coola and the Southern Mainland Coast in connection with complete revision
of the Lower Coast Land Series Bulletin (No. 3). By the end of the year the
revised text was nearly completed. Minor revisions were made to the Okanagan
(No. 2), Quesnel-Lillooet (No. 5), and Atlin (No. 9) Bulletins before reprintings
were made of them. The fully revised Fort Fraser-Fort George Land Series Bulletin (No. 7) was received for general distribution from the Queen's Printer early in
the year.
As shown in Table E, outside projects numbering 19 and valued at $5,213
were undertaken during 1964. Among these was work in connection with proposed
revisions of census divisions. This involved preparation of maps and metes and
bounds descriptions of the boundaries of 76 proposed census areas. Other jobs
included preparation of Map Ijps (described above) and maps and charts for a
Provincial Museum report on the West Coast Indians.
CC 6
During 1964 the Trigonometric Control Section completed conversion of file
cards from the Dominion Manual System of Rectangular Co-ordinates to the Poly-
conic Rectangular Co-ordinates system. The total number of index cards on file
increased by 1,475 to 35,547. Well-site plans examined under the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Act totalled 152 for the year. Tables A and B are a tabular compilation of the work done by the Trigonometric Control Section.
The following Tables A to J are a statistical summary of the major accomplishments of the Geographic Division during 1964. An Index to Published Maps
(Indexes 8 to 14) may be found in the envelope attached to the back cover of this
Annual Report.
Table A.—Least-square Triangulation Adjustments Completed
Type of
P     •   ■ l
and, Myers Passage	
i Hydrographic Service	
i Hydrographic Service	
_ Hydrographic Service	
Skeena River and Teles
aph Passage	
Checking of petroleum and natural-gas well-site surveys totalled 152.
Table B.—Computations
Table C.—Canadian Permanent Committee or
Geographical Names
1962   |     1963    |     1964
Number of map-sheets or charts checked	
59    |        22
Table D.—Map Stock and Distribution
Table E.—Geographical Work for Other Departmen
s and Public
1959    |     1960    |    1961
,2,7?. |„,£ \yjl
Tflfc/e F.—^Lewew
1960   |     1961
Lett rs received and attended to
6,929        8,670
8 790
7 274
8 469
Table H.—Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Prepared and Reproduced at 1:50,000 Scale by the Canadian Government, Ottawa, during 1964
Map No. 920/9, E. & W., Dog Creek (first edition).
Table I.—Maps Being Prepared by the Geographic Division, Victoria, during 1964
Map. No.
Peace River
lin to4mi
In draughting
-',' ',',',',",'. ',   ,    . '",,?, ,         _~~
1 'ZlofL
In draughting.
Vernon (second status edition)	
In compilation.
Table J.—Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Being Prepared ax
1:50,000 Scale by the Canadian Government, Ottawa, during 1964
Map. No.
Map. No.
Finlay Forks (first edHtan).011 '
Nakina like (first edition)'.
A. C. Kinnear, B.C.R.F., Chief
Approximately the same amount of forest inventory interim mapping as reported for 1963 has again been accomplished this year. The compilation and
planimetry of district lots, railways, highways, transmission-lines, and triangulation
were completed for an area of nearly 13,200 square miles covering some 297 map-
sheets at the scale of 1 inch to 20 chains (1:15,840), as well as an area of 1,400
square miles covering 10 map-sheets at a scale of 1 inch to 40 chains (1:31,680).
This work is available, in pencil form only, as principal-point lay-downs.
Earlier compilation of data on the Queen Charlotte Islands and in the Hecate
Sustained-yield Unit was also revised and brought up to date.
A slight increase over last year in the production of finished interim maps
available for general distribution is noted. A total area of 3,200 square miles of
final tracings at the l-inch-to-20-chain scale was completed and is available for
various parts of the Province (see Key Maps Nos. 15 to 18 contained in envelope
attached to the back cover of this Annual Report).
Trial methods of scribing, etc., are still being undertaken to try to overcome
the ever-increasing amount of pencil-form manuscripts which could be converted
into final ink sheets.
Mr. A. H. Phipps, Supervising Draughtsman, retired on December 31, 1964,
and Mr. F. W. Rich will retire early in the new year from the Base Map Section.
Both of these senior men have contributed much to the success of this Division and
will be difficult to replace.
The l-inch-to-40-chain (1:31,680) interim mapping programme of the E. & N.
Railway Grant area, requested by the Surveyor of Taxes, Department of Finance,
in 1962, was completed as planned. The original project was undertaken on a
plan to provide photography and maps for one-third of the area in each of the years
1962, 1963, and 1964. A total area of some 3,300 square miles is covered by
13 full map-sheets and 12 part sheets numbered in the National Topographic Series.
These maps, available as ozalid prints, show all district lots, timber blocks,
municipal boundaries, Provincial parks, logging-roads, the edge of logging at the
time of photography, etc., and are being used extensively by private interests in
addition to the purpose for which they were originally intended by the Department
of Finance.
Index Map No. 7, contained in envelope attached to back cover of this Annual
Report, shows the availability of all mapping by this Division.
This year was the first year of operating the two modified Beech D18 aircraft
for a full season, and it has been proven that these aircraft have about a 15-per-cent
increased over-all performance as compared to the former Ansons.
During the operating season, which again was not favourable weather-wise,
the increased performance of the Beech aircraft enabled a near record of photography to be reported. Seventy-nine separate requesjts for photography were
accepted, of which 67 were completed. A total of 28,980 new photographs was
obtained, covering in part an area of 20,390 square miles of l-inch-to-40-chains
block cover and 18,965 square miles of l-inch-to-20-chains block cover.
 Simplex print-drier, Processing Laboratory, Air Di
Considerable diversification of effort is again recorded this year. For example,
photography was taken of paper strips released in the water off Cordova Bay for a
study of current movement in connection with a water-pollution study, the Stewart-
Cassiar Road was photographed for the first time, and a Chilcotin bridge-site was
photographed before and after a major slide in the Chilcotin River.
Projects ranged throughout various areas of the Province, and the favourable
weather patterns which developed intermittently during the summer required the
air-crew personnel to keep an attitude of mobility uppermost in their operation.
Much of the success of this year's outstanding accomplishment can be attributed to the efficient servicing of all equipment from aircraft to cameras and auxiliary
equipment. New components replacing worn-out parts in the O.S.C. 12-inch
cameras minimized the periods of camera unserviceability which have often been
encountered during previous summers. The programme of systematic and thorough
servicing of all equipment during the winter months pays major dividends during
the flying season.
The new Wild RC8 camera, purchased this year, arrived in Victoria too late
in the season to be used on operations but will be in service in 1965. Both air
detachments are now equipped with one RC8 and one O.S.C. camera for greater
versatility of operation.
Complete records of flying operations will be found at the end of this report.
The production of 10- by 10-inch reprints increased by 20 per cent over the
figure produced last year. The total of 162,210 reprints sets a new record of production and can be attributed in part to the new equipment authorized for purchase
during the year. Photographs of some of this equipment are shown at the end of
this report.
Statistically, this year shows an increase in all production figures from the
laboratory. It is doubtful, however, that this figure can be increased in the future
unless major changes, such as a greater water supply, a film vault located closer to
the laboratory, etc., can be obtained.
The new Cintel electronic contact printer was installed this year and is proving
to be a valuable asset. A few minor modifications are to be installed by the manufacturer in the near future and, when completed, should make this printer even
more effective. The combination of competent and experienced personnel being
supplied modern equipment and methods cannot help but increase quantity with
Enlargements, up to 40 inches in size, are becoming more popular, and it is
interesting to report that this year's production of enlargement is 28 per cent greater
than last year and 70 per cent greater than in 1962. As more detailed work is
required in all fields today, it is evident that the demand for larger-sized air photos
will continue to increase. Again, our facilities cannot accommodate a greater
demand, so this production figure for the future will probably not increase unless,
as stated earlier, some physical changes can be made in the laboratory.
The complete record of work accomplished by the Process Laboratory will be
found at the end of this report.
The new Epidiascopes reported last year as in the design stage were completed
as planned and have proven to be excellent pieces of equipment and a credit to the
thought and workmanship of the Instrument-shop personnel. One of these instruments is with the Forest Service and the other in this Division.
Two new view-finders for installation in the aircraft were designed and built
in the Instrument-shop. Pieces of equipment such as these cannot be purchased
today to serve the particular function they perform in our operation, and we are
fortunate to have a shop capable of developing these specialities.
Normal servicing and maintenance of air cameras continued during the year,
as well as the systematic maintenance of technical and specialized equipment in the
Mapping and Process Laboratory Sections.
Co-operative service and use of facilities to the Department of Highways,
Department of Public Works, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, and
Forest Service were again extended throughout the year.
One instrument technician was authorized to attend a short period of instruction with Wild of Canada Limited at Ottawa on the servicing and maintenance of
RC8 cameras and the A7 stereo-plotter. Also, a visit to the Cintel plant in Toronto
provided some additional technical information on the servicing of the electronic
printer in the Process Laboratory.
Increased sale of air photos to the public is a highlight of this year's activities
in the library. Mining companies and forest industries purchased over 21,000
reprints during the year, and it is pleasing to report that educational institutions are
becoming more air-photo conscious by purchasing some 3,500 reprints, representing
a 100-per-cent increase over 1963.
Total loans to the public have increased to a figure of 16,727, a 30-per-cent
increase over last year's figure.
The revenue from the sale and loan of air photos for the year amounts to
Many functions of the library have given way to the day-to-day service required
by the increasing public requests. It is no longer possible to keep up the reference
feature of the library with the existing library staff; for example, the catalogue of
interesting topographical features on air photographs is no longer kept current and
many records for historical purposes have been allowed to lapse.
The Forest Service continues to be the largest Provincial Government user of
air photos. Some 86,700 reprints were supplied during the year and another 17,000
were supplied on a loan basis.
A total of over 10,000 reprints was supplied to the Lands Inspection Division,
representing an increase of over 100 per cent from 1963.
Complete records of Air Photo Library services will be found at the end of
this report.
Reo.uisitions|    Numher
F •';:'•: Z"."»...    and Technical Surveys	
Provincial Govemment-
w      .rr     '
Department of Recreation and Conservation L_
Public Loans
and Rep
16 727
 department of lands, forests, and water resources
Production Record to 1964, Process Laboratory
1964 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects—Continued
PuWte Works Department -Col-
Roi^t;anaS° ^Tted poUc'!_
614 45
l'"'l  •  !•'"' R__^S_.	
Lower Fraser River HighWater.
zzz\  lizzz
ISameen wlterSupplyZZI
1 072 33
176   20
E' MR^cro_a_dnB_onservaaon  Dc-
to_Sl____[uLtr tion
1 989 15
533   30
$87,233 36
M. E. Ferguson, Project Manager
The operations for the year were again mainly related to normal municipal
maintenance and administration. This was due to there being no new properties
available, other than the eight new fraternity lots mentioned in the 1963 report.
All the roads, curbs, sidewalks, sewer and water services were installed and the
first fraternity house was constructed. At present several other fraternities are considering construction now that definite lease rentals have been established.
Once again traffic problems were increased due to a higher number enrolling
at the university. This resulted in more cars travelling the already overtaxed access
routes. This problem should be eliminated next year, when it is hoped to have a
new major access constructed from 16th Avenue to the campus. Plans for this
major road and other improvements to Blanca Street and Marine Drive are already
well advanced.
The new 12-inch water-mains, mentioned in the 1963 report, were put into
operation in June, but owing to the ensuing wet summer the full benefit was not
realized. Likewise, the first of a series of pumping units was completed adjacent
to the new reservoir-site, but this was little used owing to the lack of heavy sprinkling usually encountered during a normal summer. The first unit of the new
reservoir system was excavated and the contract let for construction, and this is
presently in progress. Even when this reservoir is completed, it is already evident
that it will not provide a sufficient water supply to the rapidly expanding campus
requirements. Consideration will have to be given to constructing another water-
main, probably along the new 16th Avenue road.
General taxes for the year again remained unchanged. The general mill rate
has not been increased for the past three years. This is most unusual for the residential areas in the Lower Mainland.
One of the major problems of the year's operation was the record snowfall
during the month of December. Approximately 4 feet of snow fell during the
month, with very little of it melting. This created the necessity of a major snow-
removal programme in order to keep the roads open and normal services maintained.
We are looking forward to a year of increased activity during 1965 when the
new road construction will commence. Decisions will have to be made regarding
many future plans and policies.
The attached tabulation shows comparative figures for the past several years.
This clearly indicates that a fairly active year was encountered.
^,™at,°°Lt° fralenll'y h0USeS—
"* "      ---<•>
Sv"=i«;2 = !2SS
3   SS!
5   -
The Land Settlement Board's balance-sheets will appear in the Public Accounts
of the Province as in the past. The following is a brief summary of the Board's
activities and collections for 1964.
During the year the sales made by the Board amounted to $129,952.30. One
hundred and fifty-three purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and
five borrowers paid up in full and received release of mortgage. Collections were
as follows:—
Loans $5,710.84
Land sales    84,589.73
Foreclosed properties and areas—stumpage, rentals, etc 1,812.49
Total  $92,113.06
The above figures include collections from the sale and rental of Doukhobor
lands in the amount of $67,960.79.
As in the past few years, the activities of the Board were concentrated this year
on the sale of the Doukhobor lands in accordance with the recommendations of the
report of Mr. Justice Arthur E. Lord.
It may be of general interest to note that the Board is making available for a
nominal consideration certain lands in the Castlegar region as a site for the proposed
West Kootenay College.
J. H. Palmer, Personnel Officer
The following table
Recruitments for
Reclassifications —
Internal transfers _
Transfers to other departments _
Terminations for continuous staff _
Retirements _
Short-term casual appointments and terminations  42
Three new positions of Land Inspector were added to the staff of the Land
Inspection Division. One of these was appointed to the Victoria District, and the
other two augmented present staffs at Prince George and Smithers.
Mr. A. H. Phipps, Draughtsman 4, retired from the Air Division after 17 years
with the Department. Mr. Phipps was a highly respected and well-liked member
of the Air Division, and he carried with him the best wishes of a host of friends.
Mr. F. M. Qinningham, Assistant Chief Land Inspector, and Messrs. J. G.
Callan and T. F. Moore, Draughtsman 4, Legal Surveys Division, were awarded
Diplomas in Public Administration following completion of the three-year study
course under the Executive Development Training Plan. Two Land Inspectors,
Messrs. H. R. C. Gavin and A. Paulsen, completed the second year of this course,
and two surveyors, Messrs. A. M. Barber, B.C.L.S., and A. P. McLaughlin, B.C.L.S.,
completed the first year. Mr. R. P. Murdoch, Senior Clerk, University Endowment
Lands, also completed the first year. Five persons commenced the first year, as
follows: Mr. D. Borthwick, Superintendent of Lands; Mr. R. H. McAra, Air Survey Detachment Chief; Messrs. K. M. Bridge, B.C.L.S., and P. J. Brennan, B.C.L.S.,
who are both surveyors; and Mr. J. H. Palmer, Personnel Officer. Two other stafi
members, Mr. H. K. Kidd, Principal Clerk, and Mr. C. R. Irving, Engineering Technician 3, enrolled in the Civil Service Commission's correspondence course in Basic
Public Administration.
The Department's safety record improved during the year as compared with
1963, the most serious injury resulting in a time loss of only five days.
  MAIL AND FILE ROOM                                           CC 87
John A. Grant
Letters received in the Department during 1964 amounted to 256,501, compared to 250,164 in 1963, an increase of 6,337 or 2.5 per cent.
A total of 10,016 new files were created, and 2,756 reels of microfilm were
referred to during the year.
Letters Inward
Letters Outward (Recorded)
Miscellaneous Reports
Forest ft
New Files Created


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