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Annual Report of the Director of Correction for the YEAR ENDED MACH 31 1964 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1965

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Annual Report
of the
Director of Correction
  Victoria, B.C., February, 1965.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
"May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Annual Report of the Director
of Correction for the year ended March 31, 1964.
Department of t
I have the honour to 1
Your obedient s
Director of Correction and Chief Probation Officer
M. A. Matheson
C. D. Davidson
Assistant Chief Probation Officer
O. J. Walling Rev. W. D. G. Hollingworth
met and Staff Training Officer Senior Protestant Chaplain
R. V. McAllister Rev. T. F. M. Corcoran
Supervisor of Research Senior Roman Catholic Chaplain
R. G. E. Richmond W. Lemmon
Senior Medical Officer Supervisor of Classification
Miss M. McKirdy R. E. Fitchett
Dietician Administrative Officer
V. H. Goad
A. A. Byman F. St. Iohn Madeley
A. E. Iones J. Wiebe
or, Vancouver Island Region Supervisor, Interior Region
O. L. Erickson M. G. Stade
F. C. Boyes, H. Keetch, E. Kelly, O. Orr
 if   f|   f|   1^   I'l
of   hi!     si    of    oE
 I. Review of the Year	
n. British Columbia Gaol Service...
l. sta____._ _ _R£V*Bg
Principal Officers' Qualifying Exai
In-service Training	
Specialized Courses 	
Staff Conferences	
rnnclnsinn afr-^haB-hff'wHg.^
. Treatment of Mer
3. Treatment of Women-
General !	
Education and Social Trai
Satellite Women's Unit	
Narcotic Drug Treatment UniL
. Forest Camps..
Interdepartmental Co-ordinating Committee...
Chilliwack Forest Camps_
Haney Correctional Institution Camps._
Kamloops Camps__
Sayward Forest Camps...
5. Health and Hygiene__
Senior Medical Officer's Report	
III. British Columbia Probation Service	
1. Probation Supervision__Lj___ .	
Probation Cases    	
Pre-sentence Reports	
Case Loads	
III. British Columbia Probation Service—Continued
I 2. Staff L
Movement -
Training .	
3. Treatment of Juvenile Delinquency ,	
Juveniles Placed Under Probation Supervision...
Committals to Training-schools	
Transfers to Adult Court	
Family and Children's Court Act 	
Court Committees _.      ... ,
Appointment of Voluntary Probation Officers...
Children's Remand-Detention Home ______
4. New Developments 1—
Regional Developments	
Field Offices _
Victoria Family and Children's Court __
Psychiatric Services ____.
Probation and the Court .	
I 5. Experimental Programmes .	
Group-counselling Evaluation _____	
Family Interviewing	
6. Critical Issues	
Inadequate Resources for Juveniles       -    -
Victoria Family and Children's Court_l_ __.
Cars   .  	
Field Offices	
7. Parole Supervision :'     *"'.'.'.'. ....
staff          , .';' 2_"3Ir^
Parole Cases ''  *	
Annual Report of the British Columbia Parole Board__
I   Statistical Tables—
Probation Service	
Gaol Service  ■ - aqi-tga UHiki
 Annual Report of the Director of Correction
The year 1963/64 was marked by a number of administrative changes.
Promotion and transfer led to the replacement of the senior administrative officer
in three of our institutions and the officers in charge of two groups of camps. In
spite of these changes, which are always to a degree upsetting, the institutions
concerned settled down with a minimum of disruption. The turnover of staff on
the whole was slightly less than last year. To fill the vacancies caused by retirement
and resignation and to man the new facilities which became operational during the
12-month period, 91 new staff were required. The training of these men and
women placed a heavy burden on our limited training facilities. If the Gaol Service
continues to grow and expand at its present rate, and there is every evidence that
it will continue to do so for the next few years, it is imperative that we establish a
small staff-training school to train new entrants-and provide refresher courses for
those already in the Service.
The daily average prison population showed a general increase of 13 per cent
over last year. Despite this over-all increase, I am pleased to report we were able
to reduce slightly the population of our largest single facility, Oakalla Prison Farm.
This was made possible in part by detaching the Chilliwack camps from the Oakalla
administration and setting them up as a separate entity under their own administration. This action removed 240 from the prison's count. Construction of two new
camps, one in Kamloops and the other in the Sayward Forest, and the conversion of
the old Colquitz Mental Home on Vancouver Island into temporary gaol accommodation (known as the Vancouver Island Unit) completed the operation and provided new accommodation for a further 220. If we are to continue to reduce
Oakalla's population into manageable proportions, it will be necessary to accelerate
our present construction programme. A new facility for 200 on Vancouver Island
to take care of " waiting trial" prisoners and serve as a selection and classification
centre for the camp development in the Sayward Forest, an additional wing to the
Prince George Gaol along with a forest camp to look after those committed to
prison in the rapidly developing north country, an enlarged replacement for the old
Kamloops Gaol in the Central Interior to put an end to transferring prisoners to
the Coast, and a treatment centre for alcoholics to replace the condemned old
wooden annex building presently housing elderly inebriates at Oakalla are all
urgently required. The expansion of regional, decentralized prisons and camps,
away from the densely populated Coastal area, has the distinct advantage of keeping our facilities small and hopefully reducing recidivism by attempting to fit
prisoners back into their own communities on their release rather than have them
drifting into Vancouver's " skid road."
On the women's side, an additional facility along the lines of the Twin Maples
Unit, which is described more fully in the section on the " Treatment of Women,"
is badly needed. The women's unit at Oakalla is the only facility for female
prisoners in the Province.   Housed in this single unit are women with long records,
habitues of Vancouver's " skid road " population, along with first offenders and
many native women from the Interior. "Indeed, a disturbing factor is the increase
in the number of Indian women being committed to prison. These women, if they
have to be committed, are best handled in a separate camp-like unit where they are
receptive to training. An extension of the Twin Maples Unit is being requested
for the forthcoming year.
Attention is again drawn to the problem of those prisoners waiting trial and
waiting appeal and the lengthy periods served pending the pleasure of the Courts.
Many of these men have already been sentenced on previous charges to long penitentiary sentences and are prepared to prolong their stay in a Provincial institution, at any cost, to avoid transfer to the Penitentiary. While time served in custody on appeal counts toward sentence, they will continue to find methods of
delaying proceedings so that they will not have to work.
I would like to make special reference to the increasing use being made of
classification, the expansion of our chaplain services, the development of counselling
(both lay and group) in all our establishments, the advances in academic and
vocational training, the continuing expansion of our forestry programme in conjunction with the Forest Service, the commencement of an experimental programme
at Lakeview Camp for the more aggressive young recidivist, and the findings in
connection with the Narcotic Treatment Unit. All these areas are dealt with in
some detail in the following pages.
The increase in the number of persons placed on probation is, I feel, a direct
reflection of the quantity and quality of the services being provided. Wherever
probation services are made available, they are quickly utilized to the full. This is
particularly noticeable on the juvenile side, which accpun&,for some two-thirds of
the total work load. The full use of adult probation is greatly curtailed by legislation limiting effective use to first offenders.
There is an evident need for the expansion of probation services to keep up
with present demand alone. As will be noted in the following pages, many case
loads are far too high for effective work.
The implementation of the Family and Children's Court legislation, with its
emphasis on volunteer referrals, has increased the importance of the role of the
Probation Officer as a practitioner and as a consultant to Court committees. There
is a very real fear that in an effort to meet these commitments, probation may suffer
some dilution. Consideration is being given to examining new techniques and
procedures to make the optimum use of the Probation Officer's time. One such
experiment is described on page 38.
The greatest single problem with which we are faced is that of staffing and
training. Much thought is currently being given to ways and means of attracting
men and women to probation as a career. At the same time, methods of selection
are being reviewed to ensure that standards do not suffer, and that in an effort to
increase the number of new entrants to the Service we do not lower basic standards.
The compilation of a descriptive pamphlet emphasizing the challenge of probation
and describing the duties of the Probation Officer, the availability of competent
speakers to address undergraduate clubs and societies, the use of recruiting posters,
and contacts with the National Employment Service and university placement
bureaux are all being examined as possible ways of publicizing probation as a
The number of transfers of juveniles to Adult Court is a matter for concern
and points up the inadequacy of our community resources for young people. The
figure of 196 juveniles received in Oakalla during the year is an indication of
the extent of the problem. Under the heading " Critical Issues," we have tried
to come to grips with the problem and present examples of realistic alternatives
to committal to an institution, some of which have been proven to be effective
1. Oakalla Prison Farm.—Mr. W. H. Mulligan was promoted to Warden 2 at
Oakalla Prison Farm following the resignation of Mr. H. G. Christie in April, 1963.
Mr. Mulligan had previously held the appointment of Warden 1 at the Prince
George Gaol. In June, 1963, Mr. G. Watt was promoted to Deputy Warden at
Oakalla Prison Farm following the earlier resignation of Mr. D. L. Clark.
2. Prince George Gaol.—Mr. H. B. Bjarnason, former Deputy Warden at this
institution, was promoted to Warden 1 following the appointment of Mr. Mulligan
to the Oakalla Prison Farm. Mr. E. Loveless, from the Oakalla Prison Farm, was
promoted to Deputy Warden.
3. New Haven.—In January, 1964, Mr. H. V. Goad was promoted to Director,
replacing Mr. G. Warnock, who took up an appointment with the Probation Service.
4. Chilliwack Forest Camps.—Upon the administrative separation of these
camps from the Oakalla Prison Farm, Mr. J. Proudfoot, from Snowdon Forest
Camp, was promoted to Assistant Deputy Warden in charge of these four forest
5. Sayward Forest Camps.—To replace Mr. Proudfoot, Mr. E. E. Noel, from
the Chilliwack Forest Camps, was promoted to Senior Correctional Officer in charge
of these two forest camps.
6. Senior Correctional Officers.—As a result of Service-wide promotional
panels, nine officers were promoted to this rank throughout the Service.
7. Principal Officers.—Fifteen were promoted to this rank on the recommendation of their respective Wardens.
8. Correctional Officers.—Thirty-seven qualified for promotion to Correctional
Officer. Since creating this rank last year, 126 have been appointed throughout the
Gaol Service.
9. There were 69 separations from the permanent ranks of the Gaol Service,
10 less than last year. For a Service total of 843 permanent staff, this represents
a turnover rate of 8.1 per cent, as compared with 9.5 per cent last year.
10. To fill these vacancies and to staff three new facilities (Lakeview Forest
Camp, Rayleigh Forest Camp, and the Vancouver Island Unit), 91 officers and
specialists were appointed to the Gaol Service.
11. Oakalla Prison Farm still suffers from a very high turnover in the temporary Security Officer ranks. By organizing annual leave on a year-round basis, the
number of temporary positions has been reduced, but it is still a problem to recruit
staff of the calibre required for temporary positions.
Principal Officers' Qualifying Examination
12. To ensure a high standard of knowledge on the part of supervisory staff,
a qualifying examination was set which must be passed prior to promotion to the
position of Principal Officer. Two hundred and seventy-two officers wrote this
three-hour examination, and 134 (49 per cent) qualified. It is obvious from these
results that increased emphasis must be placed on basic in-service training and the
development of promising young officers for promotion to supervisory levels.
In-service Training
13. In-service Courses.—Basic training was again conducted at Oakalla Prison
Farm for the whole of the Service, with 115 officers completing the course. Sixty-
four officers completed their advanced training at the Haney Correctional Institution.
A Field Training Journal has been prepared for all officers undergoing field
training at their respective institutions. This journal, which is a personal issue,
records the date and type of instruction they have been given by their various supervisors, and thus ensures that no areas are missed out.
14. Joint Operations Leadership Training.—This course was designed to train
staff posted to the Lakeview Forest Camp in the Sayward Forest District on Vancouver Island. This forest camp for young adult offenders operates a training
programme along the lines of the " Outward Bound " training scheme in England.
The first course of five weeks' duration was given to 14 officers in a Parks
Branch camp in Garibaldi Park. The training was rigorous and required the recruits
to work up to the limit of their physical and mental ability. No written examinations
were held; instead, evaluations were made on each individual participant covering
his standard of physical fitness, mental alertness, and demonstrated leadership
The actual content of the course focused on the joint operations of forest fire-
fighting and search and rescue techniques, as these were to be the core content of
the training to be given to the inmates. They were thus required to develop skills
in forest fire-fighting, mountain search and rescue, map-reading, survival in the
forest, swimming and water safety, and physical-fitness training. In addition, to
ensure they would be able to instruct effectively they were required to master techniques of leadership, group discussion, group and individual counselling, performance appraisal, and instructional methods.
To reinforce the classroom instruction, actual situations were used in which
the officers were expected to apply their newly learned skills. These ranged from
the preparation and presentation of lectures to assuming leadership for mountain-
climbing and survival expeditions in Garibaldi Park. They were encouraged to
evaluate themselves, and each in turn was evaluated by the other course members
as well as the instructors. The success of this course led to a further course being
given to a group of officers from the Chilliwack and Clearwater Forest Camps.
Specialized Courses
15. Forestry.—Twenty officers attended a three-day course at the British
Columbia Forest Service Ranger Training School. The content included tree-planting, timber conservation, prevention and control of forest fires, and forest manage-
16. University Extension Courses.—As in the past, staff have attended extension courses at the University of British Columbia. Courses taken this year
included psychology, social work, and teaching methods.
Staff Conferences
17. Forest Camp Conference.—-A three-day living-in conference for supervisory staff and administrative officers from all forest camps was conducted at the
University of British Columbia. The content included a thorough examination and
discussion of forest-camp objectives, leadership qualities for staff, and standards of
18. Canadian Congress of Corrections.—Four staff members attended this
conference in Winnipeg.    A paper on staff-training was presented by Dr. M. A,
Matheson and another on the treatment of female narcotic addicts, by Miss D. Coutts
of Oakalla Prison Farm. Both papers were later published in the Canadian Journal
of Corrections and Excerpta Criminologica.
19. Chaplain's Conference.—A two-day conference for all Protestant chaplains
in the Service was organized by the Senior Protestant Chaplain. It was held in the
Board Room of the Vancouver Public Library, with 15 full- and part-time chaplains
in attendance. This annual conference of chaplains has been most valuable in bringing together men who work in widely scattered institutions and giving them an
opportunity to discuss their problems and study new techniques in what is a growing
and significant part of our correctional programme.
20. While progress has been made particularly in our training methods with
the increased emphasis on situational leadership, there is little doubt that much
more time is required for effective training to ensure the reinforcement of learning
and the exercise of leadership skills on the ground rather than in the classroom.
To leave the job of leadership training solely to the supervisor on the job is not good
It has been demonstrated that we can train new officers to a much higher level
than we have in the past. However, to continue this on a Service scale, we require
a small full-time instructional staff and a training establishment similar to that
operated by the police and Forest Service.
The advances in our correctional programme require staff trained to a higher
level of skill and efficiency than was necessary when the emphasis was on detention,
pure and simple. To achieve this level, full-time instructors and adequate training
facilities are imperative.
1. Total.—This year marked yet another increase in the number of offenders
sentenced to institutions. The average daily population of male offenders rose to
2,295 from last year's 2,025, an increase of 13 per cent. In contrast to last year,
when the population increase continued throughout the year, this year there was a
dropping-off during the closing months. On March 31, 1964, there were 2,216
male inmates on the register, as compared to 2,303 at March 31, 1963.
2. Oakalla Prison Farm.—The convicted population of this prison has been
reduced considerably by the opening-up of two additional Vancouver Island facilities
—the Vancouver Island Unit and Lakeview Forest Camp. Also, the establishment
of Rayleigh Camp at Kamloops has reduced drastically the number of prisoners
transferred to Oakalla Prison Farm from the Interior.
3. West Wing, Oakalla.—The "waiting trial" and "remand" population in
the West Wing continued at a high level throughout the year. In a wing with accommodation for 178, the count at times reached 250. The hazards of this overcrowding
situation were detailed in last year's Annual Report and continue to hold true for this
year. Both the receiving and holding of this group, which varies from young offenders to habitual criminals and sex deviates, is our greatest concern and represents a
continually dangerous situation which must be rectified. The imprisoning of a man
in a cell 20 hours or more of each day, for months, generates such levels of either
hostility or depression that explosive action is almost inevitable. As the Senior
Medical Officer reported: " There is much more tension in this wing than previously.   Those with heavy sentences, and especially those awaiting hearing and appeal
who have been designated by the Courts as habitual offenders, spread an air of
gloom and despondency which is contagious. Overcrowding and complete inactivity
with lack of counsellors create the media which encourage the rapid growth of
sociopathogenicity". Combined with the above, we have the hazard of housing this
population, which includes many dangerous and violent criminals, in an inadequate
and rapidly deteriorating cell block. As an illustration of this hazard, two inmates
were able to cut a hole in the ceiling of their cell with a screw-driver and make good
their escape from the unit.
4. Old Gaol Annex, Oakalla.—■The Old Gaol Annex was again used throughout the year. Hopefully we will be able to vacate this unit upon the opening of the
new unit on the present Allco property at Haney.
5. Overflow Accommodation, Oakalla.—-The trailers that were brought into
Oakalla Prison Farm in February of last year had to be used throughout this year
due to excess population.
6. Admissions Area, Oakalla.—As we indicated last year, the extremely high
population flowing through Oakalla has led to a complete saturation of the Records
and Admissions area. Next to the excessive West Wing population, this is of
greatest concern. The receiving, documentation, recording, bathing, handling, and
storage of clothing and personal effects for both admissions and discharges, at the
present average rate of 142 a day, is a very real problem. Last year we had an
infestation of lice in this admitting area which was controlled with considerable
difficulty. Again the Senior Medical Officer reports that " there is an excessive
number of men arriving in a verminous condition, and many of these spread their
vermin to the unit to which they are allotted." With the large number of inmates
awaiting admission, often as many as eight have to be put into one holding-cell.
This, combined with the fact that it is not until the bathroom stage in the admission
process that a verminous condition is discovered, by which time the police escort
have departed, makes it difficult to enforce section 23 of the Police and Prisons
Regulation Act. However, if the situation does not improve, the police may have
to wait for their prisoner receipt until the man has completed the entire admission
process. The volume of admissions and the inadequacy of the admissions area
place a very heavy strain on the staff, many of whom are required to put in hours
of a     '
7. Prince George Gaol.—This prison, which last year was well over its capacity,
had an even higher population with which to contend. With accommodation for 97,
its average daily population was 109, with the count ranging as high as 134. As a
consequence, 119 prisoners had to be transferred during the year to other already
overcrowded institutions.
The expansion planned for this institution is badly needed, and in view of the
increasing population of this section of the Province is imperative for the future.
8. Kamloops Gaol and Forest Camps.—The capacity of the Kamloops Gaol
was reduced by 10 in August, 1963, when part of the accommodation was loaned
to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for a city lockup.
Fortunately we were provided in November, 1963, with an additional camp
facility at Rayleigh with accommodation for 60 inmates. This former Department
of National Defence ammunition depot, with its large accompanying acreage, is
eminently suited for a farm training programme. Its acquisition has eased the situation in the Kamloops area and has meant that fewer inmates have had to be
transferred to the Coast.
The main gaol at Kamloops, a small wooden structure built in 1897, stands
as the one building that must be replaced.   In the hot Interior summer the tempera-
hires and atmosphere inside this small crowded building become intolerable. Fortunately the sentenced prisoners are able to get outside during the day. However,
the facilities for those on remand or waiting trial are entirely inadequate.
9. Vancouver Island Unit.—The former Provincial Mental Home at Colquitz
on Vancouver Island, vacated by the National Mental Health Services Branch, was
converted back to a gaol as a temporary measure in January, 1964. This institution,
which was built originally as a gaol in 1913, is providing some relief to Oakalla
Prison Farm.
10. Discipline.—Fortunately there were no major infractions against discipline
during the year. However, the increasing rate of assaults against officers—24 as
compared to 16 last year—remains a cause for concern.
11. Security.—The number of escapes from closed and open facilities is given
below, compared with the number of prisoners in custody during the year:—
Housed Escaped
Oakalla Prison Farm  14,672 25
Haney Correctional Institution and camps  1,745 27
Kamloops Gaol    1,848 __
Prince George Gaol _.  1,343 __
Vancouver Island Unit  67 2
Chilliwack Forest Camps :  970 9
Clearwater Forest Camp   523               	
Rayleigh Camp _
Totals 22,035 85
12. Central Classification.—The Central Classification Committee continued
to interview and classify all admissions into the Central Classification Unit, which
is housed in the South Wing at the Oakalla Prison Farm. A total of 2,165 interviews was conducted for the initial classification of inmates, and 210 interviews
were conducted for reclassification purposes.
Of the total number of young offenders received with definite/indeterminate
sentences, 375 were classified to the Haney Correctional Institution, 46 to New
Haven Borstal, and 58 to the Oakalla Prison Farm.
With the opening of the Vancouver Island Unit, another institution was available for the placement of inmates serving definite sentences. Island residents,
wherever possible, were selected for this unit, except those with narcotic histories.
The establishment of this unit on Vancouver Island has provided a much better
opportunity for Island prisoners to be visited by their families. An average of 40
per cent of the inmates received visits at this unit, which is an extremely high rate
and most encouraging from the standpoint of maintaining family contact.
During the year the Chilliwack Forest Camps were sent inmates with slightly
longer sentences, many of them from the younger middle-aged recidivist group.
As an experiment, a small group of young offenders with definite/indeterminate
sentences was sent to Pierce Creek Camp, where they were housed separately from
the remainder of the population. This group comprised mainly loggers, milt
workers, and fishermen. They were characterized by a limited education with no
ambition for further learning and an intention to return to their previous type of
employment.   Sending them to a forest camp gave them an opportunity to increase
their knowledge of bush work, learn good work habits, and experience the give and
take of group living. Members of the Provincial Parole Board visit the camp on a
regular schedule to conduct Parole Board hearings, thus affording these youths the
same opportunity for release on parole as they would receive in a training institution.
First offenders who are in good physical condition and have a definite sentence
continued to be sent to Snowdon Forest Camp on Vancouver Island. The recidivist
young offender who has been exposed to juvenile training-schools, the Haney Correctional Institution, or New Haven Borstal with little positive segult has always
presented a classification problem. The only alternative available for this type of
young offender has been a return to the Haney Correctional Institution or remain
at Oakalla Prison Farm, neither of which were considered desirable. In an effort
to explore new and more rigorous ways of dealing with this group, they are now
being classified to Lakeview Forest Camp, a new camp in the Sayward Forest
District on Vancouver Island. To date 39 young offenders who were variously
described as being manipulative, hostile, and impulsive have been classified to this
camp. While it is too early to make any predictions, there are indications of
changed behaviour in sufficient degree to warrant continuing the experiment.
13. Institutional Classification.—The inmates remaining at the Oakalla Prison
Farm are classified by their institutional Classification Officer to the various units
of the prison. At the Kamloops Gaol a start has been made to institute a classification system with the appointment of a senior officer to these duties.
At the Haney Correctional Institution the classification process has reflected a
growing emphasis on setting realistic goals for trainees and requiring concrete
achievement as a condition of referral for parole consideration. As a result of this
emphasis, there has been more insistence on completing courses and fewer reclassifications from assigned programmes.
The present system of classification involves a detailed assessment of each
trainee during the 10-day period following his reception. He is then interviewed
by the Classification Committee, which lays down a broad programme for him to
follow. This programme is incorporated in a treatment plan which is discussed
with the trainee so that he clearly understands the areas where he must improve.
When he is later transferred to his living unit, the members of the staff team in the
unit review with him at regular intervals his progress toward the goals that have
been set. In this way the classification and counselling processes are integrated to
promote the rehabilitation of the individual.
14. Definite/Indeterminate Sentences.—It is of interest to note the growing
number of young Indians receiving definite/indeterminate sentences. This year
they numbered 75. Most of them were classified to the Haney Correctional
While definite/indeterminate sentences are imposed for a wide variety of
offences, 76 per cent were for theft, possession of stolen property, or breaking and
15. Alcoholic Population.—The average monthly intake into the Oakalla
Prison Farm of men convicted of intoxication (S.I.P.P.) is 474. Three hundred
and forty-six (73 per cent) serve sentences of less than two months. The majority
of this total monthly intake are short-term chronic recidivists, 73 per cent of them
having been previously admitted to the Oakalla Prison Farm four or more times.
As would be expected, 355 (75 per cent) come from the Vancouver Courts. These
men are generally in the older age brackets.   Approximately 300 of the monthly
intake (66 per cent) are over 40 years of age. Because of their age and their mode
of living, they have numerous medical complaints and their work categories are
generally restricted.
At any one time, Oakalla Prison Farm has a standing population of over 200
intemperate drinkers serving short sentences, in the older age range and generally
in a poor medical condition. Many of these men are doing a life sentence on the
instalment plan, as they are frequently arrested on the day or the day following
their discharge and are returned to Oakalla Prison Farm. While the problem of
the alcoholic offender is numerically greatest at Oakalla Prison Farm, it is by no
means an insignificant part of the population admitted to both Kamloops and
Prince George Gaols.
The problem of treating the alcoholic is most complex and is not made easier
by the fact that there appears to be no clearly successful programme in the field of
corrections. Nevertheless, efforts must be bent in this direction, and it is our hope
that we will be able, through experimentation at the unit under construction at
Haney, to probe the depths of this behaviour problem and work toward an effective
rehabilitation programme.
The experimentation we have carried on over five years in the field of drug
addiction has certainly borne fruit. Now, with the Federal Penitentiary Service
moving into this field of drug treatment, at the new institution to be built at Matsqui,
I feel we can redirect our efforts to the field of alcoholism and pass on our knowledge
in the treatment of drug addiction to those who will have a direct responsibility
for treating the addict.
16. U.B.C. Psychological Testing.—A graduate student in clinical psychology
from the University of British Columbia has been given access to volunteer inmates
at Oakalla Prison Farm in order to test them for psychopathic personality traits.
This study is currently in progress, and no findings are yet available.
17. Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit.—Thirty drug addicts were admitted to
this treatment unit during the year. The unit's average daily count varied between
10 and 12 addicts. While in this unit, the addict is subjected to a counselling
programme under the direction of a psychiatrist, plus educational and work requirements. This summer the group worked in Seymour Mountain Park clearing brush,
burning stumps, cutting firewood, and limbing trees.
The follow-up of 107 discharged addicts continued and revealed a success rate
of 31 per cent for those addicts discharged for at least a year and as long as five
years. Last year this success rate was 32 per cent for 96 discharged cases. Although
this success rate is not high, it is certainly a significant break-through when compared
to results elsewhere.
18. Seven-year Follow-up of Criminal Narcotic Addicts.—In conjunction with
the School of Psychiatry at the University of British Columbia, a follow-up study was
made, through fingerprint files of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, of a sample
177 addicts admitted to Oakalla Prison Farm during 1954 to 1956. Of this group
who had not received any special treatment, 20 per cent had no history of imprisonment for drug usage between 1960 and 1963. Thus the natural history of drug
addiction indicates that without any special treatment beyond the standard gaol
programme, in British Columbia, there is the prospect of recovery for 20 per cent.
However, as has been indicated by our Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit, even with
relatively limited treatment, recovery can be raised to over 30 per cent. It would
appear therefore that there is good reason to view the rehabilitation of drug addicts
with greater optimism than we have been doing, and that the pessimistic view of
" once an addict, always an addict" is not borne out by the facts.
 report of director of correction, 1963/64 aa 19
19. Since 1952, when the first full-time chaplains were appointed, three groups
or classifications of chaplains have evolved. There now are full-time chaplains,
part-time chaplains, honorary chaplains, and, in addition, theological students. All
chaplains are appointed by the Department upon recommendation of the Senior
Chaplains. The full-time chaplain classification is explanatory. He is assigned to
a specific institution, where he operates a religious programme designed to meet the
needs of the inmates of that particular institution. The part-time chaplains devote
a minimum of 10 hours per week to the institution or camps for which they are
responsible. They are invariably clergymen or priests in charge of a congregation
in the immediate vicinity and play a vital role both in the institution and the community. The honorary chaplains are both clergymen and priests of experience
who serve institutions in their area with no financial remuneration. In each case,
however, they visit on a regular schedule and offer a service similar to that of the
part-time chaplains.
The theological students conduct a discussion group once a week during the
college term, under the direction of a full-time chaplain. Not only do they contribute
to the religious programme of the institution, but it is felt that they add to their
own knowledge of human nature and gain valuable training for the Christian
A survey of the work of all chaplains reveals how they seek to fulfil their
ministry in spite of inadequate facilities. It is extremely difficult to create an atmosphere for dignified and meaningful worship in gymnasia, libraries, visiting areas,
etc. Nor is it possible to do effective counselling when, in many of the older
institutions, there is not even a private room where the chaplains and the inmate
may talk or pray together.
The Gold Creek Camp chapel was redecorated by trainees during the year on
their own initiative, and at Haney a room is being renovated as a sanctuary for
private devotions or for small groups. Inmates are building an altar and furnishings
for this sanctuary.
Pastoral counselling, group discussions, and study groups are all methods used
by the chaplain, according to his own ability, to present the Christian gospel. By
use of religious films, charts, and visiting speakers, interest is achieved and maintained, and religious faith is frequently deepened and strengthened.
In most institutions the chaplain is the sponsor of the Alcoholics Anonymous
group, and arranges with local community groups for their co-operation. At Haney
the group celebrated its sixth birthday this year.
Realizing the relationship of the inmate to the community on his release to be
tenuous, the chaplains are increasingly attempting to alleviate the situation by
referrals to after-care agencies and to local churches.
20. Protestant Worship.—Services are held weekly in all institutions and
periodically in the forest camps.
Special services are held on Remembrance Day and at Christmas and Easter.
Holy communion is regularly observed.
Holy Week missions were conducted, with evident interest in both the Oakalla
Prison Farm and the Haney Correctional Institution. Visiting missioners made an
impact on both staff and inmate alike.
Family services where inmates invite members of their own family to worship
t the Haney Correctional Institution and
 The Christmas midnight service at the Haney Correctional Institution is, in
the judgment of the chaplain, " the most significant service of the year."
Two classes of advanced religious training to prepare trainees for membership
or confirmation in the church of their choice were held at the Haney Correctional
21. Roman Catholic Programme.—The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass is held
every Sunday, and holy day confessions are held before each service.
A Holy Week mission was held at Haney prior to Easter.
Personal interviews and pastoral counselling and padre's hours are an integral
part of the programme in each institution.
Social Training
22. Group Counselling. — Group counselling as a corrective technique has
continued to develop to the point where it is now in operation at all institutions and
camps. As the Haney Correctional Institution reports: " In this area we have far
exceeded our own expectations. After a few sessions with the group, most trainees
lose their inherent hostility and quite often are able to verbalize their ideas, fear,
hopes, and ambitions. This in turn gives staff a better insight into the trainees'
problems, as they appear to the trainees themselves. While some of these problems
can be talked out at group counselling sessions, others can be passed on to counsellors or lay counsellors to assist in planning a trainee's complete rehabilitation
23. Recreation.—Active sports and hobby programmes are in operation
throughout the Service.
The Native Fellowship Group at the Haney Correctional Institution continued
to operate this year. The members of this group, as the name implies, are native
Indians. The club's sponsor, a native Indian himself, is well qualified to lead this
group, as he is quite experienced at wood-carving and once taught at St. Michael's
Indian Residential School at Alert Bay. The Native Fellowship Group is making a
concentrated effort to revive the once-famous art of totem-pole carving. In the process, it is hoped, the members will learn or improve skills, gain more self-confidence
and self-respect, and thereby overcome some of the problems facing them. Some of
their cultural and historical past is also being taught, and besides totem-pole carving
it is planned to create a complete Indian art centre, which would include native
artcrafts, various types of Indian clothing, a map of British Columbia showing the
location of each tribe, and a scroll explaining the mythology of the various tribes.
The centre would be located on the Haney Correctional Institution grounds, near
the gate-house. Some day, it is hoped, this will develop into a complete and authentic show-piece representing all British Columbia Indian tribes. The project has
gained momentum, and it is anticipated that good progress will be made.
24. Unit Teams.—At the Haney Correctional Institution there is a team consisting of a Principal Officer, Counsellor, Parole Officer, and the unit officers attached
to each of the eight living units in the institution. This team works closely together
to devise and implement a specific treatment plan for each inmate. The results of
this unified approach are reflected in the increased co-ordination of the staff and a
growing interest and enthusiasm in the individual trainee's progress under training.
25. Alcoholics Anonymous.—Alcoholics Anonymous groups continued to
operate in all institutions under the direction of interested staff members and with
outstanding support from Alcoholics Anonymous groups in the community.
26. Lay Counselling.—In addition to the casework carried out by professionally trained counsellors, lay counselling under their direction is carried on by
Correctional Officers. These officers carry four to five cases in addition to their
regular duties and are becoming increasingly efficient. At the Haney Correctional
Institution the Correctional Officer handles his cases from start to finish, including
the preparation of pre-parole summaries and presentation of the case to the British
Columbia Parole Board.
27. Academic Training.—With the increasing emphasis being placed on education, a larger number of inmates participated this year in educational programmes.
At Oakalla, reading kits have been utilized for helping inmates with a low
reading capacity. This remedial programme has enabled many to advance to the
point where they can continue their education through correspondence courses.
Prince George Gaol has continued its academic classroom programme, with
a high level of success. This is an outstanding example of the type of programme
that can be developed in a regional gaol.
The Haney Correctional Institution has initiated an intensive accelerated programme, similar to those available in the community, to increase a trainee's academic
standing in a shortened period of time. This is especially valuable to those trainees
requiring a higher academic standing in order to qualify for a vocational training
course.   In addition, there is now a class for slow learners and near-illiterates.
28. Vocational Training.—The vocational training programme at the Haney
Correctional Institution has operated much the same as last year. It is interesting
to note that an increasing number of Indian trainees are taking vocational training
in woodwork construction.
One problem developing in this area is the deterioration of machines which
have been in constant use for seven years and are now both obsolescent and worn
out. If we are to keep abreast of modern industry, we must have up-to-date equipment and machinery for training purposes. It is to be hoped that funds will be
made available for the gradual replacement of obsolescent machinery.
Inmates assigned to the boiler-house have continued to combine work and
study. This year three at the Haney Correctional Institution and two at Oakalla
passed the examinations and qualified as fourth class steam engineers.
29. Construction.—The outstanding work project of the year was the completion of the Westgate Annex, which was planned by the Department of Public
Works and built entirely by inmate labour under the supervision of Oakalla officers.
This building will house production shops presently located in the Westgate Unit
and thereby release space for living accommodation.
Farming, maintenance, and general labour projects continued throughout the
30. Reforestation.—The Haney Correctional Institution continued to send up
to 90 men daily to work on the Blue Mountain reforestation project. They have
also continued to develop their tree nursery.
31. Production.—The following table gives a breakdown of the year's production from the Oakalla shops. Internal consumption is defined as items produced
for, and used by, the Department of the Attorney-General, while external production indicates items produced for other Government agencies.
The sheet-metal shop had a full production year with over double the output
of last year. Items coming from this shop include filing-cabinets of varied design,
ballot-boxes, Land Registry cabinets, and highway signs.
The tailoring, sock-manufacturing, and shoe shops no longer are able to produce items for other Government departments as the increase in our own population requires all the items they produce.
The fibreglass moulding shop had to be closed to allow the space to be used
for housing inmates.
1. Population.—During the year there were 1,143 admissions, 757 of whom
were from Vancouver City, the remaining 386 from other Courts throughout the
Province. The average daily count was 133, which was a substantial drop from
last year's 143. This drop was due to the transfer of Doukhobour women to the
Federal Mountain Prison at Agassiz.
There was an increase in the number of native Indian women received from
outlying districts. This group now accounts for 40 per cent of the daily average
population and reflects the fact that Indian women are becoming involved to an
increasing extent in more serious types of offences.
The large metropolitan areas, however, remain the source of the severest
problem cases. Upon admission the drug-users are in a deplorable condition,
suffering from withdrawal symptoms and deteriorated to the point of being subject
to convulsions. The alcoholics are admitted on the verge of delirium tremens, frequently complicated by injury or disease. A number of admissions are in various
stages of pregnancy and in need of gynecological care. The high percentage of
these women are subject to frequent emotional upset and border on the near-
psychotic; many of them are recent discharges from the Provincial Mental Hospital. For this reason there is an urgent need for qualified registered nurses on
continuous duty.
2. Discipline.—There were 14 disciplinary infractions and 1 assault on a
matron. This is a decrease of 50 per cent from last year's 28 infractions and 2
assaults. The fact that discipline has continued to be good in spite of population
pressures reflects great credit on the Chief Matron and her staff.
3. Security.—In spite of an increasing number of escape-risk prisoners awaiting transfer to the Kingston Penitentiary, the security of the unit has been maintained at a high level. There was only 1 escape from the main unit and none from
the Twin Maples Farm.
4. Population Pressure.—The most pressing problem reported by the Chief
Matron is the overcrowded condition of the Reception Unit. This is complicated
by the number of cases awaiting trial and those awaiting transfer to the Kingston
Penitentiary.   Attention must be given to expanding this accommodation to allow
for an adequate Remand and Transfer Unit.
The original gaol building was built for a population of 45. This winter the
count in this building never dropped below 60 inmates. Over the last few years
the original building has added to it additional space for 34. Cottages constructed
in the immediate vicinity have added space for another 34, creating a total capacity
of 113. Unfortunately, however, ancillary facuities, such as the admitting area,
clinic, kitchen, laundry, and workrooms, have not been expanded. Consequently
these facilities, designed for a populationof 45, have had to handle a population of
113 and over. This overload has not only created frequent breakdown of machine
ery, but also caused tension and pressure on both staff and inmates working in these
congested areas. The next five years will undoubtedly see the flow of females
to this prison increased to the point where the present facilities will be totally
5. Owing to the smaller number of women inmates, it is possible for both
Protestant and Roman Catholic chaplains to interview each new admission of their
faith and to exercise a closer and more personal pastoral ministry than in larger
6. Protestant Worship.—The Oakalla Protestant chaplain conducts public
worship on three Sunday afternoons a month, while the fourth is conducted by the
Salvation Army. In addition, he holds padre's hours once a week, the programme
consisting of the showing of a religious film followed by discussion. In addition,
there are two group-discussion meetings weekly—one in the main building conducted by the chaplain and one in the cottages conducted by a theological student
from the Union College.
On March 1st a worship centre, consisting of an altar and reredos set into the
wall of the gymnasium, was dedicated by the Right Rev. Godfrey P. Gower, Bishop
of New Westminster.
Twin Maples Farm is visited periodically, and inmates there attend local
churches regularly.
7. Roman Catholic Worship.—The spiritual needs of the Roman Catholic inmates are ministered to by the senior Roman Catholic chaplain. Mass is offered
each Sunday morning and on sacred holy days. Individual spiritual counselling and
instruction is given, the Legion of Mary assisting the chaplain in this area.
Education and Social Training
8. Education.—Classroom and correspondence work has continued, plus
vocational training in power-sewing and cosmetology.
9. Social Training.—Group counselling, group discussion, and activity have
been used extensively throughout the year combined with an active sports and hobby
Outside community groups, Alcoholics Anonymous, the Legion of Mary, and
the Elizabeth Fry Society have regularly held group meetings, which were well received. The following extract from the Chief Matron's report illustrates the impact
of the volunteer visitors at this unit:—
" Our volunteers, individual and group, are perhaps our greatest asset in developing social training programmes. Through one volunteer, others were contacted,
and considerable help was enlisted from the community to stage a fashion show at
the women's unit.  An inmate group, having received sufficient coaching in modelling
clothes, participated in putting on a fashion show with the assistance of models and
talent from the community. This project served a dual purpose in that the group
benefited from specific training and the general gaol population enjoyed first-class
" Three dozen Education and Social Work students from the University paid
12 weekly visits to three inmate groups during the fall and winter months. The
students and inmates were responsible for arranging their own programmes from
week to week.
" Each inmate group appeared to react differently toward their visiting student
group. The Pan Abode report will probably demonstrate the more sophisticated
type of reaction to community worker. Our younger addicts reacted more like a
normal family group when receiving their student group. Usually, prior to the
students' arrival, there would be a great show of cleaning up the unit and preparing
lunch for the visitors. Also, group members were often overheard pridefully telling
inmates from other groups that their student group would be visiting that evening.
This particular group was always enthusiastic when receiving students and became
quite accustomed to conversing with them. Being placed in the position of hostess
to students once a week prepared the group for impromptu entertaining. On several
occasions their group served tea to visiting concert groups, mixing with the visitors,
chatting quietly and informally. This approach demonstrates a marked change in
the community groups as compared with the reaction in former years. Then, the
tendency of groups when occasional visits from the community took place was to
remain in an area talking to each other and neglecting to converse with the visitors.
The general result of the volunteer programme is that the inmates are less hostile
and less resentful toward society. They feel that there are certain groups in the
community who understand the delinquents' problems and are ready and willing to
donate their time to giving constructive help."
Satellite Women's Unit
10. Twin Maples Farm.—The following report is presented in detail as an
illustration of how the women's unit is attempting to meet the problems of training
' native Indian women:—
" This group consists of mainly Canadian Indian women who are usually sentenced under the Government Liquor Act. However, they are not always alcoholics.
Their sentences range from one week to six months and the average stay is two
months. Their ages are from the late teens to the sixties. Most of them come from
the reserves, surprisingly from the northern part of British Columbia, where alcoholism is on the increase.
" Twin Maples Farm consists of about 275 acres and is not too isolated—just
a typical farm. After a while the inmates feel that this is not a gaol and they begin
to act as if they were not in one. To be able to go out of the door without the matron
locking the door seems to change the whole atmosphere.
" The aims of the afternoon programme were to set up a school, to do group
counselling, and give examples of good family life in work and play. We were trying
to get the Indian women to stand up for themselves instead of letting people push
them around, as seems typical.
" The school was set up and is functioning quite well. We'have many illiterates.
About 90 per cent of the inmates have had less than a Grade IV education. Those
who had a bit of education were eager to learn. Those who were completely illiterate
and those who had about Grade VI were not eager to learn. Most of the women
who were illiterate were older and felt embarrassed in front of the younger ones.
They felt that the younger ones would think of them as stupid. The approach was
to teach them at an adult level and to teach them to read sentences before learning
to know all the words in the sentence. They were taught practical things like counting money, asking for things, and reading street signs. They tried to learn not to
be shy in front of strangers. We found that we did not have to repeat the words as
often as one does in the primary grades. We found that we had to teach them the
English language as well as reading and writing. They learned far better when presented with objective things.
" It was more difficult to learn about the deep things of life. They did not want
to think of non-objective things. Everything spiritual must be linked with something concrete or they have a difficult time understanding. After a while they started
to ask questions about this and that, and at times it was difficult to explain in simple
terms, but it was worth the effort.
" The ones least interested in educational improvement were the younger members in their teens and early twenties who had more education than most of the other
women. These inmates did not care to improve their education. They want to have
the most by doing the least. This is very typical of their age-group. They wanted
to learn one day and the next day were unconcerned.
" Group counselling was the battle of the day. They came, but it was difficult
for them to realize what it was all about. Each time we had a new group member
we would have to start almost at the beginning again. The staff wanted them to
talk about anything in'wmch they were interested, but they were most apathetic
about it all, which made it difficult to get started. We found we had to start needling
someone, so that it was necessary for the person to defend herself or " lose face."
Most of our sessions started with a hostile feeling that ended with a good feeling.
These women could not understand that they were to talk out in a group and not
among themselves.
" Most of them are honest, and when they do not like someone you certainly
know it. They have a way of completely ignoring you. They are not really rude,
but you feel as if you were not really there. Sometimes the group members wanted
to talk things over in their own dialect, and this is not considered rude in their
society: ' We are not talking about anything that you are interested in.' Many
of the inmates felt that we were being stupid to talk about how one feels when one
is doing something.   Many of the native women are extremely shy and self-
"A lot of the women felt that we were not really interested in them as people
but were only doing this because it is our job. They could not understand why we
were so interested in them being accepted by their own and the white society.
One of the group members once said,' It's a funny thing that I had to come to gaol
to find out that I am just as good as a white person.' Many of them feel that they
are caught between two worlds, and so they are.
" One of the ways we found that they started to change was in letting them
criticize others. We encouraged them to tell us how we could improve, and in turn
we tried to tell and show them how they could improve. At first this was hard to
do because they felt that they would be punished if they said something out of turn.
However, when they found out that we tried to accept them at face value, they did
the same with us and a trust grew between the staff and inmates.
" It was found that the longer a woman was in the institution, the greater the
improvement in her personality. This did not, of course, always apply. One young
woman was here for six months and developed a mother-daughter relationship
with the matron, who was teaching her how to take care of the house and also how
to cook. She said, ' I learned to talk in the evenings and it is easier to work in the
day.' This inmate was shy and scared, always looked down at her feet when she
was talking to staff, rocked back and forth in her chair at the table, but she really
bloomed and became a much more secure person.
" Often gaols make a person feel insecure because there is someone doing the
thinking for them. We offset this at the farm when we have our weekly ' beef and
think' sessions. We ask for suggestions, and the group members sometimes see
their suggestions put to work. We are ready to accept ideas, but what is more
important is some one listening to them, giving them encouragement for improvement, praising them when they have done a good job. Some of the women really
surprised us, but they felt that we appreciated what they did, and this was most
" We tried to do what the average family should do. The family unit was
stressed, as most of these women had children. We tried to teach them that everyone is responsible for his or her own actions. Everyone had chores to do in the
evening. There were lists posted and changed regularly. We had only two incidents in the year when we had to send a group member back to the prison for not
doing what she was supposed to do. In each incident the women themselves felt
that the particular member should go back to the prison. There were times when
some of the inmates wanted to go back because they felt that they did not like what
they were doing, but we had them work on and soon they were co-operating. These
women would often help each other when their own work was finished without any
prompting from the staff.
" The idea of having a small, closely knit community is very good for the
inmates. The women went to church in the local community. We encouraged the
group members to dress as nicely as possible in the civilian clothes that they had.
A group of church ladies came to our monthly meetings. Most of the women
were shy, but as they got to know each other, they grew fond of the visiting ladies.
The Alcoholics Anonymous played a good role because they often brought Indian
people in with them, and some of the inmates began to realize that not only white
people belong to Alcoholics Anonymous, and if other Indian people belong, they
can belong too.
" The best way the group members learned was from the example of the staff.
I think this is the most important thing of all. We tried to give them responsibility
for helping around the farm. They knew that someone alse would enjoy the results
of their work, just as they were enjoying the results of the work of others. It was
found that if they accepted responsibility and were respected as a person, they
started to change toward authority. The staff helped them by working along with
them instead of by just telling them what to do."
Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit
11. Volunteer Work.—The work of this unit was described at some length in
last year's Annual Report. One of the aspects of training which was only lightly
touched on was the volunteer programme undertaken by the unit at The Woodlands
School for the training of the mentally retarded. The unit sends volunteers to
The Woodlands School on a weekly basis. Details of this voluntary " service
project | are given in the following extract from the matron's report:—
" The Pan Abode group, known to the patients as ' The Blue Ladies,' goes to
Ward 1, Cedar Cottage, each Thursday afternoon from approximately 1.30 to
3 p.m.   Ward 1 houses female patients who are not only retarded mentally, but who
suffer from physical disabilities as well. Many of the children are spastics, and all
are wheelchair or bed patients. Because of their physical incapacity, it is extremely
difficult to involve them in normal sports and recreational activities of the School,
and for this reason the school staff have particularly requested that we continue to
work as volunteers on this ward.
" During the summer months ' The Blue Ladies ' go to the ward and visit
briefly with all of the patients and any special friends which they may have. Depending on how many Pan Abode members are in the group and how many go to
Woodlands on any one Thursday, a number of patients are selected who are able
to go swimming. These patients are then taken to the swimming-pool by the Pan
Abode group and by any of the Woodlands staff available.
"At the pool the Pan Abode girls assist in removing dressing-growns, etc.,
lifting the patients from their wheelchairs on to the pool deck, and securing the
patients in life-jackets or inner tubes. The patients are then placed in the pool,
and each member takes charge of one or two patients in the water. The patients
are walked around the pool, encouraged to splash and kick to help maintain some
kind of muscle tone, and generally made familiar with the water. After about an
hour the school swimming instructor has all the patients placed on the pool deck
again and allows the Pan Abode group use of the entire pool area for about 10
minutes. The group then changes out of their bathing-suits and assists in putting
the patients back into their chairs, putting on dressing-gowns, and wheeling them
back on to the ward.
"As can be seen, there is a tremendous amount of physical handling of the
patients required when they go swimming. The school is unable to involve this
ward in a swimming project without the assistance of ' The Blue Ladies.'
" During the winter months when it is too cold to take the patients swimming,
the Pan Abode remains on the ward performing various services for the patients.
The patients are often very anxious to have letters written to their families. This is
a very difficult undertaking, for many of the patients have severe speech difficulties
and great patience is required in deciphering their wishes. One patient is completely mute, and letter-writing for her involves interpretation of her sign language
by trial and error, asking other patients to help out, etc.
" When materials are available, the Pan Abode group may also give manicures,
set hair, apply make-up, and generally give the patients a ' boost' by helping them
with their grooming. The winter programme is much more psychologically taxing
for the group than is the summer swimming programme, the latter more physically
" Some group members gain a tremendous amount of gratification from these
visits to the School. They are able to express affection toward the children, who are
greatly in need of specialized care and attention. The response of the children to
affection given is warm and spontaneous. Some group members find these trips
very wearing: they are initially somewhat repulsed by the physical appearance of
the children and depressed by the general hopelessness of their situation. They can
see the value of their visits however, and usually become more comfortable in the
setting over a period of weeks and as they become better acquainted with their
individual patients.
" We have found that The Woodlands School project has been invaluable to the
Pan Abode programme over the years. It provides a real opportunity to improve
public relations between the institution and another segment of society; many members of the nursing and professional staff have expressed very warm feelings about
the kind of effort put forth by the group on these visits and claim this is their best,
most useful, and most faithful volunteer group in the entire School. The girls in turn
have a real opportunity to feel useful and needed, capable of giving and with something concrete to give in a setting where their efforts are very gratefully received.
The intensely emotional nature of the experience gives group members a common
bond of experience which makes them feel special as a group and as individuals."
12. Evaluation.—A short follow-up study of the 22 addicts released from this
unit from April 1,1962, to March 31, 1964, showed that 50 per cent abstained from
drugs after release. While the numbers involved are not large, they are nevertheless
indicative of an encouraging trend.
1. Interdepartmental Co-ordinating Committee.—This Committee, under the
co-chairmanship of the Assistant Chief Forester and the Director of Correction, met
twice during the year to plan and review forestry projects. The District Committee
organization and the functions of the Forest Operations Officers for both Forest
Service and Corrections Branch operated effectively and have proven the value and
feasibility of interdepartmental co-operation at all levels.
At the present time there are over 500 inmates involved in the forestry programme throughout the Province, which has necessitated close and careful supervision to ensure proper direction for this sizeable work force.
Chilliwack Forest Camps
2. Administration.—On July 15, 1963, these camps were separated administratively from Oakalla and established as an autonomous facility with an officer in
charge. Admissions are now received from Central Classification rather than directly
from Oakalla, as was the practice in the past.
Each of the four camps has now been given a name rather than being identified
by a number. They are also now organized as self-contained units with their own
staff and denned work areas. The result has been a much greater identification by
both inmates and staff with their particular camp and a far clearer assignment of
work responsibilities.
The four camps are co-ordinated by the officer in charge and a small headquarters unit to handle records, stores, and vehicular maintenance.
3. Population.—The camps were operated at their capacity of 240 throughout
the year and did much to relieve the overcrowded conditions at Oakalla.
With our increasing experience in camp operation, there has been a trend
toward sending more problem inmates to these facilities. Inmates who 10 years ago
would never have been considered for a camp placement now go there as a matter
of course. In spite of this, our escapes have been few and discipline no problem.
Camp staff often remark on the startling change that takes place in some inmates
after a short period in camp. With the experience of greater freedom, responsibility,
and vigorous challenging work, few fail to respond.
4. Social Training,—Group counselling and educational and recreational programmes continue to be developed at all camps.
5. Forestry Work.—Trails and roads were constructed at various locations in
the Chilliwack Valley.
Nursery production reached an all-time high with 1,304,000 trees lifted and
planted. At the present time there are 2,200,000 seedlings of all species in the
nursery, which is now being expanded.
Rehabilitation of bush areas, fire protection, and logging and sawmill operations also continued throughout the year.
 report of director of correction, 1963/64 aa 29
Haney Correctional Institution Camps
6. Gold Creek Camp.—This camp'continued to be engaged in a wide variety
of work and maintenance projects in southern Garibaldi Park. On Sunday, May 19,
1963, trainees and staff from this camp safely removed an injured Boy Scout from
the slopes of Sugar Loaf Mountain. The staff and trainees effected the rescue without
incident and were rewarded by the tremendous appreciation shown by the parents
and the boy for their efforts.
7. Pine Ridge Camp.—Inmates continued reforestation work on the 10,000-
acre Blue Mountain project. Roads were extended, a tree nursery established, stand
treatment given, and logs salvaged for the saw and planer mills.
Kamloops Camps
8. Rayleigh Camp.—This camp, situated 11 miles north of Kamloops on the
North Thompson River, was opened in September, 1963. The work crews to date
have been employed on the immediate site, but plans are under way for future
forestry work.
9. Clearwater Forest Camp.—This camp has continued to carry out varied
work projects in the Wells Gray Provincial Park for the Parks Branch, Department
of Highways, and the Forest Service. This included work on the park access road,
Dutch Lake Park, and Helmcken Falls Road, as well as the continued development
of recreation sites in the deeper reaches of the park.
Sayward Forest Camps
10. Snowdon Forest Camp.—This camp was established last year to work on
projects in the Sayward Forest District, which lies north of Campbell River on Vancouver Island. The year's work included planting, pruning, clearing access roads,
developing tree research plots, and fire suppression. Camp fire-suppression crews
put out four fires in rough and remote areas. The local Forest Ranger, who had
participated in the training of these crews, was pleased with the results.
11. Lakeview Forest Camp. — On November 2, 1963, this camp, built by
crews from Snowdon, was officially opened and received its first intake of inmates.
The camp is situated some 20 miles north of the Snowdon Forest Camp and will
carry out forestry work in the northern and interior sections of the Sayward Forest
As described earlier in this Report, the intake for Lakeview is chosen from the
younger recidivist group, including many with aggressive tendencies who have failed
to respond to the more traditional methods of training. They are subjected to a
demanding two-month training course in fire-fighting, search and rescue, first aid,
and life-saving. They are then required to put this training into practice by working
on remote forestry projects which necessitate travelling long distances through the
forest on foot, living out in the open in all weathers and subsisting on the rations
they are able to carry on their backs. The objective of the training is to redirect
their aggression into acceptable channels and provide them with opportunities to
discover and develop in themselves qualities of character such as courage, perseverance, honesty, responsibility, and compassion for others.. It is as yet too early
to evaluate this training, but the camp staff report enthusiastically on the initial
impact it is having and the changes they are observing in the attitude and outlook of
many of those undergoing the training. The camp motto—" To strive, to seek, to
find, and not to yield "—reflects the spirit of this new training venture and the
determination of those involved to make it a success.
Staff selected for this camp must possess a high quality of leadership.
Senior Medical Officer's Report
" General
" Present medical services show constant expansion as additional units are instituted and each requires adequate medical attention in the form of part-time physicians and qualified nursing staff. Much of the onus of health services in a prison
system rests on those medicallly responsible for the central establishment from which
the trainees are transferred, and, as far as possible at Oakalla Prison Farm, all inmates undergoing classification are screened and, when possible, remedial medicine
or surgery is carried out so as to render the subject fit for the type of training in the
unit to which he has been allocated. Sufficient examination and treatment at the
central establishment should ensure that illness in any of the detached units should
be minimal. Return to the central establishment is sometimes necessary for illness
or injury which has arisen subsequent to transfer as inadequate medical examination
and immediate resources at some of the smaller detached establishments can cause
much unnecessary inconvenience and transportation. Much of the medical service
has to be devoted to the large transient population which is continuously passing
through Oakalla Prison Farm. Oakalla Prison Farm hospital is also a central
prison hospital. The clinical work there is considerable, as can be seen from the
attached statistics. Thus there is a heavy demand on medical personnel to serve
the function of classification, to provide a high standard of medical hospital care,
and to co-ordinate the resources of the Vancouver General Hospital to care for the
more permanent residents of the gaol—the hard-core habitual offenders, the more
aged, the more mentally disturbed, and the more physically handicapped.
" Oakalla Prison Farm
" Throughout the year there has been a very high turnover of population, as
mentioned above, and this has strained medical services to their utmost, and I wish
to pay tribute to all those in the administration, professional, technical, and custodian capacities who have helped so vitally in seeing that medical attention is available to so many people in so many predicaments. Inevitably many medically
unqualified staff members are involved in medical situations, if only when a decision
has to be made for referral to a qualified member, and any neglect or misjudgment
could very easily result in calamity.
" With the new prison hospital in operation for its first full year, we have had to
balance the increased resources it affords with the budget. This has meant invoking
the assistance of the Vancouver General Hospital with both its out-patient and inpatient services to relieve the expenditure which is necessarily incurred by paying
our Oakalla consultants for their services in the prison hospital. On the other
hand, transportation and escort demands limit the number we can send to the
Vancouver General Hospital. The attached statistics show the number and types of
cases treated by our own and general hospital agencies. Our own panel of specialists has contributed much to highly skilled and immediate care in the treatment of
patients in the prison hospital. Surgery of an increasing major degree has been
undertaken in the prison hospital, though there is a limit placed on the type of
surgery we can undertake by the lack of sufficient registered nursing staff for postoperative care of an intensive nature. Even with our present operation we need
a nurse without exception on each shift, and this is not possible with our present
complement, as we have insufficient nursing staff to cover relief duties, days off,
"  ns, and sickness.
" We have increased the efficiency of out-patient services within the gaol by
adding a nurse who works solely in these areas for the day shift, assisted by a male
medical orderly. The number of inmates treated daily on this basis is high. The
amount of medication is directly proportional to the number of disturbed inmates,
to the adequacy of the recreational programme, the creativity of the working programme, and the skill aiid sufficiency of the counselling and custodial staff.
" Two spheres of medical care have exceeded the extent of our present facilities
and are revealing as regards the trend of present-day penology. These are the
medical services required for those awaiting trial and the number of inmates mentally ill. The excessive population in the ' awaiting trial' wing is a partial explanation only of the former exigency. There is much more emotional tension in this
wing than previously. Those with heavy sentences, and especially those awaiting
hearing and appeal who have been designated by the Courts as habitual offenders,
spread an air of gloom and despondency, which is contagious. Overcrowding and
complete inactivity with lack of counsellors create the media which encourage the
rapid growth of sociopathogenicity. Our treatment of the individual not yet judged
guilty and of the appellant calls for earnest consideration and action.
| The present mental observation ward in the prison hospital has been found
to be inadequate as regards accommodation. At present we could fill such a ward
with twice the number of beds and still have no facilities for treatment other than
that of observation and of psychiatric emergencies. One hundred were committed
to Essondale during the year. We have welcomed the services of Dr. A. M. Marcus,
of the Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, in assessing some of our patients, and also the services of Dr. McGregor, who
has visited weekly from Essondale and advised as to needs for committal of certain
patients to the Mental Hospital. We have stressed in every Annual Report the need
for a special unit and programme for the treatment of the grossly sociopathic
offender, including the sex offender. Much of this could be met on an out-patient
basis in a forensic clinic such as has been instituted in Toronto. Oakalla inevitably
houses the rejects of all the other correctional units in British Columbia, and psy-
chiatrically we have almost nothing to offer. The efforts of the lay staff in working
with these young sociopaths are highly commendable, and the quality of their services can be judged by the infrequency of seriously pathological and dangerous
episodes and the minimal incidence of punitive measures. These men and women,
almost entirely professionally unaided, work under conditions of stress which have
little or no public recognition, and this, indeed, in itself is a tribute to their services,
as if there were notoriety, it would likely be because of disaster rather than of
■ We are again indebted to the Provincial health services for the constant attention we are paid by Dr. Hakstian in tuberculosis control. The number of active
tuberculosis cases has shown a marked decrease in the last few years. Also we have
much co-operation from the Division of Venereal Disease Control. There has been
an increase in the number of those admissions with venereal disease and the incidence of syphilis has risen.
" Our dental officer, Dr. Johnson, is kept extremely busy. As usual, preventive
dentistry has to take a very second place as many patients with grossly defective
teeth require a number of extractions. We have no funds for dentures; which in
many instances would afford a valuable contribution to their rehabilitation and
general health. Owing to a lack of funds, we have had to curtail extensively the
supply of glasses and optometric examinations.
" The fabric of some of the main buildings shows steady deterioration. The
admitting area continues to be entirely inadequate, for records, storage, and bathing.
There is an excessive number of men arriving in a verminous condition, and many
of these spread their vermin to the unit to which they are allotted. On examination
of individuals prior to transfer to other establishments, we find some infested. The
Westgate Unit and the Old Gaol are often plagued with cockroaches. The plumbing
services in the older buildings are in need of replacement or increased maintenance.
The Old Gaol continues to be a condemnable building from the public health point
of view, and we look forward to speedy closure by the opening of other establishments. Many of the occupants of the Old Gaol are senile or otherwise physically
frail, and they need much better accommodation and geriatric care. Some kitchen
fabric is showing deterioration; there is lack of adequate ventilation and lack of
space to cater for the remarkable high number of meals issued. It is greatly to the
credit of the steward and his staff that satisfactory standards of catering have been
maintained. The proposed new bake-house will be a great improvement. On the
farm the building housing the apparatus for preparation of pig-food is derelict and
" The Women's Building
" The excessive number of women inmates has produced equally excessive demands on all services. The amount of serious emotional disturbance has increased,
and the nursing staff has been pressed almost beyond endurance. We physicians
have great respect for the quality of their services, which are carried out in an
astonishingly efficient manner in the face of such heavy pressures. All departments
are having to provide for almost double the number of inmates for which they were
originally planned. Twin Maples Farm helps to relieve the burden to some extent.
The very best is made there of old buildings at minimal cost. Those requiring
attention on sick parades are increasing in numbers, and the services of an additional part-time physician to attend at times more convenient to the administration
is urgently necessary. The nursing staff has to care for those awaiting trial in addition to their nursing duties. It is difficult enough under present circumstances to
provide for those in need of medical treatment, to administer the clinic, and to carry
out the necessary documentary recording without having to supervise those who
are on the infirmary floor for no reason other than that they are awaiting trial.
The number of persons passing through the women's clinic is more than the limited
area available accommodates. Dr. A. M. Klady, from the Division of Venereal
Disease Control, is examining an increasing number of women. It is hoped to start
a clinic for those at Twin Maples Farm, and arrangements for this are under
" Pan Abode Units
" These units for the treatment of narcotic addiction continue to be in operation.
Dr. Stephenson continues to supervise them psychiatrically. In the women's unit
especially, much has been learned as regards the dynamics of group counselling and
approaches closely the therapeutic community as instituted by Dr. Maxwell Jones
and Dr. Baan. Drug addicts as a whole, as observed on their arrival at Oakalla
Prison Farm, have admitted to lighter use of narcotics than in previous years.
Whereas it was quite common for them to use 8 to 10 capsules daily, the usual
amount now is 2 to 3 capsules daily, often less. Unfortunately they are using an
increasing amount of barbiturates, and some narcotic addicts are becoming alcoholics instead.    Our routine method of withdrawal continues to be most satisfactory.
" Haney Correctional Institution
" I have continued to pay regular visits to this institution and to the satellite
camps. There is increasing use of the medical resources at Oakalla Prison Farm
for specialist examination and for surgery. Any trainee in need of general hospital
treatment is transferred to the Oakalla Prison Farm for assessment and from there to
the Vancouver General Hospital if necessary. Dr. A. Trudel, with the assistance
of his nursing staff, continued to achieve medical resources of high standard, more
especially considering additional responsibilities which are placed on the nursing
staff in any institution where there is only a part-time physician, in this case a relatively large establishment. The inclusion of nursing staff in unit teams adds to the
interests of medical personnel in the total training programme, but it should be
viewed more carefully in the light of the requirements of their established role.
" The standard of hygiene and living in both the camps is very satisfactory and
is inevitably reflected in the morale of the trainees. We have been fortunate to
retain the part-time psychiatric services of Dr. Peter Middleton. It has been a
pleasure to observe the impact of the philosophy and techniques of training at Haney
Correctional Institution on some grossly disturbed young offenders who have failed
to respond to other establishments. Some have had to be returned to Oakalla,
where the gravity of their personality disorder has been most apparent.
" New Haven
" This establishment continues to exemplify the great contribution to the train
ing of the less habitual young offender offered by a small Borstal-type ii
Medically the good health of the trainees and the absence of morbid behaviour pay
tribute to the integrity of the programme. Group counselling has continued to be
a highly effective part of the training, and the New Haven group is almost an ideal
medium for such a technique. Perhaps of all recent developments in penology,
group counselling is proving the most generally applicable and the most economical,
and perhaps the most effective.
" Chilliwack Forest Camps
" I have continued to visit these camps, usually at six-monthly intervals. Medical services have greatly improved there with the appointment of Dr. J. L. de Mon-
tigny as part-time physician. Also the provision of a truck converted for ambulance
use has assisted a great deal. There is close liaison between the medical services at
Chilliwack camps and the medical department at Oakalla Prison Farm. Any inmate
of the camp who requires more than elementary medical treatment is transferred to
Oakalla. Hygiene in the other camps has been greatly improved by new ablution
huts.   The new camp is well designed from this point of view.
" Research
" Dr. Kenneth A. Evelyn, Director, G. F. Strong Laboratory for Medical Research, and his team have continued their research, the objective of which is to
establish normal standards for certain commonly used diagnostic laboratory tests.
The subjects are volunteers, mostly inmates from Oakalla, some from New Haven,
and some from the Haney Correctional Institution. Dr. Evelyn prefaces his progress
report as follows: ' During the period covered by this report the project has functioned smoothly and has resulted in the accumulation of a large volume of valuable
data. As emphasized in the original description of the project, all of the tests performed on the inmates who volunteer their services are established diagnostic tests
which are in use in the Vancouver General Hospital, but they have one thing in
common—namely, that their clinical usefulness would be greatly increased if the
normal range of test results were more accurately known.'
"Apart from the value of the research in itself, the inmates concerned feel that
they are contributing to medical science, and therefore to the health and treatment
of their fellow humans at large. There is no personal gain involved. Some staff
members have also volunteered to act as subjects for the research. Dr. Evelyn
draws special attention to those inmates who have been willing to participate in the
Red Cell Survival tests, which have required repeated attendance spaced over periods
of several weeks. We in the medical department greatly appreciate the visits of Dr.
Evelyn and his team.
" Conclusion
" Once again we wish to express our appreciation of the co-operation we always
receive from yourself and your administrators.
" There must clearly be a limit to medical costs on the one hand, and on the
other we must keep pace with the standards of medical care in the community as a
whole. Were it not for the constant assistance of the hospital custodial staff and a
willing team of inmates who become skilled in their respective medical tasks, we
would lag far behind."
1. Probation Cases.—During the year 2,257 new cases were placed on probation, an increase of 556 over the number of new cases added last year. Of the total
new cases, 32.3 per cent came from Magistrates' and other Adult Courts and 67.7
per cent from Family and Children's Courts.
There has been a striking increase in the number of voluntary cases referred to
Probation Officers by police, parents, and school-teachers concerned with the negative behaviour of a child. Whereas last year there were 81 such cases, this year the
total was 365. This increase is due to the new Family and Children's Court legislation directing Probation Officers to assist cases, as far as possible, on an out-of-
Court basis.
2. Pre-sentence Reports.—A total of 2,467 pre-sentence reports was prepared
for the Courts by Probation Officers, an increase of 352 over last year's total. The
number of instances in which a pre-sentence report was prepared and some disposition other than probation made amounted to 210. In some instances, reports were
asked for on cases with extensive criminal records not legally eligible for probation.
While we are pleased to provide this service, the primary role of the Probation Officer
must be supervision, and officers have been instructed to concentrate on this and
give the preparation of pre-sentence reports on cases with extensive previous criminal
records a low priority. In many cases this may mean requesting further time from
the Court to allow for the preparation of the report.
3. Case Loads.—As of March 31, 1964, there were 2,266 individuals under
probation supervision, an increase of 636 over this time last year. In addition,
there were 117 cases under voluntary supervision, 52 cases referred by the Family
and Children's Court for counselling, and 138 parolees who were released to the care
of Probation Officers. For this total of 2,573 cases, there were 46 Probation Officers in the field, creating an average case load of 56 plus 50 pre-sentence reports
for the year.
Our average case loads are continuing to grow year by year; in 1961/62 the
average case load was 40 plus 58 pre-sentence reports; in 1962/63, 41.8 plus 54
pre-sentence reports. Of even greater concern than this over-all high average is the
number of critically high case-load areas. On March 31, 1964, the following were
the highest case loads carried by individual officers: Kamloops, 118; Kelowna, 113;
Prince George, 121; Nanaimo, 100, 96, 78; Courtenay, 103; Port Alberni, 87;
Whalley, 78; Chilliwack, 89; and Abbotsford, 81. As one can readily appreciate,
case loads of this size do not allow sufficient time for adequate supervision and tend
to dilute the service a Probation Officer can render the Courts to a point where it
becomes ineffective. It is hoped that recruitment to the Service will make it possible to relieve these extremely high case loads in the very near future.
4. Movement.—There were 12 new Probation Officers appointed this year, all
of whom were university graduates, selected from 109 individuals interviewed. Due
to the level of responsibility carried by a Probation Officer, the highest standard
possible has been maintained in the selection of candidates. This accounts for the
small number of Probation Officers actually appointed when compared to the number of applicants interviewed.
Five Probation Officers resigned during the year, and one was released from the
Service due to an unsatisfactory rating during his training period. Of the five who
resigned, two returned to university to graduate study, two received appointments
to higher positions in other government services, and one transferred to the Department of Social Welfare.
With the promotion of Mr. F. St. John Madeley to Probation Officer 3, a new
probation region, the Fraser Valley, was organized, to which he was assigned as
5. Training.—The orientation course of 3Vi months for all new Probation
Officers was continued throughout the year. One slight change that was made in
this training was to assign new Probation Officers to a field office for two weks prior
to the start of the classroom instruction in order that the theory they encounter
during their later training would have greater meaning. The careful selection of new
Probation Officers plus the high standard required during their orientation training
has resulted in a group of highly trained and skilled Probation Officers moving into
the various communities of the Province each year.
Two refresher courses were conducted for experienced Probation Officers to
keep them abreast of current developments and to introduce them to new techniques
being evolved in the field of probation. We have continued to follow the practice
of having these officers on course five in as a group for two weeks at the University
of British Columbia. This has a distinct advantage as it removes the officers from
day-to-day domestic distractions and helps to create an atmosphere conducive to
informal discussion, particularly in the evenings.
The annual conference took place at Parksville on Vancouver Island, with the
theme "New Techniques in Probation." The specific new techniques examined
were group counselling and family counselling. In addition, there was an intensive
analysis of the new Family and Children's Court Act following a formal presentation
of the legislation by the Deputy Attorney-General. This presentation resulted in
many questions being settled and was welcomed enthusiastically by the Probation
The University of British Columbia School of Social Work field placement unit
continued to operate in the office space provided at New Haven. Seven graduate
students in social work were placed in this unit for their field-work training during
the year and worked in conjunction with the Burnaby Family and Children's Court.
6. Juveniles Placed Under Probation Supervision.—There were 1,528 new
juvenile cases assigned to Probation Officers during the year. This represents
approximately two-thirds of the total case load. Nearly all of these 365 voluntary
supervision cases were juveniles.
7. Committals to Training-schools.—During the year there were 57 committals
to training-schools from Courts not served by a Probation Officer. This is a slight
drop from last year's 70 such cases, but does continue to indicate the urgent need
for probation service in these as yet unmanned areas.
8. Transfers to Adult Court.—There were 167 juveniles transferred to Magistrate's Court in the communities serviced by Probation Officers. This is a slight
decrease from last year's total of 188, but still remains alarmingly high. Of still
greater concern are the 196 juveniles received at the classification centre at Oakalla
Prison Farm during the year. This figure includes those juveniles transferred to
Magistrate's Court in communities as yet unserved by a Probation Officer.
9. Family and Children's Court Act.—The implementation of this Act on July
1, 1963, with its stated objective of assisting and guiding families and individuals,
has resulted in a very striking increase in the number of voluntary cases referred to
bur Probation Officers for family counselling. This legislation should be regarded as
a truly significant step forward in the struggle toward the prevention of crime. Plans
are already under discussion for research into the family and its functions, to better
determine how families can, with the assistance of a Probation Officer, control and
guide the delinquent or potentially delinquent children.
10. Court Committees.—Family and Children's Court Committees are being
established in the various areas of the Province. Probation Officers in the field have
been instructed to assist these committees materially by presenting them with facts
and figures on the problem of delinquency as it exists in their area in order to help
them focus on the most critical needs of their community.
11. The Appointment of Volunteer Probation Officers.—A start has been
made in using the services of volunteer Probation Officers in areas where it has not
been possible to appoint a full-time officer. Provided they possess the necessary
qualities of character and knowledge and are capable of working under guidance,
volunteer Probation Officers can be a most valuable asset to any field officer. The
training and supervision of these volunteers is therefore of the utmost importance to
the Service as a whole and will require most careful planning. They are being asked
to deal with young lives, many of them badly damaged by the time they reach the
Court. It must be clearly understood at the outset that good.intentions are not a
substitute for skill and training.
12. Children's Remand-Detention Home.—In co-operation wth the Department of Social Welfare, a receiving and remand home was established this year at
Willow Point to serve the Campbell River and Courtenay areas. This should be a
valuable asset both to the probation and welfare staff in these communities.
13. Regional Development.—The Fraser Valley was established as a probation region this year and a supervsor placed in charge. Vancouver, Vancouver
Island, and the Interior regions continued to operate under full-time supervision;
this leaves only the northern area of the Province as yet without a supervisor.
Quarterly meetings continue to be held at headquarters with the supervisors
and senior administrative staff to deal with developments and needs within each
region. These meetings have provided an opportunity for the interpretation of
changes in policy and ensure that consistency is maintained in the over-all direction
of the Service.
14. Field Offices.—A new field office was established in Richmond, and a
male and a female Probation Officer were transferred there from the Vancouver
office to service this area. The Vernon and Prince Rupert offices were both reopened, and a second officer placed in North Vancouver and Burnaby to relieve
the high case loads in those communities.
15. Victoria Family and Children's Court.—On September 1st all Probation
Officers serving in the Victoria Family and Children's Court were brought under
the provisions of the Probation Act and became members of the Provincial Probation Service. This move has provided uniformity and has facilitated the direct
supervision of the Probation Officers serving this Court.
In October, 1963, an experienced Senior Probation Officer was placed in
charge of this Court, and an additional Probation Officer transferred to provide
greater case coverage.
16. Psychiatric Services.—In mid-December, 1963, arrangements were completed with the University of British Columbia Department of Psychiatry to retain
Dr. Marcus on a part-time basis. Dr. Marcus's services have been made available
to the Probation Officers in the Greater Vancouver region to assist in diagnostic and
treatment work with selected cases.
17. Probation and the Court.—It is felt that the effectiveness of the probation
order can be heightened by its more imaginative use. Placing youthful offenders on
probation for the maximum term of two years has in many cases been most effective.
The longer period not only gives the officer more time to work with the youth, but
also allows him to vary the intensity of his supervision, tapering it off and placing
fewer demands on him as he responds, or, alternatively, tightening the controls if his
conduct appears to be deteriorating and there is evidence of his slipping back to his
former behaviour. Probation applied in this way provides a much more meaningful
experience, and by rewarding achievement presents the probationer with a realistic
The immediate enforcement of controls is essential if the probationer is not
responding or is becoming lax in carrying out the conditions of his probation order
by missing interviews, arriving late, or failing to observe specific instructions. Controls and limits must be placed on many youths if a change in behaviour is to be
achieved. Returning the probationer to Court is often the most effective disciplinary action and points up the fact that the Court's responsibility does not end
with the placing of the youth on probation, but continues until his probation period
is successfully terminated. The return of a probationer to Court for violation of a
condition of his probation order is often a most critical period, and much will depend
on the depth of the Court's concern and the wisdom of its judgment as to whether
the probationer will be won or lost. Additional terms of probation, lengthening the
probation period, a severe warning, or a remand in custody for a short period have
proved effective alternatives to committal to an institution.
Whether wider powers of imposing sanctions could be delegated to Probation
Officers to avoid the necessity of returning probationers to Court for breaches of a
minor nature is a matter currently under examination.
18. Group-counselling Evaluation.—In February, 1963, one juvenile and one
adult group commenced a programme of group counselling. A non-directive type
of group leadership was provided by the Probation Officers in charge of each of
these experimental groups in an effort to force the members into examining and
discussing the problems they face and to gain support from the group in assuming
individual responsibility to deal with their own problems. During the initial stages,
problems of poor attendance arose. These were met by returning the offenders to
Court for further disciplinary action. The discussions in the groups varied over
a wide range of topics. One of the most significant advances was the apparent
breaking-down of the delinquent sub-culture in the group and the resistance of the
members imbued with this culture to discuss themselves or their individual problems.
As a result of the progress made with these pilot groups, it has become apparent that many probationers can be handled just as effectively on a group basis
as on an individual basis. One of our Vancouver Probation Officers is now handling
his entire case load on a group-counselling basis. Groups meet both during the
daytime and in the evening for those on shift work. The officer finds that he has
more time for supervision as each individual is seen weekly within the group, and
sufficient time remains for him to give concentrated attention to those with special
While it has been shown that many probationers can be handled on a group
basis, the grossly disturbed young juvenile with severe home problem situations is
not sufficiently stable to utilize this form of counselling. Much more work has to
be done with the family in these cases, and in some instances where the severity of
the family problem is such that the probationer must be removed for his own protection, alternative living accommodation has to be provided.
19. Family Interviewing.—Another experimental project was initiated during
the year by four officers using a family-centred interviewing technique. The theory
behind this technique is that much time can be saved by bringing together all the
family members at one time to outline the problem and impress upon them that the
rehabilitation of the offender is their responsibility and can only be achieved by
their co-operative effort as a family unit. This approach encourages them to make
decisions which are understood by all the family members and eliminates the
playing-off of one parent against the other by the child. The experience gained by
the Probation Officers involved in this project will help us assess the potential of
this approach and its possible use for the future.
20. Inadequate Resources for Juveniles.—Mention has already been made of
the large number of juveniles being transferred to Magistrate's Court and the high
committal rate to prison. Problem juveniles in the 14—17 age-group present the
greatest placement concern. Foster homes in most instances are not willing to take
in a behaviour problem, especially an older one, and, because of the lack of any
alternative placement, many are committed to a training-school or are transferred
to Adult Court with a resultant prison sentence. Probation Officers report that
Courts are reluctant to commit mature juveniles of 16 and 17 years to an overcrowded training-school, but tend rather to transfer them to Magistrate's Court in
the belief that they will likely receive greater training opportunities in a young-adult
correctional lhsuration. Unfortunately this introduces them to an older, often more
sophisticated, age-group.
Adequate treatment and training facilities for juveniles remain an imperative
need if we are to stop the flow at a later date into our adult institutions. All too
often the Family and Children's Court is faced with the alternative of placing a
youth for the second or third time on probation and having him return to a grossly
inadequate home, which has been the prime reason for his delinquency in the first
instance, or committing him to a training-school. There is at present a wide unfilled
gap between probation and the training-school. The need for more diversified
facilities to allow a youth to remain in the community under proper supervision and
control is urgent. Several alternatives that have been used effectively in other
jurisdictions are currently under examination:—
(a) Probation Hostel.—There is no doubt that the establishment of a living-in
hostel where youthful probationers would be required to reside while they
continue their schooling or employment, and where they would receive
some discipline and support, would provide a most useful resource. Such
hostels aim at providing a sympathetic yet disciplined regime with the
chance to learn self-discipline in adapting oneself to others. Thus, with
sufficient understanding and skill in the staff of the hostel, the resident
youth can be helped to acquire more constructive social attitudes, and
this, together with personal help given by the supervising Probation
Officer, makes his rehabilitation more likely. The social training given
by the hostel need not be elaborate.    It is training, with mature adult
support and control, in regular habits of work, in the useful employment
of leisure, in personal hygiene, and, above all, in living acceptably with
contemporaries and older people.
(b) Week-end Training Programme.—An interesting approach to cases that
do not require complete severence from their homes, but present problems, is to take them every Friday afternoon after school or work to a
residential week-end training facility. Here they would remain in a training and work programme until Sunday afternoon, when they would be
returned to their homes. This approach has been combined with a parent
education programme, the object being to improve the youth's home
situation and his associations in the community. The advantage of this
approach is that the emotional ties to the home are retained and the
responsibility is kept as a parental one. At the same time it removes the
boy from the home for short periods to relieve the emotional pressures
which are often present. This approach is much less costly than full-time
committal to a training-school or residence in a hostel. The boy is kept
in school or at his regular job and is removed from the home situation
only during the potentially dangerous week-end period. The worker also
has the opportunity to work with the parents and bring the home situation
up to an adequate level. The week-end programme is designed along the
lines of character development similar to the " Outward Bound " training
in England. A continuing relationship is provided with a wholesome
adult authority figure through the staff involved with the boy on the
week-ends. Thus the staff can counteract the home's inadequacies and
provide a parent substitute whose continuing support can help to carry
the child through his developmental years. This programme could be
combined with long-term courses during the summer holiday period where
the boy would be employed in an outdoor programme similar to that
undertaken by the present school-boy crews organized by the Parks
(c) Social Assistance with Medical Coverage.—Another possibility for the
older juvenile, where the Court feels a placement away from home is
desirable, is the provision of social assistance with medical coverage under
the supervision of a Probation Officer. This would permit the Probation
Officer to place the youth in a group-living home, or even in lodgings,
while he arranged for apprenticeship training, training on the job, or a
subsidized work placement. This would require registration, possibly
through a welfare field officer, with the eligibility factor being the Court
21. Victoria Family and Children's Court.—The work of the Family and
Children's Court has been severely hampered by overcrowded facilities and has
placed an additional strain on an already overloaded staff. Additions to staff have
forced the officers serving this Court to share accommodation, and hence there is
Utile or no privacy to allow for effective counselling.
The stenographic staff are similarly forced to work in overcrowded and unsatisfactory conditions, with several offices having poor ventilation and no windows.
In addition, the public waiting-room is most inadequate. The result of these present
facihties has led to some inefficiency and loss of man-hours, for which the probation
staff cannot be held responsible.
22. Cars.—A Probation Officer, apart from his time in Court, is constantly
on the move.    Only a minority of interviews takes place in the office.   This means
a good deal of work for the Probation Officer, often in the home of the probationer.
Also, for pre-sentence reports many sources of information are tapped throughout
the community, and in order to provide proper supervision the Probation Officer
must be constantly travelling throughout his area. As each Probation Officer serves
several Courts, often some distance apart, the practice of sharing cars has proven
to be unsuccessful. It is therefore imperative that an adequate number of cars
be supplied to keep up with the expanding staff.
23. Staff.—Five Probation Officers have been assigned to supervise parole
cases in the Lower Mainland area and to carry out pre-release investigations with
young adults serving indeterminate sentences at the Haney Correctional Institution
and Oakalla Prison Farm. These officers act as members of the unit training teams
working with the youths in the institutions. We have continued to supply one Probation Officer to act as secretary to the British Columbia Parole Board.
24. Parole Cases.—Supervision was provided for 395 cases released under
the authority of the British Columbia Parole Board and 19 cases released by the
National Parole Service. Of these latter 19 cases, four were released from the
British Columbia Penitentiary and took up residence outside the Lower Mainland
region in areas covered by our staff.
m 205, 1075 Melville Street, Vancou-
, Courthouse, Abbotsford,
7272 Kingsway, Burnaby 1, B.C.
Room 75, Courthouse, 77 College Street,
Chilliwack, B.C.
P.O. Box 1017, Courthouse, Courtenay,
P.O.  Box  699,  Courthouse,  Cranbrook,
Dawson Creek:
10300b—10th Street, Dawson Creek, B.C.
Box 641, Duncan, B.C.
Room 4, Mide Block, 22336 Lougheed
Highway, Haney, B.C.
Room 211, 523 Columbia Street, Kam-
oom 105, Courthouse, Nanaimo, B.C.
n 2, Courthouse, N<
New Westminster:
Room  618,  713  Colun
Westminster, B.C.
i Street, New
st 15th Street, North Vancouver,
1, 284 Main Street, Penticton, B.C.
216, 400 Argyle Street, Port Al-
Pwncb George:
Courthouse, Pri
Prince Rupert:
:e Rupert, B.C.
6 No. 3 Road, Richmond,
Box 387, Sechelt, B.C.
815 Victoria Street, Trail, B.C.
Courthouse, Vernon, B.C.
Room 104, Law Courts, Victorisi, 'S.CxasliSi
Family and Children's Court, 1947 Cook
Street, Victoria, B.C.
Williams Lake:
Box 697, Speers Building, 72 Second Avenue, Williams Lake, B.C.
A progress report of the activities of the British Columbia Board of Parole
during the calendar year 1963 and other relevant material are presented for constructive analysis and to better evaluate the use of parole in our programme of
The following statistical statements were compiled from the records of the
British Columbia Board of Parole:—
(1) Summary of Meetings Held and Cases Dealt With, 1963.
(2) Progressive Summary of Meetings Held and Cases Considered, 1949-63.
(3) Comparative Statement of Releases on Parole and Revocations for 1961,
1962, and 1963.
(4) Analysis of Revocation for the Years 1961, 1962, and 1963.
(5) Miscellaneous Statistical Information, 1963.
Success in the field of corrections is achieved only by the combined efforts of
an efficient team. The British Columbia Board of Parole gratefully acknowledges
the direction and assistance of S. Rocksborough Smith, Director of Correction, and
Dr. M. Matheson, Deputy Director of Correction. We have enjoyed the full cooperation of Warden W. H. Mulligan and his staff at Oakalla Prison Farm, Warden
J. Braithwaite and his staff at the Haney Correctional Institution, and Director
George Warnock and his staff at New Haven. The Board is deeply appreciative of
the efforts of these men to provide the best possible programme for those entrusted
to their charge. Mr. V. H. Goad was appointed Director of New Haven in December, 1963, and to him we extend our best wishes for success. To the Probation
Department we express our appreciation and satisfaction with their efforts to provide
supervision for our parolees. To the officers of this Department assigned to the
institutions as Parole Officers, we extend our gratitude for their excellent contribution to the programme. In a similar capacity and serving New Haven, the Borstal
Association has used initiative and provided a splendid example of community
effort in the after-care field.
The British Columbia Board of Parole consists of five members, the number
having been increased from three to five in 1962. The vacancy created by the
resignation of Mr. E. G. B. Stevens, former Director of Correction, in 1962, was
filled by the appointment of Mr. Oscar Orr, Q.C., in March, 1963. We welcome
Mr. Orr; his legal knowledge and long, distinguished experience as a senior Magistrate for the Province of British Columbia have already proven most helpful.
During the past two years, changes in policy have evolved so that in 1963 it
became necessary to revise the Manual of Procedure. Improved outlines for reports
to the Board, including a glossary of headings and terms, were further developed
and brought up to date. In re-editing the manual, the co-ordination of all facilities
involved in parole was kept in mind constantly. The revised edition appears to
have been well received. One hundred copies were printed, and a rerun in the near
future is indicated.
The Parole Decision Summary, for the use of Board members, has developed
over the past few years and provides a visual base for parole prediction. By pointing out areas of decision significant to the Board, it provides guidance to institutional
and after-care personnel in preparing pre-parole reports for the Board.   The utili-
zation of this summary still is in the experimental stage, and hopefully by focusing
attention on what is thought to be significant in parole prediction it may yet provide
a basis for research in this very important area.
Your attention is drawn to the activity of the Board as indicated in Statistical
Statements Nos. 1 and 2. The number of meetings held by the Board each year
remains nearly constant, varying only a little from the average six meetings per
month. There has been a slight increase in the number of new cases dealt with,
while miscellaneous cases considered have again declined. This decrease continues
to reflect improved liaison between the Board and the training institutions, so that
the requirements for parole are more fully met before a case is presented.
In 1962 the Board considered 419 new and review cases and paroled 324, or
77 per cent. In 1963, 428 new and review cases were considered and 298 were
paroled, or 70 per cent. From this it may be fairly assumed that higher standards
of parole selection are being used.
The demands made on the National Parole Service have declined, and only
four cases were considered involving National Parole in definite/indeterminate
sentences. The explanation probably lies in the steady increase in the length of
the training period required over the past three years. At all times there has been
good liaison and complete co-operation, with each Board maintaining its individuality in the matter of parole decisions.
Interesting comparisons are made between numbers released on parole and
revocations in Statements Nos. 3 and 4. Worthy of note is the continuing decline
since 1959 in the annual number released on parole. The increased use of probation and higher standards of parole selection appear to account for this, and in turn
reflects a more diversified and purposeful use of sentences by Magistrates, followed
by more demanding programmes in training institutions and more careful parole
selection by the Parole Board.
Revocations occurred at the same rate as in 1962—namely, 37 per cent—of
the total released on parole. Contributing to this average was a 1-per-cent reduction
in rates for New Haven and the Haney Correctional Institution and a 12-per-cent
increase for Westgate, Oakalla Prison Farm. The increased rate of revocations
from Oakalla Prison Farm corresponds with the recent policy which classifies nearly
all trainees with definite/indeterminate sentences to the Haney Correctional Institution, leaving only the medically unfit and psychiatric cases at Oakalla Prison Farm.
The Parole Board is presently concerned with the reasons for classification and the
training programme provided trainees presented to the Board for parole consideration from Oakalla Prison Farm. The 61-per-cent revocation rate seems to indicate
that institutional requirements for parole consideration are no longer a valid basis
for judging fitness for parole.
In Statement No. 5 comparison is made from information drawn from Statements Nos. 3 and 4 with respect to revocations following first, second, and third
paroles and first, second, and third sentences. It bears out the fact that parole is a
justifiable risk in granting two paroles up to and including the second prison sentence. After this the trainee becomes a poor risk; 86 per cent of those granted
parole for the third time failed, while 60 per cent of those paroled following the
third prison sentence failed. These statistics indicate more intensive pre-release
framing and more careful parole selection are required for these repeaters.
Previously only the length of the training period provided revokees was
recorded, and for this group the period of training has increased from 8 months in
1959 to 13.3 months in 1963. This year it was possible to record the length of the
training period provided for all trainees released on parole.   The over-all average
turns out to be 11.8 months, which is 1.5 months less than the average for revokees
only. However, the average training periods for revokees only is a valid indication
of the trend toward more intensive preparation for parole that has developed during
the past five years. It should be noted that the increase in the length of the training
period has, during the past three years, provided no evidence of creating better
parole risks. It appears that the impact made on a trainee during an approximate
period of nine months in programme reaches a maximum; additional time spent in
programme has not proven helpful. In other words, institutional programmes
seem to be geared to a nine-month training period. Either parole should be granted
at this point or more attention given to providing greater challenge and responsibility during the latter months.
The final item in our Statistical Statement No. 5 touches on the effectiveness
of supervision. Here it is assumed that if the activities of parolees are adequately
supervised, 75 per cent of all paroles would be revoked prior to Court action. On
this basis, supervision by the British Columbia Borstal Association is 59 per cent
effective, personal supervision by Parole Officers is 38 per cent effective, supervision
by field Parole Officers is 26 per cent effective, while supervision by correspondence
is only 19 per cent effective.
These percentages are at once both startling and debatable, and it must be
pointed out that they do not necessarily reflect adversely on the amount of effort or
the sincerity of the supervising agent. Rather, they seem to be indicative of the
amount of overload and possible shortcomings in the areas of identification and
decision. If these deductions are valid, it would appear that more positive standards
for the supervision of parolees should be developed.
The ineffectiveness of supervision by correspondence,points up a need for
personal supervision in outlying areas. It is suggested that we approach the British
Columbia Borstal Association and enlist its co-operation in providing sponsors for
these areas, who would work with and under the direction of the Probation Officers.
With the help of this community organization, many of those now supervised by
correspondence could be provided with sponsors who have, at this point, a 59-percent effective supervision raring.
Looking backward over 1963 we note the following significant developments
in training facilities and techniques:—
(a) The " pre-release " training camp and the " unit" training system now
serving trainees classified to the Haney Correctional Institution.
(b) Increased support of the programme by employers. Parole Officers and
the Borstal Association are to be commended for developing this area of
community responsibility.
(c) The inclusion of Parole Officers as part of the institutional unit teams,
effectively linking past performance with the present programme on
entering the institution with community placement on release.
(d) The staff-training programme now well organized throughout the Service.
(e) The Manual of Procedure for the British Columbia Board of Parole
providing positive direction in standards and procedures used by the
Looking forward in 1964 we note that while advances were made in many
areas during the year, the challenges in 1963 tp.a large extent remain, so that with
some additions and alterations our attention should again be directed to
(a) continuing to improve our procedures and standards of parole prediction
so that better training programmes and effective supervision are encour-
(b) seeking the solution to problems of employment and supervision and
encouraging community responsibility in those areas by
(i) promoting the establishment of half-way houses for the use of
those who need a home away from home or have no home and are young
enough to require one;
(ii) having institutional academic and vocational standards assessed
and developed to the point where continuity with academic and vocational
programmes in the community can be predetermined;
(c) giving whole-hearted support to efforts now being initiated to improve
the status of our Indian community;
(d) assuming a more active role in the field of correction as a liaison group
effectively interpreting responsibility as it applies to the individual trainee,
the correctional institution, and the community.
This report attempts to present facts and figures that reveal the role being
played by the British Columbia Board of Parole in the field of correction. It is
hoped the comments and analysis will create an awareness of our achievements and
responsibilities and form a basis on which to develop the best possible parole
system for British Columbia.
Number of meetings held	
Cases dealt with—
New cases considered	
Revocations considered ..
Delayed action	
Special consideration	
National parole	
In co-operation with the National Parole Service-
Cases supported for National Parole	
Cases not supported for National Parole	
Total considered for National Parole —
Average number of cases dealt with per meeting	
Released on parole during 1963	
I   §-h*
1   a a* a«
I   8 3*g'
|       S"jS
1 jjjj
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|      S   »S5?
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i ai
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s   s     I
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|      8f   S3   58
I      I   —	
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o     8s| —	
»     8 _   g    „
s I   I j   J
11     a
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Statement No. 5.—Miscellaneous Statistical Information, 1963
T tal     ocations
Average length of training jJeriod (mo_1_.)-{-
13 3
l <c58
"".   W
111 (100%)
Revok^inrdaUo^otUnes paroled-
15   (12%)
6     (6%)
Paroled for the fourth time	
111 (100%)
Percentage of Parolees Revoked in 1963
Following first prison
Following second prison
Following third prison sentence	
Occurrence of Revocations Relative to Time on Parole
During 1 to 4 months on parole	
During 5 to 8 months on parole !	
During 9 to 12 months on parole	
Day Parole
Three only were released on day parole (all from New Haven).
An effective rating for supervision has been based on the assumption that
75 per cent of all revocations should occur prior to Court action.   Revocations
based on Court action in excess of 25 per cent would detract proportionately from
a 100 per cent effective rating.
Respectfully submitted.
New Peoba
noN Cas
New Follow-up Cases
M Family and Children's Court to Magistrate's Court
1962/63 188 1963/64	
I 8 " I 'I I
J, 1963/64                  AA
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3. Sex of Admiss
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13 559
4. Educational Status of Admissions
5. Nationali
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'     Grand total. ' ,-
6. Racia
: Classification o
3 124
Canadian Indian                                                         - [       -_....
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_- S3
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5 1	
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f Admission
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1963/64                 AA 57
\     14. Offences for Which Prisoners Were Committed and Sentenced during the Year
Committed    .     .
M agams,,ne Person
M agalnst Public Morals and Decency
W aSains,PuoUc Order and Peace
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