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REPORT of the WATER RESOURCES SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1964 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1965

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT
of the
WATER RESOURCES
SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1964
  Victoria, B.C., January 20, 1965.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources for the year ended December 31, 1964.
 Victoria, B.C., January 20, 1965.
The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
for the 12 months ended December 31, 1964.
 CONTENTS
Organization Chart of the Water Resources Service	
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Water Resources...
The Water Rights Branch—
Organization Chart of the Water Rights Branch	
Comptroller	
Water Licensing Division	
District Engineers Division	
Improvement Districts Division	
Power and Major Licences Division	
The Water Investigations Branch—
Organization Chart of the Water Investigations Branch_.
Chief Engineer-	
Water Supply and Investigations Division	
Hydrology Division	
Ground Water Division	
Basin Planning and Power Division	
ARDA Division	
Records Compilation and Reports Section	
Draughting  Office	
Southern Okanagan Lands Project	
Accounting Division	
Personnel Section	
   °   a    8     H
8   <   "     S__
ll     *
 Report of the Water Resources Service
A. F. Paget, P.Eng., Deputy Minister of Water Resources
The Service expanded its Departmental interest during the year to deal with
some of the problems of flooding and erosion. Discussions have been under way
with the Federal Government to present information on necessary work that could
be considered under the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act.
With the final report of the Fraser River Board to Governments and the
termination of this Board, efforts to carry out its recommendations are going forward.
The rehabilitation of the dyking system has been considered as a project under this
Act that should receive the highest priority. Arrangements have been discussed at
the local levels to ascertain if there is local interest to have this necessary work done.
So far no work has been carried out. The Fraser Valley, along with other parts of
the Province, passed through a very difficult freshet season with the longest high-
water period of record, combined with above normal rainfall. With the exception
of one minor dyke, the system performed satisfactorily, although it was indicated
that extensive work will be needed in the future to improve drainage systems behind
the dykes.
The Southern Okanagan Lands Project passed through a period of reorganization, during which the Village of Oliver took over the domestic water system. Mr.
F. O. McDonald, Project Manager, retired and was succeeded by Mr. L. A. Pinske
as Project Supervisor. An improvement district was formed to negotiate an agreement with the ARDA administration for the rehabilitation of its system, with the
first work now under way. The improvement district will take over the operation
of the system when this is rebuilt.
The Service's responsibilities with respect to the ARDA programme for soil-
and water-conservation projects increased greatly during the year. It is hoped that
the lack of trained technical staff, which is now appearing as a major British Columbia problem, will not unduly affect this programme.
The Columbia River Treaty and Protocol were ratified by the Canadian
Government, and an exchange of notes subsequently appointed Mr. G. MacNabb
and myself to the permanent Engineering Board. The British Columbia Hydro and
Power Authority was earlier appointed as the Canadian Entity. The Board is at
present making arrangements for the proper liaison with the Entity and with the
United States section of the Board.
The Government of British Columbia met with the State of Alaska and the
Territory of the Yukon, at Whitehorse, for the third conference dealing with problems concerning all three jurisdictions. A decision was made to form a committee
to report to the next conference on practical developments for power and industry
that could help the economics of the whole region.
The rapidly expanding industrial growth of the Province, together with the
increasing population is placing increasing pressures on the Service, and new applications or approaches must be devised to deal with these, sometimes unique, problems.
The helpfulness of many Government agencies and departments is acknowledged, especially the Lands Service, the Department of Mines and Petroleums
Resources, and the Department of Agriculture.
  THE WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
THE WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
The
Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which adminis-
ters the
The
main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:—
(1)
The property in and the right to the use and flow of all water at any time in
any stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in right
of the Province.   The common-law principle of riparian water right has been
abolished.
(2)
Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights.   Earlier licences
Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the water-licence rentals, and observance of the regulations of the
A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land, mine, or
(4)
(5)
he can expropriate the land reasonably required if an amenable agreement can
not be reached.   If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee may
acquire a permit to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The
second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to generally supervise and
assist the
administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under
the Wate
r Act for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, dyking, street-lighting, providing finan-
cial aid t
is a self-
governing public corporate body administered by elected Trustees.   The under-
takings c
f an improvement district can be financed by Provincially guaranteed debenture
"SSUeSThe
administration of the Water Act is carried out by the Comptroller of Water
rights ai
d his staff, who are located at a headquarters office in Victoria and district
Victoria, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, Prince George, and Mission City.
Wa
er is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on economic
development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand by the utilizers
have been incorporated into improvement districts under the Water Act to oper-
ate comn
lunity projects and provide essential amenities.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
G. J. A. Kidd, Comptroller of Water Rights
The Water Rights Branch during 1964 was primarily concerned with n
of water licensing and the administration of the Water Act. The great eco
development going on in the Province has resulted in greater demands on water
use, and thus the administrative work involved has become increasingly heavier
and more complex. The accelerated subdivision of lands that is taking place with
the attendant apportionment of water licences is only one example.
Although the general field of water investigation, hydrology, and scientific and
technical studies became the responsibility of the Water Investigations Branch during
1963, the Water Rights Branch continued to carry out a large number and variety
of independent engineering feasibility and design projects during 1964. A noteworthy example of this work is the design and supervision of the water system for
the Fort Steele rehabilitation project, which is being developed by the Province as
a historic monument for the forthcoming Centennial Year.
In many areas of water-resource planning and use there are no clearly defined
boundaries of separate responsibilities, and close liaison and co-operation are maintained between the two branches of the Service. The District Engineers' offices of
the Water Rights Branch, because of their location in the field, provided office
facilities as well as staff assistance to the Water Investigations Branch, and the
headquarters staff of the Water Rights Branch provides certain other services to its
sister branch, such as filing. On the other hand, the Water Investigations Branch
assists the Water Rights Branch by providing specialist advice and carrying out
engineering investigations.
During 1964 the dual responsibility of Deputy Minister and Comptroller of
Water Rights was separated. Mr. DeBeck was appointed as Deputy Comptroller,
and the general strengthening of the administrative sections of the Water Rights
ORGANIZATION CHART OF THE WATER RIGHTS BRANCH,
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER,  1964
 DD 14 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Branch during the past year resulted in greatly increased production. This is clearly
indicated by the fact that the number of water licences issued during the year set a
new record which far exceeded any other previous year's production. A significant
part of this greatly increased production was due to the large increase in final water
licensing, which had declined seriously over the past several years. In spite of the
large number of licences issued, however, the number of outstanding applications
has not been decreased accordingly. This is partly because the receipt of new
applications continued at a high level, although down somewhat from the record
year of 1963.
Mr. R. G. Harris, who was District Engineer at Kelowna, joined the Water
Investigations Branch during the year and was replaced by Mr. R. J. Talbot, who
was formerly Assistant District Engineer in the Kamloops office.
Work associated with improvement districts has continued to expand, and the
resulting pressure has made it necessary to organize some of the work, particularly
the engineering, on a priority basis. This has resulted in the building-up of a
backlog of work, and indicates the section should be further strengthened. Some
alleviation of this problem has been achieved by having the District Engineers' offices
carry out studies wherever possible, and in some cases special assignments have
been taken on by other staff members of the Branch. The financial assistance given
under the Federal Municipal Development and Loan Act has made possible the
construction of many improvement district projects that had previously been uneconomical. This has added a further work load involved in the approval of consulting engineers' designs and in the handling of general administrative factors that
are involved. A further indication of the economic development in the Province
during 1964 is the large number of new improvement districts incorporated, which
amounted to about 8 per cent of the total of all improvement districts ii
at the end of 1963.
With the Portage Mountain project on the Peace River under active c
tion and with the Columbia River projects reaching final design stage, the Power
and Major Licences Division was very busy with the work associated with the
approval of plans for these projects in accordance with the terms of the water
licences. In addition, this section participated actively in the Columbia River Treaty
hearings of the External Affairs Committee, which were held in Ottawa, and which
extended over a period of several weeks. The section has been under strength for
some months because of the resignation of Mr. D. Priestman and the inability to
replace him. It should be noted that Mr. J. T. Rothwell, formerly of British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, has taken over responsibility for the section,
to replace Mr. H. D. DeBeck, who was promoted to Deputy Comptroller. In addition to the duties mentioned above, this section carries out special assignments. It
composes the nucleus for the digital computer studies for the Service, accumulates
statistics, and is responsible for major licence rentals and billings.
The finalization of the Columbia River Treaty arrangements during 1964
represented a significant achievement for the Province. The Comptroller participated actively as a principal adviser in all phases during the year, including the
negotiation of the final contractual arrangements for the sale of the downstream
benefits between the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority and the United
States purchasing agency, the Columbia Storage Power Exchange.
Senior members of the Branch have participated in a number of committees
and groups dealing with water matters and other resources. Most noteworthy has
been the participation by the Deputy Comptroller in the work of the Canadian
Council of Resource Ministers and the participation by the Comptroller on the
British Columbia Resources Conference.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
WATER LICENSING DIVISION
D. E. Smuin, Administrative Officer
The Water Licensing Division is the instrument through which the Comptroller
of Water Rights fulfils his statutory responsibilities with regard to the issue of new
water licences and the amendment of existing water licences as set out in the Water
Act. This involves the maintenance of a complex system of records which consists
of files, maps, and various indexes.
The need for the protection afforded by a water licence is well known in the
rural areas of the Province where the individual is responsible for his own water
supply. In many instances, water licences become more valuable than the lands
the water is used upon. For example, large industrial developments, such as
pulp-mills, are often dependent upon obtaining water licences in order to successfully
finance their programmes.
New applications are often on the same stream as existing licences, and this
may result in conflicts which can only be settled after extensive investigation by both
clerical and district office staffs. Each new application has to be considered in
respect to the amount of water available, the effect on prior rights, the suitability
and security of the proposed works, and the intention of the applicant to use the
water beneficially.
The year past has been one of generally increased activity within the Water
Licensing Division. Specific details are included within the following reports of
two sections of the Division—the General Office, under the supervision of the Chief
Clerk, and the Administrative Draughting Office, under the supervision of the Chief
Draughtsman.
 DD 16 WATER RESOURCES
General Office
The General Office of the Water Rights Branch is divided into the Applications,
Amendment, and Ground Water Sections.
The Application Section processes all new applications for water licences,
approvals, and permits over Crown land. In the course of this processing, it is
necessary to maintain indexes by name, licence number, file number, and water
district, and to make use of records of the Accounting Division by account number
and the Draughting Room records by stream and legal description. All applications
must be considered in relation to existing water licences, or to previous applications
on the same stream. Every person whose rights or lands may be affected by a new
application must be notified before the application is adjudicated. If objections to
an application are received by the Comptroller, they are thoroughly investigated.
In some instances, determinations on applications are made by the Comptroller only
after formal hearings have been held to hear all pertinent arguments.
All applications for permits to cross or occupy Crown lands for the construction
and maintenance of works, or the flooding of lands owned by the Crown, must be
investigated and determination made as to whether the Crown land affected is available. This requires searches in the records of the Lands Service, Forest Service,
and Parks Branch and any other Government department with an interest in the
property.
The Applications Section also processes applications for approvals for nonrecurrent use of water and for changes to be made in and about a stream.
The Amendment Section processes applications for amendments to existing
licences by apportionment, changes of works, transfers of appurtenancy, and sundry
amendments.
When the land to which a licence is appurtenant is subdivided, the rights and
obligations imposed under the licence may be apportioned among the new owners
in proportion to the interest held by each owner.
If a licensee wishes to transfer the rights held under a licence to another or to
an additional parcel of land, he may apply for a transfer of appurtenancy, which
the Comptroller may grant in whole or in part. However, the diversion of an additional quantity of water cannot be authorized under any amendment to a licence.
Amendment by change of works authorizes the construction of additional or
other works than those previously authorized, such as the relocation of a point of
diversion or pipe-line. Sundry amendments pertain to matters such as the authorization of additional time for the completion of works or for changes of purpose,
corrections of errors, etc.
Other functions of the General Office are the duties involved with the processing
of abandonment and cancellation of licences, in whole or in part, for various reasons,
such as failure to establish or continue beneficial use of water or non-payment of
rentals. While licences can be abandoned voluntarily by the licensee, the cancellation of licences entails searches at the Land Registry Office, Surveyor of Taxes, and
any other records available to discover the ownership of the property concerned.
Notices must then be sent to each person and a waiting period of 60 days allowed
for payment of rentals or for filing objection to the proposed cancellation. If many
persons' rights are affected, notice may be published once a week for four consecutive weeks in a local newspaper. The protections afforded by law to all who may
be entitled to any interest in a water licence make the amendment or cancellation of
licences a difficult and time-consuming operation.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH DD 17
Records are also maintained by the Amendment Section with regard to water-
users' communities incorporated under the Water Act. These communities are composed of groups of six or more licensees who have joined together for the purpose
of constructing and mamtaining a joint water system or storage dam, financed by
levying assessments on the members. At the end of 1964 the number of such communities in existence in the Province was 71, an increase of 4 during 1964.
The Ground Water Section represents a relatively new activity of the General
Office. During the past year, inquiries were sent out to all the Provinces of Canada
and many of the Western States of the United States requesting copies of their
ground-water legislation. A study of information received is at present being
carried out in order to assess the problems involved in licensing this water source
and to determine procedures to be followed. The various approaches taken by the
authorities canvassed indicates that the administration of ground-water use will be
at least as difficult as for surface water, and hence our policies will be formulated
with caution. It is anticipated that certain specific areas will be proclaimed for
ground-water licensing in the year 1965.
Water Resources Service files, formerly stored with and forming part of the
Lands Service numerical file system, have been transferred to the Water Resources
Service vault and now come under the control of this department. The numerical
system will not be changed, and hence certain liaison will be maintained with the
Lands Service, who will allocate blocks of numbers for our use in creating new files.
The onerous task of compiling a file register is proceeding. The Lands Service
file register has been checked to assure that all Water Resources Service files have
been transferred from the Lands Service vault and are now in our possession. As
time permits, files will be scrutinized to determine whether they should be microfilmed and destroyed. This operation will, in time, provide valuable file space, for
which our needs constantly expand due to the continuing nature of water-resource
administration.
The principal activities of the General Office in the 12-month period ended
October 31, 1964, are shown in the following table, together with the same data
for the four preceding years. The development of these activities over the past 10
years is shown graphically on Plates 1 to 3.
1960    {     1961    j     1962
1963
1964
Appli
ill
I
l
Appli
Appl>
Appl
cations for transfer of appurtenancy	
72
Appl
Cane
2222    |    2>384    |    2>3«
2294
228    !      220    |      200
229
Righ
™    j       '5   |       >*
m
M
Ann
5 023    |    5,900    j   5,921
5,441
 DD 18 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Administrative Draughting Office
The Administrative Draughting Office staff is composed of a Chief Draughtsman, a Supervising Draughtsman, eight draughtsmen, and a clerk. The main
functions of this office are checking the legal status of water applications, maintaining stream registers and plan indexes, compiling, maintaining, and revising water
rights maps, preparing plats for water licences, clearing land applications for the
Lands Branch, checking petitions and preparing legal descriptions and plans for
improvement districts, and attending to requests for maps and various information
from our district offices, other departments of Government, and the public.
Applications for water licences and amendments to licences received by the
Licensing Division are cleared through the Draughting Office, and a complete check
is made of the legal status of every application received. No licence can be issued,
no change of appurtenancy or works, no extension of time, apportionment, or right-
of-way for any licence can be made without first checking or clearing through the
Draughting Office to ensure that no individual's vested water rights or property
rights are violated. In most cases, this work entails a search of the records of other
departments of Government, such as Lands Branch, Land Registry Office, Surveyor
of Taxes, Department of Highways, and Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources. Upon completion of this work, all applications are entered on the water
rights maps and in the stream registers, which together form a record of all pertinent
data regarding water licences and applications.
The Draughting Office also prepares the plats which are attached to every water
licence issued. These plats consist of a plan of the licensee's property and show in
detail all works, such as the intake point, pipe-lines, pumps, power-house, and buildings where water is to be used.
Another function of the Draughting Office is the scrutiny of applications to the
Lands Branch with respect to Crown lands in order to establish whether the rights
of water licensees would be affected.
A major function of this office is the checking of petitions pertaining to improvement districts. This involves searches of the records of the Land Registry Office
and Surveyor of Taxes to obtain correct property descriptions. When a petition to
incorporate an improvement district has been checked and found correct, a plan
showing all lands within the boundaries of the proposed district is drawn up and a
legal description defining the boundaries of the district is prepared. This work
accounts for about 25 per cent of the time of the Draughting Office. During 1964,
25 new improvement districts were incorporated and the boundaries of 47 districts
were amended.
The following table illustrates the general increase in work which the Draughting Office has handled during the last three years:—
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
APPLICATIONS
 j l\_ \
 rv^r—i	
1955   1956  1957 1958 1959  1960 1961   1962 1963 1964
 DD 20
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
/ y
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/
/
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19
55     1956      1957     1958      19
:0NDIT10NAL LICENCES  ISS
59     1960     19
UED	
61      1962     1963    19
64
p
ate 2.
 300
200
100
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
MAJOR   AMENDMENTS  TO   LICENCES
DD 21
/
J
55  1956 1957 1958  1959  I960 1961   1962 1963  IS
Plate 3.
64
 DD 22 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
DISTRICT ENGINEERS DIVISION
M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Chief District Engineer
Water Rights Branch district offices, each in the charge of a District Engineer,
are located at Kamloops, Kelowna, Mission City, Nelson, Prince George, and
Victoria. The District Engineers at these six offices, with their staffs, are charged
with the general administration of the Water Act within the water districts falling
within their respective areas of jurisdiction. This administration includes the settling
of disputes between licensees and the regulation of the diversion and use of water
under water licences.
The District Engineers investigate and report on all applications for water
licences on streams within their areas and on applications for apportionments,
changes of works, or other amendments of existing water licences. They are also
required to investigate and report on any matter of an engineering or administrative
nature coming under the Water Act on which the Comptroller requires information
and to prepare engineering designs and cost estimates for projects for flood protection and prevention of stream-bank erosion. Feasibility reports on proposed water-
supply systems are also carried out by the engineering staff of the district offices in
co-operation with the Improvement Districts Engineering Section in Victoria.
Plans for storage dams (other than those of a major nature), water-diversion
works, and other structures are referred to the District Engineers for their review
and recommendations or approval. The District Engineers also conduct a programme of continuing inspections of storage dams and other structures under water
licences to ensure that proper maintenance is carried out and that no hazardous
situations are developing.
The respective district offices have adjusted to the changes in water district
boundaries effected last year and to the reallocation of some areas under their respective jurisdictions with resultant transfer of water licences and files between
offices. This has resulted in more efficient coverage of some areas formerly difficult
to reach from the responsible offices.
The Chief District Engineer, with headquarters at Victoria, is responsible to
the Comptroller and Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights for the general supervision of the staff of the district offices. During the year all the district offices were
visited and field trips made with the District Engineers of the Kamloops, Nelson,
and Prince George offices to assist in problems within their areas. The Chief District
Engineer also attended to the removal, by contract, of a large log jam on the Koksilah
River near Duncan on Vancouver Island and inspected and reported on the extensive
damage caused at the City of Alberni by the tidal wave which followed the disastrous
Alaska earthquake of Easter, 1964.
The separate reports of the respective District Engineers follow.
Kamloops District Office
P. G. Odynsky, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kamloops District Office administers the Water Act throughout the central
section of the Fraser River drainage basin, which is divided into four water districts
—Ashcroft, Cariboo, Kamloops, and Nicola.
The staff of the Kamloops District Office consisted of a District Engineer,
two Assistant District Engineers, a field engineering assistant, and a clerk-stenographer, in addition to which three students were hired to assist with surveys and
clerical duties during the summer months.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH DD 23
The average annual precipitation within the water districts varies from 7 inches
at Ashcroft and 10 inches at Kamloops to 20 inches in the eastern part of the
Cariboo District. Since most of the precipitation occurs during the winter months,
irrigation is required in all districts to grow crops successfully. The majority of
water licences issued are for irrigation or for storage to supplement deficient
Nature provided the 1964 water-year with higher than average precipitation.
Winter snowfall, from December, 1963, to March, 1964, totalled 36 inches at the
Kamloops Airport, while the average for the same period is 29 inches. Summer
rainfall from June to September, inclusive, totalled 6.2 inches, compared to an
average for the same period of 4 inches. As a consequence, the number of complaints regarding shortages of water was relatively small and occurred principally
in May, before the advent of the spring run-off, and June rains.
Run-off from melting snow was augmented by warm rains occurring during
the month of June. In the Kamloops area, civic groups were concerned that the
possibility of a flood on the Thompson River would result in damage to populated
areas. Although the North Thompson and South Thompson Rivers did rise to
levels that were higher than average, flood levels did not materialize.
Levels recorded for Nicola Lake during June, 1964, are the maximum on
record. Minor flooding occurred on low lands adjoining the Coldwater River at
Merritt.
Although the number of applications for new water licences decreased slightly
in 1964 from the past two years, more applications for apportionment and for
amendment of licences and more requests for studies of water regulation and use
were received, reflecting the problems resulting from the increasing density of
population and subdivision of land in settled areas. The list of investigations and
studies undertaken by the Kamloops Office staff indicates the problems occurring
from the increasing demands for water resulting from population growth.
Summary of Year's Work
Water applications on hand November 1, 1963  319
Water applications received  294
Water applications cancelled !     55
Water application reports forwarded  290
Water applications on hand October 31, 1964  268
Final-licence survey reports forwarded     93
Final-licence surveys run __-    44
L.R.O. searches made for Victoria Office     20
L.R.O. plans ordered and sent to Victoria Office  338
Apportionment reports forwarded     22
C/W reports forwarded     35
Transfer of appurtenancy reports forwarded       5
Extension of time recommendations forwarded     55
Dam inspections     75
Investigations and Studies
1. Feasibility reports submitted concerning domestic water supplies for the
communities of Sorrento, Aspen Park area near Rayleigh, Heffley Creek community, Blue River Improvement District, Spences Bridge Waterworks District.
2. Feasibility of increasing storage on Little Disdero Lakes.
3. Study of flooding on the Quilchena Golf and Country Club resulting from
high water levels in Quilchena Creek and Nicola Lake.   Report submitted.
 DD 24 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
4. Daily records in the month of June of river-levels on the Thompson Rivers
at Kamloops and Savona.   Inspection of dykes in North Kamloops and Halston.
5. Studies and surveys of existing and potential storage capacities on Scuitto,
Campbell, Barnes, and Willard Lakes.
6. Investigations of encroachment of sawmill operations on the Quesnel River
at Quesnel, made jointly with C. K. Harman, District Engineer at Prince George.
7. Joint inspection with B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District and Department of
Highways of ponds located above Westside to determine the possibility of controlling
spring run-off in order to minimize flooding of the housing area at Westside.
8. The review for approval of designs, plans, and specifications, together with
inspection of the construction, was carried out for the following new dams:—
(a) A 45-foot-high, earth-fill dam on Charcoal Creek, tributary of Chase
Creek.
(b) Timber-crib rock-fill dam on Star Lake, near Clearwater.
(c) Construction of a new sluiceway in the earth-fill dam at Heffley Lake,
operated by the Heffley Irrigation District.
(d) An 11-foot-high earth-fill dam on Bleeker Lake.
(e) A 30-foot-high earth-fill dam for a water reservoir for Clinton Village
on Clinton Creek.
(/) A 12-foot-high earth-fill dam on Beaton Lake; construction deferred.
9. Inspections of the condition of existing dams included the following:—
(a) Bonaparte and Machete Lakes.
(b) Five dams on Sword Creek, located west of the Fraser River.
(c) Dam failure on Ogden Reservoir, near Lac la Hache.
(d) Construction features of 11 dams were surveyed for issue of final water
licences.
Kelowna District Office
R. J. Talbot, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kelowna District Office administers the Princeton, Fairview, Grand Forks,
Vernon, and Revelstoke Water Districts, which comprise the Kettle, Similkameen,
and Okanagan drainage basins, the Shuswap River drainage basin above Sicamous,
and the part of the Columbia River basin from its confluence with the Canoe River
down to the north end of the Upper Arrow Lake.
The increased use of water and a demand for the use of more water has
necessitated a step-up in hydrologic studies. In 1956 it was estimated that the
Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys contained 35 per cent of the Province's irrigated
acreage, and this acreage has increased annually. In addition, the increase in requests for engineering advice by improvement districts has resulted in a very heavy
demand on the District Office. Despite this heavy demand for engineering reports,
however, a record number of water applications were reported on, and the office
recommended on amendments for 38 existing water licences.
The precipitation for the period November 1, 1963, to October 31, 1964,
recorded at Penticton Airport (elevation, 1,121 feet) was 12.20 inches, slightly
higher than the annual average of 11.35 inches. As a result, complaints of water
shortage received by this office were less than average.
An inspection of storage-works is being continued to ensure that licensees are
carrying out routine maintenance of their storage-works. Forty-three storage-site
inspections were made this year, and remedial work of one sort or another was
suggested following most of the inspections.
The Kelowna District Office has received co-operation and assistance from the
staff of the Dominion Government Research Station at Summerland, the Soil Survey
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH DD 25
staff of the Provincial Department of Agriculture at Kelowna, the Soil Testing
Branch of the Department of Highways, the local Provincial and municipal land
assessment offices, and from water bailiffs, irrigation districts, and many individual
licensees.   We are grateful for their assistance.
A summary of work done by this office in connection with water licence applications for the years 1959 to 1964, inclusive, is given below:—
Vear
-Br
Applications
S3
__a»
U59
|       |
46
122
1962	
184
Applications- Summary of Year's Work
Applications outstanding November 1, 1963  82
New applications received  192
Applications inspected and reported on  193
Applications cancelled or abandoned  46
Applications on hand October 31, 1964   35
Licence amendments reported on   38
New water licences issued in 1964—
Conditional licences  155
Final licences   _  39
Final-licence surveys  255  59
Miscellaneous surveys    10
Meetings attended...     65
Engineering Investigations and Studies
1. General supervision of the reconstruction of dams on Trapper Lake, Hidden
Lake, Glenmore Balancing Reservoir, and Nickel Plate Lake, and the sluice replacement at Aberdeen Lake.
2. Extensive supervision and engineering assistance were provided for the
Meadow Valley Irrigation District (newly formed in 1964) during the reconstruction
of its Darke Lake Dam.
3. Report with recommendations made on Lakeview Irrigation District's irrigation distribution system, annual maintenance and the condition of the main flume,
and the administration of the district.
4. Investigated the possibilities of storage on Glanzier Creek to supplement
the domestic supply for Stepney Waterworks District.IHj
5. Preliminary plans drawn for a diversion dam on Gardom Creek, for the
proposed replacement of the Mission Creek Smithson-Alphonse Dam, and for an
intake on Mission Creek for South Kelowna Water-users' Community.
6. Surveys and minor engineering advice for Canyon Waterworks District,
Westbank Irrigation District, Ellison Irrigation District, Grandview Flats Waterworks District, Steele Springs Waterworks District, Covert Irrigation District, and
the Kelowna Vocational School.
7. A storage survey of Eleanor and Naramata Lakes and adjacent watersheds
was carried out and report submitted in connection with Naramata Irrigation District's request for ARDA assistance for increased storage.
 DD 26 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
8. Preliminary design and estimate of costs for the replacement of Nickel Plate
Lake dam.
9. Layout and supervision of Fascieux Slough (South Kelowna) drainage
ditch.
10. Report made on the feasibility of rehabilitating the irrigation distribution
system as a closed system for Scotty Creek Irrigation District.
Mission City District Office
E. G. Harrison, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Mission City District Office administers the Water Act in the recently
revised Vancouver and New Westminster Water Districts, in South-western British
Columbia. Most of the work in the two water districts is concentrated in a 1,000-
square mile area contained between Hope, Vancouver, Squamish, and the Sechelt
Peninsula.
The office was established in 1961, and the staff consisted of a District Engineer,
Assistant District Engineer, and a clerk-stenographer. This year the staff was
increased to include an engineering aide and his assistant on a temporary basis so
that final-licence surveys and other field work can now be carried out.
Water supplies during the year have been good due to above average precipitation, so that only a few water shortages were experienced. Any water problems
that did arise generally involved drainage and surpluses, rather than shortages. The
increasing demand for water for irrigation and domestic use from many streams requires increasingly detailed investigations of the applications for licences, especially
with respect to the quantity of water available.
During the year this office continued to assist the Water Investigations Branch
in the collection of ground-water data in the Lower Fraser Valley, and in June the
office staff assisted in the inspection and collection of information in respect to the
dykes in the Fraser Valley during the period of high water levels. The office also
continued to co-operate closely with the large number of municipalities and other
organized areas on the Lower Mainland.
Summary of Year's Work
Applications received....
Applications investigated and reported on	
Applications refused, cancelled, or abandoned....
Final-licence reports submitted	
Miscellaneous field surveys 	
Investigations—
Pollution	
Flooding	
Miscellaneous        :
Meetings with municipalities and organized areas      11
Number of small streams measured  ...    10
Conditional licences added to files    184
Nelson District Office
R. A. Pollard, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Nelson District Office administers the Water Act in the Nelson, Kaslo,
Cranbrook, Fernie, and Golden Water Districts within South-eastern British Co-
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH DD 27
Staff working in the Nelson Office during 1964 consisted of a District Engineer,
two Assistant District Engineers, a field survey party chief, and a stenographer, all
full-time employees, and two student assistants during the summer.
Two conditions resulted in a plentiful water supply in this region during the
1964 irrigation season. First, there remained a much higher than normal snowpack
in the mountains because of the late spring. With the spring run-off so retarded,
there existed a severe flood potential. It was fortunate that the weather remained
unseasonably cool in the early summer, with the result that few damaging floods
occurred. Second, the ensuing months were exceptionally cool and wet. Not until
an a Indian summer " in October was the weather fine. As a result, there were few
complaints by licensees of shortage of water.
During 1964, 184 new conditional licences and 79 new final licences were
added to the Nelson Office files, making a total of 7,319 water licences. Of these,
4,578 are now active and 2,741 have been cancelled.
There were many more applications for water licences in 1964 than in any
previous year. Much of this increase resulted from the sale by the Land Settlement
Board of the old Doukhobor lands in the Brilliant, Ootischenia, and Pass Creek
areas near Castlegar to the Orthodox Doukhobors. Starting in September, 1963,
these Doukhobors applied for some 120 individual water licences until, in February,
1964, they petitioned to form an improvement district under the Water Act. Following this petition, the new Doukhobor land-owners ceased to apply for licences, and
all work on the processing of their applications was suspended pending decision on
the improvement district proposal.
Despite the staff increase in the autumn of 1963 and the fewer time-consuming
complaints and disputes by licensees over water shortage during 1964, the Nelson
Office now has more unreported applications than one year ago, largely because of
the numerous applications received from the Doukhobors. However, based on the
applications for water licences dealt with during the period, office output during
1964 exceeded that of the previous year. There has also been'an increase in the
number of engineering studies undertaken by the Nelson Office staff.
Summary of Year's Work
Applications on hand at beginning of year  148
New applications received    "' - . t _. *...- ' "   -           ^^9B
Applications inspected and reported on  231
Applications cancelled or abandoned       50
Applications on hand at end of year  _I II      200
Final-licence and licence-amendment surveys  146
Pollution investigations     8
Flooding investigations           11
Water-use investigations  7
Meetings with improvement districts and water-users' communities.._    20
Miscellaneous meetings and investigations of non-routine nature     22
Sampling snow courses     14
Engineering Investigations and Studies
1. Domestic water supply for Bluebird Corner in Village of Fruitvale and proposed Goat Mountain Waterworks District (incomplete).
2. Irrigation supply for Castlegar and District Golf Club.
3. Assistance in arrangements for annual Western Snow Conference in Nelson.
 ~1
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
4. Pump tests of Green Gables Waterworks Co. well near Trail and of Beaver
Falls Waterworks District's new well near Fruitvale.
5. Design of division tanks for licensees on two streams.
6. May, 1964, flood of Croasdaile Creek near Gray Creek.
7. Measurements of yield of Nakusp Hot Springs for Department of Recreation and Conservation and of Ainsworth Hot Springs and of Harris and Davis
Springs at Bonnington for Highways Department.
8. Supervision of test well-drilling at Fort Steele.
9. Design of new water system for Fort Steele restoration project and supervision of construction.
Prince George District Office
C. K. Harman, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Prince George District Engineer is responsible for local water matters in
the Prince George, Quesnel, Fort Fraser, Hazelton, Prince Rupert, Peace River,
and Liard Water Districts. This area includes the Skeena River drainage, the
Peace and Liard River drainages within British Columbia, and the Fraser River
drainage upstream of a point approximately 21 miles north of Williams Lake.
There were no water shortages in the Prince George District during 1964. The
precipitation during the irrigation season was much above normal in the whole
District. Prince George recorded a total precipitation of 22.6 inches from April
to September for this year, while the long-term average for the same period is only
12.3 inches. As a result of the much increased precipitation, many complaints of
flooding were received from land-owners situated on smaller streams.
Relatively cool spring weather resulted in a late snowmelt in the major river
drainages, with the result that above normal spring flows were recorded on the
Fraser, Skeena, and Peace Rivers. Some flooding occurred near Terrace, Prince
George, and Fort St. John. The maximum water-levels this year at Prince George
were about 2 feet lower than for the 1948 flood year.
The work in the Prince George District Office increased sharply in 1964
because of the addition of the new water districts late last year and because of the
new large industrial and power projects in the area. The number of new water
licence applications received increased over 100 per cent, from 77 last year to 161
this year. Only 50 per cent of this increase is due to the addition of the new water
districts.
The new interest in the construction of pulp-mills in this area has resulted in
a large demand for water for these plants. Two new pulp-mills are under construction at Prince George. The mill at Port Edward is to be expanded, and several
others are proposed in the area. We have already received applications for a total
of 260 c.f.s. of water for pulp-mill purposes. It is indeed fortunate that water of
good quality is abundant in this area, and it appears that ample water will be available for all of the pulp-mills planned in the district.
The industrial expansion at Prince George has accelerated the formation of
improvement districts in the rural area around the city. Four new improvement
districts were incorporated during the year near Prince George—namely, Crooked
River Waterworks District, Charella Gardens Waterworks District, Western Acres
Improvement District, and Nechako Improvement District,'|
A clerk-stenographer was added to the district staff in June of this year.
 WATER RIGHTS
Summary of Year's Work
Applications on hand at beginning of year	
New applications received _
Applications inspected and reported or
Applications cancelled or abandoned-.
Applications on hand at end of period .
Conditional licences added to the files...
Final licences added to the files__
Engineering Investigations and Studies
1. A new water-supply intake dam was designed by this office for the New
Hazelton Improvement District. Construction of the new dam should begin early
in 1965.
2. A brief study and investigation was made of the Starlane Waterworks
District's water system. Recommendations were made to the Trustees for improvements required to bring the water system up to an acceptable standard.
3. An investigation was made and a design submitted for the Town of Fort
St. John to control the water levels at the outlet of Charlie Lake.
4. The District Engineer co-operated in a ground-water test-drilling programme
in the Nechako Improvement District that will continue until next year.
5. An investigation was carried out and report is being completed on the
feasibility of a water-supply system for the Port Clements Improvement District on
the Queen Charlotte Islands.
6. Investigated complaints of erosion at two sites on the Nechako River at
Vanderhoof—one on Canyon Creek at Hixon and one on the Kitimat River near
Kitimat. A bank-protection project was undertaken to protect land on the Nechako
River at Vanderhoof, the actual work being done by the Department of Highways.
Victoria District Office
C. Errington, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Victoria District Office administers water rights matters over Vancouver
Island, the Gulf Islands, and adjacent islands. These comprise the Alberni,
Nanaimo, and Victoria Water Districts.
The Port Renfrew, Tofino, Kelsey Bay, and Port Hardy areas are becoming
more accessible as new roads are being developed. The greatly improved ferry
service to the various islands is helping to speed up the settlement of what used to
be almost inaccessible areas. These developments all require domestic water, and
we are often asked for advice and assistance in this respect. Available sources of
water quickly become subject to applications for water licences.
On the other hand, some of the more populated areas, as on the Saanich
Peninsula, are becoming incorporated into improvement districts for waterworks
purpose, when one licence may replace many small ones together with their problems. This trend has been quite pronounced in recent years, and offsets to some
extent the additional work resulting from new areas coming into the licensing picture.
The summer of 1964 was an excessively wet one; for example, at Campbell
River the average precipitation for the months June through to September was 3.00
inches, compared to a long-term average of 2.01 inches, and there was a minimum
of hot drying weather during the period. We therefore had practically no water-
shortage complaints during the irrigation season.
During the year under review some 24 special studies, investigations, or reports
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Summary of the Year's Work
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS DIVISION
A. K. Sutherland, Solicitor
The number of improvement districts in operation has been increasing steadily
for many years, as illustrated in Plate 4, and there is now a total of 308 districts in
existence. During the year the following new districts were incorporated: Alouette
Dyking District, Bowser Waterworks District, Charella Gardens Waterworks District,
Crooked River Waterworks District, Hagensborg Waterworks District, Kelowna and
District Hospital Improvement District No. 35, Little River Improvement District,
Mayne Island Improvement District, Meadow Valley Irrigation District, Michel-
Natal Hospital Improvement District No. 36, Nechako Improvement District, Noo-
satsum Waterworks District, Olalla Improvement District, Radium Sewerage District,
Raspberry Irrigation District, Riverview Improvement District, Rocky Mountain
Hospital Improvement District No. 37, Sorrento Waterworks District, Southern
Okanagan Lands Irrigation District, Vavenby Improvement District, Western Acres
Improvement District, Whaling Bay Station Improvement District, and Wood Lake
Improvement District. The following districts were dissolved: Chase River Fire
Protection District, Chetwynd Waterworks District, Clinton Waterworks District,
Girouard Irrigation District, Mamquam Sewerage District, Mamquam Waterworks
District, and Harrison Mills Dyking District.
As already stated, the object (or objects) for which a district is incorporated
is set out in its Letters Patent. Upon petition of the Trustees, action may be taken
to have such Letters Patent amended to include extra objects, and many districts
which were originally incorporated for one purpose now have several. The activities for which the existing districts are responsible include irrigation system—
ownership and operation; domestic waterworks—ownership and operation; dyking-
works; drainage-works; land-improvement works; fire protection—provision and
(or) operation; street-lighting—provision and (or) operation; garbage—collection
and (or) disposal; sewerage-works—ownership and operation; parks and playgrounds—provision and (or) operation; cemetery—operation; community hall—
provision and (or) operation; electric power—generation and (or) distribution;
mosquito control—financial aid toward; hospital—provision and operation, or
provision of financial aid toward building and (or) operation of a hospital; ambulance service—ownership and (or) operation.
Improvement districts incorporated for hospital purposes are distinctively
named, with the words " Hospital Improvement District No. " contained within
the corporate name. There are 36 such districts now in existence. Two of these
have the responsibility for the provision and the operation of hospital facilities, but
the remainder are responsible only for providing financial aid toward the constructing, equipping, or operating of a hospital in the vicinity.
All improvement districts are empowered by the Water Act to raise revenue
by the levying of a tax or taxes upon one or more of a number of bases, and to raise
money by the imposition of tolls and charges. They are also empowered to issue
debentures and to obtain funds for capital purposes (this is the usual method in
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
NUMBER    OF
IMPROVEMENT    DISTRICTS
1920 1925 1930 1935   1940 1945  1950  1955  I960 I:
Plate 4.
 DD 32 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
use). In many cases, improvement district debentures and the interest thereon
are guaranteed by the Province pursuant to the Improvement Districts Assistance
Loan Act... At the present time there are $14,162,800 of such guaranteed debentures outstanding, of which $4,060,600 were guaranteed during 1964.
Section 62 of the Water Act enables districts to obtain current operating funds
as advances from the Province (for certain purposes only) and to utilize the services
of the local Provincial Assessor and Collector to collect these advances from the
land-owners in the areas and to repay the Province. The purposes for which this
procedure may be used are fire protection, street-lighting, hospital purposes, and
ambulance services providing it is supplied by a fire protection or hospital district.
If a larger amount is required for capital purposes, and collection and repayment
by the Provincial Collector in the same year would result in too heavy a tax burden
for that year, an advance of the required amount may be obtained from the Province, with collection and repayment carried out over a number of years. During
1964 the following advances and collections were made under this section of the
. $1,130,793.82
89,807.00
(a) Assessed and collected for repayment of a
advanced for the current year	
(b) Amounts advanced in 1964 by the Province repayable in future years	
(c) Assessed and collected for amounts advanced with
repayment over a number of years       223,406.27
(d) Total long-term advances outstanding as at December 31, 1964 1,509,667.88
During the year a number of improvement districts obtained approval for loans
under the Municipal Development and Loan, Act to assist in carrying out capital
works. The value of these projects totalled $1,669,806, which covered the following projects:—
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH DD 33
Improvement Districts Engineering Section
The Improvement Districts Engineering Section handles the technical and engineering work associated with improvement districts incorporated under the Water
Act. While the objects of an improvement district, as defined in its Letters Patent,
may be numerous, it is mainly those functions connected with domestic water supply,
irrigation, and sewerage which concern the Section.
The Section's principal functions consist of investigating and reporting on the
engineering and economic feasibility of a project, or checking the technical and
financial aspects of proposals submitted by districts, usually through their consultants. Other duties include assistance to districts in operating existing engineering
works and the dispensation of technical advice. In some instances a complete engineering service has been provided for a particular project from the initial investigation stage through to preparation of the design drawings, contract documents and
specifications, and finally supervision of installation of the works.
The following is a list of assignments completed during the past year:—
Review of Water-supply Proposals
Bowser Waterworks District.—Plans for an intake well, concrete storage tank,
and distribution system were approved for Bowser Waterworks District, located
north of Parksville on Vancouver Island.   The works are now in service.
Diamond Improvement District.—Proposals for the installation of a water-
supply system with a bulk supply from the Village of Ladysmith were submitted by
Diamond Improvement District.
Nechako Improvement District.—-Approval was given to the Nechako Improvement District, immediately north of Prince George, to install water systems if test-
wells showed adequate ground-water supplies to be available. Test-holes are at
present being drilled.
Fruitvale Improvement District.—Plans for a steel storage tank and new supply
main were submitted by Fruitvale Improvement District. The district lies east of
Trail.
Riverview Area.—Various proposals to supply water to the Riverview area
near Creston were examined, but all were found to be economically unfeasible.
Garden Bay.—Approval was given for the installation of pipe-lines forming the
first stage of system renewal for the Garden Bay Improvement District on Sechelt
Peninsula.
Alice Siding Area.—Various alternative schemes for a water supply to Alice
Siding area near Creston were studied.
Spences Bridge Waterworks District.—Proposals for repair of the Murray Creek
dam, renewal of the supply main, and provision of storage for Spences Bridge Waterworks District were reviewed.
Rutland Waterworks District.—The possibility of diverting water from Daves
Creek to augment the supply to Rutland Waterworks District was examined and
found economically unfeasible. Subsequently, the district submitted a proposal for
extending the existing system to serve the West Rutland area, using an established
well as a source of supply. This scheme was appraised, and suggested modifications
are currently being considered by the district's consulting engineers.
Airport Hill Improvement District.—Final plans and specifications for a water
system to serve the Airport Hill Improvement District, Prince George, were approved.   The works are currently under construction.
Fernwood Point Improvement District.—Following approval of final plans and
specifications, a water system to serve the Fernwood Point area, Saltspring Island,
was installed and is operating successfully.
 DD 34
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Dean Park Road Area.—In conformity with recommendations made in a report
on water supply for North Saanich, the Dean Park Road area was included in the
Sidney Waterworks District.   Plans for a water-system were approved, and the works
Sandwick Waterworks District.—The district obtained approval of final plans
for a water system which has subsequently been installed.
Naramata Irrigation District.—Consulting engineer's plans were approved for
the installation of bulk chlorinators on both the north and south intake pipe-lines.
Wilmer Waterworks District.—The district obtained approval for, and subsequently installed, a domestic water-supply system.
Curteis Point Area.—The Curteis Point area of North Saanich was included in
the recently organized Deep Cove Waterworks District. A report submitted by the
district's consulting engineer indicated that the provision of water-supply facilities to
Curteis Point was economically feasible.
Sicamous Waterworks District.—Final plans and specifications were approved,
and a water system installed.
Bluebird Corner.—Following the preparations of a feasibility report prepared
by the District Office, Nelson, the Beaver Falls Waterworks District agreed in principle to include the Bluebird Corner area. Preliminary plans for the water system
have been studied, but are currently held in abeyance whilst alternative sources of
supply are being investigated.
Beaver Falls Waterworks District.—The district has purchased an existing water
system previously operated as a public utility. Plans have been approved for system
extensions and modifications, but construction is held up pending the selection of a
supplementary source of water supply.
Chetwynd Waterworks District.—The district obtained approval for the extension of the water system. Subsequently, Chetwynd obtained the status of a village
and the district has been dissolved.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH DD 35
Hagensborg Waterworks District.—Final plans and specifications for a water
system to serve Hagensborg in the Bella Coola Valley were approved. The works
are substantially completed and should be in operation early in the new year.
Port Hardy Improvement District.—Studies were made of several reports regarding the provision of sewer and water services for Port Hardy on North Vancou-
Pemberton North Improvement District.—Plans and specifications were approved for a water system to serve Pemberton North, located on the Lillooet River
north of Garibaldi Park.   The works have now been installed.
Sorrento Waterworks District.—Following a report by the Water Rigjits Branch,
the Blue River Improvement District is negotiating to obtain ownership of the existing C.N.R. water system at Blue River. It is proposed that the system be extended
to serve the majority of existing homes in the district.
Noosatsum Waterworks District.—Final plans and specifications were approved
for the installation of a water system to serve the Noosatsum Waterworks District,
located in the Bella Coola Valley.
Sidney Waterworks District.—Plans covering proposed modifications and extensions to the water system were approved.
Clearbrook Waterworks District.—A report on proposed extensions and modifications to the existing water system was reviewed.
Miscellaneous Subdivisions.—Numerous plans and specifications for water systems to serve private subdivisions were reviewed in connection with water licence
Review of Irrigation Proposals
Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District.—Further site investigations,
air photography, surveys, and mapping were carried out in connection with a proposed report on the rehabilitation of the domestic and irrigation system serving the
Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District.
Oyama Irrigation District.—Proposals for the rehabilitation of the Oyama Irrigation District's system were reviewed.
Review of Sewerage Proposals
Proposals for the installation of sewer systems for the following districts were
reviewed by the Section:—
(1) Westbank Waterworks District.
(2) Valleyview Irrigation District.
(3) Extensions to existing system of Mamquam Sewerage District.
Investigations for Reports
Sechelt Area Water Supply.—A study is being made to examine the technical
feasibility and economic implications of forming a Greater Sechelt Water Board
encompassing the Village of Sechelt, West Sechelt Improvement District, Selma Park
Improvement District, and the area supplied by the Davis Bay Waterworks Company.
A detailed field survey of the area and existing facilities was conducted during the
Sointula.—A request was received from the residents of Sointula, Malcolm
Island, to investigate the possibilities of installing a community water-supply system,
as many of the private wells in use had become polluted. A field investigation was
made, which indicated the need for further research into the availability of groundwater.   This is in hand at the present time.
 DD 36 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Gillies Bay Improvement District.—The Gillies Bay Improvement District on
Texada Island is negotiating the take-over of the water system owned by Texada
Mines Ltd., and proposes extending the system. Engineering advice was requested
by the district's Trustees, and a field survey of the system was recently carried out.
Reports Prepared
Gold Bridge Waterworks District.—The Gold Bridge Waterworks District is
located some 60 miles west of Lillooet. The district supplies domestic water to a
population of approximately 100 persons living in the Gold Bridge townsite.
Following field studies, a report was prepared outlining the economic feasibility
of rehabilitating the existing works. The report recommended adjustments in the
existing schedule of water charges, following which the district would receive adequate revenue with which to carry out the renewal of the system.
Lyall Harbour Area.—The Lyall Harbour area on Saturna Island obtains a
domestic water supply from four small systems owned by a private company.
At the request of the existing consumers, a report was prepared in which the
feasibility of forming an improvement district to take over the systems was investigated. The report recommended that the operation of the water service be left with
the present owners.
Vavenby Improvement District.—A report for the Vavenby Improvement District, near Clearwater, examined the technical feasibility and probable costs of a
domestic water-supply system. The report concluded that, with the full support of
the existing potential consumers, the scheme could be economically feasible.
Fort Nelson Improvement District.—The Fort Nelson Improvement District is
faced with the problem of maintaining sewer and water services under very adverse
climatic conditions. The resultant high cost of system installation was emphasized
in a report prepared for the district to investigate the economic feasibility of providing sewer- and water-system extensions to serve the Hospital Hill area. The
construction of the system extensions is currently in hand.
Fanny Bay Waterworks District.—The Fanny Bay Waterworks District is located on the Island Highway south of Courtenay on Vancouver Island. In response
to a request from the Trustees, a report was prepared which investigated the implications to the district of assuming responsibility for domestic water supply to a large
private subdivision on Ship Point.
Little River Improvement District.—Following a report on the economic feasibility of providing a domestic water system to serve the Little River area north of
Comox, an improvement district has been organized. A successful well has been
developed, and the preparation of final system design is in the hands of the district's
consulting engineers.
Area South of Union Bay.—A report was prepared on the economic feasibility
of providing a water supply for a small collection of properties bordering the Island
Highway approximately lV_s miles south of Union Bay, Vancouver Island. Owing
to the absence of a suitable independent source of water supply, the report advised
the property-owners concerned to negotiate an agreement with the Union Bay Waterworks District.
Mayne Island.—A survey of the existing water-supply system serving various
areas on Mayne Island was carried out, and a report-memorandum prepared.
Design and Engineering Services
Spences Bridge Waterworks District.—The recommended programme for rehabilitation of the domestic water system serving Spences Bridge Waterworks Dis-
 trict called for reconstruction of the Murray Creek dam as the first stage. A field
inspection of the site was made, and subsequently detailed plans for a new dam were
drawn up, together with the necessary specifications and contract documents.
Canyon Waterworks District.—The rehabilitation of the water system serving
the Canyon Waterworks District was approved under the Agricultural Rehabilitation
and Development Act. Final plans and specifications are currently in hand, and it
is anticipated that construction will start next spring.
Throughout the year, personnel from the Section travelled extensively in the
Province holding meetings with district Trustees, organization committees, municipalities, and other groups actively concerned with problems of development. The
stimulus imparted to development by the Winter Works Incentive Programme and
the Municipal Development and Loan Act was evident from the considerable increase in the number of proposals submitted and approved, particularly in areas
where schemes had previously been uneconomic.
POWER AND MAJOR LICENCES DIVISION
The Power and Major Licences Division is responsible for engineering and
administrative duties in connection with the use of water for power purposes.   The
various duties performed by the Division include:—
(a) Reporting upon the suitability of all power licence applications, and undertaking any further investigations that may be required.
(b) Administration of the Water Act in so far as it applies to the use of water
for power purposes, including the calculation and billing of annual rentals
and fees.
(c) Investigation and research necessary to guide the development of Government policy with respect to the utilization of the hydro-electric power potential of the Province.
 DD 38 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
(d) Carrying out an engineering review of plans for major licence applications
for industrial and mining purposes.
(e) Completion of statistics concerning the use of water for all purposes, as
a guide to future water resource planning.
Major Licensing Administration
All water licence applications for power purposes are scrutinized by an engineer of the Division for suitability and to determine the rentals payable. Where the
amount of power to be developed is fairly substantial, further investigation may be
made by the Division, including, where necessary, the hiring of specialist consultants.
In the case of major power licence applications, special attention is paid to
public safety. This may require carrying out specific studies or obtaining expert
advice on such matters as the stability of dams and the necessary measures for dealing with floods. The optimization of site potential also receives serious attention
with regard to the integration of a hydro development with other loads and resources
in the most economic fashion.
Other aspects commonly taken into consideration as being in the public interest
are the extent to which reservoirs should be cleared of flooded timber, the general
effects on fish and wildlife, and the us
Existing Licences
The duties of the Division staff with respect to existing power licences consist
of the calculation and billing of annual rentals and fees; the compilation of annual
generation figures for use in calculating rentals and preparing statistical records;
administration in connection with special clauses in licences, including carrying out
the necessary studies and investigations; and interpretation of the Water Act with
respect to use of water for power purpose, including any general matters pertaining
In certain major storage licences, notably those applying to the Columbia and
Peace River power projects, the powers of the Comptroller have been set forth explicitly in special clauses in the licences. These special clauses cover such matters
as approval of plans for dams and other structures, the clearing of reservoirs, public
access to reservoirs, the release of water from reservoirs, and the protection of fish
and wildlife. An important function of the Power and Major Licences Division is
the carrying-out of the studies and administrative work necessary to enable the
Comptroller to exercise his responsibilities with respect to major water resource
projects.
Work proceeded during 1964 on approval of plans for the Peace and Columbia
projects. With major projects of this nature, approval of plans is a continuing process which is expected to continue throughout the period of construction for each
project. In the case of the Portage Mountain project on the Peace River and the
Arrow and Duncan projects on the Columbia, approval in principal has been given
of most aspects of the projects as presently conceived, but in each case certain features of the projects are under study as final designs evolve.
Because of the highly specialized nature of major dam construction, it is necessary for the Comptroller to obtain advice from specialist consultants of internationally recognized stature for the review of plans formajor dams. For the Portage
Mountain dam, our general consultant is Mr. D. J. Bleifuss, of Atherton, California,
who is actively involved in major dam projects on four continents. Dr. H. Q. Golder,
of Toronto, has also been retained as specialist consultant on soil and foundation
problems for the Portage Mountain dam.   Mr. Bleifuss is also acting as consultant
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH DD 39
for the Duncan Lake dam, while the consultant for the Arrow Lakes and Mica Creek
dams is Mr. F. S. Slichter, of Burke, Virginia. Mr. Slichter was formerly chief civil
engineer of the U.S. Corps of Engineers, and brings from his career with the corps
a wide experience with dams and other hydraulic structures.
The Power and Major Licences Division is responsible for the background work
necessary in making the services of the specialist consultants effective in providing
the advice necessary to the Comptroller in the approval of plans. During the course
of this work in 1964, meetings were held with our consultants, and with engineers
of the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority and their consultants. Visits
were also made with our consultants to the Portage Mountain and Mica sites during
1964.
Requirements with regard to the clearing of the Duncan and Arrow reservoirs
were issued on August 17, 1964. These requirements were based on a study of the
very wide experience which exists in British Columbia with regard to the clearing
or non-clearing of reservoirs. Talks were also held with responsible authorities in
the United States and information obtained on policies and experience in the Western
States. The requirements are intended to establish the standard of clearing to be
achieved, which in the case of the Arrow Lakes is complete clearing of the reservoir
within five years of flooding. The manner in which this is to be achieved has been
left to the discretion of the licensee, in order to allow maximum flexibility in the
design of the clearing programme. However, a right of further approval has been
retained by the Comptroller, particularly with respect to such matters as public
access to recreational areas and clearing in advance of flooding for areas accessible
to the public.
Other Major Licences
The Division is also responsible for the review of plans and other details in
connection with major licence applications. Around a dozen major licence applications are being processed by the Branch at present; principally for use in pulp
and paper plants or in mining operations.
Power-policy Planning
An important duty of the Division is to assist in the over-all planning of power
development in the Province. Studies are made of all potential major developments
to determine how they might best fit into a Province-wide hydro-electric system.
This is a continuing task, as fresh scientific and engineering developments constantly
improve the feasibility of different projects and thus entail periodic reassessment of
the situation.
Specific fields of study in connection with power-policy planning include the
compilation of historical electric generating records and the preparation therefrom
of forecasts of future load growth; studies of international power-system developments, such as the Columbia River; investigation of other public benefits obtainable
at hydro-electric developments; and preparation of an inventory of available undeveloped power resources.
The studies leading to the initiation of the Columbia River development have
been a major activity of the Division for more than 10 years, and these studies continued actively during 1964.
The Division assisted in the preparation of material which was presented at
the hearing held by the External Affairs Committee at the House of Commons
relating to ratification of the Columbia River Treaty and Protocol. The Committee,
in its report to the House, found itself in favour of the proposed treaty, and parliamentary approval took place very soon thereafter.
 DD 40 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Formal exchange of instruments of ratification of the Columbia Treaty took
place on September 16th, together with the payment to Canada of $253,929,534.25
in United States funds by Columbia Storage Power Exchange, this sum being the
purchase price for the Canadian power entitlement under the treaty. By the time
of completion of the Mica Creek dam in 1973, the United States payments under
the treaty and sales agreement will be worth $501,000,000 (Canadian), which is
well in excess of the estimated cost of the treaty projects.
The Columbia River Treaty initiates the greatest water-resource development
in the history of the Province by providing for the sharing with British Columbia
of the benefits which would inevitably result downstream in the United States from
any major development of the Columbia River in Canada. It would indeed be difficult to overestimate the magnitude of this achievement.
Undeveloped Water Power in British Columbia
In 1954 the Water Rights Branch published a booklet entitled " Water Powers
of British Columbia." Studies subsequent to that date have shown the available
potential to be several times greater than was then anticipated. Because of this,
a review is under way to update the information previously published and to make
a more precise estimate of the Province's undeveloped hydro-electric power resources. In the past, calculations of power potential have been unduly conservative, and it is therefore intended to correct this situation by applying modern techniques in the development of major sites and the transmission of power over long
The first stage of the above-mentioned study is almost complete, and consists
of an itemized list, or inventory, of all potential sites and the power available at
each one on an individual basis. Present intentions are that a complete tabulation
of all known sites will be included with the 1965 Annual Review of Water Powers
of British Columbia. The next stage of the study consists of determining the contributions which individual sites can be expected to make when operated in an integrated system. It is believed that this method of calculating potential output will
increase the total from known sites by perhaps as much as 50 per cent on the present
figure of 22,000,000 kilowatts. There are, however, many sites that have not yet
been investigated at all, and it is possible that the ultimate figure may be several
times that amount.
Developed Hydro Power
The following paragraphs summarize the development of hydro-electric power
in British Columbia during the past year. For further details, reference should be
made to previous Annual Reports or to the Annual Reviews of Water Powers of
British Columbia.
Generation and Load Growth up to December 31,1963
During 1963 the total amount of energy generated by hydro-electric plants in
British Columbia was 14,260,000 megawatt-hours.   This represents an increase of
5.09 per cent over the corresponding value for the previous year.
Total electrical-energy production in 1963, from all sources, amounted to
15,418,000 megawatt-hours. Over 92 per cent of all energy was produced by
hydro power.
The total energy consumption 10 years earlier, in 1953, was 6,122,000 megawatt-hours, so that over the last 10 years the load has grown at an average rate of
9.7 per cent compounded annually.   Generation by private industrie
 :ER RIGHTS
DD 4
about half of the total; most of this is produced by the two major industrial users,
Alcan and Cominco, who account for 26 and 21 per cent respectively of the Provincial total. It is inevitable, therefore, that the characteristics of these two industrial loads reflect very heavily on the Provincial total.
Plate 5 shows the hydro-electric development in British Columbia to date, and
the following table shows the hydro and thermal generating totals for the past 11
years. Plate 6 shows the breakdown of generating statistics amongst the major
producers.
Power Projects Under Construction
Additional Installation at Existing Plants
There were no additional units installed at any of the major hydro-electric
plants during 1964.
Peace River Development
Apart from additions to existing plants, the next major hydro-power installation to be completed in British Columbia will be the Portage Mountain project on
the Peace River, scheduled for first power production late in 1968.
The diversion-works for Portage Mountain dam were completed in time to
withstand the 1964 summer freshet, which was the highest ever recorded. Fill-
placing operations, employing the 15,000-foot-long conveyor system, were started
in August, and during the 3V_-month placing season 5,000,000 cubic yards of
embankment material were placed. The conveyor system is the world's largest and
cost $10,000,000 to construct. Of the 466 miles of transmission-line surveying
that were scheduled for 1964, 445 miles were completed, while 260 miles of the
276 miles of transmission-line right-of-way clearing were completed.
The contract for the main dam, at a price of $73,600,000, was let in 1963,
but a number of other contracts were let in 1964 covering the grout curtain beneath
the embankment, power-house access tunnels, and the supply and erection of five
sets of turbines and governors. Surveying and clearing of the transmission-line are
well advanced, and contracts have been placed for transmission towers, hardware,
and conductors.
 DD 42 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Columbia River Development
Arrow Lakes Dam.—Preliminary activities on the project were in progress
late in 1964, consisting of land acquisition, railroad relocation, and construction of
a pipe-line to assure a supply of pure water to the Celgar Limited pulp-mill. Tenders
for the construction of the dam were issued on September 16, 1964, with tender-
opening scheduled for January 26, 1965. Major construction on this project is
expected to commence early in 1965. The project is scheduled to be in operation
by April 1, 1969.
Duncan Lake Dam.—Clearing of the dam-site area has been carried out, and
a contract was let on October 6th for the construction of the project. The contract
for slightly under $16,000,000 covers almost the entire project and gives a good
indication of a final cost within the estimate of cost in connection with treaty
negotiations.   The project is scheduled to be in operation by April 1, 1968.
Mica Creek Dam.—This dam, at over 700 feet in height, will be the highest
in British Columbia and among the highest in the world. Although it is not required
to be in operation before April 1, 1973, the project is so large that commencement
of construction cannot be delayed. Accordingly, contracts have been let for clearing at the dam-site and construction of an exploratory tunnel and test chamber to
provide information on the conditions to be encountered in diversion-tunnel con-
Use of Electric Computing Equipment
Work was continued during 1964 on the preparation of a system power-study
programme for use on the I.B.M. 1620 computer. An extensive check of the whole
programme was made prior to preparation of the initial set of instruction cards.
Testing on the computer itself was commenced in August, and has progressed satisfactorily to the point at which it can now be said to be operational. It is expected,
however, that further revisions and improvements may have to be made from time
to time.
This programme has been designed to study the needs of an expanding hydroelectric system, with particular emphasis on the optimum timing and sequence of
construction, and the extensive testing has indicated that it should perform this
function satisfactorily.
Water Licence Statistics
The work of compiling water licence statistics, which was commenced during
1963, was continued. Using the I.B.M. 1401, it was possible to prepare a listing
showing the basic details of all water licences in good standing. Checking and
updating of the listed information has been proceeding, and almost total accuracy
should soon be possible. A statistical analysis of the data recorded during 1963
was made, and the results are recorded below. It must be emphasized that the
figures are not yet final since they are based on the unchecked data, but they can
be construed as giving a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of licensed water use
in the Province. A more precise and detailed analysis will be made in the early
part of 1965.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Irrigation ac.-ft. 768,509
Land irrigated ac. 265,712
Industrial g.p.d. 218,780,000
Industrial c.f.s. 1,483
Land improvement g-P-d. 78,400
Mining c.f.s. 969
Mining § g.p.d. 31,504,108
Power c.f.s. 214,212
' Storage -4&jfi. 90,065,803
-.g.p.d.        491,760
Mineral trading g.p.d. 706,400
Waterworks g.p.d. 217,690,509
Waterworks c.f.s. 390 .
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
DEVELOPMENT  OF   HYDRO-POWER
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
  THE
WATER INVESTIGATIONS
BRANCH
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
THE WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
The
Water Investigations Branch was formed in late 1962 as a consequence of the
of an independent British Columbia Water Resources Service which took effect
1, 1962.   The Hydraulic Investigations Division of the Water Rights Branch
sferred to the Water Investigations Branch, and it formed the nucleus of the
new Bra
The
functions of the Water Investigations Branch, which is headed by the Chief
, are to deal with technical matters pertaining to the water resources of the
Province
Act.   Th
ese functions, carried out by various divisions of the Water Investigations Branch,
are briefly summarized below.                                                                                                    1
Water Supply and Investigations Division:
(a) Irrigation and domestic water-supply investigations to assist and advise the
Department and general public in the development and maintenance of
water-supply projects.
(_>) Flooding, drainage, and stream-erosion investigations to give engineering
Hydrology Division:                                                                                                    j
(a) Snow surveys and snow-melt run-off forecasting to guide judicious utiliza
tion of water supply.
(.) Hydrologic studies of the Province to compile and evaluate basic hydro-
meteorological data in such a form as to make them readily adaptable.            j
(3)
gation and evaluation of ground-water potential to encourage and guide the
future use and conservation of this source of water supply.
Basin Planning and Power Division:
supply.                                                                                                                  1
(_) Investigation and inventory of undeveloped hydro-electric power potential
of the Province.                                                                                                    1
(5)
ARDA Projects Division:   Processing of water-project proposals made under
the Agr
posals.
The
above functions are carried out in co-operation with a number of other Govern-
mental agencies with an aim to enable the British Columbia Water Resources Service
of the ec
onomic development of the Province.                                                                           |
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
V. Raudsepp, P.Eng., Chief Engineer
The Water Investigations Branch, which was created in December, 1962, deals
with technical matters related to the water resources of the Province, where such
matters are not directly connected with the Water Act. At the year-end, the staff
consisted of 38 permanent and 16 temporary positions, among which were 17 civil
engineers, 2 geological engineers, and 1 hydro-meteorologist. One position was
transferred to the office of the Deputy Minister of Water Resources and two were
The principal functions of the Water Investigations Branch are carried out by
five divisions, as follows:—
(1) Water Supply and Investigations Division.
(2) Hydrology Division.
(3) Ground Water Division.
(4) Basin Planning and Power Division.
(5) ARDA Division.
These divisions are supported by a Draughting Office and a Records Compilation and Reports Section. Both these sections perform certain services also to the
Water Rights Branch of the British Columbia Water Resources Service.
An account of the work carried out by the Water Investigations Branch is given
in some detail on the following pages.   A few general observations are given below.
The Water Supply and Investigations Division, under Mr. R. G. Harris, had
again a variety of irrigation and domestic water-supply and river engineering projects under study. A number of these projects have been initiated in connection
with applications for assistance under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act or are projects which may receive consideration under the Canada-British
Columbia Joint Development Act and Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act.
Three small river-improvement projects and one low-dam construction project were
carried out.
ORGANIZATION CHART OF THE WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER, 1964
 DD 50 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The Hydrology Division, headed by Mr. H. I. Hunter, is re-evaluating snow-
melt run-off forecasting procedures using computer techniques. The 1963/64
heavy snow, combined with late spring, resulted in high water levels and required
a great deal of additional urgent activities in evaluation of snow-melt potential. The
second main function of the Division—compilation and evaluation of useful hydro-
logic data—is a challenge of major magnitude, and the efforts made to date are of
preparatory nature only.
The Ground Water Division, under Mr. E. Livingston, is expanding groundwater data collection by test drilling, water-table observations, well inventories, and
geological reconnaissance surveys. Main emphasis is directed toward the dry Interior of the Province, where cheap surface-water supplies have been exhausted.
In the Basin Planning and Power Division, work continued on Similkameen
Basin hydrologic and water-supply studies. Potential water-power studies are being
carried out on Stikine River and other northern streams.
The ARDA Division, under Mr. W. K. A. Dobson, is facing a heavy work load
in processing, investigating, and designing water-project proposals which have been
made under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act assistance programme.   It is noted that the Division has no permanent-staff positions.
Senior members of the Water Investigations Branch have participated in a
number of committees and boards dealing with water matters, such as Hydrology
Sub-committee of the National Research Council, National and Provincial Committees for the International Hydrologic Decade, several committees in connection with
ARDA activities, and the Pollution-control Board. Active participation in the
studies carried out by the Fraser River Board under Mr. T. A. J. Leach, Assistant
Chief Engineer, was continued until termination of the Fraser River Board activities.
WATER SUPPLY AND INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The functions of the Water Supply and Investigations Division can be divided
into two main engineering sections—(a) irrigation and domestic water-supply projects and (b) flood- and erosion-control and drainage projects.
The main projects that have been dealt with in 1964 are summarized below.
Irrigation and Domestic Water-supply Projects
Doukhobor Lands Water Supply
General.—-This is a continuation of investigations into community water-supply
possibilities in areas where the holdings of the former Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood Limited have been subdivided and sold to individuals.
West Grand Forks Area.—Two reports were prepared dealing with water supply in the Grand Forks area. Three separate schemes were recommended: one to
supply domestic water only to 95 acres of residential lots, while two other proposals
provided for irrigation and domestic water to two adjacent areas of farm land comprising 510 and 225 acres. The total estimated capital cost for the three schemes
was approximately $475,000. In all cases, water would be pumped from deep wells
within the particular area. At the present time, the Doukhobor community, through
the Zion Improvement District, is studying these-proposals.
Ootischenia Area, near Castlegar.—Work is proceeding on alternative designs
for a distribution system to supply water to the subdivided Doukhobor lands on the
Ootischenia Bench near the Castlegar Municipal Airport. Among alternative sources
of supply considered are ground-water wells, a gravity supply from Champion Creek
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH DD 51
some 2 miles south of the area, and a pumping-station which would deliver treated
water from the Kootenay River. Cost estimates have been prepared for various
combinations for domestic and irrigation purposes. Because of the shortage of
gravity supply and the considerable pumping lift under other schemes, the cost of
an irrigation supply for this area is extremely high. Schemes for supplying domestic
water only are still being explored.
Immediately to the south lies the Champion Creek area. Here, the original
proposals for domestic and irrigation water supplies (1956) have been revised and
new estimates of cost are being prepared.
Raspberry and Brilliant Areas, near Castlegar.—Three alternative projects of
supplying water to the subdivided Doukhobor community land at Raspberry and
an adjoining group of privately owned properties were examined. Subsequent to
the presentation of the report on these three alternatives, an estimate was made of
the cost of constructing a first stage of the gravity supply scheme for service to the
properties on the west side of Norns (Pass) Creek. In November, 1964, these
properties were incorporated as the Raspberry Improvement District for implementation of a water-supply scheme.
The Branch's report proposed a system for the Brilliant community that would
supply domestic and irrigation water to 65 small lots and 82 acres of irrigable farm
land by pumping from two wells. No exploratory drilling has been done for this
area, however.
Black Mountain Irrigation District
Irrigation System.—Studies on irrigation-system replacements for the Black
Mountain Irrigation District were completed. A detailed inventory and replacement
schedule for existing system works was prepared, together with plans showing layouts of existing and proposed works. Studies conclude that during the ensuing 40-
year period some $1,708,000 may be required to replace existing system works
which serve 4,582 acres of irrigable land. Of this total, $808,000 of replacements
may be required within the next 10 years. The district is presently considering
what programme should be adopted for carrying out system replacements, and it is
anticipated that additional alternative proposals will require further consideration.
Domestic System.—Studies on replacements for the Black Mountain Irrigation
District's Belgo domestic-system works have been started. In addition to an inventory and replacement schedule for existing works supplying about 100 connections,
this study will consider the feasibility of supplying some 46 connections in the Upper
Benches area of the district and some 125 connections in the Lower Bench and
Rutland Flats area of the district. This work has been delayed temporarily until
results of a ground-water investigation for domestic water supplies in the area are
available.
Boundary Line Irrigation District
The proposed rehabilitation of the Boundary Line Irrigation District was discussed with the Trustees during August, 1964. This involves replacement of the
pumps and pumping-main, which become seriously overloaded during periods of
peak demand, and are at present unable to deliver adequate sprinkler pressures to
some of the higher areas in the district. It is also proposed to replace the steel
pumping-main with asbestos-cement pipe. The estimated cost of the improvements
is $18,000.   ARDA assistance has been requested by the district.
South-east Kelowna Irrigation District
Domestic Water Supply.—The South-east Kelowna Irrigation District is presently supplied with domestic water through a gravity intake on Canyon Creek, a
 DD 52 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
tributary to Mission Creek. The flow from Canyon Creek is inadequate to supply
the system during exceptionally dry seasons. Extension to areas not presently served
by the domestic system is limited by the capacity of the existing mains and by the
lack of an adequate supply from the present intake.
Preliminary investigations were begun in 1963, and topographic maps of the
district were prepared. Studies were made during the past year of two possible
sources of supply—one from a pumping-station on Mission Creek and one from
ground-water wells. Test drilling at several locations was undertaken by the Ground
Water Division of the Water Investigations Branch. These tests have recently been
completed and have indicated that wells of sufficient capacity could not be developed.
Further study will be required on the Mission Creek scheme, particularly with regard
to treatment equipment necessary to remove the silt carried by the creek during
periods of flash floods.
Irrigation System.—An examination of proposed renewals of part of the district's irrigation system known as Stirling extension was carried out in connection
with application for ARDA assistance.
Oyama Irrigation District
The existing system supplies irrigation water only, domestic water being stored
in cisterns for winter use. The Trustees had requested a feasibility study be made
on a new joint irrigation and domestic scheme. The surveys and preliminary investigations for this report were begun in 1963. Several alternate layouts were considered, involving pumping from Kalamalka and Wood Lakes and from ground-water.
Two ground-water test-wells were drilled, and results indicate that adequate capacity
could be obtained from two wells. However, the water quality was not good, being
relatively high in iron and hardness. Possible treatment methods and then costs
were discussed. While the relatively small system would not warrant a central treatment plant, individual water-treatment equipment on domestic lines would be
feasible.
The Trustees have made application for ARDA assistance to proceed with the
ground-water scheme.   The estimated capital cost of this project is $132,000.
Ashcroft Area Irrigation Proposal
An investigational programme conducted during the years 1961 and 1962 was
concluded with the publication of a report on "Ashcroft Area Irrigation Possibilities."
The area considered for irrigation extends along the north and west sides of
the Thompson River between Kamloops Lake and Basque, a distance of some 36
miles, and along the tributary valleys of the Bonaparte and Deadman Rivers.
Department of Agriculture soil surveys and land-classification data covered a
total of 51,000 acres, of which 24,500 were considered arable. Of this arable portion, 8,765 acres in the vicinity of Cache Creek and Ashcroft were included in the
development plan proposed for the area.
The studies cover irrigation of a 5,900-acre tract south of Cache Creek by
pumping from the Bonaparte River, where a 2,000-horsepower installation would
be needed. Supplementary local pumping would be necessary because of the variations in topography which occur.
North and east of Cache Creek a total of 2,862 acres would be dependent on
the Thompson River and might be developed as a number of separate entities, each
with its own pumping plant.   The total horsepower needed would be about 2,850.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH DD 53
Capital costs are estimated in the region of $450 per acre developed, and total
annual charges are expected to lie between $45 and $70 per acre, depending on
location and topography.
No economic studies were attempted, and the desirability of irrigating these
new lands has not been established.
Kaleden Irrigation District
Investigations into the problems associated with rehabilitation of the Kaleden
irrigation system were completed, and the district was successful in qualifying for
assistance under the ARDA programme.
The original decision to proceed with a renewal of the existing gravity system
was reversed after receiving ARDA approval, and a revised approval based on
pumping from Skaha Lake was subsequently obtained.
Civil-engineering design work was commenced with a view to implementing a
construction programme early in 1965.
The district comprises some 540 acres of orchard land and about 120 homes.
Total capital expenditure on the rehabilitation is estimated at $300,000.
Okanagan Falls Irrigation District
The Okanagan Falls Irrigation District obtains its water from an intake on the
Okanagan River near the outlet of Skaha Lake. The system, now irrigating some
135 acres and supplying domestic water to about 150 consumers, was constructed
in 1953. Since then, there has been an increase in domestic water use, as well as
an increase in the use of sprinkler irrigation. A growing problem in the past has
been the occurrence of disagreeable tastes and odours in the water during the summer months.   The cause of these tastes and odours has not yet been definitely estab-
Proposed improvements to the pumping system include the installation of a
booster pump and the construction of a storage tank to provide automatic pump
operation. Also recommended is the replacement of some sections of pipe. The
cost of the proposed improvements is estimated at $28,000, with annual costs of
$1,550.
Westbank Irrigation District
The Westbank Irrigation District has made an application for ARDA assistance
for rehabilitation of its irrigation system. Investigations are being carried out in
order to determine preliminary design and cost estimates for the replacement of the
main supply flume. Further studies will be required on rehabilitation of distribution
system and the storage dams.
Nickel Plate Lake Dam Reconstruction
This irrigation storage dam, operated by the Similkameen Improvement District, was reconstructed under ARDA assistance programme. The design and supervision of construction was carried out by this Division. The dam is located some
6 miles north-east of Hedley at 6,000-foot elevation and provides some 2,000 acre-
feet of storage.
Construction was completed in seven weeks, in November, 1964. Some 5,600
cubic yards of material was stripped from the old dam and 7,500 cubic yards of
embankment were placed in the new dam. Concrete culvert structure required 50
cubic yards of concrete. Construction was by the Interior Contracting Company
Limited of Penticton. Payment was based on equipment rental, with an upset price
of $32,500.
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Ladysmith Region Water Supply
e investigation of the Ladysmith region of Vancouver Island
was undertaken at the request of the British Columbia Department of Public Works
in connection with a proposed institute and its water requirements.
Existing and potential water sources for domestic purposes were investigated,
and a report completed showing potential future developments that might be undertaken to meet the growing needs of this area. In addition to surface supplies, groundwater sources were investigated.
In general, it would appear that through careful expansion of existing facilities
it should be possible to serve a population several times the present one.
Water-storage Reservoir Inventory
A programme of mapping major water-storage reservoirs in the Southern Interior of the Province was undertaken. This information will assist in administering
of water rights and will enable the Division to carry out water-supply augmentation
studies in water-deficient areas.
Mapping is being prepared from air photographs and field surveys. Some 60
reservoirs require mapping.   Of these, seven were surveyed in 1964.
Flooding, Drainage, and Erosion Projects
Okanagan Flood-control Works
In the summer of 1963 a survey of the Okanagan flood-control channel and
structures was undertaken.   Structure plans, channel profiles and cross-sections were
drawn from the data obtained on the survey.   Calculations were continued in 1964
and the design flow high-water profile was calculated.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH DD 55
Several modifications and improvements in the Okanagan flood-control works
are considered necessary. Extensive bank and channel-bottom protection is required to stabilize the channel at high or design maximum flows. Modification or
lowering of the water-supply intake culverts is necessary in order to supply irrigation water to the lands adjacent to the river channel when river flows are below 500
cubic feet per second. Some dredging of the channel and entrance to Osoyoos Lake
is also recommended. Replacing of portions of the boundary fencing and gates and
minor repairs to some of the vertical drop structures are also considered desirable.
Costs of the above-mentioned repairs are being calculated, and a report detailing
requirements to bring the Okanagan flood-control to full operating condition is being
prepared. Further study is planned on the hydraulic operation of the Okanagan
flood-control system, and results of this study will be available in 1965.
Vedder-Chilliwack River Flooding and Erosion
A number of river-channel cross-sections were established in 1958 with an aim
to check locally made suggestions that the river bed is gradually aggrading. In the
fall of 1963 a field survey was undertaken to resurvey the cross-sections established
in 1958, and to obtain additional field data necessary to prepare a preliminary design
of channel stabilization, erosion, and flood-control works, including preliminary cost
estimates. The river is divided into two sections—(a) the Vedder River and the
Chilliwack Rivet within the District Municipality of Chilliwhack, a distance of 4.65
miles, and (b) tht Chilliwack River above the District Municipality of Chilliwhack,
a distance of 3.2 miles.
The total cost of the proposed river-improvement work is estimated at $1,222,-
000, of which $810,000 applies to section (a) and $412,000 to section (b). These
estimates contain no allowance for rights-of-way. Above the municipality boundary,
the river would be contained within its present course, protecting approximately 283
acres of land on the right bank, including a sawmill, 17 houses, and 16 other structures. The access road to the Chilliwack Working Circle of the British Columbia
Forest Service would also be protected. On the left bank, erosion at the Soowahlie
Indian Reserve No. 14 would be prevented. In addition, a total of 73 acres of land
on both banks may be reclaimed between the groin system.
Within the District Municipality of Chilliwhack, some 140.5 acres of land
within the present flood channel would be protected by dykes and a further 217
acres between the groin system may be reclaimed, subject to occasional flooding.
An estimated 1,245 acres of land, including 73 houses and 91 other structures,
would be protected against local flooding.
Squamish River Flooding and Erosion
In 1963 a field survey of the Squamish River was made to obtain a longitudinal
profile and 11 cross-sections over a 10-mile reach upstream from the river mouth.
This work was extended in 1964 by a survey of 2V_. miles of the Mamquam River
upstream from its junction with the Squamish River.
A preliminary design of channel stabilization, erosion, and flood-control works,
including cost estimates, is now under way and is scheduled for completion by the
end of 1964 or early in 1965.
Similkameen River Survey
In response to requests for flood and erosion control on this river, a field survey
was carried out during the summer of 1964.   In all, the survey covered some 70
miles of river from Princeton to the International Border.   At present the flood
 DD 56 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
profile for the unprotected channel, for a design 50-year flood of 40,000 cubic feet
per second at the border-crossing point, is being calculated. Preliminary meetings
have also been held to arrange for an economic study of the area. This information
will be used to determine the feasibility of any flood-control project on the basis of
a favourable cost-benefit ratio.
Improvements to Similkameen River at Princeton
Construction of improvements to the Similkameen River channel at its junction with the Tulameen River commenced in November, 1964. It is hoped that
the new location of the river junction will alleviate a flooding problem in the Village
of Princeton caused by ice jams. The work involves the removal of some 30,000
cubic yards of material to form a new river channel, the placing of 2,500 cubic yards
of rock riprap, and the protection of a sewer and water-line crossing the river by
Fraser River Basin Maximum Water-level Observations
During 1964 arrangements were made through the Water Rights Branch District Engineers to observe daily water elevations at Prince George, Quesnel, and
Kamloops. At or near the peak of the flood, air photography of the above-mentioned
areas was obtained at an approximate scale of 1,000 feet to the inch through the
Air Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch, British Columbia Lands Service.
Areas flooded were also indicated on the 1,000-feet-to-the-inch topographic maps
in the case of Quesnel and Prince George.
Personnel from the Water Investigations Branch assisted in patrolling the Lower
Fraser River dykes and making notes on evidence of failure or seepage during the
mid-part of June. Most of the dykes patrolled had 3 to 4 feet of freeboard during
the peak river stage. Seepage was noted along the inside toe of most of the dykes
patrolled.
Mission Slough Channel Improvements near Kelowna
Subsequent to the examination of drainage problems in the Fascieux Slough
area of South Kelowna in 1963, channel improvements were made by local property-
owners during 1964. A petition from owners of property adjoining the northerly
branch of Mission Slough initiated a further examination for this section of the drainage area. The estimated cost of improvements to the northerly branch of Mission
Slough and to the main channel below the junction of Mission Slough and Fascieux
Slough was presented to the petitioners in March.
Bowker Creek Discharge
During the winter of 1963/64, discharge measurements of Bowker Creek were
carried out in four stations in an effort to assist the Municipality of Saanich in arriving at flood flows.   However, no storms of major significance occurred during this
time, and the programme is being continued over another winter.
Coquitlam River Gravel Removal
A proposal by a local company to remove some 2,670,100 cubic yards of gravel
over a 10-year period from the Coquitlam River at a point immediately upstream of
Lincoln Avenue within the District of Coquitlam and City of Port Coquitlam was
studied at the request of municipal government. It was recommended that measures
be taken to maintain an adequate waterway during the gravel-removal operation,
and that river control structures be incorporated in the final design to prevent deleterious effects on the river regime.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH DD 57
Cowichan River
An attempt was made to calibrate the discharges through the boat lock in the
B.C. Forest Products weir at Cowichan Lake by taking measurements from the footbridge a short distance downstream. Some additional cross-sections were taken on
the river downstream in the vicinity of Duncan for comparison with previous sections taken some years ago. Office studies include the preparation of a differential
mass curve of the inflow to Cowichan Lake.
Vancouver North Shore Streams
The District Municipalities of North and West Vancouver have requested the
Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District to prepare engineering proposals
for flood and erosion control of several streams under the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act. Preliminary plans, cost estimates, and benefit-cost studies have
been reviewed by this Division.
HYDROLOGY DIVISION
H. I. Hunter, Meteorologist, Chief of Division
Snow Surveys and Water-supply Forecasting
One of the primary functions of the Hydrology Division is the annual inventory of Provincial watershed snow-pack during the snow-accumulation and snow-
depletion periods. Snow surveyors made 541 trips to isolated mountain sampling-
sites during the winter and spring of 1964 to gather snow-depth and water-equivalent
data. These trips were made close to the regular measurement dates of February
1st, March 1st, April 1st, May 1st, May 15th, and June 1st, with the resultant data
published in the six issues of the British Columbia Snow Bulletin. Most measurements were made near the maximum snow-accumulation dates of April 1st and
May 1st, at which time quantitative volume stream-flow forecasts for British Columbia rivers were made for periods covering the spring and summer snow-melt season.
Selected snow-course measurements were made at the earlier and later dates to show
build-up and depletion of the mountain snow.
With the installation this summer of two new courses on Bulkley River drainage, a total of 141 courses will be in active operation in the coming 1965 sampling
season. Of this total, 82 will be measured by personnel of co-operating agencies
and the remainder by part-time employees of the Water Resources Service. Excellent co-operation continues with private and government agencies in the gathering
and exchange of snow-course data.
Hydrology Division personnel visited 36jpCT_rses at regular winter sampling
dates to provide at-site snow-surveying instruction, and as part of the necessary
summer maintenance work, trips were made to 24 courses to clean them up and put
them in satisfactory condition.
Seasonal stream-flow forecast procedures are developed by multiple regression,
with the Provincial Government's electronic computer doing the mathematical computations. New computer programmes were investigated and a combination of
the best ones adopted for use in the development of forecast procedures, which has
resulted in work leading to a complete review of existing station forecast procedures
and the development of new station procedures. Work is continuing in the development of daily stream-flow forecasting procedures for the Fraser River.
 DD 58 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
1964 Snow-melt Run-off
The May 1st snow-course readings indicated that mountain snow was above
average on most of the Province's watersheds, with this heavier than usual snow
particularly applicable to low elevations. Unseasonably cool weather in May
further accentuated these above average mountain snow-packs, indicating the possibility of high peak flows on our major rivers. This possibility became factual in the
northern regions of the Province in June with the recording of new maximum daily
flows for the Skeena and Peace Rivers. Fraser River flooding occurred in the low-
lying Cache area near Prince George, with maximum flow farther downstream at
Hope well above average but well below the 1948 peak discharge. Fortunately the
weather, in particular the melt rate during the critical high-water period, was not
too far from normal, so that major flooding was averted in the Lower Fraser Valley.
On the other major rivers, annual peaks ranged from average to above average.
Hydrologic Studies
These included a hydro-meteorological network study for the Columbia Basin
in British Columbia which was presented as a technical paper at the Western Snow
Conference meeting at Nelson, frequency study of tidal heights at the City of Alberni,
and several smaller studies resulting from water-supply and water-damage problems.
Hydro-meteorological Data Compilation
Hydro-meteorological record compilation is a continuing programme, but in
the past year a determined effort has been made to rearrange and list this basic data
in an easily presentable and useable form. In particular this applies to the data of
several hundred British Columbia stream-flow stations, with some records dating as
far back as 1911. It involved sorting, arranging, filing, indexing, and mapping of
the individual station data. This work is nearing completion and is expected to be
both a time-saver and valuable reference to the engineering staff.
Authorization has been given to put snow-course data on punch-cards, which,
in addition to a saving in man-hours, will ensure accuracy of results. Key-punching
is expected to start in December.
Western Snow Conference Meeting
In April, 1964, the Water Resources Service hosted the three-day annual meeting of the Western Snow Conference at Nelson. This conference is an association
of technical men and organizations from the Western United States and Canada with
an interest in all aspects of snow. Technical papers presented at this meeting included those related to instruments and measurements, water-supply forecasting,
physics and meteorology, and projects and basic data network. Over 100 engineers,
hydrologists, and meteorologists attended this meeting, with by far the greater number coming from the United States.
International Hydrologic Decade Project
A proposal to study water balance in a small watershed within the framework
of the International Hydrologic Decade is under consideration. Depending on available funds, one or more small basins in the dry Southern Interior of the Province
will be studied with an aim to develop improved snow-melt run-off forecasting procedures.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH DD 59
GROUND WATER DIVISION
E. Livingston, Geological Engineer, Chief of Division
Water-well Inventory
The collection of data on existing water wells and ground-water use is continuing.   An informal arrangement for exchange of data has been made with most
of the well-drillers operating in the Province.   This is providing data on most recently drilled wells.   At the beginning of the year, well-location maps had been prepared covering only the Lower Fraser Valley and the east side of Vancouver Island,
including the Gulf Islands.   Mapping in both of these areas has been extended
somewhat, and water-well maps have been started or completed in the following
(1) Salmon Arm to Kelowna, including the valley bottoms from Armstrong to
Monte Lake and Vernon to Lumby.
(2) Oliver to Osoyoos.
(3) Similkameen Valley from Keremeos to United States Border.
(4) Castlegar-Kinnaird area.
(5) Prince George and vicinity.
(6) Vanderhoof and vicinity.
(7) Dawson Creek to Fort St. John.
Some of the mapping listed above has been done in preparation for well inventories to be carried out in the field. A well inventory has been completed for the
area from Salmon Arm to Kelowna and from Oliver to Osoyoos. Almost all of the
well records collected in the Province by the Geological Survey of Canada in the
past have been plotted on the well maps.
Observation Wells
Four wells were added to our observation-well network in the Lower Fraser
Valley near Langley. One well in the network at Mount Lehman was lost. Three
new wells were added near Kamloops. One deep observation well is being observed
near Prince George. Data from several wells near Kelowna are being assessed
before deciding which of these wells will be added to the permanent network.
Several observation wells are being drilled in the North Okanagan.
Ground-water Test Drilling
Several test-drilling projects were undertaken during the year in the dry Interior
of the Province in order to make available to the public data on ground-water occurrence and potential yield.   In most cases, water-quality analyses were carried out
by the Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance.
Oyama Test Drilling
Two test wells were drilled and test-pumped at Oyama to test the feasibility
of using ground-water for a combined irrigation-domestic water system of the Oyama
Irrigation District. The test wells indicated that ground-water use is feasible. The
two test wells were purchased by the Oyama Irrigation District for possible future
use in such a system.
Canyon Waterworks District Test Drilling
A test well was drilled in Canyon Waterworks District west of Enderby to find
a source of ground-water to replace or supplement the surface source which had
 DD 60 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
proved to be inadequate. A suitable aquifer was found. The capacity of the test
well was adequate for present requirements, so the well was purchased by Canyon
Waterworks District. We believe that the aquifer encountered in this well has not
been known before and may be fairly widespread in this area.
South-east Kelowna Test Drilling
Two test wells were drilled at South-east Kelowna Irrigation District in order
to test the feasibility of using ground-water as a source for an improved and extended
domestic water system in this area. This project was unsuccessful: one hole was
dry, and the other had a capacity too low to be of interest.
Ootischenia Test Drilling
The feasibility of using ground-water for a proposed irrigation and domestic
water-supply scheme at Ootischenia near Castlegar was tested by drilling. Three
separate areas were checked by drilling. In one area a new aquifer of limited capacity was tested. Insufficient water for the irrigation scheme was found, but this
aquifer should prove to be an adequate source of good-quality water for domestic
use. Drilling in the other two areas indicated that wells of limited capacity could
be constructed, but the actual capacity was not checked by pump testing.
Rutland-Black Mountain Test Drilling
A test well was drilled in the north-west part of Rutland to test the feasibility
of using ground-water as a source for domestic supply for an extension of the present
Rutland Waterworks District. A new aquifer was discovered. The first well constructed had insufficient capacity to be of interest, but analysis of the pump test
indicated that the well was very inefficient. In order to evaluate well-construction
requirements, another well was drilled nearby and was constructed with a much
longer screen. This was far more successful and may be bought by the Rutland
Waterworks District for use as a source for the planned extension of the domestic
A well drilled near Reid's Corner, about 2V__ miles north-east, to test the feasibility of using ground-water as a source for possible extension of a domestic system
of Black Mountain Irrigation District reached the same aquifer as the Rutland well.
The Black Mountain well, which is a flowing artesian well, had not been completed
at the year-end.
These two wells indicate that an extensive aquifer with good characteristics
occurs in this area. It may be much more extensive than this drilling has indicated.
Important geologic information was also obtained in this drilling.
Grandview Flats, near Armstrong
At the year-end a test well was also being drilled at Grandview Flats, southwest of Armstrong. This hole was drilled to study sub-surface conditions in this
area, which are believed to be on the path of underground flow from the Salmon
River into Okanagan Lake, and to check the feasibility of obtaining ground-water
for future irrigation use and also to supplement the surface-water source used by the
Grandview Waterworks District. The well penetrated over 200 feet of gravel saturated below 40 feet; all indications are that good supply of ground-water is available.
Nechako Improvement District Test Drilling
Two test wells had been drilled in the Nechako Improvement District, north of
Prince George, at the year-end to locate a source of ground-water for a proposed
domestic system.   The first hole was successful in locating a thin aquifer which prob-
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS
ably has sufficient capacity to supply part of the district.   The second hole near the
north end of the district was dry.   A third was being drilled at the year-end.
Miscellaneous Investigations
During the winter and spring, geologic mapping of pleistocene deposits in the
Saanich-Sooke area was done in co-operation with the Geological Survey of Canada
as a part of a training programme.
The site of a proposed garbage dump on Quadra Island was examined in order
to determine whether dumping would pollute existing ground-water supplies or would
interfere with future water storage.
Several proposed sites for a new Provincial gaol on Vancouver Island were
examined to determine whether ground-water might be a more feasible source than
surface-water for domestic water supply. Several proposed sites for small dams
were also examined at one of the gaol-sites.
Brief reconnaissance geologic mapping projects were carried out at Welcome
Beach Waterworks District and Hopkins Landing Water-users' Community, Sechelt
Peninsula, to assess the feasibility of using ground-water for domestic supply in these
areas. Results were negative at Welcome Beach, but possible ground-water sources
were located at Hopkins Landing.
A brief geologic investigation followed by supervision of drilling of two test
wells at Long Beach Camp-site of the Parks Branch, Department of Recreation and
Conservation, at Wickaninnish Bay, Vancouver Island, found only salt water.
Geologic mapping of Pleistocene deposits in the Okanagan Valley continued
during the year as a continuation of a general study of the Okanagan Valley water
Pump test results from a new well at Little River Improvement District near
Comox were analysed.
Map and field reconnaissance of small drainage basins suitable for general
hydrologic and ground-water studies by the Federal Geological Survey of Canada
or the Water Investigations Branch were undertaken.
BASIN PLANNING AND POWER DIVISION
This Division of the Water Investigations Branch has two main functions—
(1) development of plans for water conservation on regional or watershed basis
with an immediate aim to indicate feasibility of improving the dependability of surface-water supplies in areas where readily available water supplies have been exhausted, and (2) continuation of inventory of undeveloped water-power potential
of the Province.
Similkameen Basin Water Supply
A study was commenced in 1963 to ascertain economic and engineering feasibility of small and medium water-storage sites in the Similkameen River basin where
presently available dry-season water supplies have been fully appropriated under
the existing water licences.
As no basin-wide data on run-off or precipitation are available in the Province
of British Columbia, it was necessary to develop empirical procedures for determination of precipitation, losses, and run-off and its variation in the Similkameen Basin,
particularly for higher elevations where no meteorological data are available.
Following this, a number of apparently feasible storage-sites were selected
by a map reconnaissance, some of which were covered by field rt
 DD 62 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
photography was also obtained of these selected areas, and it is intended to carry
out preliminary field inspections to determine the cost of potential storage dams.
Suspension of this project in September was caused by resignation of the
hydraulic engineer who had been in charge of this work for about one year.
Stikine River Hydro Power
A study to determine the hydro-power potential of the Stikine River has been
continued. Investigations into the possible diversion of water from the Dease
River catchment into the Stikine River have shown that this diversion would not be
economically attractive, and preliminary engineering investigation has therefore
been confined to possible developments on the main stem of the Stikine River itself.
The storage-regulation charts resulting from the hydrology studies show clearly
the need for a large storage reservoir located above the Grand Canyon of the Stikine
to provide a highly regulated flow for power generation. Whereas natural minimum
winter flows immediately upstream from the canyon are in the range 900-1,500
cubic feet per second, a regulated flow of 8,000 cubic feet per second can be provided by the operation of 4,000,000 acre-feet of live storage. As further increments
of storage do not yield any greatly increased regulated flow, it is anticipated that
approximately this amount of live storage will give maximum economic advantage.
The presently envisaged scheme of development consists of a dam located near
the " gate of the canyon " to provide the storage required for regulation, with power
generation also at this site, two run-of-the-river generating plants located in the
Grand Canyon, and a dam near the settlement of Telegraph Creek, which would
provide storage to regulate the flow of the main tributaries, such as the Tuya and
Tanzilla Rivers, together with power generation.
A short field inspection of possible dam-sites using helicopter was carried out
during the summer, the visiting party including Dr. M. S. Hedley, Senior Geologist,
Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources. Due to complex geological conditions resulting from volcanic activity and glaciation, it must be anticipated that
considerable further exploratory work will be necessary to verify the sites selected
or alternative sites and to outline the extent of sub-surface work required.
Iskut River Hydro Power
An office review has been made of the hydro-power potential of the Iskut River
basin, the study being based upon currently available topographic mapping and air
photography and a short period of hydrometric records. While this information
is inadequate to support a firm conclusion, it would appear that the development
of a substantial block of hydro power on this river may be feasible. Large-scale
mapping with close contours, together with engineering and geological investigation
of potential dam-sites and improved stream-flow data, will be necesary before a
more accurate and reliable assessment of this potential can be made.
A new hydrometric station was installed at the outlet to Kinaskin Lake in
September, and stage readings of the lake are also being taken.
It is understood that private interests are investigating a site on the lower part
of the river with a view to hydro-electric development.
Cottonwood River Hydro Power, near Cassiar
Investigations have continued into the feasibility of a hydro-power development to supply the electric-power requirements of the mining operation of Cassiar
Asbestos Corporation Limited and the Cassiar townsite.   A preliminary engineering
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH DD 63
inspection of potential dam-sites has been made and air photography of the river
obtained.   Preparation of large-scale maps from the air photography is proceeding.
An automatic recording hydrometric station has been installed and is in
ARDA DIVISION
W. K. A. Dobson, P.Eng., Chief of Division
General
This Division was formed for the purpose of investigating and preparing water-
project submissions under the Federal-Provincial Agricultural Rehabilitation and
Development Act (ARDA) assistance programme, and for the supervising of the
construction of certain approved water projects. The Deputy Minister of Water
Resources submits ARDA water-project proposals to the Provincial Deputy Minis-
sters' ARDA Committee, who in turn make recommendation to the Provincial
Department of Agriculture. If a water project is approved by the Provincial and
Federal ARDA authorities, the British Columbia Water Resources Service will be
responsible for its implementation. Over-all responsibility for ARDA activities lies
with the Department of Agriculture.
At the end of 1963 there were 31 water-project proposals under various stages
of review and three were under construction.
At the end of 1964 the number of water projects under review had increased
to 48, of which 18 proposals have been forwarded to Ottawa for approval, 12
have been approved, and 6 projects have been completed.
The status of the water projects which have been approved by the Provincial
and Federal ARDA authorities are listed below.
The following projects have been completed:—
(1) Glenmore Irrigation District—reconstruction of balancing-reservoir dam.
Total cost of the project, $90,000. Designed and supervised by consulting engineers.
(2) Scotty Creek Irrigation District—reconstruction of Trapper Lake storage
dam. Total cost of the project, $76,745. Designed and supervised by
consulting engineers.
(3) Vernon Irrigation District—rehabilitation of King Edward Lake storage
dam. Total cost of project, $40,425. Designed and supervised by consulting engineers.
(4) Ellison Irrigation District — rehabilitation of a part of the irrigation
system. Total cost of the project, $13,294. Designed by the Water
Rights Branch.
(5) Heffley Irrigation District—rehabilitation of the Heffley Lake storage
dam. Total cost of the project, $11,100. Designed and supervised by
consulting engineers.
(6) Similkameen Improvement District—reconstruction of Nickel Plate Lake
storage dam. Total cost of the project, $36,000. Designed and supervised by the Water Investigations Branch.
The following water projects have been approved and are at various stages of
completion:—
(1) Kaleden Irrigation District—rehabilitation of the existing water-supply
system involving pumping from Skaha Lake. Total approved cost of
the project, $285,000. Design work is being done by the Water Investigations Branch and construction will take place in 1964/65 and 1965/66
fiscal years.
 DD 64 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
(2) Canyon Waterworks District, near Armstrong—rehabilitation of the farm
water-supply system. Total cost, $60,000. Design and supervision of
construction by the Water Rights Branch in 1964/65 fiscal year.
(3) Prince George area ground-water appraisal—a research project to be
undertaken by the Water Investigations Branch. Total approved cost,
$98,000. Steps have been taken to recruit necessary personnel, and it is
hoped to commence work in early 1965 with a completion date in
1966/67.
(4) Vernon Irrigation District—a research project covering engineering and
economic aspects of operation of an irrigation system. Total approved
cost, $70,000. Engineering phase ($35,000) of this project is being
carried out by the Water Investigations Branch and the economic phase
by the economists of the Federal Department of Agriculture. This
project will be completed in early 1965.
(5) South-east Kelowna Irrigation District—rehabilitation of a part of the
existing irrigation system. Total approved cost, $60,000. Design and
construction by the irrigation district under general supervision by the
Water Investigations Branch.    Completion of construction in 1965.
(6) Meadow Valley Irrigation District—improvements to an irrigation system.
Total approved cost, $45,000. Designed and supervised by a consulting
engineer.
The following water-project proposals are under consideration by the ARDA
authority:—
(1) Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District—rehabilitation of the irrigation system of the Provincially operated Southern Okanagan Lands
Project. Designs prepared by the Water Investigations Branch. Estimated total cost, $2,000,000.
(2) City of Penticton—irrigation-system rehabilitation. Design prepared by
the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Authority, Federal Department of Agriculture.   Estimated total cost, $1,303,000.
(3) Oyama Irrigation District—reconstruction of the existing water-supply
system. Estimated total cost, $150,000. Design by the Water Investigations Branch.
(4) Vernon Irrigation District—rehabilitation of Aberdeen Lake storage dam.
Estimated total cost,  $90,000.    Designed by  the  irrigation district's
(5) Shuswap River-Okanagan Lake Canal—an engineering research project
to evaluate proposed water diversion from Shuswap River to Okanagan
Lake, to be undertaken by the Water Investigations Branch.
(6) Nicomekl-Serpentine Rivers drainage-problem research—engineering and
economic study of flood protection, drainage improvements, and irrigation
possibilities within the District Municipality of Surrey. Proposed to be
carried out by the Water Investigations Branch.
Water-project Investigations
A number of ARDA projects or project proposals are being investigated by
the Water Rights Branch of the British Columbia Water Resources Service and the
Water Supply and Investigations Division of the Water Investigations Branch.   The
ARDA Division is investigating the following projects:—
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH DD 65
Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District Rehabilitation
This project proposal involves a gravity irrigation system which is operated
by the Province under the Southern Okanagan Lands Project and was incorporated
in 1964 as the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District.
A survey of the system rehabilitation was carried out in 1963. Several alternative proposals were prepared, and the Trustees of the newly formed district have
decided to approve a proposal under which water under pressure will be available to
all irrigated lands. Water will be pumped from Osoyoos Lake to the southern end
of the district and from the Okanagan River to the area north of Oliver. The
remainder of the district will receive pumped supply from the existing main diversion
The proposed system will irrigate some 5,000 acres, and its total cost is
estimated to be $2,000,000. The project will require five years to complete. An
application for ARDA assistance has been made, and construction could be commenced in 1964/65 fiscal year.
Vernon Irrigation District
This is a research project approved by ARDA authorities and covers the engineering and economic aspects of operation of a rehabilitated irrigation system.
A survey of the existing irrigation-works of the Vernon Irrigation District has
been carried out and system renewal requirements have been assessed. Two alternative rehabilitation proposals are under study. One of these will involve reconstruction of the existing irrigation-works for 8,050 acres of land, comprising some 42
miles of open canals and some distribution pipe-lines. The other will provide piped
water supply under sufficient pressure for sprinkler irrigation for all lands presently
registered for irrigation, a total of 8,050 acres.
The capital and annual costs of these two alternative systems will be estimated
and will be available to the economists of the Federal Department of Agriculture.
The latter will assess the benefits resulting from irrigation.
RECORDS COMPILATION AND REPORTS SECTION
This Section of the Water Investigations Branch assembles and maintains
engineering reports and other technical records, performs general office duties of
the Branch, and undertakes technical computations arising from water investigations.
During 1964 almost 100 new engineering reports were assembled and registered
in the reports library, bringing the total of available reports to 1,215.
The increase in the number of reports received and registered during 10-year
periods is illustrated in the following table:—
1915-24  x.^dT -    - 175 °14.4
1925-34 &     40 3.3
1935-44  37 3.0
1945-54     113 9.3
1955-64   850 70.0
In addition to the new reports, over 200 reprints of previous reports have
been prepared and distributed, and requests for over 150 copies of various other
publications have been filled.
 DD 66 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Other work performed by this Section included the collection and compilation
of technical and cost records of interest to the Branch, the undertaking of technical
computations arising from engineering investigations, and general office duties for
the Branch.
The project of microfilming of engineering reports and calculations data undertaken by the Central Microfilm Bureau during 1963 was completed early this year.
During the year we have continued the A.S.C.E.-initiated programme for more
efficient retrieval of information, and there are now almost 1,000 keyword cards
on file.
Over 740 reports of the total of 1,215 in the reports library have been prepared
by Water Resources Service staff. The following table shows the number of such
reports and the general fields which they cover:—
Hg
»*
j
SI-
■
m.
■
Tota,S
I
39
I
10
10
19
|1===
ll
230
268       j         132
19       j         32
62
743
DRAUGHTING OFFICE
During the past year the draughting of some 26 projects has been completed,
involving a total of approximately 230 sheets. A large portion of thi? work was in
connection with river surveys such as Okanagan Flood-control Works, Vedder-
Chilliwack Rivers, Squamish River, and Vancouver North Shore streams. A considerable amount of work was also done in connection with snow surveys and the
meeting of the Western Snow Conference at Nelson.
Several river-improvement investigations required extensive determination of
land-ownership in the areas affected by the proposed improvement works. The
Draughting Office also maintains British Columbia precipitation records.
There are four permanent draughtsmen in the Draughting Office, who were
assisted for varying periods by three temporary-staff members from other divisions.
In addition, one draughtsman is working in the Ground Water Division assisted by
another on loan from the Water Rights Branch. Three temporary draughtsmen
were working at the year-end in the ARDA projects division.
The Draughting Office of the Water Investigations Branch continued to perform certain engineering draughting services for the Water Rights Branch.
 SOUTHERN OKANAGAN
LANDS PROJECT
  SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
GENERAL
The Southern Okanagan Lands Project provides irrigation to about 5,000
acres of land in the Oliver-Osoyoos area, and forms the basis for the important
fruit industry of the area. Since its inception in 1920, the Project has been developed
and administered by the Province, first by the Lands Service, then by the Department of Agriculture, and finally, since 1963, by the Water Resources Service.
During 1964 an important step was taken toward the transfer of responsibility
for the irrigation system to the users. In accordance with the recommendation in
the original agreement of the land titles of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project,
the lands at present receiving water from the project were incorporated into an
improvement district following a general meeting held in Osoyoos on August 6, 1964.
The Southern Okanagan Lands Project will continue to be administered under
the Soldiers' Land Act and will continue to operate and maintain the irrigation
system until such time as the rehabilitation of the system has been completed.
The Water Investigations Branch of the Water Resources Service has made an
engineering study of the works of the district and has drawn up five alternative
proposals regarding the rehabilitation of the irrigation system within the Southern
Okanagan Lands Irrigation District.
PROJECT OPERATIONS, 1964
Irrigation water was turned into the main canal on April 28, 1964. Service
was interrupted due to a washout of Flume No. 16 at 10 p.m. on May 4th. Service
was restored May 7th and continued to September 30, 1964. Domestic cisterns
were replenished from the irrigation system from February 24th to 27th and from
November 27th to 29th.
Due to the proposed rehabilitation of the irrigation system, capital replacements have been suspended, and only essential maintenance has been carried out
during 1964.
The Southern Okanagan Lands Project provided Water Bailiff service for the
Osoyoos, East Osoyoos, and Black Sage Irrigation Districts by authority of an
Order in Council.
The Oliver domestic water system was extended in the vicinity of the Oliver
Airport. This system was transferred to The Corporation of the Village of Oliver
on October 1, 1964, by Order in Council. The Order in Council also allowed for
the transfer of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project administration building to
the village.   The staff of the Project moved to quarters in the new Courthouse.
Mr. F. O. McDonald, Project Manager since 1952, retired on October 31st.
Mr. L. A. Pinske was appointed Project Supervisor, effective November 1st.
PROJECT REVENUE FOR 1964
Irrigation-water collections         . $58,714.47
Domestic-water collections   27,014.86
Land sales . ^—4,- 17,574.99
Sundries (topsoil, gravel, sand, maps, etc.)   12,002.34
  ACCOUNTING DIVISION
 WATER RESOURCES
WATER   RESOURCES SERVICE
REVENUE AND EXPENSE GRAPH
 ACCOUNTING DIVISION
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
M B. Maclean, B.Com., Departmental Comptroller
Water Rights Branch revenue for the calendar year 1964 totalled $2,175,223,
an increase of $239,445 or 12.4 per cent over the previous year.    This increase
is almost entirely attributable to increased hydro-power generation.
The source of revenue by purpose is as follows:—
Domestic, incidental use and fees       $71,244
Waterworks  13,627
Irrigation 3,689
Power 2,041,952
Funds held on application  44,711
Total : $2,175,223
Water-licence rental is payable annually, and the billing (except for power) is
mailed early in January of each year. As of December 31, 1964, the Branch had
on file 19, 236 active licences, an increase of 1,367 over the previous year.
1955 m________m $849,980.00
1956 ____________■__■ 1,081,592.07
1957 __________________■ 1,152,370.05
1958 ^e^h^m 1,256,004.37
1959 ...__.bez_____________m___._h_, 1,363,939.33
1960 K__a_____._____.___a 1,510,277.86
1961 ■■■__^_____________________________i 1,853,653.18
1962 —               i— 2,115,738.00
1963 m______________m____i______________-_i 1,935,778.43
1964 ^__________________________________________a 2,175,223.11
Total  $15,294,556.40
Ten-year average, $1,529,455.64.
    PERSONNEL SECTION
PERSONNEL SECTION
J. H. Palmer, B.A., B.Com., Personnel Officer
The following table
Recruitments for
Reclassifications 16
Promotions  8   7
Internal transfers _
Transfers to other departments ___.
Terminations for continuous staff ..
Retirements _
Extensions of service granted
Short-term appointments and
Nine new positions were added to the permanent staff during the year. One
of these was the creation of a separate position as Comptroller of Water Rights to
be distinct from the position of Deputy Minister of Water Resources. This resulted
in the promotion of Mr. G. J. A. Kidd to Comptroller of Water Rights and Mr.
H. D. DeBeck to Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights. Mr. R. J. Talbot was
promoted to District Engineer, Kelowna.
Mr. W. R. Tuthill completed the three-year Public Administration Course
sponsored by the Civil Service Commission, and Messrs. C. K. Harman and J. T.
Gulliver completed the second and first years respectively. Mr. R. F. Mousley was
enrolled in the first year of this course, and Mr. J. W. P. Martin enrolled in the
one-year course in Basic Public Administration.
An active safety programme was pursued during the year, and with the exception of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project the Department was entirely free of
accidents.
   

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