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Ministry of Agriculture and Food - 1980 Annual Report British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1983]

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 Ministry of Agriculture and Food- 1980 Annual Reh
To Colonel the Honourable
Lieutenant-Governor of the
Province of British Columbia
I have the honour to submit for your consideration the Annual Report of the Ministry of
Agriculture and Food for the year 1980.
James]. Hewitt
Minister of Agriculture and Food
page one
  Ministry 0/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
Table of
Report of the Deputy Minister of
Agriculture and Food
Organization Chart
Ministry Executive and Directors 1980
Agriculture Review
Policy Development and Planning
Executive Officer
Information Services Branch
Assistant Deputy Minister
Field Operations
Regional Extension Services
Peace River
South Coastal
Specialist and Regulatory Services
Entomology-Plant Pathology
Youth Development
Production Services
Farmland Resources
Field Crops
Assistant Deputy Minis^^P
Economics and Marketing
Assistant Deputy Minister
Financial Assistance Programs
Agriculture and Rural Development       64
Agricultural Credit
Crop Insurance
Farm Income Insurance
Farm Products Finance
Property Management
page three
  Ministry of Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
Report of the
Deputy Minister
■i'the Honourable James J. Hewitt,
IHster of Agriculture and Food
t I am pleased to present the 1980 annual report of
ISBritish Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and
add. This report summarizes activities of your
IBstry for the twelve months ending December
I The year 1980 can be heralded as one in which
_:ijor changes took place in the method of deliver-
1 ministry programs and services to farmers;
nanges that will improve ministry responsiveness
y farmer concerns and lay the foundation for Greats' and capturing new opportunities in the produc-
pn and marketing of British Columbia's agri-
iltural commodities.
J The expanded mandate of the ministry to in-
sffle the processing sector of the industry recog-
a:es the economic importance of a vibrant and
atrepreneurial food processing industry to the
'Jll-being of basic agriculture. The growth poten-
■' I of the industry beyond the farmgate is enorm-
i is; the gains can be realized in this sector in the
ileseeable future which will help minimize British
lrfilumbia's dependence on outside sources of food.
I ie ministry is now ready to meet this challenge.
I"! The ministry also adopted in 1980 a new regional
tfproach to program delivery with the establish-
lim of five distinct administrative regions each
Wing a full complement of specialists and regional
■jffision staff. I folly expect that this regional
'rtroach, combined with direct farmer involve
ment, will ensure a more balanced development of
the province's agriculture and food industry.
In spite of several adverse economic factors such
as escalating interest rates, higher cost of farm inputs and increased capital costs, the overall performance of British Columbia's agriculture and
food industry was generally satisfactory. Yields of
many crops, particularly apples, were excellent and
in some cases surpassed all-time records. In the
expanding livestock sector, hog production continued to make impressive gains. Although prices
were adversely affected in some instances, ministry
insurance programs helped ease the burden on
Numerous ministry programs, projects and demonstrations were diligently carried out by ministry
staff across the province to help farmers produce
quality foodstuffs at equitable returns.
We look forward to meeting the challenges of
this new decade.
Respectfully submitted,
S.B. Peterson
Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Food
page five
 Minum- ofAgriadatk and FikkI— 1980 Annual Repon
Organization Chart
F ami Finance
Veterinary ■ Brands
Plant Pathology
*—  Youth Development
Farm Labour
F«W Crops
Farm Business
& Regional
4 Data Processing
Market R*?Jm«
page six
, IL
Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Ret
Ministry Executive
^ter  Hon. James J. Hewitt
ffity Minister  S.B.Peterson
ssistant Deputy Minister Economics
and Marketing  Dr. G.A. MacEachern (appointed Sept./80)
ssistant Deputy Minister
■financial Assistance Programs  I  LC. Carne
^tant Deputy Minister Field Operations   E.M. King
:ecutive Director Finance and Administration    r Newman
tecutive Director Policy Development and Planning  D.M. Matviw
Kutive Director Production Services       R.L. Wilkinson (retired July/80)
M.G. Oswell (appointed Aug./80)
cecutive Director Specialist and Regulatory Services   R.J. Miller
I affinal Director Central   R.N. Kohlert (appointed Oct./80)
:gional Director Okanagan-Kootenay   B.A. Hodge (appointed Oct./80)
I:gional Director Peace River   B.E. Baehr (appointed Oct./80)
I :gional Director Thompson-Cariboo  A.N. Isfeld (appointed Oct./80)
i :gional Director South Coastal  W.E.A. Wickens (appointed Oct./80)
j™ulture and Rural Development  J.R. Steele
jricultural Credit   M.K. Thompson
pmlture  J. Corner
liSInsurance  P. R. Humphry-Baker
liry  D.J. Blair
lldromics   B.A. Hackett
Bgjneering  T. A. Windt
iJtomology-Plant Pathology   Dr. H.J. O'Reilly
leWtive Officer  P.H. Pettyfer
Irm Finance Programs (Coordinator)   J. E. Hall
.InnIncome Insurance   F.W. Morton (retired May/80)
S. Thomson (appointed Dec/80)
il:m Products Finance   J-B. Phillips
ilmland Resources   M.G. Oswell (to Executive Director Production Services, Aug./80)
J.D. Anderson (appointed Nov./80)
Mi Crops   J. V. Zacharias
fi^Eulture   A. C. Carter
formation Services  R.A. Sera
I'estock   J.A. Pelter
yirketing   D.A. Rugg
lultry   Dr. H.C. Carlson (appointed July/80)
hperty Management  B.R. Richardson
ij US.  R. S. Bertrand
i tetinary   Dr. R.J. Avery
uth Development  D.E. Freed
page seven
 Vlinuir? of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Rupun
Distribution of Farm Cash Receipts, 1980
Grains &
Other Farm         oilseeds
Cash Receipts         6.3%
4.9%                                 Vegetables
Poultry & eggs
15.8%                                                                              c
$746.5 million
Special crops,
floriculure &
nursery crops
Dairy products                                                                       9.4%
Cattle & calves
Table I   Distribution of Farm Cash Receipts, 1980, British Columbia ]
per cent
Grains and oilseeds
Special crops, including floriculture & nursery crops
Cattle and calves
Dairy produce
2 5.4
Poultry and eggs
Other (arm cash receipts
Source: Statistics Canada, January 1981
page eight
I [980 Agricultural
Ministry of Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
arm Cash Receipts
Tables I and II)
j Imish Columbia's farmers experienced a rela-
< /e\y good year in 1980 in terms of both production
l id marketing. Farm cash receipts increased to a
I cord level of $747 million, 14.4 per cent higher
s an in 1979. Field crops cash receipts rose to $47.7
JifMn, a 61 per cent increase over the previous
ar. There were impressive increases in all grains,
11 nHularly wheat and barley, due to expanded
i reage and higher yields. Cash receipts from fruit
les reached an estimated $91.6 million, up by
.3 per cent from 1979. All tree fruits except
i ernes recorded gains in production volume. Veg-
ible receipts increased by 18.1 percent, amarked
provement over the previous year's performance.
les of nursery stock and greenhouse increased by
1) tier cent.
8 Cash receipts in the livestock and livestock pro-
cts sector reached an estimated $464 million, an
r.rease of 11.5 per cent from 1979 levels. Hog
i es were up by 54 per cent as the industry con-
aued to expand under the influence of strong
Wand in the United States and Canada. Cash
l:ejffi$from dairy products increased by 20.2 per
nt to an estimated $ 175 million, due primarily to
,iijj:reases in prices and, to some extent, production.
Ji tKe other hand, sales of poultry meat dropped
jpewhat, poultry in particular being affected by
. jj: availability of pork at reasonable prices.
nrm Operating Expenses
tfable III)
t ThBCost of farm inputs continued to rise in 1980.
igregate input costs rose more rapidly than the
s^nsumer Price Index (C.P.I.), reflecting an in-
!<ase in the price and growth in purchased farm
iDuts. Production expenses for the year totalled
>51 million, an increase of 17 per cent over 1979,
rereaMe (Vancouver) C.P.I, increased by 11.8
I cent. Among the items that increased signifi-
ntly were rent (up by 15.0 per cent), machinery
flenses (up by 11.1 per cent), fertilizer and lime
)> by 14.5 per cent), feed (up by 27.9 per cent),
'VierJEtop expenses (up by 26.9 per cent) and
I erest on farm debt (up by 37.4 per cent). Some
relief towards the cost of servicing farm debt was
afforded by the Partial Interest Reimbursement
Program, which in 1980 paid a record $23.3 million
in interest reimbursement benefits to farmers on
1979 loans.
Farmland and Number of Farms
The area of cultivated farmland in British Columbia increased by 30,000 acres in 1980, to a total
of 2,030,000. Associated with the expansion of
acreage was the continued increase in farm numbers in the province, while most other provinces
were experiencing declines. The total number of
agricultural holdings in British Columbia in 1980
grew to 20,800, an increase of 200 over the number
recorded in 1979.
Food Processing (Table IV)
The estimated value of agricultural commodities
marketed by British Columbia food and beverage
manufacturing firms in the period January -
October 1980 was$l,604 million. This represented
an increase of 18.1 percent over the $1,358 million
estimated for the same period in the previous year.
As of July, 1980, there were 609 firms processing
food and beverages in British Columbia, an increase of 80 over the total number recorded in
1979. Increases in the number of establishments
occurred chiefly in slaughtering and meat processing, feed, dairy, and the flour and breakfast cereal
Retail Food Prices
British Columbia's retail food prices rose 13.7 per
cent in 1980. Major increases occurred in the prices
of eggs (up by 18.0 per cent), dairy products (up by
16.2 per cent), and fruits and vegetables (up by
11.7 per cent). The overall increase in British Columbia, however, was below the increase in the
national average for all food items.
page nine
 hAmistry of Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
Table II    British Columbia Farm Cash Receipts, 1979-1980
Per Cent
Grain Stabilization Payments
Floriculture and Nursery
Forage Crops
Other Crops
5 869
1 233
8 665
12 304
82 307
37 838
21 116
15 600
19 260
44 700
26 380
+ 87.4
+ 50.9
+ 80.0
+ 564
+ 14
+ II
+ 18.1
+  7.5
+ 244
266 000
+ 19.8
Cattle and Calves
Sheep and Lambs
Dairy Products
Other Livestock and Products
115 150
20 171
145 583
69 777
46 239
3 838
13 603
31 100
175 000
53 400
3 700
+  4.2
+ 54.2
+ 20,
- 7-j
+ 15.!
- 3
+   7
464 000
+ 11J
Forest Products (farm woodlots)
Farm Income Insurance
Dairy Supplementary Payments
Deficiency Payments
3 885
8 264
2 290
5 231
- 4.1
+ 341
+ 6J
652 638
+ 14-4
Source: Statistics Canada, January 1981
Preliminary Estimates
Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Rept
Table III    British Columbia Farm Operating Expenses
and Depreciation Charges, 1979 - 1980
Spross farm rent
Wages to farm labour
Interest on indebtedness
Provincial interest reimbursement
jNet interest on indebtedness
Machinery expenses
Fertilizer and lime
Other crop expenses
■HEher livestock expenses
Repairs to buildings
Electricity and telephone
- Thousands of Dollars —
1979 1980*
9 488
8 251
93 137
52 942
19 300
23 954
101 666
20 920
9 763
10 859
10 100
13 100
75 300
139 299
23 299
116 000
58 800
22 100
30 400
18 400
35 400
Per Cent
+ 6.5
+ 15.0
+ 4.7
+ 37.4
+ 182.4
+ 24.5
+ 11.1
+ 14.5
+ 26.9
+ 27.9
- 12.0
+ 5.5
+ 6.8
+ 22.0
454 353
+ 17.0
Depreciation on buildings
Depreciation on machinery
46 693
25 100
53 800
+ 18.0
+ 15.2
522 326
+ 16.9
[j >urce: Statistics Canada, January 1981
Preliminary Estimates
j able IV   Number of Food and Beverage Industries, British
Columbia, 1980
Slaughtering and Meat Processors 106
Poultry Processors 17
Egg Processors 21
Fish Products Industry 100
Fruit and Vegetable Canners, Preservers and
Frozen Fruit and Vegetable Processors 67
Dairy Products Industry 42
Flour and Breakfast Cereal Processors 15
Feed Industry 64
Biscuit and Confectionary Manufacturers 16
Nuts 10
Bakeries 39
Sugar and Honey Processors 20
Miscellaneous Food Processors 55
Soft Drink Manufacturers 19
Distilleries 6
Breweries 7
Wineries 5
page eleven
 Mmatry of Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
Policy Development and
The policy development and planning division is
responsible within the ministry for the development, analysis and evaluation of government
policies and programs, and development strategies
for the agriculture and food industry in the province.
Economic Factors
1980 was characterized by significant elements of
instability in the national economy, and the division's activities were heavily oriented towards
evaluating the impact of these economic factors on
British Columbia farmers. Dominating the issues
that affected the economic environment of British
Columbia farmers were increases in interest rates in
Canada to unprecedented levels, following the pattern in the United States; increases in national
energy prices and the possibility of fuel shortages;
an escalation of land prices as speculation and
hedging established new levels of price expectation; and a rise in wage levels.
The ability of the government to stabilize the
provincial economy is limited owing to the interdependence with other economies, both within
and outside Canada. These interdependencies tend
to limit the level of assistance that can be extended
to farmers and place greater emphasis upon effective planning within the agricultural sector by government. Improved planning should enable the
ministry to foresee future problems and ease the
adjustment process of farmers, as well as create new
opportunities that fanners can profitably exploit.
With an eye to its planning responsibilities, the
ministry undertook several initiatives in 1980 to
improve its capacity to react to emerging opportunities and complexities over the next decade.
The ministry's mandate was broadened to include a
direct interest in the vast food processing, distribution and retailing sector of B.C. 's food production
systems. Economic and marketing services of the
ministry were strengthened and regional administration was implemented to provide a strong
framework for regional planning and program
Division Programs
The activities of policy development and planning during the year were directed mainly at helping to resolve problems and issues bearing sign i tic -
candy on the British Columbia fanners' operant)
costs. Work was also directed toward aidii
long-term planning efforts of the ministry
major activities can be grouped under the div
principal areas of responsibility as follows:
Policy Development and Analysis - Fed
and/or provincial policy proposals with reT
to statutory rates on export grain, feed fi
assistance, the emergency allocation of e
supplies in the event imports are disrupted,
economic union of the provinces under I
constitution, and the foreign ownership of
land were some of the issues studied to d
mine their impact on agriculture in the pni
vince. Advice was provided to senior manaft j
ment or to other ministries and agencies seeldr •'
inputs for the development of a province;
A major activity during the second half of)} 1
year related to the B.C. Hydro Site C Reserwi f
project. Staff assisted independent consultaji r
(appointed by the Environmental Land 13 f
Committee Secretariat) to estimate the size>:
the agricultural resource loss resulting from da
construction and flooding, and to organizedr-
internal ministry working committee to develt'
a submission in support of compensation torn i
social loss that may be created by the dam. U
material was prepared for presentation at publ *
hearings to be held by the B.C. Utilities Coi T\
b) Strategic Planning - The ARDSA project >
compile regional profiles and develop a pit
plan for the Peace River Region was successful
completed to the final draft stage. The profiM >.
when published, will provide useful sources
information to field staff when servicing H -
mers; to the general public who seek reliat
data at a subprovincial level; and to manag
ment in developing strategic plans for the fi
newly created administrative regions. The pil
plan should help determine appropria
methods and procedures for regional ptannir
Also, with a view to developing criteria for t
evaluation of ministry programs, staff assjs
with a sample evaluation of the ALD.
Economic Analysis - Efforts to improve the
methodology of analysis and planning included
la proposal to construct an agriculturally
Briented input-output model of the British Colombia economy. The model should lead to a
pnore precise understanding of the inter-rela-
Eonships between the various agricultural sub-
fectors, and between the agricultural sector as a
whole and other industry and service sectors in
the provincial economy. It should also be a
I   highly useful tool for the internal evaluation of
(ministry programs, and an aid to the development of strategic plans for regions and com-
i   modifies.
Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
d) Interdepartmental Liaison - Policy development and planning provided staff for several
inter-ministerial technical committees, notably
the planning processes committee; the environment resource land use working committee of
the energy project coordinating committee; the
working group on socio-economic approaches
for allocating Crown land; the cost-benefit
working group; the working group on compensation and mitigation of social and environmental impacts; and the emergency supplies allocation program working group.
Executive Officer
I jffhe executive officer is responsible for the conization of legislative matters within the minimi. In 1980, 51 orders-in-council were processed
(i lating to 19 acts.
During the 1980 session of the Legislative As-
mbly, the following agricultural legislation was
. lacted:
I Ministry of Agriculture and Food Act, replacing
Iffie Ministry of Agriculture Act and allowing an
i expanded mandate for the ministry.
Iffivestock Act, which updates and consolidates
Jtne Animals Act, Livestock Production Act and
livestock Act (1979).
i Livestock Brand Act, which replaces an out-
. dated statute of the same name,
i Amendment to the Livestock Protection Act,
■TOich allows regional districts to retain the sec-
ctions of the act considered necessary for effective
(dog control while exempting them from the remainder of the act.
eI The executive officer serves as secretary to the
liiitish Columbia Agricultural Aid to Developing
LJffiitries Advisory Committee which,  during
1980, recommended support for 29 projects and
seven disaster operations in 21 countries sponsored
by 17 charitable organizations.
The executive officer is responsible for the administration of the ministry's policy of financial
assistance to many agricultural associations. Under
this policy, operating grants were given during
1980 to fair and exhibition associations, the Provincial Women's Institute, district farmers' institutes, and others. As superintendent of fanners'
institutes, he provided a liaison between their
members and the ministry and organized the annual
meeting of the Farmers' Institutes Advisory Board.
Additional duties of the executive officer included that of secretary at senior management
meetings and secretary to the B.C. Agricultural
Services Coordinating Committee. This committee, through direction of six lead committees,
maintains a watch on agricultural research, education and extension activities in the province and
encourages the organization of seminars, workshops and projects to identify and overcome problems of importance to the agricultural industry.
page thirteen
 Ministry of Agriculture Old Food — 1980 Annual Report
Information Services
Farmer; in British Columbia continuously look
for new ways to produce food of superior quality and
at reasonable cost. They are eager to team about
cost-saving techniques, marketing innovations or
new varieties that will boost yields and provide the
consumer with a nourishing, attractive commodity
at a reasonable price.
The ministry's corps of production and management specialists communicate daily with fanners in
a variety of ways: personal contact, articles in the
press and on radio, publications, farm demonstrations, seminars, direct-mail newsletters, and so on.
The ministry's information services branch plays its
major role at this communications stage.
Although the ministry/farmer communications
link remained as the branch's major informational
role in 1980, more effort was directed to informing
the public of the significance of a prosperous agriculture and food industry in B.C.
During 1980, branch programs were canned out
in two distinct areas:
1. Technical information services for farmers, and
2. Public relations projects aimed at rural and urban audiences
Technical Information
Publications, brochures, pamphlets, factsheets,
feature articles for farm press, films and slide-tape
presentations were prepared to inform fanners of
ministry services or new production techniques
that would increase output as well as farm income.
Numerous publications were prepared in 1980,
one of which was a colour booklet describing the
control and damaging effects of knapweed, a noxious weed that threatens the productive use of large
tracts of range in B.C. Work also began on an
update of the ministry's Agricultural Services
Guide booklet which will describe the ministry's
reorganization into a regionalized system of program delivery.
The 1980 Production Guides, the major series of
annual publications published by the ministry,
were printed and distributed to producers of
greenhouse crops, tree fruits, grapes, mushrooms,
vegetables, nursery crops, berries, and field crops.
At mid-year, arrangements were made to have the
manuscripts typeset onto computerized magnetic
disks. This innovation enabled the manuscripts to
be reviewed and corrected more quickly and with
considerably less chance of error in preparation for
the 1981 editions. With the installation in late-
1980 of word processing equipment in the branch's
page fourteen
Victoria office, necessary text changes in tutqji
editions of the Production Guides will result]
substantial time savings at the editing and prod
The word processing equipment was also uj
prepare many of the increasingly popular factshi
which include Agrimarket Reporter, Engineers
Notes, Farm Business Management, Field Cqj
Facts, B.C. Food Markets, Pest Control Notjjs
Stock Talk, Soils Notes, Animal Health IntonS) I
tion and Poultry Facts. These factsheets were dis
tributed to fanners either through the ministry'
district and regional offices or direct to farmers on; i
commodity mailing list.
Numerous feature articles describing new
istry projects such as the innovative bird cord
devices, pesticide seminars, renewed income insui
ance programs, etc. were prepared and sent to th
farm media.
Several films and slide-tape presentations wer
completed on technical topics including th
benefits of feed testing, the advantages of tmishin
beef on forage rations, irrigation systems, autc
mated feeding systems in dairy barns, knapwee
control, and the ministry's rangeland reseeder.
Advertisements were placed in newspapers an
on radio to alert farmers of ministry-sponsorc
seminars, deadlines on financial assistance pet
grams, new programs and regulations.
Public Relations
Simultaneous to the announcement in mid-lPc
of the ministry's expanded agriculture and fix
mandate, a colourful publication entitled "Agt
culture and Food - A New Mandate" was printi
and distributed to the media, industry and far i
community across Canada. The booklet outlim
the ministry's commitment to the food procesdi :
and marketing segment of the industry beyond tl
farmgate. It also described new ministry objectiv
within the context of provincial agriculture I ,
sources to meet more of the province's future ns |
A total of 60 news releases were issued durii :
1980 to advise the rural and urban audience
current agricultural trends, changes to minisi
programs, new staff, and new policies affecting tl
agricuIture and food industry.
An additional 57 news releases were prepared fu
describe projects approved under the federal/pu'
vincial ARDSA program.
_ i)
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
I Audio-visual presentations and feature articles
I ere prepared to inform the non-farm audience of
le significance of B.C. 's agriculture and food sec-
I is Articles were sent to dailies, weeklies and spe-
I ill trade magazines such as the New Westminster
I'Mumbian, the Financial Post, B.C. Business, and
SiBiy others. Revisions were made in the ministry's
rood in Perspective" slide-tape presentation to
iiffict the ministry's new regional structure. The
|B"Prey for Predators" was completed and used
I ®ly throughout the province to inform ranchers
id the general public of correct predator manage-
(erit methods. A slide-tape presentation entitled
I tmding a Balance" was started in mid-1980 and
will explain the impact and need for the judicious
use of pesticides combined with integrated pest
control methods in modern agriculture.
A 15-minute film interview with a part-time and
full-time B.C. farmer was completed for presentation at the annual Canadian Agricultural Extension Council conference in eastern Canada. The
film depicted the farmer's view of ministry services
related to their part-time and full-time farm operations.
A large display depicting the diversity of B.C.'s
agriculture industry was designed and installed at
the B.C. Ferry terminal at Tsawwassen.
I Iggay, titled1 "Our Neighbours in the Country", at the Tsawwassen ferry terminal was aimed at giving urban travellers an appreciation for the
p...agrkuliuTe and food industry.
page fifteen
    Ministry o/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
egional Extension Services.
f'S part of the ministry's reorganization in 1980,
wprovince was divided into five administrative
i|)ns — Peace River, Central, Thompson-
w<boo, Okanagan-Kootenay and South Coastal
rtased on agricultural cropping areas and natural
tfidaries. Each regional director, appointed in
October 1980, administers his region's district offices and directs extension program development in
the region. District agriculturists and horticulturists provide the major extension contact with
farmers and ranchers, with support from ministry
specialist staff.
page nineteen
'eace River
This region, which occupies the northeast
prner of the province, enjoyed its second consecu-
i'e good year. Cereal crop yields and prices in 1980
•_:re mostly above average. Estimated farm cash
ineipts for the year, reflecting the value of the
llgious year's grain crop, were almost double the
||4-million received in 1979.
field Crops
(Almost 80 per cent of the farm income was
trived from cereal grains and rapeseed production.
11979 over half of the seeded acreage had been in
peseed, but strong grain prices caused a shift away
f m rapeseed in 1980. Acreage of barley exceeded
hlieseed, while wheat was a close third. Yields of
teal grains were generally better than average,
Sile rapeseed and forage seed yields were below
l flirage. Crop quality was good despite a frost in
4>: August.
;•. 3eef, sheep, poultry and dairy numbers remained
siilar to those reported inl979 despite soft mar-
jk ing conditions. The lack of a strong local market
& sheep continued to hinder development of that
i ustry. Dairy producers in the North Peace area
I a|M increased competition in local markets due to
lapsing imports of fluid milk from other parts of
i^ province. A similar situation affected local
t« dieting of poultry products.
:xtension activities for the livestock industry
LUIflded farm visits or office consultations, finan-
icl management courses presented by the econom-
i branch for swine and beef producers and a semi-
Ministry o/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Repon
nar and field day on branding presented by the
brands division of the veterinary branch.
Development of community pastures continued
in 1980 with $292,000 of ARDSA funds spent on
six of the seven pastures in the Peace. A total of
10,602 head of cattle were pastured during the year,
approximately 25 per cent of the total cattle in the
region. The Upper Cache coordinated range management plan (C.R.M.P.), estimated to cost
$1,750,000 over the next four years with support
from ARDSA, commenced in 1980. Proposals for
two more community pasture C.R.M.P.s were prepared. The demand for further development of
community pastures is expected to increase resulting from a 30 per cent rise in the cost of deeded
agricultural land. The Peace River community
pasture demonstration project continued into its
fourth year with grazing trials, forage nursery
demonstrations added to the forage sample analysis, fertilizer trials and demonstration of development techniques. Valuable pasture management
and development information has been gathered by
field crops branch staff from this project.
The Peace River region is the major source of
honey produced in the province but a 20 per cent
cutback in the number of hives and only average
production significantly lowered cash receipts in
1980. The prices for honey remained strong but
labour, fuel and package bee costs slowed development.
Acreage in horticultural crops has decreased by
75 per cent since 1975 largely due to difficulties in
marketing locally and the uncertain future of the
river benchlands scheduled for flooding by hydroelectric developments. The appointment in 1980
of a horticulturist to serve the Prince George and
Peace Regions will be helpful in rejuvenating the
Special Activities
Extension services staff were involved in a variety of special assignments or activities including the
hosting of the B.C. and Alberta Farm Writers
Tour, initiation of a dugout-filling pump program
with the assistance of the engineering branch, production of broadcasts three times each week on
radio stations in Fort St. John and Dawson Creek,
organization of a seminar dealing with oil industry-
agriculture conflicts and, in cooperation with field
crops branch, the first ever field day for farmers in
Fort Nelson.
 Ministry o/ Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
The Central region, comprised of the agricultural districts of Smithers, Vanderhoof, Prince
George and Quesnel, covers a large geographic area
with a wide diversity of climatic and soil types. The
agricultural industry is expanding with numerous
new entrants into the industry. District agriculturists in each district are supported by a staff of
regional specialists located in Prince George and by
provincial specialists.
Field Crops
Forage yields were generally good for the Prince
George area but of variable quality because of
harvest conditions. There was a surplus of hay in
the Prince George area. Cereal acreage for grain
and silage increased in the Prince George and
Robson Valley areas. Field barley was produced and
sold locally. Rapeseed growers in the Robson Valley produced an excellent crop for export.
At Vanderhoof renewed interest has developed
in cereal production primarily for silage. Of 10,000
acres in cereal production, 10 per cent was harvested as grain and the remainder as silage. The
grain met about 10 per cent of a keen local market.
The wet autumn in the Quesnel area caused
deterioration in the hay quality, depending on local
circumstances. Verrici/Jium wilt is proving to be a
serious disease in alfalfa fields under moist conditions. Cereal acreage may increase due to more land
being cleared and the use of cereals as a rotation
crop where disease is a problem in alfalfa stands.
Knapweed is a key concern of this district and plans
are underway to increase the control measures.
There were 12 acres of horticultural crops produced
in the Quesnel area plus 106 acres of seed potatoes.
page moiiyiuit
Adverse weather in the Smithers district resu
in a disappointing year for forage and cereal pro
tion, with yields about 50 per cent of normal.
During the year, 18,000 acres of land in
Vanderhoof area were cleared for agricultural fin
duction. As a partial result, the 1980 breedir
cattle herd increased by an estimated 14.5 per cei
(estimated breeding herd of 15,700 animals). Tl
new acres should allow further expansion offi
beef sector.
In the Prince George area the community pa
. tures were stocked to capacity. There was a ltee
interest in future expansion of some of the p
facilities. Ninety per cent of the fanners in£
district reported having some livestock.
At Smithers, summer range was a limiting taj
to any increase in livestock numbers. Dairy pq
tion in the district increased by 8.7 per centfl
the previous year.
The establishment of a vegetable grading ai;
packing facility at Telkwa prompted the growinji
150 acres of horticulture crops such as broc®
cauliflower, carrots, parsnips and rutabagas[~
proximately $ 10,000 worth of vegetables wen
duced in 1980 with indications that there woul
300 acres in production for the 1981 seasoiSi
farms from Bums Lake to Terrace.
Staff Activities
The extension activities of the region are gearu
to providing a broad range of support to a devc
oping farm population. The district agriculturis
conducted office consultations and farm visits. I
conjunction with regional staff, demonstratioi
were held on topics such as land clearing, livestot
management, forage and cereal variety trials, wk
control, fertilizer correlation and fertilizer respotis
Cooperative extension programs were conduct
with the University of British Columbia and tl
College of New Caledonia. The close work i ng ret
tionship continued with the federal tesearcjp
tion at Prince George.
Ministry o; Agriculture and Food- 1980 Annual Re|
The Thompson-Cariboo region, with offices at
tnloops and Williams Lake, encompasses a large
tion of the province's open rangeland. Beef cat-
enterprises comprise about 90 per cent of the
ion's agricultural activity and represent about 40
i cent (1976 census) of the provincial beef herd,
alfa hay fanning, corn production and fruit and
etable enterprises, with the benefit of irrigation,
I impute to the area's agriculture industry.
\iU Crops
Vlthough May to September rainfall was approx-
tely 170 per cent of normal, it came too late to
enish irrigation reservoirs for the season, fore-
some cutback in corn acreage and allowing only
:raffirrigation of some ha/ fields. Fortunately, a
ij5jst-free season allowed com to mature and
to be cut late, resulting in the storage of ade-
teKinter feed.
)epressed cattle markets and increased produc-
,,| i costs discouraged any increase in the size of the
f herd. The co-op sale yards reported a decreased
rly volume of 13.5 per cent through the Wil-
,j is Lake yard and four per cent through the
y nloops yard. Fewer steers than cows and heifers
e sold through the yards; cows and heifers were
.ilig to feed yards rather than breeding herds. A
j H number of new feed yards were built but the
J iber of calves being held for backgrounding did
I increase.
Horticultural production increased slowly and
steadily in the Kamloops district. A vineyard has
been established at Basque; this producer was also
growing field tomatoes and melons. A vegetable
seed enterprise was started at Pritchard.
In the Williams Lake district, Agricultural Land
Development Act funds requested to clear land
exceeded funds requested to establish irrigation. In
the Kamloops district, the reverse was true.
Regional extension services staff continued to
provide a high standard of service to agriculture and
the community. Individual consultation was popular with clients and staff as indicated by the large
number of office visits and farm calls in both districts. In cooperation with other branches, Agriculture Canada Research Station and producer
groups, staff members conducted and assisted with
trials and demonstrations, designed to evaluate and
demonstrate the benefits to their districts of crop
varieties, fertilizer response, management practices, irrigation techniques, range seeding and
others. The regional extension staff represented the
ministry on a number of committees, dealing with
resource management regional planning and problem wildlife.
page twenty-three
 Ministry 0/Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
The Okanagan-Kootenay region takes in the
southeast corner of B.C. and encompasses eight
district offices. The regional office is located at
Tree Fruits
Production of apples in the region reached an
all-time high of 450 million pounds. Pear and prune
yields were up substantially although sizing problems in Bartlett pears caused economic loss.
Weather problems caused significant losses in the
fresh market for cherry producers; fortunately the
cannery market was strong and 48 per cent of the
crop was diverted for canning.
Over 19 million pounds of peaches and about 7
million pounds of apricots were harvested with
good returns.
Extensive grower participation in the ministry-
sponsored farm income insurance program was expected to help alleviate cash flow problems prevalent among growers.
Orchard land prices which averaged $2500-
$3000 per acre in 1972 approached $20,000 per
acre in 1980. Although beginning fanners suffer
hardship, some of the established producers have
purchased additional planted acreage or brought
new land into production.
Production levels are expected to rise with improved cultural techniques, rejuvenation of old
plantings and the coming into production of new
plantings. Additional controlled atmosphere storage for the crop, partially funded by ARDSA, was
expected to help stabilize markets resulting from
this increased production.
page twenty-four
Ministry extension personnel presented
grower courses covering topics such as sprayt
bration, financial management, pruning;
stocks and row spacing, soil sampling and
analysis and pesticide application.
The chautauqua television program for ttel
growers was replaced by a new grower edud
program featuring classroom lectures, printed
duction guides, on-farm field days, demonsd
plots, newsletters and radio broadcasts.
The establishment of the B.C. fruit growers1
orchard at Oliver reflects a total industry appi
which will, under commercial conditions, rel
the latest in production technology. Ministry
cials and programs played a major role
An irrigation scheduling program to optii
water use, involving 43 growers and 425 ac
production, proved successful and was to b<J
pandedin 1981.
The ministry's apple and nursery species
worked closely with six nurseries involved in m
B.C.F.G.A. budwood program. During the ye
240,762 one-year-old trees were certified as to vm
ety under this program. A new opportunity cxiSd
for nectarine production and a ministry pragp
was started to find a satisfactory variety, a
ministry coordinated research into nematodes*
their potential economic consequence to fie
Although the vegetable industry was expandirii
in the region, production of "heat loving ctop
declined due to weather conditions while root lb
cole crop production was excellent. Amalgamafla
of the Interior Vegetable Marketing Board andw
British Columbia Coast Vegetable Board occurre
in July.
The B.C. Asparagus Growers' Association use
the ministry's asparagus production incentive put
gram to encourage producers to expand then pup
ings. Ministry specialists organized seminars in
field days with the association resulting in ipplic
tions to bring an additional 130 acres into ok
Expanded vegetable variety evaluation progran
were carried out by the ministry and cost ot produt
tion studies for field tomatoes, peppers and sw
corn were underway.
 Ministry o/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
I Dairy production during the year was stable; in-
rest was developing in sheep production; more
lives were being "fed out" and there was a signifi-
mt expansion in the swine industry.
ield Crops
Forage crop, field com and cereal grain crop
reages continued to expand. Programs to dem-
istrate better management practices were pre-
l nted and variety trials were underway throughout
e region. Weed control caused increasing con-
rn and required more support from local agencies
I government. Ministry officials in cooperation
I tn local livestock associations, initiated a com-
lliransive Russian knapweed control program.
Field personnel set up trials of VerticiUium wilt
resistant alfalfa varieties and emphasized better
management in a region-wide alfalfa management
seminar. Stem nematodes in alfalfa were also given
Com ear smut in the North Okanagan was also
detected during the year.
Staff Activities
Ministry officials acted closely as advisors on two
effluent waste projects (Vernon and Cranbrook). A
beef feeding guide was produced and livestock and
crop production courses were carried on throughout
the region.
District agriculturists in the region found increased demands on their time for participation in
coordinated resource management planning, completing ALDA applications and resolving resource
use conflicts.
fcouth Coastal
th coastal region, which generates ap-
#ximately 58 per cent of the total farm cash
yppts for British Columbia, encompasses the
Li^icouver Island and Fraser Valley (including the
[lliberton Valley) areas. District offices are lo-
c:d at Duncan, Courtenay, Cloverdale, Chilli-
(j'fl and Abbotsford (regional office).
Veather conditions in 1980 were generally
*mer and wetter than usual with record precipitin occurring throughout the region. Unusually
cool, wet weather during May, June and July (188
per cent and 197 per cent of normal respectively),
resulted in heavy losses to berry crops, delayed hay
operations and generally slow crop growth. The
early fall season was warm and dry, which helped
efforts to complete the delayed harvest and adjust
field work schedules. At year end, above normal
temperatures and heavy rainfall caused some flooding throughout the region.
Record production levels were achieved and expansion of plantings continued in many commodities. The small fruit industry witnessed record
yields and increased mechanization and acreage.
The strawberry crop exceeded 15 million pounds
and raspberries 17.5 million pounds. Both blueberry and cranberry production levels were normal,
with a 60 per cent increase being forecast for
cranberry production over the next two years.
However, problems associated with quality, fruit
rot, labour and marketing created concern for raspberry and, to a lesser degree, strawberry production.
The advent of unionized labour and shortages of
pickers resulted in the use of 60 mechanical raspberry harvesters in 1980 (11 in 1979). The major
page tvjenty-five
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
disappointment of the 1980 production year for
berry and small fruit crops was the distress selling of
raspberries. As processors underbid each other to
sell their packs, the price fell from 60 cents to 37
cents per pound-
Vegetable production was slow, coupled with a
high occurrence of disease and heavy competition
from weeds. While prices received for crops were
generally good, reduced yields and harvest delays
upset continuity of supply resulting in importations
and loss of market. Mushrooms fared better with
both satisfactory prices and a vigorous new grower-
owned cannery.
Field Crops
Forage crops suffered during the late spring and
early summer as the cool, wet weather limited
planting and harvesting operations. Adequate hay
and feed supplies were eventually secured, although
quality was lacking and feeding adjustments had to
be made. On the positive side, the wet weather
favoured an excellent pasture season which helped
reduce pressure to feed stored winter feeds.
The dairy industry had a steady year; milk prices
were increased to offset increased production costs.
Beef cattle, aided by good pasture, had good weight
gains and weaning weights. Cattle prices at local
markets were fair to average. Interest and act
in veal production were renewed and a new
producer organization was formed. The porl
dustry continued to increase its production in
of depressed prices during 1980. Two dis
transmissible gastro enteritis and hemapl
pneumonia, occurred for the first time in the tc
and caused concern. Remedies associated wit]
problem of siting hog operations and other ii
sive livestock operations were pursued througl
green zone program. Steady growth was evideT
the poultry industry although problems assocl
with processing facilities and high feed costs ca
concern during 1980.
Staff Activities
Extension staff assisted producers through!
farm consultations as well as development and!
lementation of a range of extension programs\
duction courses, field days and trials. Much |
extension activity revolved around core co
tees of ministry education committees of stafj
producers.  These committees function ipp
commodities: forage, swine and dairy. The
culture activities involved primarily hortici]
branch staff working directly with various {
groups and associations. Jointly organized e]
sion programs with various associations
business and community colleges were also c|
page twenty-six
 Specialist and
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
Consolidation within the production sector of
the dairy industry continued in 1980, but at a much
slower pace than in the past. The number of approved dairy farm premises decreased by only six,
compared to 31 during 1979 and 51 in 1978.
Nevertheless, farm milk sales from the combined
milk board areas of production increased by 5.1 per
cent to 443.7 million litres. The provincial dairy
herd increased by 3.6 per cent to 114,000 head of
dairy cows and heifers. Production from the 1,129
dairy farms was processed in 37 licensed dairy
Fluid milk retail sales in milk board areas of
production increased by 2.7 per cent to 292.9 million litres. Butter production was down 13.8 per
cent or 370 tonnes at 2,303 tonnes. Cheddar
cheese production was up 6.5 per cent from 2,096
tonnes to 2,232 tonnes. Ice cream mix production
of 20,417 kilolitres was up 4.3 per cent over 1979.
Farm cash receipts from the sale of dairy products
were estimated at $175 million. Milk used in fluid
retail sales increased by $4.50/hL to $46.683/hL for
December, 1980. The butterfat differential was
35g/kg at year end. Supplementary payments to
dairymen from the Canadian dairy commission program were estimated at approximately $10 million.
The target price for industrial milk was $34-61/hL
from August 1980. The industrial milk subsidy remained at $6.03/hL.
Over 300,000 milk samples uiere analyzed at the Dairy Laboratory m m
Bumaby during 1980.
The milk quality program was continued wjtli
inspection of premises and equipment, plus tefflfci
monitoring of farm milk and finished product qifil
ity. Farm premises, transportation facilities, dair
plants and depots were inspected for compliancp
sanitary standards. Over 300,000 milk
were analyzed at the dairy laboratory. A prov^
wide survey was again completed for contain]
in milk. The following penalties for sub-quAv
milk were applied in 1980, with 1979 figuq
Table I    Five Year Production/Fluid Utilization
Summary For Milk Board Areas
Milk Quota Fluid
Production Milk Sales
— Millions of Litres —
Per Cent Per Ceja
of of
Production Quota j
 dmistryo/Agriculture andFood- 1980 Annual Repo,
■ iliffiets: warning letters were issued to 176 (464)
pducers while 107 (128) producers were levied a
ial of $43,105 ($37,939). Penalty funds were
l ned over to the dairy products promotional fond
cnmittee. The quality of finished dairy products
\s monitored regularly: 96.2 per cent (96.7 per
tit) of all products tested complied with require-
rnts for the standard plate count and 90.3 per
c it (91.6 per cent) were in compliance of coliform
r uirements.
The mastitis control program was continued,
v h testing of 10,144 cows in 170 herds. The B. C.
Fleration of Agriculture continued to finan-
clly support a field technician to take milk samps for diagnostic analysis at the veterinary lab-
, The dairy laboratory provided analytical services
£ the dairy goat herd improvement program. In
jifinitial year, 2,021 samples from 39 herds were
tested. This program is organized by the Canadian
Goat Society with test results being reported to
MacDonald College, Quebec, for data processing.
Agriculture Canada was provided with labora
tory analytical services for the R.O.P. dairy program. A contract for 22,500 samples was signed anc
first samples were tested in August. It is anticipated
that central testing of R.O.P. samples will increase
because of the laboratory capability to perforrr
multiple component analysis and the probability of
being able to report somatic cell counts.
The illegal sale of raw milk continued to be a risk
to public health. One violator was charged and
fined in court and numerous complaints were investigated.
A new dairy processing plant was completed and
equipped to process dairy products with ultra high
temperature (UHT) in order to provide consumers
with milk that does not require refrigeration.
mile sales increased by 5. i % to -M3.7 million litres in 1980.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
(Demonstration of
and Economics)
The DATE (Demonstration of Agricultural
Technology and Economics) program continued in
1980 to fund projects aimed at demonstrating new
advances in agricultural technology.
Virus-free grape plants of selected varieties were
produced at the Saanichton Research & Plant
Quarantine Station utilizing a newly developed tissue culture technique. The system significantly reduces the time required to produce a large number
of virus-free plants by growing cuttings in controlled nutrient solutions.
Virus-free seed potato propagation greenhouses
were established in Pemberton and the Cariboo.
A solar greenhouse will be tested at the Saanichton Research 6* Plant Quarantine Station.
Testing was completed on water supplies in!
Okanagan in order to provide the irrigation in-
dustry with design recommendations on filtration
equipment to minimize trickle irrigation "plugging" problems.
A new approach to the use of DATE funds
was initiated in 1980 in the form of a program that
provides information to cauliflower growers to allow them to more closely meet the requirements of
the fresh market.
A program was launched to produce selec&d
honeybee stock that will operate efficiently undei
British Columbia conditions.
A more efficient sprayer was designed and teste;
for use in raspberry plantings.
I   F
Dr. N.S. Wright (kfl) of the Agriculture Canada Research Station m Vancouver, Attorney-General Allan Williams (middle) and Agriculture and Food Minim
Jim Hewitt (far right) tour one of the greenhouses used for the virus-free seed potato project
»»■»» lb
Ministry o/Agriculture and Food - 1980 Annual Report
The engineering branch continued to provide an
oSering design and advisory service to farmers
d ranchers in the province. The advisory service
/ered most aspects of on-farm engineering needs;
linage, irrigation, farm structures, mechaniza-
n, waste management and land and range
-rom engineering offices located in four regions
the province, branch services were provided
ough direct producer consultations, short
irses, field days, blueprints, publications and
ss articles.
h. Despite the wet summer of 1980, demands for
ii'ation continued to be high. Two hundred and
hv-six irrigation plans prepared by commercial
d lers were checked for adequacy of design, prior
t< loaning of funds under the Agricultural Land
Delopment Act. This represented a 56 per cent
larease over 1979 and a potential expenditure of
[$ 5 million.
Jpdating and expanding the Irrigation Design
Ihnual and implementation of the Irrigation As-
siiation's Guidelines for Irrigation System Design
tai Installations set new standards for irrigation
sjem design in the province. Formation of the
[E-. Irrigation Association and adoption of irriga-
pnh standards have been significant steps in a
piidly developing irrigation industry.
figh energy costs and a shortage of water, along
rtvh the potential for improved production, incised interest in trickle irrigation among or-
plx^Sts and small fruit growers. The branch
jiionstrated a filter system that makes trickle irri-
ligi.on a viable option.
I ravelling guns became popular as producers
Kf tinued efforts to reduce labour requirements for
Jtjation. Proper operation of this new equipment
** stressed in the revised design manual and
miughfield demonstration.
ne scope of the drainage advisory service was
adened from individual farm work to increased
Siihasis on implementing ARDA funded regional
water management projects and development of
interior wetland meadows. Branch staff served as
liaison officers between farm groups applying for
funds and the various resource and government
agencies, ensuring that projects moved forward to
implementation stage. Forty-five farm and regional
water management projects were worked on during
1980. The projects involved 7,684 acres and a
potential expenditure of $1,269,210.
Farm Structures
Farmstead layout plans along with complete sets
of building drawings continued to be in strong demand. Approximately 1,000 farmers and ranchers
used the farm structures service during the year.
The service is well established in the Fraser Valley, particularly in the dairy and poultry industries.
With dairy herd sizes continuing to grow, the
branch's wide dairy bam plan, with two rows of free
stalls on either side of a drive-through feed alley,
continued to be very popular with producers.
Efforts are underway, through individual contact, field days and extension material, to provide
this design service to other regions of the province.
Waste Management
The waste management advisory service continued to provide farmers with up-to-date technical
advice on waste management systems including
collection, storage, handling and disposal of waste
water, manure and dead animals. The dramatic
increase in swine production units over the past
three years has caused some severe environmental
problems that have strained the agricultural environmental control and green zone program and
produced strong conflicts in some of the more
densely populated areas surrounding the agricultural land reserve.
The branch, through research projects, field
demonstrations and published extension material,
continued to develop manure handling systems
that minimize flies, odouts, and other nuisances.
Maintaining the credibility and effectiveness of
the agricultural environment control program and
the green zone method of siting farm buildings
continued as a high priority.
page thirty-one
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1930 Annual Report
This sprayer was designed by the engineering branch w control insect pests on raspberries. Special equipment electr
iatlly monitors pesticide application.
Mechanization and Agricultural
Land Development
Testing and development of the rangeland discs
and seeders continued. A total of 15,277 acres has
been reseeded to date. The demand for range seeding equipment increased to the extent that the two
available machines are folly booked for the 1981
seeding season.
A two-row raspberry sprayer, the first of its kind,
was designed and built under the DATE program. Plans for this sprayer have been made available to the public and a local farm equipment dealer
is now manufacturing the units.
Several farmers made use of the farm machinery
spare parts and service complaint program and the
mechanization advisory service. Extension efforts
pertaining to farm safety were also continued.
Special Projects Section
In an effort to find solutions to the many
gineering problems facing the agricultural indusdy,
a special projects section was established. This s&
tion, staffed by one engineer and a part-time technician, was working on a number of projects at year
- aeration of swine manure for odour control  i
- minimum tillage for cereal crop production  J
- range renovation and seeding equipment   ]
- brush control on community pasture
- equipment for developing native meadow
- crop spraying equipment
- alternatives for disposing of milking p.irlow
page thmy-two
lant Pathology
Minutry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Repor
i The entomology-plant pathology branch pro-
iles information on controlling plant diseases,
liects and mites. The branch also develops con-
t Is for vertebrates including deer, rodents, moles
d birds.
Throughout 1980, the staff conducted training
xirses and educational programs for farmers, or-
hrdists, greenhouse operators and homeowners;
i addition, field trials were carried out to evaluate
[iticides and other pest control techniques.
jiagnostic and Advisory Services
Oisease and insect diagnostic clinics for home
edeners, commercial growers, farmers and other
t nches of the ministry were operated at Clover-
ce, Victoria and Summerland.
i Throughout the early summer, in cooperation
u h the University of British Columbia, a mobile
pnt clinic was provided at garden centres from
\:st Vancouver to Chilliwack.
ree Fruits and Grapes
I n the Interior, brown rot was serious on cherries
;b minimal on peaches and apricots. Little cherry
d:ase occurred on 116 trees. Fewer infected trees
were found in two orchards receiving sprays for the
insect vector, apple mealy bug, suggesting that the
spray program may reduce spread. Apple scab was at
a low level in 1980 despite several infection
periods. The need for codling moth control was
minimal in 1980.
Pheromone leafroller warnings aided growers in
control of leafrollers in cherries. In other tree fruits
the leafroller pheromones permitted adjustments in
spray programs when leafrollers were detected.
Mite identification schools for packing house
staffs were conducted and expanded to monitor
other fruit pests. Assistance was given to packing house technicians in pear psylla detection and
in other apple and pear pest determinations. Three
commercial pest managers now aid the industry by
providing a complete apple and pear pest management service.
In grapes a resistance of Botryris to benomyl appeared. A survey of vineyard ground litter showed
10 of 13 vineyards displayed Botrytis resistance.
Later at harvest benomyl resistance occurred in
nine out of 20 vineyards.
A new regulation was introduced governing importation of grape plants into B.C. to prevent the
entry of virus infected planting stock.
f| ers of greenhouse cucumbers and tomatoes u»ere trained in the application of biological control agents.
page thirty-three
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
Field Crops
The European skipper, a potential new insect
pest of pasture and forage grasses, was collected in
the Salmon Arm - Revelstoke area.
Grasshopper populations were high in several
north Okanagan locations. Some crop damage occurred, suggesting that migrations from range lands
into domestic crops had taken place. Gardens and
ornamentals in newer urban areas close to range
lands were also infested. Surveys of other insect
species on grasses used in range and seeding programs were initiated in cooperation with the field
crops branch.
Alfalfa Vertiriluum wilt continued to spread
throughout the southern half of the province, recently appearing in the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island. Of 205 fields surveyed, 87 (43 per
cent) were infected compared to 31 per cent of
fields surveyed in 1979. Trials with European resistant varieties are underway and the federal research station at Lethbridge has started a resistance
breeding program.
High populations of alfalfa stem nematode Di-
tylenchus dipsaci were found in some interior areas.
Holcus (Pseudomonas) leaf spot of sorghum and
VerticilUum wilt of bird's foot trefoil were identified
for the first time at the federal research station at
Vegetables, Small Fruits
and Berries
A new pest, asparagus aphid, was found near
Spences Bridge and Armstrong. Interior plantings
will require management of this aphid. Preliminary
insecticide trials were begun and an application
submitted for minor use pesticide registration.
Head smut of corn was identified in nine fields in
the Okanagan - Shuswap area. Onion downy
mildew and tomato bacterial speck, both associated
with wet weather, were at a high level in the
Okanagan. A survey of Okanagan asparagus fields
found that 11 of 13 fields had Fusarium wilt, but
little damage resulted.
In the Fraser Valley, potato late blight, bean root
rot and gray mould, onion downy mildew, white
rot, blast and flooding damage all occurred as well
as carrot cavity spot and lateral root dieback.
Onion white rot was spreading. Liming of soils for
minimizing crucifer clubtoot continued.
Imported strawberry plants contained nematodes, red stele and some viruses.
Pear Trellis Rust
Only 138 pear trellis rust infected junipers were
located and destroyed as compared to 352 in 1979
Pear leaf infections were up and only eight out of32
nurseries were certified compared to 13 out of 33 in
1979. The Yarrow area is now virtually free of this
disease, unlike 1975 when it was a major infection
Pesticides and Pesticide Safety I
Most pesticide inquiries concerned toxicity.
Pesticide applicator courses were provided for BK.
orchardists, and other pesticide education courses
were offered to the public.   '
Livestock Insects
Livestock producers received information onthe
control of sheep keds, hog lice, cattle grubs, fleas,
barn flies, stable flies, ticks, mites, black flies,
chicken lice and mink lice.
An integrated pest management program was
started to control horn flies and face flies attacking
cattle. Native parasites were found which may
serve as biological control agents. The use of parasites to minimize flies around egg farms has Increased.
Greenhouse Industry
Biological control agents for controlling mffies
and whiteflies were distributed to greenhouse
cucumber and tomato growers. The growers were
trained in the application of biological agents and
pest release management as well as in the use of
compatible chemicals.
Mosquito Control
Mosquitoes occurred in low numbers in
southern areas of the province and in average 1
bers in the north. There were no confirmed caf
human or horse encephalitis. Mosquito con
agencies were given training in mosquito contj
Vertebrate Pest Control
Orchard and vineyard damage by deer incn
and the testing of repellents was underway.
lings remained a problem in orchards, vine
and berry plantings.
page thiw/'fouT
_ 11
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
i The soils branch assists in protection, mainte-
lince, development and effective use of the ag-
Ijuffiiral soils resource in B.C. Branch activity
liduded: advisory services on all aspects of soils to
■jiwers, agribusiness, industry and other govern-
lirat'agencies; demonstration of soil management
\ t hniques to growers and investigation of soil and
\ ter related problems; operation of the provincial
L'sl, feed and tissue testing laboratory; and provi-
isn of technical services to the provincial agri-
Li dual land commission pursuant to the Agri-
ctural Land Commission and Soil Conservation
advisory Services
ri iranch staff, located in Cloverdale, Kelowna
tal Prince George, provide advisory services, rela-
Lt: to aspects of soil and water management, to the
aicultural industry and other agencies. Staff con-
Ldited drainage investigations on 800 acres outside
ho he Fraser Valley and checked 12 drainage plans
gj pared by consultants concerning land in the
"Fser Valley. Drain installation in 1980 decreased
t( .6 million feet of pipe compared to two million
I in 1979.
rigation information on available water hold-
ir capacity and water application rates was pro-
»;S for 200 soil samples submitted by growers.
By-seven orchards comprising 425 acres parti-
iiited in the irrigation scheduling program in the
Simerland municipality. The scheduling pro-
fln has resulted in a decrease in water use. In
wort of 25 proposed ARDSA water management
projects, information on land use and irrigation
and/or drainage requirements was provided. Information on soils, land suitability and irrigation developments was provided for effluent irrigation projects at Kamloops, Penticton, Osoyoos, Oliver,
Kelowna, Fort St. John, Vernon, Logan Lake and
A bulletin on soil management for turf farms and
guidelines for monitoring turf operations was prepared. Soil and plant sampling and analysis was
undertaken in support of the ministry of health's
study of uranium deposits in the Okanagan. Information concerning the effects of the proposed B.C.
Hydro dam at Site C on the Peace River on irrigation, drainage and soil erosion was collected.
Demonstration and Investigation
The soils branch initiated or participated in projects to demonstrate soil and water management
techniques and investigations of soils and water
related problems.
The effect of deep tillage (sub-soiling) on soil
drainage was investigated at 10 sites in the Fraser
Valley. Initial observations indicated improved
water infiltration.
;i| II die mmiscrj's soil and tissue testing lab at Kelowna analyzed numerous soil and plant samples sen! in frj farmers.
page thirty-five
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
A project to develop a soil nitrogen test for the
Central Interior was initiated.
Forage crops grown on high calcium soils in
south-eastern B.C. have had some nutrient deficiency problems. A study involving various rates of
potassium fertilizer indicated that above normal
potassium is required on these soils. The effectiveness of soil-applied phosphorus in apple orchards
was investigated. Results indicated that apple trees
do not respond well to phosphorus fertilization in
the year of application.
The feasibility of improving growth of native
forage on Central Interior wetland meadows was
studied. Native sedges did not respond to fertilization.
Field com in the Okanagan was fertilized with
various rates of N, P and K in order to check the
accuracy of the provincial soil test recommendations. The fertilizer requirements were predicted
from the soil test. The branch cooperated with
Agriculture Canada in determining the need for
sulphur fertilization in the Fraser Valley.
The branch participated in the program to fij_
tune the agricultural land reserve boundaries whit.
was initiated by the commission in 1980. Ma»
projects undertaken or participated in by the
branch were development of methodologies tor assessing critical forage producing lands m the
Ashcroft-Kamloops area and the Bulkley Keehako
Regional District.
Soil Conservation
The branch assisted local governments, regioml
districts and the provincial agricultural land commission with administration of the Soil Con-enia-
tion Act. Twenty-four on-site inspections were carried out and reports submitted relative to applications for soil removal from or placement of filloj
land within agricultural land reserves. Report- contained recommendations on whether or not to ffl-
low the applications and, if permitted, details on
acceptable removal and filling procedures and
methods for site rehabilitation.
The veterinary branch including the laboratory,
field veterinarian and brand divisions carries out
duties under the Livestock Disease Control Act,
Meat Inspection Act, Fur Farm Act, Livestock
Public Sale Act, Livestock Brand Act and Pharmacists Act. The branch administers the Cattle Horn
Act, Livestock Lien Act, Livestock Industry Development Act, Veterinary Laboratory Act and the
livestock trespass sections of the Livestock Act.
The branch carries out programs to control the
spread of animal disease, provide a diagnostic
service, provide information on the treatment and
prevention of disease, provide for and control the
distribution of veterinary drags and biologies, oversee the sale and distribution of meat and meat
products in the designated areas and provide a
brand inspection service.
Veterinary Service District
The veterinary service district policy was established by the ministry in 1957. Since that time
29 agreements have been signed in 15 areas of the
province which resulted in the establishment of 12
self-supporting practices.
One district, which was initiated in 197849,
was terminated due to the departure of the veterinarian from the Clearwater area to join a pfic-
tice in the Fraser Valley. A new district was cs
tablished in the Golden area for a three year period
the district in McBride-Dunster was extended foi
one more year and support to the practice in Gnihd
Forks was terminated at the end of December lSC
after being supported for a four-year period. I
The initial service district agreement and exten
sion, if warranted, is recommended to the ministn
by an advisory committee made up of a representa
tive of the B.C. Veterinary Medical Association, [
the regional director, health of animals branchfn.
the provincial veterinarian.
Meat Inspection
Gem Foods at Prince George came under th
federal/provincial domestic system in 1980 anil*
with three plants on Vancouver Island, two in th I
Agassiz-Chilliwack area and one poultry plant ii r
the Coquitlam area, a total of seven plants are no' f
under inspection.
page thirty-six
 Ministry o/Agriculture and Food- 1980 Annual Report
A new fee-for-service charge adopted in 1980,
died on the hourly cost of providing inspection,
i ulted in a more equitable system of charges than
[o.:||revious charge per carcass which did not en-
cjrage efficiency.
knimal Health
i There were no major outbreaks of current or new
ceases in our livestock population during the year
ding November 30, 1980.
As of January 1,   1980 livestock inspection
Is vice was removed from four sale yards that
If idle primarily beef cattle in the Interior. Inspects Iffias retained at a sale yard at Armstrong as well
ait sale yards in the Fraser Valley in view of the
thh percentage of dairy stock and swine handled.
C April 1, 1980 the inspection procedure was
ndified to allow for "conditional" sales of animals
|a hese five yards. In this system, defects found by
[a inspector are announced during the sale of an
a mal rather than sending the defective animal to
slighter. Yellow tagging for slaughter was limited
rtunimals exhibiting acute symptoms of infectious
a:, contagious diseases and animals whose owner
xiaested that they be sent to slaughter. Yellow
|&»ed animals were required to be slaughtered in
KthSirs. This change in policy removed the re-
Iqrement for approved feedlots which were phased
oi as of April 1, 1980; no renewal permits were
|dse|onJulyl, 1980.
he branch, along with a private veterinary .
pntice in Williams Lake, supported a seminar to
lia:hers in the area presented by Dr. S. Acres,
[V'O, Saskatoon on the subject of calf scours.
taff arranged several field days to demonstrate
.finding and dehorning cattle, castration of cattle,
pi and sheep and shearing and crotching of sheep.
OYterinary Laboratory
:  \ 1980 there were 8,850 submissions to the
klairatory, an increase of 20 per cent over 1979.
W-s resulted in the receipt and examination of
U7C100 specimens, 65 per cent more than in 1979.
[sn greatest increase occurred in pig specimens
iv :h totalled 950, up by more than 100 per cent.
.Iteration to facilities allowed for the resump-
-i) of toxicology work and, because of the out-
fsk of parvovirus in the province's canine popu-
lam, a diagnostic service was provided to the
>nll animal practitioners.
rveral investigational projects were either con-
died or initiated during 1980. Some were sup-
- xed by VIDO and the B.C. Federation of Ag-
i"1§.ture dairy committee funds,, while others either
■r=9lly involved branch funds or were carried out in
conjunction with other branches, viz. dairy or
under the DATE program.
Some of these projects are:
1. Avivan Adenovirus Infection and
Egg Drop Syndrome
In co-operation with VIDO and with a projected
program for one more year, 50 to 100 Avian
Adenoviruses from problem flocks showing infertility and egg production drops are being serotyped.
These are from Canada-wide sources.
2. Hemorrhagic Enteritis Vaccine
A pheasant spleen virus vaccine has been produced for use in turkeys. It is in the final testing
stage before being released to the industry.
3. Trace Mineral Salt Mix
Attempts are being made to ascertain whether
the feeding of a salt-selenium mixture over the
winter months will result in a sufficiently high
selenium level in the blood of the dam to protect
her calves from subsequent deficiency problems.
Duplicate samples are being taken before and after
the winter range period. Three herds, in each of
five geographical regions known to be selenium
deficient, are being checked.
4. Bovine Subclinical Mastitis Survey
In co-operation with the dairy lab and the B.C.
Federation of Agriculture, 11,000 cows in 152
herds resulted in 44,000 CMTs (California Mastitis
Test) which detected 11,600 subclinical mastitic
quartets. The predominant isolate was Staphylococcus aureus.
5. Bacterin for "Snuffles" in Rabbits
In co-operation with the poultry branch, several
promising Pasteurella (snuffles) bacterin were
tested and evaluated.
6. Salmonella in Calves - Bacterin Studies
In co-operation with VIDO, a new live salmonella bacterin was derived and tested in calves
and pregnant cows. The vaccine was non-invasive
and protected calves which were fed colostrum
from treated dams.
7. Selenium-Response Survey
In co-operation with the B.C. Artificial Insemination Centre, Milner, the status of selenium and
other minerals, i.e. iodine, was determined in
herds which were showing a high percentage of
repeat breeders.
Brand Inspection
The new Livestock Brand and Livestock Acts
were passed by the Legislature and will be in effect
when new regulations, pursuant to these Acts, are
passed early in 1981.
page thirty-seven
 Maustty of Agriculture and Food— i960 Annual Report
The new Livestock Brand Act will not change
the brand inspection procedures now in place. The
new Act recognizes current practices involved in
the transport of cattle and inspection of brands.
The Livestock Act regulates livestock trespass on
privately owned land in the unorganized areas of
the province. This new Act streamlines procedures
related to the establishment of pound districts. It
will also require that pound districts be more self
administered than is required at the present time.
'■>uvesachpopiUationu^^auvelyauease-freedunrig 1980 due to effective control methods,
page thirty-eight
 i There was a two per cent decrease (269,724 to
;4,231) in the total number of inspections made
I the brands division during  1980.   However,
renue increased four per cent ($191,568.15 to
|i?9J315.23) mainly due to the increased number
t brand registrations that were renewed. Cattle
morts from the province decreased 10 per cent
(:7,008 in 1979 to 115,681 in 1980). The Cattle
bm Act imposes a $2 penalty on owners of cattle
[trying horns which are shipped for slaughter or
i c: of the province. Collections under this act were
Lsistantially less than the previous year i.e.
m,352 to $11,088 and in the past two years have
lapped from $28,796 which is a 61.5 per cent
r uction.
Ministry o/Agriculture and Food- 1980 Annual Report
Assistance to VIDO
The agreement to match dollar for dollar donations from the livestock and poultry industry in
British Columbia to the Veterinary Infectious Di
eases Organization (VIDO) was continued. VIDO
is a privately fonded research organization, located
on the campus of the University of Saskatchewar
and operates in close cooperation with the Wester
College of Veterinary Medicine. During the period
covered by this report, the ministry matched donations from the B.C. Egg Marketing Board, Kamloops Stockmen's Association, B.C. Cattlemen's
Association and the Thompson Valley Hereford
Association, totalling $12,402.
Touth Development
sfhe three main programs administered by the
y th development branch are: 4-H, farm vaca-
iB'is and the International Agricultural Exchange
-p gram.
-H is a personal growth program for young
fcpple between the ages of nine and 19 years. The
rbnch offers project and resource material in 24
tderent areas of interest to young people. In 1980,
p2 clubs enrolled under the direction of 824 vol-
il u eer leaders. Some of the more popular projects
■lie: beef, dairy, horse, lamb, clothing and dairy
i>git. Participants had the opportunity to develop
technical and public speaking skills.
4-H'ers participated in national and international 4-H events, including conferences in
Ottawa, Toronto, Washington, D.C. and interprovincial and interstate exchanges. In 1980 the
Western Provinces 4-H Seminar was held at the
University of Victoria. Forty-eight members from
Western Canada participated in an excellent "Your
Life/Your Style" program, which focused on fitness, nutrition and attitude toward a healthful life.
Another highlight of 1980 was the Shell Canada
sponsored Canada-Great Britain 4-H exchange.
The British Columbia delegate on this first ever
exchange was Ken Keis of Matsqui.
nlmth Development Branch Program
ii rticipation Statistics
'                              - j
1 4-H Programs - members
- clubs
- leaders
i Farm Vacations - number of guests
- vacation days
/ I.A.E.A. - trainees to B.C.
- trainees from B.C.
page thirty'nint
 Ministry o/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
In June of 1980 the head office of the branch was
transferred from Victoria to the ministry's regional
office located at Summerland.
The B.C. 4-H Foundation experienced good
growth in 1980. This 4-H community-initiated
self-help project has accumulated over $72,000,
the interest from which goes toward the sponsorship of additional 4-H programs.
Farm Vacation Programs
In 1980, over 500 people enjoyed holidays on
farms and ranches throughout B.C. Vacations
averaged five days for a total of 2,645 vacation days.
The branch prepared a listing of farm vacation
hosts and advertised the program, which also provides farmers and ranchers with an additional
source of revenue.
International Agricultural
Exchange Association Program
The branch acts as provincial coordinator")
this international program in which over |
countries participate. Young raral people betwl
the ages of 19 and 27 have the opportunity toff
and work on a farm or ranch in another country J
1980, 30 trainees from Australia, New Zealand {
many European countries were hosted on Brm
Columbia farms. Sixteen young people from Bin
Columbia travelled to Australia and New Zea
in the fall of 1980 to start a six-month prog*
^ own ejuliunges are one o/die many acdimes dial 4-H staff, leaders and parents coordinate for die benefit of 4-H members.
page forty
  Ministry 0/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
The apiculture branch provides specialist service
and advice to honey producers, packers, fruit and
seed growers, as well as to government agencies and
their staff. Branch work covers three main areas:
extension, regulation and applied research.
Apiculture branch staff members chair two national committees. One standing committee liaises
with industry and professionals to advise the federal
animal health division on importation of disease-
free honeybee stock. The other committee formulates recommendations concerned with the use of
antibiotics and drugs to control bee diseases
throughout Canada.
Crop Review
The total honey crop during 1980 was 1,771
tonnes (3,897,120 lb.) a decrease of 784 tonnes
(1,724,800 lb) from the 1979 crop. Active beekeepers in the province numbered 5,426, an increase of 168 from 1979 numbers. Indications are
that the number of beekeepers has stabilized after a
dramatic increase during the early to mid seventies.
Tight money, high interest rates, and rapidly
increasing costs of inputs contributed to a slowdown of growth of the apiculture industry. This was
dramatically emphasized by cost increases of sugar,
containers, fuel, vehicles and beekeeping equipment.
Wholesale prices for honey to packers in bulk
containers were $1.28 - $1.32/kg ($.58 - $.60/lb.).
Farm gate prices of honey were $1.98 - $2.20/kg
(.90 - $1.00/lb). Total value of the honey crop was
$3,582,000, beeswax - $164,772, pollination rental - $200,000 and pollen - $150,000 for a total of
These figures do not include the total pollination
value of honey bees to all food crops which is
estimated to be one hundred times1 greater than the
value of honey.
Honey production from fireweed ranged from
100 pounds plus to zero. Seven years of data is now
available on the effects of temperature, altitude,
moisture and the production capability of a fire-
weed burn over a given number of years. Under the
right conditions, fireweed has the potential of producing excellent crops of high quality honey.
McGregor, S.E., Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants,
U.S.D. A. Agriculture Handbook No. 496, 1976, p. 6.
Branch Programs
Extension and Applied Research - For the fiftl j
consecutive year, honey producers in British Col.
umbia were given financial assistance under th
"Beeyard - Bear Protection Incentive Program" 11
compensate for hive damage by bears and subse 1
quent loss of crop. These grants helped honey pre |
ducers construct bear-proof electric fences or offie
protective devices. Bear predation created losses11
300 hives and honey valued at $34,620, a substar 1
tial decrease from 1979 losses.
The use of honeybees by beekeepers to polltnat
tree fruits, small fruits, vegetable seed crops, an i
clover is an integral part of agricultural crop pit
duction. A total of 5,544 hives owned by ber
keepers were rented by growers of various crops ft <
pollination purposes. The average rental fee w;.
$21.84 per hive.
The "Bee Breeding and Honeybee Stocklnj
provement Project" completed its third year 11
funding under the ministry's DATE program. Th"
bee breeding project is designed to make Britis
Columbia self-sufficient in the producticSil
Apiculture staff closely monitor breeder queens and their progen} in a mat"
e forty-two
ckage bees and honeybee queens which are now
Iflaorted from the United States and New Zealand.
IKler the program, queens produced in B.C. were
I ipped to honey producers in Manitoba for test-
Is Results from these comparative tests showed
: at hives headed by B.C. queen bees were equal to
:, superior in brood area and honey production
■Spared to hives with California packaged bees or
I ©wintered Manitoba hives.
IA total of 470 queens reared under the branch's
■ ;eding program were selected for testing. Of
ji:se, 300 were distributed to beekeeper cooper-
airs for replacement and testing. The remainder
II re open mated or instramentally inseminated for
in in 150 colonies established by the branch for
ftnaparative testing and evaluation.
c For the second consecutive year, leafcutter bees,
U!gachi!e rotundata, were used to pollinate four
■•es of Angus alfalfa for seed. A similar project is
Abe undertaken on the Creston flats during 1981
\:h the objective of establishing several pilot al-
wa seed growing operations which may encourage
aki foster an alfalfa seed industry in British
d lumbia.
Ministry o/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
Other project work included indoor overwintering of honeybee colonies and selected breeder
queens, pollination of strawberries, and testing the
effects of the insecticide Ambush (Permethrin) as a
bee repellant.
In cooperation with Dr. Cam Jay, of the University of Manitoba, studies on honeybee pollination of tree fruits in the Okanagan valley continued
fot the second yeat.
Regulation - The incidence of American foul-
brood disease increased 1.28 percent from 1979
levels to 397 colonies during 1980. The incidence
of all other bee diseases was down except for
Chalkbrood which increased by 0.43 per cent.
Contingency plans ate being developed to deal
with any accidental introduction into Canada of
the mites Varroa jacobsoni and Acarapis woodi, reported to be present in South America. All provincial and federal bee acts were being reviewed to
ensure that legislation exists to deal effectively with
any future infestation or outbreak of mites now in
eased beehive equipment and the testing of fumigation effects.
Iirmland Resources
Lti armland resources emerged as a new branch in
Lit 10. Staff of the former development and exten-
iriii branch were decentralized into five regional
mi Tie branch mandate is to deal with all policies,
■igrams and developments of provincial and fed-
dp ministries and agencies, regional and munici-
■Df governments and Crown corporations which
.tract on the farmland resources of British Colum-
irbl The branch also initiates policy development
jpw programs which will maintain and enhance the
irtsiland resource.
Dc id Resources
n 'ith the Minister of Agriculture and Food as-
ifefing responsibility of the provincial agricultural
Us* commission in 1980, the farmland resources
■K ch became responsible for providing the Minis-
Iflte'ith administrative services for all reports from
I wland commission. The branch also prepares
Cultural land reserve appeal applications for
1?r,:ntation by the Minister to the environment
.Jfflland use committee.
I   lit
Funding was provided in 1980 for an enhanced
agricultural land reserve fine-tuning program. The
program involved the start of a detailed soil survey
of the eastern coastal plain of Vancouver Island.
Soil survey crews mapped about 30,000 hectares in
the Duncan-Ladysmith areas in 1980. The program
enabled the land commission to enhance their internal fine-tuning program. Technical services are
provided by the terrestrial studies branch of the
ministry of environment.
Land Use
Many general land use and resource management
policies were reviewed during 1980. The branch
was actively involved in review and assessment of
these policies. Legislation proposed in 1980 included the Planning Act - A Discussion Paper, the
Utilities Act and the Wildlife Act. Major policies
introduced were the creation of provincial forests,
the Crown land disposition policy and the change
in administration of grazing leases and permits. All
of these are the statutory responsibility of other
page forty-three
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
ministries, but their impact on the agricultural sec-
tot must be considered.
The green zone program continued to be promoted as a means of reducing the conflicts that
sometimes occur between farm and non-farm
neighbours. The green zone bylaw for swine operations was adopted by two local governments and a
bylaw for beef operations by one municipality.
Eight other local governments have received presentations on the green zone concept and several
have initiated the adoption process. The green
zone concept of separation distances is being widely
used in the province, often voluntarily by the producer and sometimes at the request of local
Many land use issues surfaced in 1980 which hi
some impact on agriculture. Some of the isstj
which the land use analyst dealt with include draj
ing the ministry's submission to the Royal Comml
sion of Inquiry into uranium mining in British Columbia, reviewing B.C. Hydro's Peace River Site]
project, transmission projects of B.C. Hydro,
Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline project, several na
metal and coal mine development proposals, th!
Annacis Island and supporting road system, andthi
Parksville-Qualicum Beach bypass.
The branch continued to act as the referen]
point for ministry regional staff who serve on
gional resource management committees, regioi
problem wildlife committees and technical plan"}
ning committees for regional districts. The brarH
develops a provincial perspective whereby region!
staff can contribute to land use planning processes
including the creation of provincial forests and
official settlement plans.
Farmland resources staff deal with many other agencies on die best use of agricultural land
 iield Crops
Minisn, of Agriculture and Food - 1980 Annual Report
i The principal function of the field crops branch
if Sincrease the skills of producers in field crop
induction and management, range management
k;d weed control by conducting applied research
Ltd extension programs. The branch also admin-
li;rs the Weed Control Act.
production of most field crops during 1980 was
pd despite adverse climatic conditions in the
tsing. Interior and northern areas had a very early,
c spring which was offset by above average sum-
trr rainfall. Coastal areas had a very cool and wet
Ising which inhibited growth until mid-July. Most
la is enjoyed a warm, open fall with generally good
p vesting conditions.
IErage Crop Production
otal provincial production was estimated at
230,800 tons of hay equivalent, slightly more
in 1979 production. Prices of B.C. produced hay
,n>ed from $80 to $100 per ton depending upon
k:ce and quality. Prices of imported alfalfa from
WUhington rose to $ 175 per ton for a short period
■owing the Mt. St. Helens eruption but softened
it 160 per ton later in the season.
1 he branch conducted numerous fertilizer and
;. ;ety trials of grasses and legumes during the year.
k\iajor fertilizer crop correlation study in central
•J., was launched with the cooperation of the
piistry's soils branch and the B.C. Federation of
Jhiculture. Sites have been established at nine
onions on two soil types,
i x European alfalfa varieties resistant to Verticil-
lit wilt were established at five southern interior
IPt for evaluation.
c   replicated trial in Delta to compare six grass-
pine mixtures was summarized after three years
of study. While there were no significant differences in yield between simple and complex perennial mixtures in the year after seeding, the best
over-all mixtures were those containing orchard-
grass as the major species. Another forage trial of
wide interest in the Peace River area was the community pasture demonstration project at Sunset
Prairie. A large forage nursery has been established
and developed pastures are being evaluated for carrying capacity. Various methods of establishing
pastures are also being compared.
Silage Corn Production
Delays in com planting due to poor weather
conditions and slow growth during the summer
resulted in immature com at harvest. Plantings
increased to more than 25,000 acres with average
yields of 19 tons of green weight per acre.
The branch established demonstration sites of
corn hybrids on 25 farms throughout the com producing areas. Recommendations issued annually by
the B.C. Com Committee assist growers in the
selection of hybrids and cultural techniques.
Cereal and Oilseed Production
Stronger prices and better marketing conditions
for grains resulted in significant acreage increases of
spring wheat and barley. Rapeseed production declined by 50 per cent from the previous year. Although most of the grain and rapeseed production
was in the Peace River area, acreages of grain increased substantially in the central B.C. and lower
mainland regions. Good crops of rapeseed were
produced in the McBride district.
Estimated 1980 acreage and yields of cereals and
rapeseed were as follows:
idem variety trials v
inducted at Ladner as pan of a nine-variety
Replicated cereal variety trials were conducted
in both the north and south Peace River areas with
the cooperation of staff at the Beaverlodge Research Station. Demonstration trials were also conducted by the branch at Fort Nelson, Stikine
Valley, McBride, North Okanagan, Smithers, Fort
Fraser, Agassiz and Ladner.
page forty-five
 Ministry o/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
Potato variety trials at Pemberton were carried out by field crops branch staff during 1980.
Forage Seed Production
Pedigreed seed acreage which almost doubled in
1979 from 1978, increased to a record 11,767 acres
in 1980. While most of this was in the Peace River
area, there was increased acreage in other districts
such as Vanderhoof, Cariboo, Creston and Ladner.
An aerial survey of the Peace River region indicated a total Creeping Red Fescue acreage (pedigreed and common) of 23,720 acres. The very dry
spring contributed to a decline in yield to 190
pounds per acre. Prices appeared to strengthen in
late 1980.
A four-year forage seed evaluation project
funded jointly by the B.C. ministry of agriculture
and food, Agriculture Canada and the seed trade
was launched in the spring of 1980. Replicated
trials of species and varieties have been established
at Ladnet, Creston, Kamloops, Quesnel and
A project to demonstrate alfalfa seed production
using leafcutter bees was established at Dawson
Creek in 1980.
Range Development
As in previous years, staff were involved in coordinated resource management planning in conjunction with other resource agencies. The range
extension/education committee actively promoted
the use of the range disc-seeder-packer built by the
page forty-six
engineering branch and cooperated with the UBC
agricultural outreach program in organizing a grazing systems seminar.
Monitoring of range seedings following renovations indicated an increase of 100 - 500 per cent in
dry matter production depending on range conm- a
tion. Range grass variety trials were also established [
at a numbet of locations.
Community Pastures
A total of 195 users pastured 13,335 head of
cattle on 12 community pastures in central BS£
and the Peace River regions.
Plantings of potatoes in 1980 declined to about
7,500 acres from 9,400 acres in 1979. Poor pricelr.
recent years and a reduction in processing contracts
contributed to the decline. Much stronger pricejin
1980 reflected the general decline in acreage |
throughout North America. As in 1979, BJD.
growers captured about 63 per cent of the legal J
market. at l
The virus-free seed potato project was exparSeaf
in 1980. Two greenhouses to enable growers toi
propagate their own virus-free cuttings for nucleat^
stock were constructed in the Cariboo Seed Qin-.
 I Area in addition to the four greenhouses built
the Pemberton Seed Control Area in 1979.
©11 sample shipments of virus-free seed were sent
Korea, Sri Lanka and the Philippines in an effort
mcrease seed exports.
Variety trials were conducted at four locations.
jjjeed Control
[The ministry continued its financial assistance to
(ional district and municipal weed control pro-
ims. In 1980, ministry grants of $300,000 gen-
ted more than $700,000 of expenditures in 24
illy planned weed control programs,
n cooperation with the ministry of forests and
Imerous other agencies, the knapweed contain-
nt program was continued in an effort to prevent
s weed from becoming established in areas where
not yet a problem. In an effort to acquaint the
BJc of this serious menace to rangeland, many
lis were erected in strategic locations, a colorful
chure was distributed, and a film on knapweed
fproduced for general use. Biological control
grams were intensified in an effort to reduce
■fpweed stands. The gall flies which reduce seed
■Suction can now be found in all infestations.
•fi eral other bio-control agents released by Ag-
Huture Canada were also becoming established.
rT; ministry contributed financially for the testing
root borer which could be released by 1982.
ijcime 45 weed control trials in 17 different crops
e conducted in 1980. Branch staff completed a
lb-year weed impact study in the Peace River
Ret. "Zero-till" trials were intensified in the
ce River area with the approval of an ARDSA
it under sponsorship of Northern Lights College
Ministry 0/Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Repori
at Dawson Creek. Results of preliminary work done
in 1979 and 1980 indicated a good potential for
success of zero-till methods.
General Extension Activities
Staff members were active in many ministry extension programs including producer meetings,
field days and farm tours. Staff members assisted
other ministties and agencies in various programs
including regional college education programs,
ministry of environment pesticide applicators
courses, regional weed control advisory committees, etc. They also served on many provincial and
national committees such as the B.C. Com Committee, B.C. Forage Crops Advisory Council, B.C.
Regional Potato Committee, Canada Export Committee on Weeds, Canadian Seed Growers' Association and many others.
Improvements in yields of forage crops i
orchardgTass/ryegrass trials at Ladner.
l&ansion in many segments of the horticultural
|§try was dramatic during 1980. Its growth was
Ited in the combined forces of knowledgeable
Rrs, meaningful research and an active horti-
Ittal extension program.
result of regionalization of ministry field
Ifiions, almost half of the branch's staff was
kferred to the regional administration. The
I culture branch now administers a commodity
Ifilist in each of three areas: tree fruits, berries
(vegetables. Programs will continue to be pro-
|1 to producers in a manner similar to that of
Tree Fruits
The industry is currently marketing the largest
apple crop in history. North American markets are
heavily supplied with apples from a U.S. crop of
about 10.8 billion pounds and a Canadian crop of
about 1.1 billion pounds.
Large crops of sweet cherries, apricots, peaches
and pears have been sold at good prices. Unusually
large crops of Italian prunes and Tydeman apples
resulted in lower prices for these commodities.
The 1980 apple crop is estimated to be about 450
million pounds, the largest crop in B.C. history.
page forty-seven
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
Tne J 980 apple crop was believed to be the largest in B. C. history - about 450 million pounds.
Three factors that contributed to the record crop
were the near perfect fall weather which allowed
the fruit to continue sizing up to harvest; the presence of many young bearing trees just reaching
their first foil crop in 1980; and the success of
cultural improvements in all areas of horticulture.
B.C. Tree Fruits has recognized the need for
expanded C.A. (controlled atmosphere) storage
facilities to extend sales of the apple crop into the
later more lucrative marketing season. A C.A.
building program will be launched in 1981 which
will increase the present holding capacity to
125,000 bins from 95,000 bins.
The Anjou pear crop of 17 million pounds was a
significant increase over the low 1979 crop. Prices,
quality and condition of the crop were good.
The Bartlett pear crop of 25 million pounds was
below expectations due partly to small size. Many
orchardists dissatisfied with the performance of
Bartletts removed smaller tree blocks and unprofitable older trees.
Peaches showed a good recovery from the effects
of the 1978-79 winter freeze. Over 26 million
pounds were produced compared to 19 million
pounds in 1979. Fruit quality was excellent with
exceptionally uniform fruit maturity.
Warm spring weather caused apricots to bloom 8
days ahead of 1979. Pollination was excellent.
Despite rainy weather, brown rot was held to a
minimum and fruit quality at harvest excelleni
Almost 7 million pounds were harvested.
Rainy weather during early July caused extensiv
splitting of sweet cherries in areas north of Sfflr
merland. As a result, quality was weak with shoi
shelf life. Owing to an excellent cannery marks,
large volume of cherries was diverted to cannei
thus helping to maintain prices.
The two-million-pound sour cherry crop was
The 1980 prune crop of 10.6 million poundm
of excellent quality with fruit size much larger ma
usual. The plum crop of 438,000 pounds was
significant increase over the 1979 crop.
Growing and harvesting conditions for the 19!
grape crop were relatively poor. As a resultftl
crop of about 13,000 tons fell short of forecast!
production. Sugar content was also lower tha®
pected due to cool weather during grape harvest.
It appeared that 1980 Vt'tis vinifera produffit
would not exceed 130 tons. Much of the acreage
young and should make some impact in 19811,
wards the wineries' 10 per cent of crop goal. ■
The Grape Marketing Board was unable to t
gotiate a price for the 1980 grape crop with B.1
wineries. As a result, the board set the pricagi
maintained the same sugar standard as that in eft
for 1979. This price was an average of 21.5 perce
higher than the 1979 grape price.
 Berry Crops
r The 1980 strawberry crop of about 15 million
knds was almost four million pounds greater than
1979 crop and the largest single crop since
However, fruit rot losses were especially high in
ply vigorous plantings that were over fertilized,
he processors paid 47? per pound for fruit in
|0 compared to 45.50 in 1979.
he 1980 raspberry crop was the largest evet
liuced in the province. The 17.5 million pound
p exceeded the previous record of 17.4 million
ndsin 1947. The 1980 price for processing fruit,
vever, plummeted to an estimated 400 per
ind from 920 in 1979.
980 marked the first widespread use of mechani-
raspberry harvesters in the province. From a
iest three harvesters in 1978 and 11 in 1979, an
mated 60 harvesters operated during 1980.
the B.C. Raspberry Growers' Association voted
Ek the Minister of Agriculture and Food to
ude raspberries under the Natural Products
Keting Act. A growers' plebiscite on the adop-
fcf a Marketing Commission is expected early
ipproximately 1,000 acres of new raspberries
b planted in 1980, primarily of the Willamette
dbert production was good despite rainy spring
fcher. The market was exceptionally strong and
grower price ranged from 80 - 850 per pound
pared to the previous record high price of 600
pound in 1979.
be blueberry market was strong with most of
trop sold by year end. Prices for the 9.2 million
ad crop were expected to finalize at about 500
ueberry acreage continued to expand in 1980,
about 200 acres planted and plans for more
Esion in 1981. Plants were again in short sup-
6th a significant number imported from the
■The future of the blueberry industry in B.C.
Rs to be good as export demand increases.
K. cranberry yields continued to be the high-
n the continent. Production was expected to
K>ut 15 million pounds with an expected price
0 per pound. The cranberry crop continues to
fntrolled by the B.C. Cranberry Marketing
B, with the Ocean Spray Cranberry Company
tliajor selling agency. The board has allocated
: it Iditional 600 acres of cranberries to be planted.
Ministry of Agriculture and Food—1980 Annual Report
Cool, cloudy, wet weathet marked the 1980 vegetable season in the lower mainland area. Crops
were planted late, were slow in growth, high in
moisture content, lush, difficult to keep free of
weeds and more susceptible to insects and diseases
than those of the 1979 season.
Marketing of cauliflower continued to be a problem. In April 1980, the B.C. Coast Vegetable
Marketing Boatd rejected a petition for deregulation of the crop.
A vegetable storage seminar was held on March 6
- 7, 1980 to identify optimum practices for handling
and storage of vegetables. As a follow-up a ministry
committee was appointed to identify storage needs
and indicate what type of incentive program was
needed to develop storage facilities.
Cauliflower, lettuce, onion and spinach variety
trials were conducted by the horticulture branch
on farms throughout the lower mainland.
Market demand for processed cauliflower and
broccoli continues to be strong. Production of these
crops are expected to increase in 1981.
Production in the Interior of B.C. of root crops,
cole crops, potatoes and onions was excellent although summer vegetables and asparagus was only
The Interior Vegetable Marketing Board and the
British Columbia Coast Vegetable Marketing
Board amalgamated in July 1980. The newly
created British Columbia Vegetable Marketing
Commission proposed to establish more orderly
marketing of British Columbia vegetables.
Because the marketing of summer vegetables was
decontrolled in 1980 the British Columbia Interior
Summer Vegetable Growers' Association assumed
marketing responsibilities.
The British Columbia Asparagus Growers' Association actively encouraged asparagus production
in the province. The association organized seminars, field days and cooperated with the ministry in
launching an asparagus production incentive
Grower field days and instructional sessions for
Okanagan growers dealt with tomato, sweet com
and asparagus variety trials; tomato, seedling asparagus and established asparagus herbicide trials;
and Spanish onion cultural trials. A tour of all
commercial vegetable greenhouses in the southern
interior and a presentation of greenhouse culture
were conducted in May.
page forty-nine
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
Expansion in the mushroom industry slowed during 1980. Due to increasing costs and high market
value, many farms were offered for sale during the
year. The 1980 crop increased by 20 per cent from
1979 production to 17.0 million pounds and had a
farm value of $12.2 million. At year end, the
branch was studying the growing techniques and
potential market for Shiatake Lentinus edodes and
Oyster Pleurotus Ostreatus mushrooms in B.C.
Both are grown on hardwood logs and sawdust or
other lignin containing substrates. The Oyster
mushroom appears to be well adapted to our
climatic conditions.
Mushroom production is expected to increase
marginally during 1981 as little new production
area will be cropped. Production area should reach
1.95 million square feet by the end of 1982.
Nursery Stock
The nursery industry continued to expand during
1980 with sales estimated at $25.5 million. Much
of the expansion was attributed to out-of-province
sales. About 40 per cent of production left the
province with 26 per cent to the prairies (Alberta
bought the largest volume), 9 per cent to Eastern
Canada and 4.5 per cent to the U.S. Conifers
continued to be the mainstay of the industry; however, hardy deciduous shrubs and broadleaf evergreens are gaining a good proportion of sales.
Short courses on nursery production, co-
sponsored by the ministry and educational institutions, were popular among the increasing number
of new growers.
Fertilizer trials were continued during 1980 to
establish rates and formulations of various fertilizers
used in container production of nursery stock.
Trials for both winter and summer control of weeds
in container stock were carried out during 1980.
A shortage of nursery stock was common across
North America. High labour costs in Europe and
the U.S. and a devalued Canadian dollar favoured
local production and discouraged imports. Large
wholesale growers increased the practice of purchasing stock from small specialized operations.
Christmas Trees
Christmas tree production became a new specialty for the horticulture branch in 1980. The
cultured Douglas fit and Scots pine are the major
species grown. Most of the 100 growers are locate
in the Fraser Valley.
Greenhouse Crops
The greenhouse industry continued to expanl
British Columbia. Although production revq
increased from the previous year, costs of prodiS-
tion increased as well. Labour and energy costs weje
the dominant factors influencing costs of prodB
Cucumber growers improved their management
of the crops grown in sawdust, resulting in higB
yields. Tomato growers used more hybrid vane»
in an effort to obtain higher yields and offset m-
creases in production costs.
Interest in alternate crops to tomatoes and cucumbers continued with some growers switching to
lettuce, Chinese vegetables, green peppers, bunching onions and cole crops.
The nutrient film technique (NFT) lettuce project, partially funded under ARDSA, encounter
production difficulties.  Lettuce productionf
terminated for the summer months but was restj
in the fall on a smaller scale. Tip-bum, the
reason for crop failure in the spring, is not
understood and poses a problem for successful cut
vation. Nutrition, propagation and varietiesj
able for B.C. sunlight patterns are the main a
lem areas requiring study.
The greenhouse ornamental and bedding a]
segment of the industry continued to expandf
ticularly in potted plant production. Turn aroj
for these crops is fast, giving growers a propoj
ately higher cash-flow per unit area. Cultj
potted plants also enabled growers to use ta
labour saving devices. Holiday pots or the 1
tional flowering plants for any occasion arej
grown year round in B.C.
Allotment Gardening
Procedures for developing allotment gardens
in Victoria and Vancouver were made availabl
municipal or community groups should they wfl
develop their own sites. The horticulture brT
continued to operate the allotment gatden proa
in Victotia and Vancouver with over 800 plots c
by urban dwellers.
page fifty
ffiie livestock branch helps producers improve
ftuality and performance of their livestock by
ttding recording programs and specialist staff
o give advice and conduct extension programs
Bughout the province.
Average prices in 1980 for all classes of beef
tie were below 1979 levels. This, coupled with
I her inpur costs particularly of feed, reduced net
Ijn cash income to the beef producer. The B.C.
I estock Marketing Cooperative reported an avet-
price of $489 per head for all cattle sold up to
end of November, as compared to $548 in 1979
||M 13 per head in 1978.
Itthe total 1980 beef kill in British Columbia at
■pected plants was 65,815 head, up 15.5percent
fm the previous year. The Canadian kill was up
Iper cent from the previous year.
[Tie ARDSA funded beef industry study report
; released in August. The ministry consulted
Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
with the British Columbia Cattlemen's Association
on their views to implement the recommendations
in the report.
The cow-calf manual produced by the branch's
beef cattle specialist was more popular than anticipated with a reprinting needed at year end. Revision of the beef feeding and management guide was
almost complete by year end, with the second edition scheduled for printing in early 1981.
Beef producers on the record of performance
(ROP) program strongly supported the new "herd
analysis" supplement provided by the branch. Its
main value is the immediacy of useful data for
management purposes. The branch, in cooperation
with the farm management branch, is also attempting to develop a modified analysis system which
could be easily adopted by operators of commercial
The beef cattle test station at Tranquille was
modified during the year increasing station capacity
to 200 head from 130 head. The year closed with 48
producers consigning eight breeds.
W rcsue suidy of the B.C. iitvstoclc industry was completed during 1980.
page fifty-one
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
Hogs of B.C. origin marketed to the end of
December totalled 260,962, up 86.8 per cent over
1979 marketings. Weekly hog slaughter during the
last quarter of the year averaged about 6,000 animals. Weighted average price for 100 index hogs
was estimated to be about five cents per pound
lower than the average of $64.35 per hundredweight during 1979. Low market prices for hogs
resulted in payouts to producers under the farm
income insurance program during the first three
quarters of the year. The major problem facing
swine expansion in the province is the increasing
difficulty in zoning restrictions.
The record of performance (ROP) program concluded the year with 18 subscribers, an increase of
four from the previous year.
The branch assisted in the analysis of grading
reports under the hog quality competition which
provides a profile on the quality of pigs from producers who market 400 or more hogs per year. Data
collected in 1980 showed that 76 producers each
marketed at least 400 hogs during the 1979 season.
Average quality of the total marketings of 90,041
hogs improved with 40 per cent indexing between
105 and 114 (based on a measurement of backfat
thickness) compared to 35 per cent of similar indexes the previous year.
Prices of good breeding stock were relatively
strong compared to general market lamb price.
Lamb and sheep of B.C. origin processed through
federally and provincially inspected slaughter
plants numbered 7,266 head, an increase of 15.7
per cent from the previous year.
The B.C. Sheep and Wool Commission commenced sales of fat lambs every two weeks during
May to August. These events met with varied success because of variable quality and number of
lambs offered. The 3rd Annual Sale of the B.C.
Sheep Breeders Cooperative realized an average of
$47.96 pet animal, a decrease of $5.71 per head
from the previous year. A total of nine B.C. bn
ers consigned 34 animals to the first all-Canac
sheep classes at an exhibition in Brandon. Sheep
from B.C. contributors placed well and sold at goal
A survey of lower mainland and Vancouver Island sheep producers indicated that lack of lajil
resources and problems with dogs and indigenous
predators were likely to limit expansion in the
For the first time, financial assistance was given
to B.C. goat breeders who showed animals at fans
outside of British Columbia. B.C. entries placal
particularly well at the Northwest Washington Fair
at Lynden, Washington, where they won seven
firsts, six seconds, one Grand Champion, two Reserve Champions and one Best-in-Show placing.
The ministry continued to seek federal assistances)
funding animal freight costs to a national goat show
in Canada.
Dairy Herd Improvement
Although the total number of herds on test atffl:
year end was 516, down nine from one year earlier,
total animals on test increased to 35,608, up 1,616
from the year previous. Average herd size was29
animals, an increase of 4- 7 from one year earlier.
Actual average production was 6757 kg of milk and
244 kg of fat, up from the previous year which
reported 6650 kg of milk and 240 kg of fat. The
1980 levels of production represented breed class
averages of 141 for milk and 137 for butterffi.
These levels are expected to exceed all other Hffii
averages in Canada.
The 1979 survey of enrollees on the DHID program was completed and a detailed report was«-
pared. A condensed report was made available to
all producers who cooperated in the study. While
the survey indicated that most users were generffly
satisfied with the program, a number of recffi-
mended changes have been incorporated intoBEe
herd reports issued to producers.
The poultry branch implements programs and
policies designed to provide a specialist extension
service to the poultry, egg and rabbit industries in
the province. Staff assist producers with cu®"Br
production problems and help them to develop
and efficient production units
Bch members provide advice on government
jjrams and new techniques and disseminate in-
Sation on research applicable to poultry opera-
S. The branch acts as a liaison between produc-
piarketing boards, national agencies and other
retry associations.
Sultry branch staff include specialists in all as-
ks of production and diseases of poultry and
Sts. The fields of specialty include chicken
iler and hatching egg production; egg, turkey,
St, waterfowl and game bird production, and
Kry health.
"he annual poultry conference was held in Sept-
ffr 1980 at the Langley Civic Centre. This
ference is traditionally organized and con-
ted largely by members of the poultry branch
■with the aid of a steering committee from
Sent segments of the industry. There was a
e turnout for the three separate sessions which
myncurrently on the topics of egg, chicken meat
ffirkey production.
Siltry diseases continued to be a major problem
S industry. The concentration of the industry
he lower Fraser Valley facilitates the spread of
ase organisms. Infectious laryngotracheitis coned to be a problem with several flocks affected
ng the year. An increase in Salmonellae mor-
y in young chicks toward the end of the year
hasized the need for a control program for this
nism. Marek's disease resulted in condemna-
m four to five per cent in some broiler flocks.
'iiltry Test Station
be poultry branch maintains a modern poultry
at Abbotsford, B.C. where various experi-
tal and demonstrational projects are carried
on the production of broilers, layers, turkeys
■• |fe station underwent considerable renovations
rg the year, including the conversion of the
J:y cage house to a rabbit research facility. The
J fiery was also updated with the replacement of
f£:gg incubators with new units.
■IS following is a summary of projects earned
In t the poultry test station during 1980:
I K comparison of the performance of four
m Bains of fryer chickens.
2A comparison of the performance of broiler
>n;hicks hatched from breeder multiplier flocks
)f similar age originating from a common
Hp trials for a comparison of the performance
>f four meat strains of chickens marketed as
II Pasters.
Ministry of Agriculture and Food- 1980 Annual Repori
4. The effect of varying feed regimes on growth
fate and "flippers" in broiler chickens.
5. A study of on the farm management practices
in British Columbia's poultry meat industry.
6. A project to test the efficacy of an Hemorrhagic Enteritis vaccine produced by the
British Columbia veterinary laboratory.
7. A test to determine the feasibility of producing
a supply of Hemorrhagic Enteritis vaccine for
8. A project to determine by laboratory and field
trials the efficacy of various vaccine preparations for rabbit "snuffles".
9. A test of fly strips for fly control in deep pit
barns was tested using fly strips.
10. An experiment to test the effect of improper
debeaking on both floor and cage reared egg
type pullets.
11. A comparison between rearing pullets on the
floor and in cages at four different densities.
12. The effect of short intermittent light for raising
commercial egg production pullets in cages.
13. Two feed trials on rabbits.
Turkey Industry
The turkey industry in British Columbia was in a
depressed and erratic state in 1980. Problems included a large storage carryover of turkeys in
January 1980 and a turkey processing industry that
was in disarray for a good part of 1980. Combined
with this was an increased supply of chicken to
compete with turkey.
Turkey marketings were 10.3 per cent below
1979 figures. The total number of day-old birds
placed on farms in 1980 were 1.6 million compared
to 1.8 million in 1979. The number of poults
placed for the heavy bird market decreased by 6.3
per cent while poults placed for the broiler market
was 14-5 per cent below the year previous.
Producer prices at year-end were 60.%$ per
pound for broilers, 61Vz£ for hens and 60%? for
toms. This represented price increases during the
year of 4 per cent on broilers, 3 per cent on hens and
5 per cent on toms; meanwhile, retail prices of
turkey at $1.39 per pound increased by 17 per cent
during the year.
With a new waterfowl hatchery in Yarrow and a
processing plant due to open in 1981, the waterfowl
industry in B.C. may become a significant factor in
the poultry industry. This processing plant being
built with the assistance of an ARDSA grant is also
destined to become a custom process facility be-
page fifty-three
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
cause of the number of back yard flocks and specialty birds such as pheasants, quail, etc.
Game bird population increased dramatically
over the past year with an estimated 75,000
pheasants being produced on commercial farms.
Because this is a gourmet item, production was at
the market saturation point. These specialty production industties should flourish with the opening
in 1981 of the new processing facility in Abbots-
Rabbit Industry
The rabbit industry showed steady growth with
more growers investing in good facilities to ensure
year round production. As in the past however, the
processing and marketing segment of this industry
was lacking. During the mid-summer, when local
production started to increase, storage stocks began
to climb because of poor sales. This led to a tie-up of
operating capital in the face of rising production
costs and little producer income. Many small growers found they could not stay in business. The
situation was alleviated slightly during the year by
the granting of a guaranteed loan to the processing
plant and the assignment of a ministry sales
specialist to explore new markets.
Broiler Industry
Production of chicken meat will be down aH
eight million pounds eviscerated weight froirj
record 88.7 million pounds in the preceding ye
The national provincial quota allotment!
1981 was established at 88 million pounds^,
quarterly figures of 20.5, 23.2, and 21.1 millij
pounds. Filling this quota would require product!
equal to that of 1979.
Placement of broiler chicks on farms wajl
mated to be down by 7.5 per cent or 2.25 mil
birds from the 1979 record high of 30.8 mill
Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec F
expected to show placement decreases in 19801
national placements averaging three percent I
than 1979.
The live weight farm price for regular broil
averaged 42.45 cents per pound compared to 4
cents in 1979.
For the first time, a Vz cent price differential!
quoted for July for product produced and markej
on Vancouver Island. This was to partly
pensate for higher feed costs on Vancouvet Islai
Egg Industry-
Commercial production of eggs in Canada]
creased by 8.1 per cent from the 1979 level. 1
ever, the Canadian Egg Marketing Agency dej
oped cutbacks and fowl removal incentivT
reduce this large increase. These producticj
creases coincided with the 1980 provincial alia
tion of quotas and directly affected B.C. product
Due to the dramatic increase in feed and ol
input costs under the CEMA cost of producj
formula, the average weighted price per dozen"
to B.C. producers increased from 78.6$ on Jag
5, 1980 to 87. U on November 15, 198
layer allocation as of June was 2,742,040 birds!
Canadian total was 21,958,667 layers. The aj
number of laying birds in B.C. was about 2.J
lion or 95 per cent of the quota allocation wl
allows for mortality.
Interprovincial movement of shell eggs su
mented local supplies with 1.2 million dozen f
A eggs from Alberta and Manitoba. Aboui
million dozen Grade C eggs from the threefM
provinces were imported for further processffl^
Estimated British Columbia ptoduction::(^|]
was 63,980,000 dozen eggs.
Poultry branch specialists design programs dealing with production o£9
chicken meat, hatching eggs, turkeys, rabbits, waterfowl, and game tj
page fifty-four
Economics andw
Marketing   |
 Ministry 0/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
During 1980, the name of the branch was
changed from marketing services branch to simply
marketing branch with the acceptance of a revised
structure within the ministry and the appointment
of an assistant deputy minister of economics and
marketing services. The branch is primarily concerned with the enhancement of the food and agriculture industry within British Columbia through
increased consumer use of B.C. food products. To
this end, the branch provides timely market research and analysis, and assists food processors and
handlers with product and market development.
The marketing branch has five distinct components: administration, market development, food
promotion, market research and analysis; and
market regulation. Prior to 1980, the market regulation activities relating to the matketing boards
and particularly the B.C. Marketing Board were
handled outside of this branch. However, a commissioner of market regulation was appointed and is
now responsible for the activities related to the
Natural Products Marketing Act and the Agricultural Produce Grading Act.
The passage of the Ministry of Agriculture and
Food Act placed additional emphasis on the work
of the matketing branch as it relates to the major
part of the food industry beyond the farm gate. This
act legitimized some of the activities which had
been undertaken in past with the food processing
and distribution industries and opened the door to a
considerable increase in extension work in this
The market information unit became the market
research and analysis unit, more accurately reflecting the complexity of activities being carried out. A
research officer was added to this unit in May, 1980
to increase the volume of wotk which could be
A major amount of the work carried out by the
director of this branch involves federal/provincial
and industry wide liaison, particularly relating to
current marketing problems.
The ARDSA program continued to require considerable input, with a further report coming from
the market opportunities project outlining significant opportunities for storage of vegetables for offseason sale.
The branch coordinated incoming trade missions, including two from China, two from Japan
and one from Korea. The branch took part in a
major evaluation of available transportation for
oversea shipments of live cattle. Solution of the air
transport problems experienced througfl
Canada may provide additional impetus foq
major export trade.
Market Research and Analysis I
Staff updated the B.C. Food and Beverageft.
dustry Directory and conducted a study of the nl»
surtax procedures and applicability to the various
horticultural commodities produced in British Q)|.
During 1980, 23 issues of Agrimarket Repomt
were released and 13 issues each of the Fresh Fruit
and Vegetable Report and B.C. Food Markets were
produced. B.C. Food Markets has proven to ffla
major source of information to media on Hie
reasons for food price increases.
The second edition of the B.C. Vegetable
Marketing Guide was produced during 1980. I
A new weekly produce report was begun contaln-
ing price information from competing areas of supply, tariff information, f.o.b. information and g&i-
eral market information on products in season.«
The computer capability added in 1979 proved
to be a very effective addition to the marketing
branch analysis team. During 1980, the team added
two new data bases and was working with commodity groups toward further use of this service. 1
A Victoria chef won top honours for preparing a menu using B. C. jreshmls
and vegetables in a pwvince-wide contest co-sponsored by the maikring
_        [I
Ministry 0/Agriculture and Food - 1980 Annua! Report
Application of tariffs and surtax requires consid-
ple analysis by this unit as they advise the pro-
organizations on application for implementa-
h or withdrawal. This activity will continue to
•and as the Province becomes responsible for
re required analysis in the application of surtax.
JTie market research and analysis unit also hand-
about 2,800 inquiries for market information
1 analysis from all sectors of agriculture, food
cessing, financial, consulting, educational and
lernment institutions throughout the country.
arket Development
New markets and marketing techniques were
lored for commodities such as quality fresh
ket strawberries and raspberries, milk-fed veal,
W products, Nugget potatoes, and Jersey milk
j ducts such as yogurt. Assistance was given in
: elopment of honey-sweetened jams by Golden
ley Limited. A project was begun with Clover-
ILettuce in utilization of celery juice. The po-
ial for horseradish production and processing in
. was discussed with a local packer. Market
Ihtial and recommendations for development
■identified for B.C. rabbit producers and for
I Nursery Trades Association. A major interna-
i al display was produced for the B.C. seed
p ito growers to enhance the marketability of
gproduct in the United States.
>me Economics
he branch home economist maintained the dene pment of the quarterly recipe books and an-
jj fed hundreds of consumer food enquiries during
■ promote B.C. food products, the home eco-
Bst prepared a monthly press release including
oes and a photograph on a B.C. food. The
nie economist also conducted a well-received
g of school recipe contests co-sponsored by the
<U)us commodity groups in an effort to develop
|c recipes.
lod Promotion
iranch activities in coordination with the Fresh
flj Flavour Organization and the B.C. Fruit
•*) ilesalers continued to provide good oppor-
tades to promote B.C. foods during 1980.
oBbjor activities included the publication of the
tpiterly recipe and home gardening booklet. Ap-
aaimately 100,000 were distributed in each of the
itaseasons of the year. Numerous other consumer
rece publications were issued.
*|§a oto  NUGGETi
' ii ■ BC
.'na ate size
A variety 0/promotional material was used on B. C. ferries to increase
awareness of B.C. grown foods.
The retail instore program was conducted with
approximately 160 food demonstration conducted
over a period of 40 weeks. These demonstrations
promoted various B.C. commodities and processed
foods with a good response from consumers, retailers, producers and processors alike.
A major co-op advertising program was conducted, with radio, TV and newspaper promotion
costs shared by commodity groups, processors and
the ministry.
Coordination with the B.C. Purchasing Commission and the B.C. Ferry Corporation in the use
of B.C. foodstuffs was effective during 1980. Promotions were carried out in ferry cafeterias with
promotion expansion planned for 1981.
Market Regulation
The market regulation function coordinates activities under the Agricultural Produce Grading
Act and the Natural Products Marketing Act.
Under the Agricultural Produce Grading Act, the
branch must ensure the effective carrying out of the
grading regulations through some 120 inspectors
supplied by the federal departments of agriculture
and consumer and corporate affairs. As well, the
branch determines short term changes which may
be required in order to meet particular commodity
marketing circumstances.
Under the Natural Products Marketing Act, the
branch has responsibility for the various marketing
schemes. During 1980, two new schemes were put
in place. One, the B.C. Hog Marketing Commission, controls all hogs marketed for processing in
the province. As well, the two vegetable boards,
the Coast Vegetable Marketing Board and the Interior Vegetable Marketing Board, amalgamated
into one B.C. Vegetable Marketing Commission.
Although this amalgamation was not achieved
easily, the components of the industry appear to
have adjusted well.
page fifty-seven
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
The economics branch provides assistance to
farm managers, agri-business firms, commodity organizations and other government agencies in the
following areas:
- farm business management
- production economics
- resource economics
- agricultural statistics
- data processing
The branch publishes booklets and factsheets on
selected topics, conducts economic studies and surveys, provides instructors for short courses and
workshops, provides leadership in the delivery of
farm records systems and advanced farm planning
techniques and offers individual client counselling
in the program areas within its responsibility.
Farm Business Management
During 1980 the following activities were carried
out to assist farm managers in improving their farm
business management skills and practices:
1. The farm financial management training project (funded by ARDSA) completed its first foil
year of operation in 1980. The project delivers
three levels of four-day financial management
courses to various commodity groups on a province-wide basis and is managed by a committee
representing the University of British Columbia, B.C. ministry of agriculture and food, and
the B.C. Federation of Agriculture. In 1980, 31
courses attracted 420 farmers.
2. Farm business management factsheets were researched, compiled and released on 24 current
topics. These factsheets, released monthly,
were well received by the agricultural community.
3. A publication entitled "Wills for B.C. Farmers", which provides guidance to farm business
managers and theit advisors on the topic of wills
in the agricultural sector, was released.
4. A publication entitled "Farm Business Corporations in British Columbia - a layman's guide"
was prepared to provide farm managers and farm
business advisors with basic information on farm
5. Terms of reference were prepared for a publication entitled "Legal Aspects of Farm Leases"
which is expected to be written by a law firm
under contract. The B.C. Systems Corporation
completed the computer programs required to
analyze data derived from the lease-rental agref-
ment survey.
6. A major project was the farm business practices
survey. This involved staff training, interviewing farm managers, computer programming am
analysis of data.
7. To determine the application of micro-cem
puter activities, the branch tested three comjB-
ter systems. In addition, computer programs
were prepared on a loan calculatot prograni,
machinery replacement model and range fertffi-
zation analysis. A cash flow model was developed as well as a debt management model and a
model to evaluate the economics of alfalfa
8. The Canfarm records system was offered to 265
farm managers. This was the second yearjif
operation for the farm-owned cooperatives
Canfarm Cooperative Services — which of®
the record system through a number of accountants, consultants and other business firms.
The cooperative experienced some financial
difficulty in 1980.
Production Economics
During 1980, a number of production economics
activities were carried out. The following incUxres
the highlights of this particular program:
1. Costs and returns studies using the consensus
approach continued to be developed in 1980.
Table I outlines the reports released during the
2. The project to gather farm input (factor) Hist t
information from suppliers on a monrhly basis k
continued. Computer programs and systems fot t
survey data input, storage and analysis wej|
developed, tested and implemented. Data collection continued on a routine basis infflie
mainland agricultural reporting area andHhe
survey was introduced to the OkanaganTOid
Peace agricultural reporting regions.
3. The regional farm economist at Prince Geqrge
assisted with the experimental design and economic analysis of the results from the fertilEn-
crop correlation project being carried out injjie
interior of British Columbia by the B.C. Federa- j?
tion of Agriculture under funding from the Feed
Freight Assistance Adjustment Fund Agreement.
 Ministry of Agriculture end Food - 1980 Annual Report
Table I: Published Reports of Producers' Consensus Costs and Returns
191 Alfalfa Hay Production (Update and Revision)
192 Com Silage Production (Update and Revision)
213 Barley, Wheat, Oats and Alfalfa Production (Update)
214 Corn Silage, Alfalfa Silage and Alfalfa Hay Production
1215        Alfalfa Hay Production (Update)
216 Alfalfa Hay Production (Update)
217 Upland Timothy-Clover and Native Hay Production (Hay)
[218        Upland Timothy-Clover and Wetland Reed Canary Grass
Production (Update)
[226        Corn Silage Production (Update)
1235        Dryland Asparagus Production
j 236        Vineyard Establishment
1237        Grape Production
J238        Field Tomato Production
1240        Pasture and Hay Production (Update and Revision)
[241        Pasture and Silage Production (Update and Revision)
E42        Cabbage, Sweet Corn, Lettuce and Potato Production
(Update and Revision)
w.43        Land Clearing and Development
E44        Land Clearing and Development
248        Alfalfa Hay Production - 2 Cut System
(Update and Revision)
E49        Alfalfa Hay Production - 3 Cut System
(Update and Revision)
Salmon Arm
Salmon Arm
Williams Lake
Williams Lake
Williams Lake
North Okanagan
Okanagan and Similkameen
Comox Valley
Prince George
North Peace River
fJTie regional farm economist, Kamloops, was a
member of the management committee provid-
■ng economic analysis capability to a project to
Metermine the economic benefits and costs as-
■ftiated with the fertilization of native range-
a ind in British Columbia.
Several other projects were carried out, includ-
Big an analysis of the feasibility of part-time
Jieep production in the Fraser Valley and the
it lalysis of a report on com silage production in
11 ritisH Columbia.
Source Economics
I 1980, the branch continued to respond to
*fl:sts to carry out feasibility studies on proposed
<f age and irrigation projects in the Fraser Val-
tt benefit cost analysis was completed or is onus ; on the following projects:
1. a proposed drainage project in the East Chil-
Iiwack area.
2. a proposed drainage and irrigation project in the
East Richmond area.
3. a proposed drainage project in the Pitt Meadows
Agricultural Statistics
The statistics unit supplies the British Columbia
agriculture and food industry with relevant, timely
and accurate data on the size and nature of the
industry. This information is used as an aid in
decision-making and planning.
During 1980, the statistics unit was transferred to
the economics branch from the policy development
and planning division. Close liaison was maintained with Statistics Canada and a federal/provincial agreement on agricultural statistics was
page fifty-nine
 Ministry 0/Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
negotiated and signed. This agreement improved
the coordination with Statistics Canada and increased the ministry's involvement in survey processing and data analysis, thereby improving the
quality and timeliness of data.
Statistics are provided to users by telephone,
mail, office visit and in published reports. During
1980, the following reporrs and factsheets were
1. Agricultural statistics factsheet
2. B.C. agri-facts indicators
3. Production and Consumption of Red Meats in
British Columbia
4. Crop Report
5. Agri-Stats Factsheet
During 1980, the B.C. food systems project was
initiated to analyze levels of production, consumption and processing of foods produced in British
Columbia. This ARDSA-fonded project is supervised by the statistics unit and Agriculture Canada
and will be finalized by August, 1981.
Data Processing
The branch continued to liaise with the B.C.
Systems Corporation and coordinate the development and use of computer systems within the B.C.
ministry of agriculture and food. During 1980, a
number of data processing projects were transferred
to the B.C. Systems Corporation. In addition, several project feasibility studies were conducted.
The major projects that involved computer djm
processing included:
1. dairy herd improvement analysis program
(livestock branch)
2. interest reimbursement program (agricultfi
credit branch)
3. feed analysis program (livestock branch) ■
4. 4-H statistics program (youth developmgit
5. British Columbia farm business analysis project (economics branch)
6. green zone project (engineering branch arid
field services)
7. animal pathology project (veterinary brand!)
8. consensus data studies (economics branch™
9. agricultural  input cost survey (economics
10. egg production forecasting project (poultry
11. soils statistics projects (soils branch)
12. brands registration project (veterinary branch)
13. market information project (marketing
14-  lease survey project (economics branch) I
15. crop  insurance data base (crop insurance
16. intercensus  statistics  project  (econoScs
17. soils laboratory equipment upgrading (soils
18. land status project (economics branch) |
Farm management training courses developed by
page sixty
 jecial Projects
file economics branch was involved in the ad-
nistration of the federal/provincial Feed Freight
Estance Adjustment Fund Agreement. The
Inch also was involved in a number of special
TCCts including the following:
ARDA Part I technical sub committee
technical committee on the allocation of over-
Base chicken quota
evaluation committee for licensed science officer position classification
management committee for the ARDSA sheep
production technology transfer project
management committee for the Feed Freight
Assistance Adjustment Fund Agreement pro-
Bct on forage improvement
Ministry 0/Agriculture and Food - 1980 Annual Repori
6. task forces involved in economic analysis or
review of methodology such as the Prince
George special sales area project and the compensation package regarding the B.C. Hydro
site C project
Coordination and Liaison
During 1980, the branch represented the ministry on several regional and national committees
relating to agricultural economics. The branch participated in meetings of the expert committee on
farm management services, British Columbia farm
business management advisory committee, social
sciences lead committee, the western farm management extension committee, regional extension
planning committees and as a liaison with the B.C.
Assessment Authority.
page sixty-one
'_..■'* ^'j-'-'ir.
 Ministry 0/Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annua! Report
Agriculture and Rural
Development Act
The ARDA branch is responsible for administering the federal/provincial Agriculture and Rural
Development Subsidiary Agreement (ARDSA).
The five-year $60 million program began on August 1, 1977, with joint funding from the federal
department of regional economic expansion
(DREE) and the B.C. ministry of agriculture and
food. ARDSA's overall objective is to increase the
quality and quantity of British Columbia's food
production while creating new jobs in the agriculture and food industry.
ARDSA funds are directed into four key areas:
Part I - Research, planning, training and market
promotion help identify and develop new opportunities for the province's agricultural and
food industries.
Part II - Co-ordinated resource management develops — with the cooperation of other resource
users — the grazing potential of Crown range-
lands which are best suited for livestock.
Part III - Primary resource development funds
irrigation and drainage projects which increase
the agricultural productivity of British Columbia's land resources.
Part IV - Support services and community development assists secondary food processors and the
agricultural support services needed to improve
rural economic stability and create jobs.
Three-Year Evaluation
ARDSA is now in its fourth year of activi|
British Columbia - August 1, 1980, mat!
ARDSA's third anniversary. In keeping with:
agreement's guidelines, ARDSA's perfotnA
during its first three years is being evaluated.*
evaluation is required before negotiations can Is
on a new agreement or an extension to the exit;
program. It will also help establish a measure oft
benefits resulting from the work being doners
which types of projects are returning them
benefits. This information will help deterjni
which projects should be funded in the futm
given the large number of ARDSA applicajio
that may be eligible for funding and that tHei
maining funds in the ARDSA agreement may
New Developments, New Jobs,!
New Approaches
During 1980, ARDSA assistance of $ 10,74§6
was committed to 66 new projects. This brings:
total number of approved ARDSA projects mi
with an ARDSA commitment of $36,562,4^
These projects represent new developmer
throughout rural British Columbia, new jq
many new approaches to the problems ffl:i
British Columbia's food industry.
August 1, 1977 to December 31, 1980
Number Total
of Project ARDSaB
Projects Cost Contribution
Part I       Research, planning, training and market 52
Part II      Primary Resource Development Management 84
(Range Improvement)
Part III     Primary Resource Development (Drainage and 22
and Irrigation)
Part IV     Support Services and Community Development       123
(processing, rural hydro, etc.)
5,045,698 4,332,6*
13,528,077 12,172,0(9
7,544,038 5,617,3B
57,921,592 14,440,34B
281       $84,039,405    $36,562,401
page sixty-four
 st I - Research, Planning,
inning and Market Promotion
Even Part I projects were approved in 1980,
ging the total Part I ARDSA commitment to
12,695 for 52 projects.
nder a new area of Part I called Technology
gfer, it is possible for ARDSA to assist on-farm
bets related to the commercial testing and de-
Btration of new technologies. Two projects
i approved during the past year under Technol-
Bransfer. In Pitt Meadows, a greenhouse
Btor will demonstrate the European Nutrient
Technique (NFT) for the winter production of
house lettuce and on the Saanich Inlet, near
ffiia, a laboratory plans to demonstrate the
nercial viability of abalone mariculture.
me of the other projects assisted in 1980 were
B/ancouver Island facility producing predator
ts as an alternative to chemical sprays for
mouse pest control, a four-year demonstration
ro-tillage techniques in the Peace Rivet area,
the establishment of a commercial tree fruit
py testing orchard near Oliver.
Ministry o/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
Part II - Co-ordinated Resource
In 1980, ARDSA committed over $3.4 million
to enhance the grazing potential of Crown range-
lands for livestock through the development of 14
new Co-otdinated Resource Management Plans
(CRMPs). The plans encompassed over 800,000
hectares (2 million acres) and involved nearly 100
ARDSA-funded CRMPs include such developments as fencing, cattleguatds, water developments, corrals, stock trails, land clearing, tree thinning, prescribed burning and land discing and
The number of CRMPs funded under ARDSA is
now 84, and the combined total under ARDSA
and the past ARDA program is 101. The total cost
of the 101 CRMPs is over $20 million, of which the
federal and provincial governments are contributing 90 per cent and the local users 10 per cent. They
involve over 600 ranchers and cover approximately
3.2 million hectares (8 million acres) or over one-
third of British Columbia's Crown range grazing
Sm Iture propagation is an ARDSA-funded project being undertaken in Keloi
e sixty-five
 Ministry 0/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
An ARDSA-ussisreJ plan
inah-sis lab at Langky offers quick s
Part III - Primary Resource
Due to the amount of analysis and engineering
necessary, relatively few Part III projects were approved early in the agreement. However, Part III is
now proving to be one of the most active sections of
ARDSA with funding approved for irrigation and
drainage projects estimated to cost over $7.5 million. In addition, a latge number of feasibility
studies ate being completed regarding future projects.
During the past year, ARDSA funded eight Part
III projects estimated to cost $1.1 million. These
included a project to pump irrigation water from
the Thompson River near Ashcroft, allowing five
farms to plant grapes, tree fruits and ground crops;
drainage works near Fort Langley to help control
the flooding of farmland from spring run-off; and
the construction of several dams to supply groups of
ranchers in the Kamloops area with irrigation
page sixty-six
Part IV ' Support Services
and Community
During 1980, 33 projects estimated to cos®ve
$30 million received assistance of $5 million wide
ARDSA Part IV. These included 13 rural elecmii
cation projects which received $258,642 jffl
ARDSA towards a total cost of $733,290. fl
Due to the increasing complexity of propose
rural electrification projects, a five-member feces
provincial committee was established to evaluat
applications. Since the agreement began, 43 hydr
extensions have been funded throughoutjlBj
British Columbia under ARDSA Part IV. 1
Other Part IV projects assisted during the ye
included feedlots at Cache Creek and Dawsc
Creek, a cottage winery at Oliver, large anffii
veterinary clincs at Vernon and 100 Mile HP
and a chick hatchery expansion at Abbots^B
 Ministry 0/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
gricultural Credit
inancial assistance to eligible farm operators is
/ided through the agricultural credit branch un-
provisions of the Agricultural Credit Act and
[Agricultural Land Development Act. This as-
ince may take the form of:
uprovincial government guarantee to chartered
>anks or credit unions as supplemental support
Fcurity on loans to fanners
1 partial reimbursement of interest paid by
armers on loans from approved lenders to effec-
Evely reduce the cost of farm loans
Ecentives to farmers to participate in programs
•s proclaimed and encouraged by the province
n specified areas of B.C. These incentives to
armers may take the form of additional reim-
ursement of interest paid and/or reimbursement of loan ptincipal payments
Erect loans for primary and secondary land
iaranteed Loan Program
jittered banks and credit unions of the pro-
received support security in the form of a
tnment guarantee on 39 loan portfolios in
These guarantees totalled $4,675,850. Since
when the program was implemented, 302
ntees have been placed amounting to
aie claim was made and approved under the
;ii anding guarantee covenants in 1980 for a total
f2'6,668. Since inception of the program, 10
iais totalling $406,355 have been paid to banks
xedit unions.
Partial Interest Reimbursement
1980 was a record year for this program from the
standpoints of both the number of applications
processed and the total dollars distributed to farm
operators. Seven thousand two hundred and
eighty-six applications were processed resulting in
benefits of $23,299,583. This activity represented
partial reimbursement of interest costs paid by eligible applicants to approved lenders in 1979. Interest costs for this period were reimbursed to reduce the effective interest rate to approximately 9
per cent at a time when such interest costs soared to
an average chartered bank prime rate of 12.77 per
cent. The approved lenders in this program are the
chartered banks, credit unions, Farm Credit Corporation, Federal Business Development Bank and
the Director of the Veterans' Land Act.
A total of $50,201,545 in benefits representing a
reduction in interest costs has been paid to farm
operators of British Columbia since the inception
of this program in 1974.
Special Programs
Grapevine Assistance Program - 1978-79
There are 12 participants in this program who are
eligible to receive benefits in the form of a reduction of loan interest costs to 4 per cent for the
calendar years 1980-82. Loan interest costs on eligible loans on the basis of $ 1,000 pet acre per year
will be reduced to assist such farm operators in
jiD.A. loan program helped farmers finance the cost of primary and secondary land development
page sixty-seven
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
re-establishing 216 acres of grapevines destroyed ot
severely damaged as a result of frost damage in the
winter of 1978-79. Projected reimbursement benefits are $ 15-18,000 to be paid in 1981 representing
reduction in 1980 interest costs.
Asparagus Production Incentive Program
This is a new program launched in 1980 to stimulate an increase in the production of asparagus in
British Columbia. Financial assistance takes the
form of reimbursement of all or a portion of the
interest costs paid by the fanner over a four-year
crop establishment period on those loans contracted through banks or credit unions. Two appli-
cations had been approved for the planting of BO
acres to asparagus production, and additional appli-
cations were being reviewed by the B.C. AsparajL
Growers' Association and staff of this ministry.
Agricultural Land Development Act (A.L.D.M
There were 643 loan contracts issued through
this program in 1980 for a total value of
$4,255,680. This popular program to assist farmers
in financing costs of primary and secondary ffij
development was folly committed to budget limitations through expenditures to date and outstanding
contracts by August 1980, after which no further
applications were accepted.
Crop Insurance
The function of the crop insurance branch is to
administer the B.C. Crop Insurance Act and the
Crop Insurance Stabilization Fund Act.
The objectives of the branch are:
1. To reduce the fluctuations in net income of
individual producers who suffer crop losses due
to weather and other uncontrollable factors.
2. To maintain an effective system for administration of crop insurance programs for selected
3. To reduce the need for ad hoc assistance programs in crop loss situations.
The crop insurance program involves the participation of the farmer and the provincial and federal
The farmer and the federal government each
contribute 50 per cent of the total cost of the
premium involved, while the provincia
government contributes the cost of
administering the program.
The exceptionally wet spring in the Fraser Valle,
and Okanagan caused extensive outbreaks of various fungal diseases on blueberries and other cffis.
Rainsplitting of cherries was aggravated by brom
rot, resulting in the largest indemnity paymentsfoi
this crop. Apples cropped heavily.
The dry spring in the Cariboo and Peace cause;
poor initial forage growth. Harvesting was nam
pered by persistent rains.
Cereal crops in the Peace did well, but the condi
tions caused extensive rapeseed losses for the sec!
ond year in succession.
Scattered hail storms caused damage to crow it
the Peace and in the Okanagan
Cherry producers who participated in the crop ij
page sixty-eight
e program received ins
oemniries as a result ofrainspUt and brown rot damage 10 their cherry crap. ■
Ministry of Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
lus of Crop Insurance Fund at March 31, 1980
March 31/79 (Cr)
— ._
March 31/80 (Cr)
Due from Government of Canada
$   190,668.75
Grain program
[Tree fruit program
Berry program
Shape program
forage program
vegetable program
grop Insurance Fund Balance
H: This statement shows the actual status of the Crop Insurance Fund as of March 31, 1980 by
1   fiscal year on a cumulative basis. The above figures will not necessarily agree with those of the
1  individual program which are by crop year, as the time periods do not correspond.
ftmary of Loss Experience
% Loss to Premium
Loss experience for all programs
Grain program
Tree fruit program
Berry program
1 Grape program
Forage program
Vegetable program
April 1/78
March 31/79
April 1/79
March 31/80
1  Provincial administrative costs
$  541,844
$  515,239
m Federal government premium contributions
A Administration cost to federal contributions
.A Administration costs to total coverage
r\ Administraton costs to total claims
page sixty-rtini
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
Farm Income Insurance
The branch administers the income insurance
program comprised of a number of commodity plans
which protect producers against income loss due to
low market returns or rapid fluctuation in farm cost
input prices. Plans for 12 commodities were implemented in the period 1973 to 1977, mostly for a
term of five years. Eleven of the 12 original plans
have expired and the raspberry plan was to terminate following settlement of producer claims for the
1980 crop year.
The total cost to government for all plans in the
1980 calendar year was $5,554,180.55.
Two new plans were established in 1980 under
the terms and policy of the new farm income insurance agreements for a second generation of plans.
The addition of the broiler hatching egg and the
beef plans brings the total number of new plans to
six; the others are tree fruit, swine, strawberries for
processing, and vegetables for processing (peas,
beans and com).
The broiler hatching egg plan provided coveifl
effective January 1, 1979 for 39producers. Thell)
plan provided expanded coverage for cow-o
yearling and finishing operators effective Januaifl
1980. Beef producers registered in the plan aretl
required to pay an advance premium on a perfl
Work continued on the development of i-
plans for the blueberry, sheep, potato and griH
house vegetable commodity groups.
At the end of the year, there were 3,372 pat!
pants registered in the six new ongoing farmi
come plans.
The farm income insurance plan continuedt fj
a major agricultural policy of the provincial gov. I
ment, providing a significant level of protecl
from low returns or increasing costs beyond q
individual participant's control.
The new income insurance plan for beef producers was implemented in 1980 and provides expanded coverage for cow-calf, yearling and finishing operators
page seventy
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — 1980 Annual Report
rm Products Finance
fie branch is responsible for the implementa-
and administration of a varied program of
reial assistance under the Farm Product Inly Act to assist in the development and conation of a financially viable secondary proces-
jndustry for agricultural production within the
jnce. The program can provide financial assist-
on the form of grants, loans or loan guarantees
Sicultural and food processing firms or orations.
kce the start of the program in November
financial assistance totalling approximately
nillion has been approved for 55 agricultural
prises as follows:
grantees $28,621,250
in- 8,535,226
Bres 5,511,655
Brest Reimbursement Grants 1,230,714
Kial Assistance Grants 1,904,622
pimodity Assistance Grants 634,112
gnti ve Grants 501,400
rket Promotion Grants 87,040
gibility Studies, Etc. 56,687
ring 1980, requests fot financial assistance
considered for 45 agricultural or food proces-
jrganizations. Financial examinations were
d out on 28 of the requests and assistance of
ximately $2 million approved for 17 of the
izations which had submitted proposals.
ancial assistance was provided in three cat-
i an aid to a processing firm or oganization in
ancial difficulty which had been unable to
;ain.assistance from other sources on reason-
e terms and conditions;
i an incentive to encourage firms or organiza-
ns to develop, modernize or expand proces-
g facilities when assistance was not available
m any other program;
Incouragement for food processors to develop
test market new products or develop new
Financial assistance of particular interest during
1980 included the following:
British Columbia Turkey
Marketing Board, Cloverdale
A loan guarantee was made available to enable
the board to re-open and operate the Clearbrook
poultry processing plant formerly operated by
Maplewood Poultry. The company's continuing financial difficulties had forced the closure of the
plant, and the plant's processing capacity was urgently needed by the turkey industry while efforts
were underway to find a new owner. The operating
of the plant prevented serious losses for the turkey
growers. The plant was subsequently purchased by
Scott Poultry Co-operative Association and, at the
end of the year, was again in foil operation under
the name of Pan Ready Poultry 1980 Ltd. This
company was provided with a loan guarantee to
enable it to raise necessary operating capital following the purchase.
Royal City Foods Ltd., Burnaby
An incentive grant was provided toward the
costs of acquiring and installing automated corn
husking machinery. The machinery, not in use in
any other plant in the province, will ensure the
company's competitive position in the marketplace
against corn products coming from outside the province where such automated machinery is in use.
Sun Dew Foods Ltd., Okanagan Falls
Sun Dew Foods received product development
and market testing assistance for the development
and marketing of fruit nectars of the "European"
type not presently being produced anywhere else in
North America according to the company. The
product is now being successfully marketed and will
provide an important use for the Okanagan's cull
peaches, peats and apricots for which there was
previously no market.
During 1980, the branch discontinued providing
financial analysis services to the agriculture and
rural development branch (ARDA) on proposals
submitted under Part IV of the federal/provincial
Agriculture and Rural Development Subsidiary
Agreement (ARDSA) program. The requirement
is now provided by the staff of that branch.
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
Property Management
The programs administered by this branch did
not undergo any major changes during 1980; however, some minor adjustments were necessary to
allow for the maturing of the relatively new lease
program and the initiation of some new minor
projects associated with the farm operations program.
Lease Program
Because of difficulties which arose when negotiating compensation payable to lessees upon the
termination of a lease, a new and more detailed
policy was developed in cooperation with the provincial agricultural land commission.
During the year, 33 lease rental reviews were
conducted and, in most cases, good progress in the
development of the individual tentant programs
was evident, making it possible to increase the
rental rates and bring them much closer to those
existing in the market place. New leases negotiated
numbered 17, of which 11 concerned new properties recently transferred from the ministry of highways to the provincial agricultural land commission.
The sharp increase in land and improvemtii
values necessitated constant attention; tnist*
cupied much of the appraiser's time in assign^
current evaluation figures for the purpose o|6
tablishing new rental rates, property sales, fa
ant compensation and insurance coverage. Durit
1980, six options to purchase were exercised, witi
two sales completed and the remaining four |k
agreements still under negotiation. Revenue coi
lected for all property sales completed to dst
totalled $1,394,000 with further sales under negt
tiation amounting to $888,000. With one excep
tion, all sales made to date were to the tetBt
involved except the Reahil Property #31 a
Kelowna which was sold on the open market.*};
DeClarke Property #28 was offered on the ope:
market, but was returned to the lease programme:!
no acceptable tenders were received.
New grain storage bins were constructed at the branch's institutional farm at TranquiUe.
page seventy-two
 I he number of on-site inspection requests di-
a ished considerably; the inspection service has
n>me more involved with in-depth analysis of
l jr applications. The resulting reports have as-
Bed a greater degree of importance and an in-
Bsed effort is being made to ensure the quality of
H submissions. The major on-site inspections
Ipleted during 1980 included the Columbia
Hey Land Use Study; the Terra Nova Area; Lulu
Hid; the Annacis Island Crossing; and the Mun-
iiility of Delta (Spetifore) Application.
Irm Operations Program
moral of 2470 AUMs of grazing was provided by
lEast Kootenay Ranches for animals directed to
tranches by the grazing division, forest service
I the Grasmere, Coal Valley, Tokay Hills,
■raim's Lake and Horse Thief Range Units.
Jie range properties underwent further devel-
|j|:nt which will increase the future carrying
|lity. Data gathered from the 1980 weighing
Sum was submitted to Dr. J. Hodges, Uni-
gy of British Columbia, for analysis; prelimi-
ii figures indicated a two pound per day gain for
| trigs.  Several demonstration research plots
Ministry 0/Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
have been set up at the Steeples Ranch by the
ministry's forage specialist at Creston to test grass
species and seeding rates for irrigated pastures.
The annual field day was held on July 26, 1980
and the foil provincial agricultural land commission toured the ranches on September 24, 1980.
After five years of operation, the future role of the
ranch properties is being examined in order to
establish revised goals for this regional program.
Colony and Tranquille Farms continued to fulfill
the roles of food production and the provision of a
rehabilitation training facility for the associated
institutions. In addition, the initiative to cooperatively use the land, physical and animal resources is being actively pursued by the management committees. Several projects have been
identified and will be initiated as approved. There
is a continuing demand for breeding stock from the
dairy cattle, swine and sheep units, with a portion
of the sales going for export.
The British Columbia Buildings Corporation
completed a project to increase the capacity of the
British Columbia beef cattle test station at Tranquille Farm. The station now has a maximum
capacity of 200 bulls. At year end, the 1980/81 test
was underway with 166 bulls participating.
;Jerry near Vernon is the siie of a sewage effluent irrigation project in which field crop variety trails are conducted
page seventy-three
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food — / 980 Annual Report
/               PEACE RIVER
L^            FORT ST. JOHN •
^"^^            DAWSON (1
^/v        CREEK K?
CENTRAL             N.
•                                  \
SMITHERS                                          X
VANDERHOOF* /J\               N
/\                            QUESNEL    .^^
DUNCAN «|_ 1 C£*l<
I*    ARM
page seventy-four
 Ministry of Agriculture and Food— 1980 Annual Report
Ifices of
ritish Columbia Ministry
igriculture and Food
\D OFFICE: Victoria — 808 Douglas Street, Nootka Court,
b iling address: Parliament Buildings, Victoria, V8W 2Z7, Phone: 387-5121)
itrict Offices
son Creek:
5t. John:
:e George:
on Arm:
i erhoof:
iams Lake:
205-33 780 Laurel Street, V2S 1X4, 859-5281
Engineering Branch, 33832 South Fraser Way, V2S 2C5, 853-6451
Poultry Test Station, 32916 Marshall Road, V2S 1K2, 853-3671
Veterinary Lab, Box 100, V2S4N8, 853-1161
5-8635 Young Road South, V2P4P3, 795-9471
17720-57th Avenue, Surrey, V3S4P9, 576-2911
209-420 Cumberland Road, V9N 5M6, 338-7465
202-135 10th Avenue South, V1C2N1, 489-3521
456 Northwest Boulevard, V0B 1G0, 428-5371
1201-103rd Avenue, V1G4J2, 782-5931
238 Government St., V9L 1A5, 746-6183
201-9711 100th Avenue, V1J 1Y2, 787-1111
162 Oriole Road, V2C4N7, 374-3614
1873 Spall Road, V1Y4R2, 860-3588
Court House, Box 940, V0H 1T0, 498-2420
477 Martin Street, V2A 5L2, 493-2749
Experimental Farm, R.R. #1, V2N 2H8, 963-9685
208-350 Barlow Avenue, V2J 2C1, 992-5591
Samara Building, Box 639, V0E 2T0, 832-2088
Government Building, Box 518, V0J 2N0, 847-4411
Research Station, Box 198, V0H 1Z0, 494-7011
Food Information Services, Marketing Branch,
10344 East Whalley Ring Road, V3T 4H4, 584-7691
Church Avenue, Box 987, V0J 3A0, 567-2563
4607-23rd Street, V1T4K7, 545-1387
540 Borland Streer, V2G 1R8, 392-6261
page seventy-five


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