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FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1927-28 BY THE… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1929]

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Full Text

 FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OP
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OF   THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1927-28
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OP EDUCATION
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY  OF THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
rrinted by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1928.
 To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg herewith respectfully to present the Fifty-seventh Annual Report of the Public Schools
of the Province.
JOSHUA HINCHLIFFE,
Minister of Education.
December, 1928.
 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
Minister of Education:
Hon. JOSHUA HINCHLIFFB, B.A.,
Superintendent of Education: Assistant Superintendent of Education:
S. J. Willis, B.A., LL.D. J. D. Gillis.
Inspectors of High Schools:
A. Sullivan, B.A., Victoria. J. B. DeLong, B.A., Vancouver.
Inspectors of Elementary Schools:
L. J. Bruce, Vancouver. W. II. M. May, Victoria.
F. G. Calvert, Vancouver. A. E. Miller, Revelstoke.
H. C. Fraser, M.A., Prince Rupert. H. II. Mackenzie, B.A., Vancouver.
G. H. Gower, M.A., Prince George. J. T. Pollock, Vancouver.
T. R. Hall, B.A., Kelowna. P. II. Sheffield, B.A., Nelson.
V. Z. Manning, B.A., Cranbrook. A. C. Stewart, Victoria.
A. F. Mattews, M.A., Kamioops.
SPECIAL OFFICIALS.
Director of Elementary Agricultural Education and Officer in Charge
of High-School Correspondence Courses.
J. W. Gibson, M.A., B.Paed.
Organizer of Technical Education: Officer in Charge of Elementary-school
John Kyle, A.R.C.A. Correspondence Courses:
James Hargreaves.
Registrar:        ■ Officer in Charge of Free Text-books:
J. L. Watson, B.A. J. A. Anderson.
Director of Home Economics: Chief Clerk:
Miss J. L. MacLenaghen, B.Sc. George Cruickshank.
NORMAL SCHOOL STAFFS.
Vancouver: Victoria:
D. M. Robinson, B.A., Principal. D. L. MacLaurin, B.A., Principal.
A. Anstey, B.A. V. L. Denton, B.A.
W. P. Weston. H. Dunnell.
H. B. MacLean. B. S. Freeman, B.A.
J. A. Macintosh, B.A. C. B. Wood, B.A., M.A.
A. E. C. Martin, B.Sc. Miss G. G. Riddell.
A. R. Lord, B.A. Miss L. B. Isbister.
W. G. Black, B.A., M.A. Miss Isabel Coursier.
Miss L. A. Burpee. Model Sclwoi:
Miss E. M. Coney. Miss Kate Scanlan.
Miss N. V. Jones, B.A. Miss L M> F- Barron.
Municipal Inspectors of Schools:
George H. Deane, Victoria. E. G. Daniels, B.A., Burnaby.
R. S. Shields, B.A., New Westminster. J. M. Paterson, B.A., Saanich.
 TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAET !• . PaGE.
Superintendent's Report  7
Inspectors' Reports—
High Schools   19
Elementary Schools   21
Municipal Inspectors' Reports—
New  Westminster    32
Vancouver  33
Vancouver, South   36
Victoria   37
Reports on Normal Schools—
Supervisor     40
Vancouver     46
Victoria     47
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind   49
Report of the Organizer of Technical Education   51
Report of the Director of Home Economics   56
Report of the Director of Elementary Agricultural Education   58
Report of the Director of the Summer School for Teachers   62
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Free Text-book Branch   66
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust   68
Statistical Returns— PART II.
High Schools  (Cities)         2
High Schools (Rural Municipalities)         7
High Schools (Rural Districts)       10
Superior Schools      11
Junior High Schools     12
Elementary Schools  (Cities)       14
Elementary Schools (Rural Municipalities)      42
Elementary Schools  (Rural Districts)       69
Elementary Schools (Assisted)     75
Elementary Schools (E. & N. Railway Belt)      85
Summary of Attendance in Rural Schools—Elementary      88
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each City      89
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each Rural Municipality      92
Enrolment   (Recapitulation)       95
Subjects of Study pursued in High Schools in Cities     96
Subjects of Study pursued in High Schools in Rural Municipalities  100
Subjects of Study pursued in High Schools in Rural Districts   104
Subjects of Study pursued in Superior and Junior High Schools  106
Summary showing Number of Students pursuing each Subject of Study in High and Superior
Schools   -  112
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts   114
PART III.
High School Entrance Examination—Names of Medal-winners   121
High School Examination—Names of the Winners of Medals aand Scholarships   121
High School Entrance Examination Papers   123
High School Examination Papers—
Grade IX  137
Grade X •. i  148
Grade XL (Junior Matriculation and Normal Entrance)  160
Grade XII.  (Senior Matriculation)    179
Third-year Course, Commercial   193
 PART I.
GENERAL REPORT.
    REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF
EDUCATION, 1927-28.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., November, 1928.
To the Honourable Joshua Hinchliffe, B.A.,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Fifty-seventh Annual Report of the Public Schools of
British Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1928.
ENROLMENT.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 105,008 to
108,179 and the average daily attendance from 88,306 to 91,760. The percentage of regular
attendance was 84.82.
The number of pupils enrolled in the various classes of schools is shown hereunder:—
Schools.
Cities.
Rural
Municipalities.
Uural
Districts.
Total.
9,046
1,972
24
40,617
3,973
283
39
31,564
497
13,516
2,255
525
19,639
588
Elementary schools	
91,820
Total for 1927-28	
Total for 1926-27    	
51,659
50,691
35,859
34,262
20,661
20,055
108,179
105,008
968
1,597
606
3,171
In addition to the numbers given above, there were enrolled in the—
Correspondence classes     375 pupils.
Night schools   5,444       „
Normal School, Vancouver      212 students.
Normal School, Victoria      163       „
Victoria College      234        „
University of British Columbia  1,741       „
Total  8,169
The pupils in attendance were distributed by sex and grade as follows:—
Grades.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
8,075
6,502
5,757
5,616
5,817
5,706
5,571
5,005
3,039
2,104
1,209
97
7,001
5,867
5,562
5,260
5,636
5,460
5,563
5,518
3,590
2,587
1,545
92
15,076
Grade II	
12,369
Grade III..                       	
11,319
Grade IV	
10,876
Grade V.              	
11,453
11,166
Grade VII	
11,134
Grade VIII.               	
10,523
Grade IX	
6,629
Grade X	
Grade XI	
4,691
2,754
Grade XII.    .         	
189
Total    	
54,498
53,681
L_
108,179
 V 8
•PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
The number of teachers employed in the different classes of schools and the average number
of pupils per teacher were:—
Schools.
No. of
Grade
Teachers.
No. of
Special
Instructors
269
48
134
5
25
60
8
31
1,109
82
891
64
941
1
Average
Enrolment
per Grade
Teacher.
Average Daily
Attendance
per Grade
Teacher.
High schools (cities)	
High schools (rural municipalities)	
High schools   (rural districts)	
Junior high schools	
Superior schools	
Elementary schools (cities)	
Elementary schools (rural municipalities)
Elementary schools (rural districts)	
All schools	
3,460
208
34
30
20
38
19
37
35
21
31
28.40
25.39
16.86
32.80
16.19
34.35
29.86
17.29
26.52
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES.
The following table shows the number of teachers of each sex employed and also the
number of certificates of each class held by the teachers:—■
Schools.
Acad.
First.
Second.
Third.
Temp.
Special.
Male.
Female.
Total.
260
130
25
8
32
101
33
7
14
o
23
17
460
314
100
165
2
499
502
164
351
41
38
13
16
5
9
4
»8
*4
2
48
5
17
82
196
90*
11
25
33
234
121
49
14
6
35
957
730
224
447
90
317
139
High schools (rural districts)	
25
31
Junior high schools	
68
1,191
Elementary schools (rural munie.)
Regularly organized rural schools.
64          225
60
....     J     101
1     |       20
955
284
548
E. & N. Railway Belt	
31   [        71
110
Total, 1927-28	
612
1,110   |   1,589
113
27
217     |     995
2,673
3,668
Total, 1926-27	
580
994   1   1.610
133
_J
19
_J
195     1     899
2,632
3,531
_J
_]
* Held by teachers from Great Britain who interchanged with teachers from British Columbia.
The cost of education per pupil in the different classes of districts and also the contribution
made by the Government and the districts to such cost are shown hereunder:—
Schools.
Cost per
Pupil for
Year.
Contribution
by
Government
per Pupil.
Contribution
by
District
per Pupil.
Cost per
Pupil for
each Teaching-day.
In all high schools	
In high schools (cities)	
In high schools   (rural municipalities)	
In high schools (rural districts)	
In all elementary schools	
In elementary schools (cities)	
In elementary schools (rural municipalities)
In elementary schools (rural districts)	
.$117.95
109.07
132.60
124.64
69.19
75.01
62.93
67.24
$22.16
19.02
22.64
58.06
23.39
16.54
19.38
43.71
' 95.79
90.05
109.96
66.58
45.80
58.47
43.55
23.47
$0.59
.55
.67
.63
.35
.38
.32
.34
The Province met over 30 per cent, of the total cost of the maintenance of the high and the
elementary schools and also the cost of maintenance of the University, with the exception of
the sums received in fees from the students.
NEW SCHOOLS.
New high schools were opened at Harewood and at Qualicum Beach, and superior schools at
Baynes Lake, Britannia Mine, Comox, James Island, Stewart, Tsolum, South Wellington, and
Westbank Townsite.   One hundred and ten additional class-rooms were opened in graded schools
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
V 9
throughout the Province.   Besides, schools were opened for the first time in the following
pioneer districts:—
Schools. Electoral Districts.
Enterprise; Milburn Lake Cariboo.
Radium Hot Springs Columbia.
Bernard;   Bloedel;   Home   Lake;   Owen   Bay;   Stuart
Island; Surge Narrows  Comox.
Nixon Creek Cowiehan-Newcastle.
Raven Creek  Dewdney.
Forfar; Kidd; Longworth, South; Thompson Fort George.
Blucher Hall; Knutsford; Mamette Lake Kamioops.
Bridge River; Watch Lake Lillooet.
Kingfisher North Okanagan.
Lewis Island Prince Rupert.
University Hill  Richmond-Point Grey.
Duthie Mines  Skeena.
Ecclestone   South Okanagan.
Lear ;  Juliet  Yale.
The following statement shows what percentage of the pupils was enrolled in the different
classes of schools:—
Schools.
No. of Pupils
enrolled.
Percentage of
Total
Enrolment.
High schools  (cities)   	
Elementary schools  (cities)	
High schools  (rural municipalities)   	
Elementary schools (rural municipalities)
High schools  (rural districts)  	
Elementary schools (rural districts) 	
Superior schools 	
Junior high schools	
Total	
9,046
40,617
3,973
31,564
497
19,639
588
2,255
108,179
8.36
37.54
3.67
29.18
0.46
18.16
0.54
2.09
100
The number of children of foreign parentage who attended the public schools of the Province
during the year was as follows:—
03
OJ
to
QJ
0
03
ra
3333
3=
13
,   330
HI
re
3/3
3/2
a
ra
a
33J
a
a
a
3 >
03-
,3
■J
ra
-3
M
v ra
t» a
w
C4
a
ta
108
164
1
158
4
21
20
8
914
102
1,436
1,269
16
8
575
658
12
28
132
81
149
171
69
Elementary schools in rural municipalities 	
53
71
404
6
752
28
47
167
58
Total	
1,195
3,273
31
2,143
72
281
507
188
to
G   •
3fl
a
ra
3/3
a
ra
a
ra
PI
to
U
o
to
■V
a
4J
39
a
ra
3
ra
o
f.S
■"SC
<
O
M
w
Q
cfa
SI
15
8
63
93
1
36
149
120
112
325
996
101
404
Elementary schools in rural municipalities 	
125
62
60
165
170
12
135
86
114
82
370
367
543
67
Total	
411
311
262
923
1,626
657
642
 V 10
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
The following statement shows steady growth in the enrolment,
percentage of pupils attending the high schools is most marked.
The increase in the
Year.
Enrolment at
High Schools.
Enrolment at
Elementary
Schools.
Total
Enrolment.
Percentage at
High Schools
of the Total
Enrolment.
1918  19                	
5,806
6,636
7.259
66,200
72,607
78.691
72,006
79,243
85,950
91,919
94.888
96,204
97,954
101,688
105,008
108,179
8.06
1919 20	
8.37
1920-21	
8.44
1921-22	
8,634                   83,285
9.220         |         85,668
9,889         |         86,315
10,597         [         87,357
11,779         |         89,909
12,906                   9.2,102
13.516                    94.663
9.39
1922 23	
9.71
1923-24	
10.27
1924  25          -.	
10.81
1925  26    	
11.58
1926-27     	
12.29
1927 28      .           	
12.49
HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city high schools during the year was 9,046. Of this number, 4,171
were boys and 4,875 were girls.
The number of divisions and the enrolment for 1927-28 and for 1926-27 in each city are
shown in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
Enrolment,
1926-27.
1
1
1
1
1
1
l
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
' 1
1
1
3
8
3
7
2
3
2
6
3
9
2
5
4
1
8
8
21
2
1
1
3
6
5
4
4
1
6
100
12
6
36
80
272
67
169
52
78
28
147
93
243
29
135
79
52
253
251
724
55
25
19
70
161
138
80
94
4
160
3,728
368
149
1,243
81
266
69
169
51
75
38
133
94
221
42
119
80
Merritt	
54
276
252
705
57
39
Port Moody	
14
77
150
136
99
99
11
Trail	
148
3,498
335
145
1,172
Total, 1927-28	
37
37
282
268
 |
9,046
8,705
8,705
Total, 1926-27	
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
V 11
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the rural municipal high schools during the year was 3,973. Of this
number, 1,739 were boys and 2,234 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the year 1927-28 and the
year 1926-27 are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
Enrolment,
1926-27.
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
16
4
3
2
3
4
3
3
8
1
4
38
4
3
4
27
5
478
80
90
33
88
108
63
63
'22-8
12
120
1,230
118
67
90
1,005
100
441
Delta	
91
75
Kent         	
33
87
Maple Ridge	
82
60
68
Oak Bay           	
216
21
142
1,068
92
64
139
944
100
Total, 1927-28	
21
21
132
121
3,973
3,723
3,723
Total, 1926-27	
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural high schools for the year was 497. Of this number, 230 were
boys and 267 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the years 1927-28 and
1926-27 are given in the table below:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
Enrolment,
1926-27.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
■    2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
56
50
24
29
14
24
17
16
41
14
21
17
33
17
47
28
19
30
46
49
Golden	
20
33
24
14
Keremeos	
19
39
14
Nakusp	
23
24
Ocean Falls	
Oyama	
Powell River	
Princeton	
31
21
46
25
Smithers	
23
Total, 1927-2S	
18
17
25
24
497
478
478
Total, 1926-27	
 V 12
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the Superior schools was 588.    The number of boys was 248;  of girls, 340.
The following table gives the names of the schools and the enrolment for the school-year
1927-28 and for 1926-27:—
School.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
Enrolment,
1926-27.
School.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
Enrolment,
1926-27.
19
15
27
21
19
14
22
20
8
25
15
13
24
13
19
9
13
29
15
32
20
10
18
16
25
15
28
26
19
19
19
19
24
26
18
16
20
11
30
22
22
14
588
24
Oliver 	
27
02
12
20
18
23
18
22
Stewart 	
Tsolum  Consolidated  	
19
506
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the Junior high schools was 2,255. The number of boys enrolled was
1,106;  of girls, 1,149.
The following table gives the number of divisions and the enrolment in each school for
the years 1927-28 and 1926-27:—
District.
School.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
Enrolment,
1926-27.
6
2
5
20
24
208
75
224
817
931
193
35
213
Total   1927 28
57
11
2,255
441
441
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
V 13
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 40,617. The number of boys was 20,721;
of girls, 19,896.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, and the enrolment in each city are shown
in the table below:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
Enrolment,
1926-27.
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
o
1
1
1
1
5
o
!5
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
3
29
o
1
16
4
13
10
8
20
13
11
3
18
8
2
21
3
18
9
8
28
26
72
9
7
6
10
23
16
11
5
2
32
457
43
19
135
127
538
363
288
683
454
422
113
701
293
54
792
89
768
312
307
1,069
914
2,798
316
252
205
380
876
623
440
203
67
1,151
17,590
1,557
809
5,060
119
501
358
272
687
503
420
104
694
313
Greenwood	
56
792
96
Kelowna	
658
330
Merritt	
311
1,008
961
2,697
271
250
206
377
805
609
460
195
52
1,091
19,260
1,543
734
5,013
Total	
96
1,070
40,617
41,748
 V 14
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—RURAL MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the rural municipal elementary schools was 31,564. The number of boys
enrolled was 16,220;   of girls, 15,344.
The following table gives the enrolment and the number of schools in operation in each
municipality during the school-years 1927-28 and 1926-27:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
Enrolment,
1926-27.
18
15
0
6
3
12
1
o
IG
9
10
9
o
Q
1
2-
10
1
7
16
7
4
1
21
5
15
4
108
33
3
11
20
14
5
30
27
19
20
17
3
13
3
134
9
32
60
8
8
9
43
25
212-
23
4,159
1,028
106
272
199
554
477
199
1,016
975
587
608
617
61
531
96
5,101
83
1,226
1,964
259
224
321
1,384
809
7,935
773
3;875
959
101
261
190
Delta	
492
Esquimalt	
470
Kent	
190
Langley	
929
859
572
550
Oak Bay	
659
61
500
114
4,791
School for Deaf and Blind	
83
1,157
1,925
254
207
306
1,340
808
7,905
721
Total, 1927-28	
'   202
202
896
801
31,564
30,279
30,279
Total, 1926-27	
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the elementary schools, rural districts, was 19,639.    The number of boys
enrolled was 10,063;   of girls, 9,576.
SALARIES.
The following table shows the highest, lowest, and average salary paid to teachers during
the school-year 1927-28 :—
High Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Cities.
Alberni	
Armstrong	
Chilliwack	
Courtenay	
Cranbrook	
Cumberland	
Duncan	
Enderby	
Fernie	
Grand Forks	
Greenwood	
$2,400
$1,600
$1,933
2,700
1,600
1,911
2,000
1,600
1,766
2,850
1,500
1,966
2,600
1,900
2,250
2,240
1,600
1,913
2,000
1,400
1,700
3,000
1,740
2,060
2,000
1,700
1,800
$1,450
$2,500
2,100
1,850
2,600
2,400
2,000
1,700
3,100
2,000
1,600
$1,000
1,000
950
960
1,080
1,100
950
1,000
1,200
900
1,100
$1,162
1,346
1,300
1,198
1,306
1,373
1,140
1,266
1,551
1,148
1,290
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
V 15
SALARIES—Continued.
High Schools.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Cities—Continued.
$2,800
1,800
2,300
2,500
1,800
2,500
3,500
3,500
2,000
2,400
2,050
2,250
3,200
3,000
2,800
2,600
1,600
3,100
4,000
3,540
2,650
3,600
$1,500
1,550
1,700
1,200
1,800
1,500
1,900
1,600
1,500
2,400
2,050
1,750
1,750
1,800
1,900
1,900
1,600
1,700
1,750
1,800
1,500
1,715
$2,000
1,675
1,833
1,687
1,800
1,900
2,411
2,507
1,750
2,400
2,050
1,916
2,021
2,166
2,187
2,075
1,600
2,133
2,463
2,310
1,941
2,379
$2,400
1,350
2,300
2,100
2,700
2,500
2,900
2,700
1,900
1,400
2,000
2,200
2,505
2,500
1,800
2,250
1,300
2,800
3,360
3,000
2,500
2,775
$1,100
1,200
1,050
950
1,050
940
1,100
860
1,080
900
1,000
1,100
1,150
1,000
900
1,050
1,000
1,080
960
1,080
900
950
$1,349
1,250
1,372
1,317
1,333
1,376
1,511
1,439
1,235
1,057
1,293
1,350
1,547
1,344
1,240
1,365
1,150
Trail	
1,329
1,542
Vancouver, North	
1,576
1,346
1,586
$4,000
$1,200
$2,296
$3,360
$860
$1,483
Rural Municipalities.
$3,200
$1,700
$2,155
$2,750
1,800
1,300
1,250
1,850
2,200
2,800
1,300
1,200
1,500
1,200
2,200
3,250
1,200
3,000
1,400
3,360
2,300
2,085
1,350
1,200
2,200
1,400
2,800
3,360
2,500
$800
850
1,200
900
950
900
1,100
1,000
800
850
850
840
1,000
900
975
1,000
1,020
850
700
1,000
960
1,100
800
1,080
1,020
1,020
$1,297
Chilliwack	
1,054
1,233
1,027
1,152
Delta	
2,800
2,600
1,600
2,400
2,200
1,800
2,240
3,600
1,400
2,750
1,600
1,970
1,250
1,500
1,400
1,250
1,680
2,100
1,400
1,800
2,000
2,180
1,402
1,800
1,750
1,550
1,946
2,708
1,400
2,378
1,130
1,365
Kent	
1,070
998
973
986
1,057
1,817
1,000
1,473
1,100
1,572
1,148
1,181
1,093
1,042
1,338
1,009
1,528
4,074
2,300
1,750
1,500
2,682
1,925
Salmon Arm	
2,500
2,000
1,700
1,400
2,000
1,625
Vancouver, North	
4,000
2,880
2,040
1,600
2,676
2,096
1,601
1,360
For all rural municipalities..
$4,074
$1,250 .
$2,373
$3,380
$700
$1,359
Rural Districts.
$3,300
1,750
1,800
$1,400
1,500
1,460
$2,050
1,625
1,630
$2,700
1,770
1,500
$800
900
900
$1,201
Assisted	
E. & N. Railway Belt	
1,110
1,047
For all rural districts	
$3,300
$1,400
$1,982
$2,700
$800
$1,099
The average salary paid teachers employed in all high schools throughout the Province was
$2,473; and to teachers in elementary schools, $1,270.
 V 16 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION, 1927-28.
Education Office:
Salaries       $20,251.98
Office supplies   7,358.53
Travelling expenses   429.17
Free Text-book Branch:
Salaries   3  4,814.60
Office supplies   4,995.94
Text-books, maps, etc         64,468.24
Agricultural Education:
Salaries   4,395.00
Office supplies   488.03
Travelling expenses   574.35
Grants in aid   5,625.55
Industrial Education:
Salaries      $11,533.45
Office supplies         2,389.36
Travelling expenses  :        2,675.25
Grants in aid       48,939.58
Grant for Technical School, Greater Vancouver     100,000.00
Night-schools        33,417.12
$198,954.76
Less Dominion of Canada subvention       59,355.49
Inspection of Schools: 139,599.27
Salaries    $57,491.42
Office supplies   3,779.46
Travelling expenses   22,929.62
84,200.50
Less amount paid by School Boards   470.00
—         83,730.50
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries    $35,000.44
Office supplies   2,456.93
Travelling expenses   531.82
Fuel, light, and water   1,978.51
Maintenance and repairs   1,709.00
Students' mileage   1,702.18
Incidentals  1,229.43
$44,608.31
Less Normal School fees         8,260.00
         36,348.31
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries   $30,230.53
Office supplies   4,380.30
Travelling expenses   145.39
Fuel, light, and water   2,283.82
Maintenance and repairs   5,743.43
Students' mileage   4,621.05
Incidentals  87.00
$47,491.52
Less Normal School fees         6,130.00
         41,361.52
Carried forward     $414,441.99
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 17
EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION, 1927-28— Continued.
Brought forward      $414,441.99
School for the Deaf and the Blind:
Salaries  $22,379.20
Office supplies   1,319.21
Fuel, light, and water   1,837.34
Maintenance and repairs  2,289.40
Furniture, fixtures, etc  1,040.95
Provisions   3,044.68
Incidentals    136.76
$32,047.54
Less amount received for board and tuition of pupils from
Alberta and Saskatchewan        2,620.00
  29,427.54
High. Elementary.
Per capita grant to cities  $187,530.00 $590,666.80      778,196.80
Per capita grant to rural municipalities       87,870.00 548,784.40      636,654.40
Per capita grant to rural school districts      22,040.00 170,451.60      192,491.60
Salaries of teachers in assisted schools        8,558.00 548,592.50      557,150.50
Salaries of teachers in E. & N. Railway Belt  11,950.95 111,312.55      123,263.50
$317,948.95       $1,969,807.85
School buildings, erection and maintenance  167,990.91
Grants to libraries  3,065.68
Examination of High School and Entrance classes  $36,711.32
Less fees for examination and certificates .^     20,732.59
  15,978.73
Conveying children to central schools  45,585.94
Summer School  18,979.18
Incidentals     3,375.51
University of British Columbia  545,916.67
Total cost to Government   $3,532,518.95
Amount expended by districts:                                         High. Elementary.
Cities  $992,206.85 $2,376,045.66 3,368,252.51
Rural municipalities      467,983.11 1,375,300.38 1,843,283.49
Rural school districts       46,504.00 322,482.90 368,986.90
Assisted school districts         2,212.00 97,810.13 100,022.13
Schools in E. & N. Railway Belt         1,819.05 46,211.95 48,031.00
$1,510,725.01        $4,217,851.02
Grand total cost of education   $9,261,094.£
 V 18
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
The following table shows the cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil on enrolment
and on average daily attendance during the past ten years:—
Year.
Cost per
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Average
Daily Attendance.
1917-18     	
$22.64
24.88
27.20
29.01
29.33
27.92
27.36
27.17
26.09
26.40
26.92
$27.93
1918-19     	
31.59
1919-20	
36.05
1920-21	
36.38
1921-22                                                      	
35.70
1922-23    	
34.07
1923-24                        	
33.21
1924-25                         	
32.17
1925-26                                               ..                               	
31.06
1926-27                                 	
31.41
1927-28              	
31.74
The gradual growth of the schools and also the cost to the Provincial Government of maintaining them are shown in the following exhibit:—
Year.
No. of
Teachers
Employed.
Numher
of School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of
Attendance.
Government
Expenditure for
Education.
1877-78	
56
69
128
267
429
607
816
1,597
2,246
2,332
2,557
2,734
2,994
3,118
3,211
3,294
3,396
3,531
3,668
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
575
582
636
665
716
744
760
759
746
761
7-88
2,198
2,693
■6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
67,516
72,006
79,243
85,950
91,919
94,888
96,204
97,954
101,688
105,008
108,179
1,395.50
1,383.00
3,093.46
7,111.40
11,055.65
16,357.43
23,195.27
43,274.12
'54,746.76
56,692.38
59,791.39
68,497.57
75,528.38
77,752.98
79,262.23
82,726.14
85,292.92
88,306.00
91,760.56
63.49
51.36
.    48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
81.09
78.73
75.45
79.69
82.16
81.94
82.39
84.45
83.88
84.09
84.82
$43,334.01
1882-83       	
50,850.63
1887-88	
99,902.04
1892-93	
1897-98	
190,558.33
247,756.37
1902-03	
397,003.46
1907-08	
464,473.78
1912-13       	
1,032,038.60
1917-18      	
1,529,058.93
1918-19	
1,791,153.47
1919-20       	
2,155,934.61
1920-21	
2,931,572.25*
1921-22	
3,141,737.95*
1922-323	
3,176,686.28*
1923-24	
3,173,395.26*
1924-25	
3,223,670.82*
1925-26	
3,216,209.05*
1926-27	
3,402,941.25*
1927-28	
3,532,518.95*
* This amount includes the annual grant to the Provincial University.
The reports of the Inspectors and of other officials, which follow, would indicate that the
schools gave very satisfactory service during the year. The attendance of the teachers in large
numbers at the Summer School in Victoria and at the Summer Session of the University, Vancouver, is proof of their interest in the educational life of the Province. The majority of the
School Boards are doing everything possible to provide modern and adequate facilities for
class-room service.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education.
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 19
INSPECTORS' REPORTS.
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1,
REPORT OF INSPECTOR A.  SULLIVAN, B.A., VICTORIA.
Once more the records of attendance show an increased enrolment. There were 13,516
pupils registered in all the high and superior schools of the Province. The attendance in
Inspectorate No. 1 as well as the increase during the year is in proportion with that of the
whole Province. This inspectorate now includes the high and superior schools on Vancouver
Island, and, on the Mainland, those of North Vancouver, Point Grey, Richmond, Delta, Surrey,
Langley, Matsqui, Abbotsford, Chilliwack, and, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway
east of Mission, the superior schools at Hope, Ashcroft, and Chase, and the high schools at
Merritt, Kamioops, Salmon Arm, Revelstoke, and Golden. The foregoing schools now have a
larger enrolment than that of the whole Province ten years ago, when the attendance was 5,150,
a number considerably less .than one-half the present Provincial enrolment, which, as already
stated, is 13,516. Yet the total increase in attendance this year, including 293 enrolled in
Grades IX. and X. of the junior high schools, is 903, while that of the previous year between
June, 1926, and June, 1927, was 1,127.
The effect of the Great War, which began fourteen years ago, is now beginning to manifest
itself in our high-school attendance. It is a story, now a decade old, that of the 450,000
Canadian citizens who left Canada as soldiers during the Great War more than 50,000 were
killed or died of wounds. In the words of Rupert Brooke, who himself paid the supreme
sacrifice:—
" These laid the world away;  poured out the red sweet wine of youth;
Gave up the years to be of work and joy, and that unhoped serene,
That men call age;  and those who loould have been,
Their sons, they gave, their immortality."
The effects of this sacrifice on our high-school attendance alone will extend over a period
of time corresponding to the duration of the World War.
Two large high-school buildings were opened in this inspectorate during the year, one in the
Municipality of West Vancouver and the other on Lulu Island, in the Municipality of Richmond.
Two superior schools also were opened in the Comox Valley, where five public schools were
united to form the Tsolum Consolidated School and three others were united to form the Comox
Consolidated School. The bringing of the Senior Grade pupils of each of these districts to a
common centre resulted in the establishment of a superior school at Tsolum and at Comox. Both
schools were officially opened on September 6th by the Honourable the Premier and Minister of
Education. The opening of these two schools makes a total of twelve superior schools on
Vancouver Island alone. Six of these, in which the work of Grades IX. and X. are conducted,
are situated in the districts surrounding Nanaimo—namely, Brechin, Cassidy, North Cedar,
Extension, Harewood, and South Wellington. If the said schools were consolidated at Nanaimo
or at a point central to all, the work of their seven teachers could be conducted by four. This
may be done in the near future. At the present time, however, a majority of the trustees and
the parents believe that there is an advantage in having the pupils pursue their first- and second-
year high-school studies in their home school, where the parents usually know the boys and girls
with whom their sons and daughters associate and where there are not many school clubs and
social functions to distract their attention.
One cannot fail to observe in many districts a strong local determination to carry secondary
education as far. forward as possible in the community in which the pupils live, close to farm
and home. Hence we find many trustees of small rural schools encouraging their teachers to
direct the studies in Grade IX., of one or two pupils who have passed the Entrance Examination.
By holding these pupils in the local school for a year until a larger Entrance class passes the
Departmental Examination, there is found a sufficient number of pupils in the district to
warrant the organization of a superior school where the subjects of Grades VIII., IX., and X.
may be taught.   These schools are deeply appreciated, especially by settlers who are establishing
 V 20 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
homes, and who wish to give their sons and daughters an education beyond that given in the
public school.
Our superior schools are not of forced growth; they seem native to our soil; their basic
principles are not imported from a foreign land. Many Canadians prominent in the life of our
country to-day owe much of their success to the educational advantages afforded them in schools
of this type. The teachers in our graded and ungraded high schools have again achieved noteworthy success not only from the standpoint of results, but from that of wholesome teaching;
but to the teachers in our superior schools I wish at this time to pay a tribute of praise which
they neither expect nor seek but which they genuinely deserve.
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR J. B. DeLONG, B.A., VANCOUVER.'
Realizing that it would be impossible for me to make an adequate inspection of all the high
and superior schools under my supervision, the Superintendent of E'ducation at the first of the
year requested me to give my closest attention to the schools in the rural districts and to those
in the cities and municipalities where Municipal Inspectors were not employed. I have thus
been relieved of the work of inspecting the high schools of Vancouver and New Westminster,
and have made no inspections in these cities during the past year, but have made numerous
visits to the schools of these cities which were formerly under my supervision.
Eight schools of my district were closed for several weeks during the autumn term because
of infantile paralysis. Pupils and teachers were thus seriously handicapped, but in spite of the
time lost most of these schools were able to accomplish a highly satisfactory year's work. In
most of the graded schools of my district the work has been steadily improving during the last
few years and has now reached a very satisfactory standard. Two graded schools have been
doing unsatisfactory work for several years, but I am expecting far better results this year as
the trustees have made sweeping changes in the personnel of the teaching staffs.
I was able to make 208 visits of inspection during the past year, but I find that other
phases of the work are demanding more and more of my time. Last year I spent more than
nine weeks on Departmental Examinations. I am always pleased to assist trustees in their work
of selecting teachers and to help worthy teachers in their efforts to secure positions; and practically all August, the first week in September, and a good deal of time in July must be devoted
to this important and necessary work.
A new superior school was established at Britannia Mine. The superior division of the
Waldo School was closed at Christmas-time, but as most of the pupils attending this division
lived in the Baynes Lake District, superior-school work was carried on in the latter district
during the second term.
During the year the South A^ancouver Board erected a fine four-room building to relieve the
congestion in their high school. The Cranbrook trustees built a four-room addition to their high
school and now possess a building of which- the city is justly proud.
Interest in junior high-school work is growing throughout the Province. The City of Nelson
has just established a junior high school.
In the death of Mr. George A. Fergusson, late principal of King Edward High School, Vancouver, the cause of education suffered a serious loss. It was my privilege to inspect Mr. Fer-
gusson's school on numerous occasions and I am thus in a position to speak with conviction
regarding him as man, teacher, and principal. I found him a tactful, enthusiastic, gentlemanly
teacher imbued with strong ideals, which he invariably succeeded in imparting to his classes;
I found him an efficient, progressive principal, a man of broad sympathy and of strong personality, always firm in any course of action which he believed to be right, yet always kindly and
sympathetic in his treatment of others. His life is an excellent example of what can be accomplished by one who devotes his talents unreservedly to his profession. His services to the
teaching profession were rewarded not only by a marked measure of success, but also by the
respect and affection of those among whom he laboured.
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 21
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR W. H. M. MAY, VICTORIA.
District No. 1 was defined as for the previous year; that is, the coast and islands between
Campbell River and Cape Scott on Vancouver Island, the Saanich Peninsula, and the islands
near the Saanich Peninsula. With one exception all schools were inspected once and a number
of them twice. New schools were opened at Bloedel, Bernard on Port Neville, Owen Bay, and
Stuart Island, but the school at Cape Scott was closed the greater part of the year.
The schools to the north of Campbell River were worked by launch in March. Though the
weather was rough at that time of the year, I was able to examine nearly all the schools in that
section in three weeks' time. I am pleased to say that the work done by the great majority
of the teachers was of a high order notwithstanding the difficulties many of them had to contend
with. I was surprised, however, at the want of Biblical knowledge displayed by the pupils of
these camp'schools, as shown when tested on such knowledge through references in the Readers.
To overcome this ignorance I prevailed upon the teachers to open Sunday-schools, with what
success, however, I have not yet been able to discover.
The Saanich schools are staffed with very capable teachers. '
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR A. C. STEWART, VICTORIA.
During the school-year under review one new school was opened at Nixon Creek, at a
logging-camp on the south-western shore of Cowichan Lake, just opposite the Yount School on
the other shore. These schools are much appreciated by the men with families who follow the
lumbering industry.
At the recent examinations for entrance to a high school, practically all the schools in this
inspectorate were represented, and nearly all were more or less successful.
These examinations were held at fifteen centres, and 223 candidates, 154 of whom passed
the test, presented themselves for examination. From five of the larger schools in the Municipalities of Oak Bay and North Cowichan, also the Cities of Duncan and Ladysmith, 135 pupils
were recommended for high school without examination.
The largest single school in this territory is the Lampson Street School, in the Municipality
of Esquimalt. For a number of years past this school has held a very high record among the
schools of the Province for the number of pupils prepared for high school. The School Board
and the teachers have not yet availed themselves of the privilege accorded to them by the
Department of Education—of passing pupils to high school on the joint recommendation of the
principal of the school, the principal of the high school, and the Provincial Inspector. This
school has had an almost perfect pass-list for a number of years.
We naturally expect satisfactory results from large graded schools with every facility provided for efficient teaching, and with experienced teachers in every class-room, yet it is exceedingly more gratifying, to me at least, to find almost equally good results from the small rural
schools, where innumerable obstacles and handicaps must be encountered and surmounted. The
continued efficiency of the small rural school is amply borne out by the increase and growth
from year to year of superior schools throughout the rural areas. This essential work of
secondary education could be still more successfully stimulated, fostered, and accelerated for the
educational benefit of all concerned if Rural Boards of School Trustees were more alert to create
and organize high-school areas as provided for in the " Public Schools Act."
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 3.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR .1. M. PATERSON, B.A., NANAIMO.
This district, whose boundaries remained unchanged during the year, contains fifty-three
schools, with a staff of 160 teachers. A new school was established at Home Lake. All divisions were visited once and many a second or third time.
 V 22 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
The opening of school for the year found the newly consolidated school districts of Tsolum
and Comox ready with their new buildings. These were formally opened on September 6th by
the Honourable Dr. MacLean, Premier and Minister of Education.
Consolidation is proving very satisfactory in both these districts. Only pupils above
Grade IV. are being transported to the central schools, the remaining pupils being accommodated in their own districts, except at Nob Hill, where the school has been closed. Superior
schools were established in both districts and secondary education has thus been successfully
taken into these purely rural areas. Next year will see a room in each school entirely devoted
to high-school work.
It would appear that consolidation and the possibility of obtaining secondary education is
attracting many rural settlers. This is evidenced by the way these consolidated schools have
been filled up. Accommodation during the past year has been taxed to the limit and next term
the trustees will have to furnish further accommodation.
At the beginning of the year a high school was established at Harewood and a superior
school at South Wellington. The high school at Brechin was reduced to the status of a
superior school.
An organized effort to encourage the teaching of music in the schools was made this year,
when an Upper Island Musical Festival was held in Nanaimo on May 17th and 18th. Every
encouragement was given to the schools, rural and urban, to participate. The response was
gratifying, considering that this was the first event of its kind in the district. There is no
doubt that music in the schools has received a great impetus and that next year will see more
and closer competition.
At the Entrance Examinations held in June 280 pupils presented themselves; of these, 195,
or 69 per cent., were successful. Besides these, 159 were promoted on recommendation. Miss
Marjorie Largue, Nanaimo, headed not only her district but also the Province with the rather
remarkable total of 447 marks out of a possible 500.
A word of tribute is due the teachers of the five superior schools in this inspectorate. All
had Grades VIII., IX., and X. The percentage of successful candidates in each of these grades
was as follows: Grade VIIL, 73 per cent.; Grade IX., 90 per cent.; Grade X., 85 per cent.
Comment is unnecessary.
The fine attendance at the Teachers' Institutes held last term and the large percentage of
teachers attending the Summer Schools are indicative of the attitude of teachers toward their
work generally throughout this inspectorate.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 4.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR J. T. POLLOCK, VANCOUVER.
Inspectorate No. 4 comprises the schools in the City Municipalities of Port Coquitlam, Port
Moody, and North Vancouver; the Rural Municipalities of Coquitlam, Richmond, North Vancouver, and West Vancouver: the graded schools at Howe Sound (Gibson's Landing) and loco;
and twelve assisted schools extending along the Coast waters from Lake Buntzen School on the
North Arm to St. Vincent School on Hotham Sound.
A new school was established at Raven Creek, near Pitt Lake.
A steady growth in the school population of the cities and rural municipalities necessitated
considerable additional school accommodation. The opening of new high-school buildings in
both Richmond and West Vancouver Municipalities enabled the Boards to utilize, for public-
school purposes, rooms that had in previous years been used for high-school accommodation.
Coquitlam Municipality will soon be obliged to provide more accommodation. I am pleased to
report that during the past year the trustees of this municipality have conducted a campaign
having as its objective the directing of public opinion along lines that would lead to consolidation of the schools. They feel that results commensurate with the amount of money spent for
educational purposes cannot be secured until consolidation is brought about.
The quality of the teaching observed during the year was generally very satisfactory. The
teachers as a body have displayed a commendable interest in their work. Their attendance
in large numbers at the Provincial Slimmer School, Victoria, and at the summer session of the
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 23
University, Vancouver, shows an earnest desire to become more proficient and to keep abreast
of new movements in education.
An extended and intelligent use of intelligence tests and standardized tests throughout the
schools has been helpful to teachers and principals in grading the schools, and also proved to
be a real help in recommending pupils for promotion to high school. Three hundred and thirty-
nine pupils were passed into Grade IX. on recommendation. The percentage of pupils from
rural and assisted schools who were successful in passing the High School Entrance Examination was generally satisfactory.
The following teachers were awarded prizes for physical training under the provisions of
the Strathcona Trust:—
Small graded schools—E. Crute, Division 1, Principal, Capilano School, Municipality of
North Vancouver.
Large graded schools—Edmund G. Edgar, Division 4, Hollyburn School, Municipality of
West Vancouver.
In concluding, permit me to express my appreciation of the assistance rendered to me by
those interested in the advancement of education in this inspectorate.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 5.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR H. H. MACKENZIE, B.A., VANCOUVER.
During the school-year just closed this inspectorial district comprised the rural municipality
and rural and assisted schools (together with those of Chilliwack City) in the Fraser Valley to
the number of 160 divisions. In addition to these schools, eight Vancouver City schools, comprising 144 divisions, are included in this inspectorate in regard to departmental examinations,
appeals, and all matters that come within the scope of special departmental administration.
All schools outside Vancouver City received one inspection, and so far as time permitted
a second inspection was made. A very considerable amount of time was consumed in the
matter of special visits to schools or School Board meetings in connection with various matters
affecting the departmental administration of the public schools.
In the reports submitted periodically throughout the year the standing, general progress,
and all matters relevant to school administration were reported upon. In rating the various
skills and performances of pupils in the different subjects of the school curriculum, standardized
achievement tests were employed. The wide range of tests supplied by the Department to the
inspectorial staff made this work of scientific, objective measurement of school results possible.
Examination pass-lists, names of prize-winners in physical drill, and various statistical tables
appear elsewhere in the volume including this form of report. Detailed reports on the work
done in each school and reports dealing with matters which call for special investigation have
been forwarded to the Department periodically.
During the year, throughout the entire inspectorate, indications of definite progress in our
educational life have not been wanting. The united efforts of all the educational forces concerned with the great project of educating the youth of the country and raising up citizens
worthy of their great heritage are meeting with ever-increasing success.
In the work of inspection and supervision of the schools I have received the fullest co-operation of the various Boards of Trustees. It would be difficult to overestimate the value of the
service to the cause of education rendered by the splendid body of men and women who comprise
the Boards of School Trustees throughout this inspectorate.
A study of the statistical tables in the annual report of the public schools will make clear
the steady growth of the school population. To give this increasing school population the full
educational advantages demanded by a rapidly progressing age, and at the same time to ensure
that the best traditions of our race shall be conserved, is the task confronting all those who
have a part in the work of the education of the young.
The policy of consolidation, or at least part consolidation, of schools is steadily growing in
favour. Transportation by school bus is being rapidly extended, whereby seventh and eighth
grade pupils, as well as high-school pupils, from one-room school districts are being conveyed to
central graded schools in the various municipalities.
 V 24
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
A more adequate supply of supplementary reading material is being furnished by School
Boards to their schools.
Most important of all, the general average of the teaching is steadily improving. The Fraser
Valley is producing a fine body of teachers, both young men and young women, and I am persuaded that the acid test of the quality of the training received in British Columbia schools is
the ever-increasing teaching ability as well as the splendid, wholesome character displayed by
the young teachers in our rural schools who are the product of our own elementary, secondary,
professional, and higher institutions of learning.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 6.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR LESLIE J. BRUCE, VANCOUVER.
This inspectorate comprises the elementary schools of Point Grey, twenty-three schools in
or near Powell River and Lund, five schools on Howe Sound, University Hill School, and the
Provincial School for the Deaf and the Blind. During the year three divisions were closed at
Powell River, but thirteen new divisions were opened in Point Grey and one at Woodfibre,
a one-room school was established at Surge Narrows and a two-room school at University Hill,
and Read Island School was reopened. At the end of the school-year there were in all forty
schools, with 191 teachers. In matters relating to promotion to high school, etc., the inspectorate also included the Alexandra, Central, Fairview, Henry Hudson, Lord Nelson, and Lord
Roberts Schools of Vancouver, together with the private schools of Arancouver and Point Grey.
Much time was given to the University Hill School, of which I was official trustee. Every
division of the public schools, excepting those in Vancouver, received at least one inspection
during the year. In addition to the regular inspections upon which reports were made, visits
were made to inexperienced teachers early in each term; such visits, made when the young
teachers most felt the need of guidance, seemed to be much appreciated.
The work of inspection this year was greatly simplified by the use of the British Columbia
revision of an objective general achievement test, made by your Department. This test was not
depended upon in forming an estimate in regard to the teacher; as McCall says in " How to
Measure in Education." " To judge teachers by standard tests may do more harm than good."
But your test was found very useful in finding the standing of the pupils. This standing seems
to be generally high and to be rising each year. This high standing is partly due to the fact
that the average intelligence of our pupils is high. It is also partly due to the fact that each
year our teachers show better training and greater ability and enthusiasm. Also, more Supplementary Readers and other supplies are being provided by the School Boards, particularly in
the rural schools, and the teachers are therefore enabled to do much more effective work.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 7.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR F. G. CALVERT, VANCOUVER.
This inspectorate includes the schools in the Municipality of South Vancouver; also the ten
rural schools of Boston Bar, Chaumox, Concord, Hope, Keefers, Lear, Lytton, North Bend,
St. Elmo, and Yale.    There are twenty-five schools, with a staff of 227 teachers.
A new assisted school was established in September at Lear, on the Kettle Valley Railway,
a short distance east of Hope.
All class-rooms were given one inspection during the year and a few received a second visit.
In the rural schools the various classes were subjected to a set of intelligence and standardized
achievement tests. The results of these tests proved to be of valuable assistance to the teachers
in maintaining proper standards for the various grades and in determining the promotion-lists
at the end of the term.
Many of the school buildings in South Vancouver are excellent, with splendid modern equipment.    But there are a few old frame structures, such as those at Mackenzie School, which
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 25
should be replaced at an early date. Additional accommodation was provided when by-laws
were ratified by the ratepayers to provide six-room additions to the Gordon and Norquay Schools.
The rural districts are not so fortunate. The buildings at Boston Bar, Concord, and Yale are not
satisfactory. Hope and North Bend are in urgent need of additional rooms. The building at
Lytton requires extensive repairs.
The Board of Trustees in South Vancouver has been most liberal in providing the necessary
equipment and in granting supplies. A few of the rural schools are also well provided in this
respect, but there are still a few schools where so little provision is made that the teachers find
their work very discouraging.
The subject of music is receiving more attention. The appointment of Mr. Ifor Roberts as
supervisor for the South Vancouver schools was a move in the right direction. Teachers and
pupils are already showing a keener interest in this subject under Mr. Roberts's supervision.
In the rural schools the results are disappointing. It is true, of course, that owing to such a
multiplicity of classes and subjects the teachers are compelled to devote their time to the
essentials. There is no time for " frills." However, I feel that teachers in these small rural
schools can accomplish much in this subject even if they assign it but a very limited time during
the week.
The High School Entrance results this year were very satisfactory. Six hundred and thirty-
seven pupils were granted Entrance standing without final examination. One hundred and
eighty wrote on the examination and ninety-three were successful. All the candidates from
Boston Bar, Chaumox, Concord, and Yale Schools passed. The teachers in these small rural
schools did splendid work.
The majority of the principals in this inspectorate are carrying out a careful programme
in testing and supervision. When this course is conscientiously pursued, when the principal
keeps in close contact with the work being done in the various class-rooms throughout his
school, a high standard of efficiency is maintained, the school shows more continuity in the work,
and the classification of pupils shows careful checking. A programme of testing with a series
of intelligence and standardized achievement tests is excellent, but it does not suffice. It is
necessary that the principal also keep a check on the regular class-room work.
The teachers in this inspectorate are, as a rule, deeply interested in their work and are
constantly striving for additional success. In many class-rooms one observes lessons presented
with splendid technique. These teachers are always endeavouring to improve their methods.
Many avail themselves of Summer School Courses; a number are attending University lectures;
the great majority are constant readers of the most modern movements in education. These
teachers are to be commended for the earnestness with which they undertake this work.
At the close of this calendar year South Vancouver becomes part of Greater Vancouver.
Amalgamation will affect many phases of the educational work as at present carried on. I wish,
therefore, at this time to express my deep appreciation for the hearty co-operation which I
have received at all times from trustees, principals, supervisors, and teachers and all others
connected with school-work in South Vancouver during the six years that I have had the
privilege of serving in that municipality as Provincial Inspector.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 8.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR E. G. DANIELS, B.A., NEW WESTMINSTER.
The elementary schools in the Rural Municipalities of Burnaby, Langley, and Surrey,
together with the rural and assisted schools along the Pacific Great Eastern Railway from
Squamish to Pavilion, a distance of 145 miles, are included in this inspectorial district.
During the year 195 class-rooms were in operation.
In Burnaby, where growth and development are going on apace, ten additional class-rooms
were opened. The assisted school at Blue Ridge was closed owing to lack of attendance, while
a modern and comfortable building was erected at Bridge River by the British Columbia Electric
Railway Company to provide accommodation for the children of its employees.
At the time of the municipal elections in January, a by-law was submitted to the ratepayers
of Burnaby Municipality to provide funds for a further building programme.    This request of
 V 26 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
the Board was heartily endorsed by the public and fourteen new class-rooms are now available
for use in the coming year.
The results of the June examination would indicate that the standard of work is being well
maintained. Of the 564 Grade VIII. pupils seeking promotion, 271 were passed on the recommendation of promotion committees, while 209 candidates, exclusive of medallists, wrote and
passed the departmental tests—a total " pass " of 85 per cent, for the whole inspectorate. It is
worthy of note that twenty-six of the thirty candidates from rural and assisted schools successfully passed the examination.
The increasingly satsifactory professional attitude of a majority of teachers makes one very
hopeful for the future. The growing efficiency of our Normal Schools, resulting in better-
equipped graduates, should be a cause for grave concern to the few teachers who feel that there
is nothing left for them to learn. Some who boast of ten years' experience have, in reality,
had one year's experience ten times over. Outside of the school, as citizens in the community,
many teachers are giving valuable service.
The efficacy of intelligence and standardized achievement tests, many of which were
used during the year, was never more noticeable, as the evidence they provide is usually
incontrovertible.
I wish to acknowledge the particularly gratifying co-operation of principals and teachers as
well as the hearty support of School Boards, as a whole, throughout my inspectorial district.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 9.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR A. F. MATTHEWS, M.A., KAMLOOPS.
Eighty-eight schools were in operation in this inspectorate for a part of or during the whole
year. These schools were classified into districts as follows : Three city, twenty-one rural, and
sixty-four assisted schools, containing a total of 123 teachers. During the year two schools
which had been closed for some time previously were reopened, four new schools were established, and two schools were closed for lack of the required number of pupils of school age.
One hundred and seventy visits of inspection were made to class-rooms throughout the year.
In addition to these visits, a number were made for purposes of administration and on special
work in connection with the general operation of the " Public Schools Act." The progress of
the schools during the year just closed has been, in general, equal at least to that of the previous
year. The work of the teachers in the great majority of cases was characterized by an earnest
endeavour to improve the standing of their schools and to give an equal opportunity for advancement to every pupil under their charge. In a number of the more isolated schools the work has
been handicapped by a lack of proper accommodation and by irregular attendance during severe
weather where the settlement is sparse and widely scattered. Nevertheless, the teachers in
these schools have shown a degree of resourcefulness and perseverance in the performance of
their duties that is highly commendable.
Many School Boards have made an effort to engage teachers who have had a successful
experience in their work in other schools. Only 15 per cent, of those teaching in this inspectorate during the year were in charge of schools for the first time. Forty-four per cent, of
the teachers engaged had made a change to a new school at the beginning of the year. This
cannot be taken as an evidence of restlessness or lack of interest on the part of teachers. It is
rather a sign of progress, as in the majority of cases these teachers have gone to better positions which they secured by reason of their successful experience, gained, generally, in the small
assisted schools. Though the percentage of the schools changing teachers at the beginning of
the year is still high in this inspectorate, yet the number of teachers remaining in the same
school for two or more years is larger than it was a few years ago. This may be due to the
fact that the supply of teachers in this Province is now somewhat greater than is the demand
for their services. But it is gratifying to note that School Boards are recognizing the advantage
of retaining the services of teachers who are " making good," and are holding out to them
inducements to remain for a longer period, in the way of better school accommodation and
equipment and by other evidences of their hearty support.
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 27
The examinations for entrance to high school were held at nine centres in this inspectorate
at the end pi June. Apart from those who were passed on recommendation of their teachers
in the larger graded schools, 52 per cent, of the candidates writing were successful. This is
a much better showing than was made last year, especially by the small ungraded schools. The
Governor-General's medal for this district was won by Miss Elaine Spencer, a pupil in the Stuart
Wood School, Kamioops.
In general the teachers have manifested a keen interest in their work throughout the year.
Many of them are so eager to increase their professional efficiency that they are giving a large
portion of each summer holiday to an attendance at the sessions of the Provincial Summer
School, and others are endeavouring to raise their academic qualifications by attending summer
courses at the Provincial University.
It is gratifying to note the growing interest that is being manifested in school libraries by
ratepayers and teachers in the rural districts. During the year just closed a larger number
of school libraries have been started in ungraded schools in this inspectorate than in any period
since my appointment to the work of inspection. The nucleus of a library, which has been presented by the Department to newly established schools, has stimulated an interest in books, other
than text-books, in many of the newly established communities, and this interest has spread to
the older settlements. The inquiry that is being carried on at present by the British Columbia
Library Survey Commission has drawn the attention of the public to the need for more and
better library facilities, especially in the smaller centres and outlying districts in the Province.
The data gathered by this research board should be of inestimable value to those who are striving to formulate plans for the improvement of library service throughout the Province. The
work carried on by this board should receive the hearty support of all public-spirited citizens,
especially those who are engaged in the work of popular education.
A good deal of emphasis has been placed on the subjects of physical exercise 'and health
education in many of the schools during the year just closed. In a few schools physical drill
is not given the important place on the daily time-table that it merits, owing, I believe, to the
fact that the teachers in these schools have failed to recognize that physical education has an
important educational value apart from the mere muscular exercise involved. Practical instruction in hygiene is being given in the majority of the schools, and the conditions of lighting,
ventilation, and cleanliness of the class-room are gradually improving.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Schools of five or more divisions—Mr. Joseph Dilworth, Division 1, Stuart Wood School,
Kamioops.
Schools of two to four divisions—Miss Helen Barton, Division 2, Clinton School.
Schools of one division—Miss Mary McKay, Blue River School.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 10.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR T. R. HALL, B.A., KELOWNA.
The boundaries of this inspectorate, which includes the Similkameen Valley and that portion
of the Okanagan Valley extending from Armstrong to the International Boundary, remained the
same as for the four preceding years. Sixty-three schools were in operation within this area
during the year, the total number of divisions being 165. Five schools, situated within the
larger municipalities and ranging from nine to nineteen rooms, embraced seventy-seven of this
total; twenty-two schools, of from two to five rooms each, embraced fifty-two divisions, while
thirty-six one-room schools made up the remainder.
Increased mining activity in the Similkameen and improved conditions in the fruit industry
in the Okanagan led to a considerable increase in the school population of the inspectorate.
A large proportion of the schools showed an increase in the enrolment per teacher, in some cases
so marked as to render satisfactory work difficult. Two additional rooms were opened at
Kelowna, while Vernon, Summerland, Ellison, Rutland, Oliver, Keremeos, and Princeton each
added one division.    A new school was established at Ecclestone, near Kelowna.    One division
 V 28 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
was closed during the year, the Hedley Superior School being reduced to two divisions. There
was thus a net increase of nine divisions during the year.
Four-room schools were erected at Princeton and Kelowna and a new one-room school was
provided at Mabel Lake. Increasing need of accommodation at Oliver caused the Board to take
steps to erect a four-room school. Through the co-operation of the School Board and the Boy
Scout Association a very creditable gymnasium was provided at Penticton; this building has
proved very useful in the school-work in physical education and is in many additional ways
a valuable community asset. Alterations and improvements were made in a considerable number
of schools and there has been a fairly general recognition of the need for proper school accommodation and equipment.
The alarm caused by the prevalence of infantile paralysis led to the closing of many schools
for a considerable time during the fall term; in many cases very little of the year's work was
overtaken during September and October. While school standing naturally suffered, the ill
effect was reduced to a minimum by the highly creditable spirit with which teachers and pupils
endeavoured to overcome the existing handicap.
The conditions above referred to interfered considerably with the work of inspection, as did
the unusually adverse weather conditions prevailing during the winter. One hundred and ninety-
one class-rooms were visited and reported on; in addition, many brief visits were paid to
schools in order to assist teachers with problems arising in their work.
Pupils of the Armstrong, Kelowna, Princeton, Rutland, Summerland, and Vernon Schools
were recommended for admission to high school by promotion committees. The careful class
records kept in each instance, together with the results of intelligence and achievement tests of
proved worth, furnished the basis for promotion, and it is hoped that the results of this system
will prove as satisfactory as they appear to have done in the past. Entrance Examinations were
conducted at sixteen centres; in some cases the results were disappointing, although they were
for the most part satisfactory, especially in view of the time lost during the year. The excellent
showing made by certain rural schools was very gratifying. The Governor-General's medal for
the district was won by Miss Bertha Mills, a pupil of the Keremeos Public School.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded to the following: Mr. T. Aldworth,
Division 1, Armstrong Consolidated School; Mr. C. E. Clay, Division 2, Rutland Superior School;
Mr. C. E. Ritchie, Jura School. Physical exercises and allied work in health education are
gradually securing fuller recognition as an essential part of the school curriculum. A very
general interest in school sports has been in evidence, inter-school athletic meets continuing to
be of distinct value in this connection.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 11.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR A. E. MILLER, REVELSTOKE.
The schools at Gerrard, Hupel, and Twin Butte remained closed during the entire year and
the second division of the two-room school at Glenbank was not required owing to a slightly
diminished attendance. New schools were opened at Kingfisher, on the Enderby-Mabel Lake
Road, and at Radium Hot Springs, in the Upper Columbia Valley. In all, there were ninety
schools in operation in this district, with a total staff of 121 teachers, a net decrease, as compared with last year, of one school and two teachers. Of these totals, three were graded city
schools with a staff of twenty-four teachers; seven were rural municipality schools (one
graded) with a staff of eight teachers; six were graded rural schools with a staff of thirteen
teachers; nine were ungraded rural schools; one was a graded assisted school with three
teachers;   and the remaining sixty-four were ungraded assisted schools.
The standards of efficiency noted in previous reports are being well maintained. The
Entrance Examination results were better than for some years past, improvement in this respect
being particularly noticeable at a number of the smaller centres, while batteries of standard
tests applied in various schools showed on the whole a very satisfactory average of attainment.
 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 12.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR P. H. SHEFFIELD, B.A., NELSON.
There were in operation in this district seventy schools, with a total of 159 divisions and
employing 165 teachers. At East Trail four new divisions were opened in September and two
new divisions were opened in January in the Trail Central School. Owing to a reorganization
of the Doukhobor communities and a redistribution of their people, four small schools were
closed in the spring of 1928, these being the Blueberry Creek, Boulder, Hall Siding, and North
Kettle River Schools.
A considerable amount of new building has been done in the rural parts of this inspectorate,
where old or temporary schools are being replaced by newer and more modern structures.
During the summer of 1927 a creditable one-room school was erected at AVestbridge and a four-
room addition was made to the East Trail School. In the Doukhobor areas new schools were
built at Pass Creek and at Division 4, Brilliant, to replace temporary ones. In the summer
of 1928 a new school was erected at Bridesville, while two more rooms were added to the East
Trail School. Four other buildings containing five class-rooms are projected for this autumn.
In February of this year the citizens of Nelson passed a by-law authorizing the construction of
a junior high school, the first in this inspectorial district. The building is being rushed to completion at the present time and will be formally opened about the first week in October.
Many schools of this inspectorate were closed during the autumn of 1927, due to the outbreak of an epidemic of infantile paralysis. Some schools were closed for as much as seven
weeks, while others were closed for shorter periods. This could not help but react upon the
progress and attainment of the pupils. After the epidemic had subsided some of the schools
attempted to make up the time by increasing the length of the school-day.
This closing of the schools in the autumn considerably hindered the work of inspection
in the rural districts. In the spring of 1928 there was insufficient time to inspect all the rural
schools a second time. Every school that was in operation all the year was inspected at least
once and many were given a second inspection. Altogether 201 official visits of inspection were
made.
High School Entrance Examinations were conducted in June at thirteen centres. One
hundred and eighteen pupils were successful in passing the examinations set by the Department
of Education, and 143 others were recommended to high school without examination. A pupil
of the Greenwood Superior School, Robert P. Forshaw, secured the Governor-General's medal
for District No. 8, with a mark of 414 out of a possible 500. In District No. 9 Miss Margaret
C. Lutes, of Nelson Central School, won the medal with a total of 439 marks. The following
rural schools passed all their Entrance candidates: Anarchist Mountain, Brown Creek, Cascade,
Castlegar, Erie, Ingram Mountain, Myncaster, Rock Creek, Sand Creek, and Taghum. Several
Of the larger graded schools secured very commendable examination results.
The prizes for excellence in physical training under the conditions of the Strathcona Trust
were ^-awarded as follows :—
Large graded schools—Miss Jessie F. L. Croll, Division 15, Nelson Central -School.
Small graded schools—Miss Jean I. MacKinnon, Division 2, Fruitvale.
Ungraded schools—Miss Dorothy B. McLean, Passmore.
In some of the schools the teachers thoroughly appreciate the importance of health lessons
and physical training, while in others insufficient attention is given to this important part of the
curriculum.
In this inspectorial district no school fair has ever been held, but at several of the agricultural fairs- one may see very creditable exhibits of school-work. At the District Fair at Nelson
the exhibit of school-work has come to be regarded as a strong feature. At the Grand Forks
Fair also a commendable school section is being developed. Each year more of the rural schools
send in exhibits to compete with the work entered by the larger graded schools.
The various subjects of the curriculum for the most part are being carefully taught. AVriting
is almost uniformly well taught. Nearly all of the teachers have qualified in the special
technique in this subject, and excellent results are being secured with a minimum expenditure
of time. Rural School Boards are coming to appreciate the necessity of supplying supplementary and silent reading books, and the reading as a result shows evident improvement.
 V 30
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
AVhile the holding of a Teachers' Institute was rendered impracticable by the closing of the
schools in the autumn, the teachers of the district used to the full the opportunities for professional growth that were available. Professional books and magazines are in evidence in almost
every class-room. An increasing number of teachers from this district attend the classes of
the Summer School for Teachers at Victoria, or the University of British Columbia at Vancouver, for the purpose of self-improvement, and the effects of this attendance are readily discernible
in the effectiveness of the class-room instruction.
The teachers generally continue to show a very commendable attitude towards their work.
Almost without exception they evince a zeal and an energy that augur well for the success of
their work and for the future welfare of the Province. Particularly commendable is the
attitude shown by the teachers of schools for Doukhobor children. Some of these schools are
in remote places where contacts with other Canadians are not easy or frequent, yet the teachers
perform their daily duties with a spirit of service and loyalty that is highly commendable.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 13.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR V.  Z.  MANNING,  B.A.,  CRANBROOK.
The boundaries of this district remained the same as for the preceding six years, the
inspectorate including all the schools of the Fernie and Cranbrook Electoral Districts and the
schools in the eastern part of the Electoral Districts of Creston and Kaslo-Slocan. In all, there
were sixty-six schools in operation during the year, employing 144 teachers.
No new schools were established, but a third division was opened at Yahk to accommodate
an increased enrolment at that point. The superior school at Waldo was closed at Christmas,
but the opening of a superior division at the Baynes Lake School in January took care of the
high-school pupils in the two districts. Many Rural School Boards are now permitting instruction to Grade IX. pupils in the elementary schools and with considerable success. During the
coming year several other Boards are planning to do likewise. In this way pupils are enabled
to get part of their high-school education without the expense of going to larger centres where
high schools are established.
Many of the schools in this district were closed at the beginning of the school-year owing
to an outbreak of infantile paralysis. As a result of this loss of time the teachers' conventions
for the eastern and western portions of the inspectorate were not held.
Departmental Examinations for the promotion of pupils to high school were held in June.
This year the number of centres was increased to fifteen, so that as far as possible candidates
had not to go any great distance to write. Of the 240 Grade VIII. pupils taking the examination, 164 passed, or 70 per cent. In addition, pupils were recommended for high school without
examination at Cranbrook, Creston, Fernie, and Kimberley Schools. The averages made in
the examination subjects in this inspectorate were as follows: Spelling, 60 per cent.; arithmetic, part 1, 67 per cent.; arithmetic, part 2, 65 per cent.; grammar, 54 per cent.; composition,
50 per cent.; geography, 63 per cent.; Canadian history, 68 per cent.; and drawing, 71 per cent.
AVhile the averages are considerably above those of the preceding year, it will be noted that
there is a decided weakness in the language subjects, spelling, grammar, and composition, as
compared with the results in the other branches.
Prizes for excellence in physical training under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust were
awarded as follows :—
Large graded schools—Miss Patricia Robinson, Division 2, Cranbrook School.
Small graded schools—Miss S. G. Timaeus, Division 1, Corbin School.
Ungraded schools—Miss Jean Balfour, Hosmer School.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE'No. 14.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR H. C. FRASER, M.A., PRINCE RUPERT.
This inspectorate comprises all schools in the Electoral Districts of Atlin, Prince Rupert,
and Skeena, those of Omineca as far east as Endako, and those of Mackenzie as far south as
Rivers Inlet.
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 31
During the year the number of schools and teachers remained practically unchanged, the
schools at Namu and Hunter Island being closed, while new schools were opened at Duthie
Mines near Smithers and at Lewis Island near Prince Rupert. The schools at Grassy Plains
and Decker Lake were reopened, while the one at Lakelse Valley, which had been closed in
September, reopened in March. Ah additional teacher was employed both in the Prince Rupert
High School and in the Smithers High School, while in the Ocean Falls High School there
was one less employed.
One hundred and eighty-four formal inspections were made during the year. In addition
to these, other shorter visits were made, especially to the weaker or more inexperienced teachers,
in order to smooth out occasional difficulties. With three exceptions, Atlin, Telegraph Creek,
and Aiyansh, each school received at least one inspection.
Of the 205 pupils who received admission to high school in June, 96 were promoted on
recommendation and 109 passed the Departmental Examinations. Promotion on recommendation is generally regarded with favour throughout this inspectorate. It is gratifying to note
that in centres where promotion committees were extremely conservative in their recommendations, sometimes as high as 100 per cent, of the total enrolment in Grade VIII. were successful
in the written examinations. This should allay in these centres all suspicion of passing into
high school pupils who have not successfully completed the work of Grade VIII. A pupil of
the Booth Memorial School, Prince Rupert, James Richard Winslow, with 429 marks out of a
possible 500, was the winner of the Governor-General's medal for this district.
The following teachers won prizes for excellence in physical training :■—
Large graded schools—Mr. B. Thorsteinsson, Division 2, Granby Bay.
Small graded schools—Mr. R. W. McGowan, Division 1, Burns Lake.
Ungraded schools—Miss Bessie Macfarlane, Sandspit.
In closing this report, I should like to refer again to the ever-increasing number of teachers
in this inspectorate who hold first-class or academic certificates, to the conscientious, unselfish
work of these teachers, and to their willingness to take advantage of the many excellent Summer
Courses now available for those who wish to increase their efficiency.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 15.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR G. H. GOAVER, M.A., PRINCE GEORGE.
The boundaries of this inspectorate remain unchanged from those of last year. It comprises
the schools in the Canadian National Railway Belt east of Endako; those in the Cariboo District as far south as Lac la Hache;   and those in the Peace River Block.
During the year there were 104 schools in operation, employing 126 teachers. Of these, one
was a high school, three were superior schools, one was an elementary city school, seven were
rural schools, and the remaining ninety-two were assisted schools. In all, 195 visits of inspection were made, as well as a number of special visits to rural districts in connection with matters
of departmental administration.
Schools were opened for the first time at Milburn Lake, South Longworth, Kidd, Enterprise,
Forfar (in the Peace River District), and Thompson (near Prince George). The Meldrum
Creek and the Landry Schools were reopened and a school was authorized in the district north
of Newlands. Owing to a decrease in the school population the Rose Lake School remained
closed during the year.
Throughout the inspectorate steady progress characterized the work of the past year.
Conditions in the rural areas are gradually improving and in many of the districts the schools
are highly creditable. Results as measured by Departmental Examinations were on the whole
satisfactory. Again this year high-school pupils in rural schools made a very commendable
showing.    In at least sixteen rural schools high-school work was undertaken.
The first convention of teachers to be held in this inspectorate met at Prince George during
the Easter vacation. Fifty-two teachers were in attendance. Owing to cost of transportation,
and in some cases to the lack of travelling facilities, many of the teachers attending the convention did so at considerable personal sacrifice. However, it is hoped that the convention of
this year is but the beginning of many such helpful gatherings.
 V 32 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
NEW WESTMINSTER CITY SCHOOLS.
REPORT OF R. S. SHIELDS, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
September, 1927, showed a normal increase of attendance, but it was evident that preparation must be made to meet an even greater increase in the very near future because of the
development and expansion of the city.
The Board of School Trustees, as usual alert to the needs of youth, early planned an extensive building programme and requested the City Council to prepare a by-law for $125,000. This
programme included a two-room addition to Queensborough School; a four-room addition and
a gymnasium at the Lord Lister-Kelvin School; four rooms and a gymnasium at the Herbert
Spencer School; finishing of two rooms and the addition of a gymnasium at Richard McBride
School; the finishing of two rooms at the Central School; and the erection of a sixteen-room
addition to the T. J. Trapp Technical School. The by-law was placed before the people on
December 21st and passed by an overwhelming majority, reflecting to some extent at least an
appreciation of the thoughtful and conscientious work of the Board of School Trustees. After
some delay work was commenced in May and is being rapidly completed. AAre appreciate the
assistance of the Department of Education in granting 40 per cent, of the cost of the Technical
School addition.
The completion of this programme maintains our facilities for child-development at a high
standard ; that a high standard is being attained is evident from the results of all departments
of school-work—results which were gratifying to all interested in education.
All schools entered various phases of athletics, inter-class, inter-school, and inter-city, and
played the game. A pleasing feature was the great number of pupils taking part in organized
physical development under competent supervision.
Music is receiving its proper attention; in the musical festival held in Vancouver eight
school choirs were entered and ably reflected the work of this department throughout the year.
All choirs were especially commended, but to the choirs of the Lord Lister-Kelvin School—
Mr. Canfield, principal; Miss E. Milledge, leader; Miss M. Richards, accompanist—went the
high honours; the senior choir and the boys' choir winning second places, Grade VI. choir
winning first place and the silver shield.
On May Day it was the privilege and pleasure of the schools to have as guests Lord and
Lady AArillingdon and party at the annual May Day celebration. Perhaps never in the history
of New Westminster has a more colorful outdoor pageant been staged; about 2,000 children
participated and the performance that day more than repaid the time taken and the energy used
in preparation.
At the Provincial oratorical contest held in Vancouver Miss Swanhild Matthison, a student
of the Duke of Connaught High School (Mr. T. H. Calder, principal), won the championship,
and she came second in the Dominion championship contest held in Toronto. We feel that
Miss Matthison reflected great credit not alone on the schools of this city, but of the Province
as well.
Nor have the successes of our schools rested only with the extra-curricula activities. On
the Junior Matriculation Examinations Miss Helen Balloch, a pupil of the Duke of Connaught
High School„ranked first in the Province with a mark of 904, a mark not often excelled in this
Province. The Matriculation pass-list was 97 per cent., with an average in each subject equal
to or above the Provincial average.
On the Entrance Examination to high school Dorothy Buchanan, Central School (Mr. Turn-
bull, principal), was successful in winning the Governor-General's bronze medal for this district.
The success of the commercial department of the Trapp Technical School (Mr. Vaughan,
principal) is worthy of mention.    AVe feel justly proud of our teachers and pupils.
This high standard of our schools we believe to be due to the hearty co-operation of all
interested in the best welfare of our future citizens.
The Education Department has ever stood ready to assist and guide whenever possible.
Business-men of ability and foresight, with high ideals, comprising our Board of School
Trustees, have left nothing to be desired in the working conditions of our schools.
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
V 33
The Parent-Teachers' Associations have spent time and money in creating a broader sympathy between the school and home and assisting in many tangible ways, such as the providing
of free milk to pupils, donating reference books to the school libraries, etc.
AVe also owe a debt of gratitude to the Kiwanis Club of this city for providing many
speakers at our city schools; speakers who, from practical experiences, are able to give valuable
assistance to our students.
During the year certain changes have been made in the entrance requirements to University.
It is possible now for students of our Technical School to enter the higher schools of learning;
we feel this to be a progressive step and an opportunity offered which will be taken advantage of
by many.
In June the Board of School Trustees approved the opening of a Senior Matriculation class
in the Duke of Connaught High School;   the enrolment for this class is heavy.
The Junior High School programme has been adopted in Grades VII. and VIII.; certain
building changes and staff rearrangements are necessary ;   we are confident of its success.
VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
REPORT OF J. S. GORDON, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
CHANGES IN ENROLMENT AND STAFF.
The maximum enrolment for the year shows an increase of 542 over that of the preceding
year.    The distribution in the three types of schools was as follows:—
Month.
Elementary
Schools.
Junior High
Schools.
High
Schools.
Totals.
February,  1928                                      	
17,451
18,713
1,777
184
3,473
3,262
22 701
February, 1927 	
22,159
*1,262
1,593
211
542
* Decrease.
To provide for these changes in enrolment the following changes were made in the teaching
staffs :—
1927.                1928. 1927. 1928.
Elementary-school teachers  496 477
Ordinary classes  474 459
Special classes      22 18
Junior high-school teachers       7 61%
High-school teachers   103 112%
General Courses      61 64%
Commercial Course     22 28
Boys' Technical Course     17 17
Home Economics Course       3 3
Manual-training teachers      22 *16
Home-economics teachers      17 *13
Special instructors or supervisors      13 13
Totals   658 693
Increase  ;     35
* These decreases are apparent rather.than real, six manual-training and six home-economics teachers in
the new junior high schools not being counted here. "
C
-
 V 34 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
The changes in the student enrolment and in the number of teachers engaged throughout
the years, as indicated above, are so unusual that they call for further comment. While the
enrolment in the elementary schools decreased 1,262, as a result of the opening of two large
junior high schools in September, 1927, the elementary staff was reduced by only nineteen, or
one teacher for every sixty-six pupils transferred. On the other hand, the increase of 1,593 in
junior high schools was provided for by appointing fifty-four additional teachers on full time
and one on half-time, or one teacher for every twenty-nine pupils. This latter arrangement
comes as a surprise after our organizing junior high-school classes for forty pupils each, and is
accounted for by the large number of special instructors in these schools who enrol no class.
The number of additional teachers, too, for the increased high-school enrolment of 211 is
excessive—one for each group of twenty-two students.
In our organizing for the school-year 1928-29 we hope to have classes somewhat larger in
each of the three types of schools. In junior high schools particularly, where the large number
of pupils in each grade makes classification according to ability possible, and where we are
placing our stronger teachers, larger classes should be taught.
SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION.
During the past year the accommodation of the city was greatly improved, despite the
increase in school population. The 1927 building programme, referred to in my last report, was
completed in time for the opening of schools in September, 1927. Since that date plans have been
completed for the erection of the schools for which two school money by-laws, aggregating
$635,000, were endorsed by the ratepayers in June, 1927.
The $270,000 provided in one of these by-laws for elementary-school accommodation and
equipment has proved sufficient and the two buildings planned are nearing completion. The
first of these is an addition of twelve class-rooms, offices, and an auditorium to the Laura Secord
eight-room school. The second is the first unit of a new school at the corner of Twenty-second
Avenue and Rupert Street. It contains eight class-rooms, office-rooms, and an auditorium;
and, like the Laura Secord School, is of reinforced-concrete construction and consequently
fire-proof.
Of the urgent need for this increased accommodation there is no doubt now, for we will
have sixteen class-rooms out of twenty in the Laura Secord School, and seven out of the eight
in the new Renfrew School, occupied in September. In the neighbouring Beaconsfield School,
too, whose overcrowding the erection of the Renfrew School was planned to relieve, there will be
eight out of nine rooms in use in September.
The $365,000 provided in the second by-law of June, 1927, proved insufficient to erect and
equip the first unit of the new Technical School. Even with the liberal grant of $175,000
promised by the Provincial Government, the Board found itself $195,000 short of funds when
contractors submitted their bids last March for the completion of the work. Under the circumstances the Board did the best thing possible. The buildings planned were indivisible units,
and there was no time to draw new plans for the first units of what would ultimately be a
smaller and, in all probability, an inadequate plant. The trustees, therefore, decided to eliminate
enough from the buildings planned to keep the expenditure within the money then available,
and to appeal to the ratepayers in June for the $195,000 required to complete the work. This
was done with most gratifying results. The by-law was endorsed with a vote of 1,916 for and
1,114 against, and the contractors are now endeavouring to have the school ready for opening
in September.
As the ratepayers decided in June to finish the Technical School in a creditable manner,
so they decided in December, 1927, to continue the junior high-school building programme so
well begun the previous year. They accordingly passed a school money by-law that month for
$450,000, with a vote of 2,470 for and 1,274 against, to add a third unit to the Templeton Junior
High School and a second unit to the Kitsilano Junior High School. This work is now so well
in hand that we are expecting to have these two schools ready for use in September. They will
each have accommodation for over 1,500 pupils and will have few unoccupied rooms, even for
the coming year.
SCHOOL ORGANIZATION.
With increased and better school accommodation has come a demand for changes in school
organization.    To meet this demand the School Board did its best.    At first, realizing that the
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 35
new Technical School, assisted liberally by the Provincial Government, should cater to the needs
of students beyond the city, the Board entered into negotiations with neighbouring Boards in
the hope of creating an amalgamated technical-school district. After much work along this
line, however, it was considered inadvisable to form such a district. The approaching union of
Vancouver, Point Grey, and South Vancouver into one city will meet the needs of these three
areas as fully as they could be met by forming an amalgamated school district with these and
Burnaby; it will also obviate the duplication of School Boards — something greatly to be
desired.
To keep faith with Burnaby, which wished to join its neighbours for technical education,
and to encourage neighbouring school districts to send students to the new school, the Aran-
couver School Board has placed the tuition fee at only $90 per annum. This arrangement was
made, for obvious reasons, for only the first four months of the school-year. It is* expected,
however, that the same policy will be continued by the new School Board of Greater Vancouver
after January 1st, 1929.
Hitherto only students of High School Entrance standing have been admitted to our technical
school—there was no room for others. But now, with increased accommodation, we are planning
to provide in technical classes for many over-age pupils taken from the senior grades of the
elementary schools in non-junior high-school areas. These will be given a course very similar
to that given for the past six years to the same class of students in our Fairview Junior High
School. Practically the same course will also be offered in our two large junior high schools
to the same class of pupils within their bounds.
The cost of the education these students will receive under the foregoing arrangement will
be considerably higher than it would be were they to remain in elementary classes. But we
consider the change warranted, in that these students will receive a training under the new
conditions that will better fit them for useful citizenship. AVe contemplate making provision for
542 of these students when schools reopen in September.
OTHER SCHOOL ACTIVITIES.
New work, or work along new lines, in a school system is apt to overshadow the old. In
fact, enthusiasts over new work are apt to underestimate the importance of much that is old
and unchanged or little changed. I would, however, sincerely, if briefly, pay a well-merited
tribute to the vast majority of Vancouver school-workers who, for the past year, followed faithfully in the old, well-trodden educational paths. They have unostentatiously laid educational
foundations, to change the metaphor, on which others may build, in a more spectacular way,
in the coming years. To all—teachers, supervisors, and officials, in every department of Vancouver's school system—I would express appreciation for another year of faithful service.
CHANGES IN STAFF.
Comparatively few changes took place in the teaching staff throughout the year. It is with
sincere regret, however, and with a deep sense of loss, that we report the passing, in the opening
month.of this year, of three of our most highly esteemed teachers—Mr. Geo. A. Fergusson, B.A.,
Principal of King Edward High School; Mr. G. P. Young, Vice-Principal of Florence Nightingale
School;  and Miss Gertrude AVarner, of General Gordon School.
Mr. Fergusson had given excellent service as an assistant in Britannia High School between
the years 1913 and 1919, except for an absence of two years and a half (July 1st, 1916, to
December 31st, 1918), during which he served in the AVorld AVar. Under his principalship, from
1919 to 1928, the King Edward High School operated on a very high plane, exerting an elevating influence on the wide constituency which it served.
Mr. Young (filling positions of ever-increasing importance) served faithfully and effectively
in our schools from 1913 to 1928, excepting the three years (1916 to 1919) when he too served
in the Empire's defence.
Miss Gertrude AVarner taught, with unfailing devotion and more than ordinary ability, the
children of Grade I. in a number of schools from 1914 to 1928.
The passing of these three noble spirits left gaps in qur teaching ranks very difficult, if not
impossible, to fill satisfactorily.
 SOUTH VANCOUVER SCHOOLS.
REPORT OF ALEX. GRAHAM, MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The enrolment of pupils compared with  the preceding  year is  shown in  the following
table:—• 1926-27. 1927-28.
Elementary schools enrolled   7,895 7,934
High schools enrolled         944 1,005
Totals     8,839 8,939
School accommodation attained an almost satisfactory status for the first half of the year,
but during the last half congestion occurred in both Tecumseh and Mackenzie Schools. In the
former school a basement-room was fitted up and occupied, while in the latter two half-time
classes were organized to relieve the situation. In order to provide for normal increase and
to relieve congestion the Board of School Trustees very wisely planned to build an addition to
each of Norquay and Gordon Schools, and by-laws to provide money for this purpose were
approved by the ratepayers on May 5th, 1928.
The teaching and administrative staff at the close of the year was composed of the
following:—
Male.
Female.
Total.
High-school teachers	
17
39
9
2
1
1
1
2
10
175
9
1
1
2
27
214
9
9
3
1
1
1
2
Inspector	
1
2
Totals	
72
198
270
The work of the teaching staff has been in the main very satisfactory throughout the year.
AVhere the work was found to be below standard every effort was made to help the teacher
whose success iD the work was questioned, and satisfactory improvement was attained in most
cases. In all instances where progress and command continued to be unsatisfactory teachers'
resignations were received and accepted. The teaching and supervising staff, with few exceptions, is composed of teachers who give their very best effort to the Work; who are ready and
willing to do all that duty demands of them; who cheerfully undertake special and extracurricular duties to the limit of their capacity and strength; and who are ready and willing
to co-operate 100 per cent, with all those who are charged with directing the work.
The school health-inspection staff has had a very busy year. Splendid work was done
throughout the entire school-year and much credit is due Dr. G. A. Lamont and his staff of two
nurses for the efficient handling at all times of the health situation. At one period of the year
during an epidemic of smallpox it was found necessary to increase the staff by appointing
temporarily two more nurses.
The appointment of a supervisor of music gave an impetus to the teaching of singing and
satisfactory progress in this subject has been observed.
The primary grades have this year, under the guidance of the primary supervisor, kept up
the standard of work attained in past years and effort has been made to steadily improve.
In the Manual Training and Domestic Science classes the usual high standard of work and
teaching has been maintained under the direction of the supervisors in these special subjects.
The work is being extended by the addition of two domestic-science centres—one, a foods centre
in the John Oliver High School; the other, a centre in the A7an Home School for elementary-
school classes.
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
V 37
The physical training characteristic of the South Vancouver schools is receiving due attention. Much better class-room work can be done by pupils who have been privileged to hourly
find relief for restless muscles and stifled lungs in open-air exercise.
In conclusion, I wish to thank all those who work in the South ATancouver schools for their
loyal support and co-operation throughout the year, This it is that has kept up and advanced
the standard of work and success. All members of the Board of School Trustees have worked
earnestly and diligently, co-operating in every way possible with officials and directors with the
one object in mind, of bettering the school system.
VICTORIA CITY SCHOOLS.
REPORT OF GEORGE H. DEANE, MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
EXPENDITURES, RECEIPTS, AND PER CAPITA COSTS.
The sum of $641,520.96 was expended on all schools during the calendar year 1927.
revenue to meet such expenditure was provided as follows:—
Victoria taxpayers (74.41 per cent.)  $478,357.37
Provincial Government grants      107,891.65
Dominion Government grants—technical education        2,969.60
Student fees        26,785.27
Outside municipalities—high-school grant       17,833.00
Sundry receipts        7,684.07
Total  $641,520.96
DISTRIBUTION.
The
Expenditures.
Receipts.
Net
Cost.
Average
Monthly
Enrolment.
Net
Per Capita
Cost to
Victoria
Taxpayers.
Government
Grants.
Student
Pees.
Outside
Municipalities.
Sundry.
$33,555.21
186,064.31
384,107.48
7,873.17
*981.00
t28,939.79
$3,595.00 1821.142.00
$193.34
5,042.77
817.67
49.71
$8,624.87
134,623.94
313,554.92
3,001.01
205
1,131
4,740
668
$42.07
25,729.60
69,734.89
2,014.20
2,835.00
$17,833.00
119.03
66 15
2,808.25
4.49
Total      	
$641,520.96
* Expenditure representing revenue.
t Oaklands Annex and Victoria College.
About 30 per cent, of the taxes collected from Victoria ratepayers in 1927 was expended on
the schools of the city.
ENROLMENT AND STAFF.
The enrolment and the number of teachers employed are as follows:—
1927
-28.
1926
-27.
Male.
Female.
Total.
Staff.
Total.
Staff.
2,547
630
99
2,513
613
135
5,060
1,243
234
149
48
8
5,013
1,172
193
144
48
6
Totals	
3.276
3,261
6,537
205
6,378
198
 The staff, in addition, included one inspector, one doctor, one dentist, four nurses, and one
attendance officer.
The changes in staff surrounded mainly leave of absence granted to enable teachers to
complete their university education. The special classes which have been conducted at Victoria
College since October, 1926, have materially assisted teachers in continuing their university
education. The Victoria schools, also, suffered the loss of three teachers who had given many
years of faithful and excellent service. Miss Mary Lucas, with a teaching record covering a
period of forty-five years, retired after serving the Victoria Board for thirty-two years. Death
removed Miss Abbie F. Gardiner, a member of the city staff for over thirty years, and Miss
Margaret Gibson, who taught in the Boys' Central School for twenty-two years.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
AVith the approval of the Department, the subject of Latin was included in the course of
study for Grade VIIL, and French for Grades VII. and VIII. This necessitated for these
grades an extension of the afternoon session to 3.30 p.m., and the fact that such extended hours
were endorsed by all the principals concerned is evidence of the progressive spirit prevailing
among the teachers of the city graded schools. While these subjects were optional, 551 pupils
(Grade VIIL) from an enrolment of 669 elected Latin and 1,293 pupils (Grades VII. and VIIL)
out of 1,319 took French. Instruction in these subjects was given by three qualified high-school
teachers under supervision of the college and high-school department heads, and the reports
regarding progress from these specialists at the close of the school-year were very satisfactory.
The further progress in these subjects of the pupils concerned who have entered the high school
will be followed with much interest in order to determine the value of introducing the subjects
in the lower schools.
The method of providing the grades with supplementary reading material by means of a
circulating library of carefully selected books has proved quite successful. AVith new sets being
added from time to time, each school will be supplied with a wide range of books.
Each succeeding year seems to bring an increasing demand for the participation of the
schools in public functions. Some of these, including musical festivals and exercises commemorating historical events, have an educational value, but when school-work is virtually
suspended for a week or more in order to prepare an attractive display for the entertainment
of spectators it is not only a serious interruption to school progress, but, considering the cost
of maintaining the schools, a large economic waste. Again, as regards parades covering comparatively long route marches, there is always a menace surrounding health and accidents,
particularly where the smaller children are concerned.
HIGH SCHOOL.
Some provision for relieving the congestion which prevails in the Victoria High School
will have to be made during the present school-year. The building was designed to accommodate
a maximum of 1,000 pupils, which limit was passed three years ago. This term there have
been enrolled to date 1,339 pupils, and temporary relief has been afforded by using corridor
space in the high school and two rooms in the Boys' Central School. The above enrolment
includes some 280 extra-municipal children, on account of whose attendance the city receives
from the Municipality of Saanich a per capita grant of $100 and thirty-seven pupils from rural
districts from whom no grant is received.
Early in the year the Board, after careful consideration, concluded that the time had
arrived for Victoria to adjust its system of secondary education to modern standards and by
extending its courses of instruction provide the necessary preparatory training for the many
pupils whose future surrounds industrial and commercial vocations. It was realized that under
existing conditions the high school is mainly a college preparatory institution providing courses
adapted to the few who are preparing for professional careers.
To solve the problem of congestion and to provide facilities adapted to the needs of the
district it was decided, subject to the approval of the ratepayers, to establish a district
technical school at an estimated cost of $250,000 for building and equipment. After the
substantial departmental assistance had been deducted it was estimated that to build, equip,
maintain, and operate the proposed technical school would increase the annual taxes of a
Victoria ratepayer to the extent of 45 cents on every $1,000 assessment.    Although the by-law
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 39'
covering the required bond issue was defeated, public support of a technical school has increased
to such an extent that the Board expects to receive endorsation from the ratepayers when it
is again submitted at an early date.
VICTORIA COLLEGE.
The increased attendance at the college made it possible to organize the work so that the
full time of each member of the staff is devoted to college duties. This has been found to be
much more satisfactory than to have a member of the staff performing part-time duty with
the college and part time with the high school.
The special college classes which have been conducted in the late afternoon will be held
hereafter in the evenings in order that these t classes may be available to those who cannot
attend in the afternoons.
The vacancy created by the retirement of Dr. Paul was filled by promoting Professor Elliott
to the position of Principal. Other appointments were: Mr. E. S. Farr, B.A., LL.B., Assistant
to the Principal and Assistant Professor of History and Economics; Mr. John Marr, M.A.,
Registrar and Assistant Professor of Classics; Mr. J. A. Cunningham, B.A., Assistant Professor
of Biology; Mr. AV. H. Gage, M.A., Assistant Professor of Mathematics; and Miss H. Ruth
Humphrey, B.A., Instructor in English.
The efficient work of Victoria College has been demonstrated both by the satisfactory
results of the college examinations and the further successes achieved by students who continued
their courses at the University of British Columbia. Last spring the following University
scholarships and awards were won by ex-college students :■—
(1.) The Governor-General's gold medal (head of Graduating Class in Arts)—Miss Jean
White Skelton.
(2.) The Nichol Scholarship, renewal (graduate study in French)—Miss Edith E. Lucas.
(3.)  Special University Scholarship, $100—Mr. Guy Waddington.
(4.) The Khaki University and T.M.C.A. Memorial Fund Scholarship—Miss Hilda A. J.
Marshall.
(5.) The Native Sons of Canada Scholarship, $350—Mr. John R. Gough.
(6.)  Royal   Institution   Scholarship    (general   proficiency   in   First-year   Science) —
Mr. Michael C. Nesbitt.
In conclusion, it is pleasing to report that commendable progress was noted in the schools
during the year.    Many of our teachers are progressive and give a full measure of devotion to
duty with respect to both class-room instruction and extra-curricular activities.    This applies
equally to recent graduates of the Victoria Normal School who have been appointed to the staff
and reflects credit on that institution.
The withdrawal of Inspectors Sullivan and May from inspectorial duties connected with
Victoria schools is regretted. In addition to their help surrounding organization and instruction,
they kept us in touch with what was being accomplished in other districts.
 • V 40
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28
HISTORICAL RESUME OF TEACHER-TRAINING IN
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF J. W. GIBSON, M.A., B.PAED., SUPERVISOR OF NORMAL SCHOOLS.
The first movement in the direction of teacher-training in British Columbia of which we
have record was that inaugurated by John Jessup, Esq., on assuming his duties as Superintendent of Education in 1872—nearly thirty years before the opening of the first Normal School
in Vancouver. Referring to the matter in his report to the Lieutenant-Governor in July, 1873,
he made the following statement: " A training-school will soon become a necessity in this
Province; but until such an institution can be established something might be accomplished in
securing uniformity of method by inaugurating Teachers' Conventions, or Institutes where
time-tables and programmes of studies could be submitted and different methods of teaching
discussed, with a view to adopting some regular system in all schools that may be about equal
in attendance and requirements." For many years Teachers' Institutes were held, beginning
with a three-days' convention in the Legislative Assembly Hall in Victoria, July 5th, 6th, and
7th, 1875, and judging by the range of subjects discussed, and the practical character of the
addresses given, these conventions must have been of great value to those pioneers who slowly
but surely laid the foundation of our present system of education.
In this same report (1874-75) Mr. Jessup describes with evident pride and enthusiasm
" a large, commodious, and substantial public-school building, fast approaching completion,
situated on the west end of the valuable reserve of 10 acres lying at the head of Yates and
View Streets, and within easy reach of almost every family inside the corporate city limits."
He also points out that this new building " is planned as the first wing of a contemplated
edifice for Public, High, and Normal School purposes ... if the prosperity of the city and
Province will admit of it." That the prosperity of the city and Province did fully admit of
it there can now be no doubt. The fact remains, however, that the establishing of a Normal
School in Victoria was delayed almost forty years, partly due, of course, to the fact that the
younger but more rapidly growing city of Vancouver prevailed upon the Provincial Government
to establish a Normal School there in 1901. For the last quarter of the last century, therefore,
the only attempt at teacher-training was that which centred around the Teachers' Institutes
and Conventions, together with a limited amount of preparatory work carried on in a few of
the larger high schools.
During the ten-year period previous to the opening of British Columbia's first Normal
School in Vancouver in 1901, the need of a teacher-training institution for the Province was
strongly advocated in the annual reports of David Wilson and William Burns, both of whom
were prominently identified with the educational life of the Province for many years, and by
the Vancouver School Board. In his annual report for the year 1890, Mr. John Robson,
Provincial Secretary, stated the case in the following words: " A Normal School is very much
needed, and the expenditure necessary to the maintenance of the same would be a wise economy.
Such an institution would send forth annually an earnest band of workers, equipped with ability
to control, possessed of a knowledge of the science of teaching, coupled with the capacity of
clearly unfolding the subjects they teach and imbibed with a devotion to their calling "—truly
a high ideal and one to be contemplated in all earnestness by all teachers and teacher-training
institutions.
Perhaps the most urgent plea for the establishing of a Normal School recorded during the
decade referred to was that set forth by Dr. S. D. Pope in his report as Superintendent of
Education in October, 1894. " In every professional pursuit," he argues, " special training is
a requirement, and particularly should this be the case with those who have to deal with the
child-mind. Only those who have at least some knowledge of psychology and proper methods
of school management should be granted certificates to teach in our public schools. To place
a school in charge of a teacher who possesses no other recommendation than a certificate
is not as a rule doing justice to the pupils who have to attend the school. Experience has
proved that it is a wise economy for any country to give to her teachers thorough instruction
as to methods and general knowledge of school management. This can only be done by the
establishment of a Normal School."
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 41
Accurate information relative to the courses offered in high schools for prospective teachers
is lacking, although there is no doubt that many of those who were enrolled in the high schools
of the Province prior to the opening of the first Normal School in 1901 were deliberately
preparing themselves, with the help of their teachers, for the great work of teaching in the
public schools of the Province. The more immediate objective, of course, was the passing of
the annual teachers' qualifying examination, which, for the highest grade of certificate, at
least, called for a thorough knowledge of subject-matter in a wide range of subjects. In July,
1894, the teachers' examinations for second-class certificates included the following subjects:
Spelling; writing; geography; English history ; Canadian history ; English grammar; composition ; rhetoric; arithmetic; mental arithmetic; anatomy, physiology, and hygiene; bookkeeping—single entry; mensuration, algebra; geometry; music; drawing; botany; zoology;
astronomy; education. These so-called teachers' examinations tested the candidate's knowledge
of subject-matter in about twenty different school subjects, the last-mentioned paper only
giving some attention to theory of education.
That an attempt was made during these years to make up, in part at least, for the lack of
a teacher-training institution for the Province is shown by the fact that the Victoria School
Board took official action in the matter, as shown by two brief extracts from their annual
school report for the year ended June 30th, 1895. B. AVilliams, Secretary to the Victoria School
Board, included the following paragraph in his report for that year:—
" With a view to the best interests of education in this city, and there not as yet being a
Provincial Normal School at which young teachers could receive training in the best method
of educating, the Board in April decided by resolution to appoint to each of the graded schools
a pupil-teacher. No salary is attached to the position thus created, but the appointees have
the prior right of engagement as substitutes. By subsequent resolution those pupil-teachers
who had served for six months in that capacity can undergo an examination conducted by the
principals of the graded schools, as an Examining Board, in the practical work of teaching.
Upon the result of this examination, as certified to by the Examining Board, a certificate is
issued by the Board of Trustees, under seal, and signed by the Examining Board and the
Chairman and Secretary of the School Board. Judging from the number of applications
received for the position of pupil-teacher in our schools, this movement has been an unqualified
success." This move on the part of the Victoria School Board to utilize the old English system
of pupil-teacher training and to issue its own certificates seems to be the only one on record
and was not continued.
It is also of interest to note that during that same year, 1895, Mr. Edward B. Paul, then
Principal of the Victoria High School, made a rather significant move in the organization of
his school, looking towards more explicit recognition of those students proposing to enter the
teaching profession. " A Normal Class," he states, " was commenced on the 1st of March for
the benefit of the many pupils intending to write for teachers' certificates. This class was
placed in charge of Mr. E. H. Russell, who did good work in connection therewith."
So it was that after many years—far too many—the urgent need of a separate institution
for the training of teachers came to be recognized by the Government of the Province. Dr. Pope,
as Superintendent of Education, had repeatedly urged the establishing of a Normal School,
and his successor, Dr. Alexander Robinson, finally prevailed on the Government to establish
the school, and the first classes were opened in the old Arancouver High School, January 9th,
1901. with forty-two students under the principalship of William Burns. For nearly nine years
the Normal School was without a permanent home, as the present building was not occupied
until the autumn of 1909. In a very few years it became evident that a second school would
be needed, and on January 4th, 1915, the Victoria School was opened, with an initial attendance
of forty-five students, under the principalship of Mr. D. L. MacLaurin. After twenty years of
faithful service Mr. Burns resigned as principal of the Vancouver School, and was succeeded by
Mr. D. M. Robinson, who had been a member of the faculty since 1911.. Nearly 10,000 students
have attended the Provincial Normal Schools since the opening of the first classes in Vancouver
twenty-seven years ago.
ADVANCEMENT IN TEACHER-TRAINING METHODS.
The work of Normal Schools and Teachers' Colleges generally has produced far-reaching
results in educational theory, as well as in educational practice.   The child-study movement
 V 42 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
and the development of experimental psychology, which began to attract world-wide attention
during the closing years of the last century, mark the beginning of what might be termed a
science of education. Possibly the last ten years have witnessed more of scientific interest in
education than any other ten-year period in the world's history. The nature of the child,
his individual endowment, and his social needs on the one hand, and the nature of the learning
process on the other, have never been so thoroughly and so scientifically investigated as during
the last decade. The old emphasis on " teaching" has given place to the larger and more
fruitful concept of " learning," and once again the child himself occupies the centre of the
educational stage. This has led to a regeneration of the old disciplinary notion of education
and to radical changes in the methods of the class-room.
With this changing philosophy of education, and consequent changes in method, have
appeared different and much more extensive facilities for teaching, until to-day a normal
training school or college is a place of many and varied activities. The main problem, however,
is with us always, and we are steadily bending our energies towards its complete solution.
The old notion of " imparting " information to the child is now entirely obsolete. In its place
has come the concept of individual growth in a social environment. It is the prime function
of the teacher to help in " setting the stage " that the pupils may the better do the " acting."
As Dewey has well said, " The problem is to find what conditions must be fulfilled in order that
study and learning will naturally and necessarily take place, what conditions must be present
so that pupils will make the responses which cannot help having learning as their consequence.
The pupil's mind is no longer to be on study or learning. It is given to doing the things that
the situation calls for, while learning is the result. The method of the teacher, on the other
hand, becomes a matter of finding the conditions which call out self-educative activity, or
learning, and of co-operating with the activities so that they will have learning as their
consequence." These all-important educational principles are coming more and more to be
recognized, and acted upon in our training-schools, and are finding expression in what is now
coming to be commonly known as the " socialized recitation " and the " project method of
instruction." Teachers everywhere, in our Normal Schools and practice-teaching schools, who
have faith in these more modern concepts of education, are struggling to give effect to them
in their methods of teaching, and it is no easy task, especially when we recognize that our
whole educational setting, our class-room arrangement and equipment, in the main, belong to
an earlier age, when formality of instruction and the acquiring of information by the pupils
were uppermost in the minds of all.
EQUIPMENT IN THE NORMAL SCHOOLS.
Whilst by no means perfect, the Victoria Normal School building is superior to the
Vancouver building. This is to be expected, as it was built somewhat later and cost considerably
more to build and equip. AVhen completed, the grounds and the setting of the Victoria school
will quite surpass those in Vancouver. One of the most noticeable deficiencies in the Victoria
school is the small gymnasium. At a time when physical education is coming to occupy such
a large place in the educational programmes of the countries of the world, it is a matter of
regret that such a good building should have such inadequate gymnasium accommodation.
I would strongly recommend that the present gymnasium be fitted up and utilized as a general
recreation-room and that a more commodious gymnasium be built to the rear of the present
building. The Vancouver Normal School gymnasium, which was built separately after the
Normal School itself was built, is much more satisfactory from the standpoint of accommodation.
Considerable work needs to be done on the grounds at each of the Normal Schools. The
newly acquired area adjoining the A'ictoria Normal School grounds is being improved and
will lend itself admirably to the purposes for which it was secured—namely, children's playgrounds and gardens. The lawns at the Vancouver Normal School are in rather poor condition,
due partly to an impoverished soil and too little care during the summer months. These lawns
should be remade as soon as possible.
At the last session of the Legislature provision was made for the construction of a new
wing at the east end of the present building in order to provide very much-needed accommodation along several important lines. For years the staff of this school have had to work under
serious difficulties, chiefly due to lack of proper facilities for teaching. The school is without
a science-room;   facilities for manual and industrial arts are lacking, the ordinary desks in
 the music class-room being used for the purpose; the room heretofore used as a library and
students' reading-room is utterly inadequate for the purpose and is needed for lecture-room
purposes; there is urgent need for two teachers' private rooms, and also for a sick-room or
nurse's room; and, finally, the building has no facilities whatever for the teaching of home
economics. Attention was drawn to this last-mentioned deficiency by the late Mr. Burns in
his last report to the Department as principal of the school in 1920, as follows: " We are still
deficient in any means to teach either domestic economy or manual training. Surely, if they
are requisite for Normal School students in Victoria, they are equally so for students in this
institution. I sincerely trust that the Government will, at an early date, be in a position to
remedy this defect, and even to carry on a special course for training teachers for these
subjects."
It seems regrettable that so many years should have been allowed to pass without any
provision being made for the training of hundreds of young women who are destined to play
such an important part in the social and educational life of the girls of the Province. In this
age, when we hear so much about the so-called " break-down of the home " and we see so many
examples of delinquent parents as well as delinquent children in every community, surely it is
time that our teachers-in-training should have such special preparation as can be given in
those things that pertain to worthy home membership. This means vastly more than a course
of training in sewing and cookery, valuable as these may be. It means, for one thing, a better
understanding on the part of the teachers of those vital social economic problems that beset
every home, but more particularly those homes from which the pupils come. It means, in the
second place, that the teacher must be capable of giving positive leadership and expert guidance
to both boys and girls, and through them to parents as well, in many things pertaining to health
and social welfare. They should also be able to give reliable advice, especially to the young
girls that are growing up around them, with reference to suitable clothing, correct diet, and
artistic as well as economic home management. There can be no more important educational
objective in this or any other country than the development of high ideals in all things pertaining
to the home as our first and greatest social institution. With the building of the proposed wing
to the Vancouver Normal School the whole work of the institution can not only be extended,
but also materially improved.
AFFILIATED TRAINING-SCHOOLS.
Observation and practice-teaching have for a long time been recognized as essential to the
professional training for teachers. During the last few years the amount of time devoted to
this phase of teacher-training has been considerably increased, due partly to the action of the
Legislature in so amending the "Schools Act" as to make available for observation and practice-
teaching any number of schools selected for the purpose within the Province. It is certainly
important that teachers-in-training become acquainted with a reasonably wide range of school
conditions by actual experience, which is precisely what the above-mentioned amendment provides for, but there is still something lacking. There is need for expert demonstration and
guidance in the matter of technique in teaching such as cannot be expected from the teacher
whose room is merely being used for an occasional brief session of student-teaching. There
is need for the studied arrangement of teaching situations under controlled conditions, as to
age and grade of pupils, subjects, methods, sequence of instruction, teacher-student conferences,
and follow-up work, all under the immediate control of the Normal School staff. Most Normal
Schools in Canada and the United States have just such affiliated training-schools, located
usually in the same building or in an adjoining wing. Such a school, of course, would call
for the services of highly competent and specially trained teachers, and for a good range and
variety of teaching equipment. Such a school would lend itself to valuable experimental
methods in organization and instruction, and would exemplify in its daily programme the educational principles as well as the special methods enunciated in the Normal School. In his report
as principal of the Vancouver Normal School, Mr. D. M. Robinson called attention to this
much-needed training-school one year ago. As acting-principal of the Victoria Normal School,
my report for the same year made mention of the need for a similar school, but of a more
distinctive rural type, which would meet the needs of the rapidly growing district in which the
Victoria school is located. In 1926 Mr. V. L. Denton, as acting-principal of the Victoria Normal
School, also called attention to the pressing need for greater model school accommodation, and
 ;
V 44
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
this year the principal, Mr. D. L. MacLaurin, finds the situation growing steadily more difficult.
On the reopening of school at the first of the month, many children applying for admission had
to be turned away. So it is that we are faced with the pressing need of a large affiliated
training or practice school for each of our Normal Schools.
THE WORK OF THE PAST YEAR.
Fortunately the attendance has tended to become less in both schools during the last couple
of years, and is at the present time more in keeping with the normal accommodation of the
buildings. More thorough work is being done than was possible under the conditions of overcrowding that existed a few years ago. It is gratifying to find such a large number of young
men entering the teaching profession—approximately one-fifth of the entire enrolment in the
two Normal Schools for the past five years. It is also a matter of satisfaction that a steadily
increasing percentage of the students have first-class academic standing. There seems to be a
growing enthusiasm for the work of the teacher amongst both young men and young women
attending the Normal Schools. In addition to the regularly prescribed work of the session,
several valuable student organizations are formed annually and are strongly supported by the
student body. These include the literary, debating, dramatic, and athletic societies, and although
each society has the active support of at least one member of the staff, in the main the students
themselves are responsible for the direction of these extra-curricular activities. It is most
gratifying to see the fine talent displayed by these young teachers-in-training in connection with
all of these student activities. It was my privilege to attend one or two musical and literary
evenings during the past year, when some highly creditable work was carried out.
The relationship which exists between the staffs and students of the Normal Schools and
the teachers of their respective districts is highly satisfactory, due in large measure to community of purpose and fair-mindedness on the part of all concerned. It seems as though the
Normal Schools are coming to be centres where the teachers, from the immediate districts
or from any other districts, may feel free to come for the purpose of meeting those who are
working towards the solution of complex educational problems. The exhibitions of work accomplished by the Normal School students and their instructors, and such demonstrations as can
be put on with classes from the practice-schools, are always enjoyed by the teachers and can
be made mutually beneficial
During the year some time was spent upon the preparation of a new form of record of
student achievement for the Normal Schools, which we think will prove advantageous. A new
course of study for the Normal Schools has also been prepared for the ensuing year and is now
being tried out. It is intended that this course will be amended from time to time as experience
may warrant.
PROBLEMS FACING THE NORMAL SCHOOLS.
Twenty-five years is a long period in the history of as young a Province as British Columbia.
It is now more than twenty-five years since our first Normal School was opened, and great things
have happened in the educational world during that period. For the first decade of this century
the Vancouver school alone held the field and was largely concerned with supplying the schools
of the Province with certificated teachers. In order to overtake the situation in this regard, two
classes of students per year were graduated. The principal and his staff fully recognized the
inadequacy of such a short period of training, and provision was made for " advanced " courses,
and for several years the staffs of both Normal Schools were required to conduct courses for
two sets of students simultaneously. Finally, in 1920, the full nine-months' course was adopted
and has proved advantageous to all concerned. «
We are now nearing the close of another ten-year period and signs are not lacking that
another forward move is fully due. The same complaint is now made by our Normal School
instructors that has been voiced from time to time ever since the Normal Schools began—
namely, insufficient knowledge of the subject-matter of instruction in the various elementary-
school subjects. It must be obvious that in a one-year Normal course professional training for
the highly technical work of teaching cannot be fully achieved if a large proportion of the time
has to be given to what might be termed academic subject preparation. There may still be
some doubt as to how the situation can best be remedied without imposing too great a burden
upon parents and ratepayers—whether by adding a second year of advanced Normal School
training or by requiring four years preparatory high-school training, or both—but there is no
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 45
longer any doubt as to the insufficiency of a three-year high-school preparatory course followed
by a single year in Normal School.
The question of specialization in teacher-training courses also requires attention. AVith the
development of junior high schools and departmentalization of instruction in the larger elementary schools the matter is of increasing importance. In our Normal Schools at the present time
all students are required to take the same course regardless of what type of teaching situation
they will be faced with in the schools of the Province—whether rural or urban, graded or
ungraded, primary, intermediate, or advanced. It may be possible to work in a little specialization in the second term under present conditions, but it cannot be done' efficiently until we
institute a two-year Normal training course.
The libraries in both schools are gradually being built up, but both are lacking in expert
library service. The amount of work that these young teachers are attempting to crowd into
a single year is so great that their time should not be wasted in what is too often an unprofitable
search for reading references in the library. Each of our Normal Schools should have the
services of a trained librarian as soon as possible. AATith a well-stocked library and adequate
reading room facilities such as is being planned for the Vancouver school, it will be necessary
to have the services of a librarian, one who, in addition to having special training in modern
library technique, also has a lively appreciation of the problems of the modern teacher.
In conclusion, I wish to express my personal gratitude to all members of the staffs of both
Normal Schools for unfailing courtesy extended to me throughout the year, and for much
valuable information given to me from time to time. Present-day problems in education are
difficult as well as interesting, and those connected with the training of our teachers are of the
most vital importance. In the pursuit of such a difficult task only capable and devoted instructors can hope to succeed, and I esteem it a privilege during the past year to have seen so much
of the work of the Normal Schools, and to be able to bear testimony as to the faithfulness and
devotion of every Normal School instructor.
 V 46
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF D. M. ROBINSON, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The session opened on September 14th, 1927. The enrolment for the preliminary term was
209—172 young women and 37 young men. At the close of the preliminary term in December,
three students who had previous Normal School training were granted diplomas. Two students,
whose work was not up to standard, withdrew and one discontinued her course on account
of illness.
At the opening of the advanced term in January, 203 of those attending during the preliminary term returned. These were joined by three other students with previous Normal School
training in other Provinces. Thus the total enrolment for the advanced term was 206—
168 young women and 38 young men. This number continued in attendance until the close of
the session in June. One hundred and ninety-two of these were recommended for interim
certificates. The following summary will show clearly the enrolment and results of the entire
session:—
Young
Women.
Young
Men.
Total.
174
2
1
13
158
38
	
1
37
212
Withdrew, work unsatisfactory	
Discontinued course owing to illness	
Failed	
2
1
14
195
There were no changes on the staff during the year and the work of instruction was apportioned as in 1926-27.    The instruction in physical training was carried out during the preliminary term by Sergeant-Major Wallace and Sergeant Joiner.    Sergeant-Major Wallace conducted.
the work alone during the advanced term.    Very satisfactory work was done in this department.
Of the 202 students examined, 197 qualified for Grade B certificates.
During the session our teachers-in-training had abundant opportunity for observation and
practice-teaching. Eight full weeks were devoted to this branch of teacher-training. During
the preliminary term the following schools were used for practice-teaching: Dawson, Aberdeen,
Central, Simon Fraser, Mount Pleasant, and Livingstone. During the advanced term the following elementary schools in the City of Vancouver were used: Laura Secord, Lord Nelson, and
Hastings; and in the Municipality of South Vancouver, Brock, Norquay, Moberly, and McBride.
During the advanced term sixty of our students had the opportunity of observing and teaching
in the Templeton Junior High School. In all the above-mentioned schools we met with the
hearty co-operation of principals and teachers—all were most anxious to help our students.
To these principals and teachers we wish to tender our thanks for their courtesy and kindly
assistance. In addition to the seven weeks of observation and practice-teaching in large graded
schools, all students have spent one week in one- or two-roomed schools in neighbouring municipalities. Schools in Burnaby, Richmond, North Arancouver, Delta, Surrey, Langley, Matsqui,
Chilliwack, and Maple Ridge were visited. Rural schools along the coast and schools on Vancouver Island were also included. In these class-rooms students had an excellent opportunity
of observing the organization, management, and daily class-room procedure of an ungraded
school. This experience will undoubtedly prove helpful to our young teachers, especially to
those who will find employment in rural schools. To the teachers of these small schools we
extend our thanks for their hearty co-operation in this very important branch of teacher-training.
During the advanced term our students visited many industrial plants. Included in this list
were the Burrard, the Terminal, and the Alberta grain-elevators; the news plant of the Daily
Province and The Sun, the Fraser Aralley Dairy, Leckie's Shoe Factory, Vancouver Engineering
Works, and the sawmills operated by the Alberta Lumber Company, the False Creek Lumber
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
V 47
Company, and the British Columbia Fir and Cedar Company. These visits proved both interesting and instructive.
The session just closed has been a very successful one. Members of the staff and students
have been in close co-operation; the students have shown a wonderful spirit of enthusiasm in
all school activities—a spirit that is sure to make for success if carried out into the schools of
the Province.
Before closing my report I wish to thank members of the staff for their hearty support
during the year. I regret that Mrs. Robinson (Miss Burpee) is leaving the service. For many
years Mrs. Robinson has rendered most efficient service, and her work in the Vancouver Normal
School will be long remembered by the teachers of the Province.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VICTORIA.
REPORT OF D. L. MacLAURIN, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The total enrolment for the year was 163.    This was an increase of 26, or 18.9 per cent., on
the enrolment of 1926-27.
An analysis of this enrolment and of the final results is given in the following table:—
FlEST
Class.
Second
Class.
Total.
Women.
Men.
Women.
Men.
55
20
1
3
1
1
63
2
16
1
154
Failed   	
1
6
Died        	
1
1
Totals 	
55
26
65
17
163
Six of the 154 who were awarded diplomas were repeating work taken the previous year
and were awarded their diplomas in December, 1927, at the end of the first term. Of the 148
awarded diplomas in June, 1928, thirteen graduated with honours. All of the 148 were granted
Grade B physical-training certificates, of which fourteen students received the special merit,
" Distinguished." Miss Sylvia Elisabeth George, of New Denver, was awarded the gold medal
for greatest proficiency in physical training.
It is my sad duty to report the tragic death by drowning during the Christmas holiday of
a brilliant and much-beloved member of the class, Mr. Lionel H. C. Locke.
At the opening of the session in September, 1927, one addition was made to our staff in the
person of Miss Isabel Coursier, a graduate of McGill School of Physical Education. Miss
Coursier has conducted her first year's work with most commendable enthusiasm. Owing to the
fact that Miss G. Gordon Riddell was away on a year's leave of absence, Miss C. A. Perry gave
instruction in primary work and manual arts, and Mr. F. T. C. Wickett, A.R.C.O., conducted
the work in music. May I be permitted to express my unqualified commendation of the efficient
services rendered by both of these visiting members of the Faculty.
The work of the year was apportioned as follows: The Principal—Educational psychology
and statistics, class-management and school law, and arithmetic. Mr. V. L. Denton—History
and geography. Mr. H. Dunnell—Penmanship, drawing and art, and manual arts. Mr. B. S.
Freeman—Literature and nature. Mr. C. B. Wood—English grammar, language, reading, and
history of education. Miss L. B. Isbister—Household science and nutrition. Miss I. Coursier—
Health education. Miss C. A. Perry—Primary work and industrial arts. Mr. F. T. C. Wickett—
Music.    Sergeant-Major Bain—Physical training.    Sergeant-Major Frost—Physical training.
It is my pleasure to report the efficient co-operation afforded me in the year's work by all
members of the Faculty. Our Model School under the capable management of the Principal,
Miss Kate Scanlan, and her colleague, Miss I. M. F. Barron, continued to give us excellent
assistance in our work of teacher-training.
 V 48
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
During the year the observation of teaching and the practical teaching of our students were
carried out through the assistance of the staffs of the Model School, the City of Victoria, the
Municipalities of Esquimalt, Oak Bay, and Saanich, and the Colwood, Happy Valley, Langford,
North Saanich, and Sidney Schools. To the principals and teachers of these schools, to Municipal
Inspector Mr. George H. Deane, of Victoria City, and to Provincial Inspectors of Schools, Mr.
W. H. M. May and Mr. A. C. Stewart, I wish to express my thanks for their many courtesies
and whole-hearted co-operation.
In concluding this report, I cannot refrain from expressing to the Department of Education,
my colleagues on this staff, and many others, my heartfelt appreciation for the manifold kindnesses shown me during my enforced absence through illness. To Mr. V. L. Denton, upon whom
rested the main duties of administration during my absence, I owe a special debt.
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 49
SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND, POINT GREY.
REPORT OF S. H. LAAVRENCE, PRINCIPAL.
The lapse of another year places on me the duty of sending to you the usual annual report
of the condition and working of the School for the Deaf and the Blind.
In doing so I have much pleasure in referring, in the first place, to our enlarged and
improved accommodation.
During the summer holidays one of the buildings was enlarged to include three extra classrooms and the entire interior of the main building was redecorated. These extra class-rooms
made it possible for us to have a domestic-science centre, where systematic instruction can be
given in cooking and where dressmaking and millinery can be carried on more advantageously.
AVith these additions and facilities for carrying on various activities, there might be a
tendency to emulate the rich man in the parable by thinking we had enough for many years.
But as Shakespeare says that it is perseverance that keeps honour bright and that to have done
is to hang like rusty mail in monumental mockery, it may not be very long before we ask for
something more.
During the year eighty-three pupils were enrolled. Of this number, sixty-seven were in the
department for the deaf and sixteen in the department for the blind.
Our course of study follows quite closely that prescribed for the public schools of the
Province. AAre use the same text-books in the higher classes and our grading is much the same.
The chief difference is the time it takes to give the deaf language sufficient to enable them to
comprehend the subject-matter of the text-book, for English is a foreign language to every
congenital deaf child.
The process by which a deaf child acquires a language is essentially different from that by
which a hearing child learns a foreign tongue, though the comparison is often used to illustrate
the position of the deaf child and the work of the instructor. It is not a process of translation,
but rather the work of creation. It involves the embodiment of thought in words, and the
development of the entire intellectual and moral nature.
AA'hen deaf children enter school they correspond very closely to what Tennyson describes
when he speaks of—
" Children crying for the light,
And with no language but a cry."
They have lived among things for six or more years, but they have nothing more than a mental
picture which they cannot explain.    They do not know that they themselves or others are distinguished by names.
With the blind the situation is entirely different. They have a language and its vocabulary
is as comprehensive as that of the normal child when he enters school. They are taught to use
the braille alphabet and with it they can acquire, through the sense of touch, knowledge that
the sighted child learns through the eye.
As an illustration of this I might mention the case of one boy in this school, 17 years of age,
who wrote Grade XL Junior Matriculation Examination in June last, and made pass-marks in
nine of the subjects and a percentage of 30 in the tenth. He has since taken the supplementary
examination and is now entitled to enter the University.
I have thus far emphasized the literary side of our work. The school goes beyond this.
It reaches out for and uses agencies which help to mould the characters of its pupils and make
them self-supporting and useful citizens. AVhile we cannot, very well, turn out experts in any
of the various vocations, we lay the foundation upon which they themselves can afterwards
erect the superstructures.
The girls are instructed in knitting, dressmaking, fancy-work, cooking, and systematic and
economic housekeeping. The boys are taught manual training, gardening, and the care of stock
and poultry.
Particular attention is given to the children's physical welfare, and this seems to be reflected
in the health of the school.    About the only calls for medical advice are when an accident occurs
D
 Ar 50 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
or when an infectious disease is contracted.    Even these are lessened by the watchful care and
supervision of the matron and her assistants.
It might seem that our per capita cost of maintaining the school is out of all proportion
with that of the public schools. But it must be taken into account that these children are
seriously handicapped and cannot be efficiently dealt with in large groups. Our classes have to
be very small, not more than eight in any class if it can possibly be avoided.
I have endeavoured from the start to procure for the school only such teachers as are well
qualified by training and experience for the work. It has also been my aim to select, when
possible, teachers whose interests are identified with our own Province. It has not always been
possible to follow this policy. But I can say here with a reasonable amount of pride that I have
a staff at present second to none on the continent.
I might mention here that our school had a great honour conferred on it this year in a visit
by Lady Willingdon. She spent an hour at the school and mingled with the children. They
learned that she was human, and their minds became disabused of the idea that those in
authority are only to be approached with fear and trembling.
It would be an education, as well as an honour, if the Premier and other members of the
Government could find time occasionally to make us a visit. They might not receive much
material reward for their effort, but they would give a great deal to these children, and in the
final analysis we are taught that it is more blessed to give than to receive.
The visit of Lady Willingdon, together with that of His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of
British Columbia earlier in the year, will have a lasting and beneficial effect upon the children.
In closing this report, I wish to express my thanks to you, Sir, personally, and also to the
Honourable the Minister of Education, for sympathy and support in all my efforts and for deep
interest in the welfare of the school.
In the eight years that I have been directing its affairs I have not had a single recommendation refused and I have come to regard the Department of Education, and the Government of
which it is a branch, as representing the invitation embodied in the following stanza:—
" Thou art coming to a king;
Large petitions with thee bring,
For his grace and love are such,
None can ever ask too much."
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 51
TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., ORGANIZER.
MANUAL TRAINING.
The following cities make the above subject an integral part of their school course: Armstrong, Chilliwack, Courtenay, Cranbrook, Cumberland, Kelowna, Nanaimo, New Westminster,
Nelson, North Vancouver, Prince Rupert, Port Moody, Rossland, Trail, Vancouver, Vernon, and
Victoria. This subject is also taught in the following municipalities: Burnaby, Chilliwack,
Esquimalt, Maple Ridge, Penticton, Point Grey, Pitt Meadows, Richmond, Summerland, South
Vancouver, Surrey, AVest Vancouver, and in the Rural Districts of Rutland, Harewood, South
Wellington, and Cassidy.
A summary of manual-training statistics from these places is as follows :—
Manual-training and junior high-school centres        93
Manual-training and junior high-school instructors         80
Elementary-school pupils attending 11,155
Junior high-school pupils attending    1,291
High-school pupils attending    1,963
Each year shows a gradual but sure increase in the number of manual-training centres and
number of instructors engaged in the work throughout the Province.
Manual training is more firmly established as an intrinsic part of the school curriculum
than it has ever been heretofore. School principals are realizing more and more how vitalizing
the workshop can be made to much of the class-room studies, and how easy it is to capture the
interest of pupils when they are actively engaged in constructive hand-work.
It is to be regretted that there are still six cities of the second class where no manual-
training centres are installed, and the advance of junior high schools in the Province, with their
rich and varied industrial arts courses, has thrown these six cities farther than ever into the
educational background.
The departmental classes for training manual instructors have been remarkably well
attended and have furnished us with an efficient staff of manual instructors for the centres
newly established.
In addition to the class organized to train manual-training instructors for elementary
schools, means have been provided to equip these men for the teaching of industrial arts in
junior high schools and also manual training in high schools. So complete and continuous is
the course of teacher-training that it is quite possible for the manual instructor who has been
thoroughly trained as a craftsman to graduate from the training classes as a technical-school
instructor.
TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN DAY-SCHOOLS.
Technical high schools are established in New Westminster, Point Grey, and Vancouver, at
which three-year courses are given in commercial, technical, and home-economics subjects.
A partial technical and a three-years' commercial course are given in Victoria, while the
following cities and municipalities provide a commercial course only: Burnaby, Delta, Kamioops,
North Vancouver, Nelson, Oak Bay, Prince Rupert, Revelstoke, South ATancouver, Surrey, and
West Vancouver.
 V 52
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
The enrolment in these vocational classes throughout the Province was 3,591 and they were
distributed as follows:—
Centre.
Technical.
Home
Economics.
Commercial.
Art.
183
	
112
576
175
65
20
120
131
18
51
30
103
84
16
165
27
23
216
8
1,017
315
27
103
Delta	
Oak Bay        ..           	
Totals 	
1.046
211
2,231
103
NEW TECHNICAL SCHOOL, ArANCOUArER, AND ADDITION TO THE T. J. TRAPP
TECHNICAL SCHOOL, NEW WESTMINSTER.
It is with pleasure that we report great progress in the technical programme in Vancouver.
The Board of School Trustees is erecting- a technical school of a modern type, having a group
of workshops and laboratories which are commodious, well lighted, and completely equipped.
The workshops are fitted for the following trades: Engineering (stationary), engineering
(electrical), sheet-metal working, automobile mechanics, cabinetmaking, carpentry, joinery,
building construction, and printing. It is no exaggeration to state that when the building is
completed it will be one of the best of its kind in Canada.
The aim of the Vancouver Board of School Trustees is to teach the fundamental principles
of every trade to be found in Greater Vancouver and to work in close conjunction with the
Apprenticeship Council, which is also active in promoting industrial education.
The New Westminster Board of School Trustees is building an addition to the T. J. Trapp
Technical School. This includes a fine large workshop which will relieve the congestion in the
metalwork department of the old school. The new building will provide accommodation for the
home-economics section and for the teaching of most of the academic subjects.
All indications show that Greater Vancouver and New AArestminster are becoming important
industrial centres, and the educational authorities in these two cities demonstrate that they are
alive to the situation and that they realize that trained minds and hands are the greatest
producing agencies in the world.
It is regrettable that the City of Arictoria has not been able to do more to prepare its young
people for industrial advancement. The ratepayers have recently rejected a by-law for a new
technical school wherein would have been placed the present commercial course, a home-
economics course for girls, and a school of art. In a city like ATictoria the success of a good
school of art and a conservatory of music would be assured.
The School of Decorative and Applied Art in Vancouver has been a great success. It provides day and night courses in the following: Drawing and design; applied design, modelling,
lettering and illumination, figure drawing and composition, architecture, and pottery. The
accommodation is quite inadequate for the hundreds of students wTho attend and the school
trustees are seriously thinking of erecting a special school building.
HIGH SCHOOL COMMERCIAL COURSES.
Commercial schools are improving from year to year and the instructors are becoming more
and more attentive to the requirements of employers into whose offices the young students go.
It is highly desirable in courses such as these that a definite path be followed leading from
school to the actual work which some day will have to be undertaken.
More direct attention might be given to the Civil Service examinations held by the
Provincial   Government.    Preparation   for   these   examinations   might   well   come   within   the
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 53
ambit of the high-school commercial teachers. To enumerate all the prizes won by commercial
high schools would make too long a list for this report; therefore it is to be trusted that those
interested in schools not referred to here will not feel slighted. New AVestminster, Point Grey,
South Vancouver, Britannia High School, Vancouver, and Arictoria could all add to the list
of laurels gained, but the following letter from Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons (Canada), Limited,
to the High School of Commerce in Arancouver will show how that school compares with others
in Canada :—
"... AVe give below final details of the results achieved by your students in the Pitman
Shorthand Students' Examinations during the school-year 1927-28:—
"(1.) The number of certificates issued to students of the Arancouver Lligh School of
Commerce was as follows :—
21 at   60 words a minute. 5 at 110 words a minute.
13 at   70 words a minute. 8 at 120 words a minute.
21 at   80 words a minute. 7 at 130 words a minute.
7 at   90 words a minute. 4 at 150 words a minute.
11 at 100 words a minute. 1 at 160 words a minute.
Total number of certificates, 98.
"(2.)  During the year students of your school gained more Pitman speed certificates than
any other high school in Canada submitting its students for these examinations.    The highest
speed gained by other high-school students did not exceed 130 words a minute.
"(3.) No business college in Canada approached the number of certificates gained by your
students. Since the inception of the Examination Department the highest speed certificate
issued to a business-college student has not exceeded 130 words a minute.
"(4.) During the year we have presented to your students five gold medals, seven silver
medals, and eight bronze.    No other school has won so many medals in any one year.
" These very excellent results are as gratifying to us as they must be to you. AAre again
offer you our very hearty congratulations.
" Yours sincerely,
"(Signed) A. D. Pointing, Director."
In addition to the excellent showing of the High School of Commerce, Vancouver, the
students of Britannia High School in the same city have won over 250 medals, certificates,
gold pins, gold pencils, etc., from the Remington, Underwood, and L. C. Smith Typewriting
Companies for accuracy and speed in typewriting. Accuracy cups presented by the Underwood
Typewriting Company for fifteen minutes' perfect copy were gained by ten students in that
school.
In the High School Contest held in Vancouver first place in the accuracy division was
gained by a Britannia High School student, while two more students from the same school
gained the highest speed produced by any third-year student in British Columbia.
In the open competition at A'ancouver Exhibition in 1928 the first and third prizes were
awarded to Britannia pupils, while a former winner was awarded first place in the Dominion
Typewriting Contest, and in September, 1928, she won fourth place in the World's Typewriting
Contest in Sacramento, U.S.A.
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
Night-schools were conducted in forty-nine cities, municipalities, and rural districts in the
Province, with an attendance of 5,444 individual students. The distribution of classes was as
follows:—
Cities of the first, second, and third class: Chilliwack, 35; Courtenay, 25; Fernie, 89:
Kelowna, 80; Kamioops, 73; Kaslo, 34.: Ladysmith, 44; Nanaimo, 35; Nelson, 83; New
AVestminster, 317 ;  North Vancouver, 54;  Port Coquitlam, 11;  Arancouver, 2,160 ;  Victoria, 672.
Rural municipalities and rural districts: Anyox, 179; Britannia Beach, 42; Britannia
Mines, 189; Burnaby, 272; Delta, 45; Duthie Mines, 11; Esquimalt, 13; Field, 19; Gladwin,
14; Home Lake, 13; Kaleva, 15; Kent, 22; Keremeos, 12; Kimberley, 33; Langley, 36;
Malcolm Island, 16; Mayne Island, 21; Maple Ridge, 39 ; Matsqui, 21; Michel, 25 ; Mission, 27 ;
Ocean Falls, 35; Okanagan Centre, 11; Oyama, 13 ; Powell River, 28; Rutland, 11; Saanich,
72; Sahtlam, 14; Sooke, 24; Summerland, 49; South Vancouver, 291; AVest \Tancouver, 45;
AVinfield, 12;   Penticton, 47;   Point Grey, 13.
 V 54 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
The following subjects were included in the night-school courses: English, English
for new Canadians, subjects for Civil Service examinations, subjects for pharmaceutical examinations, subjects for junior matriculation, citizenship and economics, mathematics, mechanics,
physics, machine construction and drawing, pattern-making, forging, machinists' work, steam
engineering, automotive ignition system, magnetism and electricity, electrical engineering, chemistry, metallurgy, coal-mining, building construction, carpentry and joinery, architectural design,
estimating, navigation, forestry, paper-making, printing, commercial English, typewriting, stenography, accounting (elementary and advanced), commercial languages (i.e., Spanish, Russian,
Japanese, Chinese, French), salesmanship, drawing and design, modelling, metal repousse, wood-
carving, embroidery, pottery, china-painting, show-card writing, dressmaking, millinery, costume-
designing, laundering, bread-baking, canning, cookery, music (instrumental and choral),
elocution, and public speaking.
Although attendance at night-schools is reasonably good, yet it would be easy to double the
number of students if school trustees would adopt the methods of advertising which the purpose
warrants.
TEACHER-TRAINING CLASSES.
In addition to the teacher-training classes to qualify manual instructors for elementary
schools, high schools, and junior high schools, there are also training classes to qualify men as
instructors and teachers in technical schools.
(a.) Technical Teachers.—The Department of Education has been training instructors in
sufficient numbers to meet the requirements of our technical schools and to this policy is due
much that is stable in the progress of technical education in the Province. There is great satisfaction in having trained men ready to act as instructors when school trustees extend their
technical programmes, instructors who have a thorough knowledge of the work which has to be
accomplished, who have studied methods of teaching, and who proceed to their positions in
possession of complete courses of work.
Technical teachers-in-training attend classes in the evenings and on Saturday afternoons
'because these hours of meeting suit the convenience of craftsmen from whose ranks the
majority of the class are enrolled. Some of these craftsmen have already undergone training
and hold positions as manual instructors. They have covered an extensive programme of handcraft work, including furniture-construction, wood-turning, sheet metal, art metal, machine-shop
work at the bench, design, educational methods, use and care of woodwork machinery, science
relating to wood and metal work, thesis on manual training, and a course of work in the first
five subjects. It may readily be seen what good and desirable material such men are for
technical instructors. ■ ,.
There are other craftsmen, however, who have as their aim the teaching of one specific
subject, and they do not wish to diverge too much from their trade and the varied experiences
found therein.
Technical teachers-in-training are selected from the best-trained craftsmen of both types
mentioned; consequently it is not necessary to give them much practical shop-work during their
training. Attention, however, is focused on scholarship, on the principles and practice of the
trade, principles and practice of teaching, and in arranging courses of work in preparation for
teaching.
After these teachers-in-training have completed their course of studies and have been successful in obtaining a position an interim certificate is granted for two years. If the practical
results of his teaching in that time is all that could be desired a certificate of a permanent nature
is granted. Twenty-three students were enrolled in the training class for technical subjects
last year.
(6.) Commercial Teachers.—Training classes for teachers of commercial subjects have also
proved to be opportune and very successful. Nearly all of the twenty-nine teachers-in-training
hold first-class teachers' certificates and some have University degrees.
The tuition has been given mainly at Summer Schools, but the studies begun there were
continued by correspondence during the winter and spring months. The subjects studied are as
follows : Commercial geography and economics, arithmetic of commerce and finance; history of
commerce; shorthand theory and practice; typewriting theory and practice; accounting theory
and practice ; commercial law ; statute law; office management; business correspondence and
filing; auditing. AVith teacher-training of this kind the standard of instruction given in commercial subjects in the Province has improved tremendously.
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 55
CORRESPONDENCE CLASSES.
Lessons on Elementary School Subjects to Pupils who live beyond
the Reach of School.
The enrolment in above classes for the year 1927-28 numbered 375 and there were 5,023
lessons corrected and dispatched during the year.
The staff takes a great interest in these pupils and feel elated when they hear of their
passing into high school. At least one pupil who "passed had never been inside a school until
she entered to sit for entrance to high school examination.
Each home receives a copy of the little school magazine called " School Days," which tends
to brighten the lessons and encourage the pupils.
Consideration has already been given to an extension of correspondence-work to embrace
high-school subjects. There are a great many young people in pioneer homes and it seems unfair
that they should be unduly handicapped. If a decision is made to proceed with this extension-
work the instructor should be engaged early enough to prepare the necessary high-school courses
of study.
A still further development along the lines of correspondence study is the teaching of
technical subjects to apprentices and young men throughout the Province. AVe are already well
prepared to undertake this work in book-keeping, typewriting, stenography, electricity, carpentry
and joinery, sheet-metal work, machine-shop work, and industrial art. Each course should be
conducted by an expert, and at a moderate cost we could do a great deal to increase the efficiency
of workmen throughout the Province, increase an interest in industrial work, and eliminate much
of the expensive correspondence-work which is conducted by American firms. The Provinces of
Nova Scotia, Ontario, Manitoba, and Alberta are already engaged in this field of correspondence
teaching and they are finding a ready response. The opportunity for success in the Province of
British Columbia is equally good and could be carried on at little or no expense.
Correspondence Lessons in Coal-mining and Mine Surveying.
This work is conducted to prepare men for the examinations demanded by the Department
of Mines in the interest of public safety.    The course embraces the following:—
No. 1. Preparatory mining course for boys over 15 years of age who have left school.
No. 2. Course in arithmetic and mathematics.
No. 3. Course for fireboss, shiftboss, or shotlighters' papers  (third class).
No. 4. Course for overmen's papers (second class).
No. 5. Course for mine managers' papers.
No. 6. Course in mine-survey work.
The enrolment in the mining courses number 228, and the lessons are so arranged that a boy
on leaving school can continue his studies until he reaches the age of 23, at which age he is
permitted to compete for his Provincial mining papers. Course No. 1 is divided into six separate
sections of carefully graded work, and regular application will fit a young man thoroughly for
the examinations held for shotlighters. AVith a continuance of his studies his papers as overman will not be difficult to obtain, and following these two the aspiring coal-miner may rise to
any height he desires.
AVhen one considers that a young man engaged in industrial work during the day has the
privilege of dividing his matriculation to university examinations into four sections and of
trying one section each year, it will readily be seen with what comparative ease a mine-worker
can step upward to work of an advanced character.
EXPENDITURE.
The total expenditures from July 1st, 1927, to June 30th, 1928, on the following, amounted
to $106,292.48: Day technical and commercial schools, $56,385.92; night-schools, $32,638.12;
teacher-training, $5,024.44; correspondence classes, $3,916.40; administration, $8,327.60. Of this
sum the Dominion Government paid a grant of $56,680.91.
According to the latest report of the Dominion Director of Technical Education, the Province
of British Columbia ranks fifth for the cost of administration, while it stands second in the
Dominion for the number of day technical classes, second for the number of night-schools, third
for the number of pupils attending night-schools, and second for the work of teacher-training.
 V 56 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
TECHNICAL EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS.
REPORT OF MISS JESSIE McLENAGHEN, B.Sc, DIRECTOR.
Classes in home economics were conducted in both elementary and high schools in the
following cities: Armstrong, Chilliwack, Courtenay, Cumberland, Fernie, Kelowna, Nanaimo,
New A\restminster, Port Moody, Prince Rupert, Arancouver, North A^ancouver, and Arernon.
Similar classes were also held in the following district municipalities: Penticton, Point Grey,
AArest Vancouver, and South Vancouver', and in the Rural District of loco. Classes in elementary
schools only were held in the City of Victoria and in the Municipalities of Burnaby and Esquimalt. Owing to the small registration, Port Moody and loco centres were each open only one day
a week, while Cumberland was open three days and Courtenay two days.
The following is a summary of the statistics from these centres:—
Number of home-economics centres         73
Number of home-economics teachers  (including supervisors)         71
Number of normal-school students attending       121
Number of high-school pupils attending    2,232
Number of elementary-school pupils attending 10,079
In addition to the above, Grade AT. class-room teachers in both ATictoria and Vancouver have
taught, under supervision, the clothing-work for that grade.
The interest of the public continues to grow steadily. In September Nelson is opening a new
department as a part of their new Junior High School, Burnaby a new department in the
AVindsor Street School, South Vancouver a new foods centre in the John Oliver High School,
together with a new elementary centre in A'an Home School. Harewood has opened a new
centre for elementary- and high-school work, engaging a teacher for three days a week, while
Nanaimo High School engages the same teacher for the remaining two days. Ocean Falls has
made provision for a teacher of home economics for two days a week, Vancouver has extended
its junior high schools, necessitating one additional teacher, and a new foods centre has been
provided for the Deaf and Blind Institute, Point Grey.
New courses of study for elementary, junior high, and high schools were put into effect in
September, 1927, and these have met with the general approval of both teachers and parents.
These courses will continue to be revised through the constructive criticism of the teachers in
the field. Two high-school courses are provided—one called the General Home Economics Course,
extending over two years, requiring a minimum of three periods a week; the other, the Special
Home Economics Course, extending over three years, necessitating an average of from five to six
periods per week. The latter course is now accepted by the University of British Columbia for
matriculation credit. AA7hile during the past year this course has been offered by only three
high schools in the Province—King Edward High, Vancouver; T. J. Trapp Technical School,
New AVestminster; and Magee High School. Point Grey—it is to be expected that more of the
larger high schools will take advantage of the matriculation option during the coming year.
The work in our elementary and junior high schools, according to the outline, has provided
for a broader programme than merely cooking and sewing. The study of clothing has included
not only a study of clothing-construction, but also clothing-selection. Machine-sewing has been
given the preference over hand-sewing, though the latter is encouraged where feasible without
sacrifice of too much time. In consequence of this preference more problems have been presented to the class than formerly and they have been carried through to completion with greater
interest and speed. The problem of securing sewing-machines for Grade VI. classes conducted
by the grade teachers in the class-room has not yet been solved to the satisfaction of the
teachers in charge, but the authorities are gradually appreciating the difficulties, so that it is
to be hoped that a solution will be forthcoming shortly. Correlation between the Art Department and the Clothing Department is most essential and efforts are being made to secure it.
The accompanying cut shows a group of Grade AT. girls of Central School, Victoria, who, under
the direction of Miss M. Blankenbach, have made the play-dresses they are wearing. The smiles
would indicate the pleasure these children enjoyed as a result of the project.
 CLOTHING LABORATORY, TEMPLETON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL. VANCOUVER.
FOODS LABORATORY,  TEMPLETON  JUNIOR  HIGH  SCHOOL,  VANCOUVER.
  PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 57
The study of foods also includes selection as well as preparation from the standpoint of
health, economics, and art. The psychological presentation on the meal basis has been quite-
enthusiastically received by both teachers and students and we hope for still further emphasis
on actual meal preparation. Cookery in family-sized quantities is growing in popularity, but
has not yet received the desired attention. The students of the junior high school are able to
do more in this regard owing to a greater allotment of time. The accompanying cuts give a
picture of the types of work carried on in Templeton Junior High School, Vancouver. In the
study of foods, the recipe-book published by the Department of Education has been a real boon
to both teachers and students.
Besides the study of foods and clothing, our work has included the study of the budget and
simple interior decoration. Through these phases of work the girls are taught that artistic
effects are secured in the home through the application of the simplest principles of line, design,
and colour, rather than through the expenditure of large sums of money. The unit on " Child
Care " has been made optional with the one on " Home Nursing." Generally speaking, in the
larger city schools the " Child Care " is elected. Both units are carried out with the co-operation
of the school nurse, wherever that is possible.
A real effort has been made to apply home-economics teaching to the formation of habits
which tend to improve the health of the children. The height-weight charts issued by the Health
Department have been used as a means of stimulating the interest of the child in her own
health, and, wherever possible, this work has been closely linked with that of the school nurse.
However, in securing results we have met with only partial success. The enthusiastic teacher
has done a great deal through healthy competition and others are learning gradually. An
interesting experiment in nutrition was carried on by the Third-year Home Economics students
of King Edward High School, Arancouver, under the direction of Miss Mabel Derry Allen.
Through the feeding of rats on various diets they were able to prove conclusively the relative
food value of such foods as milk, coffee, tea, and bottled beverage.
The noon lunch is another factor which contributes largely to the health of the child and
an appreciation of its value is growing gradually. It is given special emphasis in the Normal
School, Victoria. It is to be hoped that this responsibility will be more generally assumed in
the near future. In this regard the new " Prospectus in Education," published by the Board of
Education, London, England, says: " It is essential where any children cannot return home
during the dinner hour that arrangements should be made for their comfort during this time.
This is not a problem of the rural school alone, as there are many urban schools which find it
necessary to provide dinners for a number of pupils. The minimum requirement is that children
should have an opportunity for eating meals brought by them in comfortable surroundings and
under proper supervision, and that facilities should be available for making cocoa, heating milk,
etc. ... A meal eaten under decent conditions is not only of great value for the physical
welfare of the children, but can also provide a valuable training in cleanliness and behaviour,
and the existence of a good dinner scheme is an essential factor in securing the support of
parents for any scheme of organization."
The home-economics libraries are growing slowly. The value of definite assignments is
being appreciated gradually and with it the need for reference-books for the students. AVhere
these books have been provided their popularity has demonstrated the value of the expenditure.
" Principles of Clothing Selection," by Buttrick, has been authorized as an additional text for
high schools.
The work of the Provincial Normal Schools continues to present a marked contrast.
In Victoria Normal School the work is well organized under the direction of a specialist, while
in Arancouver it is still so distributed that there is no continuity. Since it is necessary that
grade-teachers assume the responsibility of teaching all the industrial arts and nutrition taught
in the schools up to Grade VI., it is most essential that they be thoroughly familiar with the
work as outlined, as well as the best methods of presenting this information to the class. We
hope soon to have a well-organized department in home economics in Vancouver Normal School.
Teachers of advanced training continue to be in great demand. Fifteen new appointments
have been made this summer, and out of that number nine have their B.S. degree from recognized
training-colleges. AVe are still handicapped by having no local training-college, so that we are
compelled to go outside the Province for our teachers. We continue to hope for the Chair
of Home Economics in the University of British Columbia in the not-too-distant future.
 V 58 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
ELEMENTARY AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF J. AV. GIBSON, M.A., B.PAED., DIRECTOR.
The activities referred to in this report are those that receive aid from the Department
by way of special grants to School Boards towards meeting the expenses involved. These
activities include agricultural instruction in elementary schools through school-gardens, supervised home-gardens, children's clubs, and school fairs; agricultural instruction in high schools;
and improvement of school-grounds.
WORK IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
For a number of years elementary-school teachers were encouraged to make special
preparation for the teaching of rural science by attending summer courses. Those who undertook an approved programme of work in practical^nature-study, including either school or
home gardening or other agricultural home-project work, received small bonus grants. Several
of the Canadian Provinces followed a similar plan whereby those teachers who made a special
effort in the field of elementary agricultural education received annual bonuses. Ontario and
New Brunswick still carry on in this way and are having a fair measure of success. For ten
years previous to 1924 Federal grants to the Provinces under the " Agricultural Instruction
Act" made it possible to pay these bonus grants to teachers as well as substantial grants to
School Boards based upon their expenditures in this particular field of education.
One of the advantages of the teacher-bonusing system was that the Department was
furnished with definite information relative to the extent and character of the work done year
by year. No such information is now available, and although there is no doubt that much
good work is still being done, we have no definite information on the subject. I find, for
example, after scanning the reports of School Inspectors on the work .of 1,000 elementary-
school teachers, chosen at random from all parts of the Province, that mention is made of
the successful teaching of nature-study in only six cases. On the other hand, no mention is
made in these reports of any noticeably poor work having been done in this subject. The modern
student of education sets great store by the principle of education in relation to environment,
and when that environment happens to be one of rich and varied natural beauty, such as that
which forms the setting of so many rural homesteads in British Columbia, surely the educational
advantages are apparent to everybody. In a recent pamphlet issued by the Board of Education
for England this question of the educational significance of environment, and the possible
reaction of young people to common human interests and occupations, is well set forth as
follows:—
" It has long been widely recognized that environment should be freely drawn upon in
order to lend reality to the teaching and to arouse interest in country life and pursuits. With
the increase in the normal period spent by children in school, and the consequent extension of
the curriculum, an attempt has been made in a number of places not only to provide the
better general education demanded by modern conditions of life in town and country, but also
to extend the children's knowledge and appreciation of their natural surroundings, and to
give them some acquaintance with the principles underlying natural phenomena and every-day
farm and garden operations. There is also a growing recognition of the fact that one of the
aims of elementary education should be to develop skill in those elementary handicrafts, such
as woodwork and metalwork, which are fundamental to all civilized life."
SCHOOL AND HOME GARDENS.
It is a matter of regret that the genuine educational value of school and home gardening
for children is not more fully appreciated by the teachers of the Province. For the past ten
years our Normal Schools have given very good introductory courses in that subject, and the
teachers-in-training usually manifest a good deal of interest in the work, but in the great
majority of cases it ends there. In some cases the School Boards are not in favour of gardens
at the school, on account of the additional expense involved, or because of the summer holiday
difficulty. There are, however, at least a score of very creditable gardens in operation and in
many cases very appropriate decorative gardens are to be seen.   In some places, especially in
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
V 59
towns and cities, school-garden plots are established only for those who cannot have gardens of
their own at home. Some favour having a school-garden for teaching and demonstration
purposes only, and assigning to the pupils individual home projects in gardening and related
studies. The largest home-garden organization in the Province at the present time is one
conducted under joint auspices of the Lynn Valley Women's Institute and the North Vancouver
District School Board. Approximately 500 school-children were enrolled in this huge home-
garden club this past season. Grants in aid of school fairs were paid this year to Burns Lake,
Chilliwack, Comox, Grand Forks, Langley, Lynn Valley, Rolla, Salmon Arm, Surrey, and
Valdes Island.
WORK IN HIGH SCHOOLS.
Agricultural instruction in high schools has made substantial progress during the year and
is now being carried on in ten centres, Maple Ridge and Richmond Municipalities having
recently initiated the work. The following table gives the names of the high schools, the
agricultural instructors, and the enrolment of students for the year:—
High School.
Instructor.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
Chilliwack    	
F. J. Wetland, B.S.A	
30
8
33
14
19
24
5
18
18
100
77
20
15
3
53
35
15
28
22
70
107
Courtenay	
28
Wm. de Macedo, M.A., B.Sc...
48
C. A. Lamb, M.S.A	
V. B. Robinson, B.S.A	
17
New Westminster	
72
59
H. L. Buckley, B.S.A	
20
W. H. Grant, B.S.A	
46
K. P. Caple, M.S.A .'	
40
H. 0. English, B.A., B.S.A	
170
269
338
607
The agricultural course aims to combine the practical with the scientific, and although
the amount of time allowed for the work is too limited to permit of much laboratory and field
work, yet these young people gain an insight into the main working principles of science as
applied to the various branches of agricultural industry. It is a course that every rurally
situated high school in the Province should offer. When we find the older European countries
such as England, Scotland, and Denmark seeking ways and means whereby rural secondary
as well as elementary schools can be made to serve more directly the needs of people living
under rural conditions, surely it is appropriate for us who live in a new country calling out for
agricultural development to offer every inducement to our young people to study even the
rudiments of the science upon which rural development so largely depends. At the present
time the Board of Education for England is earnestly considering the importance of rural
education from a national standpoint, and are adapting courses of study to the needs of rural
areas. While deliberately planning to give a " rural bias " to these courses of study in rural
secondary schools, all of the requisites of a good general education are provided. Over 75 per
cent, of our high schools in this Province wTould properly be classed as rural, but they are
rural only in their location. With few exceptions, their curriculum has not the remotest
connection with rural life or industry, and their teachers would probably express surprise if
it were suggested to them that they should seek to establish such a connection. Merely adding
an optional course in the science of agriculture will not solve the problem. It might help,
but there needs to be a new point of view on the part of all concerned, including parents and
School Boards.
SCHOOL-GROUND IMPROVEMENT.
Interest in the improvement of school-grounds continues to grow throughout the Province,
so that a good deal of my time has been taken up with that work. There is a growing demand
for expert advice not only in the matter of improving old school-grounds, but also in the choosing
of new grounds and the locating of school buildings. Moreover, the plan and character of the
buildings themselves need careful supervision. One of the most common errors at the present
time is the repetition of plans regardless of immediate local conditions. For example, a
Board of School Trustees hears of a new school building in a neighbouring town, and as they
 V 60
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
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Ground plan of a good 5-acre school-ground located at the intersection of two roadways,  conserving both
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RICHMOND HIGH  SCHOOL.     AN EXCEPTIONALLY COOD BUILDING  IN A HIGH-CLASS
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TSOLUM RURAL CONSOLIDATED SCHOOL.     KRKCTED  1!)26, GRANTHAM.     CONSOLIDATING THE RURAL
DISTRICTS OF HEADQUARTERS, GRANTHAM, SANDWICK, MERVILLE, AND DOVE CREEK.
  PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 61
are contemplating building they decide to go over and see this school—a very reasonable thing
to do. They find that in the matter, of cost, number of class-rooms, etc., it harmonizes quite
well with their requirements, and forthwith decide to get a duplicate set of plans and incidentally
save something in architect's fees. They, too, often quite overlook the fact that every school-site
presents its own individual building problem in matters of elevation, landscape features,
lighting, and convenience. Neglect to study these details has frequently led School Boards
into unfortunate errors and the Department might well take steps more fully to safeguard
the interests of the people in this regard.
Grounds-improvement grants have been allowed during the past year to the following
School Boards: Big Sand Creek, Burnaby, Courtenay, Delta, Grand Forks, Langley, Mission,
Oyama, Qualicum Beach, New Westminster, North Saanich, North Vancouver, Richmond,
Rutland, Salmon Arm City and Municipality, Summerland, Surrey, Tsolum Consolidated, and
AVest Vancouver. Shipments of trees and shrubs have gone out from the Provincial Schools
Nursery at Essondale to Appledale, Ashcroft, Cedar Valley, Courtenay, Creston, Delta Central,
Grindrod, Hatzic, Hatzic Prairie, Maple Ridge, North Bend, North Saanich, North Vancouver,
and eight schools in Point Grey. Plans are now under way for the grounds of the consolidated
high school at Port Alberni. As an illustration of school-grounds planning and improvement
the plan of the grounds of the new Richmond High School is reproduced on the opposite page.
When this plan is carried out the Municipality of Richmond will have one of the finest rural
high-school properties in British Columbia, and will have, moreover, a school programme in.
keeping with their school and its environment.
 V 62 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
SUMMER SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., DIRECTOR.
The Provincial Summer School for Teachers was held in Victoria from July 9th to August
10th, 1928.    The school consisted of a student body of 362 and a staff of thirty instructors.
A Demonstration School was also organized, having 214 pupils and a staff of nine instructors.
The courses offered and the number enrolled in each are enumerated below:—
Nature-study     16
Physical Education      25
Public Health Education      18
Folk-dancing  109
Manual Arts     69
Principles and Practice of Elementary-school Teaching     21
Primary Grade     87
Vocal Music      27
Choral Singing      78
Music Supervisors' Course     13
Art Courses      56
English Literature and Expressional Reading     24
History     35
Geography     58
Penmanship     69
Manual Training      35
Demonstration School  .-. 214
Of the number in attendance, 309 were women and 53 men. A further classification may
be made as follows:—
From cities in British Columbia     76
From rural municipalities      87
From rural and assisted schools  113
Unclassified and without schools     67
From points outside of British Columbia     19
Total  362
COURSES OF STUDY, THEIR CONTENT AND AIM.
Health Education.—This course was arranged with a view to training teachers how to
instruct children to conserve and improve their health. Great attention was given to those
habits and principles of living which throughout school-life and in later years will assure that
abundant vigour and vitality which provides the basis for the greatest possible happiness
and service in personal, family, and community life.
The subject-matter was entirely approved by Dr. H. W. Hill, Head of the Department of
Nursing and Health at the University of British Columbia, and by Dr. Henry Esson Young,
Provincial Department of Public Health. The course was divided into three parts: (a) The
Child Health Programme, embracing home-nursing and first aid to the injured; (6) folk-
dancing, physical education, and playground games;   and  (c)  aquatics.
Folk-dancing, including interpretative dancing, singing games, and rhythmic movements
was suitably graded for the several classes in elementary schools, and commendable attention
was given to dances which were appropriate to special occasions.
Physical education was treated in the most modern way, and due attention was given to
the selection of activities, games, and other forms of athletics; also to class-management and
playground problems and to the physical development of the child.
A class in swimming for beginners met regularly at the swimming-tank in the Y.M.C.A.
building, and another class for swimmers met at the Crystal Gardens. From the latter group
a splendid class in life-saving was formed and eight students passed the test for the certificate
 and bronze medallion of the Royal Life Saving Society, London, England, while one student
was awarded the more advanced diploma given by-the same society.
The content of the Course in Health Education is so great, rich, and varied that it would
be advisable to divide it into two major courses, namely: (a) Health Education, embracing
home-nursing, first aid, and the work of the Little Mothers' League; (b) Physical Education,
embracing indoor and outdoor activities, preventive and remedial exercises, together with a
study of physiology and anatomy. The subjects of folk-dancing and aquatics could be common
to both (a) and (b) courses.
Courses in Principles and Practice of Elementary Teaching.—The morning lectures dealt
with significant topics from the fields of educational philosophy and psychology and gave
teachers a comprehensive view of current educational thought. The afternoon classes discussed
the problems of elementary school practice. Observation in the Demonstration School was an
important feature of the course. The whole curriculum proved so full of study material that
it would be well in future to establish it as a major course, separate from that of Manual Arts
or Primary Grade work, of which it has heretofore been a part.
Primary Grade Course.—This is the first year that primary work has been made a major
course and its success was so marked that it would be well to adopt the same plan with the
intermediate grade.
The curriculum of the Primary Course included reading, nature talks, story-telling and
dramatization, number-work, hand-work of several types, singing and playground games.
Additional lectures were also given by the specialists in Principles and Practice of Primary
Teaching, Drawing, Manual Arts, and Singing.
Manual Arts.—This course was divided into primary and intermediate grades and suitable
projects were carefully planned to correlate with the lessons in language, reading, nature-study,
number-work, and drawing, and at the same time to develop self-expression, artistic taste, and
manual dexterity. Special attention was given to activities which, though beginning in the
primary grade class-rooms, lead onward and upward to real industrial vocations. Such work
as wool-weaving was started on cardboard looms, and advanced through the stages of chalk-box
loom, table-loom, to large hand-looms, while clay passed through the primitive stages represented
in child-life to the adult stage of pottery making, glazing, and firing. The history of paper-
making was also fully carried out and led in stages to the booklet and finally to the completed
book. Raffia and basketry problems were applied in a similar manner. The art of sewing
was rightly included in the manual arts section and should in future be featured as one of
the most important subjects in the group. The lectures in underlying principles of hand-work
should be given by the manual arts instructors and the course augmented by two or three
lectures from the specialist in the Principles and Practice of Teaching. The content of the
Manual Arts Course is of such a wide nature as to warrant it being treated as a major course,
and independent of the Course on Principles and Practice of Elementary Teaching.
Nature-study.—The subject-matter of this interesting and fundamental course dealt mainly
with plant and animal life and the natural phenomena with which children come in contact.
A selection of material suitable for various grades with desirable methods of approach in
teaching was studied and discussed. The economic value and importance of such material
was considered, and a great deal of first-hand information was gleaned from trips arranged
by the instructor.
English Literature and Foundations of Expression.—The lessons in above course dealt
with an appreciation of the essential qualities of good literature as found in poetry and prose
selections and the fundamental principles embodied therein. Lessons and demonstrations were
also given on the foundations of expression, correct speech, natural versus artificial and
conventional expressions of thought, correct verbal expression, and dramatization. In connection with above course a series of lectures on Canadian Literature was given by Mr. A. M.
Stephen, author and poet. This series included the following: New Tendencies in Canadian
Poetry; The Speaking of English Verse; Literature in the Class-room; The Major Note in
Canadian Poetry; The Rise and Development of Canadian Literature. These lectures were
open to the public, were well attended, and very successful.
Vocal Music.—The idea of this programme was to give a comprehensive knowledge of the
subject as taught in elementary schools, to study the requirements of the various grades, and
to become familiar with the New Music Series prepared for the use of the schools in the
 V 64 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
Province. The lessons included sight-singing, rhythmic work, artistic interpretation, and the
full vocal course as contained in the Programme of Studies.
Choral Singing.—This class dealt specifically with group singing and with the organization
and conducting of school choirs. An extensive programme of songs suitable for schools was
studied, and lessons on tone, colour, word-painting, atmosphere, interpretation, etc., grew
naturally from these songs.
Music Supervisors' Course.—The finer qualities of choral singing, interpretation, and
appreciation were studied, and the problems, aims, and ideals of the music supervisor were
discussed.
In connection with the above courses in music, a series of lectures were given by Miss Mabel
Rich, from Toronto, on Music Appreciation.    The lecture subjects were as follows :•—
Music Appreciation—Its place in the school curriculum and its relation to the.teaching of
singing; the fundamental principles of teaching, applied to a course in music appreciation
for the lower grades; suggestions for lesson plans and teaching devices for giving a course in
music appreciation in the lower grades; how to teach children to listen intelligently to an
orchestra playing music masterpieces; developing in the children a love and taste for good
music by teaching them how to listen to music.
These lectures, which were full of inspiration, were opeii to all students of the Summer
School and the general public;   they were well attended.
Art Courses.—The First-year Art Course dealt entirely with that drawing and design which
is taught in elementary schools. The following sections were duly emphasized: (a) Accuracy
of observation in object-drawing; (b) correct sense of colour harmony and arrangements ; and
(c)  facility of expression at the blackboard.
The Second-year Art Course covered the work required in high schools. The teachers wTere
encouraged to work in various mediums, particularly pen and ink, and to have a useful purpose
in making designs. The object-drawing lessons were taught mainly from science laboratory
equipment; and in applied design the following methods were undertaken: Stencilling, block-
printing, poster-making, and cover designs, pottery, stained wood, and illumination.
Geography.—In the light of the most modern ideas the specific objectives in teaching
geography were studied. The content of the course suited to the various grades was covered,
together with the necessary geographical facts, desirable activity of pupils, and the technique
of teaching. These topics were discussed with particular reference to the geography of British
Columbia.
History.—This subject was treated from two standpoints: (a) The social and economic
aspects emphasizing the subject-matter : (b) the pupil activity, emphasizing methods of teaching.
There were thus lectures and class discussion and periods for laboratory-work.
Penmanship.—Teachers taking this subject received daily practice in handwriting and
inspiring lessons on better formation leading to legibility, speed, and beauty. The development
and maintenance of interest among pupils was discussed and an acquaintance was made with
standard scales and measurements.
Manual Training Courses.—These were of two types, namely: (re) For men who desire to
become manual-training instructors in elementary schools; and (6) for elementary-school
manual-training instructors who are preparing for the certificate entitling them to teach in
junior high and high schools. The first group of men met in the Central School, Victoria,
while the second group attended Kitsilano Junior High and High School, Arancouver.
Library.—The Summer School library consisted of over a thousand books collected from
the Normal Schools of Victoria and Vancouver, Victoria Public Library, the Provincial Library,
and books owned by the Department of Education. These books were recommended by the
various instructors and freely used by the students. Displays from publishers were also made
in the library of the latest materials, books, and pictures useful to teachers. An exhibit was
also shown featuring the League of Nations and the international language of Esperanto.
Demonstration School.—This school was composed of 214 children in charge of a staff of
nine teachers, and was organized in the first place for practical teaching demonstrations. In
this respect the school was a great boon to the Summer School students, who every hour of
the day could be found in the class-rooms observing the lessons. Judging from the regular
attendance of the children, they also seemed to enjoy the course.
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 65
Concerts, Lectures, Sports, and Pastimes.—The social functions of the school began on the
AVednesday following the opening of the school. On that night and every Wednesday following
there was a general gathering in the gymnasium for social purposes.
On the first Friday night an excellent and highly appreciated song recital was given by
Miss Brownie Peebles, a mezzo soprano from the American Opera Company, New York. Our
pleasure in presenting Miss Peebles was increased because she was formerly a teacher in her
home town of New AVestminster. The following Friday was marked by a concert given by the
Schubert Club of Victoria. The Summer School students were delighted with the opportunity
of hearing and judging the standard of choral singing which was necessary to carry off the
highest honours at the Musical Festivals of Victoria and Vancouver. On the third Friday a
concert of chamber music was given by the Calvert Trio, assisted by the boy soprano, Ralph Lear,
of Vancouver, gold medalist at the Musical Festivals in both Victoria and Vancouver. The
trio consisted of Misses Una and Joy Calvert and Miss Freda Setter and they provided an
artistic musical treat which was enjoyed by all. The fourth concert was by the Victoria tenor,
Mr. James Sherwood Dobbs, who was fresh from his studies in Italy. As the singer is a native
son and a rising artist we had great satisfaction in bringing him before the public.
During the term at Summer School the students had the privilege of hearing a strong and
inspiring address by Dean Quainton, whose subject was the League of Nations and the work
which it has accomplished. An opportune address by Mr. Percy C. Abel on " Safety First" was
also given.
On the more recreative side of school activities several " hikes" were organized, with
Rev. R. Connell as guide, and also regular visits were paid to the Archives and Provincial
Museum.
The school picnic was held at the Chalet grounds, Deep Cove. The company travelled by
automobile to the grounds, where the social committee had organized an interesting sports
programme of competitive events. An enjoyable staff picnic at Brentwood, which was reached
by the C.P.R. steamer " Princess Patricia," also proved a great success. The school tennis
tournament was as keenly contested as in former years and substantial prizes were awarded
for the following events:  The ladies' doubles, mixed doubles, men's singles, and ladies' singles.
A large attendance of the general public came as usual to see the exhibition of work and
the closing exercises. The pupils of the Demonstration School had their concert during the
afternoon two days previous to the closing. The concert and dramatic display was excellent
when one considered the time spent on actual preparations.
A concert by the students of the Summer School was given on the night previous to the
closing, and a capacity audience fully appreciated the professional finish of a programme from
the students attending the three music classes. The play selected by the Literature class for
the occasion was the well-known one by J. M. Barrie, " The Old Woman Shows Her Medals."
It was generally conceded that the play was a conspicuous success. During the evening the
school orchestra rendered musical selections in a most creditable manner. In the gymnasium
an artistic display of folk-dancing and dances of an interpretative nature reached a very high
standard of attainment.
The undoubted success of the whole school was due to the co-operation of the staff and to
their tireless endeavours to provide a satisfying programme of studies for the teacher-students,
and to the whole-hearted way in which the students responded to what might be termed a
post-normal course. It is quite clear that teachers attend Summer School for a specific purpose,
and they do not wish under any pretext whatsoever to be diverted from the course they select.
An extract from a private letter to one of the instructors shows the spirit of the Summer
School: " I am bubbling over with plans for the new year; that is what I get from Summer
School!   New plans, new ambitions, new material, and an enlarged horizon."
We are much indebted to the student committees who conducted the social functions and
gave their services freely to make these enjoyable. Also to the following: Mr. I. W. Awde,
Manager of the Crystal Gardens, who granted special privileges whereby the students could
obtain admission to the salt-water bathing-pool at any time; the Y.M.C.A. for the use of their
swimming-tank; the Uplands Golf Club for special students' tickets; to the Board of School
Trustees, who readily handed over their magnificent school for our use; to Mr. Dilworth,
Principal of the School; Mr. Deane, Municipal Inspector; and High School officials. To all
these we owe a debt of gratitude for the many ways in which they assisted to make the Summer
School a success.
E
 V 66 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
FREE TEXT-BOOK BRANCH.
REPORT OF J. A. ANDERSON, OFFICER IN CHARGE.
The total number of free text-books, etc., issued during 1927-28 to the public schools
(elementary, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence Course
for children in isolated districts where there are no schools in operation, was as follows:
13,962 copies Canadian Reader, Book I.; 13,117 Canadian Reader, Book II.; 10,754 Canadian
Reader, Book III.; 10,485 Canadian Reader, Book IAr.; 11,861 Canadian Reader, Book V.;
6,177 Narrative English Poems; 12,563 First Arithmetic; 9,811 Second Arithmetic; 9,948
Gammell's History of Canada; 9,510 Lang's Introductory Grammar; 1,997 How to be Healthy;
2,794 Latin Lessons for Beginners; 12,482 Spelling for the Grades; 96 Trees and Shrubs, Food,
Medicinal, and Poisonous Plants of British Columbia; MacLean Method of Writing Books—
10,092 Compendium No. 1; 10,584 Compendium No. 2; 10,301 Compendium No. 3; 11,378
Compendium No. 4; 11,221 Senior Manual; 1,300 Commercial Manual; 272 Teachers' Manual;
700 Ryerson Book of Prose and Verse; 131 Canadian Geography for Juniors; 698 Wallace's
History of Great Britain and Canada; 587 Thorndike's Junior High School Mathematics,
Book I.; 572 Thorndike's Junior High School Mathematics, Book II.; 840 Latin for Young
Canadians; 1,229 Supplementary Readers (Heart of Oak, Book One; Art-Literature Primer;
Art-Literature, Book One; Art-Literature, Book Two; Progressive Road to Reading, Book I.;
Progressive Road to Reading, Book II.; Progressive Road to Reading, Book 3a ; Silent Study
Reader, Book III.; Silent Study Reader, Book IV.; 'Robin Hood Reader; B.C. Phonic Primer ;
B.C. First Reader; B.C. Second Reader; B.C. Third Reader); 64 Citizenship in B.C.; 100
Syllabus of Physical Exercises; 43,626 sheets Drawing Paper, 9 by 12 inches; 998,851 sheets
Drawing Paper, 9 by 6 inches; 155 Union Jacks (3-yard Jack) ; 37 Flora of Southern B.C.;
38 Maps of Dominion of Canada ; 34 Maps of the World; 34 Maps of British Columbia ; 38 Maps
of North America; 31 Maps of the British Isles; 13 Scrap of Paper; 25 Fathers of Confederation ;  161 Teachers' Manual of Drawing and Design.
Two thousand nine hundred and eighty-seven requisitions were filled by this Branch during
the past school-year for free text-books and supplies. In addition to these, 1,233 orders were
filled for teachers and pupils from the outlying districts who wished to purchase text-books,
other than the ones supplied free, which could not be obtained in their vicinity, and for private
institutions desirous of purchasing books supplied free to the public schools. The sum of
$8,560.53 was received from this source and paid into the Treasury for the credit of Votes 71
and 75, " Text-books, Maps, etc."
The supplies distributed free by the Free Text-book Branch during the school-year would
have cost the parents and School Boards $102,094.85 at prevailing retail prices. To purchase and
distribute these among the. schools of the Province through the Free Text-book Branch required
an expenditure of $69,631.65, made up as follows:—
Text-books (laid-down cost)   $55,918.45
Distribution (freight, boxes, etc.)       2,991.34
Salaries of staff       4,627.92
Temporary assistance       1,103.50
Office supplies       4,990.44
Total  $69,631.65
The saving on the year's transaction is, therefore, $32,463.20.
The following text-books were added to the free list and issued to the Junior High School
pupils during the school-year 1927-28: The Ryerson Book of Prose and Verse, Wallace's
History of Great Britain and Canada, Thorndike's Junior High School Mathematics, Books I.
and II., and Latin for Young Canadians.
Several schools requested the Free Text-book Branch to purchase library books for them
during the past school-year. These were dealt with and the books supplied at cost. Teachers
or secretaries submitting such requests would greatly aid in the ordering of these books if
they took care to insert the name of the publisher after the title of each name, on their list.
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 67
In many cases there are several editions of some books, and it is difficult to judge which one
is desired unless this point is specified. The orders can also be placed with the publishers
much more promptly when these names and addresses are quoted.
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
Two of the night-schools in operation during the past school-year were supplied with textbooks of some kind by the Free Text-book Branch on the same conditions as in former years.
RETURNS FOR 1927-28.
The annual reports of free text-books for the school-year 1927-28 are now on file. It is
evident from the number of requests received during the month of June for statements of the
various shipments made to the schools during the school-year that in a good many cases no
attempt is being made by the teacher to keep proper records of the free text-books. As record-
books are provided for this purpose, and each shipment should be recorded under stock receipts
when it arrives at the school, these requests should be unnecessary.
1
 V 68 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
THE STRATHCONA TRUST.
REPORT OF J. L. WATSON, B.A.,  SECRETARY, LOCAL COMMITTEE.
INSTRUCTION  OF TEACHERS  IN PHYSICAL TRAINING,  1927-28.
A total of 354 students have qualified for Grade B physical-training certificates since last
report, as under :—
Normal School, Vancouver  198
Normal School, Victoria   149
Cadet Instructors' Course, Victoria       7
The above number shows an increase of fifty-one over the previous year.
About  6,896 teachers  and prospective  teachers  in  this Province have now  qualified  as
physical-training instructors.
The gold medals awarded by the Local Committee at the close of the session in June last
to the student at each of the Provincial Normal Schools holding the first rank in instructional
ability in physical training were won by Miss E. Gwendolyn Cather, Vancouver, and Miss Sylvia
E. George, Victoria. The Local Committee has arranged to make similar awards at the close
of the Normal School session in June, 1929.
PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1927-28.
The list of winners of Strathcona Trust prizes for excellence in physical training is as
follows:—
High Schools.
E. L. Yeo, W. C. Wilson, J. P. G. MacLeod, and W. F. Maxwell, King Edward High School,
Vancouver; W. L. Lockhart, Girls of Commercial Classes, Britannia High School, Vancouver;
Miss M. E. Gilley, Girls of Grades IX. and X., Duke of Connaught High School, New Westminster.
Graded Schools  (Five Divisions or more).
Douglas B. Pollard, Division 2, Langara School, Point Grey; Miss Amy M. Wright, Division
18, Kerrisdale School, Point Grey; Miss B. H. Killip, Division 9, Lord Selkirk School, South
Vancouver; Miss M. Kania, Division 4, Sexsmith School, South Arancouver; Miss G. W. Killip,
Division 4, Gordon School, South Vancouver; W. T. Fennell, Division 1, Edmonds Street School,
Burnaby; LeRoy B. Stibbs, Division 3, Central School, Prince George; T. Aldworth, Division 1,
Armstrong and Spallumcheen Consolidated School; Miss Patricia Robinson, Division 2, Central
School, Cranbrook; Joseph Dilworth, Division 1, Stuart Wood School, Kamioops; Richard V.
James, Division 6, Tillicum School, Saanich; Miss F. M. Akerman, Division 2, Central School,
Salmon Arm; H. A. Eckardt, Division 1, Central School, Mission; E. N. Longton, Division 1,
Central School, Port Haney; John Fouracre, Divisions 5 and 6, Central School, Nanaimo;
Edmund G. Edgar, Division 4, Hollyburn School, West Vancouver; Miss Jessie F. L. Croll,
Division 15, Central School, Nelson; G. Frank Waites, Division 5, Consolidated School, Duncan;
Ernest Lee and Joseph Chell, Central School, New Westminster; Miss Annie M. Cameron, Lord
Lister School, New Westminster; Miss E. Middlemiss, Kitsilano School, Vancouver; Miss G. H.
Patrick, Central School, Vancouver; Miss N. M. Hazlitt, Seymour School, Vancouver; Bergie
Thorsteinssion, Division 2, Granby Bay School, Anyox.
Small Graded Schools (Two to Four Divisions,1.
Mrs. M. A. E. Bilton, Division 1, Murrayville School, Langley; R. W. McGowan, Division 1,
Burns Lake School; Mrs. A. M. Johnson, Division 2, Vanderhoof Superior School; C. E. Clay,
Division 2, Rutland Superior School; Miss Sydney G. Timaeus, Division 1, Corbin School;
Miss Helen Barton, Division 2, Clinton School; Miss Hazel E. Stewart, Division 2, North
Saanich Superior School; E. Crute, Division 1, Capilano School, ^Municipality of North
Vancouver; Miss Jean I. MacKinnon, Division 2, Truitvale School; Miss Gertrude Hawkswood,
Division 1, Colwood School.
\
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 69
Ungraded Schools.
Miss Louise Girling, Crescent School, Surrey Municipality; Miss Bessie Macfarlane, Sand-
spit School; Noel G. Duclos, Bouchie Lake School; Cecil Ritchie, Jura School; Miss Jean
Balfour, Hosmer School; Miss Mary MacKay, Blue River School; Joseph H. Terry, Englewood
School; Miss R. E. Drasching, Grandview Bench School; Miss Marjorie M. Bagshaw, Bamfield
School;   Miss Dorothy B. McLean, Passmore School;  Miss Lillian Brooks, Oyster School.
Three prizes of $10 each were awarded to each of the seventeen inspectorates; amount
expended under this head, $480;  three prizes not awarded.
PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1928-29.
For competition among the various schools during 1928-29 seventy-five prizes of $7 each
have been granted. These prizes are to be allocated as follows: Three prizes to each of the
seventeen inspectorates; fifteen prizes to Greater Vancouver; three prizes each to Victoria,
New Westminster, and Burnaby. For purposes of competition and inspection the schools in
each of the seventeen inspectorates are to be divided, where possible, into three groups, namely:
Group A, of five divisions or more; Group B, of two to four divisions, inclusive; Group C, of
schools containing only one room or division. In any inspectorate or municipality where this
classification is not applicable the matter of deciding what schools or divisions of schools are
entitled to receive awards is to be left to the discretion of the Inspector in charge.
The full amount of the award is to be expended for a picture or some piece of apparatus
(suitably inscribed) for the room or school in which the prize was won. Only those teachers
who are the holders of physical-training certificates granted under the Strathcona Trust are
eligible to compete.
SCHOOL CADET CORPS, 1927-28.
The following report on  the  activities  of the  school cadet corps  during  1927-28 was
submitted to the Local Committee by Captain J. M. Gumming, Inspector of Cadet Services:—
" Number of cadets between the ages of 12 and 18 years trained during the
year 1927-28   6,279
Number present at annual inspection   5,887
Number of cadet corps, active        66
" The above totals show a substantial increase in the number of cadets trained and
inspected over the totals of the previous year.
" Funds being provided for cadet-camp purposes by the Department of National Defence,
camps from eight to fourteen days' duration were held as under:—
Instructors. Cadets.
" North Vancouver   28 626
Victoria  (Rodd Hill)    10 249
Victoria (Heal's Range)    1 45
Kamioops (Notch Hill)   4 90
Armstrong and Vernon   3 79
Vancouver and New Westminster (Sea Cadets)  3 75
Penticton  2 40
Victoria (Sea Cadets)   2 32
Prince Rupert   2 24
Coqualeetza Institute (White Rock)   1 19
Kelowna  1 17
Totals     57 1,296
" The following courses for cadet instructors were held at Rodd Hill, Victoria: A qualifying
course, July 23rd to August 18th, attended by thirty prospective instructors drawn from all parts
of the Province; a refresher course, August 20th to September 1st, attended by twenty-eight
qualified instructors. This course was held as late as possible in order to accommodate teachers
who had attended the Summer School at the University.
" The annual inspection of each cadet corps in the Province was made during the months
of May and June.    The King Edward High School Cadet Corps gained the highest number of
 V 70 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28.
marks for general efficiency and became the holder of the I.O.D.E. cup for the next year. In the
competition among the Indian School Cadet Corps of the Province the Alert Bay took first place
and won for the second time the I.O.D.E. shield."
Details of the marks awarded each unit are given hereunder. In cases where the marks
were below 650, units were graded efficient or otherwise:—
(Possible marks, 1,000.)
101. King Edward High School, Vancouver  835
388. Boys' Central School, Victoria  830
101. Technical High School, Vancouver  810
101. Kitsilano High School, Vancouver  800
530. T. J. Trapp Technical School, New Westminster  795
388. North Ward School, Victoria  790
388. Sir James Douglas School, Victoria  775
101. Britannia High School, Arancouver  770
101. King George High School, Vancouver  740
388. Victoria West School, Victoria  735
388. South Park School, Victoria  725
1126. Armstrong and Spallumcheen, Armstrong  720
101. Cecil Rhodes School, Vancouver  715
101. Alexandra School, Vancouver  710
112. High School, Victoria  705
101. Aberdeen School, Vancouver  700
101. Charles Dickens School, Vancouver  695
101. Britannia Commercial High School, Vancouver  690
388. George Jay School, Victoria .'  685
101. Dawson School, Vancouver  680
938. Gilmore Avenue School, Burnaby  675
101. Model School, Vancouver  670
388. Quadra School, Victoria  670
101. Livingstone School, Vancouver  665
388. Burnside School, Victoria  650
101. Laura Secord School, Vancouver  650
101. Central School, Vancouver..  650
Twenty-seven prizes were awarded in accordance with the schedule adopted at the last
annual meeting of the Local Committee, held October 26th, 1928, one-half of each prize to be
paid to the corps and one-half to the instructor provided he is a public-school teacher qualified
as a cadet instructor.
The expenditure under this head for 1927-28 amounted to $341, and was made according
to the following schedule: 1st prize, $25; 2nd prize, $20; 3rd and 4th prizes, $18 each ; 5th and
6th prizes, $16 each; 7th and 8th prizes, $14 each; 9th to 13th prizes, inclusive, $12 each;
14th to 27th prizes, inclusive, $10 each.
RIFLE SHOOTING.
A vigorous programme of rifle shooting was carried out by nearly every cadet corps in the
Province. In many instances a very high standard of efficiency was attained. A satisfactory
number of entries were received for all Provincial and national competitions.
From the grant for rifle shooting, 1927-28, prizes were provided for fifty qualified corps or
units specified in returns—namely, $3.75 each; this amount to form cash prizes for the three
best shots in each corps or unit (1st prize, $1.50; 2nd prize, $1.25;  3rd prize, $1).
The expenditure under this head for 1927-28 amounted to $187.50.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1927-28.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Committee for the year 1927-28 amounted to $1,589.74
and the expenditure for the year $1,041.50, leaving a balance of $548.24. Of this latter sum,
$525 has already been voted for physical-training prizes for 1928-29.
 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1927-28. V 71
Receipts.
1927-28. Balance on hand from 1926-27  $552.47
.   Interest to November 30th, 1927  17.99
Interest to May 31st, 1928  8.55
Allowance to Secretary (added to fund)  10.00
Grant for 1927-28  1,000.73
$1,589.74
Expenditures.
1927-28. Prizes for physical training  $480.00
Prizes for cadet-training  341.00
Prizes for rifle shooting  187.50
Gold medals for Normal Schools  33.00
$1,041.50
Balance on hand     $548.24
 

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