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REPORT of the WATER RESOURCES SERVICE DECEMBER 31 1968 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1969

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister A. F. Paget, Deputy Minister of Water Resources
REPORT
of the
WATER
RESOURCES
SERVICE
DECEMBER 31
1968
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1969
COVER
Arrow Dam, Lower Arrow Lake, British
Columbia Hydro and Power Authority.
  Victoria. British Columbia, January 21, 1969
To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C., O.B.E., Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor oj the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British
Columbia Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and
Water Resources for the year ended December 31, 1968.
RAY WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
 Victoria, British Columbia, January 21, 1969.
The Honourable Ray Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, British Columbia.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
for the 12 months ended December 31, 1968.
A. F. PAGET,
Deputy Minister of Water Resources.
 CONTENTS
British Columbia Water Resources Service— Page
Report of the Deputy Minister  9
Water Rights Branch—
Report of the Comptroller of Water Rights  15
Water Licensing Division  21
District Engineers Division  21
Improvement Districts Division  3 0
Power and Major Licences Division  35
Water Investigations Branch—
Report of the Chief Engineer  49
Future and Ultimate Water Requirements, South Thompson River 51
Water Supply and Investigations Division  53
Hydrology Division  62
Groundwater Division  66
Basin Planning and Power Division  70
ARDA Division  73
Projects Division  79
Records Compilation and Reports Section  82
Draughting Office  8 3
Office of the Inspector of Dykes  87
Southern Okanagan Lands Project  91
Personnel Office  95
Accounting Division    97
Pollution Control Board  101
Pollution Control Branch  107
  ..;:.;,.,-
 BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
December 31,1968
A. F. Paget, Deputy Minister.
G. E. Simmons, Assistant Deputy Minister.
A. K. Sutherland, Departmental Solicitor.
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
H. D. DeBeck, Comptroller of Water Rights.
A. K. Sutherland, Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights.
WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
V. Raudsepp, Chief Engineer.
T. A. J. Leach, Assistant Chief Engineer.
POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
C. J. Keenan, Director.
W. N. Venables, Assistant Director.
INSPECTOR OF DYKES OFFICE
W. R. Meighen, Inspector of Dykes.
W. S. Jackson, Assistant Inspector of Dykes.
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
L. A. Pinske, Supervisor.
ACCOUNTING DIVISION*
M. B. Maclean, Departmental Comptroller.
PERSONNEL OFFICE*
K. M. Hanson, Personnel Officer.
MAIL AND FILE ROOMt
D. S. Preston, In Charge.
* Services shared with Lands Service.
t Services shared with Lands Service and Forest Service.
 WATER
RESOURCES
SERVICE
A. F. Paget, P.Eng.
Deputy Minister of
Water Resources
Throughout British Columbia, the year 1968 brought no large-scale variations
from the normal weather patterns. Some departure from the average was experienced, however, in the Lower Mainland and on Vancouver Island, where localized
storms created high flood flows on small streams in the very early part of the year.
Damage occurred in a few areas, and Departmental engineers were called upon
frequently for advice and direction.
Although the spring snow pack elsewhere in the Province was average or
slightly above, the run-off from the melting snow failed to produce above normal
high river levels, save in the Columbia region, where peak discharges did exceed
the average. With spring water levels on the rivers and lakes relatively low and
prolonged, communities had no cause to exercise the extensive flood-protection
measures of other years.
The utilization of the water resources of the Province continues to grow, and
the activities and functions within the Water Rights Branch have expanded with
this increasing demand. Applications for water licences of all kinds rose by 17.2
per cent over the number recorded in 1967. This is greatly in excess of the growth
rate of around 5 per cent of recent years.
Also showing a substantial increase is the number of requests to amend
licences because of a desire to modify or change works. This reflects the higher
land utilization as population density increases. One other reflection of growing
interest in water resource use is the number of objections filed in respect to proposed or existing developments. In 1968, 450 objections had been registered by
the end of the year, far in excess of previous years.
 Y 10
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Within the six districts which cover the Province, the District Engineers and
their respective staffs carried out not only their responsibilities under licensing
procedure, but also succeeded in completing numerous tasks associated with new
dams, emergency stream control, and other engineering services.
By arrangement, the 35 hospital improvement districts which had been inaugurated under the Water Act prior to 1968 were transferred to the jurisdiction
of the Department of Municipal Affairs. With new districts formed for other reasons
during the year, a total of 304 continue to function throughout British Columbia.
A number of these districts have embarked on capital works improvement
programmes. Over $4.9 million in such projects completed in 1968 were financed
largely through the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act.
The demand for electrical energy (hydro and thermal) provides another indicator of development in British Columbia, shown as follows: 1967,21,636 million
kilowatt-hours; 1968, 23,569 million kilowatt-hours (preliminary estimate), an
increase of 8.9 per cent.
By comparison, the 15-year average annual growth rate for generation is
7.3 per cent. Hydro-electric energy is generated under licence, and revenue from
such licences was just below %2Vz million for the year, an increase of over IVi
per cent from that received in 1967.
To keep pace with this growing demand, not only was the Gordon M. Shrum
Generating Station at the W. A. C. Bennett Dam activated in 1968, but a fourth
unit was added to the Cominco Ltd. plant at Brilliant on the Kootenay River and
a second unit completed by the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority at
the Strathcona Plant near Campbell River. The start-up of the initial three units
in the Gordon M. Shrum Generating Station, so named by the Honourable W. A. C.
Bennett, Prime Minister of British Columbia, met the planning deadline of first
generation by 1968. This was achieved through the controlled build-up of the stored
water in the reservoir, which was named Ray Williston Lake by the Honourable
the Prime Minister when he officiated at the power-house ceremonies.
The treaty projects on the Columbia River system advanced yet another step
when the Arrow Lakes Dam was placed in operation on October 10, 1968. Excellent progress has been reported on the construction of the giant Mica Dam.
The Water Resources Service is co-ordinating the preparation of the 40-mile
portion of the Libby reservoir, which extends northward from the International
Boundary toward Wardner on the Kootenay River. Organization was completed
in 1968 for this task, which must be finished in time for reservoir filling, slated to
commence in 1972.
The highlights of a statistical review of the extent of water licensing in British
Columbia indicate the major areas of demand, as follows:—
Licensed for-
Gallons per
Day
Cubic Feet
per Second
Acre-feet
Waterworks.
Domestic	
Power...	
Storage _.
Irrigation 	
Industrial-commercial—
Mining and processing.
Miscellaneous	
253,880,990
14,792,566
181,000
196,787,750
52,342,408
1,803,960
283
8
224,066
14,571
906
2,608
274,365
67
4,854,884
90,035,806
869,699
114,488
10,670
40,008
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Y 11
Engineering and inspection services under the Water Investigations Branch
continued to meet an increasing demand. Construction work in the field of water
resources projects amounted to about $6 million in 1968. Major works were those
being carried out under the ARDA agreement and the Canada Water Conservation
Assistance Act.
In May, 1968, British Columbia signed a Federal-Provincial agreement covering a plan for flood control in the Fraser Valley relating to dyking and river-bank
and drainage improvement in the area west from Chilliwack. Each senior government will contribute up to $18,000,000 over a 10-year period, with local participation in financing in accordance with a cost-sharing formula. Early in the 10-year
period, a reassessment of upstream storage potential for flood control will get
under way.
Further examination of the possibilities of diverting a relatively small portion
of the flow of the Shuswap River southward into the Okanagan River system was
carried out in a study which evaluated the water requirements of the South Thompson River system over the foreseeable future. The water supply in the Okanagan
River system will be the subject of further assessment in a joint Federal-Provincial
planning study to be initiated following upon an agreement reached between the
two governments in 1968.
The hydrology of British Columbia is being studied in greater depth than heretofore, as demands for water and more sophisticated methods of evaluation are
developed. Small research projects involving measurement of precipitation, stream
flow, ground-water elevations, and other related factors are being carried out in
selected drainage basins in the Province. Much of the information being gathered
will aid in the assessment of the water supplies in contiguous and similar river systems throughout British Columbia.
With the developments on the Peace River and the Columbia River nearing
completion in the not too distant future, the Water Resources Service has been
continuing its policy of exploring hydro-electric potential in yet untapped rivers.
A programme of exploration on the Liard River was continued in 1968 with the
test drilling of one of the more favourable dam-sites. The possibilities for this
major river in Northern British Columbia have not yet been fully evaluated.
The Water Resources Service grew out of the Water Rights Branch, which
carried the responsibility for the good management of the water resources of the
Province following its inception in 1909. Throughout the years there have been
only a very few on the staff who could count on a long association with the administration of this resource. In April of 1968, perhaps the last who could claim such
a relationship retired after 50 years' service with the Government of the Province
of British Columbia. Mr. Arthur George Sargent joined the Civil Service on April 1,
1918, as a junior clerk in the File Room of the Department of Lands. In 1922 he
moved to the Surveys Branch, and five years later commenced his long tenure with
the Water Rights Branch. Active in the general office, he acquired, through his
already extensive knowledge of filing methods, a mental record of the vast number
of files which he handled each year. Although his responsibilities lay in the administrative side, he retained an earlier interest in telegraphy and applied this knowledge and ability when he often took over the " key " in the old telegraph office
when his services were needed. Changes of personnel and routine gave him the
opportunity as Chief Clerk in 1951, and in 1956 he assumed the additional responsibility as Water Recorder for the Victoria Water District. Arthur Sargent chose
March 31, 1968, to retire and so terminated a long and intimate association with
the growth of administration of the water resources of British Columbia.
 Y 12
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The Pollution Control Branch completed an extremely active and demanding
year. This Branch, developing from its inauguration within the Water Resources
Service in 1965, was able to extend its services and inspections through the establishment of its first field offices. During 1968, 103 applications for permits were
received, and 45 permits were granted. Amendments to the regulations excluded
Class B wastes from the provisions of the Pollution Control Act, and added " refuse "
as an area of control with respect to land pollution.
The annual report of the Chairman of the Pollution Control Board precedes
the report of the Pollution Control Branch contained herein.
 WATER
RIGHTS
BRANCH
The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which administers
the control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water Act.
The main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:—
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all the water at any time in any
stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in right of the Province.   The common-law principle of riparian water right has been abolished.
(2) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions of the
water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Earlier licences have priority over licences issued later.
(3) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water, payment
of the water-licence rentals, and observance of the regulations of the Water Act.
(4) A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land, mine, or undertaking, and it will pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof.
(5) If it is necessary that a water licensee construct works on another person's land, he
can expropriate the land reasonably required if an amicable agreement cannot be
reached. If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee may acquire a permit
to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to supervise generally and assist
the administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under the Water
Act. An improvement district is a self-governing public corporate body administered by elected
Trustees. The undertaking of an improvement district can be financed by Provincially guaranteed debenture issues.
The administration of the Water Act is carried out by the Comptroller of Water Rights and
his staff, who are located at a headquarters office in Victoria and district offices at Victoria,
Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, Prince George, and Mission City.
Water is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on economic development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand by the users of other
resources. Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this Province is associated with the use of British Columbia water. A large number of communities have been
incorporated into improvement districts under the Water Act to operate community projects and
provide essential amenities.
 Y 14
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
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 WATER
RIGHTS
BRANCH
H. D. DeBeck, P.Eng.
Comptroller of Water Rights
The Water Rights Branch is responsible for the administration of all use of
water in British Columbia under the provisions of the Water Act. For this purpose
a licensing system has been developed over the course of the last century, from its
origin in the Gold Fields Act of 1859 through a gradual evolution to the first Water
Act of 1909 and on to the present Water Act. In addition to providing for the
administration of water use, the Water Act also provides for the incorporation of
improvement districts which provide local services in water-related fields. The
Water Rights Branch also carries out a great number of engineering studies on water
matters, including water supply, erosion, and flood damage and some aspects of
pollution control. The capital undertakings of improvement districts are given
careful scrutiny, both with regard to economic feasibility and engineering adequacy,
and some engineering services are provided to improvement districts and to groups
proposing to organize districts for water-supply purposes. During 1968 a large
number of water-supply feasibility studies were carried out, and final design and
supervision of construction were provided to improvement districts by both headquarters and regional engineering staff.
In terms of water supply, the year 1968 started out with unusually high storm
flows in many of the small streams in the Lower Mainland area and Vancouver
Island. This caused damaging flooding from many streams, and District Engineers'
staffs in these areas were frequently called on for advice on the engineering problems
involved and the organization required to resolve these problems. In some cases
direct assistance on a cost-sharing basis was given. Snow-melt floods were moderate
and caused little concern. Water-supply conditions during the early summer were
adequate, and seasonal shortages were relieved in most areas by unusually heavy
precipitation in August and September.
The trend of steadily increasing activity in the water-licensing field, which has
been evident in recent years, continued at an accelerated rate through 1968. A
record number of 1,624 applications for new licences was received, an increase of
17.2 per cent over the number received in 1967, which was the previous high.
Because of staff turnover and staff shortages, it was not possible to process this
number of applications, either at the district offices or in Victoria, and as a result
the number of applications awaiting investigation and adjudication increased to a
level beyond previous experience. Because water licences are permanent, all applications are carefully investigated both on the ground and through the office record
system. This leaves little flexibility in dealing with an increasing work load in this
most important phase of the administrative work.
The Improvement Districts Division was active during the year. Hospital
improvement districts, which had been set up under the Water Act to arrange the
financing of hospitals, were transferred to the administration of the Department of
15
 Y 16 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Municipal Affairs. A Government decision was made that new improvement
districts would not normally be incorporated under the Water Act for purposes like
fire protection and street-lighting that are not related to water, and that powers
for these purposes would not be granted to existing improvement districts. In spite
of this, 16 new improvement districts were incorporated during the year and
boundary extensions were authorized for many districts. The present number of
improvement districts in existence is 304.
The Improvement Districts Division also carried out feasibility studies for a
number of proposed water-supply systems, and provided final design and supervision of construction for several projects under which improvement district water
systems are being rehabilitated with the assistance of the Federal and Provincial
Governments under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act. The
engineering and economic feasibility of water-supply projects being undertaken by
improvement districts was also studied by this division.
The Power and Major Licences Division continued to be occupied during the
year with work associated with approval of plans and other aspects of the Columbia
River Treaty projects and the Peace River project. The Peace River project commenced power operations in September, 1968, and the Arrow Lakes Dam on the
Columbia was declared operational in October. A number of other projects were
also reviewed, and a programme of inspection of all major dams in the Province
was continued. Technical services were provided to support the Deputy Minister
in his position on the Columbia River Treaty Permanent Engineering Board and
the Comptroller on the Advisory Sub-committee to the Canada-British Columbia
Columbia River Liaison Committee. Extensive use of the computer is made by
this Division for power-licence rentals, statistical studies of water use, and various
engineering studies. Considerable effort was expended during the year in rewriting
computer programmes for the I.B.M. 360 system.
Because of the wide seasonal variation in stream flows in British Columbia,
the storage of water is one of the most significant features of water management in
the Province. About 600 storage dams are now under licence in British Columbia.
In some circumstances, such dams are capable of imposing a severe hazard to life
and property, particularly in the mountain valleys of British Columbia. For this
reason, a programme of inspection of storage dams is carried on using the powers
of the engineer and the Comptroller under the Water Act. This programme is
divided between the staff of the district offices and the headquarters staff of the
Power and Major Licences Division.
The year 1968 was again marked by a large number of staff changes, particularly in the general office and draughting office. Mr. A. G. Sargent retired as
Chief Clerk, after completing 50 years of service with the Provincial Government.
He was succeeded as Chief Clerk by Mr. J. W. P. Martin, who had been serving
as Principal Clerk. The Principal Clerk position was eliminated and replaced by
two Senior Clerk positions heading the Applications and Amendments Sections.
These new positions were filled by Mr. R. S. Bussey as head of the Applications
Section and Mr. J. A. Pilon as head of the Amendments Section. There were also
a large number of changes in junior clerical and draughtsman positions.
In the engineering field, Mr. N. I. Cross joined the Power and Major Licences
Division and Mr. B. A. Lambert transferred from the Prince George District office
to the Improvement Districts Division in Victoria. Mr. P. E. Anning resigned
from the Kamloops office engineering staff, and Mr. R. C. Schurr resigned from
the Nelson office. Mr. W. M. Cheney joined the engineering staff of the Kelowna
office. At the end of the year there were three engineering vacancies in the district
offices, the same number as at the beginning of the year.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 17
The effect of these staff changes and shortages, combined with the unprecedented increase in the number of water-licence applications, has been a marked
increase in the amount of administrative work outstanding.
The activities of the Water Rights Branch for 1968 are recorded in greater
detail in the reports of the separate divisions of the Branch, which follow.
WATER LICENSING DIVISION
W. R. Tuthill, Chief of Division
The Comptroller of Water Rights administers the Water Act, under which
rights to the diversion of water within the Province are granted for almost every
conceivable use. Licences are issued for domestic, waterworks, irrigation, mining,
industrial, power, storage, and other purposes. Licences are required, with few
exceptions, before any person, company, corporation, community, or government
agency uses water from any surface-water source.
The Licensing Division is responsible for the processing of new applications
for licences and amendments to existing licences. In order to maintain complete
records, the Division is divided into two offices—the General Office, which handles
the clerical aspects of licensing, and the Draughting Office, which handles the mapping requirements. These offices are responsible for maintaining the many files,
indexes, maps, and other records required for the orderly processing of new and
pending applications and keeping track of the rights granted under existing licences
and amendments thereto. Close liaison is required with the District Engineers
Division and its six district offices, situated at strategic locations in the Province,
for field investigations and reports on applications and amendments.
The number of applications received continued to increase in 1968, with a
record total of 1,624 being filed. Pending applications increased from 1,701 at
December 31, 1967, to 2,019 at December 31, 1968. Licences issued decreased
from 1,734 to 1,532.
The main functions and details of activities for 1968 of the General and
Draughting Offices are contained in their reports, which follow.
General Office
The increase in the number of new applications received annually, which has
been apparent over the past four years, has continued, and the 1967 record total
of 1,386 applications was reached by November of 1968. Once again, many applications for licences to authorize the use of water on subdivisions have been received,
entailing close co-operation with the Public Utilities Commission. It appears probable that, with the continuing influx of new residents to British Columbia and the
subdivision of lands that were previously agricultural to provide residential space
for them, we shall be faced with more and more applications for licences for waterworks purpose, and more and more applications to change the purpose of existing
licences from irrigation to either waterworks or domestic purpose.
The spreading public interest in legalizing water use, indicated by the rise in
the number of new applications during 1968, has brought with it an increase in
the number of objections to applications that we have received. For the first time
this year, records of these have been kept, and the total of 450 during the year
represents considerable additional work at both the district office level and in the
General Office.
The two major sections of the General Office, the Applications and Amendments Sections, have each been put in charge of a Clerk 5, and the Clerk 6 position
 Y 18
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
has been eliminated. The present establishment of the General Office comprises
one Clerk 7, two Clerks 5, three Clerks 4, three Clerks 3, two Clerks 2, two Clerks 1,
one Clerk-Stenographer 3, one Clerk-Stenographer 2, and one Clerk-Typist 2.
There have been one transfer to another department, two resignations, two promotions within the office, and two transfers from other departments, and three new
employees have joined the staff.
The principal activities of the General Office in the 12-month period ended
December 31, 1968, are shown in the following table, together with the same data
for the five preceding years:—
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
Applications for—
Licences  	
1,335
164
53
65
264
17
1,119
207
47
72
306
40
1,277
273
68
90
329
44
1,333
259
65
112
367
32
1,386
271
82
92
317
37
1,624
339
Apportionments	
73
97
324
40
Totals 	
1,898
1,791
2,081
2,168
2,185
2,497
158
149
173
181
182
208
Changes of address, ownership, etc	
2,264
270
2,274
258
2,348
350
2,144
254
2,884
267
2,921
296
Totals „,	
2,534
2,532
2,698
2,398
3,151
3,217
760
258
1,026
422
1,034
415
1,163
543
1,122
612
1,127
405
1,018
1,448
1,449
1,706
1,734
1,532
210
19
297
28
333
38
338
25
333
27
347
30
Totals	
229
325
371
363
360
377
(1)
C1)
C1)
(!)
(i)
450
5,679
6,092
6,599
6,635
7,430
8,073
i No records kept.
Note.—" Extension of time '
1963 to 1966, inclusive.
orders have been consolidated with " applications for change of works " for
Administrative Draughting Office
The Administrative Draughting Office is staffed by a Chief Draughtsman, a
Supervising Draughtsman, nine draughtsmen, and one clerk. The main functions
of this office are checking the legal status and clearing of water applications; compiling, revising, and maintaining water rights maps; preparing plans for water
licences; clearing land applications for the Lands Branch; checking petitions and
preparing legal descriptions for improvement districts; and attending to requests
for maps and various information from our district offices, other departments of
Government, and the public.
Applications for water licences and amendments to licences received by the
Licensing Division are cleared through the Draughting Office, and a complete check
is made of the legal status of every application received. In most cases this work
entails a search of records of other departments of Government, such as Land Registry Office, Surveyor of Taxes, Lands Branch, Department of Highways, etc. Upon
completion of this work, all applications are entered on the water rights maps and
in the stream registers, which together form a record of all pertinent data regarding
all water licences and applications within the Province.
The Draughting Office is responsible for checking all petitions received requesting incorporation into an improvement district. Checking petitions involves searches
of records of the Land Registry Office and Surveyor of Taxes to obtain correct property descriptions.   When the petitions to incorporate an improvement district have
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Y 19
been checked and found correct, a plan showing all lands within the boundaries of
the proposed district is drawn up and a legal description defining the boundaries of
the district is prepared. During 1968, 16 new districts were incorporated and the
boundaries of 59 districts were amended. Considerable time was also spent by the
staff on draughting work for the Improvement Districts Division and the Power and
Major Licences Division.
The table and charts which follow illustrate the work which the Draughting
Office has handled during the last five years:—
i
1964    I     1965 1966
I
1967
1968
New water licence applications cleared and plotted on maps.
Final- and conditional-licence plans prepared  __„
New water rights maps compiled and traced  _.
Water rights maps revised .
New improvement districts described and plans prepared	
Improvement districts' descriptions and plans amended	
Reference maps renewed.
Extensions of time, apportionments, transfer of appurtenancy.
Change of works _ 	
Approvals    	
Rights-of-way over Crown land  ... __ 	
Change of ownership and cancellations  	
Land clearances (purchases, leases, Crown grants, etc.)	
Land clearances (cancellations)   _	
Totals.
1,099
1,633
50
15
25
47
13
274
147
28
297
2,532
7,155
2,263
15,578
1,184
1,587
71
15
19
46
21
289
198
38
333
2,698
6,475
2,251
15,217
1,268
1,920
40
8
9
52
46
368
176
25
337
2,410
6,641
1,299
1,957
59
9
12
38
40
174
317
37
333
3,151
6,662
I
1,493    |       280    j
1,533
1,640
26
6
16
59
29
158
320
26
347
3,217
6,759
57
14,793
14,368    |  14,193
 Y 20
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
APPLICATIONS
RECEIVED
1335 1333
1277
APPLICATIONS
OUTSTANDING
MAJOR AMENDMENTS
TO   LICENCES
491   494
231   235
282
262
356
362
140
lag
OO — OJ (T) ^  _0 <D r^ CO       0.O — (\1 n ^ 'TO MO       O) O —  OJrO^tLOCOr-T'OO
-OtoiDtoco<oto(oto<o     ir)cotoiocotD(oio<oco     Lntocoiotoiocoiototo
050.05050)0.0)0.0)0)     cjicjioioicncyiocTiaiCTi     cyi<jicTiC7>cyicyiaicy>ai<ji
1026    _-
/""I.034
683
: 'i
1122
/       415
/
A
274 /
~~~._^222 /
''258
V
CLIICDENICE#L F1NAL   LICENCES
~~  ISSUED
TOTAL    LICENCES
ISSUED
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 21
DISTRICT ENGINEERS DIVISION
M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Chief of Division
As in the past, the district offices, each in the charge of a District Engineer,
have continued to operate with a high degree of independence in the matter of administration of water licences within the water districts for which each office is
responsible. District offices are located at Kamloops, Kelowna, Mission City, Nelson, Prince George, and Victoria. Each region for which a district office is responsible is divided into a number of water districts for administrative purposes.
A very serious situation has developed over the past several years with respect
to the large number of applications for new water licences awaiting investigation
and report by our district offices. During 1968 an all-out effort was made by the
District Engineers to reduce the backlog of outstanding applications at each of the
district offices. The result of the effort was only disappointing because the record
number of new applications received during the year almost equalled the number
of outstanding applications investigated and reported on or otherwise disposed of.
A record number, 1,334, of reports on water licence applications were prepared and
forwarded by the district offices, the Kamloops office alone accounting for 432 of
these.
Other activities normally carried on by the regional offices were curtailed to
some degree because of the concentration of effort on water-licence applications.
The situation was relieved to a considerable extent, however, because of the cool
and relatively damp weather that persisted throughout most of the water districts
during the summer season and resulted in a respite from the large number of water-
use complaints normally received. The District Engineer at Victoria was required
to carry out an abnormally large number of investigations of erosion and flooding
problems which resulted from extremely heavy rainfall during lanuary on Vancouver Island. The Prince George-McBride area produced its own problems when
widely fluctuating temperatures occurring during January caused a build-up of
frazil ice in many of the streams and resulted in overtopping of the stream banks
and flooding by freezing water. Our District Engineer at Prince George was involved in efforts by Government to provide relief in the most acute of these cases.
The Prince George and the Kelowna District Offices continued to lend assistance in the way of engineering field supervision for projects being carried out by
the Improvement Districts Division within their regions, and the Kamloops District
Office supervised the completion of construction of the Smith Lake dam for the
Darfield Irrigation District. Besides these projects, a number of water-supply feasibility reports were prepared and some flooding- and erosion-protection work carried out in co-operation with owners who contributed toward the cost of such work.
As at the end of the year, engineering vacancies still existed at the Kamloops,
Nelson, and Prince George District Offices. Recruiting has met with some success.
Mr. W. M. Cheney, P.Eng., joined our staff as Assistant District Engineer at Kelowna, and new technician positions were added to the Kamloops and Mission City
District Offices, these positions being filled by Messrs. D. A. MacKinlay, by promotion, and D. C. Danard respectively.
The following table summarizes the routine work carried out by the respective
district offices and indicates the state of the water-licence application situation at
the end of the report period:—
 Y 22
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Summary of Routine Water-resource Administrative Work and Status of Water-
licence Application Situation at District Offices for Period November 1, 1967,
to October 31, 1968.
District Offices
Kamloops
Kelowna
Mission
City
Nelson
176
108
243
229
248
210
209
230
143
24
5
19
172
121
291
3
9
6
29
147
102
53
31
19
66
148
183
196
37
189
89
3
2
2
9
3
8
47
4
2
11
17
15
47
20
54
Prince
George
Victoria
Total
Applications for water licences—
On hand, November 1, 1967	
Received during year 	
Inspected and reported on	
Cancelled or abandoned  	
On hand, October 31, 1968  	
Applications for approvals under Water
Act, section 7, reported on	
Final water-licence reports submitted	
Licence amendment reports submitted ...
Minor licence amendments including extension of time  	
New conditional water licences	
New final water licences 	
Water-supply  engineering reports  prepared    	
Miscellaneous engineering investigations
and studies ....    	
Water-storage dams inspected 	
Snow-course samplings 	
Ground-water observation wells recorded      	
Meetings attended	
3941
360
432
38
284
3
79
53
9
272
46
1
14
14
23
118
142
123
21
116
6
27
96
30
16
4
3
26
71
196
197
5
65
3
56
19
30
112
41
1,1101
1,385
1,334
112
1,049
30
440
10
15
15
1,007
432
10
60
86
28
18
185
i Revised from last year.
The separate reports of the District Engineers in charge of the six regional
offices are presented below.
Kamloops District Office
D. E. Smuin, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kamloops District Office administers the Water Act in the Kamloops,
Ashcroft, Cariboo, and Nicola Water Districts within the Fraser River drainage
basin in the south-central area of the Province. While Kamloops is not at the
geographical centre of this area, it is located within the part of the Interior dry
belt where many administrative problems arise.
Below average winter snowfall at lower elevations during the previous winter,
followed by a cold, dry spring, resulted in reduced soil-moisture conditions and delayed planting for most ranchers. This was followed by above average rainfall,
however, and most areas had an abundant water supply during the growing season.
The number of applications for new water licences is increasing each year, and
the diminishing availability of unrecorded water in the more settled areas requires
that more time and study be spent in the investigation and processing of each water
application. Three hundred and sixty applications were received at this office, an
increase of 44 over those received in 1966 and 54 over 1967.
A concerted effort to reduce the substantial backlog of work existing at the
Kamloops office was made during the year, and resulted in a total of 432 applications for water licences being disposed of. Resignations from staff, in addition to
the large number of new applications for water licences and water-licence amendments, prevented reducing the backlog of work as much as hoped for. Assistant
District Engineer Peter Anning resigned to return to his home in the United
Kingdom.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 23
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Supervised repair of flood damage on Guichon Creek near Lower Nicola.
Prepared report on use of ground-water by mining interests in Highland Valley
area near Ashcroft.
Prepared hydrology studies on Walloper and Deep Creeks in Kamloops area in
connection with a proposal to store water on Stake Lake, Upper Monte Creek
watershed near Ducks Prairie in connection with proposed storage of water on
Stevens Meadow, Brenda-Pennask-Spahomin watersheds in connection with diversions proposed by Brenda Mines Ltd., Pimainus Creek in connection with proposed
diversions.
Prepared a report on the possibility of water diversion from McGillivray Creek
to Heffley Lake for Heffley Creek Irrigation District.
Reported on channel-improvement work required for Ross Creek at Magna
Bay and supervised construction of work prior to the spring freshet.
Prepared a design for intake works for a small community water system from
Bee Spring at Paul Lake near Kamloops.
Assisted Pollution Control Branch personnel in the measurement of flow of a
number of small streams in the Canim Lake watershed.
Kelowna District Office
R. J. Talbot, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Princeton, Fairview, Grand Forks, Vernon, and Revelstoke Water Districts fall under the jurisdiction of the Kelowna office. These districts comprise the
drainage basins of the Kettle, Similkameen, and Okanagan River, the Shuswap
River above Sicamous, and part of the Columbia River from its confluence with
the Canoe River downstream to the Arrow Lakes.
The weather during 1968 in this area was generally mild to cool. A good
snowfall fell on the hills and in the valleys, and moderate spring showers resulted
in a normal snow-melt. Very hot weather was experienced in July, but August
turned cool. Showers continued through August, September, and October, with
the weather drying somewhat toward the end of October. Mild rain on an above-
average low-elevation snow-pack in the last week of January and again on February 21st resulted in a rapid snow-melt which caused erosion in valley-bottom
gullies that have not experienced flow for some years. Because of cool, moist
conditions in the late summer, water was in good supply and many licensees have
a generous carry-over in their storage reservoirs. The Okanagan Lake peaked at
elevation 1,123.65 feet G.S.C. datum on June 27th, bringing the lake-level to within
0.25 feet of full storage.
New applications received this year were 229, up somewhat from 209 received
in 1967. A great many new applications for water licences are for lands adjacent to
the Shuswap River between Enderby and Sicamous, probably as a result of a new
awareness of water requirements brought about by discussions on the proposed
Shuswap-Okanagan diversion.
There has been an increase in demand for water from the Trout Creek-Peach-
land-Pennask watersheds, and some inquiries by improvement districts and the
City of Vernon in the Kalamalka Lake-Beaver Lake-Duteau Creek watersheds.
This has resulted in a need for precise evaluation of the hydrology of these watersheds to determine if water to satisfy the needs is available, and to determine methods
by which the present and future water licences should be administered.
Of the 47 dams inspected this past year, those of note are the 105-foot-high
earth-fill dam completed by the City of Penticton at the headwaters of Penticton
 Y 24 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Creek and the 85-foot-high earth-fill dam on Peachland Lake being constructed by
Brenda Mines Ltd. Brenda Mines Ltd. has also commenced the construction of
the 100-foot-high zoned-rock upstream and downstream toes of its tailings dam in
McDonald Creek, a dam that will eventually be 300 feet high. Dams at Naramata
Lake and Eleanor Lake (gate only) and at Whitehead Lake on the headwaters of
Trout Creek were reconstructed during the year and were the subject of several
inspections by personnel of this office.
The issuance of domestic water licences on Priest Creek, an application for a
water licence for irrigation from Vaseux Creek, and the operation of an irrigation
intake drawing water from the Lower Nipit Lake were matters which raised sharp
controversy and required considerable attention from our staff.
The Kelowna office suffered from a shortage of one Assistant District Engineer.
Nevertheless, several engineering feasibility studies were conducted, and we continued the supervision of the reconstruction of the irrigation distribution system
for Wood Lake Irrigation District.   This latter project will be completed in 1969.
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Draft of a feasibility study to determine the economic feasibility of Rutland
Waterworks District, serving the West Rutland area with domestic water.
Draft of a feasibility study for Covert Irrigation District, near Grand Forks,
to determine the economic feasibility of constructing works and developing an
alternate source that would supplement or replace its present July Creek source of
water.
Continued supervision to the completion of the Shinish Creek to Chain Lake
diversion project.
Prepared a report on possible dyke and bank protection for several properties
on the Eagle River, 1 mile west of Malakwa.
Assisted personnel of the Improvement Districts Engineering Section in obtaining field data for a study for the rehabilitation of the rural domestic water-
supply system for a number of waterworks districts within the Municipality of
Spallumcheen.
Inspected Keremeos Creek and conducted some brief surveys as to possible
creek relocation and flood protection during the spring freshet.
Inspected Olalla Waterworks District intake on Olalla Creek and made suggestions for alterations to the intake dam to permit easier removal of silts and
gravels from the pond behind the intake dam.
Mission City District Office
E. G. Harrison, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Mission District Office is responsible for the administration of the Water
Act in the Vancouver and New Westminster Water Districts in South-western
British Columbia. This area, comprising 40,000 square miles, contains half the
population and the majority of industries of the Province.
Interest in water licences continues to grow and is reflected in a 20-per-cent
increase over last year in the number of applications received. Applications for
water licences received during 1968 was well above the average for the seven years
this office has been established. A new interest in water rights by people owning
property which may be crossed by the proposed new railway to Roberts Bank is
also apparent.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 25
Licences are again being recommended on some streams which in the past
have been noted as fully recorded. In some cases, stream-flows have improved
from natural causes, and in others, old licences have become cancelled or abandoned or the quantity of water authorized to be diverted has been decreased in
converting from conditional licence to final licence.
Increasing demands are being made on the water resources to meet needs
connected with recreation. The proposal to hold the Winter Olympics at Whistler
Mountain has resulted in thorough investigations being required by this office in
connection with water requirements. In the Lower Fraser Valley the irrigation
needs of several existing and proposed golf courses have been reviewed with the
owners in connection with applications for water licences, and the water requirements of several proposed marinas and summer-home sites on the Sunshine Coast
were investigated.
The summer of 1968 was wetter than average, and fewer complaints of water
shortages were received. In the irrigated areas, such as the Lower Fraser Valley,
sprinkler irrigation is replacing flood irrigation, resulting in a more efficient use of
water and fewer complaints of water shortages.
A technician has been added to the staff to assist in keeping abreast of work
associated with the continued growth in district office activities. The staff now
consists of a District Engineer, Assistant District Engineer, clerk-stenographer, one
technician, and two engineering aides.
During the year six orders were issued under authority of section 37 of the
Water Act, and several warning letters were sent in connection with offences against
the Water Act. The District Engineer was summonsed to witness in Supreme Court
regarding the unauthorized diversion of a stream in North Vancouver. Several
other disputes were settled out of Court.
Engineering Investigations and Projects
A domestic water-supply feasibility report was prepared for the Saltery Bay
Water-users' Community.
Assisted the Town of Hope in planning and construction of dykes on the
Coquihalla River.
Assisted the Army Engineering Services in restoring Lorenzetta Creek at
Laidlaw to its original course.
Conducted a preliminary study for water supply for an area east of Hatzic.
Reviewed the Silverdale feasibility water-supply report and assisted in groundwater studies.
Nelson District Office
T. H. Oxland, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Nelson District Office administers the Water Act in the Nelson, Kaslo,
Cranbrook, Fernie, and Golden Water Districts, which comprise some 26,000
square miles in the south-east corner of British Columbia. A permanent staff consisting of a District Engineer, two Assistant Engineers, a field survey-party chief,
and a clerk-stenographer make up the office personnel. During the summer two
student survey assistants were employed to assist with final-licence surveys. At the
present time a vacancy exists in one of the assistant engineer positions.
The weather in the Kootenay area this year was in direct contrast to that of
1967. A warm, dry winter was followed by a cold, wet spring and summer. The
snow-pack in the Kootenay area was generally below average as of March 1st,
and indications were that a water-short summer would follow.   This water shortage
 Y 26 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
did not materialize, however, because of the above-normal precipitation during the
summer in this area. These weather conditions had a direct bearing on reducing
the number of problems arising from water use, since adequate suppUes were
generally available throughout the district.
Unusual weather conditions early in June did cause flooding in the Nelson
area in spite of below normal snow-pack. Heavy rainfall during mild weather at
this time caused tributary creeks to flood in the Slocan River valley, the Kootenay
River valley below Kootenay Lake, and the Salmo River valley. Cost of property
damage and flood-damage repair has been estimated at $200,000.
There have been continued requests in connection with improvement districts
and water-users' communities for assistance in technical and administrative matters.
During the year the District Engineer assisted in the organization of proposed improvement districts and water-users' communities at Wasa Lake near Kimberley,
Krestova, Elko, and Orde Creek near Creston.
The Technical Planning Committee meetings for three regional districts within
the Nelson District were attended throughout the year. Apart from discussion of
local problems concerning the Water Act, the main topic under consideration at
these meetings was the preparation of basic regional plans.
There has been a noticeable increase in industrial and agricultural activity in
the East Kootenay area of the district which has reflected in an interest in water.
The agricultural development, especially in the area from Fort Steele to Windermere
Lake, included the amalgamation of small farm holdings into larger units with
subsequent increase in demand for available water. The expansion of forest and
mining industries, particularly in the Canal Flats, Elko, and Sparwood areas, has
produced special problems. In particular, the advent of large-scale strip mining in
the Crowsnest coalfields is of special concern in respect to the effect these operations
will have on watershed and resource management.
The interest in recreational development in the Rossland area, the Radium
Junction area, and at Crawford Bay on Kootenay Lake has resulted in an increase
in the number of applications for water licences in these areas.
A trend to change of land use, from agricultural purpose to residential settlement, has increased the number of applications for amendment of existing water
licences. This is particularly noticeable around established urban areas and in
the semi-rural strip developments in the Lower Slocan and Kootenay River valleys.
A feasibility report for domestic water supply for the Canal Flats Improvement District was completed this year, and the district is proceeding with plans for
a start on the construction of the scheme.
Two officers of the Pollution Control Branch moved into this district office
in January. Liaison between the two branches has been of mutual benefit; however, limited office space has created some problems.
Assistant District Engineer R. C. Schurr resigned in August to continue his
education at university. A field survey assistant was hired on a temporary basis
to assist in final-licence surveys, calculations, and draughting.
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Continued work on feasibility reports for Ootischenia Improvement District,
Slocan Park Improvement District, Ainsworth townsite, and Oasis Improvement
District.
The design of the new intake works for the Village of Silverton was completed; however, the village decided not to proceed with the construction and the
report has been filed for future reference.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 27
Reviewed consultant's plans for rehabilitation of the intake dam for Blueberry
Creek Improvement District and subsequently inspected the construction to ensure
requirements for grouting and spillway capacity were fulfilled.
Inspected the construction of Rosebud Lake dam south of Salmo. This construction was undertaken by units of the Canadian Armed Services Reserve for the
Anglican Church of Canada in connection with development of a summer camp
operated by the church.
Investigated the effect of logging operations on several creeks, including Little-
john Creek near Creston, Macauly Creek at Edgewater, Kelly Creek near Fruitvale,
Ezra Creek near Thrums, and Summit Creek near Salmo. An order under section
37, to clean logging debris from Macaulay Creek, was issued.
Supervised a river-bank protection project on the Bugaboo River near Spilli-
macheen.
The District Engineer, in liaison with the Regional District of Central Kootenay,
investigated the supply of domestic water for Mirror Lake, and a water-supply
feasibility report is under preparation. At present this community is preparing a
petition to form an improvement district.
Investigated and reported on the proposed rehabilitation of the borrow area
developed during construction of the High Arrow Dam.
Prince George District Office
C. E. Wilson, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Prince George, Quesnel, Peace River, Laird, Atlin, Fort Fraser, Hazelton,
and Prince Rupert Water Districts, comprising approximately the northerly two-
thirds of British Columbia, are administered by the Prince George District Office.
The staff is made up of a District Engineer, Assistant District Engineer, an engineering assistant, and a stenographer. A student was employed during the summer
to assist in the draughting and survey duties of the office.
An unusually warm period in mid-January caused extensive flooding in the
Upper Fraser Valley areas at Dome Creek and McBride. The damage was made
more severe as the mild temperature changed to 30 degrees below zero overnight,
freezing the flood waters in some homes and completely choking the creeks with
frazil ice. In the Prince George area this thawing and freezing caused widespread
flooding of roads and fields and damaged some of the hay lands. Some concern
was voiced over the flood hazard imposed by the heavy snow-pack in the Terrace
area, but a uniform spring run-off eliminated this danger. There were no water
shortages during the summer as the weather generally was wetter than usual.
A number of the towns and villages in the area have increased their diversion
licences in keeping with the population growth taking place. Areas such as
Houston, Terrace, Stewart, Fort Nelson, and Mackenzie are experiencing rapid
industrial growth and a corresponding population growth. The Vanderhoof, Burns
Lake, and Quesnel areas have had an influx of American immigrants who have
purchased ranches.   These new settlers are keenly aware of the importance of water.
The interest in forming improvement districts for waterworks purpose is still
high. The Blackburn, Pineview, Endako, and Wells areas were incorporated this
past year.
The District Engineer attended meetings of the Technical Planning Board
Committees of the Bulkley-Nechako Regional District as well as the new Fraser-
Fort George Regional District.
The Queen Charlotte Islands were visited by the summer survey crew to
finalize many licences and to inspect new applications for water licences. The last
previous trip to the area was in 1965.
 Y 28 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Inspected erosion damage at Houston, Valemount, Hixon, Mud River at
Beaverly, and Foreman Flats at Prince George. Remedial action was recommended
at Valemount.
Inspected flooding damage at McBride, Dome Creek, Vanderhoof, Burns Lake,
and Giscome. Dome Creek at Dome Creek and Dore Creek at McBride caused
extensive damage to private property when a severe freeze followed thawing conditions. Extensive work was carried out in conjunction with the Department of Highways at Dome Creek during the emergency. Remedial work was undertaken on
Dore Creek at McBride during October.
Inspected dams at Silverthorne Creek at Houston, Upper Dragon Creek at
Quesnel, as well as smaller dams scattered throughout the area. The W. A. C.
Bennett Dam, Kenney Dam, and Skins Lake Dam were inspected in the company
of the design engineers and the Comptroller of Water Rights.
Water-supply feasibility studies were completed for the newly formed Endako
Improvement District and Crooked River Improvement District.
Worked in conjunction with the Improvement Districts Division in completing
a feasibility study for water- and sewerage-system extensions for Fort Nelson Improvement District and assisted the town with the letting of contracts for the installation of a gas heater and controls for a new elevated storage tank.
Attended meetings at Vanderhoof, McBride, La Freniere Subdivision, Western
Acres Improvement District, Nechako Improvement District, Pineview Improvement
District, Endako Improvement District, Cottonwood Improvement District, and
Town of Fort St. John to discuss water problems.
Made an appraisal of a consulting engineer's report for proposed sewerage
system at Fort Fraser.
Inspected complaints at Vanderhoof, Quesnel, Giscome, Hixon, Alexandria,
and Smithers concerning interference with watercourses.
Victoria District Office
P. G. Odynsky, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Victoria District Office administers the Water Act throughout Vancouver
Island, the Gulf Islands, and adjacent islands, comprising the Victoria, Nanaimo,
and Alberni Water Districts.
The office staff in 1968 consisted of a District Engineer and one engineering
technician who assisted the District Engineer by making inspections of applications
for water licences, licence amendments, and complaints of water shortages and
water damage. Two student assistants were employed during the summer in carrying out final-licence surveys under the supervision of the engineering technician.
Excessive winter rainfall reached a climax on and following January 20th, and
was accompanied by warm winds rapidly melting high-level snows. Flooding and
erosion occurred extensively in many communities, notably at Cowichan Lake,
Duncan, Nanaimo, Wellington, Courtenay, Campbell River, Kelsey Bay, and Port
Alberni.   Investigations were made of numerous complaints of water damage.
Rainfall during the summer months was normal except during June, when water
shortages were experienced on some streams. Complaints of shortages on Hagan
Creek in Central Saanich, Veitch Creek at Sooke, and Millstone River at Nanaimo
required investigation and regulation of water use.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 29
A large increase has been noted in the number of applications received for
residential water supplies for waterfront real estate subject to subdivision. Such
applications require extensive and detailed consideration jointly by the Water Rights
Branch, the Public Utilities Commission, and the Health Branch.
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Investigations were made and reports forwarded or pending on the following
complaints of water damage due to flooding or erosion: Flooding of residential
property at Courtenay in December, 1967, and January, 1968, by unauthorized
diversion of water into Millward Creek; continuing inspections of extent of flooding
of foreshore lands due to the dam on Cowichan Lake; flooding of lands on Payne
Creek, west of Duncan; flooding of foreshore lands by Long Lake at Wellington;
inspected flooding of foreshore lands on Brannen Lake and prepared a report on
storage possibilities in connection with several applications for licences; flooding
and erosion of private property on Cowichan River; flooding and erosion of property on Chase River; flooding and erosion of properties by Knarston Creek at Lantz-
ville; inspected Cowichan River erosion at Cowichan Village and estimated the cost
of protection; flooding and erosion of properties by Nanoose Creek at Nanoose Bay;
flooding of foreshore properties by Black Brook at Qualicum Bay; flooding at
Nanaimo and Harewood by Millstone River, Cats Stream, and an unnamed watercourse; inspection of flooding of foreshore lands allegedly caused by the dam on
Sproat Lake; flooding from a private drainage ditch at Comox; Black Creek flooding near Courtenay; flooding from Haslam Creek at Cassidy in Waterloo residential
area—channel clearing and widening were undertaken to prevent a recurrence;
flooding of farm lands by high water on Langford Lake—lake regulation recommended; investigated a proposal to reroute Little River at Comox to alleviate winter
flooding and erosion; flooding of property by drainage off new Millstream Road at
Langford investigated and discussed with Department of Highways and report prepared; investigated complaint of a windfall obstructing the channel of Millstream
Creek and resulting in flooding and erosion; inspected erosion in Robertson River
at Mesachie Lake and possible overflow into East Fork; investigated winter flooding from Sandhill Creek in Central Saanich.
Investigations were made of the following pollution complaints: Pollution of
Piercy Creek near Courtenay by wash water from gravel-washing plant; pollution
of Pender Lake on North Pender Island by septic-tank effluent and by rapid lowering of lake to enable construction of sand beaches; pollution of Norie Creek near
Duncan by logging operations; pollution of Roy Creek near Royston by garbage-
dumping; complaint of pollution of Veitch Creek at Sooke; complaint of pollution
of well by drainage from Island Highway on the Malahat.
Other investigations were as follows: Unauthorized use and interference with
licensed use on Vellacott Springs and Fea Creek in the Highlands District; reported
on the availability of domestic water from Westwood Lake at Nanaimo and the
feasibility of joint use of works by several applicants organized as improvement district; the Nanaimo Civic Properties and Recreation Commission's works in Bowen
Park for land improvement and the feasibility of augmenting low flows in Millstone
River with storage in Brannen Lake—report forwarded; obstruction of Morningstar
Creek near Parksville by new access road discussed with Department of Highways;
investigated shortage of water in Hagan Creek and its tributaries in Central Saanich
and the effect on Hagan Creek of pumping water from the Stewart artesian well.
 Y 30 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS DIVISION
P. J. Leslie, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The number of improvement districts dropped due to the transfer of the hospital improvement districts to the Department of Municipal Affairs, and there is
now a total of 304 districts in existence. During the year the following new districts
were incorporated: Allison Lake Improvement District, Blackburn Improvement
District, Bowen Island Fire Protection District, Buckhorn Improvement District,
Clearwater Improvement District, Hopkins Landing Waterworks District, Krestova
Improvement District, Nakusp Improvement District, Pineview Improvement District, Qualicum Bay-Horne Lake Waterworks District, Traders Cove Waterworks
District, Wells Improvement District, and Westsyde Fire Protection District. Thirty-
five hospital improvement districts were transferred to the Department of Municipal
Affairs, together with the following districts: Campbell River Fire Protection District, Ponderosa Heights Waterworks District, Shawnigan Improvement District, and
View Royal Fire Protection District.
The object, or objects, for which a district is incorporated is set out in its
Letters Patent. Upon petition of the Trustees, action may be taken to have such
Letters Patent amended to include extra objects, and many districts which were
originally incorporated for one purpose now have several. The activities for which
the districts are responsible include irrigation, waterworks, dyking, drainage, and
land improvement.
All improvement districts are empowered by the Water Act to raise revenue by
the levying of a tax or taxes upon one or more of a number of bases and by the
imposition of tolls and other charges. They are also empowered to issue debentures
to obtain funds for capital purposes. In many cases, improvement district debentures and the interest thereon are guaranteed by the Province pursuant to the
Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act. At the present time there is $8,645,-
800 of such guaranteed debentures outstanding, of which $24,000 was guaranteed
during 1968.
During the year, capital works projects to a total value of $4,917,103 were
completed by improvement districts and financed as follows: Grants from Federal
and Provincial Governments under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development
Act, $4,031,566, and district resources and borrowing, $885,537.
Engineering Services
The Engineering Section of the Improvement Districts Division provides a
comprehensive technical service to improvement districts, or communities considering incorporating as improvement districts, throughout the Province. This service is
variously concerned with domestic water-supply schemes, irrigation projects, or
drainage and sewerage works. The nature of assistance provided falls generally into
three categories.
Where new schemes or rehabilitation of existing works are contemplated, the
Section carries out an engineering investigation and then prepares a report giving
technical recommendations, cost estimates, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of the scheme.
Once the decision to initiate a project has been made, the district then submits
plans, specifications, and details of proposed financing methods for checking and
approval by the Section. Certain requirements must be met before a recommendation for government guarantee of a loan will be made. In many instances, details
of a project are discussed at length with the district's consultants and revisions or
modifications recommended.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 31
In some circumstances the Section assumes full responsibility for the engineering of a project. After the preliminary surveys and investigation have been completed, the Section then prepares final design drawings, specifications, and contract
documents, and also provides supervision of construction.
Advice is also given to districts regarding operational problems or modifications and repairs to existing systems.
Throughout the year, personnel from the Division travelled extensively in the
Province, holding meetings with district Trustees, organization committees, municipalities, and other groups actively concerned with problems of development.
The following assignments were completed during the year:—
Reports Prepared and Under Preparation
Coombs Water Supply. — Preliminary studies of the French Creek-Hilliers-
Coombs area, near Parksville, indicate that it may be feasible to organize a community water supply in the immediate vicinity of Coombs. Further information on
ground-water is being collected, and a report will be issued in 1969.
Crooked River Waterworks District.—The Crooked River Waterworks District,
located approximately 45 miles north of Prince George, was incorporated in 1964
and took over the existing water system supplying the Bear Lake townsite. Both
the well source and distribution system have proved inadequate to supply the needs
of the district, and a report was therefore prepared indicating the improvements
considered necessary and outlining a plan for system extensions. Total cost of the
recommended works is estimated at approximately $55,000.
Endako Improvement District.—The recently incorporated Endako Improvement District is located 36 miles east of Burns Lake. At present the residents obtain
their water supplies from shallow wells and from a system owned by the Canadian
National Railways. The district is negotiating with the Canadian National Railways
to take over the system with the object of improving and extending it. A report has
been prepared indicating two alternative schemes whereby components of the Canadian National Railways system could be incorporated into a larger system to serve
the district.
Hagensborg Waterworks District.—Revised estimates were prepared for a proposal to extend water-supply facilities to West Hagensborg, which adjoins the area
currently served by the Hagensborg Waterworks District, near Bella Coola. Unfortunately new housing development in this area has not been sufficient to compensate
for the increasing costs of pipe-line construction and, at the present time, system
extensions are not economically feasible.
North Cedar Waterworks District.—At the request of property-owners in the
North Cedar area, an investigation was made into the technical and economic feasibility of extending water-supply facilities into two large areas adjacent to the existing
area supplied by the North Cedar Waterworks District. The resulting report indicated that the proposals were technically feasible, but that the number of potential
consumers currently available was insufficient to support the scheme with water
charges within normally acceptable limits. Further subdivision is in progress, and
there is reason to believe that the extension of water service to the Cedar-by-the-Sea
area may become feasible in the near future.
North Saanich Water Supply.—The existing sources of water supply being
used by the various authorities responsible for public water supply in Central and
North Saanich will be inadequate for long-term future development. It is, therefore, generally accepted that the bulk supply facilities of the Greater Victoria Water-
 Y 32 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
works District will require to be extended to these areas. The Section is preparing
a report to determine the economic aspects of future water-supply development to
the areas concerned.
Quadra Island.—During the summer an investigation was made into the water-
supply possibilities for the southern part of Quadra Island and in particular the communities at Quathiaski Cove and Heriot Bay. Indications were that a ground-water
source would offer the best means of supplying the areas, and a request was then
made to the Groundwater Division, Water Investigations Branch, to examine the
local geology and to recommend test drilling sites. The report will be completed
when this information becomes available.
Rutland Waterworks District.—The technical and economic implications of
extending the Rutland Waterworks District's system to serve the west Rutland area
were examined in a report. It was shown that while sufficient surplus capacity was
available in the system, overloading of the 10-inch-diameter supply main would soon
occur if the present growth rate continued. It was estimated that the capital cost
of the extension would be $55,000 and that the extension should prove financially
self-supporting. The disadvantages of continuing to use Mission Creek as a source
of supply were also pointed out in the report.
Saltair Waterworks District.—During recent years the number of consumers
served by the water system operated by the Saltair Waterworks District, south of
Ladysmith, has increased rapidly. At periods of peak demand the works become
overloaded and many consumers obtain an indifferent supply. At the request of
the Trustees, the Section carried out an investigation of the system and prepared
a report containing suggested remedial measures to be taken. These recommendations were accepted by the district. The new works are to be installed early in
1969.
Spallumcheen Area Water Supply.—Spallumcheen District Municipality, in
the North Okanagan, is a rural area containing some 50,000 acres of farm land,
mainly devoted to dry-land farming. There are 13 improvement districts and a
water-users' community incorporated within this area, and all are concerned with
the supply of water to farms for domestic and stock-watering use. Some of the
districts take a restricted bulk supply from the City of Armstrong, while others are
dependent upon surface sources which are generally inadequate or unreliable. An
investigation of the sources of water in the area is being made, and a report will be
issued showing how the various districts can be connected to sources which are
adequate for their present and future needs.
Village of Ucluelet.—Following a site survey and investigation of the village's
water-supply system carried out at the end of 1967, a report was prepared recommending that the village share in a joint scheme with the Canadian Fishing Company Limited to replace the existing supply pipe-line from Mercantile Creek.
Certain modifications to the proposed scheme were also suggested to improve the
water quality.
Design and Engineering Services
Fort Nelson Improvement District.—In 1967 the Fort Nelson Improvement
District indicated that it wished to extend water and sewer services to the area north
of Airport Road, and later in the year the Lands Service requested estimates of the
cost of servicing Crown lots on and adjacent to 45th Street. Surveys and an
investigation were carried out early in 1968, and a report subsequently prepared.
Later in the year the district, using its own labour force and under the supervision
of this Division, installed the greater part of the works before the onset of winter
weather.   Total cost of the works is estimated at approximately $201,000.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 33
Fruitvale Waterworks District.—A study was made of the Fruitvale Waterworks District's proposals for the replacement of its supply main from Kelly Creek.
Recommendations were made, including a suggestion that it investigate possible
means of augmenting its source of supply.
Grandview Waterworks District.—Following submission of a feasibility report
prepared by the Division, the Grandview Waterworks District was successful in
obtaining ARDA approval for the second-stage rehabilitation of its farm water-
supply system at an estimated cost of $57,000. Design work is currently in hand,
and the district intends to commence construction in April, 1969. Engineering
services are being provided by this Division.
Otter Point Area.—At the request of the residents of the Otter Point area near
Sooke, a brief survey and investigation into the possibility of supplying domestic
water to the area was carried out. Costs were found to be beyond the financial
capabilities of the area.
Pine Tree Place Improvement District.—At the request of the Trustees of Pine
Tree Place Improvement District, an inspection was made of its water-supply
system. It was concluded that the system was only barely adequate to supply the
present users, and the district was advised not to consider supplying additional
consumers until its ground-water source had been augmented and the storage
capacity increased.
Powell River-Haslam Lake Pipe-line.—In response to a petition submitted by
a group of residents of the area to the north-east of Cranberry Lake, an inspection
of the District Municipality of Powell River's 36-inch-diameter supply pipe-line
from Haslam Lake was made to determine whether its condition constituted a
hazard to the public safety.   It was concluded that no danger existed.
South Pender Harbour Waterworks District.—At the request of the Trustees
of the South Pender Harbour Waterworks District, a study was made of the district's
water system and in particular the feasibility of extending the system southwards.
The district was advised that additional seasonal storage would be necessary before
new areas could be supplied, and that insufficient potential consumers were at
present available to make a south extension economically feasible.
Tsawcombe Waterworks District.—This district was incorporated in 1968
with the object of constructing and operating a water supply within the Tsawcombe
Indian Reserve near Wilson Creek in the Sechelt Peninsula. The system was
financed and partly constructed by the householders in accordance with the general
recommendations contained in Scheme III of the Wilson Creek report issued in
November, 1966. Advice was provided as needed, and the system is now in
successful operation.
Western Acres Improvement District.—The Western Acres Improvement
District is located some 9 miles south-west of the City of Prince George. The water
and sewer systems serving properties in the district are owned by the development
company, which is now bankrupt. Both systems are inadequate and below acceptable engineering standards. Investigations were carried out to determine what
remedial measures are necessary, and what the cost of implementing these measures
would be.
Wood Lake Improvement District.—The Wood Lake project was designed by
this Division. It is being constructed by the district, using its own labour force,
and under the supervision of the Division. It is anticipated that the works will be
completed in 1969.
 Y 34
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Work on the rehabilitation of the Wood Lake irrigation system continued
throughout the year, and a total of $243,000 was expended. Some revision of the
ARDA scheme has proved necessary, and a supplementary proposal was approved
authorizing expenditure to a total of $540,000. The intake works, comprising the
diversion dam, sedimentation tank, and screen chamber, were completed early in
the spring, together with a section of 20-inch ductile iron main line, and these were
used to supply irrigation water for the 1968 season. The main line was completed
late in the irrigation season and, after testing, was commissioned. Over 13,000 feet
of 20-inch ductile iron pipe were laid during the year. Good progress was made
in the reconstruction of the irrigation laterals, and approximately 9,900 feet of
asbestos cement pipe were laid.
The reconstruction and raising of the Oyama Lake dam and ancillary works
was also undertaken. This work had to be carried out in the period of a few weeks
between the end of the irrigation season and the freeze-up at the 4,500-foot level
as the existing facilities could not be disturbed while still maintaining supply. An
abnormally wet fall severely hampered operations, but the works were completed in
all essentials. The new outlet works were designed to allow controlled discharge
of peak irrigation flows within the full range of licensed storage. This will enable
the district to make efficient use of about 1,500 acre-feet of storage which was
previously unusable due to shallow approach to the old outlet culvert.
A new dam was constructed at Round Lake on the North Fork of Oyama
Creek. This will provide compensating storage for water supplied to domestic
consumers during the winter months.
Water Supply and Sewerage Proposals Reviewed
District
Description of Proposals
Status of Project at End
of Year
Approximate
Estimated Cost
Beaver Creek
Provision of additional system storage
Preliminary planning stage....
$60,000
Improvement
District
Bennett Bay
Installation  of  domestic water  system;
Construction   completed	
12,000
Waterworks
ground-water sources
District
Blackburn
Installation  of  domestic water  system;
Preliminary proposals approved
425,000
Improvement
ground-water source
District
B.C. Fruitlands
Modifications to Brocklehurst intake and en
Completed	
112,000
Irrigation
largement of settling-basin
District
Fort Fraser
Installation of sanitary sewer system  and
Preliminary   plans   submitted
133,500
Waterworks
sewage lagoon
by consulting engineer and
District
approved
Heffley Creek
Waterworks
Installation  of  domestic water  system
Under construction	
43,000
supplied from well
District
Hillside
Rehabilitation of domestic water system;
Construction completed _	
10,000
Waterworks
supply pumped from Shuswap Lake
District
Lower Nicola
Installation of domestic water system;
pumped supply from Guichon Creel-
Installation completed	
116,500
Waterworks
District
Nechako
Extension of system to North Kelly Road
Installed	
46,000
Improvement
area
District
North Wellington
Extensions and replacements to water sys
Completed._.	
40,000
Waterworks
tem
District
Pineview
Installation  of  domestic water  system;
Preliminary planning stage
254,000
Improvement
ground-water source
District
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 35
Water Supply and Sewerage Proposals Reviewed—Continued
District
Description of Proposals
Status of Project at End
of Year
Approximate
Estimated Cost
Qualicum Bay-
Installation of domestic water system;
Plans submitted by consulting
$118,000
Horne Lake
gravity supply from Nile Creek
engineer
Waterworks
District
12,000
Waterworks
of district
District
Construction of concrete storage tank	
Construction completed	
10,000
Waterworks
District
Todd Hill
Construction of 100,000-gallon reservoir, ex
Preliminary planning stage-
45,000
Irrigation
tension of water main,  and modification
District
of pump controls
West Hixon
Installation  of  domestic water  system;
Revised plans under consider
22,000
Improvement
ground-water source
ation by district
District
POWER AND MAJOR LICENCES DIVISION
H. M. Hunt, P.Eng., Chief of Division
Major Licensing Administration
During 1968, work proceeded on the approval of plans for the Peace River
and Columbia River. With major developments of this nature, approval of plans
is a process which is continuous throughout the period of construction of such
projects.
Reviewing this very busy construction year, three projects are worthy of
particular mention which were either completed during the year or were nearing
completion at the year-end. The first of these projects, which was completed
during the year, is Penticton Dam; this is a 115-foot-high earth-fill dam containing
some 870,000 cubic yards of material and impounding 12,300 acre-feet of water
behind the dam for use by adjacent irrigation customers and also to augment the
water supply for the City of Penticton. The second project completed during the
year is a 52-foot-high concrete gravity dam on the Fulton River near Babine Lake;
the purpose of this dam is to regulate the water supply to a series of very large
spawning-channels. This is one of the first large spawning-channel experiments
to be carried out by the Department of Fisheries, Canada, and therefore a great
deal of design work was done to ensure proper conditions of stream-flow, water
temperature, etc., would be available for the spawning salmon. The third large
project under construction during the year will provide the water supply for the
Brenda Mines Ltd. complex near Peachland. The main feature of this system is
the 80-foot-high earth-fill Peachland Dam, which contains some 400,000 cubic
yards of material. It will have a storage capacity of 10,000 acre-feet of water
and will be augmented by three diversions from adjoining watersheds, which will
add some 8,000 acre-feet of water per year.
Each of these dams was the subject of detailed review during the design and
construction stages. During 1968 an inspection was made of the structures to
ensure that construction operations were being carried out in accordance with the
design assumptions.
 Y 36 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Flood-control Operations
In contrast to conditions prevailing during the preceding year, when floods of
unusually large magnitude were experienced in British Columbia, precipitation
during the winter of 1967/68 was generally about normal. As a consequence, the
1968 spring snow-packs varied in water content from slightly below to a little above
average. No dangers from flooding were anticipated, and normal reservoir
operations were carried out.
Power-policy Planning
Specific fields of study in connection with power-policy planning include the
compilation of historical electric-power generating records and the preparation of
forecasts of future load growth; studies of international power-system developments, such as the Columbia River; review of other benefits available to the public
at hydro-electric developments; and preparation of an inventory of available
undeveloped power resources.
Undeveloped Water Power in British Columbia
The Water Rights Branch of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources, Government of British Columbia, in conjunction with the Inland Waters
Branch of the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Government of
Canada, has prepared an Index of Undeveloped Hydro-electric Power Sites in
British Columbia, which is part of a study covering the whole of Canada. This
study is continually being revised as more information becomes available. Many
of the sites have received only a cursory examination, and further sources of energy,
although not yet fully explored, are known to exist. The index lists the figures
derived by many investigators over the course of 30 years or so, and reference
should be made to their original work in order to assess the current validity and
relevance of their conclusions.
Planning, Kootenay and Pend-d'Oreille Rivers
Of more immediate concern, studies are under way at present to determine
the most suitable methods of developing the additional potential made possible on
these two rivers by implementation of the Columbia Treaty. Consideration is
being given to developing the extra capability that will be provided by improved
control of stream-flow by operation of Libby reservoir, and the most promising
scheme is that known as the Kootenay Canal plant. This project could contribute
in excess of 200 megawatts (average) of additional power at a most attractive cost.
The possibility of developing the Pend-d'Oreille River between the headwaters
of Waneta plant and the International Boundary is also being studied, and a power
plant of around 500 megawatts capacity appears to be feasible.
Hydro-electric Power Projects under Construction
Additional Installations at Existing Plants
Cominco Ltd. completed the installation of the fourth unit at the Brilliant Plant
on the Kootenay River near Castlegar. This unit commenced operation on May
22,1968, bringing the total installation at this plant up to 108,800 kilowatts. British
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 37
Columbia Hydro and Power Authority added a second unit of 33,750 kilowatts at
the Strathcona plant near Campbell River on Vancouver Island. The new unit
commenced operation on October 31st.
Jordan River Redevelopment
In December a $7,498,000 contract was awarded to Emil Anderson Construction Limited for the construction of a 16-foot-diameter tunnel 3V_s miles long
to feed water to a new Jordan River generating-station. The tunnel initiates work
on the $27,500,000 redevelopment at the Jordan River plant, which will add 150
megawatts of plant capacity to the Vancouver Island supply. Its main purpose is
to supply Greater Victoria and other Island centres during peak demand periods.
The redevelopment, which will extend over three years, includes rehabilitation of
two dams, Bear Creek dam and diversion dam, and the construction of a new 117-
foot-high 430-foot-long concrete gravity dam at the Elliott site. Water will be
diverted from Elliott Dam through the 18,100-foot-long power tunnel and a
5,350-foot-long penstock to a new 150-megawatt turbine and generator unit on the
right bank of the river 1,000 yards from the ocean. It is expected that the project
will be on line in October, 1971.
Peace River Development
On September 28, 1968, the generating-station at the Portage Mountain
development and the reservoir behind the W. A. C. Bennett Dam were officially
dedicated by the Honourable W. A. C. Bennett, P.C., LL.D., D.Pol.Sc, Prime
Minister of British Columbia. The Honourable the Prime Minister at that time
named the generating-station the Gordon M. Shrum Generating Station, in honour
of the Co-Chairman of the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, and the
reservoir behind the W. A. C. Bennett Dam, the Ray Williston Lake, in honour of
the Honourable R. G. Williston, Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
for the Province of British Columbia. The public dedication ceremony concluded
with the Prime Minister operating a switch in the underground power-house to start
the first three generating units. This act initiated the simultaneous energization
of the Gordon M. Shrum Generating Station, the 500-kilovolt transmission-line,
and the Williston Substation in Prince George.
The power-house contract, which was let in 1965 to Northern, Stewart,
Morrison-Knudson, Perini, and Jones consortium at a price of $77,000,000 has
been proceeding well. Excavation is virtually complete, and concrete operations
are proceeding rapidly. Contractors' earnings to date are approximately
$74,000,000.
The spillway and low-level outlets contract, which was let in 1966 to the
Kiewit-Dawson-Johnson consortium at a price of $43,868,000, was completed
during the latter part of the year. Work on the other contracts, such as turbine and
generator installation, control house, transmission-line construction, is proceeding
well and should be completed according to schedule.
Contracts totalling $18,022,000 were let in 1968 and covered such features
as transmission-line equipment and construction, switchyard equipment, and
transmission-line clearing.
 Ci
9
o
•a
a
o
H
MH
M
3
S
T3
tJ
O
¥'>'«'
-"--SAfi|
O
si
3
a-
 Right:  Mica Village is some 5 miles
below the dam-site.
Below: These large culverts will
allow the haul road to cross the combined Canoe and Wood Rivers
Right: Bird's-eye view of Mica Dam
showing construction of cofferdams excavation for main dam, and outlets of
the diversion tunnels.
Below:  Some of the earth-moving
equipment being used.
Right: Another view of Mica Dam
site from the air showing upstream coffer dam and stripping of abutments in
progress.
•
 Y 40 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Columbia River Development
Arrow Lakes Dam.—The main contract for the construction of Arrow Lakes
Dam was let in 1965 to Foundation Dravo Limited at a price of $55,000,000.
Construction proceeded so rapidly on this contract that on October 10, 1968, the
dam was officially declared operational, six months ahead of schedule. Some site
clean-up work and some minor earth-fill placement operations are all that remain
to be completed.
Mica Creek Dam.—This dam, towering 800 feet above bedrock, will be the
highest in Canada and the third highest of its type in the world. The diversion
tunnels, which were completed in 1967, were successfully used to divert the
Columbia River around the dam-site to permit the Guy F. Atkinson, Arundel
International, L. E. Dixon International, Commonwealth Construction, and Dillingham Corporation consortium to continue their work under the $136,262,000 main
dam contract. Construction progress to date has been good, and the contractors'
earnings have been approximately $14,000,000.
Other contracts let in 1968 total $2,345,000 and cover various aspects such
as spillway gates and hoists, debris control on the reservoir, and catering and
housekeeping at Mica Creek.
Libby Reservoir.—The construction of a dam on the Kootenai River in
Montana, U.S.A., near the town of Libby, is the last major works to be authorized
under the Columbia River Treaty. The reservoir formed by the dam will extend
some 42 miles into Canada and will be over 150 feet deep at the border. It is
anticipated that river closure will be made during May, 1972.
By an Order in Council, the responsibility for preparing the reservoir for
flooding was assigned to various branches of the Government: property acquisition,
road relocations, and replacement of highway bridges were assigned to the Department of Highways, while flood-line marking, topographic and cadastral surveys,
timber cruising and removal, and the various hydraulic and flowage studies
associated with such large-scale inundation of private properties and Crown-owned
land were delegated to the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
The function of co-ordinating the several activities was assigned to the Water
Resources Service, and more specifically to the Power and Major Licences Division.
Toward the latter part of 1968, work commenced on removing merchantable
timber from Crown lands in the flooded area, and a field crew was built up to handle
property acquisitions early in the new year. Voluntary sales of properties were
negotiated during this time. Also in an advanced stage of planning are road and
highway bridge relocation studies; negotiations are being conducted with Canadian
Pacific Railway to arrive at suitable compensation for flooding the railway bridge
over the Kootenay River at Wardner.
A geological survey is under way to determine to what extent the reservoir
will create safety problems around the high-water perimeter and to assist in the
selection of highway locations and bridge crossing sites.
Dam Inspection
During 1968 the dam inspection programme, instituted in 1967, was continued, and a total of nine field trips was made. Thirty-two major dams and
a number of smaller structures were inspected for adequacy and safety, and reported
upon.    Recommendations were made to the owners of several of the dams con-
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Y 41
cerning improvements in maintenance practices. Several visits were also made to
review the progress of rehabilitation operations being carried out at two dams where
such action was considered necessary following the 1967 inspections.
Generation and Load Growth
Interim Estimate of Electrical Generation during 1968
It is estimated that the total production of electrical energy in British Columbia
during 1968 was 23,569 gigawatt-hours.* This was supplemented by a net import
of energy (mainly from the United States but including some from Alberta) amounting to about 800 gigawatt-hours. This gave a total consumption of 24,369 gigawatt-
hours in the Province, which represented an increase of 7.66 per cent over the
corresponding total for 1967.
The following tabulation gives total generation figures for 1967 and those
estimated for 1968. It shows a breakdown of consumption by various types of
consumer and indicates whether the power was generated by hydro or thermal
plants. Substantial amounts of power generated by industries are sold to utilities
within the Province. By allowing for this and for the import of power from the
United States, it is estimated that the utility load rose by nearly 11 per cent in the
past year, while industries maintained the steady 4-per-cent rate prevailing over
the past few years.
Growth during Previous 10-year Period
The tabulation below shows statistics for generation and load in the Province
over the 10-year period ending in 1967. This shows the over-all percentage
increase for the full period and the average growth rates. It should be noted that
the latter are compounded rates.
electrical generation
AND LOAD IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 10-YEAR PERIOD 1957-67
Year
Electrical Generation
Net Import
or Export
Gwh.
Total Electrical Load
Hydro
Gwh.
Thermal
Gwh.
Total
Gwh.
Gwh.
Mw.
Per Cent
Change
1957 	
1958  	
10,161
11,219
11,750
12.6S9
542
686
712
965
10,703
11,905
12,462
13,634
13,372
14,748
15,609
17,271
18.496
508 (I)
20(E)
20(1)
4(1)
25 (I)
9(1)
27 (E)
6(1)
456 (I)
27(E)
999 (I)
11,211
11,885
12,482
13,638
13,397
14,757
15,582
17,277
18,952
21,109
22,635
1,279.8
1,356.7
1,424.9
1,556.8
1,529.3
1,684.6
1,778.8
1,966.8
2,163.4
2,409.7
2,583.9
6.0
1959 	
5.0
1960 _	
9.2
1961 	
12,371    |    1,001
13.572     1     1.176
— 1.8
1962 	
10.1
1963                       	
14,262
15,558
15,258
17.043
1,347
1,713
•>_238
5.5
,1964              	
10.5
1965	
10.0
1966	
4.001        [     71.116
11.3
1967   .
17,506    j    4,130      |    21,636
7.2
72.2%    !    662.0%
5.6%     1       77 5%
102.1%
7.3%
101.9%
7.3%
(E)-__Net export to other Provinces and (or) United States.
(I) =Net import from other Provinces and (or) United States.
Gwh.=Gigawatt-hour=lmillion kilowatt-hours.
Mw.=--1 thousand kilowatts (average output).
The above figures have been revised since publication of the July, 1968,
Review of Power in British Columbia, and reflect the results of the recent survey
of Provincial load carried out by the British Columbia Energy Board.
* 1 gigawatt-hour (gwh.) =1,000,000 kilowatt-hours.
 Y 42 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
TABULATION OF ELECTRICAL GENERATION IN 1967 AND 1968
Generation in Gwh.
Per Cent
1967
1968
Change
Utilities-
Hydro	
8,476
2,798
9,524               +12.4
Thermal	
2,848        i        +1.8
Total	
11,274              12,372                +9.7
Industries—
9,030
1,332
9,782        '        +8.3
1,415        '        +6.2
Total	
10,362              11,197                +8.0
Total hydro generation	
17,506
4,130
19,306
4,263
+10.3
+3.2
Total British Columbia generation  	
21,636
999
23,569
800
+ 8.9
—20.0
22.615         1       24.169                   4-7.7
Note.—The figures for 1968 are preliminary only.
Review of Power in British Columbia.
A more accurate estimate will appear in the July, 1969.
Use of Electronic Computing Equipment
Much of the past year has been devoted to the change-over to data processing
on the recently acquired and highly sophisticated I.B.M. 360.
The first task to be attempted was the processing of water-licence records and
relevant data, for all active licences are now maintained on magnetic tape. Programmes have been written for a number of specific requirements, including statistical analysis, listings of licences for various purposes, and separating out licences for
one or more water precincts.
Reprogramming was also carried out to process the Division's power-rental
records, making more advantageous use of the computer. As these are entirely
separate from the accounting records maintained by the general office, much manual
cross-checking has been required in previous years; programmes are now written
which will detect possible errors and allow greatly increased efficiency.
Programming is at present under way to maintain the Water Resources Service
file records on magnetic tape. Several of the programmes involved have been completed, but testing is still in progress on features designed to provide an automatic
tie-in with the licence records.
Work has also beeen commenced on rewriting the previously used " 1620 "
power study programme and the cost study programme used some years ago on the
earlier " 650." During the year a reservoir backwater analysis was made for Libby
reservoir on the computer, and further work is being carried out on this aspect for
application to waterways generally. Future plans include the processing of power-
generation statistics.
Columbia River Treaty Permanent Engineering Board
The Power and Major Licences Division is responsible for providing technical
support to the Deputy Minister of Water Resources in his capacity as member of
the Permanent Engineering Board. Among the several functions required under
the terms of the Columbia River Treaty, the Board has to report to the Governments
of Canada and the United States of America on progress being achieved under the
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Y 43
treaty, to assist in reconciling differences between the development agencies of the
two nations (termed the " Entities "), and to assemble flow records of the Columbia
and Kootenay Rivers at the International Boundary.
The chief of the Power and Major Licences Division is the nominated alternate
member to the Deputy Minister, with responsibility to assist the member in the
performance of his duties and to take his place at Board meetings in his absence.
In addition, the chief of the Division is a member of the Permanent Engineering
Board Committee, whose function it is to assist the Board in considering proposals
and operating plans received from the Entities.
A meeting of the Board was held in Seattle, Wash., in April, 1968, to discuss
progress of project construction and of Entity studies; a joint meeting was held with
the Entities on the same day to review study progress. Prior to the Board's annual
tour of inspection in September of the Columbia River Treaty projects at Arrow
Lakes and Mica Dams in British Columbia and at Libby in Montana, the Board held
a meeting in Vancouver; following the tour of inspection, another meeting between
the Board and the Entities was held to receive information on recent Entity studies.
The committee of the Permanent Engineering Board held meetings during the
year with representatives of British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority to discuss
aspects of the hydrometeorological network presently being set up for optimum
operation of the treaty projects.
Statistical Analysis of Water Licensing
The following tabulation shows the results of a recent statistical analysis of all
water licences currently in use in British Columbia:—
District
Waterworks
Domestic
Incidental Domestic
A.F.
G.P.D.
C.F.S.
A.F.
G.P.D.
G.P.D.
CF.S.
4,998,500
4,248,550
250,200
486,800
4,000
415,650
82,000
306,000
98,000
61,300
236,100
160,100
203,100
1,067,392
146,650
88,300
249,970
Atlin   .__.
Cariboo	
120
630,500
2,773,500
12,387,500
801,500
157,000
3,447,800
2,116,000
1,205,000
18,128,000
491,500
511,000
24,960,500
22,697,934
65,168,000
2,358,700
4,718,000
2,424,000
1,635,000
12,451,609
3,915,408
2,330,000
7,613,150
41,287,341
10,415,000
177,000
55,500
631,250
40,000
10,000
73,500
31,000
5,000
175,056
12,250
Cranbrook...	
18.800
3.000
28.400
0.625
26.000
FairvieW —- 	
Fernie ._.	
250,000
7,750
2.000
16.000
Kaslo  	
57,200
Nanaimo	
10,000
1.000
5.000
2.100
684,100
1,747,683
1,326,035
109,400
27,500
183,100
111,500
337,350
296,800
45,000
1,194,935
901,373
1.228.181
	
37,000
393,039
32,500
139,000
2.3
0.5
New Westminster	
3.CO0
	
Princeton	
2,560
24.000
71,800
2,000
40,500
27,000
1,000
462,000
133,850
18.445
11.000
201.001
0.250
4.8
Vernon  	
935
	
Totals	
274,365
253,880,992
282.996
66.625    1 11,767,651
1
3,024,915
7.6
 Y 44 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Statistical Analysis of Water Licensing—Continued
District
Power
Storage
(A.F.)
Irrigation
A.F.
G.P.D.
CF.S.
Quantity
(A.F.)
Area
(Acres)
Alherni
1,000
779.44
7,222.90
110.22
62.75
57.50
1.35
1,257.96
448,320
765,713
20,000
32,333
460
27,813
615
16,035
245
3,516
76,312
48,404
1,400,000
645
92,269
363
74.453
632
2,606,284
37,380
338
Atlin _	
Cariboo  _
40.962
Cranbrook _	
-
14.965     1         6.150
142,689
22,871
3,664
22,000
26,978
3,027
133,990
1,027
38,209
Fernie  ..  	
5,000
9,688
3,385
Golden
344.50
0.50
14.42
23.25
92.50
9,087
11,978
2,830
66,314
823
1,000,000
82,500
146,000
17,035.80
90,764.85
23,920.33
72.00
58,300.00
329.55
24.00
11,124.35
12.00
304.00
10,365.54
1,483.45
367.68
1,560,365
8,391,370
884,595
50,930
32,000,205
8,106
832
35,287,382
2,990
7,011,640
1,718,238
199,234
80,153
5,309
24,464
15,843
55,198
279
34,298
3,141
1,079
10,498
247
1,690
170.733
3 661
125,000
15,363
14,376
26,762
275
13,238
2,260
662
6,022
40,000
980,100
153
50,000
1,375
11.764
	
7,979    |        7,068
Totals _	
4,854,884
181,000
224,065.84
90,035,806
869,699
352,955
District
General Industrial
Pulp and Saw Mills
Railway,
Etc.
(G.P.D.)
A.F.
G.P.D.
CF.S.
G.P.D.
CF.S.
110,002
2
260
501
30
13
200
100
4,237,500
1,183,000
500
65,600
1,600,000
1,095,000
804,000
30,300
450,000
359,000
201,000
1,384,000
1,000
132.350
5.000
	
25,000
Atlin.          	
113.000
4.600
30.000
3.200
4.000
65.00
1.35
90.30
60.00
0.30
14.800
7.480
1.400
"370.000
4.500
82,434
4.000
82.700
0.250
330
10,000
	
574,500
61,095,500
49,060,000
260,000
1,060,000
29,989,000
3,540,000
4,390,200
3,265,150
92,500
7,851,500
13,476,000
8,066,000
9,000
532
1,500
	
4,000
340.00
35.00
3,000
12,222.500
1.000
1,500
28
758
51
286.270
7.450
139.750
0.10
152,500
650,000
Totals..     	
114,307
194,131,250
13,520.684
166,500
592.05
688,500
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 45
Statistical Analysis of Water Licensing—Continued
District
Fish Plants and
Canneries
Washing Sand and Gravel
Maintaining Log Ponds
G.P.D.
CF.S.
A.F.
G.P.D.
CF.S.
A.F.
G.P.D.
CF.S.
Alberni	
	
2.0
6.5
0.4
1.0
0.5
32
87
22
Ashcroft 	
40.00
Atlin.	
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Fairview	
9,000
Fernie	
3.00
Fort Fraser    —
85.00
Golden           ....   ...
10
8.0(
300.00
150,000
27,500
0.50
100,000
5.00
18.75
Nicola 	
0.13
Prince Rupert	
1,000,000
	
10
0
Vancouver.	
300,000
83,0(
25,000
2 00
Victoria          -  —
40
100,0(
Totals       	
1,300,000
2.5
40      j    299,000
1.9
141
202,500
454 38
District
Mining (General)
Hydraulic
Mining
(CF.S.)
Processing Ore
A.F.
G.P.D.
CF.S.
A.F.
G.P.D.
CF.S.
3,370
1,500
2,687,000
1,686,000
707,200
60,000
5,000,000
2.0
6.0
2.6
8.0
40.0
24.0
1.5
2.0
5,800
	
3.500
102.000
119 firm
Atlin -	
1,300,000
Fairview	
	
Fernie .	
491,
)00
100
5.000
— —
1   ::::
190
1,192,500
7,475,000
2,011,000
181,000
100,000
2,256,000
5,434,800
600,000
2,610,000
4 non
500,000
2,600,000
26.000
2.000
Kamloops 	
1,800,000
160,000
4.0
33.490
1.500
New Westminster	
9,408,908
11.100
14.500
5.5
	
2,850,000
92,000
195,000
330.400
100.000
26.200
9.065
2.000
	
Vancouver 	
555,000
Totals	
4,870
45.982 408
810.155
86 1
5,800
6,360,000
9.5
 Y 46 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Statistical Analysis of Water Licensing—Continued
District
Land Improvement
Mineral
Trading
(G.P.D.)
Miscellaneous
A.F.
G.P.D.
CF.S.
A.F.
G.P.D.
CF.S.
6,000
	
500
6.6
60
Atlin   .           	
5,000
5.00
4.00
1.00
39.00
12,000
15,000
20,000
7.0
13,500
1.20
480,000
10
527.5
5,000
2,000
19,000
150,400
105,760
1.0
26,225.0
642.7
45
1,806.20
1.00
70,000
321,000
150,000
	
150,000
47
	
70.0
26.00
1,000
104,400
10,000
100,000
19,000
20.5
49,500
2,000
5,400
13.00
0.75
49
	
528.1
Totals....       	
28,008.4
267,800
1,897.15
1.270.400     I     12.000
265,760
711
District
Permits To Occupy Crown Land (Areas in Acres)
General
Dam or
Powerhouse
Lines
Flooding
Alberni   _	
5
15
5
8
8
26
1
9
55
451
56
190
25
203
28
1
85
24
26
184
22
6
147
251
66
66
14
43
23
634
114
122
126
238
19
166
15,873
Atlin    _	
Cariboo ... _ _	
612
13
1,068
25
Fort Fraser _ _  	
6
2
1
1
18
2
6
2
4
i
17
3
12
18
10
Golden     	
Grand Forks
5
219
8,738
1,703
7,022
203
Nicola    _  	
Princeton    	
30
33,576
200
45
6,742
1,557
Quesnel 	
Revelstoke
11
Totals     	
29                152        1      3.225
77,808
 WATER
INVESTIGATIONS
BRANCH
(b)
The Water Investigations Branch was formed in late 1962 as a consequence of the creation
of an independent British Columbia Water Resources Service, which took effect on April 1, 1962.
The Hydraulic Investigations Division of the Water Rights Branch was transferred to the Water
Investigations Branch, and it formed the nucleus of the new Branch.
The functions of the Water Investigations Branch, which is headed by the Chief Engineer,
are to deal with technical matters pertaining to the water resources of the Province, which
matters are not directly connected with the administration of the Water Act. These functions,
carried out by various divisions of the Water Investigations Branch, are briefly summarized
below.
(1) Water Supply and Investigations Division:
(a) Irrigation and domestic water-supply investigations to assist and advise the Department and general public in the development and maintenance of water-supply
projects.
Flooding, drainage, and stream-erosion investigations to give engineering advice
and assistance in solving water-damage problems.
Hydrology Division:
(a) Snow surveys and snow-melt run-off forecasting to guide judicious utilization of
water supply.
(b) Hydrologic studies of the Province to compile and evaluate basic hydrometeoro-
logical data in such a form as to make them readily adaptable.
Groundwater Division:  Collection of existing ground-water data and investigation and
evaluation of ground-water potential to encourage and guide the future use and conservation of this source of water supply.
Basin Planning and Power Division:
(a) Development of plans for water conservation on regional basis with an immediate
aim to indicate possibilities of augmenting the existing water supply.
(b) Investigation and inventory of undeveloped hydro-electric power potential of the
Province.
ARDA Division: Processing of water-project proposals made under the Agricultural
and Rural Development Act and investigation, design, and supervision of projects.
Projects Division: Preparation and review of proposals and projects under the Canada-
British Columbia Joint Development Act and the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act. Design and supervision of construction of water-damage prevention projects.
The above divisions are supported by a Draughting Office and a Records Compilation
and Reports Section.
The above functions are carried out in co-operation with a number of other Governmental
agencies with an aim to enable the British Columbia Water Resources Service to foster better
use of water resource, which is one of the principal physical foundations of the economic development of the Province.
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
 Y 48
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
on
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 WATER
INVESTIGATIONS
BRANCH
V. Raudsepp, P.Eng.
Chief Engineer
This is the seventh annual report of the Water Investigations Branch, which
was created in December, 1962. This Branch deals with technical matters related
to the water resources of the Province where such matters are not directly connected
with the administration of the Water Act. At the year-end the staff consisted of
57 permanent and 35 continuous temporary positions, among which were 31 civil
engineers, four geological engineers, and one hydrometeorologist. Two permanent
and six temporary positions were vacant.
The principal functions of the Water Investigations Branch are carried out by
six divisions, as follows:—
(1) Water Supply and Investigations Division.
(2) Hydrology Division.
(3) Groundwater Division.
(4) Basin Planning and Power Division.
(5) ARDA Projects Division.
(6) Projects Division.
These divisions are supported by a Draughting Office and a Records Compilation and Reports Section. Both these offices also perform certain services for the
other branches of the British Columbia Water Resources Service.
An account of the work carried out by the Water Investigations Branch is given
in some detail on the following pages.   A few general observations are made below.
Increase in the volume and complexity of work continued in 1968 in all divisions of the Water Investigations Branch. This is a result of general economic expansion of the Province combined with a rapid growth in public awareness of the
importance of sound water-resource management.
Under the Federal-Provincial ARDA programme (Agricultural and Rural Development Act) the number of water projects approved by the Federal and Provincial ARDA authorities has grown to a total of 49 with an aggregate construction
cost of $24,000,000. Twenty-two projects have been completed or are very near
to completion, having a total cost of $14,000,000, and 27 projects are presently
under construction. A further 33 proposals are under various stages of study. The
Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act programme involves three approved
projects with a total cost of $4,000,000. The Water Investigations Branch is responsible for the processing of these proposals and for implementing the approved
projects by providing engineering services or by inspection of project execution.
The annual volume of construction work involved in 1968 was in the neighbourhood
of $6,000,000.
Studies continued on the proposed Shuswap River-Okanagan Lake water-
supply diversion proposal directed by Mr. T. A. J. Leach, Assistant Chief Engineer.
49
 V 50 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Main emphasis was on the effect of the proposed diversion on the Shuswap-South
Thompson River basin water resource and its future development.
The Water Supply and Investigations Division under Mr. R. G. Harris continued to be fully occupied with a heavy work load in connection with a number of
ARDA water projects. Messrs. L. A. Bergman and P. W. Newson are in charge
of final designs and construction supervision assisted by Mr. J. C. Kwong. Messrs.
J. H. Morley and K. N. Pleasance joined the Division as Hydraulic Engineers and
shared in the design and construction supervision of projects. Mr. R. E. Wells
resigned.   Mr. S. B. Mould continued to work in the field office at Oliver.
The Hydrology Division, under Mr. H. I. Hunter, continued the operation of
British Columbia snow-survey network and run-off forecasting, giving more emphasis to hydrological studies in connection with water-resource inventory and development problems.   Mr. A. Pipes joined the Division as Hydraulic Engineer.
The Groundwater Division, under Dr. J. C. Foweraker, expanded the existing
ground-water observation network and water-well inventory. The ground-water
well and other information records kept by the Division are being increasingly utilized by outside agencies who are involved in ground-water development. Mr. J. P.
Parry joined the Division as Geological Engineer.
The Basin Planning and Power Division, under Mr. J. D. Watts, was further
strengthened by the addition of Mr. J. C. Bunge to engineering staff. This Division
faces a large unexplored field of water-resources planning, into which a few definite
steps are being taken.
The ARDA Projects Division, dealing with ARDA water projects, was operating under high work load and was seriously handicapped by a large turnover of staff.
Of the seven professional engineers, only two positions were unchanged in 1968.
Mr. J. D. C. Fuller is now in charge of the Division. Mr. J. V. Eby was appointed
Construction Engineer. Messrs. J. Boardman, G. M. Pinfold, and D. R. Hjorth
resigned.   Mr. J. LAventure joined the Division as Assistant Hydraulic Engineer.
The Projects Division, under Mr. B. E. Marr, was active in river-training projects, and in the second half of 1968 became actively involved in the implementation
of the recent Federal-Provincial Lower Fraser River Flood Control Agreement.
In addition to the activities by the Water Investigations Branch staff, co-operation was continued with the Civil Engineering Department and the Agricultural
Engineering and Botany Departments of the University of British Columbia. The
Civil Engineering Department, receiving financial support from the Water Resources
Service, is intensifying its teaching and research programme in the field of water
resource. A water-quality and algae survey is being carried out jointly by the Agricultural Engineering and Botany Departments. Biological studies are also made
by the British Columbia Research Council in connection with water-resource
problems.
A substantial increase in joint Federal-Provincial activities was experienced
in 1968. The Provincial and Federal Ministers signed a 10-year agreement to cover
the Lower Fraser Valley flood, drainage, and erosion protection works, which agreement is being readied for implementation, as mentioned elsewhere in this report.
Discussions were held with the officials and the Federal Department of Energy,
Mines and Resources with respect to hydrometric network expansion and basic
hydrological data, a proposed joint Okanagan basin water-resource planning, and
a hydro-power market study in North-western British Columbia.
Noteworthy is also a proposal to create in the Okanagan basin a local public
body to study and advise in water-resource management problems.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH Y 51
Substantial help was received during 1968 from a number of consulting civil,
ground-water, and geological engineers and other outside and Government specialists, such as biologists and economists, in connection with water-resource investigations, planning, and development.
Senior members of the Water Investigations Branch continued to participate
in a number of committees dealing with water-resource matters, such as several
committees in connection with ARDA activities, the National and Provincial committees for the International Hydrological Decade, Hydrology Sub-committee of
the National Research Council, Co-ordinating Committee for Hydrometeorological
Networks, several Federal-Provincial joint committees on proposed water projects
and other water studies, Advisory Committees for Water Resources Research at
the Science Secretariat of the Privy Council and at the Federal Department of
Energy, Mines and Resources, Agricultural Engineering Science Advisory Committee, Flood Research Advisory Committee at the University of British Columbia,
and the British Columbia Pollution Control Board.
FUTURE AND ULTIMATE WATER REQUIREMENTS WITHIN
THE SOUTH THOMPSON RIVER SYSTEM
T. A. J. Leach, P.Eng., Assistant Chief Engineer
The 1966 preliminary report on the Shuswap River-Okanagan Lake water-
supply canal and the subsequent report of 1967 dealt with the effects of this proposed diversion on the discharges of the Shuswap River and South Thompson River
under present water-use conditions.
A third report, completed in July, 1968, entitled " Present, Future and Ultimate Water Requirements in the South Thompson Watershed and Their Effects in
Combination with the Shuswap River-Okanagan Lake Water Supply Canal Diversion (Scheme 3)," extended this examination to a time when consumptive use within
the northern watersheds would be many times that presently occurring.
The ultimate development within the South Thompson system envisioned the
irrigation of some 463,000 acres and a probable population of 720,000 people, compared to 25,000 acres and 24,135 inhabitants under present-day conditions.
This optimistic projection, while useful for testing the availability of water in
the basin, is expected to be greater than the potential capability of the land itself.
However, the percentage of this development which might eventually be realized
will have to wait the completion of extensive soil surveys and the determination of
other related data.
It is suggested that a reasonable planning objective, called the future development, would be 35 per cent of the ultimate, and that this stage might be reached
in the foreseeable future. This would include the irrigation of 167,000 acres, or
over six times the present irrigation, and a population of 265,000, or 10 times the
existing population.
Within the present, future, and ultimate developments, it has been assumed
that the proposed Shuswap River-Okanagan Lake water-supply canal diversion
(Scheme 3) will be operating to serve the North Okanagan (Enderby to Okanagan
Lake) with some 94,000 acre-feet each year, with an additional flow varying from
a few thousand up to a maximum of 194,000 acre-feet conveyed through to Okanagan Lake in below average inflow years. The North Okanagan area served from
the canal includes 12,000 acres in the Salmon River valley as well as 15,000 acres
within the Fortune Creek drainage, or a total of 27,000 acres within the South
Thompson watershed.
 Y 52 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The cost of Scheme 3, which includes a 500-foot-long by 50-foot-high concrete
gravity storage dam at the outlet of Mabel Lake, a 2,600-foot-long by 55-foot-high
gravity diversion dam feeding directly to the canal 3.3 miles above Enderby, or,
alternatively, a 570-foot-long by 25-foot-high diversion dam with pumping plant,
1.1 miles above Enderby, some 20 miles of canal including syphons, drop structures, and a low reregulating dam at Otter Lake discharging supplementary water
into Okanagan Lake via Deep Creek, was estimated in 1966 at between $14.4 to
$16.1 million with equivalent annual costs between $10.40 to $10.60 per acre-foot
of water. These costs would have to be revised upward to arrive at present-day
prices.
Through a lowering of the outlet of Mabel Lake, it is possible to obtain the
required 13 feet of storage equivalent to 191,000 acre-feet without creating higher
lake elevations than those occurring in the past for equivalent inflows.
The water stored on Mabel Lake during the freshet period of April to July,
inclusive, would retain a portion of the flood waters for release during the low flow
months of August and September.
Under the future and ultimate developments within the South Thompson watershed with the canal diversion in operation at least 1,100 cubic feet per second of
residual flow could be maintained in the Shuswap River at Enderby during April
to September, inclusive, under the most extreme drought of record (1922 to 1966).
Similar flows could be expected downstream at Mara Lake with reductions to about
900 cubic feet per second from July to September, inclusive, under extremely dry
conditions and under the ultimate development.
On a yearly basis, the reductions of flow in the Shuswap River at Enderby and
at Mara Lake range between 23.0 to 27.8 per cent and 25.1 to 34.1 per cent respectively, going from the present to the ultimate developments under drought conditions, while in the average inflow years the equivalent percentages are about one-
half these values.
The maximum change in Shuswap Lake elevations, averaged over the 1922 to
1933 period (which contains the three worst droughts of record—1929, 1930, and
1926), is a reduction of 1.3 feet in August under the ultimate development with
some slight improvements in the winter months due to return flow.
Annual reductions in the South Thompson flow at Chase and Kamloops run
between 7.9 and 18.6 per cent in the drought years for the present and ultimate
developments with less than one-half these values in an average inflow year.
The South Thompson at Kamloops contributed about 34 per cent of the discharge of the Thompson through Kamloops in each of the drought years 1929 and
1930, compared to 41.7 per cent in the average inflow year of 1965.
Reductions in the Thompson River at Kamloops would be between 2.7 and
6.3 per cent for the present and ultimate developments (including the canal diversion
in both cases) in the drought years or about one-half these percentages in the
average inflow year.
The Thompson River elevations at the North Kamloops Bridge under the
above-mentioned drought conditions and water use would be reduced in elevation
between 0.2 and 0.6 foot during May to September, inclusive. The maximum reductions of 0.6 foot occur in July and August, when the river is above its average elevation for the year, while again as at Chase there are slight improvements in the
winter elevations due to return flow upstream.
It is evident that with a maximum total consumption in a drought year under
the ultimate development of about 900,000 acre-feet (including the canal diversion)
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH Y 53
there remains a residual drought flow of some 12Vi million acre-feet in the Thompson River through Kamloops, which is more than adequate to serve the future needs
of this region of the Province.
Investigations presently under way by the Water Investigations Branch include
the feasibility of increased storage on Sugar Lake as an alternative to Mabel Lake
storage. The Federal Fisheries Department is completing a study on the effect of
the proposed diversion on the fisheries.
Near the end of the year the Province accepted a proposal by the Federal
Department of Energy, Mines and Resources to undertake a joint Federal-Provincial
planning study of the Okanagan basin water resources, which the Federal agency
wishes to carry out in order to gain experience in water-resources planning.
WATER SUPPLY AND INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., B.C.L.S., Chief of Division
The functions of the Water Supply and Investigations Division can be divided
into two main divisions—(a) irrigation and domestic water-supply projects, and
(b) flood- and erosion-control and drainage projects. In addition, this Division is
responsible for the major field surveys required by Water Investigations Branch
divisions.
During the past year, investigations were continued or initiated on nine water-
supply projects and seven flood- and erosion-control projects. Of the water-supply
projects, construction was continued or initiated on five under the ARDA programme, involving the preparation by this Division of final design, including contract documents. The total estimated capital cost of the projects under construction
is approximately $16,000,000.
Technical staff attached to the Division were responsible for field surveys for
the projects under construction for both the obtaining of engineering data and the
layout of design, and the supervision of construction.
The main projects dealt with in 1968 are summarized below.
Irrigation and Domestic Water-supply Projects
Black Mountain Irrigation District
The Black Mountain Irrigation District, which includes the community of
Rutland, is one of the major fruit-growing districts in the Okanagan Valley, consisting of approximately 5,000 acres of irrigable lands.
At the request of the district, an engineering study was carried out on a combined irrigation and domestic water-supply system to replace the existing open flume
and ditch system. A report prepared by the Water Investigations Branch in 1965
outlined a new water-supply system to supply water under pressure to some 4,550
acres of irrigable lands and 530 farm domestic connections from the proposed
Gopher Flats reservoir, supplied from the existing intake on Mission Creek through
3.5 miles of open canal. The proposed project, with an estimated capital cost of
$3,030,000, was approved for ARDA assistance in 1966.
In view of continuing development of the area, the district subsequently expressed concern over possible contamination of its water supply in the 3.5 miles of
open canal, and of possible alg« problems associated with the proposed Gopher
Flats reservoir. An alternative scheme was therefore investigated, proposing the
construction of a large settling-basin at the Mission Creek intake and providing a
closed system from the intake to the distribution system.   The revised scheme, which
 Y 54 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
effected considerable changes in the distribution system layout and provided for
higher operating pressures and a larger peak carrying capacity, was accepted by the
district and approved by ARDA authorities.
The new system, at the original estimated cost of $3,030,000, will provide
irrigation water to approximately 4,900 acres of farm lands and year-round supply
to over 600 domestic connections in the district. Approximately four years were
allowed to complete the project, which involves considerable improvements and
repairs to the district's storage and diversion works, in addition to the construction
of the settling-basin and distribution system. The latter consists of over 40 miles of
pipe-line in sizes from 4- to 48-inch diameter, several pressure-reducing stations,
three booster-pump stations, and a chlorination and flow-recording station. Domestic and irrigation water will be provided from Mission Creek, with emergency and
(or) stand-by winter domestic supply from two wells in the Rutland area.
The distribution system in the Rutland Flats area, which consists of approximately 15 miles of 4- to 24-inch-diameter pipe and 350 service connections, was
installed during the summer of 1968. It will provide a domestic supply of water
to residents in this area during the winter of 1968/69 from one of the two wells to
be developed for this purpose. The settling-basin earthwork and control works
were largely completed during the fall of 1968 and will be ready for use for the
1969 irrigation season. The main supply-line and the two largest pressure-reducing
stations were under construction in late 1968 and are planned to be in operation
for the 1969 irrigation season. The construction of the new system is being carried
out by irrigation district forces and will require approximately another three years
to complete.
Naramata Irrigation District
The Naramata Irrigation District is situated in the Okanagan Valley approximately 10 miles north of the City of Penticton on the east side of Okanagan Lake.
Primarily a fruit-growing area, the district consists of some 950 acres of irrigable
land, of which 940 acres are presently being assessed for irrigation-water service.
In addition, domestic water is provided to about 340 connections, mostly within the
townsite of Naramata.
The district's existing sources of water supply consist of Chute (Lequime),
Robinson, and Naramata Creeks, which are small mountain streams. Their natural
flow has normally been sufficient to meet the district's requirements until about the
latter part of June, after which time the flow is supplemented from storage water
released from Big Meadow Lake, Naramata Lake, and Elinor Lake. In 1967 the
previously developed storage of 930 acre-feet was increased to 1,230 acre-feet by
the raising of Naramata Lake dam under the ARDA programme. In addition,
improvements were carried out to Elinor Lake and Big Meadow Lake dams.
In 1967, which was a dry and hot summer, even though the reservoirs filled,
the storage supply was expended by August 9th, some two weeks earlier than normal.
As a result, the district was forced to install emergency pumping plants on Okanagan
Lake to alleviate the shortage.
Following the irrigation season, the district expressed concern that if another
dry year occurred, even the additional storage capacity would be insufficient to meet
the district's annual water requirements, and in view of this they requested that a
study be made to consider the development of additional water supply sufficient to
cover a drought period.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH Y 55
A preliminary report dealing with a proposed pumping system on Okanagan
Lake to supplement the district's existing gravity supply was completed in early
1968, with an estimated cost of $162,000. The district has requested assistance
under the ARDA programme in financing the project.
Okanagan Falls Irrigation District
Okanagan Falls Irrigation District is situated at the south end of Skaha Lake,
approximately 12 miles south of the City of Penticton.
In July, 1967, the district received approval under the ARDA programme to
carry out improvements and renewals to its combined irrigation and domestic water-
supply system. The existing system consists of a pump-house and intake on Skaha
Lake and a wood-stave pipe distribution system, installed in 1951.
As the existing water supply in summer is of poor quality, it is proposed to use
ground-water wells to replace the present pumping system. The feasibility of using
ground-water was investigated by the Groundwater Division of the Water Investigations Branch in 1966.
The proposed new works will include construction of a 40,000 U.S. gallon
reservoir, a booster pump for the higher levels, replacement of several pipe-lines,
and the drilling of three wells. A test well, which has already been drilled, will be
used to supply winter domestic water. Drilling of two larger wells to supply irrigation water is now being carried out. It is expected that the improvements and
renewals will be completed in 1969.
Because of the large non-agricultural domestic use, the district will be required
to contribute one-half of the cost instead of the usual one-third normally required
under the ARDA assistance programme.
Okanagan Mission Irrigation District
The Okanagan Mission Irrigation District lies on the east side of Okanagan
Lake approximately 5 miles south of the City of Kelowna.
The existing system, constructed about 1946, consists of a pumping system on
Okanagan Lake supplying irrigation water to about 261 acres of orchard and pasture
lands through a pipe and flume distribution system. As the system was designed
for irrigation use only, domestic supply for the area is obtained from individual wells
or springs.
At the request of the district, an engineering study on a combined irrigation
and domestic water-supply system has been completed. The total capital cost of
the combined system, which would supply some 360 acres of irrigable land and
a possible 400 domestic connections, has been estimated at $342,000, which is
considered beyond the district's financial capability, even with assistance under the
ARDA programme. Alternatively, it was recommended that the district replace the
main pipe-line, which is considered no longer serviceable, with a new 16-inch pipeline to provide continuing irrigation supply to the district.
The report is presently under review by the Okanagan Mission Irrigation
District.
Peachland Irrigation District
The Peachland Irrigation District is situated within the Okanagan Valley, approximately 13 miles south of the City of Kelowna, on the west side of Okanagan
Lake. Primarily a fruit-growing area, the district presently supplies irrigation water
to about 500 acres of farm lands. The boundaries of the district enclose a total
area of about 1,480 acres, of which 640 acres are classified as suitable for agriculture.
 Y 56 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The original system was installed in 1906 by the Peachland Townsite Company.
However, as the service and water supply proved to be inadequate, the land-owners
purchased the system in 1920 and subsequently incorporated the area into an
improvement district under the British Columbia Water Act.
The Peachland Irrigation District is supplied with irrigation water from Peachland Creek by a gravity system, supplemented by upstream storage released from
Peachland Lake and Wilson Lake reservoirs. Domestic water is supplied from
individual springs and wells, or from cisterns filled from the irrigation system. In
general, the system has reached the end of its useful life, and, in addition, it does
not meet the present requirements of the district for the supply of irrigation and
domestic water.
In July, 1965, the district requested that a study be carried out to consider
the feasibility of replacing the present irrigation system with a combined irrigation
and domestic system. Field surveys were carried out in 1966, and subsequent mapping of the district and storage reservoirs was completed in 1967.
A preliminary report was completed in early 1968, with an estimated capital
cost of the proposed new system of $648,000. The district has requested assistance
under the ARDA programme in financing the project. If the project is approved,
the district will commence construction in 1969, using its own forces.
Westbank Irrigation District
The Westbank Irrigation District, which includes the townsite of Westbank, is
situated approximately 7 miles south of the City of Kelowna, on the west side of
Okanagan Lake.
During the period 1958 to 1963 the district carried out partial rehabilitation
of the existing distribution system by financing renewals from the Renewal Reserve
Fund. However, in 1964, faced with immediate and costly replacement of the
remaining portions of the distribution system, including major improvements to the
storage works, the district applied for ARDA assistance.
The construction of a concrete intake dam and settling-pond, and screening
works, and the placing of 7,000 feet of 34-inch-diameter steel pipe-line, representing
the first phase of rehabilitation of the district's works under the ARDA programme,
was completed in April, 1966, for a capital cost of $160,000.
The second phase of rehabilitation includes the replacement of the district's
distribution system with about 70,000 feet of pipe-line, to provide a combined irrigation and farm domestic supply, and the reconstruction of Lambly (Bear) Lake and
Islaht (Horseshoe) Lake dams, to provide additional storage. An additional 500
acres of cultivated farm lands, adjacent to the district, will also be served from the
new system. This area, consisting mostly of lands within the Powers Creek Water-
users' Community, lies on the south side of Powers Creek, and is presently being
served by a gravity system with an intake on Powers Creek, upstream from the district's new intake. With the inclusion of these lands within the Westbank Irrigation
District, approximately 1,500 acres of irrigable land will be supplied from the new
system. Approximately 1,150 acres are presently being irrigated from the two
systems.
Included within the Westbank Irrigation District is the Westbank Waterworks
District, which provides domestic water service to the settlement of Westbank and
a number of farms within the irrigation district. The source of supply for the West-
bank Waterworks District is Westbank spring, supplemented by irrigation water
from the Westbank Irrigation District system during the summer season. The waterworks district is being amalgamated with the irrigation district, and the domestic
service will be provided from the new system.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH Y 57
Rehabilitation of the second phase has been approved for assistance under the
ARDA programme, and work has commenced on the reconstruction of Lambly
(Bear) Lake north dam and replacement of the distribution system. It is expected
that reconstruction of the storage works and replacement of the distribution system
will be completed in 1970.
Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District
The irrigation and domestic system now operated by the Winfield and Okanagan
Centre Irrigation District was constructed in 1909 by a private company. Incorporated in 1930, the district took over the distribution system in 1949. To provide
additional irrigation supply over the original entitlement of 1 acre-foot per acre from
Vernon Creek, in 1931 the district developed 2,445 acre-feet of storage in Crooked
Lake, and in 1944 reconstructed Swalwell Lake dam to provide an additional 9,585
acre-feet of storage, to supply approximately 1,900 acres of orchard land and about
300 domestic connections.
Following approval of a preliminary report prepared by the Water Rights
Branch in 1965 which recommended extensive replacements, the district applied for
and was granted assistance under the ARDA programme.
The first phase of construction, comprising the rehabilitation of Swalwell Lake
and Crooked Lake dams was completed in 1967. Additional work included the
improvement of 4,000 feet of diversion channel in Vernon Creek and the building
of a new office.
Replacement of the distribution system commenced in 1967. Altogether,
there are 18 miles of distribution-system lines and 7 miles of main supply-line to be
laid. All work is being carried out by the district, using its own forces under supervision of Water Investigations Branch staff.
The renewal plan was amended in February, 1968, to accommodate changes
which were found necessary during the course of final design. The revised scheme,
which will include a new earth-fill intake dam with settling-pond, and screening
works, at a site about 1 mile upstream from the existing intake, will provide irrigation water for 2,115 acres of land and domestic water for 350 connections.
Work completed to the end of 1968 under the second phase of construction
includes the laying of 95,000 feet of 4- to 16-inch pipe in the distribution system
and 8,000 feet of 30-inch pipe of the main supply-line. Work has already commenced on the new intake. To date, all construction has been carried out by the
district, using its own forces and rented equipment.
South East Kelowna Irrigation District
The South East Kelowna Irrigation District, incorporated as an improvement
district under the Water Act in 1920, contains an area of about 8,627 acres with
over 3,000 acres under irrigation, mainly in tree fruits. The original works were
installed by private companies during the period 1905 to 1911.
Gravity water is supplied to the district by two irrigation systems of about equal
size in area and one domestic system. The irrigation system to the east is commonly
referred to as the K.L.O. system with an intake on Canyon (K.L.O.) Creek, while
the irrigation system to the south is known as the S.K.L. system with an intake on
Hydraulic Creek. The domestic system, with an intake on Canyon Creek and serving about 200 farm connections, supplies the central area within the K.L.O. irrigation system.   The remaining areas are served by springs or cisterns.
 Y 58 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Commencing in 1964 and continuing through 1968, partial renewals financed
under the ARDA programme have been carried out under three projects, work being
mainly done on the S.K.L. system with lesser expenditures on the K.L.O. and farm
domestic systems.
In 1967 engineering assistance was requested for the design of a settling-basin,
which had been included in the estimates for the third ARDA project. The purpose
of the basin was to desilt the water being diverted from Canyon Creek for use in the
K.L.O. system. During freshet periods, Canyon Creek carries a heavy bed load of
sand and silts, causing excessive wear on irrigation equipment.
The basin, which was constructed during the latter part of 1968, will accommodate a maximum design flow of 50 cubic feet per second. It is approximately
250 feet in length, 70 feet in width, 6 feet in depth and is asphalt-lined. A junction
box at the inlet end will allow the water to be diverted into the pond for settling
during the freshet period or diverted through the existing ditch when settling is no
longer required.
The fourth project under the ARDA programme was initiated in June, 1967,
when the South East Kelowna Irrigation District requested the Water Investigations
Branch to prepare a preliminary report for the proposed rehabilitation of the main
concrete ditch and steel siphon across Canyon Creek and to survey a proposed
storage reservoir for farm domestic supply. This project was expanded in January
of 1968, when the district requested engineering studies be carried out on the
rehabilitation of the existing Canyon Creek dams, the development of additional
storage at the Turtle Lake reservoir-site, the reconstruction of No. 9 Dam on
Hydraulic Creek, and further replacements in the diversion and distribution systems.
Initial surveys covering the main diversion systems and storage reservoirs, including all existing reservoirs supplying storage water to the district, have been
completed. Processing of this information will be completed by early 1969. Preliminary studies have commenced, and it is expected that a preliminary report with
estimates of cost will be completed by 1970. It is expected, however, that certain
sections of the system may require replacement in the immediate future.
Water-storage Reservoir Inventory
A programme of mapping major water-storage reservoirs in the Southern
Interior of the Province was initiated in 1964. Areas presently surveyed under this
programme include the Okanagan and Similkameen basins and a portion of the
Kamloops and Nicola areas. This information has assisted in the administration
of water rights and the carrying-out of water-resource management studies in the
water-deficient areas. It has also been the basis of design in the reconstruction of
a number of existing storage dams under the ARDA programme.
Reservoir maps are being prepared by photogrammetric and field surveys,
including the use of echo-sounding equipment to obtain sub-surface information.
Of the approximately 120 storage reservoirs presently under licence in the Okanagan
basin, about 100 reservoirs are in operation. Of these, adequate information is
available on 59, mapping is nearing completion on an additional 17, surveys and
mapping are pending on 17, and the remaining six reservoirs are considered too
small to be included in the programme. Approximately 20 reservoir-sites have
either been abandoned or not developed.
The mapping programme for the Similkameen basin, which includes about 11
existing and potential reservoir-sites, will be completed in 1969.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH Y 59
Flooding, Drainage, and Erosion Projects
Tsolum River Study
In November, 1966, a request for a study of the feasibility of flood and erosion
control and irrigation-water supply was received from land-owners living along the
Tsolum River north of Courtenay. The study involved some 3,000 acres of agricultural land along both banks of the river, extending 10 miles upstream from the
river mouth at Courtenay.
Following the completion of field surveys by Water Investigations Branch staff,
a preliminary report was prepared in 1968. To provide protection against an
estimated design flood flow in the Tsolum River of 10,000 cubic feet per second,
and to provide storage for release in the Tsolum River during the summer for
irrigation purposes, two proposals were investigated—(a) flood and erosion control
by channel improvement and riprapping, and (b) development of storage in Wolfe
Lake.
The study indicated that although flooding of agricultural lands does take place
following severe storms, the extent of flooding is limited. The most serious problem
is river-bank erosion, and it is particularly evident in the meanders of the Tsolum
River at and above its junction with Portuguese Creek, 2¥i miles upstream from
the junction of the Tsolum and Puntledge Rivers. The loss of land from erosion
has been estimated at 12 acres over a 10-year period.
The total cost of the project, including the construction of flood and erosion
protection works on the Tsolum River and the construction of a dam at Wolfe Lake
to provide storage for the irrigation of an additional 2,258 acres of land in the
Tsolum River valley, is estimated at $285,500.
The report is presently being reviewed by interested groups.
Miscellaneous Projects
During the summer season the field survey staff attached to this Division carried
out a number of surveys required by the Projects Division of the Water Investigations Branch in connection with erosion and flood-control and drainage studies.
The main surveys carried out in 1968 for this purpose are summarized below.
Bella Coola River
The section of the Bella Coola River valley extending from the community of
Bella Coola to about 5 miles upstream from Hagensborg was controlled for photo-
grammetric mapping. Detailed topography was also obtained on the deltas of the
Snootli, Nooklikonnik, and Thorsen Creeks, including several oxbows and the
existing bridge-sites on the Bella Coola River.
In addition, a bathometric survey was carried out on the above section of the
Bella Coola River, using river boat and depth-sounding equipment. River flows
of 12 to 15 feet per second were experienced during the survey.
Chilliwack Drainage District
A topographic survey, including channel cross-sections, was made of a
proposed diversion channel between the Hope and Coco-oppelo Sloughs to relieve
flooding in this area.
 SURVEYING
BY RIVER BOAT,
BELLA COOLA RIVER.
 PLACING THE MAIN WATER-
LINE FOR THE WINFIELD AND
OKANAGAN CENTRE IRRIGATION DISTRICT.
 Y 62 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Somenos Creek, near Duncan
River cross-sections and profiles were taken on Somenos Creek, draining
Somenos Lake into Cowichan River, in connection with flooding problems in the
Duncan area.
Cowichan River
Following the publication of a report in 1967 entitled " Cowichan-Koksilah
Rivers Preliminary Flood Control Proposals," prepared by this Division, additional
field information, consisting mainly of river cross-sections, was required for a
further study.
Pemberton Valley Dyking District
In connection with flooding problems by the Lillooet River and its tributaries
in the vicinity of the community of Pemberton, a mapping programme, including
detailed surveys, was carried out in 1965 and 1966 by this Division, followed by
the preparation of a report in 1967 entitled " Preliminary Report on Pemberton
Valley Dyking District Drainage Proposals."
The area of investigation has now been expanded to include the section of
Pemberton Valley extending from the outlet of Lillooet Lake to a point about 16
miles upstream from Pemberton, a distance of approximately 36 miles. Twelve
additional permanent survey monuments were established, to be used for referencing
about 30 high-water levels and 12 gauging-stations.
Kootenay River
In connection with continuing erosion and flooding studies on the Kootenay
River, surveys were carried out on the section of the river extending from the International Boundary to Kootenay Lake, a distance of about 26 miles. Twenty-five
permanent river cross-section lines were established, surveyed, and referenced to
50 concrete monuments. Longitudinal profiles were obtained at the mid and
quarter points on the river channel. Detailed information was obtained at existing
bridges, gravel bars, and the river estuary. Bathometric information was obtained
by use of river boat and depth-sounding equipment.
HYDROLOGY DIVISION
H. I. Hunter, Hydrometeorologist, Chief of Division
Snow-course Network
One of, if not the most important Hydrology Division's function is the
co-ordination of the collection of mountain snow-pack measurements during the
snow accumulation and depletion periods. Snow surveyors made 720 trips to
isolated mountain sampling-sites during the winter and spring of 1968 to gather
snow-depth and water-equivalent data. These trips were made close to the regular
measurement dates of February 1st, March 1st, April 1st, May 1st, May 15th, and
June 1st, with the resultant data published immediately after these dates in the six
issues of the British Columbia Snow Bulletin. Most measurements were made near
the maximum snow-accumulation dates of April 1st and May 1st, at which time
quantitative volume stream-flow forecasts were made for British Columbia rivers
covering the spring and summer snow-melt season. Selected snow-course measurements were made at the earlier and later dates to show build-up and depletion of
the mountain snow.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH Y 63
With the addition this past summer of 13 new courses and deletion of six old
courses, a total of 182 will be in active operation in the coming 1969 sampling
season. Of this total, 118 courses will be measured by personnel of co-operating
agencies and the remainder by part-time employees of the Water Resources Service.
In particular, British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority is playing an increasingly important role in the gathering of snow-pack data from the headwaters regions
of those watersheds which provide the inflow to their power reservoirs. Additions
include nine Columbia River Treaty courses on Kootenay drainage for ultimate use
in Libby Dam operating procedures, two on Okanagan, and one each on the Babine
Lake and Horsefly River watersheds. Deletions were the Smithers and Elk River
(Vancouver Island) low-level courses, Missinka River on Parsnip drainage, and
three courses on the discontinued University of British Columbia Esperon-Terrace
Creek International Hydrological Decade study basin in the Okanagan. The 94
snow surveyors involved in the snow-survey programme make use of the helicopter,
ski-equipped aeroplane, over-snow machine, ski, or snowshoe to reach their isolated
mountain sampling-sites.
Last winter 36 courses were visited to provide snow surveyors with at-site snow-
sampling instruction and, as part of the routine summer maintenance work, 25 existing courses were cleaned and brushed.
An instruction booklet titled " Snow Survey Sampling Guide " was published
and distributed to British Columbia snow surveyors. It was especially designed and
written for not only those who have limited contact with the Hydrology Division's
technicians, but also to provide all snow surveyors with a quick reference relative
to snow-sampling technique, care of equipment, and rules governing recording of
the snow-pack data and its subsequent transmission to Victoria.
Stream-flow Forecasting
The six issues of the 1968 British Columbia Snow Survey Bulletin were distributed to a mailing list comprising close to 800 subscribers. For their respective
publication dates, the bulletins provided a tabulation of snow-course measurements
and a written and graphical description of watershed snow-packs, Okanagan
irrigation-reservoir water storages, quantitative run-off volume forecasts, and assessment of potential high water for those regions subject to flooding.
The May 1st snow survey indicated that for most stream gauging-stations, spring
and summer volume flow would be in the slightly above to slightly below average
range. During the forecast period the weather was generally cool and wet, resulting
in slightly higher volume flows than those forecasted. On most rivers, peak flows
were average to below average, with these high stages sustained for a longer than
usual period. One exception was the north Columbia region, which experienced
above average peak and volume stream flow.
Investigation of the hydrometeorological factors affecting Fraser River stream
flow, begun in 1967, was continued. Its objective is to improve both seasonal and
daily run-off forecasting procedures for use in water-resource management and
flood-control operations. Studies completed include derivation of spring and summer volume run-off procedures for selected Fraser stream-gauging stations, review
of methodology for prediction of daily flows during the critical snow-melt period,
and analysis of the effect on stream flow by a heavy rainstorm in late July and early
August, 1964. Seasonal forecast procedures were also developed for the Similkameen and Kettle Rivers and for the Steamboat Rapids gauge on the Columbia River
just upstream from Revelstoke. The latter procedure was developed as a replacement for the Twelve Mile Ferry gauge, which was inundated by the Arrow reservoir.
 y 64 water resources service
International Hydrological Decade Projects
Analysis of the data collected on the International Hydrological Decade study
basin nears Carrs Landing on the Okanagan watershed is providing a better understanding of the water balance in a representative area that produces no visible surface
run-off. On this basin, potential evapotranspiration is greater than annual precipitation. With the continuous record of soil-moisture levels in the top 6 feet of soil,
provided by electrical resistance units and neutron probe measurements, it has been
possible to establish a provisional pattern of water movement in the summer months
through simulation of the soil-moisture withdrawal pattern during the growing season. Further work is continuing to establish the appropriate functional relationship
between actual and potential evapotranspiration estimates on the watershed and to
improve the simulation of the soil-moisture fluctuations. The change in microclimate
with elevation is reflected in the greater snow-pack accumulation at the higher
elevations. A computer programme is being developed to obtain an improved
understanding of snow-pack accumulation and snow-melt at the different elevations
on the watershed. The water-table can rise to within 5 feet of the ground surface
after depletion of a heavy winter snow-pack. The rapid rises in the spring are
complemented by a steady withdrawal of the water-table during the rest of the year,
to its original level before the next rapid rise in the spring. Further observation
wells are being established in an attempt to explain sub-surface water movement,
and a continuous water-level recorder has been installed at an upper elevation site
to establish the precise timing of the rise of the water-table and its relationship to
snow-pack depletion.
In co-operation with the Federal Meteorological Branch, Hydrology Division
personnel are involved in a second International Hydrological Decade project, titled
" Mountain Transects." Its objective is to develop reasonably accurate objective
methods for determining precipitation and temperature distributions in mountainous
areas. To attain this objective, a programme consisting of three phases has been
proposed. In the first, the approach is to establish a cross-section (transect) of
observing sites at differing elevations on both windward and leeward sides of the
Beaufort Mountain Range on Vancouver Island to study variations in precipitation
and temperature. A second transect several miles distant and paralleling the first
will be established to test lateral variability and to test the applicability of the derived
objective method along two sections. If Phase I is successful, Phase II would be
instituted, involving extension of the investigation into an area in the order of 100
miles or more from the Phase I site, the aim being to establish the applicability of
equations determined in Phase I to this location. If a practical relationship can be
determined between the observed data and the meteorological and topographical
parameters, Phase III transects may be established at a number of locations in the
Province. This past summer three new meteorological stations were established,
one each at the lower- and middle-elevation leeward sites of the first transects, completing its complement of stations, and the third at the middle-elevation site of the
second transect. A total of six stations is now in active operation. In 1968
Hydrology Division technicians, using helicopter transport at 25-day intervals,
gathered the basic data and serviced the instrumentation at these sites with the data
forwarded to Meteorological Branch headquarters. When sufficient information has
been abstracted and returned to Victoria, the preliminary correlations study will be
completed, using the Division's regression computer programme.
 water investigations branch y 65
Snow Pressure Pillow Installations
Instrumentation at the experimental pressure pillow test site at the 6,300-foot
level on Blackwall Mountain in Manning Park provided a continuous record of
snow-water equivalent, precipitation, and temperature readings. Analysis of these
1967/68 readings show that permanent snow cover first lay on the ground
October 10th, reached a maximum water equivalent of 40.8 inches April 29th, with
snow cover finally disappearing June 24th. Greatest rate of water-equivalent
accumulation was 2.7 inches in the 48-hour period December 24th and 25th, and
greatest rate of depletion was 3.2 inches in the 48-hour period May 17th and 18th.
This past summer, a second pillow, together with a back-up temperature recorder,
was installed at the 5,000-foot Barkerville snow course in the Upper Fraser region.
Measurements from this installation will provide snow-pack information representative of an important Fraser River snow-melt contributing area.
Hydrological Data Processing
The installation of the I.B.M. 360 computer necessitated the resystemizing and
reprogramming of existing Hydrology Division 1620 programmes, resulting in a
faster and much more flexible system. This includes the stream-flow forecasting
programme, which has a data modification phase involving mathematical combinations, weightings, squarings, etc., a simple correlation phase, an all-combination
phase showing significance of variables for all possible combinations, and a multiple
correlation prediction equation and evaluation phase showing relationship of the
forecasted to the observed values. All phases include alphabetic identification of
the variables.
The 1968 snow-course data have been punched, listed, and transferred to the
magnetic-tape file and statistical summaries developed and listed for each snow
course.
New programmes have been written and card files created to provide alphabetic
and numeric index listings of all British Columbia stream-gauging stations. It may
be updated and new listings printed whenever the Federal Inland Waters Branch
of the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources forwards amendments. It
provides a quick and pertinent reference to the stream-flow data now on file.
Extensive modifications were made by the programme analyst to the open
channel flow backwater analysis programme to include a procedure for estimating
the channel roughness factor from observed river gauge heights. It was used by
the Projects Division for both channel roughness and backwater effects on the
Lower Fraser and Cowichan Rivers so that designed flood channels could be
established for dyking purposes.
The hydraulic gradient programme for pipe system was used in the Vernon
Irrigation District project to study the effect of various pressure relief-valve settings,
different pipe sizes, and different roughness coefficients to determine the reservoir
balance for different line flows.
A programme for plotting graphs on the computer printer has been developed,
which is used by the Projects Division and the Water Supply and Investigations
Division to plot river cross-sections.
The hydrometeorological observation data library, which includes up-to-date
hydrometric, meteorological, and snow-course measurements, is a continuing programme, with Water Resources Service staff using it as a quick and accessible
method of gathering basic data for their various projects and studies.   Work is
 Y 66 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
nearing completion on the location of all-year and inactive stream-gauging stations
on separate maps (1 inch to 10 miles) to provide a quick reference for planning
purposes.   These maps will be updated annually.
Miscellaneous
The Chief of the Division continues to be a member of several active working
committees, and these include the National Research Council Sub-committee on
Hydrology, Western Snow Conference Executive Committee, British Columbia
Hydrometeorological Networks Co-ordinating Committee, Columbia Basin Forecast Committee, and ARDA Agro-climatology Committee. In particular, preliminary work has been spent in the planning and preparation for a National Research
Council hydrology technical symposium on " Instrumentation and Observation
Techniques," which is to be held in Victoria early in 1969.
GROUNDWATER DIVISION
J. C. Foweraker, Ph.D., P.Eng., Chief of Division
Water-well Inventory
Data on existing water wells and ground-water use continue to be collected by
field reconnaissance and through co-operation with Government agencies and well-
drilling contractors. These data are being compiled on cards and well-location
maps. The main project in 1968 was a water-well inventory in the area from
Vanderhoof west to Prince Rupert.
Water-well Maps
A total of 70 new water-well maps was compiled during the year.   The new
maps cover areas in Yale; Lillooet; Kamloops; Osoyoos; Similkameen; Kootenay;
Cariboo; Range 4, Coast District; and Range 5, Coast District.
In addition, reorganization and indexing of supplementary mapping was
completed.
Observation Wells
Observation-well Network
Data continue to be collected and recorded on existing observation wells. Six
new observation wells have been added to our existing network, including two at
Williams Lake and one at Burns Lake. These three observation wells are constructed of plastic casings which were lowered into rotary-drilled test-holes.
A well near Osoyoos equipped with a 6-inch-diameter casing and well screen
was added to the network, and also two 6-inch-diameter high-altitude observation
wells completed in bedrock at Mission Ridge near Shalalth at elevations of
approximately 5,100 and 5,700 feet.
The observation-well network at the year-end consisted of the following:—
Coastal watersheds     3
Fraser watershed and Lower Mainland  43
Okanagan and Similkameen watersheds  27
Columbia watershed     2
Northern watershed     2
Total  77
One well was lost during the year in the Fraser watershed near Kamloops.
 GROUND-WATER
INVESTIGATIONS
Hydraulic jacks pulling a
10-inch well casing.
The stainless-steel 10-inch
screen for the test-production
well at Williams Lake.
 Y 68 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Publications
Work has now been completed on a new publication entitled " Groundwater
Levels in Observation Wells to December, 1967, Province of British Columbia."
This publication contains data collected since the commencement of the observation-
well network in 1961.
Equipment for Recording Data in Observation Wells
Groundwater-level recording equipment using compressed air has been installed
on four small-diameter observation wells; three of these wells are located in the
Lower Mainland, and a fourth is situated in the International Hydrological Decade
study basin near Carrs Landing in the Okanagan Lake watershed. This equipment
has been designed and constructed by the staff of the Groundwater Division.
Conventional groundwater-level recording equipment is also being used on four
observation wells.
Data are now being collected in Lower Mainland observation wells on temperatures of ground-water, using portable electrical equipment especially designed for
this work.
A groundwater-level water-temperature electric recorder for use in small-
diameter observation wells has been constructed for the Division and is presently
being field-tested on Saanich Peninsula.
Water-well Drilling Operations
Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District
A programme of test-well drilling in the Oliver area has been completed under
the guidance of the Groundwater Division. The purpose of this investigation, carried out under the current ARDA rehabilitation programme, was to find a suitable
winter domestic water supply in the area for the district's use. Four test-holes were
drilled; two were completed as test-production wells. The successful wells were
pump-tested at 425 and 400 U.S. gallons per minute, and the results indicate the
two wells are adequate for the district's anticipated demand.
Earlier in the year a 50-foot shallow 6-inch-diameter test-hole was drilled south
of Osoyoos to provide information at this site for the construction of a larger-
capacity well for the district. A 48-inch-diameter concrete caisson was subsequently
sunk at the site to a depth of 40 feet. The contractor encountered difficulties in
lowering his caisson below this depth, and the well construction was abandoned in
favour of an intake structure into Osoyoos Lake.
Okanagan Falls Irrigation District
A test-well was completed at Okanagan Falls under guidance from the Groundwater Division. A well screen was set between 170 and 190 feet, and the well
developed by high-velocity horizontal water jets instead of the conventional surging
technique. The test-well, which was pump-tested at 300 U.S. gallons per minute,
is to be retained by the district as a permanent production well.
Work will commence shortly under the current ARDA rehabilitation programme on a large production well which is to be drilled by the reverse-circulation
cable-tool method.
Keremeos Irrigation District
Under guidance from the Groundwater Division, well-drilling on the Keremeos
Irrigation District rehabilitation project was completed in co-operation with the
ARDA Projects Division.   Altogether under this well-drilling contract, four large
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH Y 69
production wells with a combined tested capacity of 6,000 U.S. gallons per minute
have been completed at the east unit pump-house, and two wells with a combined
tested capacity of 2,500 U.S. gallons per minute have been tested at the west unit.
Two small test production wells drilled under a previous contract are also to be
retained. A final report on the well construction and the pumping tests is nearing
completion.
Town of Williams Lake
Under the guidance of the Groundwater Division, a test production well was
completed on Scout Island at Williams Lake. Well-drilling at this site was recommended on the results of a rotary test-hole programme completed by the Groundwater Division in December, 1967.
The test production well has a 20-foot-long screen set between 180 and 200
feet. The well was pump-tested at 800 U.S. gallons per minute for 60 hours for a
total drawdown of 12V__ feet. The tests indicate this well could be pumped at a
higher rate of 1,000 U.S. gallons per minute. Preliminary water-quality tests show
the water is hard and the iron content is within acceptable limits for domestic
supply.
Ground-water Research Project at Prince George under ARDA Programme
A report on this research project is nearing completion. A consulting geologist
has been engaged to finalize the report.
District Municipality of Central Saanich
A report was completed in April on a preliminary assessment of the groundwater potential in the District of Central Saanich. The district subsequently carried
out a programme of test-well drilling near two sites recommended in this report.
The first test-well, at a site near the district's northern boundary, had insufficient
capacity for the district's needs. A second test-well was constructed at a site near
the district's southern boundary and pump-tested for 48 hours at 74 imperial gallons
per minute. Data from the pumping test and measurements made on the flow from
springs near the well-site are being assessed by the staff of the Groundwater Division
in order to determine if any proposed ground-water utilization would affect surface-
water users presently holding water licences in the area.
Exploratory Rotary Test-hole Drilling
The Groundwater Division carried out rotary test-hole drilling in several areas
of the Province this year. Test-holes were drilled in the Lower Mainland within
the Municipalities of Mission and Maple Ridge and in the Bulkley-Nechako Valleys
at Burns Lake and Smithers.
Nine test-holes were drilled under this contract for a total footage of 1,900
feet.
The aim of this rotary test drilling programme was to obtain geological information and to find sufficient deposits of sands and gravels suitable for test-well
drilling and ground-water development. The information obtained from this test-
hole programme showed that at Maple Ridge and at Burns Lake permeable sands
and gravels exist which justify the drilling of test production wells. Test-holes
drilled in Mission Municipality failed to locate aquifer materials, while at Smithers
several sand and gravel zones of limited thickness were encountered. However,
more test-hole drilling is recommended in the Smithers area before any decisions
are made on a location for a test-well site.
 y 70 water resources service
Miscellaneous Investigations
Further geological investigations of surficial deposits were carried out in the
Williams Lake area during the summer of 1968 as part of a continuing study in the
Cariboo area.
Preliminary field investigations of surficial deposits were made at Mission and
Maple Ridge Municipalities in the Lower Mainland and near Burns Lake and the
Town of Smithers in order to assess the feasibility of rotary test drilling in these
areas.
A brief field and office study was made of the present ground-water sources
for Matsqui Municipality, and some preliminary recommendations were made.
Short field inspections were made to assess ground-water potential in an area
near Grantham on Vancouver Island and at Naramata in the Okanagan Valley.
A brief ground-water investigation was made of an area near Bridesville, and
a location was selected for a well to be used for farm irrigation.
Advice was furnished to the Public Utilities Commission concerning the performance and safe yield of a well to be used as a source of water supply for a proposed major subdivision on Mayne Island.
Under the guidance of the Groundwater Division, a well was successfully completed on the campus of the University of Victoria. A supply of ground-water is
needed at the university for aquaria studies.
Other requests included the following: Parks Branch, Department of Recreation and Conservation—information on ground-water potential and location of proposed drilling-sites at eight Provincial parks; Department of Public Works—advice
on proposed drilling programme of large-capacity test production wells at the Fraser
Valley Trout Hatchery near Abbotsford; Rutland Waterworks District—advice on
ground-water potential and test-well drilling in the Rutland area; University of
British Columbia, Oyster River farm—brief field inspection and advice on drilling
a well to supply water for farm irrigation.
During a 12-month period ended November 30th, approximately 200 different
requests for information or assistance were received from outside the Department.
Many of these requests were for advice of a technical nature.
BASIN PLANNING AND POWER DIVISION
J. D. Watts, P.Eng., Chief of Division
This Division of the Water Investigations Branch has two main functions: (1)
the development of plans for water management on a regional or watershed basis,
with the immediate aim of improving surface-water supplies in areas where readily
available supplies have been exhausted, and (2) the inventory of the undeveloped
water-power potential of the Province.
The following work has been done during the past year.
Water-management Studies
Nicola-Kamloops Area
Under the agreement between the Civil Engineering Department of the University of British Columbia and the British Columbia Water Resources Service, work
was continued by faculty members, with student assistance, on the water-resources
planning study of the Nicola-Kamloops area, encompassing some 3,800 square miles.
The compilation and analysis of data were continued, and preliminary hydrology
studies were undertaken. Discussions were held with interested Federal and Provincial departments, also private agencies and companies.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
Y 71
Drs. Neher, Boyd, and Uhler, of the Department of Economics, University of
British Columbia, did preliminary work on the development of an econometric model
of the area and on the economic implications of large-scale water transfers.
The study area was visited by Dr. A. Leahey, pedologist, and Mr. C. H. Brown-
lee, soils specialist, to make a preliminary assessment of its irrigated agriculture
potential.
Columbia Basin
Estimates have been made of ultimate irrigation depletions likely to be experienced in the Columbia River basin in Canada. This 40,000-square-mile area was
divided into 22 sub-basins, and the areas in each below the 2,000- and 3,000-foot
contours were calculated. Estimates of possible ultimate irrigation requirements
were made, and estimates of depletion were derived. Total ultimate annual
depletion from the Columbia basin in Canada is estimated at 2.2 million acre-feet.
Pritchard Area
The Pritchard area is situated in the South Thompson River valley some 25
miles east of Kamloops. A reconnaissance report has been prepared on the irrigation potential of the 19-square-mile area of upland and lower valley slopes, which
has no sizeable local river and must rely on pumping directly from the South
Thompson River. It was found that the area could yield 3,230 acres with potential
for irrigation, but that the cost of pumping and piping made the proposal totally
uneconomic at this time.
Shuswap River Diversion
As a supplement to the main proposal to divert Shuswap waters to the
Okanagan via Enderby, study is being made of the economic feasibility of alternative proposals. Alternatives include both gravity-flow diversion at Sugar Lake
and pumping at Shuswap Falls. Each proposal routes the diverted waters by canal
through Lumby and Lavington to the Okanagan Lake system. Many variations of
the two basic alternatives have been investigated, and each has proven to be more
expensive to build and operate than the initial diversion proposal via Enderby.
Miscellaneous
1. In the Fraser River basin, estimates have been made by planimetry to take
inventory of total areas below the 2,000- and 3,000-foot contours.
2. Investigations have been made of the hydrology of upland areas serving
the Naramata Irrigation District. The area was found to be close to optimum
development of its local water sources, and consideration of a pumping scheme
from Okanagan Lake was recommended.
3. The preparation of an index of major rivers and tributaries in the Province
was commenced.
4. A record of area-elevation curves for 31 major drainage basins on Vancouver Island has been produced.
5. Assistance was given to Mr. T. A. J. Leach, Assistant Chief Engineer,
in the preparation of a report on the water-resource requirements of the Shuswap-
South Thompson basin. The present extent of regional development was examined,
and an assessment was made of future prospects. The hydrology of the basin was
also examined.
6. A review was made of the 1961 North Okanagan irrigation proposals, and
the cost estimates were updated.
 Y 72 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Hydro-power Investigations
Liard River
From January 22nd to April 18th, a preliminary sub-surface drilling programme
was carried out under the supervision of Dolmage, Campbell and Associates, Consulting Geologists, at Site G, near Mile 552 on the Alaska Highway and 57 miles
upstream from Lower Crossing, in order to determine the depth of gravel in the
river-bed and the competence of the underlying rocks for the foundation of a high
dam. The contractor, Inspiration Limited, drilled 11 NX diamond-drill core
holes comprising a total of 2,216 feet, of which 450 feet were in overburden and
1,766 feet were in sedimentary bedrock, mainly limestone. Six vertical holes were
drilled from the river ice. Five vertical holes and one inclined hole were drilled in
the abutments. This exploration indicates that a high earth-fill dam can be founded
on the rock at Site G.
During August and September, an overburden drilling programme was carried
out in the vicinity of three potential dam-sites on the Liard River. This work was
done under contract by Becker Drilling (Alberta) Ltd. and supervised by Dolmage,
Campbell and Associates, as follows:-—
Site A, 30 miles upstream from the mouth of the Fort Nelson River:
25 vertical holes were drilled on the islands about 2 miles downstream from the dam-site, 1,833 feet in overburden and 49 feet in
bedrock, a total of 1,882 feet. This drilling outlined a potential
source of gravel in excess of 60,000,000 cubic yards for construction
of an earth-fill dam. No other possible sources of gravel in sufficient
quantity for a dam at Site A are apparent, excepting in the river-bed.
Site E, 12 miles downstream from Lower Crossing: Two vertical holes
were drilled in a pass 5 miles south-west of the dam-site, 454 feet in
overburden and 15V__ feet in bedrock, a total of 469% feet. The
pass is on a possible seepage path around the dam-site. Bedrock
was found to lie some 50 to 70 feet lower than the proposed high-
water level in the reservoir to be formed behind the dam at Site E,
and to be overlain by highly permeable gravels and sand. Further
permeability tests in the gravel, sand and silt terraces to the west
of the pass will be required to determine whether seepage from the
reservoir, 2 miles away, will be a problem. Five holes were drilled
to bedrock in the right abutment of the dam-site, 160 feet in overburden and 23 feet in bedrock, a total of 183 feet. These holes were
cased, ready for future core drilling of the bedrock.
Site G: Six holes were drilled in the valley of Leguil Creek, 4 miles
north-east of the dam-site, 804 feet in overburden and 59 feet in
bedrock, a total of 863 feet. The overburden consisted of shallow
gravels and sands underlain by glacial till. The till, which overlies
bedrock, should be a suitable foundation for the saddle dam which
will be required at Leguil Creek. Additional information on the
bedrock profile is required, to be obtained by seismic survey.
Using a helicopter, a search was made for gravel fill for the proposed dam. No
obvious source was located, and exposures of overburden were few. Surficial
exploration by a party on the ground will be required before any sub-surface drilling
is done.
The consulting geologist mapped the geological strata outcropping on the right
abutment at Site E. From this ground survey and the five holes drilled through
overburden, a geological map is being prepared. Bedrock in the canyon at Site E
consists of relatively competent sedimentary rocks.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH Y 73
Office studies of the power potential of the Liard River are continuing.
The preparation of new topographic mapping of the Liard River and its
tributaries, the Fort Nelson and Kechika Rivers, is being continued by the Surveys
and Mapping Branch of the Lands Service for use in these power studies.
Yukon River
Office studies to evaluate alternative proposals for utilization of the water
resources of the Upper Yukon River system for hydro-electric power development
were commenced. The catchment area involved lies partly in British Columbia
and partly in Yukon Territory. Possible diversion schemes include one in which
the power-generation facilities would be located near tidewater close to Skagway,
Alaska, and others in which all major facilities would be within Canada.
Navigation Investigations
Fort Nelson and Liard Rivers
A reconnaissance study was made of navigation on the Fort Nelson and Lower
Liard Rivers. A report was prepared describing the existing, Fort Nelson based,
barge traffic on these two rivers. The effect on navigation of possible future power
developments was predicted. Ways were suggested for overcoming the Liard
Rapids, 35 to 48 miles upstream from Fort Simpson, N.W.T., which is the major
obstacle excluding Mackenzie River barge tows from the Liard River.
Other Activities
The Chief of the Division is a member of the Fraser River Joint Programme
Committee, established by the agreement between Canada and the Province of
British Columbia to undertake a programme of studies and works for flood control
in the Fraser Valley. The Committee has been actively engaged in establishing the
procedures and conditions under which this programme will proceed. Mr. J. C.
Bunge, hydraulic engineer, has served as temporary secretary to the Committee.
The Chief of the Division is a member of the Rural Development Planning
Committee and has attended meetings of this Committee throughout the year.
A background paper, entitled " Priorities for Water Resource Planning in the
Pacific Region," was drafted for the Canadian Council of Resource Ministers Water
Workshop Seminar held in Victoria in December.
Field investigation of sedimentation range sites in the area to be flooded by the
reservoir behind Libby Dam on the Upper Kootenay River was carried out.
At the request of the Municipality of Saanich, flow measurements were taken
at various points on the Colquitz River and recommendations made for the establishment of stream-gauging stations.
A preliminary report, which had been commenced by the Water Rights Branch,
Nelson District Office, was completed on the feasibility of supplying domestic water
to the Radium Waterworks District at Radium Hot Springs. This report concluded
that the most economical new source of water, after the supply from Kootenay
National Park had been terminated, would be a well in the valley floor of Sinclair
Creek.
ARDA PROJECTS DIVISION
J. D. C. Fuller, P.Eng., Chief of Division
J. V. Eby, P.Eng., Construction Engineer
The ARDA Projects Division was formed in 1963 for the purpose of investigating water-project proposals and preparing submissions under the Federal-Provincial
Agricultural and Rural Development Act (ARDA)  assistance programme.    The
 Y 74 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Division is also responsible for the design and construction supervision of certain
approved projects. The British Columbia Department of Agriculture is charged
with the over-all administration of the ARDA programme. Under an interdepartmental co-operative arrangement, the British Columbia Water Resources Service is
responsible for implementation of ARDA water projects, which responsibility has
been delegated to the Water Investigations Branch.
Since the inception of the ARDA programme, many of the requests for
assistance have been approved and successfully completed, while others are in
various stages of construction. In some instances, especially where construction has
been carried out by contract, supplementary assistance has been requested to cover
rising costs and complete the projects.
Since the start of the ARDA water-projects programme in British Columbia,
a total expenditure of $24,000,000 has been authorized and some $14,000,000
actually expended on ARDA water projects.
Actual and potential water projects under the ARDA programme total 87 in
number, and, of these, 49 have requested or received assistance, 33 are under study
prior to a proposal submission, and five are in abeyance for various reasons.
Provincial and Federal authorities have approved 49 proposals to date, and 22
of these have been completed, leaving 27 presently under construction.
Of the projects under construction, eight were brought into operation during
the year and may be considered complete in the construction sense. The 19 incomplete projects are mostly multi-year programmes, some of which may not be
completed until 1970 or later.
Some of the 22 completed projects have still to submit final claims for reimbursement in respect of such items as contractors' holdbacks and legal or survey
costs pending.
Project descriptions will be given here only for those of the 87 projects where
significant changes have taken place during 1968. A description of the remaining
projects may be found in the Reports of 1964, 1965, 1966, and 1967.
Engineering services for projects are being provided by the Water Investigations Branch and by the Water Rights Branch, as well as by consulting engineers.
Projects Essentially Completed during the Year
1. Penticton City Irrigation Rehabilitation—ARDA Projects Nos. 10024 and
29025.—This project, now at the tidying-up stage, has been carried out under
contract in its entirety, with engineering services provided by the Prairie Farm
Rehabilitation Administration, Canada Department of Agriculture. Construction
has included the renewal of two distribution systems with intakes on Ellis and
Penticton Creeks, diversion tunnel, and 70-foot-high earth-fill dam on Penticton
Creek.
2. Naramata Irrigation District Rehabilitation—ARDA Projects Nos. 10034,
29016, and 29016(S).—Renewal of the districts' distribution system and reconstruction of Naramata Lake dam, designed by consulting engineers, have now been
completed. A water shortage experienced during the summer of 1967 has resulted
in an application for ARDA assistance to install pumping facilities at Okanagan
Lake to provide a supplementary water supply.
3. Darfield Irrigation District Storage Dam—ARDA Project No. 29006.—
This included reconstruction of a small storage dam under contract, designed by the
Water Rights Branch.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH Y 75
4. Scotty Creek Irrigation District Rehabilitation — ARDA Projects Nos.
29011 and 29011 (S).—This project comprised a gravity-fed pipe-line system and
intake structure. Pipe installation was carried out by district forces and intake
construction under contract.
5. Raspberry Irrigation District Rehabilitation—ARDA Project No. 29021.—
Comprising a rural domestic water and irrigation system supplied under gravity
from Norns Creek, this project was designed by a consulting engineer and constructed under contract.
6. Naramata Irrigation District Storage Dams Rehabilitation—ARDA Project
No. 29022.—Work included repairs to Big Meadow and Elinor Lake storage dams,
carried out partly under contract and partly by district forces.
7. B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District Rehabilitation—ARDA Project No.
29026.—Construction of a pump-house and distribution works, including pumping
from the North Thompson River, has replaced part of the old gravity system. Work
was carried out both under contract and directly by the district, with engineering
by consultants.
8. Robson Irrigation District Rehabilitation—ARDA Projects Nos. 29029,
and 29029 (S).—This comprised replacement of part of the main gravity supply-
line from Norns Creek. The work was carried out under contract, with engineering
by a consultant. Further construction is being carried out under ARDA Project
No. 29039.
9. Sion Improvement District Rehabilitation—ARDA Project No. 29010.—
Under this project, the district is supplied with irrigation water under adequate
pressure for sprinkler operation and with water for farm domestic use. Two
separate systems, each served by wells, have been developed using contract work,
and both systems were brought into use during the summer of 1968. The project
has been designed and supervised by consulting engineers.
Projects under Construction or Study
10. Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District Rehabilitation — ARDA
Projects Nos. 10010 and 29041.—The basic purpose of these projects is to rehabilitate the existing irrigation supply system of the Southern Okanagan Lands
Project, a Provincially operated system, and, in addition, provide a supply of
domestic water for rural users. New works involved are being constructed over a
period of six years.
Since the start of construction in 1964, Pump Systems Nos. 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9,
with a combined installed horsepower of 2,330, have been completed. Pipe dis- i
tribution works have also been installed for all of these systems. During 1968,
construction included Pump System No. 4, which, with 450 installed horsepower,
was in operation during the 1968 irrigation season, and Pump System No. 6, with
200 horsepower, which will be ready for the 1969 season. Installation of pipe
distribution systems has accompanied pump-house construction. Also constructed
during 1968 were smaller supplementary pumping facilities as well as rebuilding of
Flumes Nos. 14, 15, and 16.
Design work included Pump System No. 1, which will supply some 350 acres
from a pumping-station with 150 installed horsepower, located on the main canal.
Design of Pump System No. 6 was also completed. Flumes Nos. 6 to 14 were
also redesigned and are planned for reconstruction during the winter of 1968/69.
Construction is being carried out mostly by district labour with some work
by contract. Certain electrical and mechanical components of the project have
been designed by consulting engineers.
 Sloping gates are now replacing vertical gates on storage dams during their reconstruction. Summerland Municipality's Headwaters No. 4 Reservoir.
Pipework at main-line pressure-reducing station, Vernon
Irrigation District.
Reconstruction of Municipality of Summerland's Headwaters No. 4 Dam required repairs to the existing concrete
culvert.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH Y 77
11. Summerland Municipal Irrigation Rehabilitation—ARDA Project No.
10029.—This continuing programme is being carried out by municipal forces.
Three storage dams and several miles of distribution works have already been
completed.   The design of the project is by consulting engineers.
12. Vernon Irrigation District System Rehabilitation—ARDA Project No.
29004. — Construction of a new pressurized irrigation and rural domestic water
system for the Vernon Irrigation District, serving nearly 10,000 acres of irrigated
land, started in July, 1966, and continued throughout 1968. The new system, when
completed, will replace some 57 miles of open canals and ditches and about 37 miles
of distribution pipe-lines. All pipe-lines laid to date have been constructed with the
district's own forces; structural work, including pump-houses and pressure-reducing
stations, has been completed under contract. Construction of the following works
took place in 1968:—
(1) Installation of pipe under 24-inch diameter, 59,000 feet (48 per cent
now complete).
(2) Installation of 20-inch and 36-inch pipe-line, 36,000 feet (pipe 24-inch
diameter and over now 47 per cent complete).
(3) Temporary intake on Grey Canal to supply main line.
(4) King Edward intake.
(5) Main-line and Kalamalka pressure-reducing stations.
(6) Chlorinating station at Goose Lake dam.
(7) Pumping plant, 100 horsepower (installed to date, 29 per cent of total).
13. Wood Lake Irrigation District Rehabilitation — ARDA Projects Nos.
29008 and 29008'(S).—This rehabilitation will give the district a modern pressurized irrigation system by taking advantage of available head from its stream source
and effecting intake improvements along with new distribution pipe-lines. Supplementary funds were required to cover changes in layout, cost escalation, additional
work at storage dams, and inclusion of a chlorinator. Construction, which is nearly
complete, is being carried out by district forces under the supervision of the Water
Rights Branch staff.
14. Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District—ARDA Project No.
29017.—An open gravity system is being replaced with a closed system utilizing
available head at the existing source. The project is designed for the needs of modern sprinkler irrigation methods and will also supply farm domestic water. Construction by district forces started in 1967 and continued during 1968, when most
of the steel main pipe-line was installed, as well as distribution works.
15. Black Mountain Irrigation District Rehabilitation—ARDA Project No.
29018.—The existing open gravity system, taking water from Mission Creek, is
being replaced with a closed pipe system, supplying sprinkler pressure for irrigation
and a water supply for rural domestic purposes. Work carried out by district forces
during the first year of a three-year programme included installation of pipe up to
30-inch diameter and excavation of 100,000 cubic yards of material for a settling-
basin at the intake site.
16. Surrey Drainage Project at Halls Prairie Road — ARDA Project No.
29019.—Provides drainage and flood protection in the Surrey Dyking District within
the Municipality of Surrey. Pump-house with 75-horsepower pump was completed
during 1968, also main ditches under the supervision of consulting engineers. Some
minor ditching only remains to be done.
17. Glenmore Irrigation District—ARDA Project No. 29020.—This project
replaces an existing gravity distribution system with a pressurized closed pipe system
fed from a balancing-reservoir constructed in 1964 under ARDA Projects Nos.
 Y 78 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
1003, 29005, and 29005(S). Available pressure is augmented by booster pumping
at two locations to provide adequate sprinkling pressure. Work is being carried out
mainly by district forces, with some minor items completed by contract. It is hoped
to have the entire system completed for the 1969 irrigation season. Consulting
engineers have provided assistance with electrical work.
18. Keremeos Irrigation District Rehabilitation—ARDA Project No. 29027.—
This project will replace the original open gravity system, drawing water from Ashnola River and Keremeos Creek, by pumping from two batteries of wells into the
east and west systems to provide irrigation and farm domestic water. Construction
during 1968 included completion of three wells serving the west system, concrete
reservoirs for east and west systems, east pump-house and well-heads, and installation of distribution-pipe work. The east system was virtually complete and tested
in November, and a start made on the west pump-house by the end of the year.
Pipe-laying has been by district forces with other work by contract. Consulting
engineers have assisted with electrical design.
19. Robson Irrigation District Rehabilitation Second Stage—ARDA Project
No. 29039.—Under a continuing programme to replace its irrigation system with
a long-lasting pressurized system, a further section of main line is being installed.
The scheme provides for both irrigation water and a domestic supply to farm dwellings.   Construction is by contract, with engineering by a consulting engineer.
20. South East Kelowna Irrigation District Second Project—ARDA Project
No. 29003.—This is the district's continuing rehabilitation effort, involving a section of its distribution system. Work is being carried out by district forces and,
with 90 per cent completion, will be finished early in 1969.
21. South East Kelowna Irrigation District Third Project—ARDA Project No.
29031.—This project is the third stage of rehabilitation of the district distribution
system and provides, as in previous projects, for the replacement of expended works
with more permanent materials suitable for pressure irrigation methods. Work is
being carried out with district forces and is approximately 60 per cent complete.
Studies are under way regarding rehabilitation of remaining works comprising
storage facilities and main canals.
22. Okanagan Falls Irrigation District Rehabilitation — ARDA Project No.
29035.—Ground-water supplies are being developed to replace an existing intake
on Skaha Lake, and a part of the distribution system will be renewed. A test-well
has been completed, and further drilling is now in progress.
23. Ellison Irrigation District Rehabilitation—ARDA Project No. 29036.—
The old gravity system is being replaced by more permanent works suitable for pressure irrigation. Design is being carried out by consulting engineers and construction
by district forces.
24. West Bench Irrigation District Improvements—ARDA Project No. 29038.
—The Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration, Canada Department of Agriculture, has been responsible for the design of this project, which includes a new intake
into deeper water in Okanagan Lake and construction of a concrete storage reservoir.
This work has been carried out by contract and is largely complete. This district
has applied for extension of the project to include certain modifications.
25. Mount Ida Waterworks System—ARDA Project No. 29028.—The Salmon Arm District Municipality is implementing this project to provide a small
domestic water-supply system for a group of farms. Work involves pipe distribution works, a diversion dam, and storage reservoir. Design is by consulting engineers and construction by contract.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH Y 79
26. Lakeview Irrigation District Diversion Works—ARDA Project No. 29040.
—This project involves the supply of irrigation water and domestic water for farm
use. Work includes the replacement of the diversion dam on Lambly Creek and
main flume and canal with more permanent works. Design is by consulting engineers and construction under contract. Progress during 1968 saw completion of
the intake and some 50 per cent of pipe installation.
27. Westbank Irrigation District Second Project—ARDA Project No. 29042.
—This follows the first project covering replacement of intake works and main conduit. Work includes replacement of the distribution system and reconstruction of
storage dams. The system supplies both irrigation water and domestic water for
farm use. Construction by district forces commenced on this second phase in the
fall of 1968.
PROJECTS DIVISION
B. E. Marr, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The Projects Division has as its main function the investigation, review, and
implementation of major flood-control, land-reclamation, and drainage proposals.
This includes the preparation and review of proposals for submission under the
Canada-British Columbia Joint Development Act and the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act and Fraser River Flood Control Agreement.
In addition, the Division designs and supervises construction of water damage-
prevention projects either directly or under agreements with local authorities or
individuals.
North and West Vancouver Flood-control Project
The North Vancouver component of this flood-control project, being implemented under the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act, was completed in
1967. Proposals concerning four creeks in West Vancouver are under study by the
Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District, acting as agent for the District
of West Vancouver. The total estimated cost of works covered by the agreement
is $2,301,480.
Hastings Creek Flood-control Project
This year saw the entry into contract for the construction of some 7,500 feet
of reinforced-concrete pipe and culvert to intercept and collect the several branches
of Hastings Creek and divert to Lynn Creek, eliminating the flooding of land and
residences below Kilmer Road in North Vancouver. The work is now nearing
completion at an estimated cost of $700,000, and is being undertaken under the
Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act, with the Greater Vancouver Sewerage
and Drainage District acting as agent for the District of North Vancouver.
Alberni Flood-control Project
The design of the $1,000,000 flood-control project to raise River Road along
the Somass River and to control Kitsucksus Creek and thus reduce the possibility of
flooding in the west section of the former City of Alberni was completed in 1967.
A revised agreement between Canada and the Province of British Columbia was
signed during the year under the Canada-British Columbia Joint Development Act
and the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act, followed by an agreement
between British Columbia and the City of Port Alberni for the implementation of
the project. Negotiations with the Federal Indian Affairs Branch regarding right-
of-way problems continue.
 Y 80 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Lower Fraser Valley
The collection and analysis of basic data to establish design criteria for the
Lower Fraser Valley flood-control works continues. A regional flood study covering the lower valley from Agassiz to the sea is nearing completion, and considerable
progress has been made on a study to establish flood profiles. In both of these
studies, use has been made of the I.B.M. 360 computer.
The above work was given added impetus by the signing of the Federal-Provincial agreement for flood control in the Fraser Valley in May this year. The
Chief of the Division is the current Chairman of the Fraser River Joint Programme
Committee established under the Federal-Provincial agreement. A review of proposals previously submitted as to engineering soundness and economic viability is
under way, including the benefits to be derived in some instances from the regrouping of areas.
In co-operation with Federal Government engineers under the Federal-Provincial agreement, a reassessment and redistribution of economic benefits from flood-
control works in the Lower Fraser Valley is under way, and this will include the
preparation of a project classification system. Also nearing completion is an
information guide for general distribution to explain the flood-control agreement and
its application.
A number of new hydrometric stations have been established in the Lower
Fraser Valley, and a programme initiated to obtain additional data on flood flows
and to analyse existing data with the object of improving the quality of information
available for design purposes.
Chilliwhack Drainage
A comprehensive report on drainage in the Chilliwhack area was completed
at year-end and includes proposals for drainage improvements and irrigation. Some
41,000 acres of land would benefit from the proposed works at an estimated cost of
$2,300,000. The report has been forwarded to the local authorities involved for
comments and review.
Essentially the proposals consist of changes and improvements to the existing
ditching and drainage system and the installation of additional pumping capacity
to handle summer storm run-off for a high degree of water-table control. Also
included are intakes on the Fraser River at Camp Slough and on the Vedder River,
and a series of ditch control structures to allow recharging of the ditches and watercourses during the summer months for irrigation purposes. It is further proposed
to relocate a section of the Fraser River dyke to provide a more rational flood-
control system.
Lower Squamish Valley
In 1965 a report was prepared on flood and erosion control in the Lower
Squamish Valley. A start was made on the implementation of the proposals outlined in the report with the design and construction of dyke and bank-protection
work on the Mamquam River in early 1968 at a cost of $50,000. In December,
work commenced on the Squamish River to provide bank protection at two critical
locations, and it is expected that some $200,000 will have been expended at these
locations by March, 1969. The estimated cost of the comprehensive flood- and
erosion-control measures outlined in the 1965 Report is $2,000,000, which was
initially intended to be a joint Federal-Provincial project under the Canada Water
Conservation Assistance Act.
 water investigations branch y 81
Bella Coola Valley
The responsibility for the implementation of river-bank protection and dyking
works on the Bella Coola River and side streams, started by the Department of
Highways following the flooding in the Hagensborg area in January, 1968, was
transferred to the Water Investigations Branch of the Water Resources Service.
Total expenditures approved by the Water Resources Service and undertaken by
the Department of Highways under general guidance of this Division are in the
order of $250,000.
The work consists of the placing of heavy rock riprap along two sections of
eroding river bank and the construction of dykes in the Hagensborg area. Also
included is the cleaning-out and minor improvements to three side streams subject
to flash floods and a potential danger to the highway between Bella Coola and
Hagensborg.
Mapping of the area is now being undertaken under a private contract, and
this will facilitate the planning of any further works.
A number of minor flooding and erosion problems in the Bella Coola Valley
have also been investigated, but as yet no action has been taken.
Pemberton Valley Flooding
As a result of complaints from the Pemberton Valley Dyking District regarding
a worsening of flooding problems, the area was visited on several occasions. There
is a serious lack of hydrometric data for the Lillooet Lake-Lillooet River system,
and to remedy this situation and provide data on which an analysis of the flooding
problem can be made, the Branch installed river and lake gauges, to be read by
local appointees of the dyking district. This information should be useful in
determining the location and extent of necessary survey work and in arriving at
a solution to the problems of this reclamation project, which was constructed by
the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration of the Federal Department of
Agriculture.
Cowichan River Flooding
A preliminary report on flooding and erosion by the Cowichan River at Lake
Cowichan and in the Lower Cowichan Valley was completed in 1967. This report
has been the subject of considerable discussion, and a number of meetings were
held during the year with interested parties. Any further action on the proposals
contained in the report must await the results of studies by the Federal Department
of Fisheries on the economic value of the Cowichan River as a fishery resource.
Kitimat River
The investigation of a flooding problem at Kitimat, started in 1967, has been
delayed pending completion of field survey work to be undertaken by the District
of Kitimat. Large-scale mapping of the area has been obtained by engaging private
survey facilities, and some preliminary layout work and a hydrology study have
been completed.
Other Projects
During 1968, 16 minor flooding and erosion problems were investigated
throughout the Province and reports prepared. In five instances, assistance in the
design, supervision of construction, and financing was given by the Water Investigations Branch within the available limited budget of the British Columbia Water
Resources Service.   Among those investigated but not yet constructed was a flood-
 Y 82 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
ing and erosion problem at Houston. In this case, proposals were made to control
Buck Creek through the Village of Houston and also to provide river-bank protection on the Bulkley River.
A proposed drainage and pumping system to alleviate flooding of agricultural
land in the Municipality of Surrey in the vicinity of Halls Prairie Road under the
ARDA assistance programme was reviewed, and a number of modifications and
suggestions were made regarding the proposal.
Stellako River
A Federal-Provincial technical sub-committee, of which this Division's representative was an active member, appointed to study the 1967 log drive on the
Stellako River completed its preliminary report, entitled " The Stellako River Log
Drive, 1967." Further field work was undertaken in 1968, and a final report is
expected to be completed in 1969.
RECORDS COMPILATION AND REPORTS SECTION
A. S. Stencel
The principal functions performed by the Records Compilation and Reports
Section continued to be the assembly of engineering reports, operation of the Reports
Library, collection and compilation of technical and cost records, operation of the
Branch carpool, and general office duties for the Branch.
During the year the Reports Library received 80 new engineering reports for
assembly and registration. As a result, the total of available reports amounts now
to 1,530.
The increase in the number of reports received and registered during 10-year
periods is shown in the following table:—
Period (Years)
1915-24    	
Number of Reports
Available
      175
Percentage of
Total Available
11.4
1925-34	
        40
2.7
1935_44	
        37
2.4
1945_54    	
      115
7.5
1955-64	
      863
56.4
1965-68        	
      300
19.6
Totals	
  1.530
100.0
In addition to the new reports, over 500 copies of other reports have been
prepared and distributed, an increase of 33 per cent over 1967. The year under
review also saw requests for over 120 copies of other publications, including inter-
library loans, researched and completed by the staff. Another increase was recorded during 1968 in the circulation of periodicals and technical literature. Of
the present total of 1,530 reports in the library, 931 reports have been prepared
by the Water Resources Service staff. The following table shows the number of
such reports and the general fields which they cover:—
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
Y 83
Technical Reports in Reports Library Prepared by Water Resources Service Staff
as of December 31,1968
Period (Years)
Water
Power
Water
Supply
Floods,
Drainage,
Dyking
Groundwater
Hydrology
Miscellaneous
Totals
1911-20.	
13
107
25
7
8
21
14
26
5
3
26
5
1
10
27
57
69
111
108
3
8
40
38
51
15
1
1
1
	
1
1
8
1
5
2
2
10
9
12
1
2
4
4
1
3
7
10
14
20
7
19
1921-25 	
141
1926-30   	
1931-35	
1936-40 	
35
9
8
1941-45 . 	
35
1946-50	
1951-55 	
1956-60 	
59
151
137
1961-65	
1966-68	
204
133
Totals	
232
417
155
21
34
72
931
DRAUGHTING OFFICE
B. Varcoe, Chief Draughtsman
A 22-per-cent increase in the total number of drawings produced in 1968 has
been attained through the 1967 increase in the number of draughtsmen by three.
The number of projects worked upon has decreased from 49 to 18, which may be
attributable to the increase in drawings produced to some degree. On the minus
side, however, two draughtsmen have been used as technicians for over six months
each and have done very little draughting. Also, the loss of the services of two
draughtsmen for one month each, as a result of resignations, decreased total
production.
A breakdown of the 1968 production of the Water Investigations Branch
draughting offices is as shown below:—
Plans drawn and used for construction projects  and feasibility
studies  381
Plans drawn for technical studies  5
Illustrative type of drawings prepared for use with a lecture or
hearing   21
Plans drawn but unused or incomplete  68
Plans drawn for Hydrology Division  24
Total new plans drawn   499
Plans revised for Hydrology Division      13
Uncontrolled mosaics prepared        2
Value of all types of reproductions requisitioned from the Surveys
and Mapping Branch, Reproduction Laboratory  $9,950.00
In order to satisfy the requirements for air-photo reprints, air-photo enlargements, and film positives of air photos, 62 requisitions were prepared requesting air
photos, etc., for both the Water Rights Branch and the Water Investigations Branch.
From these requisitions, 1,251 photos, etc., were received.
  OFFICE
OF
THE
INSPECTOR
OF
DYKES
  OFFICE
OF
THE
INSPECTOR
OF
DYKES
W. R. Meighen, P.Eng.
Inspector of Dykes
The year just past was relatively uneventful in all of the Province's dyked areas.
The spring run-off in the Fraser and other major streams was of normal proportions
and did not produce a serious threat to any of the dyking systems along the banks
of these rivers.
An exception was the Pemberton Dyking District, in which a severe storm
period during the summer caused Ryan Creek to overflow its banks and flood a
portion of the district for a few days.
Kent Municipality replaced the Hammersley Prairie flood-box during the period
January to April. The large 1967 freshet had caused failure of the previously existing flood-box, necessitating this replacement to be made prior to the 1968 freshet.
The new flood-box functioned perfectly during this year's freshet.
The Coquitlam Dyking District and the Pitt Meadows No. 2 Dyking District
renewed power-lines servicing the pumping-stations of these districts.
The Sumas District carried out a complete overhaul of one of its large pumps,
replacing the impellor and shaft in the process. The district's 3A -yard dragline was
also given a major overhaul.
River-bank protection projects were carried out in some 12 districts to combat
erosion where this erosion constituted a threat to the dykes. Total expenditure on
this type project approximated $220,000, with the Provincial and Federal Governments each contributing 37Vi per cent of the cost. The local districts carried out
the work and provided the remaining 25 per cent of the cost.
Discussions were held with numerous municipal governments with a view to
having the municipal governments accept responsibility for the future operation and
maintenance of dyking and drainage systems within their municipal boundaries.
Some acceptance of this proposal has been obtained, and it is anticipated that further
talks will be held.
A Federal-Provincial agreement was signed late in the year which provided for
the setting-up of a Joint Advisory Board and a Joint Programme Committee to carry
out a major flood-prevention programme in the Fraser Valley. The Inspector of
Dykes was appointed a member of the Programme Committee. Amongst other
tasks assigned to the Committee was the preparation of an information pamphlet
87
 Y 88 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
which would inform local authorities in the Lower Fraser Valley of the part they
may expect to play in the 10-year programme, and the extent to which they would
participate.
The Governments of Canada and British Columbia will expend up to $36,000,-
000 under this programme over the 10-year period, with local participation increasing this amount on a cost-sharing formula. The programme involves the upgrading
of existing river and sea dykes, the construction of a limited amount of new dyke
where considered feasible, the provision of river-bank protection, and the improvement of drainage facilities, such as pumps and flood-boxes, required to remove water
which tends to gather behind the dykes.
 SOUTHERN
OKANAGAN
LANDS
PROJECT
 IRRIGATION SYSTEM REHABILITATION, SOUTHERN OKANAGAN
LANDS PROJECT.
Installation of No. 9a pump-house intake
on Osoyoos Lake.
The construction of Pump-house No. 4.
 SOUTHERN
OKANAGAN
LANDS
PROJECT
L. A. PlNSKE
Project Supervisor
ADMINISTRATION
The administration of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project is under the jurisdiction of the Water Resources Service. Its main function is the operation of the
irrigation system until the current rehabilitation programme being carried out as an
ARDA scheme is completed in about two years. Upon completion of the construction of the pressure system, it will be turned over to the Southern Okanagan Lands
Irrigation District, which is an improvement district already formed to operate the
system.
In January, 58.5 acres of land west of the main canal, south of Oliver, were
sold by public tender for agricultural purposes.
Activity continued in the disposition of numerous small pieces of land and old
river oxbows which were created when the Okanagan flood-control channel was
constructed. Several have been sold, and others will be when boundary problems
have been solved and surveys completed.
OPERATION
Normal maintenance, including annual replacements of deteriorated timbers
on trestles, cleaning, and pitching of the main canal, was carried out during the winter and early spring. The easterly end of the wooden section of the main siphon
was lined with plywood to reduce leakage. Salvaged 24-inch wood-stave pipe from
" G " lateral was installed to eliminate part of the open ditch on the Kirby drain.
Water was turned into the main canal on April 16th to commence the irrigation season, and all pumping-stations were put into operation shortly after that date.
No major difficulties were encountered during the season and irrigation continued until September 30th, when water was turned off. The normal ditch-riding
service was provided for the Osoyoos and Black Sage Irrigation Districts.
Construction continued on the rehabilitation of various components of the system for the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District. These included a domestic water distribution system in Pump System No. 5, a distribution system, pump-
house, and balancing-reservoir in Pump System No. 4, an intake and pump-house
in Pump System No. 9a, a distribution system in Pump System No. 8a, the removal
and replacement of Flumes Nos. 15 and 16 with creosoted-timber trestles, the installation of meters in Pump Systems Nos. 8 and 9, and the fencing of part of the main
canal system through the Village of Oliver.   Pipe-laying in Pump System No. 6 was
91
 Y 92 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
nearly completed, and pump-house construction is progressing. Flumes Nos. 8, 9,
and 10 were removed and the areas filled with compacted material. These flumes
will be replaced by concrete canal prior to the 1969 irrigation season.
With the completion of Pump Systems Nos. 7, 8, and 9, approximately 10
miles of the original main canal northward from the International Boundary have
been abandoned, and a start was made to fill in and level off that section of the
right-of-way.
Preliminary survey was completed on Pump System No. 1 north of Oliver to
facilitate the design for the rehabilitation of this area.
Annual Revenue
Irrigation collections  $89,235.20
Land sales (principal)   33,563.03
Sundries (topsoil, maps, payments from irrigation districts,
interest, and lease rentals)   127,696.47
Total  $250,494.70
 PERSONNEL
OFFICE
AND
ACCOUNTING
DIVISION
  PERSONNEL
OFFICE
K. M. Hanson
Personnel Officer
In 1968 the permanent establishment of the Water Resources Service was
increased by seven positions. Of these, three were assigned to the Pollution Control
Branch (two Engineers 3 and one Clerk-Stenographer 3), two to the Water Investigations Branch (one Administrative Officer 1 and one Clerk-Typist 1), and the
remaining two positions were technicians in district offices of the Water Rights
Branch.
The table below summarizes the activity in the personnel field during 1968.
Hiring of staff increased over 1967, as did terminations of continuous staff. A
greater number of requests for classification reviews was received during the year.
1965
1966
1967
1968
22
20
4
2
5
17
3
25
6
1
24
18
10
4
4
17
3
25
6
4
31
15
18
5
3
18
35
4
3
37
8
9
3
28
1
Short-term casual appointmentsi   	
36
5
Extensions of service granted—  	
2
l Excluding Southern Okanagan Lands Project casuals.
New areas of work include the Fraser River flood-control programme. The
contract covering this programme was signed in 1968, and it is anticipated that a
fairly large staff will be required for this area in the coming year.
The year 1968 saw the retirement of Mr. A. Sargent, of the Water Rights
Branch.   Mr. Sargent had completed 50 years of continuous service in the Branch.
Several field trips were made by the Personnel Officer to district offices, with
beneficial results to all concerned.
The year 1968 was a busy one for the Personnel Office, and with the ever-
expanding services required of the Water Resources Service, it would appear that
the high level of activity will continue.
95
  ACCOUNTING
DIVISION
M. B. Maclean
Departmental Comptroller
With the continued growth of the Water Resources Service throughout 1968,
greater demands have been made on the services of the Accounting Division, particularly from the expenditure and payroll aspects. These services have been provided without increasing staff through co-operation of the various divisions of the
Water Resources Service and by trimming unnecessary record-keeping.
Figures of expenditure are maintained on a fiscal-year basis ending March
31st, and may be examined in the Public Accounts of the Province. As at December 31, 1968, in the field of major water programmes, there were 35 active ARDA
projects and three projects under the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act.
The Water Resources Service has been very active throughout 1968 in dealing with
local water-damage projects, the costs of which are shared between a local authority
or individual and the Province. To a large extent the requisite accounting and financial arrangements have been completed for the joint Federal-Provincial Fraser River
programme.
Water Resources Service revenue—that is, revenues obtained from the licensing of water sources—has again increased. This increase can be attributed to
two main factors—increased number of licences and increased production of hydroelectric power. Water-licence accounts increased from 21,300 at December 31,
1967, to 23,116 at December 31, 1968.
With the conversion of our water-licence accounts in 1967 from the I.B.M.
1620 system to the 360 system, our accounts are being updated weekly, with the
result that our account files are of much greater assistance to the licensing division
as well as to ourselves.
Annual billing for all licences except power is issued in early January of each
year.   Power billing is usually issued in April.
Following is a statement of Water Resources revenue for 1968:—
Domestic, incidental use, and fees
Waterworks 	
Irrigation  ,-	
$92,849.77
14,575.66
  4,784.51
Power _.      2,465,846.72
Funds received on application         171,791.06
Total
$2,749,847.72
97
 Y 98 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Comparison of Revenue for 10-year Period
1959 to 1968, Inclusive
1959 $1,393,939 1964 $2,175,223
1960  1,510,278 1965  2,251,025
1961  1,853,653 1966  2,285,932
1962  2,115,738 1967  2,431,010
1963  1,935,778 1968  2,749,848
 POLLUTION
CONTROL
BOARD
POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
The Pollution Control Board was initially formed in 1956 under the administration of the
Minister of Municipal Affairs. On April 1, 1965, the Board was placed under the Minister of
Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, with the Deputy Minister of Water Resources acting as
Chairman.
The functions of the Pollution Control Board are set forth in the Pollution Control Act,
1967, as follows:—
" The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may direct the Board to inquire into, to determine
causes of and remedies for any matter or matters relating to the polluted conditions of water,
land, or air, and
"(a) to take such remedial action as the Board considers necessary in the public interest, or;
"(b) to report to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, who may thereafter direct the Board
to take whatever remedial action it considers necessary in the public interest."
The Act further states that the Board has the following powers and duties:—
"(a) To determine what qualities and properties of water shall constitute a polluted condition:
"(b) To prescribe standards regarding the quality and character of the effluent which may
be discharged into any waters:
"(c) To appoint such advisory or technical committees from time to time as may be
deemed necessary to inform the Board with regard to whatever matters may be
referred by the Board."
The Act also prescribes that the Pollution Control Board shall act as an appeal tribunal to
hear appeals taken against any order of the Director of Pollution Control, and in the capacity of
an appeal tribunal the Board " may, on any appeal, determine the matters involved and make
any order that to the appeal tribunal appears just."
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BOARD
A. F. Paget, P.Eng. (January to May 20th)
F. S. McKinnon (May 21st to December)
Chairman
As reported last year, the highlight of 1967 was the promulgation of new pollution-control legislation. The new legislation relieved the Pollution Control Board
of the routine administrative functions associated with issuing permits. Under the
new legislation the Board acts in an advisory capacity to the Government, prescribes
means of and sets standards for controlling pollution, and acts as an appeal tribunal
in matters of appeals against orders of the Director of Pollution Control. In the
new role prescribed for the Board, there was considerable activity in 1968 involving
matters of hearings, appeals, and policy-making. It is worth reiterating here that
the Pollution Control Act, 1967, applies to the entire area of the Province of British
Columbia as opposed to the earlier legislation, which only covered a portion of the
Province. It is also worth restating that the Act controls land and water pollution
with provisions by Order in Council for dealing with matters of air pollution.
On the matter of policy, the Board took two major steps toward implementation
of its powers and duties set out in the Act. In 1967 the Board held a hearing in
Whalley, Surrey, on the matter of a report prepared by the Pollution Control Branch
entitled "Pollution and the Fraser, Report I, 1967, Preliminary Investigations of
Waste Disposal to the Lower Fraser River." This year on February 2, 1968, the
Board released its findings, as a result of the hearing, in a statement entitled " The
Policy of the Pollution Control Board of the Province of British Columbia Regarding Pollution Control on the Fraser River below the Town of Hope," in which
" Requirements " were laid down. The " Requirements " basically state that all
sewage discharges to the Lower Fraser River shall be given not less than primary
treatment and chlorination. In certain prescribed areas, such as the North and
Middle Arms of the river, as well as in tributary streams, higher forms of treatment
have been prescribed. Industrial-waste dischargers are also required to provide
comparable treatment in keeping with the location and nature of their discharge so
as to ensure an effluent that will not impair the usefulness of the receiving water.
In prescribing the " Requirements," it was enunciated that they would apply immediately to all proposed new discharges and that all existing discharges must be in
compliance by January 1, 1975.
All municipalities in the Lower Fraser Valley affected by the said policy were
issued copies of the Policy Statement and Requirements.
The second major step was taken by the Board under its powers in tentatively
establishing policy to control pollution in the Okanagan. On July 3, 1968, the
Chairman held a hearing in the Courthouse, Kelowna, to inquire into " The Matter
of the Pollution of the Waters in the Okanagan Drainage System."   The inquiry
101
 Y 102 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
was called in response to the expressed concern of the people in the area and to
allow presentation of all opinions held by individuals, groups, and municipalities
as to their wishes on the subject-matter and to encourage the formulation of a policy
to control pollution in the Okanagan. The facts collected were laid before the Board
for consideration, and on October 4, 1968, the Board concluded that the material
submitted, to date, was inconclusive and made it difficult to establish an effective
long-term programme. The municipalities, as a group, had not indicated how far
they were prepared to go in the matter of having the Board prescribe restrictive
standards. The Board advised that while it recognized that the Provincial Government could prescribe action to be taken, it also recognized that the ultimate effectiveness of any solution lies in the hands of the local residents and their acceptance
and active support of the measures imposed. In its official statement the Board
said:—
" The Board therefore wishes to report that its position, at this time, must by
necessity be influenced by the failure of the Okanagan municipalities individually
or collectively to present for consideration a brief, or briefs, outlining the facts as
they pertain to the municipalities' interests. It is therefore essential that this inquiry
remain open until such material is obtained, and in the meantime the Board respectfully suggests that as an interim measure discharge of nutrient-bearing wastes to the
surface waters of the Okanagan be curtailed."
While the hearing held was inconclusive, the statement issued is a significant
step toward requiring higher forms of treatment, commonly referred to as " tertiary,"
in the Okanagan.
While reporting on establishment of policy, the Board was asked by the Regional District of the Capital of British Columbia to confirm requirements laid down
in 1966 relative to discharge of sewage to the open sea in the Victoria area, as in
1966 the Board had prescribed as follows:—
"As a result of the Board's deliberations on universally used water quality
standards associated with the recreational uses of sea waters, I am instructed to
advise you that for the general purposes of the proposed report the median M.P.N, of
coliforms per 100 mis. shall not exceed 1,000. . . . Furthermore, there must
be no wastes or materials attributable to sewer outfalls visible on the beaches or in
the waters adjoining the beaches, at any time of the year.
" The Board reserves the right to amend the foregoing prescribed standard to
meet specific needs for any given circumstance or location."
On October 4, 1968, the Board advised the Regional District of the Capital
of British Columbia ". . . that no factual technical evidence has come to the
attention of the Board to warrant any change in the decision of the Board made at
its meeting of April 16, 1966.   .   .   ."
Pursuant to section 12 of the Act, the Board is empowered to sit as an appeal
tribunal. During 1968 seven appeals were made to the Board. One appeal was
upheld, three were refused, two were withdrawn by the appellants, and one is pending action. The appeal which was upheld is worthy of comment as it relates to the
Okanagan, with a bearing on the general concern and changes taking place in that
area in matters of pollution control. On January 9, 1968, an appeal by the City
of Kelowna was heard in the Courthouse, Kelowna, against a permit issued to Townhouse Developments. After reviewing all the evidence presented, the Board agreed
to allow the appeal by the city and cancelled the permit. The Board gave as its
reason the following:—
" The appeal is allowed in the public interest on the basis that the evidence
presented at the hearing was such that it was evident that there was a paucity of
 POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
Y 103
basic information and in the opinion of the Board it is impossible to arrive at a final
decision until the results of the present three-year study being conducted by the
Pollution Control Branch are available."
Another appeal of interest was that by the City of Prince George, which appealed against the decision of the Director of Pollution Control, which decision
refused to extend the city's permit for " discharge of sewage receiving less than primary treatment." A hearing was conducted in Victoria on November 12, 1968,
at which time the City of Prince George presented its case. After deliberation
of the evidence, the Board upheld the Director's decision and ordered the City
". . . to proceed immediately with construction of works necessary to make fully
operative a primary treatment plant by November 9, 1970.   .   .   ."
In September, 1967, Order in Council No. 2836 directed the Board to inquire
into and determine causes of and remedies for air pollution caused by the emission
of particulate matter or the emission of smoke or gases which are determined to be
offensive or destructive in character. To carry forward the intent of the Order, the
Board formed a standing committee from its members, with assistance from the
Director of Pollution Control. The British Columbia Research Council was retained
to assist in establishing and evaluating supporting data relative to the matter under
consideration. Two progress reports have been submitted to the Honourable the
Minister on the subject-matter in accordance with the instructions in the Order in
Council—namely, " and the Board shall make progress reports every six months to
the Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources." While it is too early to make
public the findings to date, the programme set out by the Board involves a review
of " General Considerations " leading to air pollution, a review of " Control Measures," and a programme for " Implementation of Control Measures " with thoughts
on " Enforcement and Monitoring ".
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BRANCH
POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
The Pollution Control Branch, which deals with matters pertaining to land and water pollution, was formed within the Water Resources Service in 1967 to carry out the administration laid
down in the Pollution Control Act, 1967. The functions of the Pollution Control Branch are to
deal with all matters as prescribed by the Act pertaining to the discharge of domestic or industrial wastes into any of the water resources of the Province. The administration of the Act is
carried forward under the Director of Pollution Control, whose powers and duties are prescribed
in the Act, and are, in summary, as follows:—■
(a) To determine what qualities and properties of water shall constitute a polluted condition:
(b) To prescribe standards regarding the quality and character of the effluent which may
be discharged:
(c) To conduct tests and surveys to determine the extent of pollution:
(d) To examine into all existing or proposed means for the disposal of sewage or other
waste materials:
(e) To notify all persons who discharge effluent into the said waters when the effluent fails
to meet the prescribed standards:
(/) To order any person to increase the degree of treatment of the effluent.
To carry into effect the intent of the Pollution Control Act, 1967, the Director issues permits
to discharge effluent and wastes to applicants who comply with the regulations and who satisfy
the Director that the wastes to be discharged will not cause pollution in accordance with the Act.
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BRANCH
C. J. Keenan, P.Eng.
Director of Pollution Control
Amendments to the legislation in 1968 gave new emphasis to the administration
of the Pollution Control Branch. The Pollution Control Act, 1967, was amended
by Statute, and the regulations were amended by an Order in Council. In the
amendments to the Act, a section dealing with suspension and cancellation of permits was added, thus strengthening the position of the Branch in negotiating matters
of non-compliance by permit-holders. While several cancellations of redundant
permits were effected, no actual suspension or cancellation of active permits occurred, though warnings were issued. During 1967 an area of overlap between
regulations issued under the Health Act and regulations issued under the Pollution
Control Act, 1967, arose. To remove the ambiguity, the respective regulations
were amended in 1968 with the exclusion of Class B wastes from the provisions
of the Pollution Control Act, 1967, namely: " All discharges of domestic sewage
into a ground absorption field where the volume is less than 5,000 imperial gallons
per day."
The transfer of this matter to the local health authorities located throughout
the Province made way for Pollution Control Branch staff to be more effectively
employed in the larger and more pressing task of assessing abatement and regulation of waste discharges likely to have a marked impact on the environment. A
further amendment to the regulations was in the area of controls for land pollution.
The regulations now include " refuse " disposal to land. One permit has been
issued pursuant to the regulations for the establishment of a regional district garbage
dump in the Central Kootenays.
Last year it was reported that with the establishment of the pollution-control
administration in the Water Resources Service, the said Service had been able, in
1967, to expedite the formation of a Pollution Control Branch. This Branch developed its form and powers considerably in 1968 with the establishment of field
offices. Including the Director and Assistant Director of Pollution Control, there
are now established 19 positions, 10 of them engineering posts, the remainder comprising technicians, draughtsman, and stenographers, all of which have been filled
with competent and experienced staff, thus giving an effective nucleus from which
to develop an efficient organization and programme to control pollution in British
Columbia.
ADMINISTRATION
As set out in the Act, the administrative functions associated with investigating
and processing applications for permits are carried forward by the Pollution Control
Branch. The facts of each investigation are laid before the Director. The Director
may then grant, amend and grant, or refuse to grant a permit.    Applicants must
107
 Y  108 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
satisfy the Director that the waste to be discharged will not cause pollution in
accordance with the Act. All valid objections to the issuance of a permit are
investigated, and, in some cases, public hearings or inquiries are held before a final
decision is reached on the application. During the current year five public hearings
were held by the Director to facilitate the proper determination of objections which
had been lodged in opposition to applications for permits. During 1968, 103
permit applications were received, with 45 permits being granted. Twenty-two of
the applications for the permits granted were amended in accordance with the
powers set forth in the Act in order to obtain a higher quality of discharge than
that for which application was made. The remaining 58 applications were either
rejected as likely to cause pollution or are being held in abeyance awaiting resolution
of extenuating circumstances.
" Requirements " for the control of waste discharge to the Lower Fraser River,
based on the report "Pollution and the Fraser, Report I, 1967, Preliminary Investigations of Waste Disposal to the Lower Fraser River," prepared by the Pollution Control Branch, were published by the Pollution Control Board in February
of this year. It is pertinent to note that the Board, acting in the public interest, has
established " Requirements " somewhat more restrictive than those based solely
on the technological facts set forth in the report. The announcement of the " Requirements " assisted extensively the administration of the work being carried forward by the Pollution Control Branch in the Lower Fraser Valley.
DISTRICT OFFICES
In the Kootenay and Columbia area a district office was established at Nelson
in January, 1968, with an engineer and technician in attendance. The first duty
undertaken by the newly recruited staff was to prepare an inventory of all major
outfalls and sources of pollution in the district. The inventory has been completed
to meet the initial needs of the Branch and to allow development of a tentative programme of surveillance by the establishment of 19 sampling-stations throughout the
area. The analyses of this initial monitoring programme are undertaken with the
co-operation of the Provincial Health Laboratories in Vancouver.
The considerable interest in pollution which was being generated in the Okanagan during 1967 gained further momentum in 1968. To assume the responsibilities placed on the Branch by the Act, office accommodation was acquired in
Oliver to develop the first stage of an intensive three-year Okanagan study. Although
difficulties were experienced in recruiting trained personnel for the work in hand,
a start was made during 1968 in the preparation of a detailed inventory of all evident and potential sources of pollution in the Okanagan drainage basin. This work
will be continued and developed by an engineer experienced and trained in pollution-
control work, who was recruited and reported for duty in the closing weeks of 1968.
To supplement the lack of staff in the Okanagan District, supervision of the Okanagan study, investigations, and certain surveillance work was carried out with staff
from our Victoria office.
In the Prince George area a district office was opened for the first time in
December, after successfully recruiting an engineer with considerable experience in
pulp-mills. This office will administer activities as far west as Prince Rupert, north
to Fort St. John, and south to Williams Lake. In this territory there exist five pulp-
mills to be kept under close surveillance, and several additional mills are in various
stages of planning and development in the area. These mills alone will impose a
substantial work load on the new office.
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH Y 109
PROGRAMMES
Lake and Stream Surveys
The work started in 1967 in the Okanagan as a result of public concern relative to algze growth in the lake waters was continued throughout 1968 by the University of British Columbia during the summer under the auspices of the Water
Resources Service. The water-quality base-line sampling programme set up in conjunction with the International Hydrologic Decade programme of the Department
of Energy, Mines and Resources, Canada, using five sampling-stations within the
Okanagan and Skaha Lakes system, continued. A comprehensive three-year study
of the pollution factors in the Okanagan, to be undertaken by personnel of the Pollution Control Branch, got under way, as mentioned above when reporting on the
Okanagan District Office. A similar study programme in the Columbia-Kootenay
basin made good headway as staff was recruited and in attendance all year.
Considerable concern was expressed by residents in the Bridge Creek-Hendrix
Creek-Canim Lake area as to potential pollution sources, both natural and man
made. A study has been initiated in the said area to collect and analyse factual data
to determine any action deemed necessary. A sampling programme to evaluate and
relate conditions from the freshet, through summer, and into the winter freeze-up
seasons has been initiated.   A report of the findings is under preparation.
In 1966 Strathcona Park was placed under the jurisdiction of the Pollution
Control Act to ensure surveillance of the mining operation in the park, which discharges tailings to Buttle Lake. The permit issued to the mining operation called
for a high-quality effluent and rigorous maintenance. A comprehensive sampling
programme was started in 1967 by the Pollution Control Branch and continued
throughout 1968, thus providing base-line data against which the impact of continuous operation of the mine can be measured.
Pulp-mills
An important area of continuing interest in 1968 was pulp-mill effluent discharge, particularly at those mills currently under permit and discharging to inland
waters. Each mill is required to undertake an approved monitoring programme
under the surveillance of the Pollution Control Branch. The findings of each set
of results are plotted to evaluate on a continuous basis the effectiveness of the waste-
treatment facilities. The standards set for the mills under permit are amongst the
highest requirements to be found anywhere, and, although practical in scope, certain
mills are experiencing difficulties with their efforts to comply with the requirements.
Effluent-sampling results submitted in 1968 by the pulp-mills under permit have
disclosed that there exists a wide variation in performance of the facilities adopted
by the various mills in an attempt to meet the prescribed standards of their respective permits. It was noted, with one exception, that although the new mills are not
consistently meeting all effluent-quality standards prescribed, the results are markedly improving with time as modifications are being continuously implemented and
as experience is gained with operation of the facilities. With the additions and
modifications now under way, further improvements will be achieved, and it may
be anticipated that each mill will meet the prescribed standards in the year ahead.
It is worth recording that a wealth of useful information on the adequacy and
relative performance of various in-plant and out-plant waste-control facilities has
been obtained over the past two years, which is proving to be a valuable asset in
making precise assessments of facilities to be installed in future new mills and in
existing mills which will be duly required to exercise controls.
 Y 110 WATER RESOURCES BRANCH
Although the standards set are high, they are also obtainable. One mill has
consistently met these standards, and a second mill is performing so closely to the
requirements that it could also be deemed to be in full compliance. Improvements,
now under way, as a result of experience gained, are anticipated to give results better
than the prescribed limits. In every instance, personnel at the various mills have
been co-operative and helpful in assisting the Pollution Control Branch in the exercise of its duties even though the facts determined in many cases were unacceptable
and called for immediate remedial action. The attitude adopted by the mills has
been one of full acceptance of their responsibilities, and an assurance that they intend
to operate at the highest control level which can be realistically achieved.
As a result of the work load imposed by the pulp-mills, along with the highly
technical and complex nature of mill wastes, it became imperative for the Branch
to form a Pulp Mill Division in order to ensure proper and adequate control in
this area of interest.
IN SUMMARY
It is reassuring to reflect the advances made in 1968 in the field of pollution
control in the Province of British Columbia. The new legislation brought in in
1967 to control pollution, with the 1968 amendments, is proving effective and
practical. The budget to operate the Pollution Control Branch was again increased,
allowing needed development of a work force which is now making its efforts felt.
District offices were opened in Nelson, Oliver, and Prince George, increasing the
surveillance powers of the Branch. Further public hearings and inquiries to
ascertain public interest were conducted. Pollution-control studies, monitoring,
and surveillance programmes were carried out and new ones initiated. Major
industries have continued to demonstrate in many areas their willingness to accept
their responsibilities in the field of pollution control arising from their operations.
The sustained and growing support being given to the Pollution Control Act, 1967,
is ample assurance that the resources of the Province are to be developed in a
manner which will conserve and enhance our natural heritage for the well-being of
the people of British Columbia.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1969
1,230-269-417
      

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