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REPORT OF THE Department of Recreation and Conservation containing the reports of the GENERAL ADMINISTRATION,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1969

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Hon. W. K. Kiernan, Minister H. G. McWilliams, Deputy Minister
REPORT OF THE
Department of Recreation
and Conservation
containing the reports of the
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION, FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH,
PROVINCIAL  PARKS  BRANCH,   PROVINCIAL   MUSEUM   OF
NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGY, AND
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
Year Ended December 31
1968
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1969
  Victoria, British Columbia, January 25, 1969.
To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C., O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department
of Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1968.
W. K. KIERNAN,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 Victoria, British Columbia, January 25, 1969.
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1968.
H. G. McWILLIAMS,
Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 Page
CONTENTS
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation  7
General Administration  9
Fish and Wildlife Branch  13
Provincial Parks Branch  3 7
Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology  53
Commercial Fisheries Branch  67
COVER PAINTING
This study of the otter-trawl dragger
" Sharlene K " is by West Vancouver marine
artist Robert McVittie.
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 Report of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation, 1968
H. G. McWilliams, Deputy Minister and Commissioner of Fisheries
INTRODUCTION
Another year of excellent progress can be recorded for the Department during
1968, with the official opening of the new Provincial Museum on August 16th as
the outstanding event. This complex will be a credit to the Province and a challenge
to the Museum staff, who are preparing many new exhibits to perpetuate the history
of our heritage.
The Commercial Fisheries Branch continues to expand its activities and is
co-operating in the development of an industry to harvest marine plants. It has
also entered into a Federal-Provincial cost-sharing agreement for an experimental
oyster-purification plant, which indicates the close association of the two levels of
government in this field.
Another co-operative venture has been made possible with proclamation of
the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area Act. This establishes a 16,000-acre
waterfowl area which will be administered by the Canadian Wildlife Service and our
Fish and Wildlife Branch. In fisheries management, the collection of 10,000,000
trout eggs for hatchery production and the planting of fish in 443 lakes is a new
high to help meet the increased demand for good sport fishing.
The acquisition of the Forbidden Plateau area as an addition to Strathcona
Park was concluded after many years of negotiations. The establishment of the
Murtle Lake Nature Conservancy Area in Wells Gray Park added another 525,700
acres to our fully protected park acreage. The Parks Branch was pleased to participate actively in the 'Ksan project at Hazelton. This is an ARDA project which
involves Federal and Provincial Governments and the local community in the
development of a campground and an Indian village with a museum—all on Indian
land. The making and the sale of native handicrafts will be the major objective and
should do a great deal for the economy of the community.
Toward the end of the year the very popular Wildlife Review magazine was
made a Departmental publication because of its growing role in conservation
generally.   It had been published by the Fish and Wildlife Branch.
DR. DAVID B. TURNER
As with all of us, there comes a time when we will reach the venerable age of
retirement, and such an occasion for Dr. Turner occurred on October 1, 1968.
Dr. Turner has guided the Department since its inception on April 1, 1957,
and was responsible for co-ordinating the many branches into a harmonious unit.
The growth of the Department and the greatly increased public interest in the field of
conservation are tributes to his efforts.
All members of the staff join me in extending to him our best wishes for the
future.
  GENERAL
ADMINISTRATION
  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 11
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
General Administration consists of the Deputy Minister's Office, the attached
Public Information Officer, and the Accounts and Personnel Office.
The staff of General Administration works closely with all branches, including
the Department of Travel Industry, in such Departmental matters as putting policy
into effect, office and work facilities, personnel, and finance. Currently there is
liaison with the Department of Public Works for the purpose of planning and organizing office and work facilities of new office accommodation.
The Personnel Section of General Administration processed 49 requisitions to
the Civil Service Commission for the purpose of obtaining new and replacement
positions for all branches of the Department. This Section also processed 73 Civil
Service requisitions for the Department of Travel Industry. The Personnel Officer
sat in on many interviewing panels for the selection of these candidates.
Five employees in this Department completed the three-year Executive
Development Course, and two employees in this Department were selected for the
one-year Basic Public Administration Course.
Regular meetings are held with employees of the Parks Branch and the Fish
and Wildlife Branch for the purpose of reviewing personnel accidents and seeking
methods of improving safety.
The Department applied for and received four award of merit certificates from
the British Columbia Safety Council. General Administration won a gold award for
completing 204,426 consecutive man-hours worked without a reported injury. The
Fish and Wildlife Branch won a medium bronze award for completing 226,756
consecutive man-hours worked without a reported injury. The Provincial Parks
Branch won a medium bronze award for completing 321,668 consecutive man-hours
worked without a reported injury. The Department as a whole won a medium
bronze award for completing 469,394 consecutive man-hours worked without a
reported injury.
One employee of this Department in the Fish and Wildlife Branch was awarded
a 25-year continuous-service certificate.
  FISH and WILDLIFE
BRANCH
 Snow geese on tidal marshes off Lulu Island.   These birds nest in Siberia and winter on the
tidal marshes of North America.
California bighorn sheep range recently obtained for wildlife-management purposes in
Ashnola River area.
J
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 15
FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
J. Hatter, Director
A number of highlights which characterized the year 1968 are summarized as
follows:—
(1) The Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area Act was proclaimed.
(2) Following an increase in certain licence fees, the budget appropriation for
the Fish and Wildlife Branch increased $225,000 over the preceding year.
(3) Approximately 800 acres of land were purchased in the Ashnola River
area and control over an adjacent 35,000 acres of grazing land was
obtained. This area embraces much of the land upon which the California
bighorn sheep depend.
(4) An additional 189 acres of waterfowl habitat was acquired to the south
of the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area. In addition, 41 acres
of upland were purchased on Summit Creek for park development
associated with the management area.
(5) Mr. Paul Presidente was appointed Hunter Training Officer. All necessary preparations have been made for the hunter training programme, and
instructors' courses are scheduled to begin early in 1969.
(6) Mr. R. A. H. Sparrow was appointed as Biologist in Charge of Fish
Culture, to provide direction to the Provincial hatcheries and the lake-
stocking programme.
(7) Mr. C. E. Stenton was appointed Regional Supervisor at Cranbrook to
give full regional status to the Kootenay districts.
(8) Approximately 10,000,000 rainbow trout eggs were collected in 1968.
This is the greatest number collected in any one year since the hatchery
programme has been in operation.
(9) A study, "Non-resident Big Game Hunting and the Guiding Industry in
British Columbia," sponsored by the Fish and Wildlife Branch, was
completed and published.
(10) Five lakes (Osprey, Link, and Bluey in the Princeton area and Mill and
Rolley in the Lower Mainland) were chemically treated to remove coarse
fish, and good trout fisheries will be re-established in 1969.
(11) A spawning-channel was constructed for cutthroat trout in the outlet
stream of Ruby Lake, Sechelt Peninsula. Field surveys were completed
for a number of other habitat-improvement projects throughout the
Province.
(12) Wildlife Review magazine, published quarterly by the Branch since 1954,
became a Departmental publication toward the end of the year. The
magazine achieved this new status because of its ever-widening scope in
the field of conservation education. At the end of 1968, Wildlife Review
had a circulation of 35,000.
The expanded activities of the Branch in 1968 were in large measure made
possible by an increased appropriation of funds. The continuing economic development and population growth of the Province have their inevitable impact on our
hunting and fishing resources. The increased appropriation for conservation
activities is therefore commendable and greatly appreciated. The general acceptance
by the hunting and fishing public of increased licence fees has contributed significantly to the expanded activities of the Branch.
 W 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Along with the population growth and industrial expansion taking place in the
Province, there is, fortunately, a growing awareness of the need for resource planning
and recognition of impending conflicts with other resources. In this regard, thanks
are extended in particular to the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
for its patient assistance in our problems.
To other Provincial and Federal departments, the British Columbia Wildlife
Federation, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and to the many other agencies
with whom liaison and co-operation is so helpful, thanks are gratefully extended.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
The focus of wildlife-management activities in 1968 continued to lie in the
preservation of habitat. Man's activities have in the past resulted in declines or
elimination of wildlife populations in some parts of the Province, and efforts were
continued to prevent or reduce further similar occurrences. The expanding population of British Columbia and growing industrial activity have implications for
many important species of wildlife, both from specific projects, such as dams, mines,
and various industrial developments, and from the general decline in environmental
quality which accompanies pollution of the air, land, and water of the Province.
The Wildlife Management Division in 1968 investigated the effects of a number of
such projects and in addition maintained its monitoring function on general
indicators of environmental condition.
In addition to habitat-preservation studies, other significant activities occupied
the attention of the Wildlife Management Division during 1968. Four of the most
important concerned further progress toward a well-co-ordinated Federal-Provincial
migratory-birds policy, the publication of the first of a series of Wildlife Management
Special Reports, the purchase of two key winter ranges for bighorn sheep, and the
official proclamation of the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area Act.
Habitat Protection and Improvement
Important progress in habitat protection and improvement was made in 1968.
In the belief that this may well be the most important single function of the Branch,
the Wildlife Management Division was active in the preservation and improvement
of habitat for waterfowl and large ungulates. In addition, surveys were undertaken
of areas to be affected by industrial and hydro-electric developments.
Sheep-range Purchases
Two parcels of land were purchased to aid in the preservation of bands of
bighorn sheep. Ninety acres of land were purchased on the East Kootenay Bull
River winter range, the first such purchase by the Fish and Wildlife Branch under
the authority of the Wildlife Act. This was followed by the purchase of an additional
792 acres in the Ashnola area of the Okanagan. The Bull River range was fenced
to protect it from uncontrolled live-stock use. These purchases signify recognition
that the protection of key winter ranges represents one of the most effective methods
of preserving some big-game populations.
Hydro-electric Surveys
Winter ranges of deer, moose, and elk in a number of locations will be reduced
by large storage dams. Studies of the effects of dams on the Peace River system and
the Kootenay River were begun. Reservoirs behind both of these dams are expected
to result in the loss of substantial populations of ungulates, and studies are necessary
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 17
to determine what mitigating measures such as land-clearing and improvements of
adjacent areas for big game would be most practical.
Strip-mining Survey
The granting of coal licences to several private companies in extensive areas
of the East Kootenay prompted a wildlife survey of the affected areas. Key areas
of wildlife habitat were located and mapped, and a report was distributed to the
mining and exploration companies involved.
Peace River Region Range Surveys
Significant steps were made in interdepartmental co-operation among various
agencies concerned with the wildlife resource in the Peace River region following
surveys of the East Pine and Moberly Lake ungulate wintering areas. A report was
drafted detailing the importance of these areas for maintenance of populations of
moose, whitetail deer, and mule deer, and this report will be assessed in conjunction
with reports from other resource agencies. In 1967 similar surveys resulted in the
reservation of 10,000 acres of prime winter range along the Beatton River for
wildlife management and live-stock grazing.
Waterfowl Protection and Improvement
The most significant achievement in the protection of waterfowl in British
Columbia came in 1968 with proclamation of the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area Act. This Act provides for control of all activities on lands reserved for
the development of waterfowl resources, and will permit the Wildlife Management
Division to develop integrated multiple-use practices on a long-term basis.
Biological surveys of the area were continued, and Ducks Unlimited of Canada
personnel continued work on engineering aspects of the management of Leach Lake.
An important advance was also made in management of Lower Mainland
waterfowl when initial work began on the improvement of the Pitt Polder public
shooting area. Ten islands, each one-fifth of an acre in size, were constructed in a
shallow marsh at Pitt Lake to provide nesting, loafing, and feeding areas.
Additional waterfowl habitat at Tofino was put under reserve, so that all tidal
flats in the area, with the exception of those under oyster lease, are now reserved for
wildlife-management purposes.
Reservation of Crown land around Stum Lake in the Chilcotin was made for
the protection of a pelican rookery.
Significant steps were also taken toward the development of a well-co-ordinated
Federal-Provincial waterfowl policy. The Migratory Birds Act provides that the
Federal Government controls migratory species, of which the most important at
present are waterfowl. To aid the Canadian Wildlife Service in its management of
these birds, the Wildlife Management Division assisted in a wetlands inventory and
an easement programme.
Wildlife-population Management
Along with its programme of habitat protection and improvement, the Division
during 1968 continued its normal programme of wildlife management. An increasing interest in outdoor recreation by both residents and non-residents (Fig. 1) has
led to increased demands upon these resources. The Division endeavoured to meet
these demands with its annual programme of assessment and regulation of the
resource.
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 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1968 W 19
To assess the status of important wildlife populations, game counts are conducted annually to determine relative numbers, survival rates, and reproductive
rates. In 1968 aerial and ground surveys were made of big-game, waterfowl, and
upland game-bird populations in many parts of the Province. While conditions
differed somewhat among areas, it was generally found that big-game populations
survived the 1967/68 winter well, and that reproductive success was high in 1968.
Regulations were liberalized for many species. Despite these liberal seasons,
however, poor hunting weather in the fall resulted in an under-harvest of moose in
the northern regions, and the season was extended to the end of the year in an
attempt to adequately crop the herds. Provision was also made for a second
extended season on moose populations affected by loss of range behind the W. A. C.
Bennett Dam. The first extended season, lasting until March 31st, was held in
1968, and the 1968/69 regulations were similar. It was estimated that approximately 200 extra animals were harvested because of the extended season in 1968.
A short hen-pheasant season was initiated in the Okanagan in 1968. Hens
were opened during the last six days of the season, and, as predicted, hunting
pressure and harvest were very light.
On Vancouver Island, hunting of elk was stopped completely on the southern
half of the Island following an apparent decrease in numbers of mature bulls. In
addition, the season on anterless elk on the northern half of the Island was reduced
after an unexpectedly large harvest was taken during the first part of the hunting
period.
Data for these changes were gathered from the extensive system of hunter
checks operating in the Province during hunting season. While the main body of
data was derived from the permanent station at Cache Creek, other checking-stations
were in operation throughout the Province. In addition, conservation officers and
biologists conducted spot checks in the field. Cache Creek observations are
summarized in Table I.
The 1967/68 hunter sample represented the 18th consecutive publication of
this record of game harvests in the Province, and was one of the most comprehensive
of such surveys undertaken in North America. Checking procedures indicated that
the level of harvests of most wildlife populations in British Columbia were still below
optimum, although it was possible that harvests of some populations of mountain
goats and mountain sheep were approaching maximal levels (Tables II and III).
Non-resident kill is summarized in Table IV.
Falcon Studies and Regulations
A small group of ardent falconers has existed in British Columbia for some
time, and in past years they have been allowed to pursue their sport with little
regulation. However, a general decline in populations of birds of prey throughout
North America during the past decade resulted in a sudden spurt of interest in the
peregrine falcons of this Province. The Queen Charlotte Islands contains one of
the last healthy populations of this species in the world, and when an active market
threatened to endanger the survival of the birds, studies were stepped up and strong
regulations were drafted. A number of prosecutions arose from the enforcement of
the new regulations, which strictly limited the number of birds that could be taken.
Biological surveys were contined, and these indicated that the Queen Charlotte
peregrines are in no danger from falconers provided that regulations are strictly
enforced.
 W 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sea Otter Introduction
Plans to reintroduce sea otters to the west coast of Vancouver Island were
curtailed for 1968 when the Province was unable to obtain animals from Alaska.
Sea otters were once common to British Columbia, but were exterminated during the
1800's for their fur.
Research
Research projects by both the Wildlife Research Section and regional biologists
increased in number and scope during 1968, reflecting the need for increased
knowledge to meet increased management demands.
Bighorn Sheep Investigations
Studies of California and Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep continued. Surveys
indicated that the effects of the disease syndrome which decimated East Kootenay
bighorns beginning in 1964 were still being felt, with some losses occurring in early
1968. Production and survival of lambs remained low on all but one range, but
surviving sheep appeared healthy. It was calculated that there has been a decline
of approximately 74 per cent in populations which utilize low-elevation winter ranges
in competition with live stock and other wild ungulates.
Basic ecological descriptions of five East Kootenay ranges were completed,
including detailed vegetation maps. In addition, initial results from range fertilizer
trials were obtained.
A study designed to investigate the role of land snails in the transmission of
sheep lungworm is nearing completion. Low densities of snails, the failure to find
snails infected with lungworm larvae, and a failure to infect them under laboratory
conditions have cast some doubt upon the role of snails in lungworm infections.
The infection of a lamb born in captivity, in an artificial environment free of snails,
supports the possibility that lambs are infected prenatally or that this particular
species of lungworm has a direct life cycle.
Lungworm infections were also studied by evaluation of fascal samples collected
from wild and captive sheep. The results from pre- and post-die-off samples showed
that heavily parasitized sheep died in greater numbers than those more lightly
parasitized. Thus the results established that parasites add another form of stress
which contributes directly to mortality.
A long-term study of the immunological response of bighorn sheep to parasites
and diseases was initiated in an attempt to shed new light upon the effects of certain
parasites upon the host. In addition, the study may provide a method of monitoring
the degree of stress and injury produced by the parasites.
Ecological research was also continued for the bands of California bighorn
sheep in the Okanagan and Chilcotin regions. A study of the ecological components
of the Ashnola winter range and associated alpine ranges is near completion, as is
an assessment of the effects of edaphic and climatic factors upon Ashnola forage
production. The latter project is designed to permit prediction of annual forage
yield from climatic information, thereby permitting range managers to match grazing
pressure to annual production.
A related project involves a critical assessment of the competition between mule
deer, sheep, and cattle for forage on Ashnola ranges at all seasons. Results are
expected to form the basis for adjustments of grazing pressure to prevent further
range deterioration.
Two additional range studies were initiated in 1968. The first concerns the
composition and condition of the Chilcotin bighorn sheep range and an appraisal
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 21
of the production and chemical composition of the most important grass species in
relation to varying degress of range deterioration caused by grazing. The second
is an attempt to assess the effect of serai changes upon grassland ranges produced by
fires.
To complement range studies, aerial surveys of the Chilcotin sheep band were
carried out in August and November. An initial survey showed that summer
mortality of lambs approximated 50 per cent in 1968.
A report on the South Okanagan bands of California bighorns was also prepared, emphasizing the importance of key winter range areas and including several
management proposals. Purchase of 500 acres of privately owned land would
ensure the protection of the majority of present key winter ranges.
Moose Investigations
The moose range of the Nadina River valley in west central British Columbia
was investigated, and it was determined that approximately 200 moose occupied this
4.25-square-mile range in the winter of 1967/68. Alienation of these bottom lands
would seriously endanger the moose population in the area.
Controlled burning of parts of Wells Gray Park was continued in 1968 to test
the effects of changing serai conditions upon moose populations in that area. The
area under intensive management was increased from 500 to 1,800 acres.
Parasites and Diseases of Wildlife
Extensive studies of wildlife parasites and diseases were continued in 1968.
Specimens sent to the Research Section were examined in detail, and attempts were
made to identify the causes of death. Included in these specimens were a number
of falcons which died in captivity, which were found to contain relatively high levels
of certain pesticides in addition to a number of bacterial infections.
Deer Investigations
Two extensive studies of British Columbia deer were completed in 1968, two
more were nearing completion, and a further three were in progress. A detailed
study of the general effects of serai succession upon deer numbers and production of
deer foods was complemented by a study of the effects of hunting and logging upon
deer populations at Northwest Bay, Vancouver Island. The first study indicated
that deer tend to select not only the most nutritious plants, but also the most
nutritious serai associations at each season. Thus the number of deer inhabiting
disturbed Coast forest ranges is determined primarily by the number and diversity
of productive serai stages.
The second investigation, by using criteria derived from the first study, indicated that the habitat quality at Northwest Bay declined from 1956 to 1966
simultaneously with an increase in hunting pressure. Two independent indices
showed that deer numbers also declined, but no consistent changes in age-class
structure occurred. This information and a demonstrable decline in body weights
suggested that forest changes were more important than hunting in terms of the
population decline.
A detailed study of the reproductive biology of the Northwest Bay herd neared
completion in 1968. Age-specific reproductive rates, alterations in reproduction
associated with a deteriorating habitat, reproductive longevity, prenatal mortality,
and a detailed study of the histology of the reproductive tracts was included.
The information known about the Northwest Bay herd was utilized in the
production of a computer simulation of the population, which aided in assessing the
 W 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
theoretical effects of hunting and natural mortality upon Vancouver Island deer.
The model indicated areas that should be investigated in the future.
An unrelated deer study was carried out for the Boundary herd in the Kettle
River district, and the report was in press as the year ended. This study represented
an important contribution to the understanding of population dynamics of Interior
deer. Like the Northwest Bay investigation, it indicated that there was no evidence
of an over-harvest.
A fifth deer study was conducted in the East Kootenay region, where studies
of winter food habits of big game were extended to include mule deer. The stomach
contents of 23 deer were obtained and analysed.
Studies continued into the deer resources of the Skagit River valley, where, for
the second year, animals were captured, tagged, and released on the lowland spring
range. Preliminary results indicated that a large and under-harvested population
occupies the range, which will be flooded if the Seattle City Light Company carries
out its plans for a 12-square-mile extension of the Ross reservoir on the British
Columbia side.
A second tagging study, of the Dewdrop deer herd in the Kamloops region,
was in its third year. This project, which will be complete in 1970, is aimed at
developing methods for censusing mule deer on their winter range and to learn
migration patterns of this herd.
Pesticide Studies
The Wildlife Management Division continued to monitor pesticide levels in
various species throughout 1968. A total of 141 specimens was submitted to the
Department of Agriculture pesticide laboratory for analysis, of which 85 per cent
showed evidence of some pesticide contamination.
Economic Studies
Economic evaluation of the Province's wildlife resources continued in 1968.
A study of non-resident big-game hunting and the guiding industry was completed,
and an investigation of the worth of the Creston waterfowl resource was begun.
The extensive guiding report emphasized differences between resident and nonresident hunting patterns, and qualitative and quantitative differences between
regions in the kind of hunting opportunity available. A rigorous analysis of the
guiding industry showed that while there is a wide variation in the profitability
of guiding, a surprisingly large number of guides are losing money. Guiding is not
profitable in the north, where the wildlife resource has been the least disturbed, and
where moose, sheep, and caribou populations are high.
Miscellaneous Investigations
In addition to the research projects described above, a number of other studies
were also in progress. These included research on cougars, grouse, pheasants, ducks,
geese, bears, and wolves.
Fur Management
Wild-fur production statistics are presented for the last five years in Table V.
Some 5,000 registered trap-lines and 600 private-property trap-lines are involved
in the production of this fur. Fur management included active promotion of the
Conibear humane animal traps amongst Provincial trappers, liaison with Federal
authorities in the instruction of Indian trappers in the use of this trap, and education in the techniques of preparing pelts for market. Promotion of the wild-fur
product abroad was continued with an exhibit of selected British Columbia pelts at
the Frankfurt Fur Fair.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968
W 23
Meetings
Wildlife-management personnel attended and participated in a number of
conferences, including those of the Northwest Section of the Wildlife Society, a
biotelemetry workshop, the North American Moose Committee, the Western
Canada Technical Waterfowl Committee, the British Columbia Wildlife Federation,
the British Columbia Waterfowl Society, the Canadian Society of Wildlife and
Fisheries Biologists, the British Columbia Wildlife and Recreation Committee of
the Canada Land Inventory, Pacific Northwest Bird and Mammal Society, the
British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, the National Meeting on Wildlife
Lands, Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference, and the Canadian Institute of
Foresters. In addition, regional and headquarters biologists attended numerous
private association and club meetings within the Province, at which staff biologists
were frequently the speakers.
STATISTICAL TABLES
Table I.—Cache Creek Check-station Results
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
Moose	
Deer 	
Goat  _.
5,456
3,670
169
70
61
156
26
7,318
3,033
19,550
3,300
5,502
3,450
135
48
111
213
30
7,085
4,136
18,349
3,236
5,931
2,232
138
54
149
213
13
7,118
5,894
17,424
3,384
7,264
3,008
197
74
138
414
22
7,265
6,494
19,123
4,093
7,258
3,635
183
63
121
514
21
6,720
17,482
20,503
4,106
6,661
2,678
163
Sheep 	
59
209
Caribou	
Elk              	
366
43
6,298
Grouse 	
Residents  	
14,399
19,198
3,908
Table II,
-Estimated Game Harvests by British Columbia Resident
Hunters, 1950-67
Year
Estimated Kill
Deer
Moose
Elki
Goat
Sheep
Caribou
Grouse
Ducks
Pheasants
1950	
1951	
1952.	
1953	
1954	
18,165
22,735
17,963
29,399
36,011
50,918
42,975
47,418
59,720
61,418
58,572
67,025
69,489
71,523
78,435
56,877
76,692
70,534
3,330
4,880
6,884
4,765
4,893
6,198
6,502
9,901
11,546
12,200
11,293
15,254
16,675
16,510
17,853
15,183
19,940
19,397
1,594
2,157
1,776
3,092
2,278
2,669
3,514
2,282
3,618
3,230
1,800
1,970
1,709
1,624
1,593
1,567
1,967
1,762
1,191
_.._
291
490
295
242
225
221
761
529
465
521
798
1,577
222,100
272,738
352,633
380,519
242,460
186,552
187,954
304,761
554,777
364,825
343,962
413,628
407,111
245,471
522,064
621,162
508,514
978,485
316,175
403,935
349,629
445,281
428,425
305,358
319,809
346,586
432,120
390,239
390,004
377,220
460,539
368,571
383,961
474,670
491,493
483,182
31,475
35,300
48,374
51,594
48,326
1955	
36,788
1956	
1957 	
1958 _ ...
1959	
39,403
44,569
69,953
50,704
1960 	
46,611
1961	
57,092
1962	
1963	
64,741
54,941
1964	
48,884
1965	
39,223
1966	
29,207
32,324
1967 	
11954-63 kill for East Kootenay only (approximately 90 per cent Provincial harvest).
Note.—Figures not available for elk for the years 1950 to 1954 and for goat, sheep, and caribou for the
years 1950 to 1961.
 W 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—Game-harvest Estimates, 1967
Caribou
Elk
Moose
Management
Area
Hunters
Harvest
Per Cent
Success
Hunters
Harvest
Per Cent
Success
Hunters
Harvest
Per Cent
Success
1	
1,307
124
9.5
2	
17
48
3	
2
4 	
	
.
79
25
31.6
5	
15
2
13.3
2
81
20
24.7
6    	
103
2
1.9
564
115
20.4
7	
396
22
5.6
120
34
28.3
8  .....
17
38
9	
19
3
15.8
220
16
7.3
776
372
47.9
10 	
134
35
26.1
662
80
12.1
11  	
34
9
26.5
7,237
1,365
18.9
2,830
926
32.7
12	
76
14
18.4
13
1,139
516
45.3
13	
60
9
15.0
82
6
7.3
1,717
636
37.0
14	
6
37
3,117
948
30.4
15	
16
1,263
284
22.5
16	
_
849
352
41.5
17 	
142
47
33.1
18 	
28
11
39.3
2
.
1,525
595
39.0
19	
75
15
20.0
2
3,123
1,055
33.8
20  ,
489
121
24.8
133
11
8.3
6,459
2,753
42.6
21 	
259
50
19.3
	
3,573
1,966
55.0
22	
218
76
34.8
19
7,054
407
3,283
75
46.5
23	
5
3
60.0
18.4
24 	
12
2
16.7
25.	
68
27
39.7
.
3,722
1,590
42.7
26	
211
102
48.3
124
68
54.8
27 	
749
324
43.3
48
25
52.1
814
367
45.1
28.	
1,074
387
35.1
267
52
19.5
5,250
3,294
62.7
Not specified	
59
3
5.1
143
4
2.8
411
76
18.5
Totals    .
3,2811
1,191
36.3
10,0401
1,709
17.0
38,6581
19,397
50.2
Management
Sheep
Goat
Deer
Area
Hunters
Harvest
Per Cent
Success
Hunters
Harvest
Per Cent
Success
Hunters
Harvest
Per Cent
Success
1 	
2	
3	
4	
5 	
6	
7 	
8   	
50
85
82
153
28
12
45
2
22
5
159
331
39
4
10
13
14
2
5
10
3
5
50
95
14
20.0
15.3
17.1
1.3
17.8
22.2
13.6
100.0
31.4
28.7
35.9
475
142
368
31
14
53
25
59
137
659
9
12
59
35
72
87
5
7
171
70
61
181
570
24
48
64
53
226
90
140
11
9
6
14
19
44
211
21
14
41
43
5
86
43
31
148
266
29
40
34
6
47.5
63.4
38.0
35.5
64.3
11.3
56.0
32.2
32.1
32.0
35.6
40.0
56.9
71.4
50.3
61.4
50.8
81.8
46.7
120.8
83.3
53.1
11.3
21,841
10,984
1,807
1,847
1,726
7,251
4,695
5,760
732
5,466
7,736
1,192
4,247
10,978
6,707
2,149
955
2,036
4,952
3,584
1,382
3,963
1,347
448
2,351
23
259
3,894
670
23,299
5,730
1,238
1,063
946
3,249
2,176
3,994
147
3,532
3,661
262
1,889
5,421
2,846
2,024
722
767
2,643
836
283
873
711
797
253
61
951
160
106.6
52.2
68.5
57.6
54.8
44. R
46.3
69 3
9	
10.	
11	
12  	
20.1
64.6
47.3
22.0
13 	
14	
15 	
16-	
17.- 	
18	
19    	
44.5
49.4
42.4
94.2
75.6
37.7
53.4
20	
21	
22	
23	
23.3
20.5
22.0
52.8
24	
25 	
26	
27 	
28	
Not specified	
177.9
10.8
23 !i
24.4
23.9
Totals	
9651
221
22.9
3,336
1,577
47.3
94.924    1 70.534    1      74.3
1 The sum of hunters in management areas exceeds the total number who hunted in the Province because
some hunters hunt in more than one management area.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 25
Table IV.—Big-game Harvest in British Columbia by Non-residents, 1950-67
Year
Licence
Sales
Deer
Moose
Elk
Goat
Sheep
Caribou
Grizzly
Bear
Bear
Black
1950.. 	
1951	
1952	
2,535
3,333
1,018
3,211
2,675
2,639
2,897
3,186
2,989
3,392
3,767
3,826
4,370
5,226
5,265
5,797
6,635
6,933
379
396
59
306
306
353
310
263
318
357
407
393
435
467
427
307
352
417
1,012
1,389
104
1,140
1,015
1,164
1,245
1,287
1,268
1,368
1,649
1,878
2,047
2,436
2,512
2,817
3,266
3,328
109
114
26
113
100
111
123
121
169
140
145
137
176
214
178
194
184
182
238
198
192
257
212
235
203
330
305
259
445
392
433
560
439
580
692
569
90
101
71
116
105
85
108
136
147
119
192
191
214
312
271
390
376
392
60
75
57
85
70
87
88
129
98
150
217
197
270
290
331
397
578
492
90
112
78
97
110
104
95
127
104
141
153
128
184
166
193
241
212
181
123
164
102
1953	
1954. 	
1955...	
1956	
1957 -    	
166
176
136
149
186
1958	
1959
108
220
1960	
1961   	
190
132
1962	
206
1963   	
163
1964   	
183
1965	
1966   	
244
250
1967   	
152
Table V.—Fur Yield and Value in British Columbia, 1963—67
Species
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
Yield
Value
Yield
Value
Yield
Value
Yield
Value
Yield
Value
Beaver   —
26,638
7,266
72,188
10,629
27,663
7,225
1,245
7,457
214
534
183
38
1,025
$395,574
66,992
51,253
126,059
39,558
111,409
33,328
7,158
3,297
7,892
1,200
2,992
$846,712
21,769
2,749
133,600
5,593
30,058
3,193
1,055
5,647
165
562
126
165
389
$254,914
27,407
82,832
68,178
54,108
64,722
25,330
7,510
3.187
28,751
5,271
63,103
5,936
37,300
2,705
1,094
11,807
250
$464,903
54,607
37,230
64,346
70,870
102,276
36,342
17,828
7,480
11,796
4,804
8,317
1,852
25,309
7,613
92,052
6,409
35,604
1,577
996
10,369
309
741
326
287
357
$333,825
88,843
49,708
47,490
45,217
41,380
20,477
14,309
9,514
9,477
3,506
1,624
1,306
$666,676
28,445
6,996
89,861
4,500
21,136
997
1,542
7,455
167
689
239
172
420
$409,323
73,347
Squirrel	
61,105
39,150
Muskrat	
Lynx 	
Otter	
16,486
31,535
26.939
Weasel	
6,709
5,437
Fisher 	
Fox _	
Bobcat  ...
4,451|      868
933      367
1,6411     394
1.3381      548
9,942
1,970
3,688
1,617
Total value. 	
$596,551
$882,651
$687,248
Publications and Reports
Blood, D. A. (1968).    Population status of peregrine falcons in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia.   Canadian Field-Naturalist, 82(3): 169-176.
  (1968).    The wildest of wings.   Wildlife Review, 4 (8): 10-11.
  (1968).    Our peregrine falcons.   Wildlife Review, 4(9): 12.
Demarchi, D. A. (1968).   A guide to some of the major plant families of British
Columbia.    Wildlife Management Publication No. 1, British Columbia Fish
and Wildlife Branch, 1-53.
Demarchi, R. A.  (1968).    Wildlife of the Kootenay.    Wildlife Review, 4(7):
22-23.
 ■ (1968).    Chemical composition of bighorn winter forages.    Journal of
Range Management, 21 (6): 385-388.
Finegan, R. P. (1968).   Game harvest questionnaire analysis, 1967.   British Columbia Fish and Wildlife Branch, 1-174.
Gates, B. R. (1968).    Deer food production in certain serai stages of the Coast
Forest.   M.Sc. thesis, Dept. of Zoology, U.B.C.
Smith, I. D. (1968).    The effects of serai succession and hunting upon Vancouver
Island black-tailed deer.   M.Sc. thesis, Dept. of Zoology, U.B.C.
 W 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Regional Activities
Fisheries management in the northern region consisted largely of consolidation
of past data and initiation of inventory programmes. Creel-census information
from Cache Creek checking-station was compiled for the period 1949 to 1967 and
subsequently compared to district randomized creel programmes for 1963, 1964,
1967, and 1968. Data were generally comparable for streams but not lakes, the
latter condition attributable to heavy non-resident participation and subsequent
checking in late August and September at Cache Creek. Randomized checks were
conducted in May, June, July, and August.
Most information available on steelhead from Skeena River drainage streams
was presented in a detailed report. Considerable differences in timing of runs,
size, age, and angling pressures were revealed. Tagging programmes indicate that
steelhead may spend up to 11 months in fresh water before spawning. There was
no obvious correlation between size of streams and age of fish. Some smaller-
sized streams had predominately 5-year-old fish, while some larger streams had
significant numbers of 3-year-old fish. Fish ranged from 2 to 30 pounds. Records
of fishing pressure indicate an estimated 1,600 to 2,900 angler units fished a 200-
yard section of the Bulkley River at Moricetown Falls between late July and early
September.   An estimated 2,039 salmon and game fish were caught.
A catalogue of sport-fish streams was initiated for the Skeena River drainage
system, and a general map inventory of the entire Prince George region was started
to delimit lakes presently fished and to locate streams with spawning populations of
game and coarse fish. Other important inventory programmes revealed the presence
of considerable populations of game fish and salmon in small streams where future
coal-mining is indicated and in streams where alterations are now occurring.
Studies on steelhead migration patterns and angler success in the Big Qualicum
River on Vancouver Island were continued in 1968. Three years of data (1965 to
1967) were analysed and a preliminary report published (Fisheries Management
Report No. 56). A new voluntary permit-return system was implemented which
provided adequate information for computing the angler catch. Results of the 1968
sampling were similar to previous years, with about the same number of steelhead
taken by the anglers despite fewer fish in the adult run.
1965
1966
1967
1968
126
103
204
84
178
212
154
136
229
288
299
290
401
25.6
1,222
0.19
0.04
405
20.7
1,693
0.17
0.04
611
19.5
1,559
0.19
0.05
442
30.8
1,304
0.22
Catch per hour — — 	
0.078
A programme of pre-smolt capture was initiated to clarify studies on the age
and growth of steelhead. Mapping of known spawning areas was concluded. This
major project indicates that almost all portions of the river are utilized wherever
good gravel is available. Approximately 1,200 hatchery-reared steelhead smolts
were marked and released into the Big Qualicum in April. These fish will give an
estimate of the returns to be expected from hatchery fish and also provide assistance
in future scale analysis for age studies.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 27
An example of co-operation between the Fish and Wildlife Branch and logging
operators is exemplified by the access now provided to Ranger and Tugwell Lakes
near Sooke on Vancouver Island. By surveying the lakes and promising a stocking
programme, the Branch induced the logging operators to provide public access
during non-working-hours.
Co-operation with the forest industry in attempts to minimize damage to sport-
fish populations engendered by logging activities was continued. Investigation of a
number of specific pollutions usually resulted in co-operation from the company
involved. In addition, a series of talks was continued to acquaint the woods supervisory personnel of several companies of the impact of their operations on the
fisheries resource. An outline of simple operating guidelines was circulated by the
Conservation Officer in the Alberni district to the several companies in his area.
While the companies at Alberni have indicated their co-operation, they have
expressed a desire to see these guidelines incorporated in Government policy and
applied on an industry-wide basis throughout the Province. Efforts to institute
such a policy are proceeding at both the Branch and regional levels.
Fishery-management activities in the Okanagan region were comprised of many
efforts to protect and describe the fresh-water fish habitat and fewer efforts calculated
to directly enhance the production of fish and improvement of the fishery. Outstanding in the protection and inventory field was the initiation of a water-quality
study of the Similkameen River.
Regular monitoring of chemical, thermal, and biological changes taking place
in the river was commenced, with valuable assistance provided by the South
Okanagan Health Unit of the Health Branch. This programme, in addition to
being a proving-ground for river studies and techniques, will serve as a base for
management of the fishery and protection of the river habitat. A growing public
and Government concern over the deterioration in water quality of the major lakes
in the Okanagan basin has caused several agencies to initiate studies of these
waters. In co-operation with the Water Resources Service of the Department of
Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, the Branch is assisting in a limnological
study of Skaha and Osoyoos Lakes. It is hoped that information so gathered will
form the basis of future special investigations into the human, health, and fishery-
management aspects of eutrophication. Direct management activities included the
preparation and treatment of Osprey, Link, and Bluey Lakes with an organic
piscicide in order to remove populations of coarse fish and enhance the habitat for
trout. One coarse-fish barrier, to prevent the re-entry of undesirable species, was
constructed below Link Lake with volunteer assistance of property-owners in the
area. A similar structure was completed on One Mile Creek, near Princeton, in
anticipation of the chemical treatment of the One Mile chain of lakes (Allison,
Borgson, Dry, Liard, and McCaffrey).
The Branch rendered considerable guidance and assistance in the diversion of
Shinish Creek to Chain Lake. This diversion was undertaken in an effort to reduce
a serious algae problem in Chain Lake and increase the recreational potential of the
area.
In the early fall of 1968, redside shiners were discovered in Pinantan Lake
in the Kamloops region. Several days of careful observation indicated that the
shiners may not yet have reached Paul Lake, situated approximately 4 miles downstream. Accordingly, the entire water system between the two lakes was treated
with rotenone, a porous gravel fill was placed across the outlet from Pinantan, and a
screen system installed to try to prevent future movement of shiners from the lake.
This entire Paul-Pinantan-Hyas chain of lakes was rehabilitated approximately
10 years ago, apparently successfully until this year.   If the origin of the shiners
 W 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
presently in Pinantan can be pinpointed, and it appears that they are confined to
one lake, retreatment will be necessary in 1969 in order to maintain quality fishing
in Paul Lake downstream, as well as to restore it in Pinantan. This reinfestation of
a rehabilitated lake with coarse fish is probably a result of illegal use of fish for bait,
and stresses the necessity for increased publicity of, and enforcement of, this
regulation.
Green Lake, near 70 Mile House on the Cariboo Highway, was stocked with
chinook salmon for three years on an experimental basis. Work has now been
terminated on this programme, and a report is nearing completion for publication.
No chinooks have been caught in gill-nets since the spring of 1967 in spite of several
reasonably intense periods of netting. It is therefore assumed that most fish are no
longer surviving. Results in summary are that no fish were captured after 2 or
more years of age. Fish caught appeared to have fed primarily on Chaoborus
(midge) larva? and pupae. In addition, positive scale reading techniques were
verified for chinooks in Green Lake.
As a result of netting Green Lake and the substantial numbers of stomach
analyses that were done on fish caught, together with other information obtained, a
decision was made in 1967 to stock kokanee in the lake. In the fall of 1968 a
considerable number of the kokanee matured at age 2 and attempted to beach-spawn
in the lake. These fish averaged \3A to 2 pounds in weight and 14 to 16 inches in
length. If spawning proves successful, it is likely that a good fishery for this species
could result and become self-sustaining.
Approximately 250,000 Mysis were flown from Kootenay Lake to Canim Lake
in the Cariboo-Coast region to complete the second of a two-year programme to
increase food production in Canim Lake for game fish. Fish sampling will continue
to evaluate the utilization of these organisms by fish and the possible effect on fish
growth.
Co-operation was sought and obtained from the International Pacific Salmon
Fisheries Commission for silt abatement in McKinley Creek during its dam and
pipe-laying installation in McKinley Lake. A water diversion built around its
stream work area and possible rescheduling of its spring construction work have
been agreed upon. McKinley Creek is a prime spawning-stream for the large
Quesnel Lake rainbow trout, as well as McKinley Lake and Horsefly River trout.
The Salmon Commission's plans are for a pipe-line on the lake bottom to tap cooler
water for McKinley Creek to increase sockeye salmon spawning success.
Habitat Protection
Strip mining for coal was the industrial activity of major concern to the Fish
Habitat Protection Section in 1967. Several leases to mine coal were let in Elk
River valley (Kootenay District) and at Goathorn Creek, Zymoetz River, Kalum
River, and Bowron River (northern district). The Branch was successful in having
clauses put in these leases which would prohibit mining activity in and near watercourses, and which would assure public access over mining areas in some leases.
All major applicant companies were notified of possible fisheries problems resulting
from road-building and other construction activity associated with mining activity.
Two members of the Branch served on a committee (one as a member and one as a
technical adviser) of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources established
to draft legislation to require rehabilitation of some mined areas.
A study of fisheries problems associated with mining wastes was continued at
Buttle Lake, where a mine is using a method of sub-surface waste disposal. Here,
growth of fish, plankton production, and clarity of water are monitored at intervals.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 29
A programme of fish sampling for analysis for possible accumulation of heavy metals
has begun at Pinchi Lake, north-west of Prince George, where a mercury mine has
recently begun operation.
Effluent-quality standards for protection of sport fish have been established for
inclusion in terms of a pollution-control permit for disposal of pulp-mill effluent by
Crestbrook Forest Products to Kootenay River at Skookumckuk. The river contains populations of rainbow and cutthroat trout and mountain whitefish. A
monitoring programme of chemical and physical changes in water quality continues;
this study has been under way since about one year before the mill went into
production. As little is known of the responses of whitefish to pulp-mill effluents,
bio-assays and behavioural studies will continue to determine if more stringent
regulation of waste discharges than those presently proposed are required.
The Department of Geology of the University of British Columbia and the
Fish and Wildlife Branch are collaborating in collection and analysis of fish samples
for accumulation of heavy metals such as mercury, copper, lead, and zinc. The
university is interested in this technique as a method of survey for heavy-metal ore-
bodies lying near lakes; a similar method involving study of various species of trees
has proven fairly successful in the past. These analyses will indicate to this Branch
whether or not there is an unnatural accumulation of heavy metals in fish exposed
to lake waters receiving tailing effluent from mines which process heavy metals or
from other industrial practices. There is growing concern in Canada and some other
countries (for example, Sweden, Japan, United States) about the accumulation of
these metals in wildlife populations exposed to pulp-mill effluents, agricultural-seed
protecting agents, and mining effluents.
Laboratory studies of the effects of pollutants on fish include bio-assays of ore-
milling wastes entering Buttle Lake, coal-washing and coking wastes, and an aquatic
herbicide (Reglone A). The studies of wastes from coal-processing operations were
aimed at determining the effects of a washing and coking plant presently in operation
at Michel, and to establish criteria for effluents from other plants likely to be
operational in various locations in the Province in the near future. These studies
have shown that the waste waters from washing plants are only lightly toxic to fish,
whereas coking wastes are highly toxic. Further studies of toxicity of various
aquatic herbicides are intended to provide recommendations for the use of effective
weed-killing agents which are safe for fish life.
Several water storage and diversion schemes received attention during the
year. A proposal to divert water from Shuswap River to Okanagan Lake for
irrigation and industrial use is being studied by salmon and sport-fish management
agencies. The proposal has potential to obstruct fish passage, inundate spawning
areas, and disrupt normal migration patterns of fish in Shuswap River. The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, the Department of Fisheries of
Canada, and the Fish and Wildlife Branch have completed field studies designed to
estimate numbers of fish in the system, their spawning habits, and their migration
patterns. Protective recommendations will be included in a concluding report by
these agencies.
Several short-term field investigations of plans for water storage and construction of supply systems partly financed with funds provided under the Agricultural
Rehabilitation and Development Act were undertaken, primarily in the Okanagan
District. In general, these developments have the potential to seriously hinder fish
production in the small, normally productive, high-elevation lakes in the Okanagan
District by extreme water-level fluctuations resulting from annual storage and
withdrawal.
 W 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In Highland Valley, heavy demand for water for mining purposes prompted
a survey of fishing potential of several lakes in the district. Results of this survey
formed the basis of recommendations to the Comptroller of Water Rights for modification of plans for water use which would allow the continuation of current recreational use of lakes as well as for development of future recreational potentials.
Planning is under way for preparation of Libby reservoir and lands adjacent to
Kootenay River for commencement of filling in 1972. At present there is an
excellent river fishery for mountain whitefish, Dolly Varden char, and rainbow and
cutthroat trout in the proposed reservoir area. Normal annual drawdowns of 40 to
60 feet with extremes to 170 feet in some years will preclude development of a
substantial fishery in the reservoir. The Branch has begun field studies for preparation of a final report with recommendations for mitigation measures by late 1969.
A similar investigation is under way to plan for mitigation of losses to fish and
wildlife habitat in a proposal to increase the storage capacity of the dam which
forms Ross Lake on Skagit River near Hope. In the near future the dam may be
raised to extend the length of reservoir in British Columbia from the present one-half
mile to 14 miles. The stretch of river to be affected by this development provides a
good sport fishery for rainbow trout and Dolly Varden char near to heavy population
centres. Skagit River upstream of the proposed reservoir is of marginal quality for
spawning and rearing of fish. The valley bottom is a winter range of high quality
for over-wintering populations of deer.
Other reservoir investigations included storage proposals at Fulton River in
the northern district and Jordan River and Sooke Lake on Vancouver Island.
Wash-out of a section of logging-road adjacent to Gerrard Creek during the
period when eggs of Kootenay Lake rainbow trout were deposited in the restricted
spawning gravel for these fish caused a heavy silt deposit over a part of the gravels.
Some undetermined loss of production resulted. The Branch has required that the
company responsible take steps to prevent further erosion and wash-out at the site.
On Kispiox River, replacement of culverts with bridges has begun on a forest access
road. The culverts have hindered passage of steelhead trout and coho salmon for
several years. By agreement with British Columbia Forest Service, all obstructions
will be removed by 1970.
Habitat Improvement
Habitat improvement is the youngest section of the Fisheries Division, and
activities have been intentionally directed to work that is reconnaissance in nature,
such as surveys of possible sites of improvement in spawning-streams and the study
of the best methodology of improving habitat.
One practical result of these surveys has been the documentation of two
improvement sites—one at Ruby Lake on the Sechelt Peninsula and one at Heffley
Lake near Kamloops. The bottom of the outlet stream at Ruby Lake was covered
with fractured rock and logging debris. A spawning-channel was constructed here,
300 feet long and varying in width from 4 to 10 feet. Screened and graded gravel
was placed for the cutthroat trout to spawn in, and spawning was observed at the
upper end of the channel during November. This is the first cutthroat trout
spawning-channel to be constructed, and much valuable information will be obtained
on the environment required by this species.
A study was made in conjunction with the Habitat Protection Section of a
flood-control scheme proposed for the lower Cowichan River. Recommendations
were made to set the proposed dyking back toward the edge of the flood plain of
the river and to reduce the amount of channelling and dredging.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968
W 31
A major portion of the old Kaslo Dam was removed from the river. To date
there have been no reports of concentrations of spawning Dolly Varden below this
point as has occurred in past years.
Fish Culture
Permanent hatchery personnel, with the assistance of seasonal staff and Conservation Officers, each spring collect millions of trout eggs. These eggs are
obtained from wild populations of spawning trout in the Okanagan, Kamloops, and
Kootenay regions for subsequent incubation and rearing at permanent hatcheries
located near Abbotsford, Summerland, and Wardner.
Species of fish cultured in 1968 included rainbow, coastal and Yellowstone
cutthroat, eastern brook, kokanee, lake trout, and splake.
Egg Collections
Rainbow-trout eggs were collected at the established Pennask and Beaver
Lakes collecting-stations, and also at Premier, Knouff, Tunkwa, Taweel, and Salmon
Lakes. Severe flood conditions in Pennask Creek removed one fence, caused
damage to another, and as a result some spawners evaded the traps. Flash floods
at Beaver Lake, small numbers of spawning fish at Taweel and Salmon Lakes, as
well as high egg mortalities at Premier, Tunkwa, Knouff, and Pennask Lakes reduced
the numbers of eggs available for hatching. Despite all the problems, 9.8 million
rainbow eggs were collected and 7.8 million viable " eyed " eggs were incubated.
Adequate numbers of Yellowstone cutthroat (406,000) were obtained at
Kiakho Lake near Cranbrook for stocking lakes in the East and West Kootenay.
As a result of a weak run of kokanee, no eggs were collected at Eagle River.
Large numbers of kokanee in the middle Shuswap River were trapped; however,
unusually high rainfall and floods rendered the traps inoperative and no eggs were
taken.   Several other kokanee spawning runs were examined without success.
Fish Production and Liberation
In 1968 a total of 443 lakes were planted with 7,258,800 (36,865 pounds)
fish varying in age from 3 months to 1 year. Since most of the rainbow trout were
of high-quality native or " wild " stock, 1968 ranks as one of the best production
years. By comparison, in 1967 a total of 49,700 pounds was produced and 6.5
million fish were liberated.
About one-half of the 353 lakes stocked with rainbow trout in 1968 were
planted from aircraft. Alouette Lake received the first planting of 68,800 (3,725
pounds) lake trout 5 to 6 inches in length. The total numbers and weight of each
species liberated were as follows:—
Number Pounds
Cutthroat       377,700 2,811
Eastern brook   1,609,000 4,211
Kokanee       200,800 1,187
Lake trout        68,800 3,725
Splake         26,200 44
Steelhead           1,000 131
Rainbow  4,975,300 23,756
Totals   7,258,800 35,865
Total fish production, which includes fish liberated as well as fish carried into
the coming year, was 47,000 pounds in 1968.
 W 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
New and Reconstructed Hatchery Facilities
A controlled-temperature incubation room was completed at Summerland
Hatchery. Rates of egg development can now be manipulated by heating or cooling
water flowing through vertically stacked incubators. More than 9,000,000 eggs
were incubated in this facility during 1968.
A programme was started in 1968 to improve existing egg-collecting facilities
and establish new ones as a means of providing a more stable supply of native trout
and kokanee eggs. As a part of this programme, all fish-collection traps in the
Beaver-Dee chain of lakes were renovated. High-water damage during the spring
necessitated repairing the weir at Pennask Lake. At Premier Lake, in the East
Kootenay, permanent fish-collection facilities were constructed after the spring fish
run indicated good future prospects. Temporary wire fences were used to evaluate
rainbow and kokanee spawning runs and collection-sites prior to construction of
more permanent weirs and traps.
In December, construction commenced on an aeration tower at Kootenay
Hatchery. Well water will in the future be aerated to reduce harmful nitrogen gas
and at the same time increase the concentration of dissolved oxygen. At Abbotsford, foundation testing was completed in connection with future development of
the property for fish culture.
Fisheries Research and Technical Services
Juvenile Rainbow Trout Production
The first phase of the research study on factors regulating survival, growth,
and production of young rainbow trout in streams prior to their lakeward migration
has been completed. Much of the data on movement of young trout from inlet
and outlet rearing streams at Loon Lake near Clinton and at Pothole Lake near
Merritt have been analysed. Although environmental factors such as water temperature and day/length are important in inducing the different patterns of migration
observed in the two systems, some aspects may be largely a result of genetic
differences between stocks. Results of this part of the study were presented in a
paper given at the H. R. MacMillan Symposium on " Salmon and Trout in Streams "
and will be published shortly. Effort was concentrated on production of trout in
the outlet of Loon Lake, where adult and juvenile enumeration facilities were constructed early in the year and operated until late autumn. Electronic fish-counting
equipment has been obtained and is being increased in sensitivity to enable counting
of fry as well as juvenile and adult trout entering or leaving the stream. Considerable information has been obtained on summer and over-winter survival of sub-
yearling and juvenile trout in different rearing habitats at both Pothole and Loon
Lakes streams by repeated census of the populations. Several types of gear to
capture young trout leaving redds in the gravel were developed and evaluated, but
improvements in design of these samplers are still required.
Spawning Requirements and Behaviour of Rainbow Trout Spawners
The inlet and outlet streams of Loon Lake have been surveyed from the ground
and by low-level air photography to give detailed information on area, gradient,
flow, and other characteristics relevant to classification of trout spawning. Distribution and utilization of spawning areas in the outlet of Loon Lake have been
mapped in relation to physical characteristics of the stream. Observations on
spawning requirements and behaviour of this population of relatively small rainbow
trout will permit comparisons with those on large " Gerrard stock " Kootenay Lake
trout made previously.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 33
Spawning Behaviour of Dolly Varden Char
Detailed observations were made on the spawning behaviour of large Dolly
Varden in a specially constructed stream aquarium located on a tributary to Meadow
Creek in the Kootenays. Some of the first movie films of a complete spawning
sequence were taken and will be used to study the spawning requirements of this
increasingly important sport fish.
Ecology of Trout Populations in Headwater Streams
Studies on growth, age at maturity, migratory behaviour, and other characteristics of trout populations in streams tributary to large lakes and reservoirs have
been continued. Adults from above and below falls on several such streams are
being held to provide young of known genetic stock whose migratory behavior will
be tested.   Too few adults matured in 1968 to warrant egg collections.
c'
Survival and Growth of Hatchery-reared Trout in Lakes
The seasonal phase of an experiment designed to maximize the efficient use of
hatchery rainbow trout was completed. Rainbow trout aged 2+ and 1-|- which
had been stocked together in three lakes were sampled. Survival and growth of
three size classes in both age-groups appeared good in two lakes but rather poor in
a third. Data collected from 13 lakes used in this study will soon be analysed
statistically. These analyses may provide the basis for changes in hatchery stocking
policy.
In order to determine the effect of fin-clipping on fish used in the above experiment, three other lakes were stocked with equal numbers of marked and unmarked
trout.   These will be sampled in 1969.
Survey of Lakes " Marginal" for Trout Production
In order to determine what factors limit the survival and growth of rainbow
trout, nine lakes in Central British Columbia were previously surveyed. Biological,
chemical, and physical data from three of these lakes were analysed. High salinities
or an imbalance of ions or low oxygen concentration has probably limited trout
survival in these lakes. The assembled data are now ready to be submitted for
publication.
Use of Sonic Tags to Study Behaviour of Trout in Lakes
In order to determine the behaviour and temperature preference of newly
stocked yearling trout, sonic transmitters were implanted in several fish. The fish
were subsequently tracked for 24 hours in Kentucky Lake. This tracking method
is particularly useful for determining a fish's whereabouts during day and night
without disturbing the fish. Transmitters have been implanted in hatchery-held
trout in order to determine the effect of the instrument on the feeding and growth
of fish.
Meetings and Special Events
The Section participated in organization of a workshop on the role of bio-
telemetry in research and management of fish and wildlife populations. Also a
major part was played in the organization of the H. R. MacMillan Symposium on
" Salmon and Trout in Streams," held on the University of British Columbia campus
in February and attended by nearly 300 fisheries scientists from North America,
Europe, and Japan. Two papers were presented by the Section at the symposium:
" Reproductive Biology of the Gerrard Stock Rainbow Trout " and " Patterns and
Movements in the Migratory Behaviour of Juvenile Trout."
3
 W 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A paper concerning the limnology of certain British Columbia lakes marginal
for trout production was presented at the 17th International Limnological Congress
held in Israel.
Studies were conducted on fish populations in a large Swedish lake subject to
nutrient enrichment from agricultural, industrial, and domestic pollution; in
exchange, a Swedish fisheries biologist familiar with effects of hydro-electric
impoundments on trout and char populations will examine related projects in
British Columbia.
Technical Services
Analyses of the content of dissolved gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen,
and methane) were made on the well and surface-water supply of Kootenay
Hatchery near Wardner.
A photographic copy system for recording fish scales for age and growth
studies was developed.
Publications
Andrusak, H.    Interactive segregation between adult Dolly Varden  (Salvelinus
malma)  and cutthroat trout {Salmo clarki clarki)  in small coastal British
Columbia lakes.   M.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia, 76 pp.
Bull, C. J.    A bottom fauna sampler for use in stony streams.    The Progressive
Fish-Culturist, 30(2): 119-120.
Clemens, W. A.; Boughton, R. V.; and Rattenbury, J. A.   A limnological study of
Teslin Lake, Canada.   Fisheries Management Publication No. 12, 77 pp.
Cope, F. G., and Bull, C. J.    Comparative bio-assays of coho, Oncorhynchus
kisutch,   and   mountain   whitefish,   Prosopium   williamsoni,   in   neutralized
bleached draft pulp mill effluent. Fisheries Management Report No. 58, 15 pp.
Geen, G. H., and Northcote, T. G.   Latex injection as a method of marking large
catostomids for long term study.   Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 97(3):281-282.
Halsey, T. G.   Autumnal and over-winter limnology of three small eutrophic lakes
with particular reference to  experimental circulation  and trout mortality.
J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 25(1):81-99.
Hartman, G. F.    Growth rate and distribution of some fishes in the Chilliwack,
South Alouette and Salmon Rivers.    Fisheries Management Publication No.
11, 33 pp.
Peterson, G. R., and Lyons, J. C.   A preliminary study of steelhead in the Big
Qualicum River.   Fisheries Management Report No. 56, 46 pp.
Peterson, G. R.    Steelhead angler questionnaire analysis,  1966/67.    Fisheries
Management Report No. 57, 32 pp.
Sinclair, D. C.    Diel limnetic occurrence of young Cottus asper in two British
Columbia lakes.   J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 25(9): 1997-2000.
J
 The Kootenay River near Wardner supports a good winter fishery for
mountain whitefish.
Winter fishing is an increasingly popular family sport.
  PROVINCIAL
PARKS
BRANCH
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New palisaded entrance to Fort Steele Historic Park.
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Track gang laying track for the " Dunrobin " steam train at historic Fort Steele
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 39
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
R. H. Ahrens, Director
On October 1, 1968, Mr. H. G. McWilliams, formerly Director of the Provincial Parks Branch, assumed the position of Deputy Minister, Department of
Recreation and Conservation. This staff change necessitated some reorganization
of the Parks Branch, which has been put into effect.
The addition of the widely known Forbidden Plateau to Strathcona Park; the
establishment of Cathedral Park, Class A, encompassing the outstandingly scenic
setting of the Cathedral Lakes and surrounding mountains; and the acquisition of a
sheltered waterfrontage in Pender Harbour as an extension of the Provincial marine
parks system were particularly noteworthy enlargements of the Provincial parks
system in 1968.
The Province has advanced in negotiations with the Government of Canada
toward the joint establishment of a National park at Long Beach on Vancouver
Island. Such a Canadian heritage park would add the desired representative sample
of Canada's west coast to the National parks system.
Under the ARDA Federal-Provincial rural development programme, the first
recreation-oriented project was carried out at 'Ksan Indian village, Hazelton. The
Provincial Parks Branch guided the construction of a campground to be commercially operated by local Indian people in conjunction with a handicrafts centre,
museum, and other authentic displays of Indian culture.
The familiar standard camping unit in Provincial park campgrounds has
received sharp review, in response to changing travel trends in British Columbia
and a continuing upsurge in the use of tent trailers, travel trailers, and camper
trucks. A new standard camping unit will henceforth be utilized which is more
versatile than the now-familiar standard camp-site in accommodating today's
proliferation of specialized vehicles. At Rebecca Spit Park the construction of a
walk-in type campground, the first formalized layout of this type in British Columbia
Provincial parks, was nearly completed.
Further, in recognition of the extent of travel by trailer-type units which has
developed, the Branch proceeded with the installation of sani-stations for effluent-
dumping in four parks meeting heavy use by long-distance travellers.
In Manning Park, the Gibson Pass winter sports area has been put into
operation. A double chair-lift and rope tows are operating. The supporting facilities include a new day-lodge on-site and 15 six-person cabins for additional overnight accommodation in the Pinewoods area.
Emphasis was placed on the Peace River District-Alaska Highway with a start
on development of a network of wayside parks intended for this region.
What might have been by far the heaviest-ever year of visits to Provincial parks
turned out to be only slightly so, with the midsummer onset of cool wet weather.
The natural-history interpretation programme, including park nature houses and the
historic parks, held its own in the number of visits accommodated. The
" Dunrobin " railway in Fort Steele Historic Park was received by the public even
more enthusiastically than was anticipated.
The Provincial Parks Branch was represented at the Federal-Provincial Parks
Conference at Algonquin Park, Ontario. One staff member attended the International Short Course on Administration of National Parks and Equivalent
Reserves, which is conducted in various parks and forests throughout the west
central United States and includes lecture sessions at Utah State University.
 W 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Parks Branch notes, with satisfaction, increasing contact with Regional
District Boards across British Columbia.
MANAGEMENT
While the estimated population of British Columbia rose 3 per cent between
June, 1967, and June, 1968, park use during 1968 increased 4 per cent over that
of 1967.
This continuing increase in per capita park use, coupled with the institution of
daily camping charges at 50 heavily used campgrounds, imposed increasing duties
and responsibilities on field personnel.
Camping fees amounting to slightly more than $200,000 were collected at a
cost of approximately $50,000. Staff employed in this collection provided added
patrols and supervision in many parks and hoodlumism was greatly reduced.
Reorganization of the Branch following promotion of the Director to Deputy
Minister resulted in appointment of Mr. Raymond Lowrey as Chief of the Management Division and presaged recommendations for appointment of a Vancouver
District park officer and expansion of the Prince George District staff to provide
a regional supervisor for the Peace River area.
Late in the calendar year the concession in Manning Park was terminated, and
the Branch was required to assume direct responsibility for the management of all
public services there.
The duties and complexities of park management in British Columbia confined to expand throughout 1968.
INTERPRETATION AND RESEARCH
This year 76,300 people visited the nature houses at Manning, Miracle Beach,
and Shuswap Lake Provincial Parks. Conducted nature walks and evening camp-
fire talks involved 38,000 more visitors. Park self-guiding nature trails attracted a
further 66,000 people. Even Mitlenatch Island Nature Park, a remote sea-bird
colony located in the centre of Georgia Strait 14 miles south-east of Campbell
River, attracted 2,000 park visitors during the summer season.
Other parks having interpretation programmes in 1968 were Ellison, Gold-
stream, Haynes Point, Okanagan Lake, and Wickaninnish Beach. Experimental
programmes were carried out in Mount Robson Park and for the second year at
Kokanee Creek Park near Nelson. The total number of people attending interpretation programmes in 1968 was 182,000 by actual count. Countless others
participated by visiting outdoor displays in parks throughout the Province.
The Rein Orchid Morning Nature Walk Trail in Manning Park was opened
this year. Along its length is displayed a fascinating variety of plants and animals
for the interest and enjoyment of park visitors.
Park surveys for interpretative potential were carried out in the Prince George
District and in central Vancouver Island.
A design consultant was employed this year to assist in display planning for
Miracle Beach Nature House. The new displays based on his recommendations
will be ready for the 1969 season.
The Langford Workshop Section of the Interpretation Division designed and
constructed 11 new indoor displays for park nature houses and seven outdoor
displays. Mr. J. E. Underhill, supervisor of this Section, has developed a unique
process for producing weather-proof and vandal-proof outdoor displays, a process
which has enabled the explanation of natural phenomena to park visitors in remote
or unsupervised park areas.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 41
Six new interpretive pamphlets were produced to help park visitors to enjoy
and understand park wildlife and plants. " Coho and Chum Salmon of Goldstream
Park " was used by Park Naturalist Freeman King as an aid in explaining the
Goldstream spawning run to 20,000 people who came to see this natural event.
Other pamphlets were about Common Fishes of Okanagan Valley Parks, Sea Stars,
Check List of the Birds of Mitlenatch Islands, Flora of Miracle Beach Provincial
Park, and Flora of Mitlenatch Island Nature Park.
The success of the 1968 park interpretation programme was due entirely to the
tireless efforts and self-sacrificing attitudes of our seasonal and permanent park
naturalist staff.
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
The continued increase in park attendance and general public interest in parks
was reflected in the rise in requests for information received from many corners of
the world. Letters of inquiry came from points as distant as Australia and Brazil
and even from behind the Iron Curtain. To help meet this ever-increasing demand
for information, new or completely revised editions of publications on Garibaldi,
Mount Robson, Princess Louisa Marine, Wells Gray, Mount Assiniboine, Kokanee
Glacier, Bowron Lake, and Thomas S. Francis-Freeman King Parks were written,
printed, and distributed. In addition, pamphlets on Vancouver Island, Fraser
Canyon-Okanagan, Manning, Mount Seymour, Marine Parks, Stops of Interest,
Let's Stay Alive, and Let's Go Camping were revised and sent to the printers.
At the request of, and in co-operation with, the 'Ksan Advisory Committee, a
descriptive brochure of the project at Hazelton was prepared and printed. Assistance was also given to the Department of Travel Industry in the revision of its
publications which were concerned with parks.
Numerous news releases about new parks, changes in park status, personnel,
and general interest were prepared throughout the year. During the hazardous
forest fire period, special releases were made to acquaint the public with the changing
situation.
Illustrated talks on parks were given to a number of interested groups,
including service clubs and school organizations. A special presentation was made
to the annual Department of Travel Industry tourist counsellors' school in
Vancouver.
Field trips were made by the public information officer in the spring, summer,
and fall. In March he spent a week with the Department of Travel Industry and
representatives of the Province's tourist industry on a promotional tour of the United
States Pacific Northwest. He also undertook another new duty during the year,
that of member of the newly formed Wildlife Review Advisory Board.
HISTORIC PARKS AND SITES
Barkerville Provincial Historic Park
Barkerville enjoyed another good year, with most of its summer activities
showing increased use over 1967. The total attendance for the year was down to
approximately 100,000 visitor-days. It is thought that the over-all decrease resulted
mainly because of the condition of the Quesnel-Barkerville Road.
In some ways the most important achievement, certainly the most noticeable
one, was the removal of the power poles from the main street and the accompanying
installation of underground wiring. Photographers will now be able to take pictures
of the historic buildings without the intrusion of poles and wires, which were not
part of period Barkerville.
 W 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
New exhibits completed were the Gold Commissioner's office, library, Nicol
Hotel sitting-room, and the assay section of the Government assay office.
The shell has been completed for the H. H. Todd building, the major portion
of which will be used as the long-required extension to the Wake-Up-Jake Cafe.
The Barnard Express office was completed.
Many improvements have been effected to the service buildings, particularly
the carpenter-shop and the blacksmith-shop.
Cottonwood House Provincial Historic Park
In conjunction with the Barkerville project, a considerable restoration programme is under way at Cottonwood House, 40 miles west of Barkerville. This
is the only remaining road house of those which served the old Cariboo Wagon
Road between Yale and Barkerville and is a fitting tribute to the memory of the
pioneer John Boyd family.
Foundations of all buildings except the large barn have been replaced. Furnishing of the main house has been partially completed, using items which were
stored at Cottonwood as well as many original items which had been in the
possession of private citizens but returned because of the project.
Fort Steele Provincial Historic Park
The summer season at Fort Steele was officially opened on June 22nd by His
Honour Lieutenant-Governor George Pearkes. Part of his duties saw him at the
throttle of the 1895 coal-burning steam engine " Dunrobin " on its inaugural run.
The " Dunrobin " proved to be a popular addition to the park. Although its
single coach carries only 25 people, some 19,000 passengers were transported over
the 2.3-mile run during the 10-week season.
A 120,000-gallon reinforced-concrete water reservoir was completed by
Branch personnel, providing long-needed adequate fire protection.
Two blockhouses were completed at the Palisade entrance. A start has been
made on construction, near the Government building, of a new observation tower
patterned after the landmark 1898 water tower, which will remain on its original
site. Work was begun on the construction of a new sash-and-door and carpenter
shop complex.
Two exhibit buildings have been added with the completion of the barber-shop
and the harness-saddlery shop. A vintage Corliss steam engine has been moved into
the outdoor museum area and will be erected in 1969. Four diorama displays were
completed for the mining section of the main interpretive museum.
" Stop of Interest " Plaques
Plaque casting and placing was much reduced in comparison with programmes
during Centennial Years 1966 and 1967. Five new plaques were cast, and major
repairs were made to two existing plaques. Some difficulties in siting and highway
pull-out construction delayed erection of several of the plaques.
PARK USE PLANNING
In 1968, planners continued to give special attention to some of the large
resource-oriented parks. The recreational features of these parks make them
attractive areas for vacationers. Such parks provide the opportunity for a variety
of outdoors experiences in superlative natural settings. Their development is
leading the public away from the highways into the scenery.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1968
W 43
Planners were involved particularly with Manning, Garibaldi, Bowron Lake,
Tweedsmuir, Strathcona, and Mount Robson Parks. They also expended effort on
a great number of geographically widespread parks, both large and small.
In Manning Park the planning and development of the Gibson Pass ski area
has continued with the completion of a new warming-shelter, ticket office, and a
first-aid and ski-patrol building. Bus parking was greatly expanded, and a cabin
colony of 15 units was built to provide overnight accommodation for skiers. Much
detailed planning has gone into making the Parks Branch operated ski area at
Gibson Pass thoroughly efficient.
Staff was successful in preventing the logging of about a mile of highway-side
privately owned timber in Manning Park. This was done through an exchange of
timber in a remote area where recreational values are low. A new design was
produced for Cambie Campground, which has become run down over the years.
An interim plan for the Black Tusk area of Garibaldi Park was prepared,
which is intended to meet the needs of the area for about three years. One of the
highest priorities is to stem the serious human erosion by a programme of trail
improvement. The plan also proposes an experimental shift from wooden to metal
signs as they are less costly to maintain and the expansion of the Taylor and Lake
Campgrounds.   A public shelter is slated for Taylor Campground.
Youth crews completed the trail along Rubble Creek, except for bridges over
side streams. The boys did a fine job on this trail and also on the improvement
of trails in the meadows. Their camp at Garibaldi Lake was made more habitable
by the addition of two more A-frame buildings.
Other very creditable work done in Garibaldi Park was in the Fitzsimmons
Creek valley, where the Varsity Outdoor Club and the British Columbia Mountaineering Club continued construction of the trail they have been building to Singing
Pass. At nearby Russet Lake, the British Columbia Mountaineering Club erected
a public shelter, which will make available fine climbing and ski mountaineering
country near Mount Overlord. A helicopter air-lifted the prefabricated materials
to the site at the 6,200-foot elevation.
Black Tusk nature conservancy area was closed to hunting in 1968.
The growing problem of garbage disposal in wilderness parks was met on a
trial basis in Bowron Lake Park. The message was spelled out to the public in
the park information pamphlet. Wilderness travellers were urged to burn all combustible material. Bottles and burned-out tin cans were to be carried back to
Bowron Lake Campground for disposal. Park attendants issued free litter bags to
facilitate this " you CAN take it with you " method. The results were sufficiently
encouraging for park management staff to consider a wider application of this
method of litter control.
In line with the wilderness policy, the use of power-boats was further restricted by limitations on speed in Bowron River, Swan Lake, and Spectacle Lakes.
Since horses do great damage to trails through the muskeg, they were prohibited.
Some study was made of overuse by the public. As the number of people canoeing
on the chain increases, at what point does the wilderness cease to become a
wilderness?
All private holdings in Bowron Lake Park were ended in 1968, except those
on Bowron Lake itself. A reconnaissance party carried out a survey in the watershed of Wolverine River for a possible extension of the park boundary.
Bowron Lake Campground was developed to the extent of parking-lots, service
area, and a loop road for access to camp-sites. The park supervisor was able to
move his mobile home into the service area, where a water system was provided.
 W 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In the final year of a three-year study of Tweedsmuir Park, staff reconnoitred
the upper Atnarko Valley and most of the shoreline of Eutsuk Lake. They also
canoed the length of the Turner Lake chain. A recommendation was put forward
to establish a nature conservancy area in the magnificent mountain country between
the Talchako River and the Atnarko River. Enough facts have now been gathered
to formulate an over-all plan for this undeveloped park.
In Strathcona Park a major clean-up of floating debris and snags around the
shores of Buttle Lake was initiated. A timber sale was also negotiated to cover
a sanitary clean-up of the burn in the basin of Myra Creek. Planning staff designed
a boat-launching ramp and parking-lot for the north end of Buttle Lake.
In Mount Robson Park there was further planning of campgrounds for the
travelling public. Although the new highway through the park was still incomplete,
many motorists travelled this route in 1968. Their heavy use of campgrounds forewarned planners that ample provision would be needed for wayside facilities. A
youth crew worked on trails.
Very little expansion was planned for Mount Seymour Park in 1968 as the
erection of the cafeteria the previous year had been a major drain on funds. The
intensive clean-up of the heavy-use area is steadily improving its appearance. Park
staff also improved the main trail between the Alpine Flats and Brockton Point.
This is the first step in a planned general improvement of hiking-trails in the park.
Rathtrevor Beach Park on Vancouver Island was the subject of very careful
field study and office planning. It was felt that an appropriate development will
result in a particularly outstanding sea-front park.
A large number of park developments were redesigned or given minor additions, such as boat-launching facilities, extra camping or picnicking units, increased
parking, and the like. Parks receiving such attention were Wells Gray (Mahood
Lake Campground), Otter Lake, Okanagan Lake, Ten Mile Lake, Goldstream,
Pirates Cove, Wickaninnish Beach, Whiskers Point, Kokanee Creek, John Dean,
Nakusp Hot Springs, Elk Falls, Syringa Creek, Rebecca Spit, and Saltery Bay.
Regional surveys were made of new and proposed developments at many
parks in the Kamloops and northern districts. Inspections and reconnaissance for
planning purposes were made at Birkenhead Lake, China Creek, and Morton Lake
Parks, as well as at Shelter Bay and Schooner Cove.
During the year a four-man crew mapped about 400 acres intended for development. The areas included Bellhouse, Arbutus Grove, Manning (Gibson Pass
and Pinewoods), Mount Robson (west entrance to park), Rathtrevor Beach,
Wickaninnish Beach, and Swan Lake Parks, and Pinnacles and Alta Lake recreational reserves.
Technical advice and assistance on park planning matters were given to a
number of agencies, including the British Columbia Hydro Commission, Cultus
Lake Municipality, Mill Bay Community League, and Pemberton Parks Board.
Planners and other staff continued to assist the Federal Government with the 'Ksan
Indian village handicraft and museum centre at Hazelton. In co-operation with
the Federal Government, a mapping assignment was carried out in the Creston
Valley Wildlife Management Area. A report was prepared for the Lands Branch
on possible erosion problems in the Cypress Bowl.
Special designs were prepared for a beach rescue-station and for a campground woodshed.
One member of the staff attended the Pacific Northwest Wilderness Conference
in Seattle.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968
W 45
PARK SYSTEM PLANNING
An intensive study of some of the large lakes lying north-east of Burns Lake
was a major part of the field work undertaken this year. The lakes examined were
Takla, Stuart, Trembleur, and the Nation Lakes. At the same time Thutade, Tat-
latui, and Kitchener Lakes, lying north-west of Finlay Forks, were examined. Other
lakes examined were Eutsuk Lake in Tweedsmuir Park, Wahleach Lake near Hope,
Quesnel and Horsefly Lakes in the Cariboo, and Gold Lake on Vancouver Island.
All existing reserves for public recreation and several potential park-sites in
the vicinity of the John Hart and Yellowhead Highways were inspected as a first
step in planning for additional park facilities in these regions. An area at Yanks
Peak, south of Barkerville, was examined as a potential alpine park. The Tofino
area was inspected for possible marine park-sites, as was Hisnet Inlet near Nootka.
The Paradise Meadows, near Courtenay, were examined in consideration of a
posible land exchange there, and the former campground at Alexandra Bridge was
reconnoitred to determine whether it was suitable for a highway picnic-site.
Four new Class A parks, containing 22,131 acres, and three new Class C
parks, containing 105 acres, were created during 1968. The Murtle Lake nature
conservancy area, containing 525,700 acres within Wells Gray Park, was established.
After nearly 40 years of intermittent negotiations, a 30,860-acre tract of land,
popularly known as the Forbidden Plateau, was brought into the park system,
and added to Strathcona Park, Class B. Two of the newly established and very
significant Class A parks in 1968 were the 16,480-acre Cathedral Lake Park, near
Keremeos, and the 3,015-acre Sasquatch Park, adjacent to Harrison Lake. The
two portions of Darke Lake Park, near Summerland, were designated as separate
parks, and hence a new 2,500-acre Class A park, called Eneas Lake Park, was
created. In order to permit the mining industry to develop a highly mineralized
area, a 2,880-acre tract of land with low recreational value was deleted from Manning Park. The Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources provided considerable assistance to the eventual creation of proposed major parks at Cape Scott
and Brent Mountain by establishing reserves from recording mineral claims within
the areas recommended for these parks.
The boundaries of four Class A parks were extended to include a total of
632 additional acres, while four other such parks were reduced in size by 4,791
acres. Greenpoint Park, Class A, was cancelled and included within the boundaries
of Sasquatch Park. Two new Class C parks, containing 105 acres, were created,
six such parks were enlarged by a total of 36 acres, one such park was reduced by
1.9 acres, and one 7-acre Class C park was cancelled.
With the co-operation and assistance of other departments of the Government, it was possible in 1968 to have 140 sites, containing 64,538 acres, reserved
for public recreation. In the same period, 21 reserves containing 4,300 acres
were cancelled. At present, within the Province, there is a total of 2,460 areas
containing 417,880 acres which have been set aside for the future recreational requirements of its people.
The residents of British Columbia are indebted to Mr. George W.
Malcolm for his generous donation of 39 acres of land for park purposes at
Whisky Creek near Parksville.
 W 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ENGINEERING DIVISION
Vancouver Island Region
In Strathcona Park the facilities at Ralph River campground were expanded.
Improvements were made to Rebecca Spit Marine Park, a new road access opened
to Rathtrevor Beach Park, and the workshop was made larger at Little Qualicum
Falls Park. At Sproat Lake Park a water system was installed, and the water
system at Miracle Beach Park was improved. A sand erosion-control groin was
erected at Sidney Spit Marine Park, a sani-station installed at Goldstream Park,
and a beach camper-parking lot was built at Wickaninnish Beach Park.
Mount Seymour Region
Two new floats were installed and improvements made to trails and garbage
disposal at Princess Louisa Marine Park. Saltery Bay Park campground was upgraded and new parking facilities and a boat-launching ramp constructed. In
Mount Seymour Park, 12 buildings were painted, and the road was reconstructed
between Mile 2 and Mile 3 and between Mile 7 and Mile 7.5. Also completed was
the paving of parking-lots and Mile 7 to Mile 8 of the road. Ski slopes and runs
were improved, and the ski tows were renovated and safety installations made.
A purification system was installed in the cafeteria, and new electrical works were
incorporated in the A-frame accommodation building and the fuel area.
Garibaldi Region
Thirty-six camp-sites were completed at Nairn Falls Park, giving a total of
64 units. The parking-lot at Murrin Park was paved, and in Garibaldi Park the
Black Tusk headquarters was completed, one-half mile of the Black Tusk road
was relocated, and 1 mile of new trail to Black Tusk meadows was completed.
Alouette Region
Improvements were made to security gates, gatehouse, telephone service, horse
corrals, and horse trail in Golden Ears Park. A new power-line to the service
area was installed, a new well drilled for the day-use area, and a sani-station installed. Also major repairs were carried out on the Gold Creek Bridge, a water
system was put in the group camp-site, the beach sanded and new floats installed.
At Rolley Lake Park the day-use parking-lots were improved and work continued
on lakeshore, clean-up, and general improvements.
Manning Region
All the roads in Stemwinder and Bromley Parks were paved, and a new 20-
unit campground was constructed at Otter Lake. In Manning Park a new well was
drilled for the Gibson Pass area, the Lightning Lakes access road and parking-lots
were paved, a 2-mile section of the Blackwall road was reconstructed, and a new
trail was built to Monument 78, where it connects with the Cascade Trail. An
engineering study for a sewerage system was carried out, three new generators were
installed, and underground services connected to existing structures and the newly
constructed 15-unit cabin colony and barn. A new warming-shelter, new ticket
building, and new first-aid and ski-patrol building were constructed in the Gibson
Pass area, as well as improving and expanding the slopes and bus-parking lot.
 department of recreation and conservation, 1968       w 47
Cultus Region
A new well was drilled for Entrance Bay campground, 63 camp-sites reconstructed in Maple Bay campground, a new equipment-shed built, and a new service-area fence erected at Cultus Lake Park. In Weaver Creek Park, near the
Pacific salmon-spawning beds, new toilets were installed. Improvements were made
to existing structures and a new shake roof was installed on the picnic shelter at
Peace Arch Park.
Shuswap Region
Sani-stations were installed at Shuswap Lake and Yard Creek Parks. Work
continued on the campground at Paul Lake Park, and at Monck Park camp-sites
were reconstructed.
Okanagan Region
All the roads in Okanagan Lake Park were paved and major improvements
were made to the beach (sanding undertaken by dredging from the lake has not
proven too successful). At Ellison Park the water system was improved, and the
landscaping of Christie Memorial Park was concluded.
Cariboo Region
The campground in Marble Canyon Park was renovated.
Wells Gray Region
A start was made on Clearwater River Park campground, and in Wells Gray
Park a new service-area water system was installed, improvements were made to the
Battle Mountain access road, and work continued on the Mahood Lake campground.
Bowron Lake Region
A new water system for the Bowron Lake Park service area was installed, improvements were made to trails and portages, and work commenced on a campground near the park entrance.
Mount Robson Region
Improvements were made to the Berg Lake trail, and a roadside rest stop
was established in Mount Robson Park.
Lakelse Region
Two new change-houses were built in Lakelse Lake Park, and the Prud-
homme Lake Park campground roads were paved.
Bear Lake Region
Water systems were completed at Beaumont and Ten Mile Lake Parks and
a sani-station installed at the latter. The day-use area of Crooked River Park was
rehabilitated.
Peace River Region
Deep wells were drilled at Moberly Lake, Liard River, and Kledo Creek
Parks. Campground construction was carried out at Charlie Lake and Moberly
Lake Parks, and the service area and buildings at Liard River Park were renovated.
 w 48 british columbia
Kokanee Region
Road-oiling was carried out at Champion Lakes, Kokanee Creek, and Johnstone Creek Parks. The Kearns Lake water intake in Champion Lakes Park was
improved, and a deep well was drilled at Beaver Creek Park. The campground
at Rosebery Park was reconstructed, and an administration cabin built in Kokanee
Glacier Park. Six tables and two toilets were installed at Sheep Lake and two tables
and one toilet at Drewry Point.
Wasa Region
Twenty-five camp-sites were reconstructed in Wasa Lake Park.
'Ksan (ARDA)
Development of trailer park, campground, Indian village, and installation of
water, sewerage, and power facilities continued.
Youth Crew Programme
There were 132 boys employed at the following camps: Alice, 24; Nairn
Falls, 24; Black Tusk, 12; Manning Park, 36; Mount Robson, 12; Bear Lake,
12; Champion Lakes, 12. They were engaged in trail work, campground reconstruction, and installation of water systems.
Parks Branch-Attorney-General Programme
Area Work
Mahood Lake campground  Campground construction.
Clearwater River Park  Campground construction.
Wells Gray Park  Fuel-wood, trails, etc.
Paul Lake Park  Campground construction.
Rolley Lake Park  Lakeshore and beach improvements.
Golden Ears Park  Maintenance, landscaping, fuel.
Cultus Lake Park  Maintenance.
Elk Falls Park  Campground construction, fuel.
Miracle Beach Park  Maintenance, fuel.
Langford Section
This key facility at Langford manufactured and distributed more than 2,600
items in 52 categories, ranging from the major production of picnic tables, carved
signs, marine buoys, fireplaces, steel gates, and toilet stools to unique items such
as fibreglass boats, ski rescue toboggans, and historic parks displays.
Survey Section
The work of this Section was essentially topographic mapping, park boundary
definition, and engineering control of field projects. The last item consisted mainly
of road construction (Mount Seymour Park and Rathtrevor Beach Park), water and
sewerage works, electrical distribution, and general park developments.
Draughting Section
The general drawing needs of the Branch were met by this Section, with emphasis on park-development plans, tourist information maps, park standards draw-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 49
ings, buildings plans, water and sewerage layouts, and plan revisions.   Preliminary
planning was carried out on a conversion to the Government microfilm system.
Mechanical Section
A high operating standard for Branch equipment was attained by thorough
inspection co-ordinated with a preventive maintenance and repair programme.
Field staff training was emphasized. Allied to this was the inspection and repair of
ski tows, particularly public safety features, supervision of Manning Park electrical-
power work, modification of safety brakes on the Gibson Pass chair-lift, and re-
powering of a Mount Seymour Park snow-blower.
Design and Contract Section
1. Fifteen-unit cabin colony—Manning Park.
2. Warming-shelter—Manning Park.
3. Electrical generation and distribution—Manning Park.
4. Paving specifications—Mount Seymour and Manning Parks.
5. Toilet/change-house—Kakawa Lake Park.
6. Toilet/change-house—Ellison Park.
7. Garage workshop—Wells Gray Park.
8. 'Ksan service building.
9. Fort Steele railroad-engine shed.
10. Water supply (design and specifications and technical supervision on construction)—Sproat Lake Park, Rathtrevor Beach Park, Miracle Beach Park, Golden
Ears Park, Maple Bay (Cultus Lake Park), Manning Park, Wells Gray Park,
Barkerville Historic Park, 'Ksan, Beaumont Park, Ten Mile Lake Park, Charlie
Lake Park, and Fort Steele Historic Park.
SUMMARY OF ALL PROVINCIAL PARKS
TO DECEMBER 31, 1968
Classification Number Total Acreage
Class A parks  179        1,799,801    1,799,801
* Nature conservancy areas in B parks (5)           1,457,794
Total protected park acreage    3,257,595
Class B parks       9 4,645,608
Class C parks     77 29,239
Total parks  265 6,474,648
Recreation areas       2 15,345
Nature conservancy areas in A parks (1)—North Garibaldi (Garibaldi
Park)   44,032
* Nature conservancy areas in B parks (5)—
Big Den (Strathcona Park)      29,784
Central Strathcona (Strathcona Park)    215,000
Comox Glacier (Strathcona Park)      58,010
Eutsuk (Tweedsmuir Park)    629,300
Murtle Lake (Wells Gray Park)    525,700
     1,457,794
Total, nature conservancy areas (6)     1,501,826
 ANNUAL   ATTENDANCE
6-5
60
5-5
50
4-5
CO    _   3-5
co     b
— 30
CAMPER NIGHTS
DAY   VISITS
1958     1959    1960    1961      1962     1963     1964    1965     1966     1967     1968
YEAR
 Forbidden Plateau area was added to Strathcona Park during the
year.
Park Naturalist Freeman King enchanting a youthful audience in Goldstream'
Park.
  PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
 Major event of 1968 was the combined dedication of Heritage Court and the
opening of the new Museum Building.
Entrance hall of new Museum features full-size diorama of a dramatic moment in Nootka
whale hunt, reproduced in red and yellow cedar by Mr. Lionel Thomas.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 55
REPORT OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
G. Clifford Carl, Director
A truly major event in the history of the Provincial Museum took place in
1968 to make it an outstanding year. This was the combined dedication of Heritage
Court and the opening of the new building, the first of three units in the complex
being constructed as British Columbia's Centennial project.
Preliminary to the event was the dedication of the Carillon Tower before a
large public gathering on March 9th. The tower occupies the north-west corner of
Heritage Court immediately in front of the new Archives Building and houses a
set of 49 bells cast by H. Petir Fritsen Company in Holland and donated to the
people of this Province by the Netherlands community of British Columbia.
The official opening of the large public services building of the Provincial
Museum was originally planned for July 19th, but a short labour strike called
because of the employment of non-union carpet-layers by a sub-contractor halted
all construction for eight days commencing July 5th. This created a serious delay,
which necessitated postponement of the opening one month to August 16th.
This unexpected " breathing spell" was put to good use, but there was still
a hectic last-minute rush in installing exhibits, cleaning glass, and checking equipment before opening the building to the public.
Fortunately the unusually poor weather cleared off and the sun actually shone
on the appointed day, permitting the ceremony to take place outdoors as planned.
Those taking part included Mr. L. J. Wallace, Deputy Provincial Secretary, as
general chairman; the Honourable J. R. Nicholson, Lieutenant-Governor of the
Province of British Columbia; the Honourable S. R. Basford, Minister of Consumer and Corporate Affairs, Government of Canada; Mr. George Farmer, contractor; the Honourable W. N. Chant, Minister of Public Works; Canon G. B.
Baker, Victoria Council of Churches; and the Honourable W. A. C. Bennett, Prime
Minister, Government of the Province of British Columbia.
The dedication, ribbon-cutting, and official tour of the building were followed
by a carillon concert by Mr. H. Bergink, carillonneur, after which tea and refreshments were served to the guests and to the general public.
The new building is a large rectangular structure measuring about 300 by
100 feet, with two floors above ground-level and one below. The main doors open
into a spacious entrance hall, in which is featured a full-size diorama of a dramatic
moment in a Nootka whale hunt, reproduced in red and yellow cedar by Mr. Lionel
Thomas, of Vancouver. The sculpture which sets the theme of the exhibit galleries
—" Man and Nature in British Columbia "—is flanked by a " rain curtain " at
either end, symbolic of the ample water supply with which the Province is blessed.
The " big tree " design seen on the entrance doors and push-plates is repeated in
graffito on the side walls. Totem poles stand on either side, and some extend up the
escalator shaft, enabling visitors to view them from changing levels.
An information desk, checkroom, washrooms, public lounge, tearoom, and
sales counter are all immediately available to the entrance hall, and corridors provide access to administration and education offices as well as classroom, activity
room, and lecture theatre.
The latter has been named Newcombe Auditorium in honour of Dr. Charles
F. Newcombe and his son William, pioneer naturalists and historians.    It will
 W 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
accommodate 572 persons and is equipped with modern projection and sound
equipment.
From the entrance hall an escalator and an elevator are available to transport
visitors to the exhibit galleries on the floors above.
The second floor, which runs the full length of the building and has a ceiling
height of 22 feet, is devoted to exhibits relating to the natural history of the Province.
An introductory section gives the visitor a quick review of the geological history of
British Columbia, with some emphasis on the recent ice age, which has determined
so greatly the nature of our flora and fauna. An area earmarked for an eventual
" Hall of the Sea " is by-passed, leading the visitor into a section devoted to the
ecology of the Dry Interior, followed by exhibits featuring the coastal biotic areas.
Major exhibits are in the form of dioramas displaying big-game animals in typical
habitats.
The third floor covers the same area as the second and is devoted to telling
the story of man in British Columbia. Exhibits in the introductory section show
man's place in nature and the evolution of culture, followed by material on early
explorers, fur-traders, the gold-rush, and the pioneer era. A major part of the
floor area features the arts and handicrafts of the natives of the Province arranged
according to the main linguistic groups. Two special exhibits are a replica of a
Kwakiutl building containing ceremonial objects and a gallery of north-west coast
art.
A small public lounge opens off each exhibit floor, each with an interesting
view of the government grounds and a portion of the inner harbour. Each lounge
is panelled in native woods and features an attractive piece of art by British Columbia artists.
A basement level, with a large service entrance off Belleville Street, accommodates a receiving area, a fumigation chamber, workshop, display studio, staff
lockers, several storage areas, and mechanical rooms. Underground passageways
lead to the curatorial tower and archives and to the power-house at the rear of the
Douglas Building.
The Museum Building, like the others under construction, has been designed
to harmonize with the surroundings. The stone facings, copper roof flashings,
arch effects, and other features repeat elements found in the Parliament Buildings
but in modern form.
Since early 1964, when initial planning started, and through the ensuing years
of plan development, moving, and settling into new quarters, the senior members
of the Museum staff have been deeply involved. During the process we have been
associated with a host of specialists, such as architects, planners, engineers, specification writers, designers, contractors, suppliers, and various supervisors. It has been
a most exhilarating, engrossing, and at times exhausting experience, but at the
same time a most gratifying one. At all levels we have received outstanding cooperation, particularly in our association with officials of the Department of Public
Works. We wish here to express our appreciation to them for the many courtesies
granted us during this exciting time.
END OF AN ERA:   CLOSING OF THE OLD BUILDING
While last-minute preparations were being made for the official opening of the
new structure, a little ceremony was enacted at the entrance to the old building to
mark its closing as a public area. Before a small gathering of newsmen and the
general public, the Honourable W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Recreation and Conservation, made the following remarks:—
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 57
" In view of the long service this building has rendered to the people of the
Province of British Columbia and our many visitors, we felt it would be fitting to
commemorate this occasion.
" The Museum has served us for 81 years since it was officially opened. It has
occupied these quarters since May 24, 1897, following the construction of these
Legislative Buildings.
"At 3 p.m. today the new Museum Building will be officially opened, and we
will enter a new era in this field with a vastly enlarged potential.
" It is well, however, in looking to the future, that we pause a moment to pay
our respects to the past.
" While these offices will be occupied as an administrative and storage area
pending the completion of the Heritage complex, it is today, the 16th of August,
1968, at 12.05 p.m., we officially close this building as a museum. (Dr. Carl, will
you please post notice to that effect.)
" On behalf of the staff and all those who, down through the years, have contributed to the success of this cultural activity, I say good-bye old friend, you have
served us well."
While the old building was closed on that date as an exhibit area, Museum staff
and collections continue to occupy it until new quarters are ready in the Curatorial
Tower under construction.
In the meantime, of course, and despite the innumerable calls upon the time
of staff members by the events as outlined above, the usual activities of the
Museum were carried on as normally as possible. The details are given in the
following sections.
FIELD WORK
Natural History Division
Two types of field work were carried on in natural history in 1968—one concerned largely with collecting material for exihibits and one concerned with research.
In the first category were trips to several parts of the Province, as follows:—
Nanaimo Lakes Valley, April 8th to 12th: Dr. C. Brayshaw, Mr. E.
Mullet, and Mr. T. Putnam to collect wood slabs with bark attached
for reproducing Douglas fir and red cedar trees in a Coastal Forest
diorama under construction. (Note.—Labour and transportation
of the slabs to Victoria were provided by MacMillan Bloedel.)
Nelson and New Denver Districts, June 13th to 17th: Dr. Brayshaw, Mr.
C. J. Guiguet, Mr. F. L. Beebe, and Mr. Putnam to select a locale
and to collect plant materials for use in a diorama of the Columbia
Forest in the early planning stage.
Cassiar District, August 5th to 13th: Dr. Brayshaw, in company with
Dr. Stuart S. Holland of the Department of Mines and Petroleum
Resources, to collect plant materials for the Northern Alplands diorama under construction.
Chilcotin Plateau, October 1st to 6th: Dr. J. B. Foster, Mr. Guiguet, Dr.
Brayshaw, and Mr. H. Monahan to select a locale and to collect
material for a Cariboo Parklands diorama in early planning stages.
Nanaimo Lakes Valley, September: Mr. Guiguet made several short visits
in connection with gathering material for the Coastal Forest diorama.
 W 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Peace River District, October: Mr. Guiguet investigated report of animals
being drowned by waters rising in Williston Lake; the report was
unconfirmed.
Kootenay District, June 5th to 12th: Dr. Brayshaw and Mr. J. Derrick
of the Department of Public Works to collect samples of native
plants suitable for landscaping. Living specimens representing
about 100 species were transferred to Government House nursery
for eventual use in Heritage Court. Dr. Brayshaw also made several
other short trips to local areas with Mr. L. Butterworth and Mr.
V. W. Ahier for the same purpose.
Field research projects were as follows:—
Gulf Islands, August 22nd to 30th: Dr. Brayshaw and Mr. W. Crawford
in company with Dr. T. M. C. Taylor to examine several sites proposed for ecological reserves in connection with an international
biological programme.
Saanich Peninsula, 1968 season: Dr. A. F. Szczawinski and Mr. Crawford continued the programme of studies of plant communities on
Saanich Peninsula commenced in 1966. Results are being readied
for publication.
Government House grounds,  1968 season:   Dr.  Szczawinski initiated
studies of the plants associated with Garry oak.
General botanical collecting: Botanical research material was collected
on a number of local trips and incidental to field work on other
projects.
Islands of Barkley Sound, July 31st to August 23rd: Mr. Guiguet continued the long-term study of insular distribution of small mammals
by trapping a number of islands, including Dixon, Tzartus, Bauke,
and Taylor.
Cariboo District, September: Mr. E. Thorn made collections of local
invertebrates, mainly spiders, millipedes, and centipedes.
Human History Division
The following projects were embarked upon for the Human History Division:—
Mayne and Galiano Islands, May 1 st to August 9th: Mr. J. Sendey and
a small crew carried out archaeological digs on two sites facing
Active Pass. For part of the period they worked in co-operation
with a student field party from Simon Fraser University at a site
just east of Helen Point on Mayne Island. About one month was
spent test-pitting a site in Georgeson Bay on Galiano Island.
Mr. D. N. Abbott reports that " both projects proved extremely
rewarding in advancing our knowledge of the prehistory of the Gulf
Islands area. The Museum's excavations done at Helen Point indicated a four-component site probably occupied from more than 3,000
years ago up to the present and yielded 14 features, five burials (all
from the earliest component), and about 1,200 excavated artifacts
plus surface collections. The Georgeson Bay site was two-component
(corresponding to the earliest and latest prehistory periods at Helen
Point), and our excavation there brought to light eight features and
about 500 artifacts. Of particular importance was the recovery
from these sites of a larger quantity of data relating to the still
poorly understood early period comparable to the bottom levels of
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 59
Montague Harbour and probably to the Locarno Beach or ' Early
Maritime ' phase of the Fraser Delta Sequence."
Clearwater River Provincial Park, August 12th to 30th: Mr. Sendey
and a small crew mapped and surveyed house pits at the request
of the Parks Branch. Two occupation sites were located within park
boundaries, one consisting of 37 house pits and another of 14 pits.
Relatively few artifacts were recovered, but details of roof-beam
structure were obtained from one house pit which was excavated.
Surface collecting on a recently bulldozed site on Adams Lake also
yielded 500 artifacts.
Meares Island, July: Mr. A. Hoover assisted an Archaeological Sites
Advisory Board crew in the excavation of an early site of Fort
Defiance.
Local reserves, January to March: Mr. P. Macnair attended a series of
Coast Salish dances in a continuing study of rituals involving hundreds of local Indians.
Knight Inlet, April: Mr. Macnair documented the manufacture of eula-
chon grease, a condiment still widely used by natives of the Coast.
Queen Charlotte Islands, September: Mr. Macnair and Mr. P. R. Ward
examined decaying totem poles at Skedans and Queen Charlotte City.
Friendly Cove, October: Mr. Macnair, Mr. Hoover, and Mr. Mullett
removed and crated four poles purchased from Chiefs Ambrose
McQuinna and Benedict Jack. The poles were shipped to Victoria
by the Department of Transport, where they will be restored and
copied. Two copies and two originals are to be returned for re-
erection at Friendly Cove by the Federal Department of Indian
Affairs and Northern Development.
Miscellaneous areas, various times: A number of brief field trips were
made by Mr. Abbott and other staff members to investigate sites
and to collect artifacts in the Victoria area, on Saltspring and Mayne
Islands, near Bamfield, at Deep Bay, and in the Okanagan.
CONSERVATION DIVISION
Field activities were curtailed by preparation for the opening of the new building, but despite these commitments Mr. Ward was able to make three brief but
extremely valuable trips.
In early June he visited the upper Skeena at the request of the Skeena Totem
Pole Restoration Society to advise and assist in the planning of its summer programme. Poles at Kitwancool, Kitwanga, and Kitseguecla were studied and photographed and two hitherto unrecorded carvings were discovered.
In September Mr. Ward accompanied Mr. Macnair to Queen Charlotte City as
observer at a trial of persons charged with the unauthorized removal of totem poles
from Skedans. A valuable rapport was established with councillors of the Skidegate
Band and the opportunity was taken to visit Skedans, where all surviving structures
were studied and photographed.
In October Messrs. Ward, J. Smyly, and Hoover flew to Friendly Cove at the
request of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development to examine
the Lord Willingdon pole and to study the four poles scheduled for removal at a
later date.
 W 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
DISPLAY PREPARATION
For most of the year the preparation of displays for the new building was
marked by a series of deadlines, crises, and moves, yet in spite of these rough
periods the technical staff managed to install a creditable array of exhibits in time
for the official opening.
Various technical and other problems delayed the construction and installation
of the dioramas planned for the opening, a situation which was not unexpected in
view of the time schedule involved. Nevertheless these particular exhibits were left
on view for some weeks so that visitors could see them in various stages of preparation. By the end of the year the Boreal Forest diorama featuring the moose was
completed, the Dry Interior diorama showing bighorn sheep was awaiting installation of the glass front, the Gulf Islands Biotic Area diorama lacked only a few
plant accessories, and the Northern Alplands diorama (Cariboo) was almost complete.
After the " big push " for the official opening, exhibit preparations slacked off
while various staff members took a much-needed holiday. There followed a period
during which the effectiveness of each individual display was given critical judgment, which resulted in a number of the cases being modified or temporarily removed for re-presentation. By the end of 1968 much of this reorganizing was
complete.
A number of temporary displays have also been accommodated during the
year, as follows:—
" Historic Architecture of Canada," prepared and circulated by the
National Gallery of Canada and augmented by material supplied by
the Greater Victoria Historic Building Foundation and the British
Columbia Provincial Archives, April 1st to May 31st (in rotunda
of Legislative Building).
" Viking Exhibit," prepared and circulated by the National Gallery of
Canada, August 16th to September 30th.
" Best of British Columbia," a travelling exhibit of colour photographs
organized by the Department of Travel Industry, November 8th to
December 15th.
"Art Is Fun," a collection of paintings by Indian children of Canada,
December 15th to January, 1969.
CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES
Natural History Division
Routine inspection and care were given to the bird and mammal collections,
and some minor additions were made of specimens taken during field work. Extra
work was involved in removing and packing specimens taken from old exhibits
prior to moving the cases from the old to the new building, and a considerable
amount of time was spent in discussing and planning new exhibits. An interesting
collection of fossils, acquired as a gift, was cleaned and catalogued by Mr. G. Green,
and about 150 vials of spiders, millipedes, and centipedes collected by Mr. Thorn
were added to the invertebrate study material.
In the botanical field more than 3,500 plant specimens have been mounted or
remounted and added to the Provincial collection in the herbarium, for a grand
total of 52,567. Dr. Szczawinski spent a major part of his time preparing a manuscript on the flora of Saanich Peninsula, which eventually will be published, and
Dr. Brayshaw added several small collections taken in field work.
 department of recreation and conservation, 1968       w 61
Human History Division
Considerable time and energy were spent by various staff members in supervising moves involving several lots of Indian and other historical artifacts. Major
items, of course, were totem poles and canoes, which were shifted either into storage
or into display areas. All moves were carefully planned and accomplished without
damage to the objects.
In the archaeological field, Mr. Abbott and Mr. Sendey spent a week at the
University of British Columbia as the first step in collating the site files maintained
by the University and the Provincial Museum.
With the resignation of Miss C. M. Case as Curator of History early in the
year, the task of supervising the moving and storing of the historical collections was
delegated to other staff members, particularly Mr. Ward. A large amount of
historical material remains to be sorted and catalogued, and a great deal of restoration work lies ahead.
Conservation Division
The preparation of objects for exhibition occupied much time prior to the
opening of Heritage Court in August. During this period also, the Chief Conservator and the Restorer (John Smyly), in co-operation with the Curator and
Assistant Curator of Ethnology, supervised the transfer of the historical collections
and the Museum's entire collection of totem poles from downtown storage areas to
the new exhibit hall.
The skilled and arduous task of erecting 41 totem poles in the new building
was supervised by Mr. Smyly, as was the storing of the remaining 42 poles and 16
canoes in the collection.
Other activities have included the preparation of studies on Museum security
and proposals for an approach to the display of human history material.
RESEARCH
Very limited time was available for research during 1968. Some biological
collecting was carried on as already noted, and in the botanical field progress was
made in the study of plant communities on Saanich Peninsula, with emphasis on its
historical and geological aspects. In the same field a new project was started on the
grounds of Government House in Victoria to study the composition of the Garry oak
plant associations in that area.
The analysis of archaeological material gathered during the past several years
was continued, and in the display field some experiments were carried on in an effort
to improve plant preservation methods.
THUNDERBIRD PARK
A major part of the time of Mr. Henry Hunt and Mr. Tony Hunt has been
devoted to preparing materials for use in the replica of a Kwakiutl house erected on
the exhibit floor of the new Museum Building. This included adzing of boards, the
carving of house posts, and assistance in the actual construction. In November,
work was started on producing a totem pole for J. Alsford Limited, Timber Importers, of London, England.
Mr. Tony Hunt was loaned to the 'Ksan project at Hazelton for a short time
to instruct craftsmen in wood-carving; later he and Mr. and Mrs. Henry Hunt and
other members of the family took part in ceremonies at the official dedication of the
project at Hazelton.
 W 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
EXTENSION AND EDUCATIONAL SERVICES
In March the Provincial Museum assisted in a programme of instruction arranged in co-operation with Vancouver City College for a small class of students
taking course in museology. Mr. George Moore organized the curriculum and
schedule; the Victoria Art Gallery and the Maritime Museum of British Columbia
also participated.
In April Mr. Moore visited Hazelton to assist in the planning of the 'Ksan
project, a joint venture by ARDA (Agricultural and Rural Development Act), the
British Columbia Provincial Government, and the Hazelton people. En route home
he called at Prince Rupert, Alert Bay, and Fort Rupert.
A large number of school classes and other groups, some from the United States,
were given guided tours through the galleries of the old building before the move.
Specially responsive was a group of 20 blind children, who were given demonstrations involving Indian artifiacts and living animals.
On several occasions before the new building was officially opened, groups were
given conducted tours through the structure, and after the opening this activity was
repeated many times. A highlight in this category was an official visit by Governor-
General Roland Michener, Mrs. Michener, and party on November 27th. The
Honourable W. K. Kiernan and Dr. Bristol Foster acted as hosts and guides for the
visitors on this occasion.
With the appointment of Mrs. Wilma Wood as Education Officer in October,
it was possible to commence planning an educational programme within the new
building. By the end of the year about 75 tours had been scheduled, a number of
experimental lessons were given to school groups, and a programme of docent-
training was set up to commence in January, 1969. Six sessions were also held with
students of the University of Victoria Faculty of Education, designed to demonstrate
the possible role of the museum in teaching.
Mr. Abbott continued to act on the advisory committee to the 'Ksan project, in
which capacity he visited the Hazelton area on two occasions. He also aided in the
foundation of the Vancouver Island Archaeological Society, a local group of amateurs
which meets in the Museum where members work with the Museum staff in cataloguing and sorting both their own and the Museum's collections.
Various staff members have presented lectures and demonstrations on numerous
occasions throughout the year, including the annual meeting of the British Columbia
Museums Association in Vernon in September.
PUBLICATIONS
The following publications have appeared in 1968:—
R. Wayne Campbell and David Stirling.
Notes on the Natural History of Cleland Island, British Columbia, with
Emphasis on the Breeding Bird Fauna.    Report of the Provincial
Museum for 1968, pp. 25-43.
G. Clifford Carl.
Tree-frog Tadpoles in Winter.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 24, No. 7, pp.
90-91.
Early Naturalists Commemorated in Museum Galleries.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 24, No. 8, pp. 126-127.   Also reprinted in Net of Naturalists, Victoria Natural History Society, pp. 33-34, 1968.
A Gray Whale in Inside Waters.   Murrelet, Vol. 48 (1967), No. 3, p. 56.
Diving Rhythm of a Gray Whale.   Murrelet, Vol. 49, No. 1, p. 10.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1968 W 63
J. B. Foster and M. J. Coe.
The Biomass of Game Animals in Nairobi National Park,   1960-66.
Journal of Zoology, London, 155, pp. 413-425.
A. F. Szczawinski.
Botany Bay.   Beautiful British Columbia Magazine, fall 1968, pp. 18-21.
In addition to the above the following publications were reprinted: " The
Amphibians of British Columbia," Handbook No. 2; " The Reptiles of British
Columbia," Handbook No. 3; and " The Impact of the White Man," Anthropology
in British Columbia, No. 5.
The Museum also collaborated with the Department of Public Works and the
Centennial Committee in the publication of a booklet commemorating the opening
of the new building; copies were distributed to invited guests and to others as long
as the limited supply lasted. For this occasion the Museum also published two
leaflets—one on aims of the exhibit programme in general and one on Nootka
whaling to help explain the wood sculpture in the entrance hall.
Also to mark this important event, a new journal was launched. The need
has been felt for a long time for a publication to take care of papers of a more
scientific or technical nature than those in current Museum series. Accordingly it
was decided to commence a new series directed toward professionals in the various
areas of natural and human history. It is to be called Syesis, a Sooke dialect word
meaning " a story about an actual event."
Dr. Robert Scagel agreed to accept the post of editor of the proposed journal,
and an editorial board was set up of persons representing the major institutions and
(or) disciplines within the human-history and natural-history fields. Mr. Abbott
was named an associate editor, and Dr. Foster, Mr. Macnair, and Dr. Szczawinski
were asked to represent the Provincial Museum on the editorial board. Dr. Carl
is an ex officio member.
Response was excellent; by December material for the first issue was in the
hands of the Queen's Printer and the second number was being planned.
STAFF CHANGES
Several resignations and staff additions occurred during the year. Chief among
the latter was the appointment of Dr. J. Bristol Foster as Assistant Director, a
newly established position. A graduate of the University of Toronto, Dr. Foster
took postgraduate training at the University of British Columbia, where he became
interested in problems related to the fauna of the Queen Charlotte Islands. His research in that area resulted in the publication of " The Evolution of the Mammals
of the Queen Charlotte Islands." Prior to returning to British Columbia to join the
staff of the Museum, Dr. Foster spent five years in Nairobi, Kenya.
Other staff additions were as follows: Mr. Alan Hoover, a graduate of Simon
Fraser University, as Assistant Curator of Anthropology; Mrs. Wilma Wood, as
Education Officer; Mr. Garry Green, as stockman and apprentice; Miss Deanna
Standal, as clerk-stenographer; Mrs. Kay Romanik, as receptionist.
Mr. William Crawford, Mr. John Hall, Mr. Knut Fladmark, and Mr. Fraser
Smith were employed as field assistants during the summer months.
Early in the year, Miss Carolyn M. Case resigned from her position of Curator
of History to marry fellow worker Mr. John Smyly. During her relatively short
period of employment she was able to organize much of the historical collection, to
supervise part of its transfer to new quarters, to initiate a system of registration and
cataloguing, and to plan and help arrange a temporary display.   After officially
 W 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
leaving the Service, she continued to provide advice and assistance when requested
pending appointment of a successor.
On May 31st Mr. Claude Briggs retired as Museum attendant, a position he
had held since September, 1957. Previous to this date he had been a member of
the Department of Public Works for a number of years.
In June Mr. George Moore left the Museum staff to accept a position as coordinator of a historical-sites programme in Hawaii. As Museum Adviser since the
establishment of the post in October, 1966, he had worked with many of the smaller
museums of the Province in solving their problems and did much to foster the
museum movement in general.
In September Mr. Michael Miller, taxidermist since June, 1965, left to join the
staff of the Manitoba Museum of Man in Winnipeg.
The Museum has been fortunate in receiving help from a number of volunteers.
Included in this category are Mrs. Flo Scaplen, who has been acting as docent chairman; Mrs. Diane Crothall, Miss Marnie Davis, and Miss Noni James, who have
been serving as guides; Mr. L. D. Gibson, assisting with sales counter and other
chores; Miss Kathie Jamieson, of Vancouver, and Mr. Alan Carl, of Victoria, who
assisted on archaeological digs; and Mr. Philip Nott, who has been of considerable
service in display work. We also enjoyed the services of Mr. David White as technician in the display studio for some weeks through the courtesy of the Parks Branch,
Department of Recreation and Conservation.
ATTENDANCE
Keeping a record of attendance this year was complicated by the move to new
quarters in midsummer. Up to and including July the figures refer to the old building
and are estimates based on sample counts made at irregular intervals. Subsequent
figures refer to attendance in the new building, and for the first few months these
are also estimates based on sample counts since it was not possible to make an
accurate tally. The figures for November and December are much more accurate
since they are the result of actual counts.
January  4,800                 August   66,000
February  10,000                September  56,000
March  2,200                October  18,500
April   6,600                November   19,600
May  9,500               December  12,300
June  18,000                                                     	
July  31,600                       Total  255,100
Of course, the above figures do not include those persons who attended the
many meetings that were held in the auditorium, classroom, or other areas in the
new building and of which we have no record.
Also to be taken into account is the new schedule of operation, which is as
follows:—
October 1st to May 31st:  Monday, closed;  Tuesday through Saturday,
10 a.m. to 4.30 p.m.; Sunday, 1 to 4.30 p.m.
June 1st to September 30th:   Monday through Saturday,  10 a.m. to
8.30 p.m.; Sunday, 1 to 4.30p.m.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
The first unit in Heritage Court to be completed, the public services building,
was officially handed over to the British Columbia Government by the general
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 65
contractor, Mr. George Farmer, on August 16th. In the meantime, work has
progressed on the immediate surroundings, some landscaping was accomplished,
and railings were installed on certain ramps and stairs.
The contract for completion of the Curatorial Tower and Archives, plus
adjacent landscaping, was awarded to Burns & Dutton in April, and work commenced immediately on the final phase of the project. By December the major
part of the concrete work had been poured, almost all the stone facing was in place,
and plumbing and duct work were well along. The job is scheduled for completion
in mid-1969.
 " Big tree " design on entrance door to the new Museum is seen being repeated in graffito
by artists Lionel Thomas and Herbert Siebner.
End of an era came with the closing of the old Museum Building. At ceremony were
Miss Margaret Crummy, of Museum staff; Dr. G. C. Carl, Museum Director; and the
Honourable W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
J
 COMMERCIAL
FISHERIES
BRANCH
 Seaweed-harvesting vessel towing drying-plant.
Front view of seaweed-harvester showing draper; drying-plant at right.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 69
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
R. G. McMynn, Director
GENERAL
Thanks to the dedication and enthusiasm of a small but competent staff, the
Commercial Fisheries Branch involved itself more than ever before in the many and
diverse aspects of British Columbia's commercial fisheries. Although much of this
activity is of a routine nature, the issuing of processing and buyers' licences, the
granting of oyster-gathering and transfer permits, enforcement activities, and the
supplying of large quantities of educational material, 1968 witnessed a number of
significant events and new trends in the Branch.   These are briefly outlined.
1. The construction of an experimental oyster-purification plant at Ladysmith
designed to evaluate the economics of ulutraviolet cleansing of shellfish harvested
from areas where high bacterial counts are evidenced. This is a Federal-Provincial
cost-sharing project and will encompass a two-year study.
2. The provision of advice and guidance to the developers of a marine-plant
industry together with the establishment of safeguards for the orderly exploitation of
this resource.
3. Agreement was reached with Federal Fisheries Department in the matter
of parallel fish-inspection Acts and regulations. The new Provincial Act will be
considered by the 1969 session of the Legislature, and if passed will be followed by
detailed regulations. The fish-inspection regulations will spell out quality requirements for all fish products marketed within the Province as well as specifying
minimum requirements for processing and buying establishments. The inspection
services will be supplied by the Federal Fisheries Department, which will work in
conjunction with the Provincial Commercial Fisheries Branch in its implementation
and enforcement.
4. The Minister took a strong stand which condemned the deceitful marketing
of " Greenland halibut" in British Columbia by Eastern producers. This fish,
taken off the Atlantic Coast of Canada, is a flounder whose eating qualities are much
inferior to the true halibut of the Pacific Coast, and its appearance on the West
Coast market was beginning to seriously threaten one of British Columbia's fisheries.
5. A study of the oyster industry in British Columbia by Mr. C. Planta, under
the auspices of the British Columbia Oyster Growers Association and the Federal
Fisheries Department, was completed. The resulting report has been reviewed and
will be a major topic for discussion at the 1969 Federal-Provincial British Columbia
Fisheries Committee meeting.
6. The publication of a booklet, " Harvest Beneath the Sea," on the harvesting
and utilization of shellfish has turned out to be very popular. A comprehensive
booklet on the Pacific Coast's fisheries, " British Columbia's Ocean Harvest," is
now being printed and will undoubtedly become a popular reference book for elementary- and secondary-school students interested in the Province's marine resources.
PRODUCTION AND EFFORT
1968 was a record year for salmon fishermen in British Columbia, with landings
of nearly 180,000,000 pounds earning them $44,500,000. This was $6,000,000
more than the previous high reported in 1966.
The total value of all fish landed by British Columbia fishermen amounted to
$56,000,000 in 1968, down about 9 per cent from the record year of 1966 but nearly
$7,000,000 more than was reported in 1967.
 W 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Wholesale Value of Fish and Fish
Products
1963  $76,000,000
1964     92,117,000
1965     84,666,000
1966  118,000,000
1967     99,800,000
1968 (estimated)   110,000,000
Value of Gear
1963  $10,096,000
1964  10,711,000
1965  12,281,000
1966  11,414,000
1967  11,637,000
Number of Licensed
Fishermen
1961  15,660
1962  15,060
1963  15,370
1966  11,977
1967  12,117
Number of Licensed Boats
1963  9,745
1964  9,343
1966  7,435
1967  7,770
1968  7,536
BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY
The canned-salmon pack for 1968 was 1,746,457 48-pound cases, 280,749
more than the 1967 pack of 1,465,708 cases. This total includes salmon canned
from United States imports.
Twenty-one salmon canneries were licensed to operate in 1968. The locations
were as follows: Skeena River and Prince Rupert, 7; Central Area, 3; Vancouver
Island, 2; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 9. For the first time in many years
the plant on the Queen Charlotte Islands did not operate as a salmon cannery.
Comparative Pack by Species (48-pound Cases)
1967
558,910
1968
Sockeye ..                                                          . 558,910 610,852
Chinook  14,962 7,402
Steelhead  1,294 936
Blueback  7,798 10,389
Coho  138,869 117,180
Pink  650,460 668,973
Chum  93,995 270,725
HERRING PRODUCTION
Because of the low level of herring stocks, the reduction fishery was closed in
1968. Production was limited to bait and experimental fishing, with the value of
landings amounting to only $160,000, compared with normal landings of between
$4,000,000 and $6,500,000. Resulting from the closure, spawn deposition was
7 per cent higher than the record low 1967 level but only half the 25-year average.
Improvements in spawning on the south coast were offset by poor showings in the
north.
AQUATIC PLANTS
All of British Columbia's coastal areas are still held under licence by the six
original companies. Two of these companies have made considerable advancement
in the past year, and two more appear to be on the threshold of development, having
passed through the preliminary stages of financing and research. The remaining
two companies at present show little evidence of progress.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 71
Of the first two companies mentioned, one has produced a marketable product
and has lately transferred operations to a newly erected plant. Their products, used
mainly in agriculture, are gaining widespread acceptance, and progress seems
assured.
The second has built a floating plant which will be used to mill and dry kelp.
This partially processed material will in turn be shipped to a sodium alginate
extraction plant the company plans to establish in or near Prince Rupert. In
conjunction with the floating plant, a harvesting-vessel is used; this vessel is a
converted landing-craft capable of handling loads of up to 100 tons. Only experimental harvesting and drying has been undertaken so far, but a commercial operation should start within the next few months.
HALIBUT FISHERY
Halibut landings by British Columbia fishermen amounted to 28,236,000
pounds with a landed value of $7,100,000, up about 10 per cent from 1967. Prices
to fishermen averaged around 25 cents per pound and were unchanged from 1967.
Although the Canadian catch was up by 2,663,000 pounds, the United States catch
was substantially lower, at 19,068,000 pounds, than last year's figure of 29,948,000
pounds. Total catch for both countries was 47,304,000 pounds (preliminary),
compared to 55,521,000 pounds in 1967.
Unfavourable fishing conditions this year were matched by a continuing decline
in prices, which the International Pacific Halibut Commission attributed in part to a
" large flounder masquerading on the market as (Greenland) halibut."
PACIFIC OYSTER BREEDING,  1968
Pendrell Sound
The summer of 1968 was generally favourable for Pacific oyster breeding.
The water temperature at the 3-foot level in Pendrell Sound remained above 20° C.
for two months, and in early July rose to 25° C. for several days.
The salinity situation was much different from 1967, when salinities as low as
8 per cent were recorded. The lowest in 1968 was 17 per cent, which is approximately normal.
The season was marked, however, by abnormally high concentrations of ship-
worm larvae (presumably Teredo navalis).
The first Pacific oyster spawning occurred on July 3rd, when the thermograph
temperature read 22° C. The plankton contained about one straight-hinged Pacific
oyster per gallon and 65 shipworm larvae per gallon. Further spawnings produced
up to 160 straight-hinged larvae per gallon with a mean of 52 larvae per gallon.
On July 18th samples contained a mean of 220 early umboned larvae per
gallon and a fair number of later stages. A commercial set was forecast to start
about July 28th. On July 29th the plankton contained 400 advanced-stage larvae
per gallon, mainly in the Station 5 area. On August 1st there were 123 advanced-
stage larvae per gallon in the plankton. Setting to this date on experimental shell
strings indicated about 60 spat per shell in the Station 5 area and 20 spat per shell
at Station 2.
On August 6th there was a mean of 821 larvae per gallon from spawnings in
the last days of July and still an average of three advanced-stage larvae per gallon.
The spawning in late July was responsible for a set which amounted to 23 spat per
shell in late August. Shell strings exposed between August 1 st and 12th at Station 2
collected an average of 200 spat per shell.
 W 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Based on previous experience, the number of advanced-stage larvae in late July
should have been ample to provide heavy setting throughout the sound. However,
the setting on commercial strings was quite irregular and ranged from about 10 spat
per shell to well over 100 per shell. The variation may be explained in part by
unclean shell and overcrowding of rafts. If competition with shipworm (mainly
Teredo) larvae were a factor, survival to relatively high numbers of advanced stages
would not be expected. However, more than usual (up to 10 per cent) of abnormal
larvae (misshaped) were observed, for which there is at present no apparent reason.
Counts on six commercial strings gave the following results:—
Number
of Shells
Counted
Mean
Number
of Spat
per Shell
Range in
Number of
Spat per Shell
String No. 1-
String No. 2..
String No. 3 .
String No. 4-
String No. 5..
String No. 6..
65
89
42
39
7.6
15.0
30.0
31.0
100+
100+
0-19
3-34
8-53
6-65
Approximately 150,000 shell strings were exposed by two companies.
Virtually all of the shell strings were exported, mainly to the United States, but a
shipment of 40 tons was sent to France in November and more are expected to be
shipped in early 1969.
Ladysmith Harbour
While several intensive spawnings occurred in Ladysmith Harbour, there was
no evidence of significant spatting.
CUSTOM CANNERIES
Five canneries designed to custom-can sport-caught salmon operated during
1968. They were located at Brentwood, Campbell River, Madeira Park, Nanaimo,
and Quadra Island. Production to the end of December, 1968, was 143,563 cans.
The addition of a new cannery at Campbell River helped to increase the pack by
42,541 cans over 1967's total. A total of 5,256 sportsmen used these facilities, of
whom 3,199 were residents and 2,057 non-residents. The following number and
species of salmon were canned: Coho, 11,565; chinook, 4,858; sockeye, 268;
pink, 221; chum, 82; steelhead, 63. In addition, the canneries smoke-cured a
total of 8,176 pounds of sport-caught salmon.
REVIEW OF FISHERIES PRODUCTION, 1967
The total wholesale value of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1967
amounted to $99,800,000, down 15 per cent from the record $118,000,000 value
of 1966. A four-month trawl-longline strike which commenced March 17th and
a scarcity of herring contributed to this decline. Salmon products accounted for
80 per cent of the total wholesale value for the Province. Increasing competition
from the so-called " Greenland halibut" coupled with the strike produced a poor
year for the halibut fishery. Landings were at the lowest level since 1957, totalling
19,671,000 pounds with a wholesale value of $7,353,000. This was the poorest
year in history for the herring fishery, with total landings of 58,370 tons.
As marketed wholesale, the principal species were salmon, with a value of
$79,747,000; halibut, with a value of $7,353,000; and herring, with a value of
$2,638,000.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968 W 73
The landed value of the 1967 halibut catch was $5,068,000, as compared to
$8,687,000 in 1966.
In 1967 the wholesale value of shellfish amounted to $3,655,000. The value
of the clam production was $421,000; oyster production, $765,000; crab production, $1,794,000; and shrimp production, $675,000.
Gear and Equipment
The 1967 inventory of fishing-gear included 10,151 salmon gill-nets, 516 salmon purse-seines, nine salmon drag-seines, 141 herring gill-nets, 121 herring purse-
seines, and nine herring trawl-nets, with a total value of $7,646,000. Wire, cotton,
and nylon trolling-lines were valued at $542,000.
Salmon-cannery Operations
The Commercial Fisheries Branch licensed 22 salmon canneries to operate in
1967, one less than in 1966. The operating canneries in 1967 were located as
follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena River and Prince Rupert, 7; Central
Area, 3; Vancouver Island, 2; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 9. One previously licensed cannery in the Vancouver area ceased production, and the machinery
and equipment were dismantled.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia, according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by canners licensed to operate in 1967, amounted
to 1,465,708 cases, 353,507 cases less than the 1966 pack. Although the pack was
down 20 per cent from 1966, it was still 9 per cent above the average pack of the
past 10 years.
Sockeye Salmon
The 1967 sockeye pack was 558,891 cases. This was an increase of 150,942
cases over 1966 and the largest pack since 1958.
Pink Salmon
The pink pack of 650,142 cases was down by 301,652 cases from the previous
year. Although coho and chinook landings were down considerably along the west
coast of Vancouver Island, exceptional catches of pinks gave trailers one of their
largest years in terms of volume.
Coho Salmon
After two record years the coho pack fell to 146,677 cases, worth $57,141,000,
the lowest level since 1960, when the pack was only 91,504 cases with a wholesale
value of $22,768,000.
Chum Salmon
Chum-salmon landings of 1,127,000 fish represented 12.14 per cent of the
1967 total. The pack of 94,022 cases was, with one exception, the smallest pack
since 1960. Smallest pack in the last 10 years was in 1965, with a production of
only 65,216 cases.
Chinook Salmon
The 1967 pack of 14,679 cases was up only 94 cases from the 1966 pack;
however, increased quantities of frozen dressed, mild-cured, and smoked chinooks
were marketed.
 W 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Steelhead
The 1967 steelhead pack amounted to 1,296 cases, 1,184 less than the 1966
pack of 2,480 cases. Although steelhead are not salmon, some are canned each
year, principally those caught incidental to fishing other species.
Other Canneries
Shellfish Canneries.—In 1967, 11 shellfish canneries were licensed to operate in
British Columbia and produced the following pack: Clams, 17,141 cases; crabs,
13,484% cases; abalone, 98 cases; smoked oysters, 120 cases.
Speciality Products.—Sundry processing plants produced the following: Fish
spreads, 30,296 24/2!^-ounce cases; smoked-oyster stew, 10,147 cases; smoked
oysters, 175 24/4-ounce cases; smoked steelhead, 1,807 24/4-ounce cases; smoked
salmon in mayonnaise, 905 pounds; smoked salmon in oil, 2,434 pounds; smoked-
salmon paste, 716 12/31/..-pound cases; smoked-salmon paste, in bulk, 550 pounds;
salmon croquettes, 1,550 pounds.
Fish-curing
Eighteen smoke-houses processed the following: Herring (kippers, 44,743
pounds; bloaters, 8,935 pounds); cod, 412,759 pounds; salmon, 694,942 pounds;
mackerel, 4,000 pounds; eels, 3,500 pounds; steelhead, 670 pounds; eulachons,
312 pounds; smelts, 10 pounds.
Pickled Herring
Four plants put up the following: 5,574 cases of 12/12-ounce jars; 4,110
cases of 12/16-ounce jars; 870 cases of 12/32-ounce jars; 295 cases of 4/128-
ounce jars; 1,996 100-ounce tins; and 410 kits.
Frozen Herring Bait
Fourteen firms reported a total production of 2,896,331 pounds of frozen bait
in 1967.
Mild-cured Salmon
Three plants were licensed to operate in 1967 and produced 427 tierces with
a total weight of 3,618 hundredweight. In 1966 five plants were licensed and produced 291 tierces with a total weight of 2,400 hundredweight.
Salmon Roe
Eleven plants reported the following production for 1967: 5,280 24/22.375-
pound cases of salmon-roe caviar; 313,900 pounds of Japanese-style salmon
caviar; salmon-roe bait, 10,594 pounds; 451,563 pounds of salted salmon roe;
and 226,286 pounds of salmon roe, use not specified.
Halibut
The four-month trawl-longline dispute in the spring had an adverse effect on
the halibut fishery, helping to bring the landings total down to its lowest level since
1957.
Landings by Canadian fishermen at British Columbia and United States ports
totalled 26,221,200 pounds, valued at $6,631,000. The wholesale value of halibut
landed at British Columbia ports of $7,400,000 was down one-third from the previous year.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968
W 75
Fish Oil and Meal
With landings of 58,350 tons, the herring fishery reached its lowest level since
1935. In order to conserve stocks for spawning, fishing for reduction purposes was
banned on October 29th. Landings for 1967 were 58,370 tons and for 1966,
153,826 tons.
There were eight herring-reduction plants licensed to operate in 1967, and
these plants produced a total of 10,499 tons of meal and 8,735,000 pounds of oil.
The value of all herring products was $2,638,000.
Fish-offal Reduction.—During the 1967 season nine plants were licensed to
operate and produced 1,408 tons of meal and 170,886 gallons of oil. In 1966 nine
plants produced 366V_ tons of meal and 84,703 gallons of oil.
STATISTICAL TABLES
Table I.—Licences Issued and Revenue Collected, 1964 to 1968, Inclusive
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
Licence
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Salmon cannery	
21
1
9
4
20
45
14
3
8
3
1
1
403
1
3
$4,200
100
900
400
2,000
45
14
3
8
3
100
100
10,075
100
60
22
12
5
21
54
9
3
9
3
1
404
5
$4,400
1,200
500
2,100
54
9
3
9
3
100
10,100
72
23
9
4
19
59
11
3
9
3
1
1
400
1
10
3
26
19
$4,600.00
22
8
3
19
86
11
1
9
1
1
387
145
4
44
189
2
$4,400.00
21
1
3
19
65
5
1
9
363
1
97
5
44
133
3
$8,400.00
Herring reduction	
900.00
400.00
1,900.00
59.00
11.00
3.00
9.00
3.00
100.00
100.00
10,000.00
100.00
363.70
75.00
260.00
190.00
800.00
300.00
1,900.00
86.00
11.00
1.00
9.00
1.00
100.00
400.00
300.00
Fish cold storage
Fish-processing 	
Shellfish cannery	
Tuna-fish cannery	
Fish-offal reduction
3,275.00
2,130.00
500.00
100.00
450.00
Fish-buyers 	
9,675.00
18,125.00
25.00
Province   of   British
Columbia receipts-
Custom canneries
Aquatic-plant harvest-
in g  -_	
O y s t e r-picking   permits  	
Aquatic-plant processing	
2,375.21
100.00
440.00
1,890.00
20.00
2,278.83
125.00
1,330.00
600.00
Totals	
537
$18,108
551
$18,625
601
$19,073.70
932
$22,108.21
769
$38,038.83
 W 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia,
1963 to 1967, Inclusive
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
$48,960,000
11,695,000
7,993,000
1,573,000
492,000
705,000
781,000
643,000
162,000
340,000
2,599,000
$63,103,000
11,561,000
8,056,000
1,751,000
549,000
1,160,000
647,000
662,000
273,000
190,000
4,110,000
$52,071,000
11,752,000
10,191,000
1,740,000
723,000
1,800,000
708,000
661,000
321,000
296,000
4,197,000
$86,572,000
8,305,000
10,741,000
2,079,000
797,000
1,837,000
964,000
1,126,000
451,000
383,000
4,704,000
$79,747,000
Herring 	
Halibut.          	
2,638,000
7,353,000
2,469,000
Lingcod	
801,000
972,000
Oysters	
Sole     .                         	
765,000
1,023,000
347,000
Clams	
Miscellaneous	
421,000
3,117,000
$76,000,000
$92,117,000
$84,475,000
$117,984,000
$96,536,000
Table III.—Statement Showing the Quantity of Herring Products
Produced in British Columbia, 1962 to 1967, Inclusive
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Meal
Oil
1962/63...
1963/64_„
1964/65....
1965/66....
1966/67._.
1967/68...
Cases
892
Tons
206.35
562.30
210.64
28.00
101.75
Tons
41,299
53,271
46,071
41,509
27,058
10,499
Lb.
40,243,000
50,037,000
44,902,000
43,442,000
27,560,000
8,735,000
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1968          W 77
Table IV.—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1963 to 1967, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned
(48-pound cases.)
1963
Species
Area
Districts Nos.
1 and 3
District
No. 2
Total
125,4801/2
1,866
1,362
2,811
330
11,329
89,252
542,700!/2
62,9051/2
32,894!/2
912
1,078
1,971
441V-
541/2
56,847
214,752
56,2841/2
158,375
2,778
2,440
4,782
771!-
11,3831/
Coho	
146,099
757,4521.
119,190
Pink...            	
838,036
365,235
1,203,2715-
1964
200,203
1,823
9531/2
1,906
438
36,259
90,665
140,4751/2
76,990
143,1551/2
777
2,076!/2
1,5911/2
824
77,8081.
323,631
155,7311/2
343,358Vi
2,600
Pink spring _	
White spring... „ ..	
3,030
3,497,4
1,262
36,259
168,473!/2
464,106V2
Coho    	
Pink.                 	
232,721%
Totals	
549,713
705,5951/2
1,255,3081/2
 W 78
Table IV.
british columbia
-British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1963 to 1967, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned—Continued
1965
Area
Species
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
Total
165,0951/2
4,682
1,56714
5,998
3371/2
19,522
172,748Vh
121,543
17,161
80,702
1,718
3,003i-
1,9221/2
506
1,778
101,235
166,382
48,0541/2
245,797!/2
6,400
4,571
7,920i/2
8431/4
Red spring       ..	
White spring _ 	
21,300
273,9831/2
Coho	
Pink.                             	
287,925
65,2151/2
Totals   	
508,655       |      405,3011/2
1
913,9561/2
1966
Sockeye	
Red spring	
Pink spring	
White spring.
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho	
Pink	
Chum	
Totals .
287,319!/2
4,254i/2
1,583
2,054
457V4
20,989
136,7501/2
252,773
36,078
120,6291/2
1.743V4
2,905
2,045
2,022V4
98
123,7851/2
699,021
124,706
742,259 1,076,956
407,949
5,998
4,488
4,099
2,480
21,087
260,536
951,794
160,784
-78197215"
1967
355,683 V-
3,4451/2
1,843
1,988
322
7,799
87,892
503,470
20,5871/2
203,208
2,404
3,304
1,695
974
50,986
146,672
73,435
558,891!-
5,849%
Pink spring _ _. _ 	
5,147
3,683
1,296
7,799
138,878
Steelhead - _	
Coho	
Pink.    	
650,142
94,02214
Totals   	
983,0301/2
482,678
1,465,708V4
 Digging-head of mechanical clam-harvester showing jets behind blade.
Escalator of mechanical clam-harvester.
 Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1969
1,400-269-1559

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