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Provincial Department of Fisheries REPORT WITH APPENDICES For the Year Ended December 31st 1953 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1955]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial
Department of Fisheries
REPORT
WITH APPENDICES
For the Year Ended December 31st
1953
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1954
  To His Honour Colonel Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Department of
Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1953.
WILLIAM RALPH TALBOT CHETWYND,
Minister of Fisheries.
Department of Fisheries,
Minister of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, B.C.
 The Honourable William Ralph Talbot Chetwynd,
Minister of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1953.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Deputy Minister.
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries in 1953 Shows an Increase 7
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1953__   __ 7
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1953  g
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts         | 9
Other Canneries  18
Mild-cured Salmon  j 9
Dry-salt Salmon  29
Dry-salt Herring  19
Halibut Fishery  20
Fish Oil and Meal  21
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters  22
Condition of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  22
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces, 1952  23
Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia  24
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Paper No. 39) (Digest)  24
Herring Investigation  25
Report of the Biologist, 1953  28
APPENDICES
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (No. 39).   By
D. R. Foskett, B.A., M.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  33
Results of Investigation of the Herring Populations on the West Coast
|§ and Lower East Coast of Vancouver Island in 1953-54.   By F. H. C.
Taylor, M.A., and D. N. Outram, B.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo,
B.C  52
Report of the International Pacific Halibut Commission, 1953  83
Report of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission for
1953 .  87
Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1953  91
Statistical Tables	
  REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENT
OF FISHERIES FOR 1953
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES IN 1953
SHOWS AN INCREASE
The total marketed vaSte of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1953 amounted
to $65,455,000* This was an mcrease over the year previous of $8,820,000, or
approximately 15.75 per cent morethan the marketed value of fisheries products in 1952
The prmcipaJ species, as marketed in 1953, were salmon, with a value of $47 936 000-
herring, with a value of $6,518,000; and halibut, with a marketed value of $5/722^000*
The value of the salmon production in 1953 was $7,441,000 n&fe than inrl952. Tfe
value of herring production in 1953 also showed an increase over the year previews of
$2,283,000. It should be noted that these figures are for the calendar year and, consequently, somewhat distort the picture in respect to herring, as this fishery extends from
November to March. The herring values quoted are for those fisfr landed in the months
of January and February and properly belong to the 1952-53 herring-fishing season.
The value of the 1953 halibut-catch was $50,000 greater than in 1952.
In 1953 the marketed vaftie of shell-fish amounted to $1,777,000. The value of
clam production was $449,000; oyster production, $304,000; crab production, $663,000;
and shrimp production, $360,000. *M
The total value of boats engaged in commercial fishing in 1953 was $45,119,000,
and the total value of gear used in British Columbia's fisheries during 1953 was
$7,747,000.
The above figures are taken from the " Preliminary Fisheries Statistics of i&Msh
Columbia," published by the Federal Department of Fisheries.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING
W     INDUSTRY, 1953 «.
The Provincial Department of Fisheries licensed twenty salmon-canneries to operate
in the Province of British Columbia in 1953. This was one more than operated in 1952.
The operating canneries in 1953 were located as follows: Skeena River, 6; Central
Area, 2; Rivers Inlet, 1; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 11. The increase from
nineteen canneries in 1952 to twenty in 1953 was occasioned by the addition of another
operating cannery on the Skeena River at Prince Rupert. Otherwise, the distribution
of the operating canneries in 1953 was the same as in 1952.
There have been no canneries operated on the Nass River or in the Queen Charlotte
Mands for some little time, and the same condition applies to Vancouver Island. All
three of these areas formerly supported salmon-canneries. However, the salmon-catch
from these areas is now transported to other areas for canning. This tendency to pack
fish from one area to another for canning, referred to in this Department's Report for
1952, is continuing, and apparently the policy of concentrating the packing of salmon in
fewer canneries will continue s# long as there is constant pressure to increase the price
of raw fish, on the one hand, and the pressure of competition from other protem foods
to keep the price of canned fish down, on the other hand. § One does not quarrel with
the effort to keep production costs down, but one questions the value of such efforts if
the quality of the finished product is impaired by so doing.    The liberal use of ice,
ISTfigure does not include imported Japanese-caug&t tuna canned in British Columbia, amounting to $805,«».
7
 I 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
together with modern, fast packers, has made it possible for the operators to transport
fresh salmon over increasingly great distances. However, there is a limit to the time
that salmon may be kept in ice before canning without impairing the quality. This has
been-pointed out in the Reports of this Department in previous years, but the observation
will bear repeating. This practice of transporting fish over long distances and concentrating the canning operations at fewer points may serve as some measure of economy
in production costs, but it should be remembered that the major cost of a case of canned
salmon is the price of the raw fish, and until such time as the prices of raw fish are
reduced, the cost of producing a case of canned salmon will remain high, regardless of
the concentration of the operation of canneries and the slightly lessened overhead
occasioned thereby.
In 1952 the salmon-fishing season was plagued by a number of interruptions caused
by labour disputes between the fishermen's union and the operators. In 1953 these
interruptions were few. A work-stoppage in 1953 lasted from June 15th to June 24th.
This strike was at the beginning of the season, at which time arrangements between the
operators and the union on fish prices had not been completed, and the fishermen took the
stand that they would not go out fishing until some settlement had been reached. About
a week's fishing was lost, principally in the northern districts. The rest of the operating
season passed without interruption.
Normally the export of fresh salmon for canning is not permitted, but since 1947
fresh salmon have been permitted to be exported after September 1st in each year. This
permission to export after September 1st has resulted in a large movement of chum
salmon to the United States for processing in Puget Sound canneries. So far as the
Canadian canned-salmon pack is concerned, Canadian canneries practically close up
after September 1st as nearly all of the chum salmon caught for canning purposes after
that date are exported to the United States and canned there. This export of raw fish
which would ordinarily be canned in British Columbia has had the effect of reducing
the Canadian canned-salmon pack and has had the added effect of reducing the number
of employees and employees' earnings in British Columbia's canneries. This recent
practice has been mentioned previously in this Department's Reports. The matter is
considered of sufficient importance to British Columbia to again draw attention to it.
It is argued that the fishermen receive a higher price for chum salmon which are exported
to the United States for canning than they would otherwise. However, it is extremely
doubtful whether the small increase earned by the fishermen from the slightly higher
prices received for their fish from United States buyers compensates for the loss to the
industry and to the shore workers occasioned by the closure of British Columbia canneries.
The removal of the embargo after September 1st in recent past years has demonstrated
forcibly the value of the embargo toward maintaining a British Columbia salmon-canning
industry. The British Columbia salmon-canneries would cease to exist if there was
a permanent removal of the embargo on the export of canning-salmon to the United
States.
In considering the current pack figures for the canneries of the Lower Mainland,
it should be kept in mind that the export of raw fish reduced the pack by the equivalent
of the amount exported. Therefore, due allowance should be made for this when comparing the canned-salmon pack figures with the years previous to 1947.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1953
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia in 1953 amounted to 1,826,588
cases, according to the annual returns submitted to the Provincial Department of Fisheries
by those salmon-canners licensed to operate. The 1953 salmon-pack was 521,428
cases higher than that for the previous year and only 130,932 cases below the total for
1951.   It will be recalled that the 1951 pack was the highest since 1941, when the pack
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 9
amounted to 2,295,433 cases.   The 1953 pack ranks well up with the laree racks since
1928, the 1941 pack being the largest of any since that year g -
The 1953 salmon-paek was composed of 510,148 cases'of sockeyes, 13,048 cases
of springs, 3,030 cases of steelheads, 110,164 cases of cohoes  795 330 cases of ninks
md 394,867 cases of chums.   In each instance, half-cases havebee'ndropped     "
The total sof*eye-pack in 1953, amounting to 510,148 cases, was 60,654 cases
higher then the pack for the year previous and was the largest sockeye-pack k British
Columbia since 1946 In that year the pack amounted to 543,027 cases. The sockeye-
pack in 1953 was only shghtly lower than the record pack of 1942, in which year the
pack amounted to 666,570 cases.
The 1953 spring-salmon pack amounted to 13,048 cases.   The size of the canned
spring-salmon pack m any year is never indicative of the size of the run, but for comparative purposes thefack of the year under review is compared with the previous five.
years, in which the following quantities were canned:   1952, 9,279 cases^ 1951   13 698
cases; 1950, 9,233 cases; and 1949, 21,184 cases. J '     '
Steelheads are not salmon, but a few are canned each year, principally those which
are caught incidentally while fishing for salmon. In 1953 the steelhead-pack amounted
to 3,030 cases. This is compared with 3,762 cases in 1952, 3,655 cases in 1951, 3,227
cases in 1950, and 2,373 cases in 1949.
In 1953 the canned-cohoe pack amounted to 110,164 cases. This figure is compared with the previous year, when 67,438 cases of cohoe were canned. In 1952,
however, the cohoe-pack was the smallest for this species reported in a great many years
and is not indicative of the run for that year. The 1953 pack is compared also with the
1951 pack, when 313,674 cases were canned. The pack in 1950 was 123,629 cases,
while the amount canned in 1949 was 215,944 cases.
The 1953 pack of pink salmon amounted to 795,330 cases. This was the largest
pink-salmon pack in British Columbia since 1945, when the pack amounted to 8253l3
cases. The pack of pinks in 1952 was 679,182 cases, while in 1951, 736,093 cases
were canned. In 1950 the pack dropped to 446,456 cases, and in 1949 the pack
amounted to 709,987 cases.
As remarked previously in the pages of this Report, chum salmon are exported in?
large quantities each year to the United States for canning and, as a consequence, the
pack of canned chum salmon in British Columbia is not indicative of the jun cw of the
catch. The pack in 1953 was 394,867 cases, compared with 96,005 cases in 1952 and
462,101 cases in 1951. In 1950 there were canned in British Columbia canneries
507,611 cases erf chums, while the pack in 1949 amounted to 230,556 cases. Much;
of the fluctuation noted in these figures is due to the amount of fish exported, rather
than the amount caught or available to the Canadian fishermen.
In comparing the pack figures for any species of salmon canned in British
Columbia, the reader is referred to the next section of this Report for a breakdown
of the fisheries of each species by districts. The reader should also take into consideration the escapement to the spawning-beds, as indicated by the report on the spawning-
beds of British Columbia.
In the Appendix to this Report will be found | Salmon-spawning Report, British
Columbia, 1953." This report is supplied by the Chief Supervisor for the Federal
Department of Fisheries and is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS
Fraser River
The total sahnon^pack for the Fraser River in 1953 amounted to 496,936 cases.
Pink salmon ran to the Fraser River in the odd-numbered years, and the pack figures
for 1953 show that pink salmon accounted for 207,421 cases. This should be taken
into consideration when comp^ing the total pack figures for the Fraser River m 1953
 I 10
BRITISH COLUMBIA
with the year previous. The total pack on the Fraser River in 1953 was composed of
191,123 cases of sockeyes, 5,620 cases of springs, 371 cases of steelheads, 15,480 cases
of cohoes, 207,421 cases of pinks, and 26,921 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1953 the Fraser River produced a total pack of sockeye
salmon amounting to 191,123 cases. This was 56,498 cases above the pack for the
previous year and 56,051 cases higher than the average annual pack for the Fraser River
for the previous five years. The 1953 pack was 94,964 cases greater than the pack in
1949, which was the cycle-year for this run. It is notable that the 1949 pack was very
little greater than half the pack in 1953.
The Fraser River sockeye-salmon fishery is regulated by an International Commission under treaty between Canada and the United States. This fishery is an international one in that the sockeye salmon comprising the fishery pass through both Canadian
and United States territorial waters before reaching the Fraser River, hence nationals
of both countries share in the catch. The Commission is composed of six members,
three of whom are appointed by the United States Government and three by the
Canadian Government.
The readers of this Report will appreciate that, owing to the fact that the sockeye-
salmon runs to the Fraser River are under control of the International Pacific Salmon
Fisheries Commission, there can be little doubt that the work and recommendations of
the Commission have been instrumental in this great increase in the sockeye-salmon
catches of the Fraser River in recent years. It is reasonable to expect that these packs
will continue to increase as the rehabilitation programme proceeds.
According to figures published by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission in its annual report for 1953, the total sockeye-salmon pack for the Fraser River
amounted to 354,420 cases, including the United States pack. It is part of the duty
of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission to regulate the fishery in
such a way that the nationals of each country will share equally in the catch as closely
as is practical. According to the figures released by the Commission, in 1953 United
States fishermen caught sockeye salmon the equivalent of 178,323 cases, while the
Canadian fishermen's share amounted to 176,097 cases, which works out at 50.31 per
cent for United States fishermen and 49.69 per cent for Canadian fishermen. The
Commission has been dividing the catch remarkably closely over the past years, the
percentage varying slightly, sometimes in favour of United States fishermen and sometimes in favour of Canadian fishermen.
Ij There is included in this section a table showing the percentage catch by American
and Canadian fishermen since 1936:— American Canadian
(Per Cent) (Per Cent)
1936   25.00 75.00
1937  38.00 62.00
1938  42.00 58.00
1939  44.50 55.50
1940 I  37.50 62.50
1941 .  39.30 60.70
1942 .  37.20 62.80
1943 ,  37.42 62.58
1944  29.77 70.23
1945   39.90 60.10
1946  43.90 56.10
1947  16.60 83.40
1948  59.47 40.53
1949 1 ,  49.98 50.02
1950  57.70 42.30
1951  46.78 53.22
1952  49.74 50.26
1953  50.31 49.69
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT j n
The discrepancy apparent in the figures renorteH h.T i    t i
Salmon Fisheries Commission for Fraser Rive   ca^ Pa^
I Report is due to the fact that Johnstone Stra^ g
River in the figures contained in this Department's Rennrt S t   ?        FmSer
P cific Salmon Fisheries Commission doe*  notrepoS ** Sff"ft?
waters over which it has jurisdiction under treaty sockeye"catches outside of the
There is again included in the Appendix to this Report a table showing the total
S°C T^M^gs?^ FraSe\RlVer ar/an^d » accordance with the fcur-^
CyCllfT   I I ' ^   US1Ve' Sh°Wmg thC Catches made ^ Briti* Columbia and
Washington fishermen in the respective years.
5/OTfc; ta/m^.-The canned-salmon pack of spring salmon taken in the Fraser
River is never indicative of the size of the catch of this species or of the size of the run
as spring salmon find a large outlet in other than the canned state. The fresh- and
frozen-fish trade takes large quantities of spring salmon and, generally speaking the
canned pack is made up of those fish which are caught in nets incidental to fishing for
other species. *fi
In 1953 the spring-salmon pack on the Fraser River amounted to 5,620 cases,
compared with 2,279 cases in 1952 and 5,719 cases in 1951. The pack in 1950 was
1,818 cases, while 9,889 cases were packed in 1949.   ¥
Cohoe Salmon. — The Fraser River in 1953 produced a pack of cohoe salmon
amounting to 15,480 cases. The 1953 cohoe-pack was 9,980 cases above the 1952 pack
and was 5,053 cases above the average annual pack for the previous five-year period.
The 1953 pack was the largest since 1948, when 16,102 cases were canned. The reader
is reminded that the pack figures quoted for the Fraser River in this Report are for
Canadian catches only, unless otherwise stated. The United States catches of each species
proceeding to the Fraser River are not included in these figures.
In the case of cohoe salmon it should be remembered that large quantities of cohoe
caught in the Fraser River area are frozen and these, of course, are in addition to the
catch as indicated by the canned-salmon pack.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon run to the Fraser River occurs in the odd-numbered
years only and, accordingly, the pink-salmon run of 1953 should properly be compared
with the cycle-year 1951. In 1953 the pink-salmon, pack amounted to 207,421 cases,
while in 1951, the cycle-year, the pack was 66,673 cases. In 1949, the previous cycle,
the pack amounted to 66,626 cases. The 1953 pink-salmon pack on the Fy^ser was the
largest in recent past years. On the Fraser River the previous packs of over 100,000
cases occurred in 1947 and 1941. The pack in 1947 was 113,136 cases, and in 1941
it was 102,388 cases.   In 1935, 111,328 cases were canned. |
Chum Salmon.—In 1953 the chum-salmon pack on the Fraser River amounted to
26,921 cases. This is compared with 8,480 cases in 1952, 35,530 cases in 1951, 23,342
cases in 1950, and 6,763 cases in 1949. |
It was mentioned in a previous section of this Report that in recent past years the
embargo on the exportation of salmon for canning purposes was removed after September
1st, permitting much of the chum-salmon catch to be shipped to Puget Sound canneries
for canning. This has resulted in a very much reduced canned-chum pack in British
Columbia, as is indicated by the canned-salmon pack figures previous to 1947.
In 1946 the pack of chum salmon on the Fraser River was 60,713 cases; m 1945,
27,610 cases; in 1944, 13,803 cases; and in 1943, 52,149 cases. ^^^^|
showed packs as follows: 1942, 82,573 cases; 1941, 95,070 cases; and 1940, 35,665
cases. §
What is happening to our chum-salmon pack on the ^t^ * i**a£^
what could happen to British Columbia's salmon-cannmg industry if ogW|g
the Canadian embargo on the export of fresh salmon were lifted.   There is no doubt that
 I 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA
United States canners, with their very much larger home market, would be able to outbid
Canadian canners for Canadian fish, with the result that Canadian fish would be canned
in the United States or else the Canadian consumer would have to pay a higher price for
salmon caught and canned in Canada. The extra dollars earned by the slightly higher
price obtained by the fishermen for fish on the other side of the line would not compensate
for the loss incurred by the large number of people who find employment in British
Columbia canneries, together with the higher cost to the Canadian consumer.
The reader is again cautioned that any consideration of the canned-salmon pack as
a measure of the total run of any species should take into account the escapement to the
spawning-beds. This is contained in a report by the Chief Supervisor for the Federal
Department of Fisheries in the Appendix to this Report.
Skeena River
In 1953 the Skeena River produced a total salmon-pack of 117,406 cases. This
pack is compared with the pack of the previous year amounting to 221,306 cases. It will
be remembered that the 1952 pack was the largest for the Skeena River since 1945, when
221,471 cases were canned. The 1953 pack for the Skeena was made up of 65,003 cases
of sockeyes, 1,174 cases of springs, 970 cases of steelheads, 5,260 cases of Cohoes,
29,884 cases of pinks, and 15,114 cases of chums, half-cases being dropped in each
instance.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack on the Skeena in 1953 amounted to 65,003
cases. This was disappointing after the considerably larger pack of the year previous,
when 114,775 cases were canned. The Skeena River has been in a period of low production for a number of years, and apparently the measures taken to increase production
there have not been effective. The sockeye-pack on the Skeena in 1953 was 5,975 cases
below the average for the previous five-year period and was nearly 1,000 cases less than
the cycle-year, 1949.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon on the Skeena River, as on the other river systems
of the Province of British Columbia, find an outlet in other markets than the canneries,
and the spring salmon canned are usually caught incidental to fishing for other species;
therefore, the size of the pack is not indicative of the size of the run, nor is it indicative
of the size of the catch.
In 1953 there were 1,174 cases of spring salmon canned from Skeena River caught
fish, while the spring-salmon pack in 1952 was 2,082 cases. In 1951 the Skeena produced 2,055 cases, while the pack in 1950 was 1,758 cases.
Cohoe Salmon. — Cohoes are never a large factor in the Skeena River pack of
canned salmon, and the cohoe-pack for this river system in 1953 was no exception—
somewhat less, in fact, than in the immediately preceding years. The pack in 1953 of
5,260 cases of cohoes is compared with 8,358 cases in 1952, 19,977 cases in 1951, 9,781
cases in 1950, and 21,333 cases in 1949. The 1953 cohoe-pack on the Skeena was 7,682
cases less than the average for the previous five-year period.
Pink Salmon.—The 1953 pack of pink salmon, amounting to 29,884 cases, was disappointing after the large pack of 1952. It must be considered as reasonably satisfactory,
however, when compared with the pack of 1951, the cycle-year, when 30,356 cases were
canned. In 1949, the previous cycle, the pack was 33,069 cases. The 1953 pink-salmon
pack was 11,892 cases below the average Skeena River pink-salmon pack for the previous
five-year period. Jl
Chum Salmon.—In 1953 the Skeena produced a pack of 15,114 cases of chum
salmon. This is contrasted with 4,638 cases in the year previous, although in 1951,
14,778 cases were canned. The pack in 1950 was 10,969 cases, and in 1949, 4,896 cases
were canned. The pack in 1953 was 5,035 cases above the average annual pack of chum
salmon for the Skeena River for the previous five-year period.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT j $
In considering the salmon-packs for the Skeena River in 1Q<^ c~ •,,      •
must be given to the fact that a stoppage of fishing duS the first' weTk oTXTfc ^
season, owing to a depute between the fishermen's Lon anfte?S^o^J?SS
fish pnces, occasioned some loss, although normally the catch in thefe^week ofthe
fishing season is not large. n me nrst weelc ot the
Nass River
The canned-salmon pack on the Nass River fluctuates more widely than on any
other river system in British Columbia. The Nass River sockeye run is composed of
4- and 5-year-old fish, which makes it most difficult to assess the value of any single
spawning-year. The total canned-salmon pack on the Nass for 1953 was 66 510 cases
This total is compared with 57,775 cases in 1952 and 152,742 cases in 1951 ' The 1953
salmon-pack on the Nass was composed of 18,162 cases of sockeyes, 527 cases of springs
310 cases of steelheads, 5,118 cases of cohoes, 16,635 cases of pinks, and 25,756 cases
of chums.
Sockeye Salmon. — In 1953 the Nass River produced a sockeye-salmon pack of
18,162 cases. This was the smallest pack since 1949, when 9,268 cases were canned,
and was below the average annual pack for the previous five years by 3,561 cases.
Spring Salmon. — Spring salmon are caught and canned on the Nass River only
incidental to fishing for other species and, consequently, the size of the canned-salmon
pack is not indicative of the size of the run of this species. In 1953 the spring-salmon
pack on the Nass River was 527 cases, compared with 641 cases in 1952, 596 cases in
1951, 798 cases in 1950, and 174 cases in 1949.
I Cohoe Salmon.—In this Department's Report for 1952, mention was made of the
wide fluctuations in the pack figures for cohoe on the Nass River in recent years. These
figures continued to fluctuate widely. In 1953 the cohoe-pack amounted to 5,118 cases
compared with 1,223 cases in 1952, while in 1951 the pack amounted to 18,711 cases.
In 1950 the pack was 2,737 cases and in 1949, 6,665 cases were canned. This wide
fluctuation in the canned cohoe-salmon pack figures on the Nass could be caused by
different percentages of the catch being diverted to other outlets in different years, although
it is understood that, normally, the cohoe salmon from the Nass River caught in gill-nets
practically all find an outlet in the canneries. The wide fluctuation in figures, however,
would seem to indicate that there is some influence at work which is not too well understood, r^;
Pink Salmon.—In 1953 the Nass River produced a pack of pink salmon amounting
to 16,635 cases. This was disappointingly small when compared with the pack of 70,880
cases in 1951, the cycle-year, and with the previous cycle-year, 1949, when 34,324 cases
were canned. In the other cycle, in 1952, the Nass River produced 13,016 cases, while
in 1950 the pack was 12,582 cases. The 1953 pink-salmon pack on the Nass was 12,852
cases below the average annual pack for this species for the previous five-year period.
Chum Salmon.—-The chum-salmon pack on the Nass River is never large. The pack
in 1953, however, was larger than average for recent past years. The 25,756 cases
canned in 1953 are contrasted with the 1952 catch, when 13,112 cases were canned.
The pack in 1951 was 37,742 cases and in 1950 it was 14,321 cases. In 1949 the chum-
salmon pack on the Nass River was 7,854 cases.
Commenting in detail on the salmon-spawning areas for the Nass River, the Chief
Supervisor indicates that the spawning of all species on this river was comparatively light.
Rivers Inlet
Rivers Inlet is principally a sockeye-producing area. In 1953 the total salmon pack
amounted to 148,885 cases. Of this amount, 132,925 cases were sockeyes The balance
ofthe pack was made up of 865 cases of springs, 184 cases of steelheads, 1,979 cases of
c°hoes, 7,304 cases of pinks, and 5,627 cases of chums.
 I 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sockeye Salmon.—The Rivers Inlet sockeye-pack in 1953, amounting to 132,925
cases, was most encouraging. Rivers Inlet normally should produce a pack in excess of
100,000 cases, and for some years this area appeared to be in a period of low production.
It is encouraging to note that, in latter years particularly, the pack is approaching what
might be considered a more normal size. In 1952 the Rivers Inlet pack of sockeye
amounted to 84,297 cases, while in 1951 the pack was 102,565 cases. There were
142,710 cases canned in 1950, while the pack in 1949 was only 39,494 cases.
It is indeed encouraging to note the increased pack for this area, and one hopes that
the production will remain at the more normal level.
Spring Salmon.—Rivers Inlet, like other gill-net fishing areas, produces spring
salmon which are caught incidental to fishing for sockeye. These are mostly canned, and
in 1953 the spring-salmon pack was 865 cases for the Rivers Inlet area. This figure is
compared with 865 cases in 1952, 937 cases in 1951, 619 cases in 1950, and 743 cases
in 1949. |
Cohoe Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is never a large producer of cohoe salmon and 1953
was no exception, the pack there amounting to 1,979 cases. This is contrasted with the
previous years' packs when 3,415 cases were canned in 1952, 12,146 cases in 1951,
5,736 cases in 1950, and 5,978 cases in 1949.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon are never a large part of the total salmon-pack for
Rivers Inlet and 1953 was no exception, although the 7,304 cases packed there were
considerably less than in recent years. In 1952 the pink-salmon pack amounted to
12,469 cases, while in 1951 the pack was 20,960 cases. In 1950 there were 12,864 cases
of pink salmon canned in Rivers Inlet, and in 1949 the pack was 11,937 cases.
Chum Salmon.—Rivers Inlet was not a producer of chum salmon for canning until
1935, and in that year a small fall fishery was introduced for the first time. Since then
there has been a pack of canned chums put up each year, the pack varying from year to
year more in relation to the fluctuation in demand for chum salmon than to the size of
the runs.
In 1953 Rivers Inlet produced a pack of only 5,627 cases. This was slightly larger
than in 1952, when 3,711 cases were canned, but considerably below the pack of 1951,
when 11,842 cases of chum salmon were canned. The chum-salmon pack in 1950 for
this area was 10,014 cases, while in 1949 it amounted to 11,819 cases.
Smith Inlet
Smith Inlet, like Rivers Inlet, is largely a sockeye-producing area. Other species
caught in Smith Inlet are usually caught incidentally while fishing for sockeyeAThe total
canned-salmon pack for Smith Inlet in 1953 was 35,870 cases. Of this amount, 29,947
cases were sockeyes; 176 cases were springs; steelheads accounted for 100 cases; cohoes,
615 cases; pinks, 1,017 cases; and 4,015 cases of chums were canned in this area in 1953.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack of 29,947 cases for Smith Inlet in 1953 is
compared with the cycle-year, 1949, when 13,189 cases were canned. The sockeye production in Smith Inlet over the past few years has been holding up remarkably well. In
1952 there were 34,834 cases of sockeye canned in this inlet, while in 1951 the canned
sockeye-salmon pack amounted to 49,473 cases, and 42,435 cases in 1950. These packs
should really be compared with the packs of the previous five years for an indication of
the increase in the Smith Inlet sockeye runs in the past five years. In 1948, 10,456 cases
were canned, while in 1947, 36,800 cases were canned. In 1946 the pack was 14,318
cases, while in 1945, 15,014 cases were canned. Only 3,165 cases were canned in Smith
Inlet in 1944, while in 1943 the pack was 15,010 cases. 1
Judging by the size of the sockeye-salmon packs in Smith, Inlet in recent years,
one cannot help but remark on the difference in the size of the packs compared with
previous years.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
Spring Salmon.—Smith Inlet, like River* TnW ~   a
dentaHo the sockeye-fishery, and ftese ar^S ' CtST^ ^ ^ Ml
Smith Inlet was 176 cases, compared with 367 cases in 1 lv.nl sPnn8-sa,lmon Pack **
ji 1950, and 159 cases in 1949 m 1952' 174 cases m 1951> 71 cases
Cohoe Salmon.—The same remarks hold tmP t^ +u      u
* ta 1953 the pack from cohoe cau^^
to615 cases. This pack 1S contrasted with the 1952 pack figures, when 1 466^5
tr ::i ?^    species produced 3>259 cases 1 -*si- 3^*^!!ani
78!) cases m l.y'ry*
785 cases in
Pink Salmon.-Smith Inlet does not support a pink-salmon run of any account. The
few pink salmon caught m this area are also caught incidentally while fishing for sockeve
In 1953 there were 1,017 cases of pink salmon caught and canned in Smith Inlet, while
the pack for Ais area m 1952 was 6,496 cases. In 1951, 2,482 cases were canned, and
there were 5,308 cases of pink salmon canned in 1950 and 2,533 cases in 1949
Chum Salmon.—-There were 4,015 cases of chums canned in Smith Inlet in 1953
compared with a pack of 315 cases in 1952 and 2,530 cases in 1951.   In 1950 Smith
Inlet produced a pack of 4,499 cases, while in 1949 the chum-pack in this area was 2,361
cases. The size of the chum-salmon pack in Smith Inlet in any given year is in no wise
indicative of the size of the run of this species to the area.
Queen Charlotte Islands
Pinks and chums are the two species of salmon fished in the Queen Charlotte Islands
district exclusively for canning purposes. Chum salmon are taken every year in this
district but pink salmon are caught only every alternate year, the runs coinciding with
the even-numbered years. There was no pink-salmon run to the Queen Charlotte Islands
in 1953.
In addition to the salmon which are fished for in the Queen Charlotte Islands area
exclusively for canning, there is a large spring- and cohoe-salmon fishery for the fresh-
and frozen-fish trade. This fishery is conducted by trollers and is not considered in these
reports of the canned-salmon packs. The few cohoes which are caught incidentally while
fishing for chum salmon are canned and are included in the salmon-pack figures for the
Queen Charlotte Islands. However, the canned pack of cohoes credited to the Queen
Charlotte Islands is in no way indicative of the quantities of cohoes caught in this area.
# In 1953 the Queen Charlotte Islands produced a total pack of 20,806 cases, of which
17,304 cases were chum salmon. There were 811 cases of pinks, 2,437 cases of cohoes,
6 cases of steelheads, 1 case of springs, and 246 cases of sockeyes canned from fish caught
off the Queen Charlotte Islands for canning purposes. f
Sockeye Salmon.—The 246 cases of sockeye salmon canned from Queen Charlotte
Islands fish in 1953 were caught incidental to fishing for chum salmon and are probably
stragglers which were proceeding elsewhere to spawn. This pack is compared with 635
cases in 1952, 510 cases in 1951, and 89 cases in 1950. There were no sockeye canned
from Queen Charlotte Islands fish in 1949.
Spring Salmon.—In 1953, 1 case of spring salmon was reported to have been canned
from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish, while in the year previous 96 cases were
canned. There is no record of any spring salmon having been canned from Queen
Charlotte Islands fish in 1951, but in 1950, 48 cases were canned. No spring salmon
were canned in 1949 in this district. §
Cohoe Salmon.-In 1953 there were 2,437 cases of cohoe salmon canned from
Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish, compared with 4,168 cases m 1952 The canned-
salmon pack of cohoes in 1951 amounted to 22,579 cases, while the pack in 1950 was
9,021 cases.   In 1949, 8,141 cases were canned.
Pink Salmon.-Thz year 1953 was an off-year for pink sdmon in to CJ** Cha -
lotte Islands.  This species is caught in this district only in the even-numbered years,
 I 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
consequently only 811 cases of pink salmon are reported to have been canned in 1953.
In 1951, the cycle-year, the pink-salmon pack was 3,455 cases, while in 1949, 1,550
cases were canned.
Chum Salmon.—The Queen Charlotte Islands is well known as a chum-salmon
area, and the pack of this species in 1953 amounted to 17,304 cases. The 1952 pack was
1,712 cases. In neither of these years is the size of the pack indicative of the size of the
run. Apparently market conditions were such that the supply was available from nearer
fishing-grounds. The pack in 1951 in the Queen Charlotte Islands amounted to 61,696
cases, while 1950 produced a pack of 148,669 cases. In 1949 the chum-salmon pack in
the Queen Charlotte Islands was 24,852 cases.
In comparing the pack of chum salmon in the Queen Charlotte Islands for 1953 with
the year previous, due consideration must be given to the fact that there was very little
fishing in 1952 owing to a fishermen's strike which occurred during the fishing season for
chum salmon in this area.
Central Area
For the purpose of this Report the Central Area comprises all of the salmon-fishing
areas off the coast of British Columbia between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River,
except Rivers Inlet, which is treated separately.
Salmon-fishing in the Central Area is conducted on many different runs of salmon
in the various parts of the district and, as a consequence, the size of the pack in this area
is no indication of the magnitude of the different runs to the various streams, but rather
reflects the size of the runs generally within the geographical limits of the area. If
ll In 1953 the Central Area produced a total of 317,626 cases of canned salmon of all
species. This total is compared with 289,476 cases in 1952 and 513,926 cases in 1951.
The 1953 pack in the Central Area consisted of 25,845 cases of sockeyes, 1,568 cases of
springs, 904 cases of steelheads, 21,502 cases of cohoes, 92,517 cases of pinks, and
175,289 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 25,845 cases of sockeyes canned in the Central Area in 1953
is compared with the previous years' packs. The pack for 1952 amounted to 26,583
cases, and the 1951 pack was 22,312 cases. In 1950 the pack was 25,997 cases, while
in 1949 it amounted to 16,140 cases. The 1953 pack was 2,470 cases higher than the
average annual pack in this area for the previous five-year period.
if; Sockeye salmon caught in the Central Area are not the product of one individual
river system, but rather of a number of streams, and, therefore, the pack figures do not
reflect the condition of any individual stream. It would seem, however, that the district
in general is maintaining its annual production.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon caught in the Central Area find an outlet in various
markets, including the fresh- and frozen-fish trade; therefore, the canned-salmon pack
figures are not indicative of the production of the area as a whole. In 1953 spring salmon
canned from the Central Area catch amounted to 1,568 cases, while the 1952 season
produced 1,261 cases. In 1951 the pack of spring salmon was 1,082 cases, compared
with 776 cases in 1950 and 1,007 cases in 1949.
Cohoe Salmon.—The size of the cohoe-pack in the Central Area varies widely from
year to year. In 1953 the cohoe-pack for this area was 21,502 cases, while the pack in
the same area for 1952 was 17,289 cases. In 1951 the pack amounted to 61,423 cases,
in 1950 it was 17,061 cases, and the pack in 1949 amounted to 44,169 cases. The cohoe-
pack in 1953 was 10,787 cases below the average annual pack for this species in the
Central Area over the past five-year period.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack is one of the largest packs of any of the
species in the Central Area over the years. In 1953 the pink-salmon pack was considerably below what was anticipated. The 92,517 cases canned in this district in 1953 are
contrasted with 237,559 cases in 1951, which would be the cycle-year for the 1953 run,
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAT   ftwcot^o ^
wviin^al FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 17
oink salmon being 2-year fish.   Compared with th^ ™*™r, .    .
Pquite low in that the 1952 pack was 207^55 casef^ "T ^J?? ^ iS alS°
ycle-year for the 1953 run, Lounted toS^^jS,01 T% *? previ°US
ir;"se—■pack fa S9SS5 ss ^
In reporting on the pink-salmon pack in the pages of this Department's Report for
1952 we remarked that for a number of years the Central Area has been goingCugh
a cycle of low pmk-salmon production, and it is encouraging to note that fa5S??S
the runs seem to be improving, as measured by the pink-salmon pack." OnTSS
hopes that the Central Area is not again entering a period of low production
Chum Salmon.—The pack of chum salmon in the Central Area in 1953 amounted
to 175,289 cases, compared with 36,605 cases in 1952 and 190,843 cases in 1951. The
pack in 1950 was 164,884 cases, while in 1949 the pack amounted to 116 292 cases
The chum-salmon pack in 1953 was 38,506 cases less than the average annual pack of
chums in this district for the previous five-year period.
Vancouver Island
The Vancouver Island district, like the Central Area, supports numerous races of
salmon running to different streams. No attempt is made to deal with the various races
separately. It should be point out, however, that the sockeye salmon caught in the Sooke
traps are not credited to Vancouver Island, but to the Fraser River, where most of them
are known to migrate. Similarly, sockeye salmon caught in Johnstone Strait between
Vancouver Island and the Mainland are also credited to the Fraser River in this Report
and not to Vancouver Island. These sockeye are known to be migrating to the Fraser
River.
For statistical purposes and the purposes of this Report, salmon, other than sockeye,
caught in Johnstone Strait between Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland are
credited to Vancouver Island in this Report.
In 1953 the salmon production credited to Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland amounted to a total of 671,981 cases of all varieties. This total was made up of
46,895 cases of sockeyes, 3,115 cases of springs, 184 cases of steelheads, 57,773 cases
of cohoes, 439,173 cases of pinks, and 124,840 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1953 Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland produced
sockeye salmon amounting to 46,895 cases, compared with 19,486 cases in 1949, four
years previous. The pack in 1952, the immediately preceding year, was 24,252 cases,
while in 1951 the pack was 22,107 cases. In 1950 there were 13,806 cases of sockeye
canned from Vancouver Island caught fish. The 1953 sockeye-salmon pack for Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland was 21,586 cases above the average annual
pack for this area for the previous five-year period. |f
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught in large quantities each year by trolling
off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Most of these fish, however, find a market in the
fresh- and frozen-fish trade or as mild-cured salmon. Troll-caught salmon on the lower
west coast of Vancouver Island also find a market principally as fresh, frozen, and mild-
cured. Because of these outlets, the canned-salmon pack figures for spring salmon in the
Vancouver Island district are not indicative of the size of the catch of this species
In 1953 the canned spring-salmon pack from Vancouver Island caught fish
amounted to 3,115 cases. This is compared with the year previous, when 1,687 cases
were canned.  The pack in 1951 amounted to 3,133 cases, while in 1950, 3,343 cases
were canned.   In 1949 the pack was 6,361 cases. J£S „# th» Ha* hmm
Cohoe Salmon.-CohL are also caught in large numbers by trol1 off ^ ™^
of Vancouver Island and these, like the spring salmon, find a ready ma**^^£
cans, and for this reason the canned-salmon pack of cohoes is not necessarily indicative
of the size of the catch or of the run.
 I 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
fl In the Vancouver Island district in 1953 the cohoe-pack amounted to 57,773 cases.
This is compared with the 1952 pack of 23,583 cases and the much larger pack in 1951
amounting to 151,325 cases. The cohoe-pack in 1950 was 72,871 cases, while in 1949,
98,958 cases were canned. The cohoe-pack in 1953 for Vancouver Island was 23,129
cases below the average annual pack for this species in this district for the previous
five-year period.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon canned from Vancouver Island caught fish in 1953
amounted to 439,173 cases. This was probably a record pack of this species for this
district, although this cycle has been producing quite large packs in recent years. In
1951, which was a cycle-year for the 1953 run, the pack amounted to 303,102 cases,
while in 1949, the previous cycle-year, the pack was 361,783 cases. In 1947 the pack
amounted to 355,992 cases. These are all cycle-years for the 1953 production, and
would seem to indicate that this run is holding up well. The 1952 pack of pinks was
171,812 cases, while the pack in 1950 was 132,016 cases.
Chum Salmon.—Chum salmon are caught in fairly large numbers in the area
comprising Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland. However, in comparing the
canned-salmon pack figures with previous years it must be remembered that in recent
years large quantities of chum salmon were shipped to the United States in the fall of
the year for canning; therefore it must be assumed that the large drop indicated in the
canned-salmon pack figures for Vancouver Island in recent years, compared with previous years, is due almost exclusively to the export of chum salmon which, of course, are
canned in United States canneries.
In 1953 there were 124,840 cases of chum salmon canned in British Columbia from
Vancouver Island caught fish. This pack is compared with 24,039 cases canned in 1952.
However, the reader is cautioned that in 1952 much of the fishing season in the Vancouver Island district was lost due to a strike of fishermen during the height of the fishing
season. The Vancouver Island pack of chum salmon in 1951 was 105,458 cases, and in
1950, 125,833 cases.   In 1949 only 51,629 cases of chum salmon were canned.        il
Previous to the lifting of the embargo, Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland
produced packs of over half a million cases. For instance, in 1941 there were 593,016
cases canned, and in 1942 the pack was 383,005 cases.
OTHER CANNERIES
Pilchard-canneries.—There has been no run of pilchards off the west coast of Vancouver Island since 1949, and, as a consequence, again in 1953 no pilchard-cannery
licences were issued.
Reports from the biologists and from California indicate that we need not expect a
run of pilchards off the Vancouver Island area for some considerable time in the future.
Herring-canneries.—In 1953 there were two herring-canneries licensed in British
Columbia, both of which operated. These two plants produced a pack of canned herring
amounting to 11,231 cases. In 1952, the year previous, there were no herring-canning
operations in British Columbia due to a strike of fishermen which tied up the herring-
fishery all season.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—The first commercial tuna-fish operation in British Columbia
was licensed in 1948. Tuna-fish were caught off the coast of British Columbia previous
to this date, but the catch was largely frozen and shipped to United States canneries for
processing there. The run of tuna to the coast of British Columbia has been spasmodic
since 1948. In some years the fish appear in fairly large numbers, while in other years
they fail to put in an appearance. Since the end of the war there has been some importation of Japanese-caught tuna, frozen in Japan and exported for canning in British
Columbia.
In 1953 two tuna-fish canneries were licensed, and both produced a pack. In 1952
three tuna-fish canneries were licensed to operate, and these produced a pack of 65,373
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAT   FrwCr>T™ r.
1ML.1AL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
19
4'S
cases. The two canneries operated in 1953 nrnHn^ .    ,
Id 22,714 cases of 48/% I The tuna-fisheT off 1  P"f °f 87'909 Cases of 48/*
I i„ an experimental condition; consequent!thecS S" SfS ^"^ *
vear.  As mentioned above, not all of the canned tl?\7!SWldely from years to
U« sh Columbia ca„gte | ^^^^^^S|
Shell-fish Canneries.—Under this heaHina tVi^o^   i i • .
•       *      • '-'xiu.ci uiii neaamg, those plants which are concerned with
the canning of various species of shell-fish are reviewed    Tn 1Q<^ concerned with
LncpH tn onerate on dipll t.*h  aii ^   I  u revifwea   ln 1953, seven canneries were
licensed to operate on shell-fish, all of which produced a pack.  This is compared with
eleven canneries which were licensed to operate in 1952, and nine operatbfStT n
1951. The seven plants operated in 1953 produced the following-- P
Clams:  10,433 cases of 48/1/2's.
Crabs:  11,738 cases of 48/Ws and 2,776 cases of 48/Vi's
Oysters:  813 cases of 48/1/2's.
Shrimps:  577 cases of 48/4i/2-ounce and 436 cases of 48/3i/2-ounce
Abalone: 217 cases of 48/1's.
The figures for shell-fish canneries are compared with the pack of 1952, when there
were canned:—
Clams:   12,762 cases of 48/Vi's, 41,832 cases of 24/1's, and 4,796 cases of
6/10's (gallons). fr
Crabs:  908 cases of 48/Vi's and 90 cases of 24/1's.
Oysters:   14 cases of 48/1/2's, 271 cases of 24/10-ounce, and 9,946 cases of
48/^4's. ;||
Shrimps:   149 cases of 48/4Vi-ounces.
Abalone:  116 cases of 48/1's.
MILD-CURED SALMON
Three plants were licensed to mild-cure salmon in 1953, all of which operated and
produced a pack of 788 tierces from 6,372 hundredweight of salmon.   In the season
1952, two plants were licensed to mild-cure salmon, and they produced a pack of 614
tierces or 5,220 hundredweight.
DRY-SALT SALMON
Previous to the outbreak of the war in 1939, large quantities of chum salmon were
dry-salted in British Columbia each season for shipment to the Orient. In some years
the production of dry-salt salmon reached quite large proportions, and it was a very
definite factor in the market for fall fish. During the war years the Provincial Government declined to issue licences for salmon dry-salteries in order to divert as much of the
salmon catch as possible to the salmon canneries and freezers. This was done as a war
measure. Since the end of the war the business of dry-salting salmon has not been
revived.
In 1947 two licences were issued but no operation took place, and no licences have
been issued for salmon dry-salteries since that time.
DRY-SALT HERRING
In British Columbia, previous to World War II, the dry-salting of herring was an
important factor in the winter fishery, the dry-salted product being shipped to China.
Since the outbreak of the war, the bulk of British Columbia's herring-catch has been
either canned or reduced to meal and oil, most of the catch going to the ^^ ^
Since the war, some activity has taken place each season m the ^^^^^
although the business has not yet attained anything like the proportions of pre-war years.
 I 20 §BRITISH COLUMBIA
In 1953, there were four licences issued for the dry-salting of herring. Only three
plants operated, however. These three plants produced a total of 3,910 green tons of
salt herring or a total of 17,312 boxes. This pack is compared with the year previous,
when three plants had a production of 5,871 green tons or 26,070 boxes.
i§  In comparing the 1953 pack with the year previous, it must be remembered that in
1952 a strike of fishermen effectively tied up the principal herring-fishery for the season.
HALIBUT-FISHERY
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific Coast of North America is regulated by the International Pacific Halibut Commission, which Commission is set up under a treaty between
Canada and the United States for the protection and rehabilitation of the halibut-fishery.
This is a deep-sea fishery and is shared in by the nationals of the two countries. The
Commission regulates the fishery on a quota basis and, on that account, there is little
fluctuation in the total amount of halibut landed from year to year, except when the quotas
are changed by the Commission for any reason. There is, however, some fluctuation
from year to year in the quantities landed by the nationals of each country.
For the purpose of regulation, the coast was originally divided into a number of
areas, the principal ones, from the standpoint of production, being Areas 2 and 3. The
Commission has found it necessary to subdivide these areas into a number of sub-areas
in order to facilitate its work and to make better use of the stocks of halibut on the
different banks. For a more detailed breakdown of the areas and the geographical limits
of each, the reader is referred to the Pacific Halibut Regulations for 1953.
In 1953 the catch limits set by the Commission for the different areas were as
follows: Area 2a, 25,500,000 pounds, the same as in the year previous; Area 3a,
28,000,000 pounds, also the same as in the year previous. ll
In 1953 the total landings by all vessels in all ports by areas amounted to 60,664,000
pounds, to the nearest thousand pounds. This is compared with 61,852,000 pounds in
1952. §
A breakdown of the halibut production in 1953 by areas is as follows: Area 1a,
393,000 pounds; Area 1b, 139,000 pounds; Area 2a, 29,393,000 pounds; Area 2b,
2,920,000 pounds; Area 2c, 765,000 pounds; Area 3a, 26,065,000 pounds; Area 3b,
909,000 pounds; and Area 4, 80,000 pounds.
The total landings by all vessels in Canadian ports in 1953 was 26,781,000 pounds,
while the total for 1952 from all areas was 26,363,000. The total landings by all vessels
in Canadian ports by areas in 1953 is contained in the following table, and is compared
with the total landings from the same areas in 1952:—
1953 1952
(Lb.) (Lb.)
Area 2a  16,575,000 15,578,000
Area 2b  1,850,000 1,457,000
Area 2c  198,000 305,000
Area 3a  7,969,000 8,954,000
Area 3b  189,000 69,000
The total landings by Canadian vessels in Canadian ports in 1953 was 24,761,000
pounds, compared with 23,326,000 pounds in 1952. These landings were from the
following areas, and are compared with similar landings in 1952:—
1953 1952
(Lb.) (Lb.)
Area2A  16,137,000 15,156,000
Area2B  1,850,000 1,457,000
Area 2c  138,000 248,000
Area 3a  6,447,000 6,396,000
Area3B  189,000 69,000
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 21
In addition to the above, Canadian vewk \^a a •    a
1)091,000 pounds, compared with 1,028,000 SLffiwo'^"^ ^ * *** °f
In addition to the total landings bv ranaHian ,^    .   •   ^
vessels landed in Canadian ports ^l?53^^o?^1S(SU,,^ *** ATican
i fW7 000 pounds in 1952    The Am*,-;™ , ?  2'U20'000 pounds, compared w th
2c and 3a American vessels' catches were landed from Areas 2a,
'  The average price paid for Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert in 1953 was 14 5
rmTw'as 14   tm ^Z^^ H ^^ ^ in Canadian porfs
m 1953 was 14.6 cents per pound    These pnces are compared with 1952, when the
average price for Canadian halibut landed in Prince Rupert was 17.9 cents per pound!
and 17.2 cents per pound for Canadian landings in all Canadian ports
The value of the halibut livers to United States and Canadian fishermen in 1953
was, United States fishermen, $133,000, and Canadian fishermen, $96 000 The total
value of halibut-livers to United States and Canadian fishermen in 1952 was $380,000.
In addition to the above values for livers, Vitamin A bearing halibut viscera was
marketed to an estimated value of $111,000 by the United States fleet and an estimated
value of $10,000 by the Canadian fleet.
The above figures relating to the halibut-catch are to the nearest thousand pounds.
The statistical information for the halibut-fishery was supplied by the International Pacific
Halibut Commission and is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
FISH OIL AND MEAL
The production of fish-oil and edible fish-meal has been an important branch of
British Columbia's fisheries for a number of years. Previous to World War II, pilchards
and herring were the principal species used for the production of meal and oil. The
products of the reduction plants found a ready market, the meal being used as a supplementary food for animal-feeding and the oil being used in manufacturing processes of
many kinds.
The demand for natural sources of vitamins stimulated the production of vitamin
oils from fish products, and at the outbreak of World War II the demand for natural
sources of vitamins greatly increased the production of fish-oils of high vitamin content
in British Columbia. This increased demand for high vitamin oils brought into use other
fish besides herring and pilchards during the war years and immediately after the war.
Dogfish and shark livers were in high demand in those years. Recently, however, the
increased production of synthetic Vitamin A has lessened the demand for fish-liver oil
as a natural source of this vitamin, and, if the price of synthetic Vitamin A falls much
lower, the market for livers containing this vitamin may very soon disappear.
In addition to the production of oils from British Columbia's various fish and fish-
livers, in recent years there has been considerable activity in the use of cannery-waste
and viscera for the production of various pharmaceutical products. Besides the high
vitamin-content oils used in the medicinal field, British Columbia's fish-oils of lower
vitamin potency find an outlet in many manufacturing processes, and large quantities are
used for the feeding of poultry and live stock.
Fish-liver Oil—In 1953 four plants were licensed for fish-liver reduction, all of
which operated. These four plants processed 1,363,648 pounds of liver, producing
4,370,578 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A. The 1953 option was on a similar basis
to that of 1952 when four plants operated, processing 1,208,886 pounds of liver and
produced 4,870,557 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A Whae «*^%^"?»?
of Vitamin A, increased this production to 5,339,768 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A.
Pilchard-reduction.-Thve was no pilchard-reduction in 1953, nor has there been
any pilchard production since 1949.
 I 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Herring-reduction.—The winter herring-fishery in British Columbia has developed
into a very important branch of the fishing industry and ranks second in point of dollar
value in British Columbia's fisheries. The season generally runs from late in September
or early in October through until the following March, with a short break at the Christmas
period. Many of the boats used in catching herring are also used in salmon-fishing and,
generally speaking, the herring-fishery does not get into full swing until the boats have
been released from fishing for salmon.
In 1953 there were fifteen plants licensed to operate on herring-reduction. However,
only fourteen of these plants operated. These fourteen plants produced a total of 31,740
tons of meal and 3,516,106 imperial gallons of herring-oil. There was no herring operation in 1952, owing to a strike of fishermen which lasted throughout the season.
Whale-reduction.—In 1948 the hunting of whales off the British Columbia coast for
reduction purposes was again resumed after a short period of inactivity. Whale-reduction
continued in 1953, and in this year 539 whales were killed, compared with 465 whales
captured in 1952.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed by
the Provincial Department of Fisheries under miscellaneous reduction licences. These
plants operate on cannery-waste and the carcasses of dogfish, and produce meal and oil
for various purposes. The oil produced from the carcasses of dogfish should not be
confused with the oil produced from dogfish-livers, the latter being a high potency oil
which is reported in another section of this Report.
In 1953 there were twelve plants licensed to operate under miscellaneous reduction
licences, two of which did not operate. The ten operating plants produced a total of
2,059 tons of meal and 243,819 imperial gallons of oil. In 1952, ten plants operated and
produced 2,011 tons of meal and 192,315 imperial gallons of oil.
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS
Under section 24 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, fishing
with nets in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under
licence from the Provincial Minister of Fisheries. This fishery is confined almost exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes in question.
In the Appendix to this Report there again appears a table showing the name and
number of lakes in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the number and
approximate weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake.
It will be noted that there are three different kinds of fishing licences issued for net-
fishing in the non-tidal waters of the Province; namely, fur-farm, ordinary, and sturgeon.
The fur-farm licences are issued to licensed fur-farmers, and the coarse fish taken under
these licences are used for food for fur-bearing animals held in captivity. Ordinary fishing
licences are issued for the capture of fish other than trout, salmon, or sturgeon, while
licences issued for sturgeon-fishing are exclusively for that fishery.
A detailed account of the fish taken by the licensed nets in the different waters of the
Province is again carried in the table appearing in the Appendix to this Report.
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS
We are again indebted to the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government and the officers of his department, who conducted the investigations, for furnishing
us with a copy of the department's report on the salmon-spawning grounds of British
Columbia and permitting same to be published in the Appendix to this Report. The Chief
Supervisor's courtesy in supplying us with this information is gratefully acknowledged.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT , „
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING
UF THE PROVINCES, 1952
The value  of the  fisheries  products of rQi,,j„  *     M
$148,357,200.    During that year litTcoLv^foduceA fl ^   ^  t0taUed
;alue'of $56,635,000,* or 27*8 per cent ^^.^T^S'^ZSfm10!^
| aU the Provinces of Canada in respect to the pnniuctimTS,^^1 ^
output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, second in rank by $14 199 600
^■yn^t.^ ? the fi8herieS products of British Columbia in 1952 was
$27,177,704 less than in tf,e year previous.   IT^e was a decrease g ^ULS £^1
amounting to q>2U,2^4,o5Q.
The following statement gives the value of fisheries products of the Provinces of
Canada for the years 1948 to 1952, mclusive:—
Province
British Columbia	
Nova Scotia	
New Brunswick	
Quebec.	
Ontario	
Manitoba 1	
Prince Edward Island	
Alberta	
Saskatchewan	
Northwest Territories	
Newfoundland (estimated)
Totals	
1948
$58,703,803
36,090,820
20,122,378
6,393,635
5,942,723
5,414,583
3,634,376
1,527,834
1,282,437
636,352
$139,748,941
1949
$56,120,154
35,039,804
17,428,127
5,111,878
5,728,389
4,800,387
2,704,444
652,545
1,025,896
2,334,009
$130,945,633
1950
$68,821,358
38,164,967
18,053,168
5,496,282
7,033,552
6,791,290
3,320,513
767,887
1,360,114
2,297,466
30,000,000
$182,106,597
1951
$83,812,704
40,296,367
21,154,877
5,511,379
7,924,530
7,524,392
3,212,629
862,327
1,748,444
2,261,964
29,000,000
$203,309,613
1952
$56,635,000!
42,435,400
20,503,700
6,113,000
8,343,700
5,959,700
3,758,700
942,900
1,440,000
2,225,100
(2)
$148,357,200
1This figure does not include imported Japanese-caughJ tuna canned in British Columbia, amounting to $1,463,200.
2 Figures for Newfoundland not available.
* This figure does not include imported Japanese-caught tuna canned in British Columbia, amounting to $1,463,200.
 I 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1949 to 1953, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species
1949
Salmon	
Halibut	
Halibut-livers and viscera oil
Herring	
Pilchard	
Grey cod	
Ling cod	
Clams	
Black cod	
Crabs	
Soles	
Shrimps	
Oysters	
Abalones .	
Flounders	
Red cod	
Perch	
Smelts	
Sturgeon	
Octopus	
Skate	
Eulachons	
Sardines .	
Grayfish, etc.—
Livers	
Liver-oil	
Meal	
Whales .
Fur-seals	
Anchovies	
Tuna	
Shark-livers	
Shark-liver oil	
Ratfish-livers |	
Miscellaneous	
Totals	
$35,897,732
4,023,110
333,200
9,412,786
204,855
870,513
209,379
631,850
443,339
580,328
89,447
282,616
2,811
17,112
140,830
4,636
18,421
13,418
6,172
4,683
29,609
6,659
1,539,951
2,822
450,405
720
37,283
708,004
195
8,464
678
148,216
1950
1951
1952
$48,701,583
5,430,374
121,165
9,313,447
444,317
523,435
262,983
263,892
399,396
913,689
122,345
353,429
1,732
43,500
54,632
7,681
20,785
11,9,09
2,722
7,284
25,861
30,324
169,724
639,643
2,336
688
767,767
184,985
$60,749,658
5,603,901
158,250
10,639,653
453,796
826,315
382,746
501,110
403,538
1,187,934.
148.9331
289,624
2,229
47,499 3
109,047
(2)
30,697
(2)
(2)
(3)
80,210
8,386
328,220
1,282,600
5,430
73,211
499,807
$56,120,154       $68,821,358
$83,812,704
$40,495,000
5,531,000
141,000
4,235,000
521,000
590,000
477,000
310,000
475,000
1,533,000
227,000!
438,000
3,000
20,000
75,000
15,000
(2)
5,000
115,000
208,000
__
(2)
26,000
54,000
1,142,000
1953
$47,936,000
5,552,702
169,390
6,518,000
251,000
384,000
449,000
313,000
663,000
854,000
361,000!
304,000
6,000
(3)
29,000
(2)
7,000
17,000
(2)
6,000
34,000
186,000
__
(2)
13,000
3,000
1,399,000
$56,635,000
$65,455,092*
1 Shrimps and prawns.
2 Included in miscellaneous.
3 Skate and flounders.
* This figure does not include imported Japanese-caught tuna canned in British Columbia, amounting to $805,000.
Miscellaneous includes perch, octopus, sturgeon, whales, and fish products, meal and oil which cannot be separated
into species, with a value of $500 or less.
The above figures were supplied by the Federal Department of Fisheries, Vancouver
and are hereby gratefully acknowledged.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE
SALMON (PAPER No. 39) f
(Digest)
Paper No. 39 in this series is again contributed by D. R. Foskett, B.A., M.A., of the
staff of the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo. This series was commenced some
thirty-eight years ago by this Department and has been continued ever since without
interruption. The value of such an unbroken record of the salmon runs to the principal
spawning-streams of the Province is increasing as the years go by. In recent years the
extended salmon work being done by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada in British
Columbia has made it possible to have the material for the catch analysis collected simultaneously while other field work was in progress, and arrangements have now been made
to have this investigation continued. In future, however, the work will be financed and
carried forward by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada.   The Provincial Department
 REPORT OF PROVINCTAT   creucn,^
*vjvin<_1AL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT i 25
of Fisheries will continue to contribute to this work kw™M k       u;,-      I
relating to this investigation.   These papers wiU ^earl the A  ^    8 ?' PapCTS
Report of the Provincial Department of Fisheries^afh^reTofore   ^        t0 M Amual
Commenting on the runs to the variom r™^ c,ro^   «*   '   .
the Nass River, in the forty-two yea J^ Iff ^ ** |
tasb«„ 20 500 cases, ajd fl. average catch for fcpa* S£2ta&>6 "^
For the past five years the average catch has been 21 723 cLJ   Tt i™ i £• I
fore, that the pack of 18,162 cases for 1953 is ^^J^ Z ^        "'"
For the Skeena River the forty-seven-year average of the sockeye-pack is 84,714
"** 70 WcZf   Th'   f PaSMCn ^ vS ^ bCen ?1>412 Cases> and ^ the last five
years, 70,978 cases.   Therefore, the pack m 1953 of 65,003 cases is below the average
In the introduction to this paper the author particularly points ont that the figures
given are for the catch, and, as was shown in Paper No. 38 of the series, do not necessarily
represent the escapement. This, in addition to the fact that it is not yet known to what
extent hereditary and environment affect age of maturity in the Pacific salmon seriously
limits the value of the data with regard to predicting the returns to be expected from
a given run.
In respect to the Skeena River, the author points out that the closure of tte fishery
for ten days to allow a heavier escapement undoubtedly reduced the take of sockeye to
some extent, since the catch was 168,901 fish in the preceding week and 208,923 in the
week following the closure.
For Rivers Inlet the pack of 132,925 cases in 1953 was the fifth largest recorded for
Rivers Inlet area. It is only the second time that a pack of more than 75,000 cases
nut, been composed of over 70 per cent of 4-year-old fish in this area. Despite the large
pack the spawning-grounds were well seeded. The author points out that though this run
was largely the return from 1949, the poor pack in that year was not indicative of the size
of the rim, the escapement having been particularly heavy in that year.
Referring to the pack of sockeye on Smith Inlet in 1953, the author says, in part:
"The pack of 29,947 cases of sockeye from this area in 1953 is well above the average
for the past twenty-nine years, but is below the average of 33,976 cases for the last five
years.   As was the case with Rivers Inlet, the run in this area was largely the return from
t.yy  1 rt Art ??
the
has
the 1949 run."
The reader is referred to Mr. Foskett's paper which is published in full, with supporting statistics, ih the Appendix to this Report, for a more detailed analysis of the sockeye-
salmon runs to the above-mentioned areas.
HERRING INVESTIGATION
Research on herring in British Columbia was continued in 1953-54 by the Fisheries
Research Board of Canada at the Pacific Biological Station, under the supervision of
F. H. C. Taylor. flS
The main purpose of the research is to obtain on the life-history and population
dynamics: of herring, scientific information which will provide a basis for securing the
maximum annual yield from the fishery consistent with sound conservation^ practice.
Studies of factors affecting recruitment to the adult stocks form an important phase ot the
research, and on these studies prediction of abundance is based. The research is divided
into three main divisions: (1) An intensive comparative study of two major herring
populations to obtain information on the effects of unrestricted fishing on the one hand
and on the efficiency of catch quotas in stabilizing abundance on the other hand, (2) a
general study ^afiother major herring stocks in British Cohimbia to^iP^
application of results of specific studies; and (3) a study of factors affecting suraval
during the early life-history stages.
 I 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Comparative Study of Two Herring Populations
In 1953-54, population abundance on the west coast of Vancouver Island increased
from the low level of 1951-52. This was indicated by the size of the catch, the third
largest since 1947-48, coupled with a spawn deposition of slightly above average extent.
Area 23 provided the bulk of the catch, with above-average contributions from Areas 24,
26, and 27.   The Area 25 catch was below normal. 'j
Evidence indicates that while population abundance in Area 23 in 1953-54 was
considerably greater than in 1950-51 or 1951-52, it may not have attained the average
level of abundance of 1947 to 1950. The catch in Area 23 in 1953-54, while considerably larger than that of 1950-51 or 1951-52, was less than the average catch for the
period 1946-47 to 1949-50. Spawn deposition in 1954 in Area 23 was greater than in
1951 or 1952, but less than the annual deposition in the years 1947 to 1950. J|
In area 25, the other major west coast fishing area, the 1953-54 catch was one of
the smallest since 1946-47. Spawn deposition in Area 25 has progressively decreased
since 1951, with the exception of 1953, when the increase in Area 25 was proportionately
less than in other west coast areas. Population abundance in Area 25 may, therefore,
have declined. H
In the lower east coast sub-district, abundance has continued at the high level that
has existed since 1951-52. Following the record catch of 52,660 tons, spawn deposition
in 1954, although showing an expected decrease from the exceedingly high level of 1953,
was still the second highest recorded.
The variations in abundance within and between the two populations under investigation are not considered by the investigators to be a result of the effect of unrestricted
fishing or of a stabilizing effect of quota restrictions. The differences are considered by
them to be more likely a direct consequence of variations in the recruitment of individual
year-classes to the two populations.
In the south west coast areas (Areas 23 and 24), the decline in abundance in 1950-
51 and 1951-52 was the result of the recruitment of two successive year-classes (the
1948 and 1949) of below-average strength, while the increase in abundance in 1952-53
and 1953-54 resulted from the recruitment of two average or above-average year-classes
(the 1950 and 1951). In the north west coast areas (Areas 25, 26, and 27), the 1948
and 1949 year-classes were also weak, but, because of the relatively great contributions
made by the very strong 1947 year-class as IV- and V-year fish in 1950-51 and 1951-52,
the decline in abundance was not as pronounced as in the south west coast areas. However, the 1950 and especially the 1951 year-classes do not appear to have been as strong
in the north west coast as in the south west coast areas; with no strong contribution by
older year-classes, abundance has therefore declined.
On the lower east coast, the 1949 year-class was considerably stronger than on the
west coast, and the 1950 and 1951 year-classes have also been of above-average strength.
Abundance was maintained in 1953-54 by the good recruitment of the 1951 year-class as
Ill-year fish and the above-average contribution of the 1950 year-class as IV-year fish.
The past eight years of comparative study have indicated that on the west coast,
during periods of high population abundance, the lack of quota restrictions has not
affected abundance. The opportunity was lost in 1952-53 to assess the effect of unrestricted fishing during a period of low population abundance. On the lower east coast,
the present fixed quota has not apparently been effective in stabilizing population
abundance, and may have resulted in some wastage of fish during periods of high
abundance. The spawning population, especially in the last three years, appears to have
been much larger than necessary to maintain abundance. In spite of these indications,
there is, on the other hand, some evidence that suggests that some form of restriction may
be necessary to conserve this population. The single inshore migration route, together
with the early time of migration, may render this population particularly vulnerable to
 fishing
extent
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERY DEPARTMENT , 27
General Studies on the Adult Stocks ofAtt AyrAT^u
oiucKb of all Major Herring Populations
A record herring-catch of 210,210 tons was taken in iq« *A \   r> 1 u r, ,    I
xu»\m about 20 000 tons greatPr tw *u • 1953-54 m British Columbia
waters about zuuuu tons greater than the previous record catch of 1951-52 The nonquota fishery in the Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district was about two and a hdf times
as great as in the previous best year (1951-52)    Thp hniv ^ +w      * u ^   .
SMlegate Inlet (Area 2a-E) whe're a Ljor fishery d"d rte SiT "nt?
districts where catch quotas applied, the quotas were taken Lcept in tL cenS and u^
east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts. Quota extensions of 10,000 tons Jnd
15,000 tons respectively, were granted in the middle east coast and lower east coast of
Vancouver Island sub-distncts.
Spawning surveys were again undertaken through the assistance of Federal Department of Fisheries Officers. In 1954, because of the heavy fishery, spawn deposition was
expected to show a decrease from the high level of 1953, the result of the almost complete lack of a fishery m 1952-53. A total of 212.6 miles of spawn, the second largest
amount recorded in the past ten years, was deposited in 1954. Spawn deposition
decreased in all sub-districts except the Queen Charlotte Island sub-district. The increase
here was the result of greatly increased spawnings in Area 2b-E, attributable, probably,
to the small fishery in this area resulting from the greater abundance and availability of
fish in Area 2a-E. In all other sub-districts, except the lower east coast, the extent of
spawn deposition decreased to levels similar to or slightly below the average levels prior
to 1953. In the lower east coast sub-district, spawning was still almost double that for
any year prior to 1953. There was no evidence that the amount of spawn in any of the
populations reached so low a level that future maintenance of the stocks was threatened.
The 1951 year-class was the foremost contributor to both the fishing and spawning
runs of most of the major herring populations. It appeared to be of average or above-
average strength in the central sub-district, and the lower east coast and west coast of
Vancouver Island sub-districts. In the latter sub-district it was stronger in the south west
coast areas than in the north west coast areas. In the middle east coast and northern
sub-districts this year-class was less well recruited and may be of below-average strength.
Population abundance in 1954-55 will largely depend on the amount of herring that will
be contributed to the adult stocks by the 1951 and 1952 year-classes. Present indications,
on the basis of the contributions of the 1952 year-class as II-year fish in 1953-54,
suggest that this may not be a particularly strong year-class. A prediction of the abundance of herring prior to the 1953-54 season has been published. It is expected that
herring will show a slight increase in abundance in Area 2b-E in the Queen Charlotte
Islands sub-district and in the central sub-district. In Area 2a-E of the Queen Charlotte
Islands, the upper east coast, and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-district, little
or no change in abundance is expected. A decrease in abundance is expected in the
northern sub-district, the middle east coast, and possibly the west coast of Vancouver
Island sub-districts.
The 1953-54 tag-recovery was the second largest since the beginning of the tagging
programme-a total of 4,615 tags were recovered by magnets in fourteen reduction
Plants and through the operation of two tag-detectors. Tag-detector returns were less
than in previous years, forming 1.5 per cent of the total as compared to 5 per cent in
1951-52 and 11 per cent in 1950-51. An analysis of ^?«?^q^^^
findings of previous years. An interesting point was the lack of returns JMtjplm
Area 2b-E in the Queen Charlotte Island sub-district from the ^jy fiA^m Area
2a-E.  This may suggest that the stocks in these two areas are separate populations.
 I 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Studies on Survival of Herring Spawn and Juvenile Herring
The study of " natural " mortality of spawn was carried out on a much reduced scale
in 1954. Studies were continued on the effect of the degree of exposure of the spawning-
ground to wave-action on the survival of spawn. The results confirmed those obtained
in previous years. Mortality was greatest (60 per cent) under extreme conditions; that
is, in spawnings at the head of well-protected inlets where brackish water conditions prevailed and in spawnings directly exposed to the open ocean. Mortality was least (2.5 per
cent) in localities having intermediate degrees of exposure. As about three-quarters of
the spawning-grounds on the west coast are in the intermediate categories, it is unlikely
that this cause of mortality is an important factor in determining the success of early
year-class survival.
An extensive survey of juvenile herring was again carried out in Barkley Sound in
the summer of 1954. Particular attention was given to the determination of relationship
between juvenile herring abundance and various ecological factors. A large-scale marking and recovery programme was carried out, but tagging was discontinued.
Complete analysis of the data has not yet been carried out. Preliminary indications
are that the 1954 year-class of juveniles in Barkley Sound is slightly more abundant than
the 1953, 1952, or 1951 year classes. When these year-classes are recruited to the
fishery, information will be forthcoming on the usefulness of juvenile abundance in
predicting recruitment.
REPORT OF THE BIOLOGIST, 1953
It is the function of the Provincial Shell-fish Laboratory at Ladysmith to provide
an information service on commercial molluscs and on oyster-culture. A knowledge of
the biology of the various species is required in that it affects their abundance, reproduction, growth, and culture.
A large part of the effort is devoted to the biology and culture of the Pacific oyster
(Crassostrea gigas) on which the British Columbia oyster industry is based. Productivity
in terms of survival in relation to the number of spat planted on given areas is being
studied.   Attempts are being made to correlate fatness with plankton production.
Considerable effort is being expended on oyster-seed production in relation to time,
place, and method. Of importance in this connection are the attempts to develop new
seed-collectors.   Associated are detailed studies on the habits of the larvae.
A series of bulletins detailing the results of the above investigations are issued to
growers and other interested individuals. Reports of work published elsewhere, but of
interest and possible use to growers, are also included in these bulletins. They are mainly
concerned with spawning reports and spatfall forecasts during the summer breeding
season.
In 1953, oyster seed imported from Japan amounted to 1,115 cases. The drop
in imports since 1951 is mainly due to the production of seed in Pendrell Sound. The
1953 seed was inspected for pests and for quality.    No pests were found.
Ten leases applied for to the Provincial Department of Lands and Forests were
examined for their suitability as oyster ground.
A number of other areas with potential oyster ground were examined, and through
the co-operation of the Dominion Department of Fisheries, the east coast of Moresby
Island (Queen Charlotte Islands) was surveyed.
Because of the emphasis on oyster investigation, clam studies form a minor part of
the work of the Shell-fish Laboratory at the present time. Some routine sampling was
carried on with hard-shell clams, and reproductive studies were continued. The razor-
clam beaches at Massett on the Queen Charlotte Islands were examined briefly.
Work on the early life history of the British Columbia ship worm (Bankia setacea)
is being continued as time permits.
 I REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I;    '*       :"'^fIf ' '"'■''    °YSTER Investigations   ;-§.•••    ■■,-.&,     A, * -
ft Pacific-oyster Breeding ^-
* sis ~r&™ s*rby kp "-»«•
fc* Td -d Aji^in PenJu SoJ^S Ef^y ^t^da" ^
cloudy and relatively cool, and twenty days were clear and warm
^tS^ Harb°v ?i953 there Were only m^ days between My 1st and
September 15th dtmngwhich the water teihperatnre was above 68° F. as Sorfedrt
a depth of 3 feet by thermograph. In 1952 there were ninety days when toe water
temperature was above 68° F. In that year the highest recorded temperate Z
75° F., while m 1953 the highest was 69° F. v*-*™-* wa&
In 1953 in most oyster-growing areas, little or no spawning occurred, or it took
place late m the season.
Ladysmith Harbour.—No spawning of significance occurred here until August 15th
when 6 straight-hinged lame were produced. Water temperatures to this date were
generally below 68° F. By August 27th the plankton contained only 1 early umboned
oyster larva per gallon, and by September 6th no larvae were present. No 1953 spat
have been found, so the complete failure in Ladysmith Harbour is the first for many
years.   There is normally light scattered spatting even in poor years.
Hotham Sound.—A light spawning on August 15th produced 6 straight-hinged
larvae per gallon. This was apparently the only spawning of the season in this area, and
no spat have been found.   Water temperatures rarely exceeded 68° F. during the season.
Pendrell Sound.—In Pendrell Sound, water temperatures during the early part of
the season were relatively good, and indications are that there was a light spawning during
the last week in June which produced an average of 0.25 spat per shell. Small spawnings were observed during the middle of July.
On July 20th, oysters spawned along 400 yards of beach and produced 13 larvae
per gallon, but by July 26 nearly all had disappeared from the plankton in spite of a mean
3-foot water temperature of 70° F.
On August 13th, when the season had become somewhat advanced, stimulated
spawning was attempted in the middle and outer basins, with no immediate result. However, on August 17th, plankton samples indicated a spawning had occurred about
August 14th or 15th at about the junction of the middle and outer basins. This spawning
produced 100 straight-hinged larvae per gallon. Between August 17th and September 6th
the number of larvae in the plankton samples fluctuated considerably, but was generally
low. On the latter date, some samples contained up to 50 larger than half-grown larvae
per gallon, and in spite of relatively low water temperatures, a commercial spatfall was
forecast for the period beginning September 10th. First spatting occurred then, with
the peak about September 13th. ¥
On floating test strings, the mean spatfall for the whole sound (nine stations) was
95 spat per Pacific-oyster shell (both sides). For each spat on the inner surface (lower
surface) there were 2.64 spat on the outer (upper) surface of the shell.
The mean count for the outer sound was 27 spat per shell; the middle sound,
168 spat per shell; and 44 spat per shell for the upper sound, where all of the commercial
cultch was placed. I
Horizontal Distribution of Larva and Spat
During 1953, eleven stations were set up in Pendrell Sound in order to determine
the horizontal distribution of larv* and spatfall. For the latter where no cultch floats
were available, small logs, able to float the weight of several shell strings, were attached
^ rope to the shore by means of a staple inserted in a crevice m * f**^^*
the half-tide mark at the chosen station. In this way the logs did not become stranded
°a shore and were thus always afloat.
 I 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The shell strings were exposed on these floats during the period September 9th to
September 24th. In addition, a shell string was placed on shore nearby at the half-tide
level, in order that a comparison of floating and shore cultch could be made. Further
shell strings were placed on the shore of Marylebone Point, 8 miles from the head of
Pendrell Sound, and another at Martin Island Pass, 12 miles from the head of the sound.
j|jjj| The distribution of set is given in the following table:—
Floating Cultch
Spat per Shell
(Both Sides)
Station 1 L__    36
Station 2     55
""   Station 3     91
Station 4	
Station 5  440
Station 6  124
Station 7  	
Station 8     35
Station 9     18
Station 10     16
Station 11     14
Marylebone Point  	
Martin Island Pass  	
Shore Cultch
Spat per Shell
(Both Sides)
10.40
5.40
50.40
8.90
5.40
2.10
11.30
2.30
0.25
The mean spatfall for the whole sound on shore cultch was 13.4 spat per shell (both
sides) or one-seventh of that on floating cultch.
In order to determine the horizontal distribution of larvae, samples of 3 cubic feet
from a depth of 3 feet were taken at each station at intervals between August 17th and
September 15th, 1953. There appeared to be no correlation between intensity of spatfall
and number of larvae in the samples taken, either with the total number for the period or
with those occurring just prior to setting. Since no correlation appeared in 1952, there
appears to be little possibility that the location of the areas of most intense spatfall can
be predicted from the occurrence of larvae in plankton samples with present sampling
methods.    However, more observations may alter this conclusion.
It is of interest that the 1953 spatfall was obtained from a relatively small initial
population of larvae, and that the set was derived from a final number of 0.5 larvae
per gallon.
The larval period extended to a full thirty-day period, apparently as a result of the
low water temperatures, which averaged 65° F. at the 3-foot level.
Vertical Distribution of Larvce
A study of the vertical distribution of Pacific-oyster larvae was again carried out
in Pendrell Sound, in order to determine whether there was any deviation from the
pattern found in previous years.
Samples, of 3 cubic feet in volume, were taken at depths of 0, 3, 6, and 12 feet at
the time of each high and low slack water and at an intermediate time between. This was
carried on for five successive days, resulting in 136 samples. Since the larvae were
derived from a single spawning (this was done near the end of the larval period), it was
unnecessary to separate them into size-groups. 1ft
As in previous years, there was no distinct pattern to the vertical distribution of
larvae, other than that the main body of larvae (95 per cent) was taken in the top three
samples. Between the 6- and 12-foot levels there was a sharp drop in temperature and
rise in salinity. The mean temperature at the 6-foot level between August 16th and
September 16th was 65° F., and at the 12-foot level slightly less than 60° F. The mean
salinity at the two levels was 22.16 °/oo and 26.43 °/oo respectively. The temperature
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 31
in the vicinity of the 12-foot level, no doubt artPH Qc „    a    ■    .
tration in significant numbers by the larva. ' 1Ve barrier t0 lower Pene
Vertical Distribution of Spatfall
I ofpTci^oy^Jn ^.^^^^ *e verti   1 distribution rf spa,
pennanently to the shore with the top ^^  £^^
The string was exposed between September 9th and November 24th  io«in-    it'
period of setting, the highest tide was 13 feet    The uoS^^!U During the
Uediately after the set and the highest leveVat ^h^w" e ot d™ S72?
Due to long exposure, all of these spat were dead. The" remainder of th?string was
counted subsequent to removal on November 24th, and the spat survival began atThe
11-foot level. &
The significant survival occurred between the zero tide-level and the + 9-foot
level. This coincides quite well with the 1952 results, although in that year both the
upper and lower levels were extended slightly. No doubt, temperature is the factor
limiting significant survival below the zero tide mark, unless no setting occurs during
periods of low tides, and this is quite unlikely. At low-tide periods, the layer of larvae-
bearing water extends down to at least 12 feet below the zero tide-level. Since in this
case adequate setting-surface has been provided, one would expect setting in this region
if other conditions were suitable.
Floating Cultch.—As in previous years, a long shell string (50 feet) was suspended
from a float in Pendrell Sound in order to determine the vertical distribution of spatfall
on floating cultch. The string was exposed during the period September 3rd to October
21st, 1953. As in previous years, the major setting occurred within the upper 6 feet.
Significant spatting ceased at the 7-foot level and none occurred below the 18-foot level—
in contrast with 38 feet in 1952.   Here again temperature is no doubt the limiting factor.
Length of Larval Life
The larval period between spawning and setting in the 1953 Pendrell Sound
breeding was the longest recorded in British Columbia, and, with previous information,
has provided an opportunity to set up a scale which gives the approximate free-swimming
period at various temperatures.
At a mean temperature of 22° C, the larval period is approximately seventeen
days, while at a temperature of 19° C, the larval period is thirty days.
Commercial Cultch
Approximately 40,000 shell strings were exposed in Pendrell Sound by five companies, two of which are exclusively seed-producers. The commercial cultch caught a
set, but not all of it was of commercial intensity. This was apparently due to either or
both of two reasons: (1) Unclean shell initially; and (2) fouled shells by being exposed
too long before the set. Clean shell strings were hung from various commercial floats
just prior to the beginning of the set, and these caught approximately three times the
average set caught by the adjacent commercial cultch.
Cultch
The testing of various cultch materials was continued during 1953. Laths, bundled
in various ways, natural or cemented, were exposed, and would be hand ed
ways on the beds. Most of these laths caught excellent sets It is doubtful i these have
sufficient advantages over shell cultch for use in British Columbia oyster-culture. Hal-
locks (strawberries) were also tested in various ways. The naturd wockU^
and unseasoned was used, but did not catch well. The P^^f^^gj ^
good sets and h^d the advantage that they required no weight to sink them, while, at the
 I 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
same time, they required very little flotation. Various methods of packaging were tried,
and several treatments are being accorded on the beds. It appears that wood veneer,
combined with a coating of cement, will approach quite closely the characteristics postulated for an ideal cultch. ^
Oyster Production
Production of Pacific oysters in 1953 dropped 14,000 gallons from that in 1952, a
decrease of about 18 per cent. 1951 1952 1953
(Shucked     (Shucked     (Shucked
U.S. Gal.)    U.S. Gal.)    U.S. Gal.)
Area 14 (Baynes Sound)  5,117 6,830 4,815
Area 15 (Malaspina)                m-      976
Area 16 (Pender Harbour)  4,182 2,347 4,614
Area 17 (Stuart Channel)  12,442 13,613 11,620
Area 20 (Victoria)   1,045 668 1,010
Area 29e (Boundary Bay)  36,165 57,711 43,441
■      .11 I I ■■ III I.     II II »■■-   IIII       I HH    II    II HI   I »^——H ' II
Totals  58,951        81,185        66,476
Oyster Seed
Seed imports (Japan) (cases)     5,375 3,584 1,115
Seed production (B.C.) (cases)     2,000 4,000 4,000
Clam Investigations
The production of clams is shown in the following table. Production of all species
except razor-clams is down, but such fluctuations in clam production are not abnormal.
B.C. Clam Production in Pounds
1951 1952 1953
Butter-clams   3,500,500 5,492,300 3,691,000
Native Little-necks      521,900 493,300 308,700
Manila      178,900 405,900 387,700
Razor       135,500 125,500 154,500
The area along the east coast of Moresby Island (Queen Charlotte Islands) between
Skidegate and Skincuttle Inlet was examined to assess the clam and oyster ground. The
potential is not great and there is probably little more than 50 acres of butter-clam
ground, made up of widely scattered small areas. The main producing ground is in the
Burnaby Narrows area, where the present stock of clams is not extensive. No significant
area of potential oyster ground was found.
The west coast of Vancouver Island, which has been closed to the taking of butter-
clams since 1942 because of a potential risk of paralytic shell-fish poisoning, was opened
effective June 9th, 1953, after a long series of samples had indicated no sign of a return
of the high toxicity values that existed at the time when the area was closed.
Acknowledgments
A sincere appreciation is expressed for the assistance and co-operation given by the
Federal Department of Fisheries, the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo, the Pacific
Oceanographic Group at Nanaimo, the Provincial Department of Lands and Forests, the
Provincial Department of Health and Welfare, and the shell-fish industry of British
Columbia.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 33
APPENDICES
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE
SOCKEYE SALMON (No. 39)
ByD. R. Foskett, B.A., M.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION
This is the thirty-ninth report in a series reporting on the age of sockeye in the
commercial catch, the sex ratios, and the weights and lengths of the fish according to sex
and area of catch. The data cover the larger sockeye runs in British Columbia with the
exception of the Fraser River. It must be pointed out, however, that the figures given are
those for the catch and, as was shown in No. 38 of this series, do not necessarily represent
the escapement. This, in addition to the fact that it is not yet known to what extent
heredity and environment affect age of maturity in the Pacific salmon, seriously limits the
value of the data with regard to predicting the returns to be expected from a given run.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS AND TREATMENT OF DATA
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the
fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers—one
in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to
the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish left fresh water. The
age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
3i, 4i—the I sea types " or fish which migrate seaward in their first year and
mature in their third and fourth year respectively.
32—"the grilse," almost exclusively males and frequently called "jacks,"
which migrate seaward in their second year and mature in their third
year.
42j 52—fish which migrate seaward in their second year and mature in their
fourth and fifth years respectively.
53? 63—fish which migrate seaward in their third year and mature in their fifth
and sixth years respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate seaward in their fourth year and mature in their
sixth and seventh years respectively,     jj
Fish were measured to the nearest quarter of an inch, but when averaged the average
has been recorded to the nearest tenth of an inch to avoid using fractions or more than
one decimal plape. Weights were taken to the nearest tenth of a pound. This has resulted
h an even-pound and half-pound bias when the data are grouped to the nearest quarter-
pound. Ill ft
1. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1953
(1) General Characteristics
In the forty-two years for which records are available for the Nass River sockeye
*e average catch has been 20,500 cases.  The average for the past ten years has been
M14 cases and for the past five years 21,723 cases. The pack of 18,162% cases for
1953 is then about average for this area. The spawning report of the Federal Department
 I 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of Fisheries states that § the run of sockeye to the Nass system was light and the escapement to the Meziadin Lake system, principal spawning-grounds for this species, was
also light." p       f
(2) Age-groups
The Nass River sockeye sample was composed chiefly of 53, 42, and 52 age-class
fish with percentages of 45.7, 22.8, and 21.5, respectively. The only other age-class
represented in significant numbers was the 63 group which formed 8.8 per cent of the
sample (Table I).   Minor age-classes present are shown in Tables II and III.
J| (3) Lengths and Weights
The main group of the Nass River sockeye sample, the 53 fish, were approximately
average in size and weight (Tables II to V). The 52 fish, however, were quite large and
heavy, as were the 42 and 63 groups (Tables II to V).
(4) Distribution of Sexes
There was nothing unusual in the sex ratio of the various age-classes in the Nass
River sockeye sample (Table VI). The three main age-groups 42, 52, and 53 had sex
rations of 50:50, 44:56, and 46:54 respectively. The small 63 group had a sex ratio of
62 per cent males to 38 per cent females. The over-all ratio was 48 males to 52 females.
Jacks were reported as forming less than 1 per cent of the spawning population.
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1953
(1) General Characteristics
The forty-seven-year average for the Skeena River sockeye-pack is 84,714 cases.
The average for the past ten years has been 71,412 cases and for the last five years
70,978 cases. The pack in 1953 was 65,003 cases, a figure which is below the average.
The closure of the fishery for ten days to allow a heavier escapement undoubtedly reduced
the take of sockeye to some extent since the catch was 168,901 fish in the preceding week
and 208,923 in the week following the closure. The escapement was heavy in the Babine
area, but other parts of the watershed had light to medium runs.
1|     (2) Age-groups
The Skeena River sockeye sample in 1953 was composed chiefly of 42 (48 per
cent) and 52 (42.8 per cent) fish, the only other age groups present being 53 (6.2 per
cent), 63 (2.9 per cent), and 32 (0.1 per cent) (Tables VIII and IX). This means that
the return was 48 per cent from the 1949 spawning and 49 per cent from the 1948
spawning.
(3) Lengths and Weights
£i. The Skeena River sockeye, as shown by the sample, were large fish. Those in the
52 age-class exceeded the averages of the past eleven years (Tables X and XI). | Except
for the length of the 42 males the 42 fish also exceeded the records of the past eleven
years.   The 63 sockeye exceeded recent weight records but not those of length.
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The sex ratio of the Skeena River sockeye sample was 39 males to 61 females, which
reflects the ratio for the two main age-classes, 40:60 for the 42 fish and 34:66 for the
52 group (Table XII). The ratios of 60:40 and 58:42 for the 53 and 63 age-classes
respectively have very little effect on the over-all ratio due to the small numbers of these
fish present in the sample.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 35
3. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1953
(1) General Characteristics
The pack of 132,925 cases was the fifth largest recorded for the Rivers Inlet area
It is only the second time that a pack of more than 75,000 cases has been composed of
over 70 per cent 4-year-old fish in this area. Despite the large pack the spawning-grounds
were well seeded. Though this run was largely the return from 1949, the poor pack in
that year was not indicative of the size of the run, the escapement having been particularly
heavy that year. ,     ■- ,. -^.... |j|
fl (2) Age-groups 4
As is normal for the Rivers Inlet area, the 42 and 52 age-classes comprised almost
the whole of the run. However, as mentioned above, the proportion of 42 fish was
decidedly above normal for a large-size run since this age-group formed 73 per cent of
the sample (Table XIII). 1
(3) Lengths and Weights
The 42 sockeye in the Rivers Inlet sample were large but within the range for this
age-class in this area. The 52 sockeye, however, were above the figures for the past
eleven years in both length and weight (Tables XVI and XVII).
t| (4) Distribution of Sexes J|
As is the normal pattern for this area, the 42 males were more numerous than the
42 females, and the 52 males less numerous than the 52 females (Table XVIII). How
much of this pattern is due to selection by the fishery and how much to a tendency on
the part of the males to mature early is not at present known.
4. THE SMITH INLET SOCKEYE FISHERY OF 1953
fl (1) General Characteristics J| ■'%
The pack of 29,947 cases of sockeye from this area in 1953 is well above the
average for the past twenty-nine years but is below the average of 33,976 cases for the
last five years. As was the case with Rivers Inlet, the run in this area was largely
(89 per cent) the return from the 1949 run. tt
'M (2) Age-groups
As indicated above, the 42 age-group formed 89 per cent of the Smith Inlet sockeye
run in 1953 (Table XIX). The 52 sockeye formed 10 per cent of the run. Though
tie analysis of the age-groups in the Smith Inlet sockeye-catch has only been carried
out since 1945, it is evident that the age composition of the run varies considerably.
This is no doubt influenced by the fact that males in a population may tend to mature
1 greater numbers at 4 years of age and females in greater numbers at 5 years of age.
As mentioned above, the Smith Inlet sockeye were largely (89 per cent) 42 fish
jn the 1953 catch sample (Table XIX); 52 sockeye formed 10 per cent of the fish
examined.   Fish aged 5 and 6 years which had spent two years in the lake were present
Jn minor numbers.
(3) Lengths and Weights
j The length and weight of the 42 age-group sockeye in the Smith Inlet sample were
!"* but within the ranges shown by past samples. The 52 gr^owev^was greater
111 both average length and weight than past samples (Tables XX11 and aaiiij.
 I 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The normal sex ratio for the main age-classes in this area shows a preponderance
of 4-year-old males and of 5-year-old females as mentioned previously. This year was
no exception, the sex ratios being 60:40 for the 42 fish and 36:64 for the 52 fish. The
over-all sex ratio, however, was 58 males to 42 females (Table XXIV), thus reflecting
the dominance of 42 sockeye in the 1953 run to this area.
Table I.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Percentage of Individuals
'3
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
(36,037
(23,574
(31,327
(39,349
(31,411
(22,188
(21,816
(28,259
(16,740
(9,364
(31,277
(17,821
(33,590
(18,945
(15,929
(12,026
(5,540
(16,077
(26,405
(16,929
(14,154
(9,757
(36,242
(12,712
(28,562
(17,567
(21,462
(24,357
(13,809
(24,876
(21,085
(13,412
(13,083
(9,899
(12,511
(10,849
(13,181
(9,268
(27,286
(24,405
(29,492
(18,163
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
8
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
14
23
37
22
5
15
46
13
15
12
39
3
41
28
23
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
13
8
7
7
13
15
11
12
12
16
6
19
9
19
22
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
66
59
52
66
67
32
37
72
56
60
48
71
31
46
46
2
2
10
8
8
4
9
6
6
8
1
6
2
2
13
4
3
6
3
6
7
3
4
6
10
6
5
7
10
4
5
15
38
6
3
17
12
7
6
13
4
9
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
Table II.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1953, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
I 37
&
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
%
p
42
52
62
43
53
6
3
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.    M. | F.
1        1
M.
F.  1 M.
1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
—
,., ,,
	
1
———. _
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
3
2
13
12
36
11
1
1
oii/2    „_ 	
1
2
9
1
2
8
1
1
22       _ —
1
3
26
1
5
w. 	
1
9
__—.__
1
22J/2 	
1
8
21
2
3
14
49
223/4     	
	
4
14
____
2
8
28
23
18
38
2
10
48
116
23
231/4 	
1
4
6
1
12
Wi  —■
2
25
22
2
15
45
111
2334   1 .    	
2
15
12
5
17
24
75
24    -	
1
1
29
12
2
5
40
98
2
1
191
241/4....    .....     .        	
1
4
3
1
5
8
22
24i/2 -	
1
28
5
2
10
	
36
47
3
132
243/4_   ....
10
2
2
12
24
25
1
76
25      	
■—
2
29
1
6
33
.—.-■■
»,. — -_
78
42
3
7
201
251/4  .    ...
2
11
,,,.,„_ _
7
6
1
27
251/2....-     	
\—
2
5
1
7
21
41
15
4
96
253/4..        	
3
14
21
4
2
44
26.._..:	
3
23
39
33
6
5
5
114
26V4_    	
3
2
3
2
1
1
12
26i/2._ 	
1
.. ■ ■ 1 ■- -
16
15
...  .
—™   -
9
3
1
2
47
263/4....    	
12
7
6
2
3
30
27 __._..
16
16
	
5
1
13
10
61
27V4    .
■	
a—
	
5
24
10
2
1
——--
— —- -
	
1
1
2
9
5
1
4
2
11
271/2 	
39
273/4    _ ;.
17
fa
14
2
■	
17
6
39
WA  ...
	
	
2
6
	
1
	
|—
	
3
9
3
5
28%_l.
19
283/4 _...
2
1
—— -
,.m ,     ,,
6
1
10
29. __
3
	
10
13
29^4- _..
1
1
Wu.
	
	
	
	
	
	
1
1
1
293/4	
1
30.
-—«.- ■
•"——-—
	
	
	
	
1
1
3(M   _
1
m
1
303/4_
Totals	
1
1
5
11
192
194
161
204
1
1
358
416
92
57
1,694
Average lengths	
21.5 |19.8 125.0
1        1
23.8
23.9
22.9
1
26.9 |25.6
1
28.5 1	
20.0
24.9
24.1
27.7
!
26.5
24.8
 IS38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.
-Nass River Sockeyes, 1953, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
3i
4i
42
52
62
43
53
6
3
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2   	
i
1
2Y4    	
;	
	
__„_
2Vi 	
1
1
2%	
'.	
.—
;—
	
	
—
3	
;   1
—
1
—
_-_..	
2
3*4	
1—
	
1
1
3>v2	
•	
1
1
3% 	
—
1
;	
1
1
3
4 	
3
6
■ .
1
10
4*4	
1
, —
	
3
1
1
7
13
4Y2   	
1
3
11
1
2
16
34
4%	
1
2
14
	
5
16
38
5   | .
2
12
43
1
t	
9
35
102
5V4—- 	
! __.— --
1
6
14
1
	
9
52
1
84
5V£      	
4
20
33
6
34
63
2
162
5%	
24
18
3
16
44
105
6	
22
24
6
12
40
53
1
2
160
614	
3
1
20
27
11
10
5
12
15
27
54
35
33
1
1
2
110
61/2  -    	
147
63A	
2
11
2
6
14
27
8
2
2
74
7     	
B mm	
23
3
12
33
	
■   ,      -
50
25
2
6
154
7*4   	
6
3
18
16
8
1
4
56
IVi	
5
■	
14
27
25
9
2
4
86
734    .... ...
 _«,„
3
7
14
13
3
2
1
43
8  	
;	
1
5
23
12
20
4
18
4
4
1
7
7
12
2
89
814	
31
81/2 .       .....
12
9
5
9
4
39
8%             .
9
5
8
3
25
9 	
19
11
1
2
1
	
2
9
4
3
4
34
914        	
22
91/2	
(	
9
4
8
2
23
93/i.....:   .     .     .
2
	
5
1
8
10  ...
5
1
5
1
12
101/4	
4
1
	
j	
7
2
1
11
101,4 .      	
4
103/4     	
' -      —
2
2
11..... 	
1
	
!	
5
2
5
1114
Hi/2 	
2
113^__ ...      ..   .
12-    .
1
121/4         f
12i/i	
|
123/4-          	
	
	
P   |      -   .
    .
 1
	
Totals 	
1
1
5
11
192
194
161
204
—
1
1
358
416
92
57
1,694
Average weights	
4.3
2.5
6.5 1 5.5
1
6.2 |. 5.4 | 8.3 1 7.2
_L   1     1
| 9.2
1
3.0
6.6
5.8
9.0
7.9
6.6
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
Table IV.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1953
I 39
Year
1912-41 -—-	
1912-41 (conversion)	
1942	
1943	
1944 \	
1945	
1946 :	
1947	
1948 ■	
1949	
1950-	
1951	
1952	
1953	
M.
24.5
23.8
23.9
22.8
23.5
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.8
23.6
24.0
23.9
23.9
F.
23.7
23.0
23.2
22.2
22.7
22.8
22.4
22.9
22.6
22.8
23.1
23.1
23.1
22.9
M.
26.3
25.6
26.1
26.1
25.7
25.0
26.3
25.9
26.2
26.2
26.0
26.2
26.8
26.9
F.
25.2
24.5
24.9
24.8
24.6
24.4
24.9
24.1
25.3
23.8
24.7
24.8
25.3
25.6
M.
26.1
25.4
24.9
24.1
24.8
24.7
24.9
24.5
25.0
24.7
24.5
25.1
24.8
24.9
F.
25.3
24.6
24.3
23.5
23.8
24.0
23.9
23.6
24.1
23.7
23.7
24.1
23.9
24.1
M.
27.7
27.0
26.9
27.1
26.8
25.1
28.1
27.0
27.7
26.1
26.7
27.4
27.6
27.7
26.4
25.7
26.0
25.8
25.8
25.3
26.0
25.6
26.7
25.5
25.6
26.4
26.3
26.5
Table V.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1953
42
H
h
63
Year
M.     ;
6
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41
6.0
5.8
5.2
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.0
6.2
5.4
5.1
4.7
5.0
5.3
4.9
5.3
5.3
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.4
7.3
7.1
7.6
7.7
7.0
8.1
7.7
8.1
7.9
7.9
7.9
8.4
8.3
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.2
7.1
5.8
6.6
6.6
6.9
7.2
6.9
6.2
5.9
6.7
6.5
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.7
6.6
6.2
5.6
5.3
5.7
5.9
5.4
5.6
6.0
5.4
5.5
5.7
5.7
5.8
8.0
7.5
7.9
8.2
7.2
8.9
8.1
9.1
7.7
8.2
8.8
8.7
9.0
7.0
1042
6.7
1943                                  _
1944
6.9
7.1
1945  	
Mft
mi
7.1
7.0
6.9
1948...  	
1949	
1950 	
1951 	
7.9
6.8
7.1
7.6
1952	
7.5
1953....
7.9
Table VI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1953
Year
1915-41 (average).
1942	
1943	
1944..
1945 11
1946..
1947 I
1948. "
1949	
1950 I
1951 1
1952_ "
1953	
M.
49
42
51
53
37
62
50
45
57
41
46
49
50
F.
51
58
49
47
63
38
50
55
43
59
54
51
50
M.
47
48
67
45
37
59
52
54
56
42
47
56
44
53
52
33
55
63
41
48
46
44
58
53
44
56
M.
45
44
47
39
38
45
51
52
51
43
46
49
46
55
56
53
61
62
55
49
48
49
57
54
51
54
M.
63
70
74
60
53
75
81
66
50
58
70
59
62
F.
37
30
26
40
47
25
19
34
50
42
30
41
38
Per Cent
Total
Males
47
45
54
50
38
50
56
53
53
44
49
50
48
Per Cent
Total
Females
53
55
46
50
62
50
44
47
47
56
51
50
52
 I 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
1907 (108,413 cases).
1908 (139,846 cases).
1909 (87,901 cases)
1910 (187,246 cases ).
1911 (131,066 cases).
1912 (92,498 cases).
1913 (52,927 cases).
1914 (130,166 cases).
1915 (116,553 cases).
1916 (60,923 cases).
1917 (65,760 cases).
1918 (123,322 cases).
1919 (184,945 cases).
1920 (90,869 cases).
1921 (41,018 cases).
1922 (96,277 cases).
1923 (131,731 cases).
1924 (144,747 cases).
1925 (77,784 cases).
(82,360 cases).
(83,996 cases).
(34,559 cases).
(78,017 cases) .
1930 (132,372 cases)..
1931 (93,023 cases).
(59,916 cases).
(30,506 cases).
(54,558 cases).
(52,879 cases).
(81,973 cases).
(42,491 cases) .
(47,257 cases).
(68,485 cases).
1940 (116,507 cases)..
1941 (81,767 cases).
(34,544 cases).
(28,268 cases) .
(68,197 cases).
(104,279 cases )-
1926
1927
1928
1929
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946 (52,928 cases)
1947 (32,534 cases)
1948 (101,267 cases).
1949 (65,937 cases)
1950 (47,479 cases).
1951 (61,694 cases).
1952 (114,775 cases).
1953 (65,003 cases).
Year
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
39
36
39
37
20
13
14
80
17
21
33
66
48
Percentage of Individuals
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
54
39
52
63
70
82
13
76
72
61
26
43
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
4
8
7
16
7
12
8
3
6
4
4
4
3
6
18
5
6
4
8
3
2
7
1
1
3
1
3
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2
4
5
4
1
1
3
6
4
5
9
1
1
3
3
1
5
3
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
Table VIIL—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1953, Grouped by Age Sex
Length, and by Their Early Life-history
I 41
Length
in Inches
Number of Individuals
Total
h
42
1
2
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
1
—
1
1
9
6
17
13
14
5
18
18
20
!  18
29
32
45
29
35
34
27
20
13
5
3
1
1
1
2
3
4
24
33
48
56
69
83
78
69
42
32
26
17
10
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
6
7
7
12
10
16
13
28
36
29
33
26
24
18
14
6
5
5
2
2
1
307
1
4
6
9
14
22
33
43
64
51
82
66
65
50
40
12.
16
9
7
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
2
3
8
11
6
12
4
4
3
2
2
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
7
6
7
6
4
6
5
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
3
7
3
5
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
2
3
3
4
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
10
8
20
19
42
40
79
85
99
115
127
129
113
98
110
108
116
89
112
95
86
87
83
47
56
41
32
21
21
7
8
6
2
2
1
1
16*4     -   -
\ftUt
1714         -     	
17^2        -    	
17%           	
18          -    	
1814            	
181/2          	
183/4         .  	
19            	
191/4             - 	
Wi -	
1934   	
20	
20*4  I	
2014	
20% 	
21  	
§§1	
l\Vi .   	
21%  .                          _.
22	
221/4 .                  	
22i/2._:_...
223/4......
23	
231/4	
231/2..
233/4	
24....
241/4.......
241/2.....
243/4......
25..
251/4.....
251/2..
253/4.....
26..
261/4...
Ill
263/4...
27...                              """	
27V4...                                       	
271/2..
273/4...                        • '
28                            	
28*4_                  "'
28*i...               	
28%U                    " 	
29H__         ** 	
Totals
Average
4
2
413
606
601
78
53
35
26
2,121
lengths                                	
15.5  1   123.2
22.8
26.2
25.0
23.6
22.9
26.0
25.5
24.1
 I 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA
l	
1*4_
1V&-
134-
2	
2*4-
2*6-
234..
3	
3*4-
31/2..
334-
4	
4*4_
41/2-
43/4..
5	
5*4„
51/2-
53/4..
6	
6*4-
61/2-
634..
7i	
71/4-
7*2 ...
734...
8...-.
8*4-
81/2-.
834...
9.	
9*4-.
m~.
934...
10.-.
10*4.
10*4.
1W4.
ii—
11*4.
111/2.
1134.
12	
12*4.
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1953, Grouped by Age, Sex,
Weight, and by Their Early History
Weight
in Pounds
Number of Individuals
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.  F.
M.      F.
Totals i
Average weights.
5
4
28
14
26
16
27
22
41
24
32
28
32
18
38
17
21
6
10
2
1
2
2
14
26
58
41
83
55
98
43
73
34
33
14
16
5
6
2
1
2     413  606
1.9
5.8
5.5
1
1
3
3
4
6
6
7
8
13
19
14
40
15
38
19
23
15
19
8
13
9
10
2
4
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
9
15
41
26
49
32
66
41
74
29
66
40
46
18
22
6
9
1
4
307  601
1
1
4
5
6
5
4
6
8
5
9
9
4
4
4
1
2
13
4
11
2
4
6
5
1
1
1
78  53
8.0  6.9
5.8
5.2
M.  F.
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
4
3
4
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
4
1
4
1
2
2
1
Total
10
7
47
44
106
68
139
104
195
115
173
113
151
93
155
71
139
66
107
42
50
23
33
10
20
11
11
2
5
2
2
2
2
1
35  26 2,121
7.8
7.3
6.4
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1953
I 43
Year
1912-41 ------
1912-41 (conversion)
1942.-	
1943—	
1944	
1945	
1946-	
1947—	
1948	
1949— ,	
1950	
1951-	
1952	
1953	
M.
23.7
23.0
22.6
21.9
22.4
22.6
22.7
22.3
23.0
22.5
22.8
22.7
23.3
23.2
F.
23.1
22.4
22.3
21.9
21.7
22.3
22.0
22.0
22.3
22.2
22.3
22.6
22.6
22.8
M.
25.8
25.1
25.2
25.1
24.8
24.9
25.4
25.1
25.3
25.3
25.7
25.9
25.8
26.2
24.9
24.2
24.3
23.9
23.9
24.1
24.3
23.8
24.1
24.5
24.4
24.8
24.7
25.0
M.
24.2
23.5
24.1
23.3
22.5
23.3
23.9
23.0
23.0
23.2
23.9
23.6
23.2
23.6
F.
23.4
22.7
23.7
22.6
21.7
22.6
23.2
22.4
22.1
22.3
23.4
22.9
22.8
22.9
M.
25.8
25.1
26.3
25.8
25.0
25.0
25.5
26.3
26.0
24.8
25.5
26.0
26.1
26.0
24.8
24.1
24.9
24.7
23.7
24.3
24.4
25.8
24.5
23,9
24.3
24.6
24.6
25.5
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1953
Year
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41       	
5.4
5.0
6.8
6.1
5.7
5.1
6.8
6.0
1942	
4.9
4.7
6.7
6.0
5.8
5.4
7.2
6<S
1943
4.7
4.6
6.8
5.9
5.5
4.9
7.3
m
1944 ...   ,    ...
5.1
4.6
7.0
6.1
s.y
4.6
J*f;l'
5.8
1945 \
5.2
4.9
6.7
6.1
5.6
5.0
6.7
6.2
1946
4.7
4.9
4.2
4.7
6.9
6.9
5.8
5.9
5.8
5.3
5.1
5.0
^P*7!
6.1
1947
6.8
1948
5.5
4.9
7.3
6.1
5.4
4.7
7.7
6.4
1949
5.0
4.7
7.1:
• -&&
5.3
4.8
fBM
5i7
1950-	
4.8
4.3
7.2
■ 5S
5.8
5.1
6.8
5.^
1951
5.1
5.0
7.6
ss
5.6
5.0
7.6
6i*
1952 ...
5.6
5.8
5.0
5.5
7.5
8.0
6.9
5.6
5.8
5.0
[
7.4
i^8
6ufr
1953.
7^~
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females, 1915 to 1953
"Year
1915-41 (average)
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945—_______
1946.____	
1947	
1948	
1949.	
1950.	
1951..	
1952	
1953__
M.
48
42
50
54
41
50
50
50
54
56
41
52
40
M.
F.
Per Cent
Total
Males
52
43
57
58
25
75
50
31
69
46
34
66
59
35
65
50
32
68
50
29
71
50
29
71
46
30
70
44
40
60
59
37
63
48
34
66
60
34
66
46
33
43
43
38
38
33
47
36
44
39
48
39
PerCent
Total
Females
54
67
57
57
62
62
67
53
64
56
61
52
61
 I 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
1907
1908
1909
1910 (
1911
1912 (
1913
1914
1915 (
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920 (
1921
1922
1923 (
1924
1925 (
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930 (
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935 (
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947 (
1948
1949
1950 (
1951 (
1952
1953 (
87,874
64,652
89,027
26,921
88,763
12,884
61,745
89,890
30,350
44,936
61,195
53,401
56,258
21,254
46,300
60,700
07,174
94,891
59,554
65,581
64,461
60,044
70,260
19,170
76,428
69,732
83,507
76,923
35,038
46,351
84,832
87,942
54,143
63,469
93,378
79,199
47,602
36,852
89,735
73,320
40,087
37,665
39,495
42,710
02,565
84,298
32,925
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
cases
Year
Percentage of Individuals
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
59
8
8
76
57
37
3
55
84
13
38
41
73
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40
91
91
23
41
63
97
44
14
87
60
58
26
1
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
2
5
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
(x)
1
1
1
1
1
1
C1)
C1)
1 Age-class represented but less than 0.5 per cent.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
Table-XIV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1953, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
I 45
^===Z
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
:     4:
2     |
I    5'
I
*3
63
Total
M.
-     F.     1
1
M.   1
1
F. 11
M.     J
F.     .1
M.
F.
2 |
2
3 j
20
18
32
51
64
58
70
72
61    . |
56
54      |
48
28
37
31
30
26
18
9
8
6
6
2
3
1
3
12
22
45
58
80
68
68
78
64
54
39
21
21
13
7
3
1
3
1
7
3
5
3
3
2
4
3
5
7
9
12
13
17
10
13
13
9
19
6
7
1
2
1
2
1
1
5
4
8
13
11
15
13
19
17
23
28
39
37
28
35
24
13
6
9
2
2
1      j
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
—
1     ......
!     ......
1     I
|     ......
1     1
|     ......
1
1
1
leu         . „	
1fi3i         |                _—
2
2
IQU                ...             	
3
10 W            :            	
23
\MA           :     p	
19
20          	
35
20*4      __-
63
201/2          	
87
20%       ~ -	
103
21
128
W- :  1
21*4     •
213/4  	
22 „    .
153
129
128
133
22*4	
221/2 - _ 	
2244-	
23    	
23*4	
113
85
82
59
60
2314.......     .     1    ... ...
59
233/4 „„
40
24 	
241/4 _.
241/2	
243/4.......
32
24
29
25
25  '
30
251/4	
32
25*4 '
44
253/4	
44
26......
37
26*4	
48
261/2	
37
263/4..	
30
27	
16
27*4	
22
27*4	
15
273/4	
9
28... .
21
28*4	
6
28i/2...„
7
283/4	
1
29....
29i/4..._
2
1      --
29*1....
|      ......
29?4	
1          1
Totals
812
661
178
355
6                5
2
2,019
Average lengths.    ..
21.6
21.8
26.5
1
25.3
1
22.1      1     21.9      |      ...               23.8
22.8
25P	
1
1
1
 I 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1953, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
4
2
5;
2
5
3
63
Total
M.
i f.
■    I
M.
\      F.    .
1
M.
F.
I
M.             F.
2
7
10
38
49
105
85
132
73
83
45
63
28
39
13
18
11
11
1
1
2
7
20
77
85
147
86
96
37
56
22
21
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
6
4
10
1
6
6
8
5
5
14
6
12
11
15
12
11
10
8
10
4
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
8
7
8
12
15
23
12
27
19
36
21
43
23
29
12
29
8
9
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2*4 -
2*6 - 	
234                 .      	
1
3               j	
7
3 *4..       	
12
3*4  - 	
45
3%.. 	
69
4   | .	
183
4*4	
172
dV7
282
43/4     	
5              '  __....:_..__ _
163
185
5*4 I 	
5*4  _	
5?4.	
6 	
6*4 - .     .
6*4 —.
634.. ...   I 	
7     —    	
92
130
59
78
34
53
25
45
7*4                            	
26
IV2.	
38
73/4 1 	
29
8  	
48
8*4            : -   -   - ......1 	
28
8*4 	
834..        „._-	
9	
9*4	
44
18
41
19
9*4. •     .
24
934...                  	
10
15
14
10*4    	
101,4    	
1034.   I	
11
8
10
11 	
4
11*4   . ..  	
1
Hi/2    	
3
11 ?4  	
1
12      	
1
12*4    ...
12*6    ._
123/4. ._..     J	
13.... :,_.... 1	
1314.
1
13*4     •    .      .   .:..
133/4-   ..  	
Totals               .
812
661
178
355
6
5      |      .. ..                2         2,019
Average weights	
4.7
4.7
8.8
1
7.6
5.2
A  O           1                                1            f» <">
5.6
I
1
1
1
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
Table XVI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the
42 and 52 Groups, 1912 to 1953
I 47
Year
M.
F.
1912-41 —-
2912—41 (conversion).
1942	
1943	
1944.	
1945..--	
1946 -	
1947 \	
1948 —
1949	
1950 :	
1951 |	
1952 \	
1953	
M.
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
21.1
20.9
20.6
20.6
21.4
20.9
21.1
21.9
21.5
21.6
F.
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
21.0
21.2
21.1
20.7
21.3
21.4
20.8
21.9
21.5
21.8
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
23.5
24.2
25.1
24.0
25.2
23vf
25.2
25.8
26.0
26.5
24.7
2&*
23.8
23.7
23-.3
23.t
24.1
23.5
24.2
22.8
24.2
24.8
25.0
25.3
Table XVIL—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the
42 and 52 Groups, 1914 to 1953
Year             ;
4
2
jj|               5
2
!          M.
F.
M.
F.
1014-41
4.9
5.1
4.1
4.6
4.3
3.9
4.1
4.7
4.4
5.2
4.9
''■-MyB
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.9
3.9
4.6
4.3
3.9
5.0
4.7
4.7
7.0
7.2
6.8
6.2
6.6
7.2
6.4
7.9
5.9
7.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
6 5
1942...                                     :           I                 	
1943     :.,.. , : ,.	
1944 1   .,,                    	
1945	
1946                              r?*-*?      f*     -Ai     ^:C~
1947
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.2
5.9
1948.........                             	
7.0
1949 ...                                                                                 	
5.9
1950 .                                                                                           _.
1951.	
6.4
7.4
1952	
7.4
1953._
7.6
Table XVIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1953
4-
L
4
'2
52
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
Year
M.
F-
M.
if
M.
F.
1915-41 (average).
1942
36
50
—
64
50
1
63
61
62
67
70
79
72
50
70
75
66
58      ]
55
37
39
38
33
30
21
28
50
30
25
34
42
45
34
35
34
33
39
37
35
38
22
36
30
34      |
33
66
65
66
67
f   61
63
1   65
62
78
64
70
66
67
50
38
36
59
57
53
36
45
63
41
44
44
49
50
62
1943.                  ~              	
64
1944.
41
1945
43
1946.                              	
47
1947_                                  	
64
1948
m
1949
37
59
1951
56
56
51
 I 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XIX.-
-Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Percentage of Individuals
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
(33,764
(17,921
(22,682
(33,442
(9,683
(32,057
(12,867
(25,488
(37,369
(14,607
(31,648
(12,788
(25,258
(33,894
(17,833
(25,947
(21,495
(15,939
(15,010
(3,165
(15,014
(14,318
(36,800
(10,456
(13,189
(42,435
(49,473
(34,834
(29,947
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases).
cases),
cases).
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases),
cases).
cases).
50
11
5
7
92
17
22
8
89
50
89
95
90
5
83
77
91
10
O)
C1)
1
C1)
0)
C1)
1
C1)
1 This age-class was represented by less than 0.5 per cent of the number of fish in the sample.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT                          I 49
Table XX.
-Smith Inlet Sockeyes, 1953, Grouped by Age, Sex. Length, and
byTI
ieir 1
-.arty History
Length in Inches
Number of Individuals
Total
3l
4i
h
42
h
h
63
4M.
F.
M.      F.
,M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.      F.
M.
F.
	
16*4—	
m	
	
	
i£t/.
	
1
	
1
17_                 	
17*4—	
\lVi-—	
	
\nyA                    	
	
	
'	
—
. 	
ifi
WA
1074 	
WA
	
	
.P.
	
——
19
1014
—
	
1
1
	
2
1
mt.
t*M
20	
- ,,..,..,
1
20*4
2
3
1
	
3
3
20*4      	
20%
6
H
21
	
	
	
10
10
16
10
27
30
1
	
20
38
46
2m
m ■
21%
	
33
32
65
22
1
	
	
—
29
48 |
44
77
73
126
22*4  .
22*4	
	
56
61
	
117
22%	
m-m-mm.,-m
65
45
1
1
112
i
	
	
	
	
89
63
61
40
34
18
12
10
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
127
85
76
55
m
im
im
24...
..	
1
50
26
4
1
1
2
4
	
56
33
24*4
241/2.. .
	
9
3
1
1
1
2
3
5
3
2
	
1
16
8
7
24%.
25_.
25*4_
	
6
6
12
25*4 ;
	
	
	
—
1
1
	
2
3
4
1
3
2
3
1
1
3
1
12
10
9
6
1
1
1
__|
n
1
1
	
16
14
13
8
4
3
4
1
1
3
1
25% f
26
26*4
26*4_
26%	
27__
27*4
271/2
27%	
28
28*4  :
28*£___
28%___	
Totals_
	
  1 	
1
1
1
617 | 415
40       71
5
2
23.3
3  [ | 1,156
Average lengths
22.3
24.3
16.8
122.9 [22.3
1          1
25.9 125.2 122.8
1
25.6
|   22.9
1
 I 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XXL
-Smith Inlet Sockeyes, 1953, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight, and
by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight
in
h
41
h
42
52
53
63
Total
Pounds
M.
F.      M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1  	
1*4- 	
	
_——.
11/2- 	
_—..__-
 _«.
	
	
13/4-- 	
	
	
    .
—
2 	
	
____»—
1
1
2*4 	
„	
	
21/2	
_-
	
234	
3    -----
3*4	
—
—
	
—
	
—
3*4	
1
1
3?4	
1
   .
	
1
4	
_„_,„	
6
2
	
8
4*4	
13
9
	
22
4Y2	
„„-.-
13
31
1
45
4%.....  pa
18
45
63
5            	
—
43
41
101
69
66
82
2
1
2
1
1
113
5*4	
109
51/2	
187
5 3/4	
1
—
1
^
58
91
65
72
30
38
43
19
8
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
5
1
1
1
1
1
99
6 	
142
6*4    	
86
6*4   	
86
63/4 .	
33
7  -
41
1
3
6
51
7*4	
9
2
6
1
18
7*2	
	
9
1
2
12
7?4	
1
12
13
8	
4
7
9
20
8*4	
6
3
9
81/2  	
—
2
2
8
2
14
8?4 	
'.:  .
2
4
6
9  	
-.- _
2
4
	
6
9*4	
—
	
1
1
91/2	
2
—
2
93/4	
—
2
—
2
10	
	
—
2
2
10*4	
2
2
IO1/2	
—
	
1
1
103/4	
—
1
1
11	
—
—
11*4	
	
11*4	
113/4	
—
	
	
—_.
Totals .....
1     	
1
1
—
617
415
40
71
5
2
3
1,156
Average weights-
6.2 1   j   1   5.9
1.9 |
1
5.9
5.3
8.2
7.6
5.7  |   5.8
.    1
8.1  |          |     5.9
i          1
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 51
Table XXIL—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in .Inches of Age-groups
1945 to 1953
Year
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1945.
1946
1947.
1948.
1949
1950
1951-
1952
1953.
25.4
23.5
24.3
F.
M.
22.2
21.3
23.2
21.9
21.4
21.6
22.8
21.8
22.9
F.
M.
22.0
22.7
23.4
21.7
21.7
21.7
22.0
22.4
22.3
25.1
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.6
24.8
25.6
25.7
25.9
24.4
24.0
24.3
24.3
24.3
24.0
24.8
24.9
25.2
26.7
25.0
25.5
25.1
25.1
20.5
23.4
22.9,
22.8
23.1
23.3
Table XXIII.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Age-groups,
1945 to 1953
Year
§
42
h
62
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
jssi
F.
194*
7.9
-        1
6.1
-   "
5.9
1
4.9
4.6
5.7
5.1
5.0
4.9
6.0
4.8
5.9
4.7
5.8
5.5
5.4
5.1
5.0
5.2
7.1
7.3
6.9
7.6
7.2
7.4
8.2
6.5
6.6
6.0
6.9
6.7
6.6
7.3
7.1
10.3
7.3
7.2
7.3
4.0
6.4
5.7
5.7
194fi
1947
1948
1949
1950.. ...
1911
m,
1      5.2    1
8.0    1
5.4
1953  ... .. _	
5.3    1      8.2    1     7.6
5.8
1               I               I
Table XXIV.—Smith Inlet Sockeyei
I Percentages of Males and Females, 1945 to 1953
Year
4
i
i
52
62
h
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females
1945	
1946	
36
64
73
76
38
79
80
86
72
57
60
27
24
62
21
20
14
28
43
40
1
49
37
47
42
40
42
41
38
36
51
63
53
58
60
58
59
62
64
11
89
100
100
100
100
100
63
71
37
29
61
41
46
43
77
49
48
40
58
39
59
1947	
54
1948....
57
1949	
23
1950.....
51
1951 _
52
1952
60
1953	
i inn
42
	
r
1
 I 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
RESULTS OF INVESTIGATION OF THE HERRING POPULATIONS
ON THE WEST COAST AND LOWER EAST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND IN 1953-54. I
By F. H. C. Taylor, M.A., and D. N. Outram, B.A.,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
'   f   ' . CONTENTS
Page
Introduction.-   52
The 1953-54 Fishery ;  53
Tagging and Tag-recovery  56
Recoveries by Tag-detectors  57
Recovery of Tags by Plant Crews  58
Tagging during the 1954 Spawning Season  60
Sampling of the Catches and the Spawning Runs  61
Age Composition  62
West Coast Population -  62
Lower East Coast Population  63
Sex Ratio and Stage of Development  64
West Coast Population |  64
Lower East Coast Population  64
Average Length and Weight  65
Extent and Intensity of Spawning  66
West Coast Population  66
Lower East Coast Population  69
Discussion  69
Summary  73
Acknowledgments  73
References 3  75
Tables !  76
1 INTRODUCTION -*J
A long-term investigation of the effectiveness of catch quotas in preventing a decline
in abundance from fishing was begun in 1946-47. In that and subsequent seasons, no
catch quota restrictions were applied to herring-fishing in the west coast of Vancouver
Island sub-district, while a fixed annual quota of 40,000 tons was maintained in the
lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-district. A closing-date for fishing of February
5th was applied to each population. A long-term investigation is required because of
complications introduced by natural fluctuations in year-class strength and by the
necessity of determining the effects of unrestricted fishing during periods of both high
and low levels of abundance.
Abundance on the lower east coast has been high throughout the period of the
investigation; on the west coast, abundance was generally high for the first five years.
In 1951-52 (the sixth year), population abundance decreased sharply on the west coast,
but in 1952-53 and 1953-54 it increased again to a reasonably high level.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 53
The lack of a major reduction fishery in 1952-53, arising from a price dispute
between fishing companies and fishermen, has resulted in the loss of the opportunity
for the present, at least, to determine whether, during a period of low population abun-
dance, unrestricted fishing would reduce the spawning stock to a level where recruitment
would be affected.
The results of the first seven years of investigation have been presented in an annual
series of reports.* In this report, the eighth of the series, the results obtained during
the 1953-54 season are presented and compared with those of previous seasons. For
the west coast and lower east coast sub-districts, changes in catch, fishing effort, strengths
of the year-classes comprising the fishing and spawning runs, and the extent of spawn
deposition are discussed. A review of the extent of movement between all major herring
populations is presented. Finally, the implications of the results obtained from the comparative study of the two populations subject to different methods of management are
considered. t |jpf
Research on the Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) is carried out at the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Although
results pertaining to only two populations are contained in this report, all major herring
populations in British Columbia are studied. An investigation to determine the relationship between the abundance of juvenile (I-year) herring and year-class strength at
recruitment is in progress. ft %
Figure 1 is a map of Southern British Columbia showing the statistical areas into
which the west coast and lower east coast sub-districts are divided, together with some
of the place-names mentioned in the text and in the supplementary tables.
THE 1953-54 FISHERY
The 1953-54 herring-fishing season opened with a small summer fishery in the
middle east coast, lower east coast, and west coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts.
The summer fishery in the middle east coast was the most extensive: 325 tons were
taken in June in Area 16, 681 tons in July in Areas 14 and 16, 1,747 tons in August
almost entirely in Area 14, and 5,850 tons in September in Area 14. A total of eighteen
seines fished Area 14 during the latter half of September, compared with three to six in
the earlier part of the season. In the lower east coast sub-district, 104 tons were taken
in May and 115 tons in June and July in Area 17a by one seine. On the west coast,
2,000 tons were taken off Swiftsure Bank (Area 21), principally during the first two
weeks of July. Ten seiners fished during this period, with one continuing until the end
of the month.
During the last week in September and the first week of October, Areas 19 and 20
were scouted by eight seines. A small Catch of 250 tons was taken in Area 19 off
Albert Head and William Head. The main lower east coast fishery began during the
week of October 11-16, with fair fishing (69.2 tons per seine-day) being experienced
by nine seines in Nanoose Bay (Area 17a) and somewhat lighter fishing (47.4 tons per
seine-day) by twenty-three seines in Trincomali Channel (Area 17b). During the next
two weeks fishing was poor in Nanoose Bay, but excellent catches were made off Porlier
Pass (Area 17b) and in Swanson Channel (Area 18). The quota was taken by November 2nd; a total of fifty-six seines participated. Normally, to fulfill the requirements of
the comparative study of the lower east coast and west coast populations, a rigid quota
of 40,000 tons is maintained in the lower east coast sub-district. However, since it was
considered possible that the almost complete lack of a fishery in 1952-53 might have
suited in a larger than normal carry-over of fish, quota extensions of 10,000 tons for
Ruction purposes and 5,000 tons for special purposes were granted.   Fishing recom-
Rm| publications in this series are Tester and Stevenson 1947, 1948; J™^-^ J5f^ZnZt
^igan, 1950; Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951; Stevenson, Hourston, Jackson, and Outram, 1952, Stevenson
and Outram, 1953.
 I 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fig. 1. Map showing the statistical areas into which the sub-districts of the Southern British
Columbia coast are divided, and including some of the place-names mentioned in the text and
supplementary tables.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 55
menced on November 10th, and by November 12th the 10,000-ton extension was taken.
The whole fleet of fifty-six seines took part, and the fishery was again centred off Porlier
Pass and in Swanson Channel. Fishing continued until December 10th for the special-
purposes quota, with each company providing one boat. Catches were small and the
quota was not attained, due probably to a lack of demand rather than to a scarcity of fish.
The scanty data available indicated that catch per unit of effort was comparable to that
during the regular fishery. Details of catch, fishing effort, and catch per unit of effort
are given for each area and for the whole lower east coast sub-district in Table I. The
information on fishing effort and catch per unit of effort is obtained from pilot-house
record-books, in which seine-boat captains record their catches and the number of fishing
and scouting days. These records represented 82 per cent of the total catch for the
sub-district; the total fishing effort was gained by adjusting the number of recorded
fishing-days to account for the total catch.
After the close of the lower east coast fishery, sixteen seines commenced fishing on
the west coast of Vancouver Island in Barkley Sound (Area 23) on November 15th.
In the ensuing week, good catches were made in Area 23 in Effingham and Uchucklesit
Inlets. During this week, two boats fished Sydney Inlet (Area 24) and took 500 tons.
Steady but unspectacular fishing continued in Barkley Sound until the Christmas recess
on December 18th, producing a total of 21,500 tons. During the week of December
13-18, 2,500 tons were taken in Clayoquot Sound (Area 24). *f       p|f
Fishing recommenced on January 6th. Throughout the west coast sub-district
fishing wars poor, particularly after the onset of freezing weather conditions in the middle
of January. With the resumption of fishing, the boats concentrated in Area 23 and to a
lesser extent in Area 25. Small catches were made in Barkley Sound (Area 23), Sydney
Inlet (Area 24), Tahsis InMt and Nootka Sound (Area 25), and in Quatsino Sound
(Area 27). By the end of the week, the boats in Area 23 had dispersed to other areas
on the west coast. During the following week, the majority of the vessels concentrated
in Areas 25 and 26, and to a lesser extent in Area 24. Most of the boats that had fished
Area 27 in the previous week moved to the central sub-district. Catches were made in
Barkley Sound (Area 23), Sydney Inlet (Area 24), Tahsis Inlet and Nootka Sound
(Area 25), and in Ououkinsh and Malksope Inlets (Area 26). During the week of
January 17-22, freezing weather curtailed fishing. Small catches were made in Barkley
Sound (Area 23), Sydney Inlet (Area 24), Esperanza Inlet (Area 25), Nasparti and
Ououkinsh Inlets (Area 26), and Quatsino Sound (Area 27), with the majority of the
vessels fishing in Area 26. For the remaining two weeks of the season, fishing in all
areas, except perhaps Area 27, was poor, and fish were scattered.       §
Details of catch, fishing effort, and catch per unit of effort are given for each area
and for the whole west coast sub-district in Table I. Entries in pilot-house record-books
represented 87 per cent of the total catch for the sub-district; the total fishing effort was
calculated in the same manner as that for the lower east coast sub-district. Catch, fishing
effort, and catch per unit of effort on the west coast of Vancouver Island are tabulated
below for the 1953-54 and previous seasons:— l|	
Season
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
Catch (tons) 	
Effort (seine-days).
Catch per unit of effort  (tons
Per seine per day)	
59,000
777
76
45,200
948
48
55,000
686
80
37,300
790
47
25,200
528
48
30,000
395
76
23
41,350
937
44
The 1953-54 west coast fishery produced the largest catch since 1948-49.   Of this
^1, Barkley Sound produced 24,200 tons, 21,500 tons before the Christmas recess and
 I 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
2,700 tons after; Sydney Inlet (Area 24) yielded 5,350 tons, of which 3,000 tons were
taken before the recess. The catch in Area 23 was the largest since 1949-50, and that
in Area 24 since 1946-47. Areas 25, 26, and 27 were fished only in the post-Christmas
period. The catches in Areas 26 and 27 were the largest since 1942-43. The catch in
Area 25 was the poorest since 1949-50.
The average catch per unit of effort appears to be similar to that for most previous
years. The figure for 1951-52 is considered to be artificially high and to have resulted
from unusually efficient fleet deployment, particularly in Area 23 (Stevenson, Hourston,
Jackson, and Outram, 1952). The system of fleet deployment whereby the bulk of the
fleet is moved promptly from fishing-grounds where fish are scarce to grounds where fish
are more plentiful undoubtedly lays all calculations of catch per unit of effort in recent
years open to question. These figures must, therefore, be accepted with caution, and a
certain amount of discretion used in their interpretation.
TAGGING AND TAG-RECOVERY
The tagging and tag-recovery programme provides information on the regions occupied by the major populations of herring, and permits a description of the extent of
movement between and within populations. In some years, in certain populations, it
has also been possible to make rough calculations of the rate of exploitation of the fishery
from tag-recoveries. As these calculations depend on the ratio of first-year recoveries
in two successive seasons, the lack of a regular fishery in 1952-53 precludes their calculation again in 1953-54.
In 1954, the emphasis of the tagging programme was shifted from the middle east
coast, lower east coast, and west coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts to the central,
northern, and Queen Charlotte Islands sub-districts. These latter sub-districts were
tagged at least as intensively or more intensively than in previous years, while the other
sub-districts were tagged less intensively. However, the level of intensity in the middle
east coast, lower east coast, and west coast sub-districts is still adequate to provide information on movements between and within populations. Because of delays occasioned
by repairs to both tagging-boats, neither the central nor the west coast sub-districts were
tagged as heavily as planned. The total number of tags* put out was reduced compared
to the number inserted in the two previous years. Methods used in tagging herring and
in recovering tags were the same as those employed in previous years (Stevenson and
Lanigan, 1950).
During the 1953-54 season tag-detectors were operated at two reduction plants,
one in the Gulf of Georgia plant at Steveston, B.C., and the other in the Seal Cove
plant at Prince Rupert, B.C. In previous years a detector was operated at the Imperial
reduction plant, but because of changes in the method of unloading it was not possible
to operate this detector during the 1953-54 season. The installation in the Colonial
reduction plant of a new type of detector using an "Alnico " permanent magnet in place
of an induction coil was completed too late in the season to be effective.
The percentage efficiency of the induction-type detector in the Gulf of Georgia
plant was 51 per cent during the pre-Christmas period, as compared to 80 per cent for
the same period of the previous season (1951-52) in which the detector operated. The
reduction in efficiency resulted from a series of faults in the electrical and mechanical
systems not completely rectified until comparatively late in the season. During the
post-Christmas period, the plant operated at infrequent intervals, and the numbers of
tags recovered by the detector and by the plant magnets were insufficient to permit a
reliable calculation of detector efficiency to be made. The operation of the tag-detector
at Seal Cove again proved most unsatisfactory.    The fault lay primarily in the site of
* A list of all taggings made in 1954, including information on the date and place of each tagging, will be supplied
on request (Supplementary Table I).
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 57
the installation leading to mechanical difficulties in the operation of the trap door No
attempt has been made to calculate the percentage efficiency of this detector, not only
because of the small number of tags recovered by it, but also because of the poor magnet
returns from this plant. It was considered that greater errors would be introduced by
calculating the probable number of tags in the catch on the basis of the data available
than would be introduced by omitting all consideration of the Seal Cove recoveries.
The efficiency of various plants in recovering and submitting tags found on magnets
and in plant machinery depends both on the mechanical efficiency of the magnets and on
the diligence of plant crews in returning the tags, together with the required information,
on recovery. Plant magnet-efficiency tests were conducted in the same manner as in
previous years (Stevenson, Hourston, Jackson, and Outram, 1952). A table of the
average 1953-54 efficiency for each plant tested, with its average efficiency in the previous
season of operation (1951-52) in parentheses, is given below:—
West Coast
Plant Number of Tests     Average Efficiency
Kildonan   1 („_.) 94 (.__)
Port Albion  1 („„) 90 (_-_)
Nootka   0(1) ____ (82)
Ceepeecee  0(2) ___ (69)
Hecate  0 (  1) _ (54)
Average  92 (68)
Steveston and Vicinity
Imperial -  3(7) 94(86)
Gulf of Georgia  2(8) 97(83)
Colonial  2(3) 92(83)
Phoenix  2 ( 5) 92 (94)
North Shore  3(3) 97 (97)
Average -  94(89)
North and Central British Columbia
Namu   3(2) 86(91)
Butedale  2(1) 96(86)
Seal Cove  1 ( D 68(63)
Port Edward  4( 3) 92 (94)
Average  85 (82)
Grand average   91 (80)
The tests at Namu and Butedale were carried out by officers of the Department of
Fisheries, the remainder by personnel of the Pacific Biological Station. Because of difficulties in transportation, it was impossible to test the Nootka Ceepeecee, or Hecate plants.
The efficiency of all plants tested was, in general, about the same as in 1951-52. The
slight increases in efficiency found in some plants are attributed to the greater interest m
bg-recovery shown by plant employees.
Recoveries by Tag-detectors
The number of detector recoveries showed a marked decrease< <^P^ * <*
number recovered in 1951-52.   A total of 67 tags were recovered, of these, the Gulf of
 I 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Georgia installation yielded 64, the Seal Cove installation, 3. Detector recoveries in
1951-52 amounted to 226 tags from the regular spring tagging, and 20 from taggings
carried out at Sooke in 1951 just prior to the opening of the fishery. A comparison of
the number of tags (from spring taggings) obtained from the various sub-district fisheries
in the last two seasons of fishing is given below:—
Number of Detector Recoveries
Sub-district Fishery 1951-52
Queen Charlotte Islands	
Northern   50
Central  42
Upper east coast  1
Middle east coast  34
Lower east coast  83
West coast I  16
Totals -  226
1953-54
3
13
4
8
28
11
67
The marked reduction in the number of detector recoveries results from the continuous operation of only one detector, and from the reduced efficiency of this detector
compared to previous years. The greatest reduction in detector efficiency occurred during
the early part of the season and, hence, the effect is most noticeable in the returns from
the middle east coast and lower east coast sub-districts, where early fisheries occurred.
The number of tags recovered by detectors* in 1953-54 is considered too small for
the reliable calculation of the | probable " number of tags in the catches in the various
sub-districts and of certain population statistics. An analysis of the movement between
populations has been based on the "probable" number of tags in the catches derived
from plant magnet recoveries. The methods used and results obtained will be discussed
in the next section. Information on the area of recovery of magnet returns is not, however, sufficiently precise or reliable to permit an analysis of movement within populations.
Recovery of Tags by Plant Crews    ■■ ;§|
In 1953-54, 4,548 tags were recovered from magnets and plant machinery in
fourteen reduction plants. This total represents a slight increase over the previous record
total of 4,512 recoveries, obtained in 1951-52. A large number of recoveries was
expected because of the heavy taggings in 1952 (60,887) and 1953 (81,390), and the
very reduced fishery of 1952-53. The number of 1953-54 recoveries made at each plant
is given in the following table:—
Number of
Tags Recovered
Plant
Imperial         513
Colonial  302
Gulf of Georgia  102
Phoenix  308
North Shore  318
Namu   259
Butedale  732
Number of
Plant Tags Recovered
Port Edward  930 jj
Seal Cove  160
Kildonan   130
Port Albion  377
Nootka  175
Ceepeecee   239
Hecate       3
The distribution of tags by area of tagging and probable sub-district of recovery is
shown in Table II. Three of the tags recovered were from a tagging made in the Hood
Canal, Washington, by American investigators in April, 1953. One was recovered
during the summer fishery off Swiftsure Bank (Area 21), another in the early fall fishery
off William Head (Area 19), and the third from the regular winter fishery, probably
from Area 23.
* Detector recoveries shown by area of tagging and area of recovery are given in Supplementary Table II, and will
be supplied upon request.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT                          I 59
While the area of recovery of detector returns is always specific, it is often difficult
to determine accurately the area and sometimes even the sub-district from which a plant
magnet recovery originated.   Because of the uncertainty attached to the areas of recovery
plant magnet returns are generally of more limited value in studying the movements of
herring than detector recoveries.    However, the fact that the number of plant magnet
returns is much greater than the number of detector recoveries is often a distinct advantage
in examining the general movements of herring.    This is particularly true this season,
when the number of detector recoveries is too small to permit reliable inferences to be
drawn from them.   The same methods as employed in previous years (Tester and Stevenson, 1948) are used to assign the most probable area of recovery to each plant magnet
return.   Table II shows that for 487 tags, or 10.7 per cent, the most probable area of
recovery could not be readily determined.    However, an examination of the returns
certain as to area of recovery showed that the arbitrary assignment of the " doubtful"
recoveries to the area of tagging would lead to correct assignment of area of recovery
at least in 80 per cent of the cases.   The | probable " number of tags in the catches of
the various sub-districts shown in Table III were calculated from the actual number of
plant magnet returns, including those recoveries arbitrarily assigned to their area of
tagging, by applying corrections for magnet efficiency and for the fact that not all the
catch was searched by magnets.    The recoveries by plants where no magnet-efficiency
tests were carried out were omitted in making the calculations.   Table III is summarized
in the tabulation below, which shows the I probable " number of tags in the catches by
sub-district of taggings and probable sub-district of recovery.   All actual numbers on
which the calculations are based are given in parentheses:—
Sub-district
of Tagging
Sub-district of Recovery
Total
Queen
Charlotte
Islands
Northern
Central
Upper
East
Coast
Middle
East
Coast
Lower
East
Coast
West
Coast
Queen Charlotte Islands
Northern	
Central	
Upper east coast	
Middle east coast .
Lower east coast
West coast -.
Totals	
17 (12)
3(2)
3(2)
927 (798)
83 (71)
4(4)
21 (19)
1,503 (1,394)
KD
KD
25 (19)
955 (823)
1,601 (1,479)
103 (97)
274 (253)
230 (198)
1,958 (1,257)
3(3)
6(6)
103 (97)
KD
8 in
	
216 (202)
36 (33)
3(3)
46 (40)
161 (135)
57 (49)
12 (11)
32 (29)
1,892 (1,200)
	
KD
2(2)
3(2)
KD
20 (14)    11,016 (873)11,529 (1,418)
1                    1
115 (109)
264 (246)
264 (224)
1,938 (1,242)
5,146 (4,126)!
1 The difference between this total and the total number of magnet recoveries shown in Table II arises from the
omission of returns from plants where no magnet tests were carried out.
The marked tendency for tags to be recovered in the sub-district of tagging noted
in previous years in the analysis of both detector and magnet returns, is again shown.
The relative strength of the % homing tendency " in the various populations cannot readily
be compared because of unknown differences in the exploitation of the populations in
tie various sub-districts.    However, this tendency would appear to be most pronounced
in the northern, central, upper east coast, and west coast sub-districts, and least in the
middle east coast, lower east coast, and Queen Charlotte Islands sub-districts.
Movement of herring from the west coast of Vancouver Island to other sub-districts
was calculated to be about 3 per cent (66/1,958) and in 1953-54, considerably lower
than the corresponding emigrations, based on detector returns, noted in 1951-52 (8 per
cent), in 1950-51 (15 per cent), and in 1949-50 (12 per cent).   While movement was
town to all other sub-districts except the Queen Charlotte Islands, the bulk of the movent was to the lower east coast.    From all west coast areas, movement was to the lower
«coast.   From all west coast areas, movement to the lower east coast amounted to
2-9 per cent (57/1,958), approximately the same as in 1950-51 and somewhat greater
Ia* the 1.2 per cent (from the detector returns) noted in 1951-52    This emigration to
Slower east coast was greater from Area 23 (5 per cent) than from other west coast
 I 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
areas (1 to 2 per cent). The movement of lower east coast herring to the west coast
amounted to 13.5 per cent (32/230), approximately the same as in 1950-51 (10.5 per
cent, detector returns) and greater than the 7.5 per cent (magnet returns) noted in
1951-52. The disparity in the movements in the two directions between the west coast
and lower east coast sub-districts may result partially from differences in exploitation
rates in the two populations.     #
Magnet recoveries in 1953-54 again showed the relatively great dispersal of middle
east coast and lower east coast tags to other sub-districts. Approximately 17 per cent
(46/274) and 5 per cent (12/274) of the middle east coast tags recovered were from
the lower east coast and west coast respectively, and 16 per cent (36/230) and 13.5
per cent (32/230) of the lower east coast tags were from the middle east coast and west
coast respectively. The movements indicated between the middle east coast and the
lower east coast are of approximately the same magnitude as in previous years. The
movement to the lower east coast of fish tagged in Area 14 (22 per cent), was greater
than that for fish tagged in Area 15 (12 per cent). Similarly, the movement to the
middle east coast of fish tagged in Area 17a (38 per cent) was greater than those for
fish tagged in Area 17b (10 per cent) or Area 18 (2 per cent). On the other hand,
the movement of lower east coast fish to the west coast was greater for those tagged in
Area 17b and 18 (14 per cent and 16 per cent, respectively) than for those tagged in
Area 17a (10 per cent).     g|    ^B |t
The main movement of fish from the northern sub-district (2 per cent, 21/955)
was to the central sub-district. This is somewhat less than the 5.9 per cent found from
detector returns in 1951-52. f~The main movement of central fish (5 per cent, 83/1,601)
was to the northern sub-district, and corresponds closely to that shown by detector recoveries in 1951-52. It is interesting to note that the movement of fish tagged in Area 5
to the central sub-district (9 per cent) was greater than the movement of fish tagged
in Area 4(2 per cent); conversely, the movement of fish tagged in Area 6 to the northern
sub-district (20 per cent) was greater than the movement of fish tagged in Area 7(1 per
cent). Also, the movement of fish tagged in Area 10 to the upper east coast sub-district
(8 per cent) was greater than the movement of fish tagged in Areas 6 or 7 (less than
1 per cent). However, it should be pointed out that the movements of fish tagged in
Areas 5 arid 10 are based on a much smaller number of recoveries than those for
Areas 4, 6, or 7.
Because of the small number of recoveries from Queen Charlotte Island taggings
(Area 2b-E), only guarded statements can be made of the movements of fish. There
was apparently approximately equal emigration (12 per cent and 16 per cent respectively)
to the northern and central sub-districts, with a small movement (4 per cent), based on
one tag return, to the west coast of Vancouver Island. It is interesting to note that while
there was a heavy fishery in Area 2a-E, no Area 2b-E tags were recovered there. This
would suggest that perhaps the herring stocks in these two areas are separate. Further
data, however, would be required to confirm this.
Tagging during the 1954 Spawning Season
The 1954 tagging programme was carried out by two seine-boats loaned by fishing
companies. One vessel began tagging operations on February 22nd in the lower east
coast sub-district, and moved to the west coast sub-district later in the week. After
tagging the west coast, this vessel moved through the central sub-district to the northern
sub-district and later to Area 2b-E in the Queen Charlotte Islands, completing her tagging operations about April 3rd. The second vessel commenced operations on February
25th in the lower east coast and middle east coast sub-districts, moving later to the
central sub-district, where she completed her tagging operations on April 1st. Herring
were tagged in Area 2a-E for the first time this year. These herring spawn late in the
season; in the week following May 10th, three taggings were carried out in Skidegate
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 61
Inlet by the herring investigation in co-operation with officers of the Department of
Fisheries.
The numbers of herring tagged in the various areas in 1953 and 1954 are shown in
tie following tabulation:—
Sub-district and
Area of Tagging
Year
Queen
Charlotte
Islands
Northern
Central
Upper
East
Coast
Middle
East
Coast
Lower East
Coast
West Coast
Total
2a-E
2b-E
4
5
6
7
12
14
15
17a
17b
18
23
24
25
26
27
i
1953.	
1954	
4,070
4,111
2,996
6,244|	
6,06412,025
2,084
2,006
13,526
4,075
1,342
3,982
1,503
2,026
1,511
4,051
2,015
7,178
2,006
1,987
4,053
15,688
4,764
2,072
7,767
4,069
4,612
2,028
81,390
38,465
Because of a delay of a week for repairs to the tagging-boat, the whole west coast
tagging programme was adversely affected; the major spawnings in Areas 23, 26, and 27
were missed and, as a result, no fish could be found for tagging. Similarly, repairs to the
other tagging-vessel resulted in a reduction in the tagging programme for the central
sub-district.^
SAMPLING OF THE CATCHES AND THE SPAWNING RUNS
Fundamental information on age composition, growth rate, sex ratio, and sexual
maturity in the various populations is obtained from random samples taken from the
fishing and the spawning runs. Samples were taken in the same manner as in previous
years (Tester and Stevenson, 1947). The determination of the ages of the fish in these
samples provides the basic data for the assessment of the relative strength of the various
year-classes in the populations. Variations in the growth rate of the herring may reflect
changes in feeding conditions. These variations will be disclosed by a comparison of
length and weight measurements from year to year. Data on the sex ratios and degree of
maturity link together certain phases of the adult spawn studies.
During the winter fishery a total of 80 samples were taken in the lower east coast
sub-district and 71 samples in the west coast sub-district. The distribution of these
samples* by areas is shown in the tabulation below (with comparable data for 1951-52
in parentheses):— | Number of Samples
Lower east COaSt  Winter Runs Spawning Runs
Area 17a gcti   (72) 1   (3)
Area 17b     28   (20) 1   (5)
Area 18     38     (8) 2(1)
Totals      80(100) 4   (9)
West coast— ^^x 111E1
Area 23  51 (25 0(14
Area 24                           12 (3) l   (4)
Aea25A &H         1 (3> 1   (4)
Aea25B S  3 «* l   (4)
Area 26       1 (3) 0(4)
Totals j«6E|    m
Grand totals  151(143) 7(41)
77-—' +*,   wpst coast and the lower east coast of Vancouver Island in
Lists of aU winter and spawning samples taken on tne w«a s      and data Qn maturity> wiu
953-54, including places and dates of sampling, numbers of fish of each age
beapplied on request (Supplementary Tables III and IV respectively).
 I 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Age Composition
West Coast Population
The average percentage age composition for the west coast population as derived
from samples taken during the fishery is given below for the last eight seasons. The data
for all seasons, except 1952-53, are weighted according to the numbers of fish caught in
each statistical area. Because there was no fishery in 1952-53, the data for that season
are weighted according to the number of samples taken in each area.
Season
In Year of Age
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX and
Over
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
+
5.0
53.0
32.1
6.0
2.5
0.9
0.5
+
2.4
58.2
27.8
8.5
2.1
0.5
0.3
+
7.4
45.2   .
32.9
9.6
3.4
1.0
0.3
+
4.4
68.8
20.5
5.3
0.8
0.2
0.1
+
9.8
35.3
44.5
8.0
1.9
0.5
+
+
2.6
36.2
23.9
31.6
4.3
1.2
0.2
0.1
7.3
61.7
28.5
1.8
0.5
0.1
0.1
2.0
59.5
30.4
6.5
1.0
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
+
I
Note.—Plus signs indicate percentages of less than 0.05.
In 1952-53, in spite of the lack of information on absolute abundance in the fishable
stock (in terms of numbers of fish), it was considered that the 1950 year-class was of
above-average strength on the basis of its contribution as Ill-year fish (Stevenson and
Outram, 1953). The proportion of this year-class (IV-year fish) formed of the catches
in 1953-54 and its contribution in terms of numbers of fish suggest that it may be of no
more than average strength. The contributions* of the various year-classes in millions
of fish are tabulated below:—
Season
In Year of Age
Total
I
II
III
rv H
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX and
Over
1946-47   	
0.13
0.13
0.30
0.13
0.08
0.06
0.27
27.02
10.03
36.83
14.89
22.27
6.08
7.89
288.72
240.18
224.02
233.67
80.17
86.39
174.70
114.60
163.00
69.68
100.93
56.99
117.75
32.53
35.16
47.52
17.86
18.05
75.55
25.05
13.65
8.76
16.84
2.69
4.36
10.20
4.88 1    2.49
2.24    1    1.10
5.05    |    1.66
0.65         0.20
1.04         0.04
2.89 0.53
0.47
0.56
0.45
0.00
0.04
0.06
0.09
544 79
1947-48	
1948-49     	
412.76
495 67
1949-50	
1950-51 	
1951-52 	
1952-53  	
399.77
226.98
238.76
1953-54	
230.26
3.99
1.54
0.18
387.02
The 1951 year-class (Ill-year fish) entered the fishery strongly in 1953-54. The
proportion of Ill-year fish in the runs was comparable to that of 1952-53, and exceeds
that of all other recent years with the exception of 1949-50, when the unusually abundant 1947 year-class entered the fishery in force. In terms of numbers of fish, the contribution of the 1951 year-class was about three times that either of the 1948 or 1949
year-classes as Ill-year fish, and compared favourably with that of the 1947 year-class.
It is, therefore, considered that the 1951 year-class, while probably not as strong as the
very abundant 1947 year-class, is of above-average strength.
In the winter runs of herring, there was a difference in age composition between the
south west coast areas (Areas 23, 24, and 25a) and the north west coast areas (Areas
25b, 26, and 27); the 1951 year-class composed a greater proportion of the runs in the
south than in the north, and the 1950 year-class was proportionately better represented
in the north than in the south (Table IV).   The relatively greater strength of the 1951
* The numbers of fish (in millions) of each age in the 1953-54 catches in each west coast area are given in Supplementary Table V, and will be supplied upon request.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 63
year-class in the south and of the 1950 year-class in the north was indicated in the
1952-53 sampling data (Stevenson and Outram, 1953). In 1952-53, the 1949 year-
class was more prominent in the south than in the north. However,'in 1953-54 as
V-year fish, this year-class was relatively abundant in the north. The tendency for older
fish to be better represented in the runs of the more northerly west coast areas has been
noted in previous years (Stevenson, Hourston, Jackson, and Outram, 1952).
The representation of II-year fish (1952 year-class) was the lowest in recent years
in the south west coast areas; none were found in the sample from the north west coast
areas. The proportion of II-year fish in the west coast catches has been found to be a
generally reliable indication of future year-class strength (Stevenson and Outram, 1953).
Considering the relatively great dependence of the fishery in the more southern areas on
Ill-year fish, it is unlikely that the catches in these areas in 1954-55 will be as good as
those in 1953-54. The catches in the more northern areas depend more on III- and
IV-year fish; from the relative weakness of the 1951 and 1952 (Ill-year fish and II-year
fish respectively) year-classes in these areas in 1953-54, it would appear unlikely that
better catches will be made in these areas in 1954-55. ji
Lower East Coast Population
For the lower east coast runs, the average age composition and the contribution*
of the various age-classes in millions of fish for the last six seasons are given in the tabulations below. In all years except 1952-53, the age composition has been weighted
according to the numbers of fish caught in each area; in 1952-53, weighting was according to the number of samples taken in each area.
AVERAGE PERCENTAGE AGE COMPOSITION
In Year of Age
Season
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
1948-49	
+
+
+
+
0.1
2.8
1.5
4.1
6.6
2.7
0.8
76.8
66.7
63.4
57.5
60.5
58.0
17.8
26.9
25.0
27.1
32.8
34.2
2.0
4.1
6.1
7.0
3.2
6.2
0.5
0.6
1.0
1.3
0.5
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
+
0.1
0.1
+
+
1949-50
1950-51..   .
+
1951-52....
+
1952-53.
1953-54....
% +
Note.—Plus signs indicate percentages of less than 0.05.
NUMBERS IN MILLIONS OF FISH
Season
In Year of Age
II
III
TV
VI
VII
VIII
IX
Total
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
0.26
0.10
0.12
0.23
0.12
11.21
5.41
15.97
29.52
1.99
3.54
312.63
246.24
245.91
201.13
51.15
258.18
71.43
101.51
90.67
83.93
30.30
165.75
7.94
1.75 |
16.17
2.54 |
21.43
4.48 |
23.54
4.30
2.96
0.50 |
29.75
3.03
0.58
0.76
1.24
0.06
0.67
0.10
0.24
0.29
0.03
0.20
0.03
0.06
0.09
412.22
372.65
379.61
344.24
87.12
488.21
The percentage age composition for the sub-district as a whole j1953-54 was very
similar to that of the preceding four years. No differences were found in the pattern of
■%* distribution in either the winter or the spawning runs (Table V) to the three major
^untfie sub-district.   As has been pointed out in previous reports (Stevenson and
Timbers of fish (in millions) of each age in the 1953-54 catches in each lower east coast area are given in
^Pplementary Table VI, and will be supplied upon request.
 I 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Outram, 1953 and Stevenson, Hourston, Jackson, and Outram, 1952), the lack of variation in age composition in the winter runs to the three areas is explained by the single
migration route followed by the herring from the offshore summer feeding-grounds to
the inshore fishing and spawning grounds. The runs destined for the more northerly areas
pass through the more southerly areas, where the major fishery usually develops.
Evidence from catch data and extent of spawn (discussed in a later section of this
report) suggest that population abundance was greater in 1953-54 than in the previous
year. From this and the uniformity of age composition in recent years, it is presumed
that the 1951 year-class (Ill-year fish) was of above-average abundance.
jfe The contribution of II-year fish (1952 year-class) was the smallest in recent years.
Although the relative abundance of II-year fish on the lower east coast is not as reliable
an indication of year-class strength as on the west coast, it is possible that the 1952 year-
class may not be as strong as its predecessors. However, because of the generally high
level of abundance of this stock in recent years, it is likely that the quota will be taken
readily next year, though possibly more effort may be required to do so.
Sex Ratio and Stage of Development
The sex ratio (number of females divided by the number of males) and the sexual
development of the herring in samples taken from the fishery in 1953-54, and from the
spawning runs in 1954, are shown by areas in Tables VI and VII for the west coast and
lower east coast populations respectively. The sampling of spawning runs in both the
west coast and lower east coast sub-districts is not considered adequate to permit detailed
analysis of sex ratio and sexual development.
West Coast Population
The sex ratios obtained for the sub-district and for most of the individual areas are
similar to those of recent years. Usually, males and females are about equally prevalent
(with slight tendency for females to predominate) in the commercial catches, whereas
males outnumber females in the spawning runs. The explanation of this situation lies
in the tendency of females to live slightly longer than males, and of the average age in the
spawning runs to be less than in the winter runs (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950). In
1953-54, the unusually high sex ratio in Area 25a and the high sex ratio in Area 26
probably resulted from inadequate sampling of the runs, only one sample being obtained
from each of these areas.
Because of the relatively poor representation of II-year fish, the percentage of
immature fish in the winter runs was considerably smaller than in 1952-53, but was about
average or slightly below average for recent years. No spent fish were found in the
winter runs. No immature fish were found in the spawning runs in 1954; however,
these runs are considered to have been inadequately sampled.
p§j- Lower East Coast Population i§
The sex ratio in the lower east coast winter samples has shown a tendency to decrease
slightly in the last three years. In 1951-52 it was 0.88; in 1952-53, 0.84; and in
1953-54, 0.81. At present, evidence is insufficient to show whether this progressive
decrease is real or whether it is simply due to sampling variation. The reason for the
greater representation of males in the lower east coast population as compared to the
west coast population has been attributed to the generally younger average age of the
lower east coast herring (Stevenson and Outram, 1953). However, this explanation
does not adequately account for differences in sex ratios in the two populations in
1953-54. The average age of the winter runs to the west coast sub-district, and particularly to the south west coast areas, was less than that in the winter runs to the lower east
coast sub-district; yet the representation of males was greater in the latter than in the
 REPORT of provincial fisheries department
I 65
former. However, as was noted above, on the west coast, the average age in the spawning runs is less than in the winter runs. On the other hand, on the lower east coast, the
differences in average age and in the proportion of males and females between winter
and spawning runs are less pronounced. This would suggest that on the west coast older
and predominantly female fish move inshore before the younger and predominantly male
fish, whereas on the lower east coast young and old fish move inshore at approximately
the same time.        ■$$&     •#.;
In spite of the average age of the lower east coast herring being slightly greater in
1953-54 than in 1952-53, the proportion of immature fish in the winter runs was somewhat greater. The percentage of immature fish was considerably greater in Area 17a
than in either Area 17b or Area 18.
No spent fish were found in winter runs, and no immature fish in the spawning runs.
Average Length and Weight S";
Variations in the average length and weight of herring of any particular age from
year to year probably reflect changes in environmental conditions (food-supply, temperature, etc.) influencing growth. The average weight of the various age-groups, together
with the age composition, are used to calculate the numbers of fish in the commercial
catches. The average lengths and weights of west coast herring in the 1953-54 winter
runs are shown in Table VIII, and the average lengths of herring in the 1954 spawning
runs in Table IX. Comparable data for the lower east coast herring are shown in Tables
X and XI respectively. f
No striking or consistent differences were found in the average lengths of each age-
group of fish in the winter runs to the west coast areas. However, there was a small
but consistent difference in average weights; fish of each age-group in Barkley Sound
tended to be slightly heavier than those in other areas. Herring undergo a loss of weight
in winter, when feeding does not normally take place. The differences in average weights
between herring from Area 23 and those from other west coast areas are probably attributable to this cause. Approximately 90 per cent of the catch in Area 23 was made before
Christmas, whereas the bulk of the catch in other west coast areas was made after
Christmas. E-     ^
No consistent differences in average length or average weight were noted among
herring of the various age-groups from the three lower east coast areas.
The average lengths and weights of herring from the lower east coast and west coast
populations are given below for the major age-groups in the winter runs for the last six
years:—
Year
Lower East Coast Population
II
III
IV
VI
West Coast Population
II
III
rv
VI
Length in millimetres-
1948-49...
1949-50	
1950-51.
1951-52.
1952-53.
1953-54	
Weight in grams-^
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53 _ |
1953-54_
162
153
153
151
156
152
54
45
42
46
45
46
187
188
188
185
184
187
85
91
91
91
77
88
199
200
200
198
196
200
104
111
113
114
94
108
218
211
211
209
209
211
131
131
137
139
119
127
233
211
220
217
214
223
154
148
150
158
135
149
159
164
158
159
162
161
50
56
50
53
51
54
188
190
188
187
185
185
87
94
88
90
80
86
201
202
204
205
198
200
111
117
114
114
100
105
213
212
215
217
209
211
138
137
135
139
119
126
222
220
220
226
222
223
158
152
149
157
149
147
J. «ing atari, ta average weigh.:£ *■*£*££* S5&5
Dotil the west coast and lower east coast in 1952-53, was aunouicu j f
 I 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
feeding conditions during the summer of 1952 (Stevenson and Outram, 1953). In
1953-54, the average weights of herring above age II in both populations showed a
noticeable increase over the average weights of the previous year, but still remained somewhat below normal. The increase in average weights over those of 1952-53 would
suggest that feeding conditions were probably more normal during the summer of 1953.
Two explanations for the fact that average weights in 1953-54 were still slightly lower
than in the period 1949-52 are suggested: (1) The effect of poor feeding conditions in
1952-53 might be felt in succeeding years if there was little or no compensatory growth;
that is, if growth in 1953-54 was not greater than average; or (2) the lack of a large-
scale fishery in 1952-53 may have resulted in the presence on the grounds at some period
of the year of a larger than normal supply of fish, thus causing increased competition for
food.
The fact that II-year fish maintained their normal weight during the last two seasons
while older fish fluctuated in weight suggests that they were not exposed to the same
changes in feeding conditions. The inference was made that the period of unfavourable
feeding conditions occurred before the time of recruitment of II-year fish to the fishing
stock (Stevenson and Outram, 1953).
There were no appreciable differences in the average lengths of fish in 1953-54 as
compared to previous years in either the lower east coast or west coast populations.
Spawning samples in both populations were not sufficiently numerous to allow
reliable comparison of average lengths to be made.
EXTENT AND INTENSITY OF SPAWNING H
The extent and intensity of herring-spawn deposition on the west coast and lower
east coast of Vancouver Island was estimated again in the spring of 1954.* Since 1947,
two independent surveys have been carried out on the west coast, one by members of the
herring investigation, the other by fisheries officers. On the lower east coast, a single
survey by fisheries officers is made. The main purpose of the spawn surveys is to provide
information on the relative size of the spawning stock—that is, the relative size of the
escapement from the winter fishery—and on the relationship between the amount of
Spawn deposited and the size of the resulting year-class. Methods employed in the surveys
were similar to those of previous years (Tester and Stevenson, 1948).
3P-' • ' ; Hj *• ■   '#' ":  West Coast Population   ■     j|| -: _ y.
ft West coast spawnings in 1954 followed the general pattern of spawning in previous
years, except that spawnings in the latter part of March were less frequent than usual.
The mains spawning-grounds were:—
#||p   Area 23: Macoah Passage, Toquart Bay, and Bamfield Inlet.  JHBs,...^^
Area 24: Cypress Bay and Flores Island (east shore). ^^^^^B-   Jill
gs  ;     Area 35: Nuchatlitz Village vicinity and the south shore of Esparanza Inlet.
a^|E|     Area 26: Malksope Inlet and Bunsby Islands. ■Ji
ll;  ■.     Area 27: Winter Harbour. 1
The earliest spawning occurred at Port Langford (Area 25) on February 6th, and the
latest on April 20tlji at Saltery Bay (Area 25). Other early spawnings in February took
place at Toquart Bay and Roquefeuil Bay in Area 23, at Cypress Bay and Big Whitepine
Cove in Area 24, at Nuchatlitz Village and Port Langford in Area 25, and at Klaskish
Inlet in Area 27. Late spawnings in April occurred at Useless Inlet and Toquart Bay in
Area 23, at Newton Cove and Saltery Bay in Area 25, at Malksope Inlet in Area 26, and
at Apple Bay in Area 27.
* A list of the individual spawning localities in the west coast and lower east coast sub-districts, with dates, intensities, and extent of spawn depositions, will be supplied on request (Supplementary Tables VII and VIII).
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 61
The most noticeable features of the 1954 spawnings were*	
(1) The Persistence for the second year of the increased deposition in Bamfield
Inlet (Area 23).
(2) The decrease in the number of spawnings in Macoah Passage (Area 23)
(3) A spawning in Hootla Kootla on the east shore of Flores Island (Area 24) for
the first time since 1950.
(4) A large spawning in the vicinity of Nutchatlitz Village (Area 25) for the fifth
consecutive year. This spawning accounted for nearly 70 per cent of the spawn
deposition in Area 25.
(5) A spawning in Nasparti Inlet (Area 26) for the first time since 1951.
(6) The absence of a spawning in Ououkinsh Inlet (Area 26) for the fourth consecutive year.
A summary of the extent of spawn deposition on the west coast since 1947 is given
by statistical areas in the following table, with intensity of spawn deposition in parentheses. The extent of spawn deposition is recorded in statutory miles and the average
intensity is calculated by weighting the intensities of individual spawnings—very light,
light, medium, heavy, and very heavy—in the ratio of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.
West Coast Areas
Total
Year
Miles,
23
24
25
26
27
All
Areas
1947	
1948     	
1949             	
1950..     .
13.2 (3.3)
10.9 (3.0)
11.7 (3.1)
13.4 (2A)
6.0 (3.6)
8.4 (3.3)
4.3 (3.1)
4.2 (2.^
9.3 (3.8)
12.8 (3.0)
16.3 (3.5)
18.2 (3.2)
28.3 (3.4)
21.4 (3.7)
27.4 (3.8)
19.6 (3.0)
2.5 (2.9)
2.0 (2.8)
2.2 (3.4)
3.2 (3.3)
1.5 (3.4)
1.4 (2.8)
4.4 (3.0)
3.8 (2.8)
1.4 (2.7)
9.7 (2.2)
6.6 (2.6)
4.5 (3.0)
4.9 (3.1)
1.1 (3.2)
9.6 (3.6)
6.5 (3.3)
32.4 (3.4)
43.8 (2.9)
41.1 (3.2)
43.5 (2.9)
1951 _   .       .    	
1952	
8.8 (2.9)          11.4 (1.3)
6.2 (2.6)            5.6 (2.3)
14.5(2.1)            8.4(2.6)
9 0 (2.2.            7.4 (2.^
54.9 (2.8)
35.7 (3.3)
1953  ,.,. .     .
64.3 (3.2)
1954..
46.3 (3.2)
Figure 2a shows the amount of spawn deposited in each area, and in the west coast
sub-district as a whole, for the last eight years. |"
The extent of spawn deposition on the west coast in 1954 showed a decrease of
approximately 28 per cent from the record spawning of 1953, but remained the third
largest recorded since 1947. The decrease was reflected in all areas, but was greatest i||
Area 23 (38 per cent), Area 27 (32 per cent), and Area 25 (28 per cent), and least in
Areas24 (12 per cent) and 26 (13 per cent). The decrease in Area 23 resulted at lea||
in part from the reduced number of spawnings in Macoah Passage, and in Areas 25 andl;
27 from a general decrease in the number of spawnings. In Areas 24 and 26 the reappearance of spawnings on the east side of Flores Island (Area 24) and Nasparti Inlet
(Area 26) prevented declines in these areas proportional to those in other areas.
The average spawning intensity in 1954 for the west coast as a whole was the same
as in the previous season. Spawning intensity showed a decrease in Areas 25, 26, and
27, and a slight increase in Areas 23 and 24. However, these increases were not sufficient
to compensate for the decreases in spawning extent.
A decrease in spawn deposition from the high level of the previous year was to be
expected in 1954, unless there had been phenomenally heavy recruitment; the heavy
position in 1953 was the result of the lack of a fishery in 1952-53. Proportionately
*e greatest decrease occurred in Area 23, which contributed the major portion of the
*h. However, there is no evidence that the 1954 spawn deposition on the west coast
as a whole, or in Area 23 in particular, is below that necessary to maintain the population.
B* 1947 year-class was extremely abundant in all west coast areas, arid resulted from a
considerably smaller total spawning. The 1951 year-class is considered to be above
^rage in the south west coast areas, yet in 1951 spawn deposition m Area 23 was
[§Wy less than in 1954.
 I 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1947     1948
1949     1950     1951
YEARS
1953     1954
Fig. 2.   Miles of herring-spawn deposited in statistical areas of the west coast of Vancouver
Island sub-district, A, and the lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-district, B.
 per:
a
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT j 69
In Area 25 spawn deposition has decreased progressively since 1951, with the
exception of 1953 when, however, the increase in this area was proportionate^ L thm
ta0l^1,,^4S>^^S^ .\C°ntr*5 t0 ^-average catches made in other west coa^J
areas, the 1953-54 catch in Area 25 was one of the lowest since unrestricted fishing was
)ermitted. The decrease m spawn deposition and in catch indicated that population
abundance in Area 25 has declined from the exceptionally high level of 1950-51 and
1951-52. It is unlikely that unrestricted fishing has occasioned the decline but rather
that natural fluctuations in recruitment are the cause. The 1951 year-class 'as Ill-year
fish, was relatively poorly represented in Area 25, in spite of the record spawn deposition
in this area in 1951. ||
:%       Lower East Coast Population
A summary of the extent of spawn deposition on the lower east coast since 1947 is
given by areas in the following tabulation. Intensity of spawn deposition, shown in
parentheses, is calculated in the same manner as for the west coast:	
Year
Lower East Coast Areas
17a
17b
18
19
Total
Miles,
All
Areas
1947...
1948.
1949...
1950-
1951...
1952.
1953.
1954...
1.5 (1.5)
5.7 (1.8)
3.6 (3.7)
6.6 (4.4)
12.7(2.9)
8.7 (2.7)
15.5 (3.4)
2.0 (1.6)
6.1 (4.3)
7.9 (3.2)
10.8 (3.9)
7.0 (3.4)
6.7 (2.6)
18.0 (3.4)
63.4 (3.9)
49.9 (3.6)
2.2 (2.2)
3.7 (2.5)
6.4 (3.0)
1.3 (1.7)
0.6 (1.3)
4.6 (1.3)
3.8 (2.0)
3.9 (1.5)
0.1 (2.0)
0.1 (1.0)
0.1 (1.0)
0.2 (1.0)
0.2 (1.0)
0.2 (1.0)
+ ( + )
+ ( + )
9.9 (3.4)
17.4 (2.6)
20.9 (3.5)
15.1 (3.7)
20.2 (2.7)
31.5 (2.9)
82.7 (3.7)
55.8 (3.5)
Note.—Plus signs indicate negligible amounts of spawn.
Figure 2b shows the amount of spawn deposited in each area, and in the lower east
coast sub-district as a whole, for the past eight years.
In 1954, the extent of spawn deposited on the lower east coast was the second highest
ever recorded. The 55.8 miles of spawn represent a decrease of approximately the same
magnitude as that on the west coast. Decreased spawnings occurred in both Areas 17a
and 17b, which habitually account for the major proportion of the lower east coast spawning. The small increase in spawning in Area 18 is too slight to be of significance.
The average spawning intensity in 1954 decreased slightly from that of the previous
year.  The decrease was reflected in all areas, but was particularly great in Area 17a.
The most striking feature of the 1954 lower east coast spawnings was the tremendous
reduction both in extent (87 per cent) and in intensity (53 per cent) of spawn deposition
in Area 17a, principally in the Nanoose Bay region. Spawnings in Area 17b, although
reduced by about 20 per cent from 1953, were still exceedingly heavy and accounted for
almost 90 per cent of the sub-district spawnings. Successive waves of heavy spawning
again occurred in this area along the shore-line between Ladysmith and Yellow Point.
As on the west coast, some decrease in spawn deposition was to be expected as
a result of the resumption of fishing activities in the 1953-54 season. In spite of the
tremendous decline in spawning in Area 17a, the extent of spawn deposition in 1954 is
Probably still far higher than is required to maintain population abundance at a high level.
DISCUSSION
In the foregoing sections of this report there have been presented analyses of the
1953-54 data on catch statistics, age composition, and spawn deposition in the popula-
** m the west coast and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts together
^ an analysis of the movement of herring between all major herring populations.   In
 I 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
this section, the bearing of these results on comparative study of the two stocks under
different methods of management is discussed, and the results obtained from this study
reviewed.
The size of the west coast catch, the third highest since 1948-49, coupled with the
spawn deposition of above-average extent, indicates that population abundance in the
west coast sub-district in 1953-54 has increased from the low level reached in 1951-52.
Area 23 provided the major portion of the catch, with considerably above-average contributions from Areas 24, 26, and 27. The catch in Area 25 was below normal, and was
less than that in Area 24 for the first time in eight years.
The catch in Area 23 in 1953-54, while considerably larger than the catches of
1950-51 and 1951-52, was slightly below the average for the period 1946-47 to 1949-
50. Spawn deposition in Area 23 in 1954 was also greater than the deposition in 1951
or 1952, but less than the annual deposition in the years 1947 to 1950. This suggests
that while population abundance increased from the low level of 1950-51 and 1951-52,
it has not attained the average level of abundance of the period 1947 to 1950.
In contrast to the evidence pointing to an increase in abundance in Area 23, there
are indications of a decrease in abundance in Area 25, the other major west coast fishing
area. The 1954 catch in Area 25 was one of the smallest made during the period of the
comparative study. The extent of spawn deposition in Area 25 has progressively decreased since 1951, with the exception of 1953, when the increase in Area 25 was
proportionately less than in other west coast areas.
The relative contributions of the various year-classes in the fishery provide an
explanation of the changes in abundance noted in the two major west coast areas. In
the south west coast areas, the decline in abundance in 1950-51 and 1951-52 was the
result of the recruitment of two successive year-classes of below-average strength (the
1948 and 1949 year-classes). The increase in abundance in this region in 1952-53 and
1953-54 has resulted from the recruitment of two average or above-average year-classes,
the 1950 and 1951 year-classes. In the north west coast areas, the 1948 and 1949 year-
classes were also weak, but because of the relatively great contribution made by the very
strong 1947 year-class as 4- and 5-year-old fish in 1950-51 and 1951-52, the decline in
abundance was not as pronounced as in the south west coast areas. However, the 1950
and particularly the 1951 year-classes do not appear to have been as strong in the north
west coast as in the south west coast areas, and with no strong contribution by older year-
classes, abundance has declined.
On the lower east coast, abundance has continued at the high level that has existed
since 1951-52. Following the record catch of 52,600 tons, spawn deposition in 1954,
although showing an expected decrease from the exceedingly high level of the previous
year, was the second highest recorded. On the lower east coast, the 1949 year-class
was considerably stronger than on the west coast, and the 1950 and 1951 year-classes
have also been of above-average strength. Abundance was maintained in 1953-54 by
the good recruitment of the 1951 year-class as Ill-year fish, and the above-average contribution of the 1950 year-class as IV-year fish.
During the eight years the comparative study of the west coast and lower east coast
population has been carried on, population abundance on the west coast has fluctuated.
In the following tabulation, population estimates (in number of fishXlO8) for the
west coast and lower east coast sub-districts for the past eight years are given. These
estimates are based on data on catch and spawn deposition (Stevenson and Outram,
1953). Exploitation rates, calculated as the ratio of catch to total population, are
shown in parentheses:—
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 71
Sub-district
Season
1946-47
1947-48
194g_49
1949-50
West coast	
Lower east coast
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
8.97 (0.60)|8.26 (0.49)|9.50 (0.51)|7.84 (0.43)
4.84 (0.72)|5.25 (0.66)|7.00 (0.58) (5.96 (0.63)
Plus sign indicates negligible exploitation rate.
7.90 (0.29)|6.51 (0.36) | 7.26 (+)i | 9.14 (0.44)
5.97 (0.63)|7.40 (0.51) 11.06 (0.08) 11.40 (<X43)
From 1946-47 to 1950-51 abundance remained at a generally high level, in
1951-52 there was evidence that abundance had declined, and in 1952-53 and 1953-54
that abundance had increased again. These fluctuations in abundance have been
attributed to variations in year-class strength due to changes in environmental conditions,
probably during the critical larval and post larval stages, rather than to any effect of
fishing. There has been no evidence that spawn deposition in any year has approached
the critical minimum required to maintain abundance. In 1947 the poorest spawning
occurred, yet the resulting year-class was one of the largest on record. In 1951, spawning
in Area 23 was the poorest recorded to that time, while in Area 25 it was the highest
recorded. However, on the basis of its contribution as Ill-year fish in 1954, the 1951
year-class appears to be stronger in Area 23 than in Area 25. The results of the study,
therefore, have indicated that the lack of quota restrictions has not adversely affected
population abundance on the west coast, at least during a period of high population
abundance. It has appeared that in certain areas, particularly Area 25, natural limitations on catch imposed by late inshore migration have been effective in maintaining high
spawn deposition. The lack of a fishery in 1952-53 prevented, at least for the present,
the assessment of the effects of unrestricted fishing during a period of low population
abundance. ; •
On the lower east coast, population abundance has also fluctuated during the period
of the study, although not to the same extent or in the same manner as the west coast
population. Population abundance increased fr<Sm 1946-47 to 1948-49, decreased
in 1949-50 and 1950-51, and has apparently increased steadily since 1951-52. As on
the west coast, variations in year-class strength offer a logical explanation for the fluctuations in abundance. Spawning escapements, particularly in the last three years, appear
to have been much larger than necessary to maintain abundance. The year-classes of
1949 and 1951 have all been of average or above-average size, yet these year-classes
resulted from spawn depositions of at least one-third to one-half the size of the spawn
depositions of the last three years.
While the fluctuations in population abundance and the recent increases in spawn
deposition may indicate that the present fixed quota has not been effective in stabilizing
4e population and may have resulted in some wastage of fish during a period of high
population abundance, other results have indicated that some form of control may be
necessary to maintain this population. Furthermore, an analysis of tag-returns (Stevenson, 1954) has shown that the lower east coast stocks follow a single migration route
from the offshore feeding-grounds to the spawning-ground, passing progressively through
or into each major area, in any of which the major fishery may develop. This single
^ration route thus may render these stocks particularly vulnerable. As the lower east
coast fishery develops early in the season, it seems probable that exploitation could readily
•* increased, possibly even to an extent that would be detrimental to the stock.
The west coast and lower east coast populations were chosen for the comparative
«y of two populations subjected to different methods of management because they were
c°nsidered to be the most closely related stocks with regard to geographical location and
exknt of intermixture (Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951). The results of the
^ eight years of study have shown that certain fairly fundamental differences exist
between the two stocks.
 I 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1. An analysis of tag returns from 1936-1952 (Stevenson, 1954) has shown that
the lower east coast stocks receive apparently quite substantial contributions from stocks
in the middle east coast sub-district, and that the stocks which spawn in the three major
lower east coast areas (Areas 17a, 17b, and 18) are completely mixed, and fail to show
significantly less intermixture with increase in distance separating the spawning-grounds
of the runs. The results of the west coast tagging indicate that there are two relatively
discrete sub-populations consisting of four main runs each. One sub-population comprises those runs to Areas 23 and 24; the other, those to Areas 25, 26, and 27. Intermixture of the order of 25 per cent takes place between sub-populations and is greatest
between adjacent areas. An analysis of the relative contributions of the various year-
classes in the west coast lends support to this conclusion. For instance, the 1947 year-
class was more prominent in the north west coast fishery (Stevenson, Hourston, Jackson,
and Outram, 1952), while the 1951 year-class, as Ill-year fish, appears to be stronger in
the south west coast than in the north west coast fishery. There also appears to be a difference in the pattern of recruitment. In the south west coast sub-population, recruitment occurs at age III, whereas in the north west coast the recruitment occurs at age III
and to an appreciable extent at age IV as well. In this respect this sub-population
resembles the populations in Northern and Central British Columbia.
2. The inshore migration pattern of the lower east coast and west coast stocks
differs as has been mentioned; the lower east coast stocks follow a single migration route,
whereas on the west coast the runs to the various areas probably approach the coast
separately. The times of the inshore migrations to the lower east coast, south west coast,
and north west coast are progressively later. The main migrations to Areas 25 and 27
do not occur in some years until after the close of the fishery.
3. On the lower east coast, spawn survival is apparently higher and factors which
influence survival more constant than on the west coast. With the exception of the last
two years, spawn deposition on the lower east coast has been less than on the west coast,
yet the average catch has been higher. The average west coast spawn deposition of
43.1 miles for the 1947 to 1951 period was followed by an average catch of 33,500 tons
from 1949-50 to 1953-54, the seasons in which the catch was largely comprised of fish
originating from the 1947 to 1951 spawnings. Comparable figures for the lower east
coast show that an average of 16.7 miles of spawn produced an average catch of 43,200
tons. The catches in 1952-53 were not considered in arriving at the average west coast
and lower east coast catches.
4. No statistically significant relationship has been found between the fluctuations
in population abundance on the two sub-districts. From 1946-47 to 1950-51, population abundance on the west coast exceeded that on the lower east coast by a fairly
constant amount. Since 1950-51, lower east coast abundance has been greater than
west coast abundance, resulting primarily from the differential recruitment of the 1949
and 1950 year-classes (Stevenson and Outram, 1953). There appears to have been
a proportionately greater increase in population abundance on the west coast in 1953-54,
which suggests that the 1951 year-class may have been stronger than on the lower east
coast.
While these differences would appear to throw some doubt on the usefulness of the
lower east coast population as a control in the comparative study, it is unlikely that they
will materially affect the validity of the main conclusions to be drawn from the experiment
or of their general applicability to other populations.
It is planned to investigate these apparent differences more closely and to determine
to what extent stocks spawning in American waters contribute to Canadian catches,
particularly in the lower east coast sub-district. Increased emphasis will therefore be
placed on investigations of the lower east coast population. The tagging programme will
be intensified in the Strait of Georgia region to elucidate the relationship between the
middle east coast and lower east coast stocks.    It is also intended to institute a lower
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 73
east coast spawn survey by herring investigators to obtain more information on spawn
deposition and the factors affecting spawn survival. The intensification of research on
He lower east coast population will be made without diminishing the effort expended on
the west coast population.
SUMMARY
This is the eighth in a series of annual reports on the comparative study of two
major herring populations, in one of which (the west coast of Vancouver Island population) unrestricted fishing is permitted, while in the other (the lower east coast of
Vancouver Island population) fishing is restricted by a fixed annual quota of 40,000 tons.
The west coast catch (41,350 tons) in 1953-54 was the largest since 1948-49. The
major portion of the catch was made in Area 23, with above-average contributions from
Areas 24, 26, and 27. The catch in Area 25, the other major fishing area, was one of the
smallest since unrestricted fishing has been permitted. Average catch per unit of effort
for the west coast as a whole was the lowest recorded, slightly less than that for 1947-48,
1949-50, or 1950-51. The extent of spawn deposition on the west coast was close to
the average for the period 1947 to 1954, and, coupled with the size of the catch, suggested
that abundance had increased from the low level of 1951-52 to approximately the level
existing prior to 1950-51. Population abundance increased in all areas with the exception of Area 25, where evidence points to a decrease in abundance.
The increase in population abundance resulted from good recruitment of the 1951
year-class as Ill-year fish, together with the average or above-average contribution of
the 1950 year-class as IV-year fish. The decline in Area 25 is attributed to the relative
weakness of the 1951 year-class in this area. The 1952 year-class, as II-year fish, were
poorly represented in all areas, which suggests that this may not be a strong year-class.
On the lower east coast abundance continued at a high level for the fourth consecutive year. A record catch of 52,660 tons was taken (quota extensions totalling 15,000
tons were granted because of the expected large carry-over of the stock from 1952-53).
Although spawn deposition had decreased compared to 1953, it remained the second
highest ever recorded. The percentage decrease was similar to that on the west coast.
The 1951 year-class was strongly recruited as Ill-year fish. The high level of abundance
is explained by the recruitment of four successive average or above-average year-classes.
The conclusions drawn from the past eight years of study of the west coast and lower
east coast populations were reviewed. It was pointed out that during periods of high
population abundance, unrestricted fishing on the west coast had not affected population
abundance adversely, and the fixed quota on the lower east coast had not stabilized the
abundance there. The effects of unrestricted fishing in the one population and of a fixed
quota on the other during periods of low population remained to be determined.
Although the fixed quota has not stabilized abundance on the lower east coast, the possibility exists that some form of restriction may be necessary to protect this population.
ft was pointed out that the single migration route and early inshore migration render this
population vulnerable, and that exploitation could readily be increased, possibly to a
Point detrimental to the stock. H
As a result of the study, certain fairly fundamental differences between the two
Populations have come to light, but it is considered that these will not affect the main
delusions to be drawn or their general applicability to other stocks. Investigations are
Planned to obtain further information on these differences.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The herring investigation is indebted to the fishing companies, herring-fishermen
*» government fisheries departments for their indispensable support of herring research
during 1953-54 *
 I 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Special acknowledgment and thanks are due to the fishing companies for generously
providing vessels on a charter-free basis, and space and facilities in various plants for
operation of tag-detectors and for sampling the catch. Francis Millard & Company provided the Great Northern III for use in the tagging programme; the Canadian Fishing
Company Limited, the seiner Bligh Island and facilities for the operation of a tag-detector
in the Gulf of Georgia plant. The Anglo-British Columbia Packing Company made
available the Fir Leaf for the west coast spawn survey. British Columbia Packers Limited provided an additional power-skiff for the tagging programme, and space in their
Imperial and Seal Cove plants for the operation of tag-detectors. Nelson Brothers Fisheries Limited allowed the installation of a tag-detector in their Colonial plant. Acknowledgment must be given to members of the staff of various plants for their contribution in
collecting herring samples, and to captains and crews of the tagging and spawn-survey
vessels for their valuable co-operation. The interest shown by the companies, their plant
managers, foremen, and staffs in all phases of herring research was greatly appreciated.
The captains of most of the herring-seiners again undertook to fill out and submit
pilot-house records, providing us with valuable and otherwise unobtainable information
relating to catch. It is with pleasure that we acknowledge their efforts and the continuing
interest of all herring-fishermen in herring research.
The considerable assistance rendered by the Federal Department of Fisheries
through the Chief Supervisor, A. J. Whitmore, and regional supervisors, G. S. Reade
and H. E. Palmer, is most gratefully acknowledged. For the tremendous effort required
to carry out surveys on the extent and intensity of herring spawning in all coastal areas,
special thanks are due to the fisheries officers who participated. In addition, thanks are
due to the fisheries officers at Butedale and Bella Bella for carrying out magnet-efficiency
tests in the plants in their areas. The efforts of the Chief Statistician and members of
his staff in making available final catch records of all fishing areas, and records of daily
deliveries to the various plants during the progress of each fishery, are gratefully
acknowledged.
The interest of the Provincial Department of Fisheries and its Deputy Minister,
G. J. Alexander, in continuing the publication of this series of reports, is deeply appreciated.   This report forms the eighteenth of the series.
The conscientious efforts and co-operative spirit of all members of the herring
investigation have been sincerely appreciated. A. S. Hourston, assistant scientist, has
carried on the investigation on juvenile herring and has provided valuable advice on all
phases of the research. D. N. Outram, assistant scientist, supervised the spawn studies
and contributed in many ways to the efficiency of the investigation.
G. T. Taylor, administrative assistant of the herring investigation, compiled and
analysed the catch data and contributed to the tagging and tag-recovery programme.
R. S. Isaacson, laboratory technician, assumed responsibilities for making age determinations of all fish sampled from the winter and spawning runs. In addition, he supervised the compilation of age and growth data, and contributed to their preliminary
analysis. His assistance in assembling this report is also acknowledged.
H" All members of the staff assisted in the field work of the investigation. A special
tribute is due to A. G. Paul, senior field technician, who after twelve years with the
herring investigation transferred to the less arduous position of maintenance supervisor
at this station. His unfailing co-operation and willingness, together with his great practical knowledge of all phases of field work and of the herring-fishery, have been of inestimable value to the investigation and a tremendous example to all. During the 1953-54
season, Mr. Paul was again responsible for the supervision of the tagging and sampling
programmes and for the maintenance of the nets and other equipment. Other members
of the herring staff, J. A. Bond, J. S. Rees, E. W. Stolzenberg, B. Wildman, and A. Rigby,
assisted in field programmes and in the preliminary analysis of data. W. Egeland, captain of the chartered vessel Grassholm, again provided valuable assistance and advice in
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 75
the juvenile herring field studies. Miss Diane Blackburn efficiently carried out stenographic and clerical duties. A
Various members of the staff of the Pacific Biological Station rendered valuable
assistance to the herring investigation. M. A. Pirart of the electronics laboratory carried
on further work on the design and operation of tag-detectors. R. M. Wilson and W. G.
St. Clair, port contact-men in Vancouver and Prince Rupert respectively, arranged for
the collection of samples.
Thanks are due to Dr. A. L. Tester, visiting investigator from the University of
Hawaii, and J. C. Stevenson, Assistant Director of the Pacific Biolo^cal Station, for
constructive criticism of this report.
It is with sincere pleasure that acknowledgment is made of the valuable advice,
encouragement, and direction supplied throughout the year by Dr. J. L. Hart, former
director of this station and new director of the Atlantic Biological Station.
REFERENCES
Stevenson, J. C. (1950): Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring invest^
gation, 1948-49.   Rept. British Colombia Fish. Dept., 1948, pp. 37-85.
  (1954):  The movement of herring in British Columbia waters as determined
by tagging (submitted for publication).
Stevenson, J. C, and Outram, D^.N. (1953):  Results 61 investigation of herring
populations on the west coast and lower east coast of Vancouver Island in 1952-53
with an analysis of fluctuations in population abundance since 1946-47.   Rept.
British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1953, pp. 57-84.
Stevenson, J. C, and Lanigan, J. A. (1950) :* Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1949-50.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1949,
pp. 41-80. I I
Stevenson, J. C; Hourston, A. S.; and Lanigan, J. A. (1951) :* Results of the west
coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1950-51.   Rept. British Columbia
Fish. Dept., 1950, pp. 51-84. §
Stevenson, J. C; Hourston, A. S.; Jackson, K. J.; and Outram, D. N. (1952):*
Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1951-52.   Rept.
British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1951, pp. 57-87. I
Tester, A. L., and Stevenson, J. C. (1947): Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1946-47.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1946,
pp. 42-71.
 (1948 ): * Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1947-48.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1947, pp. 41-86.
* Reprints were published in year following the date of publication of report.
 I 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
TABLES    ^ ;jL
Tafete /.—Catch (in Tons), Fishing Effort (Total Number of Active Fishing-days Expended by All Seine-boats), and Catch per Unit of Effort (Average Catch per Seine
per Day's Active Fishing Effort) for West Coast and Lower East Coast Areas during
the 1953-54 Fishing Season.
Area
Catch
West Coast
Area 23	
Area 24	
Area 25	
Area 26	
Area 27	
Totals	
Lower East Coast
Area 17a	
Area 17b I	
Area 18	
Area 19	
Totals	
24,200
5,350
5,000
2,700
2,100
39,350
4,000
18,350
30,000
250
52,600
Fishing Effort
482.9
76.3
222.5
76.4
36.6
895.0
72.7
204.5
348.5
20.0
630.2
Catch per Unit
of Effort
50.2
70.1
22.5
35.3
57.4
44.0
55.0
89.8
86.1
12.5
83.5
1 The total number of active fishing-days is calculated to the nearest whole number from catch per unit of effort,
based on incompleted data and from estimated catch.
 f
fable ny-Kumber of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, According to Area of Tagging and
Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1953-54 Fishing Season
Area of Tagging
Tagging
Code
Area2B-E.
Area 4.
Area 1
Area 6-
Area7-
Area 10.
Area 11
Area 14.
Area 81
Area 17a.
Area 17b.
16CC
17QQ
17RR
15T
15U
16Z
16AA
16BB
17MM
17NN
17PP
9Q
14CC
14AA
14BB
HDD
15V
15W
17LL
8M
14HH
14KK
15X
15AA
15BB
16U
16W
16X
16Y
17EE
17FF
17GG
17HH
1711
17JJ
17KK
14EE
15CC
8K
9G
17DD
14A
16A
17B
17C
13A
14B
14C
15A
15B
17A
14E
14F
15C •
15D
16B
16C
16D
17D
17E
14G
14H
15E
16E
16F
16G
17F
(1952)
(1953)
(1953)
(1951)
(1951)
(1952)
(1952)
(1952)
(1953)
(1953)
(1953)
(1945)
(1950)
(1950)
(1950)
(1950)
(1951)
(1951)
(1953)
(1944)
(1950)
(1950)
(1951)
(1951)
(1951)
(1952)
(1952)
(1952)
(1952)
(1953)
(1953)
(1953)
(1953)
(1953)
(1953)
(1953)
(1950)
(1951)
(1944)
(1945)
(1953)
(1950)
(1952)
(1953)
(1953)
(1949)
(1950)
(1950)
(1951)
(195})
(1953)
(1950)
(1950)
(1951)
(1951)
(1952)
(1952)
(1952)
(1953)
(1953)
(1950)
(1950)
(1951)
(1952)
(1952)
(1952)
(1953)
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Q.C.I.
Northern
4
5
2
63
31
96
121
4
61
166
125
1
8
4
19
23
1
{
1
3
3
1
Central
1
2
1
1
3
3
5
3
2
3
14
3
33
16
153
1
4
5
34
52
39
47
71
69
69
63
102
200
54
54
21
150
1
6
Upper
East
Coast
Middle
East
Coast
Lower
East
Coast
West
Coast
2
1
1
1
83
1
2
18
19
7
2
4
4
10
13
13
1
10
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
12
9
3
1
2
4
8
1
4
2
3
3
1
1
3
4
2
2
7
9
19
2
1
2
2
2
2
8
6
20
28
9
26
28
1
2
5
3
28
2
3
5
3
1
2
5
25
3
4
17
29
2
4
12
3
25
9
4
3
3
4
14
25
23
7
1
1
2
2
1
1
3
8
1
8
Total
8
7
4
72
40
121
155
4
71
195
155
1
9
4
19
3
42
38
204
1
6
6
36
56
39
55
76
71
71
69
105
228
58
58
38
182
3
10
1
1
95
3
58
41
16
5
7
9
26
42
46
1
1
19
1
2
6
8
5
9
2
3
3
8
18
11
30
77
 Table II.—Number
of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, According to Area of Tagging and
Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1953-54 Fishing Season—Continued
Area of Tagging
Tagging
Code
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Northern
Upper
Middle
Lower
West
Coast
Total
Q.C.I.
Central
East
Coast
East
Coast
East
Coast
?
17G       (1953)
1  1
5
2
1        3
11
17H       (1953)
5
2
1
8
171        (1953)
2
2
1
5
Area 18 P
15F        (1951)
7
1        8
1      I5
15G       (1951)
1
2
3
17J        (1953)
1
14
7
8
30
Area 20        . —i '---■
15DD    (1951)
|        1
1        -
Area 23 P
12K       (1948)
1
1
131         (1949)
2
2
141        ,(1950)
2
2
14L        (1950)
1
1
14M       (1950)
1
1
15H       (1951)
9
9
151         (1951)
1
1
15K       (1951)
1
1
15L        (1951)
1
|        1
2
16H       (1952)
14
14
161         (1952)
——_.-.
14
14
16J         (1952)
|        1
53
54
16K       (1952)
1
1
62
5
69
16L        (1952)
1
14
15
17K       (1953)
——..»
I        -
155
1
159
17M       (1953)
2
59
2
63
17N       (1953)
1        5
103
5
113
17P        (1953)
1
	
2
79
82
17Q        (1953)
2
28
2
32
17R        (1953)
l-T.-n-TTTfc
1
4
63
1
69
17S         (1953)
—1
5
80
2
87
Area 24              — L-~
12M       (1948)
-fy             !
1
1
13K       (1949)
1
1
13L        (1949)
1
1
15M       (1951)
6
6
15N       (1951)
1
18
19
16M       (1952)
• I
120
2
|    122
16N       (1952)
	
69
69
17T       (1953)
1
49
50
17U       (1953)
1
60
|        1
1     62
Area 25           Pi -
13M      (1949)
2
2
13Q       (1949)
1
1
13R        (1949)
• ♦
2
2
13S        (1949)
2
2
14Q        (1950)
2
2
14R        (1950)
1       -
|        1
14T        (1950)
4
4
14U       (1950)
4
4
15P        (1951)
7
7
15Q       (1951)
20
|      20
15R       (1951)
9
9
15S        (1951)
5
3
8
16P        (1952)
13
1
14
16Q       (1952)
8
8
16R        (1952)
12
12
16S        (1952)
13
13
17W      (1953)
12
12
17X       (1953)
16
16
17Y       (1953)
22
22
17Z        (1953)
25
25
Area 26           J~ —
14V       (1950)
1
8
1
14W      (1950)
1
9
16T        (1952)
|        1
117
1    |
119
17AA    (1953)
126
2
128
17BB     (1953)
25
25
Area 27            J	
12W      (1948)
Sil
1
3
i
12X       (1948)
3
y-yW
14X       (1950)
1    |
11    |
12
17CC     (1953)
1
67    j
3
71
Washington State	
.   (x);     (1953)
1
1    |
1    |
3
j Totals  .	
12    |
743    |
1,28^
92
123
155
1,646    1
490    |
4,548
1 These tags were put
out by United States investigators in Hood Canal in Anril. 1953. and were recovere<
1 in the
Canadian fishery.
78
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 79
0e III-Probable Number of Tags in the Catches during the 1953 54 M       n \ I
Magnet Recoveries, Shown by Area oi Tnant*.       y « ^J-54 Season, Based
wTT" Q&S35E 1U*S in *** Catches during the 1953 u c„„       n
Magnet Recoveries, Shown by Area oi Tna«_»      "* *m-34 Season, Base*
„, with Actual Number^Ta^p^j^ '**'* 5lrf^« «
Area of
Tagging
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
QC.I.
Northern
Central
Upper
East
Coast
2B-E-—I
t	
5	
i	
I	
10	
12	
14 -
15 ,--
17*	
17b	
18	
20 -
23——
24	
25	
26	
27	
Totals
17 (12)
3(2)
Middle
j East
Coast
3(2)
917 (789)
10 (9)
67 (57)
16 (14)
1 (1)
2(1)
20 (14)
1,016 (873)
4(4)
20 (18)
Kl)
272 (252)
1,219(1,131)
12(11)
KD
Lower
Bast
Coast
3(3)
KD
4(4)
KD
103 (97)
1(1)
2(2)
1,529 (1,418)| 115 (109)
West
Coast
Total
1(1)
	
7(6)
1 (1)
92 (84)
124 (118)
22 (20)
12(11)
1 (1)
1 (1)
29 (25)
17(15)
28 (23)
87 (73)
46 (39)
KD
KD
45 (39)
4(4)
4(3)
4(3)
KD
264 (246)
264 (224)
1
1(1)
1(1)
7"
10(9)
2(2)
6(6)
17 (15)
9(8)
836 (723)
367 (290)
256(70)
301 (67)
132 (SO)
25
944
11
340
1,247
14
103
131
143
57
116
56
1
884
372
261
306
135
(19)
(813)
(10)
(310)
(1.156)
(13)
(97)
(118)
(135)
(50)
(99)
(48)
(1)
(765)
(295)
(74)
(71)
(52)
1,938 (1,242)15,146 (4,126)
!Tags recovered by plants in which no magnet tests were carried out were omitted in calculating the probable
number of tags in the catches.
fable IV.—Average Percentage Age Composition of Samples from the Winter and
Spawning Runs to the West Coast of Vancouver Island during the 1953-54 Season
Area
WINTER RUNS
Number
of
Samples
In Year of Age
II
III
rv
51
12
2.88
2.03
62.60
71.33
67.00
40.52
38.27
47.42
27.74
22.26
30.00
47.25
41.98
40.36
SPAWNING RUNS
81.25
71.72
48.45
10.42
22.22
42.27
V
5.93
3.51
3.00
7.94
14.81
10.21
28.42 |    5.87
1.04
3.03
7.22
VI
0.53
0.78
3.83
2.47
0.79
0.70
2.06
1aW~    3.76 |    0.69
vn   vm
IX
0.15
0.09
0.46
2.47
1.21
0.23
0.09 |   0.02 |   0.02
0.06 I    0.01      0.01
 I 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—Average Percentage Age Composition of Samples from the Winter and
Spawning Runs to the Lower East Coast of Vancouver Island during the 1953-54
Season.
WINTER RUNS
No. of
Samples
In Year of Age
Area
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
17a	
17b ;	
18	
14
28
38
1.37
0.63
0.70
55.78
61.59
56.12
34.40
31.97
35.84
7.50
5.24
6.39
0.71
0.53
0.66
0.16
0.04
0.20
0.08
0.06
0.03
All 	
80
0.79    1    57.98
34.23
6.18
0.62
0.14           0.04          0.01
SPAWNING RUNS
17a	
17b	
18	
1
1
2
2.08
4.49
3.03
67.71
49.44
54.55
25.00
38.21
36.36
5.21
7.87
6.06
	
All	
4
3.16
56.56
33.98
6.30
1                 1
Table VI.—Average Sex Ratio (Females/Males) and Stage of Development for Samples
from Winter and Spawning Runs to the West Coast of Vancouver Island during the
1953-54 Season.
WINTER RUNS
Sex Ratio
Percentage
Area
Immature
Mature
Unspent
Mature
Spent
23  	
24 	
1.07
1.06
1.50
0.96
1.24
1.05
3.73
2.41
2.81
96.27
97.59
100.00
100.00
100.00
97.19
25a 	
25b    -i-.
26    	
27 _:  	
All	
1.07
3.22
96.78
SPAWNING RUNS
23 	
1.08
1.17
0.82
	
100.00
60.00
76.00
24  M
25a    	
25b 	
40.00
24.00
26	
27   	
All	
1.01
78.67
21.33
 	
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
xmiLIN1 181
firtte W/.—Average Sex Ratio (Females/Males) and Staer ntn» i
/hm Winter and Spawning Runs to the Lower aX ? Dw*W* for Samples
during the 1953-54 Season. " Em Coast °f Vancouver Island
WINTER RUNS
Area
17a	
17b	
18	
All
17a—
17b	
18—
All-
Sex Ratio
Immature
0.79
0.82
0.82
0.81
18.05
6.49
4.07
7.30
SPAWNING RUNS
0.78
1.04
0.72
0.81
Percentage
Mature
Unspent
81.95
93.51
95.93
92.70
72.00
18.89
71.00
59.23
Mature
Spent
28.00
81.11
29.00
40.77
Table VIII.—Average Length (Millimetres) and Average Weight (Grams) for Each Age
in Samples from Winter Runs to the West Coast of Vancouver Island in 1953-54,
with Numbers of Fish on Which Averages are Based in Parentheses.
AVERAGE LENGTH
In Year
of Age
Area 23
Area 24
Area 25a
Area 25b
Area 26
Area 27
All Areas
I	
(2)    90.5
(133)  161.6
(2,935)  186.0
(1,301) 200.1
(279) 211.3
(25) 223.8
(7) 232.3
(4) 239.5
(1) 271.0
(1) 278.0
(220)  193.0
(101) 180.5
(131) 197.5
(21) 209.6
(10) 221.5
(1) 240.0
(127) 180.5
(108)  198.3
(27) 210.5
(2) 226.0
(3) 226.3
(2)    90.5
II	
(22)  154.0
(749)  182.8
(227)  198.4
(35) 210.0
(8) 218.6
(1) 225.0
(155) 160.5
m.
(67)  182.5
(30)  198.7
(3) 213.3
(31) 181.6
(34)  198.8
(12) 212.6
(2) 225.0
(2) 236.0
(4,010)   185.0
IV ...:.
(1,831)  199.5
$L
(377)  211.1
VI „.,
(47) 222.6
VIL._
(14) 231.6
VIII	
	
(4)  239.5
IX .
(38)  193.9
(1) 271.0
E
(1) 278.0
?
(14) 200.4
(2) 181.0
(18) 198.7
(272)  193.06
HL.
IV_
V_.
m
VII.
VIII
1
(2)
(87)
(2,189)
(979)
. (221)
(20)
(4)
(1)
(166)
8.5
53.8
86.3
106.9
126.9
148.4
165.8
155.0
97.0
(4) 32.5
(242) 78.4
(45) 99.4
(3) 115.7
(6)    90.7
AVERAGE WEIGHT
Salted
samples,
no
weights
taken
(51) 77.6
(117) 97.0
(16) 122.3
(7) 144.6
(9) 105.3
Salted
samples,
no
weights
taken
(92)
(78)
(18)
(1)
(1)
77.3
101.2
125.2
134.0
145.0
(10)  100.8
(2)
(91)
(2,574)
(1,219)
(258)
(28)
(5)
(1)
(191)
8.5
53.7
86.0
105.3
126.4
146.9
161.6
155.0
97.4
 I 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IX.—Average Length (Millimetres) in Samples from Spawning Runs to the West
Coast of Vancouver Island in 1954, with Numbers of Fish on Which Averages are
Based in Parentheses.
AVERAGE LENGTH
In Year of Age
Area 23
Area 24
Area 25a
Area 25b
Area 26
Area 27
All Areas
I
(3) 159.3
(71) 181.7
(22)   198.6
(3) 209.3
Ti
(7) 154.4
(78) 177.5
(10)  192.5
(1)  210.0
(10) 155 9
III
(47)  185.5
(41) 202.0
(7) 219.0
(2) 233.5
(196)  180.9
rv
(73)  199.7
v
(11) 215 5
VI
	
(2) 233 5
VII
VIII
IX
?
	
(4)  185.0
(1)  171.0
(3) 221.7
	
(8) 197.0
Table X.—Average Length (Millimetres) and Average Weight (Grams) for Each Age
in Samples from Winter Runs to the Lower East Coast of Vancouver Island in
1953-54, with Numbers of Fish on Which Averages are Based in Parentheses.
AVERAGE LENGTH
In Year of Age
Area 17a
Area 17b
Area 18
All Areas
i	
(17)  150.2
(1,657)  187.1
(858)  199.8
(141) 211.0
(14) 225.9
(1) 218.0
ii           ...    ....
in  	
rv  	
v
(18)  152.8
(729)  186.1
(445)  198.4
(96) 209.7
(9) 218.9
(2) 224.5
(1) 220.0
(30)  193.1
(26)  152.5
(2,030)  187.7
(1,297)  199.6
(233) 211.0
(24) 222.6
(7) 228.5
(2) 231.0
(1) 237.0
(115)  196.2
(61) 152.0
(4,416)  187.2
(2,600)  199.5
(470) 210.7
VI 	
(47) 222.9
VII 	
VIIL	
(10) 226.7
(3) 227.3
(1) 237.0
IX 1 	
?
(85)  196.7
(230)  196.0
AVERAGE WEIGHT
I 	
(18)    48.4
(729)    90.9
(445)  111.7
(96)  133.9
(9)  144.6
(2)  157.0
(1)   164.0
II  	
(17)    43.9
(1,657)    87.7
(858)  107.0
(141)  126.7
(14)  148.0
(1)  129.0
(26)    46.5
(2,030)    88.1
(1,297)  106.8
(233)  124.8
(24)  150.6
(7)  161.7
(2)  189.5
(1)  186.0
(115)  100.2
(61)    46.4
(4,416)    88.4
(2,600)  107.7
(470)  127.3
(47)  148.7
(10)  157.5
(3)  181.0
(1)  186.0
(230)  101.1
TTT
IV      .   .
V
VI  	
VII I  	
VIII  	
IX.    	
?
(30)  104.3
(85)  101.2
Table XI.—Average Length (Millimetres) in Samples from Spawning Runs to the Lower
Mr   East Coast of Vancouver Island in 1954, with Numbers of Fish on Which Averages
are Based in Parentheses.
AVERAGE LENGTH
In Year of Age
Area 17 a
Area 17b
Area 18
All Areas
I    ....
II  	
(2) 157.0
(65) 181.9
(24)  193.4
(5) 208.0
(4) 150.5
(44) 185.9
(34)  199.0
(7) 207.6
(6)  161.3
(108)  186.6
(72) 200.4
(12) 213.8
(12) 157.0
(217) 185.0
(130)  198.7
(24) 210.8
Ill	
IV  .    	
V 	
VI _	
VII  	
VIII 	
(4)  192.5
(1) 200.0
9
(2) 204.5
(7)  197.0
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT j 83
REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC
HALIBUT COMMISSION, 1^53
On March 2nd, the thirtieth anniversary of the signing of the fi«f h*i;k.,* „~
Ma and .he United States signed the fourth efaS^ta fa£VZSE
ofthe Pacific halibut-fishery. This new treaty, ratified on October 28th SST^Z
sented one more step in the joint and mutually profitable effort to rebuild the'padfic
halibut stocks to levels of high sustained yield. ^
A number of important changes are made in the convention of 1953    The Inter
national Fisheries Commission is continued as the International Pacific Halibut Commission, a name that better identifies the organization which is no longer the sole international
fisheries commission as it was in 1923.   Membership on the Commission is increased
from four to six, three to be appointed by each country.
The new convention sets broader objectives and places more emphasis upon
investigations. The objectives of the convention are the development of the stocks of
halibut to levels which will permit the maximum sustained yield and the maintenance
ofthe stocks at those levels. The application of regulatory measures is made contingent
upon investigations having indicated that such measures are necessary.
The Commission's authority is increased in several respects. The most important
of these changes permits the Commission to establish more than one open or closed
season in any area during a year, which it could not do under the earlier conventions.
Other changes deal with the regulation of the retention of halibut caught incidentally
while fishing for other species, and with the conduct of fishing operations for investigative
purposes.
The new convention does not provide the Commission with authority to control
the rate of landing of halibut by the application of between-trip tie-ups to the vessels
individually or on any other basis, as was proposed by the Commission in 1946.
During the year 1953 the Commission continued, under the authority of the treaty
of 1937, the regulation of the halibut-fishery and carried forward the statistical and
biological investigations which form the basis for current and future controls.
Members of the Commission during most of the year were: George W. Nickerson,
Prince Rupert, Chairman; George R. Clark, Ottawa; Seton H. Thompson, Washington,
D.C; and Edward W. Allen, Seattle, Secretary. Early in November, Canada appointed
Richard Nelson, Vancouver, and Harold S. Helland, Prince Rupert, to fill the vacancies
resulting from the increase in membership under the 1953 convention and from the
resignation of Mr. Nickerson who had served as Secretary or Chairman from his
appointment in 1943. The United States appointed J. W. Mendenhall, Ketchikan, as its
ird member in January, 1954.
The annual meetings of the Commission were held in Seattle, Wash., on January
21st, 22nd, and 23rd. During these, the results of investigations and regulations were
^viewed; conferences were held with representatives of the fishermen's and vessel
owners' organizations in the major halibut-ports and with Canadian and United States
wholesale halibut-dealers, to discuss regulatory problems; the investigational programme
forthe ensuing year was approved; and some minor changes were made m the regulations
for 1953.
n The Pacific Halibut-fishery Regulations for 1953 were approved by the Governor-
General of Canada on April 17th and by the President of the United States on May 11th,
and became effective on the latter date. §|f 100 qc
, B The regulations continued without change the eight regulatK°^
S>ws: Area 1a, south of Cape Blanco, Oregon; Area 1b, *f~ 2Sc2^^
JpaBay, Waitings A^a 2a, between Wfflapa Bay -^££c£A
Elusive of Areas 2b and 2c; Area 2b, in lower Hecate airau wi
 I 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Area 2c, in the Forrester Island region off South-eastern Alaska; Area 3a, between Cape
Spencer and the Sanak Islands, Alaska; Area 3b, west of the Sanak Islands and along
the Aleutian Islands; and Area 4, the section of Bering Sea lying north of Cape Sarichef
on Unimak Island.
Opening dates in all areas were generally later than in 1952. The 1953 fishing
seasons in Areas 1a, 1b, 2a, and 3a were opened on May 17th, three days later than in
1952 on account of the different tidal conditions in the two years. Areas 3b and 4 were
opened on August 5th for a period of twenty-five days, eight days longer than in 1952.
The two small areas, Area 2b off British Columbia and Area 2c off South-eastern Alaska,
were each opened for a ten-day period commencing on July 31st, five days later than
in 1952. I
f|p Vessels fishing for crab in Area 4, in Bering Sea, with bottom nets of 12-inch or
larger mesh were permitted to retain a limited proportion of halibut caught incidentally
to such fishing from August 30th to November 14th, inclusive.
Catch-limits of 25,500,000 pounds and 28,000,000 pounds were continued for
Areas 2a and 3a respectively. All other areas, in which the total catch of halibut is
comparatively small, were allowed to continue without catch-limits.
The closing dates of Areas 2a and 3a were again made contingent upon the attainment of their respective catch-limits. The closing date of Area 2a was applied to Area 1b
and that of Area 2a or Area 3a, whichever was later, was applied to Area 1a.
Other important regulatory provisions which were continued included a minimum
size-limit of 26 inches heads on or 5 pounds heads off for halibut; the closure of two
nursery areas, one off Masset in Northern British Columbia and one off Timbered Islet
in South-eastern Alaska; the prohibition of the use of dory gear and nets of any kind in
fishing for halibut; the termination after November 16th of permits for the retention
and possession of halibut caught incidentally during fishing for other species in Areas 1a,
1b, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3a, and 3b; and the beginning of the winter closed season after November
30th in any area that might still be open by reason of the non-attainment of the catch-
limit which otherwise determined its closure.
Areas 2a and 1b were closed to halibut-fishing at midnight of June 9th, and Areas
3a and 1a at midnight of July 7th. Areas 2b and 2c were closed at midnight of August
9th and Areas 3b and 4 at midnight of August 29th as specified in the regulations.
Small landings of halibut continued until midnight, November 15th, under the regulatory
provision allowing set-line vessels to retain and land, under permit, a small proportion
of halibut caught incidentally while fishing for other species in closed areas.
The closing dates of Areas 2a and 3a were announced in advance on May 30th
and June 18th, respectively, on the basis of the estimated dates of attainment of their
respective catch-limits. 11
Pacific Coast halibut-landings in 1953 were 60,685,000 pounds, slightly less than
in 1952 but 16,500,000 pounds above the 1931 level. The landings from the various
groups of areas were: Areas 1a and 1b combined, 532,000 pounds; Areas 2a, 2b, and
2c combined, 33,099,000 pounds; Areas 3a, 3b, and 4 combined, 27, 054,000 pounds.
Included in the above are 603,000 pounds from Area 2a and 13,000 pounds from
Area 3a, caught incidentally while fishing for other species and landed under permit.
The combined catch from Areas 2a, 2b, and 2c was about 2,200,000 pounds
higher in 1953 than in 1952 due to some increase in the production from special Areas
2b and 2c, a larger post-season permit-catch, and abnormally large fares caught after
the advance announcement of closure of Area 2a. In Areas 3a, 3b, and 4, the combined
catch was almost 4,400,000 pounds below the 1952 level, in which year production
from Area 3a greatly exceeded the catch-limit. The balance of the decrease in 1953
was due mainly to a large number of United States vessels leaving the fishery in the
three weeks which elapsed between announcement of the closing date and actual closure
of Area 3a. Also, a number of United States Area 2 vessels that had stated their intention
 I 85
to
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
fish in Area 3a after the closure of Area 2a electa 'mM
^ dome date not to do so. A elCCted after annoonccmcnt of the Area
The three-year experiment with special fishing mhkd •    a
& a total catch of 10,709,000 pounds, a net gS ta^rf-taT S^So* PT
over the 3,750,000 pounds that would have been expend from 1 ''^ P°[f^
*eyhad been opened during the regular fishing season affor^eriv *°"* *
Fewer vessels participated in the Area 3b and Area 4 fishery in l<m h»t ,k.s,
greater effectiveness and the longer fishing period maintained the catch ft*™' a„L *
nd 4 at about 1,000,000 pounds. The combined catTfrom th^0 «eas^%52
d 1953 totalled 2,019,000 pounds a net gain in yield of abo^t T?50*X) pou^
over what would have been expected from the same areas had they been opened during
it regular fishing season.  About 500,000 pounds of this catch were taken iTBerine Sea
Landings of halibut by Canadian vessels in 1953 amounted to 25,895 000 pounds'
of which 18,218,000 pounds were from Areas 2a, 2b, and 2c, and 7,677,000 pounds
fern Areas 3a and 3b. The 1953 Canadian catches from these groups of areas were
1,268,000 pounds and 213,000 pounds greater respectively than in 1952. They constituted 55 per cent and 28 per cent respectively of the landings from these groups of areas.
Landings by United States vessels in Canadian ports and by Canadian vessels in
United States ports amounted to 2,020,000 and 1,091,000 pounds respectively.
The scientific observations which guide regulation were carried forward by the
Commission's staff. The collection and analysis of the statistical and biological data
needed to determine the condition of the stocks were continued and new tagging experiments were begun under the continuous marking programme undertaken in 1949 to
improve utilization of the various stocks.
Biological statistics, derived from the daily fishing records kept by the captains of
halibut-vessels, indicated a continuation of the sharp rise in pounds of halibut caught
per unit-effort which occurred during 1952 in Area 2a. This improvement was primarily on the Goose Island and Cape Scott grounds off British Columbia and in the
inside waters of southeastern Alaska. In Area 3a, the catch per unit-effort was slightly
higher than in 1952 and was greater than it had been in any of the previous thirty years
with the exception of 1944. The portion of the area lying west of the Trinity Islands
showed a substantially increased catch per unit-effort. Jr
The catch per unit-effort during the ten-day season in Area 2b was higher in 1953
than in 1952 due to a wider dispersal of the fleet over the area. In Area 2c, it was
slightly lower. In Area 3b, the vessels profited from their previous year's experience
and had more successful fishing. In the Bering Sea, fishing was not sufficient to provide
Able average returns per unit-effort.
Sampling of the commercial catches to secure materials for the study of changes
inthe length and age compositions of the stocks was continued at the ports of Seattle,
Vancouver, and Prince Rupert during the fishing seasons. More than 40,000 length-
measurements and 10,000 otoliths were collected from seventy-one tops from Areas
*. 2b, 2c, 3a, and 3b. These were supplemented by 6,000 len^h-measurements and
5,500 otoliths, secured during tagging operations on a chartered fish^g-vessel.
Analysis of the length and "age-composition materials from Area^showed £
*ease in halibut of all commercial ages from 1952 to 1953. ^?^_*lfi£
»the 7-year-olds and younger fish than in the older age-classes, a hopeful sign m view
°f the relative scarcity of young fish during the preceding tew years.
1 The catch fromArea 2b showed a sharp increase in &<£****£ °£«^
^proportion of halibut over 15 years of age was twice as high as in 1951
atthe same season. I f       A     3a seated a shift in
Studies of past and present age-composifron data from Area s ^ ^ ^
^age-classes upon which the fishery depends for the bulk:<x ine        ,
%ear groups in the middle 1930'stothe 11 to 16-year groups in recent y
 I 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA
the same period, the average proportion of | large " in the commercial catch increased
from 20 to 32 per cent. In 1953 there was a noteworthy showing of 9- and 10-year-olds
and halibut over 20 years of age appeared to be present in greater than usual numbers.
Continuing studies of the changes which have occurred in the stocks of halibut on
some banks are showing profound differences in the growth rates in early and recent
years, apparently in keeping with changes in the density of the stocks as indicated by
the catch per unit effort. Halibut taken on Portlock and Albatross Banks in recent
years have been larger and much heavier at the same ages than those caught on the
same banks in the late 1920's. The former originated and grew up during the period of
relatively low stock density after 1930, the latter during the period of high stock density
prior to 1920 when there was little fishing in that region.
The tagging programme, begun in 1949 to ascertain the relationship between the
stocks on different banks at the same season and on the same banks at different seasons
and to determine the availability of each part of each stock to fishing, was continued on
a chartered vessel in the spring and summer of 1953. Approximately 6,200 halibut
were tagged, bringing the total tagged since 1949 to 28,460. The spring and summer
phases of the programme in the region between Vancouver Island and Cape Ommaney,
Alaska, were completed.
Tag recoveries in 1953 from all experiments numbered 1,290, the largest number
received in any one year. Practically all were derived from 1951 to 1953 releases.
They corroborated previous evidence of low recovery rates from experiments on Port-
lock Bank and west, high recovery rates in the northern Hecate Strait-Dixon Entrance
regions, and the relative independence of the stocks of fish that were marked on the
different grounds at the same season. Recoveries from spring experiments did not yet
cover a sufficient number of years to permit comparison with the previously conducted
summer experiments.
The problem of unequal availability of stocks of fish from one year to the next,
and even within a single fishing season, indicated by sudden changes in catch per unit
effort and frequently mentioned by the Commission in recent years, was well demonstrated by results from a large tagging experiment conducted near Goose Island in 1951.
Approximately 20,000 skates fished in the region of tagging in 1952 caught only 1.8
per cent of the tagged fish, whereas 15,000 skates in 1953 caught 7.5 per certf. Thus,
four times more tagged fish were caught in the 1953 season with less fishing than were
taken in 1952. The difference in the number of tags recovered in the two years derived
added significance from the fact that the number of tagged fish remaining in any experiment declines with each successive year. It demonstrated the necessity of obtaining
recoveries from as many years as possible before drawing any far-reaching conclusions.
Two reports were published during 1953. One was a scientific report upon | The
Production of Halibut Eggs on the Cape St. James Spawning Bank off British Columbia,
1935-1946." The other was a summary report dealing with "Regulation and Investigation of the Pacific Halibut Fishery in 1952."
 I 87
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC SALMON
FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR 1953       LM°N
The Governments of Canada and the United States continued the work of restoration
and management of the sockeye salmon of the Fraser River watershed, acting through
te International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, established in 1937 Canadian
fishermen took 1,992,343 sockeye m treaty waters in 1953 and United States fishermen
took 2,032,437. Thus the total catch of 4,024,780 fish was divided, 40 50 per cent for
Canada and 50.50 per cent for the United States. 1
For the third consecutive year the catch of Fraser sockeye has broken all recent
records on its cycle. In 1953 the catch exceeded that of any previous cycle-year since
1917, and the escapement to the spawning-grounds was the largest on this cycle since
1913. The 1952 sockeye-catch was the largest of any cycle-year since 1912. In 1951
the catch was the largest for its cycle since 1903. The increase in this source of wealth
during these three years over the three parent cycle-years has been approximately
$18,000,000. Equal sharing in the fishery is illustrated by the fact that Canada has taken
50.89 per cent of the allowable catch and the United States has taken 49.11 per cent
during the eight-year period in which the Commission has controlled the fishery.
The table which follows shows the sockeye-catch by gear in treaty waters of Canada
the United States for the cycle-years 1941, 1945, 1949, and 1953.
§ Sockeye-catch by Gear
Canadian Treaty Waters
Traps
Purse-seines
Gill-nets
Total Catch
Year
Units
Catch
Units
Catch
Units
Catch
1941
5    1
5
5
4
129,903
30,444
51,063
60,071
40
66
1,559        1,986,820
1,333           939,000
1,382           857,902
1,482        1*331,823
1
2,116,723
1945	
111,834
600,449
969,444
1949...
1,020,799
1953 ...
1,992,343
.djjj United States Treaty Waters
Purse-seines
Gill-nets
Reef-nets
Total Catch
Year
Units
Catch
Units
Catch
Units
Catch
ML.
140
91
277
247
|    1,350,491
605,962
850,451
1,355,734
92
46
248
322
43,275
32,245
123,048
427,836
77           164,788
39             68,257
116             83,293
1,558,554
706,464
1,056,792
2,032,437
1945	
1949	
1953                                "'
yo
2^0,00/
1
In addition to the above catches, Indians in various parts of the *^J_^£*-
tod captured 108,140 sockeye for subsistence purposes, according to data obtained from
to Department of Fisheries of Canada. .
I   The total escapement of sockeye to the spawning-grounds othe *» *«m *
» was 1,274,346 fish, which represented 23.6 ^^^^££^2
y- However, elimination of the non-productive 3-year-old jacks trom cons
*e escapement reduces the figure to 21.5 per cent. neverthe-
! The early Stuart race, unfished in 1949, was ^^.^^» W«^«™i
«had an escapement of 154,000 sockeye. This is ^^J__^& Indian
ton the optimum escapement for the area on this cycle. The concenxra
 I 88
BRITISH COLUMBIA
fishery on this race contributed to this reduction below the optimum. In the same region
the increase in Driftwood River spawners from 450 in 1949 to 8,655 in 1953 was
noteworthy.
. The late Stuart run, spawning in Middle and Tachie Rivers, was the largest in the
Fraser watershed in 1953. However, slightly more than 50 per cent of the 354,843
potential spawners died unspawned because of early arrival and consequent high water-
temperatures. The Quesnel run showed a marked improvement in 1953; in spite of an
intensive fishery the Horsefly spawning population increased to 105,218 in 1953 as compared with 20,000 in 1949 and 1,065 in 1941. Another important increase in the size of
this race appears probable for 1957. There was a substantial increase in the Chilko River
escapement due to a large return of 5-year-old fish produced by the now dominant 1948
cycle. Spawning populations in the Fraser-Francois system were relatively satisfactory.
The Nadina River, tributary to Francois Lake, increased to 38,574 spawners from 21,600
in 1949, in spite of an intense fishery in 1953.
The runs of sockeye to the Thompson River watershed were satisfactory, except for
a decline in the Seymour River stock as compared with the brood-year. A phenomenal
escapement of 217,708 jacks (3-year males) appeared in the Lower Adams, Little, and
South Thompson Rivers. This is believed to be the largest run of 3-year-old sockeye ever
observed in the area. Several new spawning stocks were observed in the Fraser system
in 1953. These were located in Taseko Lake, Gates Creek, Portage Creek, and on the
gravel beaches of Pitt Lake. Escapements to the spawning tributaries of the Lower Fraser
were generally satisfactory, primarily because of extended closures during the fall imposed
by the Department of Fisheries for the protection of pink salmon.
Recommended regulations for the 1953 Fraser River sockeye-fishery were adopted
by the Commission after consultation with the Advisory Board on January 16th, 1953.
The Commission's recommendations were accepted in substance for Canadian convention
waters by an Order in Council adopted on May 7th, 1953, and for United States convention waters by an Order of the Director of the Washington State Department of Fisheries
issued on April 29th, 1953. J! V
The regulations recommended by the Commission for sockeye-fishing came into
force at 12.01 a.m. on June 26th. Weekly closed seasons in Canadian convention waters
were as follows: Areas 21 and 23, forty-eight hours after June 26th to July 23rd and
seventy-two hours after July 23rd to and including August 3rd. Areas 19 and 20, forty-
eight hours, June 26th to July 23rd and August 3rd to August 23rd; and seventy-two
hours, July 23rd to August 3rd. Areas 17 and 18, sixty-six hours for purse-seines and
seventy-eight hours for gill-nets, June 26th to July 23rd and August 13th to September
22nd; ninety-six hours for purse-seines and gill-nets, July 23rd to August 13th. In
District No. 1 below Pattullo Bridge the weekly closed season was seventy-eight hours
from June 26th to July 23rd and from August 13th to September 22nd; from July 23rd
to August 13th the weekly closed season was ninety-six hours. Above Pattullo Bridge in
District No. 1 the weekly closed seasons were four hours longer than the corresponding
below-bridge closures.
In United States convention waters the weekly closed season for all gear was forty-
eight hours from June 26th to July 23rd and from August 6th to August 23rd; from July
23rd to August 5th the weekly closed period was seventy-two hours.
In high seas convention waters the weekly closed period was forty-eight hours from
June 26th to July 23rd and seventy-two hours from July 23rd to August 3rd for Canadian
and United States vessels.
Special modifications of regulations were recommended by the Commission during
the 1953 season and placed in force by the government concerned as follows: In Canadian convention waters the week-end closed season following July 30th was reduced
twenty-four hours for all gear in Areas 19, 20, 21, and 23 and eighteen hours in Areas
17 and 18 and District No. 1.   The purpose was to bring the Canadian catch nearer
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 89
EfPi^ -g.sFi—
JjcoLission and adopted and placed i/force &£»J^0™2
SSfSo ~trilrres also were for the *?-« «*-*« .X^KK
At the Commission's field station at Horsefly Lake a small experimental artificial
spawning area was constructed. It was stocked with 203 mature adult sock 'v
^returned to the hatchery in 1953 foUowing introduction as marked artificially reared
fry into Quesnel Lake in 1950. These fish spawned well in the artificial area: 75 1 ner
cent of the total eggs available were deposited in the gravel. Subsequently 45 5 per cent
ofthe eggs deposited resulted in emerged fry (34.8 per cent emergence from the total
eggs available). These result* indicated a highly satisfactory degree of success in a first
attempt at spawning in an artificial area. Further studies of the problems of desisn and
operation of an artificial spawning area will be made—several large lakes in the Wiser
system apparently have not been productive in the past because of the lack of natural
spawning-grounds. Horsefly Lake is one of these natural rearing areas, and it should be
capable of supporting several millions off sockeye fry if a natural spawning area could be
artificially constructed at a reasonable cost which would! require little or no maintenance.
In November, 1950, 84,000 fingerling sodceye of Seymour River stock were transferred from the hatchery where they had been incubated and seared, and planted in the
current of Upper Adams River. A total of 30,000 of these fingerlings were marked by
tkexcision of the adipose and leftrventral fins. No sockeye, either marked or unmarked,
returned to the tributaries of Adams Lake in 1953, and no marked sockeye from this
release were found in the commercial fishery or in any tributaries of Shuswap Lake.
Several further transplantations to the Upper Adams River have been made since 1950;
results will be unknown until 1954 and 1956. There is as yet no reason to be pessimistic
about the possibility of re-establishing sockeye in the Upper Adam* River by one method
or another.
A number of industrial developments on the Fraser River watershed were of importance to fisheries during 1953, The British Columbia Electric Company planned and
began construction of a hydro-electric project on Seton and Cayoosh Creeks near Lillooet.
A25-foot-high dam will divert the combined flow of the system into a canal and through
a power-house on the bank of the Fraser River down-stream from the natural creek
outlet. The resulting fisheries problems, involving sockeye, pink, cohoe, and spring
salmon and steelhead, were evaluated and solutions planned in a series of technical conferences involving representatives of the Department of Fisheries of Canada the Internals Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, the British Columbia Game Commission,
andthe British Columbia Electric Company. The project will go into operation in iwo.
In 1953 sockeye successfully passed up-stream through portions ot the JNectia^o
K which was reduced in flow because of the closure of the A uminum Company of
Canada's Kenney Dam in October, 1952. As a result of unusual climatic conditions, the
residual flows from the watershed below the dam were high, and water-iempcr*
remained below lethal levels. . ;     .  . 1Mtr r»mloom were
Waste-disposal problems at an oil-refinery being ^mcted near ?^S
"aiysed in conferences involving fisheries representatives and ownen» « J^Jsoii
Commended standards for waste treatment to protect fish populations of the Thompson
Kver system were accepted by the project-owners. Lake,
An 18-inch-diameter steel siphon was installed * ttf °™* drouffht periods
ttwary to the Harrison River. Operation of the siphon d^t^^c4>the stream
«assure ample flow for access and spawning of sockeye and other species
. y. r,f +h<* watershed on the fisheries
Basic studies of the effects of industrial development of the ^rs f    tential
*«rce were continued in 1953.   In this way the Commission keeps abreast    po
 I 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
fisheries hazards and is able to present its requirements for protective facilities, or to offer
alternative proposals.
Biological research for the purpose of developing and supporting fisheries management policies of the Commission is a continual part of the staff's programme. Enumeration of the catch and of the escapement on a racial basis must be carried out each year.
Characteristic differences in the nuclear areas of the scales of the various races each year
are used as a basis for recognition of the timing and abundance of those races in the daily
catches. The physical environment of the spawning areas is studied to relate its variations
to relative success or failure of reproduction of each cycle of each race. The effect of the
commercial fishing-gear on the sex ratio, size, age, and productivity of sockeye was studied
in 1953, as in recent years.
All activities of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission in 1953 were
for the purpose of fulfilling the terms of the treaty—protection, preservation, and extension of the sockeye-salmon fisheries of the Fraser River system and equal division of the
maximum allowable catch.
Members of the Commission during 1953 were as follows: For Canada—A. J.
Whitmore (Secretary), Senator Thomas Reid, H. R. MacMillan; for the United States—
Robert J. Schoettler (Chairman), Albert M. Day, Elton B. Jones.
 _l—
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT , „
SALMON-SPAWNING REPORT, BRHISH COLUMBIA, 1953
GENERAL
Foreword.—Points of special interest associated with the l<m Hdl      •     •
^spawning escapement were as follows:- * 1953 salmon ""gration
1. The high return of sockeye to the Fraser River system, giving an excellent seedin*
ofthe vanous spawning-grounds, after a commercial catch ofappS^f^0
U, evenly divided by treaty provision between United States and Canadian fohenmm
2. Another good run of sockeye to Rivers and Smith Inlets, providing highlyTS-
factory supphes for spawning needs, as well as a commercial catch of slidjtlv iSs than
2,000,000 fish.   I ^ J
3. The successful removal of the remote Babine rock-slide, this permitted clear
passage for an excellent run of over 700,000 sockeye to the Babine spawning-grounds of
4e Upper Skeena. *^
4. The large pink-salmon migrations through Johnstone Strait and the Strait of
Juan de Fuca, where they yielded to the Canadian commercial fishery approximately
4,000,000 and 3,000,000 pinks respectively. m
5. The arrival of increasing quantities of pink salmon on spawning areas of the
Fraser system above Hells Gate Canyon; in some instances there were returns to streams
after a void of forty years. 3
6. The disappointingly light returns of pinks in practically all northern coastal areas
where generally there had been good escapements in the brood-year 1951. IMillf
7. The failure of fall chum runs in northern coastal areas, including the Queen
Charlotte Islands; there were a few exceptions. Jr
8. The lesser volume of chum spawning stocks to important spawning-grounds of
the Fraser and adjacent southern areas, increasing problem of meeting wider and more
intense fishing effort in ensuring the escapement of adequate spawning stocks.
9. Completion of fishway at Karmutsen Falls in the Nimpkish system, a definite aid
to the well-being of the Nimpkish sockeye run.
Sockeyes.—With the exception of the Nass River where the run of sockeye was light
and the escapement was light, supplies of this species were maintained at satisfactory levels
inall other principal spawning areas for this species. The escapement to Rivers Inlet was
bvy. Supplies to Smith Inlet were moderately heavy. Similarly, the escapement to the
Bella Coola and Nimpkish systems was also heavy. Supphes to the Somass River were
moderate. The excellent escapement of sockeye to the Babine spawning-grounds of the
Steena River system was the largest recorded through the fence established by die Pacific
^logical Station in Babine River in 1946; complete removal of the rock-slide in the
Babine Canyon earlier in the year permitted the runs to reach the spawning-grounds under
most favourable conditions.
Fraser sockeye rehabilitation measures by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission are continuing to meet with marked success. The escapement of sockeye to
4e Fraser this year was the largest of this cycle since 1913, notwithstanding a large
*mercial catch of over 4,000,000 sockeyes by Canadian and American fishermen.
Je escapement to the Quesnel system increased from ! ^00 spawners in 1949 to
JOOO in 1953, the Chilko run from 60,000 in 1949 to,200,000 mW53, andsome
'*» sockeyes spawned in the extensive spawning-grounds of the Dnftwood Rwer at
fehead of the Stuart system where only a few individuals were present in 1*4*.
>%,.-The spring-salmon spawning-grounds of the Fraser watershed agam e*.
fenced a satisfactory seeding-moderate to heavy in the Prince 0»£uwa^^er£e
dualling the brood-year in the Quesnel-Chilko area^^«d moderately*J* "J
^°ops area, showing increase over the brood-year.   In the Nicola River system,
 I 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
spawning was fairly satisfactory. Supplies in the Harrison River were excellent. In
District No. 2, escapement to all areas was medium. Stocks in Rivers Inlet were adequate.
In District No. 3, supplies of this species were generally good.
Cohoes.—Cohoe-supplies in the Fraser system were satisfactory, with the exception
of the Nicola system where they were somewhat lighter than expected. Again there was
an increase compared with the brood-year in the Kamloops area and also in the Harrison
area. Supplies to the Squamish system were only fair, about equal to the brood-year.
In District No. 2 the over-all escapement was light to moderate, fair supplies being noted
in the Bella Bella, Namu, Bella Coola, Rivers and Smith Inlets, and Upper Skeena areas.
In District No. 3, supplies generally were of good proportions.
Pinks.—Following a progressive decline in the escapement of pink salmon to the
Fraser system during the years 1947, 1949, and 1951, the run this year showed improvement both in catch and escapement. The combined catches of Canadian and American
fishermen amounted to 10,500,000 pinks. Due to the heavy catch in the Strait of Juan
de Fuca and in Puget Sound it became necessary to impose total closure in the Fraser
area for approximately four weeks to provide for stocks for reproduction. A feature was
the continuing increase in supplies on the spawning areas located above the Hells Gate
fishways. In the Seton-Anderson system the number of pink spawners increased to
60,000, approximately three times the number in the brood-year 1951. Pinks were also
present in numbers in Stenn Creek, tributary to the Fraser above Lytton, in the Nicola
River, Bonaparte River, Deadmans River tributary to the Thompson River, as well as in
the Thompson River itself. Supplies to the streams in the Lower Fraser area were slightly
better than the brood-year 1951. The Howe Sound-Squamish area again received substantial spawning stocks, but the downward trend in evidence since 1947 again persisted.
Supplies estimated at over 100,000 pinks were present in Indian River at the head of
Burrard Inlet. In District No. 2 the seeding of pinks was generally light. This was the
off-year for pinks in the Queen Charlotte Islands area. The runs and the escapements
to the Mainland streams were disappointingly light, with the exception of the Lakelse
area, Rivers and Smiths Inlets, and some of the streams of the Bella Bella area which were
moderately supplied, and Kwatna River in the Namu-Bella Coola area where the escapement was heavy. In District No. 3 the seeding of this species was also generally below
expectations in the Alert Bay and Comox Sub-districts, light to moderate in the Quathi-
aski Sub-district, and moderate to heavy in the Pender Harbour Sub-district.
Chums.—In the Fraser area, with the exception of the Harrison River area, the
chum escapement this year was very light, notwithstanding special conservation measures
in the way of extended weekly close seasons. The escapement to the Harrison River,
estimated at over 50,000 chums, was a considerable improvement over brood-year supplies estimated at 35,000. In the Chililwack-Vedder area and the small tributary streams
in the lower portion of the Fraser area the escapement was light. Chum-supplies in the
Squamish and Howe Sound areas were also light. In District No. 2 the escapement of
chums was light to moderate. The runs of this species to those areas north of Milbanke
Sound including the Queen Charlotte Islands areas was very light, and notwithstanding
special conservation measures the escapement for reproduction purposes cannot be classed
as better than light. The seeding of the streams in the Bella Bella area was moderate.
In the Rivers Inlet-Smith Inlet area the escapement was moderate to heavy. In the Bella
Coola area, spawning supplies were moderately heavy. In District No. 3 the escapement
was generally light to moderate. Supplies were for the most part satisfactory in the
Barkley Sound and Kyuquot Sub-districts, also in the Comox Sub-district.
 —
PPpp pp,  — .^xvin V.UAST OF URAHAM ISLAND AREA
cohoe spawning in McClinton Creek, Dinan River, Awun River and Naden
5 heavier han for some years; elsewhere the seeding was light!*tSw*1he
nr mnk salmon in Masset Tnlet nnH i\ia^„ te*_MmE ,   . „. *T '    ims was  ne
iver
ecies
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
IN DETAIL
Masset Inlet and North Coast of Graham Island Area
The
River was -
ear for pink salmon m Masset Inlet and Naden Harbour but HWl™ psjL, Z    •
He Ain and Awun Rivers m Masset Inlet were heavily supplied with chums but snavm
k in all other streams was light.    In Naden Harbour the chum seeding of all grounds"
was light. if
Skidegate Inlet and West Coast of Graham-Moresby Islands Area
Generally the seeding of cohoes in all streams in the area was light, the exception
being Haans Creek where supplies were moderate. The east coast streams, Tlell R
and Copper River, had good supplies of pinks for an off-year. Spawning of this spe—^
in all other streams in the area was negligible. Supplies of chums in most of the streams
iE Skidegate Inlet, where late arrivals improved the seeding, were moderate. With very
iew exceptions all chum-spawning streams on the west coast of Graham and Moresby
Islands were lightly seeded. f -
East Coast of Moresby Island and South Queen Charlotte Islands Area
The cohoe escapement was light, showing considerable decrease from the moderately
leavy seeding in the brood-year 1950. Lagoon Bay streams and Sedmond River were
the only streams with satisfactory supplies. Light off-year supplies of pinks were
observed in Mathers, Pallant, Windy Bay, and Skedans Creeks. In general the escapement of chums was much lighter than the light to moderate escapement in 1949. Only
hr streams received what could be termed adequate seedings, these were: Lagoon Bay
Creek, Richardson and Powrico Creeks in Atli Inlet, and Salmon River in the Lockeport
area. Spawning in all the remaining streams frequented by this species was classed as
very light to light.
Nass Area
The run of sockeyes to the Nass system was light and the escapement to the Meziadin
lake system, principal spawning-grounds for this species, was also light. Very few
jacks were noted, less than 1 per cent. The Ginget River, tributary to the Lower Nass,
was moderately supplied, while the usual small stocks were present in the Bear River
?stem at the head of Portland Inlet. The spring-salmon seeding in the Meziadin River
^ fairly good; moderate supplies were present in the Tseax and Ginget, tributary to
4e Lower Nass, Kitsault River flowing into Alice Arm, Kincolith Creek, and Quinimass
River. Without exception the escapement of cohoe to all streams located in ™e ^w«
"ass River Sub-district was light. Pink-salmon supplies were exceptionallyflight m aU
ferns, showing large decrease from the good seeding in the ^od-year 19*l, excep-
tons being the Tseax River and Kincolith Creek, and Ensheshese River in Wrt Om^
Jere moderate supplies were present. Generally chum-supphes were light to moderate.
^e Kitsault and Illiance Rivers in Alice Arm were well seeded.
Skeena Area
Uine-Morice Area—Work which had been started during the.late faD^952 m
Roving material from the Babine River resulting -y?^^™*** 3tt2
H the late summer of 1951 was successfully completed %**^5*£^
*»clear passage at this point during the 1953 runs. Tribute. «g £ ^f ick
^high order of organization, planning, and work performance attached q
 I 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and effective clearance of this formidable slide in a most remote and difficult portion of
the watershed, particularly to Departmental engineers and the contractors. It was July
19th before sockeyes in any appreciable numbers arrived at the counting-fence of the
Pacific Biological Station in Babine River. During the period August 5th to 31st the
count through the fence ranged daily from 10,000 up to a peak of 32,650 on August 22nd.
Total unrevised figures of salmon passing through the counting-fence, which is just below
the outlet of Babine Lake, are as follows: Sockeyes, 714,614; springs, 8,353; cohoes,
7,648; pinks, 1,018; chums, 17.
The sockeye run was the largest counted through the fence of the Pacific Biological
Station since it was put in operation in 1946. It was, however, appreciably less than
the 1952 run, only part of which was able to negotiate the obstacle created by the slide
into the Babine River. On the other hand, this total is some 40 per cent greater than
the average number counted through the fence in 1946 and 1947 during the progress of
the Skeena River investigation to determine the cause of the decline of the sockeye run
to this system. Returns from the excellent escapement and spawning this year will be
awaited with great interest in the continuing efforts to build up the Skeena sockeye runs.
The escapement of spring salmon was somewhat below average. Cohoe-supplies were
also considerably below normal.   The pink-salmon seeding was very light.
There was a light to medium escapement of sockeyes to the Bulkley system. The
run to the Nanika River, tributary to the Morice system, was estimated at 35,000.
Spring-salmon supplies were moderate, some increase being noted in the Upper Bulkley
spawning areas, while the escapement to the Upper Morice River was estimated at about
10,000 fish. The cohoe seeding was about average, in line with the escapement of the
past several years. A noteworthy development was the increase in the number of pink
salmon spawning in the Bulkley system above Moricetown Falls. The upper reaches of
the Bulkley River were inaccessible for pinks prior to completion of the fishways at the
falls early in 1951. During 1951 small numbers of pinks were observed above the
falls; this year some 5,000 pinks successfully passed through the fishways and spawned
on various grounds up the Bulkley River and Morice River, greatest concentration being
noted in the 4-mile stretch of the Morice River immediately below Owen Canyon.
The sockeye escapement to the Bear Lake area was estimated at about 9,000 fish.
Spring-salmon supplies were moderate there, estimated at 10,000, showing some decrease
from the brood-year. The escapement of pinks was light and less in numbers than in
the brood-year 1951.
Lakelse Area.—The sockeye escapement, estimated at 30,000 fish, was slightly
better than in the brood-year 1949. Increases were noted in the Lakelse and Allistair
Lakes systems. Supplies in the Kitsumgallum River area were normal, while those in
the Kispiox system were much lighter than in the brood-year. Spring-salmon stocks
were a little above average, showing some increase over the 1949 spawning. Cohoe
supplies, estimated at about 25,000 fish, were lighter than in either 1951 or 1952, but
showed some increase over the brood-year seeding of 1950. The pink-salmon escapement, estimated at 230,000 spawners, while not up to the cycle-year 1951, was well
above the escapement in 1947 and 1949. Chum-supplies, estimated at 4,000 fish, were
about equal to those of the brood-year 1949.
; Lower Skeena Area
Generally, the run of sockeye to this area was moderate. Diana Creek, tributary
to Kloiya River, had about 3,000 spawners, as did Shawatlan Lake system. Supplies
in the Johnson Lake area, tributary to the Ecstall, were estimated at 500 fish. Spring-
salmon stocks in the outlet to Johnson Lake were average. Cohoe-supplies were moderate, spawners in Diana Creek being estimated at 7,000. The over-all escapement of
pinks to the different streams was very light, with the exception of Moore Cove, where
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT j 95
mplies were estimated at 20,000.   Chum stocks were akn o*n«~in ■ 1      .
Spawning in the Upper Ecstall River. "^ generaUy ^ *i* the
SOj
bests;
Grenville-Principe Area
The sockeye seedmgs of the various systems were generaUy moderate and considered
adequate, good supplies being present in Curtis, Mikado, Bonilla, and QuStoS   iS
^pement of cohoes was generally light, with slight improvement over the brood-vea?
I MldSTPF^^^ m *— -d also JZ
esca
1950.
streams
salmon
entering the salt lake off the North Arm of KitkatlaJet"4^0^
to this area was disappointingly light, and notwithstanding special conservation
measures, the escapement was light, being about one-third to one-half in numbers of
supplies in the brood-year 1951. Most favourable seedings occurred in the streams in
Kitkatla Inlet and North Arm of Kitkatla Inlet. Chum-supplies were generaUy moderate
to practically all streams, with the exception of those in Markle and Wilson Inlets, where
stocks were light.
Butedale Area
The sockeye escapement was somewhat below that of the fair escapement in brood-
year 1949. The main producers, Kitlope, Kitimat, Kwakwa, and Talamosa systems,
all showed slight decrease; the small streams on Aristazabal Island received an improved
seeding. Spring-salmon supplies were about average. Cohoe-supplies in all streams
showed slight decrease over the moderate escapement in 1951, but were an improvement
over the light seeding reported in brood-year 1950. In the Higgins Pass stream a marked
increase was noted. The pink-salmon run to this area was exceptionally light, and the
escapement of this species was also very light, particularly so in the Douglas Channel,
Kitimat Arm, Devastation Channel, and Gardner Canal streams. The chum-salmon run
to the area was not heavy and, notwithstanding special conservation measures by early
closure of all commercial fishing, the escapement generally was only light to moderate,
with the exception of the Higgins Pass streams, where a heavy seeding occurred.
Bella Bella Area
Generally, the seeding of sockeyes was moderate; good supplies were present in
4e Tinkey system and the stream flowing into Kwakusdis Lake. Fair supplies were
found in the other small spawning-streams. Moderate seeding of cohoe showed some
nnprovement over the brood-year spawning in 1950. Supplies estimated at 7,500 were
present in the Kajustis River. Noota River and Sally Creek again had excellent supplies
considering their size. Generally, the seeding of pinks was light to moderate. An estimated 65,000 spawners were present in Kainet River, the heaviest producer. Salmon
h Klatse, Howyit, and Neekas had only fair showings. In all other streams spawning
^ light. Chum-supplies were moderately good. Kainet River was heavily seeded.
fekas, Howyit, Vala, Salmon Bay, Noota, and Kwakusdis had fair to good showings.
^PPlies to the Gullchuck were very light, only 3,000 spawners being present compared
* 31,000 in brood-year 1949. The escapement to all the small streams was generaUy
ft to moderate.
Namu-Bella Coola Area
i The seeding of sockeyes in this area was moderate. Bella Coola-Atnarko system,
largest producer, was heavily seeded. Supplies to the Khnsquit system were mod-
J*. while the escapement to other smaller streams was light ^"^J^'£
nngs, although slightly below average, is considered adequate. J^f^J^
*» received moderate supplies; spawning in the Dean and ^mt *^^,S
^-supplies were generally moderate, showing slight decrease ^J?j^^J^
** owning in the larger streams was satisfactory, runs to the smaller streams m the
 I 96
BRITISH COLUMBIA
district ranged from light to medium. Generally, the run of pinks was light, with corresponding escapement. The return to the Bella Coola-Atnarko River, the principal
spawning-ground of the species, was one of the lightest in many years, notwithstanding
special conservation measures invoked in commercial fishing operations. Supplies to
the Kwatna River were the best since 1945. The escapement to Koeye River was considered moderate, while the seedings of the remaining smaller streams in the area were
mostly light. Chum-supplies were good compared with former years. The escapement
to the larger streams, such as the Bella Coola River, Kwatna River, Kimsquit River, and
Elcho Harbour River, was heavy, while the seeding of the smaller streams ranged from
medium to light. %■
Rivers Inlet Area
The sockeye seeding in the Owikano Lake spawning areas was generally heavy.
Waukwash River, Indian River, and Genesee Creek were very heavily seeded. Large
supplies were also present in the Dalleck River and on the extensive spawning area at
the outlet of the lake. Quap River had moderately heavy stocks. Moderate supplies
were also noted in the Asklum River and on Shumahault Flat; stocks in the Shumahault
River itself were light. Nookins River received light to moderate seeding. The spring-
salmon escapement was adequate. There was a fair escapement of cohoes. Pink-supplies
were generally moderate, showing decrease from brood-year spawning in 1951. Generally, chum-supplies were satisfactory on the principal spawning-grounds of that species.
Smith Inlet Area
The escapement to the spawning-grounds in this area was moderately heavy. The
Delabah and Geluck Rivers, which comprise the principal spawning-grounds, were both
heavily supplied. The escapement of springs to the Docee River was moderate, showing
some increase over the brood-year. The seeding of cohoes was fair. Medium numbers
of pinks were present, and the escapement of chums to the principal spawning areas was
also moderate.
Alert Bay Area
The escapement of sockeyes to all spawning areas of this species was satisfactory,
showing improvement over the brood-year 1949. The escapement to the Nimpkish River
was heavy; increases were also evident in Fulmore River and Mackenzie River, while
Nahwitti, Shushartie, Quatse, Adam, Kakweiken, Glendale, and Klinaklini were all adequately seeded. A fishway at Karmutsen Falls, located in the upper part of the Nimpkish
system, was successfully completed under supervision of the Department's engineers,
by August 31st. Karmutsen Falls had been a difficult point of passage at certain lower
water-levels. At such times many sockeye spawners were lost or injured. Higher than
average rainfall prevailed during the period of the sockeye migration this season, and
water-levels over the falls were unusually satisfactory. The critical lower water-levels
were not experienced. Escapement of spring salmon was slightly better than normal;
marked increases were noted in Klinaklini and Kingcome Rivers, also improvement in
the return to the Nimpkish River. There was some improvement in the cohoe run over
the brood-year 1950. Satisfactory escapements occurred in Glendale River and Fraser
Creek, and improvement was observed in Quatse and Keogh Rivers and several of the
streams in Seymour and Belize Inlets. The escapement of pinks, particularly in the
Mainland areas, did not reach the abundance expected from the 1951 seeding. There
was an outstanding heavy run of pinks through the waters adjacent to Vancouver Island,
but apparently a comparatively small percentage only of this run was local to this area.
With the exception of Kakweiken River, where a satisfactory seeding occurred, the seeding
of the Mainland streams was below expectations. This was an off-year for the Vancouver
Island streams, which were all lightly seeded, with the exception of unexpectedly good
 w
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL Ftshcttcc nr«^
^1AL ^ifcHERIES DEPARTMENT I 97
escapements to Adam and TsMka Rivers. Chum-supplies were generally light through-
ootthe sub-district, being less than the average numbers reported I the brU yeS 19^
Exception was the Nimpkish River, where, although the escapement was satisfactory^
the seeding was not quite up to those of several previous years; very satisfactory supplies
were also noted in Viner River and Salmon River in Seymour Inlet Marked decline was
noted in the Glendale River run, which is a comparatively late one, and in the runs to
Village Bay Creek and Quashela Creek, both in Belize fillet
Quathiaski Area
The run erf sockeye spawners in Phillips River was very light. The showing of this
species to Hayden Bay Creek was also fight. Generally, the escapement of spring salmon
compares favourably with that occurring in the brood-year. Supplies in Salmon River
showed increase over recent years and were much better than those of the brood-year.
Escapement to Campbell River compares favourably with the past three seasons and
also shows increase over the brood-year. There was a good return of this specks in
both the Homathko and Southgate Rivers. Fair stocks observed in the Orford and
Phillips Rivers were somewhat below level of the brood-years. In general, the escapement of cohoes was adequate, with improvement over the light seeding reported in the
hood-year 1950. This was an off-year for pink salmon in the Vancouver Island streams.
The escapement to Apple River was good, but less than the brood-year. Fraser Creek
applies were poor. Phillips River and Quatum River were both well stocked, showing
increase over the brood-year. The number of spawners in the Southgate and Homathko
Rivers and Eva Creek exceeded those of the brood-year/ Supplies in the Orford were
below brood-year levels. The escapement to the smaller streams on Quadra and Sonora
Islands was fair and compares favourably with the brood-year. Chum-supplies in the
Vancouver Island streams were much below the satisfactory numbers recorded in the
brood-year. Exceptions were Mohun Creek and Salmon River which were well stocked.
There was considerable decrease in the escapement to Campbell River. Quadra Island
streams were also lightly seeded. The escapement to the streams on the Mainland was
generally better than that of the Vancouver Island streams, the seeding, although by no
«ais heavy, being adequate and comparing favourably with the brood-year.
Comox Area
This is not a sockeye area. Although spring-salmon supplies in Big Qualicum River,
little Qualicum River, and Oyster River were much above average, the escapement to
Puntledge River was estimated at approximately 3,400 springs and was below normal.
Here was an average seeding of cohoes in all streams frequented by this species; Punt-
% River and Chef and Cougar Creeks showed increases. The escapement of pink
salmon was generally light to all streams compared with the brood-year, with the exception of Oyster River, where there was an escapement estimated at 12,000 pinks compared
* 5,000 in 1951. The greatest decrease was noted in the Courtenay River system,
**e supplies were estimated at 10,000 pinks compared with 130.000 m 19M. in
»ral5 chum-supplies are satisfactory and well up to average in practically all streams.
particular note is the increase in the numbers erf this species spawning m the Puntledge
^r5 estimated at 30,000 chums this year.
Pender Harbour Area
•n ..   +..   c^maw T ake svstem was light   All estimated
.The escapement of sockeyes to the Sakinaw Lake^system *" Jbm
m sockeyes spawned in this system compared with£931 ni broc*^
wer-Toba River system, a greater number (rf this species ocmg
 I 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
any of the previous four seasons. Generally, the escapement of cohoes was light to moderate; medium supplies were noted in Toba, Theodosia, and Squawawka Rivers and in
Sakinaw Lake. Elsewhere spawning was light. A feature was the abnormal number of
cohoe jacks present. Unusually large numbers of these jacks were noted in Theodosia
River and at Sakinaw Lake. Generally, the escapement of pink salmon was medium to
heavy. The streams in Toba Inlet and vicinity had good supplies, as did Deserted Bay
River and Squawawka River in Jervis Inlet. ^Spawning in the smaller streams throughout
the area was light. The escapement of chums to the majority of the creeks and rivers was
light, exceptions being in Theodosia River, Deserted Bay River, Klein Creek, and Saltery
Bay Creek, where supplies were moderate.
Nanaimo-Ladysmith Area
The seeding of spring salmon was satisfactory and above average. The early run of
cohoes was light. The late run, however, was above normal to all streams in the area,
showing increase over the good escapement reported in the brood-year 1950. The
spawning of pinks on the limited grounds in this area was light and below brood-year
levels. Chum-supplies were light to medium, showing considerable decrease from brood-
year stocks.
Cowichan Area
Spring-salmon supplies in the Cowichan River were estimated at 5,500. This is
slightly less than the escapement in 1949, which was estimated at 6,000 springs. The
escapement of cohoes was average and of about the same proportions as the brood-year
19§0, stocks being estimated at 48,000 cohoes. The chum seeding was very light and
disappointing, much below average and brood-year levels. ||
n||r- Victoria Area
^ Supplies of cohoes in De Mamiel Creek and Sooke and Goldstream Rivers were only
fair, showing some decrease from the satisfactory seeding in the brood-year 1950. Sooke
River and De Mamiel and Muir Creeks were well seeded with chums, while the escapement to Goldstream River was only fair. Stocks to Stoney and Tugwell Creeks were
satisfactory and equal to the brood-year; supplies ascending Coal Creek were only fair
and below average proportions.
Alberni-Nitinat Area     ~&i     ....#•■■'
The escapement of sockeye to the Somass River system was only fair and well below
the excellent escapement of the brood-year 1949. The Great Central Lake portion of the
run is estimated at 25,000 to 30,000 and the Sproat Lake portion at 20,000 to 25,000,
The new concrete fishway, of vertical baffle type, completed at the falls in Sproat River
in the fall of 1952 was in operation and functioned well. Satisfactory supplies estimated
at 10,000 sockeyes were present on the Anderson (Henderson) Lake grounds, and the
escapement to Hobarton Lake system was better than that of the past three years. With
the exception of Nitinat, where supplies appeared light, the escapement of spring salmon
over the area was generally satisfactory, Nahmint, Somass, and Toquart Rivers having
particularly good seedings. The cohoe seeding was on the whole quite light and well
below last year's level. Toquart River was well stocked. High water at Stamp Falls held
up the run and many cohoes were injured at this point, between 1,000 and 2,000 being
unable to make the ascent. No pinks were reported in any of the streams this season.
Chum-supplies were, for the most part, satisfactory. Dutch Harbour creeks, Toquart
River, Ucluelet Inlet Creek, and Nahmint River received good seedings, while the escapement to Sarita River and Nitinat River was light.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT , 99
Clayoquot Area
There was a medium escapement of sockeves to th* *v««o^ , t  i ■ ..   .
„. of creek sockeyes to the M^in River was^ t^lh^^^t
most of the streams of the area showing some general improvement ov2 st ear b n
Cypre River and Tofino-Creek spawning was again below normal. Generally, both the
early and late runs of cohoes were light. A few odd pinks were observed in Merin River
Chum-supplies were light throughout the area, exceptions being Tranquil Creek which
received a heavy seeding; also moderate supplies reached Watta River Bawden Bay
Creek, and Hesquiat Lake. Of note is the good numbers of chums in small unnamed
creeks in the area, particularly in Lemmens Inlet and vicinity of Browning Passage
Spawning in Sidney Inlet and Holmes Inlet streams was exceedingly light.
Nootka Area
Supplies of creek sockeye were normal. Spring-salmon spawning was light compared with previous years and below the average seeding in 1949. Few pinks were
observed, as this was the off-year in this area for this species. Cohoes were present,
generally in fair numbers, but below levels of previous years. The escapement of chums
to practically all streams was fairly good. j§|j|:
Kyuquot Area
The usual small stocks of creek sockeye were observed in the Jansen and Power
Lake systems. The spring-salmon escapement to Tahsish River, largest producer of this
species, was similar to the moderate escapement in 1949. Moderate supplies were also
noted in Ououkinsh and McKay Rivers and in Battle River. No pink salmon were
observed in any of the streams in this sub-district. The cohoe escapement was fairly
satisfactory, showing appreciable increase over the escapement of the brood-year 1950 in
practically all of the eighteen streams frequented by this variety. Chum-supplies were
also satisfactory in all streams. Increases were particularly noticeable in Malksope, Nasparti, Jansen, Artlich, and Kaouk. Lighter than brood-year seedings occurred in Clan-
ninick, Easy, Kiouk, Kauwinch, and Kaooinch.   In all other streams, supplies were
moderate to heavy.
Quatsino Area
The escapement of the creek sockeye run was good to all streams except Canoe
Creek in Brooks Bay. This run is of little commercial importance. The main spring-
salmon spawning areas located in Marble Creek and Spruce River were well seeded, again
showing further increase. This was an off-year for pinks, and small supplies only were
noted in Koprino River, Fisherman River, Johnson River, and Rupert River. With the
exception of San Josef River, the west coast streams, normally the best producers for
their size, showed decline in cohoe stocks. Streams such as East Creek, Klasbsh River,
Buck Creek, all in Brooks Bay, had less than a 1,500 average each. Other streams on the
west coast were only lightly seeded. In Quatsino Sound, Koprino River, Johnson River
and Ingersoll River, all were below average, with escapements estimated^atJess than 1,000
cohoes. There was adequate escapement to Spruce River as well as to Marble Creek, the
most important cohoe stream in the area. Supplies to the Mahatta ^^^^t-
Satisfactory numbers of chums reached streams in Brooks Bay, Winter »^^
and Holberg Inlet. In Quatsino Sound and Rupert Arm streams *e seedmg; was bgh L
Spawning il those streams on the west coast between Winter Harbour and Cape Scott
was also light.
Fraser River
Prince George Area.-An estimated 488,000 sockeyes ascended the: Stuart^Lake
Wem compared with 700,000 in 1949, 50,000 in 1945, and 12,000 m 1941. The early
 I 100
BRITISH COLUMBIA
run, consisting of some 151,000 fish, showed considerable decrease from the brood-year
1949. In 1949 commercial fishing was not permitted during this particular migration,
while this year it contributed in substantial measure. The late run of about 337,000
sockeyes compares with brood-year supplies of about 130,000. Mortality of this late run
as a result of high water-temperatures was somewhat greater than in 1949. A total of
some 86,700 sockeyes spawned in the Fraser-Francois system compared with 125,000 in
the brood-year 1949. The early run, amounting to 42,500, an increase of about 17,000
over 1949, spawned mostly in Nadina River. The late run, estimated at 43,000 fish,
compared with 109,000 in 1949, spawned in the Stellako River. Loss of dead, un-
spawned fish in this area was small, estimated to be less than 2 per cent of the run. In the
Upper Fraser River, spring-salmon supplies were moderate to heavy and equal to the run
of last year. At Tete Jaune on the Fraser the escapement was greater by 25 per cent than
last year. Four hundred and fifty spring salmon passed through the counting-fence
established in the Nechako River by the Fish Culture Development Branch this season,
compared with an estimated run of 3,000 in 1949. |Just what effect, if any, the diminished flow of the Nechako River, resulting from the closure of Kenney Dam at Nechako
Grand Canyon on October 8th, 1952, may have on the migration of this run is not yet
clear.    Stocks in the Stuart system were moderate.
Quesnel-Chilko Area.—Approximately 200,000 sockeyes reached the Chilko spawning areas, compared with 60,000 in 1949. These supplies were well distributed over the
Chilko spawning-grounds below the lake outlet. Considerable numbers were also present
on the numerous lake spawning areas, and many were also seen well down-stream from
Canoe Crossing. Female sockeyes predominated heavily. Stocks in the Taseko were
estimated at 4,500. In the Quesnel watershed slightly over 100,000 sockeyes spawned on
the main grounds of the Horsefly River, compared with 11,000 in 1949. In addition,
about 1,000 fish seeded the lower reaches of the Horsefly River. Sockeyes also ascended
McKinley Lake and Elbow Creek; however, due to high water-temperatures, result of
this spawning is doubtful as considerable numbers of dead, unspawned fish were found in
the McKinley area. Supplies in Mitchell River amounted to 2,000, compared with 400
in 1949. The Bowron system received some 14,000 sockeyes, and although considerably
less than in 1949, all grounds were again well covered, under excellent spawning conditions. The escapement of spring salmon to the Chilcotin, Quesnel, and Bowron systems
was moderate and equal to the brood-year.
Kamloops Area.—The early runs of sockeyes were estimated to be about 2,000
greater in numbers than the 1949 stocks of 13,000. Raft River showed some increase,
as did Scotch Creek, whilst there was slight decrease in Seymour River. The run arrived
in good condition, very few jacks being observed. The late run, consisting of about
220,000 sockeyes, mostly jacks, was distributed between the South Thompson, Little,
Adams, Eagle, and Shuswap Rivers, with the preponderance spawning in Adams River.
No sockeyes from the late run ascended the North Thompson River. Spring-salmon
supplies, estimated at 33,000 fish throughout the area, showed some increase over the
seeding in 1949. Outstanding was the individual large size of some of the spawners
observed in the North Thompson, Clearwater, and Shuswap Rivers. Stocks of cohoes,
estimated at about 24,000, showed good increase over the brood-year escapement. Pink
salmon spawned in this area for the first time in forty years. Several hundred were noted
in both Bonaparte River and Deadman River. Several thousand spawned in the Thompson below Walhachin. All were in excellent condition and spawning conditions were
good.
Lillooet Area.—Supplies of sockeyes in the Birkenhead River were estimated at
between 55,000 and 65,000, this being the smallest escapement in recent years. The
fish were somewhat late in arriving on the grounds. In the Seton-Anderson system,
supplies in Portage Creek were estimated at 300, Gates Creek at 600, and numbers
somewhat in excess of 600 were noted in Seton Creek and Anderson Lake.   The spring-
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 101
lies m
as
^on run estimated at about 1200 fish, compared favourably with the brood-vear
Light supplies reached Portage Creek and Seton Creek. Wcohc* nfn wafabom
average and equal to the Jrood-year. Although pinks have been observed^ *e it2
Anderson system since 1947, the largest escapement since 1913 reached the^grmrnds
this year. J^™* numerous m Seton Creek, and every stretch of gravel wLXd
in Cayoosh Creek, the run at Cayoosh Creek being estimated at 50 000 SuddH
Portage Creek amounted to 10,000. ^uFFu
Yale-Merritt Area.—Tht escapement of spring salmon to the Nicola system w*>
fairly satisfactory. It is estimated that about 7,100 springs spawned in the Nicola while
1,200 were present in Spins Creek and 170 in the Coldwater, both tributary to the Nicola
River. The cohoe run was late and somewhat lighter than expected. Although the total
supply of pink salmon in the Nicola, estimated at 2,000, is less than expected from the
brood stocks of 3,000 m 1951, it was noted that considerable numbers of pinks spawned
in the Thompson River. j|
Chilliwack Area.—The run of sockeye to Cultus Lake was comparatively light,
totalling 12,000, and compared favourably with the run of 9,300 in the brood-year 1949.
Light supplies were present in the Chilliwack River system. Cohoe-supplies were fairly
satisfactory and equal to the brood-year. Improvement was noted in Sweltzer Creek*.
Cultus Lake, and the Chilliwack River system. An estimated 300 springs spawned in
the Chilliwack River, about the same as in the brood-year. An estimated 80,000 to
100,000 pinks spawned in the Chilliwack-Vedder River system, compared with 110,000
to 120,000 in 1951. Sweltzer Creek had 30,000, compared with 60,000 in the brood-
year. Supplies in the Coquihalla River amounted to 4,000, in Silver Creek 1,100 to
1,200, and in Succer Creek 2,500 to 3,000. Chums were late in arriving and on the
whole far below average and brood-year levels. Supplies in the Chilliwack River were
light, estimated at not more than 20,000, compared with 35,000 to 40,000 in 1949.
Sweltzer Creek had 4,000, compared with 8,000 to 10,000 in the brood-year. Elsewhere
chum spawning was scattered and light.
Mission-Harrison Area.—The sockeye escapement to this area was light with the
exception of Weaver Creek, where supplies estimated at 12,000 were noted. Stocks in
the Harrison, amounting to only 4,000, showed increase over the brood-year. Elsewhere
spawning was fight to moderate. The white spring-salmon escapement to the Harrison
River was excellent and was comprised of 15,000 to 18,000 spawners. Few jacks were
in evidence. Elsewhere spawning was fight. The cohoe runs to the Chehalis River,
Hicks Creek, Nicomen Slough, and Weaver Creek were heavy and satisfactory. Elsewhere supplies were light to moderate. Pink-supplies in the Harrison River were very
good. The Chehalis River seeding was heavy due to the confined area of spawning.
In all other pink-salmon streams spawning was light. The principal chum seedings this
year where in the Chehalis sloughs of the Harrison River, where late-run fish, amounting
to about 50,000, gave these sloughs and the Harrison River bars at the mouths of the
sloughs a heavy seeding. Spawning conditions were excellent. Supplies to all other
chum areas, including the Chehalis River itself, were light.
lower Fraser Area.—Upwards of 18,000 sockeyes spawned in the Upper Pitt system,
compared with 53,000 in the brood-year. Spawning in Boise Creek was average, although
somewhat lighter than last year. In Seven Mile Creek the return was much lighter than
^ 1952. The Widgeon Slough run was estimated at 1,500. Spring-salmon spawning
i«the Upper Pitt River was moderate, estimated at between 1,200 and 1,500. GeneraUy
cohoe-supplies were very good, showing in practically all streams a considerable increase
over brood-year stocks of 1950. Increases were noted in Coquitlam, Beaver »j^m«
fcver. The pink-salmon escapement was also fairly good, 1there being <dec fd ^prove-
*ent in practically all streams when compared with the ^^J9^' J^Tpt
**» were noted in the Coquitlam, South Alouette North ^^^
^vers, Kanaka Creek, Widgeon Slough, and Silver Creek.   Chum-supphes, although
 I 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA
below average, showed improvement over #ie spawning in the brood-year. Best seedings
occurred in the Coquitlam River, North Alouette River, South Alouette River, and
Kanaka Creek. |P
North Vancouver Area
The escapement of cohoes to the Capilano, Seymour, and Indian Rivers was satisfactory, but below the brood-year levels of 1950. There was improvement in the
numbers of pink salmon in Capilano, Seymour, and Indian Rivers. The run to Indian
River was exceptionally heavy and is estimated at over 100,000 fish. Notwithstanding
special conservation measures applied to improve the escapement, chum-salmon stocks
in all streams were light.
Squamish Area
The spring-salmon rim was fairly satisfactory, some 20,000 of this species being
present in the Squamish system. Cohoe-supplies were only fair and about equal to the
brood-year. Pink-supplies, amounting to 200,000, were somewhat below brood-year
levels and much below seeding of 1947 and 1949. The run of chums to this system was
the smallest for some years and the escapement was light, estimated at about 25,000 or
about half of that of the brood-year. In the smaller streams in Howe Sound the escapement of pinks was about equal to that of the brood-year, while the spawning of chums was
the lightest since 1947.
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
statistical tables
LICENCES ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES FOR
THE 1953 SEASON
I 103
Kind of Licence Number of
_  , Licences
Salmon-cannery  20
Herring-cannery  2
Pilchard-cannery  __
Herring-reduction  ]  T5
Pilchard-reduction    	
Tierced salmon  3
Fish cold storage ,____ i m  17
Fish-processing  16
Shell-fish cannery  7
Tuna-fish cannery  2
Fish-offal reduction  12
Fish-liver reduction  4
Whale-reduction  1
Pickled herring \    	
Herring dry-saltery ____  4
Processing aquatic plants    	
Harvesting aquatic plants 1  ____
Fish-buyers'   480
Non-tidal fishing  227
Dogfish-reduction . j    	
General receipts  4
Revenue
$4,000.00
200.00
1,500.00
300.00
1,700.00
16.00
7.00
2.00
12.00
4.00
100.00
400.00
12,000.00
230.00
28.50
Total $20,499.50
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1953
(Showing the Origin of Salmon Caught in Each District (48-pound Cases))
District
Sockeyes
Springs
Steelheads
Fraser River	
Queen Charlotte Islands	
Nass River	
Skeena River	
Rfrers Inlet	
Smith Inlet ZZZZZZZZI
Central Area 	
Vancouver Island and adjacent
Mainland   	
Cold-storage (1952) catchZZZZ
Totals	
191,123
246
18,1625
65,003
132,9255
29,947
25,8455
46,8955
5,620
15
5275
1,1745
8655
176
1,568
3,1151
371
6
3105
970
184
1005
9045
184
510,148
13,0485
3,030£
Cohoes
15,480
2,437£
5,118
5,260
1,979
615
21,502
57,773
110,164^
Pinks
207,4215
811
16,6351
29,884
7,3045
1,017
92,517
Chums
26,921
17,304
25.756J
15,1145
5,627
4,015
175,289
439,1735  124,840
566   	
795,330   394,867
Total
496,9365
20,806
66,5101
117,406
148,8855
35,870i
317,626
671,9815
566
1,826,5885
Noie.^2,055 cases of bluebacks are included with cohoes (Vancouv* ^
^eye tips and tails, 391/2 cases of pinks tips and tails, 713 cases of minced sockeye, 68 cases or mincea
,54 cases of chums in oil.
 I 104
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK BY SPECIES
FROM 1945 TO 1953, INCLUSIVE
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelheads.-	
Totals
510,148
13,0485
394,867
795,330
110,1645
3,0305
1,826,5885
449,4945
9,279
96,005
679,182
67,438
3,762
1,305,1605
428,299
I 13,698
462,101
736,093
313,674
3,6555
1,957,5205
408,0265
9,2335
507,611
446,4565
123,6295
3,2275
l,498,184i
259,821
21,184
230,5565
709,987
215,944
2,373
1,439,866
261,2305
16,4455
511,404
321,7215
221,804
5,6635
1,338,271
286,497
10,025
486,6155
600,7875
146,293
3,2605
1,533,4785
1946
543,027
8,1005
576,1335
116,6075
100,154^
4,1155
1,348,1385
1945
329,0015
12,801
350,1881
825,513
218,8865
2,922
1,739,3125
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS
Total Packed by Districts in 1945 to 1953, Inclusive
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
Fraser TR»vpf
496,9365
117,406
148,8855
35,8705
66,5105
671,9815
338,432
566
151,147
221,3065
105,040
43,5625
57,775
245,437
475,066
5,8265
268,233
130,681
148,996
58,022
152,7425
585,240
612,482
1,124
139,7215
97,889
172,1075
52,750
57,961
347,9965
623,609
6,150
189,938
129,027
70,2105
19,083
58,3365
538,3705
431,4985
3,402
104,485
193,4355
72,117
14,675
38,5385
317,572
567,314
30,134
171,3025
79,718
168,9355
46,172
29,450
552,9405
456,639
28,321
413,542
105,9125
123,304
23,177
38,313
264,922
378,968
221,3515
221,4715
135,412
21,682
54,9805
492,2815
592,1335
Skeena Fiver
Rivers Inlet	
Smith Inlet	
Nass River
Vancouver Island and
adjacent Mainland-
Other districts	
Cold storage	
Grand totals
1,826,5885
1,305,1605
1,957,5205
1,498,1845
1,439,866
1,338,271
1,533,4785
1,348,1385
1,739,3125
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 105
TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE FRASER RIVFP
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FOUR-YE^Y^
British Columbia  1895- 395,984 1896- 356,984 1897- 860 459 1 *wl_ <x« ,n,
Washington  65,143 72,979 ^     ^ goOQ
Total  461,127 429 963 i 1T> ~                        ~~	
*ty,W3 1,172^07 508,101
British Columbia  1899-480,485 1900- 229,800 1901-928 669 1902     sown
Washington  49^646 22^704 i.ios!^ ^ gS
Total  980,131 458,504 ^^ _*&*
British Columbia  1903-204,809 1904-   72,688 1905-837,489 1906-183,007
Washington  167,211 123,419 837,122 m&l
TotaL  372,020 196,107 1,674,611 J^g
British Columbia  1907—   59,815 1908—   74,574 1909—585 435 1910—150432
Washington  96,974 170,951 1,097^904 248,014
Total  156,789 245,525 1,683,339 398,446
British Columbia 1  1911—   58,487 1912— 123,879 1913— 719,796 1914— 198,183
Washington  127,761 184,680 1,673,099 335,230
TotaL  186,248 308,559 2,392,895 333*413
British Columbia  1915—   91,130 1916—   32,146 1917— 148,164 1918—   19,697
Washington .  64,584 84,637 411,538 50,723
Total  155,714 116,783 559,702 70,420
British Columbia  1919—   38,854 1920—   48,399 1921—   39,631 1922—   51,832
Washington  64,346 62,654 102,967 48,566
Total  103,200 111,053 142,598 100,398
British Columbia  __ 1923—   31,655 1924—   39,743 1925—   35,385 1926—   85,689
Washington  47,402 69,369 112,023 44,673
TotaL  79,057 109,112 147,408 130,362
British Columbia  1927—   61,393 1928—   29,299 1929—   61,569 1930— 103,692
Washington  97,594 61,044 111,898 352,194
Total  158,987 90,343 173,467 455,886
British Columbia  1931—   40,947 1932—   65,769 1933—   52,465 1934— 139,238
Washington  87,211 81,188 128,518 352,579
Total      128,158 146.957 180,983 491,817
British Columbia    __         I 1935—   62,822 1936— 184,854 1937— 100,272 1938— 186.794
Washington  54,677 59,505 60,259 135,550
Total  117,499 244.359 160,531 322,344
British Columbia   1939—   54,296 1940—   99,009 1941— 171,290 1942— 446,371
Washington \  43,512 63,890 110,605 263,458
Total  97,808 162,899 281,895 709,829
British Columbia              I 1943-   31,974 1944-   88,515 1945-   79.977 1946- 341,957
Washington ~               19,117 37,509 53,055 268,561
Total  ~5U)91 126,024 133,032 610.518
British Columbia  1947-   33,952 1948-   64,8235 1949-   96,159 1950- 108,223
Washington {  6,760 90,441 80,547 116'43*
Total  ~^i 155,2645 176,706 224,681
British Columbia  1951- 145,321 1952- 134,625 1953- 191,123
Washington,,,, 118451 114,638 178,323
Total  263,472 249,263 369,446
I
 I 106
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
§1 $    I        BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES §
Fraser River, 1945 to 1953, Inclusive
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
Sockeyes ......
191,123
5,620
26,921
204,4215
15,480
371
134,625
2,279
8,480
60
5,5005
2025
145,2315
5,719
35,5305
66,673
14,8485
2305
108,223
1,8185
23,3435
72
6,0255
240
96,1595
9,889
6,763
66,626
10,286
2145
64,8235
2,9555
20,209
31
16,102
364
33,9525
1,455
16,4755
113,1365
6,105
178
341,957
1,0965
60,713
429
9,1685
178
79,977
6,1305
27,610
95,7485
11,615
2705
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes
Steelheads              	
Totals-	
496,3965
151,147
268,233
139,7215
189,938
104,485
171,3025
413,542
221,3515
Skeena River, 1945 to 1953, Inclusive
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks           .  ..,,
Cohoes.            	
Steelheads
65,003
1,1745
15,1145
29,884
5,260
970
114,775
2,082
4,638
89,314
8,358
2,1395
61,6945
2,0555
14,778
30,3565
19,9775
1,819
47,4795
1,7585
10,969
26,256
9,781
65,937
2,5075
4,896
33,0695
21,3335
2,5075
101,2675
4,0185
11,863
50,656
22,0865
3,544
32,534
2,113
8,236
13,1905
21,6005
2,044
52,928
2,439
11,161
10,737
26,2815
2,366
104,2795
2,382
9,264
69,7835
34,2011
1,561
Totals     .
117,406
221,3065
130,681
97,889
129,027
193,4355
79,718
105,9125
221,4715
Rivers Inlet, 1945 to 1953, Inclusive
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
Sockeyes .,..,..,.,
132,9255
8655
5,627
7,3045
1,979
184
84,2975
8655
3,7115
12,4695
3,4155
2805
102,5655
9375
11,8425
20,960
12,146
2745
142,7105
6195
10,0145
12,864
5,736
163
39,4945
743
11,819
11,937
5,978
239
37,6655
8995
11,4865
13,491
8,143
4315
140,087
475
13,873
9,025
5,182
2935
73,320
1,1085
37,3955
1,6415
9,5245
314
89,735
Springs
1,1915
Chums   .	
Pinks.
Cohoes  .                	
Steelheads	
16,793
9,916
17,5165
260
Totals
148,8555
105,040
148,996
172,1075
70,2105
72,117
168,9355
123,304
135,412
Smith Inlet, 1945 to 1953, Inclusive
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
Sockeyes
Springs
Cohoes
29,947
176
615
1,017
4,015
1005
34,834
367
1,466
6,496
3155
84
49,473
1745
3,259
2,482
2,530
1035
42,435
715
397
5,308
4,4995
39
13,189
159
785
2,533
2,361
56
10,4565
1865
9295
1,4815
1,5215
995
36,800
43
348
1,054
7,910
21
14,318
45
177
235
8,369
33
15,014
26
560
Pinks.
Chums —	
Steelheads 	
2,362
3,692
28
Totals.   .   _ 	
35,8705
43,5625
58,022
52,750
19,083
14,675
46,172
23,177
21,682
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRTTT
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECffiS^S
I 107
BRITISH COLUMBIA,
Nass River, 1945 to 1953, Inclusive
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
Sockeyes	
Springs.	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes..——
Steelheads	
Totals
18,1625
5275
25,7565
16,6355
5,118
3105
66,5105
29,429
641
13,1125
13,016
1,223
2905
57,775
24,4055
5965
37,742
70,880
18,711
4075
152,742*
1948
27,2865
798i
14,321
12,582
2,737
236
57,961
1947
9,268
1745
7,854
34,324
6,665
51
58,3365
1946
38,5385
1945
13,1815
10,849
416
398
7,2725
8,925
8,565
5,047
8,9545
4,075
149
156
29,450
12,511
472
13,810
7,147
4,239
134
38,313
9,899
202
4,9815
35,9185
3,895
84J
54.980J
Vancouver Island District and Adjacent Mainland, 1945 to 1953 Inclusivi
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums—	
Pinks	
Cohoes1	
Steelheads	
Totals
46,8955
3,1155
124,840
439,1735
57,773
184
671,9815
24,2525
1,687
24,039
171,812
23,583
635
245,437
22,107
3,133
105,458
303,1025
151,3255
114
585,240
13,806
3,343
125,833
132,016
72,871
1275
347,9965
19,4865
6,3615
51,629
361,7835
98,9585
151|
538,3705
1946
9,9811
6,622
147,2275.
43,5745
109,9395
227
317,572
14,543
4,9425
99,679*
355,992
77,6845
99
552,9405
35,3815
2,283*
190,313
6,8095
29,983
1511
264,922
1 Since 1940, bluebacks have been included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1945 to 1953, Inclusive
1945
5,988
2,323
136,724
242,5905
104,528
128
492,2815
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
Sockeyes
246
li
17,304
811
2,4375
6
635
96
1,712
178,9595
4,168
195
510
61,6965
3,455
22,579
89
48 |
148,669
92,986
9,021
15
20
145
71,287
51,722
4,145
14,096
1,200
392
32,414
8,024
1,192
5
Springs.    .   .
Chums  	
Pinks.._
Cohoes
24,8525
1,550
8,1415
4
12,132
4,809
1,108
Steelheads
.,_ i„
Totals
20,806
185,590
88,2405
250,828
34,544
127,319
15,688
41,635
18,053
Central Area, 1945 to 1953, Inclusive
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
Sockeyes	
Springs    ___.
25,8455
1,568
175,289
92,517
21,502
9045
26,5835
1,2615
36,605
207,055
17,289
682
22,312
1,082
190,8435
237,559
61,4235
7065
25,997
776
164,884
163,301
17,061
762
16,1405
1,007
116,2925
173,456
44,169
355
23,246*
1,1955
225,686
152,2005
36,816
850|
17,3435
5145
292,6045
101,2415
28,778
469
12,6115
656
221,958
81,584|
19,589
934
24,109
542
138,992
364,385
45,4625
590
Chums
Pinks..
Cohoes
Steelheads
-jy\j
Totals	
317,626
289,476
513,9265
372,781
351,420
439,995
440,951
337,333
574,0805
-	
-
 I 108
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1953
1930-31.
1931-32.
1932-33.
1933-34.
1934-35.
1935-36.
1936-37.
1937-38.
1938-39.
1939-40.
1940-41.
1941-42.
1942-43.
1943-44.
1944-45.
1945-46.
1946-47-
1947-48.
1948-49.
1949-50-
1950-51..
1951-52.
1952-53-
1953-54..
Season
Canned
Cases
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59,166
72,498
42,008
94,512
78,772
79,536
4,359
2,656
Meal
Tons
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
8,435
5,812
699
67
Oil
Gal.
3,204,058
2,551,914
1,315,864
275,879
1,635,123
1,634,592
1,217,087
1,707,276
2,195,850
178,305
890,296
1,916,191
1,560,269
2,238,987
1,675,090
1,273,329
81,831
12,833
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1953
1935-36—
1936-37—
1937-38—
1938-39...
1939-40—
1940-41-.
1941-42—
.1942-43 -
1943-44—
1944-45—
1945-46—
1946-47—
1947_48.„.
1948-49....
1949-50—
1950-51—.
1951-52	
1952-53 ....
1953-54-.
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Cases
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
1,190,762
1,307,514
1,634,286
1,283,670
92,719
77,913
56,798
103,928
5,132
66,231
Tons
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
302
5,807
3,084*
412
3,858
4,418
4,331
5,871
3,910
Pickled
Tons
892
779
502
591
26
100
1295
1
1 Previously reported as 2,988 tons.
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st, annually.
Meal
Tons
5,313
10,340
14,643
18,028
22,870
10,886
8,780
4,633
7,662
9,539
5,525
7,223
18,948
31,340
30,081
31,913
32,777
218
31,740
oa
Gal.
328,639
786,742
1,333,245
1,526,117
1,677,736
923,137
594,684
323,379
512,516
717,655
521,649
484,937
1,526,826
2,614,925
3,823,464
3,385,685
3,832,301
7,203
3,516,106
 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 109
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, VITAMIN A, AND
FERTILIZER PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING
AND PILCHARD, 1947 TO 1953. §
Season
Whalebone
and Meal
1947-48.
1948-49
1949-50-
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53.
1953-54
Tons
119
921
1,098
1,981
2,349
1,786
i Million U.S.P. units Vitamin A.
From Whales
Fertilizer
Oil
From Fish*
livers
From Other Sources
Oil
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
Tons
Gal.
324
21
186,424
312,055
393,176
680,129
668,408
5,707,968
Units1
11,109,063
10,121,374
12,079,015
3,578,905
5,250,441
5,409,264
5,339,768
Tons
3,929
1,172
1,635
1,717
3,593
2,011
2,059
Gal.
519,802
141,098
175.202
166,898
250,777
192,315
243,819
 I  110
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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