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REPORT of THE FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST 1954 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1955]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. R. E. SOMMERS, Minister DR. C. D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1954
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955
  H Victoria, B.C., March, 1955.
To Colonel the Honourable Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of the
Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1954.
R. E. SOMMERS,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
 The Honourable R. E. Sommers,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1954.
§ C. D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.
 CONTENTS
Item Page
1, Introductory  9
I Forest Surveys and Inventory   14
Forest Surveys ~~~ j 4
Forest Inventory 1""".!" 15
3. Forest Research j  20
Experiment Stations _  20
Investigations and Advisory Service  20
Forest Genetics  21
Field Projects j  25
Permanent-plot Studies  30
Research Publications  30
4. Reforestation  31
Forest Nurseries :  31
Seed Collections  31
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  32
Planting  32
Preparation of Planting Areas  32
Plantations  32
Plantation Improvement  33
5. Parks and Recreation I  34
Administration  34
Reconnaissance and Inventory.  34
Planning and Development  35
Vancouver Island Parks  35
Mainland Parks  3 6
Wildlife Management  41
Publicity Section  42
Changes in Park List  42
Park List, 1954  43
Recreation Land Reserves  43
Island Park Visitor Studies  43
6. Working Plans  44
Forest Management Licences I  44
Public Working Circles  45
Farm Wood-lot Licences  45
Tree-farms  46
Summary f 1  46
Demonstration Forests  46
7. Public Relations and Education  47
Press and Radio  47
Publications and Printing  47
Photography and Motion Pictures  47
Film Library  47
Signs and Posters.—  47
Co-operation ___   _ _               _      48
Exhibits .  48
Library  48
8. Forest Management  49
General  49
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  ^0
Forest-cover Maps  50
Aerial Photographs  51
5
 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item j>agb
8. Forest Management—Continued
Forest Management Licence Administration  -.
Silvicultural Fund  5j
9. Grazing  53
Introduction  53
Administration  53
Grazing Permits  53
Hay Permits  54
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees  54
General Conditions  54
Co-operation  55
Range Improvement  55
Range Survey  57
Miscellaneous  57
Live-stock Losses  57
Diseases of Live Stock | ___.   57
Markets and Prices  57
Plant Collections  57
Live-stock Counts  58
Trespass  58
10. Engineering Services  59
Engineering Section  59
General Engineering %  59
H Road Reconnaissance  62
j Road Location  62
m Road Construction  64
Mechanical Section  66
Equipment Selection  67
General  68
Structural Design and Building Construction Section  69
Forest Service Marine Station  70
Radio Section  71
11. Forest Protection  74
Weather  74
Fires  74
Occurrences and Causes  74
Cost of Fighting Fires  74
Damage  75
Fire-control Planning and Research  75
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers  75
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  75
Protection Planning in Working-circles  75
If       Miscellaneous  75
Fire-weather Records and Investigations  75
Fire-suppression Crews  77
Aircraft  77
Roads and Trails  77
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  78
Fire-law Enforcement  79
Forest Closure  79
Co-operation—Other Agencies  ^9
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
lT Forest-insect Investigations  p*°*
13 Forest-disease Investigations             § g5
Forest-disease Survey fl 8_
Nursery, Seed, and Cone Diseases  g7
Diseases of Immature Forests            ~ g9
Diseases of Mature Forests   ~ g9
14. Forest Ranger School  90
Extra Courses  90
Buildings and Grounds  ~~~ 90
Acknowledgments  90
15. Forest Accounts  91
16. Personnel 1  92
Organization I  92
Services  92
Communications  92
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  92
Classifications and Salaries  93
Youth Training Programme  93
Miscellaneous  94
17. Personnel Directory, 1955—|  96
18. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service   105
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE
Forest Surveys and Inventory
The year 1954 marked the fourth year under co-operative agreement with the Canadian Government on forest-inventory surveys. Surveys were completed on 25,570,000
acres, employing 238 people. Revised totals for the Province indicate 90,697,067 acres
of productive forest land carrying 133,262,429,000 cubic feet of mature timber.
Forest Research
A total of thirteen research parties were in the field with operations in all forest
districts. The first regional research office was established at Kamloops. The Cowichan
Lake Station was inactive. Boundary of the Aleza Lake Station was relocated and work
done on access road and water system.
Forest genetic studies were continued, and the co-operative seed-provenance study
maintained with the Oregon State Board of Forestry. The effect of site on two high-
elevations stands was investigated. If
Re-examination of growth-study plots was maintained. Thirty-three separate
studies were undertaken by thirteen field parties, and some of these are reviewed briefly.
They include control of seed-eating rodents, the commercial thinning experiment on
East Thurlow Island, examination of marked timber sales in the Interior, accuracy
control on timber-sale cruises, an investigation of the distribution and botanical differences between white and Engelmann spruce, a partial-cutting experiment in the Interior
Wet Belt forest, a yellow pine-thinning study, ecological investigations on the Coast and
in the Northern Interior, and nursery fertility studies.
Three publications were written, published, and distributed.
Reforestation
Lack of seed from higher elevations necessitated reduction of nursery planting for
1956 stock. Creeping cress in the seed-beds is proving a problem as there is no effective killer for this weed so far. Growing conditions were poorer due to low summer
temperatures.
In combined spring and fall planting, the Division planted 8,180 acres with
6,303,000 seedlings and the industry planted 5,133 acres with 3,400,000 trees.
The 1954 seed-crop was very poor for Sitka spruce, western hemlock, and western
red cedar; patchy for Douglas fir and balsam, passable on the lower levels but not
satisfactory at higher elevations. Yellow pine and Douglas fir in the Interior gave fair
yields, and several years' supply was acquired.
Surveys of cut-over areas covered 12,000 acres on the Coast and 20,764 acres in
the Interior. Eight miles of former logging grades were converted to truck-road, 2Vi
miles of new road constructed, and 140 miles of existing roads maintained. Standing
snags were removed from 6,057 acres on the Coast.    1
Plantings of 1953 on the Coast showed a record survival of 89 per cent, as compared with the 1951 spring plantings which had an all-time low of only 58 per cent.
Interior survival figures are habitually lower than in the Coast Wet Belt.
Parks and Recreation
Major effort has been concentrated on camp- and picnic-site development to meet
!?e emtasiastic and growing demand for such facilities.   Available crews under the Youth
raining Programme have been used extensively on this work.
 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Reconnaissance surveys to determine suitable sites for development were made on
the west coast of Vancouver Island, the South Cariboo, the Chilcotin plateau, Stuart
Lake, the Blackwater-Nazko area, the Bridge River-Bralorne district, and elsewhere.
Further development work was carried on at all Vancouver Island parks, and a
new site established at MacDonald Park on the north end of the Saanich Peninsula.
The upper end of the Mount Seymour Park Road was completed, and work commenced
on a water system for the upper area. Ski runs were improved and new ones cleared.
Maintenance of roads and trails consumes a large proportion of available time and
money.
Extensive additions were made to facilities at Cultus Lake and Manning Parks.
Work in Garibaldi Park was confined to maintenance and urgent projects as plans for
the area are still in a formative state. In Wells Gray Park, projects included expansion
of administrative and service facilities, a log building at Clearwater Lake for the use of
guides, and two cedar floats. Trails into the moose-hunting area were cut in this park.
A camp-site was established in Mount Robson Park. Other projects carried out included
Peace Arch, Kokanee Creek, and Roberts Creek Parks, and additional picnic-sites in
the Okanagan Lake areas. |§
Working Plans
Progress was made in developing a demonstration forest of 1,270 acres near Bowser,
Vancouver Island. Five forest management licences were awarded during the year to
bring the total to nineteen. Applications for another eleven licences have been approved,
and approximately eighty-five more applications are under review. Twenty-nine public
working circles are established, with a productive area of 8,673,135 acres and an allowable annual cut of 179,640,000 cubic feet. Twenty-five farm wood-lot licences have been
awarded and twelve tree-farms certified. This represents an increase of five wood-lots
and six tree-farms during the year.
Public Relations
Funds allotted for the development of public relations and education remained at
the same level as the previous year, but were expended on different projects. The press
protection-advertising campaign was discontinued in favour of highway signs. The lecture
programme in the schools was continued. Library work particularly was improved and
expanded. Photographic services and production were also extended. An exhibit was
placed in the Pacific National Exhibition. Numerous special articles were written and a
number of tours arranged for groups interested in forestry and the forest industries.
Forest Management
The total cut for the Province attained a new high, surpassing the 1953 record by
over one-quarter of a billion feet. Should the same rate of increase be maintained for
another two years, production will pass the 6-billion mark. Value of forest production
also was a record at $528,022,783, 39 per cent above the ten-year average. Water-borne
shipments were approximately 1.5 billion feet, with the largest portion going to the
United Kingdom, followed by the United States. 1
Douglas fir supplied 2,128,000 M board-feet (38 per cent) of the cut; hemlock,
1,294,000 M board-feet (23 per cent); cedar, 831,000 M board-feet (15 per cent); and
spruce 596,000 M board-feet (11 per cent). The reduction in the proportion of spruce
reflects the adverse weather of the Northern Interior. The higher cut in the Coast areas
was the equivalent of all of the gross increase, although the Kamloops Forest District also
registered an increase, in the amount of 58,000 M board-feet. Seventy per cent of the
cut originated from Crown lands, 59 per cent being from timber sales. The number of
sales awarded (3,009) was a new record.
Production of paper exceeded 600,000 tons for the first time.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
Log prices on the Coast recovered from the low level of 1953. This resulted in an
upWard revision of stumpage prices on those contracts which called for sliding-Tcale
ipage. Weighted average bid for all species on the Coast was $3.93 per hundred cub *
feet, up 68 cents from the previous year s figure. Conversely, due to a decline in dressed
lumber prices in the Interior, average stumpage bids dropped 55 cents from $3 77 per
hundred cubic feet in 1953. || p
Forest-cover maps to the number of 1,086 were revised. District office libraries
were supplied with 39,385 aerial photographs.
The cut on forest management licences during the year was approximately
30,000,000 cubic feet.
' Under the Silvicultural Fund, projects included tree-marking, silvicultural studies,
slash-disposal, road location and other activities in working circles, and other studies!
Grazing
Continuing increased demand for Crown range added to the volume of administrative work during the year. Early in the year, grazing district boundaries were amended
to coincide with forest district boundaries. A total of 1,750 grazing permits—an all-time
record—were issued, covering 111,767 cattle (also a record number), 3,738 horses, and
24,909 sheep. Hay permits issued totalled 190. Due to the wet season, many natural
meadows were flooded and the hay-cut was correspondingly low. A drop in market prices
in 1953 resulted in a drop in fees charged. Live-stock prices showed a further drop
in 1954. I Hf
fl The spring was slow and forage growth commenced late; however, above-average
rainfall resulted later in heavy forage growth on all but the higher ranges, and stock came
off the range in the fall in generally good condition. The mild fall and early winter permitted grazing much later than normal. % H
An extensive programme of range improvement was accomplished, including a
considerable increase in range-seeding. Standard grazing-range surveys were made of
661,642 acres and 71,180 acres covered by extensive reconnaissance.
One serious outbreak of disease occurred, necessitating quarantine for a number
of herds and removal of all range bulls. Foot-rot in sheep was somewhat more frequent
than usual.
Engineering Services
Development work was generally hampered by the wet season, but clearing operations benefited by the conditions, particularly on the approximately 14 miles of Pacific
Great Eastern Railway right-of-way handled by the Division. A programme of soil
and gravel testing for forest-development roads was initiated.
Development-road reconnaissance surveys covered 146 miles. Analyses, designs,
and maps were completed for roads in the White River, Naver Creek, and Morice Forests.
Field work was completed and office analysis commenced on extension of the Stone Creek
and Willow River Forests roads.
Forest Service mechanical staff were heavily occupied with the purchase and
maintenance of the increasing number of diversified equipment now being operated by
4e various divisions. A new high-speed chain saw was tried out with good results.
A 40-horsepower outboard motor was added to the equipment. The value of power-
wheelbarrows has not been definitely agreed upon.   A gravel-crushing plant was acquired.
At the Marine Station on the Fraser River the ways were occupied sixty times and
r-six complete launch overhauls made. Two old launches were remodelled and four
heavy-duty prams built for the P.G.E. clearing project. A second 26-foot speed-boat
was built, and work commenced on a 32-foot speed-boat. A new type of barge, using
sWoam for flotation, with a carrying capacity of 30 tons, was built and assembled on
4e shore of Quesnel Lake; also four outboard cruisers, five river-boats, and fourteen
dinghies.
 j 2 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The woodworking-shop produced lookouts, sectional buildings, furniture, toolboxes, signs, and crates, in quantity. Ten prefabricated residences for Assistant Rangers
in isolated locations were begun. |j
Numerous hose tests were made. Pump, outboard, chain-saw, and light-plant
overhauls all increased. Experiments and improvements were effected on a portable
epidiascope and a commencement made on a hose-washing machine.
An extensive programme of building and construction was undertaken, comprising
design, issuing of specifications and contracts, and supervision. The major project in
this line was the district office building at Prince Rupert.
One hundred and twenty-five new transmitting units were added to the 687 sets
in use the previous year. The new Model B portable set is now standard replacement
for the obsolete SPF unit. First steps were taken to convert the Kamloops District
circuit to V.H.F. units to obviate the congestion on fixed channels. New specially constructed operating and service quarters were established for the Vancouver District
headquarters station. A change from 3430 to 3245 kilocycles necessitated replacement
of some 250 crystals and created the problem of working in a channel already partially
occupied by other stations, A change of frequency in a United States network improved
communications in the Kamloops District. It was necessary to specially design the new
Victoria transmitter and install filters at the Vancouver station to overcome problems
created by the increased number of television receivers in those areas.
Forest Protection
The fire season was the lightest since 1913 due to favourable weather. Only 764
fires were recorded, caused mainly by campers, smokers, and railway operations. Major
suppression costs resulted from fires on industrial operations. Acreage burned totalled
10,309, the largest fire being responsible for over 1,000 acres in the Vancouver Forest
District.
The Provincial fire atlas was brought up to date. One crew was engaged on visibility mapping and lookout photography. Thirty-one possible lookout-sites were examined and eight established primary sites photographed.
Fire access roads built on ridge-tops totalled 16.1 miles during the year. Observation and reporting of fire weather was unchanged. Tests of various experimental
fuel-moisture indicators were made; also studies of sensitivity of hazard sticks that have
been frozen, larger sticks, the behaviour of slash-burns, and other problems.
Sixteen fire-suppression crews were employed in the three southern forest districts.
They were engaged on eighty-three fires, only one of which spread to over 50 acres.
Protection flying was continued under an existing contract, using six float-planes for a
total of 2,178 hours. A total of 307 miles of new roads and trails were built and 1,746
miles maintained.
Slash-burning results were only fair, due to poor burning conditions. Snag-falling
results were very satisfactory. Operators completed snag-falling on 650 acres, the Protection Division contracted for falling on 3,590 acres, and the Reforestation Division
accounted for 10,387 acres by contract or with their own personnel.
No forest closures were imposed. There were twenty-two prosecutions for lire-law
infractions.   Honorary Fire Wardens appointed numbered 960.
Forest-insect Investigations
The forest-insect situation during the year was not critical, but situations did arise
that may presage trouble in the future. An area of 113 square miles in the Lillooet-
Pemberton and Fraser-Nahatlatch Rivers areas was severely infested with spruce bud-
worm attacking Douglas fir. The western hemlock and the false hemlock looper were
also present. Starvation of larvae may effect control of this outbreak. No tree mortality
has yet occurred nor is imminent.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954 13
The western hemlock looper has shown renewed activity over the past three years
and constitutes a serious threat.
The black-headed budworm has caused anxiety throughout the year with heavy
infestations in the Prince Rupert District. Bark-beetles in Douglas fir, Engelmann spruce
and white pine were quite severe. Areas of pronounced killing occurred on Vancouver
Island and at Williams Lake, Manning Park, Boston Bar, Shuswap Lake, north of Revelstoke, and the Upper Arrow Lake. Lodgepole pine was killed over extensive areas on
the Columbia and Upper Elk Rivers, ponderosa pine was attacked in the Kamloops
Forest District, and Engelmann spruce in the Yahk Provincial Forest.
Studies were continued on ambrosia-beetle control.
Forest-disease Investigations
Personnel and laboratory facilities at the Lake Cowichan Experiment Station were
extended. Collections of diseased specimens received for examination numbered 2,400.
A survey disclosed that white trunk-rot was generally distributed thrbughout the Province in hardwood species. Needle-cast fungi occurred in a number of localities, with
fairly heavy infections on Cortes Island and north-west of Clinton.
A study was made of severe flagging of ponderosa pine in the Kelowna region.
More recent outbreaks of the same disease occurred near Grand Forks and Rock Creek.
Serious damage is not anticipated. j|
Studies showed high populations of moulds in stored Douglas-fir seed, and at the
Green Timbers nursery substantial losses resulted from damping-off.
Other studies included the possible influence of site on root-rot in Douglas fir, the
root ecology of white pine in the Slocan Lake area affected by pole blight, resistance
of certain white-pine individuals to blister rust, defect in alpine fir in the Prince George
region, the priority of cutting of mature stands of western hemlock and amabilis fir on
the west coast of Vancouver Island, and the occurrence of Indian-paint fungus in Coast
and Interior forests.
Forest Ranger School
The seventh class to enter the school completed their course of studies in December, bringing total graduations to 122. Some changes in curriculum were initiated to
strengthen the course on Ranger District organization and written-oral expression.
Thirteen men were given the course for lookout-men and assigned to stations in the
Vancouver Forest District. jL
Forest Accounts
The volume of business continued at a high level. Decentralization of accounting
was completed. Log Salvage Regulations were established early in the year, one salvage
district established, and ninety-nine log salvage permits issued. Forest revenues in the
calendar year declined slightly from the record attained in 1953, being some $663,000
less; however, in the fiscal year ended March 31st, revenues reached a new all-time peak
of $19,054,607.08 and expenditures a new record $8,126,844.75.
Personnel
One new Ranger district was created in the Kamloops Forest District, with head-
barters at Lillooet, and the Revelstoke Ranger District was transferred from the
Kamloops to the Nelson Forest District. I
The permanent Civil Service establishment for the Forest Service for the 1953-54
nscal year was approved at 784. During the year 154 persons received Civil Service
appointments and 136 left the Service. Staff turnover for the last nine months of the
Jar averaged 12.6 per cent, with the greatest turnover in the Prince George District of
^Percent. The Youth Training Programme employed 245 boys, in the 16- to 18-
»-old group, during the months of July and August, largely on the development of
C{«np and
picnic sites and parks.
 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
The Division completed the fourth year during which financial aid from the Canadian Government has contributed to the survey of the forest resources of the Province
according to the specifications of the Agreement for Inventory implemented under the
Canada Forestry Act.
I FOREST SURVEYS
In the 1954 field season, 238 persons were employed on the work which, when
compilations are completed, will provide maps and forest data of the following areas:—
Acres
Columbia drainage (Big Bend, Canoe)     4,063,000   1
Fraser drainage (Upper Adams, Upper North Thomp- J|
son, Clearwater, Squamish, Chilcotin, West Road
River, Chilako, Driftwood)  18,420,000
Other coastal drainage (Babine)     2,826,000
Special cruises       261,000
Total .  25,570,000
Included with this Report is a diagram showing the progress of the survey, within
the major drainages of the Province. The portion of the Province shown as inaccessible
represents an estimate of how much will be covered by reconnaissance only. Inaccessible, in this sense, applies to large areas of poor forest development at great distances
from established centres, as in the north. It has been estimated that some 30 per cent
of the timber volume of the Province is presently inaccessible; a portion of this volume
will come from the reconnaissance area and the remainder from the areas to be covered
by surveys.
DIAGRAM_si.ow.ng progress of Forest Surveys within the major drainages of the Province
Cofumb/a
Dra/nage
Fraser Drainage.
Other Coastal Drainages.
3D
Percentage
40
of Area
60 70
Br/t/sh   Co/umb/a.
LEGEND
_Z2
K-3
/945-/9S4-   accumu/ated   annua/ survey  coverage.
Tata/   coverage  comp/eted survey.
/95£ jo fanned forest survey.
ETD /3SS base map -J3S6 forest survey
CZ3 JL9SB base map - /SS7 forest survey,
-TTTTTn /naccess/'b/e-reconna/ssance ort/y-
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE   1954
15
The statistics now available are not subdivided into accessible and inaccessible
se interim resuhs provide cruises of all the mature timber classes with vohmes of
s 9.1 inches and over in diameter, breast high, or estimates adjusted to annroxim^
m diameter limit. The figures presented^include the areas and volumes of matoeSs
classified into the Site Indices 40 and 60. Ultimately, it will be possible to statethe
proportion of the areas and volumes associated with the various classifications of the
forest. Similarly, as yet no attempt has been made to present an assessment of the local
economics of merchantability with respect to tree sizes and tree species
These
trees
this
FOREST INVENTORY
inventory
49
to refer
Presented with this Report is a statement showing the progress change to the
jtory of the forest resources of the Province, involving revised estimates to Regions
53, and 54, together with the Provincial totals revised accordingly. It is necessary
W1efer back to the forest inventory of British Columbia as at December 31st, 1953
published in the 1953 Annual Report, to apply these changes. Particularly during the
period in which basic mapping and field data are being processed continuously, new maps
and summaries are being produced, and it is to be expected that the summary details and
consequently, the totals will change accordingly. The accompanying map-and schedule
depicting the extent and distribution of mature types is an interim presentation, based on
the present inventory statement.
  134°
130°
128° •
122°
120°
118°
116°
114°
54°
52°
136°
134°
132°
130°
128°
126°
124°
122°
120°
118°
116°
<_EOGRAPHIC  DIVISION,   DEPARTMENT OF  LANDS  AND  FORESTS.  VICTORIA.  B.C.
  17
OGRESS CHANGE TO BRITISH COLUMBIA FOREST RESOURCES, AS AT FEBRUARY 1st, 1955, AMENDING LAST REPORT, DECEMBER 31st, 1953
(In acres and thousand cubic feet.)
Region
Ownership
Acres
Mature Volume
Immature
Total
N.S.R.
Total
Name
1
No.
F
C
H
S
B
Pw
Py
Pi
Cy
L
Cot
Other
Deciduous
Total
l'-20'
21'-60'
61'+
Total
Productive
49
53
54
Crown	
187,921
640
5,283
100
147,531
1,400
8,598
28
244,971
530
5,009
119
407,413
1,200
14,777
127
108,782
480
8,919
189
123,993
48
961
11
555
7,444
21
15
15
21,030
10
180
3,422
10
1,220
30
5,800
10
200
10
1,070,941
3,709
39,889
529
1
19,874        73,287
300|            600
330|            590
2451            490
45,295
350
60
105
138,456
1,250
980
840
18,235
10
980
470
344,612
1,900
7,243
Crown granted	
Licences and leases
Canada control	
10
___
_____    .____
1,410
Totals	
Crown	
Crown granted	
193,944
157,557
250,629
423,517
118,370
125,013
5651	
7,495
21,220
________________
4,6821       6,020|    1,115,068
20,7491       74,967
45,810|     141,526
19,695]     355,165
R
510,004
2,490
46,350
1,280
111,700
110
22,690
190
740,502
6,900
73,890
1,630
1,092,161
4,563
114,730
3,020
192,042
545
28,170
590
405,390
1,333
54,800
800
4,430
118,010
457
5,790
390
5,590
100
640
40
18,930
110
750
10
2,688,755
14,118
301,480
6,670
2,835
20
12,435
150
1,010
16,692
100
855
31,962
270
1,865
490
21,085
150
1,470
530
563,051
2,910
Licences and leases
Canada control	
20
	
49,685
490
2,300
Totals	
Crown	
Crown granted	
560,124
134,690
822,922
1,214,474
221,347
462,323
j
4,450
124,647
6,370)     19,800
3,011,023
3,3451       13,595
17,647        34,587
23.235
617.946
'
B<
Jla Coola	
952,206
11,384
67,649
3,440
303,394
6,262
26,112
917
731,703
11,290
62,482
2,753
916,854
9,073
72,291
3,536
349,729
4,324
23,654
1,942
439,690
3,555
26,304
1,656
48,667
319
1,994
32
60,635
1,619
4,552
412
22,681
170
1,106
203
4,640
460
1,880
190
2,877,993
37,072
220,375
11,641
299,837
846
3,605
750
163,175
2,012
7,248
997
61,517|     524,529
2,2641         5,122
3,698        14,551
120|         1,867
131,507
1,159
2,112
1,608,242
17,665
Licences and leases	
Canada control	
	
84,312
5,307
Totals	
Crown	
1,034,679
336,685
808,228
1,001,754
379,649
471,205
51,012
67,218
24,160|      7,170
3,147,081
305,0381     173,432
67,5991     546,069
134,7781 1,715,526
Revised B.C. totals —_.
36,910,696
1,571,149
1,765,841
282,269
9,403,024
3,893,144
945,694
124,546
13,902,215
1,196,335
2,556,297
63,341
24,225,320
2,796,839
3,725,013
87,138
32,212,465
276,876
785,417
112,213
18,852,4051   481,611|   390,856
846,641    117,145|'    48,920
1,530,900|     58,915        4,180
41,593          607     22,571
9,946,511
101,848
24,129
63,968
1,176,514
156,586
235,295
9,427
470,506
29,582
3,273
17,776
1,067,355
16,084
27,796
8,681
1,103,933
"25,728
69,060
6,156
113,232,715
9,505,728
9,965,969
558,017
4,400,076
402,238
67,138
19,317
19,127,4216
1,498,886
153,013
176,274
11,419,745134,947,247
857,010   2,758,134
80,426|     300,577
101,4441     297,035
10,302,371182,160,314
Crown granted	
1,150,766| 5,480,049
Licences and leases
Canada control	
339,253   2,405,671
71.729J     651,033
■ ("**fl_i
Totals	
40,529,955114,366,408
1
17,718,188
30,834,310
33,386,971
21,271,539
658,2781   466,527
1
10,136,456| 1,577,822
1
521,137
1,119,916
1,204,877 133,262,429
4,888,769 20,955,599 12,458,625 38,302,993
1                                     1
11,864,119190,697,067
1
  TYPE AREAS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
===^====
Average
Volume
per Acre
No.
Speci
es (Percentage
of Volume in Type)
Type
F
1
c
1
H
S
B
1
PI
1
I
Pw       Cy
Py
L       Cot 1 O.D.
j
M Cu. Ft.
3.0
2.6
2.6
4.5
4.8
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
3.1
5.0
1.9
1.6
3.2
5.4
6.3
4.4
6.3
6.6
6.1
6.8
6.3
5.8
6.0
7.3
5.9
9.2
6.1
7.4
8.4
7.4
5.3
7.8
6.1
4.9
3.3
2.3
1.6
2.0
1.8
1.6
2.7
2.8
1.7
3.6
6.2
3.2
2.9
3.6
3.0
1.7
1.4
2.0
1.2
4.3
1.5
2.3
1.6
1.7
3.3
2.5
2.4
2.5
1.3
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.1
2.0
1.6
1.5
2.6
2.7
2.2
2.1
3.8
1.7
2.2
1.4
1.7
1.2
1.4
3.4
2.4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
i    64
65
66
67
|    68
69
70
71
72
73
74
1    75
1    76
|    77
78
79
80
81
|    82
83
84
1
14
2
29
74
29
9
12
3
2
6
5
21
4
23
26
25
48
3
32
5
5
26
14
7
20
40
44
67
72
43
74
55    |
29
77
10    |
8
36
5
49
29
34
25
27
7
19
6
7
11
6
12
20
21
32
23
80
62
33
8
25
10
8
13
23
34
17
10
28
6
4
31
20
24
32
5
18
32
42
10
2
26
13
19
33
19
17
30
23
20
21
24
31
13
10
33
16
36
29
32
23
39
17
12
2
6
3
....    j
18
....    |
2
6
3
18
18
23
14
9
12
2
1
2
12
35
12
16
6
7
24
6
20
6
36
16
3
74
45
47
49
43
1
8
2
25
44
43
39
48
47
40
37
50
43
31
30
37
31
38
36
35
33
26
36
33
29
26
4
6
34   *
4
15
14
18
18
18
6
7
1
3
22
9
36
2
6
1
4
29
11
26
53
25
23
32
8
19
30
32
28
30
33
9
10
10
9
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
4
i
5
11
3
10
9
4
19
7
7
8
14
29
10
59
9
48
22
52
27
29
1
18
36
18
12
26
32
29
46
17
42
38
41
6
31
53
45
48
23
40
14
1    42
39
55
29
57
46
41
11
31
26
16
17
22
15
27
27
12
8
13
12
4
9
19
16
20
27
26
20
13
27
24
15
7
16
8
20
11
17
16
9
13
16
17
14
18
4
3
5
14
26
27
14
6
16
8
4
12
5
31
6
18
9
16
11
9
9
13
5
6
6
7
21
7
20
5
15
25
18
10
27
23
15
3
13
10
18
6
52
42
54
42
3
11
10
2
5
25
4
28
9
7
11
9
14
29
32
26
12
16
13
13
8
4
1
1      2
5
14
32
1    16
16
|    18
6
|    28
3
21
2
3
1    16
6
2
1
1
6
3
28
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
6
3
8
2
4
3
2
5
1
1
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
7
4
1
6
1
4
3
1
5
2
3
4
13
24
17
3
8
6
3
~3
~3
11
30
4
1
6
1
~3
2
1
~2
—
8
35
17
14
1
14
2
9
6
4
20
10
8
67
13
7
66
4
--
2
SPlB(CotO.D.)	
2
—
—
—
_T n II _ PI F O D )        -     -
7
.XnirfflOD.
1
jp B PI c ^j_i v/.i^«/
1
..  n r> C U .'-"V1              _       -     	
—
H.BCorlw;
—-
—
HB,C(FCyS)	
—
	
n^c n .SfvPw.          -   -
	
]{Cr,D (o^y t™'
	
nnr Cv (F)          __        — -
■"' -
HCF,B(CyS)	
r u V P. (S Cv)     	
—
u e RPfv .Pw)   -       	
cnm.CvPw) .     	
RfR.fvFS)
HH TR .CvPw)      ,.         -
ru n (FSCv)             ~    -
HCBS(FCy)	
CFH.B(SCy)   	
RCFBS.Cy) —      — -
—
f H BF(Cy)     —   -- - —
HFCBS.PlPw) -
FHBC.SPw)       -   -
FSBPy(Pl) 	
FP1.S         -   - -	
FPy PI
FPLPyS.R)            	
F,PlS(PyBC)
F,SPyPlC(BH)_.
FS,RP1PyH(C)
F.SPl(Py)   _.     _     .	
SB, PI                     	
HB.CFS(Pw)           ...   .
—
SPl.BF    ....
F S, PI B (Py) _          	
SPltB(F)___._
—
FStPlB(Py)     .....
FS,PlPyL(BC)
LFPy(S)   ....
F.SLPlBC(HPy)
—
SF,LPl.BCPy).____
B,SCHPlF(PwL)
FCHLSPyBPw(Pl)
SC,HBF(PwLPyPl)
SHCLBPwF(Pl)
—
S,HBFCL(PlPyPw)
S,P1CBFH(L)
KL,SFBH(C)
SF,PlLB(PyC)
—
SF,P1BL(CH)
-__
LF   .              	
,
SF,P1L(B)
,i
F.LSP1
FS,B                    %     ' "
—
IF_             	
	
SP1,FB(L)
—
S,FCB(PWP1H)
—
SBP1.F                  	
____
CSH,FB(PW)
—
SB.FCH(PwPlPy)
?*.CS(BPw_.
—
JJBC(P1)_
—
^•F^KPy)  ..... _
—
S.BFCP1(HPW)   .. "
—
*C.BH(P1)   _    -
—
cHC(HPl)__   __„    -
—
'BC(FHP1)	
—
SF.BCP1                 	
—
CHF,S(B)      ,"
—
SF^BH(Pi0.D.)    ~
1
FPl^C)
_____
 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RESEARCH
During the year, thirteen parties were active in the field with studies being carried
out in all forest districts. A new development was the establishment of a regional
research office at Kamloops. It is hoped that this move toward decentralization will
make possible a more active field programme and will provide a better liaison with the
district offices and their problems.
EXPERIMENT STATIONS
Work at the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station was restricted to maintenance
operations. Minor repairs were made to the research buildings, the water system was
enlarged, and a considerable effort was made on cleaning operations in the forest. No
research programme was carried on.
The major project at the Aleza Lake Experiment Station was a legal survey of the
boundaries of the reserve undertaken with the co-operation of the Surveys and Mapping
Branch of the Lands Service of the Department. Previous surveys had been run with
chain and compass by inexperienced summer assistants, with the result that there was
considerable confusion as to the proper location of boundaries and ties. The work this
summer was handicapped by an excessively wet season. A total of 20.5 miles of new and
old boundary-lines were run around the perimeter of the reserve and iron posts established every 40 chains. Permanent concrete reference points were established along
the access road for future ties of timber sales or experimental plots. The data obtained
by this survey plus the multiplex map previously prepared should provide a very accurate
and excellent map of the experiment station.
A network of permanent plots to provide inventory and growth information for
present and future working plans was initiated. About 150 plots were established, with
an additional 100 to be established.
A small plantation of Scotch pine from seedlings grown by the Alberta Forest
Service, from seed originating within the Arctic Circle in Finland, was established. The
station nursery contains a number of strains of spruce, fir, and birch one-year seedlings
which will not be ready for setting out for at least another year.
One timber sale was made during the year, and a further sale is in process of
preparation.   Due to the wet weather no summer logging was possible.
The Engineering Services Division had a crew at the station completing repairs to
the water system and doing some gravelling on the access road. The camp was in operation for about five months, during which period up to forty men were fed and housed.
This included a fifteen-man Youth Training Camp assisting with research, construction,
and maintenance work.
INVESTIGATIONS AND ADVISORY SERVICE
During the year a number of investigations were undertaken at the request of other
divisions of the Service. These included a land-use survey of a portion of the Salmon
River valley on Vancouver Island, a study of marked timber sales in the Prince George
District, and a reconnaissance of a spruce bark-beetle epidemic in the Yahk Forest of
the Nelson District. ||
The technical adviser wrote and advised on nine working plans involving problems
of the Surveys Division, Working Plans Division, Management Division, Kamloops Forest
District, Prince George Forest District, as well as the Research Division. The value of a
technical adviser was definitely established by the many requests for assistance and advice
both within and without the Forest Service on matters of mensuration, experimental
design, and statistical analysis.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954 21
FOREST GENETICS
A research programme in forest genetics is at present necessarily restricted to investigations of Douglas fir. The primary objectives are, firstly, to ensure that the seed to be
used for reforestation purposes is collected from the right climatic zone and, secondly to
improve the quality of the seed by careful selection of parent trees. A real understanding
of the climatic and geographic limitations of the many races and strains of Douglas fir
will be obtained only through time. A start in this direction, however, has been made
by the Research Division of the Oregon State Board of Forestry, which is organizing a
co-operative seed-provenance study to be carried out in Oregon, Washington, and British
Columbia. This study involves the testing of at least sixteen different seed sources of
varying elevations and establishing plantations representative of each source in the
vicinity of each seed-collecting area. It is hoped that four of these sources will be located
in the coastal Douglas-fir belt in British Columbia, and the study as a whole will replace
the one discussed in the Annual Report for 1953.
In regards to improvement of seed quality, a demonstration study was initiated in
1954, and it is hoped that in a few years it will indicate the need for careful selection of
parent trees. A young open-grown stand of Douglas fir was selected, and seed was
collected from a number of the best and poorest phenotypes within the stand. The trees
were selected with reference to form, growth, and branching characteristics and, as can
be seen from the accompanying photographs, there was much variation from tree to tree.
It should be noted that the majority of the most heavily branched phenotypes carried the
heaviest cone-crops, a factor of some significance with cone-collecting on a contract basis.
The seed from each of the selected trees will be sown in the nursery, and scions from the
trees will be top-grafted to ordinary planting stock in order to investigate the general
combining ability of the different trees and the inheritance of branching characteristics.
A study has also been initiated to investigate the effects of site on two high-elevation
stands, one being located on a low-quality site and the other on a superior one. Seed
from both stands has been collected, and it is hoped that results will indicate whether or
not cone-collecting should be continued on the poorer site.
On the more intensive side of forest genetic research, controlled pollination tests
were carried out on two parent trees in 1952 in order to investigate the extent of self-
incompatability and the effects of inbreeding. This test was extended to other trees in two
separate localities in 1954, and the findings are not yet complete. Seedlings resulting
from the earlier pollination test were planted out at Duncan nursery in 1954 and are
already of considerable value for demonstration purposes. The accompanying photographs show two seedlings which have resulted from wind pollination of the same mother
tree. Both are the same age and have had identical treatment, yet wide differences in
growth are already apparent. This progeny test was displayed to the members of the
Canadian Institute of Forestry at the annual meeting in October, 1954.
A small seed-extractor and seed-cleaner have been recently installed at Duncan, and
this equipment will be of considerable value for dealing with small lots of selected seed.
 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The woodworking-shop produced lookouts, sectional buildings, furniture, tool-
boxes, signs, and crates, in quantity. Ten prefabricated residences for Assistant Rangers
in isolated locations were begun.
Numerous hose tests were made. Pump, outboard, chain-saw, and light-plant
overhauls all increased. Experiments and improvements were effected on a portable
epidiascope and a commencement made on a hose-washing machine. |
An extensive programme of building and construction was undertaken, comprising
design, issuing of specifications and contracts, and supervision. The major project in
this line was the district office building at Prince Rupert.
One hundred and twenty-five new transmitting units were added to the 687 sets
in use the previous year. The new Model B portable set is now standard replacement
for the obsolete SPF unit. First steps were taken to convert the Kamloops District
circuit to V.H.F. units to obviate the congestion on fixed channels. New specially constructed operating and service quarters were established for the Vancouver District
headquarters station. A change from 3430 to 3245 kilocycles necessitated replacement
of some 250 crystals and created the problem of working in a channel already partially
occupied by other stations, A change of frequency in a United States network improved
communications in the Kamloops District. It was necessary to specially design the new
Victoria transmitter and install filters at the Vancouver station to overcome problems
created by the increased number of television receivers in those areas.
Forest Protection
The fire season was the lightest since 1913 due to favourable weather. Only 764
fires were recorded, caused mainly by campers, smokers, and railway operations. Major
suppression costs resulted from fires on industrial operations. Acreage burned totalled
10,309, the largest fire being responsible for over 1,000 acres in the Vancouver Forest
District.
The Provincial fire atlas was brought up to date. One crew was engaged on visibility mapping and lookout photography. Thirty-one possible lookout-sites were examined and eight established primary sites photographed.
Fire access roads built on ridge-tops totalled 16.1 miles during the year. Observation and reporting of fire weather was unchanged. Tests of various experimental
fuel-moisture indicators were made; also studies of sensitivity of hazard sticks that have
been frozen, larger sticks, the behaviour of slash-burns, and other problems.
Sixteen fire-suppression crews were employed in the three southern forest districts.
They were engaged on eighty-three fires, only one of which spread to over 50 acres.
Protection flying was continued under an existing contract, using six float-planes for a
total of 2,178 hours. A total of 307 miles of new roads and trails were built and 1,746
miles maintained.
Slash-burning results were only fair, due to poor burning conditions. Snag-falling
results were very satisfactory. Operators completed snag-falling on 650 acres, the Protection Division contracted for falling on 3,590 acres, and the Reforestation Division
accounted for 10,387 acres by contract or with their own personnel.
No forest closures were imposed. There were twenty-two prosecutions for fire-law
infractions.   Honorary Fire Wardens appointed numbered 960.
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
The forest-insect situation during the year was not critical, but situations did arise
that may presage trouble in the future. An area of 113 square miles in the Lillooet-
Pemberton and Fraser-Nahatlatch Rivers areas was severely infested with spruce bud-
worm attacking Douglas fir. The western hemlock and the false hemlock looper were
also present. Starvation of larvae may effect control of this outbreak. No tree mortality
has yet occurred nor is imminent.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
23
iilf
a_e trees of cone-collecting age which are growing in close proximity.
 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Inherent differences between 3-year-o!d seedlings
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
25
FIELD PROJECTS
A total of some thirty-three separate studies were undertaken bv thirteen fielr. HI
Some of them are briefly reviewed. ucm Pames.
Good progress; has been made on the control of seed-eating rodents through the use
of "tetramme."   The following table summarizes a number of tests.
Tests of Tetramine Control of Seed-eating Roden
NTS
Sub-plot 1
Tetramine plus acetone solvent	
Control 	
Sub-plot 2
Tetramine plus acetone solvent	
Control	
Sub-plot 3
Tetramine plus acetone solvent	
Control	
Sub-plot 4
Tetramine plus acetone solvent- 	
Control	
Tetramine plus dextrin adhesive	
Control	
1 Milacres blank—either no seeds germinated or seedlings died.
2 Milacres stocked—three or more healthy seedlings present.
Milacres
Blank1
Per Cent
32.1
50.0
30.6
35.2
23.1
22.2
7.9
23.3
18.7
29.6
Milacres
One or Two
Seedlings
Per Cent
25.2
41.7
19.0
44.4
30.6
41.7
12.7
40.0
10.4
33.3
Milacres
Stocked2
Per Cent
42.7
8.3
50.4
20.4
46.3
36.1
79.4
36.7
70.9
37.1
Survival
Per Cent
88.5
76.1
88.2
90.4
88.4
88.8
84.2
88.4
90.0
94.5
suting from wind pollination of the same mother-tree.
 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
These tests are not strictly comparable because seeding dates and sites varied   Th
results, however, are consistent in showing better stocking by the use of tetramine th   h
indicating greater control of seed-eating rodents.   These studies will be continuedTn
practical and efficient control can be adequately demonstrated.   This work is beine h
in co-operation with the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. g   ne
The hemlock commercial thinning experiment on East Thurlow Island entered I
second year.    The volume of timber logged during 104 working-days amounted \*
ontM-Avitnofolxr   AC\ 0A^   _-*nl-_1_"»   fppf     \*/_t_*_    __n    __\7_=*t*cirr_a   nrA/ln_».iA«i    .-*£    __Onr     l  •      s.
y —'—' ^ ©  ^***j u    cu.jj.UUJ
approximately 40,245 cubic feet, with an average production of 387 cubic feet
hi
costs the second year.   Injuries suffered by residual trees, mainly during yarding     ^
\re*r\T fiirrfi    ar\(\ r»j.n Hp   _*_=»_". iipp/.  wl_p.n  Inaoprc lp__rn  tr\  __t-.t-_t*_-.r»_<__■__ _An.»  ~.c _.i_ _    .._>.
cords per day by a three-man crew.   A third year will be required to complete the thinn
programme.   The experience of the first year resulted in increased efficiency and
*-»_-_ _r_-_.    _-_.__   o__»_-»_-_■*-/"-   T7___o-t* Inmnoc   ciifrafa/.    _-_Yr   raci/innl    _-_»__k__._.      «-_-___!_.U.    J •
i
l " I |        —^ pp* _^_.£, jtnuinyj were
very high, and can be reduced when loggers learn to appreciate some of the differences
between clear-cutting old-growth stands and making improvement cuts in immature
stands.
A boom of bundled hemlock thinnings, containing approximately 30,000 cubic feet of wood.
A critical examination was made of marked timber sales in Douglas-fir types of the
dry Interior. The study brought out the evolution in both thinking and practice of
the silvicultural trends that has occurred over the past decade. Some technical and
orgamzational improvements are suggested.
A second study on accuracy control on timber-sale cruises was made in a mixed
type consisting of mature and advanced immature age-classes of Douglas fir-spruce and
balsam. The first study reported in the 1953 Annual Report was in an uneven-aged
L>ouglas-fir type.   The report on these two studies is not completed,    j
An extensive investigation was made of the distribution and botanical differences
between white and Engelmann spruce. During the last glacial period the Province was
entirely covered by an ice-sheet which receded about 10,000 years ago.   During the
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1954
27
post-glacial period, spruce migrated from two separate reservoirs:   from the south
Engelmann spruce came as a high-altitude type, while from the north white spruce spread
southward at base elevations.   When the variants grow in proximity to each other the
irphological variation within a type is so great it is difficult to find constant differences
which to identify species.   Samples have been taken from thirty-two stations throueh-
the Province, and a close examination of cone foliage and stems will be made
sou
mo
on
^flH#_
St
A standardized photograph used to record features of the variants in each spruce biotype
sampled. It is used to compare and measure the morphological differences between types. The
photograph shows, for a sample from Engelmann spruce at the headwaters of Similkameen River:
jl) Foliage from upper and lower crown branches; (2) form of a typical cone; (2a) a winged seed;
3) scales from mid-cone; (4) bracts from mid-cone; (5) a defoliated tip to show form of pulvini
(sterigmata) and surface character; (6) needles from upper part of crown, and (lower left) pertinent
written data; (lower right) photograph showing the crown form of the tree.
 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A partial-cutting experiment in the Interior Wet Belt forest type got under way   Th
area was marked for a number of replicated cutting treatments.   To date the cedar do!
have been removed and about two-thirds of the timber volume.   Two miles of I f
were constructed.   Time-cost records of all stages of pole and log marking were keptV
foresters of the Dominion Forest Products Laboratory, working in co-operation.  LoL/
should be completed in 1955. g
A 90-year-old stand of mixed species (typical of Interior Wet Belt) which is the subject of a
cutting experiment. The response, in terms of growth and species composition, to a number of
different methods of selecting trees for a partial cut will be studied.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
29
A yellow-pine thinning study was laid out near Cranbrook and consists of two
blocks containing four thinning treatments—heavy, medium, light, and control
Ecological investigations were continued both at the Coast and in the northern
Interior. At the Coast, high-elevation forest types were sampled on twenty-five areas
on Vancouver Island between Jordan River and Quatsino Sound. The field data are
now being assembled. It is hoped to be able to establish relationships between climate
the distribution of tree species, the characteristic species of forest associations and
successional changes involving species composition, stand quality, and soil conditions
In the Prince George region over fifty plots in mature and immature spruce-balsam
stands were carefully examined. Further work will be required on logged areas and
immature stands. The objective is to determine site-quality characteristics and differences
and also successional trends for this region. At the Aleza Lake Experiment Station some
4,000 acres have now been mapped for site types. This information will be used in
determining silvicultural methods to be employed in timber sales and will assist in
analysing results of various experimental work carried on at the station.
Silvical studies were continued at Aleza Lake Experiment Station, with work being
done on determining effects of type of seed-bed on spruce, balsam, and Douglas-fir
regeneration. Other work included a long-term study on seed-crop periodicity and seed
dissemination.
Nursery fertility studies were continued with experiments on the use of sawdust for
composting and shavings for mulching seed-beds at the Green Timbers Nursery. At the
Cranbrook Nursery, sawdust and sand were compared as a seed-bed covering, sawdust
and brewery waste as a soil amendment, and the value of various cover-crops as sources
of organic matter. Of six crops grown, the following amounts of dry matter in pounds
per acre were produced: Millet, 6,606; Sudan grass, 5,940; rye, 5,532; clover, 4,025;
oats, 3,997; and vetch, 3,757.
The following is a list of individual studies undertaken during the past year:—
Exoerimental
Plot No.
226
274
362
368
370
371
373
376
378
381
382
383
386
387
388
390
391
422
423
425
426
428
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
439
440
441
442
Title of Study
Seed production  	
Group seed-tree study	
Rodent ecology  	
The adaptability of tree species to forest types	
Partial-cutting experiment—Interior Wet Belt type	
Cutting experiments in overmature spruce-balsam forests	
Ecological investigations in spruce-balsam forests	
Chemical tests of seed viability	
Ecological investigations in Coast forests  	
Germination and survival—western hemlock	
Nursery fertility studies 	
Nursery fertility studies	
Accuracy control on timber-sale cruises	
Factors affecting reproduction of northern conifers	
Commercial thinning in western hemlock	
Direct seeding, Meade Creek  	
Annual morphological analysis of nursery stock	
Cutting methods in spruce-balsam forests	
Direct seeding, Cowichan Lake  	
Estimation of site quality by stump measurements	
B alsam defect study «	
Survival of spruce transplants   	
Kitimat fume study—effect on vegetation	
A study of reproduction on the Aleza Lake burn	
A working plan, Aleza Lake Experiment Station	
Field survival of experimental nursery stock	
Thinning in yellow pine	
Cone stimulation study ,	
Direct seeding, Nimpkish ~	
An investigation of marked timber sales—Interior Douglas-fir types --
A study on the distribution of white and Engelmann spruce in British Columbia
Factors affecting reproduction of spruce and balsam	
Plantation studies survival 	
Location
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Slocan Lake.
Kamloops.
Prince George.
Victoria.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Cranbrook.
Green Timbers.
Kamloops.
Prince George.
Thurlow Island.
Vancouver Island.
Victoria.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Aleza Lake.
Kamloops.
Kitimat.
Aleza Lake.
Aleza Lake.
Cranbrook.
Cranbrook.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Prince George.
 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERMANENT-PLOT STUDIES
The re-examination of permanent growth-study plots was maintained with reme
surement of three empirical plots in the Lumby-Cherryville area and one empirical plot
in the Grizzly Hills Forest Reserve.   Some forty-seven temporary plots were remeaJL.
at Bolean Lake, Okanagan Falls, and Oliver.
On the coast, twenty-two plots were examined between Gilford Island and Howe
Sound.   Nine of these plots were abandoned, having outlived their usefulness.
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
j Pocket Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of British Columbia," by E. H. Garman
B.C. Forest Service, Publication B 28, second (revised) edition. '
| Estimation of Site Quality of Logged Land in the Coastal Douglas Fir Belt of
British Columbia," by R. L. Schmidt, B.C. Forest Service, Research Note No. 27.
1 Scarification in Engelmann Spruce-Alpine Fir Forests," by J. D. Clark, L. W. W
Lehrle, and J. H. G. Smith, Research Note No. 25.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
Planned production of planting stock for 1956 was reduced to 6,000,000 trees in
the Coast nurseries due to the lack of seed from the higher elevations. Weather conditions were only fair for the growing of seedlings because of the abnormally low
temperatures prevailing from May to August. This has resulted in a considerable amount
of delayed germination in the seed-beds. Trees from the 1952 seed-beds shipped to the
projects this year were the best quality of planting stock produced so far in the nurseries.
At Green Timbers 3,664,845 trees were shipped in the spring and 551,000 trees
in the fall to various planting projects. Seed-beds were sown to produce 2,000,000
seedlings in 1956. Improvements were made to the refrigeration plant, and a small
greenhouse was erected to carry out seed-germination tests under natural conditions.
Anew weed, creeping cress (Radicula sylvestris), which first appeared several years
ago, is proving to be a problem since no weed-killers appear to be effective for eradication.
This weed is prevalent throughout the Lower Fraser Valley, and the Department of
Agriculture is working on control measures.
At Campbell River 3,347,500 trees were shipped in the spring and 270,000 trees
in the fall to planting projects in that vicinity. Seed-beds were sown in the newly cleared
area to produce 2,000,000 seedlings in 1956. A tree-storage cellar was completed and
a new tree-sorting shed constructed on Crown land near the new nursery area. IB
At Duncan 1,037,000 trees were shipped in the spring and 651,225 trees in the fall
to various projects in the Cowichan Valley. Seed-beds were sown for the production of
2,000,000 trees in 1956. The experiment with stratified seed (thirty hours soaking and
fifteen days cold storage) gave much better germination than the untreated (similar to
last year), and the treatment will be extended in future sowing of Douglas-fir seed.
The East Kootenay nursery shipped 697,800 trees during the year to projects in that
vicinity. Seed-beds were sown to produce 1,000,000 seedlings but suffered severe damage
from gophers and other rodents before effective control measures could be adopted.
A further 3 acres was added to the nursery by clearing and removing a knoll to fill in
depressions. A well was drilled for domestic water-supply, with an underground pump-
house and electric submersible pump.
Experimental soil-fertility work was continued at all nurseries, and is reported in
detail elsewhere in this Report by the Research Division under the heading of " Nursery
Fertility Studies." .fi|-
SEED COLLECTIONS
The 1954 cone-crop on the Coast was very poor for Sitka spruce, western hemlock,
and western red cedar. Douglas-fir and balsam-fir cone crops were patchy, but collections were possible at lower elevations. Unfortunately, cone-cutting tests at 2,000 feet
in Cowichan Valley showed no viable seed, so that no cones were obtained at this
elevation. Logged-and-burned areas requiring artificial regeneration are, for the most
Part, at these higher elevations, so the planting programme will have to be curtailed until
suitable seed has been obtained. Six hundred bushels of cones were purchased from
local settlers and an additional 570 bushels were picked by reforestation crews. At this
date> extraction of seed is incomplete, so that it is not possible to report yields.
h the Interior the yellow-pine and Douglas-fir cone-crops were fairly good, and
jfcveral years' supply of seed was purchased from a commercial seed-dealer. Several
hundred bushels of yellow-pine, Douglas-fir, and white-spruce cones were also collected
m fte vicinity of Cranbrook by the Division staff.
 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
During the field season eleven cut-over areas on the Coast, totalling 25,000 acres
were reconnoitred to determine whether or not planting would be necessary. A two-man
survey crew subsequently made an intensive survey of two of these areas and prepared
maps which will be used in the planting of the areas concerned. Seven other areas were
mapped or re-examined, and planting maps prepared or revised. In all, 12,000 acres
were intensively surveyed on the Coast.
In the East Kootenay District a four-man survey crew examined a total of 20,764
acres in the Bull River and Elko areas. This added to the 36,500 acres examined in
1953 will make it possible to plan a long-term reforestation programme for this region.
PLANTING
The spring planting on the Coast commenced March 1st, with five projects covering
5,615 acres with 4,500,000 trees. In the fall three projects planted 1,550 acres with
1,214,000 trees.
In the East Kootenay region two camps planted 630 acres with 327,500 ponderosa-
pine seedlings in the spring, followed by 343 acres with 233,500 trees in the fall.
During the year a total of 8,180 acres were planted with 6,303,000 seedlings.
Logging companies planted an additional 5,133 acres with 3,400,000 trees. (See page
108 for statistics of planting over past ten years.)
PREPARATION OF PLANTING AREAS
Camp buildings at Great Central Lake were moved to a new location on the lake
and used for fall planting. These buildings are the sectional plywood type. Forest
Service trailers were moved from Campbell River to the Elk Valley, a distance of 40
miles, and housed a crew of fifteen planters during fall planting.
Eight miles of logging grades were converted to truck-road, and 2Vi miles of new
truck-road was constructed. Some 140 miles of existing road was maintained. This
work involves the by-passing of old railroad trestles, cleaning out culverts, roadside
slashing, and grading.   W
On the Coast 6,057 acres were cleared of standing snags. Reforestation crews
snagged 4,134 acres, and the remainder was done under contract with power-saws.
At Cowichan Lake a new kitchen and dining-hall with a total floor space of 1,630
square feet was constructed. This is a permanent building equipped with all modern
conveniences. A new cooks' quarters, 16 by 16 feet, was built from material salvaged
from the old dining-hall. An office building, which was started last year, has been
completed, together with improvements to the wash-house and bunk-houses.
In the Interior two new projects were established using trailer units to accommodate
twelve men at Bull River and thirty men at Cherry Creek. Three miles of new road were
built to give access to the Bull River area, and an additional 1 Vi miles of old road
were graded and improved. Using one-man power-saws, three fallers cleared 4,330
acres of snags for future planting projects.
PLANTATIONS
Examination of 504 plots in the 1953 spring plantations on the Coast revealed an
average survival of 89 per cent. This is the highest average survival recorded to date
for spring plantations established by this Division. A summary of the final examination
of 750 plots in the 1951 spring plantations on the Coast provides an average survival
figure of 58 per cent, which is the lowest on record. These survival figures are a direct
reflection of the comparatively wet and extremely dry summers of 1953 and 1951
respectively.   The accompanying graph, showing average survival of spring plantations
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE   1954
33
on
the
Coast plotted over year of establishment, clearly shows the fluctuating nature of
inn survival averages.   There seems to he. a fair _i_ri..w. r _       , 6 _.       * UI
r.   i '     Tt, x  p —i .' °iWVVi5 l"c uuciuatmg nature of
plantation surviva averages. There seems to be a fair indication of a cycle (probaWv
seven years) for plantation survival. Much more information would be necessary however, before any definite conclusion could be arrived at. In conjunction with the above
examinations a total of 1,034 plots were established in the current Coast plantations
for re-examination in 1955 and 1957. In this connection it is interesting to note that
at the second examination of the 1951 spring plantations, there was a decrease of less
than 1 per cent in the average survival between the first and third years
In the East Kootenay District, survival of the 1953 spring plantations is still rather
disappointing when compared with survival on the Coast. Highest survival of 52 per
cent was secured on the Newgate area. This was to be expected, as previous experience
has indicated that Newgate has a better moisture regime than other parts of the East
Kootenay. A survival rate of 35 per cent for the Elko project was, in part, a reflection
of a very severe site.
Results from fall planting continue to be discouraging, and fall planting was again
curtailed this year.
AVERAGE    SURVIVAL   AFTER   ONE   YEAR   OF   2-0
SPRING    PLANTED DOUGLAS FIR    SEEDLINGS
100 r
90
80
70
60
50
1943      1944      1945       1946      1947       1948      1949      1950      1951       1952       1953
3-0 Seedlings=.® ,   Estimated=+
PLANTATION IMPROVEMENT
At Green Timbers the programme of replacing exotic plantations which have failed
was continued. Clearing and disposing of brush and useless trees on one plantation was
completed so that this area will be available for planting next spring. A further 2 miles
tt old railroad grade were slashed out on the Campbell River Experimental Forest. The
casting road was improved by a quarter-mile of ditching and construction of several
 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PARKS AND RECREATION
After a period of rapid development in the more accessible of the larger parks
a point has been reached where administration procedures have become somewhat
stabilized and an opportunity afforded to study public use trends. Generally the response
to new facilities has been prompt and enthusiastic. In some cases, such as at Mount
Seymour Park, this has re-emphasized the need for specific services which, because of
their costly nature, must be installed over a period of time. More remote parks, such as
Garibaldi, Mount Robson, and Tweedsmuir, remain in a near-wilderness condition until
their development is justified in relation to the funds available for over-all recreational
needs. In view of the hydro proposals for the waterways within Wells Gray Park
planning and improvements were minimized.
The expansion of the roadside picnic- and camp-site system in response to the public
demand for such facilities is resulting in this aspect becoming more and more important
in the Provincial park system. This has been reflected to a large part in the employment
of 148 youths on the Youth Training Programme, a 60-per-cent increase over the
previous year.
Sampling counts of attendance in some parks, and complete counts in others, indicate
a 10-per-cent rise in the number of visitors to Provincial parks over the preceding year.
It is estimated that the equivalent of 900,000 man-days were spent in recreation in the
parks during the year.
ADMINISTRATION
At no previous period has there been so little fluctuation in administrative personnel.
The office staff was increased by one clerk.
Recreational Officers in Kamloops, Prince George, and Nelson Districts are assuming
an ever-increasing share of administrative duties.
RECONNAISSANCE AND INVENTORY
Reconnaissance field work was conducted over a wide sphere of operations. Major
projects included:—
(1) Examination of a proposed west coast ocean-front park in the vicinity of
Cape Beale headlands. A reconnaissance for public recreation reserves
was carried out in the Ucluelet-Tofino district and included a shore-line
reconnaissance of Kennedy Lake:
(2) Study of the recreation potential of the lake district of the South Cariboo
j    region:
(3) A similar study for the Chilcotin Plateau:
(4) A shore-line reconnaissance of Stuart Lake to select an adequate disperse-
ment of small lakeside reserves on a waterway highly attractive to
recreational use:
(5) Exploring additional channels for obtaining roadside park and picnic
sites between Clinton and Williams Lake. Further roadside sites were
selected on the North Thompson and MacKenzie Highways. Certain
private lands on Provincial Highway No. 3 between Rossland and Nelson
warranted examination:
(6) A preliminary reconnaissance of recreation possibilities in the Black-
x        water-Nazko area: fl W
(7) A recreation survey of the Bridge River-Bralorne district:
(8) An assessment of a proposed alpine park in the vicinity of Peters Lake.
A shore-line classification of recreation land on Mabel Lake was prepared
at the same time:
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
35
(9) A reassessment of effects of the proposed Libby hydro project on recreational values in the East Kootenay River valley.
Some of the twenty other examinations of widely separated areas dealt with park
proposals or projects which required immediate reporting.
In March the Section was left shorthanded by the transfer of the geographer to the
Fraser River Basin Board.   Services of another geographer were engaged in June.
Shore-line reconnaissance of Stuart Lake.
PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
The work of the Division in these fields was carried forward by the integrated efforts
of the Planning Section and the Engineering and Architectural Design Section working
with the Division's construction and field crews.
The Planning Section, with work stabilized to a great extent in the better-known
and more accessible parks, turned attention to many new areas. One survey party
operated the entire year. They were augmented during summer months by two further
groups of planning personnel. The landscape crew, after the annual spring maintenance
of previously landscaped areas, continued into several new projects requiring its specialized
attention. ft
The Engineering and Architectural Design Section produced all project plans, and
acted in a supervisory capacity for all construction undertaken.
VANCOUVER ISLAND PARKS
Because of ease of access, well-planned facilities, and scenic attractiveness of these
P^ks, they are used very heavily and require proportionate attention.
Miracle Beach Park.—The parking-lot to accommodate 175 cars, cleared the previ-
0US year, was brought to grade with crushed rock and made ready for paving during the
summer.   A group picnic area was developed between the parking zone and the beach.
 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A small community kitchen with stove and barbecue pit services thirty-two picnic tables
some of which have small fireplaces in conjunction with them. Other facilities include
trails to the beach, a stone drinking-fountain, and four pit-toilets.
Camp-ground expansion to provide ninety-four new sites required building 7 800
feet of road. Forty of these sites were readied for use by the Youth Crew. Sixteen
standard toilet units were assembled in the area. The water system was improved by
laying 10,000 feet of plastic pipe, which made possible eighteen more outlets in the
camp-site area. | A new well was dug to meet this increased delivery. The park now
has 156 of these individual overnight camping-sites. |
The experiment to build up the quantity of foreshore sand through placement of
groins was furthered through the construction of 100 concrete crosses.
In early summer the main road and parking-lots, as well as the roads in the campsite area, were oiled. Later in the year the main road and both parking-lots were
hard-surfaced.
Camp-site number and road-name signs were erected during the winter. A general
clean-up of debris throughout the park is also under way.
Stamp Falls Park.—About 1 mile of two-lane road was located and constructed,
providing access to the lower river bench and a desirable picnic area. It will also enable
the Federal Department of Fisheries to bring machinery and materials to its proposed
fishway at the falls. The major share of the cost of this road will be bome by the
Federal Government.
Ip    Ivy Green Park.—Planning was completed and a detailed field layout made in
preparation for early development.   Clearing and burning were started as the first step.
Little Qualicum Falls Park.—Picnic tables were placed on concrete footings and
a small addition made to the camp-ground.
MacDonald Park.—This new project, at the north end of the Saanich Peninsula,
was developed by a Youth Crew. It contains nine camp-sites and a picnicking area.
It is situated advantageously to service visitors arriving at Sidney on gulf ferries. The
plan calls for utilization of most of this small park.
Petroglyph Park.—This site was renovated and landscaped. A new trail and picnic-
ground layout were developed. Parking facilities were developed in conjunction with
the construction of the Island Highway. A considerable amount of rock work was done
and steps constructed.
Quinsam Camp-site.—The road system in this heavily used area was reshaped and
gravelled.
Englishman River Falls Park.—A topographic map of the park area was almost
finished.
MAINLAND PARKS
Mount Seymour Park.—After nearly twenty years of varied effort on a park highway
and parking system, the upper end of the road, consisting of a turn-around, was completed.
The demand for more and more parking was met by widening the road from Mile 6.5
to Mile 8 to a width of 35 feet. Six new culverts and ten head-walls were installed on
this section. Continuous wet weather prevented the hard surfacing of the entire road
and parking-lots.   The contract was, therefore, carried over into 1955.
The installation of a water system for the upper park area was furthered by pouring
the foundation and first lift of the Whistler's Pass Dam. A total of 230 cubic feet of
concrete was poured. A 600-foot ski tow on the nursery slopes on the Goldie Lake
Trail was constructed, and the other tows remodelled in part. Park-entrance signs are
being erected. A 20-yard-capacity sand-hopper was designed. The construction of
a standard warehouse-garage was undertaken. Eight new picnic tables were installed
to meet visitor requirements, and the proposed camp-site at Mile 4 was half completed.
As in former years, a Youth Crew accomplished valuable work in extending and
improving trails and ski-grounds.    A dangerous creek crossing at the bottom of the
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
37
Enquist Hill was deepened by blasting and then decked with logs for a distance of 300
feet The Alpine Trail was rerouted between | The Meadows " and the Diversion Bowl
and widened from there to Brockton Point. The ski-instruction slope was enlarged to
accommodate twenty classes.
A ski run was cleared between Happy Valley Ski Bowl and the Twin Hills slope
This potentially costly undertaking, because of the density and large size of the trees
involved, was effected by means of a timber sale.   Another timber sale allows for the
salvage of shake blanks from an old burn at Mile 3. |3
Intensive winter maintenance of roads and trails accounts for a large proportion
of time. The extremely wet summer and heavy rains during the fall allowed little let-up
in this aspect. Fifty picnic tables were sanded and varnished as part of the summer
programme. ft
A survey was carried out to investigate the feasibility of disposing of sewage by
carrying it in a pipe from the main-use area to Burrard Inlet.
Cultus Lake Park.—The strategic location of this park with relation to large concentrations of population, together with frontage on an attractive lake, is responsible for an
ever-increasing number of visitors. The park boundaries were surveyed as a first step
toward mapping of the key areas.
Delta Grove Camp-site was expanded by thirty-eight individual units. These
additions bring the total number of sites in the area to ninety-four. All necessary services
in connection with them were completed. Of special note was the laying of 3,100 feet
of wood-stave pipe and 2,000 feet of Vi-inch plastic pipe to service this area. A concrete
reservoir to hold 4,000 gallons and a smaller timber dam controlling the creek-flow and
storing 400 gallons were constructed as part of this water system.
The Maple Bay picnic-grounds front on a very popular swimming-beach. In previous
years the rapid drop into deep water has proven a hazard of great concern. To alleviate
this, the beach was extensively renovated through grading and the removal of gravel, thus
creating a wide expanse of shallow water. A life-guard rescued three persons in difficulty
in deep water.
Grading operations for swimming-beach at Maple Bay.
 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The headquarters service area was enlarged, and a 30- by 50-foot combined
workshop and garage constructed.   A 500-gallon gasoline-tank with electric pump was
installed.
Maintenance accounts for a large proportion of working time in this park. Some
125 cords of wood were supplied to campers during the season, and a further 80 cords
have been cut and piled for next year. Garbage-disposal has been simplified through
the installation of an incinerator. All picnic tables were sanded and given two coats of
Seal-O-San, and all toilets were painted inside. j|
Manning Park.—Mapping of the Similkameen River and adjacent land near the
Ranger station completed a detailed map of the main-use area begun in 1953. Stirling
Camp-site on the Similkameen near Hedley was surveyed and planned.
Although forest-protection problems were almost nullified by the wet season, the
increasing public recognition of this park takes up a proportionately greater amount
of time in administrative duties each year. Logging activities on private holdings were
slowed down because of the poor weather. The one salvage operation in the park was
inactive for the same reason.
Service and administration facilities were improved through the construction of
a manager's suite in the lodge building, a guest cabin, and a barn adjacent to the corral.
Water and light facilities were extended to the barn. This building, which will shelter
fourteen horses, includes a saddle-room, feed-room, and hayloft.
Ip The jeep-road through Gibson Pass was continued a further 7 miles to Paddy Lake
in its scenic sub-alpine setting. This lake was stocked with 2,500 Kamloops-trout
fingerlings.
Three Youth Crews carried out a general clean-up of slash along the roads and
trails, worked on the new Coldspring Camp-site, and did maintenance duties around the
administration and concession buildings.   -||ltp
Every year brings an increasing maintenance problem. Five separate road and trail
routes were given special attention during the past year. Camp-sites within the park
required frequent inspection. General repair to buildings and other service facilities
were attended to as required. |L
Garibaldi Park.—Garibaldi Park has three distinct regions, each with its individual
problems of administration, access, and development. Plans for the park are in a
formative state; therefore, what improvements are undertaken are mostly of a maintenance nature or of obvious necessity.
jj Black Tusk Area. An Assistant Ranger was stationed in the area from early
June until mid-September. In June a reconnaissance was made into the country south
of Rubble Creek to determine the possibility of a road location.
A Youth Crew carried out maintenance and improvements on all of last year's trail
construction and the next section of old trail as far as the water hole, cleared windfalls
from all the main trail, manufactured 300 shakes at the water hole, and revarnished
cedar signs. Following this programme 2Vi miles of new trail was built from the junction
of the main trail to the foot of j The Barrier," a massive wall of rock separating the
lower valley from the upland terrain.
As snow cleared, camp was moved to the lower Black Tusk Meadows, where over
1 mile of existing trail from the Ranger cabin to Garibaldi Lake was reconstructed and
improved, including the replacement of several small log bridges.
In the fall a sturdy boat shelter was built at the outlet of Garibaldi Lake, using
driftwood logs and shakes made by the Youth Crew. New cupboards, sink, and other
minor improvements were installed at the Ranger cabin, using lumber and fittings flown
to the lake.   A new boat and other important equipment were delivered in similar fashion.
2. Diamond Head area. Surveys were made to determine road access routes.
Some reconnaissance was carried out west of Rubble Creek to check road possibilities
to the Black Tusk Meadows.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
Grading, gravelling, ditching, and culvert construction were undertaken bv the
Department of Public Works under a grant for work on the lower logging-grade approach
to the base camp.
3. Haney area. Intensive field studies were undertaken in the southern portion
for the purpose of formulating a comprehensive long-term development plan A Youth
Crew slashed AVi miles of roadside and turn-out sites between the park boundary and
Mike Lake and in a short section of connecting road to Alouette Lake. They also cleared
and burned one-quarter acre of brush in constructing a hitching enclosure and in making a connecting trail through to the road. Poles were cut to build hitching rails
A further one-half acre was cleared and burned to allow expansion of the picnic-site
area at Mike Lake. § m
The boys assisted with the gravelling of the road and the levelling of turn-outs.
They redecked the bridge on the spur to Alouette Lake and constructed a horse-trail
to by-pass the bridge.
A bulldozer, trucks, and gravel-loader made twenty-two turn-outs, and patch-
gravelled and graded the 31/_j miles of road between the park boundary and Mike Lake.
The hitching area was levelled and three-quarters of a mile of connecting road to Alouette
Lake was also patch-gravelled. The Assistant Ranger stationed in this area has cleaned
out Wi miles of the ski-trail to the upper levels, brushed out 2 miles of the Alouette
Lake road to Gold Creek, and has done maintenance work on the improved section of
road to Mike Lake. S
The local municipal authorities have made improvements to the three-quarters
of a mile of municipal road between the public highway and park boundary, slightly
widening some sections, and gravelling and grading the whole length.
Wells Gray Park.—Expansion of administrative and service facilities at Hemp
Creek was carried out through the erection of a prefabricated office building, the placing
and orientation of new aerial poles, and construction of a tower-type drying-rack for
50-foot hose lengths. In addition, a standard Forest Service grease-ramp and gas-
storage platform were built. An open-type storage shelter was completed at the rear
of the buildings.   Log fencing was placed around the entire site.
Only two fires occurred in this exceptionally wet summer. Assistance was needed
on one of these.   Public use increases each year, and more time must be given to the
public relations aspect.
At the Clearwater Lake patrol station, one new prefabricated building was erected
for storage purposes. As a service to guides, a 14- by 14-foot log building with separate
rooms was constructed.   Two cedar floats were placed for Forest Service and public use.
A one-story 28- by 28-foot log cabin was built by the patrolman at Murtle Lake.
The meagre accommodation to date at the west end of Mahood Lake was improved
through the erection of a 16- by 20-foot frame building to act as an Assistant Ranger
headquarters. jjjl
As an aid to hunters in the Clearwater Lake region, two 3-mile-long trails were
cut into moose-habitat areas. The only other trail work was a minor amount of maintenance.   The Deer Creek Trail was improved by local guides.
Mount Robson Park.—The past year was one of exceptionally high rainfall, which
curtailed both inventory and work programmes. The only fire reported was quickly
extinguished by heavy rain. Trails and possible camp-site areas were investigated as a
kelp to a planning party who spent several months in the vicinity. The first construction work undertaken in the park by this Division was in establishing a camp-site on
the branch road leading up the Robson River. Sixteen individual sites were connected
by a road completed to rough grade standards. In addition, 3 miles of old tote-road
to Kinney Lake was slashed out to its original width. All this work was carried out
very successfully by a Youth Crew.   Field studies were begun toward an over-all devel-
 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
opment plan. Mapping of key areas in preparation for detailed planning was finished
in the early winter.
Peace Arch Park.—The usual intensive maintenance was carried on throughout
the season, and the park kept in an attractive and thriving condition. Massed displays
of annual flowers were responsible for a great deal of favourable comment. The many
flowering trees and shrubs provided their quota of colour and interest during their special season.
The past year has shown an increase again in the number of persons using the park
facilities.
Visitors registered at summer house  26,467
Visitors registered at kitchen    3?605
Club and association picnics  20,960
The only new construction this year was a storage-shed.
Planning crew on topographic survey in Kootenays.
Kokanee Creek Park.—This newly acquired park was mapped in detail and a
complete plan drawn up for its development as a major beach and picnicking park serving
the Nelson district.   A field layout of this plan was made.
Roberts Creek Park.—Topographic maps were completed for the two areas recently
designated as Roberts Creek Park. Plans for a beach park and a public camp-site were
formulated and field layouts completed. Extensive landscaping was undertaken.
j| Okanagan Lake Area.—Three large picnic-sites between Summerland and Penticton
were planted with several hundred deciduous trees and grass sown, to conform to the basic
landscape plans. These were closed to the public to permit establishment of the plantings.
Roadside Development.—Youth Crews were responsible for the improvement of
four roadside sites under the supervision of the headquarters office. Kamloops District
crews finished one, Nelson two, Prince George two, and Prince Rupert two, thus bringing
the total to sixty-nine for these popular developments.  This figure includes eleven small
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
j 41
picnic-sites along the Vancouver Island Highway right-of-way, established through the
o-operation of the Department of Public Works. *"   IC
Langford Workshop.—-There was no let-up in the past year in calls for park furni
ture. It is interesting to note that to date approximately 1,700 picnic tables have been
made in this shop. The output has increased from eighty tables in 1950 to 448 this year
In addition to these, the following items were constructed and shipped: 376 fireplaces'
426 directional signs, 374 garbage-cans, 29 incinerators, 20 roadside park-entrance signs^
^d 54 toilet-seats. |
This output for the five-man workshop staff may be expressed as a daily production
rate of 1.8 tables, 1.5 fireplaces, and 1.7 signs. In addition, the new drying-shed has been
finished and a new welding-shop completed. The purchase of an arc welder will speed
the fabrication of fireplaces and other metal units. Maintenance and improvement of
grounds are continuing annual items.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Wildlife management was concentrated mainly in Wells Gray Park, where studies
continued on the population, size, diseases, food habits, habitat requirement, and annual
migrations of moose. Further information was sought on the abundance, food habits, and
habitat requirements of grizzly and caribou, with a final report completed on one aspect
of the caribou problem. The study of willow, its growth and ability to withstand annual
clipping, entered its fourth year. Work on two fur-bearers, marten and mink, was terminated and described in final reports. Assistance was given the Game Department in
carrying out a fisheries survey of Murtle Lake.
In addition, the creel census of lakes in Manning Park entered its third year. Wildlife reconnaissance was undertaken in the Moose River valley of Mount Robson Park,
and a historical study of snow-depth fluctuations as they influence game abundance in
the Province was completed.
Mule-deer fawn ready for tagging.
 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Moose calf with plastic ear-tag.
PUBLICITY SECTION
An attempt was made to provide an accurate information service to the public and
also to interpret public opinion concerning the parks and camp-sites.
During the winter all general literature and pamphlets published by this Division are
produced. This covers the layouts, art work, editing, writing, and checking material
through the printers. In this category are the publications | Provincial Parks in British
Columbia," "Campsites in British Columbia," "Mount Seymour Park—Summer and
Winter," | Moose Hunting in Wells Gray Park," and the I Garibaldi" brochure. Travel
service maps and publications are brought up to date, and more detailed information is
produced for specific inquiries. During the summer thousands of pamphlets are distributed and many hundred letters of inquiry received and answered. In addition, a
public-reaction survey was conducted this summer to provide for the use of the Planning
Section of the Division, a cross-section of public opinion concerning parks facilities,
equipment, and personnel.
CHANGES IN PARK LIST, 1954
Roberts Creek Park reclassified from Class "C " to Class "A," and enlarged from
2 to 102 acres, August 20th, 1954. 1
Fillongley Park established as Class "A" park of 56.59 acres on Denman Island,
January 19th, 1954.
I      Apodaea Park established as Class "A" park of 20 acres on Bowen Island, November 22nd, 1954. |
^u*?!^ Seymour Park reduced by 489 acres, from 9,156 to 8,667 acres, August
26th, 1954.
King George VI Park enlarged from 50 to 400 acres, January 19th, 1954.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
PARK LIST, DECEMBER 31st, 1954
\$Z 4 Number Acreage
Class   A j  31 i ,426,075
Class "B 5 7,055,211
Class "C"  30 4?487
Special Act 1     1 529,920
Totals  67 9,015,693
RECREATION LAND RESERVES—VARIOUS CLASSIFICATIONS
DECEMBER 31st, 1954
1954 § Total
Areas reserved under the I Land Act I    46 311
Departmental (map reserves)  129 321
Designated recreation areas within forest reserves.     27 98
Totals  202 730
43
ISLAND PARK VISITOR STUDIES
On Vancouver Island, surveys made by the Planning Section have provided up-to-
date information on number of visitors registering and their home origin.
Name of Park
Number of
Registered
Visitors
Per Cent
Registering
Total
Visitors
Number of
Campers
Little Qualicum Falls	
Englishman River Falls	
John Dean	
Stamp Falls 	
Ivy Green and Twin Firs Picnic-sites
MacMillan	
Elk Falls	
Miracle Beach	
Totals	
18,534
34.3
54,200
10,253
42.3
24,300
5,881
21.8
27,000
7,797
25.0
31,200
1,575
25.0
6,300
8,351
30.0
27,800
11,600
25.0
46,400
12,845
16.2
79,400
76,836
219.6
296,600
1
5,268
2,083
667
981
940
4,090
15,730
29,759
In general, it was found that the percentage of persons registering was smaller than
that supposed. This indicates that park-use figures of the past several years have been
very conservative. The average number of visitors per car, ranging around 3.8, is slightly
higher than the 3.5 experienced some five years ago. This might be explained by the
added facilities for picnicking and camping, which strongly appeal to family groups. An
over-all average of actual counts shows that 89.1 per cent of visitors are from British
Columbia; 3.7 per cent are from other Provinces; and 7.2 per cent are from the United
States.
 PUBLIC WORKING CIRCLES
sr
16. Niskonlith
17. Purden Lake
18. Redonda
19. Rivers Inlet
20. Salmon Arm
21. Say ward
22. Sechelt
23. Slocan
24. Smithers
25. Spallumcheen
26. Stuart Lake
27. Upper Kootenay
28. Westlake
29. Willow River
BRITISH     COLUMBIA
56'
DEPARTMENT of LANDS and FORESTS
HONOURABLE   R,   _.   SOMMERS,   MINISTER
Scale
December 31st, 1954
  46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TREE-FARMS
Six tree-farms were certified by the Forest Service during the year, bringing the total
number to twelve. These are listed below:—
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Owner
T. G. Wright	
H. R. Nickson	
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd 	
Powell River Co. Ltd	
Western Forest Industries Ltd..._.—.
G. E. Bernard	
Sooke Lake Lumber Ltd	
Elk Falls Company	
R. J. Filberg 	
Canadian Forest Products Co. Ltd.
F. D. Mulholland	
Evans Products Co. Ltd	
Total.
Location
Sechelt Peninsula	
Sechelt Peninsula	
Fanny Bay	
Valdes and Galiano Islands.
Cowichan	
Sooke	
Leech River	
E. & N. Railway Land Grant	
Scattered blocks, Vancouver Island and adjacent islands
Sechelt  	
Parksville  	
Knight Inlet	
Productive
Forest Areai
Acres
263
165
22,671
9,138
8,408
2,335
8,042
52,494
6,553
2,347
463
1,230
114,109
1 In the 1953 Forest Service Report, total areas were shown, whereas in this year's report the area of productive
forest land only is given.
SUMMARY
The nineteen forest management licences awarded and the twenty-nine public working circles under regulation comprise a total productive forest area of approximately
11,460,000 acres and will provide a total sustained annual yield of about 274,000,000
cubic feet.
During 1955 emphasis will be placed on the establishment of additional public
working circles as time and staff permit.
DEMONSTRATION FORESTS
During the year some progress was made in placing the Bowser Demonstration
Forest in operation.
This "forest" comprises 1,270 acres of productive forest land and lies adjacent to
the Vancouver Island Highway just north of the community of Bowser. Its development
as a demonstration forest will serve to acquaint the public, and particularly farm wood-lot
licensees and owners of forest land, with the rewards to be obtained by the application of
sound forestry principles in the management of forest lands.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
45
PUBLIC WORKING CIRCLES
There are twenty-nine public working circles under regulation with cutting-control
ledgers in operation.  The following table shows their distribution by forest districts:—
Name of Public Productive Area Atmlfl AUow"
Working Circle                                                                    <!a£5) gfififi
Vancouver Forest District—
Barclay       47,665 2,500
Broughton       404,349 13,000
Cape Scott        70,150 2,250
Chilliwack         57,630 2,330
Fraser Canyon      192,644 6,000
Kyuquot       362,635 19^650
Redonda      375,985 17,000
Sayward       114,860 2,500
Sechelt      297,080 15,000
Prince Rupert Forest District—
Babine       541,400 6,900
Rivers Inlet      177,560 6,330
Smithers       506,810 4,500
Kamloops Forest District—
Barriere        64,553 1,000
Cariboo   1,231,107 12,100
Niskonlith      219,700 2,350
Salmon Arm        78,250 1,520
Spallumcheen VL     551,627 9,700
Prince George Forest District—
Cottonwood      379,000 5,000     ■
Crooked River      500,000 6,030
Naver      242,930 6,720
Purden Lake      170,700 5,350
Stuart Lake      350,000 4,310
Westlake      200,000 3,700
Willow River      305,930 7,000
Nelson Forest District—
Edgewood               151,820 2,800
Kettle                                   510,140 4,400
Nakusp        94,460 2,200
Slocan      187,195 1,500
Upper Kootenay      286,955
6,000
Totals  8,673,135 179,640
FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
Total number of farm wood-lot licences awarded by districts is as follows
Vancouver District      __
Prince George District 	
Kamloops District 	
Nelson District -—.	
Total  25
Seventeen additional applications are on hand and under review.
2
8
 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
CO-OPERATION
The Division continued its co-operative project with the British Columbia Branch
of the Canadian Forestry Association in sending lecturers to the schools of the Province
to speak on conservation topics. Three lecturers, employed at various periods through
out the year, visited 237 schools, gave 325 programmes, and spoke to a total pupil
audience of 35,367.
Assistance was supplied outside writers in securing data and pictures, and in editing their material. Numerous articles were prepared for the press, trade journals, and
special publications. The Division staff undertook numerous speaking engagements
particularly on Vancouver Island, and maintained the heaviest projection programme'
at evening meetings in and around Victoria, in the history of the Division. As and when
required, tours of forestry and forest-industry projects were arranged and frequently
guided by Division officers.
EXHIBITS
An educational exhibit depicting the diversified functions of the Forest Service was
designed and placed in the new Government building at the Pacific National Exhibition
in time for the annual exhibition at the end of August.
LIBRARY
1 The volume of work continued to increase in all the activities of the library. Purchases of new books and periodicals substantially exceeded the record of any previous
year, and interlibrary loans also added to the services provided. The number of each
issue of accession lists circulated has now reached 250, a figure double that of two
years ago.   The accession list has also doubled in length.
Circulation records maintained during the year indicated that a total of 10,851
loans were made, an average circulation of over 900 a month, the heaviest month being
December, with a total of 1,189 loans. Distribution of magazines to the boys' crews
was continued during July and August.
A complete overhaul of the main catalogue was undertaken and completed, with a
view to increasing its usefulness to the public. Special catalogues were maintained for
the Engineering Services Division library and the Centralized Title Service of the Commonwealth Forestry Bureaux.
An inventory of all publications on file was commenced and carried on as time
allowed, but much remains to be done before this project can be completed.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
47
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION
Money allotted to the work of the Division was unchanged from the previous fkrai
year, but variation in the projects undertaken resulted in changes in the disbursement
pattern of the funds provided. oursement
PRESS AND RADIO
The programme of display advertising in the daily and weekly newspapers and a
number of trade journals and periodicals, which had been standard procedure for manv
years, was entirely discontinued in favour of highway signs. The press advertising pro-
gramme had stressed the need for forest-fire prevention, and the new highway-sign protect
advanced the same message. The pattern, established the previous year, of thirty-two
"flash" announcements and sixteen "spot" announcements over all radio stations in the
Province was repeated, and thanks are due to the stations concerned for the advantageous
rates extended to our programme in the interests of public service. Little use was made
of the provision for special broadcasts during high-hazard periods owing to generally
favourable fire conditions.
PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTING
The Annual Report of the Service for the calendar year 1953 was edited, printing
supervised, and distribution carried out. The customary Forest Service calendar, warning-
cards, decals, and posters were produced and distributed. To supplement the school-
lecture service, periodic teacher-aid leaflets in a series entitled " Conservation Topics I
are printed by the co-operating organization, the British Columbia Branch of the Canadian Forestry Association. The Division assisted in editing the leaflets and handled
distribution.
Service to other Divisions included editing, supervision of printing, and distribution
of the following: A revised edition of the roadside picnic- and camp-site folder, and the
personnel bulletin on employment in the Forest Service, two research notes, and four
protection bulletins. The Division reprinted two general bulletins and the film catalogue.
PHOTOGRAPHY AND MOTION PICTURES
The following work was produced by this Section: 4,674 black and white prints;
71 rolls of film developed; 221 black and white negatives taken; 92 negatives or photographs copied; 728 black and white prints secured from outside laboratories; 1,764
negatives added to photographic files; and 1,500 feet of 16-mm. commercial Kodachrome
motion-picture film shot. p
There are at present 205 35-mm. colour slides in the slide library.
Film Library
Extensive use was made of the film library, although audience figures were lower
than in the three previous years. Twenty-four of the older films (the majority silent titles)
were withdrawn from the library and eight new subjects added, to bring the total selection
to sixty-five films. 1
SIGNS AND POSTERS
The modern Ranger-station signs developed the previous year were provided to a
fether group of Ranger stations. Additional quantities of reflecting-fabnc protection
signs were produced and distributed throughout the Province. The ^vision initiated a
Project of protection signs painted on the surface of the highways—" KEEP B.C. UKfcfcJN
--USE YOUR ASHTRAY "—which received favourable comment. In all, sixty-five or
*ese messages were located on Vancouver Island and the Southern Mainland.
 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The number of mills operating throughout the Province showed a decrease durin
1954 and numbered 2,403, including fifty-seven shingle-mills.   The slight decline appears
to have been fairly general throughout all the forest districts with the exception of Kam-
innnc which showed an increase of two mills.
loops, which showed an increase of two mills.
The total log exports amounted to 141,000,000 board-feet, in comparison with
120,000,000 board-feet for 1953. Of the total, 111,000,000 board-feet came from old
Crown grants carrying export privileges, leaving 30,000,000 board-feet from other areas
exported under permit.
The value of minor products marketed outside the Province amounted to
$6,607,651. This is a decrease of $1,512,838 from 1953 shipments. This represented
a further decline in the volume of poles and piling shipped during the year.
Timber sales were cruised to the number of 3,085, having a total area of 781,665
acres. This represents an increase in number of 506 and in area of 62,431 acres. The
demand for timber sales increased rapidly during the latter part of the year, which was
possibly due to the optimistic outlook for 1955. 1
The volume of logging-inspection work again showed an increase, with a total of
21,011 inspections made during the year. This increase was not in keeping with the
increased work-load, so that the standard necessary to maintain adequate supervision
continues unsatisfactory.
As a matter of record, 4,280 registered timber marks were issued during the year,
in comparison with 4,139 in 1953.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Coast log prices gradually recovered from their low levels of 1953, with prices for
most species increasing by $6 to $10 per thousand board-feet during the year. Cedar
log prices were not affected by the general market stimulation and remained fairly stable.
As a result of the more favourable prices, stumpage rates were adjusted upward on many
timber-sale contracts, which included provision for sliding-scale stumpage adjustments
with market prices. The more favourable market prices were also reflected in a gradual
increase in stumpage prices bid for timber sales. The weighted average price bid for
all species on the Coast was $3.93 per hundred cubic feet, in comparison with $3.25
for 1953. f | I
J§r Early in the year, average net prices received for dressed lumber in the Interior of
the Province reached their lowest point for several years. Fir prices made a very significant recovery during the summer months, but those for other species remained at a
relatively low level. The average stumpage price bid for all species in the Interior during
1954 was $3.22 per hundred cubic feet, in comparison with $3.77 for 1953.
Mill studies to determine proper conversion factors between cubic scale and lumber
output were continued, with tests made at ninety mills throughout the Interior, to supplement the data collected in 1953. A report on the results at the 190 mills tested in
the two years will be prepared. It
Production time and motion studies were commenced toward the close of the year
to determine average production performance in logging operations under various conditions. It is anticipated that studies of this type will be continued in the next few years
to obtain reliable data for stumpage appraisals. The information so obtained may also
prove valuable to the logging industry. J§
FOREST-COVER MAPS
In the course of the year 1,086 forest-cover maps were revised, as follows: Victoria,
307; district offices, 375; and Rangers' offices, 404. Of the above, sixty are new replacements. New replacements include thirty-four new forest-survey editions, and twenty-
seven of these were forwarded to district offices for distribution to offices concerned.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
49
FOREST MANAGEMENT
GENERAL
The estimated value of all forest products for the year amounted to $528 022 783
This was an increase of $15,734,127 over 1953 and was due primarily to ai^ increase
in pulp and paper production. The volume of lumber produced was the same as the
previous year, but unit values were slightly lower, which gave a total value less than in
1953. Generally, the value of minor products was lower than last year, but, on the
whole, the industry appears to have enjoyed a fairly good year.
The total cut for the Province amounted to approximately 5,567,000,000 board-feet
in comparison with 5,292,000,000 board-feet in 1953, or an increase of 275,000,000
board-feet.   This constitutes an all-time high. j|
Water-borne shipments for 1954 were approximately 1,580,000,000 board-feet,
being an increase of 188,000,000 board-feet over 1953. Shipments to most of the
markets remained fairly stable, with the largest quantity going to the United Kingdom,
followed by shipments to the United States.
The statistical tables in the Appendix of this Report supply details of Forest Management Division activities during the year. In commenting on these tables, the following highlights are considered worthy of special mention.
Of the total cut of 5,567,000,000 board-feet, which includes all products, Douglas
fir again maintained its leading position in volume cut by species, approximately
2,128,000,000 board-feet or 38 per cent of the total. Other important species in order
of output were hemlock, 1,294,000,000 feet or 23 per cent; cedar, 831,000,000 feet
or 15 per cent; and spruce, 596,000,000 feet or 11 per cent; as compared with 20, 15,
and 13 per cent respectively during 1953. The reduction in the spruce scale reflects the
very unfavourable weather conditions encountered in the Interior, which made logging
extremely difficult. Other species in order of importance were balsam, lodgepole pine,
larch, white pine, yellow pine, cypress, and miscellaneous hardwoods.
The increased cut of 276,000,000 board-feet comes from the Coast, with the exception of 58,000,000 board-feet from the Kamloops District. Although operating conditions were favourable on the Coast, due to excessively wet weather the reverse was true
in the Prince George region. As a result, production lagged and there was a loss in
scale of 53,000,000 board-feet over the previous year. The increase in the Vancouver
District was again due to an increase in the scale of pulping species.
On the basis of the origin of cut, 3,926,000,000 feet or 70 per cent originated from
Crown lands; and of this total, 2,344,000,000 feet or 59 per cent originated from timber
sales, which was a further increase over the previous year. Old Crown grants accounted
for 1,181,000,000 board-feet, a decrease of 31,000,000 board-feet.
Three new and additional tables, numbered 10, 11, and 12, are included in this
year's Report. Table 10 shows the volume of wood removed under relogging, and it
will be noted this has increased steadily since 1948. With the price of hemlock logs
having increased over the last year, interest in this class of material has been revived.
Tables 11 and 12 show the situation with regard to areas now being °VCTf**™™*
approved working plans. Total acreage is 9,942,695, with a cut in 1954 of 148,000,000
cubic feet and 326,106 Christmas trees.
Timber sales awarded, including cash sales, numbered 3,009, an ^rea^ ftoin
2»881 in 1953. The estimated value of sales made amounted to $18,938,04*./*, in
comparison with the 1953 valuation of $17,322,931.92. The total numberof sa lesas
at December 31st, 1954, was 7,617, as compared with 7,287 at the end of 1953. ifte
Jtal area held under timber-sale contract is 2,300,490 acres. Moneys held as guarantee
^posits on timber sales at December 31st, 1954, amounted to $8,094,12^.3^.
 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Each of the four Interior districts was actively engaged in obtaining m
data on public working circles and in timber-sale layout within the circlesin ^ 5^°
management basis. n a Plan*ed-
Throughout the Province, slash-disposal crews, consisting of from three t
each, were employed in reducing fire-hazard on timber sales, old mill settings and 1^ "^
roads.   In addition, small slash-disposal crews under Ranger direction were e    i°^ln?"
the Nelson and Kamloops Districts.   Lopping, scattering, piling, and burning wTfeca^ ^
out on 6,370 acres, 257 old mill settings were burned, and 33 miles of road* ™_™>
or rebuilt. Were rePaired
As in past years, a free exchange of information concerning insect outbreak
carried on between the Forest Service and the Canada Entomological Labora^ ^
A deterioration study commenced in 1953 by the Forest Pathology Unit, Science Se^
Canada Department of Agriculture, was continued in the Prince George District in 1954
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954 51
As a forest surveys and inventory requirement, the revision of cover maps at the
torja and district offices is being carried out, where considered necessary, on to interim
• urvevs base maps which are cross-indexed on to the old cover maps.
Conforming to forest surveys and inventory requirements, copies of the cover-map
nd for district-report mapping have been issued to all district offices and District
Rangers, and a copy of the legend included as an appendix to the Forest Management
ilA_tii__1
AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS
During the year 39,385 aerial photographs were added to district office libraries, as
follows: Vancouver, 9,192; Prince Rupert, 4,915; Prince George, 11,172; Kamloops,
7740; Nelson, 6,366. Aerial-photograph map indexes issued with aerial-photograph
supplies were filed at all district offices concerned.
A start was made listing maps and plans and aerial photographs on index cards for
use in central registers at district offices.
FOREST MANAGEMENT LICENCE ADMINISTRATION
During 1954 five forest management licences were awarded, which increases to
nineteen the total number of management licences presently being administered by the
Division.
On the nineteen licences, forty-seven cutting permits were in effect in 1954, and
thirty-one cutting permits have been issued for the calendar year 1955. The total amount
of timber cut from management licences during 1954 was approximately 30,000,000
cubic feet. The productive forest area covered by these licences amounts to 2,788,313
acres which have been converted to this form of sustained-yield tenure.
SILVICULTURAL FUND
The programme implemented during 1954, through funds made available under
the Silvicultural Fund, included tree-marking, silvicultural studies, planning in working
circles, slash-disposal projects, road location in working circles, and co-operation with
the Forest Pathology Unit, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture. The
following is a summary of work accomplished in the four Interior forest districts—Prince
Rupert, Prince George, Kamloops, and Nelson.
In the four districts 224 timber sales covering an area of 53,430 acres were marked
for selective cutting. Costs of marking during 1954 were reduced in comparison with
those of 1953, largely because the turnover of personnel lessened considerably. The
Province-wide costs range from 50 cents to $2.20 per acre and from 10 cents to 60 cents
per hundred cubic feet.
In the Peace River area some 2,000 Scotch pine seedlings were planted on a typical
pine site. Re-examination of an area in this region on which direct seeding was carried
out indicates a survival of 54 per cent. A series of sample plots was established on
marked sales in the Naver, Crooked River, and Cottonwood Forests in which remeasure-
ments will be made periodically to determine release, windfall, and ingrowth. A study in
utilization of balsam awaits further analysis before any conclusions can be drawn.
In the Bolean Lake area 2,500 more seedlings were planted in connection with
survival studies commenced in 1952.    Spot- and broadcast-seeding experiments were
instituted at Sock Lake.   A course in tree-marking for personnel engaged in that work
was commenced at Kamloops, and a manual for marking crews is presently being
compiled.
In the Nelson District a study of cutting methods in second-growth timber has been
demented by the Research Division.
 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
down somewhat from previous years. The number of sheep represents a 5-per cent
increase over 1953 and is the highest figure recorded since 1949. The demand for
sheep range is definitely on the increase after reaching a low point in 1951. The tabu
lation on page 147 shows a breakdown of the above figures by forest districts and a
comparison of those for the past ten years. A
Hay Permits
A total of 190 hay permits were issued, authorizing the cutting of 2,173 tons from
natural meadows on Crown range. These figures represent a drop from those for 1953
due mainly to the fact that'many wild meadows remained flooded throughout the summer!
Further, the actual cut fell far below that authorized because of poor haying conditions!
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees
Grazing fees are on a sliding scale, based on live-stock prices for the previous year.
For 1954 the fees per head per month were 14 cents for cattle, HVi cents for horses, and
3 cents for sheep. This represents a drop from fees charged in 1953 of 22 per cent for
cattle and horses and 7 per cent for sheep, and reflects the drop in prices which occurred
during that year. Hay-cutting fees, which are not on a sliding scale, remained at $1 per
ton. Reference is made in another section of this Report to a further drop in live-stock
prices during 1954. This will result in a further reduction in grazing fees in 1955.
The above-mentioned drop in fees much more than counterbalanced the increased
numbers of stock on Crown range, and total billings and collections were both reduced in
1954. The figures for this year and the past ten years appear in the table on page 147.
The collection of grazing fees continues to be a difficult, time-consuming matter. The
majority of grazing accounts are paid promptly and are no problem. However, in the
case of delinquency, numerous letters, personal contacts, and, in extreme cases, legal
action in Small Debts Court are required to effect collection. During the year a concerted
effort was made to bring delinquent accounts up to date, with the result that outstanding
fees were reduced by approximately $5,000.
•GENERAL CONDITIONS
Weather is an important factor in range-forage production as well as in other phases
of live-stock management. The winter of 1953-54 was relatively mild and, on most of
the lower ranges, snowfall did not exceed the average. However, spring warm-up was
extremely slow and forage growth commenced at least two weeks later than normal.
Although hay-supplies were generally adequate, some stockmen, because of a shortage
of winter feed, were forced to turn their stock out on range before it was properly ready
for use. Continuing cool weather during the spring and early summer resulted in snow
remaining on many of the higher alpine ranges until well on in July.
Summer rainfall was far above average throughout the grazing area. This resulted
in particularly heavy forage growth on all ranges except those at the higher elevations,
where below-average temperatures limited production. Considerable difficulty was experienced in holding stock on some of these high ranges due to the almost continuous summer
storms.   Stock came off the range in generally good condition.
The extremely wet summer made haying an almost impossible task in many areas.
Yields were generally excellent, but frequent rain-storms completely spoiled large quantities of hay before it could be stacked. Much of that which did reach the stack was of
poor quality. Those areas depending on natural-hay meadows for winter feed were particularly hard hit as many meadows remained covered by water throughout ths summer.
However, much-improved weather conditions in September and October permitted the
late harvesting of considerable quantities of hay in these areas.   Although of low quality,
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
GRAZING
INTRODUCTION
Cattle were first introduced in large numbers to the Interior of British Columbia
nearly 100 years ago, to meet the demand for beef by miners participating in the gold
rush. These cattle were driven into the area over long, arduous routes by stockmen
already established far to the south of the International Boundary. It was only natural
that these stockmen should decide to raise stock closer to their market, and the ranching
industry thus became established in this Province. For many years there was sufficient
range for all. However, as markets developed, herds increased and the demand for
range became keen. Overstocking, too early turnout, and other malpractices arising
from the unrestricted competition for range resulted in marked depletion of the more-
favoured grazing areas, and it became obvious that some form of regulation was necessary. At the request of the stockmen, the "Grazing Act" was passed in 1919, thus
providing for the first active control of the Crown range. By that time most of the open
grassland was in private ownership and the Crown range was comprised largely of forest-
range types. In view of the necessity of correlating grazing with the other forest uses,
administration of the " Grazing Act | was made a responsibility of the Forest Service.
ADMINISTRATION
Grazing administration is closely integrated with the other phases of Forest Service
activity and is kept as decentralized as possible. The responsibility for range management, allocation, and improvement is placed on the District Foresters under general
direction from the Chief Forester's office. Qualified agrologists (one in Victoria, five
in Kamloops, and two in Nelson) are employed to direct, under the Chief Forester and
District Foresters, the technical phases of range administration. Field work required
in connection with enforcement of regulations and grazing permit conditions and routine
range inspection work are largely carried out by the Ranger staff under direction from
the District Foresters.
During 1954 the volume of administrative work increased. This was due to the
continuing increase in the demand for Crown range and to ever-growing pressures on this
range by competing forms of land use, such as settlement, timber production, game, and
recreational use. During the year numerous revisions were made in range-management
plans and grazing permits to avoid abuse of the range and conflict between permittees,
as well as to ensure that grazing and other uses were co-ordinated to the best possible
advantage. Supervision of the range survey and improvement programmes continued to
require a considerable amount of time.
Early in the year, grazing district boundaries were amended to coincide with forest
district boundaries, which had been extensively revised previously. Each District
Forester is now responsible for grazing administration within a single entire grazing
district. Also, the practice of requiring all applicants for grazing permits to route their
applications through their local Ranger offices was instituted. This was due to the
necessity of making closer checks on stock numbers and for refining area descriptions
and permit conditions arising from increased rates of stocking.
Grazing Permits
The grazing use of Crown range is controlled by means of a permit system under
the provisions of the "Grazing Act" and regulations. During 1954, ^75U ^™
permits were issued, authorizing the grazing of 111,767 cattle, 3 738 horse%and f4'*^
sheep on Crown range. Both the number of permits issued and number ol <^* £*"
nutted on Crown range are all-time records.    The number of horses under permit is
 561 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
17 range-seedings  1,643.43
29 stock-trails  9,087.69
11 water developments  1,262.88
1 weed-control measure ____ 818.40
Wild-horse disposal  3,751.85
Machinery and equipment (purchase)  1,998.69
Maintenance and operation of equipment  1,355.95
Materials on hand not yet assigned to projects  148.50
Supervision, surveys, and technical studies  11,871.10
In addition to the above projects, authority was extended to stockmen to construct
at their own expense, the following improvements: 1 corral, 1 cattle-guard, 8 drift-fences^
1 grazing-enclosure, and 2 horse-pastures.
With the exception of range-seeding and weed-control, most of the projects listed
were constructed under contract by livestock associations or individual ranchers. In
some cases full costs were charged to the Range Improvement Fund, while in others costs
were shared by the benefiting stockmen, according to circumstances.
Only a skeleton range-improvement crew was employed in the Kamloops District
this year, and this crew completed nine projects. At the conclusion of the field season
it was decided to discontinue this crew in future as it is felt that the relatively small and
widely scattered range-improvement projects can be more economically constructed under
contract with local residents. Local labour for this type of work now appears to be more
readily available.
A major feature of the range-improvement programme this year was the considerable
increase in range-seeding. As indicated in the Report for 1953, considerable success has
been attained in seeding logged-over and burned-over forest lands to grasses and legumes.
The 1954 seedings were confined largely to this type of site. The cost noted above covers
the cost of seed only. Actual seeding was done by Grazing Division personnel and cooperating stockmen. Preliminary surveys, site selection, supervision, and the necessary
continuing studies are carried out by grazing personnel, with costs being included under
the general heading for these items. One trial of aerial seeding was carried out on 340
acres of logged and burned land, using sweet-clover seed. The dry grassland seedings of
previous years continue to show up poorly, and further study is required before seeding
of this type is undertaken on a large scale.
Again this year the chemical control of goatweed was limited to those infestations
along roadsides and other areas considered particularly dangerous as sources of further
infection. The Division of Entomology, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, with the Forest Service co-operating, continued studies on the biological control of
this weed. Results, although far from conclusive, were considered sufficiently encouraging to warrant the importation and release of further Chrysolina spp. beetles on a field-
trial basis in the East Kootenay Valley.
During the winter of 1952-53 the removal of wild and useless horses from the Crown
range was carried out by round-up only. No shooting was undertaken. Range-users cooperated fully in this trial procedure, but experience clearly indicated that some shooting
is necessary to keep the range entirely clear of these unwanted animals. One man was
employed directly by the service for horse round-up duties and, in addition, forty-seven
round-up permits were issued. Two hundred and forty-five horses were rounded up and
cleared for shipment. In addition, many horses, which would otherwise have been left
on the Crown range, were removed by their owners. For the first time a subsidy of $5
for mares and geldings and $7.50 for studs was paid to round-up licensees on animals
actually shipped for slaughter.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
it
the available hay, along with the supplemental feeding of concentrates, should make it
possible for most ranches to hold their herds together during the winter of 1954-55
Many herds have been severely culled and, in some cases, a large percentage of young
stock had to be marketed, but there was not the heavy selling-out of breeding herds which
occurred as a result of the poor hay harvest of 1948.
The fall and early winter have been very mild, which, combined with good forage
conditions, has permitted grazing much later than normal. This will also help those short
of winter feed.
As a result of poor haying conditions, the ensiling of forage was carried out on a
large scale in the range area for the first time. It is felt that, considerable experience
now having been gained in this field by ranchers, this practice will be much more widely
followed in future. The making of silage, literally an all-weather operation, rather than
relying entirely on hay, should go far toward stabilizing winter feed-supplies, a matter
of great, albeit indirect, importance in the management of Crown ranges.
Grasshoppers, because of the cold, wet summer, did not become a serious problem
over any large range areas in 1954, and damage by these pests was light.
Good ranch labour is still difficult to obtain and hold on the ranches. In an effort
to overcome this problem, the trend toward mechanization on ranches has continued,
but there is no substitute for good, reliable range-riders in range management.
Beaver, although extremely valuable in improving water conditions on some ranges,
can also become a problem on the range under certain conditions. In some areas these
animals have been responsible for the flooding of numerous natural meadows, thus
making them unavailable for forage production. Several such areas are being kept
under close observation in co-operation with the Game Department to determine whether
some reduction in the beaver population is justified.
CO-OPERATION
Excellent co-operation from range-livestock associations, an essential in range
administration, was forthcoming during the year. One new association was organized,
bringing to forty-six the number of approved local range-livestock associations. These
groups were very helpful in resolving many of the range problems which arose during
the year. Close contact was also maintained with the British Columbia Beef Cattle
Growers' Association and the British Columbia Sheep Breeders' Association on matters
of policy affecting the whole industry. A total of 118 association meetings were reported,
of which 108 were attended by Forest Officers.
Excellent co-operation was also received during the year from the various other
agencies dealing with range- and livestock-management problems, including the Canada
Range Experiment Station at Kamloops, the Game Department, the Live Stock Branch
of the Department of Agriculture, and others.
RANGE IMPROVEMENT
During 1954, $47,352.51 was spent on range improvement work, as follows:—
3 stock-bridges  $525.00
8 cattle-guards  •* && 1 -59
1 holding-corral —- ^t ft
32 drift-fences  %    Al
2 experimental plots   ^c\'nc\
1 hazard-removal  sn« 12
5 holding-grounds — £j».l^
2 meadow improvements   1 ooC'An
8 mud-holes 1 — 1>835'UU
 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ft Live-stock Counts
Only one major cattle count, involving some 3,000 head, was unrWoi,    I
the year. "nuenaken during
Trespass1
A number of cases of trespass on Crown range occurred during the v
prosecutions were undertaken.    For the most part, violations were rectified*'      n°
when brought to the attention of the owners of the stock concerned Proiuptly
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
RANGE SURVEY
The following areas were covered by standard grazing surveys:	
Acres
Ta Ta Creek Stock Range  193 000
Christian Valley Unit, Kettle River Stock Range j     6 400
Martin Prairie Stock Range and Monte Hills Stock Range 192,222
Nazko Stock Range   245,700
Baker Creek Unit     24^320
Total _   661,642
In addition, extensive grazing reconnaissances were carried out over the following
areas:— Acres
Spius Unit, Nicola Stock Range    44,300
Cache Creek Unit, Ashcroft Stock Range    26,880
Total.    71,180
MISCELLANEOUS
Live-stock Losses
Losses of stock on the range due to poisonous weeds, mud-holes, and predatory
animals were lighter than usual this year. Highway traffic and hunting accidents continued to take an increasing toll of live stock on the range. As usual, a number of
animals were lost through theft, and there were several prosecutions for cattle-rustling
during the year.
Diseases of Live Stock
There was one serious outbreak of disease during the year which forced extensive
adjustments in Crown range management and allocation. In this case, an outbreak of
vibriosis, a highly contagious genital infection of cattle, resulted in a number of herds
being placed under quarantine and all range bulls were shipped for slaughter. No movements of live stock to graze on other units, as had been customary, could be permitted,
and breeding was carried out by artificial insemination. This situation required adjustments in range allotments and considerable fencing on both private and Crown lands.
The Forest Service assisted in the latter.
Apart from the above, there were no other serious outbreaks of disease, although,
as usual, a few individual herds had to be grazed under quarantine conditions for various
reasons. The incidence of foot-rot in range sheep was somewhat greater than normal,
probably due to the wet weather.
Markets and Prices
Cattle shipments were considerably heavier this year than last, while sheep shipments remained about the same. Although prices for top-quality steers held up very
well, the prices received for poorer grades dropped considerably, and the average price
for all grades was lower than in 1953.   Sheep and lamb prices also dropped slightly.
Plant Collections
A complete knowledge of the range flora is absolutely essential in range management. To this end, plant collections are being built up in the chief grazing districts, ana
this work was carried forward in 1954.
 60
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Rugged terrain on Pacific Great Eastern Railway right-of-way clearing.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
ENGINEERING SERVICES
59
The year was one of unusual problems and noteworthy accomolishment, ;
number of phases of the Division's activities. The most outstanding feature w_«.th!
successful clearing operation conducted throughout the hazardous summer month, 1
the rugged and exposed shore of Howe Sound. It involved clearing of a laree nart rrf
the right-of-way for the Pacific Great Eastern Railway between Horseshoe Bav and
Squamish, and was undertaken under special orders aimed at the completion of the
railway link from Vancouver to Squamish at the earliest possible date All sections of
the Division contributed to the success of the project, although the major portion was
carried by the Engineering Section.
A-frame removing heavy slash and timber.
ENGINEERING SECTION
The extensive clearing operations of this Section progressed rapidly during the
year, but all other development work was hindered by unusually persistent rains in the
forested areas, even though personnel doubled their efforts whenever conditions permitted. AH divisions of the Forest Service co-operated in speeding the clearing of the
Pacific Great Eastern Railway right-of-way from Horseshoe Bay to Squamish to facilitate early construction.
General Engineering
At the beginning of the year the work of the Section was completely reorganized,
when instructions were received to immediately commence clearing of the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway right-of-way from Whitecliff to Squamish. Experienced personnel were
taken from road-construction projects and a rapid start was made. In order to hasten
construction and the letting of contracts, the Forest Service completed clearing tne
 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(4) Assistance was given in the selection of materials and control of concret
for the Forest Service office building at Prince Rupert. e
(5) Assistance was given in the study of alternative methods for supplying
water to the Fort St. James Ranger station at Stuart Lake.
(6) Site surveys were made for two bridges over the Chilliwack River and
drillings were made for foundation information at the site of a bridge over
the Willow River.
(7) A glue-lam girder bridge was designed for the crossing of Naver Creek
*    (8) Tenders were prepared for the contract portion of the Naver Creek Forest
development road.
(9) A programme of careful study and analysis of clearing costs is being
developed.   In the construction of forest roads the cost of clearing and
slash-disposal may amount to as much as one-third of the total, but
methods of estimating are crude compared to those for earthwork, gravelling, and structures.   The attack on this problem cannot be expected to
yield immediate results, but gradual progress can be expected.   The same
problem is met with in estimates for reservoir clearing.
(10) The scope of the land-titles service has increased, and the co-operation of
if numerous other departments has assisted greatly in the work accomplished.
H' During the year, work was performed on the following types of projects:—
Completed Pending
Purchase of private lands for sites  7 6
Purchase of private lands for right-of-way __ 4 6
Reserving of Crown lands for sites  17 9
Reserving of Crown lands for right-of-way 19 13
Arranging of survey for sites  14
Arranging of survey for right-of-way  2
In addition, information was compiled on approximately forty miscellaneous projects.    - m m
Road Reconnaissance
Field reports were completed on 36 miles of the 146 miles of road reconnaissance,
and brief summaries were prepared for the other 110 miles of reconnaissance accomplished during the previous field season. During the summer and fall, reconnaissance
personnel completed the field work and commenced the compilation of reports on the
following projects:—
(1) Prince George Forest District: (a) 20.2 miles of main road and 37 miles
of main branch roads, a part of the road system required for development
of the Willow River Public Working Circle; (b) 20.2 miles of the Swift
River development road in the Cottonwood Public Working Circle.
(2) Prince Rupert Forest District: On the Morice Forest development road,
accumulation of data for clearing cost analysis.
(3) Kamloops Forest District: 15.4 miles of main-road investigation in the
Spius Creek drainage.
(4) Nelson Forest District: (a) 28.5 miles of main-road reconnaissance on
the proposed long-term Timber Sale X53127 (headwaters of the Moyie
River); (b) 18.2 miles of main-road reconnaissance on the proposed sale
Sp;. in the valleys of Tree and Brotten Creeks (Yahk River drainage).
Road Location
During the early spring, party chiefs were occupied completing quantity analysis,
designs, and maps for the White River Forest development road (Upper Kootenay Public
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
61
cquiv
schedule.
1 nt of 173 acres or about one-half of the 28-mile right-of-way well ahead of
I le   The Forest Service mobilized a total of fifteen boats to move the numerous
.  _i.__.-_   1 <n  ^▼npsriptif.p.H   Inaaprs    alnna  \he   s\p>(±r\    _v.r»V_.   _•__>_._- ^_? ^.^..
^    _j_   v/j.w~'•>     ~- — —   -      - -   —       —— ■—■     --—_-_^-_.>_/v»_
n cjews totalling 150 experienced loggers, along the steep, rocky right-of-way.
se it was necessary to burn inflammable and hazardous slash material during the
h^risk conditions of summer weather, comprehensive fire-suppression organization
"required to prevent the spread of fire to the adjoining forests and private property.
Addition to eight portable fire-pumps and 14,000 feet of hose, two launches were
..        _____ /"Y~»     Anmio.    ^.TH.      x\TY\c±r\    _-»/"_t_+i" _»_-»+o    --.___'•»___   1__*   «_*«_4    ___&-__£__£*£    O _	
equips
cleariflj
for the vu-xx-"^ p -_>- ".,'.__
removed in conjunction with subgrade construction.
fn addition io cigi-- f^****"" — _-—_r- ?        _____ 7 „„w _v__.__>,__^_, nviv
nped as fire-boats. On August 30th, when contracts were let and Forest Service
7 aring operations ceased, 9 miles had been completely cleared, 1 Vi miles cleared except
°      burning of light debris, and 5 miles were cleared except for logs which are to be
_ •    __.-.,-+.™. .i/itfi cnharade can struct ion.
■I
Burning debris on Pacific Great Eastern Railway right-of-way clearing.
Other functions of this subsection for the year included:—
(1) Initiation of a programme of testing soils and gravel encountered along
proposed forest-development roads as an aid in the selection of materials
for embankments and surfacing. During construction, samples are tested
to assure that subgrade material, compaction, and surfacing meet the
required standards.
(2) Reports were prepared to assist in the selection of gravel-crushing equipment, compaction equipment, trailers, bridge and culvert materials, and
other possible purchases.
(3) Specifications and drawings were prepared to govern the construction of
forest-development roads, whether by Forest Service forces or by contract.
 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Working Circle), the extension of the Naver Creek Forest development ro d
second section of the Morice Forest development road.    During the summ* I **f ^
field work was completed and office analyses begun on the following d* T  falt*
roads:— 1   °Pm
ent
(1) Stone Creek Forest development road.   The survey of branch ro d
begun and 12.3 miles were located in the valleys of Branch Creek   hT
headwaters of Stone Creek.   These roads are designed to develon
mately 36 per cent of the 44,168 acres tributary to the StoneT^t
development road. ree^
(2) Willow River Forest development road.    The main road which
mences in Lot 1969 on the Buckhorn Lake road, approximately 18 mT
south-east of Prince George in the Prince George Forest District
located to Mile 14.2—the Willow River Bridge site—and then eastS
to Mile 20.4.   This road is designed for speeds of from 30 to 50 mile
* per hour.    Location was also completed on 3.6 miles of road providing
H access to the timber adjacent to Grizzly Lake and 1 mile of preliminary
location on the road which will develop timber in the Wansa Creek
drainage. The location survey is a start in the development of 171 600
acres of timber land covered by 504,000,000 cubic feet of timber.
| Road Construction
The programme of construction and maintenance on forest-development roads was
continued. An unusually wet summer curtailed operations in the Prince George District
but work in other districts progressed on schedule.   If '
Forest-development road in Naver Provincial Forest.
on t£ Mng theJvlnier months> right-of-way clearing progressed from Mile 9 to Mile 11
hnrnw r. .?     Forest devel<>pment road, with preliminary clearing ready for
burningcompleted to Mile 14.    Grade construction extending the road from Mile 6 to
me iz involved the movement of approximately 120,000 cubic yards of common
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
63
Forest-development road through spruce forest and swamps, Naver Provincial Forest.
 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Large creosoted-wood culvert on Stone Creek Forest development road.
entailed the installation of approximately 900 feet of 4-inch-diameter plastic pipe and
flexible connections for the 20,000-gallon storage tank to prevent further damage from
the shifting clay fill.
Second-year maintenance was completed on the McGillivray Lake Forest development road during the summer months. Drainage-ditches were cleared and enlarged
where necessary. Several additional culverts were installed to improve drainage, and
the whole road was graded. A gravel-pit with a loading-ramp was developed to provide
suitable gravel for future maintenance and new construction.
MECHANICAL SECTION
The mechanical equipment operated by the Forest Service is listed hereunder. It
will be noted that in some cases the figure shown in the final column is not the sum of
columns 1 and 4. The apparent discrepancies are due to the sale of vehicles to employees
and disposal of worn-out equipment.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954 65
terial 1,500 cubic yards of solid rock, 22,000 tons of pit-run gravel, and 18,000 tons
^crushed gravel. During short periods of relatively dry weather in July and August
ai earth-moving equipment was double-shifted to take full advantage of the more
favourable weather.
Preliminary clearing operations on the Stone Creek Forest development road were
completed to Mile 14.5 during the winter months in preparation for extending the
finished grade from Mile 8 to Mile 14.5 during the summer months.| However, continuous rains in conjunction with an unstable, silty soil resulted in a 50-per-cent reduction
in the anticipated progress on this project during June, July, and August. Because of
continued unfavourable operating conditions in September, construction was stopped
at Mile 11, and the equipment and personnel were moved to other projects.
Extending the Stone Creek road from Mile 8 to Mile 11 involved the movement of
approximately 60,000 cubic yards of common material, 20,000 tons of pit-run gravel,
and 27,000 tons of crushed gravel (including 14,000 tons stockpiled for future use).
Four large-diameter (48-inch, 54-inch, 60-inch, and 78-inch) wood-stave culverts
were installed at major creek crossings on this road. These culverts were installed in
specially prepared gravel beds and covered with select granular back-fill which was compacted with pneumatic tampers. Results indicated that large creosote wood-stave culverts with a life of about three times that of wooden bridges could be installed for about
the same cost as the temporary structures. §|
A trailer camp for construction personnel was established in August at Mile 9
on the Morice Forest development road (old Owen Lake road). Actual construction
on the road started in September with the arrival of equipment and personnel from Stone
Creek. By the end of title year 4 miles of 100-foot right-of-way had been cleared and
3 miles of 30-foot subgrade had been completed. The subgrade construction involved
the movement of approximately 40,000 cubic yards of common material and the installation of approximately 400 lineal feet of wood-stave culvert from 18 to 84 inches in
diameter.
The permanent water-supply system for the Ranger station and residences on the
Aleza Lake Experimental Station was completed and placed in service.    This work
Construction equipment on Stone Creek Forest development road.
 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The past wet season resulted in a very light fire year, and little or no opportunity
arose to try out any previously conceived ideas of tandem pumping to obtain high
pressure as mentioned in the Report of last year. No particular pumping problems
have arisen, and the newly introduced types of pumps have still to be proven under
fire-line conditions. Included in this category was the idea of using the 150-gallon
Harrodyke canvas tanks in conjunction with a recently introduced, very light weight
high-pressure, low-volume pump. Another fire year will be required to test the usefulness
of this combination. In the pump field, one of the older-established Canadian pump-
manufacturers has recently introduced a completely redesigned pump weighing 58 pounds
and having a capacity of some 83 gallons per minute and a cut-off pressure of 300
pounds p.s.i.
The Vancouver-manufactured chain-saw incorporating a high-speed chain design
has given a good account of itself during the past season. It is presumed that this trend
will be followed by other chain-saw manufacturers. Many new names are appearing
in the chain-saw market, and the general design and standard of manufacture appear to
be quite good.
There have been little or no radical improvements in outboard motors, other than
the inclusion of certain refinement features and a popularizing of gear-shift controls and
electric starting, which latter feature is considered an unnecessary expense for Government use. The Forest Service purchased a 40-horsepower model, but the staff have not
had an opportunity to make any worth-while tests. The 25-horsepower has proven
adequate for all Forest Service purposes in the past, and the application of this larger
40-horsepower size has yet to be demonstrated or justified, though it is expected to
increase the speed and general performance of the Gypsy cruiser type of run-about.
Power-wheelbarrows have met with varying receptions, and in general it can be
stated that two districts are in favour of their use, two districts are not in favour, and the
remaining district is somewhat lukewarm, though possibly more favourably than unfavourably disposed toward them. It is believed that a drier season would allow these units to
demonstrate their usefulness to greater advantage.
In the heavy-equipment bracket, two of the largest-sized pull-scrapers (20 to 25
yards) were purchased and helped speed up the road-construction programme, although
the very wet season limited their production considerably. Three of the largest-sized
tractors were purchased, also a power-scraper of 15-yard capacity. f|
fH The various forest districts have depended upon the small Huber-type maintainer for
road work in the past, but the increasing amount of road-maintenance work has shown
the need for a heavier machine, and two of the smaller or 50-horsepower graders were
purchased last year—one for the Prince George District and one for the Nelson District.
It appears that each district will require one or more road-graders as quickly as funds are
available for their purchase. ft
The Engineering Section purchased a gravel-crushing plant having a 10- by 36-inch
size jaw and using a 4- by 12-foot screen. The plant has operated very efficiently to date,
and gravel-crushing costs have been held to a minimum.
General
Comparison of statistics on operating costs are difficult due to the many types of
vehicles. However, continued analysis of costs will be made, with a view to deciding
the best point for replacement. At the present time this question is decided upon inspection and consideration of each individual unit, and this system seems to be most suitable
under the circumstances. f^   11
All districts and divisions now have mechanical supervisors, and the general inspection and supervision coverage is much improved. However, the various forest districts
are already pointing out the need of a second mechanical supervisor or inspector due to
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
Forest Service Mechanical Equipment
67
Total
Units, Jan.
1, 1954
Sedans and coaches	
Coupes	
Suburbans  T""7T-	
Station wagons, four-wheel-drive	
Land rovers, four-wheel-drive	
Willys jeeps, four-wheel-drive	
Willys pick-ups, four-wheel-drive __.„.
Power wagons, four-wheel-drive	
1/2-ton pick-ups	
3/4-l-ton pick-ups	
2-3-ton trucks	
Heavy-duty (25-40,000 G.V.W.) trucks
Austin countryman	
Thames estate wagon	
y2-l-ton panel deliveries	
Sedan deliveries	
Tractors	
Graders	
Scrapers (self propelled)	
Power-shovels  -
Outboard motors	
Fire-pumps	
Chain-saws |	
Lighting plants	
High-pressure F.F. units (Bean)	
Snow-ploughs (Sicard)	
Snow sedan	
Speeders	
Trailers—low-bed	
Trailers—dwelling, bunk-house, etc.	
Trailers—miscellaneous	
Air-compressors	
Gas-powered rock-drills	
Cement-mixers	
Yarders	
Crushing plants	
Mechanical wheelbarrows	
55
85
34
19
18
10
80
13
198
72
50
14
52
1
14
3
43
14
2
2
271
527
258
51
15
1
1
20
7
48
33
5
3
3
1
1954-55 Purchases—Losses
Replacements
2
1
27
5
6
2
Additions
4
6
5
1
17
3
5
17
13
4
3
2
1
23
32
48
7
3
19
25
1
1
10
Total
6
6
5
1
19
5
6
44
5
2
19
6
3
2
1
23
32
48
7
3
19
25
1
1
10
Total
Units, Dec.
31,1954
47
73
39
20
35
9
83
18
224
53
52
14
48
1
27
7
44
16
3
2
294
559
306
58
18
1
1
20
7
67
58
6
3
5
1
1
10
Equipment Selection
The present public trend toward larger, lower, and more luxurious types of passenger-
cars is directing Forest Service attention toward the carry-all type of vehicle which is
more functional than frilly. Again, the panel delivery is much in favour as it provides
lock-up facilities and cover from the weather not available in the V^-ton pick-up.
Forest Service policy is to have two windows cut in each side of the regular panel to
provide better all-round vision.
The four-wheel-drive type of pick-up and station wagon is increasingly in demand
as logging operators, also using four-wheel-drive equipment, go farther back from highways in search of timber. The cost of operation of these units is considerably more
than that of the conventional types, but the increased cost is more than offset by additional usefulness. The past season has been unusually wet, and the four-wheel-drive
vehicle has been the only practical type of transport in many areas which are normally
serviced by two-wheel-drive types.
. Two major improvements have appeared in the light four-wheel-drive field, one
bemg the introduction of the six-cylinder engine by one manufacturer, and the increased
availability of a regular %-ton or standard-size pick-up body on an imported competitive
model- Both these changes should react to the benefit of the Service.
In the Surveys Division the small English suburbans are still giving service,^ ana
Wy-four of the original forty-nine are in operation. These are slowly being replaced
ttther by four-wheel-drive units or by conventional panel deliveries.
3
 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Building and Construction Undertaken during 1954
Project
Canyon Creek....
Duncan	
Horsefly	
Summit Lake—
Summit Lake —
Spillimacheen p
Vancouver	
Cranbrook	
Fort St. James....
Ganges	
Greenwood	
Kamloops	
Lardeau	
Quesnel	
Prince Rupert—
Lund	
Fort St. John	
Lumby	
Lillooet	
Houston	
Smithers	
Pender Harbour
Sooke	
Sooke	
Trout Lake .
Quesnel Lake	
Cowichan Lake-
Campbell River.
13 trailers	
6 trailers	
2 trailers	
2 trailers	
1 trailer	
1 trailer	
Type of Building or Unit
Residue of 1953-54 Programme
Office and stores building and residence	
Office and stores building and garage	
Office and stores building and residence	
Office	
Warehouse and residence	
Residence, office and stores building, and garage
Warehouse	
Warehouse addition	
Programme for 1954-55 Fiscal Year
Residence	
Office and stores building	
Office and garage building  	
Storage warehouse	
Office and stores building	
Double Ranger office	
District office building	
Office and stores building	
Office and stores building 	
Office and stores building	
Office and stores building	
Residence	
Warehouse and garage	
Floats	
Office and garage	
Residence .	
Residence	
Marine ways -	
Cook-house	
Tree-sorting shed	
Living-quarters (family )	
Bunk-houses .	
Living-quarters (single man)	
Office-living (foreman)	
Dining (planting camp)	
Cook-house (planting camp)	
Construction
Agency
Contract ...
Contract...
Contract __.
Contract...
Contract._.
Contract...
Contract...
Contract...
Contract
Contract
Contract
Contract
Contract
Contract
Contract
Stage of
Construction
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
90% completed.
60% completed.
60% completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
50% completed.
Tenders to be called January, 1955.
Tenders to be called January, 1955.
Tenders to be called February, 1955.
Tenders to be called February, 1955.
Tenders to be called February, 1955.
Tenders to be called February, 1955 (subject to by-law revision).
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
75% completed.
80% completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
80% completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Forest Service.
Forest Service.
Forest Service _
Forest Service..
Forest Service.
Forest Service..
Forest Service..
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Working in close co-operation with the Marine Station, the staff also designed or
assisted in the design of the following: A 20- by 32-foot residence building that could
be either constructed by conventional methods or prefabricated at the Marine Station;
a 21- by 45-foot equipment barge capable of transporting a load of 60,000 pounds; a new
type of twin-engined 32-foot launch; three inboard run-abouts; the 14-foot heavy-duty
work pram.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION §
Maintenance of the Forest Service fleet of motor-vessels provides a continuing,
steady load of work for the Station. The marine ways were occupied sixty times, and
thirty-six complete launch overhauls were undertaken during the year, in addition to
various other less-important repair jobs. The concentration of forest-inventory work
on the coast resulted in a noticeable increase in the work required to maintain boats of
the Forest Surveys and Inventory Division. In addition, many hours of labour were taken
up in loading and unloading small boats on mother ships or on trailers for transportation
to various field destinations.
Considerable work was done in connection with the Pacific Great Eastern Railway
clearing project, including the remodelling and returning to commission of two old
Assistant Ranger launches as fire-boats, the building of four special heavy-duty 14-ioot
prams, and various miscellaneous projects, such as tool-boxes and signs.
New marine construction included the building of a second 26-foot speed-boat, a
well as the completion of the 1 Ocean Spray," which was partially built in 1953.  A ne
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE   1954
f 69
thp heavy work-load placed upon one man endeavouring to snne™.c<_     .
SS1 alunt of equipment scattered over wide areas.   § ^^ a tremendously
A large portion of the mechanical supervisors' work consists of checkin. «*• .
for the repair of equipment and the work actually performed against the SreS?
Only work genuinely required is approved, and often, as a result of this revi™ „
work is corrected at no extra cost. Such items, together with the correction of'ov?/
charges, result in appreciable savings in funds. It can be conservatively stated Z',
continued vigilance in the matter of repair bills and misuse of equipment together 3
the training of equipment operators in correct techniques of maintenance h_J n_w
a high dividend on the investment in staff. ' nave Vm
STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SECTION
The most important work undertaken by this Section during the year has been the
completion of design work for the Prince Rupert District headquarters office building and
the subsequent calling of tenders and awarding of contract. The value of this building
necessitated the detachment of one member of the design staff as resident clerk of works
during the greater part of the year. This has proved to be a very worth-while step
enabling close control of construction and the observance of design requirements in
addition to providing valuable liaison with the contractor under extremely trying weather
conditions.
Notwithstanding the concentration of effort in Prince Rupert, a considerable number
of other projects have been carried out, based partly on existing standard designs and to
some extent on modified or new designs of buildings, trailers, boats, and other equipment,
as dictated by site or intended use.
The following table shows the extent and progress of this construction programme
as of December 31st, 1954:—
 72
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
JL       New Radio Units, 1954-55
Portable—
Type SPF  23
Model B   47
If — ?o
Mobile A.M.—MBL 25 —j    24
Mobile V.H.F.—CMV-l AX _     3
Fixed V.H.F.—
80 BY, 30-watt     4
41 BY, 10-watt    2
Comco, 2-watt    2
— 8
Portable V.H.F.—Portaphone        4
Fixed A.M.—
§ Type PAC  7
LRT 50, 50-watt  4
LRT 80F, 75-watt  1
LRT 100F, 100-watt  1
— 13
Marine—MRT-25, 25-watt      3
Total  125
Type LWP fire portable (not counted in above total), 45.
Operating and remote-control console, Headquarters Radio Station, Vancouver Forest District.
The new Model B portable, designed to replace the larger and heavier SPF unit, was
manufactured in quantity following the successful testing of Forest Service pilot models
the previous year. Reports on this new unit have been universally favourable, and it is
now considered the standard replacement for the obsolete SPF.
Due to congestion on our fixed channels, the trend of forestry communication has
been toward F.M. sets on very high frequencies. Before the current year all development in this direction has been in the Vancouver Forest District due to its favourable
propagation paths across water.    During the past season a comprehensive field strength
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
type of 32-foot launch designed and powered for speed, is about 75 per cent completed
It is anticipated that if this craft lives up to expectations as a supervisor's boat in the
Vancouver District, similar ships will be wanted for Ranger boat replacements    The
feature undertaking of the year was the construction of a new type of barge, using stvra
foam for flotation, built to transport tractors and other fire-fighting equipment on Quesnel
Lake.  Over-all size of the barge is 21 by 45 feet, and it is designed to carry a load of
60,000 pounds.   The barge was assembled on the shore of Quesnel Lake in late summer'
by'station personnel, and will be launched early in 1955.   Other miscellaneous projects
varied from four 14-foot outboard cruisers, five 30-foot river-boats, and fourteen dinghies
to a soil-sifter.
The woodworking-shop maintained its usual high level of productivity, manufacturing seventeen lookout buildings, six standard sectional buildings, and a'variety of
furniture, tool-boxes, signs, crates, and other such items. A new type of Assistant Ranger
residence, 20 by 32 feet, is being prefabricated for isolated locations. Ten of these
buildings are about 60 per cent completed. They will be bundled and shipped to their
respective destinations along with the requisite plumbing, wiring, insulation, roofing, and
linoleum for floors. fl
In the machine-shop, pump and outboard overhauls show a slight increase, chain-
saw overhauls are up 30 per cent, and light-plant overhauls up 50 per cent. Jf
During the year numerous tests were made of various types of hose to determine
maximum bursting pressure, fatigue, weep, etc. Hose-fittings were also subjected to tests
up to 2,000 pounds per square inch.
Further experiments and improvements are being carried out on the portable or
table-model epidiascope, and it is hoped to have this instrument in production early
in 1955. I
A start has been made in the production of a hose-washing machine, and this unit
will be ready for demonstration by early spring. Already manufactured is a simple and
light-weight hose-rinser, to be used in conjunction with any fire-pump of the Wajax
category or larger. This unit is designed to remove surface dirt from hose quickly and
thoroughly as it comes off the fire-line, preferably as it is being loaded for transportation
back to the cache. It
RADIO SECTION
Radio communication experienced an unusually active year, with 125 new transmitting units of all types being added to last year's over-all total of 687 sets. Clearing
on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, construction projects in the Prince George area,
and greatly increased use of communication by Forest Surveys and Inventory accounted
for a large proportion of units purchased. f|
 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
The fire season was the lightest since 1913.
In the Vancouver Forest District the weather remained cool throughout the season
and at no time did a build-up extend for a period long enough to create an extreme
hazard, although the latter part of April and first part of May, with high, dry winds and
freezing conditions at nights, gave every indication of a serious fire season in store
Conditions changed, however, about mid-May to showery and cool weather, which
remained in most parts of the district for the balance of the season.
The low fire occurrence in the Prince Rupert Forest District may be attributed to
the cool, wet weather that prevailed during the summer. This rainfall was evenly
distributed over the five summer months and kept hazard conditions low to dormant
throughout the season.    Similar conditions prevailed in the Prince George Forest District.
The outstanding factor that attributed to the light fire occurrence in both the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts was also the even distribution of precipitation. Practically all lightning-storms were either accompanied or followed by heavy rains, and
suppression effort was kept to a minimum. Extremely heavy rains reduced the hazard
in August to such an extent that no fires of any consequence occurred in the Nelson
District after the middle of August.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
With only 764 fires recorded during the season, the year 1954 set a record low for
the past forty-one years. In the year 1913, 578 fires were recorded. The 1954 fire
occurrence by months was normal and followed the pattern of previous years.
Fire Occurrence
during Ten-year Percentage of
Forest District Period 1945-54 All B.C.
Vancouver  4,092 27.44
Prince Rupert  669 4.48
Prince George I  1,542 10.34
Kamloops   4,837 32.44
Nelson   3,773 25.30
Totals  14,913 100.00
The principal cause of fires was campers, which was 21 per cent, followed closely
by smokers, 16 per cent; railways operating and lightning accounting for 15 per cent
each. Fire occurrence from smokers shows a decline over the ten-year period, and this
can be attributed largely to public education and co-operation. The percentage of fires
caused by campers has increased over the ten-year average. This is attributed to the
wet season, which resulted in campers not exercising proper care.
Cost of Fighting Fires
The 1954 fire-fighting costs were $269,624 less than the ten-year average and 82.4
per cent less than the 1953 costs. For further details of costs see Tables 59 and 61 of
the Appendix and also Table 45 for the cost to other agencies.
§j| The major costs in suppression were expended on fires occurring in industrial
operations, being 22 per cent of the total, although these represent only 8 per cent ot
the total number of fires. The more costly industrial fires were due to hang-over fires
in sawdust-piles, which are tenacious and costly to extinguish. Campers and lightning
were responsible for 20 per cent each of suppression costs. §
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
73
survey on 160 megacycles was carried out by the Victoria technical staff with a view to
placing the most active stations in the Kamloops District on V.H.F. operation i s Jn
i possible. In addition to testing Ranger and Assistant Ranger locations betw^n
Oliver and Kamloops, and for 100 miles north on the Cariboo Highway three renSS
stations^Campbell Mountain, Silver Star Mountain, and Begbie Mountain—were placed
in temporary operation for the month of August. With equipment which is on hand or
on order, a considerable portion of the Kamloops medium-frequency system will be
converted during the coming spring.
The V.H.F. system operating on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland functioned without incident throughout the summer, but the network was not increased during
the year. §,.
If In the majority of the forest districts no major changes occurred, Vancouver being
the one exception.
Completion of the new warehouse involved moving Vancouver headquarters station
as a complete unit during the busiest part of the season to modern, specially constructed
operating and service quarters. In keeping with internal improvements, steel towers
replaced the old wooden structures. A further change in the communication plans of the
Vancouver District became necessary when word was received from the Department of
Transport that the Vancouver frequency of 3430 kilocycles had been officially changed
to 3245 kilocycles. This involved replacing some 250 crystals and introduced the problem of being obliged to occupy a channel already partly occupied by other stations. At
the date of this Report, frequency conversion awaits further advice from Ottawa.
The interference situation, which was particularly severe at this time last year, has
improved considerably in spite of the introduction of a new form of interference resulting
from the rapid spread of television.
Up to September 1st, 1954, and for the two preceding years, the M.A.R.S. network
in the United States, working on an adjacent channel, rendered communication impossible
in the Kamloops District for a considerable part of each day. This organization changed
to 3295 kilocycles in September, and no further interference of comparable severity has
been experienced since.
The rapid expansion of television and the establishment of receivers in the immediate
vicinity of Forest Service headquarters stations at Victoria and Vancouver created a new
situation in which Forest Service signals interfered with near-by television reception. By
special design of the new Victoria transmitter and by the use of filters in Vancouver, this
form of interference has to a great extent been eliminated.
In the Victoria laboratory, in addition to maintenance of the V.H.F. network and
the signal propagation survey of the Kamloops District by Victoria technicians during the
summer months, considerable construction work was completed during the spring and
autumn. This work included fourteen remote-control receivers, two transmitters of 50
and 100 watts, and a complete up-to-date transmitter and operating control console for
the Victoria station. This unit was designed for remote control and for multi-channel
operation, with special attention being given to television interference elimination and
ease of maintenance. There is little doubt that it leads the way to a design which will
become mandatory at each district headquarters as soon as television broadcasting extends
to the smaller towns. At the present time experimental work is taking place with the
object of producing, from easily available commercial stock, light and inexpensive V.H.F.
beam antennas suitable for Forest Service V.H.F. development. One type has to date
been completed and used successfully. t|| 1 .   |
The question of radio channels remains the most important single factor m tne
Present operation and future planning of communications. Until recently the status ol
Jorest Service frequencies was confused and its future uncertain. As a result of recent
^rect contact with the authorities at Ottawa, the frequency situation has been claimed
the continuance of our present channels assured.
 76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A test area was set up in the vicinity of the Langford suppression camp to study the
behaviour of various experimental fuel-moisture indicators and the behaviour of small
standardized test fires in relation to weather and fuel moisture. |
Because a number of operators are now putting out fuel-moisture indicator sticks
early in the season, they are exposed to frost, which it was expected would seriously
affect their usefulness, particularly when wet. To test whether or not this had any effect
on the subsequent sensitivity of the sticks, one set was soaked and frozen before being
exposed in the normal manner. The set of sticks thus treated showed no significant
difference in behaviour from that of a standard set. A number of larger sticks, up to
3 inches in diameter, were prepared and their behaviour studied in an attempt to find
a relationship between build-up and moisture content of heavier fuels. Results for this
season were inconclusive because of the abnormally low-hazard weather.
Small test fires were used to study the relationship between fire behaviour and stick-
moisture content in three fuel types found on Southern Vancouver Island, and again
this study will have to be continued.
In co-operation with one of the operators on Vancouver Island, a project has been
organized to observe the behaviour of slash-burns and associated fire-weather factors.
This season, moisture content of some of the heavier fuels was determined by oven-
drying samples of forest litter and increment borings from some of the larger slash.
The demand for fuel-moisture indicator sticks continues to grow. This year 462
sets were distributed, of which 312 went to the industry. The new balance (British
Columbia Forest Service pattern) for weighing these sticks was tested this summer and
is being produced in sufficient quantity to replace existing old-style balances.
::::::>::::.:;:;:::::::::::;:.:::.
New-style fuel-moisture indicator.    (Designed and produced at Forest Service Marine Station.)
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE   1954
75
Damage
The total area burned was estimated at 10,309 acres (see Table 58) This is o 1
30 per cent of the average annual acreage burned in the last ten years. For example iJ
the Prince George Forest District, 47 per cent of the fires were under one-quarter acre
with a minimum fire damage. The largest fire in the Province was in the Vancouver
Forest District, being just over 1,000 acres and accounting for over three-quarters of
the damage to forest-cover in this district. In the Nelson Forest District the average
size of fire was 3.2 acres, with an average damage of approximately $3 per acre The
damage for the Province as a whole was extremely light, both with respect to forest-cover
and loss of property.
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers
The Provincial fire atlas has been brought up to date, and the 764 accidental fires
for the year have been plotted, plus 244 intentional slash-burns in the Vancouver Forest
District. The fire-statistics ledgers and fire-classification atlas for the five forest districts
are currently being brought up to date. '8
This office is now equipped with mounted maps, in a compact cupboard, covering
the whole Province and showing forest and Ranger districts; public working circle, management licence, and tree-farm boundaries, as well as all roads, trails, and lookouts.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
One crew, combining lookout photography and visibility mapping, was in the field
for the 1954 season.
The first three months were spent in the Nelson Forest District, where twenty points
were examined as probable lookout-sites. Of these, five are being recommended as
primary lookouts and two as secondaries. Five established primary lookouts were
photographed.
The remainder of the season was spent in the Kamloops Forest District where
eleven were examined as potential lookout-sites and three established primaries were
photographed.
Protection Planning in Working Circles
A start was made on protection planning, and two such plans for working circles
have been drawn up as a guide for the future for consideration by the five forest districts.
Studies on low-cost, low-maintenance fire-access roads continued, with one crew
under the direction of the Forest Protection Division constructing 10 miles of four-wheel-
drive road on Hunter's range and 6.1 miles on Park Mountain in the Spallumcheen
Working Circle, at an average cost of $378 per mile. This brings the number of miles
to 44 of this type of road constructed in the working circle over the last three years.
Miscellaneous
The aerial-photograph mosaic programme for the Mainland portion of the Vancouver Forest District has been completed, and there are now sixty-one mosaics available
for the use of the air observer and Rangers in locating and reporting fires. In addition,
twenty mosaics have been made up for the Kamloops Forest District, with an additional
twenty-six in the process of being laid down.
FIRE-WEATHER RECORDS AND INVESTIGATIONS
Routine observation and reporting of fire weather was generally unchanged from the
Previous year. The inclusion of supplementary data from co-operative stations stw
remains to be proven under hazardous conditions.
 78
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
below, 307.55 miles of new roads and trails were constructed and 1,745.70 miles we
maintained.   Included in these totals is work done by suppression crews in addition to
district project work.   Forest-protection ridge-roads, for quick access to lightning-fire°
by four-wheel-drive vehicles, are also included in the cost figures,   jj s
Construction of Protection Roads and Trails
Light
Medium
New road construction	
Road maintenance	
Total road construction and maintenance
New trail construction	
Trail maintenance	
Total trail construction and maintenance
Miles
129.45
278.8
Miles
74.5
169.8
Heavy
Miles
22.55
104.05
408.25
244.3
41.3
702.05
15.3
262.15
743.35
277.45
Total
Miles
206.5
552.65
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
Only fair results were obtained during the slash-burning period of 1954. Whilst
figures for hazard abatement are comparable with the acreage burned in 1953, the results
cannot be considered as satisfactory, and this is attributed to the past summer being
generally very moist throughout. As a result, the forest floor in timbered areas remained
damp during the entire season, and numerous areas of old slash did not dry out sufficiently
to allow disposal in the fall.
The continued moist weather throughout August and September precluded much
burning. Only two periods of good burning conditions occurred in September, the first
being the 20th to the 26th and the second the 28th to October 1st. The majority of slash
was burned during the latter instance, with very few operators taking advantage of the
first period of good weather. October 1st was the most successful day. No extremely
low humidities were experienced at any time. The one point that stands out in the
experiences of this year is that the most successful burns were attained on current slash
areas. On older slash areas most burns were very poor, and in some cases impossible,
due largely to a lack of drying periods and the heavy coverage of green vegetation and
deciduous growth.
The northerly part of the Vancouver Forest District experienced some hazardous
weather in the early part of the summer, which was lacking in the usually drier southerly
part. As a result, several fires occurred, indicating that some revision of the exempt
slash-burning boundary is needed. The fire on Harbledown Island indicated that spot-
burning of home-trees and landings would have been of considerable advantage in the
control of this fire.
Only 229 acres of slash were burned accidentally, the second lowest figure on record.
This is attributable to the wet weather, but is also considered a significant result of orderly
hazard abatement. This does not include 1,030 acres burned in the fire on Harbledown
Island, 1,000 acres of which was fully stocked with conifers and within the area exempt
from slash-burning. W     Jf
Snag-falling proceeded very satisfactorily; 1,406 acres were assessed and accounts
covering 650.5 acres were cancelled, the operators having completed snag-falling.
Before snag-falling became obligatory under section 113 of the "Forest Act," an
area of snags in the Sayward Forest was left standing. To eliminate this hazard, snag-
falling contracts were let this season covering 3,590 acres, which areas are now being
cleared of snags. In addition to the foregoing, the Reforestation Division let a contract
covering 744 acres in the Great Central Lake area and supervised completion of a 1953
contract near Rounds to the area of 1,179 acres.   This Division also felled snags with
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
77
Fire-suppression crews were again placed in the Vancouver, Kamloops and Nekon
Forest Districts. In all, sixteen crews were stationed in localities where fires were likelv
t0 occur within striking distance from existing roads. The actual locations of these
crews were as follows: In the Vancouver Forest District, in the vicinity of Langford
Duncan, Nanaimo, Parksville, Alberni, and Campbell River; in the Kamloops Forest
District, in the vicinity of Penticton, Princeton, Kamloops, Kelowna, Merritt and Chase-
and in the Nelson Forest District, in the vicinity of Elko, Cranbrook, Castlegar and
Kettle Valley. All crews comprised ten men, except for that at Chase, where it consisted
of five men only. These crews were in the field for an average of 100 days in mid-fire
season. They were called to eighty-three fires, of which 95 per cent were held to a subsequent spread of less than 5 acres.
For the analysis of suppression-crew fire-fighting activities, see the table following.
In addition to fire-fighting, the balance of the time of all crews was spent during non-
hazardous weather in doing essential work on new improvements, maintenance, and
training.
Size of Fire When Attacked
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
Yx Acre
or Less
Over Va
Acre to
1 Acre
Over 1
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
Spot (up to Va acre)	
Over V\ acre and up to 1 acre—.
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres	
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres
Totals	
63
10
6
4
61
6
1
2
2
4
2
1
83
70
AIRCRAFT
Protection flying under the existing contract with Pacific Western Airlines Limited
for six float-planes was continued. A total of 2,178 accident-free flying-hours were
logged throughout the Province during the period from April 15th to November 15th, as
follows:—
Forest District
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George.
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Total.
Base
Vancouver	
Lakelse	
Prince George.
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Type of Aeroplane
B eaver	
Fairchild71c	
Beaver	
Beaver and Junkers.
Beaver and Junkers.
Hours
Flown
321
376
279
730
472
2,178
As previously, all aircraft were radio-equipped, capable of carrying 1,000 pounds
pay-load, and equipped for parachute-dropping. In addition to carrying out fire patrols
and cargo-parachuting in fire suppression, use was made by other divisions of the Forest
Service. The Engineering Services Division used the aircraft on reconnaissance for road
location; Grazing Division for extensive grazing-range reconnaissance; and Forest
Surveys and Inventory Division used the planes extensively when taking forest inventory.
ROADS AND TRAILS
The Forest Service continued to add to the vast network of roads and trails throughout the Province, located in the most strategic areas for quick access for fire-ng^
The work is carried out generally when the fire-hazard is light.   As shown m the table
 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS*
Although the forest-insect situation in British Columbia was not critical during 1954
several situations arose that may presage trouble in the future.
A severe infestation of Douglas fir by the spruce budworm occurred in the Lillooet
River-Pemberton country and in the Fraser Valley-Nahatlatch River areas. After a careful ground study by two field parties and aerial reconnaissance and mapping by the
British Columbia Forest Service, the following conclusions were derived.
The total area affected is some 113 square miles. The present infestation is in its
second and, in some instances, third years. Defoliation in 1954 was heavy in most
areas, with the younger trees suffering the most severe damage. There has been some
tip-killing, but this damage has been light. No tree mortality has occurred. There was
a reduction of some 50 per cent in the radial growth of some trees, while in others the
1954 increment exceeded that of 1953. Although most of the damage can be attributed
to the spruce budworm, both the western hemlock looper and the false hemlock looper
were common, the latter being the most abundant.
There was little evidence of natural control from either larval or egg parasites or
from disease. A heavy population is expected in 1955. A high proportion of the buds
formed this fall are still alive, but there will not likely be sufficient food to support the
budworm population next spring. Starvation of larvae may be an important factor in
the eventual collapse of the outbreak. The effect of the additional loss of foliage on
Douglas fir will not be known for another year or more, but previous infestations in this
area have declined in a relatively few years with only slight ill effects on the forests.
Aerial spraying is not recommended for 1955 because as yet no tree mortality has
occurred, nor is it immediately imminent. If, however, the population remains at a high
level through 1955, the situation will be reviewed with respect to possible action in 1956.
The spruce budworm on spruce and balsam occurs in British Columbia on a two-
year life-cycle. Currently its most intense infestation is in the Prince George District
through an area roughly 250 miles north and south and 100 miles in breadth. Light to
medium defoliation has occurred in various stands above the 4,000-foot level in Kamloops Forest District. Infestations by the two-year budworm have occurred for the past
eight years, and during that time some have increased while others have diminished.
This population is expected to persist for several years yet. Since heavy defoliation
occurs only in the years of mature larvae (even-numbered years), and since the entire
population is synchronized to this schedule, the host tree has alternate years in which
to recover. This probably is responsible for the low incidence of tree-killing by this
budworm, and also to the fact that the population is not subject to starvation to the same
degree as the one-year-cycle budworm. The main injury to the forest has been the loss
in increment.   Very little killing has occurred.
The western hemlock looper has shown renewed activity over the past three years,
but it remains low in numbers on all coastal areas. Pronounced looper infestations
occurred at Scully Creek, Eaglet Lake, McBride, Fyfe Lake, Penny, and north of Hixon
Creek—all in the Prince George district. It is not possible to predict the general trend
of this insect throughout the Province, but it does constitute one of the more serious
threats and will be carefully surveyed in 1955.
The black-headed budworm feeding on western hemlock has caused considerable
anxiety in parts of the Province over the past year. The largest infestations are in the
Prince Rupert Forest District, with high populations in the Ecstall, Skeena, and Nass
River valleys and the Kitsumkalum and Lava Lake regions. The high population previously recorded on the Portland Canal from Stewart to the Nass River (a continuation
* Prepared by H. A. Richmond, Forest Zoology Unit, Forest Biology Division, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, Victoria and Vernon Laboratories.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954 79
its own crews on 4,134 acres on the Coast and 4,330 acres in the Interior of the Province
preparatory to planting. j
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
The twenty-two prosecutions, which were only 61 per cent of the average annual
number of prosecutions for the past decade, are low in number because of the easy fire
son. They are further analysed in Table 62 of the Appendix.
FOREST CLOSURE
It was not necessary to impose any forest closures this year.
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES
Again the excellent co-operation from Honorary Fire Wardens must be acknowledged with appreciation. During the 1954 fire season 960 of these public-spirited citizens
accepted appointment to take voluntary action on fires should they occur in their vicinity.
Even during the light 1954 season the value of these appointments was again in evidence.
In addition, there were 1,039 Forest Fire Prevention Officers appointed under
authority of section 123 of the "Forest Act." These men, appointed at the request of
their employers, have the same authority as a Forest Officer on the particular operation
with which they are concerned.
 82
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
of the budworm in Alaska) and along Alice Arm collapsed during 1954? and onl
occasional larva could be found. ' y an
In the Queen Charlotte Islands the outbreak remained generally at last year's 1
but increased in local areas.   The heaviest defoliation was found at Masset on Grah
-Island, and at Taku, Moresby Island.    Heavy spot infestations were found on Northe**1
Vancouver Island at Holberg ad Beaver Cove.   A medium population was also found "t
Say ward in an old budworm-killed area. a
H The history of this insect is that after some three years of heavy feeding the non
lation disappears. It is expected, therefore, that feeding will probably be heavy aeain
on the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1955, and an increase is expected on Northern Vancouver Island, where the outbreak is in its fifth year. Thus far in the northern area
mortality to trees has been rare, restricted to suppressed or understory stock when any
killing has occurred.
Glass barrier-traps for sampling flying populations of bark and ambrosia beetles. Flying
insects that hit the window-glass drop into the collecting fluid in the metal pans. (Glass in photograph was fogged by recent rain.)
Bark-beetles in Douglas fir, Engelmann spruce, and white pine were quite severe
over 1954. There seems to be little indication generally that the situation will be any
lighter in 1955. On Vancouver Island the heaviest attacks in Douglas fir occurred in
the Nimpkish Valley and at Buttle Lake. In the former an estimated 50,000,000 feet
were killed. Other areas of pronounced killing occurred in the Interior of the Province,
as follows: Between Williams Lake and Soda Creek, in Manning Park, and in the Boston
Bar region. The extent of these infestations is not known, since many of the infested
areas extend through remote country.    Recommendations for the cutting and utilization
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
81
Douglas-fir branch-tips defoliated by spruce budworm, Lillooet Lake,  1954.
 84
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
of this infested timber, together with modifications in management, have been advanced
to operators interested.
The heaviest white-pine killing has occurred in the following regions:   Shusw
Lake, Columbia River valley north of Revelstoke, and the Upper Arrow Lake.   Lodg?
pole pine has been killed over extensive areas in the Columbia and Upper Elk Rive"
valleys.    Ponderosa-pine infestations have occurred in the Kamloops Forest District
Severe damage to Engelmann spruce by the spruce bark-beetle has been confined
largely to the Nelson Forest District in the Yahk Provincial Forest. The infestation is
widespread, occurring in patches of a few to 100 or more infested trees. A second
area of infestation occurs near Princeton, where 187 trees are killed in an area 26 by
4 chains.
The infestations in the East Nelson region have occurred concurrently with those
that have caused such extensive losses in Montana and Idaho. They have been, however
a year or two later in reaching serious proportions, and hence may be expected to persist
somewhat later. The Princeton infestation, although far removed from the Nelson
District, developed at approximately the same time. No direct control is recommended,
but salvage logging is these areas is under way.
Powder post-beetle attack in axe-handle showing "sawdust" excavated by the tunnelling
beetles. Tool-handles should be observed for small, round entrance-holes of the beetles and signs
of sawdust.   All infested wood should be burned.
Research was concentrated in the continuing study of ambrosia beetles in felled
and bucked logs on Vancouver Island, with special reference to their biology, physiology,
and control; a study of susceptibility of Douglas fir to attack by bark-beetles, the biology
of the insect and the reduction of losses through management; continued studies of the
western hemlock looper; insect disease investigations and the operation of the forest-
insect survey.
During 1954 the maximum personnel employed on forest-insect work in British
Columbia was fifty-seven. Four new field stations were built for use in the insect survey,
their locations being at Williams Lake, New Denver, Christina Lake, and Wasa Lake,
bringing to nine the total number of such buildings erected in the Province. In all cases,
buildings were erected on Forest Service land. A boat-house to accommodate the survey
vessel | Forest Biologist | was erected near Sidney, Vancouver Island.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
83
Log infested with ambrosia-beetles. White boring dust on the right half of the log represents
an attack density of about 150 holes per square foot. The left half was treated with a preventive
chemical spray.
Deadin9^0t"teSt '°9 sections that nav© been sprayed to prevent ambrosia-beetle attack.
and dy,n9 beet|es fall to the cloth trays suspended beneath the blocks.
 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Die-back and flagging of ponderosa pine caused by Cenangfum ferruginosum Fr.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
FOREST-DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS*
85
Forest disease-survey activities were carried out in all forested regions of British
Columbia during 1954. In addition, field and laboratory investigations were undertaken
in relation to specific disease problems of regional importance in the Vancouver, Nelson
Kamloops, and Prince George Forest Districts.
Accommodation at the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station was increased to facilitate an expanded programme of research on second-growth Douglas fir. Separate
personnel and laboratory quarters were provided for the seasonal staff assigned to this
centre.
Forest pathology field headquarters, Cowichan Lake.
Publications distributed during 1954 included the following:—
Buckland, D. C; Molnar, A. C; and Wallis, G. W.: Yellow laminated root-
rot of Douglas fir.    Can. J. Bot., 32:69-81.    January, 1954.
Foster, R. E.; Craig, H. M.; and Wallis, G. W.: Studies in forest pathology:
XII, Decay of western hemlock in the Upper Columbia region^British
Columbia.    Can. J. Bot., 32:145-171.    January, 1954ji      X
Foster, R. E.; Thomas, G. P.; and Browne, J. E^-A-tfee decadence classification for mature coniferous stands For. Chron. 29:359-366. December, 1953. jt f • ' 1
Thomas, G. P., and Thomas, R. W.: Studies in forest pathology: XIV, Decay
of Douglas fir in the coastal region of British Columbia. Can. J. Bot.,
32:630-651.    September, 1954. §§
Ziller, W. G.: Studies of western tree rusts: I, A new cone rust on Sitka spruce.
Can. J. Bot., 32:432-439.    May, 1954.
Seven additional reports were prepared for regional distribution.
Prepared by R. E. Foster, Forest Pathology Unit, Forest Biology Division, Science Service, Canada Department
°f Culture, Victoria Laboratory.
 88
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
*n_^v^_i if
Excavated root system of western white pine, showing extensive tap- and lateral-root development.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954 Qn
87
FOREST-DISEASE SURVEY
During the year, 2,400 collections of diseased material were submitted to the laboratory for examination. These collections augmented the appreciation of occurrence host
range and distribution of certain of the more important forest fungi, provided evidence
of noteworthy damage, and included diseases of previously unrecorded occurrence in
British Columbia forests.
White trunk-rot, caused by Fomes igniarius (L.) Gill, was found to occur on nine
hardwood species. The survey verified that the disease was of general distribution
throughout British Columbia and demonstrated that it was probably responsible for one
of the more important decays of aspen, as well as certain other hardwood species.
A substantial number of reports of damage by needle-cast fungi were received.
Of particular interest were reports of defoliation of Douglas fir by Adelopus gaumanii
Rohde. The most damaging occurrence reported for this fungus was on Cortes Island,
where 50 to 70 per cent defoliation of current foliage occurred. Another case of heavy
infection by Adelopus was reported north-west of Clinton. Elytroderma deformans
(Weir) Darker was unusually active on ponderosa pine, particularly heavy infections
being recorded in the Clinton, Merritt, Kelowna, and Grand Forks areas. Hypodermella
kricis v. Tubeuf was active more or less throughout the distribution of larch.
Second-growth and mature Douglas fir and grand fir were reported dying in scattered
groups on Southern Vancouver Island. In most cases affected trees occurred on exposed
and well-drained sites. The absence of other than weakly parasitic fungi, which confined
their activities for the most part to thinning and deformation of the crown, led to the
conclusion that decline had been gradual and that existing mortality could be attributed
to the relatively severe drought experienced in these areas from 1950 to 1952.
A condition of severe flagging of ponderosa pine, attributed to Cenangium ferru-
ginosum Fr., was studied in the Kelowna area. It appeared that the damage evidenced
in this area in 1954 had developed during the previous year and that intensification of the
disease had not taken place in the current year. More recent outbreaks, however, were
located in the vicinity of Grand Forks and Rock Creek. Serious or widespread damage
following attack by this fungus was not anticipated.
Examinations were made of several areas where extensive damage through winter
injury had been reported. Damage was most severe near Clinton, Lac la Hache, Williams
Lake, and at the mouth of the Chilcotin River.
A survey was undertaken of eighteen coastal fir plantations, 6 to 15 years of age.
Although the occasional presence of root-rot, foliage diseases, and cankers was recorded,
no serious damage was observed.
NURSERY, SEED, AND CONE DISEASES
Studies of root-rot of ornamental cypress were carried forward from 1953. This
disease continued to cause severe damage in commercial nurseries on the Lower Mainland.
Although evidence demonstrated that the fungus primarily responsible for root-rot in
British Columbia was restricted to Chamaecyparis spp., a closely related fungus having
an extremely wide host range was isolated on several occasions.
Investigations of forest seed contaminants demonstrated high populations of moulds
"i stored Douglas-fir seed, but to date no correlation has been determined between
contamination and viability of seed. |
Post-emergence damping off remained at endemic levels at the Duncan, Campbell
^ver, and Cranbrook nurseries. Losses were substantial at Green Timbers, where
21 Per cent of the residual stand was killed as the result of disease activity.
 90j DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL
The 1953-54 class completed the course on December 21st, 1954, making
seventh class to pass through the School.   Including the 1953-54 class, 122 men 1
Ua&n   nrrj.Hll_.ted.
the
men have
been graduated.
Changes in the curriculum mentioned in the 1953 Annual Report were carried
through. In this connection it was found that subjects dealing with Ranger District
Organization and Written-Oral Expression need expansion. Further revision in subject-
matter and time allotment will be made.
Subjects taken during the year were as follows:— B
Second Term—Spring, 1954
Number
Subject of Days
Scaling—Theory (4) and Field (10)  14
Mechanics—Theory and Field  12
Mathematic Review    5
Survey—Mapping  1   6
Mensuration    6     ||
Fire Suppression —  18
Construction Techniques     5
Spares—mid-term tests (2), exams (2), field-trips  10
Total days |  76
Third Term—Fall, 1954 Number
Subject of Days
Forest Management—Policy and Procedure  17
Stumpage Appraisal j|6
Mensuration (Field, six days)  11
Survey—Mapping (Field, six days)  10
Silviculture  •—1    7
Ranger District Organization—Business English    8
Construction Techniques    4
Spares—mid-term tests, exams, field-trips    7
Total days  70
EXTRA COURSES
A six-day course for lookout-men followed the 1954 spring term. Thirteen men
completed the course and were later appointed to stations within the Vancouver Forest
District.
J BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS
Considerable maintenance work was carried on during the summer recess. The
unsatisfactory varnish exterior of the living-quarters mentioned in the 1953 Report was
much improved by washing and scraping, and two coats of Rez stain applied. It is hoped
to continue the process with the administration buildings during 1955.
The grounds were maintained in good condition throughout the year, with noticeable
improvement to the flower-beds and hedges.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The School extends thanks to the University of British Columbia for use of its
camp at the University Forest, Haney. With this assistance, field exercises in cruising
and forest surveys were successfully carried out.
All subjects taken during the year were dealt with by the School staff and other
Forest Service personnel.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954 89
DISEASES OF IMMATURE FORESTS
Fourteen second-growth stands representative of three forest associations 20 to 100
ars old were examined on Southern Vancouver Island to determine the possible influence
yf site on the incidence and intensity of Douglas-fir root-rot caused by Poria weirii Murr.
In addition, continuing efforts were placed on the examination of infection centres by
means of hydraulic excavation.   The root systems of five trees have been studied in this
manner to date.
Studies of the root ecology of healthy and pole-blight-affected western white pine
were initiated near Slocan Lake. Differences were noted in regard to the abundance of
fine roots, the degree of root mortality, and the presence of mycorrhiza. A continuation
of these studies over a range of site and age conditions is contemplated.
A programme of investigation on the root ecology of Douglas fir was continued in
the Cowichan Lake area. The total sample in this area was increased to thirty-one trees,
representative of four age-classes on the Douglas fir-swordfern and Douglas fir-moss
forest associations.   Analyses of data are in progress.
Investigations of Douglas-fir needle-cast were continued, and studies of the influence
of climate on fungus activity were carried forward on Keithia needle-blight of western
red cedar.
Scions from selections of fifteen western white pine were grafted and outplanted
in experimental areas on Vancouver Island in connection with studies of resistance to the
blister-rust disease of white pine. Further protection to selected material was provided
through the erection of shade frames and fencing. The Mount Benson and Jordan
Meadows areas were investigated as possible sources of new selection material.
DISEASES OF MATURE FORESTS
A reappraisal of defect in alpine fir in the Prince George Forest District was carried
out, and a new study on this species was initiated in co-operation with the British
Columbia Forest Service to provide information pertinent to forest utilization and
management considerations. Field studies were centred at the Aleza Lake Experiment
Station, where twelve plots, representative of the devil's-club association and containing
256 trees, were sampled. Continued observations were also made in relation to the
progressive deterioration of wind-thrown spruce and alpine fir in the Crescent Spur area.
A study relating to the priority of cutting of mature stands of western hemlock and
amabilis fir was initiated on the west coast of Vancouver Island in co-operation with
MacMillan & Bloedel Limited. This study is intended to provide information that might
assist in the orderly removal of mature forests through appreciation of defect, natural
mortality, and succession to less desirable forest growth. Investigations to date have
been confined to the reanalysis and interpretation of data derived through a former study
of decay in this region.
Studies of the Indian-paint fungus, Echinodontium tinctorium Ell. & Ever., were
continued in Coast and Interior forests. Forty-five temporary plots have been examined
to date in a survey to appraise the habitats that are associated with varying degrees of
occurrence of this fungus. An area offering a range of habitat conditions, from these
which apparently exclude the fungus to those which apparently favour its occurrence,
was selected on Vancouver Island fox experimental purposes.
 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERSONNEL
ORGANIZATION
No major changes were made in the Forest Service headquarters organization durin
the year. In the forest districts, the Ranger district with headquarters at Revelstoke was
transferred from the Kamloops to the Nelson Forest District. A new Ranger district
was created with headquarters at Lillooet in the Kamloops Forest District. Plans were
completed for the split of the Smithers and Burns Lake Ranger Districts in the Prince
Rupert Forest District to take place when trained staff would be available upon graduation of the 1953-54 Ranger School class in December. Jf
SERVICES
The functions of personnel administration carried out by the personnel office
remained substantially the same as had been developed during the previous three years.
The following services were provided during 1954: Employment office for staff recruitment, selection, placement, and handling of inquiries, correspondence, and documents
regarding employment; information bureau for inquiries regarding location or service of
present and former employees; personnel records office; administrative office dealing
with leave, retirement, efficiency ratings, establishment control, work-organization advice,
salary and classification administration; liaison office for resolving Forest Service personnel matters with the Civil Service Commission; communication centre for instruction,
training, and promulgating of personnel policies and information; employee-counselling
service and personnel-research centre. The Personnel Officer attended meetings of the
Professional Salaries Board, and was a contributing member of the committee called by
the Civil Service Commission to prepare working regulations concerning procedures and
liaison with the Civil Service Commission in the matter of the employment of casual
non-Civil Service staffs.
§ COMMUNICATIONS
The efforts of the previous year to maintain and develop improved communications
and understanding within the Forest Service were continued by written and personal
contacts. The policy of notifying all offices of important staff changes or changes of
duties by means of a circular | notification " form was continued. The illustrated printed
booklet "A Career in British Columbia's Forest Service " was revised and reprinted.
Seven issues of Personnel Notes, Nos. 3 to 9, were prepared. Two were devoted to the
subject | You as a Personnel Manager," three dealt with the five major 1 Principles of
Organization," and two presented material on the Civil Service Classification, Job Evaluation, and Pay Plan.
Personal contacts were maintained by attendance at most major meetings and social
functions in the Forest Service. Talks were given at the District Foresters' meeting,
Vancouver Ranger meeting, and Nelson Ranger meeting. Seventeen district field-trips
were made, averaging nine days in each forest district, including visits to numerous
Ranger offices. Just over 20 per cent of the Personnel Officer's time in 1954 was spent
in district visits. The Chief Forester's staff meetings were attended regularly while in
Victoria. The Personnel Officer attended the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Pacific
Northwest Personnel Management Association as a workshop chairman and reported to
staff meeting.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment approved for the Forest Service by the
Legislative Assembly for the fiscal year commencing April 1st, 1954, was 784, with nine
additional positions provided under the Salary Contingencies Vote.    Of these latter
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE   1954
91
FOREST ACCOUNTS
The volume of business dealt with by the Forest Accounts Division during the vear
continued at approximately the same high level as in the previous year. This is partiallv
reflected in the tables of revenue and expenditure appearing elsewhere in this Report
Continued fluctuations in selling prices of forest products, requiring frequent adjust
ments in timber-sale stumpage rates, and granting of additional forest management
licences, were contributing factors in maintaining the volume at almost record proportions
Decentralization of accounting was completed with introduction of the new system
in Kamloops District effective February 1st. Some improvements in methods of revenue-
control accounting were accomplished, which resulted in improved efficiency of this phase
of the work both at headquarters and in district offices.
In order to maintain investigations of mill records on as current a basis as possible
an additional field auditor was employed as from July 5th, bringing the total personnel
engaged in this work to five. m ||
Log Salvage Regulations pursuant to subsection (9) of section 165 of the "Forest
Act" were passed by Order in Council on February 19th. In accordance therewith, one
district, the Vancouver Log Salvage District, was established, the licensee commencing
operations on June 7th. By the end of the year, ninety-nine Log Salvage Permits had
been issued.
 94 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Every effort is made to instruct and acquaint the crew members in the art of 1* •
and working in the woods.    One of the most valuable assets of the programme '^
blending of the varied personalities into a functional and co-operative group      ^
Each camp is supplied with sport equipment, such as quoits, Softball, and vollevb
wnere possible, ball games are arranged to compete with local teams. Boating fi h
and swimming and recreational periods are provided for by the foreman. '   S lng'
  __•*•.••___•_! _   • • *m .____
■    Organized trips to industrial operations, mines, pulp-mills, and sawmills are arrans d
to further their knowledge of our industries and resources.   Also lectures on fore t
together with suitable motion pictures, are given by Forest Officers. S ry'
MISCELLANEOUS
Discussions and correspondence were continued with the Unemployment Insuran
Commission in the effort to bring forestry in British Columbia (with the exception of
casual fire-fighting) within the scope of the | Unemployment Insurance Act."
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954 93
-tiotf three were approved prior to the end of the year. During 1954, 154 persons
^ ved Civil Service appointments and 136 left the Service. Four 25-year service
S_es were presented, and there were nine retirements during the year. Forty-one
nsfers of permanent staff took place. A number of senior staff changes took place
Tto the year, resulting from the appointment of Mr. E. W. Bassett, Assistant Chief
Forester in charge of Operations, to the position of Deputy Minister of Lands.   Staff
over for the nine months from April 1st to December 31st averaged 12.6 per cent,
\ the Prince George District reaching 33.9 per cent.
Over 500 applications for employment were handled by correspondence apart from
Youth Training Camp applications, and many interviews were held with applicants for
work. The Personnel Officer sat on selection panels filling fifteen positions and partici-
nated in making selections for sixty-seven other Civil Service positions.
r
CLASSIFICATIONS AND SALARIES
Early in the year a recommendation to apply the five-day week to the official scaling
staff with a consequent revision of pay rates was accepted. Negotiations were also
carried out for implementation of the five-day week and a revision in rates for employees
at the Forest Service Marine Station. Approval was obtained for an upward revision in
salaries for all grades of radio staff. With the extension of the student scalers' training
to approximately six months, a new grade of student scaler was established. Special
concessions were approved to improve recruitment of key-punch operators and comptometer operators in the Vancouver scaling office. Other individual cases of salary
adjustments were handled, and the Personnel Office made recommendations which were
accepted for changing the basis of computing partial monthly salaries in making payment
foreamed-vacation leave.
Numerous individual position-classification reviews were carried out. Of the ninety
which were submitted to the Civil Service Commission for approval of reclassification
(including three demotions), seventy-eight were approved, two were approved in modified
form, and ten were rejected. A new position classification of Forest Assistant—Grade 5
was created. Contributions were made to the revision of the Civil Service point rating
and classification scheme. During the year five merit increases were withheld. One
dismissal by Order in Council was required.
YOUTH TRAINING PROGRAMME
Two hundred and forty-five youths in the age-group from 16 to 18 years were
employed during the months of July and August. The youths are selected from applications submitted from all parts of the Province. Second-year applicants are given first
consideration, and subsequent placements are made on the basis of priority in application.
They are assigned to crews varying in number from ten to twelve under the immediate
direction and supervision of a foreman, who in turn is under the direction and supervision
of Forest District and Division Foresters. The crews lived in tent camps at the site of
*c project. Each camp was equipped with all tools necessary to carry out the work
programme. A motor-vehicle is assigned to each camp to maintain supply, both food
and material, and as transportation in the event of an emergency.
The development of picnic-sites, camp-sites, and parks provided the major source
°f employment, but some work was done on trails, access-road maintenance, and construction. Instruction was given in the use of hand-tools, such as axes, cross-cut saws,
s&°vels, and carpenter tools. The varied jobs required to be done in picnic- and cample development is of a light nature, and is well suited to crews in this age-group. In
R ltiont0 this type of work, the youths are given an explanation of the duties of a Forest
anger, with a practical demonstration in the use of compass, chain, abney levels, and
auier mstruments.   In research, in addition to ecological studies, the boys assist in
marking, sample-plot work, cone-collecting, and seeding.
 h
96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1955
VICTORIA OFFICE
Dr. C. D. Orchard Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.
Hicks, W. V Departmental Comptroller.
MacLeod, D Assistant to Comptroller.
Rhodes, A. E Chief Accountant.   |
Robertson, D Assistant Accountant.
Cooper, C ~ Forest Counsel.
Williams, W. J Personnel Officer.
McKeever, A. E Assistant Personnel Officer.
F. S. McKinnon Assistant Chief Forester i/c Technical Planning Branch.
Pogue, H. M Forester i/c Surveys and Inventory Division.
Silburn, G Assistant Forester.
Cliff, H. N Assistant Forester.
Allison, G. W Assistant Forester.
Calder, C. J Assistant Forester.
Lyons, E. H Assistant Forester.
Macdougall, D Assistant Forester.
Breadon, R. E Assistant Forester.
Fligg, D. M.— Assistant Forester.
Jones, R. C Assistant Forester.
Tannhauser, J. R Assistant Forester.
Highsted, C. J Assistant Forester.
McLaren, J. G Assistant Forester.
Vaughan, E. G Assistant Forester.
Ainscough, G. L Assistant Forester.
Bradshaw, M. W Assistant Forester.
Browne, J. E Assistant Forester.
Wright, N. R Assistant Forester.
Smith, S Chief Clerk.
McWilliams, H. G Forester i/c Reforestation Division.
Bamford, A. H Assistant Forester.
Whiting, E. G Assistant Forester.
Grainger, W. D Assistant Forester (Cranbrook).
Berg, W. E Nursery Superintendent (Cranbrook).
Long, J. R Nursery Superintendent (Duncan).
Turner, W Nursery Superintendent (Quinsam).
Wells, T Nursery Superintendent (Green Timbers).
Wharf, N. G Clerk. |
Hughes, W. G Forester i/c Working Plans Division.
Carey, D. M Assistant Forester (Public Working Circles, Working Plans).
Burrows, I. R Assistant Forester (Management Licences).
Leesing, W Assistant Forester (Management Licences, Working Plan Analysis).
Young, W. __ j; Assistant Forester (General).
Judd, P. H 1 Forester-in-training (Farm Wood-lot Licences).
Owen, J. E . Technical Forest Assistant (Farm Wood-lot Licences).
Oldham, E. G Forester i/c Parks and Recreation Division.
Lyons, C. P Assistant Forester.
Brooks, L Assistant Forester (Planning).
Ahrens, R. H Forester-in-training   (Reconnaissance  and Inventory).
Edwards, R. Y . Research Assistant (Wildlife).
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
95
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 98 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued
Stokes, J. S Forester i/c Management Division
Marling, S. E Forester.
Hope, L. S  .Forester.
Reid, J. A. K Assistant Forester (Appraisals).
McRae, N. A Assistant Forester (Silvicultural Fund).
Bancroft, H. C Assistant Forester.
Collins, A. E Assistant Forester (Cover Maps).
Glew, D. R Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Axhorn, C. P Chief Clerk (General).
Chisholm, A Chief Clerk (Timber Sale Administration).
Greggor, R. D Forester i/c Engineering Services Division
Slaney, F. F Chief Engineer.
Hemphill, P. J. J Construction Engineer.
White, R. G  Assistant Engineer.
Anderson, H. M -—  Assistant Engineer.
Foresberg, R. H Assistant Engineer.
Waelti, H Engineer-in-training.
Scarisbrick, R. G General Engineering.
Gower, L. E Assistant Engineer.
Ismaily, S. A Assistant Engineer.
Johnson, F. E Technical Forest Assistant.
Thomas, R. D Survey Engineer.
Doyle, P Assistant Engineer.
Jacobsen, J. M Assistant Engineer.
Williams, C. P Assistant Engineer.
Ehrenholz, E I Assistant Engineer.
Taylor, J. H Superintendent of Construction.
Crowe, A. B Mechanical Superintendent.
Playfair, G. A Radio Superintendent.
Hill, H. H Superintendent,   Forest   Service   Marine   Station
(Vancouver).
Foxgord, J. E. .„_•_ Senior Clerk.
» VANCOUVER DISTRICT
D. B. Taylor | District Forester.
Boulton, L. B. B Assistant District Forester.
Bennett, C. E. (Management); Charnell, C. S.;
Fisher, R. B.; Hubbard, T.; Johnston, G. R.;
Tuttle, W. F.; Williams, F. S.; Webb, R. A... Assistant Foresters.
Holmberg, J. H. (Operations); Neil, P Forest Protection Officers.
Hlady, E.; Scholefield, A Foresters-in-training.
Haddon,  C.  D.  S.;   McNeill,  J.;   Morrison, M     I
R. H.; Owen, D. H.; Tannock, F Ranger Supervisors.
Evans, C _ _■ Mechanical Supervisor.
Armstrong, C. L. (Supervisor);  Heard, A. C.
(Assistant  Supervisor);   Munn,  H.  A.   D.
(Assistant Supervisor) Scalers.
Marriott, G. L.; McNary, E. C Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Clutterbuck, F Export Inspector. ft
Dunn, H. J. Tabulating Supervisor.
Benwell, S. A  Chief Clerk.
Barrett, R. J. (Chilliwack);  Ginnever, A. F. W.
(Hope);    Rockwell,   I.   (Harrison   Lake);
Robinson, J. H. (Mission);   Aylett, R. W.
(Port Moody);   Henderson, J. E.  (Squamish);  Chamberlin, L. C. (Sechelt);  Briggs,
B. T. (Madeira Park); Jones, R. W. (Powell
River);   Winslow, J. R.  (Lund);   Hender- M
son, J. E.  (Thurston Bay East);   Brooks,
F. T.  (Act.)   (Thurston Bay West);   Bell,
W. A. (Act.)  (Chatham Channel); Mudge,
M. H. (Echo Bay); Antonelli, M. W. (Alert
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued
Velay, IJ Assistant Engineer (Construction and Maintenance).
McGowan, E. A Engineer-m-traimng (Design).
n lls w. E Engineer-in-training (Engineering).
Macmurchie, D. L  --Technical Forest Assistant (Administration).
nnvd R H Park Officer (Manning Park).
Sc' L. E Park °fficer (Wells Gray Park).
Tohansen, 0. N Park Officer (Mount Seymour Park).
Fenner, C. A Park Officer (Garibaldi Park).
McFarland, F. J Park Officer (Cultus Lake Park).
Rainbow, F Park Officer (Miracle Beach Park).
Kristjanson, S. J Park Officer (Peace Arch Park).
Nicholson, C. S Park Officer (Mount Robson Park).
Moore, J. W Project Foreman.
Shaw, L. A Foreman (Langford Workshop).
Heggie, W. R. C Clerk (Accounts and Records).
park5s. E Clerk (Public Relations).
Spilsbury, R. H  Forester i/c Research Division.
Fraser, A. R - Assistant Forester (Technical Adviser).
Warrack,G. C Assistant Forester (i/c Cowichan Lake Experiment
Station).
Decie,T.P  Forester-in-training   (i/c Aleza Lake Experiment
Station).
Garman, E. H Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Orr-Ewing, A. L Assistant Forester (Genetics).
Clark, M. B Assistant Forester (Research Officer, Kamloops).
Schmidt, R. L Assistant Forester (Ecology).
Finnis, J. M Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Arlidge, J. W. C  Forester-in-training (Ecology).
Borzuchowski, R Forester-in-training (Silviculture).
Stewart, M Forester-in-training (Silviculture).
Knight, H. A. W Forest Agrologist (Soils).
Prochnau, A  Forest Agrologist (Silviculture).
Roberts, E. A  Foreman, Cowichan Lake Experiment Station.
Hellenius, R. A  Foreman, Aleza Lake Experiment Station.
Goward, Miss R Clerk.
Druce, E Forester i/c Public Relations and Education
Division.
Monk, D. R Public Relations Officer.
Golding, R. C. T Photographer.
Jones, T. C Technical Forest Assistant (School Lecturer).
Hall, R. F Technical Forest Assistant (School Lecturer).
Guthrie, Mrs. I. V Forest Service Library.
Bingham, D Clerk (Motion-picture Library).
R.G.McKee Assistant   Chief   Forester  i/c  Operations
Branch.
Cameron, I. T Forester i/c Protection Division.
Nelson, F. H Forest Protection Officer.
Henning, W. G Assistant Forester.
Flanagan, R. T Assistant Forester (Research).
Moyes, E. A Assistant Forester (Research).
Turner, J. A  ... Meteorologist.
dinger, A Chief Clerk.
Pendray, W. C Agrologist i/c Grazing Division.
dkon, A. H  Forester i/c Ranger School (New Westminster).
Kirk, A. J  Assistant to the Forester in Charge.
Pedley, J. A.... Forester (Special Duties).
Levy,G.L  . Clerk.
 100
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PRINCE GEORGE DISTRICT—Continued
Watts C Mechanical Supervisor.
Carter R. B .Chief Clerk.
French, C. L. (McBride); Macalister, J. S.
(Penny); Kerr, R. D. (Prince George);
Moen, A. E. (Prince George); Flynn, D. M.
(Act.) (Prince George); Northrup, K. A.
(Fort St. James); Kuly, A. (Quesnel); Barbour, H. T. (Pouce Coupe); Bailey, J. D.
(Aleza Lake); Graham, G. W. (Vanderhoof) ; Cosens, A. S. (Fort St. John); McQueen, A. L. (Fort Fraser); Irwin, K.
(Summit Lake); Meentz, G. E. (Quesnel);
Angly, R. B. (Prince George); Keefe, J. J.
(Hixon); Mitchell, B. A. (Quesnel) Rangers.
Grant, D. (Quesnel) Deputy Ranger.
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT
.District Forester.
.Assistant District Forester.
L. F. Swannell	
Johnston, J. R	
Robinson, E. W. (i/c Management); Kerr,
M. L. (Management, Timber Sales); Milner,
L. J. (Management, Timber Sales); Clark,
J. D. (Silviculture); Lehrle, L. W. W. (Management Licences); Groner, A. (Working
Plans); Neighbor, B. E. (Christmas Trees,
Farm Wood-lots); Bodman, P. B. (Operations); Broadland, T. R. (Recreation Officer); Clark, M. B. (Research Officer)	
Noakes, H. S	
Robinson, J. L. (Management, Timber Sales);
Boulton, G. B. (Management,Timber Sales);
Robson, P. E. (Management, Timber Sales)_.
DeBeck, H. K. (i/c Grazing); Smith, E. R.;
Murray, W. K.; Wallace, M. T.; Pringle, R.
Downing, C. R. (Silviculture); Gibbs, T. L.
(Operations); Huffman, C. H. (Marking)____
Charlesworth, E. A.; Hewlett, R. C	
Fraser, D. P.; Mayson, H. G.; McGuire, C. J._
Stewart, W.J	
Cowan, W. P	
Specht, G. H. (Lumby); McKenna, L. J.
(Birch Island); Noble, J. O. (Barriere)
Johnson, M. A. (Kamloops W.); Paquette
O. (Chase); Boydell, J. (Salmon Arm)
Jones, G. G. (Sicamous); Cameron, A. G
(Lillooet); Hayhurst, J. W. (Vernon)
Scott, E. L. (Penticton); Dealing, J. H
(Princeton); Robertson, C. E. (Clinton)
Petersen, K. N. (Williams Lake); Hamilton
T. J. (Alexis Creek); Hewlett, H. C
(Kelowna); Cook, L. E. (Wells Gray Park)
Williams, R. V. (Merritt); Collins, B. G
(Blue River); Smith, W. W. (Enderby)
Boyd, R. H. (Manning Park); DeWitt, D. 6.
(100 Mile House); Campbell, H. W. (Kamloops E.); Weinard, J. P. (Horsefly)	
Gavin, H. C. R. (Salmon Arm); McLean,
W. J. (100 Mile House); Hill, A. F. (Williams* Lake); Bodman, G. F. (100 Mile
House)	
Assistant Foresters.
JForest Protection Officer.
...Foresters-in-training.
__Assistant Forest Agrologists.
Technical Forest Assistants.
.Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Ranger Supervisors.
.Mechanical Supervisor.
.Chief Clerk.
Rangers.
Deputy Rangers.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
VANCOUVER DISTRICT—Comm^
\M Lorentsen, L. H. (Port Hardy);
Bay):c D W (Campbell River); Silke, S.
?Snay);'Glassford, R. J. (Parksville);
Kk Nanaimo); Rawlins, W. P.
ScanV Frost, S. C. (Ganges); Wag-
Tc) J (Langford); Morley, K. A. (Act.)
Kke'Cowichan); Reaney, R. J. C. (Al-
Jenii); Wilson, R. S. (Zeballos) Rangers.
PRINCE RUPERT DISTRICT
P Young District Forester.
Gavle, W. B Assistant District Forester.
Knight, E. (i/c Management); Selkirk, D. R.
(Management); Corregan, R. W. (Management); Schutz, A. C. (Management,
Licences); Gilmour, J. (Management, Tree-
marking); Munro, J. F. (Operations, Proton)  Assistant Foresters.
Couling, H. L -Forest Protection Officer.
Young, V. (Public Working Circles); McDonald, J. A. D. (Protection Planning) -Foresters-in-training.
Campbell, W. H. (Management, Appraisals); J
Dahlie, C. (Project Supervisor) Technical Forest Assistants.
Scott, J. B.; Whitehouse, W. D Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Harrison, D Scaler.
Strimbold, S. T. (Coast); Antilla, W. A.
(Interior) Ranger Supervisors.
Thompson, H. W  Mechanical Supervisor.
Smith, C. V Chief Clerk.
Hammer, H. B. (Ocean Falls); Tourand, A.
(Queen Charlotte City); Bruels, W. (Prince
Rupert); MacPherson, A. C. (Terrace);
Mould, J. (Kitwanga); Taft, L. G. (Hazelton); Smith, D. R. (Smithers N.); Raine,
C. (Smithers S.); Brooks, R. L. (Houston);
Kullander, M. 0. (Pendleton Bay); Gibson,
C. L (Burns Lake N.); Hesketh, F. G.
(Bums Lake S.); Lindstrom, W. (South-
bank); Antonenko, J. (Act.) (Atlin) Rangers.
PRINCE GEORGE DISTRICT
W. C. Phillips  District Forester.
Abernethy, C. M Assistant District Forester.
Bruce, J. B. (i/c Management); Mason, N. V.
(Silviculture); Trew, D. M. (Management
Licences); Isenor, M. G. (Protection) Assistant Foresters.
bobbins, R. W. (Management); Talbot, G. P.
(Management); Mahood, W. J.  (Working
™ns); Armit, D. (Management);  Sutton,
J-C. (Protection); Welsh, W. J. (Parks and
Recreation); Decie, T. P. (Research, Aleza
Uke Experiment Station) Foresters-in-training.
Ellington, L. A. (Protection) Senior Forest Assistant.
^yton, H. R.; Threatful, N      __..     Inspectors of Scalers.
ft!   _A;F'; McKenzie, R. A Ranger Supervisors.
Keaugh I. F. (Marking);   Burbidge, D.  P.
™jc Working Circles);   Thomas, P. R.
™*c Working  Circles);    Norheim,   B.
Storking Circles); Sandborg, C. W.
Gaily t WorkinS Circles) Forest Assistants.
,J .Radio Technician.
4
99
  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
NELSON DISTRICT
A. B. Forse District Forester.
Young, E. L.-~-7 Tr~ ™7^~~"~.r~T~~~^Ssistant District Forester
Payne, J. C. (Management); Waldie, R. A.
(Management, Silviculture); Gill, R. G.
(Management, Working Circles); Parlow,
A. L. (Management, Working Circles);
Hall, J. G. (Management); Bishop, W. G.
(Management Licences); Munro, D. W.
(Management) Assistant Foresters.
Johnson, | B .Forest Protection Officer
Sutherland, F. E. (Management, Cruising);
Hepper, W. H. (Recreation Officer); Hough,
W. S. (Management) Foresters-in-training.
Milroy, J. E Assistant Forest Agrologist
Barnes, J. N. (Operations); Shinde, Y. (Management, Cruising); Melenka, D. (Management, Cruising); Chase, L. A. (Protection);
Larsen, A. J. (Protection); Sandberg, H.
(Management, Christmas Trees) Technical Forest Assistants.
Robinson, G. T Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
Christie, R. 0.; MacDonald, J. P.; Kettleson,
O.J Ranger Supervisors.
Lees, J Mechanical Supervisor.
Simpson, S. S Chief Clerk.
Hopkins, H. V. (Invermere); Humphrey, J. L.
(Fernie); Ivens, J. H. (Golden); Gierl, J. B.
(Cranbrook E.); Ross, A. I. (Creston); Stil-
well, L. E. (Kaslo); Raven, J. H. (Lardeau);
Fisher, S. F. (Nelson); Robinson, R. E.
(New Denver); Wood, H. R. (Nakusp);
Killough, J. F. (Castlegar); Reid, E. W.
(Grand Forks); Uphill, W. T. (Kettle Valley); Cartwright, G. M. (Canal Flats); Connolly, J. E. (Arrowhead); Haggart, W. D.
(Edgewood); Jupp, C. C. (Elko); Snider,
J.I. (Spillimacheen); Hill, F. R. (Cranbrook
W.); Bailey, J. F. (Beaverdell); Webster,
G. R. (Slocan City); Jackson, R. C. (Revelstoke) Rangers.
101
  APPENDIX
 106 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Finance §§
Table No. . pA0R
30. Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as Compiled from
1;    Taxation Records    i28
31. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  m ^
32. Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as
Compiled from Taxation Records   128
33. Forest Revenue 1  129
34. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1954  130
35. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1953-54  131
36. Forest Revenue,  (A) Fiscal Year 1953-54,  (B)  Fiscal Years 1936-37 to
1953-54 132-133
37. Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1953-54   133
38. Scaling Fund |  134
39. Silviculture Fund  134
40. Forest Reserve Account  135
41. Grazing Range Improvement Fund   135
42. Forest Development Fund._„   136
43. Forest Protection Fund  136
44. Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1954,
by the Forest Service . ___ 137
45. Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by Other Agencies,    Jl
1954  138
Forest Protection m
46. Summary of Snag-falling, 1954, Vancouver Forest District  138
47. Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1954, Vancouver Forest District  138
48. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1954, Vancouver Forest District 139
49. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1954, Vancouver Forest District  139
50. Summary of Operations, 1954, Vancouver Forest District  140
51. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1954, Vancouver Forest District— 140
52. Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-54  141
53. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1954  141
54. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1954  141
55. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years ___.  142
56. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1954  142
57. Damage to Property other than Forests, 1954  142
58. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1954  143
59. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1954  143
60. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  144
61. Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of Fire-
fighting, 1954  144
62. Prosecutions, 1954  145
63. Burning Permits, 1954  145
Ranger School ||l
64. Enrolment at Ranger School, 1954 jjl  146
Public Relations
65. Motion-picture Library  146
66. Forest Service Library.  147
Grazing
67. Grazing Permits Issued  l^7
68. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected ____.     l47
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
105
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE        ^^^
CONTENTS
General
Table No.
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1954   *«*
Reforestation
2. Summary of Planting during the Years 1945-54  108
Forest Management
3. Estimated Value of Production, Including Loading and Freight within the
Province, 1945-54  109
4. Paper Production (in Tons), 1945-54 '"_ 1Q9
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in MB.M.), 1945-54 ...LIZ 110
6. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1953-54
(A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  [ m
7. Species Cut, All Products, 1954, (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet 1.Z 112
8. Total Scale of All Products, 1954 (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts), (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  113
9. Timber Scaled in British Columbia in 1954 (by Months and Forest Districts) 114
10. Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty and Stumpage,
1948-54, in M Cubic Feet  116
11. Number of Acres Managed and Operated under Approved Working Plans,
1945-54 _'_  117
12. Total Scale of All Products from Managed Lands, 1945-54....  117
13. Logging Inspection, 1954 I ——  118
14. Trespasses, 1954  118
15. Pre-emption Inspections, 1954   119
16. Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous Purposes of the | Land
Act," 1954  119
17. Classification of Areas Examined by the Forest Service, 1954  119
18. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1954  120
19. Timber-sale Record, 1954   120
20. Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1954 :  121
21. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-timber
Cruised on Timber Sales in 1954, per C C.F. Log-scale _  122
22. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-
timber Scaled on Timber Sales in 1954, (A) per MB.F. Log-scale, (B)
per C C.F. Log-scale   jr!
I Timber Cut from Timber Sales during 1954   jfZ
J Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1954 jj  ||§
I Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1954 1—RffifS 176
g. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., i_o*- j
2' J?mmary for Province, 1954  m 127
J Jmber Marks Issued, 1945-54 .   l2j
y' Forest Service Draughting Office, 1954.__. 	
 108
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
Distribution of Personnel, 1954
107
Personnel
Vancouver
Continuously Employed
Thief Forester, Assistant Chief Foresters, and Division
Foresters -»- —~-	
Pnrest Counsel and Personnel Officer	
Set Foresters and Assistant District Foresters	
Foresters and Assistant Foresters (including Foresters-
in-training)	
Agrologists and Assistants	
Engineers and Assistants	
Forest Protection Officers 1	
Supervisor of Rangers	
Rangers-      - T7"~77"~:	
Supervisor of Scalers and Assistants	
Scalers, Official	
Scalers, Official, Temporary	
Comptroller and Audit Assistants	
Mechanical and Radio	
Technical Forest and Public Relations Assistants	
Nursery, Reforestation, Parks, Research, and Survey
Assistants	
Nursery Superintendents	
Draughtsmen	
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers	
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Marine
Station	
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians	
Launch Crewmen	
Assistants and Acting Rangers	
Dispatchers	
Cruisers and Compassmen	
Truck and Tractor Operators	
Foremen	
Miscellaneous	
Total, continuous personnel	
Seasonally Employed
Assistant and Acting Rangers	
Patrolmen	
Lookoutmen	
Dispatchers and Radio Operators	
Fire-suppression Crewmen	
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc	
Cruisers and Compassmen	
Truck and Tractor Operators	
Student Assistants	
Silvicultural Crewmen	
Foremen	
Youth Training Programme .	
Miscellaneous	
Total, seasonal personnel	
Total, all personnel .	
2
10
3
3
27
5
53
40
4
2
5
89
3
14
39
20
5
2
2
3
331
5
2
32
2
60
2
3
107
438
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
102
9
5
17
1
8
5
10
2
24
10
91
193
2
2
7
11
1
1
2
3
13
16
2
2
1
1          3
3
2
5
3
3
25
23
2
4
22
21
6
4
7
1
95
13
4
17
5
35
5
2
9
1
26
17
134
229
11
5
1
2
3
22
2
3
5
4
28
38
4
21
4
1
2
158
6
9
28
16
55
8
8
1
23
24
4
182
340
Nelson
11
1
1
3
23
3
7
3
25
34
5
5
126
12
14
38
16
36
8
2
17
20
163
289
Victoria
Tod
1
14
2
75
2
19
1
1
7
13
39
74
4
32
119
5
33
3
2
1
2
25
14
81
!
14
2
10
125
8
20
9
14
54
41
7
29
60
74
4
50
309
5
38
21
156
40
40
31
17
89
570  1,382
1
1
1
442
1
21
186
15
163
63
46
35
132
41
151
442
54
50
191
59
18
257
95
894  1,571
1,464  2,953
 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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0
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA DURINP tu.
Years 1953-54 in F.B.M. THE
ill
(U)
Forest District
Vancouver-^—---
prince Rupert (c;	
Totals, Coast-
Prince Rupert (D	
prince George	
^unioops	
Nelson	
Totals, Interior
Grand totals—
(All products converted to f.b.m.)
1953
3,380,185,149
321,912,609
3,702,097,758
185,052,018
499,158,516
559,962,750
345,316,282
1,589,489,566
5,291,587,324
1954
3,674,155,996
323,824,921
3,997,980,917
179,203,994
446,033,592
618,255,759
325,948,345
1,569,441,690
5,567,422,607
Gain
293,970,847
1,912,312
295,883,159
58,293,009
275,835,283
Loss
5,848,024
53,124,924
T937ffJ7
20,047,876
Net Gain
273,833,283
M
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the
Years 1953-54 in Cubic Feet
(All products converted to cubic measure.)
(Conversion factor:   Coast—6 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.;   Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.)
Forest District
1953
1954
Gain
Loss
Net Gain
Vancnnvpr
563,364,192
53,652,102
612,359,333
53,970,820
48,995,141
318,718
PrinceRuoert (C)                    	
Totals Coast
617,016,294
666,330,153
49,313,859
Prince Rupert (I.) 	
Prince George 	
Kamloops	
Npkon
32,182,9591
86,810,177!
97,384,826!
60,055,006!
31,165,912
77,571,060
107,522,741
56,686,669
1,017,047
9,239,117
10,137,915
—	
3,368,337
Totals, Interior	
276,432,968!
272,946,382
3,486,586
	
Grand totals
893,449,2621
939,276,535
45,827,273
45,827,273
1 Due to changing conversion factor in Interior districts from 5.5 to 5.75, these figures do not agree with those
presented in 1953 Report.
 114
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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Feet
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24,626,975
2,274,317
406,755
1,333
1,834
18,003,088
1,994,896
363,945
807
18,847
25,787,091
2,564,738
75,850
617
	
23,730,560
2,457,573
29,390
934
1,024
22,548,306
3,040,602
136,081
776
	
l__
19,945,116
2,342,968
220,959
1,073
31,403,320
3,716,211
56,808
832
4,166
Prince
George
12,635,680
1,731,310
169,225
389
3,233
13,304,112
2,312,324
Tf
On
32,424,174
5,453,846
10,065
214
32,910
31,209,502
5,696,502
250
120
10,071,923
2,173,846
106,005
297
35,246
14,011,728
2,187,742
27,570
195
3,825
16,650,858
1,695,825
29,385
113
8,417
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
8,769,065
1,053,747
603,675
138
16,994
5,954,011
749,558
172,305
290
8,429
8,709,680
1,165,276
117,935
97
2,256
14,343,692
1,590,561
105,620
259
9,066
7,897,947
1,387,116
109,185
78
6,230
4,310,993
971,526
246,261
394
97
3,347,382
1,636,751
125,048
381
28,401
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
7,230,674
1,290,975
«n
rH
2,252,466
69,388
"■'.■■••^'■'*r__r;."fr.
5,545,552
507,515
17,235,750
842,866
T-H
rH
15,771,283
990,377
6,234
29,931,201
2,068,467
14,137
4
33,829,050
2,540,366
4,127
v.
m
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131,402,322
3,752,813
449,948
2,530
95,484,558
2,275,199
273,288
1,493
__t___._J_9i_Wt_-_S5-_i__
189,315,714
4,273,723
522,566
2,498
 1  1
248,920,735
4,910,395  j
323,655
3,205 |
  1
288,352,293
8,922,499
696,991
3,084
530
307,725,728
12,741,609
867,629
8,826
814
273,198,401
10,666,009
1,000,076
2,776
476
G
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1
January—
F.b.m    1 1	
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F.b.m	
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X
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
Total Scale of All Products, 1954, in F.BM (Segrfp
by Land Status and Forest Districts) ted
13
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Timber licences	
Timber berths	
Timber leases	
Pulp leases —	
Pulp licences	
Hand-loggers'licences	
Management licences	
Farm wood-lots	
Timber sales	
palp-timber sales	
No mark visible	
Miscellaneous	
Sub-totals, Crown lands
Federal lands	
Crown grants—
To 1887	
1887-1906 	
1906-1914	
1914 to date	
Totals	
738,933,077
127,243,454
122,040,676
36,401,295
11,360,352
53,020
55,985,268
115,178
1,070,897,928
84,294,470
51,383,581
2,298,708,299
32,762,448
1,148,772,735
76,100,948
35,734,267
82,077,299
3,674,155,996
Nelson
9,238,345
38,401,508
34,430,708
213,654
27,017,388
98,264,275
81,838,642
48,965
35,073,054
124,210,945
10,189,126|    6,823,942
299,593,646
4,781,170
1,354,968
8,434,119
9,661,018
166,156,906
3,822,628
269,723
4,312,620
4,642,117
323,824,921)179,203,994
Total
6,088,423|    1,592,756
5,329,526
7,783,464|   9,927,076
.-- j        44,269
382,596,762 460,121,900
9,219,111]   7,562,103
21,685,563]   777,587,129
12,203,7921   144^772
387,079
23,433,834
208,122,713
5,639,877
405,687,760|484,577,630|271,472,858
6,731|   6,110,688
122,427,755
74,802,803
45,791,060
266,674
159,220,084
159,447
2,344,214,523
81,838,642
8434,470
90,817,740
230,0811 30,232,888
542,542] 16,636,950
3,383,851] 28,208,223
36,182,627| 52,489,380
3,926,197,099
1,200,665]    48,684,330
2,029,1821,181,264,886
28,984,374|   123,889,505
8,584,693     88,657,773
13,676,573]   198,729,014
446,033,592]618,255,759|325,948,345|5,567,422,607
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of
this Province is included under the various land-status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Government is shown
under the heading "Federal Lands."
N.B.—For details of material actually scaled in cubic feet and units of measurement other than f.b.m., see Table 9.
W)
Total Scale of All Products, 1954, in Cubic Feet (Segregated
by Land Status and Forest Districts)
(Conversion factor:   Coast—6 f.b.m._=:l cu. ft.;   Interior—5.75 f.b.m.__:l cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Timber licences	
Timber berths	
Timber leases	
Pulp leases	
Pulp licences	
Hand-loggers'licences.
Management licences..
Farm wood-lots	
Timber sales	
Pulp-timber sales	
No mark visible	
Miscellaneous....
Sub-totals, Crown lands
federal lands	
frown grants—
To 1887. 1 I
1887-1906     i
1906-1914
1914 to date...._ZZZI
Totals..
123,155,513
21,207,242
20,340,113
6,066,883
1,893,392
8,837
9,330,878
19,196
178,482,988
14,049,078
8,563,930
383,118,050
5,460,408
191,462,123
12,683,491
5,955,711
13,679,550
612,359,333
1,539,724
8,515
6,400,251
5,738,451
35,609
4,502,898
16,377,379
13,639,774
6,099,662
21,601,903
1,698,188     1,186,773
49,932,274
796,862
225,828
1,405,686
1,610,170
28,896,853
664,805
46,908
750,020
807,326
53,970,820] 31,165,912
1,058,856
1,353,646
66,538,567
1,603,324
70,554,393
1,171
40,014
94,355
588,496
6,292,631
77,571,060
277,001
926,874
1,726,448
7,699
80,021,200
1,315,148
84,274,370
1,062,728
5,257,894
2,893,383
4,905,778
9,128,588
107,522,741
3,771,402
2,122,399
67,318!
4,075,449)
	
36,195,255)
980,848'
129,811,011
24,256,515
20,407,431
12,467,134
7,631,843
44,446
27,088,981
26,895
399,217,292
13,639,774
14,049,078
15,348,211
47,212,671]
208,811|
352,901]
5,040,761
1,492,990]
2,378,535]
663,988,611
8,194,785
197,112,932
20,984,726
15,098,681
33,896,800
"561686,669!  939,276,535
tWshovin1 ^ lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of
Onlv tZu m,cluded ^der the various land-status headings shown above. r*n»Man Government is shown
undenh/r1?.1 fr0m Indian re**ves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Govern
N B   ttadu!8 I Federal Lands." u        tl feet see Table 9.
*'«-For details of material actually scaled in units of measurement other than cubic feet, see
 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(10)
Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced
Royalty and Stumpage, 1948-54, in M Cubic Feet
Salvage Wood
(MCu.Ft.)
1948  727
1949  549
1950  324
1951  420
Salvage Wood
1952  IIP
1953  1)053
1954  1>888
Total  5,693
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
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 118
(W
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Logging Inspection, 1954
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George 	
Kamloops 1	
Nelson	
Totals, 1954 1
Totals, 1953	
Totals, 1952	
Totals, 1951	
Totals, 1950	
Totals, 1949	
Totals, 1948	
Totals,1947	
Totals, 1946	
Totals, 1945	
Ten-year average, 1945-54
1,383
755
1,292
1,680
745
5,096
Type of Tenure Operated
Hand-
loggers'
Licences
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions
1
2
5,855
3
5,851
3
5,822
6
5,448
6
5,189
6
6,405
7
4,847
5
4,428
5
3,627
6
3,492
9
1,428
190
396
1,950
910
4,874
4,859
5,710
4,766
3,812
4,440
3,982
3,190
3,021
2,852
4,151
Totals
2,812
947
1,688
3,630
1,655
10,732
10,711
11,458
10,220
9,007
10,852
8,834
7,623
6,654
6,353
9,244
Number of
Inspections
10,300
1,519
2,935
1,973
4,284
21,011
20,656
20,264
17,754
16,221
15,483
15,432
13,876
12,974
11,901
16,557
(14)
Trespasses, 1954
Forest District
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Vancouver	
Prince Rupert jj
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson ..___
Totals, 1954	
Totals, 1953	
Totals, 1952	
Totals, 1951	
Totals, 1950	
Totals, 1949	
Totals, 1948	
Totals, 1947	
Totals, 1946	
Totals, 1945	
Ten-year average,
1945-54 .	
118
61
70
122
92
543
562
786
2,271
1,748
4631 5,910
446 10,188
419   5,768
454   5,999
276   3,072
418   4,132
312   3,062
316   5,132
226   2,568
267   3,313
360! 4,914
1,663,431
622,271
512,351
836,915
738,400
24,715
22,705
21,141
138,445
59,850
4,373,368        266,856
4,072,874        466,401      230,636
372,788   24,247,327      272,770
 24,545,775      159,064
  12,753,405      360,190
 20,419,563      244,655
_______  11,738,855      470,674
 17,234,601      659,621
        7,084,343   1,760,574
    24,322,556      516,960
2,939,677! 115,865,870! |   494,200
39
189
40
1,087
2,741
1,255
1,094
10,246
3,574
119,364
159
1,150
5,441
3,000
270| 5,083|14,914|119,364| 9,750
2,917   6,335 16,314 116,368130,663
1,147   5,237 10,921 227,267   3,991
1,779 20,976 28,121   13,325
1,475   1,806   6,312   75,309   7,550
1,298   3,514   9,022   34,070   8,785
3,569 18,211   3,711   11,1351 4,100
5,599! 5,235 15,416 439,554 17,506
1,469   2,900 10,148   41,377 35,997
1,910   9,902   2,438
2,1431 7,920 11,7321106,444
13,167
1 Cubic feet—three-year average;   feet b.m.—nine-year average.
4
3
13
41
16
28
$46,204.20
32,411.78
33,450.73
52,395.44
33,758.00
$198,220.15
$221,000.12
$312,774.33
$237,588.00
$87,589.23
$81,923.27
8    $59,654.37
15    $74,761.43
8    $27,530.63
10    $37,877.12
15 [$133,891.86
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
117
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Cubic
Feet
27,440,866
33,533,042
132,461,706
148,231,014
1,973,403    f 341,666,628
1
Number of
Christmas
Trees
170,183    |
177,138    J
163,648    |
157,944    j
165,035    j
174,609    |
175,755
195,803     |
267.182    j
vo
O
VO
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Public Working
Circles
Cubic
Feet
j
89,731,000
100,166,664
189,897,664
Number
1
1    !
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I <N CM
Cfl
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Cubic
Feet
2,270,464
406,000
Tf
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r»
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Number
«0 VO tN
Farm
Wood-lots
Cubic
Feet
232
17,497
26,939
00
vo
vq
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Tf
Number
co <n © «n
MM
Christmas-tree
Permits
Number of
Trees
co 00 00 Tf «o c_n «r
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145               195,803
163               267,182
174               326,106
.I
CO
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Number
CO rH cm _■»• 00 OS T
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Forest Management
Licences
Cubic
Feet
|    27,440,866
1     33,532,810
40,442,745
47,631,411
f.
cn
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Number
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1
 120
Forest District
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert—
Prince George—
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals, 1954
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
1953.
1952.
1951.
1950.
1949.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
Ten-year average, 1945-54.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1954
Number
Cruised
846
453
557
833
396
2,190
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cord-
wood
(Cords)
106,015
75,719
118,628
337,216
144,087
3,085
781,665
2,579
719,234
2,340
1,029,199
2,704
934,475
2,196
333,435
1,638
269,576
1,851
346,648
1,960
361,834
2,059
362,587
1,488
261,150
539,980
246,200
955,561
369,940
6,818,663
2,141,800
16,957
3,222
1,300
45,367
10,013
      10,532,164      76,859
12,887,882       12,328
2,543,890     40,005,329       13,405
6,577,298     20,674,280       25,630
1,777,025       7,388,875       24,522
1,355,342      9,599,176      57,002
1,817,737       7,603,641       44,726
1,481,715     23,015,436       50,346
1,230,716     40,760,769       90,078
948,673     48,743,325       95,774
2,216,550!   22,121,088
49,067
Railway-
ties
(No.)
16,350
48,960
Car-stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
etc.
(No.)
35,100
1,500
56,800
402,846
11,000 |     631,100
Saw-
timber
CMCu.
Ft.)
190,577
66,279
116,770
227,595
96,200
76,310
1,127,346
697,421
141,313
694,182
561,60r
989,144
518,652
U88,"36T
316,954
432,000
123,091
352,440
170,475
738,510
180,602
1,947,010
299,501
1,064,125
216,892
2,718,706
301,276
1,802,468
281,556
1,139,544
815.7941
1 M F.B.M.—eight-year average;  M cu. ft.—three-year average.
(19)
Timber-sale Record, 1954
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest Protection Tax
(Acres)
Total
10-per-cent
Deposits
Vancouver .
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops —
Nelson	
Totals	
Cash sales.
Total sales
838
449
460
670
369
2,786
224
3,010
752
442
456
525
281
2,456
1,916
1,368
1,360
1,979
994
7,617
425,724
299,003
359,725
803,025
413,013
2,300,490
345,301
276,208
308,118
792,682
399,337
2,121,646
$3,480,229.87
662,213.48
1,072,216.79
1,912,682.44
966,782.75
$8,094,125.33
 (W
116)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
H Pre-emption Inspections, 1954
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert ~~~ ~
Prince George j|
Kamloops ~8~
Nelson	
Total ^
119
Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous
Purposes of the | Land Act," 1954
Forest District
Applications
for Hay and
Grazing Leases
Number
Acres
Applications
for Pre-emption
Records
Number
Acres
Applications
to Purchase
Number
Acres
Miscellaneous
Number
Acres
Total
Number
Vancouver—
Prince Rupert-
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals
7
2
10
322
1,827
407
2,556
1
5
160
595
755
8
21
6
32
16
83
Acres
266
1,947
960
3,265
2,736
9,174
8
16
6
2
32
166
256
175
200
797
16
39
6
50
20
131
432
2,685
960
5,862
3,343
13,282
m
Classification of Areas Examined by the Forest Service, 1954
Forest District
Total Area
Agricultural
Land
Non-
agricultural
Land
Merchantable
Timber
Land
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land
Vancouver	
Acres
432
2,585
960
5,862
3,343
Acres
101
361
440
973
1,437
Acres
331
2,224
520
4,889
1,906
Acres
69
811
150
675
413
M F.B.M.
650
Prince Rupert...
18,078
Prince George.
1,010
Kamloops.-
2,199
Nelson. __
735
Totals	
13,182
3,312
9,870
2,118
22,672
,	
_. —
 1
122
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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(26)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts:
Railway-ties, etc., 1954
Forest District and Product
Vancouver—
Poles lin. ft.
Piling    »1
Sticks and stakes    »»
Pulpwood cords
Posts pieces
Shakes    >»
Blanks    »»
Christm as trees    »»
Maple burls cu. ft.
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling lin. ft.
Hewn ties pieces
Posts       > >
Prince George—
Poles   lin. ft.
Posts pieces
Ties      »t
Kamloops—
Poles and piling lin. ft.
Posts pieces
Christmas trees    ,,
Nelson—
Poles and piling lin. ffc.
Orchard-props    i
Mine-timbers    ,,
Corral-rails    ,,
Mine-props cords
Fence-posts    ,,
Cordwood—     „
Hewn ties — pieces
Christmas trees    „
Total value, 1954	
Total value, 1953	
Quantity
Exported
4,020,925
632,094
254,100
4,732
22,413
11,456,041
1,600
116,499
8,571
2,138,111
101,074
5,274
230,615
109,479
81,525
5,465,520
3,881
463,729
3,411,620
86,000
1,169,873
92,510
394
8,074
208
19,244
1,314,919
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
United
States
$1,679,981.20
123,400.44
980.82
85,176.00
6,275.64
687,362.46
144.00
58,249.50
21,427.50
748,338.85
150,573.26
2,637.00
68,241.25
16,421.85
130,440.00
867,672.00
98,775.00
104,339.00
861,475.00
860.00
66,683.00
1,758.00
6,512.00
242,220.00
3,182.00
35,409.00
539,116.79
$6,607,651.56
$8,120,489.00
3,266,092
25,325
254,100
4,732
2,300
11,063,179
1,600
116,499
8,571
1,696,575
109,580
2,499,445
70
453,534
2,306,485
86,000
803
175
1,182,204
Canada
729,603
208,591
20,113
441,536
101,074
5,274
121,035
109,479
81,525
2,966,075
3,811
10,195
1,105,135
1,169,873
92,510
394
7,271
33
19,244
132,715
Other
Countries
25,230
398,178
392,862
(27)
Summary for Province, 1954
Product
Poles and piling lin. ft.
Mine-timbers     „
Orchard-props     „
Corral-rails     ,,
Sticks and stakes . I     „
Pulpwood cords
Mine-props     „
Cordwood     ,,
Fence-posts     „
Fence-posts   pieces
Shakes     ,,
B lanks |       ,,
Hewn ties     I
Christmas trees     „
Maple burls j cu. ft.
Total value	
Volume
16,001,055
1,169,873
86,000
92,510
254,100
4,732
394
208
8,074
141,047
11,456,041
1,600
201,843
1,895,147
8,571
Value
$4,349,108.74
66,683.00
860.00
1,758.00
980.82
85,176.00
6,512.00
3,182.00
242,220.00
124,109.49
687,362.46
144.00
316,422.26
701,705.29
21,427.50
$6,607,651.56
Per Cent of
Total Value
65.8193
1.0092
0.0130
0.0266
0.0148
1.2890
0.0986
0.0482
3.6657
1.8783
10.4025
0.0022
4.7887
10.6196
0.3243
100.0000
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1954
125
Forest District
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Ison	
Totals, 1954	
Totals, 1953	
Totals, 1952--	
Totals, 1951	
Totals, 1950	
Totals, 1949	
Totals, 1948	
Totals, 1947	
Totals, 1946	
Totals, 1945 1
Ten-year average, 1945-54
Operating
Sawmills
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Shingle-mills
Number
338
311
700
677
320
9,683
2,003
5,714
5,134
3,068
2,346
25,602
2,413
23,300
2,223
23,433
2,100
21,748
1,826
19,143
1,671
19,082
1,671
18,570
1,634
17,546
1,228
15,256
931
13,590
54
1
2
1,804
19,727
61
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.i
Shut Down
Sawmills
Number
1,097
5
6
57
1,108
59
1,121
59
1,173
60
1,169
65
1,234
61
1,101
68
1,209
73
1,230
5£
1,238
51
1,008
1,159
105
29
90
71
72
367
286
332
294
~234~
314
179
143
115
137
240
1 Capacity of shingle-mills formerly shown in M shingles now shown in M B.F.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
M B.F.
353
187
599
616
526
2,281
2,186
2,092
1,474
1,462
2,373
840
754
741
808
1,501
Shingle-mills
Number
13
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.1
6
6
1
6
5
11
13
22
12
47
24
117
16
78
11
25
t    |
73
11
51
6
14
24
21
47
(25)
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1954
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir.
Cedar . .
Spruce	
Hemlock	
Balsam .....
White pine	
Cypress . ...
Hardwoods
Cottonwood
Totals, 1954
Totals, 1953.....
Totals, 1952
Totals, 1951	
Totals, 1950	
Totals, 1949	
Totals, 1948	
Totals, 1947	
Totals, 1946 ...
Totals, 1945	
Ten-year average, 1945-54.
780,382
2,723,417
5,923
394,212
970
26,031
17,410
3,489,225
8,309,389
82,207
6,655,871
4,727
341,041
713,084
2,934,567
18,628,392
233,505
67,568,892
13,236
887,802
2,628
422,749
3,948,345       19,595,544       90,691,771
5,341,576       15,853,076       74,187,464
4,732,890       15,944,292       84,757,110
5,901,140       12,229,159       51,669,605
8,659,552       21,625,295       88,031,088
6,392,228       21,382,979     103,550,707
9,380,092      31,127,805     106,739,296
7,156,095       21,100,803       52,368,152
6,843,046       17,485,065       28,308,163
3,852,321       20,696,800      24,903,105
6,220,729       19,704,082       70,520,646
17,465,267
7,465,053
8,747
143,663
854,382
783,359
19,791
14,669,227
29,669,945
465,298
75,473,357
18,248,626
38,724
1,254,874
2,628
1,153,243
17,465,267        9,274,995 [ 140,975,922*
18,974,550        5,788,905     120,145,571
18,400,266        1,161,660 | 124,996,218
10,202,844 I     2,224,693 [   82,257,441
19,210,615 I --- 1 I 137,526,550
14,228,041 I __ — I 145,553,955
16.367.096 1   I 163,614,289
7.552.386       1    88,177,436
33,898,926 |   I    86,535,200
^.624.170 1  ^ I    82,076,396
18,892,416 j     4,612,563*1 117,l»D,»98
fjj 0fthjs total, 110,690,677 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege; 30,285,245
• .were exported under permit from other areas.
wur-year average.
 128
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
(30) as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year
Acreage
Assessed as
Timber
Land
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943.
1942
1941
1940
1939
1938
1937.
801,983
757,516
718,284
682,746
631,967
597,790
571,439
596,900
601,148
591,082
571,308
543,044
527,995
543,633
549,250
719,111
756,328
766,413
Coast
Logged
Acres
236,350
201,264
203,249
191,435
207,308
172,024
158,120
153,072
146,331
142,504
134,194
125,313
112,834
105,541
103,486
89,209
106,833
96,598
Timber
Acres
429,037
444,014
433,496
410,037
378,985
340,200
326,738
354,207
364,556
357,037
345,378
325,996
322,306
335,468
338,419
338,794
344,858
363,693
Interior
Logged
Acres
69,416
27,692
29,418
31,333
8,635
30,625
25,485
26,591
23,125
21,536
20,816
20,205
20,072
26,016
24,852
153,032
157,508
153,566*
Timber
Acres
67,180
84,546
52,121
49,941
37,039
54,941
61,096
63,030
67,136
70,005
70,920
71,529
72,781
76,608
82,493
138,075
147,129
152,556
(31)
Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts
District Acres
Alberni  93,039
Comox   157,911
Cowichan   145,517
Fort Steele  9,160
Kettle River  1,008
Lillooet  2,548
Nanaimo  172,768
Nelson  49,334
District Acres
Omineca  160
Prince George  960
Prince Rupert  33,360
Princeton  1,469
Revelstoke  33,182
Slocan  38,775
Vancouver 1  4,342
Victoria  58,450
Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
(32) as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year Area (Acres)
1954  801,983
1953  757,516
1952  718,284
1951  682,746
1950  631,967
1949  597,790
1948  571,439
1947  596,900
1946  601,148
1945  591,082
1944  571,308
1943  543,044
1942  527,995
1941  543,632
1940  549,250
1939  719,112
1938  754,348
Year Area (Acres)
1937  743,109
1936  515,924
1935  535,918
1934  557,481
1933  567,731
1932  552,007
1931  602,086
1930  629,156
1929  644,011
1928  671,131
1927  690,438
1926  688,372
1925  654,016
1924  654,668
1923 ...._  883,344
1922  887,980
1921  845,111
 Crowngrans,   87 1W»-	
^ grants,1906""*—
Ln55,"Fore'Act	
_\smm
and29,"LandAct ~
Timber berths- \
Indian reserves -—
Bmber sales——	
gJS_T5_S^
Pulp leases—- 1
Pulp licences	
Totals—	
Transfers and changes of marks
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
Timber Marks Issued
1945
329
115
106
337
53
2
3
16
1,898
6
15
327
1946
1947
1948
631
200
176
473
70
3
8
15
2,637 |
35
738
191
176
489
75
791
156
150
439
82
8 5
9 4
18 20
2,469 2,612
32
1
40
2,882 I 4,248  4,206  4,301
486
655
745
1949
548
128
97
352
60
7
18
2,525
26
1
1
1950
549
169
165
505
69
5
8
32
2,591
33
4
4
1951
1,062
269
218
714
108
3
6
41
2,962
73
2
550 j  752 | 1,086
1952
696
201
204
538
62
8
7
13
2,594
98
6
1
3,763  | 4,134 I 5,458  I 4,428
983
1953
381
134
136
409
95
10
3
24
2,881
63
3
744
1954
528
175
160
485
69
1
1
30
2,786
44
1
127
780
Ten-year
Average,
1945-54
625
174
159
474
74
4
6
23
2,596
46
2
1
4,139 | 4,280      4,184
711
0)
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1954
Number of Drawings Prepared or Tracings Made
Month
Timber
Sales
Timber
Marks
Examination
Sketches
Miscellaneous
Matters
Total
January-
February-
MarcL_
May	
lone	
My	
August	
September.
October—.
December,
Totals, 1954.
Totals, 1953_
Totals, 1952.
Totals, 1951.
Totals, 1950.
Totals, 1949.
Totak. 1948]
Totals, 1947
Totals, 1946
Totals, 1945
Ten-year
1945-54
10
15
23
14
22
'_-'—!
13
16
31
33
42
30
179
82
215
163
248
195
198
118
144
94
212
2407
274          1,983
270           l.s-23              382
491          2327           1387
1,008          3,196           1336
828           2,050           1,108
514          1-547             988
6*1          2L30O           1.247
-W         „%/i_M.i          i9/.-*i
604          1,931           1.G2S
70
143
13
27
34
27
54
65
28
18
36
59
259
240
251
204
304
245
267
199
203
145
290
224
574          2,831
350          2-825
1,068          5,773
1,891          7*431
805          4,791
353          3,402
241          4,469
290          4,251
525   '     4,088
684         3,139
4400
Number of Blue-prints or
Ditto-prints Made from
Draughting Office Drawings
Blueprints
Ditto-
prints
449
326
474
443
979
570
700
470
476
384
562
442
265
335
595
315
765
705
480
470
1,100
1,730
1,960
1,200
6,495
6,701
11,492
11,034
Total
714
661
1,069
758
1,744
1,275
1,180
940
1,576
2,114
2,522
1,642
6,275
9,920
16,193
6,976
6,989
13,965
18,924
1
10420
29,244
17,540
|
19,360
36,900
13,759
16499
|   30458
10,184
!
10444
|   20428
13,625
12,959
26484
12426
9444
21,870
9,113
I
7400
16,413
13,196
22425
 130
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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(36A)                        Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1953-54
Ten-year Average
Timber-licence renewal fees  $366,537.01 $386,967.69
Timber-licence transfer fees  5,300.00 2,883.85
Timber-licence penalty fees  1,324.46 5,099.54
Hand-logging licence fees        169.05
Timber-lease rentals   48,292.98 50,089.03
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest  13.50 53.60
Timber-sale rentals  205,447.76 93,366.11
Timber-sale stumpage  14,429,168.04 5,050,455.32
Timber-sale cruising  125,322.30 42,000.71
Timber-sale advertising  28,219.98 9,900.89
Timber royalty  2,155,885.98 2,381,306.91
Timber tax  25,465.37 21,739.55
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)  8,180.25 2,128.21
Exchange   67.53 83.01
Seizure expenses  1,425.94 945.17
General miscellaneous  63,863.07 25,473.61
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees  20,297.86 18,823.69
Interest on timber-berth rentals  33.19 33.56
Transfer fees on timber berths   51.33 75.02
Grazing fees and interest  93,729.03 48,794.12
I $17,578,625.58       $8,140,388.64
Taxation from Crown-granted timber lands 612,865.29            377,423.59
Taxation collected under authority of | Es- Jf
quimalt and Nanaimo Railway Belt I|
Land Tax Act I  863,116.21            618,297.811
Totals  $19,054,607.08       $9,136,110.04
1 Collection of this tax has only been authorized during the last four fiscal years, but average has been calculated
on a ten-year basis.
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 134 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(38) Scaling Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1953 (credit) _    $96,591.90
Collections, fiscal year 1953-54     656,538.38
$753,130.28
Expenditures, fiscal year 1953-54..  $610,538.33
Less refunds         6,997.06
1      603,541.27
Balance, March 31st, 1954 (credit)  $149,589.01
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1954     579,114.96
$728,703.97
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1954__    523,684.22
Balance, December 31st, 1954 (credit)  $205,019.75
<39> Silviculture Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1953 (credit)      $137,563.16
Collections, fiscal year 1953-54     1,042,339.44
$1,179,902.60
Expenditures, fiscal year 1953-54  $829,036.97
Less refunds       14,810.48
        814,226.49
Balance, March 31st, 1954 (credit)      $365,676.11
Collections, nine months to December 31st, 1954____       937,384.73
$1,303,060.84
Expenditures, nine months to Decern- jf
ber 31st, 1954  $649,053.38
Less refunds         4,346.37 1
       644,707.01
Balance, December 31st, 1954 (credit)      $658,353.83
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
133
(0)
Forest
Direct
Forest Revenue
SYS      - $17,578,625.58
JI1J1 18,016,025.17
- II- 13,703,715.41
S-51 ----- 10,089,884.69
9-50l------ 8,331,497.19
L849  7,977,676.22
4748  7,010,038.77
4647 --- 4,880,232.89
04546  4,352,179.14
194445  4,017,653.53
194344     - 3,703,703.13
!94243  3,519,892.44
194142    I 4,057,437.86
1940-41  3,549,931.53
193940      - 3,236,731.36
1938-39  2,982,702.42
1937-38  3,257,525.05
1936-37  3,001,054.84
Revenue by Fiscal Years
-,     ..     _ Taxation Collected under
Taxation from Authority of "E &N
Crown-granted Railway Belt Land '
Lands Xax Act"
$612,865.29 $863,116.21
588,821.78 418,395.59
484,475.51 972,156.13
440,213.07 345,220.16
445,632.68
453,980.08
253,345.02
237,506.83 	
244,980.89 	
213,912.46 	
203,457.36 	
206,146.21 	
211,410.13 	
224,652.87 	
267,290.48 	
241,109.96 	
269,285.54 	
299,992.41 	
Total
$19,054,607.08
19,023,242.54
15,160,347.05
10,875,317.92
8,777,129.87
8,431,656.30
7,263,383.79
5,117,739.72
4,597,160.03
4,231,565.99
3,907,160.49
3,726,038.65
4,268,847.99
3,774,584.40
3,504,021.84
3,223,812.38
3,526,810.59
3,301,047.25
m
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1953-54
Forest District
Salaries
Expenses
Total
Forest Service Marine Station.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Victoria..
Totals.
Canadian Forestry Association	
Forest management	
Forest research	
Reforestation  	
Public relations 	
Provincial parks	
Ranger School	
Boys' training camp	
Rentals 	
Office furniture and equipment	
Forest Development Fund	
Grazing Range Improvement Fund1.
Forest Protection Fund1	
Forest Reserve Account1 |
Grand total	
$87,556.37
373,789.01
227,372.46
229,987.42
336,125.05
310,504.64
449,523.80
$2,014,858.75
$130,798.86
155,719.59
73,477.02
63,241.82
87,716.39
87,270.88
421,327.82
$1,019,552.38
$218,355.23
529,508.60
300,849.48
293,229.24
423,841.44
397,775.52
870,851.62
$3,034,411.13
6,000.00
126,107.02
57,608.88
424,255.57
50,575.14
703,330.00
72,718.01
125,742.67
47,243.19
69,073.21
365,883.00
53,439.84
2,089,521.39
900,935.70
$8,126,844.75
^stStll!?ACueption of itei*s marked, all figures are net expenditures.   Items marked are actual gross expenditures,
1 ot these funds will be found elsewhere in this Report.
 136 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(42) Forest Development Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1953 (credit)  $34,258.87
Amount received by authority of Legislature  (Vote
317, 1953-54)    405,000.00
Collections (authority, section 164 (4), "Forest Act") 20,778.28
$460,037.15
Expenditures, fiscal year 1953-54     365,883.00
Balance, March 31st, 1954 (credit)     $94,154.15
Amount received by authority of Legislature (Vote
321, 1954-55)      387,510.00
Collections, nine months to December 31st,   1954
(authority, section 164 (4), "Forest Act")       35,574.95
$517,239.10
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1954 ___.    325,657.42
Balance, December 31st, 1954 (credit)  $191,581.68
<43>                                     Forest Protection Fund §SB
Balance, April 1st, 1953 (debit) 1 $188,680.61
Government contribution  $2,300,000.00
Collections, tax        387,928.46 Jj
Collections, slash and snags  $21,311.98 fl
Less refunds       4,962.33 -fl
1                      16,349.65 f    1
  2,704,278.11
1 $2,515,597.50
Expenditures, 1953-54  $2,084,559.06   | flB
Less refunds  45,418.04
    2,039,141.02
Balance, March 31st, 1954 (credit)  $476,456.48
Collections, tax, nine months, April to December, 1954___     $300,547.15 fl
Refunds of expenditures :          36,062.95 fl
Government contribution                                      1,500,000.00 1
HI                                          j  1,836,610.10
§ $2,313,066.58
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1954     1,587,913.17
Estimated surplus, December 31st, 1954      $725,153.41
 [*)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
Forest Reserve Account
Credit balance as at April 1st, 1953      $698,629.99
Amount received from Treasury, March 31st, 1954
(under section 32 (2), "Forest Act")       498,487.11
Moneys received under section 32 (3), " Forest Act" 481.48
Amount received under Federal-Provincial Agreement dated December 4th, 1951—Contribution,
1953-54 __       477,881.65
$1,675,480.23
Expenditures, April 1st, 1953, to March 31st, 1954 |
(Vote 231)  1       900,935.70
Credit balance, March 31st, 1954  $774,544.53
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1954__ 786,703.12
•_w_i_ii^«»(>«^>^p^^H_B___ll_^^^^
§          (Debit) $12,158.59
Amount received under Federal-Provincial Agreement dated December 4th, 1951—Interim contribution, 1954-55  186,036.95
Balance, December 31st, 1954 (Credit)     $173,878.36
w Grazing Range Improvement Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1953 (credit)  $20,509.85
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")    62,817.45
Other collections         445.23
$83,772.53
Expenditures, April 1st, 1953, to March 31st, 1954    54,129.63
Balance, March 31st, 1954 (credit)  $29,642.90
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")    46,867.01
Other collections           196.75
$76,706.66
Expenditures, April 1st, 1954, to December 31st, 1954_.    37,689.86
Balance, December 31st, 1954 (credit)  $39,016.80
135
 138
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(45)
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection
by Other Agencies, 1954
Forest District
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George .	
Kamloops	
Nelson .	
Totals	
Ten-year average, 1945-54
$184,710.00
36,164.00
5,500.00
1,575.00
8,424.00
$236,373.00
$176,514.00
Expenditures
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
$202,496.00
42,250.00
9,000.00
40,355.00
21,276.00
$315,377.00
$264,094.00
$62,506.00
4,898.00
4,314.00
2,012.00
4,194.00
$77,924.00
$268,123.00
Improvements
$25,960.00
21,176.00
4,000.00
5,575.00
24,093.00
$80,804.00
$45,635.00
Total
$475,672.00
104,488.00
22,814.00
49,517.00
57,987.00
$710,478.00
$754,366.00
(46>       Summary of Snag-falling, 1954, Vancouver Forest District
Acres
Total area logged, 1954  81,833.0
Logged in snag-exempted zone1  2,607
Logged in small exempted operations1  4,138
I   6,745.0
Assessed for non-compliance, less 650.5 acres
subsequently felled      755.5
I     7,500.5
Balance logged acres snagged, 1954  74,332.5
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act."
Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1954, Vancouver
(47) Forest District
Acres
Total area logged, 1954  81,833
Area covered by full hazard reports  54,477
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-
disposal1      2,607
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from
slash and snag disposal)     4,138
—j  61,222
  S1ash created too late to be dealt with in 1954______ 20,611
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act."
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
137
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 140 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
<50> Summary of Operations, 1954, Vancouver Forest District
Total operations, Vancouver Forest District  1,274
Intentional slash-burns   244
Operations on which slash was disposed of by lopping,
scattering, land-clearing, etc.      49
Operations on which slash was accidentally burned     27
Operations not required to burn  685
Operations granted total exemption under subsection (3),
section 113, "Forest Act "___  243
Operations  where  compensation  assessed  or  security
deposit posted     71
Operations in snag-falling only area     35
Operations pending decision re assessment or further
time for disposal     18
  1,372*1
1 Difference noted above is accounted for by slash on some operations being disposed of by both accidental and
intentional means and some operators conducting both spring and fall burns.
Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1954, Vancouver
H It Forest District
Total acres of forest cover burned in slash fires, 1954  20
Net damage to forest-cover  $268.25
Net damage to cut products  300.00
Net damage to equipment and property  1,900.00
Total damage _*_  $2,468.25
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Cost per    Cost per
Total Cost Acres M B.F.        Acre
(a) Spring broadcast-burning $9,531.21 3,075 $0.08 $3.10
(b) Spring spot-burning  2,506.00 1,556 .05 1.61
(c) Fall broadcast-burning ____ 21,600.15 15,075 .04 1.43
(d) Fall spot-burning ■ 33,580.39 21,795 .05 1.54
(a) and (c) based on volume of 40 M B.F. per acre.
(b) and (d) based on volume of 30 M B.F. per acre.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
139
Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1954,
Vancouver Forest District
Acres of Slash
*-*Tl°J!5l 1954 Total Acres
Broadcast-burning   10,566.5        15,458.5        26,025.0
Spot-burning      7,308.0J     11,008.5        18,316.5
Totals  17,874.5        26,467.0       44,341.5
1954 reports not recommending slash-disposal  28,010.0
1954 slash examined for snags but exempt from slash-
disposal  I _     2,607.0
1954 slash in zone completely exempted  5,656
1954 slash on very small operations exempted without special examination .  4,138
    9,794.0
Total area of slash dealt with, 1954  84,752.5
Nom^Above table does not include the estimated 20,611 acres (see Table No. 47) created too late to be dealt
with in 1954.
Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1954, Vancouver
w Forest District
Acres
Total disposal required (see Table No. 48)  44,341.5
Acres of Slash
Type of disposal Prior to 1954 1954 Total Acres
Spring broadcast-burning  3,075         Nil 3,075
Spring spot-burning1  1,556         Nil 1,556
Fall broadcast-burning  8,388        6,687 15,075
Fall spot-burning2  11,678 10,118 21,796
Total burning completed   24,697      16,805 41,502
Burned by accidental fires  225
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc  229
Total     41,956.0
Balance reported slash not yet abated 1    2,385.5
Slash created, 1954—acres assessed       Nil
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1954  20,611.0
Total area of slash carried over to 1955 for
disposition  22,996.5
2Act__u!!avUrned k sprin8 spot-burning, 253 acres.
31 area bu™d in fall spot-burning, 3,684.5 acres.
 142
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
j§>       Number and Causes of Forest Fires
FOR
THE
Last
Ten Years
Causes
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
Total
541
183
426
356
69
5
32
32
155
39
515
263
231
326
117
16
38
10
159
32
326
193
270
245
51
8
53
13
144
29
266
105
113
140
39
5
45
5
58
23
487
215
325
281
60
20
87
13
169
44
342
251
197
291
77
25
94
7
196
35
574
228
211
354
128
20
133
28
205
42
431
298
255
349
140
17
114
37
237
36
597
174
184
171
47
10
83
10
116
28
116
157
118
120
63
1   n
64
12
82
21
4,195
Railwavs ooeratins                  	
2,067
2,330
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing) —
Road and power- and telephone-line
2,633
791
137
Industrial ooerations     .	
743
167
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
1,521
329
Totals    	
1,838
1,707
1,332
799
1,701
1,515
1,923
1,914
1,420
764
14,913
(56)
Forest District
Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1954
Total Fires
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Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals	
Per cent	
Ten-year average, 1945-54
Per cent	
239
33
81
257
154
31.28
157
65.69
4.32
20
60.61
10.60
38
46.91
33.64
153
59.53
20.16
107
69.48
33.05
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8.00
32.21
22.53
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100.00 |62.17
	
1,491 j j   851
100.001 157.08
67
8
21
78
39
28.03
31.46
14
5.86
24.24
3.75
5
15.15
25.93
9.86
20
24.69
30.35
36.62
26
10.12
25.33
18,31
8
5.19
19.18
6.85
27.40
35.61
10.96
213  100.00
73 ........  100.00
27.88        9.56- 	
1         1
436 j j	
163 j |	
29.24
10.93
0.42
2.47
33.33
66.67
Damage
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241
147
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100.00
706    39
19
0.39
92.41 5.10
7.49
41
1
1,374|   73
44
2.75L...
92.15
4,9012.95
(57)
Damage to Property Other than Forests, 19541
Forest District
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture
Buildings
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment
Miscel-
aneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
Vancouver |  	
1
$3,149.00 1         $200.00
$30,000.00
40,732.00
1,500.00
33,600.00
1
1
$33,349.00
62,652.00
i.jm.no
25.35
Prince Rupert   „
21,920.00
352.00
14.00
j
47.62
Prince George	
fl
_.?* on i
1.43
Kamloops	
5.00 |     33,619.00
7.00 |            57.00
25.55
Nelson... 	
50.00
0.05
Totals- 	
$25,435.00            $250.00 | $105,832.00
$37.00     $131,554.00
100.00
Per cent    	
19.34
0.19                80.44
0 03              100.00
Ten-year average, 1945-54	
$166,846.00       $22,348.00     $189,768.00
$27,198.00 | $406,160.00 |     	
S£ Per cent 	
41.08                 5.50
1
46.72
6.70 |           100.00
!
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 140.)
 02)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-54
Acres of Slash Burned
Year                                                                                             Accidentally Intentionallj
1954       225 41,727
1953 1          17 22,220
1952     3,856 39,064
1951  11,614 10,436
1950     1,700 25,389
1949     1,468 53,543
1948    2,215 30,652
1947    2,663 34,414
1946     2,174 25,498
1945     3,897 46,467
1944     5,121 27,278
1943     2,046 40,013
1942      4,504 80,226
1941     3,385 5,524
1940     2,265 33,034
1939     1,930 51,603
1938  35,071 50,033
1937     3,015 27,516
1936     1,340 7,691
1935  11,783 13,239
1934     4,927 15,935
141
(S3)
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1954
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops...
14
6
4
7
2
9
6
10
78
8
25
52
29
26
7
9
29
9
80
2
10
93
40
45
10
12
55
56
3
4
1
16
5
1
1
239
33
81
257
154
31.28
4.32
10.60
33.64
Nelson	
20.16
Totals	
24
34
192
80
225
178
29
2
764
100.00
Percent	
3.14
4.45
25.13
10.47
29.45
23.30
3.80
0.26
100.00
	
Ten-year average, 1945-54
10
48
208
170
418
449
164
24
1,491
	
Percent	
0.67
3.22
1
13.95
11.40
28.04
30.11
11.00
1.61
100.00
-	
(54)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1954
Forest District
G
•Tt
G
TH
Vancouver.....
J^ce Rupert
^ce George....."""'
Kamloops....
Nelson
Totals	
Percent	
*en-year average, 1945-54
Percent.
6
6
14
39
51
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23
71
27
58
1
1
50
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116       157        118
15.18     20.55     15.44
419        207        233
28.10 I 13.88
15.63
59
27
3
1
4
7
29
22
25
6
120
63
15.71     8.25
263
79
17.64 I 5.30
 144
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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 (58)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1954   Par  ti
143
Forest District
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals	
Percent	
Ten-year average, 1945-54
Percent	
Accessible Merchantable Timber
at
Hi
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Z-*i
Hi
-I*
o oa
H>r4
m
Hi
BB-g
^"*     f*\ *■ F-H
C/_> OM
Hi
3
Acres
136
1
62
93
1
MB.F.
1,964
3
294
150
11
MB.F.
975
2
200
293         2,422         1,177
2.84         76.02         48.60
16,149     121,498       48,526
5.77
96.65
39.94
on
cct
Oh
0 Bo
392
8
2,219
719
39
3,377
7.79
196,581
47.57
Inaccessible Merchantable
Timber
<u
Hi
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Z\4
Acres
1
120
1
122
1.18
0.56
Does not include intentional slash-burns.   (For this item see page 140/
thB*
aj G Hi
iH TH r—{
MB.F.
9
715
40
764
23.98
1,577 j     4,214
3.35
Hi
00
a
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cu
Q
$
33
3,305
1
3,339
7.71
2.02
Immature Timber
CQ
Hi
U
^ u
«_■ —
©53
Acres
1,031
5
404
427
125
19.32
13.58
c „.
it. 3
Oh>
$
17,058
16
6,820
4,496
1,458
1.992      29,848
68.89
8,336 I   38,015    142,997
34.61
M   Damage to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1954—Part II1
Not Satisfactorily
Restocked
Noncommercial
Cover
Grazing or
Pasture
Land
Nonproductive
Sites
Grand totals
Forest
District
P
Hi
Hi 3
MS
60-S
OB
rAr-r
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§
1
3
a
Vancbuver	
Prince Rupert	
Acres
215
30
45
46
5!
Acres
35
Acres
3
$
306
7
975
3,886
Acres
125
75
3,839
278
68
$
28
271
960
97
56
Acres
19
82
1,302
574
287
1
$   j Acres
j    2|      65
4|      10
951      62
32j     142
14|        2
$
10
2
16
4
1                         1
Acres) MB.F.       $
1,6291    1,964     17,796
204]        12         341
Prince George	
26
290
277
6,1241     1,009     14,390
Kamloops	
Nelson	
1,864|       190|      9,235
488j         11J      14«7
Totals	
341
61
570
5,174
4,385     1,412
2,264
147
281       32
10,309
3,186     43,329
Per cent	
3.31
0.60
5.52
11.94
42.54
3.26
21.96
0.34
2.73
0.07
100.00
100.001    100.00
Ten-year average,
1945-54	
1
5,900
3,314
1
25,613 25,867
95,294| 25,238
50,720
1          1
3,152|43,370|11,009
279,952] 125,712
413,180
Percent	
2.11 j    1.18|    9.15|    6.26
!       1        1 .
34.04|      6.11
1
18.12
0.76| 15.49]   2.67
100.001   100.00     1UO.W
1            1
^oes not include intentional slash-burns.   (For this item see page 140.)
(59)
Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and
Total Damage, 1954     jj
Causes
Number
Lightning	
Campers	
Railways operating'     	
Smokers  .
Ton    P°Wer~and telephone-line construe
Industrial operations"
^cendiarism   "	
2aneous (kn^'cau^IZII'Zr
unknown causes	
Totals....
116
157
118
120
63
11
64
12
82
21
764
Per
Cent
15.18
20.55
15.44
15.71
8.25
1.44
8.38
1.57
10.73
2.75
Acres
107
6,277
194
1,241
492
49
593
330
944
82
100.00     10,309
Per
Cent
1.04
60.89
1.88
12.04
4.77
0.47
5.75
3.20
9.16
0.80
100.00
Cost
Per
Cent
$7,219
19.77
7,259
19.88
46
0.12
5,274
14.44
2,160
5.91
452
1.24
8,147
22.31
1,224
3.35
3,724
10.20
1,016
2.78
~~$3632T
100.00 1
1
Damage
$5,780
16,718
5,296
14,941
3,579
1,072
87,004
115
29,967
10,411
"$174788T
Per
Cent
3.30
9.56
3.03
8.54
2.05
0.61
49.75
0.07
17.14
J-W
100.00
 146
(64)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Enrolment at Ranger School, 1954
Forest District
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Attendance, 1954-
Attendance, 19531
Attendance, 1953..
Attendance, 1952..
Attendance, 1951-
Attendance, 1950..
Attendance, 1949-
Attendance, 1948-
Attendance, 1947..
Attendance, 1946.
6
3
3
3
5
—
20
—
, 'r^-rj'   l~L-
21
—
—
20
j§
....
20
3
3
15
3
3
15
3
2
16
4
2
12
8
—
12
Graduations
6
3
3
3
5
__h0
21
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
21
20
20
20
20
20
20
1 New class, 1953-54, commenced at fall term.
Note.—Commencing with the class of 1949-50, each class takes one and one-half years to complete the course.
(65)
Motion-picture Library
Stock Records
Year
19451! 1946
1           1
1947 I 1948 I   1949
1           1
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
Films in library at January 1st	
74
4
5
75
(2)
75
2
2
75
61
75
8
7
74
77
74
2
5
77
77
77
3
1
75
74
75
9
9
75
76
75
8
7
74
71
74
3
6
77
72
77
80
Films withdrawn during year 1
24
New films added during year	
3
80
79
i
Films in library at December 31st.
Films used during year	
64
64
Circulation Records
Number of loans made during year	
Number of film loans during year
(one film loaned one time)	
Number of showings during year	
Number of audiences—
Adults ...
Children	
Mixed	
Totals	
56
85
76
2,341
6,676
8,730
164
328
371
11,940
10,408
10,285
235
632
812
8,009
25,362
24,351
436
1,122
1,293
21,633
20,455
42,930
397
1,075
1,505
14,568
24,031
87,506
17,747)32,633 57,722|85,018 126,105
416
1,046
1,880
26,988
95.1023
43,282
165,3723
461
1,057
2,943
13,542
264,2453
26,706
492
1,218
2,764
490
1,158
2,288
13,655 j 12,640
157,085*|H8,622*
59,182     43,099
422
1,474
2,664
12,333
102,013s
54,069
304,493 3|234,396*1174,367* 1168,415s
1 Recording of film circulation only commenced in 1945.
2 No record.
3 Including attendances of lecture tour of two school lecturers.
4 Including attendances of lecture tour of three school lecturers.
Loaned and Leased Films, 1954
Title
Number
of
Showings
Number in Audience
Adult
Children
Tomorrow's Timber".
Bear Country §1	
7
208
266
1,020
23,764
Two copies.
Mixed
1,287
Total
1,020
25,306
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
145
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Ph
 VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955
1,300-455-5149
 (66)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1954
Forest Service Library
Classification
Rnund volumes	
Government reports and bulletins.
Other bulletins and reports	
Periodicals	
Serials1 —-	
References indexed	
Items Catalogued and Indexed
1945     1946
1947
1948
1949
13
80
61
48
1,294
12
126
79
51
1,523
14
231
90
72
1,798
39
123
140
72
3,543
36
100
153
80
2,074
Previous to 1953 included with periodicals, bulletins, and reports.
1950
27
62
140
102
1,960
1951
23
109
152
110
2,650
1952
9
122
337
115
2,203
1953
41
484
90
111
66
1,800
1954
62
246
92
124
127
932
147
Ten-year
Average,
1945-54
28
168
133
88
1,978
(67)
Grazing Permits Issued
District
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George	
Totals, 1954	
Totals, 1953	
Totals, 1952	
Totals, 1951....	
Totals, 1950	
Totals, 1949	
Totals, 1948  	
Totals, 1947	
Totals, 1946	
Totals, 1945	
Ten-year average, 1945-54.
Number of
Permits
Issued
1,269
427
54
1,524
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
97,019
12,316
2,432
105,672
Horses
2,626
957
155
4,919
Sheep
22,518
2,366
25
1,750
111,767
3,738
24,909
1,730
108,894
4,133
23,172
1,621
104,610
4,040
23,565
1,561
100,082
4,350
22,282
1,562
98,484
4,650
23,100
1,496
101,349
5,029
25,842
1,444
110,333
6,644
29,444
1,322
105,723
5,513
25,289
1,378
106,273
6,025
31,274
1,378
109,201
5,064
39,235
26,811
N.B.—Some of the figures in this table for the years 1945 to 1951, inclusive, have been revised and differ from those
shown in previous Reports. Past tables have shown net figures for some years and gross figures for others. This table
shows the total number of permits issued and the net number of live stock covered for each of the years listed.
(68)
Grazing Fees Billed and Collected
Year
Fees Billed
1954..
1953..
1952..
1951..
1950..
1949..
1948..
1947...
1946.
1945..
$80,191.97
95,088.64
125,495.09
108,400.14
80,178.43
27,819.65
28,960.42
28,584.74
30,120.38
30,066.34
Fees Collected
Outstanding
$85,043.96
$15,766.24
102,460.00
20,618.23
110,731.32
27,989.59
106,161.36
13,225.82
74,305.08
10,986.74
28,299.94
5,113.39
27,089.74
5,597.18
29,203.74
3,726.50
31,412.24
4,345.50
31,465.28
5,637.36
    sf
 44
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
WORKING PLANS
FOREST MANAGEMENT LICENCES
Five management licences were awarded during the year, bringing the total to nineteen, as listed below:—
F.M.L.
No.
Forest District
Name of Licence
Licensee
Productive Forest
Area
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Prince Rupert
Vancouver	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Prince George
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Nelson	
Kamloops	
Vancouver	
Nelson	
Vancouver	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Kamloops	
Kamloops	
Vancouver	
Kamloops	
Vancouver	
. Totals
Port Edward	
Duncan Bay I	
Little Slocan	
Blind Channel	
Mackenzie-Cariboo.
Quatsino	
Salmon River .	
Boundary Creek	
Okanagan (West) ...
Toba	
Carmi	
Harwicke	
Bull River	
Spillimacheen	
Inkaneep	
Monte Lake	
Knight Inlet	
Clearwater 	
Tahsis	
Columbia Cellulose Co. Ltd	
Elk Falls Co. Ltd.-	
Passmore Lumber Co. Ltd 	
D. Morrison 	
Western Plywood (Cariboo) Co. Ltd.
Alaska Pine & Cellulose Ltd. 	
Salmon River Logging Co. Ltd	
Boundary Sawmills Ltd	
S. M. Simpson Ltd	
Timberland Development Co. Ltd	
Olinger Lumber Co. Ltd 	
Bendickson Logging Co. (1939) Ltd...
Galloway Lumber Co. Ltd	
Cranbrook Sawmills Ltd	
Oliver Sawmills Ltd	
Pondosa Pine Lumber Co. Ltd	
Evans Products Co. Ltd	
Clearwater Timber Products Ltd	
Tahsis Co. Ltd	
Acres
795,268
286,503
92,960
3,881
78,352
296,365
121,154
89,530
170,633
49,287
64,787
15,497
37,880
86,980
90,837
115,570
46,479
155,500
190,910
2,788,373
Annual
Allowable
Cut
MC.F.
22,000
15,000
1,800
208
1,500
18,000
10,800
1,260
1,680
1,900
630
1,330
357
2,400
538
1,000
1,500
2,500
10,000
94,403
Note.—Any variations in figures given for the first fourteen licences, when compared with the 1953 Annual Report,
are the result of improved inventories, and, in some cases, changes in the licensee's private holdings.
Eleven applications have been approved, contingent upon submission of a satisfactory working plan, as follows:— 9
Applicant
Location
Approximate
Productive
Forest Area
Approximate
Annual
Allowable
Cut
Vancouver Forest District
Alaska Pine & Cellulose Ltd.	
Scattered coastal blocks1	
Phillips Arm .	
Acres
144,575
9,360
460,177
204,291
35,593
19,068
29,275
954,410
39,220
133,937
157,630
16,460
M C.F. 1
7,600
F. & R. Logging Co. Ltd	
333
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd	
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd	
Alberni	
Tofino	
25,500
10,465
Moore-Whittington Lumber Co. Ltd	
Nitinat Lake  	
1,667
Kamloops Forest District
Shuswap Timbers Ltd	
Shuswap Lake                               . 	
446
Vernon Box & Pine Lumber Co. Ltd.	
Falkland  	
600
Nelson Forest District
Celgar Development Co. Ltd	
Arrow Lakes 	
13,400
Galloway Lumber Co. Ltd.2	
Bull River                	
360
Prince Rupert Forest District
Alaska Pine & Cellulose Ltd 	
Queen Charlotte Islands.          	
8,000
Alaska Pine & Cellulose Ltd   ..
Scattered coastal blocks
2,700
Allison Logging Co. Ltd	
Bella Coola	
518
Totals	
2,203,996
71,589
_  . —
1 Blocks fall within both Vancouver and Prince Rupert Forest Districts.
2 Extension to Forest Management Licence No. 13.
In addition, there are approximately eighty-five applications for forest management
licences in various stages of review. Thirty of these have completed the necessary
advertising.

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