Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

Annual Report of the Inspector of Gaols For the Year Ended March 31st, 1954 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1955]

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0367831.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0367831.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0367831-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0367831-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0367831-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0367831-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0367831-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0367831-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0367831-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0367831.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
Annual Report
of the
Inspector of Gaols
For the Year Ended
March 31st, 1954
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1954
  To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The undersigned has the honour to present the Annual Report of the Inspector of
Gaols for the year ended March 31st, 1954.
ROBERT W. BONNER,
A ttomey-General.
Attorney-General's Department,
Victoria, B.C., January 4th, 1955.
  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction  7
Oakalla Prison Farm—
Men's Section  9
Women's Section  10
Young Offenders' Unit  15
Medical Report of Oakalla Prison Farm and Young Offenders' Unit  18
Psychologist's Report  32
Report of Protestant Chaplain  34
Report of Roman Catholic Chaplain 1  37
Report of the Librarian  38
Stall-training I  42
Nelson Gaol  43
Kamloops Gaol  45
Prince George Gaol  47
Forest Camp Gaol  48
Report of Probation Branch  53
Appendix—Statistics of Institutions  56
  Report of the Inspector of Gaols, 1953-54
Honourable Robert W. Bonner, Q.C., ,*
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir—I take pleasure in submitting the Annual Report covering the Provincial Gaols
for the year ended March 31st, 1954. As a preliminary to the detailed reports of the
various institutions and services, I would like to comment briefly on some developments
which took place during the year.
I am happy to be able to point out that some of those recommendations made in
last year's Report have been implemented or are in the process of completion at this
time of writing. Most significant is the addition of the temporary hutments at Oakalla
Prison Farm. This construction has given us temporary accommodation for 400 inmates
who, up until now, had been doubled up in the Main Gaol. The completion of alterations and extension to the Administration Building and the addition of a vocational
training room at the Women's Gaol are proving to be decided assets, and go far towards
alleviating a condition which, as well as causing inconvenience, interfered a great deal in
the efficiency of our administration.
During the year an experiment was made at the Women's Gaol in the construction
of four cottage-type buildings, all self-contained, with accommodation for twelve inmates.
These buildings give us an ideal facility for segregating the younger female inmate from
the more hardened and addict prisoner. A start has also been made on a new kitchen
at Oakalla Prison Farm. A new tailor-shop has been completed and is now in use.
Other minor alterations which are being carried out as a part of the building programme
are, or will be when completed, a source of great satisfaction and assistance to the Gaol
administration.
The programme in effect at the Young Offenders' Unit still is bringing satisfactory
results, and is proving to the satisfaction of all concerned that segregation and the provision of a special treatment programme for the young offender can solve many of the
behaviour difficulties which, if neglected, can only lead to recidivism.
The various vocational classes which are part of the Young Offenders' Unit programme have continued productive of very satisfactory results, most of them of a practical nature. One very significant change as far as this Unit is concerned is the fact
that there is an increased use of the indefinite sentence. A further amendment was made
to the Prisons and Reformatories Act allowing for this type of sentence for the Young
Offenders' Unit, similar to what has been in effect at New Haven now for several years.
Release is at the discretion of the British Columbia Parole Board, and supervision of
those allowed out on licence is by members of the Provincial Probation staff. To date,
results of this type of conditional release seem to be quite satisfactory.
Conditions as to programme, work accomplished, and application of staff to the
task before them in Nelson, Kamloops, and Prince George Gaols show considerable
improvement. As reported last year, the entire building at Nelson is now available for
gaol purposes. During the year the work-shop was removed to the Gaol Annex and the
old shop-building was demolished. This has proved to be a very satisfactory arrangement
and affords the Warden an opportunity for expansion of a programme which can be of
great value, not only in the development of skills but also of work habits for a large
number of inmates.
With the removal of the police office from the Kamloops Gaol, Warden Teal and
his staff will at last have a general office and sufficient space to allow the business administration and recording to be carried out in a manner which has hitherto been impossible.
 P 8
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Plans have been formulated which, when carried out during next fiscal year will m
the remodelling of the cell-blocks, allowing for some segregation and a much mT
degree of security.   It is hoped that most of this work can be carried out by the inmt
themselves under staff supervision.
Plans for the new Men's Gaol at Prince George are now complete, and it see I
certain that construction will commence early in the next fiscal year. From what I h^
seen of these plans I am of the opinion that the new building which will be constructed
at Prince George will give us a very fine institution for short-term prisoners, and will
enable the Warden and his staff to conduct an excellent work programme which should
go far toward rehabilitation of those prisoners who come under his care. I
The Forest Camp experiment was successful again this year, as Mr. R. M. Deildal's
report will indicate.    The administrative arrangements were somewhat different from
the two previous years and, generally speaking, I think the results were a little more ■
satisfactory. |
There is also enclosed a rather detailed report from the Medical Officer, Dr. R. G. E
Richmond; the Gaol Service Librarian; the Chaplains; and also a report from Pro
fessor E. K. Nelson, concerning in-service training activities. *M |
Activities of the Provincial Probation Branch are also covered in this Report. During
the year a new branch office was opened at Cranbrook, and there were some staff changes
and additions. In general, referrals to this Branch from the Courts of the Province show
a steady increase, as do numbers placed on probation, which is indicative of an increased
acceptance of the value of probation as a means of treatment. |
Once again Mr. C. D. Davidson has submitted a statistical summary, which will
give a picture of the steady increase of the services of this Branch which has taken place
over the years since 1942.
I cannot close this Report without some comment on the excellent co-operation
which has been afforded the Gaol Service by the many individuals and agencies who
have assisted in time, effort and, in some instances, substance toward the extension of
our new programme.
Our thanks are extended to the clergy of the various denominations, Probation
Officers and social workers, the John Howard Society, the Elizabeth Fry Society, the
Salvation Army, and all those others who have interested themselves in individual inmates and in the furtherance of a modern penology in this Province.   The Warden,
Executive Officers, Guards and Matrons of all our Gaols, and the staff of the Corrections
Office, are again to be commended for the loyal manner in which they have done their jobs.
In closing, I submit the following recommendations for your consideration:—
(1) It is gratifying to know that plans for the new Haney institution are being
rushed, and, in spite of the difficulty in securing a site which is suitable
in every way, I would urge that there be no hesitation in pushing this
project to a logical conclusion so that by the time another Report is
written construction will be under way.
* (2) It is very desirable that every effort should be made to find a site for a
new Women's Gaol away from Oakalla Prison Farm and also from the
new Haney institution.
(3) An early start should be given to the construction of a more adequate
A licence-plate shop at Oakalla Prison Farm.
(4) With the growth of the Probation Branch and the extension of the Corrections Department, some early consideration should be given to toe
provision of additional headquarters office-space. .
(5) It is recognized by all correction authorities that the least costly and mos
successful method of dealing with delinquents is the use of probation.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 p 9
With this in mind, there should be no hesitation in expanding the Probation Branch, as requests for this service come in from various parts of
the Province.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. G. B. STEVENS,
Inspector of Gaols and Provincial Probation Officer.
OAKALLA PRISON FARM
Men's Section m:.
E.G.B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols, j ,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report for the Oakalla Prison Farm for
the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1954.
The past year has been a period of unprecedented change. The increasing problems
have fortunately been offset by the provision of increasingly adequate facilities.
There has been a steady increase in the prison population, probably due in part to
the growth of cities, industries, and the total population in the Province. There were
8,021 cases handled at the prison during the past year. The highest male population for
any one day was 999, on March 13th, 1954, and the highest female population was 145,
on September 16th, 1953. The average daily population over the year was 924. In spite
of greatly increased work and recreational activity, run-aways were held down to 8, or
2 less than the previous year. Although rather rigid discipline was necessary for a period
in the wing housing the less ref ormable men, both the control and the general atmosphere
of the institution has remained at a high level.
The building programme during the past year was probably the most adequate since
the original prison was built in 1914. A low industrial-type building was erected to
provide temporary accommodation for the 400 men who, the previous year, had been
doubled up in the Main Gaol cells. Additions to the administration building were
completed, and a vocational-training room was added to the Women's Gaol. An experiment at the Women's Gaol in the cottage type of construction for the younger girls was
a success economically and socially. The small self-contained cottages, holding up to
twelve girls each, cost only $300 per inmate to build, as compared to the usual cost for
prison buildings of $5,000 per inmate. These buildings provide an ideal method of
segregating the young teen-ager from the more hardened and addict group. A Quonset
building was partially burned by the Doukhobor women. Since many of these women
should have been in the Penitentiary, the responsibility for the repairs, now completed,
has been graciously accepted by the Federal Government.
The substantial increase in staff to the standard l-to-3 ratio of staff to inmate
allows one officer to every group of twelve working-men after the three shifts, relief, and
administration are staffed. Training courses were given throughout the winter with good
results, although it has been difficult to hold staff with our salary scale after they have
been trained. I
Constructive labour is considered an essential part of any modern correctional programme. Although it has not been easy for staff to get the many men who have never
done an honest day's work to apply themselves, they have persevered, in a calm but firm
Way, to raise the percentage of workers from the usual 20 per cent to 95 per cent of those
 p 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
declared physically able by the doctor.   The Doukhobors are the 5-per-cent
in this regard.   Farm production was increased from 140 tons in the previous ve
290 tons of vegetables this year.   The younger lads and their staff must be given the q§
for this increase.   Although outside contractors carried the major responsibility fJT
,   m i. a. l£3 4.u:„ „ +t,~ +^i*~ ™x^ ^ +u^ i^^o ~c^i_i.   r ..     M ior tne
buildings constructed this year, the taking-over of the less profitable portion of the w
by prison labour effected a substantial saving to the taxpayer. 0r*
Recreation as a reward for industry and good behaviour has always been limit ft
as very little sports equipment has been available. During the past year, however '
combination hobbycraft programme and canteen has been set up. Prison-made leather-
work, weaving, woodwork articles, as well as the usual confections can be bought by staff
inmates, and visitors, all profits going to the Welfare Fund. This fund over the first year
appears to be sufficient to finance the hobby and sports programme for the institution
This system not only keeps the men constructively occupied, but also provides a way for
them to contribute themselves to an adequate recreational programme.
Church attendance, though on a voluntary basis, has been exceptional every Sunday
with our chapel, which holds only 300 men, unable to adequately accommodate all those
wishing to attend services. A prison church of adequate size is a necessary addition to
be considered in the future.
School classes were carried on at their usual high standard at the Young Offenders'
Unit, but in the Main Gaol and new unit this work was limited to correspondence classes
which are, however, pursued industriously by men in their cells during the evening.
The biggest change in Oakalla during the past year has probably been the fact that
staff are no longer at the mercy of inmates. There is no longer need for appeasement
The habitual convict resents the change and subjects the administration to an endless
battle of wits. The wild youth rebels at first, but gradually aligns himself with some
respect for authority. A large middle group of more mature and hopeful offenders
express their thanks for fair though strict treatment and the opportunity for an experience
which can be as creative as their own interests.
Our greatest need in the future will probably be an opportunity to provide these
men, over a third of whom are war veterans, with training in more productive trades work,
It is our hope for the future that a committee representing labour, management, and the
institution can be created to guide production by inmates for government use. The committee would direct production to safeguard industry and labour and restrict the volume
of production, so that the prison could never, even if it were possible, produce more than
its cost of operation to the taxpayer.
Before presenting the detailed reports of the various units, I wish, on behalf of all
staff, to express to all the public and private agencies and the lay people, who have helped
and understood, when both were difficult, our sincere thanks for their assistance and
co-operation and the privilege of working for and with them for another very successful
year.
Respectfully submitted.
'^g| .   Hugh G. Christie,
Warden.
Women's Section
Hugh Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm. J
Sir,—I hereby submit a report of the work and activities of the Women's Gaol for
the fiscal year 1953-54.
Population
The average daily population was 63.071, with an average monthly populationo
1,918.416.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 p \\
Culinary
A total of 69,062 meals were served. The usual extra rations were served at Easter,
Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's. |r.
Edibles canned consisted of 150 quarts of rhubarb, 60 quarts of cherry jam, 200
quarts of beets, and 200 quarts of cucumbers. ' §
Arts and Crafts
' Ninety-six articles were made from scraps. Inmates' own material consisted of the
following: Knitting, 247 articles; leatherwork, 30 articles; sewing, 34 articles; copper,
2 articles; and miscellaneous, 15 articles. Articles made from institutional material:
Sewing, 168; Leatherwork, 132; copper, 115; shell-craft, 81; wood-burning, 43;
Dresden-craft, 70; flower-craft, 69; knitting and embroidery, 127; and miscellaneous,
150 articles. I
Besides the aforementioned types of O.T. work, practice work has included picture-
framing, quilting, rug-making, upholstery, and figure-moulding. With the new combined
O.T. and sewing-room having better lighting and more space, an improvement has been
possible in all the work done.
On the completion of the new O.T., a social tea and exhibition of work was held for
the Elizabeth Fry Society and executives of Women's Service groups. The pride and
interest shown by the inmates in this effort was very gratifying, and an improved general
atmosphere was created by this social contact.
Laundry
During the year, 48,116 articles were laundered, which was an increase of nearly
15,000 over last year. The laundry is inadequate because of its small size, lack of drying-
room, close proximity to the I solitary confinement" cells, poor wiring (only four outlets),
and the fact that of the two mangles, only one is in working-order, and that one is too
small for the laundry done. There is little storage space, but because of the floods caused
by a faulty sewerage system, it is impossible to store powdered soaps, etc., in the basement. The boiler-room is constantly steamed up, and consequently the whole basement
is damp.
It is recommended that a window be cut between the laundry and the linen-room.
This would enable the Laundry Matron to keep a closer observation on her team.
Sewing-room
Repairs done for the Men's Gaol—
Socks I |  25,991
Pants p  7,622
White shirts  152
Shirts  2,665
Sweat-shirts  14
Jackets   365
Coveralls  152
Shorts  280
Drawers  1,499
Undershirts  2,291
White pants  281
Wool blankets  31
Pillow-slips  1
Laundry-bags  242
Aprons  44
White jackets  1
Ironing-board covers  .  1
 p 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Repairs done for Young Offenders' Unit—
Socks  1,36!
Smocks  i
Pants  |  642
Bedspreads  j
Shirts   464
Sweat-shirts  141
White pants  19
White jackets  16
Undershirts   54
Shorts  89
f Sheets   4
Pillow-slips  10
Laundry-bags   20
Towels  7
White shirts  15
Aprons   12
White jackets  5
Coveralls  6
Drawers *  5
Repairs done for New Haven—
Socks  1,530
Coveralls  75
Shirts  86
Pyjamas  16
Shorts  18
Cooks' caps ll  4
Aprons   176||
White shirts  15
White pants  26
Dress pants  24
Pants   98
Pillow-slips  4
Laundry-bags  5
Jackets  18
Towels  7
Sheets I  29
The increased output of mending has been made possible by the improved facilities
of the new sewing-room. During the year, two new sewing-machines and two new power-
machines were added to the equipment, and it is hoped that in the future the number of
power-machines will be increased.
j Health
General health of inmates is good. Dr. Richmond, the medical officer and psychiatrist, is on twenty-four-hour call.
Ardoctor and nurse from the Provincial Venereal Disease Clinic made weekly visits.
There were five inmates infected with syphilis, and fifty-nine with gonorrhoea. These
inmates were treated with procaine penicillin and some with streptomycin.
H| Hospital       ||f:
During the year twenty-five inmates were hospitalized. There were four babies born
to inmates during the year. W
Tickets of Leave
During the year one inmate benefited by ticket of leave.
I
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 P 13
Church Services
Attendance at the weekly church service is fair. There are Roman Catholic morning
services each Sunday, and afternoon Protestant services. j|
Major and Mrs. Wagner, of the Salvation Army, are continuing to do valuable work
in rehabilitating inmates, and Mrs. Wagner helps greatly by escorting released inmates to
the various boats and trains. |       *
Correspondence Courses
There were 35 girls attending school during the year. They were registered for
thirteen different courses, as follows: Art course, 3; Journalism, 1; Book-keeping, 1;
Business English, 1; Record-keeping, 2; Shorthand 21, 3; Shorthand 31, 1; Typing 10,
19; Typing 20, 3; elementary Grades IV, V, VI, 3; beginners, 1; typing practice, 4.
The following courses were completed within the institution: One in Typing 10,
one in Typing 20, one in Shorthand 21, two in Record-keeping, and one in Grade V.
There are still three on courses here, five at Prince George, who were transferred,
and two have taken courses out with them. One has phoned in regarding her progress,
and we expect to hear from the other in about three weeks.
Good progress is made in the number of papers being submitted each month, and
grades received have also been good.
Both the High School Correspondence Branch and the Elementary Correspondence
Branch of the Department of Education have given us splendid co-operation and encouragement. We feel that these branches should be commended for the high quality of
their work.
Recreational Shift (3 to 11 p.m.)
Since March, 1953, the group programme has continued along the same lines as
when first organized. Group I is for non-addicts, Group II for Industrial School girls
and first offenders, Group III for young addicts, Group IV for addicts with several convictions, Group V for older women who conform to Gaol rules and regulations and rarely
offer any problem in discipline, and Group VI for new admittances, short-timers, and
those offering a problem in discipline.
On March 13th, 1954, Group V was moved to a hut and operates on a medium
security plan; that is, a matron is present at all times, but their door is left open until
dark and they are allowed out of the hut within certain limits. Group I will be going to
a second hut. As the groups that go to the huts are smaller than in the main building,
this necessitates the forming of a seventh group, which consists of an overflow of individuals who do not conform to our other six groups.
Our plan of activity varies slightly from last year. A schedule is posted giving each
group three hobby periods, two kitchen fatigue, two library periods, four indoor recreational periods during winter, outdoor during summer. The remainder of the time is
taken up in community activities; that is, picture shows, bingo, whist drives, spelling-
bees, costume parties.
Alcoholics Anonymous hold a meeting every Sunday, and continue to be our main
financial support for hobby work.     H
Three of our staff took a course in picture projection, which enables us to run our
own films, with the result we are able to show more films than in the previous year.
Hobby Work.—During 1953, besides continuing with wood-burning, copper-tooling,
Dresdenwork, etc., a new hobby has been added—that of making beaded necklaces and
ear-rings. This craft was very popular with the girls from the Industrial School. They
made several sets which sold at $2 a set, which paid for the materials used.
A petition for a grant for hobby work has been submitted to the Government, and
Ultil such time as it is granted, it was thought we might concentrate more on home sewing, crocheting, and knitting such articles as would sell easily, rather than expensive crafts
such as leatherwork and copper-tooling. r
 p 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Outdoor Recreation.—Most of the summer months last year were spent on the b 11
field or in the rock garden, with the occasional walk to the orchard to pick fruit n
girls were given their own field, which facilitated the problem of discipline.
The loss of the Quonset hut gymnasium forced us to give up basketball, volleyball
and badminton. However, we used the day-room for simple exercises for a short period
and the corridor for bowling. The Essondale Gymnasium donated sponge-rubber bowling
pins and balls for this purpose. 1 8
It was thought that were a bowling-alley possible, it would be worth while, as the
sport attracted not only the younger but the women in the older age-group. While this
sport requires a certain degree of skill, it is not too rugged for the lesser athletes.
A hard-surfaced court outdoors would be a boon to our sports programme as it
could be used for several sports—basketball, volleyball, badminton, and tennis. Were
this court placed beside the ball-field, it would be possible to have all our groups active
in sports. :J|
Library.—Since last year it was decided to make the care of the library a group
project. So far, the groups are not too well trained in the care of the books, but it is
hoped that in time they will improve. The books have been moved to a small upstairs
sitting-room which is better furnished and quieter than the former library, which was
directly across the hall from the main office.
We have received 265 new books this year, mostly fiction. Mr. Egilson, our
Librarian, plans to start a recording system April 1st, whereby we will be able to check
the circulation next year. We can only guess that there are not as many books read as
in previous years because the girls do not get as much time for reading.
The plan is to keep the group who are most interested in reading in charge of the
library, so that they can pick out the better books and recommend them to others.
We have a large selection of magazines that are left in the sitting-room at all times
and are most popular with the girls.
Discipline
The percentage of drug addicts is still increasing, making it still absolutely im]
to segregate the various types of inmates, with a resulting disciplinary problem.
The conduct for the past year has been fairly good in spite of all these adverse conditions. During the year, twenty-nine were crimed. This consisted of being confined to
their own room or the building, a lecture of reprimand from the Warden, or loss of remission days. The latter seems to be the most effective form of punishment. I
The grouping of inmates and increase of staff has made a marked improvement on
the behaviour of the inmate toward the staff and other inmates. The inmate has been less
demanding and less restless about menial private affairs. The group activity keeps them
too occupied for malicious plottings.
Recommendations
Space is still limited and facilities inadequate for all projects and activities. The
number of prisoners with long sentences is still increasing, and the sentences are becoming longer. Single cells are much more satisfactory for these prisoners, but there are far
too few.
We require a separate admitting unit, where inmates may be held for a period of at
least two weeks until they can be classified and grouped. The group system is already
proving to be valuable in diverting the inmates' attention from unwholesome matters to
more concrete attitudes toward living.
Summary
We feel that in spite of all of our handicaps we have had wonderful co-operation
from female staff, male staff, outside societies, churches, and also most of the inmates,
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 p 15
enabling us to have a fairly progressive year. It is only with such interests and help from
agencies both in and outside of the institution that we can in any way accomplish the
aoal of rehabilitation,  h
Rehabilitation programme to the outside is still progressing very slowly, but possibly
due to lack of Probation Officers rather than the desire of inmate to remain out of custody.
In conclusion, Sir, I wish to thank you and all of your administrative staff for your
valuable advice and assistance with all of our numerous problems. |f J|
Respectfully submitted.
E. Inkster,
Matron-in-Charge.
YOUNG OFFENDERS' UNIT
Hugh G.Christie,
Warden.
Sir,—We beg to submit the annual report on the operation of the Young Offenders'
Unit for the year ended March 31st, 1954. #
Custody and Controls
While the inmate population has tended to have an increasing proportion of neurotic
and extremely immature members, control by staff has been consistently and adequately
secure, except prior to one serious episode which resulted in the temporary escape of four
inmates and injury to two night guards. The level of staff performance has been generally
equal to the requirements of handling this population. All staff members benefited from
a week's training course given by Gaol officials.
Food Rations
The rations recommended by the Provincial Dietitian were continued, and on October 1st we commenced receiving stores direct from the Oakalla store-keeper, with the
result that we were able to serve a far greater variety of rations to the inmates. The
administrative officers continued to meet periodically with the inmate representatives
to discuss possibilities for improving meal service, provided generally by the inmates
themselves.
Maintenance of Grounds and Buildings
During the year the units and corridors were painted throughout. The Quonset huts
housing the upholstery and radio shops were completely wired and plumbing installed.
Extensive landscaping of the grounds around the building was carried on during the
early spring, the enlarging of the playing-field continued, and grass was planted on the
baseball diamond. W
Socialization Programme
During the past year the programme at the Young Offenders' Unit has followed the
pattern of the previous year, with the gym programme of floor-hockey being very popular
during the winter months and softball taking on a major interest during the spring and
summer. Groups are encouraged to follow their own interests, within this particular
setting, and thus allow for considerable variation from one unit to another as far as
general programme is concerned. Hobbies have been handled with considerable change
m policy; an attempt to further assist inmates to give as well as receive has resulted in
adoption of policy that each inmate could take home some item of leather, copper, or
other craft, but that all the subsequent amounts would become property of the Young
Offenders' Unit. How much the individual inmate does take home depends on individual
factors which are assessed at the time of his discharge. This has resulted in a sharpening
 p 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of our focus on the central purpose of helping all inmates to give of themselves to
fullest extent, both in areas of relationship as well as things produced. One area rem
to be worked out; that is, an outlet for items made so that proceeds could purchase m*
supplies.
The inmate council has made important progress during the year, and has taken
increasing responsibility for planning inter-unit programme.   Other important areas of
expression have been in organizing a paper and planning for special events.
Staff
The Young Offenders' Unit continues to attract a good proportion of excellent staff
people. During the year some turnover occurred, but this was mostly related to staff
wanting new experience, or deciding their interests were in other fields. Over the year
staff have increasingly done a qualitative job and have become more aware of their essential function of working in the area of social relationship between inmates, and the use of
programme as a tool, not as a bribe. However, there are indications that a limit has been
reached in relationship to the amount of skill which staff can gain on the job. It is possible that some members of staff left because they did not get the more technical skill
needed to cope with the problems of working with their groups. This problem, in my
opinion, can only be partially met at regular staff meetings and by individual conferences*
a need for a formal in-staff training programme is necessary in order to help move the
staff to a greater degree of skill in dealing with the kind of problems that are arising as a
result of more disturbed, immature kind of personality that the Young Offenders' Unit is
having to cope with. With what has been possible the staff are doing an excellent job.
Vocational Programme
During the twelve-month period covered in this report, the following vocational
placements have operated: Motor mechanics, woodwork, school radio, upholstery, bookbinding, and kitchen. Also, a number of inmates are on what we term a maintenance
group.   Taking these various vocational placements individually:—
Motor Mechanics.—During the twelve months, work of a practical nature has been
fairly well supplied, through supervisors' cars, the Young Offenders' Unit staff car, a
small tractor on a loan at Oakalla, and a staff car from New Haven. Some idea of the
work done with this group is represented in the fact that about $1,200 in parts have gone
into these cars. This group has had a full placement of twelve and fourteen inmates at
all times, with a waiting list of at least six.
The new motor mechanics supervisor has proven himself well adapted to this type
of work. He is well liked by the inmates, and has a natural aptitude for imparting technical knowledge in everyday language. He is very consistent and commands respect,
both for his knowledge as a mechanic and for his manner and fair dealing with the
inmates. He has taken a course through the Sun technical-equipment manufacturers,
given through Taylor & Pearson (B.C.) Ltd., at a cost to himself of $60, and is intending
to follow this up with an instructor's course in the near future.
It is hoped that with a small outlay some body-work tools may be acquired and a
part of our motor-mechanic training for the coming year will take in body work.
The Chief Vocational Officer has been able to keep a supply of engine-blocks, etc.,
that has given the group a reasonable continuity of instruction in the variqus stages ot
practical motor mechanics.
Woodwork.—This course has begun to operate on a step-by-step instructional basis
to a fair degree. It undertook a rather large project for the special events committee oi
the British Empire Games, in the way of lawn chairs and occasional chairs which, I thm*.
they did a rather good job on, on the mass-production system. This group also constructed a number of toys at Christmas for the Community Chest.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 p 17
School Radio.—This is one of the largest groups, if not the largest, arid the standard
of work and discipline demanded by the supervisor and maintained by him leaves very
little room for criticism. It is not easy to keep the type of lads we have to deal with
interested and working on an academic subject, but the supervisor has done a very fine
job on a fairly large percentage of the younger lads, in bringing up their grade standing
and in creating an interest in furthering their education. He has also done a very fine
job with his radio class. A number of radios have been repaired for the supervisors, and
a lot of old radios reconditioned are made workable for Oakalla, the Women's Gaol, and
for our own units.
Upholstery.—This group has been one of the most difficult to keep employed and
therefore to keep up to a full quota of inmates. Effort is being made to get some definite
course laid down for this group, but this is made difficult by the lack of a consistent supply
of work on a straight upholstery basis.
It is therefore intended to put in a few tools and start the construction of some small
articles of furniture along with the upholstery, so as to give these lads a fuller understanding of and training in the manufacturing of furniture, jf -     -
This group did a very good job in upholstery of occasional chairs for the British
Empire Games Committee. Chesterfields, chairs, etc., have been recovered for Oakalla
and supervisors, and some work done for the Court-house.
Bindery.—This group has had a more steady supply of work this year, but it is only
possible to employ about seven lads at the most in this shop. However, it is a very good
outlet for a certain type of lad, and we always seem to have five or six of this type. There
has been improvement in the work turned out, in the conduct of the shop, and the relationship between supervisor and inmates. Although the type of lad suitable for this work
is usually one with marked problems, the supervisor has done a very good job with several
of these very difficult lads. The lack of a steady supply of work for this shop makes it
difficult to keep this group actively and consistently employed.
Kitchen.—All supplies for this group are handled through the Custodial Officer.
Placement in the kitchen of inmates is done with the co-operation of the Classification
Officer, and the inmates in the placement are, in general, under his direct control.
Sanctions
The use of loss of privilege has generally been adequate to ensure the co-operation
and growth of inmates. As an ultimate resort, inmates are returned to the Main Gaol.
During the year, fifteen inmates were so returned. Of these, five were brought back to
the Young Offenders' Unit after they had re-earned the privilege.
Medical-Dental
Sick parade was held four days weekly by the Prison Medical Officer. On his
referral, 233 appointments were kept with Vancouver General Hospital Out-patient
Department, 9 inmates were fitted with glasses to correct marked vision defects, and 7
inmates were admitted for medical treatment to Vancouver General Hospital. The conduct of all of these was exemplary while in hospital. One inmate was committed to the
Provincial Mental Hospital. T*
General Comment
Of the 140 inmates released during this year, all but 8 had substantial Court records,
either as juvenile or adult offenders. In spite of this background, approximately 75 per
cent of Young Offenders' Unit cases have to date been able to avoid further offences. An
important supplement to the institutional programme in this respect is the increased use
of the indefinite sentence, which requires that every inmate have a release plan and be
subject to supervision after release. For this purpose, 18 inmates were escorted to interviews with employers.   Forty of the inmates released during the year were under this
 p ig; BRITISH COLUMBIA
parole plan.   As this number grows, provision for more Parole Officers will be reaui
to plan with the institution prior to release and provide the necessary supervisionhth
community.
Respectfully submitted.
§| ^ cf ■ M- Davis,
Classification Officer,
1p MEDICAL REPORT OF OAKALLA PRISON FARM AND
YOUNG OFFENDERS' UNIT
E.G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual medical report for the year ended
March 31st, 1954, for the above-mentioned institutions.
.   ||: :.-•  .       : ,:i&.   - Main Gaol   .
Hospital
Since the submission of the last Annual Report, with the co-operation of the executive, the facilities for medical treatment in the institution have been expanded. Improvements in the prison hospital have included construction of a pharmacy and storage accommodation, the establishment of an operating-room, which can be used for major surgery
in an emergency, and the establishment of a treatment-room for dressings.
H The hospital kitchen is now used only for the warming of food sent from the prison
kitchen and for the preparation of all fluid diets, such as egg-nogs. The only diets served
in the main prison are for the diabetics. The tuberculosis patients have some additions
to the ordinary diet. On the whole, the preparation of diets in the prison kitchen has
been unsatisfactory. For example, diabetic patients need a most careful weighing, with
a sufficient variety of non-sugar-containing items. It is, of course, appreciated that diabetic prisoners are not on the whole co-operative in limiting themselves to such diets.
The Right Wing continues to contain those inmates in need of greater security, drug
addicts and mental-observation cases. Occupational therapy in the form of weaving has
been successfully carried out in this wing.
The Left Wing contains inmates suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis who remain
under the close observation of the Division of Tuberculosis Control. As many as possible have been admitted to tuberculosis hospitals elsewhere. Occupational therapy in
the form of leatherwork has offered valuable employment to a number of the patients.
There has been difficulty in coming to some arrangements over privileges as recognition
of their work and, with the not-unusual temperamental disturbances of the tuberculous,
there have been periods when the work has come to a standstill. The Tower accommodates those more chronically ill, such as the aged and the disabled.
Concerning treatment more specifically, it will be noted from the records that many
operations for plastic surgery to the nose have been performed by Dr. E. Lewison. Ito
service has been contributed by him free. His skill has shown itself to be of high quality,
and the results have, in my opinion, increased the morale of the patients concerned, both
men and women. The women have been operated upon in the Women's Gaol. Dr.
Lewison has now been operating for over a year, and he is prepared to continue. He
offers an outstanding example of the value of rehabilitative surgical measures, even though
they be merely cosmetic. ■ |r .:f|';-■.. |§ #
Other operations, carried out by myself, as will be noted from the statistics, have
been circumcision and removal of cysts and small tumours.   An instrument has been
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 P 19
nurchased for the cauterization of simple growths. Training of the staffLin operating-
room technique has been invaluable, and it is to the great credit of the hospital officers
some of them have absorbed so willingly and ably the procedures necessary for surgical
sterility. An autoclave has been purchased, and we have been able to obtain by its use
just sufficient material for the present. Further observations concerning this will be seen
in my recommendations. jj<   :
I am appreciative of the supply of instruments made possible by the executive for
us to obtain.   We have also added instrument-cabinets and a much needed oxygen
apparatus.       ,#. f .4    #   ;
Another major step in medical treatment has been made by the supplying of a
machine for electro-convul_gve therapy. Any inmate considered by myself to require
electro-convulsive therapy is presented to Dr. Ernest Campbell, the Consulting Psychiar
trist for the Gaol, for his approval concerning the use of electro-conviiisive therapy. We
have employed both major and minor shock-therapy, and find that fji the agitated and
depressed individual the results have exceeded our expectations..-j*It has been found that
a number of patients have been so assisted that committal to the Provincial Mental Hospital has been found unnecessary, and that a number have been able to return to the
Main Gaol considerably improved in their mental state. With the anticipated increase
of psychiatric resources in this Gaol, it is hoped that an increasing number of inmates
may receive treatment of this nature. So far, we have only treated those by electroconvulsive therapy of their own volition, except in the case of one inmate in a state of
stupor, when permission was obtained from the Attorney-General's Department to
administer shock-treatment, which was entirely successful.
Another significant mode of diagnostic procedure has been that of electroencephalography. The number of inmates sent for this type of investigation has been reported
in the statistics. In the light of very recent research, there is now evidence obtained by
electroencephalography which could assist the Courts towards a general assessment of
the personality of the accused, aided, of course, by the results of other investigations.
There are indications that a certain type of tracing is obtained in the aggressive psychopath, and another type in schizophrenia. It is inevitable that we will receive an increasing number of requests for this added investigation from counsel for the defence, and
also for the Crown. Dr. Ernest Campbell, Consulting Psychiatrist for the Gaol, has
advised that all prisoners on a murder charge should have an encephalographic test carried out. At a recent visit, Mr. A. J. MacLeod, Director of Remissions Service in Ottawa,
stressed the need for a routine examination of this sort in the case of prisoners charged
with murder, as he considers it an important feature in his general assessment of the case
when considering submission of a report as regards commutation of the death sentence.
Mr. MacLeod says that he hopes that the electroencephalographic examijij§tion of such
individuals will become the general practice throughout Canada. So far, we here have
only arranged for these examinations at the specific request of Dr. Campbell, the Crown
counsel, or the psychiatrist called by the defence; also, it has been done with the approval
of the inmate concerned. Apart from those inmates awaiting trial, many can be sent for
electroencephalographic examination to the Crease Clinic, having been suspected of
epilepsy, or brain tumour or injury. ;jg
We were fortunate to have been chosen as a source of material for the research team
established by the University of British Columbia and Dr. Margaret Kennard. The aim
of this investigation was to discover if an electroencephalograph tracing can show a specific pattern for the psychopath. Dr. Kennard took a number of controls of psychiatric
patients from the Crease Clinic and of individuals considered normal. I have attended
lectures which Dr. Kennard has given concerning her results, which have been impressive.
They point to the possibility, in the near future, of a diagnosis of psychopathy largely
assisted by the electroencephalograph recording; this, of course, is assuming that there
is some agreed basis as to what constitutes psychopathic behaviour.   Dr. Kennairi did
 P 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA
not include drug addicts or alcoholics in her research, nor anyone over the
rentage of dr w
F^ ..    _ m | -twenty-seven men and six
women.    It was interesting to note also the fewer number of suitable male subi
obtainable in the 26-30-year age-group.
not include drug addicts or alconolics m ner researcn, nor anyone over the age of in
years.   It is interesting to note that she found difficulty in obtaining a sufficient numb
of subjects from the Women's Gaol because of the high percentage of drug users in \
population.    Dr. Kennard examined thirty-three inmates—twenty-seven men and s
ects
Staff
For almost a year there has been a Senior Disciplinary Officer in charge of the
hospital administration.
Whereas nursing was previously almost solely carried out by trusted inmates on
each shift, there is now an officer whose duties are specifically those of nursing treatment
An officer is permanently on pharmacy and operating-room supervision. We are fortunate in having in this officer a man who is very competent in both spheres.
tt The officer in charge of the tuberculosis control clinic, and his relief, have now been
trained to take large, diagnostic X-ray plates. Many of the hospital staff attended a course
in practical nursing, given by the instructor in practical nursing at the Vancouver Vocational Institute. There has been increased knowledge gained by the hospital officers in
emergency treatment, intravenous and tube feeding, and the techniques of electroconvulsive therapy and operating-room procedure. There is now the beginning of a
small laboratory, and one officer has been given the responsibility for this aspect of the
work, which, at present, is only a very limited undertaking. S
I am grateful to the hospital staff for the conscientious assistance rendered by its
members, and I am gratified by the skill shown, in spite of lack of previous training, in
many cases, and with only the minimum of resources. Further observations will be made
below, in my series of recommendations.
Staff Recommendations
It is becoming more and more necessary that there should be at least one registered
nurse on the hospital staff. It is considered that the requirements of a prison medical
service are paramount enough to justify establishing a nursing career for the prison staff.
This entails in-service training of a medical nature, following the instructional course
given to all officers. It also entails the possibility of obtaining recognition afforded by
trades pay, with a chance of promotion to Senior Hospital Officer in this specialty. This
is in accordance with any progressive organization, in my experience and belief.
Hospital Recommendations
Although some headway has been made as regards improving the hospital service
and equipment, there is still a great deal to be accomplished. Accommodation, means of
treatment, and staffing still leave much to be desired. We have to rely on the services of
the Vancouver General Hospital to an excessive degree. It is considered that, for the
purposes of economy and security in a prison of this size, there should be facilities for
major surgery, skilled nursing, and diagnosis. It is felt that we are not keeping abreast
with prison medical progress such as can be found in many other areas.
We have been fortunate in obtaining the advice of Mr. Madley, the Hospital
Designer on the staff of the Vancouver General Hospital, who recently visited us. The
following is his report:— >jgS§ |        f^
w ■. \rCl   " Survey of Hospital Facilities at Oakalla Prison Farm
"On June 4th, at the request of Dr. Richmond, I visited the Oakalla Prison Farm,
the purpose being to survey the existing hospital facilities and to make recommendations
with a view to improving and correcting the inadequacies of the present hospital
accommodations.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 p 21
" This report is made with the assumption that a new hospital wing will not be built,
and that alterations to the present area will be the minimum in order to provide reasonably adequate hospital facilities.
" The largest single expenditure recommended is the rebuilding of the elevator shaft
to accommodate a hospital-type elevator. In all probability, when this scheme is submitted to your architects, they may consider it advisable to build an entirely new shaft on
the exterior of the building. This would have the advantage of releasing at least another
50 feet of floor-space on each floor.
"Patients are now housed on the fifth and sixth floors, with operating-room and
treatment-rooms in the centre of the nursing area on the fifth floor. This is not considered to be good hospital practice.
" The present plan of the fifth floor is deficient, in that it does not provide for utility-
room, linen-room, ablution-room, janitor's room, chart-room, observation ward, laboratory, or a proper kitchen and pharmacy.  Many essential plumbing and electrical facilities
are lacking. f^
<( Recommendations
" It is recommended that the whole of the fifth floor be used as nursing space, and
that the sixth floor be converted to a treatment and administrative area, generally as
shown on the attached sketches. This arrangement will provide for proper segregation of
in-patients and out-patients. Separation of the treatment and nursing departments should
provide a degree of privacy and quiet so desirable for good patient care, and result in
better control from the nursing and administrative standpoint.
" The sketches attached to this report are intended only as a guide, and will require
proper development by your architects. An endeavour has been made to use the existing
arrangements wherever possible. Architectural development will include amendment of
such items as the elevator, fenestration, mechanical ventilation, adequate lighting, floor
and wall treatment.
"No provision has been made for X-ray service. This could be handled with a
portable unit in the operating-room, supplementing the existing equipment on the main
floor. It may be possible to install dental equipment in examination-room No. 30,
depending on how often this room will be used for medical examinations. This would
relieve the congestion in the X-ray department.
"Therapy-room.—It is recommended that the therapy-room be provided with lighting and nurses'call-system for six beds.
"Complement.—Number of beds: In cells, 10; in wards, 18; giving a total of 28.
The potential if the therapy-room is used for overload is 6 beds, making a grand total of
34 beds. %    II §
"Fire-exits.—Fire-exits should be considered for both the fifth and sixth floors.
"Medical Records.—No provision has been made for storage of medical records.
Probably space could be found in the basement or stores area.
From the hospital point of view, removal of the cells from Areas 1 and 4 would
be desirable, but this may not be possible when security is considered.
" The attached schedule lists the areas in accordance with the field numbers shown
on the sketches, and indicates the fixed and special facilities required in each."
It can be seen from the report that, at a reasonable expense, our prison hospital can
be redesigned and equipped to such a degree as to render the number of cases referred to
the Vancouver General Hospital comparatively few. This would mean a great saving in
expenditure, transportation, and guards.
It is my opinion that provision of an X-ray apparatus is essential. The increasing
amount of athletics and of employment inevitably increases the number of accidents
which require X-ray examination. We already have an officer trained in the taking of
X-ray for the tuberculosis control on the Gaol, and he could soon be trained in the
development of other X-ray technique* f    *'
 p 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
18     W& are still lacking some of the basic needs for nlursing care. We need mor h
pital beds and more tables. We have not, as yet, plumbing for the washigg and sterili
of bedpans, nor any wash-basin in the treatment-room.   IJiere is no toilet for {J8
hospital staff. ;#r .^ e
Mental observation is unsuitable at present; there are no protective and silent ro
for suicidal and violent patients.   Concerning the tuberculosis patients, the accommoT
tion falls far below modern medical requirements. §^, a"
It is our opinion that the tuberculosis patients should be moved elsewhere o
special and segregate unit should be constructed on the prison grounds. It is appreciated
that any substantial improvements in the treatment of tuberculosis patients in this prison
will take much time. It is felt that more could be achieved under presentjeonditions. It
is thought that they should be given exceptional consideration, and that activities should
be regarded as occupational therapy, without thejneed to conform to the requirements of
inmates who do not labour under such disabling conditions. For instance, it would be oi
benefit if, under suitable supervision, tuberculosis patients could be allowed to watch
ball games. As matters stand at present, they have no relief from a drab environment'
there is no church and no outside entertainment, though they have a radio and a few
comfortable chairs. Owing to the unsuitable location of the tuberculosis ward, it is not
possible to give the tuberculosis patients sufficient exercise and a variety of recreation and
occupation. In spite of the occupational therapy, there is not enough for these patients
to do.   Some have more than two years to spend in this inadequate environment.
§ There should be a separate unit for inmates withdrawing from narcotics. There
should also be a unit for ageing and for ailing alcoholics. At present, unless a narcotic
addict is seriously ill, he is given withdrawal treatment'p the wings. We have instituted
a routine of withdrawal by means of barbiturates which has, so far, proven very satisfactory. Those who require more attention are given mtravenous a|id vitamin treatment,
We are experimenting with the newest type of drugs, such as naline and largactil, which
are not on the narcotic list, no& are they barbiturates.
We have already discussed examination by means of electroencephalography. It is
hoped, in view of the increasing necessity for this type of examination, that some time in
the future the Government will see fit to purchase a machine and to train a technician.
If we are to undertake more treatment of the disturbed prisoner and rehabilitation of
physical and neurotic disabilities, we need foam-baths and physiotherapy apparatus.
Tuberculosis
^ We are indebted to the authorities of the Division of Tuberculosis Control, Provincial Governinent, for their close co-operation during the year. We have received the
utmost assistance from them ^Through the help of the prison executive and the Division
of Tuberculosis Control, many tuberculosis patients have been transferred to tuberculosis
hospitals; namely, Pearson and Tranquille^ During the year a conference was held at the
Pearson Tuberculosis Hospital concerning hospitalization of tuberculous drug addicts.
There is no means at the Pearson Tuberculosis Hospital for preventing access to narcotics
brought in from outside sources, and it was recommended that this type of patient from
Oakalla be sent to Tranquille, where it is not so easy to obtain narcotic drugs illicitly.
A progressive step has been the commencement of large chest X-ray plates being
taken at the Gaol. Patients requiring these previously have been sent to the Willow Chest
Clinic. The services rendered by $|fiss Neen, the liaison worker between the Gaol and the
Division of Tuberculosis Control, have proved of inestimable value. r ..J| ,,
S The efficient administration of this department of the Gaol, under the supervision
llf experienced members of t|fe hospital staff, is worthy of a place in the record. Another
significant measure has been the skin-testing of ||l officers in the prison, in order to
establish their susceptibility to tuberculosis contagion. It is considered that this is necessary to meet the requirements of the Workmen's Compensation Board, should any
officer contract the disease.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 P 23
Venereal Disease Control
We have also to express our appreciation of the services rendered by the Division
of Venereal Disease Control, Provincial Government. "*p
Every inmate is investigated by the physician on the staff of the Division of Venereal
Disease Control, and treatment is undertaken, if necessary. This, throughout the year,
has been a most active section of the medical field in this prison.
Dentist
We have been fortunate in the appointment of Dr. Gilroy as a part-time, salaried
dental surgeon. Even with his expert assistance, the waiting-list of those requiring dental
treatment is unduly large. There are no means available at the moment for adding to
the time spent by Dr. Gilroy, which is one and one-half days a week.
It is quite evident that we need further dental assistance, and therefore the appointment of an additional dental surgeon should be seriously considered. In my opinion,
we would obtain more skilled service by having two part-time dentists rather than appointing one full time. The professional status of a part-time practitioner in prison work
is, I think, higher than that of a man who would be prepared to undertake full-time prison
dentistry. It is suggested that two part-time dentists should cover four complete working-
days a week.
It is our opinion that for prisoners serving six months or over, dentures should be
supplied at public expense. We would press, above all, for the supplying of toothbrushes
to inmates who cannot afford to buy their own. My experience in other prisons has
been that toothbrushes can be sterilized and reissued. Combs, also, should be supplied
to indigent prisoners who are in need of them. Sterilization and reissue would also apply
in this case.
Optometry
With the assistance of optical apparatus loaned by a firm of optometrists, we have
been able to save a large number of trips to the Vancouver General Hospital for
refractions.
Through the ikindness of an optometrist, Mr. Roy Scott, we have been able to call
on his services to test the vision of inmates who have money and who requife glasses.
Mr. Scott conducts his examinations in the prison with the help of our equipment. He
makes no charge for his visits, and he supplies glasses at the cost of the materials only.
We feel that, for those prisoners serving a sentence of three months or over, there should
be available an issue of glasses at public expense should they be found necessary.
Psychiatric Services
The part-time services of T>f. Ernest Campbell have been retained, and although
his terms of contract only included reports to the Courts when so requested, he has been
presented with a variety of problems. All committals to the Provincial Mental Hospital
have required his investigation and approval. His Court work was confined almost
entirely to those cases appearing before the Assize Court which required a psychiatrist's
opinion. He has attended Assize Courts throughout the Province to give evidence as to
fitness to stand trial, and to give evidence during the trial itself.
I have been called in as the Prison Doctor to give evidence as to the behaviour of
the accused in prison. Dr. Campbell has also interviewed the inmates submitted to him
as being most likely to benefit by electro-convulsive therapy. He has also been called
in for thgdforcible feeding of the Doukhobors. Dr. Campbell has been paid for the forcible feeding of the Doukhobors in accordance with the approved scale of charges laid
down by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia.
The Psychologist and I have continued to submit pre-sentence reports in the case
of those referred by the Probation Branch for opinion as regards suitability for committal
 p 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
to New Haven or the Young Offenders' Unit, or as regards suitability for
Dr. Campbell has now been requested to undertake all psychiatric interviews an^renort
for both Assize Courts and Police Courts. This makes heavier demands on the Psychol
gist, who receives each man or woman prior to Dr. Campbell's interview. If the P °"
cho'logist is to continue testing staff and interviewing convicted inmates on referral u
taking part in classification as well as testing and interviewing each boy admitted to N
Haven, the present establishment for the psychological department is very inadequate
It means the necessity to employ another whole-time psychologist or to obtain the assis
tance of university students doing field work in psychology. Mr. McAllister has, throughout the year, been excessively busy, and as matters stand at present, assuming that the
Courts have priority, he will have to minimize t|s activities in other directions.
^Sanitary Inspection
H We have been greatly assisted by the expert counselling of the Sanitarian, Mr. Mallet
whose services have been made available to us through the kind offices of Dr. Wylde the
Medical Health Officer, of New Westminster. Mr. Mallet visits the Gaol once a month
and accompanies me around one section of the prison on each occasion. His counselling
has been highly constructive, and after each visit he submits a report. This report is
read by Dr. George Elliott, Assistant Provincial Health Officer, Dr. Wylde, the Warden,
and myself.
A disturbing factor is the number of rats in the Prison Farm and elsewhere. This
number has continued apparently without significant decrease, in spite of attention to
the garbage area. This is one of the problems which requires more urgent and concentrated combatting.
Narcotic Research
The Narcotic Research Team is headed by Dr. George Stevenson, who, assisted by
Mr. Pat Fogarty as a psychiatric social worker, and by Mr. Lingley as a psychologist, is
very active in this research.
We have been greatly helped by our association with these workers, and there is
little doubt but that the results of their exploration wpl be highly illuminating. It would
be presumptuous of me to make any recommendations concerning the treatment of narcotic addicts in the light of the abundant knowledge which Dr. Stevenson is amassing,
and we await their findings with eager anticipation,:!
As we have, however, pointed out, there is a pressing need for segregate accommodation, under close custodial and medical supervision, for those inmates withdrawing
from their habit. We are aware of the frequency with which narcotic drugs are being
brought into the prison by prisoners coming back from Court with drugs in containers
in their stomachs, the rectum, or other parts of the intestines. So far, in the case of men,
no emetic or enema has been administered as a routine, though we now have the authority of the Attorney-General to carry out these procedures when necessary. ,
Those inmates selected for research are examined by a specialist in internal medicine, Dr. Stansfield. Arrangements have also been made for an electroencephalographs
machine to be brought to the Gaol on loa&, for the purpose of examining these inmates.
One of our problems has been the shortage of rooms for Dr. Stevenson and his
colleagues, but it is understood that provision will be made for an adequate unit of this
soart in one of the buildings on the estate. I
fllll A year ago, after consultation with a representative group of addicts, a weekly
meeting of all of them was arranged with the object of group discussion, led by experts
in the fields related to drug addiction. Such an organization was initiated. Leaders in
public health, psychology medicine, the Chudrt*h, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Pote
addressed the group .on various occasions. Then Dr. Signori, the Professor of Psychology
at the University of British Columbia, headed a series of meetings with the aim of estab-
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 P 25
fishing the nudists of an agency which could function both as a community resource
and the means for placing the needs for treatment and prevention of addiction before
the public.
The next phase became that of group therapy, under the skitful leadership of Dr.
Stevenson and his colleagues; this latter, in my belief, is one of the more encouraging
and progressive activities which have so far been offered to drug addicfc in this prison.
West Wing
Close liaison has been initiated between the classification, organization, and the
medical departments, through the services of one of the medical staff who has been to
both the medical screening and the elementary social work. The number referred to the
Medical Officer has been kept within very reasonable limits. Medical classification is
carried out during the morning following the inmates' committal to Oakalla, and the
grading of physical capacity is recorded and passed to the necessary authority. As this
wing is intended solely for classification purposes, there is a problem arising concerning
the care of disabled and infirm inmates who, under present conditions, swell the number
in hospital. It appears that there could be, with advantage, a place other than the hospital, such as a special tier in the wings, which would accommodate such inmates. It is
hoped, also, that there will be, in time, facilities for adequate observation of disturbed
inmates in semi-hospital accommodation and with cells adapted for this purpose. This
would include protective rooms against suicide and rooms insulated against sound for
the protection of inmates who would otherwise disturb the Gaol. At present there is no
alternative but to send these agitated individuals to isolation in cells too remote from the
Main Gaol, and too primitive.
South Wing
Condemned Cells.—These, as is well known, are unsuitable, firstly, from the point
of view of security, and secondly, from the point of view of privacy. We have also considered the advisability of some segregate exercise-yard being made accessible to a prisoner in the condemned cells. Other locations have been considered for these cells, and
doubtless the Warden, himself, has included submission concerning this.
East Wing
It has been pleasing to note the increasing number of drug addicts at work. On the
whole, it is felt that the morale in this wing has been higher than during the previous
year. It is felt that a step forward has been taken in the organization of a group for the
younger addicts; this has approached nearer to the category of treatment than previously.
On the whole, however, there is little or no encouragement offered by present resources
in this respect, but the recommendations of the drug research team will cover this problem
in the course of a year or so.
However, in the absence of other treatment facilities, the problem of the addicts in
the East Wing will regain with us for a considerable time. It is my belief that more
could be achieved, at least in the prevention of narcotic experimenters becoming established users.
It is my submission that, except for the small group of younger addicts previously
mentioned, there is a sufficient proportion of the remainder which should be segregated
Jrom the confirmed and habitual addicts, or, if not segregated, they should be dispersed
fttnong the inmates in other wings. This would require careful classification of the addicts
swthiii their own group; much time and effort would have to be expended on this project.
It is evident that the personalities of the addicts vary a great deal, and that merely to
employ the category " addict " or I non-addict" in preliminary classification in the West
Wing is considered entirely inadequate. •■*
 p 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Ventilation and heating of the wings remains somewhat unsatisfactory, alth
the new heating system has offered some improvement.   In the cold weather it was fo a
necessary to install oil-heaters. UQ(l
Temperatures were recorded on the various tiers, and in spite of these heaters th
was wide variation between the temperatures on the top tiers and those on the bott^
It is hoped that increased bathing accommodation in these wings will be installer
Kitchen
No comment is needed regarding this, as the new kitchen will shortly be in use
H; ' " -      Diet /• y..,.'...'..,..,1
|p|jp This, on the whole, has been satisfactory.   All special diets for the Main Gaol are
withdrawn, as previously mentioned.   The inadequacy for special diets for hospital
patients, especially for diabetics, has also been noted.  The new method of serving food
has greatly improved the fairness of distribution.   In the Main Gaol there is still the I
problem of serving food sufficiently heated.
Bathrooms
Alterations to these have proved satisfactory, although they are still, in my opinion,
below modern prison requirements. One of the difficulties has been ventilation, as during
alterations certain air inlets and outlets were eliminated. The Health Inspector has submitted a report in relation to this. W,
Toilet Facilities.—Mention has already been made regarding an issue of toothbrushes at public expense; also, tooth-powder, combs, and an increased number of
mirrors are needed.
Clothing
The quality of the clothing issued is as good as could be expected; it could be better
fitting, especially as regards boots. We cannot express too emphatically the need for
some form of night attire for the inmates, and also the necessity for sheets to protect the
blankets from continual washjgig, as tfeey tend to disintegrate much more rapidly under
constant laundering. We find the incidence of scabies much more prevalent than is usual
where there is an issue of sheets to the inmates. Skin rashes and other forms of dermatitis also are more prevalent than is necessary, and we feel that sheets would go a long
way toward elimination of this undesirable feature. The issue of a heavy jacket for outside work is essential. Inmates who are continually chilled while working outside are
prone to discontent and lack of any enthusiasm which a normally well-clad and warm
person should have in some degree on his job. Proper protection of the hands while on
various types of heavy work, especially in the cold weather, is, we feel, paramount, not
only for comfort but to help avoid minor injuries and contusions occasioned by their
employment. At the present time an effort is made to issue gloves, but the supply is
limited and the issue has, in consequence, been very haphazard.
We feel, too, that an issue of slippers would be a definite factor in relaxation, especially after the day's work. These slippers could be made in the prison shoe-shop; possibly
a canvas top with felt soles would be suitable. The actual cost would be negligible, and
they would effect a considerable saving on socks, as at present many inmates walk around
in their stocking feet.
| With regard to laundering of white garments for use in the hospital, especially in the
operating-room, at present considerable difficulty is being encountered in getting the
whites back from the laundry in a suitable condition for the purpose intended. These
whites are laundered along with the rest of the Gaol clothing, with the result that they are
continually received back in an unserviceable condition. This makes the necessary saltation of the garments very difficult.   In view of the fact that we have outside surgeon
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 p 27
using the facilities of our opefi_fti_ag-it)om ffom time to time, the above conditions are at
times embarking. ' :|
West Gate
This building, from the medical point of view, has caused some criticism, the major
difficulty being ventilation. A report from the Sanitarian was submitted to the Provincial
health authority and to the Warden, and some alterations are now in progress. It is early
yet to say if these are going to be ^ffective; there has been insufficient change of air and,
in the hot weather, unless the outside door is kept open to obtain a through draught, the
heat becomes intolerable. The state of ventilation will be closely watched. P
Another unsatisfactory matter of hygiene has been the plumbing. The toilets are
back to back, and when one is flushed the other becomes filled with waste. It will be
recalled that the Deputy Attorney-General observed this on one of his visits. The cement
floors give rise to fpo much cement dust and it is suggested that they be treated with an
authorized form of floor covering. ^
There has been an excessive incidence of athlete's foot. Metal trays are being made
to contain permanganate of potash solution in which feet will be bathed before and after
a shower.
vAn officer concentrating on medical work has been posted to the West Gate. He
sees to minor ailments and injuries and prepares the list for the sick parade twice a week.
I have been examining each inmate of thi^ unit once a month, in the form of a brief
general physical examination. From medical observation, this unit appears to be a great
step forward in the treatment programme; much, of course, remains to be accomplished,
but morale ts high and can assist in dispelling gaol morbidity.
Classification to the^Vest Gate includes careful screening of those younger inmates
who might on the other hand have to bef senOo the Young Offenders' Unit, but may be
categorized as being unsuitable for the Young Offenders' Unit in their personality pattern.
Further discussion of this is included iiLthe remarks concerning the Young Offenders'
Unit. In my opinion, it is clearly necessary to differentiate between the types of behaviour
problem which should be contained in the West Gate and those which should be sent to
the Young Offender^' Unit, thus avoiding unnecessary competition; otherwise the situation
becomes ill defined.
In spite of the poor hygienic conditions, general health of the inmates in this Unit
has been satisfactory. It has been encouraging to note that, almost without exception, the
inmates of the West Gate are out at work. We have received eager co-operation from the
staff of the unit.       ~ !%* ^ §r
Young Offenders'Unit *
In my opinion and experience, this Unit has continued to serve a disturbed group of
the prison population with success. There are still certain discrepancies in sentence and
classification which have yet to be eliminated. Many of these problems are shared by
New Haven, such as wide variation in sentences and the persistence of some of the Courts
in ordering v$hort indefinite sentences of three months. It is thought that, as concerns
definite sentences, six months is the minimum period necessary for rehabilitation.
4 newer difficulty has arisen over boys given the maximum definite and the maximum
indefinite sentence. A small number are serving two years less a day indefinite and two
years less a day definite; such a long period of detention is a challenge to the treatment
programme for young people throughout the Gaol, and requires highly skilled and selected
methods of approach. 4
The role of the Young Offenders' Unit has been given a great deal of thought, from
the medical and psychiatric point of view especially. It appears to me that with the
%tunate vocational facilities available Jkhere, together with the ability of the group supervisors, psychiatric social worker, and group worker in charge of only a relatively^imall
number of boys, unique resources have been and are in existence for the treatment of the
 P 28 #       %     BRITISH COLUMBIA
more disturbed youngster.   I have observed with satisfaction the methods utiliz H i
treatment of the more psychopathic personalities.   A number have inevitably fafln"* *e
Unit and have had to be returned to the Main Gaol, but many more have resno
in the
the treatment in the Young Offenders' Unit, with few or no sanctions of punishment
deterrent.   The key, no doubt, to achievement of thiQlture is dynamic and secure rel
tionship between staff and inmates.     ^ ^ m *"
There is, of course, room for improvement and evolution.  There could be mo
tidiness, especially in the kitchen department, but this does not amount to disorderlies!
and, as far as can be ascertained, work habits and character-training have been under
close scrutiny.
fH Perhaps this has been one of the most |joticeable adjustments made in the Unit since
its inception. It seems, from my observation, that the boys work harder and take a little
more pride in their appearance as the years proceed. My visits to the Unit have increased in frequency recently. I have attended a weekly conference and am continuing
with some boys on a psychotherapeutic basis. I also interview each boy before he
appears before the Parole Board, and offer my observations when the Parole Board is
in session.
J The general health of the inmates in the Young Offenders' Unit has been satisfactory,
It is felt that intrinsic in the policy of treatment for young male delinquents is a female
nurse, social worker, or matron on the staff. There was a noticeable loss when the female
stenographer was transferred to the Main Gaol, as clearly even the presence of a suitable
female in the Unit is of value. E [m \ %
It is therefore my opinion that a unit such as the Young Offenders' Unit is capable
of doing pioneer work in the field of correction. The category of personality problems
which occurs to me as being more adequately treated in the Young Offenders' Unit is
that of the youth requiring, from the nature of his emotional maladjustment, more close
relationship and professional1"service than is available elsewhere. Maximum security in
a programme, by virtue of the small number to which it caters, can be elastic, and can
ensure thereby a ready accessibility for the purpose of skilful manoeuvring of hostility
and other conflicts which inevitably arise during the provocative emotional stimulation,
such as takes place during the initial treatment phases.
■im It is hoped that a Unit such as this has evolved almost beyond experimentation, and
that the operation has, by this time, to a large extent retained what technique is most
productive and abandoned tha^which is sterile. In my opinion, in the enlarging sphere
of correction in British Columbia, there should be a permanent establishment of this
nature. 'K   Jjtp*- "Jill
It lif  I Women's Gaol ^ JL
||      Daily visits have been paid by myself to the Women's Gaol, and there is routine
examination of all admissions.
The majority of the inmates admitted here have been drug users. We have been
greatly assisted by the weekly visit of Dr. Cunningham, the gynaecologist, representing the
Division of Venereal Disease Control. .■  .-:  .d§
There has been some progress in the standard of nursing, and there has been increasing experience in operating-room technique during Dr. Lewison's plastic-surgery operations. A useful amount of nursing and medical equipment has been added, and also
medical documentation has been greatly expanded. The opening of the additional huts
has relieved the main building of congestion. IF
-kg •;■•■   = • • ; J|     , Women's Diet and Kitchen
The quality of the diet has been very satisfactory; in fact, it could be described as
outstanding in its standard of cooking, variety, and sufficiency. There have been improvements in the set-up of the kitchen.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54
P 29
Women's Occupational Therapy
The opening of the new room for this purpose, and also for vocational training, has
made a great contribution to the treatment programme. It is hoped that other conditions
now contemplated for an admission unit and an auditorium will shortly materialize.
There is urgent need for increased hospital accommodation in the Women's Gaol,
although, if adequate operating-room facilities are available in the main prison hospital,
use could be made of this for women.  ; | \    ^
One of the major needs in the Women's Gaol is for a registered nurse on each shift,
one who should be recently experienced in the most modern and recent surgical procedure, j She could also supervise the nursing in the Main Gaol. Some of the matrons
attended the nursing course given by the Vancouver Vocational Institute. %
The group system seems to have met with success. J There is a great need for a
social worker on the staff of the Women's Gaol.       i       j§
BRfe-^KDOWN of Admissions to Prison Hospital
Diagnosis
Number
of
Patients
Days in
Hospital
Days per
Patient
Diagnosis
Number
Patients
Days in
Hospital
Abscess—_	
Bums	
Cancer and Buerger's disease r~
Chest conditions—
Asthma...	
Bronchitis—.	
Chest pain.~ .—
Pneumonia ~~	
Tuberculosis	
Cripples and amputees—
Dental conditions—
Dental abscess.—.	
Cavities	
Post-extraction	
Epidermis—
Dermatitis	
Impetigo •	
Scabies .	
Skin-rash	
Urticaria	
Diabetes	
Conjunctivitis	
Fractures—Multiple	
Fatigue	
6rastro-intestinal—
Foreign body	
Acute abdominal pain..
Diarrhoea	
Jaundice.. __„
Genitourinary—Orchitis.
Sub-maxillary ademitis	
Hemorrhoids	
Headache—. | _L
Heart ailments—
Acute endocarditis	
Cardiacs, N.Y.D	
Acute myocarditis	
Tachycardia-_i.	
Influenza ..
Infections—
Infected toe	
Inflamed left eye	
Infected kidney
Boils	
Carbuncles	
Iritis	
Nasopharyngitis.	
Pharyngitis	
Tonsilitis	
Septicemia	
3
52
1
14
1
61
2
26
1
12
1
7
8
116
60
3,448
12
378
2
9
1
4
5
8
1
32
1
6
6
39
1
2
2
6
8
144
2
58
1
3
1
4
1
9
8
87
1
8
4
30
1
45
1
11
2 ll
43
2
10
1
37
16
214
3
45
2
4
13
154
9
5
11
1
15
2
56
6
149
1
2
9
41
2
27
17.03
14.00
61.00
13.00
12.00
17.00
14.50
57.46
31.50
4.50
4.00
1.60
32.00
6.00
6.50
2.00
3.00
18.00
29.00
3.00
4.00
9.00
10.87
8.00
7.50
45.00
11.00
21.50
5.00
37.00
13.03
15.00
2.00
11.92
9.00
5.00
11.00
%M
15.00
28.00
24.83
2.00
4.50
13.50
Injuries—
Contused ribs	
Haematoma :	
Head and facial ,
Lower limbs .	
Trunk ___.	
Self-inflicted	
Upper limbs	
Muscles and ligaments—
Fibrositis ..
Lumbago ..
Arthritis .	
Medical observation	
Mental observation	
Nerve lesion—
Bell's palsy—	
Paraplegia	
Chorea	
Epilepsy	
Neurosis	
Operative conditions—
Bowel _~
Circumcision	
Osteomyelitis	
Pediculosis—
Crab-lice .	
Body-lice	
Post-operative	
Post-alcoholic-—_	
Post-narcotic	
Psychiatric observation	
Protection	
Poison—Hemlock	
Surgical—
Biliary calculus	
Calostomy	
Cystitis	
Dorsal sympathectomy-
Gastrectomy.:;;	
Hernia?—.	
Prostatectomy	
Rhinoplasty	
Submucous resection	
Tonsillectomy .	
Venereal disease—Syphilis
Senility	
Stomach disorders—
Dyspepsia	
Ulcers 	
Gastritis	
Totals	
Days per
Patient
1
2
1
11
7
StL
35
329
10
178
1
11
10
66
1
24
1
4
4
58
26
182
55
) 1,078
1
7
1
254
1
84
5
66
4
346
1
17
4
84
2
45
1
3
1
3
18
632
42
434
46
351
43
1,007
3
97
1
5
1
27
1
3
1
1
1
32
3
46
2
64
1
18
32
269
10
72
4
30
2
13
13
157
1
39
8
104
6
34
620
11,843
2.00
11.00
13.00
9.40
17.80
11.00
6.60
24.00
4.00
14.50
7.00
19.60
7.00
254.00
84.00
13.20
86.50
17.00
21.00
22.50
-3-00;
3.00
35.11
10.25-
7.06
23.41
32.33
5.00
27.00
~SM
1.00
32.00
15.20
32.00
18.00
8.47
7.20
7.50
6.50
^2.08
39.00
13.00
5.06
19.102
 P 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Diary of Vancouver General Hospital, Crease Clinic, and
Provincial Mental Hospital
Month
Vancouver General Hospital
O.P.D.
Surg.
Neuro.
Ortho.
Gen.-U.
X-ray
TB.
X-ray
Total
Crease
Clinic
April, 1953	
May 	
June	
July	
August .....
September	
October	
November	
December .	
January, 1954	
February.	
March	
Totals	
Average per month
55
81
47
82
56
23
45
26
51
54
49
57
623
52.17
4
1
5
7
6
15
7
4
5
5
4
6
4
1
2
1
1
1
1
15
8
6
10
3
14
1
6
8
13
5
11
70
11
100
5.84
0.925 I 8.33
2
4
5
4
2
1
1
5
4
9
4
15
56
4.66
9
12
12
14
16
11
10
6
10
10
14
28
19
2
9
9
Provincial
Mental
Hospital
108
109
75
119
92
73
64
48
79
92
76
117
152
38  1,053
12.5
3.25 I 87.75
2
1
3
5
8
6
6
3
Oakalla Prison Farm Medical Recapitulation
Venereal Disease Control
Male immediate examination  4,537
Female immediate examination  1,032
Total  5,569
Number Of new infections  Male Female Total
Syphilis      5   5
Gonorrhoea  18 37 55
Other infections 1     1   1
Totals  24 37 61
Number treated on epidemiological grounds  11
Number treated, non-specific urethritis    1
Tuberculosis
Institution hospital  50
■ M Institution wing (suspect and arrested) 1  72
Transferred to Pearson and Kamloops  14
To Willow Chest Clinic for investigation and large X-ray plates 128
Office staff to Willow Chest Clinic for large plates  3
Hospital officers are X-rayed once yearly as routine test. jf
Grand
Total
108
110
77
123
96
73
67
53
87
98
82
120
91.88
Male
Male,.
Indian
Female
Female,
Indian
Total
Active   	
49                  7
54                16
34                14
7
4
2
2
3
2
1  65
Suspect   	
77
Arrested.. _           	
52
Totals 	
137        |        37                13
1                    1
7
194
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 P 31
Dentist
Prophylaxis   5
Inmates seen  637
Sutures removed   60
Fillings (amalg. and cement)  124
Extractions  684
Fillings (gold)  2
Examinations   65
Dentures—
Made  5
Repaired   27
Treatments  21
Surgery _  3
Women's Gaol
Inmates examined by Dr. Richmond  640
Inmates treated for drug addiction |  384
Inmates treated for alcoholism  64
Outpatient trips to Vancouver General Hospital—
Tuberculosis clinic  34
Orthopaedic  36
Maternity   5
Surgery  4
Dermatology   7
Emergency   4
Eye, ear, nose, and throat  9
Gynaecology  _.  42
Neuro-surgery   9
Cancer clinic  2
Venereal disease clinic  4
Dentist   2
Transferred to Pearson Tuberculosis Hospital  1
To optometrist  10
Glasses supplied  6
To dentist  117
Extractions  106
Fillings   4
Deptures  5
Interviewed by Dr. Campbell	
Transferred to Provincial Mental Hospital  3
Returned from probation  1
G.I.S. indefinite  3
Inmate Hospitalization
Inmates admitted to Vancouver General Hospital—
Total patients   60
Total days in hospital  1,221
Average days per inmate .  23.5
Total cost of hospitalization  $21,718.25
Average cost per patient  $363.04
Average cost per day \  $17.84
 p 32 BRITISH ICODUMBIA
Inmates admitted to Shaughnessy Hospital (D.V.A.)—
Z   ftTotal patients   2
fplll Total days in hospital _  - .||
Average days per inmate  8 5
"#:■" tl-Average cost per patient _  $104.13
-^p Average cost per day  $12-25
Inmates hospitalized per tuberculosis control—
i§|    Total patients  1
Total days in hospital flftl   140
Cost per inmate _—  $630.00
J|||.:   Cost per day  #$4.50
jf     Staff Sick-leave, 1953-54
Male staff—
Officers absent, sick — _  151
Total days' sick-leave  1,149
^|i> Average days absent, per man  7.6
-   Percentage of staff reporting sick  55.3
Female staff—
U   Matrons absent, sick  58
III    Total days' sick-leave  402
§-■'     Average days absent  6.93
Respectfully submitted.
R. G. E. Richmond,
Gaol Surgeon.
PSYCHOLOGIST'S REPORT
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith is the report of the Provincial Gaol Service Psychologist, for the
fiscal year April 1st, 1953, to March 31st, 1954. #
Tests Administered at Oakalla Prison Farm to Inmates
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale 1  26
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale 11  2
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability  (elementary-school
examination)  68
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability (high-school examination)   13
Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory. j  f 3
Ward Association  2
Mental Health Analysis (Sec.)_.  2
Mental Health Analysis (Inter. )___^ 1  1
Draw-a-Person Personality Test I  2
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale __ - 1
Kuder Preference Record (C.H.)  2
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (Inter.) - 19
Bennett Mechanical Comprehension (A.A.)  9
Perdue Pegboard  5
Bennett Hand-tool Dexterity  4
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 P 33
Tests Administered at Oakalla Prison Farm
Women's Gaol to Inmates
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale 1 .  5
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale 11  1
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability  (elementary-school
examination)   1
Tests Administered at New Haven to Inmates
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale 1  9
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale 11  1
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability   (elementary-school
examination)   23
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability (high-school examination )  \  9
Mental Health Analysis (Adult)  18
Mental Health Analysis (Sec.)  23
Mental Health Analysis (Inter.)  4
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  1
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory  49
Bennett Mechanical Comprehension (A.A.)  5
Tests Administered at Oakalla Prison Farm to Staff
Male—
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale 1  4
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale 11  4
Otis Employment Test (1a)____  102
Otis Employment Test (1b)  68
Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory  1
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (Inter.)  176
Female—
Otis Employment Test (1a)  6
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (Inter.)  6
No routine testing programme of inmates on admission has been put into operation
at Oakalla Prison Farm as yet. It is submitted that this cannot be done until such time
as more staff is available for this work. It is understood that most prison psychologists,
in prisons of the United States, supervise three prisoner assistants and one prison staff
assistant. However, the policy at Oakalla has been, and quite wisely, it is felt, that
prisoners should not be employed in this work, and so far no staff assistant has been
available on a permanent basis. *&
Routine testing has been carried out at New Haven, where since December, 1953,
Mr. V. H. Goad, the social worker, has been co-operating most effectively by arranging
for the supervision and scoring of two self-administered tests for each new person admitted
there. The test information is used as an aid in placing the boys in trade-training groups,
and as a means of localizing emotional problems that may require special attention.
As a member of the Classification Committee, the Psychologist has been called upon
to interview inmates being considered for transfer to the Young Offenders' Unit and New
Haven. It is noted that any social history available has proved veiy helpful aid in making
dispositions on these cases, and it is felt that such social-history information, when
supplemented by psychometric data, would increase one's chances of making the most
appropriate decision. It is hoped, therefore, that it will some day be possible to make
provision for the testing of all inmates being screened for the Young Offenders' Unit and
New Haven, before a disposition is made by the Committee.
 P 31
BRITISH COLUMBIA
All the meetings of the British Columbia Parole Board at Oakalla over the past
have been attended by the Psychologist.   This consultative service mainly, throueH
Board, has occasionally asked for investigation by the Psychologist into some cases wh
it was considered that psychometric information might be useful. re
Psychological service to the Consulting Psychiatrist, Dr. E. A. Campbell w
continued, though it was not found possible to examine all the persons he referred if
intended that this service should be extended in the coming year so that all his cases m
receive some attention. |r |f:
An attempt has been made to keep some contact with the transferees from the Girls'
Industrial School who are in Oakalla Women's Gaol. Since December 21st, 1953 there
has been a monthly conference at Oakalla, attended by representatives from the'Girls'
Industrial School, Oakalla Prison Farm, and appropriate welfare and correctional
agencies.   The psychologist's role has been primarily an advisory one at these conferences
Testing of the staff at Oakalla has become routine during the year. It is believed
that so far the information gained from the tests of mental ability has proved the most
practical. Group tests were administered to the M-service training classes, and a start
was made on the administration of individual tests to officers who were in line for
promotion. Reports on the tests were furnished to the Warden of Oakalla. Very
cautious use of this material has been made in order that no unjustified assumptions
might result from its use.
Respectfully submitted. I
''■":.'^P_^p ■ "■ R. V. McAllister,
Gaol Psychologist.
1 REPORT OF PROTESTANT CHAPLAIN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,      JL m
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the annual report of the Protestant Chaplain, Provincial Gaol
Services, for the year ended March 31st, 1954. :.||
The role of the Chaplain in the modern correctional institution programme is based
upon the fact that while he is identified with the institution to the extent that he works in
harmony with its methods and objectives, his fundamental responsibility is to provide for
the spiritual needs of his parishioners. His approach is similar to that of any minister
endeavouring to interpret Christian faith in its relation to the lives of the worshipers,
Recognizing the fact that the treatment team has as its objective the release from
our institutions of men and women better prepared to accept their responsibilities,
morally, socially, and economically, as citizens, the Chaplain endeavours to relate Ms
#brk as far as possible to that of other members of the team. \
Day-to-day activities may be classified as follows: (1) Group contacts, (2) personal
interviews and counselling, (3) welfare, (4) staff conferences, and (5) public relations,
(1) Group Contacts
Services of Worship
§ Services of worship are held regularly each Sunday in all institutions in the Greater
Vancouver area. j§ M.
The Chaplain conducts the service at 9 a.m. each Sunday at New Haven. *
service is attended by all Protestant inmates. At 1.15 p.m. a service is held atOaW
Prison Farm for an average of 300 inmates. At 2.15 p.m. services are held at the Young
Offenders' Unit and at the Women's Gaol.
1
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-541 P 35
The afternoon services are arranged in co-operation with various religious denomi-
ations. It is felt desirable to utilize the services of clergymen and choirs from outside
the institutions, not only to bring freshness to the religious service, but to draw the
attention of church bodies generally to the desire of the administration for the closest
possible co-operation with church authorities, in making the religious services in the
hstitution an increasingly vital fact in the restoration of the inmates to the paths of right
living. The behaviour and reverence of inmates has been very good, and the services
appear to be much appreciated. g.       |P
Monthly services are conducted by the Salvation Army, the Anglican Church, the
United Church, and the Union Gospel Mission. When there is a fifth Sunday in the
month, services are conducted by the Baptist and Presbyterian Churches alternately.
During the year, twenty-seven ministers and choirs of various churches led the services
of worship.
The major festivals of the Christian year were marked with appropriate services.
Good Friday, Easter, Christmas, and Remembrance Day services were held, also a special
service on May 31st, 1953, marking the Coronation of Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth.
These were all well attended and well received.
Holy Communion was administered to eighteen inmates, and there were two adult
baptisms. A total of forty-six Bibles and New Testaments were distributed to individuals
who requested them. New hymn-books were purchased during the year, which, because
of the variety of hymns, added greatly to the services. Several hundred religious
periodicals were made available in the chapel, and were very quickly in circulation
among the inmates. A small library of religious books for guided reading is in constant
circulation from the Chaplain's office.
An interesting experiment was conducted for a period of four months when inmates
of the Women's Gaol attended the service with male inmates of Oakalla. An inmates'
choir was formed by inmates of the Women's Gaol. This was of a high calibre for such
a choir, and their help in the service of praise was much appreciated by everyone. Due,
however, to the large inmate population of Oakalla, it was decided to hold separate
services after the trial period.
The Sunday evening "hymn-sing" at Oakalla, which began as an experiment in
1952, was continued once each month throughout the year. These were conducted by
Mr. J. B. Taylor, of the Y.M.C.A., and were a decided success. A similar programme
was conducted monthly at the Young Offenders' Unit.
Discussion Groups
In more informal and small religious study groups and instruction groups, the
Chaplain has an opportunity not only to teach but to engage in group therapy. These
special classes, generally based on Bible study, provide forums for inmates seriously
interested in self-improvement, with a fellowship with other inmates of similar disposition,
and an opportunity of receiving guidance and instruction in the basic principles of the
Christian faith. Such groups are operating once each week at the Young Offenders' Unit
and New Haven. The average attendance is twelve per group, and the enthusiasm and
the regularity in attendance are evidences of the interest which such groups develop.
Similar groups should be organized at Oakalla and the Women's Gaol as soon as
opportunity permits.
Visual-aid films loaned by the British and Foreign Bible Society are in regular use
each week in other less formal and larger groups at the Young Offenders' Unit and New
Haven. The psychological appeal through movies, as compared with that of the usual
channels such as Bible classes, is very great. They are used for positive Christian
training, and serve as a basis for discussion.
/
 P 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Alcoholics Anonymous
This organization seems to have discovered a positive pattern of rehabilitate
Chaplain
1 is %t
eting on
committee meets with the sponsor once each week to prepare the programme. Memb?
the chronic alcoholic, exceeding anything else which has as yet been tried.  The f Wi •
.i     • a.: ~4. r*_«i-«iin -d^ _,_-.*, i7o*.™    t^^ ~,>++~„_- i...     mM ^^^apiain
ed is %t
vl uuiumg iiiT^cLiii^-, <_>_. tnw/ wu-vu i;^v v,rwAJr _. «v_v*u; vYwuug, jjXUa _m open meeting n
Sunday afternoon to which members of outside local groups are invited.   A
•  -   _ _ _! .__."__       -i. L__  _-_.       .-..____  _~_. .____, r-. >--,__-_      y-x.-*^ >-_•■_,       _*x _-_  y-_ V_      TT7AA 1^-      "--•"V      4M«/\-t^rk -**^w      <_-!__   __.	
sponsors the organization at Oakalla Prison Farm.   The pattern being followed is th
of holding meetings of the closed type every Tuesday evening, plus an open
r\ j      _ J*_.  —. ^~.__.     +*~.    writ <..<-» I*,    iviaivihafc     /-vF    /vnf' Ciria    l/^/^ol     rt~i*/vii*^«    <i_._.    i !.,      t
ship participation is a dominant feature of all meetings.   There is every indication th
alcoholisi
in prison.
members of this group are receiving the guidance and faith they will need to avoid
alcoholism on release, and which has been one of the main causes for their incarceration
The support from local outside Alcoholics Anonymous groups is much appreciated
and that from the City of Vancouver alcohol worker, Mr. George Slater, whose aid is
particularly valuable at the time of release.
j| (2) Personal Interviews and Counselling    ;;J
Intensive counselling over a period of weeks can only be carried on in a very limited
fashion. Twelve to fifteen inmates are as many as can be dealt with in this way, but the
obvious results highlight the need for another worker in this field. This type of counselling results in a relationship in which the individual may find help in resolving some
of his fears, anxieties, and hostilities by coming to a better understanding of himself and
his problems.
There is a constant stream of requests for interviews from inmates with all types of
problems, those which have to do with the minutiae of prison life, cashing cheques, special
letters, applying for parole, personal problems such as financial difficulties, dependents,
distressing home situations, etc., problems arising out of basic personality maladjustment,
excessive tearfulness, inability to get along with others, uncontrolled temper outbursts,
etc. To all these may be added the more specifically spiritual problems, the feeling of
inadequate motivation and direction in personal living, the seeking of goals, etc. The
daily journal reveals that the Chaplain held 1,747 interviews at Oakalla, 221 at the
Women's Gaol, 196 at the Young Offenders' Unit, and 206 at New Haven. In addition
to these requests for interviews, regular visits were made to the Tuberculosis Wing and
the hospital.
On nine occasions during the year the Chaplain was called upon to inform inmates
of the death of an immediate relative.
^»c . 0:' (3) Welfare i ,j|
Under this heading is included service rendered to individuals or a group.
y>    1. Eleven visits were made to hospitals of Vancouver to visit staff members who
were ill.  k.       <gS
lllll 2. Thirty-six visits were made to homes of inmates with personal or family problems,
^yy|| 3. Many contacts were made by letter with immediate relatives and pastors of
inmates.
4. Illustrated lectures were arranged for the Young Offenders' Unit and New Haven,
5. A weekly lecture was given during the in-training staff courses on the role of the
Chaplain in the correctional institution.
ifim.     "|.      ;,|d  -;■£• -. (4) Staff Conferences
The Chaplain attended the bi-weekly conferences of the Senior Treatment Offices.
He is thus enabled to enter more fully into the treatment programme, and to be of grea er
assistance in the rehabilitation of the inmate.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 P 37
(5) Public Relations
The best of rehabilitation programmes will fall short of the mark if there is not
within the community to which the inmate is released at least some understanding of the
meaning of custody and parole. The Chaplain is in a position to perform an interpretative ministry to the community. Because of this, I have accepted the invitation of ten
different groups, and spoke to them, not only on the Chaplain's work, but on the larger
work of the treatment team. These included couples' clubs, churches, ministerial associations, synodical meetings, missionary societies, and the New Westminster Council of
Women. I have also attended regular meetings of the Vancouver Council of Churches,
the Institute of Church and Social Welfare, and the Faith and Order Committee of the
Vancouver Council of Churches. jp
Summary
It is becoming increasingly apparent that there is an urgent need for assistance,
either by the appointment of an Assistant Chaplain, or, failing that, the appointment of
student-assistants at a smaller salary, who could aid in the development of religious study
groups in Oakalla and the Women's Gaol, and in other ways relieve the Chaplain to
enable him to do more intensive personal work among the inmates.
The assistance afforded the Chaplain by the Salvation Army, the John Howard
Society, the Elizabeth Fry Society, and the Vancouver Council of Churches is once again
gratefully acknowledged.
The Bible Society is deserving of special thanks for generous donations of Bibles
and New Testaments, and for the weekly free loan of religious films.
The co-operation and assistance of directors and staffs of the various institutions
has been most generous. 1§ Mr. Hugh Christie, Warden of Oakalla, has made the Chaplain's work less arduous by making available adequate office-space and equipment, and
by granting full status to the Chaplain as a member of the treatment team.
In conclusion, Sir, may I express again my sincere thanks to you for your advice
and invaluable assistance during the past year.
Respectfully submitted.
W. D. Grant Hollingworth,
Protestant Chaplain.
REPORT OF ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPLAIN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—Enclosed is my report as Roman Catholic Chaplain to Oakalla Prison Farm
for the period from October, 1953, to March, 1954.
I was appointed to this position late in September of 1953. Mass attendance has
increased, thanks to the Legion of Mary, a Catholic organization primarily concerned
with helping the bishops and priests of the Church to bring souls to God. They have
been very instrumental in helping me to get some of the inmates to confession and holy
communion. In some cases they were successful in getting some of the men and women
to go weekly to holy communion.
I owe a word of thanks for the wonderful co-operation of the Warden and his staff.
They have helped me in so many ways, and, with God's grace, I hope the same co-operation continues.    ;tei #
Statistical report for the period October 31st, 1953, to March 31st, 1954, follows:—-
 p 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
OMkalla Prison Farm$*
._     New cases  168
'; New visits  168
. Repeat visits  :__— 402
W3$       Alcoholics Anonymous meetings  :_____     g
"Iflfsy'   Narcotics Anonymous meetings  _      i
Correspondence (out)  _    40
^ Correspondence (in)  Lg    30
W      lf& Visits to law counsellors    10
ii   € Visits to Courts      2
Material help (clothing, referrals)     12
Religious Work
Jf Confessions  1  127
;;^H^;F   Holy communions   210
^f^tf1    Instructions     16
Ml Mass in Men's Gaol, every Sunday at 8. JP        #';
fl| Mass in Women's Gaol, every Sunday at 9.
Mass in New Haven Borstal, every Sunday at 10.15.
ym: Legion of Mary meetings—
Women, each Tuesday evening at 7.
Men, each Thursday evening at 7.
Ejgi PP
Respectfully submitted.
.    -J|- |jj.; ;- ;, . .-■ J. J. Molloy,
Roman Catholic Chaplain.
REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I take pleasure in presenting my annual report, covering work done for the
libraries of the various institutions in the department during the year ended March
31st, 1954. I f
As far as I myself am concerned, the event of major importance in the year just
past has been the shifting of my office from New Haven to Oakalla Prison Farm.
Oakalla, which is the centre of the Provincial penal system, is the logical place for the
location of any of the services which operate on a departmental basis. It provides,
furthermore, the bulk of the inmate population. 1 Lastly, the central location makes
co-operation with the other services easier and, I hope, much more effective than was
the case before. The year has, on the whole, been a good one, if not from the results
obtained, certainly from the working atmosphere and the co-operation gained from
Warden, staff, and departmental services. -
||t Library at Oakalla Prison Farm has been affected by a major change in institutional
organization through the creation of the office of Deputy Warden in Charge of Treatment. This position was filled during the course of the year by the appointment 01
_#r. D. L. Clark. As Deputy Warden in Charge of Treatment, one of the fields under
his control has been library; any decision affecting library policy within the institution
must be discussed with and formulated by consultation with him and the Warden.
Although in theory this might suggest difficulties, it has in practice worked very well.
It has meant a precise and interested point of contact with the institution staff, and has
facilitated my dealings with the institution in many ways.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 P 39
In the past year the institutions recced a total of 2,274 books. This total breaks
down into the following components: Kamloops, 30; Nelson, 31; New Haven, 111;
Oakalla Prison Farm, men, 850; Oakalla Prison Farm, women, 267; Oakalla Prison
Farm, Young Offenders' Unit, 159; Prince George, men, 15; Prince George, women, 63;
Girls' Industrial School, 351; Boys' Industrial School, 397. This is the largest number
of books processed in a single year since I accepted this position, and has been due to two
things. In the first place I have reduced my cataloguing to a bare minimum level. There
is a certain level below which it is impossible to go, and maintain even the fiction of
keeping records and catalogues. This has been reached. The second factor making
this increase possible has been my use of inmate help in my book-processing for part
of the year. Inmate help is, however, of a transient nature, and I did not feel that I could
continue this. It takes considerable time to train an inmate to the point where he is
functioning usefully, and inmate turnover proved to be too rapid to justify the expenditure
of the effort involved.
Staff Library
Staff library is a project which has been moving slowly, but which will gradually
gain momentum as training programmes become consolidated, and staffs realize the
value of supplementing practical experience with theory. One difficulty which arises is
the comparative lack of material on the intermediate level—the level, incidentally, which
takes in most of the guard staff who have not had formal or professional training of any
kind. Another problem lies in deciding the amount of material which should be allotted
to the professional staffs to keep them informed of developments in their fields and to
aid them in the most efficient performance of their duties. Thirdly, and this proves
troublesome, it is difficult to know just where the boundaries of staff library should be
drawn, to know the course and general direction of policy, and to be able to supplement
it as it develops. I cite these difficulties because I feel on the matter of staff library that
it should err on the side of inclusiveness rather than exclusive. Staff training is one of
the more important aspects of penal administration, and the library should be a reflection
of this importance. In the past year a total of seventy-eight books, in all categories,
have been added to the library for use of staff.
A matter which has been under discussion, but which has not been established as
policy, is the financing and use of this library. My own contention is that it should be
paid for by all the institutions on a proportional basis, and used by all the institutions.
This would mean a central library from which all could draw. As the library expands
in size and use, such a development will undoubtedly occur.
Magazines
Magazine distribution continues to be difficult. The smaller the institution, the less
the problem; in a large institution it is one of considerable magnitude, because it is
impossible to distribute equitably a number of magazines small in comparison to the
number of inmates. We get no more than four subscriptions to any single magazine;
to try to share these among several hundred inmates presents somewhat of a problem.
The only way this could be done would be to have an inmate reading-room, and this
apparently offers such problems of discipline administration that it could not even be
considered. The alternative to this would be to make a great increase in the number
of magazine subscriptions. § This might be accomplished if the public, through service
clubs and other organizations, or even as individuals, were asked to contribute subscriptions.   It is not possible on the present budget.
Bindery
As I pointed out in a previous report, the institutional libraries do not provide
enough work to keep a bindery operating on a full-time basis.   In the course of the year
 p 40 BRITISH COlUJMBIA
the bindery rebound 300 books for the Men's Prison Library. Attempts to secure o i
work have not proved too successful, although some work has been done for Mr C t
Morison, Superintendent of the Public Library Commission. : '*•
New Haven
This institution has received 111 new books in the course of the year.  There h
been no change in location or administration of this library since my last report      aS
#Men's Prison Library, Oakalla Prison Farm
■& This library received a total of 850 new books in the past year. Three hundred
books were rebound in the bindery at Young Offenders' Unit. |
y&£ It was decided during the course of the year that the library should be moved back
to its old location. It had been moved up into the chapel out of centre hall; the move
had proved less satisfactory than had been hoped. It was decided also that new adjustable shelving should be installed. Mr. E. S. Robinson, Librarian of the Vancouver
Public Library, was kind enough to give me their specifications for shelving, and plans
were drawn up to increase the amount of shelving in the space allotted to us. These
plans have been turned over to the Carpentry Officer, and while supplies have been
ordered, and while the shelving is under construction, it had not made its appearance
by the end of the year. '%
m- Another development which occurred during the year was the completion of the
hutments which were being constructed, and their opening under the name of West
Gate. At the moment they are being treated as a wing as far as library is concerned.
Books are picked up from the library each day and taken down by runner. It is somewhat cumbrous as a set-up, but as a merely temporary measure it can be endured. It is
hoped that in the future there will be the possibility of setting up a small library there.
3§k Women's Prison Library, Oakalla Prison Farm
The major event as far as library is concerned in this institution was the transfer
of the library from the ground floor to a second-story room which is also used as a staff
sitting-room. It is a pleasant room, but a bit cramped as far as book-space is concerned.
In the past year 267 new books have been placed in this library.
if Young Offenders' Unit, Oakalla Prison FarmII
In the past year 159 new books have been added to this institution library. There
have been no changes in location or administration of this library since my last report.
W*- "--"Hi pgv- " ■ ■   Interior Institutions - :|| •   •
Kamloops.—A total of 30 new books were processed for this institution in the
course of the year.   These are the first books for this library.
j|    Nelson.—This institution received a total of 31 books in the course of the year.
Prince George, Men.—A total of 15 books were processed for this institution in
the course of the year.   These are the first books for this library. |k
Prince George, Women.—This institution received a total of 63 books in the course
of the year. ffr Sfe
None of these Interior institutions have been visited by me during the course of the
year. They continue to function as they have done in the past, each in its own way.
Industrial Schools
- Boys' Industrial School.—This institution received a total of 397 books in the course
of the year.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 p 41
Girls' Industrial School.—This institution received a total of 351 books in the course
of the year.
These two libraries continue to function as they have done in the past. Both are
in process of building up staff-training libraries.
The Future
Library work in an institutional setting is confronted with specialized and often
difficult problems. Though library is autonomous in its functioning and operation, it is
only effective if it is part of the larger, more comprehensive organizational pattern. And
even here its usefulness is limited unless that larger pattern is clear. Jf There must be
a sense of continuing, of accomplishment, of expansion of services, if growth is to be
maintained. The first of these three is the least difficult because it is the least dynamic.
Accomplishment is often nebulous or elusive and hard to determine in any exact and
measurable way. Expansion of service, the last of the three, is the most dynamic of all,
but at times the most difficult to achieve. It is probably accepted by now, in the institutional milieu, that a Librarian may have or may be of some use. In fact, that sentiment
has been acknowledged, albeit rather tentatively, in my hearing. This does not mean,
however, that full use or even efficient use is being made of the service, or that the service
is itself as comprehensive or as efficient as might be wished.
There are many areas of library work which at present are not being attempted.
In fact, it is not possible, under existing conditions, to provide more than minimum
service. It has not been possible, for example, to speak directly to the inmates about
books, their use, and their physical care. It is not possible to provide rudimentary
reference facilities, both because of lack of library periods and space inadequacies. It is
impossible to try to stimulate a wider interest in books, either through book talks or
reviews, or through group discussions of new books. There is no educational programme,
so that it is impossible to work toward any goal of improving the total personality
picture through a course of educational reading. It is impossible to provide, in short,
the intellectual stimulation which all individuals should be exposed to and for which
certain individuals find an imperative need. Intellectual stagnation can be kept at bay,
perhaps, by relaxational reading, which is what most of the reading done in an institution
consists of, but certainly it does not do nearly enough to keep mind and interest alert
and active.
If it is objected that this is not only theoretical but fanciful, bear in mind that if one
considers the inmate as an individual for treatment rather than punishment, one aspect
of treatment, and that an important one, is being sadly neglected. If ever discipline and
treatment are going to walk hand in hand instead of in opposite directions, some considerations must be given to the training and stimulation of the areas of the mind and
intellect. ^MJm.
This is merely to show some of the potentialities of library work, and how sadly
short of achievement they fall. Certainly there is no place for complacency in this field,
yet without even clerical help it is impossible for me to attempt any of the ideas
mentioned above. fi      ^
Respectfully submitted.
j Konrad Egilson,
Librarian.
 jp 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
H   REPORT ON IN-SERVICE TRAINING ACTIVITIES IN PROVINHat
INSTITUTIONS DURING THE YEAR 1953-54
E.G. B.Stevens, Esq., #
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
m     Sir,—I take pleasure in submitting, at your request, this report covering staff traini
activities in the Provincial Gaols for the year ended March 31st, 1954. Ug
|| Staff training activities continued during the report period as a co-operative functio
of the Provincial Gaol Service and the University of British Columbia. A variety of
training courses were made available to meet the needs of both new and experienced
workers, and the University continued to extend lecture and consultative services to
institutional personnel through a faculty member in criminology assigned part-time to
the headquarters staff of the Inspector of Gaols. ;j|
W.     '        ' nsf Training at Oakalla Prison Farm
t As was indicated in the Annual Report for 1952-53, the in-service programme
at Oakalla originally had been designed to furnish forty hours of | basic training" to all
custodial officers employed in that institution. This goal had been reached by the beginning of 1954, and consequently a more diversified programme was planned and put into
operation.   The present system provides for training at three levels, as described below:-
1. An Orientation and Indoctrination Course for newly employed staff members.
The officers in charge of wings and other operating units are largely responsible for this
training, being required to cover with each trainee a schedule of materials and activities
worked out by the Warden, the Deputy Wardens, and the University representative.
||p; 2. A Basic Training Course for all custodial officers who, not having completed this
requirement previously, have received the orientation course and obtained several weeks
of experience on the job. The basic training course is given from time to time as groups
of officers become eligible to take it and can be spared from their regular duties for
a week of full-time attendance at classes. Various members of the administrative and
professional staffs of the institution assist with the instruction of this course.
3. An Advanced Training Course for small groups of staff members selected in
terms of their need for and ability to benefit from specialized instruction of various kinds.
For example, a specially designed series of lectures was made available early in 1954
for the staff group chosen to activate the West Gate operation. It is expected that the
individuals selected for advanced training will serve as instructors in the staff development programmes of their respective units. The University representative will devote
most of his lecture-time to training at the advanced level.
Staff from the Young Offenders' Unit and the Women's Gaol took part in the training
classes held at Oakalla during the report period. %
|f; The undersigned participated regularly in formal and informal meetings of the Gaol
administrative staff, and assisted the Warden with various projects, which included staff
evaluation and promotion, the development of treatment programmes in various units,
and the enlargement of the staff library. ^^^Sr
Training at New Haven
The undersigned met weekly with the staff of New Haven throughout the academic
year, and held one session with members of the Borstal Association to discuss problems
involved in the after-care of released offenders.   The in-service meetings covered a wi e
variety of subjects concerning treatment programmes for delinquent youth, and afford
opportunity for free discussion on the part of the staff members in attendance.  D^0
Rocksborough-Smith attended and participated in most of the sessions.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 p 43
■•■■•-■:.; /■'. : NiN^  ■■  General Comments '  -e    '   .' '• •
It would seem that the in-service training programme in the Provincial Gaols is
progressing satisfactorily, although we have only made a beginning on the task ahead.
It is hoped that the training of staff for the new Gaol planned for Haney may be started
well ahead of the opening of that institution. I
Two suggestions for the future development of the training programme are presented
below?-—
1. There would be considerable advantage in obtaining the services of various
outside individuals, to supplement the instruction already available. Thus, occasional
lectures, representing various specialties within the University and correctional agencies
in the Vancouver area, could enrich our courses in a number of specialized areas.
2. It is my opiifion that the Gaol Service would benent from a plan under which
a few carefully selected workers Would be allowed, each year, to attend classes at the
University of British Columbia. The University now is offering an undergraduate major
in criminology as well as courses in that field leading to the M.A. degree, and the
long-range success of gaol programmes will depend significantly upon the presence of
individuals with these and other professional backgrounds.
The strong support of staff training activities by the Inspector of Gaols and the heads
of all participating institutions and units has been greatly appreciated by the undersigned.
The interest of certain of these individuals in the professional growth of the correctional
field is reflected in their willingness to serve as honorary lecturers in tfre newly organized
University curriculum in criminology an undertaking which is an integral part of the
development of correctional services in British Columbia.
E. K. Nelson,
Assistant Professor of Criminology,
Jtfj! University of British Columbia.
f|NELSON GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq., ^j|
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I hereby submit the report of the Nelson Provincial Gaol for the fiscal year
ended March 31st, 1954. ^C
Administration
During the past year the number of inmates received at Nelson Gaol was somewhat
lower than the previous year; There is still some difficulty experienced in finding suitable
trusted inmates for responsible jobs in the general work programme, but, all in all, this
past year we have experienced not too much difficulty in this respect.
-,   Staff Changes  ■_ '. *
Apart from the usual promotions, there have been no changes on the staff.
Mr. Vernon E. Burtch was employed last year on a probationary basis, and has since
been taken on to the permanent staff. ....,.,—
:i#ifc: Ir Population
The count at the beginning of the year stood at 45. There were 523 inmates received
^d 538 discharged during the yearyieaving a total of 30 prisoners under custody at the
beginning of the new fiscal yelr.   The peak of the Gaol population %as 46, and the
 p 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
lowest number was 14.   The daily average for the year was 44.7, as against 57 6
last year, a decrease of 12.9. t0r
Welfare and Recreation
There have been some improvements in the recreational programme last year  P
Wednesday evening we have been able to show educational pictures to the inmate no
lation.    Two of our staff members, Guard Verkerk and Deputy Warden Niven t k'
charge of this phase of the programme.    This has been a successful venture, and V
conduct of those attending has been generally good.   A further improvement was the
addition of a ping-pong table and equipment, for inmate use during the early hours of
the evening which is set aside for recreation.   This programme is carried on under strict
supervision.    Other recreational facilities are the same as in the past—one hour of
outside exercise daily when weather permits.    The library has been increased, and old
books which had been pretty well beyond repair have been discarded.   It is hoped to
be able to provide better storage facilities for the library use and to increase the number
of books available.   The advice and co-operation of Mr. Egilson, Gaol Service Librarian
has been valuable.
:m£ Religious Service
W The Salvation Army, Pentecostal Assembly, and the Roman Catholic Chaplain
conduct services in the Gaol weekly. All services are being held in the assembly-room
on the first floor in that part of the building which was vacated by the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police, and which has been redecorated and set aside for this purpose. I
..||,v Medical Welfare
We have again been fortunate in the general health of all inmates, very few cases
having had to be hospitalized, and then only for short periods. Each inmate on admission is X-rayed for tuberculosis. During the past year only two serious cases were
discovered. As in the past, Dr. F. M. Auld has ably taken care of our medical needs.
On occasion he has been assisted by Dr. Massey.
Maintenance and Construction
1 During the year there was little construction work done. The two major projects
taken care of were removal of our workshop from its old site to the Gaol annex. When
this was accomplished, the old workshop building was demolished to the first-floor level,
and a temporary roof was erected. This portion of the building is now used for a woodshed. Another alteration completed was the removal of the hot-water heater in the
laundry and the installation of an up-to-date electric water heater, which now gives us
an adequate supply of hot water for our needs. The removal of this old hot-water heater
has also cut down on fire hazard. We have had ample opportunity to appreciate tte
advantages of the new oil furnace which was installed during the latter part of last year,
Our heating problems, as a result of this installation, have been reduced considerably.
Added to this is the increase in cleanliness and the reduction of fire hazard. The usual
painting and clean-up programme which takes place every year was again carried out,
the inmates doing a satisfactory job under staff supervision. #
;"|f  ' • Discipline ^f Jf
Throughout the past year there have been eleven breaches of Gaol Rules an
Regulations. Of these, six were of minor nature, the remainder were of a more serious
nature. On November 16th, four inmates escaped, and in the process of doing so use
violence on members of the staff who were on duty at the time. These escapees we
quickly apprehended by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and were later dealt wi
in City Police Court.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 p 45
Summary
In closing, I would like to mention the co-operation I have received from the Deputy
Warden and other members of the staff throughout the year. I would respectfully
suggest that early consideration be given to a new Gaol for this area, removed as far
as possible from the centre of the residential area, and with a large acreage available so
that same can be put to use for the raising of crops which are needed for inmate use.
In addition, one of our greatest needs at the present time is an adequate work programme so that, as near as possible, all inmates can be employed during the day. Construction of a new institution, as suggested, would enable us to develop such a work
programme.
A. TULLOCH,
Warden.
KAMLOOPS GAOL
E.G.B.Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Kamloops Provincial
Gaol for the year ended March 31st, 1954.
Population
The summary of annual statistics attached hereto shows a decrease from the previous
year, both in prisoners received and the total of days' stay. The following synopsis, taken
from the annual statistics of both years, is as follows:—
1952-53 1953-54
Received (male and female)  1,092 1,017
Transferred to Oakalla Prison Farm      109 131
Discharges (male and female)  1,090 1,013 %■
The high counts arising from statutory holidays made it necessary to transfer the
above-stated amount owing to our limited accommodation. It is my opinion that when
we have the West Wing area returned to us from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
and remodelled into a cell block, we will be able to show a marked decrease in transfers
to the Coast.
Maintenance and Construction
We completed several projects during the year—100 lineal feet of sidewalk, a new
tool-shed for the gardener, and remodelling of the north-east portion of the Gaol basement into a new storeroom. We also have constructed 800 feet of cinder roads in the
Provincial Home cemetery. • I
The Gaol precincts—Provincial Home, Provincial offices, and Provincial Courthouse lawns, gardens, and hedges have been maintained and improved, with prison labour
under staff supervision, and with the able assistance of Mr. A. Merridew, Provincial
Home Gardener. The heating engineers have had the use of two prisoners during the
year. We have assisted all departments in the Gaol area, doing all manual labour, moving
stocks and furniture, cleaning windows, and placing and removing all storm-windows.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police city and district detachments vacated the
West Wing on February 15th, 1954. We immediately started to remodel this portion
into a new cell block, using four cells we had in the Gaol, and acquiring four new cells
from the Public Works Department. This will give us bed accommodation for sixteen
men in this cell block. The work was done with prison labour, using one carpenter.
The heating, plumbing, and security screens were installed by contract.    I would draw
 p 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
your attention to the concerted effort by all personnel used to complete this pro'
such a short time.    Mr. J. Martin, foreman of the works in this district, gave us vaU1
assistance in seeing that we had the material on hand when needed. u*
Farm and Gardens   ' :-       : '■>%••• . .#
We again had a very successful year with our gardens, and produced an abund
crop of vegetables. We sold, during the growing season, fresh vegetables to the P^
vincial Home to the amount of $75.70, and in the fall gave them fifty boxes of Mac ap/
The tomatoes that could not be used in the Gaol kitchen were taken to the Skelly Co Ltd
cannery, and we received in exchange the following canned produce: 22 cases of No 21/
tomatoes (24 30-ounce cans to the case), 6 cases of green beans (24 20-ounce cans to
the case), and 2 cases of catsup (6 1-gallon cans to the case), m
IJP The above-mentioned provisions were used in the Gaol kitchen during the winter
months. §
The main crop was stored in our root-cellar and provided the Gaol with vegetables
until the end of March, 1954. The only loss we had was approximately 1,000 pounds
of winter cabbage, owing to the changeable weather in January and February, alternately
thawing and then freezing. Jf 1;
The prisoners, under staff supervision, cut and stacked approximately 40 tons of
alfalfa hay.   This was taken to Tranquille during the winter months.
Medical Care
The general health of prisoners held at this Gaol during the year was very good,
The greater portion of the vote expended was for examination of prisoners on transfer
to Oakalla Prison Farm. We had no epidemics or major sickness. The services of
local doctors were obtained for medical care of prisoners.
J| Welfare and Recreation ■ ;3-Si
The Gaol library has been the only means of recreation during the year.
^llf if       mm' Escapes and Recaptures ;" %&''
I am pleased to report that we had no escapes from this Gaol during the year.
j|  "j||  Discipline    ; ..   A.  .
Discipline has been well maintained throughout the year. Breaches of Gaol Rules
and Regulations amounted to eight; two cases were of a serious nature and were dealt
with as such, the offenders being given maximum sentences. The remaining six were
minor, and they were reprimanded, with a warning not to appear before me again.
Staff Training f|:
The staff training school, held at Oakalla Prison Farm during the year, was attended
by several of my staff, including the Deputy Warden, J. D. H. Stewart. I am pleased
that the department has taken this long-overdue step forward and recognized the need
for training in this field. I would like to thank all personnel of the department who
assisted in formulating the courses and drawing up the instruction data, as this is mos
helpful in the indoctrination of new recruits. i
Fire-fighting       jl
We again, on October 12th, 1953, assisted the Forest Service to extinguish a W
and grass fire to the south of our property adjacent to Peterson Creek.   This fire
started by small children.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 p 47
Summary
I refer you to paragraphs 1 and 3 of Maintenance and Construction, as this will give
you a brief outline as to our progress in the projects we have undertaken to remodel this
Gaol into a more modern and up-to-date institution. The changes made will only raise
our accommodation facilities to a total of fifty—forty-six males and four females.
The department authorized the hiring of a Cook-Guard. This was a necessary
addition, owing to the ever-increasing turnover of prisoners suitable to prepare food for
the inmate population.       | ji
I cannot submit this report without referring to the locale of this Gaol, the close
proximity to the city, offices, and the public in general. This situation cannot be overcome until a new site is found and a Gaol built.
In closing I would draw your attention to the efficient, loyal, and co-operative assistance I have received from all my staff during the year. They have given time freely
whenever we have been placed in a grave situation caused by overcrowding.
Respectfully submitted.
Warden.
I        PRINCE GEORGE GAOL
Men's Gaol
E.G.B.Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Prince George Provincial
Men's Gaol for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1954.
The institution had a good year, but was crowded most of the time. Average daily
population during the year was 26.1 prisoners. Escorts were sent to Oakalla Prison
Farm, 187 prisoners being sent during the year.
I have a capable staff now. With two guards on each shift, there is no difficulty
handling the prisoners. But the crowded condition of the Gaol with prisoners coming
in and escorts leaving, makes the accommodation very limited.
Several prisoners were sentenced to short terms of solitary confinement, but there
were no serious breaches of prison rules during the year.
It was necessary to rewire the electric circuits in the Gaol, but other than that, the
Public Works Department had no major expense. Most repairs were done with prison
labour. During the year prisoners washed all the halls and some of the offices in the
Provincial Government building. Also moved the ashes from the Women's Gaol and
the Government building. Approximately an acre and a half was cleared during the
winter at the new gaol-site. tj    §    |)
During the early winter some forty substantial toys were made by prison labour in
a small workshop in the garage. Thirty of these were turned over to the Salvation Army
for distribution at Christmas. Two toys were donated to the Prince George and District
Hospital children's ward.   Several were given to inmates' families at Christmas.
The garden at the gaol turned out very well, and many remarked about the flowers.
Flowers and vegetables grown at the Men's Gaol were displayed at the Women's Gaol
display at the Fall Fair. Sweet corn, beets, carrots, turnips, and some of the flowers were
comparable to the prize-winners. The local Fall Fair Association would not let us
compete for prizes.   We now have permission to compete at the next fair.
This Gaol is inadequate, but the new Men's Gaol being constructed will remedy the
situation.
RespectfuUy submitted. _ Wm. Trant,
Warden.
 p 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Women's Gaol
Sir,—It is only since August,  1953, that I have been Matron-in-Charee
although I have several years service in the Gaol, much of the administrative w      d
new to me.
work was
Warden Trant has been most helpful to me at all times, and I feel many of the h
days were eased by his understanding. I |
This has been a normal year in the institution, although unfortunately we h
a gaol-break in February, 1954. Four girls got out in the early evening; three gotov
the fence and were at large for twenty-six hours. ^ | er
Dr. J. G. McKenzie is still our able doctor. He is most attentive, and the health
of the inmates has been well taken care of. During the year one girl was taken to
Essondale and one to the tuberculosis sanatorium at Tranquille.
From time to time repairs have been made in the building. The roof is now in good
condition. After the escape in February, iron bars were put on the inside of every
window. These were painted with aluminium paint, and now the bars are hardly
noticeable.
We have one church service per month, conducted by the Salvation Army.
The local Film Board supplies us with films every two weeks. The inmates really
enjoy this break in routine. During Christmas week, 1953, and New Year's week, 1954
the whole staff donated money toward two full-length films. The inmates were most
appreciative. During Christmas week the girls put on a play they had studied and
learned. With the help of the matrons, they made very good costumes, and presented
a very enjoyable two-hour entertainment.
Occupational therapy has played a big part in making contentment throughout the
Gaol. Leatherwork has progressed well and has been well done. Aluminium and copper
foil made into pictures is attractive. Trays and wall-plaques made from three-ply, with
burning on them, and figurines made and painted, all help to occupy and satisfy the tastes
of the inmates.
The display at the local Fall Fair was well worth seeing, and was admired. Our
garden produce and flowers were good, too.
Inmates transferred from the Oakalla Women's Gaol settle down well, and soon are
interested in the different phases here.
I trust that during 1954-55 I may have the continued support of the Warden and
the staff.
Respectfully submitted.
J. H. McKenzie,
Matron in Charge.
Ill FOREST CAMP GAOL
E\ G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.       #
Sir,—The following report on the Forest Camp Gaol, 1953, is respectfully, submitted.
The Forest Camp Gaol was a continuation of previous experiments of 1951 and
1952, wherein groups of young offenders from Oakalla Prison Farm and the Young
Offenders' Unit were transferred to rehabilitation camps in the Nelson Forest District.
The camp, this year, was granted the status of a Provincial Gaol, and twenty inmates
were transferred from Oakalla Prison Farm and the Young Offenders' Unit. This was
a decided administrative advantage over the previous camp schemes. In both 1951 an
1952, inmates had been released from gaol under the provisions of the "TicketofLeav
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 P 49
Act" on a limited parole, to our supervision. With Gaol status, we were able to maintain
f better control and discipline of the inmates. Because we did not consider the term
"gaol" to be in keeping with the spirit of the programme, throughout the summer we
referred to it as the Kettle River Rehabilitation Camp. ^
The Camp
The camp-site was located 9 miles south of the Monashee Pass Road on the Kettle
River. This location was approximately 3 miles south of our last year's camp. It was
a tent-camp, similar to that we had last year, and equipped in much the same way. The
supervisors and foreman each had a tent to himself, and the inmates were lodged four
to a tent. Separate tents were made into a kitchen and dining tent. It was a very good
camp-site near the river, and accommodation was quite satisfactory.
Planning and Preparation
The planning and preparation for the 1953 programme was begun early this year,
and was carried out much more thoroughly than in previous years. We continued with
a dual administrative set-up, where the Attorney-General's Department co-operated with
the British Columbia Forest Service of the Department of Lands and Forests in operating
the camp. There were, however, several changes in administrative responsibility. The
supervision and organization of the camp was entirely under the jurisdiction of the
Attorney-General's Department. The writer acted as senior supervisor with the temporary appointment of Warden, and Mr. Douglas Sampson was attached to the staff
as a Supervisor. His salary was paid by the Attorney-General's Department. A foreman, Mr. Samuel Worobey, was appointed to the staff, and his salary and that of the cook
came from Vote 229.
Funds in the total sum of $20,000 from Forest Service Vote 229 were reserved in
favour of the project. All requisitioning and accounting was processed by myself through
the Nelson Forest District office.
The Forest Service supplied all the camp equipment and signed it over to the writer.
All equipment transferred under this arrangement was covered by the usual property-
transfer procedure. The Forest Service was responsible for the road location and specifications for the work project. They also carried out periodic inspections of the work
for the purpose of ensuring that the project was being conducted satisfactorily in line
with the specifications, and to give the foreman the benefit of any needed advice.
There was an understanding between the two departments that the crew would carry
out only right-of-way clearing, etc., and such work as might be ordinarily effected with
hand-tools.   The crew was to be available on call as an emergency fire-suppression crew.
The general provisions, as laid down for the previous year's programme, were to
apply in so far as the administration of the camp by the Corrections Branch was concerned. Throughout the summer there was excellent co-operation from officials of the
Nelson Forest District.
The candidates for the camp scheme were selected from the institutions well in
advance. Mr. McCabe and Mr. Davis of the Young Offenders' Unit selected fourteen
youthful offenders, and Mr. Clark, Classification Officer of Oakalla Prison Farm, chose
six young men from that institution. The ages of the boys from the Young Offenders'
Unit ranged from 16 to 23 years, and the greatest number were 19 or 20 years of age.
The six Oakalla inmates were slightly older. The majority of the crewmen were serving
their first gaol sentence, but the greatest number of them had had previous records of
delinquency as juveniles. As before, the most common offences for which they had been
sentenced included auto theft, breaking and entering, and stealing.
 p 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Vehicles
The British Columbia Forest Service provided our camp with a half-ton pi b
roj
a-oii^v-..    nv &_*rw xv -.wv*^ —0 -c  , ----- wv vxxx_wo v^Apcnsive
were required.   We were hoping to receive a second vehicle from the Corrections Bran „
truck.   The truck was quite old, but was made serviceable before the camp progra  *
started.   We gave it rough usage throughout the summer, and at times expensive x^
but none was available. Our shortage of transportation was the biggest single probl
we had during the summer. Because of it, our recreational programme was very limy
and we could not transport the boys to the ball-field we constructed on the Monashe'
Pass Road about 12 miles from camp. Our greatest worry was the fact that sometimes
during working hours we had no serviceable vehicle in camp. Mr. Sampson brought his
own private vehicle up to camp, and we obtained permission to use it in case of emergency
and he was paid a mileage rate. '
Work
The work project was mainly a continuation of clearing of the right-of-way of the
forest access road along the Kettle River. During the summer, the crewmen felled over
4 miles of right-of-way to a width of 40 feet. All slash on the right-of-way was burned
except for a few hundred yards near Bruer Creek near the south end of the project
During the first month, the road to camp was in poor condition, and it was very difficult
to maintain it because of almost incessant rainfall during the period. Many man-hours
were spent in repairing the road, with the result that progress on the right-of-way was
rather slow for a while. Along the road that had been constructed last year and the year
before, about 3 miles of slash had to be piled and burned. The crewmen were also
classified as fire-suppression crews and were subject to fire-fighting duties. It was a wet
summer, however, and we were not called upon to fight fires.
The Forest Service personnel had laid out the work project well in advance of our
coming to camp, and throughout the summer gave over-all supervision to our foreman,
This was much better than during last year, when the work programme would be
disrupted because of the breakdown of road-building machinery, etc. We made every
attempt to keep the boys busy on the basis of a forty-four-hour work-week. We usually
worked five days one week and six days the next. Quite often, the crew would be divided
into two or three groups, and the supervisors would assist with the foreman as "straw-
bosses." The quality of the work on the right-of-way project was considered by all who
inspected it to be excellent.
It is very difficult to keep young offenders busy, and they require constant and close
supervision at work. They can by no means be considered comparable to a normal crew
of working-men. The greatest number had had no experience in the woods, and had
little interest in the life. They were in the camp under compulsion, and therefore their
attitudes toward work were not very good. In many cases, one of the major factors
contributing to delinquent behaviour has been the individual's poor work habits. The
quality of the work accomplished was of high standard; we estimated that the camp
produced something less than 50 per cent of the work that could be expected from
a normal crew of men, which we consider to be high for prison labour. There were
occasional cases of malingering at work, and disciplinary measures were sometimes
necessary.
It seems to be a characteristic of these delinquent boys to be very careless with tools
and equipment. They have very little respect for Forest Service property, and at times
they could be deliberately destructive. We made every effort to keep our property losses
at a minimum.   However, in spite of this, we lost a few articles of camp equipment,
Recreation
U During the summer we had the advantage of a supervisor who has had previa
experience in directing recreational programmes.   We bought a number of games s
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 p 51
as checkers, chess, Monopoly, etc., and in addition we were provided with a large
18-by-24-foot tent which we used for recreational purposes. A ping-pong table was
set up in this tent, and we also had a small pool table. These were very popular diversions, and did much to keep the boys occupied. At times, Mr. Sampson would encourage
the crewmen to organize tournaments and sports days, and we would provide a variety
of prizes. We played six softball games with Cherryville, a small community about 30
miles from camp. Unfortunately, we were short of transportation, and were unable to
play ball with outside teams as often as we would have liked. The camp was situated
about 5 miles from Bisson Lake, where there was excellent fishing. We were provided
with a skiff built in the Young Offenders' Unit at Oakalla, and a number of the boys took
advantage of the fishing and swimming. ;e||||
In previous camp programmes we occasionally took the inmates to the nearest
town under supervision to see moving-pictures, etc. This year, we did not permit any
outside trips. We found this to be a much more satisfactory arrangement. Occasionally
the Forest Service would loan us a movie projector and screen, along with their educational films. While we had the projector we would rent feature-length films and show
them with the educational films.
Discipline
Camp discipline during the past season was a great improvement over that of
previous years. It was an advantage to supervise all the crewmen in one camp, rather
than in two camps. We began the programme well equipped with rules and regulations,
and we also had a better system of imposing penalties and rewards. During the first
three or four weeks there were a large number of minor misdemeanours, but after this
period of adjustment the behaviour improved. As a result of our previous experiences,
we were able to anticipate the behaviour of the boys to some extent. Although their
personalities vary a great deal from individual to individual, when they act en masse,
they resemble closely any other group of young offenders.
During the month of July there was some difficulty with some of the crew as a result
of pilfering of some of our stores. We were aware of the loss, gathered the crew together,
and advised them that the matter was being investigated and that the guilty parties were
to be returned to Oakalla Prison Farm. We were able very quickly to determine who
was responsible, and it so happened that the three men involved had been reported
previously because of poor work habits. The police were called, and these crewmen,
plus a fourth, also a malingerer, were escorted back to Oakalla Prison Farm. About
three weeks later we received replacements.
For the rest of the summer we had very little trouble in maintaining discipline.
Although there were occasional infractions of camp rules, general behaviour was
satisfactory.
Medical Services
Before coming to camp, all crewmen were given thorough medical and dental
examinations. Those who required dental treatment received it before leaving Oakalla.
The crewmen were given to understand that in camp we had no means of looking after
sick people, and in case of an illness of more than two or three days' duration, we
would be obliged to transfer them back to gaol for attention. As it happened, we did
not have to transfer anyone back for this reason, and we lost very little time through
illness. We did, however, have to take three crewmen to Vernon for emergency dental
treatment, and we had a number of accidents, mostly axe-cuts. Treatment was obtained
at Vernon. The dental bills were paid by the crewmen, but medical bills were forwarded
to the Corrections Branch and Workmen's Compensation forms were submitted.
Clothing and Equipment
Before leaving gaol, each inmate was issued a complete outfit of work-clothes.
The cost of the issue was approximately $65 per inmate, and was deducted from the
 p 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
individual's deferred earnings.   The clothing list was much the same as last year'
was quite satisfactory. '■ :$$P       Jf Sand
Preparation for Discharge
The Forest Camp Gaol was set up to give the inmates the opportunity to
a parole. They were given to understand that if they worked well and behaved th^
selves, they would be released on September 30th, 1953, under the provisions oft
I Ticket of Leave Act." While they were in camp, we made every attempt to help th
prepare for their eventual rehabilitation. A good deal of the supervisors' time was sin
in personal counselling, and attempts were made to help the individuals find suitabl
employment. We were less successful this year in finding jobs for the boys. A small
number had jobs to go to, and we had the remainder register with the National Emnk
ment Service. § After discharge, about half the inmates had found employment.
On discharge, each boy received a cheque of over $100—his pay to the end of
August, less cost of clothing and commissary. This seems to be too much money for
some of the more youthful boys, and I would suggest, in future, payment be made in
smaller instalments during parole period.
Conclusions ||
The 1953 camp scheme had been planned well enough in advance, with the result
that there was a much better understanding between the two Government departments
involved with respect to division of administrative responsibility. It must be understood
that our emphasis as correctional workers is not only on development of good work
habits and the progress of the work project, but we are also concerned with the necessity
of providing counselling services, a recreational programme, and the progress of the
individual towards rehabilitation. It must be recognized that the project is a minimum
security type—the inmates require twenty-four hours' supervision seven days a week,
Therefore, in conducting a project of this nature, it would seem to be essential that ai
members of the staff—foreman, cook, supervisors, and any other personnel—must
participate in the programme and must be fully aware of the responsibility for custody
and activity after working-hours. In recruiting staff for such a venture, this should be
made clear to applicants.
We arranged to have our food and other supplies delivered to a cabin on the
Monashee Pass Road about 9 miles from camp. The Forest Service provided us with
a half-ton truck. It was intended that we use the vehicle primarily for picking up our
supplies from the cabin. It was also to be available should we have to evacuate an
injured person to hospital. In practice, we used the truck for other purposes. It was
taken to Vernon on an average of four time a month for other camp business. There
was a complaint that we sometimes used the vehicle as a staff car. This was a partially
valid complaint. Although we sometimes used the truck for our own purposes, we
only used the truck when there was also camp business to do in town at the same time,
Forest Service officials were very pleased with the quality of the work accomplished
However, we all agreed that inmates do not produce as much as a regular forestry crew,
and it is unlikely that they could do so in future programmes. This means that the
Forest Service is spending quite a large sum of money for each mile of right-of-way that
is cut. We are all of the opinion that it would be better for the Attorney-Generals
Department to be in complete charge of the camp, not only the administration of the
camp, but own all the capital equipment. Rather than spend British Columbia Fo$
Service money, as we have done, we should enter into a contract whereby the Fores
Service will pay this Department so much money per mile for work accompli
In this way the problem of dual administration would be completely eliminated.
Other recommendations are much the same as outlined in my report of last ft'
I hope that in the future we will continue to give the inmates good-conduct pay at
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54 p 53
rate of $3 a day for each working-day. To have a sum of money on discharge is
certainly conducive to rehabilitation. I would recommend, however, that the money be
paid in smaller instalments over the parole period.
Again I would strongly recommend that the Forest Camp programme would be
organized on an all-year-round basis. The summer camps have certainly been of value
in the early stages, when we have been trying to introduce the programme. There are
a number of disadvantages to summer camps. They provide little continuity for the
programme, and each year we must recruit new staff for a period of a few months. Thus,
it is almost impossible to retain trained staff from year to year. It is also a disadvantage
to release a large number of youthful inmates on the same date because of camp closure.
It is difficult to obtain suitable employment for all of them at the same time, and for their
own protection it is better for them to be released individually rather than in groups. I
I am quite confident that the Forestry Camp scheme has great potential value.
It provides an excellent environment for carrying out a sound programme of rehabilitation. In order to do so, we should have a slightly larger, well-trained staff, and we
should institute better staff working conditions, such as providing for sufficient time away
from the job, in accordance with institutional practices.
It is hoped that during the following year, steps will be taken to institute an all-year-
round programme, following the recommendations outlined above and those of the
Forest Service officials. In my opinion, the stage has been reached where summer camps
should be discontinued as having outlived their value. We have acquired sufficient
knowledge and administrative experience to go ahead with the development of a permanent programme, and I feel the time is now ripe to make whatever legislative changes
necessary to implement the scheme.
In conclusion I would like to express my appreciation of the co-operation I have
received from yourself and from the officials of the British Columbia Forest Service, who
have always taken a very helpful interest in our efforts to help in the rehabilitation of
young offenders.
Respectfully submitted.
R. M. Deildal,
Warden.
REPORT OF PROBATION BRANCH
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—The annual report of the Provincial Probation Branch is submitted with
pleasure.
During the early part of the year, staff rearrangements in the Interior offices had
to be made. Mr. Guest, of the Vancouver office, replaced Mr. Deildal at Penticton for
the summer months, and in the fall moved on to Vernon and replaced Mr. Langdale,
who was transferred to the Abbotsford office. Mr. A. W. Garwood joined our staff in
the late spring, coming to us from England, where he had extensive experience as
a Probation Officer. After a period of orientation in the Vancouver office, Mr. Garwood
was transferred to Nelson, where he replaced Mr. Jackson, who, in turn, moved to
Penticton following Mr. Guest's move to Vernon. During the summer, Mr. L. D.
Howarth also joined our staff, and in August went to Cranbrook, where a new Branch'
office was opened. This appointment made available probation services to the Courts
of Creston, Cranbrook, Kimberley, and Fernie.
Coincident with Mr. Langdale's move to the Abbotsford office, the territories of the
Lower Fraser Valley were rearranged and Mr. Putnam, who had been at Abbotsford,
 p 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Centred his work in New Westminster and began giving services to the Lower F
Valley as far east as Cloverdale.   This rearrangement of territories envisioned at a?*
date, the establishment of a Branch office in New Westminster. '      ater
In the fall, Mr. B. J. C. McCabe rejoined the staff, coming from the Young Offend '
Unit, and Mr. R. M. Deildal left to assume the duties of Classification Officer at OaH
Prison Farm. m
Up The appended statistical report shows an increase over the previous year in th
number of offenders placed on probation—688, as compared to 598. Of this numl*/
37.7 per cent were adults, and the increase in adult referrals came primarily fa*
Vancouver City Police Court.
:' The statistical report also shows that twice as many follow-up cases were supervised
during the year as in the year previous. This increase comes from the use made by
Magistrates and Judges of the definite and indeterminate sentence to the Young Offenders'
Unit, and the subsequent paroling of these offenders to our care by the British Columbia
Board of Parole. During the year one of our staff members attended all meetings of the
Board of Parole held either at the Young Offenders' Unit or at Oakalla Prison Farm, to
advise the Parole Board concerning post-release supervision of offenders considered^
parole. During the year, a closer liaison was effected between the Probation Branch and
the institution concerning post-release planning for individual cases, with the Probation
Officer in the field giving valuable help to the institution officials.
Ill The statistical report also shows a major increase in the number of pre-sentence
reports prepared where some disposition other than the use of probation was made by
the Courts. This use of the Branch's services is gratifying, as it indicates a continuation
of individualized justice by the Courts.
ft In the report of a year ago, attention was drawn to the crowded office accommodation of the Vancouver office, and it is regretted that during the past year further accommodation was not made available. The work of the Vancouver office increased during
the year, and the staff is to be complimented for cheerfully carrying on in spite of
inadequate facilities in which to interview clients.
The over-all picture of the Provincial Probation Branch during the year is one of
slow, healthy progress. The Courts of the Province have made greater use of the facilities
provided, and demands for services have come from centres where at present no Officer
is available. During the year staff members have participated in community groups,
and have addressed meetings on topics allied to their work. In most cases these activities
have been carried on during non-working hours, but our staff members have always been
ready to give freely of their own time toward the good of the community.
As at March 31st, 1954, the staff of the Provincial Probation Branch consisted of
the following personnel:—
Vancouver Office.—E. G. B. Stevens, Provincial Probation Officer; C. D. Davidson,
Chief Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; G. G. Myers, R. J. Clark, B. J. C. McCabe,
and J. M. Putnam, Assistant Provincial Probation Officers; Miss I. Knocke, secretarial
stenographer; and Mrs. S. Turner, stenographer.
Victoria Office.—A. E. Jones, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; and Mrs. F.
Moore, part-time stenographer. "   f$    p
Nanaimo Office.—E. H. B. McGougan, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; and
Mrs. M. C. Hart, part-time stenographer. |p .
Abbotsford Office.—A. L. Langdale, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; and
Mrs. J. H. Thompson, part-time stenographer. JJ j
Penticton Office.—H. W. Jackson, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; an
Mrs. G. E. Hartigan, part-time stenographer. ,  T a
Vernon Office.—D. Guest, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; and Miss l •
Jermyn, part-time stenographer.
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54
P 5J
Nelson Office.—A. W. Garwood, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; and Mrs.
J H. Ryley> part-1™6 stenographer. j
Cranbrook Office.—L. D. Howarth, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; and
jfrs. M. Christensen, part-time stenographer.        " #
Valued assistance and co-operation has been received during the year from the
Gaol Service, police departments, social agencies, and other ancillary services. Our
work is facilitated by this aid, and our thanks is extended to all concerned, fe
Provincial Probation Branch Statistics
en
TT
1
on
TH
tt
T
On
tH
to
On
tH
vo
s
tt
ON
T—t
vo
tt
ON
rH
CO
1
r-
ON
tH
ON
OO
tt
On
tH
o
*->
\
ON
Tf
ON
rH
rH
V")
|
On
tH
«n
1
rH
«n
On
TH
1
IS
*n
On
rH
tt
m
l
CO
m
On
rH
Total Since
Inception
\7an, nrnhltiflfl C21SCS         „  ...
1
63
24 1
49
60
56
54
46
57
31
105
50
84
1
142 1   158
61        35
117 j   122
276
36
262
350
28
349
455
14
461
591
33
472
598
46
638
688
92
736
3,532
532
rt.. contPtirp rAnrtfffi
3,375
np-B-ui-v-w^ »-_	
■-■mU
Totals   - —
136
170
134
239
320      315
574
727
930
1,096
1,282
1,516   7,439
1       -1
1
	
-   ! -
1
—
1
—
—
74
178
151
403
New Probation Cases
Apr. 1
Mar.
, 1951.to
31, 1952
Apr. 1,1952, to
Mar. 31,1953
Apr. 1
Mar.
, 1953,to
31,1954
Total Cases,
May 1,1942, to
Mar. 31, 1954
—"——"                                                                                                                      1
TTnrW 0(\ vftflrs nf affft                                  _  ..
496
49
46
481
66
51
527
79
82
2,678
Between 20 and 25 years
of age_
544
Over 25 years of age	
310
,	
	
—,	
Married probationers—
Single probationers _
40
551
54
544
83
605
1
1
345
3,187
iers__
Total probation
591
598
688
j
3,532
New
FOLL
ow-up Cases
Under 20 vears of aee            .
22
11
37
9
70
22
394
Between 20 and 25 years
of age-
124
Over 25 years of age	
14
Married parolees            _    .
3
30
1
45
2
90
1
1
24
Single parolees
508
cases.
Total foUow-up
33
46
92
1
532
1
Respectfully submitted.
C. D. Davidson,
Chief Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
 P 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX
ANNUAL REPORT ON GAOLS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 3 1st,
1954
dakalla and
Young
Offenders
Unit
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
1. Total number of county gaols in B.C.---
2. Total expenditures for  gaol mainte
nance in B.C.—
Year ended March 31st, 1954	
Year ended March 31st, 1953	
3. Average total maintenance  cost per
day per prisoner—
Year ended March 31st, 1954.	
Year ended March 31st, 1953	
Average   dietary   cost  per   day  per
prisoner—
Year ended March 31st, 1954	
Year ended March 31st, 1953	
4. Number of prisoners committed—
Year ended March 31st, 1954.	
Year ended March 31st, 1953	
$1,633,082.68
1,064,820.17
$4.84
3.93
$0.80
.62
7,831
7,017
$159,570.33
146,713.58
$6.62
6.90
$0.88
1.05
206
119
$55,675.68
54,436.50
$3.56
2.71
$0.65
.59
523
577
Kamloops
$33,160.74
32,211.68
$3.01
3.03
$0.67
.59
1,017
1,001
Prince
George
$111,886.34
98,302.09
$5.80
4.29
$1.35
1.28
1,126
1,177
Totals
$1,833,805,37
1,396,484,02
$4.57
4.14
$0.87
.83
10,703
9,891
I. Movement of Population, Year Ended March 3 1st, 1954
Oakalla
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
On Register, April 1st, 1953
941
6,473
23
10
13
1,132
180
65
184
6
4
12
45
314
8
4
5
192
27
1,003
4
10
46
1,057
50
3
16
1,124
9,031
91
Received—
From gaols and lockups	
By transfer	
By recapture 	
21
By revocation of licence.—  	
13
By forfeiture of ticket of leave	
5
By internal movements.. .__ _
1,148
From bail 	
394
Totals    	
7,831
206
523
1,017
1,126
10,703
Discharged—
By expiry of sentence       ___ _
5,036
75
1
9
8
4
186
1,145
240
|   1,061
I
79
18
2
4
1
28
24
40
300
1
5
18
4
140
19
38
10
3
725
109
48
131
754
3
3
126
21
189
6,894
By ticket of leave   	
94
By deportation 	
9
By pardon..	
29
By escape   	
19
By death   	
144
Bv pavment of fines  __..
441
By release of Court order (including bail)—
By transfer...  	
1,280
594
By internal movements 	
1,104
Licence—B.C. Parole Board	
__ ,
Totals	
7,765
196
538
1,013
1,096
10,608
On register, March 31st, 1954.	
1,007
75
30
31
76
1,219
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54
P 57
II. Commitments
Murder — '""
Manslaughter—	
Crimes—
Against the person	
Against property	
Against public morals and decency—
Against public order and peace	
Other offences not enumerated below.
Insanity-	
Number of prisoners sentenced	
Number of days' stay of prisoners	
Average number of prisoners per month—
Average number of prisoners per day.	
Escapes	
Escapes and recaptured	
Deaths in gaols	
1952-53
1
8
361
31
1
18
19
326
,947
200
,690
461
22
,523
,761
,314
,052
14
14
5
1953-54
14
23
436
2,109
296
6,096
436
26
9,005
398,807
32,501
1,118
16
21
4
Decrease
25
Increase
110
162
96
1,406
~4
482
37,046
1,187
66
2
7
III. Sex
Oakalla
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
Male               ■■-- .—-    -         —   -   ■ -
5,924
549
184
382
23
896
107
900
219
8,286
898
Female                         	
Totals
6,473
184
405
1,003
1,119
9,184
IV. Educational Status
Illiterate	
Elementary	
High school	
College or university.
Doukhobors	
Totals	
288
3,908
2,038
168
71
146
37
1
117
145
133
10
^,473
184
405
121
656
216
10
1,003
137
727
250
5
1,119
663
5,582
2,674
194
71
9,184
V. Nationality
(Place of birth.)
British-
Canada (including Indians)
Great Britain and Ireland
4,887
575
42
176
2
321
24
18
925
40
751
141
1
7,060
782
Other British countries^      ......._
61
Totals          	
5,504
178
363
965
893
7,903
Foreign-
United States-
192
732
31
14
1
4
1
21
20
1
9
27
2
18
196
12
241
Europeans
979
Orientals
Other foreien countries
47
14
Totals	
969
6
42
38
226
1,281
Grand totals
6,473
184
405
1,003
1,119
9,184
.
VI.
Habits as
to Use of Intoxicants
Abstainers..
380
3,321
2,772
66
110
8
112
293
19
86
898
31
300
788
496
Temperate
3,929
Intemperate
4,759
Totals
6,473
184
405
1,003
1,119
9,184
-	
VII. Habits as to Use of
Drugs
Abstainers______
Addicts	
6,011
462
184
405
999
4
1,048
71
8,647
537
Totals
6,473
184
405
1,003
1,119            9,184
 P 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
VIII. Occupations
Oakalla
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Agricultural	
Commercial	
Domestic-.	
Labourers	
Mechanics	
Professional	
No occupation-
Loggers	
Miners	
Fishermen	
Seamen	
Totals-
White	
Coloured	
Indian	
Mongolian	
Hindus	
Totals.
155
363
679
2,731
328
89
177
1,163
364
189
135
1
3
5
102
5
21
31
8
8
79
4
37
181
38
66
6,473
184
405
IX. Racial
5,724
40
637
57
15
171
12
337
3
65
6,473
184
405
1,003
657
4
340
2
1,003
Prince
George
145
10
171
71
96
144
569
268
10
54
2
8
10
81
	
476
4
	
3
778
2
339
1,119
Total
390
612
961
3,851
435
99
289
1,736
364
201
246
7,667
49
1,398
59
16
9,184
X. Civil State
Single	
Married	
Widowed	
Separated	
Divorced	
Doukhobors	
Totals
4,025
1,386
146
704
82
130
170
14
269
110
9
7
10
6,473
184
405
S84
235
74
90
1,003
718
252
23
m
24
1,119
5,766
2,017
252
903
116
130
9,184
XI. Ages
m
1,204
1,191
2,016
1,944
1,303
497
59
Under 21 years.
21 to 25 years	
25 to 30 years-.
30 to 40 years	
40 to 50 years—
50 to 60 years—.
Over 60 years.-.
Doukhobors	
Totals-
644
859
814
1,380
1,444
897
S?S
59
145
39
60
49
53
78
89
62
14
6,473
184
405
XH. Creeds
Roman Catholic	
Church of England.
Presbyterian	
Methodist	
United Church	
Baptist	
Lutheran	
Greek Catholic	
Other Christian creeds.
Doukhobor	
Hebrew	
Buddhigt :
Others	
Atheist	
None	
Totals—
2*393
1,227
T34
197
585
157
498
83
15
1418
8
2
115
28
283
59
35
14
25
14
5
17
2
1
12
176
45
30
65
2
31
~3
6,473
184
405
63
108
146
274
199
164
49
1,003
58
149
178
284
212
180
58
1,119
9,184
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54
P 59
XIII, Duration of Sentence
Oakalla
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Under 1 month--—- ~-~	
1 month and under 2 months	
2 months and under 3 months—
3 months and under 6 months—
6 months and under 12 months-
12 months and under 18 monthS-
18 months and under 24 months.
Sentenced to Penitentiary—|—
Probation—,—;~	
Stay of proceedings	
Unfinished-^ 4 —
Not guilty-- : 1—
Young Offenders' Unit-i	
Quashed—	
Habeas corpjis—, —
Suspended -	
Withdrawn-;. ■.	
NewHaveru.—_.	
Dismissed.-.	
Indefinite—	
Mental Hospital.	
To hang	
Totals.
,142
710
317
467
463
213
56
249
4
36
373
12
111
6
1
56
90
36
75
41
14
1
1
9
34
32
7
100
156
91
32
21
13
75
~9
6,473
184
405
697
175
36
30
16
8
7
10
3
12
1,003
XIV. Previous Convictions
Prince
George
752
150
32
49
40
29
8
6
29
8
5
1
10
1,119
Total
4,747
1,126
418
576
566
282
78
270
4
37
480
32
120
6
1
70
91
39
85
141
14
1
9,184
None ... J -          	
2,213
883
543
369
287
223
178
139
111
110
109
92
75
65
65
56
43
39
82
58
73
63
47
39
220
150
34
107
136
30
11
6
1
218
66
45
20
14
8
4
4
4
3
4
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
362
150
85
60
56
40
38
27
22
20
14
10
15
10
4
5
8
4
4
11
10
4
3
6
10
9
16
441
176
91
69
39
32
25
21
9
9
6
5
3
4
2
2
4
2
6
1
7
3
4
2
30
1
3,370
1
1,305
2           ~
3 _ „r   -	
809
546
4             j    --       .-j-         — -
427
5 __       I   	
310
6   ft              i                            ;
252
7           ;
195
8
158
9     | ......           ■      r.             j
1ft            4
142
136
11 _   ______   |
110
12 __         '
97
13    :      „
14
79
75
15
64
16
54
17. ,
48
18     __   i
89
20
75
21   ....
84
23  	
75
24
34
26
50
_7_f
232
49    _
,189
60
51
Ove_$0_
107
Totals
6,473
184
405
1,003
1,119
9,184
Per cent of recidivists.. ._
65.811    |
26.086
30.26
60.40
66.39
	
-
 P 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
XV. Offences for which Prisoners were Committed and Sentenced duriNG the y
Commitments
Male
Female
(a) Crimes against the person-
Abduction |	
Abortion	
Assault, common	
Assault, felonious	
Attempted suicide.
(b)
(c)
Cutting, wounding, and attempting same-
Shooting with intent	
Stabbing	
Manslaughter	
Murder	
Carnal knowledge	
Rape with assault with intent to rape	
Totals. . 1	
Crimes against property—
Arson and incendiarism	
Burglary and housebreaking.
Robbery	
Forgery	
Fraud	
False pretences	
Conspiracy	
Larceny	
Theft of automobile	
Taking auto without owner's consent-
Receiving stolen goods	
Trespass	
Totals	
Crimes against public morals and decency—
Bigamy	
Indecent assault	
Indecent exposure	
Gross indecency	
Incest	
Inmates and frequenters of houses of ill
fame	
Keeping houses of ill fame	
Juvenile delinquency.	
Perjury	
Prostitution 1	
Seduction	
Buggery 1	
Habitual criminal	
Totals.
W
Crimes against public order and peace—
Breaches of the "Liquor-control Act"_
Breaches of the "Excise Act"	
Breaches of the by-laws	
Breaches of the "Narcotic Drug Act"..
Breaches of the "Motor-vehicle Act"—
Carrying of unlawful weapons	
Cruelty to animals.	
Drunk and disorderly \	
Escaping from constable	
Escaping from prison	
Gambling %	
Lunatics and persons unsafe to be at large-
Nude parading	
Obstructing an officer.	
Selling or giving liquor to Indians.
Unlawful shooting	
Vagrancy	
Cause disturbance	
Totals	
(_?) Other offences not enumerated above	
Grand totals of  (a),  (2>),   (c),
(d) and (e)	
125
193
3
5
1
19
13
16
14
390
12
429
137
63
35
169
5
686
160
41
100
96
1,933
1
4
21
3
1
3
163
5
2
3
2
208
2,842
2
191
340
34
226
3
7
14
291
403
207
4,564
485
7,580
4
1
4
2
11
1
7
10
19
2
13
58
8
118
35
49
84
225
1
9
93
115
1
4
41
5
115
~66
31
706
25
944
Total
129
194
3
5
1
23
15
16
14
401
13
436
147
82
37
182
5
744
160
41
108
96
2,051
1
4
21
3
1
3
198
5
51
3
2
292
3,067
1
11
284
340
34
341
4
11
__
19
406
~469
238
5,270
510
8,524
Male
131
215
11
3
19
12
396
5
818
109
120
39
368
5
918
160
77
153
114
2,886
3
11
20
3
2
3
176
2
1
2
2
225
3,370
2
202
439
37
278
17
13
~61
~19
297
Sentences
Female
6
1
1
14
9
30
2
20
71
13
160
22
48
70
230
1
10
96
114
1
4
~56
~5
115
Total
137
216
3
13
3
19
12
405
6
832
118
150
41
388
5
989
160
77
166
114
3,046
3
11
20
3
2
198
2
49
~2
2
295
3,600
1
12
298
439
37
~392
18
17
U
412
 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1953-54
P 61
Clerical—-—	
General maintenance-
Sick	
Bush operators	
Industrial	
Farm and garden.
Land and road improvement.
Arts and crafts. —	
Woodwork-—	
Upholstery	
Kitchen —- ~	
School and radio	
Bookbinding—	
Motor mechanics—,	
Sewing classes	
Not employed	
Doukhobors—	
XVI. Employment of Prisoners
(Per cent of population.)
Oakalla
(Men)
28.389
3.465
10,093
23.196
0.748
34.109
Oakalla
(Women)
Young
Offenders'
Unit
34.435
2.215
11.154
7.932
18.790
25.474
26.125
0.030
12.685
9.924
16.483
14.077
7.680
13.023
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
(Men)
Prince
George
(Women)
21.00
16.00
63.00
19.50
0.50
75.00
5.00
28.00
0.43
2.69
68.88
92.50
2.40
5.10
XVII. Number of Officers and Employees on March 31st, 1954
Oakalla
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Men's Institutions
Consultant
Warden
Deputy Warden, Custody and Discipline	
Deputy Warden, Treatment..     	
Assistant deputy Warden
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
~1
1
4
7
236
1
24
1
1
1
1
~L
1
19
1
1
1
1
1
8
~1
1
1
___
~5
"1
Gaol surgeon (part time)
1
Classification Officer
Bursar	
Chief Gaoler	
Vocational Officer
Chief Engineer
Building Instructor
Warden's Secretary	
Kitchen Steward
Senior Guards__  _.   	
—
Supervisors. _ ...
Foreman Instructor-
Social Worker__
—
School-teacher
Assistant Engineers	
Guards, Industrial Shops
Guards, Clerks..
1
Guards, Farm
Guards, Disciplinary—
Dentist
8
Hospital Orderlies	
Guards, temporary
Other male employees
Supervisors, Programme	
~3
Supervisors, Instructors
—
Total male employees	
291
27
12
9
14
Women's Institutions
Matron-in-Charge	
1
1
29
13
—
1
-
1
|
-
-
-
-
-
1
Assistant Matrons_
, i .,.
Matrons, temporary
,   i ,i
Other female employees, temporary	
Stenographer
Guards, male
6
Total
44                     —
1
1
17
Total employees—
335
27
1
13
10
1
31
■—	
 P 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
ON
H
co
r-H
CO
i
TH
<
TH
TH
TH
w
w
e_i
o
w
p
H
i—i
Q
X
W
TH
z
<
TH
rt
>
w
o
rt
H
jS
H-»
O
tt)
00
VH/—S
4)  <D
OS
o o
•-H V.^
Ph
tt>
00
•i-i
Vh
Ph
oo
ft
O
o
-1—4 '.
a
a
o
09
rH
^3
OP
fi w
0"0
>h a
O   O
VO CO
r- m
r~ cn
CS   T-H
i> ©
f^i-H
cn  rH
-Q-
osTtONOOVO"«too©vooscscnwn©vounwncscnooTHcs
sddcscscsrtONodcsdTtcncn©Tt©wnvocSt-~csrt
Ov cs wn      oo on t- O ^ffl^0! ^\ *\ °i •> T^T~I '^l0!0^
oCr-TcS      cn oC© cn csoo vo Tt* cs cn cs cs vo cs      od'cncs
00 rH  rH Tt  rH   »n  CS l~- CS rH rH TH
cn
t-- vo rt th wn
rt O O vo O
cs cn" cs rt wn
rt wn wn cn vo
r- CN Jh rt rH
rt
Se
wn
00 t-H f- O 00
rt f) 0\ 0\ h
t*~ un ^t wn Tt"
oo f~ oo oo wn
CS Os wn Os
O
r- cn
t- vo
oo cn O
© t-h 55
r* t> cn
©
©
ov
wn
a\
_cn
cs
Os
00
VO
c-
o
oC
f-
00^
rH
VO
rH
00
cs
00
TH
se
wn
vq
cn"
rH
wn
oo*"
r»
rH
se
rt
wn
d
o\
wn
w->
o
n
CS
se-
vo
TH
od
(S
00^
tH
t>
cn cs cS
© Os ©
rH  I> VO
rt cn cn
r-l in On
On
CS
se
f- O rt wn on
T-I Tt 00 Tt ON
TH CS VO rH Tt
t-h th Tt wn ©
On vo rt vo t~-
rH m
cn
ON
wn
o
cs
© p cs
o vq i%
d wn cn
wn on cn
o
cn
rt
«n.
d
ON
on vo wn rt
tj- rt oo t-h
d cn d oo"
wn wn on vo
O cs oo in
vo
cs
se
cs
vo
vq
od
cs
ON
rt CS Os 00
rt rH o oo
os vd th cs
CS vo cn oo
rt cn oo cn
hV"
o
oo
CS
wn
cs
cs
rt
cn
rt
CS rt rt CS rn
on rt r- on r-
in
rH
°\
VO
cn
se
r- t- o
cs in vo
t> vo rt
cs
Tt cs f» in
rH  os cn OS
od cn cn vd
O t- Tt O
CS rH vo in
*s        «\   vt
rH OS rH
wn
cn
© rt
r- wn
cn vo rt
cn O wn
«n
cn
f-   1
r»
CS     !
o
I>
cs
VO
cs
Tt
vo
cn
cn
vo
r-
cs
wn
V3-
p
cs
cs
cn
rH
rt
oo
©
Os
TH
oo"
wn
«9-
rt
wn
cn
oo
rH
od
cs
rH
cn
wn
G9-
©
CS
CS
cn
TH
rt
&}■
rt
oo
d
ON
rH
00
wn
as-
wn oo vo th
vq cs i> oo
l> rt cn ©
l~~ l-H O rH
t~-  00 rH m
>n
Os
rH Tt
CS © VO O ON
rt l> CS CS rH
d od cs vd vd
vp © O oo wn
© OS ON rH  Tt
•s   »\   -\   «s   r\
rH  cn t- rH  fS
CS
pmtn
H ^ ^
OtHOO
O 00 00
wn cn oo
CS
wn
rt
*n
Os
vo"
cn CS rH 00
cn p cn o
CS rt CS l>
th t> rt rt
rH  VO OS^
cn
fei rt qs wn cn
VO th oe © o
wn On O On d
VO vo cn on O
r- wn vo os th
rt
©
TH
se
en rH
Os wn cn as
rn tn cs vq
wn cs on cn
Os oo vo cs
ON^pwn ©
Tt cn th oo
cS
O wn t~- rt
p cn oo vo
O th t-h cn
wn vo vo on
cn o t*» wn
•S     »N     «\
Nrlrl
vo
vq
wn
Os
o
00
vd
vo
oo vo wn cs
th cn cs r^
CS CS OS |%
Hf>-00
yn vq t^- oo
rH oo" vo rt"
OS vo
oo
oownOvocnvorHOscnOwnTfroo
cnoorHOswn^oorHopoPwnrtcscn
rtcnTH(s^-Hr^vdcnO\dvdvdwnodcs
wnoswnrtvorHONONposvovooNO
cs
wn on cn >n th vo
O cn cn
Tt cs od
on rt cs
-« i    -** i -• #  "M  r^^ i  ■ W1 »^ A ^w v^ A ^__/ ^> V_»^ V>^ *^ '^i  ^J  V ^
a\oo\Ov7\VOooTjvo>n^i-THMr>a\HianONO
cncsooOst-rtTtCSOs©
t-h cn rt cn cs      f-
cs
VO
vo cn cs
vo
T-H
vo
00
cn
vo
rH
se
en
00
Tt
vo
vo
wn
wn
rH
se-
oo
Tt
ON
CS
ON
Os
rt
TH
se-
00
cs*
rt
cn
cs
se
oo
rH
CS
VO
rH
00
r>
TH
se
wn
rt
o
cs
vo
vo
TH
se
cn
oo
Tt
vo
vo^
wn
wn
rH
se
vo
Tt
vd
wn
Tt
vq
rH
se-
H
-_»
•_*
"^
S
I
a>
•T-t
u
TH
a
on
a
0)   Q,
2 x
§ u
th a>
x .S
© "Se
2 >
i 2
O H
Wh
H-*
«
is
a
p. .2
Oft
03
i
o
•rH
cd
O   o-
•° s
^ 5
Q. o
T3 {JO
W <*H
c3   o
PhDh-1
a
0)
09
a>
»-H
TH
TH
I
O-
c.
•a S n\
ffrj o
» o m
-O .23 ^
g jh a
cs t\ a
IP O o
•Sag
SB
a
.2 &
03 J?
(ll  rH
CO
a
o
cS
So-.
o
«+H
•l-H
a
o
Ph
c.
o
•iH
0)
£_•-
° £
_3 °
go
cd
0)
9
+J
o
3
a
o
o °
JO
03
*H
tt)
a
o
03
•tH
Vh
Ch
^^
a
o
•TH
■*-»
«H
O
00
a
a
•f__t
c.
§     TH     M
9-°-
cd
03    S
«fH
rn    tt)   g
i ft i
■P   ft w
1)  3  O
rtw>
tt>
s
cr
tt>
•d
i
c.
A)    03
Vh   tt)
I ^3   .
»i & £&_.
C  fi   -
P     -3  F—l
41-1   i-H     ~J    .
tt)  O  ^  &
oogg
eq •§ i) vh
OwOO
tt>
e
o
is
03
tt)
• -H
o
a
OX)
d
•TH
H->
a
o
u
"2 i
C.      H-»
-t_
fi
tt)
n
•TH
a
fi
tt>
o
fi
fl)   CQ
a c
3^
^S °
fi
<u
ft
£"°  w
1) fi
03    Cfl
"^ •>
cn
|-N
rr th \r>
TH
th d cn"
w-"
5* (5| 1ST
rr)
cn rt ©
fc    **       •»       -s
wn vo (s
«ecs os
rs
rH
(S
■
<e
©
o
©
o
00
on
in
W-)
in
w^
TH
TH
te
«e
o
©
cs
TH
_
TH
TH
se
© cn
t> vo
in in
t> oo
od
© vo
© rH
© in
TH   ©
cn cs
•^  _
rH rH
se
vo
Trl
in
tn
in
cs
se
©  Tt
© cs
• •
cn rH
VO f-
ON VO
cn cs
se
©
©
od
r>
vo^
w^
rH
se
t^ fr t-
rt rt vo
TH    Tt   Tt
rt cn oo
cn © os^
wn w-i cn
sees in
vo
©
vo
cn
Tt
00
rH
se
tt)
HH
o
>
C3   d
03
M
Vh
O
^   ft^
•ZthO
£>
fiJ
Ph
tt)
fi
<u
ft
X
tt)
03
03
O
Vh
o
Q)
s
K
^>
?>■
0)
03
HH
03
o
o
•o
c
03
tt)
C h
(fi  a)
fi
D3
•o
o
o
00
03
09
•n   O
o
03
•TH
Vh
ft
' «*H
o
a  a
o
H
C.   tt)   4)
CO
tt)
08«
CO
&
0
«
<
ri
1
U
CO
8 *
«&
in
vo
TH
OS
VO
so
d
H
0
SO    (S
00   00
0^
fl^
	
 VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1954
28M254-3749
 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0367831/manifest

Comment

Related Items