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Report of the Lands Service containing the reports of the Lands Branch, Surveys and Mapping Branch, and… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1955

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND  FORESTS
Hon. R. E. Sommers, Minister E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
Report of the Lands Service
containing the reports of the
Lands Branch, Surveys and Mapping Branch,
and Water Rights Branch
together with the
Dyking Commissioner, Southern Okanagan Lands Project,
and University Endowment Lands
Year Ended December 31st
1954
VICTORIA. B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955
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  Victoria, B.C., January 31st, 1955.
To Colonel the Honourable Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of British Columbia Lands
Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year ended December 31st, 1954.
R. E. SOMMERS,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
Victoria, B.C., January 31st, 1955.
The Honourable R. E. Sommers,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Lands
Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the twelve months ended December
31st, 1954. I i |
E. W. BASSETT,
Deputy Minister of Lands.
  CONTENTS
Page
1. Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Lands  9
2. Lands Branch—
(a) Lands Branch S  13
(b) Land Inspection Division  27
3. Surveys and Mapping Branch  33
(a) Legal Surveys Division  35
(b) Topographic Division  43
Control Survey of North-eastern British Columbia  44
(c) Geographic Division  49
(d) Air Division  61
4. Water Rights Branch  75
5. Dyking Commissioner |  131
6. Southern Okanagan Lands Project  139
7. University Endowment Lands  145
8. Land Settlement Board  151
9. Personnel Office  155
10. Mail and File Room -  159
  REPORT of the
BRITISH COLUMBIA LANDS SERVICE
E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
High interest in land and water acquisition, development and use, which has brought
unprecedented economic activity to British Columbia since the end of World War II, was
maintained during the year 1954. fjp
The British Columbia Lands Service is made up of four branches—Administration,
Lands, Surveys and Mapping, and Water Rights—and the full scope of their respective
accomplishments during 1954 is set out in the pages of this Annual Report. A few
significant activities, however, can be mentioned to indicate the scope and variety of the
work performed by this organization, familiarly known as I Lands 1 since the colonial
days of Sir James Douglas. 1
The rapid increase in population in this Province has brought keen competition for
Crown lands. Adjudication of applications for booming-grounds and alienations sought
in the Central Cariboo ranch areas have required lengthy and careful examination.
In addition to the year-by-year alienation of Crown lands to the general public and
private companies, the Lands Branch expanded its interdepartmental services.- In 1954
numerous reserves were placed over Crown lands for Pacific Great Eastern Railway
right-of-way purposes, for the Water Rights Branch for hydro-development purposes, and
for the Parks and Recreation Division of the British Columbia Forest Service for recreational purposes. A large number of smaller reserves were made for other departments,
such as Public Works, Education, and Provincial Secretary, and many clearances were
made for the Department of Mines in respect of mineral claims, placer leases, coal leases,
and petroleum leases. Easements for transmission-line rights-of-way have been granted,
the latest being that of the British Columbia Electric Company, extending from Seton
Lake to North Vancouver.
The Surveys and Mapping Branch had a busy year in 1954, in keeping with the
swift pace of British Columbia's many-sided and surging development. At the request
of the Corporation of British Columbia Land Surveyors, the Surveyor-General made
ready a regulation whereby the Legal Surveys Division instituted a new service for
inspection of surveys and plans, to prevent the occurrence and propagation of new errors
in cadastral surveys.
The Topographic Division carried out a second successful year of operation extending the triangulation network over the formidable muskeg lands of North-east British
Columbia. This is the area of intense activity in petroleum and natural-gas prospecting
where mapping is essential if oil-lease boundaries are to be determined legally and
accurately.
The special item of interest for 1954 in the work of the Air Survey Division was the
rapid production of what are called "interim maps." A difficult technique to establish,
it may be said that the method has been standardized and simplified during the post-war
years. The annual output of these maps had doubled in the past two years and in 1954
had reached nearly full swing with 40,000 square miles of production. The interim map
has been of incalculable value in the British Columbia Forest Service five-year inventory
Programme, and has been eagerly sought by many other agencies as a source of authoritative British Columbia land-surface information. 1
Water is part and parcel of all resource developments, hence it is understandable
that the many duties of the Water Rights Branch have been increasing each successive
year, in scope, in number, and in complexity. To explain the multiplication of administrative services and the extent of the basic survey and research investigations of the Water
 KK 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Rights Branch, and to indicate the outstanding and indispensable part that water plays
in the welfare of British Columbia, the record of performance of the Branch for 1954
is set out in some detail. The reader's attention is directed specifically to this section of
this Report and to the capsule summary of the Water Rights Branch presented by way
of foreword. 1
This Report would not be complete without a word or two relating to personnel
changes in 1954. (       It 8
C. E. Hopper, with the rare record of more than fifty years as a Civil Servant, retired
in June, 1954, after serving his final year as Deputy Minister of Lands.
It is a matter of great regret to report that E. H. Tredcroft, Comptroller of Water
Rights, died in September, 1954.   He had served with distinction as Comptroller since
March, 1951, and had been a valued employee in the British Columbia Lands Service
since 1937.
  Note 1 THE LANDS BRANCH||
At the time of the Fraser River gold-rush in 1858 the demand for land in British
Columbia was greatly intensified and pre-emptions predated surveys. Within four years 254
pre-emptors had taken up more than 50,000 acres of land. To facilitate the transfer of real
estate and provide for the registration of titles, the "Land Registry Act" was passed in 1860.
The Government of the Province of British Columbia was now in the real-estate business in
a big way; the more than 366,000 square miles of land and water that constitutes British
Columbia was the real estate in question.
With the entrance of British Columbia into Confederation in 1871, the demand for land
quickened to a rush, and over the next thirty years the land-settler (and the promoter) succeeded the gold-miner in importance. Railroads were built and land grants passed, cities came
into being, and companies became established.   Land was at the core of all developments.
The task of land administration became very heavy and necessitated the formation of
a Department of Lands in 1908. In 1912 a Forest Branch was included in the Department of
Lands. To-day the Department of Lands and Forests exercises control of more than 90 per
cent of the surface of British Columbia.
How does the Lands Branch fit into the total organization of the British Columbia Lands
Service of to-day? The relation may be expressed briefly. The Lands Branch has jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the disposition of Crown land, and is charged with so
administering and disposing of the land that the general welfare, present and future, of
the Province must be protected at all times.
When an individual, or group, desires to purchase or lease Crown land, the application is
directed to the Superintendent of Lands, head of the Lands Branch. His authority governs
the following matters:—
Sale, lease, and pre-emption of Crown lands for such purposes as agricultural, industrial, commercial, and home-sites.
Preparation and issuance of Crown grants under the | Land Act," the | Mineral Act,"
and the " Taxation Act."
Preparation and issuance of right-of-way easements for power, telephone, pipe lines,
etc.
Reservation of suitable Crown lands and foreshore for national defence, use and
enjoyment of the public, forestry experimentation, fisheries research work, highways, etc.
Granting railway rights-of-way under various Statutes.
Protection of historic sites from alienation.
Reservation and conveying of Crown lands for such purposes as school-sites, cemeteries, and fair grounds.
Leasing of land and foreshore for such varied purposes as wharf-sites, booming-
grounds, canneries, oyster and other mollusc fisheries, and for boat-houses,
quarry-sites, cattle-ranching, trappers' cabins, ship-building, and aircraft bases.
To perform these and other functions efficiently, the Lands Branch works in close
co-operation with a great number of other agencies, such as municipal and city administrations,
town-planning authorities, the British Columbia Forest Service, the Branches of Water Rights
and Surveys and Mapping within the British Columbia Lands Service, and all the departments
in the Government of the Province, notably Public Works, Education, and Attorney-General.
Outside the Provincial departments there is much business transacted with Federal
departments, such as the Department of National Defence, the Veterans' Land Settlement Act
administration, the Public Works Department, and the Indian Affairs Branch of the Department
of Citizenship and Immigration.
Direct service to the people of British Columbia is the first duty of the Lands Branch and
this takes the bulk of the time of the Lands Branch personnel. Associated with this prime
duty is the important function of the maintenance of the records, which in many cases are the
only ones in British Columbia, showing the correct legal status of the surface of the Province.—
Reprinted from 1952 Report.
 LANDS BRANCH KK n
LANDS BRANCH
R. E. Burns, Superintendent of Lands
The year 1954 has been one of great activity both for our Land Inspection Division
and Land Administration Division. The former Division, which comprises fourteen
field offices in addition to the Victoria office, carries out field examinations and other
investigations which are used by the latter Division in adjudicating and preparing certificates of purchase, leases, easements, licences, permits, and Crown grants.
While the major activity of this Branch involves the alienation of Crown lands to
the general public or private companies, the services rendered to other Government
agencies have increased with the development of the Province. During the past year
a number of large reserves were placed over Crown lands for the Pacific Great Eastern
Railway for right-of-way purposes, for the Water Rights Branch for hydro-development
purposes, for the Parks Division for recreational purposes, and a large number of smaller
reserves for other departments, such as Public Works, Education, and Provincial Secretary. The mechanics of amending the Department's records with respect to these reserves
is a time-consuming and meticulous job. In addition, a large number of clearances are
made for the Department of Mines with respect to mineral claims, placer leases, coal
leases, and petroleum leases.
Road access to various sections of the Province has resulted in increased inquiries
for home-sites on the larger lakes.
In furtherance of the programme of the British Columbia Electric Company and
British Columbia Power Commission, applications for easements for transmission-line
rights-of-way have increased. In this connection an easement has been granted extending from Seton Lake to North Vancouver. An application now under consideration
involves a submarine cable across the Gulf of Georgia from the Mainland, with additional
overhead crossings, extending to Vancouver Island.
The administration of lands at False Creek, Vancouver, in conjunction with the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, together with those comprising the Industrial
Reserve, Victoria, has shown continued activity, resulting in substantial revenue to the
Department.
A concerted effort has been made during the past year to give quicker public service.
Considerable gains have been made in this respect, mainly due to the increase of staff
in the Inspection Division during the past two years. The Land Administration staff
has been hard pressed to keep up with the flow of reports from the Land Inspectors,
and the situation is only being kept in hand by members of the Land Administration staff
working after hours in their own time.
Although the actual number of applications to alienate lands received in this Branch
has remained fairly constant during the past five years, the actual work involved in
handling the applications has increased greatly. This can be accounted for by the rapid
increase in population in this Province, resulting in keen competition for Crown lands,
which further results in overlapping applications, letters of protest, and lengthy negotiations for adjudication of the application. This trend is most prevalent in the lower
coastal area, where booming-grounds are at a premium, and in the ranching area of the
Central Cariboo, where alienations interfere with established ranch interests.
 KK 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
STATISTICAL TABLES
Collections
Table 1.—Summary of Recorded Collections for the Year Ended
December 31st, 1954
I Land Act "—
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc  $330,397.09
Land sales  1    488,303.49
Sale of maps and aerial photos       35,658.77
Water rentals and recording fees     813,413.61
  $1,667,772.96
1 Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern Okanagan Lands Project     $81,786.85
Houses, South Vancouver  360.00 S,
I |                82,146.85
% University Endowment Lands Administration Act "____       190,033.78
Refunds—advances and votes       125,227.93
Total collections |  $2,065,181.52
 LANDS branch
KK 15
CHART 1. SOURCES OF COLLECTIONS,    1954
SEE TABLE 1  FOR DETAILS
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
Table 2.—Summary of Total Collections for Ten-year Period
1945-54, Inclusive l
$846,456.33
992,201.70
1,770,413.49
975,772.41
1,045,969.03
1,159,988.86
1,692,737.85
2,761,152.78
3,705,480.02
2,065,181.52
Total   $17,015,353.99
 KK 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 3.—Sundry Revenue for the Year Ended December 31st, 1954
Collections under § Land Act "—
Leases, land-use permits, fees, etc.  $271,803.34
Crown-grant fees I  14,060.00
Occupational rental 1  6,436.01
Improvements _  330.00
Royalty j        11,678.95
Reverted mineral claims         4,671.58
Sundry        21,417.21
Total  $330,397.09
Table 4.—Summary of Sundry Revenue Collections for Ten-year Period
1945-54, Inclusive
1945 wmm $199,042.61
1946 mmm 207,696.63
1947 ■_■_■■ 262,760.93
1948 Mmmm 288,901.91
1949 _______■_■_■ 322,683.92
1950 __________■____» 387,435.19
1951 wi^mwm^m^mm^^mm 916,338.98
1952 wm^mmammB^^m^^^^s^^^^^mm 1,694,073.93
1953 wmmmmmmmi^mmmmmmm^mmLwmmm 1,608,773.65
1954 mmmmm W.       -JRHp 330,397.09
Total  $6,218,104.84
Ten-year average, $621,810.48. 1
Table 5.—Miscellaneous Collections, 1954
Collections under 1 Houses, South Vancouver "—
Principal	
Interest  $360.00
Administration	
Taxes	
Insurance	
J  $360.00
Refunds—advances and votes     125,227.93
Total :  $125,587.93
 LANDS BRANCH
KK 17
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 KK 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 7.—Country Land Sales, 1954
Surveyed— Acres
First class     5,542.82
Second class   27,372.58
Third class -  12,251.90
  45,167.30
Unsurveyed  11,851.63
Total  57,018.93
Table 8.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1954
Land Recording District Number of Sales
Alberni |  8
Atlin  4
Cranbrook  40
Fernie  14
Fort Fraser j j  78
Fort George  147
Golden  j  18
Kamloops  66
Kaslo .  11
Lillooet -  87
Nanaimo   36
Nelson  41
New Westminster  30
Osoyoos   11
Peace River  97
Prince Rupert  31
Quesnel  109
Revelstoke | j  25
Similkameen  29
Smithers ||  88
Telegraph Creek I   	
Vancouver  59
Victoria | 1  14
Total  1,043
 LANDS BRANCH
KK 19
Table 9.—Town Lots Sold, 1954
Number
Alice Arm  1
Anaconda  2
Arrowhead  3
Athalmer  10
Atlin  7
Balfour  3
Beaton  2
Blue River  1
Boundary Falls  1
Brackendale   17
Camborne j  8 7
Cedar   1
Chilliwack  2
Clinton f  8
Coombe -  1
Courtenay   30
Cranbrook  I 7
Elko -  20
Endako  2
Engen  4
Fernie  3
Fort Fraser I  12
Golden   6
Grand Forks  I  2
Hazelton  72
Hope  19
Hosmer   2
Houston   3 7
Kimberley   1
Kitchener —  2
Lake Cowichan  3
Masset  12
Merritt  3
Midway  2
Nelson  3
New Hazelton  133
New Westminster  1
Port Alberni  1
Port Clements  1
Port Edward  2
Port Essington  1
Pouce Coupe  5
Prince George  190
Prince Rupert  6
Princeton  2
Procter  1
Queen Charlotte  3
Quesnel  10
Revelstoke ;  2
Shawnigan Lake  37
Sidney  26
Value
$75.00
50.00
60.00
310.00
400.00
100.00
40.00
200.00
15.00
935.00
430.00
100.00
1,990.00
405.00
100.00
750.00
187.00
100.00
30.00
125.00
2,110.00
275.00
190.00
120.00
It 340-00
9,965.00
40.00
695.00
100.00
30.00
300.00
586.57
200.00
60.00
450.00
660.00
100.00
50.00
35.00
325.00
70.00
170.00
30,770.00
1,550.00
75.00
10.00
55.00
210.00
50.00
1,300.00
840.00
 KK 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 9.—Town Lots Sold, 1954—Continued
Number
Smithers   142
Soda Creek  2
Sointula  1
South Golden  4
South Wellington |  5
Squamish  9
Stewart  3
Telegraph Creek —_  1
Topley  18
Trout Lake  10
Tulameen   30
Vananda  2
Vancouver  3
Vanderhoof  26
Walhachin  4
Westview  6
Wilmer  2
Ymir  4
Totals  1,081
Value
$5,085.00
150.00
300.00
120.00
300.00
685.00
160.00
25.00
180.00
450.00
1,645.00
200.00
500.00
1,535.00
180.00
2,170.00
50.00
140.00
$72,008.57
Table 10.—Land-sales Collections, 1954 (Collections under "Land Act
(Principal and Interest) )
Country lands—
Reverted  $141,730.51
Crown     227,616.67
  $369,347.18
Town lots     118,046.66
Surface rights of mineral claims  909.65
Former Dominion	
Pre-empted lands	
Indian reserve cut-off  	
Total  $488,303.49
)>
 LANDS BRANCH
KK 21
CHART 2. SOURCES OF LAND SALES COLLECTIONS,  1954
SEE TABLE  10 FOR DETAILS
Table 11
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
-Summary of Land Sales for Ten-year Period
1945—54, Inclusive
$294,034.56
368,088.19
811,752.23
379,650.48
375,254.88
366,458.62
382,256.61
619,263.14
594,004.08
488,303.49
Total  $4,679,066.28
Ten-year average, $467,906.63.
 KK 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Leases
Table 12.—New Leases Issued, 1954
Number
Hay and grazing  180
Agriculture       31
Quarrying, sand, gravel, etc.     14
Home-site |     14
Booming and log storage     31
Oyster, clam, and shell-fish       9
Cannery  j  	
Fish-trap—salmon-fishing station       1
Foreshore—miscellaneous     21
Miscellaneous     65
Totals   366
Acreage
40,646.54
5,780.69
532.98
199.90
539.06
293.95
877.00
46.52
1,148.16
50,064.80
Table 13.—Temporary Tenure Leases Renewed, 1954
Number        If 52
Acreage  2,846.59
Table 14.—Land-use Permits Issued, 1954
Number         27
Acreage  110.23
Table 15.—Licences of Occupation Issued, 1954
Number         13
Acreage  112.21
Table 16.—Assignments Approved, 1954
Leases, land-use permits, licences of occupation, etc. ___.
Number
I 76
Table 17.—Easements Granted, 1954
Number
Power and telephone lines, etc.  22
Miscellaneous      2
Table 18.—Sundry Lease Collections (t(Land Act")
Leases, land-use permits, fees, etc  $271,803.34
Occupational rentals        6,436.01
Royalty       11,678.95
Total   $289,918.30
 LANDS BRANCH
Table 19.—Summary of Home-site Lease Collections
for Ten-year Period 1945-54, Inclusive
KK 23
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
$2,751.67
2,109.86
2,932.25
2,265.74
1,926.99
2,040.33
2,123.65
1,398.80
1,394.30
1,562.60
Total  $20,506.19
Ten-year average, $2,050.61.
Pre-emptions
Table 20.—Pre-emptions Records, 1954
Land Recording District
Pre-emption Records
Allowed
Pre-emption Records
Cancelled
Certificates of Improvements Issued
Number
Ten-year
Average
Number
Ten-year
Average
Number
Ten-year
Average
Albemi              	
1
11
8
1
61
2
13
0.3
0.4
0.1
5.3
13.2
2.7
4.3
14.6
0.8
0.1
1.5
1.0
79.6
0.5
17.8
0.1
1.1
1.8
0.9
1
5
12
5
1
2
3
4
74
15
10
3
1.0
0.9
0.1
7.6
25.7
2.8
7.9
19.9
1.8
0.9
6.4
1.9
48.5
22.0
5.6
2.4
2.2
1
1
4
2
3
18
2
31
6
1
1
1
0.1
Atlin	
Cranbrook.   ...
Fernie	
0.1
0.8
0.1
Fort Fraser...        _	
5.2
Fort George	
11.3
Golden |
Kamloops	
Kaslo 	
1.7
6.5
0,1
Lillooet	
Nanaimo         	
9.5
0.7
Nelson	
0.5
New Westminster	
3.8
Osoyoos.	
2.4
Peace River.	
45.2
Prince Rupert	
P       0.6
Quesnel	
i  n.6
Revelstoke.... _.
1.8
Similkameen... _
2.3
Smithers.. _.
1.2
Telegraph Creek	
Vancouver.
i     1.4
Victoria..
0.3
Totals	
97
146.1
135
157.6
71
107.2
 KK 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 21.—General Summary of Pre-emption Records
1945
1946
1947
1948 I 1949
I
I
1950
1951
1952
1953
Pre-emption records allowed.
Certificate of improvements
issued	
115
177
283
131
284
105
171
108
145
109
141 |      85
I
133 I      92
87
69
Crown Grants
Table 22.—Crown Grants Issued, 1954
Purchases (other than town lots)  586
Town lots  374
Pre-emptions  75
Mineral claims (other than reverted)  68
Mineral claims (reverted) 1 ._._ 116
University Endowment Lands  5
1 Public Schools Act"  14
| Veterans' Land Settlement Act"  7
Home-site leases  7
Supplementary timber grants 1  4
Pacific Great Eastern Railway.  11
Surface rights ("Mineral Act")  5
Miscellaneous |  4
TotaL___  1,276
Certified copies of Crown Grants issued, 45.
Table 23.—Crown Grants Issued for Past Ten Years
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
Total ___: 1 .  18,559
Ten-year average, 1,855.
 LANDS BRANCH KK 25
.   Table 24.—Total Area Deeded by Crown Grant, 1954
Acres
Purchases of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots) 54,046.99
Pre-emptions  10,525.45
Mineral claims (other than reverted)__     2,829.87
Mineral claims (reverted)     4,097.07
| Public Schools Act"  66.39
Supplementary timber grants        265.30
Pacific Great Eastern Railway         541.90
| Veterans' Land Settlement Act |        931.00
Home-site leases  84.97
Miscellaneous         72.75
Total  73,461.69
Reserves
Table 25.—Reserves Established, 1954
Use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public  218
British Columbia Public Works Department  (rights-of-way,
gravel-pits, warehouses, etc.)  59
Federal Government (defence purposes, wharf-sites, etc.)  76
Miscellaneous (Forest Service Ranger stations, road access, reforestation, etc., Game Commission, water-power projects) 87
Total  440
Sundry Collections, 1954
Table 26.—Collections under the "Soldiers' Land Act"—
Southern Okanagan Lands Project
Principal     $9,755.58
Interest         971.74
Lease rentals       1,136.90
Realizations       1,419.75
Water rates—
Oliver domestic  $15,615.70
Irrigation     52,887.18
    68,502.88
Total  $81,786.85
 KK 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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LANDS BRANCH KK 2?
LAND INSPECTION DIVISION
L. D. Fraser, B.Sc.A., P.Ag., Chief Land Inspector
The late spring and unseasonable rainfall, which was general throughout most of
British Columbia, caused transportation difficulties, thereby retarding field work considerably. It is interesting to note that a total of 15.12 inches of rain fell in the Fort St
John area from May 1st to September 31st, which was 7.01 inches above the ten-year
average for this period. Despite inclement weather and transportation problems, a total
of 2,196 land examinations were completed this year, as compared to 2,152 in 1953.
This would indicate that there is no slackening off of land inspection work throughout
the Province. All the land examinations are now handled by the Inspection Division with
the exception of about 2.5 per cent, which are handled by the Forest Service in coastal
areas and require boat transportation.
STAFF
D. Borthwick, B.S.A., P.Ag., who had been Acting Assistant Chief Land Inspector,
appointed Assistant Chief Land Inspector, effective April 1st, 1954. The field staff
increased from fourteen to fifteen Land Inspectors with a view to eliminating the
need of summer assistants. Nevertheless, it was found expedient to employ two university
students—namely, K. Bereza and C. Collins—for four months during the summer to assist
Land Inspectors with the steady demand of land inspections and also to help bring the
backlog of work up to date. The backlog was incurred to some extent by the inclement
weather and the delay in finding suitable replacements to fill vacancies created by the
resignation of two Land Inspectors—namely, H. L. Huff, B.S.A., P.Ag., and R. E.
Gordon, B.S.A.—who accepted employment other than in Government service.
New appointees to the field staff included A. Paulsen, B.S.A., P.Ag., who transferred
from the Grazing Division of the Forest Service; D. Kidd, B.S.A., M.S.A., who had been
previously employed during the summer as an Assistant Land Inspector; and W. B.
Stewart, B.S.A. The usual practice of transferring senior men to preferred districts when
vacancies occurred was followed.
§ I;:       STATISTICS %
Table 1.—Land Inspections, 1954
Purchases—
Agricultural and grazing  551
Home-sites   209
Industrial and commercial     65
Camp-sites and resorts  110
Wood-lots       7
Miscellaneous     51
     993
Leases—
Land—
Agricultural  61
Home-sites   26
Industrial and commercial  27
Quarrying, sand, gravel, limestone, etc  25
Grazing (including hay-cutting)  212
Miscellaneous -—  17
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage   65
Industrial and commercial   44 ,
Oyster and shell-fish  13 j
Miscellaneous     27
      149
 KK 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 1.—Land Inspections, 1954—Continued
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc	
Pre-emptions—
Applications     65
Annual inspections  203
Subdivisions— S
Valuations  1  14
Selection Crown's quarter-interest      8
Survey inspections      4
62
268
Reserves —	
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act"	
Land Settlement Board—
Land classification       9
Valuations      21
26
41
17
Miscellaneous inspections
Total
30
242
2,196
The following tables compare the 1953. and 1954 season's work:—
Table 2.—Inspections Required
Land Inspections
Annual Pre-emption Inspections
Year
Number of
Requests
for
Inspections
Number of
Inspections
Completed
Number of
Inspections
Outstanding
Pre-emptions
in Good
Standing
Inspected
Outstanding
1953	
1954	
2,075
2,313
1,715
1,993
360
320
587
514
437
203
150
311
Table 3.—Inspections
1953 1954
Total inspections required (including annual preemptions)    2,662       2,827
Total inspections completed (including annual preemptions)  I j  2,152       2,196
Total inspections outstanding  (including annual |l
pre-emptions)   510          631
SUMMARY
The unseasonable amount of precipitation, particularly during the summer months,
made side-roads virtually impassable for weeks at a time, thereby slowing up examination work, even in areas where four-wheel-drive vehicles were used. However, transportation facilities improved with the long open fall, and efforts were concentrated on
completing as many land inspections as possible. Consequently, relatively few annual
pre-emption inspections were carried out, particularly in the Peace River area, where the
majority of the pre-emptions are located. 1
By November 30th, 1954, 1,993 land inspections had been completed, leaving 320
outstanding. This is an increase of 278 land examinations completed over 1953 figures
and a decrease of forty outstanding examinations from last year.   On the other hand,
 LANDS BRANCH KK ^
only 203 pre-emptions were inspected this year, as compared to 437 in 1953 and there
were 311 pre-emption inspections outstanding at November 30th, 1954, as compared to
150 on November 30th, 1953.
Table 3 indicates that there was more field work accomplished this year than last
year, and was in proportion to the increase in requests for inspections. This upward
trend in requests for land examinations centres around determining whether or not the
terms and conditions of applications allowed under various sections of the I Land Act"
are being complied with. In this regard, special attention was given to applications for
Crown grants under section 53 of the I Land Act" and delinquent accounts.
It is gratifying to note that the majority of the outstanding examinations are of
recent origin and that only a few of the outstanding examinations are over a year old,
due to them being in remote areas and requiring special transportation arrangements—
by air, boat, pack-horse, jeep, or in some instances a combination of two or more modes
of transportation—to reach into the hinterland to satisfy the lust of the pioneer.
Applications for agricultural purchases continue to lead the field by a wide margin.
The major portion of these applications are for the expansion of present holdings rather
than from new settlers. The demand for home-sites shows a slight increase over last year,
as well as applications for summer-camp sites and log-booming. Applications for industrial and commercial purposes remained steady, as well as applications to pre-empt land.
The greatest activity in land applications is in the northern and central parts of the
Province. It is anticipated that applications for land will continue at the present level
and possibly increase as the direct result of the proposed hydro industrial development,
extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway into the Peace River area, and general
expanding economy of British Columbia.
  SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
 Note 2
THE SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Because the activities of man are kept orderly through a well-defined system of land
surveys, the Surveys and Mapping Branch is called upon to act as the connecting-link that binds
together many primary operations within departments of government and between government
and the general public.
Specifically, through land surveys, Crown and other lands, including water, are located and
identified accurately on the surface of the Province, and so made ready for alienation in any of
a variety of different ways. Further, a background of suitable maps and survey data is provided
to assist in the intelligent development of lands so acquired, and in the wise administration of
the natural resources associated with them.
In post-war years a great upsurge in the economic development of British Columbia's
natural resources has taken place. Each year shows increased activity in the disposition of
Crown lands for various purposes, ranging from the smallest individual application for a home-
site to industrial requirements involving many square miles of land.
In any of these transactions the Surveys and Mapping Branch plays an important part
because it has the responsibility of clearing, as to status, all such applications for Crown lands'
whether small or large. This function involves complete record-keeping of all official survey
data by all sources, including a graphic record of all Crown-land alienations, whether surveyed
or unsurveyed.
Equally important, on the other hand, is the responsibility for the establishment, extension,
and recording of mapping control. These basic duties prescribe, among other things, the preparation of basic triangulation networks and aerial photography at suitable scales, the making of
control traverses, the delineation and maintenance of interprovincial boundaries, and the production of standard photo-topographic mapping, interim base-mapping, and cadastral surveys of
Crown lands.   The data are then condensed and presented in lithograph map form.
The main objectives, then, of the Surveys and Mapping Branch are first to provide
complete, accurate, and readily available maps on adequate scales with allied data, for
administrative control of resources and Crown-land transactions, and, secondly, to maintain this information up to date by keeping abreast of continuous cultural development.
A survey inventory of such a standard is obviously of primary advantage in encouraging
the present development of our natural resources, and further developments which seem "just
around the corner."
A brief summary of the functions of the Branch follows, and the breakdown is provided
by Divisions:—
/. Administration.—General co-ordination of the four Divisions of the Branch, being
Legal, Geographic, Topographic, and Air; delineation and maintenance of boundaries under
the Provincial Boundary Commissioner—namely, (a) Alberta-British Columbia Boundary and
(b) British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary.
//. Legal Division.—Regulations for surveys under the various Provincial Acts, such as
Land, Land Registry, Mineral, Petroleum and Natural Gas; instructions to British Columbia
land surveyors regarding surveys of Crown lands and subsequent check of field-notes and plan
returns of same; preparation and custody of official plans; preparation and maintenance of
Departmental reference maps, mineral reference maps, and composite (cadastral) maps; clearance by status of all applications concerning Crown lands; field surveys and inspections of
Crown lands, highway rights-of-way, etc.; preparation of legal descriptions as required; operation of blue-print and photostat sections.
///. Geographic Division. — Map compilation, drawing, editing, and reproduction; map
checking, distribution, geographical naming—Gazetteer of British Columbia; trigonometric
computation and recording of same; geographic information, such as Lands Bulletins; special
services, such as outlining electoral and school districts and checking road maps; general liaison
between this Department and Federal and other mapping agencies on exchange of survey and
mapping data.
IV. Topographic Division.—Propagation of field control—namely, triangulation, traverses,
photo-topographic control; compilation and fair drawing of manuscripts for standard topographic mapping; special field control for composite and multiplex mapping and other special
projects.
V. Air Division.—Aerial photographic operations involving maintenance and operation of
three aircraft; photographic processing, air-photo distribution, and Provincial air-photo library;
compilation of interim aerial base maps, primarily for British Columbia forest inventory; tn-
camera control propagation; multiplex aerial mapping of precise large-scale detail projects;
instrument-shop for repairs, maintenance, and development of technical equipment.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH KK 33
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.R, P. Eng., B.C.R.F., B.C.L.S., F.R.G.S., Director,
Surveyor-General, and Boundaries Commissioner
Demands for the varied and specialized services of the Surveys and Mapping Branch
have shown a tendency to increase in magnitude and variety, reflecting the sustained
growth and diversification of activity in the Province. Probably at no time in our history
has the rate of development been so great, even in a relative sense, as it is to-day. The
romantic fur trade of a century ago, the gold-rush of the 1'860's, the railroad-building of
the 1880's, the boom in land and timber staking deflated by the First World War, all seem
rudimentary and ephemeral in comparison with to-day's crescendo of investment and
development.
Noteworthy in the Legal Surveys Division was a move to inaugurate a new service
for inspection of surveys and plans at the request of the Land Registrars, in those cases
where difficulty is experienced in reconciling a new survey with evidence on official plans
previously deposited. This service should go a long way to prevent the occurrence and
propagation of new errors in our cadastral survey structure.
The Geographic Division has, with limited staff, maintained a creditable output of
new maps and other services affecting land bulletins, survey-control data, and distribution
of published maps. The end of the year finds the Computing Section busy adjusting new
triangulation data in response to increasing demand from those concerned with oil and
gas locations in North-east British Columbia.
The Topographic Division experienced its second year in the field exclusively devoted to extending the unique triangulation network over the muskeg lands of North-east
British Columbia. Thanks to experience and skills gained in tower construction during
1953, to a more liberal helicopter contract, and to the low-cost services of our transport
aircraft, a record area of new but difficult country was transformed from the category of
the unknown into that of the known. It is anticipated that the 1955 season will complete
this programme of triangulation controlling 25,000 square miles of hitherto unsurveyed
potential oil and gas reserves. It is necessary to report, with some misgivings, that the
normal topographic mapping programme, which has been the express function of this
Division since 1914, has had to remain in abeyance during its preoccupation with these
control surveys, but it is hoped in 1956 that topographic operations may be resumed.
Two features of the Air Division's operations are noteworthy. In spite of one of the
worst seasons for photographic weather on record, a gross of some 35,000 square miles
was covered by new photography. This accomplishment compares favourably with those
of better years in the past, and bespeaks efficiency and alertness on the part of the photographic flying crews. The other item of interest in this Division is the significant upswing
in production of interim maps for the inventory programme of the Forest Service, but
also eagerly used by many other agencies. After long and sustained effort, the annual
output of these maps in the past couple of years rose to some 20,000 square miles, but
now it is coming into full swing at over 40,000 square miles per year. This would indicate that high-quality photographs in quantity, improvement of plotting equipment and
methods, rigorous training and organization of personnel, over the past seven or eight
years, are now paying off with gratifying results.
Reports of the four Divisions of this Branch follow.
 KK 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Legal Surveys Division
Queen Charlotte City.
Bench lands, vicinity
of Osoyoos.
Typical land and cover, Clayhurst
area, Peace River District.
Clayhurst Ferry landing,
Peace River District.
HP*
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH KK 35
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
D. Pearmain, Chief
The Legal Surveys Division, under the direction of the Surveyor-General, is responsible for cadastral surveys of all Crown lands of the Province. This entails the issuing of
instructions to the land surveyor engaged to make each survey, and the checking and
plotting of his returns in the form of field-notes or plans. Included in these are all right-
of-way surveys, such as for highways, railways, transmission-lines, etc.
During the year, 646 sets of field-notes were received in this office and duly indexed,
checked, and plotted, and official plans prepared therefrom. These official plans then
become part of the root of the title to the said lands when same are alienated from the
Crown. Of the above-mentioned surveys, 478 were made under the " Land Act" and
168 under the "Mineral Act." At the present time there are approximately 91,961 sets
of field-notes on record in our vaults.
There were 352 plans received from surveyors covering surveys made under the
"Land Registry Act." These were duly checked and indexed, and certified copies deposited in the respective Land Registry Offices.
In order that a graphic record may be kept of alienations of both surveyed and
unsurveyed Crown lands, a set of reference maps must be maintained covering the whole
of the Province. These show all cadastral surveys which are on file in the Department.
Keeping these maps up to date by adding new information as it accrues day by day, and
renewing the master tracings when they become worn by constant handling, forms a
considerable portion of the work of this Division.
During the year quite a number of reference maps were recompiled within geographic grids which will eventually be more easily designated under the National Topographic Series. The only maps still remaining to be recompiled to conform with the said
series are some twenty in the south-east part of the Province, and work is planned on
these for the coming year. It is hoped the majority will be completed so that in the not
too distant future all our reference maps may then be numbered according to the National
Topographic Series.
From the above reference maps, together with other information and facilities maintained by this Division, it is possible to give an up-to-the-minute status on any parcel of
Crown land in the Province.
All applications to purchase or lease Crown lands or foreshore which are received
by the Lands Branch and all applications to purchase Crown timber received by the
Forest Service are channelled through this Division for clearance. The orderly processing
of these applications requires that an exhaustive status be made from the reference maps,
official plans, and Land Registry Office plans. A synopsis of these clearances processed
during the year will be found in Table A attached.
It has been necessary during the year to obtain from the various Land Registry
Offices 3,448 plans; copies of these have been made, indexed, and filed as part of our
records. jf
As in the past, this Division has co-operated with other departments of Government,
at their request, by preparing and checking legal descriptions. Those assisted in this way
were the Attorney-General's Department, descriptions of boundaries of Small Debts
Courts; the Agriculture Department, descriptions of disease-free areas and pound
districts; the Department of Municipal Affairs, descriptions for the incorporation of
municipal areas; the Forest Service, descriptions for forest management licences; and
°ur own Lands Branch, descriptions for gazetted reserves of lands from alienation, etc.
It is a privilege to be of service to these other departments, but it should be noted that the
Preparation of these descriptions in most cases can be very time-consuming. This year it
took approximately 600 man-hours to make the descriptions referred to above.
 KK 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
BLUE-PRINT AND PHOTOSTAT SECTIONS
During the year the Blue-print and Photostat Sections were consolidated under the
direct supervision of Bruce Young. This has accelerated the flow of work by pooling of
personnel to cope with peak loads.
In July a new Super | B " Ozalid machine was purchased and put into operation in
the Blue-print Room. This machine, on account of its high-speed printing and synchronized developing, has measured up to our highest hopes. Since its installation we have
managed to cope with the large volume of work without the necessity of any overtime
work by the staff.
The old Streamliner printing-machine, which the above Super | B " replaced, is being
modified by Mr. Young and the staff for experimental purposes, with the ultimate object
of being able to produce large-size films both by direct and reflex methods.  I
New stainless-steel washing and developing trays were installed in the Blue-print
Room this year to replace the old copper tank which had done service for approximately
forty years, and which was very definitely showing signs of age.
The Blue-print Room is still supplying a service to all departments of Government.
The total number of prints made this year was 103,771, in the preparation of which
86,076 yards of paper and linen were used. || J|
The service rendered by the Photostat Room to all departments of Government and
the general public has increased this year approximately 62 per cent. During this time
21,446 photostats have been made.
Early in the year a new manually operated § Unicop " machine was obtained and
placed in operation. It is designed primarily for copying letters, documents, field-notes,
and bound books. The maximum size that can be copied is 14 by 17 inches. This
machine has speeded up the flow of work passing through the Photostat Room. It has
improved the quality and quantity of survey information that may be supplied to out-of-
town surveyors at a reasonable cost, in connection with surveys of Crown land. An
electrically operated revolute model of the above machine is now on the market, and if
one of these could be obtained, speedier operation would result and larger sheets could
be copied.
j COMPOSITE MAP SECTION
This Section is responsible for the compilation and tracing of composite maps, at 1
inch to 500 feet, of the more thickly subdivided areas of the Province, generally in unorganized territory.
During the year composite maps covering the area from Kelowna to Vernon, comprising forty-two sheets, were completed.
The area from Gibsons to Sechelt, comprising twenty-three sheets, was also
completed.
The Osoyoos to Penticton area, comprising forty sheets, is in the course of compilation.   It is hoped to have this completed early next year.
The area anticipated for this work in the coming year is that between Trail and
Nelson, along the Columbia and Kootenay River valleys. 1
Composite maps are proving of great benefit and assistance to the Land Registry
Office, Provincial Assessors, municipal authorities, and the general public. Prints are
procurable at cost on application to this Division.
LAND EXAMINATION SKETCHES
The small section charged with the responsibility of preparing land inspection
sketches has been able to keep the requests flowing in an orderly manner. From all
reports the Land Inspection Division and the Land Inspectors in the field are finding that
the type and quantity of information being placed on these sketches is tending to speed
up the field inspection of pending applications.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH KK 37
GENERAL
Continuing a programme initiated in 1952, the writer made a visit to the Government
Agents, Provincial Assessors, and certain other Government officials at Nelson, Kaslo,
Cranbrook, Fernie, Golden, Revelstoke, Vernon, and Kamloops, with the object of
ascertaining their requirements for maps and aerial photographs. Practically all Government Agencies affected have now been personally contacted at least once. It is felt that
the Surveys and Mapping Branch has many different types of maps of which these
officials have not been aware. Samples were shown to them, and in the subsequent discussions the uses to which they could be put in their own particular field of endeavour
were ascertained. Copies of maps requested were prepared and forwarded to the respective officials, n
It is with sincere regret that we report the sudden passing of T. A. Jacklin in the
latter part of January. "Alf," as he was affectionately known to us all, had been with the
Department for forty years and practically all of them in the Blue-print Room.
A detailed synopsis of the surveys carried out by this Division follows.
FIELD WORK
W. A. Taylor, B.C.L.S., Supervising Surveyor
Field surveys directed by this Division fall into three main categories, that is: (1)
Highway surveys; (2) Crown-land surveys, which are surveys of vacant Crown land for
settlement; and (3) subdivision, re-establishment, and inspection surveys, which are the
general miscellaneous tasks.
Highway Surveys
The plan in 1954 was to complete the survey of the John Hart Highway except for
the last 10 miles into Dawson Creek. This last section is not in its final location. Seventy-
nine miles in all were surveyed by three Departmental surveyors.
A. P. McLaughlin, B.C.L.S., filled in the gap from the Parsnip River Bridge to the
north end of Azouzetta Lake, a distance of 28 miles. In conjunction with this survey,
four gravel-pit sites were cut out and six district lots were surveyed as reserves for the
Parks Division of the Forest Service. These were located at Rolston Creek, Bijoux
Creek, Azouzetta Creek, and included three islands in Azouzetta Lake. The control-
survey aspect of the work was accomplised by a triangulation tie from the surveyed
highway at McLeod Lake to a Provincial triangulation station, " McLeod East High."
C. R. W. Leak, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., commenced his survey by tying in to the surveyed
highway at Little Prairie, and completed the work through to East Pine, a distance of 20
miles. This survey passed through twenty-two district lots, necessitating the retracement
of 19 miles of old lot boundaries. Triangulation ties for control were made from the
highway at Commotion Creek to Geodetic triangulation station | North Cruiser " and
again to the Army Survey triangulation station I Little Prairie."
Michael Perks, M.A., A.R.I.C.S., B.C.L.S., made a connection with the highway
survey at East Pine and carried it through to Arras, a distance of 31 miles. The greater
part of this mileage was within the surveyed section of the Peace River Block, necessitating
considerable retracement of boundaries. Both ends of this section of the road were tied
to the triangulation network. At East Pine a tie was made to Army Survey station
I Spinny," and at Arras a tie was made to Geodetic station " Bear."
When the John Hart Highway is eventually constructed on a permanent location
from Arras to Dawson Creek, it is the intention to complete this important survey fink
which commenced near Prince George.
W. N. Papove, B.C.L.S., A.L.S., D.L.S., carried on the survey of the Alaska Highway under direction of this Division and with the use of our equipment. Although no
funds were available for this work from the Provincial Treasury, the need for continumg
 KK 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the survey was recognized by the Northwest Highway System, which provided the necessary Funds. A most valuable link was completed by this work which closed the last gap
in the survey of the Alaska Highway from Mile 533 to Mile 586.   A tie m       i        P
IL1\*>  dUlV^    vvc*o  x\^%/v>-^,x_.__l_^**   ~j    _-—   - •  -      o j        s 7     r*v,1Uvu   me He
sary Funds.   A most valuable link was completed by this work which closed the last
:~ ifHi o..«,ot, U +.._-. AlacVs W_crhw_.v from Mile HH to Mile 586.    A tip \yas maHe of^u*
vm^mm vuu _v_ - m- -     J| addition, eight
gravel-pits and bridge-sites were surveyed in this area.   Mr. Papove then moved to the
tt__ r-i__4. .-__¥ _._...._    t_7..__..v-i V\e>  _*_^1r__-»c_t_=»H  tT_p rn_.r_   i_t TVTilp  __.$_   unH  cnr\70T7<_/l  _._-_.   _
JLJ.«.__-_. VU      ■%_•_♦*-    v___      «~-.---_,        ■•  jpSfc       •/
site lots at various points.   The whole season's work resulted in 10 miles of
line and 119 miles of traverse.
Crown-land Surveys
boundary-
This programme required the services of five parties. The surveyor in charge of
one party was taken ill, and the party disbanded and a new surveyor and party were
engaged.
Duncan Cran, B.C.L.S., of Fort St. John, a long-established surveyor in private
practice, commenced work for the Department in the Peace River Block, in the Cache
Creek area in Township 84, Range 23. He surveyed five sections, but at this point was
forced to enter hospital and the work was closed down. Through his excellent co-operation he was soon replaced by another local surveyor, and the work was recommenced.
This surveyor, F. H. Nash, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., of Dawson Creek, completed the
survey of twenty-three applications, amounting to 9,800 acres, which was made up of
nine sections, nine half-sections, two quarter-sections, and parts of three other sections.
In all, 51 miles of boundary-line was run. Access to the area being surveyed was over
a bulldozed trail which was impassable after a rain. The season was exceptionally wet,
and all the low-lying ground in the area was under water during the progress of the work.
A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S., a Departmental surveyor, who, together with his assistant,
we were fortunate to obtain on loan from the Topographic Division, was also engaged on
township work in the Peace River Block. His surveys embraced forty-four separate
applications, totalling 16,160 acres, and necessitated the running of 128 miles of survey-
line and the setting of 145 standard pipe posts. In digging the pits required to reference
these corners, the volume of earth moved by shovel would fill a room 30 by 30 by 9 feet.
His surveys, which were quite scattered, were mainly in the vicinity of Clayhurst, north
of Peace River and east of Beatton River.
A. W. Wolfe-Milner, B.C.L.S., of Ganges, was engaged in August to survey eighteen
parcels of land at Lone Prairie, in the Peace River District. Access to this area is quite
difficult. A trail southerly from East Pine leads to a crossing of the Murray River, which
is accomplished by riding in a skep on an overhead cable. The trail continues for
approximately 18 miles to the area. Twelve of the parcels were under application to
purchase or lease. The remainder of the lots were surveyed to provide additional surveyed acreage for disposal. Approximately 7,000 acres were surveyed, requiring 17
miles of boundary-line and 5 miles of traverse. E
Thomas Williams, B.C.L.S., of White Rock, who in the past few years has been
active in surveying in the Cariboo and Lillooet Districts, was engaged to survey a group
of applications to purchase at Nimpo Lake. He surveyed forty-four district lots, mostly
on the east and north shores of the lake. Seven of these lots are to be reserved by the
Parks Division of the Forest Service as public camp-sites, two of which are islands in the
lake. Nimpo Lake has of recent years become very popular as a fishing resort, and the
bulk of these lots of between 5 and 10 acres have already been applied for. Mr. Williams
also carried out several lot surveys for the Department in the vicinity of Quesnel Lake in
connection with other private work on which he was engaged.
F. O. Speed, B.C.L.S., a Departmental surveyor, who, together with his assistant,
was on loan to us from the Topographic Division, was assigned to carry out the legal
survey of the boundaries of the forest experimental station at Aleza Lake. The task
was requested by the Forest Service and proved to be one of some magnitude by
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH KK 39
reason of the heavy windfalls, burnt and logged-over areas, and an extremely wet season
making local transportation quite difficult.   The boundaries of the area surveyed, some
30 square miles, were a combination of new line to be run and old fines to be retraced
Twenty miles of this line were monumented every half-mile with standard pipe posts!
The natural boundary portion, being the Bowron River, was traversed and monumented
at intervals.   In all, 15 miles of traverse was run to close the work.
Subdivision, Re-establishment, and Inspection Surveys
Four Departmental surveyors were engaged on this work full time and two highway
surveyors filled in after completion of their highway surveys.
R. W. Thorpe, B.C.L.S., conducted subdivision surveys at Westbank, Boston Bar,
Merritt, and Hope, with miscellaneous re-establishments at Cultus Lake, Penticton, and
Sproat Lake. An interesting preliminary re-establishment at Port Douglas was carried
out, where it is planned to resurvey the old townsite as first laid out by the Royal
Engineers in 1859. Two investigations into reported old faulty surveys were carried out
in the vicinities of White Rock and Westview with a view to determining the necessity
for a special survey. ft
G. T. Mullin, B.C.L.S., carried out subdivisions at Nakusp, Seymour Townsite,
Burnaby, Nelson, Keremeos, and Rock Creek. These, together with right-of-way surveys
at Wasa, Celista, and Adams Lake, and lot surveys at Osoyoos, New Westminster, and
West Vancouver, were interspersed with inspections at Argenta and West Vancouver.
D. W. Carrier, B.C.L.S., was mainly engaged on widely scattered subdivision work
of Crown lands. Seven such surveys at Bralorne, Sidney, Ladysmith, Loon Lake, Prince
George, Cowichan Lake, and Pemberton were completed, and also a reposting at South
Fort George and quite an extensive j Land Act" survey for home-sites at Sheridan Lake,
together with a right-of-way survey at Chilliwack and a somewhat intensive investigation
into a faulty right-of-way survey on Vancouver Island.
P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S., who was transferred to this Division from the Lands
Branch on April 1st, was a welcome addition to the field staff by reason of his familiarity
with all parts of the Province and long experience in Government surveys. He completed
surveys mostly in the central part of the Province, working at Queen Charlotte, Port
Edward, Vanderhoof, Burns Lake, Babine Lake, Endako, Clinton, Lillooet, Fairview
Townsite in the Southern Okanagan, and Alberni on Vancouver Island. Mr. Monckton
also made a reconnaissance survey of the community of Valemount, from which will
spring a town plan for the guidance of those in the area. This service, with the valuable
co-operation of the Public Works Department in establishing a road system, is one that
we believe will prove extremely useful to such other incipient communities as may care to
request help. 1
Miscellaneous surveys at the close of Mr. Perks' season on the John Hart Highway
were carried out by him at Summit Lake, Barriere, Kamloops, Merritt, and Shuswap Lake.
Mr. McLaughlin, another highway surveyor, also helped out in a survey at Quesnel
to clear up a boundary dispute between adjacent Crown grantees.
A few isolated surveys which it was not thought economical to carry out by Departmental personnel were made by surveyors in private practice.
 KK 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table A.—Summary of Office Work for the Years 1953
1      Legal Surveys Division
1953
Number of field-books received  473
lots surveyed  420
lots plotted  430
lots gazetted 1  391
lots cancelled  34
mineral-claim field-books prepared  101
reference maps compiled or renewed  22
applications for purchase cleared  2,318
applications for pre-emption cleared  111
applications for lease cleared  1,035
coal licences cleared  8
water licences cleared  46
timber sales cleared  5,327
free-use permits cleared  302
hand-loggers' licences cleared  58m
Crown-grant applications cleared  1,768
petroleum and natural-gas permits cleared 61
reverted-land clearances  572
cancellations made  1,138
inquiries cleared  1,001
placer-mining leases plotted on maps  70
letters received and dealt with  12,827
land-examination sketches  1,192
Crown-grant and lease tracings made  1,191
miscellaneous tracings made  95
Government Agents' tracings made  289
photostats made  13,223
blue-prints made  100,106 |j|
documents consulted and filed in vault  51,610
and 1954
1954
399
490
498
585
22
168
30
2,148
125
760
64
101
6,616
97
2
1,200
432
3,673
1,271
15
14,914
1,266
1,037
42
215
21,446
103,771
59,080
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
KK 41
1954
LEGAL SURVEYS  DIVISION
SURVEY   AND   MAPPING   BRANCH
15000-
BLUEPR1NTS  MADE
13000-
11000
9000
7000
5000
1500-
1000
\__ — — — -**?21*
T_ieT"
£r
CLEARANCES   &   PHOTOSTATS    MADE/
f
\
816
500-
TRACINGS   MADE   &    LOTS    GAZETTED
300-
\HPS
• Aaae
WL
90S
m
0226
S
S
X°282
200-
REFERENCE
MAPS
COMPILED! 6
TRACED
COMPOSITE
MAPS      -
COMPILED
\
\
—°27»
\
\
-V
^X°S62""
__^H
\
\
\
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— — 200
-i _■-* _
^197
__2__L
186
.50
42
10
14
 Topographic Division
Control Survey, North-eastern British Columbia
Town Station, tower near headwaters of Townsoitoi Creek, 3 miles west
ofEkwan Lake; height, 120 feet.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH KK 43
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief
Nearly all of the resources of the Topographic Division were used during the 1954
field season to establish horizontal control in North-eastern British Columbia. It was a
continuation of the programme instigated last year to bring control survey into this
important area of oil and natural-gas exploration permits. E. R. McMinn, B.C.L.S.,
D.L.S., was again in charge, assisted by A. D. Wight, B.C.L.S., and W. H. Stilwell^
DX.S. With a definite objective of the 59th parallel of latitude and a possible objective
of the 60th parallel set at the beginning of the season, excellent progress was made until
the Fontas River section was reached. This area of low relief proved very difficult,
necessitating towers of well over 100 feet in height to carry the work forward. Despite
this the first objective was easily attained, plus approximately one-third of the second.
With all our financial resources pledged for the control survey, it was impossible
to put any topographic parties in the field. However, it was considered unnecessary
to have all our senior surveyors on the one operation. A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S., and
F. 0. Speed, B.C.L.S., were seconded to the Legal Surveys Division to take charge of
cadastral surveys. Topographic Division men and equipment were supplied for their
use, and two other senior instrument-men were supplied to separate Legal Surveys
Division field parties. Jf
High above the Parliament Buildings at Victoria is a statue of Capt. George Vancouver. It is 165 feet from the ground-level to the top of Captain Vancouver's outstretched hand. The highest triangulation tower built this summer was at station | Strip,"
where the recorded measurement to the top of the flag was 156 feet. The building of
such a tower with materials found at the site plus great quantities of spikes and wire is
a personal triumph that requires a fine sense of proportion, stamina, hard work, and the
nerve to climb and work at such heights. The only equipment available to the builders
are axes, hammers, saws, block and tackle, and muscles. No plans or blue-prints can
be supplied, as each tower-site presents its own particular problem and the building
materials vary considerably. The builders also have to contend with the usual nuisances—mosquitos, black-flies, etc., inquisitive bears that can be very persistent, and
the local thunder-storms which are characteristic of this section of the Province.
Air transport is the only economic and rapid means of access to this area of shallow
lakes and muskeg. Transporting men, equipment, and supplies for a fifty-man field
party is a major undertaking. We were fortunate to have had the use of the Air Division's Beaver aircraft FHF, equipped with pontoons. Able to land on many of the
small lakes, it was the work-horse of the operation, logging 567 hours flying-time. Every
pound of freight came in by the Beaver, and all the preliminary reconnaissance trips
were squeezed into a long tight schedule. Certainly the objective obtained would have
been impossible without it, and to charter for a like number of hours would have been
far beyond our financial resources.
We chartered a Bell helicopter from Okanagan Helicopters Limited which logged
633 flying-hours. It was used for transporting men and equipment to the individual
stations and for station reconnaissance where its ability to hover at tree heights was particularly useful. On three separate occasions a second machine was hired to take care
°f the peak periods, for a total of 137 additional hours' flying. Full credit must be
given to the pilots and their crews for an excellent job well done.
The helicopter is a perfect means of transportation for this type of operation as
tong as the operational distances are kept within reason. However, it must be emphasized that it is the combination of the two types of aircraft that make its use economical.
The helicopter, with its small load limit, should never have to maintain itself over long
distances as well as service the field crews.
 KK 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Commencing in February for a period of approximately six weeks, a group of ten
of our senior personnel were engaged in obtaining field control in the Richmond and
Ladner districts. This work was done to enable the Air Division to produce a controlled
mosaic at a scale of 200 feet to 1 inch for the Water Rights Branch.
The Air Division was successful in rephotographing that part of the Atlin area
which had been left unmapped last year, A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S., being in charge of a
group completing the plotting of two and a half map-sheets. F. O. Speed, B.C.L.S
and three men are completing Map-sheet 82 F/3, Salmo. Part of this sheet was done
as a special project for the Mines Department by the Multiplex Section of the Air
Division.
We have commenced a programme of revision to bring some of the older manuscripts up to date, using the latest photographs available. A. D. Wight, B.C.L.S., is
engaged in this work.
m S. L. Clarke, Chief Draughtsman, reports' that his section completed fifty manuscripts, bringing the total of finished manuscripts to 108, plus forty-six old photo-
topographic sheets. Still on hand in varying stages are fifty-three full sheets and twenty-
seven part sheets.
All manuscripts completed this year were forwarded to Ottawa for lithography.
This brings the total of sheets "on hand at Ottawa to seventy-eight, but it is encouraging
to note that the latest progress report from there shows many of them almost ready for
printing.
Cadastral surveys were plotted on twenty-one (1 inch to 1 mile) and two (1 inch
to 4 miles) blue pulls for the Federal Government. j
CONTROL SURVEY OF NORTH-EASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA
By E. R. McMinn, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
Introduction
Our five-month summer assignment commenced on May 16th when the seven-truck
convoy left Victoria for our supply base at Charlie Lake near Fort St. John. The Beaver
FHF, assigned to this project for the summer, arrived at the lake on May 21st, the day
after the ice disappeared, and the helicopter from Okanagan Helicopters Limited reported
on May 24th. §
My instructions were to continue the 1954 triangulation work into the great area of
spruce forests and muskegs which extend from the 58 th parallel to the northern boundary
of the Province, and in particular to provide triangulation ties to the Alaska Highway
survey and to the Alberta Boundary, to co-ordinate the seven key petroleum and natural-
gas permits in this northern corner, and to expand our network of monumented stations
into the Osborne River area north-east of Fort St. John. §
Organization
The success of this venture depended on the experience gained in 1953 in tower
triangulation nets, on the calibre of men we could command, and on the ability to transport and supply them as our work progressed across this 12,000 square miles of country.
The fifteen men from the staff, including A. D. Wight, B.C.L.S., as assistant and W. H.
Stilwell, M.A., D.L.S., in charge of the highway work, formed the nucleus of a party of
fifty men.
We built a float-plane base at Charlie Lake, and after the ice had cleared by May
28th we built the first camp at Klua Lake, 125 miles to the north. In July, camp was
moved to Ekwan Lake, 150 miles north-east of Charlie Lake, and in August the field
camp was moved to Cabin Lake near Kotcho Lake, which is 200 miles north of Fort St.
John.  Supplies were bought in Dawson Creek, trucked to Charlie Lake or Fort St. John,
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
KK 45
4  o   56
 KK 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
and thence flown in by the Beaver FHF. About 250,000 pounds of freight was carried
this season, and included such items as 4 tons of spikes, 8,000 feet of rope, and 18,000
gallons of fuel. 1 The Beaver float-plane is an efficient and economical addition to' our
tools of survey. J
From the field camps the tower-sites were reconnoitred by helicopter, and the parties
of three or four men were then flown out to build a double triangulation tower. This
arduous and sometimes dangerous, but always interesting, job took from three days to
three weeks, during which time the crews were in constant touch by radio with the headquarters camp.    |§
On three occasions during the season we had two helicopters for short periods-
first when all the crews had to be taken out to their first stations and again when observing
parties were reading angles and the building crews were being brought in. On August
15th a second machine was made available for three weeks and was used on the Osborne
River work in the south-east corner of our area. i
jjl    Okanagan Helicopters Limited gave us their usual whole-hearted co-operation.
Terrain and Wildlife
The area between the 58th and 60th parallels is formed mainly of the huge water-
soaked Fontas and Petitot drainage-basins. In the south-west near the Alaska Highway
are the escarpments of an old plateau, and in the central area is a group of low ridges
leading north-westerly which again are remnants of an old plateau and which, like an
inverted saucer, hold several large shallow lakes such as Kotcho and Kwokwullie. North
of this high area is the shallow wide valley of the Petitot River.
The lakes are generally shallow and by August are filled with weeds and water-lilies.
However, there are a good many of these thousands of small lakes suitable for float-plane
landings in summer and many more would be excellent landing-places for ski-equipped
planes in winter.
The forest-cover is mainly spruce, pine, and poplar, with cottonwood in the river-
bottoms, birch on rocky dry lake lands, and larch in some of the muskegs. There are
many scattered stands of spruce 18 inches in diameter and up to 130 feet high. Huge
muskeg areas are apparent from the air, and several dry lake-beds or muskegs with a
fine grass cover were found.
The two deep (20 feet) lakes, Klua and Ekwan, were teeming with pike or muske-
lunge, easily caught and weighing up to 30^pounds.
Moose were seen readily from the helicopter but are seldom seen while on the
ground, and according to the Indians are very scarce. Several caribou were seen, as well
as mountain-goats in the Sikanni Canyon. Foxes and wolves were seen and one grizzly
bear. The black bears were so numerous as to be a nuisance around unprotected camps.
The drinking-water in general is foul and stagnant and gets worse during the summer.
Very often the purification tablets we used had no effect at all. The best water came from
wells 5 to 8 feet deep, but in several cases water was flown out to the tower-builders.
There were five cases of sickness due to drinking bad water but no cases of infectious
skin sores.
The mosquitos, black-flies, and wasps this year were an extreme nuisance.
Progress of Field Work
This year we attempted to carry on observing of angles at the same time as the
towers were being built, and, while we were able to utilize the excellent June sunlight, we
were forced to use the helicopter inefficiently to do it. Several times building and observing parties were over 100 miles apart; one helicopter cannot handle the necessary moves
over these distances. However, we quickly organized the work in the hilly country around
Klua Lake and commenced the trying work of locating tower-sites in the vast flat expanse
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH KK 4?
of the Fontas basin. Some excellent construction jobs were done and the work went
ahead to the Alberta Boundary. From the Ekwan Lake and Cabin Lake camps we built
stations around the Kotcho Lake hills, from which we can expand in any direction, and
we laid out the ties to the 60th parallel, which we were trying to reach. At this stage, in
order to cover the area in the south-east corner, by-passed the previous year, A. D. Wight
B.C.L.S., took half the party and a second helicopter down to a base camp at the Beatton
River ford, 20 miles north of Fort St. John.
On September 12th the last four stations were rushed to completion and the observing programme went into high gear with two helicopters handling the moves. Work was
completed on September 25th.
Work Done
The helicopters flew 770 hours on the work and the Beaver flew 567 hours. All
seven of the required permit corners were fixed, eleven ties were made to the Alaska Highway, and the number of British Columbia-Alberta Boundary ties were brought up to eight.
Seventy-seven co-ordinated positions were established. All of the major stations
were monumented and marked with pits, mounds, and azimuth bars. A total of 4,612
lineal feet of towers were built, as compared to 3,310 in 1953. Twelve of the towers
were over 120 feet high, the highest being 136 feet to the instrument-head and 156 feet
to the flag. II
Future Work
About fifteen stations more would extend the network over the area between the
120th and 121st meridians and effect three ties to the 60th parallel. These could be done
from a camp at Midwinter Lake, where all of our heavy equipment was stored. With one
helicopter, the Beaver, and a party of twenty-five men this work could be done in about
six weeks. The supply problem will require attention because all gasoline, food, and
equipment must come from Dawson Creek, 300 miles distant. We must have close supervision of the buying and delivery of our supplies and the acquisition of a second 3-ton
truck would ensure delivery according to our needs. The truck would also facilitate the
moving of the survey party from Victoria to Fort Nelson, thence to one or several other
areas for the remainder of the season, and from there back to Victoria.
Our radio communication network of fifteen stations suffered from the lack of a
powerful enough set at base camp to reach and co-ordinate them all. In this further
north-east area a 100-watt set will be urgently needed.
Basically our biggest need this year was for good men, and we could have used about
ten more capable men of the type whose enthusiasm, determination, and good spirits have
made this work in North-eastern British Columbia possible.
 KK 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Topographic Division
Control Survey, North-eastern British Columbia
i
Location-post (left) and witness-post (right), Permit No. 74, Ekwan Lake.
Thistle Station, tower on the 120th meridian at B.M. 105.2; height, 74 feet.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH KK 49
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
W. H. Hutchinson, Chief, and Provincial Representative, Canadian
Board on Geographical Names
The Geographic Division is divided functionally into five sections:	
(1) Administration.
(2) Computations. — The work under this heading is carried out by the
Trigonometric Control Section, whose duties are: (a) Calculate positions
and elevations of new triangulation stations from surveyors' field work;
(b) adjust triangulation networks between fixed control points, and adjoining nets with one another; (c) collect and index all triangulation data
covering the Province; (d) disseminate triangulation-control data in
response to requests. In addition, and rapidly assuming major importance,
is the fulfilling of what could be termed j special computation tasks " in
response to Departmental and public requests, which may be exemplified
by the multiplicity of requests for geographic positions of oil- and gas-
permit corners, zone and centizone areas, and positions arising from both
sources.
(3) Map Distribution.—Combined with distribution is geographical naming
and map-checking. This Section is responsible for the distribution of all
maps stocked by the Division, by mail or express, and directly to the
public or Departmental and other consumers. It also receives into stock
and stores all maps printed by the Division and those received for distribution from Canadian Government agencies. In addition, all Provincial
maps published by Canadian Government agencies after compilation by
such agencies or by Provincial agencies (such as the Topographic Division
of this Department) are checked prior to printing with regard to names,
in conjunction with the Canadian Board on Geographical Names. Colour
proofs of first editions are checked also, and reprints are checked for
major corrections and revisions. The same is done with maps produced
by the Division.
(4) Map Compilation and Reproduction.—As the name implies, this Section
is responsible for the compilation of all maps produced by the Division
for publication locally. A staff of cartographic draughtsmen is employed
in the compilation of the information necessary for each map, the fair
drawing, and, where practicable, the type stick-up of names, etc. Finally,
the colour separations and checking of colour proofs after printing, done
outside the Service, is a function of this Section. An added duty refers to
geographical work undertaken for other departments and the public by
the map editor or chief draughtsman.
(5) Geographers.—At the present time the Division has only one geographer
on the staff. He is in charge of a research section and deals with special
projects of a geographical nature of interest to all or any branches of the
Department.
Map demands throughout the past year have continued to be high, once more
indicating a trend parallel with the continued industrial expansion within the Province.
The first map of a new 10-miles-to-l-inch series was published during the year, as
well as an overprint edition showing terrain formations. It is planned to continue the
series with one map per year (six will cover the whole Province), with, in time, such
other overprints as prove useful and for which there is sufficient demand.
The 2-miles-to-l-inch maps in the National Topographic Series are now the sole
responsibility of this Province. Two have been printed this year and five more are in hand.
 KK 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
More detailed reports on the activities of the various sections whose functions are
outlined above are reported as follows under their separate headings.
ADMINISTRATION
Additional space is still an urgent requirement with the Division, though no doubt
it is one that we share with other branches of the British Columbia Lands Service
However, map storage is fast becoming a very real problem, since segregation of stock
is essential if reasonably fast service is to be given. With new maps constantly being
added, in addition to replacements of old stock, the accelerated distribution does not
relieve the situation.
Some changes in personnel have occurred, though perhaps not more than normal,
mainly among the more junior members of the staff. This is fortunate because fully
trained personnel are, of course, much harder to replace. However, one senior draughtsman and one computer resigned, and their loss has quite understandably been felt.
Increase in correspondence during the past twelve months has been approximately
50 per cent over last year. In part, this has been due to increased demand for popular
maps given publicity in the British Columbia Government News and other publications,
and partly to an arrangement whereby all correspondence regarding control, meaning
positions of triangulation stations, air-photo identifications, and so on, is now directed
through this Division. Finally, there has also been a steady increase generally in the
demand for maps of all kinds.
I COMPUTATIONS
During the past twelve months what has come to be looked on as the normal work
of this Section has been reduced to a minimum; for example, computing of preliminary
co-ordinates and elevations for stations established by survey field parties and the adjustment of triangulation networks.
During the 1953 and 1954 field seasons fewer topographic and triangulation parties
were sent out, work being concentrated in the area of North-eastern British Columbia,
establishing control primarily for the fixing of oil- and gas-permit positions.
Work completed in the so-called 1 normal" category is shown in the statistical
tables accompanying this report, involving, in part, the computation of preliminary coordinates for 103 stations and 143 station elevations, the latter requiring the adjustment
of 1,267 difference-of-elevation calculations.
Adjustment of highway surveys as a result of triangulation ties was carried out for
the John Hart Highway between Summit Lake and Little Prairie, and for the Alaska
Highway between the north boundary of the former Dominion Peace River Block and
Fort Nelson.
The Section has, however, completed a very busy year. As will be seen in the
statistical tables, requests for control from other than Departmental sources show an
increase of approximately 10 per cent, but, as the greater number of such requests were
for oil-permit positions, the work involved indicates an increase of several hundred per
cent in time spent on this phase of the Section's work. In addition, ties to the Alaska
Highway and John Hart Highway right-of-way surveys entailed considerable adjustment
of said surveys between ties, and one request from the Army Survey Establishment at
Ottawa in this connection necessitated the calculation of geographic positions for some
250 photo-identified points along the John Hart Highway.
Among other work undertaken has been the calculation in connection with the
" Petroleum and Natural Gas Act" of all centizone areas (30 seconds latitude and 45
seconds longitude quadrangles) in acres for the whole Province.
Also started, but not yet completed, has been the calculation of rectangular coordinates for centizone corners in all potential or known oil areas.  This involves 9,600
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Geographic Division
KK 51
Regional Studies
iiiiiiiiiiiiiii^iiiiiiiii
!??S?i?i_li__?_^______i^li®^
lis
S*3S_388SE_8fi_W£%'i**;^
53SS_8&&8s__v
Oblique aerial photograph looking north-east from Merritt toward Nicola Lake. The plateau
in this area supports the largest single expanse of grassland in British Columbia. Open forest of
fir and yellow pine is common at intermediate elevations, while dense forest, mostly lodgepole
pine, fir, and spruce, is usual on the higher parts of the upland surface. Alfalfa and oats occupy
far the largest share of the irrigated cropland. The area away from the valleys is utilized for
ranching.   This and forestry comprise the main economic activities.
separate calculations for each quadrangle of 1 degree extent in latitude and longitude, and
as there are seven such quadrangles, it is obviously a major undertaking.
Regional field studies in connection with the Land Series Bulletins were carried out
this year in the Kamloops Bulletin area. These field studies are essential not only in the
preparation of the new Land Series Bulletins, but also in providing reference information
for other phases of applied geography, as, for example, the compilation of overprints for
this Division's new series of 10-mile base maps.
The overprints for the 10-mile series were begun this year on an experimental basis,
and are designed to portray some of the basic distributions of physical and cultural
phenomena in this Province. The first of these, a terrain representation employing a
modified Raisz technique, appeared on Map 1e (South Eastern British Columbia) and
has been favourably received. Helpful comment and criticism by staff members of the
Department of Mines during preparation of the terrain drawing is gratefully acknowledged.
Another terrain overprint and a land-use cover compilation designed for Map Ik (South
Western British Columbia) are now well under way.
 KK 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The new Fort Fraser-Fort George Land Series Bulletin was published this year   It
has been distributed to Lands Service officials in all parts of the Province, as well as
Boards of Trade and Farmers' Institutes.   As the new bulletins contain detailed ge°
graphic information of value to educators, copies of the Fort Fraser-Fort George Bulleti"
were distributed through the Department of Education to the secondary schools.        **
In addition to work on the Land Series Bulletins and on the compilation of overprints, co-operation has continued with the Fraser River Basin Board in the preparation
of a generalized land-use cover map of the Fraser watershed. This project makes extensive
use of 40-chain forest-inventory sheets and is being carried out in close liaison with the
Surveys and Inventory Division of the Forest Service. The completed map will yield information fundamental to co-ordinated resource development within the Fraser River basin
Oblique aerial photograph looking north-east down Shuswap River toward Mara Lake. The
pattern of land utilization is clearly shown. Valley alluviums are given over to a diversity of field
and horticultural crops, and dairying is a major farm enterprise. Forests on the adjacent hill-slopes
are utilized in the lumber industry, Douglas fir being the chief species cut. This area is on the
margin of the 1 interior wet belt," receiving about 20 inches annual precipitation—twice as much
as Kamloops, 80 miles to the west.    Irrigation is very limited.
GEOGRAPHICAL NAMING AND MAP-CHECKING
The new Geographic Gazetteer of British Columbia, printed at Ottawa, was made
available for distribution toward the end of March of this year and has been well received,
the demand for copies having increased as it became better known.
Nammgs on 102 map-sheets and charts were checked and recorded during the year
in conjunction with the Canadian Board on Geographical Names at Ottawa.
In connection with the checking for corrections and revision of map manuscript and
colour proofs prior to printing, this Section, in addition to Divisional maps printed (some
ten m number), processed a further twenty-three map-sheets for the Provincial Topographic Drvision and forty-one for Canadian Government agencies printing maps of areas
within the Province which were compiled by their own staffs.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Geographic Division
Field Culture Check
KK 53
Vernon—Needles Highway, No. 6.    British Columbia Power Commission
power-line from Whatshan Lake.
Hells Gate, Fraser River Canyon, looking up-stream from Trans-Canada
Highway No. 1.
 KK 54
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Culture checks were carried out again during the year as part of the 2-miles-to-l-inch
series programme, this time for Map-sheets 92 H/SW (Chilliwack Lake), 92 H/NW
(Yale), and, moving inland, in the areas of 82 L/SE (Sugar Lake) and the northern half
of 82 E/NE (Upper Kettle River), comprising a total of some 5,500 square miles.
Once again, due to the excellent co-operation that exists between divisions this
project was materially aided by the carrying-out of low-level flying by the Air Division in
the Chilliwack and Yale-Spuzzum areas just prior to the commencement of field work
This year the Division purchased a four-wheel-drive Willys station wagon for the
purpose of carrying out such culture checks and for necessary field-trips undertaken by
the geographer, as well as general work in connection with map stock and map-printing.
It has well justified the expenditure, proving ideal for all phases of work.
MAP COMPILATION AND REPRODUCTION
Ten maps were published by the Division during the past year and sixteen more are
in hand, which, despite the fact that the statistical tables indicate a decrease of five maps
from last year's published total, still represents a full programme. Of the fifteen published
in 1953, nine were reprints, seven of which were without revision; of the ten published
in 1954, only two are reprints—both with revisions. Publication of a reprint, even
without revision, can, of course, entail considerable work, particularly if new plates must
be made, but still not as much as a new edition. |j
Exact comparisons are obviously impossible to make, since the area covered by a
map largely decides the amount of work necessary for compilation, together with the
number of colour separations required and the availability of information.
In addition to the above, a further twelve maps at scales of 1 inch to 1 mile and
1:50,000 were reproduced and printed at Ottawa by the Canadian Government from
manuscripts compiled and drawn by the Provincial Topographic Division from surveys
in the field, all of which are first editions.
Thirty-two maps of parts of British Columbia, most of them in the 1:50,000 series
but including some 1:250,000 and 1-inch-to-1-mile scales, were printed by Canadian
Government agencies from field surveys they carried out in the Province in recent years.
For all but one of these we hold major stocks, and all except five show lot divisions where
such exist. Details may be obtained from the Index to Published Maps included in this
Report, and titles and scales of those published in 1954 from the statistical tables, including a list of seventy-two maps in the 1-inch-to-1-mile and 1:50,000 series which are in
hand at Ottawa to be printed from manuscripts prepared by the Topographic Division.
As was explained in last year's Report, for all new Canadian Government maps on
which lot overprints appear, an advance copy in the form of a mounted blue impression,
or a paper pull in cases where very few lots are involved, is sent from Ottawa. On these
the Topographic Division compiles and draws the lots in pencil, whilst this Division
makes the fair drawing and sets up the lot numbers in appropriate sizes and styles of type.
For manuscripts compiled by the Topographic Division on which the lot divisions already
appear, this office merely brings them up to date if necessary. In the past twelve months
a total of twenty-four such sheets have been handled, involving in many cases considerable additional work for both Divisions.
Miscellaneous draughting and special work for other departments undertaken by this
Section amounted to sixty-eight requests, involving 790 man-hours for a total value of
$1,361. §
Once again, in addition to work in connection with descriptions for school district
boundaries, etc., the map editor has given assistance in assembling, editing, producing,
and distributing the Annual Report of the Lands Service.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
MAP DISTRIBUTION—PUBLIC RELATIONS
KK 55
Over 43,000 maps were distributed during the past year, and over 97 000 maps
were taken into stock during the same period. Both figures show an increase of approximately 5 per cent. Unfortunately this situation aggravates further the storage problem
because, as has been mentioned earlier, new stocks are largely of new maps requiring
segregation rather than replenishments of depleted old stocks.      §
The total value at listed prices of maps distributed during the twelve-month period,
as shown in the statistical tables, was $17,382, of which nearly $11,000 was received in
actual cash and returned to Consolidated Revenue. The difference between the two sums
is represented in map stocks issued to Government Agents and not yet sold and by maps
distributed departmentally.
The Index to Published Maps for 1955, showing all published maps available from
this Division with information regarding compilation and printing source, lot overprints,
contours, scales, and prices, accompanies this Report.        1
This year, in co-operation with other departments, the Lands Service prepared a
series of permanent Government exhibits, to be displayed in the British Columbia Building on the Pacific National Exhibition grounds. A committee was formed for the Surveys
and Mapping Branch with representatives from all divisions, and the exhibit featuring the
Branch's connection with the land resources of the Province was completed just prior to
the opening of the Pacific National Exhibition in August. Since the closing of the exhibition, the grounds and building have remained open to the public, and the display will
remain permanently, with perhaps minor changes from time to time without necessarily
altering the theme.
STATISTICAL
Computations
Least-square Triangulation Adjustments Completed
Net
Locality
Type of
Bearings
Number of
Triangles
Involved
Provincial Main	
Prince George-Nation River                  	
True
True
12
Provincial Main...
Peace River                                         	
16
 KK 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The following tables give comparisons with the previous five-year period:
Computations
1949
Triangles adjusted by least squares	
Stations calculated from rectangular co-ordinates
Ties to cadastral surveys	
Elevations of stations determined	
Index cards—
New	
Old (rewritten)  	
Total on file	
Requests for control attended to	
686
826
224
606
1,120
469
14,485
146
1950
512
1,137
326
528
1,888
924
16,373
212
1951
1952
696
1,431
248
439
1,676
586
18,049
225
614
1,484
170
643
1,342
506
19,391
272
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
Number of map sheets or charts checked.
Number of names checked	
Number of new names recorded	
62
4,671
375
63
5,457
831
49
3,686
298
39
6,403
252
Map Stock and Distribution
Maps issued to department and public.
Maps received into stock	
Total value of printed maps issued	
31,789
33,251
$11,512
34,244
36,021
$11,794
41,581
45,369
$14,205
45,724
73,981
$13,450
1953
409
1,300
189
131
1,561
450
20,952
287
1954
28
537
114
143
1,192
830
22,144
314
56
7,052
351
102
11,683
442
40,733
92,456
$14,184
43,741
97,274
$17,382
Geographical Work for Other Departments and Public
Total number of items     	
1
52    |
$2,630
1
62    |
$1,315
1
53
$1,485
1
40    j
$1,024
1
31
$4,400
68
Total value of work 	
$1,361
Letters
Letters received and attended to.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
KK 57
Maps
Published during 1954
Name
Map No.
Maps Being Reproduced and Printed by the Surveys
and Mapping Branch, Victoria
British Columbia road map	
British Columbia bulletin areas	
South Eastern British Columbia —
South Eastern British Columbia showing land forms	
South Eastern British  Columbia  showing  land  forms  and
drainage only	
Revelstoke-Golden	
Queen Charlotte Islands	
Smithers	
Princeton	
Tulameen .	
Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Reproduced
and Printed by the Canadian Government, Ottawa
Duncan	
Cowichan Lake _	
Parksville	
Pachena Point	
Tyaughton Creek, east half	
Tyaughton Creek, west half	
Salmon Valley, east half	
Salmon Valley, west half.	
Hazelton, east half	
Hazelton, west half |—
Kisgegas, east half	
Kisgegas, west half	
British Columbia, Gazetteer of Canada Series	
Maps Reproduced and Printed by the Canadian
Government, Ottawa
Hazelton	
McConnell Creek	
Cape Scott 	
Spatsizi	
Atlin .....	
Lake Louise	
Skookumchuck, east half	
Skookumchuck, west half	
Cypress Creek, east half	
Buckinghorse River, east half	
Buckinghorse River, west half	
Bougie Creek, east half	
Bougie Creek, west half	
Tetsa River, east half.	
Tetsa River, west half	
Racing River, east half .	
Racing River, west half	
Upper Toad River, east half	
Upper Toad River, west half..
Muncho Lake, east half	
Muncho Lake, west half ._
Stone Mountain, west half
Terminal, east half	
Fishing Lake, east half  	
Barney Lake, east half.  _
Barney Lake, west half____     __ 	
irout River, east half.___
1 rout River, west half.__
Mount Prudence, east half
Mount Prudence, west half 7
Uamdochax Lake, east half
uamdochax Lake, west half
Scale
R.M.
IE
lEL
Iel Special
5d
2f
93 L
92 H/SE
92 H/NE
92 B/13
92 C/16
92F/8
92 C/ll, E. 1/2
92 0/2, E. V2
92 0/2, W. Vi
93 J/2, E. V2
93 J/2, W. 1/2
93 M/5, E. Vi
93 M/5, W. Vi
93 M/12, E. !/2
93 M/12, W. !/2
93 M
94 D
1021
104 H
104 N
82 N/8
82 G/13, E. 1/2
82 G/13, W. Vi
94 B/15, E. 1/2
94 G/7, E. V2
94 G/7, W. V2
94 G/15, E. V2
94 G/15, W. Vi
94 K/9, E. V2
94 K/9, W. V2
94K/11,E. V2
94K/11, W. 1/2
94 K/12, E. 1/2
94 K/12, W. 1/2
94 K/13, E. 1/2
94 K/13, W. 1/2
94 K/15, W. 1/2
94 M/l, E. 1/2
94 M/7, E. 1/2
94 M/14, E. 1/2
94 M/14, W. 1/2
94 N/4, E. ¥2
94 N/4, W. 1/2
94 N/5, E. 1/2
94 N/5, W. 1/2
104 A/9, E. V2
104 A/9, W. V2
1 in. to 27 mi.
1 in. to 55 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 4 mi.
1 in. to 4 mi.
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
lin
lin
lin
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
to 1 mi.
to 1 mi.
to 1 mi.
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
1
1
1
1
1
lin
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
250,000
250,000
250,000
250,000
250,000
to 1 mi.
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
Remarks
Reprint, small revision.
Accompanies Bulletin No. 7.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
Reprint, with revision.
New edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First
First
First
First
First
First
First
First
First
First
First
First
New
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Third edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
 KK 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Maps—Continued
In Course of Compilation
Name
Map No.
Scale
Maps Being Reproduced for Printing by Surveys
and Mapping Branch, Victoria
British Columbia	
South Western British Columbia	
South Western British Columbia showing land forms	
South Western British Columbia land-use cover	
West Central British Columbia	
Rivers Inlet	
Bonaparte River— 	
Fort Fraser	
Charlie Lake	
Kelowna 	
Penticton	
Upper Kettle River 1	
Sugar Lake  	
Chilliwack Lake	
Yale	
Merritt	
Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Being
Reproduced for Printing by the Canadian
Government, Ottawa
Comox	
Nanaimo 	
Quadra Island	
Salmon River	
Sayward	
Sonora Island	
Galiano Island, east half	
Galiano Island, west half.	
Texada Island, east half  	
Texada Island, west half	
Sechelt, east half j	
Sechelt, west half  	
Alexandria, east half	
Alexandria, west half	
Quesnel River, east half	
Quesnel River, west half	
Owen Lake, east half	
Owen Lake, west half	
Houston, east half	
Houston, west half 	
Forestdale, east half	
Forestdale, west half	
Topley, east half  	
Topley, west half	
Quick, east half  _ 	
Quick, west half  	
Telkwa, east half	
Telkwa, west half	
Smithers, east half \ ___\
Smithers, west half  	
Kispiox River, east half	
Kispiox River, west half	
Cranberry River, east hall	
White River, east half	
Brown Bear Lake, east half _ZZ ____Z
Brown Bear Lake, west half ~___.__._Z_Z
Kwinageese River, west half	
Meziadin Lake, east half ~~~
Meziadin Lake, west half	
Bowser Lake, east half    "______
Bell Irving River, east half -__..________
Bell Irving River, west half	
Taft Creek, west half _____ 	
Delta Peak, east half	
Delta Peak, west half	
Mount Alger, west half ____ _
Bob Quinn Lake, east half ......
Bob Quinn Lake, west half	
Iskut River, east half .......
Iskut River, west half	
lJ
lK
lKL
lKC
If
92 M
92 P
93 K
94 A
82 E/NW
82 E/SW
82 E/NE
82 L/SE
92 H/SW
92 H/NW
92 I/SE
Remarks
92 F/10
92G/4
92K/3
92K/4
92K/5
92K/6
92 B/14, E. 1/2
92 B/14, W. 1/2
92 F/9, E. 1/2
92 F/9, W. 1/2
92 G/5, E. 1/2
92 G/5, W. 1/2
93 B/9, E. 1/2
93 B/9, W. i/2
93 B/16, E. 1/2
93 B/16, W. Vt
93 L/2, E. V2
93 L/2, W. 1/2
93 L/7, E. 1/2
93 L/7, W. 1/2
93 L/8, E. 1/2
93 L/8, W. V2
93 L/9, E. 1/2
93 L/9, W. 1/2
93 L/10, E. 1/2
93 L/10, W. 1/2
93L/11,E. 1/2
93L/11, W. 1/2
93 L/14, E. 1/2
93 L/14, W. 1/2
103 P/9, E. 1/2
103 P/9, W. 1/2
103 P/10, E. 1/2
103 P/14, E. 1/2
103 P/15, E. 1/2
103 P/15, W. 1/2
104 A/2, W. 1/2
104 A/3, E. 1/2
104 A/3, W. 1/2
104 A/5, E. 1/2
104 A/6, E. 1/2
104 A/6, W. i/_.
104 A/11, W. 1/2
104 A/12, E. 1/2
104 A/12, W. 1/2
104 A/13, W. 1/2
104 B/16, E. y2
104 B/16, W. 1/2
104 G/l, E. 1/2
104 G/l, W. 1/2
1 in. to 30 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
lin
1 in
1 in
lin
lin
lin
to 1 mi.
to 1 mi.
to 1 mi.
to 1 mi.
to 1 mi.
to 1 mi.
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50.000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50.000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50.000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
Second edition, with
status.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
KK 59
Maps—Continued
In Course of Compilation—Continued
Name
Map No.
Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Being
Reproduced for Printing by the Canadian
Government, Ottawa—Continued
Refuge Lake, east half	
Refuge Lake, west half	
Kinaskan Lake, east half	
Kinaskan Lake, west half	
Telegraph Creek, east half	
Telegraph Creek, west half	
Buckley Lake, east half	
Buckley Lake, west half	
Klastline River, east half	
Klastline River, west half	
Kluea Lake, west half	
Ealue Lake, west half	
Teresa Island, east half	
Teresa Island, west half.	
O'Donnel River, east half	
O'Donnel River, west half	
Bell Lake, west half	
Surprise Lake, west half	
Atlin, east half	
Atlin, west half	
Mount Minto, east half 1	
Mount Minto, west half	
104 G/8, E. 1/2
1
104 G/8, W. 1/2
1
104 G/9, E. 1/2
1
104 G/9, W. 1/2
1
104 G/14, E. 1/2
1
104 G/14, W. 1/2
1
104 G/15, E. 1/2
1
104 G/15, W. 1/2
1
104 G/16, E. i/2
1
104 G/16, W. 1/2
1
104 H/12, W. 1/2
1
104 H/13, W. 1/2
1
104 N/5, E. 1/2
1
104 N/5, W. 1/2
1
104 N/6, E. y2
1
104 N/6, W. 1/2
1
104 N/7, W. 1/2
1
104 N/11, W. 1/2
1
104 N/12, E. 1/2
1
104 N/12, W. i/2
1
104 N/13, E. V2
1
104 N/13, W. 1/2
1
Scale
Remarks
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
50,000
First
edition
 Air Division
Mount Waddington (elevation, 13,260 feet).    Oblique aerial photograph looking
west along Tiedemann Glacier.
Oblique aerial photograph looking north from Peace River.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH KK 61
AIR DIVISION
W. Hall, P.Eng., B.C.R.F.
In general, activities of the Air Division during 1954 continued at the same accelerated rate as in 1952 and 1953, and were most satisfactory from the point of view of
accomplishment. jj f|
A total of 34,960 square miles of aerial photography was obtained, as compared to
29,000 square miles in 1953. This practically completed the photo cover for the Forest
Inventory programme for the southern half of the Province up to a line roughly 70 miles
north of the Canadian National Railway line between Prince Rupert and Jasper. In the
draughting office 44,600 square miles of interim maps were completed, constituting an
all-time record. ;#
The Multiplex Section continued work on the Moran Dam pondage survey up the
Chilcotin River to Hanceville and also on the surveys of the McGregor and Clearwater
Rivers. An item of special interest is the compilation of controlled mosaics of Richmond
Municipality at a scale of 200 feet to 1 inch. This project, requested by the Water Rights
Branch early in the year, required that precise elevations be obtained, and shown in plan
form, to facilitate drainage, irrigation, and soil studies of the area. As the range of elevation is only from 2 feet below to 10 feet above mean sea-level, the final product is to be
in the form of rectified, controlled photo mosaics showing spot elevations at all strategic
points, rather than the conventional contoured map. The results obtained to date are
most satisfactory.
Traffic through the Air-photo Library remained about the same; there was a drop
in reprint demands, but this was compensated by an increase in the number of loans.
A total of some 183,000 prints were handled.
Production from the Processing Laboratory also remained steady. A big increase
in demand for autopositive film copies of maps, mostly for Forest Surveys, caused a
reduction in the production of standard 9- by 9-inch prints. During the year 132,000
9-by 9-inch prints were produced, as against 151,000 during 1953, while 1,750 autopositive film copies of maps were made, as against 278 during 1953.   ft
Reference should be made to the separate reports and appendices following for more
detailed accounting of the year's activities.
INTERIM MAPPING
W. Hall, P.Eng., B.C.R.F.
The year under review witnessed the transition from the 1 get ready I stage of interim
mapping for the Forest Inventory programme to the production stage.
The programme that was commenced in 1951 with a planned production of 20,000
square miles a year of completed maps, and which was increased to 30,000 square miles
a year in 1952, necessitated many compromises. In the outset, as reported in 1951, it was
realized that sufficient completed maps could not be produced in time for the 1952
summer field season, and emphasis was put on to producing properly controlled work
sheets in sufficient quantity to satisfy the requirements of the Forest Surveys field parties.
This policy continued through 1952 and 1953, with a result that during 1951, 1952, and
1953 only 28,000 square miles of maps were completed. However, during the same
period the backlog of maps in various stages of completion rose from 14,000 square miles
to 89,000 square miles.
During 1954 it was possible to swing the emphasis toward completing the work in
hand, with the result that between December 31st, 1953, and December 31st, 1954, a
total of 44,600 square miles of completed maps were produced, while the backlog of maps
m various stages of completion was reduced to 72,400 square miles.
 KK 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
During 1954 the greater part of the unmapped area of the southerly portion of the
Province—namely, that area of the coast between Prince Rupert in the north and Bella
Coola in the south and extending east to a line from Endako on the Canadian National
Railway at the north to Kleena Kleene at the south—was photographed and the mapping
commenced. A slotted-templet laydown of this entire area is presently being made in one
block, a coverage of about 20,000 square miles, all tied in to the existing triangulation
nets in the area.
With the area in hand the present situation is that, with the exception of the Queen
Charlotte Islands, the area around Mount Waddington and the Homathko River (the east
portion of Block 92 N on the National Topographic Series index), and the area in the
vicinity of Yellowhead Pass on the Canadian National Railway, the entire southern half
of the Province is either mapped or in the course of being mapped. m
It is estimated that production can be maintained at the rate of about 45,000 square
miles a year of completed maps, for the next two years, and that the original objective of
178,000 square miles by the end of 1956 will be reached.
1 This means that by the latter part of 1956 the south half of the Province, extending
to a line roughly 70 miles north of the Canadian National Railway between Prince Rupert
and Jasper, will be covered by maps of a scale of 2 inches to 1 mile, showing cultural and
planimetric detail as well as all surveyed lots, timber licences, etc. |
This is truly a remarkable accomplishment when it is remembered that in 1950 it
was anticipated that it would require fifteen years to cover this same area.
Inasmuch as by 1957 the backlog of photography will have been absorbed, the
interim mapping programme will then be geared to the amount of new area that can be
photographed by the two Anson aircraft; namely, about 30,000 square miles a year.
Based on this figure it will require another eight to ten years to completely cover the
Province with maps of a standard good enough to satisfy the normal requirements of
administration, records, and general planning as well as the basic requirement of Forest
Inventory.
The situation as at December 31st, 1954, is as follows:— square Miles
Maps completed, 1946 to December 31st, 1953     56,000
Maps completed, December 31st, 1953, to December 31st,
1954     44,600
Maps in hand, December 31st, 1954     69,900
iQueen Charlotte Islands, Mount Waddington, and Yellow-
head Pass areas      7,500
Total  178,000
1 Not yet photographed.
It should be emphasized that the word | completed | should not be taken too literally,
and should always be used in conjunction with the term " interim."
The areas quoted in the above summary have been produced using the best methods
and the best photographs and control available at the time of compilation. There are
some parts which were plotted by the radial-line plot method, before slotted-templet
equipment was available, and other areas where additional ground control has become
available, which should be recompiled to bring the maps up to standard.
Also, in the more mountainous areas, topography should be added to give the maps
a maximum of usefulness. It is not planned to contour to standard topographic specifications, but rather to accept whatever height control is available in the form of triangulation stations, railroad profiles, lake elevations, etc., and expand this existing control by
various office methods. The methods used and the amount of effort expended, and hence
the completeness an accuracy of the finished map, will depend on the economic importance of the area concerned.
Reference should be made to Appendix 5a, showing index of interim mapping to date.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH KK 63
AIR OPERATIONS
A. S. Lukinuk
The main areas over which high-level photography was required during 1954 consisted of 1,200 square miles in the vicinity of Yellowhead Pass, 500 square miles at the
north end of Vancouver Island, 2,450 square miles in the Atlin area, and a large block
of approximately 30,000 square miles extending from the northern coast between Prince
Rupert and Bella Coola east to the Nechako River. S
Despite the unfavourable weather experienced generally throughout the Province,
the major portion of the projects were completed with the exception of the Yellowhead
Pass area; this was not attempted.
A total of 33,400 square miles of basic high-level cover was obtained at a unit cost
of $1.42 a square mile based on detailed cost records, which is 31 cents a square mile
lower than the 1953 costs. The high accomplishment and the low unit cost are primarily
the result of first-class performance of aircraft and cameras together with the diligence
of the air crews in taking full advantage of clear weather, with no lost time.
In addition to the normal photographic programme, road-location reconnaissance
photographs were taken, and visual reconnaissance trips made, over several areas for the
British Columbia Forest Service Engineering Division.
This year the Beaver aircraft CF-FHF, which was put into operation in 1953, was
employed mainly to transport supplies to the triangulation survey party in the north-east
portion of the Province. A total of 567 hours were flown in this regard. For this aircraft, as with all others, detailed expenditure records were maintained, and the cost of
operating this machine (including all maintenance and other pertinent expenses, and
$4,171.28 charged for depreciation and administration) amounted to $24,342.96. On
the basis of a total of 577 hours flown during the year, it is interesting to note that this
aircraft was operated for $42.21 per hour, gross. Actual out-of-pocket costs of operation amounted to $20,171.68 or $34.95 an hour.      j§
For details of flying, costs, and accomplishment, etc., see Appendices 6, 7, 8, and 4.
AIR-PHOTO LIBRARY
R. A. Paine
"A by-product of our Air Division's mapping operations, which in value to the
public and government, is crowding the original purpose itself, is the Provincial Airphoto Library service, whereby all air photos of British Columbia are systematically
indexed and available for reference to all comers by personal visit or by mail, on short-
term loan, with reprints available, if required, for keeps, at cost. This service has been
a definite boon to all concerned with resource development in this Province, and without question, in a quiet untrumpeted way, has been a real accelerator of British Columbia's development." I * j
The above excerpt from G. S. Andrews' paper published in the transactions of the
Seventh British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, 1954, would seem to be a
suitable introduction to the following report on the year's activities.
The demand for reprints from most sources has remained fairly constant. The
drop in total production is due to the fact that the reprinting of extra copies for interim
mapping projects has been caught up with prior to the beginning of 1954.
I is interesting to note that although there was a decrease in total of reprint demands,
there was an increasing use made of the loan service.
The indexing of this year's accessions has again kept pace with the flying. It is
Planned in the near future to make use of the interim map series to give a J best complete cover I index of areas where they are available.
Following is a detailed summary of both loan and reprint traffic for 1954.
 KK 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Orders for Standard Prints (9 by 9 Inches) from British
Columbia Air-photo Negatives, 1954
Photographs
_  .                                                                                                          Requisitions ReDrint*!
Private                                                                                     (Estimated) (Estimated)
Individuals       421 2,963
Companies and organizations _      111 l ,472
Mining industries        53 2,661
Schools and universities        31 538
Real estate        32 132
Forest industries |      180 4,957
Oil and natural-gas industries         4 234
Towns and cities        28 2,618
Commercial air-survey companies        19 880
Totals __.      879 16,455
Federal Government agencies—
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys  j          9 1,977
Department of Agriculture          7 142
Department of National Defence          5 221
Fraser River Basin Board          2 73
Department of Fisheries          8 96
Miscellaneous        31 570
Totals .        62 3,079
Provincial Government—
Surveys and Mapping Branch      302 50,491
Library copies        22 17,787
Land Inspection Division        16 1,950
Water Rights Branch        31 1,570
Lands Branch (miscellaneous)           2 IBB
Department of Public Works        25 I1'244
Forest Surveys        46 3,758
Forest districts        34 25,156
Forest Engineering        24 1,642
Forest Service (miscellaneous)        44 1,204
Department of Finance        44 2,817
Department of Agriculture I          5 222
Department of Mines 1        13 419
Miscellaneous       42 871
Totals        650 109,134
Grand totals  1,591 128,668
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH KK 65
Loan Traffic, 1954
Photographs
Private                                                                                        ,t, r s.sue^ Returned
JTlVaie                                                                                             (Estmiated) (Estimated)
Individuals      5394 5575
Companies and organizations     2,007 1876
Forest industries      3,709 3,019
Mining industries        697 '791
Oil and natural-gas industries        170 181
Schools and universities       945 1 333
Real-estate companies       937 824
Commercial air-survey companies     1,005 1,077
Towns and cities        399 438
Totals  15,263 15,115
Federal Government agencies—
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys            5 10
Department of National Defence         63 21
Department of Fisheries        393 439
Department of Agriculture          62 56
Fraser River Basin Board     2,493 2,835
Miscellaneous   m 202 199
Totals j     3,218 3,560
Provincial Government agencies—
Surveys and Mapping Branch  14,003 13,353
Land Inspection Division 1       439 235
Water Rights Branch I     1,335 1,367
Lands Branch (miscellaneous)         47 33
Department of Public Works        774 755
Forest Surveys      5,128 5,616
Forest Service (districts)         528 480
Forest Engineering Division     1,335 1,368
Forest Service (miscellaneous)  __    3,369 2,826
Department of Finance       476 471
Department of Agriculture       281 282
Department of Mines     2,710 2,189
Miscellaneous     3,443 2,958
Totals   33,868 31,933
Grand totals  52,349 50,608
 KK 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Summary of Loan Traffic, 1954
Photographs
Issued Returned
Out on loan, December 31st, 1953     3,029 	
Loaned out during 1954  52,349 	
Returned during 1954      50,608
Totals, December 31st, 1954  55,378 50,608
Net photographs out on loan, December 31st,
1954       4,770
Totals   55,378 55,378
Library Copies of Aerial Photographs of British Columbia
Federal
On hand, December 31st, 1953	
Accessions, 1954.	
Total photographs of British Columbia on hand, December 31st, 1954.
206,293
206,293
Provincial
178,061
17,787
195,848
Total
384,354
17,787
402,141
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING LABORATORY
T. H. Bell
The work here is, in general, the routine processing of air films as.received from the
Air Survey detachments in the field and the production of mapping prints and other
photographic products as quickly as facilities permit. The record of photographic
production by the photographic laboratory for the year 1954 and previous years follows.
Production Record
1946-50
1951
1952
1953
1954
Grand
Totals,
1946-54
Processing completed—
Air films (Eagle V rolls, averaging 115 exposures)
Air films (tests-part rolls)	
Air films (K20 rolls, averaging 40 exposures)	
Mountain-station films1 (6 exposures each)	
Printing completed—
Standard prints (5 by 5 inches enlarged to 9 by
9 inches)	
Contact prints (5 by 5 inches)	
Contact prints (9Y2 by 9V2 inches)	
Contact prints (11 by 14 inches)
Contact prints (20 by 24 inches)
Enlargements (various sizes to 30 by 30 inches)...
Mountain-station enlargements1 (11 by 14 inches)
Lantern-slides (2 by 2 inches)	
Autopositive films  (various sizes to 30 by 40
inches ) .	
Miscellaneous photographs and copies ___.
Positives (films or glass plates) from air negatives
Requisitions completed	
1,010
192
161
163
8
235
151,249
1,201
102
2,457
1,788
119
278
91
203
1,726
164
14
2
183
132,000
466
4,278
(     364
160
951
50
35
1,750
90
21
2,100
2
830
112,435
921
13
605
165,976
135
542
238,867
39,370
3,079
3,297
96
88
164
1,849
4,656
78
185
84
1,568
3,445
3
100
114
2,451
1,446
1,569
1,690
14
25
2,395
800,527
42,093
4,278
364
262
9,904
13,236
331
2,401
543
224
9,292
1 For Topographic Survey Division.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
KK 67
1952
AIR  PHOTO LIBRARY TRAFFIC
1953 1954
FMAMJJASOND
PRODUCTION  OF 9"X*" PRINTS
Totals included for December, 1954, are based on estimates.
 KK 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
MULTIPLEX SECTION
W. K. MacDonald, D.L.S.
The Multiplex Section was occupied by a wide range of projects during the year
under report.   These are summarized as follows:— I
Square
Miles
Name
Authority
Scale,
V.I. Feet
65.8
24.4
162.2
4.6
110.0
47.0
57.9
52.7
350.0
Delta Municipality	
Doukhobor Lands	
Brooks Peninsula	
Agassiz Extension	
Clearwater River	
Richmond Municipality
Fraser Pondage	
Clearwater River	
Morice Lake	
Water Rights Branch-
Water Rights Branch-
Topographic Division
Water Rights Branch.
P.F.R.A	
Water Rights Branch.
Water Rights Branch.
Water Rights Branch-
Forest Service	
1"=200'
Spot height
1"___:400'
5'-10'-20'
1"=1,320'
100'
1"_=400'
20'-100'
1"=500'
20'-40'
1"=200'
(Mosaic)
Spot height
1"=500'
20'-40'
1"=500'
20/-40'-100'
1"= 1,320'
50'
State of
Completion
Percent
100
100
100
100
25
40
100
100
1
The main item of interest is the mapping of Richmond Municipality. This project
was initiated early in the year by the Water Rights Branch and is intended to show
information essential for irrigation, drainage, and soil studies. At the outset it was
decided that, inasmuch as the maximum range of elevation was from between 2 feet
below to 10 feet above mean sea-level, the only practical way of presenting the information would be by establishing spot heights on scaled mosaics. Accordingly, from basic
vertical and horizontal ground control established by the Water Rights Branch, horizontal
control points were established on each photograph, by multiplex, to a sufficient density,
usually nine points for each photograph, so that each photograph could be rectified and
scaled. The rectified prints are being assembled into accurately gridded mosaics, and all
the elevations obtained by levelling on the ground are being pin-pointed on the mosaic,
and the true elevation given for each point.
The scale of the mosaics is 200 feet to 1 inch, and they are being copied at contact
size for distribution. There will be a total of ninety-eight sheets to cover the area, and
at the time of writing twenty have been completed.
Reference should be made to Appendix 5b, showing index of multiplex mapping
projects to date.
INSTRUMENT-SHOP
E. A. Rothery, F.R.I.C.S., B.C.L.S.
The instrument-shop, located at Patricia Bay Airport Hangar No. 1, had a full year
of repair and general maintenance to the many and varied instruments in use by the
Surveys and Mapping Branch as well as those of other Government departments.
Fourteen air-survey cameras were rebuilt and new register glasses fitted; forty-eight
field-survey instruments, consisting of thirty-seven transits, eight levels, and three barometers, were overhauled and checked; and a tape calibration range was built and standardized. This latter is designed to calibrate tapes for use in the field in 100-foot lengths up
to a total of 300 feet.
Apart from the above, many miscellaneous repair and maintenance jobs were done
for such things as photograph enlargers, multiplex equipment, and general mapping and
draughting instruments.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
APPENDICES
Appendix 6.—Photographic Flight Summary—Ansons, 1954
KK 69
Base
Date
Project
Flight
Base
Date
Patricia Bay
Feb.
4
Feb.
24
Feb.
26
Mar.
1
Mar.
3
Mar.
4
May
6
May
7
May
14
May
14
May
15
Port Hardy-
May
29
June
2
June
25
Smithers.—
July
7
July
13
July
14
July
15
July
16
July
24
July
29
July
29
July
30
Terrace	
Aug.
6
Aug.
19
Aug.
23
Aug.
24
Aug.
25
Aug.
25
Aug.
26
Aug.
27
Aug.
28
Smithers	
Aug.
29
Whitehorse
Sept.
3
Sept.
15
Sept.
16
Smithers
Sept.
20
Whitehorse
Sept.
28
Smithers
Oct.
1
Oct.
1
Oct.
4
Oct.
4
Oct.
5
Oct.
5
Oct.
6
Oct.
6
Oct.
6
CF-EZI
Richmond Municipality.-.
Richmond Municipality-
Richmond Municipality...
Richmond Municipality-
Richmond Municipality-
Basic vertical cover	
Lower Fraser Valley	
Lower Fraser Valley	
Fraser  Canyon,  Hope-
Keefers	
Lower Fraser Valley	
Moran pondage, Chilco-
tin River	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Triangulation   control
identification	
Babine   Forest,   experimental	
Basic vertical cover	
Triangulation   control
identification	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover.—	
Basic vertical cover	
Triangulation   control
identification	
Basic vertical cover	
Triangulation   control
identification	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Triangulation   control
identification	
Basic vertical cover	
Triangulation   control
identification 1
Basic vertical cover	
Forestry road locations-
Basic vertical cover	
Forestry road locations-
Basic vertical cover	
Triangulation   control
identification	
Forestry road locations—
Basic vertical cover	
Hrs.
Min.
0
45
3
00
0
55
3
25
2
15
2
45
2
35
3
35
1
30
1
30
5
25
2
40
5
50
5
45
3
20
5
10
4
55
6
10
4
25
3
50
2
00
2
50
6
15
6
15
5
00
6
05
5
45
2
20
1
35
4
40
4
30
6
40
5
05
3
40
5
05
6
15
2
50
5
10
2
35
2
35
1
00
5
20
1
00
5
45
1
30
2
15
2
45
Project
Patricia Bay
Oct.   23
Oct.   23
Oct.   24
Oct.   24
Oct.   24
Patricia Bay
Mar. 29
Apr.   11
Apr.   14
Apr.  30
May    1
May    1
May    7
May   16
Terrace	
May  22
June    8
June    9
Smithers	
June 25
Puntzi Mtn.
July   13
July   14
July   15
July   16
July   24
July   25
July   29
July   30
July   31
Aug.    1
Aug.    2
Aug. 28
Aug. 29
Quesnel	
Sept. 21
Sept. 25
Sept. 28
Sept. 29
Sept. 30
Patricia Bay
Oct.   15
Oct.   16
Oct.   16
Oct.   17
Oct.   25
Oct.   25
Oct.   26
Oct.   26
Oct.   26
Nov.    1
Flight
CF-EZI—Continued
Special tricamera	
Fort Nelson	
Fort Nelson	
Special tricamera	
Special tricamera	
CF-EZN
Greater Victoria-Saanich
Peninsula	
Greater Victoria-Saanich
Peninsula	
Lower Fraser Valley	
Lower Fraser Valley	
Lower Fraser Valley .
P.G.E. southern extension
Lower Fraser Valley	
Richmond Municipality-
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Triangulation   control
identification	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover	
Basic vertical cover ~
Basic vertical cover	
Road locations map
amendment	
Forestry road locations —
Forestry road locations...
Forestry road locations.—
Road locations map
amendment ,_.
Forestry road locations.—
Road locations map
amendment ._... 1
University Forest, experimental	
University Forest, experimental	
rs,
Min
5
25
1
15
1
30
2
15
2
45
2 00
2 10
1 00
3 15
2 25
1 30
4
3
3
5
4
5
5
6
5
3
6
5
2
6
5
5
4
5
5
5
4
6
5
4
5
30
10
05
50
10
50
35
50
40
10
15
20
05
15
55
20
15
50
50
40
25
35
05
05
15
2 00
3 50
4 35
3 00
2 05
1 20
2 40
1 30
2 25
Combined Anson Operations Aircraft Hours
Hrs. Min.
Summary, basic vertical cover (above)  ,  239 °°
Summary, other projects (above)     117 3J
Total ferrying time (charged to project flying)  -  JJ *J
Total weather checks  (charged to project flying)     ^5 15
Aircraft testing and maintenance   2Jj JJ
Camera testing   9 25
Air search     4 ^
Administration    I ^
Training programme       6 °5
495   40
 KK 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Appendix 7.—Air Operations Cost and Distribution, 1954
Total Cost
Aircraft Operation Costs
1. Organization and Administration	
Salaries: Supervisor of Air Operations and party chiefs.
2. Operations	
Gas and oil.
Oxygen.
Salaries: Pilots and engineers.
Field expenses.
Insurance: Aircraft and personnel.
Miscellaneous.
3. Aircraft maintenance and overhead  	
Depreciation (10 per cent).
Equipment and modifications.
Running repairs and parts.
Stock and supplies.
Salaries: Engineers and engine overhaul.
Hangar (rent, utilities, insurance).
Totals, aircraft operation costs	
Photography Costs
1. Organization and administration	
Salaries: Supervisor of Air Operations and party chiefs.
2. Operations	
Salaries: Party chiefs, navigators, and camera operators
Insurance: Air crew.
Field expenses: Air crew and transport.
Miscellaneous.
3. Camera maintenance and overhead	
Salaries: Camera technician and camera operators.
Machine-shop (10 per cent).
Replacement parts and stock.
Capital expenditure (10 per cent).
4. Film, processing, and prints I j	
Film.
Processing: Darkroom and annotation.
Prints (One set, 9 by 9 inches).
Totals, photographic costs	
Grand totals	
$4,696.00
31,832.85
23,738.34
$60,267.19
$4,696.00
18,926.03
7,295.28
6,781.60
$37,698.91
$97,966.10
Distribution
Ansons
(Two Aircraft)
$3,130.67
19,298.54
13,495.02
$35,924.23
$4,602.08
18,529.44
7,149.39
6,647.75
$36,928.66
$72,852.89
Beaver
(One Aircraft)
$1,565.33
12,534.31
10,243.32
$24,342.96
$93.92
396.59
145.89
133.85
$770.25
$25,113.21
 SURVEYS and mapping branch
Appendix 8.—Cost Summary, by Projects, of 1954 Air Division
Photographic and Flying Operations
Part 1.—Ansons
KK 71
Aircraft-
hours
Number
of Photos
1.
A. Basic vertical cover (approximately 40
chains to the inch), 17,500 to
20,000 ft./m.s.l —
Atlin area—104j and 104n	
Vancouver Island—-92e,  92f, and
102i I	
Coast Range—92n, 93c (W. V2),
93d, 93e, 93f, (W. W, 93k
(W. ¥2), 103a, 103g, 103h, and
103J	
Totals  	
Average cost, approximate.
2. Improvement flying	
B. Basic tricamera control	
C. Forest Inventory projects	
D. Multiplex projects—
Moran pondage, Chilcotin River-
Richmond Municipality	
Totals	
Average cost, approximate.
Special projects—
Lower Fraser Valley-
-regional plan-
ning.
Greater Victoria-Saanich Peninsula—
regional planning	
Fort Nelson—legal surveys	
Babine Lake Forest, experimental	
Fraser  Canyon,   Hope-Keefers—geographic culture check .	
Forest road locations—reconnaissance
Forest   road   reconnaissance — map
amendment	
P.G.E. southern extension — Department of Railways	
University Forest, experimental	
Totals	
Average cost, approximate.
F. Special tricamera—
McLeod Lake to Fort St. John-
connaissance, P.G.E. extension-
Average cost, approximate.
-re-
G. Triangulation control—
Coast Range Block	
Average cost, approximate.
H. Miscellaneous—
Maintenance run (CF-FHF).
Maintenance run (CF-EZN).
Air search	
Administration	
Aircraft testing	
Camera testing	
Training programme	
Totals.
Grand totals, Ansons.
Hrs. Min.
30   00
10   00
278
10
318
10
—
—
5
25
15
45
21
10
—
17 50
4 55
2 45
3 50
1 30
20 20
6 45
1 30
4 50
74    15
11    05
29    55
6 35
7 30
4 15
5 15
12 00
9 25
6 05
51    05
505    40
1 Charged to FHF.
2 Charged to EZN.
J Charged to Ansons.
i Charged to cameras and maintenance.
717
450
8,764
9,931
$4.74
133
1,281
1,414
$3.39
2,365
417
30
391
50
646
194
64
108
4,265
$3.40
931
$3.15
313
$9.88
16,854
Accomplishment
Sq. Mi.
Lin. Mi.
2,100
1,800
29,500
33,400
$1.42
50
50
$40.73
1,200
250
10
50
65
65
$11.19
1,510
$6.21
25
430
140
45
50
690
$7.44
275
$10.66
92 stations
$33.97
34,960
1,030
92 stations
Total Cost
$3,983.18
1,789.95
41,574.67
$47,347.80
$727.04
4,073.39
$4,800.43
$6,616.05
1,309.14
286.89
1,165.04
230.18
3,050.27
967.91
260.87
625.32
$14,511.67
$2,931.10
$3,091.69
$71.92*
81.98 2
46.45
57.41
131.243
102.74*
66.34
$170.20
$72,852.89
1946-53
Averages
$4.55/photo,
$1.34 sq. mi.
$4.08/photo,
$6.64/sq. mi.,
$7.82/lin. m.
$2.77/photo,
$5.89/sq. mi.,
$5.72/lin. mi.
$1.64/photo,
$6.20/lin. mi.
$9.10/photo,
$20.45/station.
 KK 72
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Appendix 8.—Cost Summary, by Projects, of 1954 Air Division
Photographic and Flying Operations—Continued
Part 2.—Beaver
Aircraft-
hours
Number
of Photos
Accomplishment
Sq. Mi.
Lin. Mi.
Total Cost
A. Topographic supply and servicing 	
B. Triangulation   control,   North-eastern
British Columbia	
Average cost, approximate	
Grand totals, Beaver	
Hrs. Min.
565    45
10   55
576   40
347
$3.55
347
74 stations
$16.64
74 stations
$23,882.165
1,231.05
$25,113.21
1946-53
Averages
$3.92/photo,
$20.66/station.
5 Includes gas and oil paid by Topographic Division.
  Note 3
THE WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
As the title of the Water Rights Branch suggests, the people and industries of British
Columbia have a "right" to the "use" of water in this Province. At first reflection, the right to
use water might be considered as basic as the right to use air or to admire the scenery. And so
it is, but because it is a commodity which everyone must have, it becomes necessary for a central
government to control its use or the 1 haves j would be making a great deal of money selling it
to the "have nots." The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which
administers the control of the use of water. The Branch administers the 1 Water Act," which
has been developed by legislation into an excellent administrative vehicle, used as a model in the
initiation of other similar Acts in other countries. J|
if The main principles of the I Water Act" are:— ||
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all water at any time in any
stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in the right of
the Province.
(2) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the licence.
(3) A licence-holder's priority of right is generally based upon the date his application
was recorded by a Water Recorder. Earlier licences have priority over licences
issued later.
(4) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the rentals, and observance of the regulations of the "Water Act."
No one can adopt a " dog in the manger " attitude to this Province's water.
(5) Every licence and permit that is made appurtenant to any land, mine, or undertaking shall pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof. Ownerships
of licences are therefore automatically transferred with their appurtenant land,
mine, or undertaking.
The administration of the 1 Water Act" is carried out by the Comptroller of Water Rights.
He and his staff are located at a headquarters office in Victoria, and at district offices in Victoria,
Kamloops, Kelowna, and Nelson.
There is much correspondence, field investigation, and record-keeping of an exacting nature
associated with this administration because all details of every application must be carefully
reviewed before licences are issued. The filing and recording of all the mass of data associated
with water use is, in itself, an assignment of no small magnitude.
Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this Province is associated with
the use of British Columbia water, and the Government and its Civil Service are therefore called
upon to assist and direct this expansion in the public interest.
The Water Rights Branch therefore has a technical function as well as an administrative
one and is called upon to carry out many investigations and studies of a scientific nature. The
fact that almost every executive in the Water Rights Branch is a professional engineer is indicative of the technical nature of the work. These executives of the Branch take active part on
a number of important boards and committees dealing with the disposition of the Province's
water resources.
The Comptroller of Water Rights has a technical staff consisting of a Chief Engineer,
District Engineers, Chief Hydraulic Engineer, Project Engineer, and a number of hydraulic
engineers, technicians, and draughtsmen. This staff carries out many assignments in the irrigation, domestic water-supply, hydro-electric, dyking and drainage, and other fields.
If the Government of British Columbia is requested to investigate the cause of flooding of
private lands, find out how to drain some low-lying land, ascertain how much it would cost to
provide an adequate water-supply for a village, plan the rehabilitation of an existing irrigation
system, investigate the feasibility of pumping from a ground-water reservoir, prepare a complete
and detailed report on a proposed million-horsepower hydro-electric development, or plan the
best use of an international stream, the Water Rights Branch is the agency of government which
carries out this work, and finds the answers or proposes the solutions.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK" ?5
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
A. F. Paget, P.Eng., M.E.I.C, Comptroller of Water Rights
INTRODUCTION
The Water Rights Branch administers the | Water Act I which regulates the use of
surface water in British Columbia. J|
People and industry in this Province have a simple basic need for water, and this
need often is not balanced by an adequate local supply. Because of this fact,' which is
particularly pertinent in the water-hungry interior regions, it has been necessary to regulate the use of water, to protect legally the rights of individuals and groups of people in
this respect, and to provide legislation so that the Law Courts would not be swamped with
irate citizens wanting to sue their neighbours. J|
The need for control and legislation was realized very early in the Province's history.
Placer-mining requires a considerable amount of water, and during the Cariboo gold-rush
many individual prospectors required large quantities of water in the same general area.
The "Goldfields Act" was therefore proclaimed by Governor Douglas in 1859.
The I Goldfields Act 1 was limited in scope and did not satisfy the control of the use
of water to the degree required, so, accordingly, the j Water Privileges Act" was passed
in 1892. This Act declared that the use of all water, except that under the jurisdiction of
the Dominion Government, was vested in the Crown in right of the Province. It is to be
noted that this sweeping declaration denied the principle of riparian rights, which under
common law had given an individual the right to the use of streams flowing through his
own property.
The i Water Act," as it exists to-day, has been considered to be one of the best in
North America, and it has resulted in a minimum of litigation in the Courts between
water-users.
To-day an individual can apply for a water licence to cover almost every conceivable
use. Licence-holders have a right to use water under the terms and conditions of the
licence, and the priority of the licence is generally taken as the date the application was
recorded by the Water Recorder. Retention of a water right is dependent upon beneficial use of the water, payment of rentals, and the observance of the regulations of the
"Water Act."
Apart from the administration of the | Water Act," it became evident early in the
development of the Province that a government branch would need to carry out surveys
and investigations covering the use of water in the Province. This agency would also need
to catalogue and evaluate the important water resources, and to act as technical advisers
to the Government in the many matters of public interest concerning water.
The Water Rights Branch accordingly was charged with this second function, which
has become more and more important as the development of the Province has increased
and become more complex.
At present these two functions are more or less segregated under two divisions—
"Water Act" Administration and Water Resource Investigation.
| WATER ACT " ADMINISTRATION
The I Water Act 1 is administered by the Comptroller of Water Rights. The administrative staff is located in Victoria and in district offices in Kamloops, Kelowna,
Nelson, and Victoria.
The Victoria headquarters staff includes the Comptroller of Water Rights, Chief
Engineer, Project Engineer, Branch Solicitor, Chief Clerk, Chief Administrative Draughtsman, and a number of draughtsmen and clerks. The administration of such an important
function of government inevitably requires a great deal of paperwork of an exact nature.
 KK 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The administration general-office personnel carry out all the routine correspondence
necessary to process an application through to the granting of a licence. This is more
complex than is apparent, as it means receiving information from many sources: recommendations from the District Engineers and the Dam Inspections Engineer, policy direction from the Comptroller, legal direction from the solicitor, financial direction from the
Lands Service Accounting Division, and direct active liaison with the Administrative
Draughting Office. There is also much correspondence to be carried out concerning
cancellations or abandonment of licences, changes of ownership or appurtenancy, extensions of time, and right-of-way over Crown lands. This office also acts as custodian of
all licences which have ever been granted.
The administrative draughting-room staff, while small in number, has a large annual
work assignment. As draughtsmen they make up large-scale detailed maps known as
water-rights maps and keep them as a continually revised atlas containing the geographical
location of all pertinent water-use features—such as points of diversion or storage, pipelines, ditches, canals, legal rights-of-way, irrigated areas—boundaries of municipalities,
reserves, and improvement districts. In areas of lesser water use, this information is
placed on smaller-scale Lands Service reference maps. Every licence issued has a small
map attached showing the geographical detail of the licence. This map is known as a
plat, and they are drawn up by the draughting-room. Every incorporation of an improvement district requires a map to be drawn carefully, to include the property of all members
in the district. This requires careful attention to detail as the lot descriptions on the
petitions must check exactly with the map and the Letters Patent incorporating the district.
As ledger-keepers, the draughting-room staff keeps up all the mass of basic data that
is required in administering the " Water Act." They have stream registers which list
water applications, licences, and reserves by administrative areas known as water districts
and alphabetically by streams within the district. They have geographical place-name
registers, storage registers, and drawing registers. The latter serve as an index to all
drawings received or originated within the Branch, and as such are indispensable.
Incoming data (practically all incoming licence correspondence) go to the draughting-
room staff and are used to revise ledgers and maps. No licence can be issued, no change
of appurtenancy, works, or ownership can be made, and no extension of time, apportionment, or right-of-way can be made without first checking or clearing through the
draughting-room to ensure that no individual's vested water rights or property rights are
violated. In fact, in this Province, no person can purchase, lease, or be granted Crown
land or revert ownership of such land back to the Crown without it being cleared through
the draughting-room to protect the rights of our licensees. The same applies to timber
sales.
Plates 2 and 3 illustrate some of the tangible products of the Branch's labours, by
way of graphically showing the annual production of licences since 1913 and for the
current year.
It is interesting to note, as revealed by Plates 1 and 3, that the bulk of revenue (89
per cent) is derived from power rentals and fees, and that most of the administrative work
revolves around the paper and field work required in granting licences for other purposes
than hydro power.
Because revenue from hydro-power water licences is proportional to the actual power
production, the Branch keeps careful record of this generation and from time to time
publishes summaries of the water powers of the Province. Plates 4 and 5 provide an
up-to-date summary of this subject, which is at present receiving so much comment in
the press.
The Water Rights Branch published a 186-page book this year entitled "Water
Powers of British Columbia." This book is a revision of the 1924 edition and provides
a complete inventory of the developed water powers of the Province and, in addition,
our present knowledge concerning the undeveloped water powers.      §
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
KK 77
PLATE 1
WATER RIGHTS   BRANCH,  REVENUE AND  EXPENSES
Fiscal  Years j 1330 - 1954
AND
DISTRIBUTION    DIAGRAM    For Fiscal Vear   1953-54*
sfc Hydraulicking
Lowering Water
Mineral Trading
Conveying
Land Improvement.
Permits over Crown Land
1330
1935 ©40 1945 l95°
FISCAL     YEARS (_=__!MD.rsj<3   March   3!st.)
1954
 KK 78
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
WATER    RIGHTS    BRANCH    ADMINISTRATION
1954
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
KK 79
PLATE   3
WATER     RIGHTS     BRANCH    ADMINISTRATION
NOV. 1st   1953      -bo      OCT.   31st     1954
APPLICATIONS WS*CTER LICENCES      CONDITIONAL WATER LICENCES     FINAL  WATER LICENCES
RECEIVED ISSUED ISSUED
Vertical  Scale :    I  sheet,  on   diagram    represents 10 applications or licences
Waterworks, Industrial, F*av^er^ Mining,   Land   Impr~ove\me.n-L,   Storage. A R/ver*  Improvement..
The following table provides statistical information illustrating the large volume of
detailed work which the Administrative Division of our Branch has carried out during
the year.   For comparison purposes, the three former years are also shown in part:—
1951
1952
1953
1954
Applications for licences
673
24
16
19
424
625
224
119
744
23
11
36
397
734
183
147
775
30
22
42
422
766
292
137
584
Applications for apportionments                                                            	
17
Applications for change of appurtenancy                                    	
16
Applications for change of works
33
Applications for extensions of time                                                         	
490
Changes of ownership
965
Cancellations and abandonments                                                          	
327
Rights-of-way over Crown lands                                                      	
137
Totals (November 1st to October 31st)  	
Conditional licences issued
2,124
519
374
2,275
668
425
2,486
724
363
2,569
556
Final licences issued
485
Total licences issued (November 1st, 1953, to October 31st, 1954)-
893
1,093
1,087
1,041
Draughting-room
1,195
584
water-rights maps compiled and drawn-
New.
12
Revised                                                                                                                                                  -
|         32
15
|         40
1,300
Tan/.   1          \vui__6i/o ui uwucismp, i^cm^ciiainjiis, caiwioiuu. <_■_ i_l___v// —
\—i£^_arances (purchases, leases, reversions, Crown grants, timber sales ).
4,000
 KK 80
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
KK 81
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT OFFICE
M. L. Zirul, B.A.Sc, M.E.LC, P.Eng., District Engineer
General Description of Area under
the Kamloops Office
The area administered by the Kamloops
office consists of approximately 75,000
square miles, comprising the drainage-basin
of the Fraser River and its tributaries from
Spuzzum up-stream. Exceptions are the
area tributary to the Shuswap River, which
is administered by the Kelowna office, and
the drainage-basin of the Nechako and Stuart Rivers above the confluence of these two
streams. The latter area, large but only
partly developed, is administered from the
Victoria headquarters office.
Kamloops, although located geographically in the southerly part of its administrative area, is still centrally situated as far as the density of water use is concerned, and
the steady improvement of the main highways in the Interior is making the outlying
districts more readily accessible.
By far the largest number of licences issued in the area administered by the Kamloops office authorize water use for the irrigation of hay-crops in connection with the
cattle industry. This is especially true of the Kamloops, Ashcroft, Nicola, Lillooet, and
Cariboo Water Districts.
In the Barkerville District, the licences issued are almost wholly for mining purposes,
which includes ground-stripping in connection with prospecting, sluicing, and hydrau-
licking and the use of water for milling purposes in the hard-rock mines. An interesting
note is the number of small timber boom-dams found on small streams in this district
and used by prospectors for ground-sluicing or removing overburden from the section
to be worked. These dams store the available flow of the small stream until a gate trips
automatically, releasing the accumulated storage in a sudden rush of water. Most of
tjie licences issued for mining purposes are left in conditional-licence status owing to the
transitory nature of the miniiig operations.
Lumbering is still the main industry in the Prince George District, and the majority
of licences issued there authorize the use of water to transport logs to the various sawmills.
Because of the scattered nature of the irrigable land in the Central Interior, most of
the irrigation licences issued are for individual use, there being only nineteen improvement districts under the Kamloops office. A number of these cover waterworks purpose
(domestic use) only.
Climate
The precipitation within the districts under the Kamloops office varies from 7 inches
at Ashcroft and 10 inches at Kamloops to 40 inches at Barkerville. In general, however,
less than 25 inches falls throughout the agricultural areas, so that irrigation normally is
required wherever agriculture is practised. There is also considerable local variation due to
topography and elevation, heavier precipitation usually occurring at the higher elevations.
The climate for the 1954 season was exceptional both in regard to precipitation and
temperature. The mean monthly temperature was below the fifty-eight-year average every
month, January to October, inclusive, except for February alone. The hours of sunshine
per month were correspondingly below the average during the same months.  Precipitation
 KK 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
was slightly below the sixty-year average for the first six months of the year, and for the
months of July, August, and September it was 85 per cent above average. The precipitation during the five winter months, when the season's snow cover is accumulated, November to March, inclusive, preceding this irrigation season was very near the normal for the
period of record but delayed melting resulted in a high snow-water content at the beginning of the run-off season. The combined effects of the above resulted in a season of low
water demand and high stream-flows, so that there was a surplus of water in almost all
districts. The only exceptions to this were in some parts of the Nicola District where
storage water was deficient, as in Palmer Meadows, and Peter Hope and Glimpse Lakes.
Duty of Water
In practice, the duty of water is dependent on several factors, including soil types,
ground-water level, length of growing season, water losses, type of crop, water available
from natural rainfall, and the method of the application of irrigation-water. For administrative purposes, however, liberal values must be used for the various specified areas,
based on the estimated effect of the above factors and the advice from the District Agriculturists. A duty of 3 acre-feet per acre is used generally for the valley-bottom lands
throughout the Kamloops, Nicola, and Ashcroft Districts, reducing to 2 or 2Vi acre-feet
for lands within the range of 1,000 to 2,000 feet above the valley-bottoms. It is further
reduced to 1 or 1 Vi acre-feet per acre for lands in the Shuswap area where precipitation
is higher and also in parts of Lillooet, Cariboo, and Quesnel Districts where rainfall is
slightly higher and the growing season much shorter due to the higher elevation.      rf
Water Resources
Many of the small streams in the districts are already fully recorded for their low
flow, and on many of these the storage possibilities are also fully developed, so that we
are now noticing a trend toward pumping irrigation-wlater from the larger rivers for use
on the irrigable bench lands bordering these streams. The increased availability of
electrical powier is a factor favouring this trend. Electrical services of the British
Columbia Electric Company Limited were extended to Ashcroft this year, and the British
Columbia Power Commission has extended its service westward from Kamloops to
Walhachin.   (See Plates 4 and 5.)
The use of ground-water from wells for irrigation purpose is negligible, although
wells are used fairly extensively for domestic water.
Administration
Routine work carried out by the staff of the Kamloops office during the period
October 1st, 1953, to September 30th, 1954, is tabulated as follows:—
Conditional licences inspected  154
Final-licence surveys made    71
Apportionments and resurveys of existing final licences If 3
New applications investigated and reported on  160
Routine dam inspections     11
Dam repairs and maintenance inspected      4
New dam construction inspected      2
Proposed dam-sites inspected      4||
Complaints investigated     14
Engineering Investigations.—The following miscellaneous engineering surveys and
investigations were made: (1) B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District flow measurements in
distribution-ditches; (2) investigation of drainage possibilities of Salmon River at
Falkland.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
General
KK 83
The continued trend toward sprinkler irrigation is looked upon with favour by this
office. There are numerous examples, especially in the Ashcroft District, of continued
irrigation of row crops by the furrow method having eroded the soil so severely that there
is nothing left but gravel subsoil. This represents a permanent and serious loss to a
Province that has only approximately 2 per cent of its total area arable in the first place.
Of the seventy-one final-licence surveys made, forty-two were for irrigation licences
and indicated an area of 538 new acres developed. The area originally authorized under
the conditional licences surveyed was 684 acres, so that there was approximately 79 per
cent of the total area under these licences developed by final-licence survey time. Of the
538 new acres, approximately 72 acres were found irrigated by sprinkler irrigation and
466 acres by furrow irrigation.
New conditional licences issued during the same period authorized an area of 846
new acres to be developed. l|
KELOWNA DISTRICT OFFICE
W. A. Ker, B.A.Sc, M.E.I.C, P.Eng., District Engineer
The area administered by the Kelowna
office includes the Vernon, Fairview, Princeton, Grand Forks, and Revelstoke Water
Districts. In general it comprises the Okanagan, Similkameen, and Kettle River drainage-basins and, in addition, the Shuswap
River drainage-basin from Sicamous to the
source, and that part of the Columbia River
drainage-basin from Boat Encampment to
a point approximately 15 miles south of
Arrowhead on the Upper Arrow Lake.
The economy of this area revolves
around farming, with the fruit- and vegetable-
growing industry being predominant. In addition, mining and lumbering are important
industries serving to round out the economic
development of this section of British
Columbia.
In view of the fact that all of the above industries are dependent, more or less, on
the availability of water, the importance of the work carried out by the Water Rights
Branch in Southern British Columbia can not be too highly stressed.
Duties
The Kelowna office, like the other district offices, is charged with the responsibility
of administering the | Water Act 1 in its own area of jurisdiction. This comprises such
routine matters as checking all applications for water licences and making recommendations thereon, making surveys and reports for final water licences, inspection of works
such as storage dams, diversion dams, ditches, flumes, pipe systems, etc., regulating the
quantity of water used to conform with the priority of licences (in dry years), attending
meetings, and giving general advice. j
In addition to the above more or less routine work, this office is called upon to make
certain engineering studies involving the design and estimate of cost for waterworks or
irrigation proposals. This work is carried out principally for unorganized communities
who are not in a position to do the work themselves and who wish to have some idea as
 KK 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
to the feasibility and cost of such a scheme. A good deal of time is spent on such
proposals, some of which are carried through to completion, while others never get
beyond the report stage, with either the cost being too high or public apathy being too
difficult to overcome.
In general, this latter work may be considered as a public service, and if only a small
percentage of the time and effort consumed in performing such a service bears fruit, then
the satisfaction gained by the engineer in seeing his project completed is indeed well
worth the effort.
Use of Water, 1954 Irrigation Season
The 1954 irrigation season will probably go down in history as being one of the best
water-supply seasons. 1 An above-average snowfall during the winter of 1953-54, combined with a high spring and summer precipitation, kept even the smallest creeks running
practically all summer. In addition, all storage dams filled to capacity, and in many
cases part of this storage had to be dumped, it being impractical to carry over more than
half storage capacity in the average earth-filled dam.
As a result of the above-normal precipitation during the irrigation season, a below-
normal use of water was experienced. This was especially noticeable in North Okanagan,
where the Vernon Irrigation District reported an actual measured water use of 6,400
acre-feet as against an average of 10,000 acre-feet, only 64 per cent of average. This
above-normal precipitation would have a decreasing effect in going from north to south,
with an estimated use in the Kelowna area of 75 per cent of average and in the Oliver-
Osoyoos area of 90 per cent of average. Precipitation in the extreme southern Okanagan
is of little importance even in a year of above-normal precipitation, and its main benefit
is found in cooling the air, resulting in lower evaporation losses, which in turn means
a saving in water. It
Summary of Year's Work
The following is a report of the work carried out by the staff of this office for the
period November 1st, 1953, to October 31st, 1954:—
Final-licence survey reports  55
Apportionments and resurvey of existing final licences  21
New applications investigated 1  98
Routine dam inspections  10
New dam construction inspected    4
Engineering Investigations.—The following engineering studies were made and
reports submitted where indicated: (1) Rutland waterworks system (report submitted);
(2) Lumby waterworks system (report submitted); (3) Long Lake Creek area—investigation for domestic service (still under investigation); (4) Westbank Irrigation District-
investigation toward rehabilitating entire system (work commenced).
Timber-cutting in Watersheds
There has been some concern expressed during recent years in regard to the granting
of certain timber sales in watersheds, both in regard to possible pollution of water in the
case of waterworks districts and also in regard to the effect that forest-cover removal
might have on the late summer run-off. With the gradual depletion of our forest resources
in the Okanagan and Kettle River watersheds, the logging operators are finding it necessary to go farther back in the hills for their logs, and some of the applications for timber
sales cover watershed areas up to the divide.
The Forest Service is co-operating to the fullest extent in this area, and notice is
served on the irrigation or waterworks district likely to be affected by the sale with the
request that any objections be sent to them. Restrictive clauses are now inserted, where
required, restricting the trees to be cut to only those over a certain diameter, leaving a fixed
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
KK 85
number of trees per acre, or even in extreme cases going so far as to mark the trees to
be cut. In addition, clauses protect the watershed from pollution by ordering all camp
buildings, etc., to be located away from streams.
In cases where strong objections have been raised, actual ground inspections have
been arranged (and in one recent case an inspection by air) with the District Trustees,
a Forest Service representative, and the Water Rights Branch District Engineer. In all
cases it was found that these trips did considerable to alleviate any fears that might exist
and a compromise of some form was worked out. A continuation of this policy is to be
hoped for.
General
In general this has been a comparatively easy year for administration, with practically
no complaints regarding shortage of water. However, there have been dry cycles in the
past and undoubtedly they will recur. #
There were fewer applications received and investigated this year (98 as against 143
for 1953). However, last year was a record year in this regard, and a falling-off is to
be expected.
Of the surveys conducted during the year, there were several comprising irrigated
areas in excess of 100 acres, with the largest being approximately 600 acres.
NELSON DISTRICT OFFICE
R. Pollard, M.E.I.C, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Nelson office, administering the
Kootenay District comprising 25,000 square
miles, had a successful as well as fortunate
year in 1954. Successful in that production
by our engineering staff was good and fortunate for the reason that the greatest flood
potential on record existed in the spring but
did not materialize.
In addition to the official warnings contained in the Snow Survey Bulletins from
March 31st on, special warnings were issued
about the end of April to various individuals
and public bodies respecting the flood threat,
and it soon became apparent that steps were
being taken, especially by the Public Works
Department, to provide on-the-spot protective measures by placing sand-bags at vulnerable locations.
Snow samplings at the end of March showed a snow cover greatly in excess of the
ten- to seventeen-year normal.
By the middle of May none of the Kootenay streams, except Moyie River where
some flood damage took place, had begun to flow freely. On May 19th Cottonwood
Creek at Nelson overflowed its banks. The Public Works, city, and other departments
worked hard to save public and private property.
The Village of Salmo flooded but the roads were kept open.
Inflow to Kootenay Lake, a good yardstick, was 19,000 cubic feet per second on
May 3rd.   On May 20th it was observed to be 158,500 cubic feet per second.   On May
21st the weather cooled off and a noticeable recession in stream-flow was seen.
At any time from the middle of April to the end of May a disastrous flood could
have taken place if there had been more than three successive days of hot weather, but
 KK 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
period
the spring was cool and backward, and the heavy forecasted run-off was providentially
spread over a long period. . j|
Because of the long high 1 peak 1 the Creston dykes became pervious to the point
of creating § boils " within the dyked area. Certain losses in production were reported
but no great damage to dykes resulted.
The following is a resume of the work performed by the Nelson office during the
iod November 1st, 1953, to October 31st, 1954:—
New applications investigated  101
Final-licence surveys    95
Engineering Investigations.—(1) Casino Creek—inspection of watershed, installation of weir (preliminary survey); (2) Mirror Lake—water-supply (preliminary survey);
(3) Duhamel Creek (preliminary survey);  (4) estimate—Vermilion Irrigation District
Flooding Complaints Investigated.—(1) Beards Creek, near Golden; (2) Athalmer
flooding problem;   (3)  water-supply for residents adjacent to Village of Kinnaird;
(4) proposed Nelson High School site drainage problem;   (5) Beaver Creek flooding
and dyking;  (6) Kootenay River erosion at Canal Flats.
VICTORIA DISTRICT OFFICE
C. Errington, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Victoria District office administers
the I Water Act I in the five water districts
of Victoria, Alberni, Nanaimo (which include
most of Vancouver Island), New Westminster
(the Lower Fraser Valley), and Vancouver
(which extends from Vancouver northward
up the west coast of British Columbia some
350 miles, and includes also the north-eastern section of Vancouver Island).
The trend to increased use of irrigation-
water for obtaining larger yields per acre and
further use of marginal lands, mentioned in
last year's Report, continues.   As the available water in the many small creeks becomes
recorded, so do the problems of the district
office increase.   Many of the important small
streams are now fully recorded, and consequently many new applications have to be
refused.
The rainfall during this very wet summer was such that little irrigation was required
during August.   Small creeks and reservoirs were replenished and pasture land remained
abnormally green throughout the Fraser Valley and in the southern portion of Vancouver
Island—indeed, the whole farming area throughout this district.
A few rainfall figures illustrate this and are of interest:—
victoria
Total,
July, Aug., Sept.,
1954
(Inches)
Nanaimo  5.18
Victoria  3.02
Chilliwack  9.38
New Westminster  11.05
Total,
July, Aug., Sept.,
Long-term Average
(Inches)
3.85
2.54
7.21
6.40
A number of structures called " dugouts " have been created during the year; they
are merely earth reservoirs for storing water, generally constructed by a bulldozer.  They
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK 87
vary in size from very small to perhaps as large as 8 acre-feet. As many of these are
not constructed on a stream or well-defined watercourse but utilize local drainage, they
are not subject to licensing under the " Water Act," so that no record is available of many
of them. Winter run-off water is being so stored by a large number of enterprising
farmers on the Saanich Peninsula where there is a perennial shortage of irrigation-water
and where natural watercourses are few.
During the period November 1st, 1953, to October 31st, 1954, some twenty-four
reports were made, covering miscellaneous disputes, flooding and unauthorized use of
water complaints, advice re forming of improvement districts, loans to improvement
districts, etc. New applications received and reported on numbered 236, of which 18
were refused.
Owing to limited appropriations, only one party was available for final-licence
surveys this summer. The result of this is shown by the smaller figures in the table and
the consequent increase in the backlog of conditional licences ready for final-licence
survey.
Action during the year was taken on 431 conditional licences, of which 107 were
finalized, with a further 65 surveyed but not yet plotted nor reported on. 1 There were
62 conditional licences recommended for cancellation or abandonment, 163 extensions
of time, and 21 recommendations for amendment.
The year's work can be summarized as follows:—
Applications received  236
Applications refused     18
Final-licence reports  |  107
Conditional-licence reports  196
Extensions of time  163
Amendment of licences     21
Abandonments and cancellations  109
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS
A. K. Sutherland, LL.B., Solicitor
Subsection (1) of section 50 of the " Water Act," being chapter 361 of the | Revised
Statutes of British Columbia, 1948," reads as follows:—
I The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may at any time, by Letters Patent, incorporate any tract of land and the owners thereof into an improvement district, under such
name and with such objects as appear advisable and with such powers as are deemed
necessary to carry out the said objects, including the power to make grants for assisting
the planning, constructing, reconstructing, purchasing, equipping, or operating of a hospital, or the acquiring of land or buildings for such hospital purposes, but in no improvement district whose powers include the provision of domestic or irrigation water services
or sewerage shall these powers extend to that part of the district included within the
boundaries of a municipality or a village municipality within the meaning of the j Village
Municipalities Act'; and he may in the Letters Patent provide that some provisions of
this Act shall not apply to the improvement district and that other special provisions shall
apply thereto."
Although said section 50 of the | Water Act," the incorporating section, appears to
be broad enough to permit the incorporation of this type of a public corporate body for
any purpose, the main purposes for which improvement districts are incorporated are
irrigation, domestic water-supply, fire prevention and protection, street-lighting, sewage-
disposal, and garbage-collection purposes. More recently hospital improvement districts
have been incorporated under this Act.
There are 175 improvement districts now in operation for the purposes as shown
in Plate 7.   There was no appreciable change from 1953 in the comparison of objects
 KK 88
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
except for hospital purposes. It is interesting to note that five hospital improveme
districts were incorporated during the past year, making a total of six hospital improve
ment districts. The following improvement districts were incorporated in this past ve I
(November 1st, 1953, to October 31st, 1954): Departure Bay Waterworks District
Westside Improvement District, South Fort George Waterworks District, West Fernie
Waterworks District, Castlegar Hospital Improvement District, Central Surrey Drainage
District, Kootenay Valley Hospital Improvement District, Duhamel Creek Waterworks
District, McBride and District Hospital Improvement District, Athalmer Improvement
!80i-
160
5
120
Id
I
HI
0.
OL
5
It
0
or
hi
CQ
__
Z
100
±   80
60
40
20
1920
PLATE 7
IMPROVEMENT     DISTRICTS
I   i   I   i    I   i   I   i    I
f-
z
u
5
>
Ifla
|L
o
.-, WATERWORKS.
IRRIGATION
FIRE   PROTECTION
DYKING & DRAINAGE.
STREET   LIGHTING
GARBAGE  DISPOSAL.
V22\ SEWERAGE
SALE OF ROWER,
O 5        10 15       20       25       30     35
l_J I I I     i     I    ' 1    I     I     l     I l_l
PER  CENT   OF TOTAL
1925
1330
YEARS
1335
(ending
194-0 194-5
31   OCT.   1954)
1950      1954-
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK 89
District, Casino Waterworks District, Windermere District Hospital Improvement District, Mountain Fire Protection District, Saltair Waterworks District, Campbell River and
District Hospital Improvement District, Cumberland Fire Protection Disrict, and Sproule
Creek Irrigation District.
One improvement district, the North Squamish Light District, was dissolved during
the past year. §
The affairs of improvement districts are administered by elected Trustees under the
supervision of the Comptroller of Water Rights. Technical and administrative help is
also given to improvement districts by the District Engineer of the water district in which
the improvement district is located or by the Victoria office.
The Government can loan money to improvement districts having as their objects
the purposes of providing domestic water, irrigation of land, or sewage-disposal. A total
of $240,500 was authorized to be loaned to improvement districts for these purposes
during the past year.
Improvement districts providing fire protection, street-lighting, or aid to hospitals
can, with the approval of the Minister of Finance, have their taxes levied and collected
by the Provincial Assessor and Collector, and if a substantial amount of money is needed
to carry out these purposes, the Minister can advance moneys from Consolidated
Revenue, to be collected over a period of time. An amount of approximately $460,000
was advanced to improvement districts for these purposes during the past year.
Water-users' Communities
There are forty-seven water-users' communities functioning under the j Water Act."
These are small corporate bodies, incorporated by a certificate of incorporation issued by
the Comptroller of Water Rights, and are made up of six or more persons holding water
licences. The powers of a water-users' community are more restricted than those of an
improvement district, and administration is carried out by a manager, under the supervision of the Comptroller of Water Rights.
SUPERVISION OF DAMS
Duart A. MacLean, B.Sc. in E., Assoc.M.A.S.C.E., P.Eng.,
Chief Hydraulic Engineer
Water is, of course, necessary to almost every aspect of this Province's development,
be it agriculture or mining, domestic or industry. Some water-users require water at
a more or less constant average rate, such as some forms of industry and domestic use.
Other consumers only require water during certain months of the year, such as
irrigationists. ||
The supply of water, however, available in its natural state is not generally suited
to the requirements of the steady or the intermittent user. This is because of the nature
of the climate and the topography, which more than often, in British Columbia, gives us
water in torrents or trickles.
In order to alleviate the above difficulty in water-supply, storage dams have been
built by water-users, so that surplus water can be stored in reservoirs at times of heavy
stream-flow for regulated release during the low stream-flow months.
These storage dams, therefore, are extremely valuable to the economy of this
Province. Unfortunately they are also sometimes the cause of severe local disasters.
A storage-dam failure can empty large volumes of water down a stream well above the
stream's capacity, with the result that the bottom of the stream will erode very seriously
(« Fig. 1), thus leaving intakes high and dry, removing bridge foundations, and destroy-
H land either by erosion or by deposition. In short, dam failures are recognized by
all concerned as catastrophes which should be averted if at all possible.
 KK 90
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The Water Rights Branch has recognized this fact, and since 1948 has carried out
an intensive survey of all important storage dams with the view of assessing them for
(a) their present safety factor, ■ the adequacy of their present maintenance, and
(c) their need for renewal, repair, or breaching. g
There are over 700 storage dams in the Province at the present time which are
licensed and under the purview of this Branch. There are probably several hundred more
which store water without licence and without our knowledge. The distribution of these
storage dams amongst the areas of administration of our district offices is as follows:
Kamloops, 400; Kelowna, 170; Victoria, 100; and the remainder in the Nelson District
area and remote areas administered from headquarters in Victoria. Most of these dams
are low earth dams built by small contractors or by the owners themselves.      m
Fig. 1. A small stream cannot carry the large flow required by the failure of a storage dam.
The disastrous results are shown above. Prior to the dam failure the stream-bed was about at the
level of the base of the trees.
These dams are inspected from time to time by engineers of our Branch, and, if
necessary, instructions or recommendations for their repair are given so that the hazard
caused by these dams is kept to a minimum.
New storage dams may require to be designed and the construction supervised by
professional engineers. These designs are carefully checked by the Branch, and construction may not begin unless approval has been granted.
Experience has shown that some of the best low earth dams which have ever been
built in this Province were constructed before the advent of earth-moving machinery such
as the bulldozer. The early pioneer would take a horse and a Fresno scraper to his
dam-site and build up a fill which was put into place in small quantities and thoroughly
trampled by the horse's hoofs. This type of construction made good earth dams which
have stood up over the years, often despite a poor original design.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK n
The trend, unfortunately, is to consider the bulldozer the answer to every earth
moving problem. The average rancher or irrigator is attracted by the $100-a-day fee
and the amount of earth a bulldozer can move in a day. Consequently, some earth dams
are built as loose fills which appear | hard " on the surface, but when the reservoir fills
the material in the dam becomes saturated and settles and slumps and usually the structure
eventually fails. This one reason alone, although there are many more, makes it necessary
for the Branch to assist the water-users in their water-development programmes. Services
in this connection include examination of storage-dam designs, arrangement and payment
for soil tests where required, and loan of a sheep's-foot roller upon request.
The dam inspections programme has been successful, and, despite the added work
on the part of the District Engineers, the Province now has no known storage dams with
dangerously low safety factors. Further, there have been few actual dam failures, the
standard of new dams has steadily improved, and the general public now realizes the
importance of co-operation between the Government and the water-user in the matter
of constructing storage dams.
 KK 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
INTERNATIONAL WATER ADMINISTRATION, COLUMBIA RIVER
BASIN IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
G. J. A. Kidd, B.Sc, P.Eng., Project Engineer
INTRODUCTION
The Columbia, one of the great river-basins of the North American Continent
traverses parts of British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon. Because
head and flow combined results in hydro-power, from that point of view it ranks among
the largest rivers of the world.
The average annual discharge of the river is about 180,000,000 acre-feet, and in its
journey to the sea the river drops in elevation a total of 2,652 feet from its source in
British Columbia to its mouth on the Pacific shore of the United States. Approximately
44 per cent of the total flow originates in British Columbia, and the drop in elevation
is divided nearly equally between the two countries. The river is primarily a snow-melt
stream, which results in large fluctuations with high flows during the spring and summer
months and low flows during the winter. Consequently, it is apparent that for maximum
hydro-power production from the stream it is necessary that some portion of the high
flows be stored for release during the low-flow periods to provide as nearly as possible
a balanced, continuous flow through the power-generating installations.
Keeping this in mind and remembering that Canadian projects will be up-stream
from an eventual developed head of possibly 1,000 feet in the United States, it is easily
recognized that any storage development in British Columbia, where we have a similar
low-flow period to that in the United States, will automatically benefit all installations
on the main stem of the Columbia River south of the International Boundary. Therefore,
it seems essential that full co-operation on an international basis should be sought, such
that we operate our installations in conjunction with theirs, to produce maximum power
from the resulting system with agreements for the sharing of benefits that accrue.
It has been estimated that the Columbia basin in British Columbia and in the United
States may eventually have an installed hydro-power capacity of 34,000,000 kilowatts.
In comparison, the ultimate installed capacity of the main stem of the St. Lawrence
River has been calculated at 7,500,000 kilowatts. Of the total kilowatt-hours to be
generated in the Columbia basin, it is estimated that approximately three-fifths will be
generated from heads and regulated flows occurring within the United States, one-fifth
will be from heads and regulated flows entirely in Canada, and the remaining one-fifth
will approximate the extra energy which might be produced by United States generation
from flow regulated by storage in British Columbia.
The fact that the river and many of its major tributaries are international streams
presents many problems regarding the best plan of over-all development. These are
problems for which no acceptable solutions have, as yet, been indicated, and there is
little doubt that much contentious technical argument will take place before now discordant views are reconciled.
| DEVELOPMENT
In the Pacific Northwest area of the United States a tremendous industrial expansion
has been enjoyed during and since the last war, made possible by an abundance of cheap
hydro power. Industry and other users of power continue to expand, and, as a result,
the power-load growth in the Pacific Northwest is increasing at a phenomenal rate, and
the area is now faced with a foreseeable shortage of power in the not too distant future
(see graph on Plate 8). Much of the existing head on the main stem of the Columbia
River in the United States is already utilized or under development, and to keep pace
with the ever-growing power requirements it will soon become necessary to seek power
from other sources or from better regulation of the present Columbia flow by means ol
storage in headwater areas.
 occ
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK 93
In British Columbia little development of the Columbia River or its tributaries has
occurred, but it is apparent that the time is fast approaching when development will be
necessary either for use within the Province or for the purpose of regulating flow to allow
increased generation in the United States. To date, in regard to the Columbia River
within British Columbia, energies have been concentrated in gathering together the basic
data that is so necessary before planning can be carried out. Much of that data has
now been collected and the planning stage has begun. %
INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS AND PLANNING
As the Columbia and many of its large tributaries are international streams, it was
apparent that the problems from this point of view would be complex and contentious.
Consequently, the Governments of Canada and the United States joined together in the
reference of March 9th, 1944, to the International Joint Commission to study the problem involved and to 1 determine whether in its judgment further development of the
water resources of the river basin would be practicable and in the public interest from
the points of view of the two Governments." This investigation is being co-ordinated
by the International Columbia River Engineering Board, under which are an Engineering
Committee and Working Group. The Province is represented on the Committee by the
Deputy Minister of Lands, with the Project Engineer of the Water Rights Branch a member of the Working Group.
As well as the International Joint Commission, there are other agencies interested
and concerned with the development of the Columbia. Among these are the Pacific
Northwest Governors' Power Policy Committee. The Minister of Lands and Forests for
British Columbia sits with the Governors of the several north-western States on the
policy group of this organization. The principal United States agencies concerned and
public- and investor-owned utilities, both in the north-west States and British Columbia,
have representation in the body of the organization. The group has established an
Engineering Sub-committee and technical-staff nucleus, and the Project Engineer of the
Water Rights Branch serves as British Columbia's representation on the Sub-committee.
The Minister of Lands and Forests for British Columbia has also recognized that
the development period of the Columbia in British Columbia is rapidly approaching and
has caused to be established the Columbia River Basin Development Advisory Committee
and Engineering Sub-committee with representatives from Government and private British
Columbia hydro-power utilities. The Project Engineer of the Water Rights Branch is
secretary for the main Committee and also acts as chairman of the Engineering Subcommittee.
It will thus be apparent to the reader that the Department of Lands and the Water
Rights Branch of British Columbia are participating actively in all phases of the planning
and development of the Columbia basin.    §f
As investigations and collection of basic data near completion, certain potential
developments become recdgnized as key sites in the over-all plan. However, the details
involved in some of the phases of the planning present many problems and variations,
such that several alternative schemes must be studied to determine the most advantageous
development. | ||
Plate 8 shows the location of known major potential power sites and developments
in the Columbia basin in British Columbia as well as hydro-power installations which
have been constructed. The more important of these are described briefly as follows,
progressing up-stream from the International Boundary.
Murphy Creek Site.—This site is located a few miles up-stream from the City of
Trail, where a high dam would store in Arrow Lakes to the ordinary high-water level.
The storage so created would allow regulation during the low-flow months. Some at-site
generation would be possible, but the most advantageous use of the storage so created
would be to provide better regulation for power installations in the United States.   Such
 KK 94
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
a scheme would back water against the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company
power plant at Brilliant, drowning out some of its head and reducing its capability.     S
Alternatively, it would, however, be possible to build a lower-head power install*.
tion at this site which would not affect the Brilliant plant and would not store
Arrow Lakes.
water in
Either of these methods of development would require large blocks of up-stream
storage to provide suitable regulation for maximum power output. From all information
at this time, considering both economic and physical aspects, it would appear this site
would be one of the last to be developed in the Columbia system in British Columbia
Fig. 2.  Castlegar Narrows section of Lower Arrow Lake showing the location of
the proposed dam-site.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK 95
Arrow Lakes Site.—Two methods of development have been mooted:	
(a) A high dam (90 to 100 feet) at the outlet of Arrow Lakes could store nearly
9,000,000 acre-feet of water. At-site power could be generated, but there is little doubt
that, if such a project were constructed, the storage so created would be regulated for
maximum power production from the United States installations. In this case, at-site
power output would fluctuate greatly, and during certain periods, when the reservoir is
fully drawn down, the head would be so low that the power plant would not operate.
Such a high-dam development at the outlet of Arrow Lakes may not be feasible
because of the doubtful foundation material at the site. The high-dam development
would also have the great disadvantage in that it would affect the existing Arrow Lake
economy.
(b) A low-head dam (30 to 40 feet) would allow storage in Arrow Lakes to the
ordinary high-water level. Such a development would not interfere with present economy
of the area to any extent. Approximately 2,500,000 to 3,000,000 acre-feet of storage
could be created which would provide better stream-flow regulation down-stream.
At-site generation would not be feasible due to limited and varying head. Construction
of this project has been proposed and seems desirable. ltp|
Little Dalles and Downie Creek.—These two dam-sites make it possible to utilize
almost the entire head in that reach of the Columbia River between Mica Creek and
Revelstoke. Approximately 145 feet and 255 feet could be developed at Little Dalles
and Downie Creek sites respectively, both developments being run of the river, depending
upon up-stream storage at Mica Creek or other up-stream sites for stream-flow regulation.
The quantity of power available from those two sites would depend upon the method
of regulating the up-stream storage and could amount to approximately 900,000 horsepower with Mica storage regulated for maximum local production. Output would probably fluctuate when storage is regulated for the total system embracing Canadian and
United States plants. Jr.
Goldstream River.—This river is a tributary of the Columbia, joining the main stem
below the Mica dam-site. A block of storage could be created, and it would be possible
to generate 25,000 to 30,000 horse-power which could be used during the Mica dam-
construction period. Thereafter, in conjunction with Little Dalles and Downie Creek
plants, it would be possible to develop an excellent peaking power scheme.
Mica Creek Site.—This dam-site, located about 8 miles below the Big Bend of the
Columbia River, is the major potential power and storage project in the Columbia basin
in British Columbia.
It would be possible to build a dam at this location to completely regulate the flow
of the river, but it would appear at present that a dam to store approximately 10,500,000
acre-feet providing 90 per cent regulation would be constructed. The total power potential from this development could be tremendous, and it has been estimated that power
production in the United States alone could be increased by 1,600,000 horse-power with
suitable regulation. At-site power would fluctuate with such regulation, but if stored
water was released for best advantage of Mica at-site power and the two down-stream
plants at Downie Creek and Little Dalles, it is estimated that 1,550,000 continuous horsepower could be produced from the combined three plants.
Surprise Rapids and Donald Canyon Sites.—-In that portion of the river above Mica
dam-site there are several alternative dam-sites in the Surprise Rapids and Donald
Canyon reaches with a variety of possible methods of development. These alternatives
will require considerable study to determine the most feasible plan of development.
Kootenay Diversion.—The diversion of the Kootenay River into the Columbia
River at Canal Flats is entirely feasible and would allow British Columbia to utilize the
water so diverted, through approximately 570 feet of head which would ordinarily be
lost in that portion of the Kootenay River which flows through the United States. The
diversion could be accomplished by a regulating reservoir occupying part of the Koote-
 KK 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ive
nay and Columbia River valleys with impounding structures at both ends.   Alternati
dam-sites on the Kootenay River at Copper Creek or Bull River are possible, and the
Luxor site on the Columbia would be common to both.   The diversion could also be
carried out by canal and dyke at Canal Flats.
It has been estimated that the Kootenay diversion could add approximately 310,000
horse-power to the potential development of the Columbia basin in British Columbia
Other Developments in the Columbia Basin.—On the various tributaries of the
Columbia within the Province many smaller developments are possible of similar nature
to Whatshan, which has already been built, the Spillimacheen project, which is under
construction, and the harnessing of the 400 feet of head on the Pend d'Oreille River,
at present about half developed. |
jl GENERAL
The American authorities have reapplied to the International Joint Commission
for permission to build the Libby Dam on the Kootenay River. This project would
flood water across the border into British Columbia. The Province has made response
to this application and will be represented when the application comes up for consideration before the International Joint Commission, possibly early in the new year.
fjpt The International Columbia River Engineering Committee and Work Group are
carrying out power studies utilizing Mica Creek storage to determine effect of this storage
on down-stream hydro plants in the United States. Work is also progressing on a final
draft of the Okanagan-Similkameen appendix of the over-all Columbia Basin Report
required under the previously mentioned reference of 1944 to the International Joint
Commission. j
The Pacific Northwest Governors' Power Policy Committee and staff have estimated
future power loads and resources for the Pacific Northwest region, and taken first steps
toward resolving obstacles to early construction of projects to serve the expected load.
A region-wide dependable capacity of 18,700,000 kilowatts by 1969 is projected.
At present the group is exploring the fisheries problems in regard to hydro-power
development and the international aspects of the down-stream benefits problem.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK 9?
YUKON-TESLIN-TAKU RIVERS BASIN DEVELOPMENT
p. G. Odynsky, B.A., B.A.Sc, Jr.M.C.I.M., P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
The project, which would consist of hydro-power developments and metallurgical
plants in Northern British Columbia and the Yukon, is being investigated by Northwest
Power Industries Limited, a subsidiary of Quebec Metallurgical Industries Limited and
Frobisher Limited, a subsidiary of Ventures Limited.
1. HYDRO-POWER DEVELOPMENT t,
In general, the power project calls for the utilization of the run-off from the upper
drainage system of the Yukon River in the Yukon Territory and Northern British Columbia. Water from other watersheds west and east of the Upper Yukon Valley will also
be diverted. A group of large lakes in British Columbia and the Yukon will be used
as storage reservoirs.    (See Plate 9.)
The various watersheds involved extend from Sloko Lake in Northern British
Columbia, approximately 200 miles northward to the mouth of Big Salmon River near
Carmacks, and over an east-west distance of some 300 miles from Rancheria to Burwash.
The area of these watersheds is comprised of 25,000 square miles in the Yukon and
10,000 square miles in British Columbia, a grand total of 35,000 square miles. In
comparison, the Aluminum Company of Canada's Alcan project comprises a drainage
area of 5,500 square miles. The British Columbia portion of the watershed is comparable in size to the area of Vancouver Island, which is 12,400 square miles.
The proposed hydro development would be carried out in three stages, as follows:—
Stage 1.—A dam would be built to a crest elevation of approximately 2,215 feet,
about 4 miles up-stream from Whitehorse at Miles Canyon on the Yukon River. In
conjunction with this dam, a 1-mile-long tunnel will drain the huge reservoir south to
Sloko Lake and thence by a further 10-mile tunnel to a power-house on the Nakonake
River at an elevation of 1,100 feet.    (See Fig. 3.)
The dam in Miles Canyon would impound the waters of Lindeman, Bennett, Marsh,
and Tagish Lakes, Taku Arm, and Atlin Lake into one large lake reservoir, known as
the Upper Reservoir, from which water would be drawn southward by means of the
tunnels to a hydro plant on the Nakonake River. Sloko Lake wbuld serve mainly as
a canal betwieen the two tunnels.
On the basis of an initial flow of 8,860 c.f.s. probably being available at Miles
Canyon, and a head of some 1,100 feet existing between the Upper Reservoir and the
Nakonake power-site, a total of some 880,000 horse-power would be generated from
this stage of development.   §f J§
In conjunction with this stage, a dam may be constructed on the Teslin River,
40 miles down-stream from Teslin Lake, to an elevation of approximately 2,250 feet.
The waters of Teslin Lake, as impounded by this dam, would be diverted via Mary
River, a canal, and Michie Creek into the Upper Reservoir at Marsh Lake.
Stage 2.—By constructing a dam on the Yukon River just below the confluence of
the Yukon and Big Salmon Rivers (near Carmacks) to a crest elevation of approximately
2,078 feet, the waters of the Big Salmon and Teslin Rivers, Laberge Lake, and Takhini
River would be impounded into a reservoir below Whitehorse, known as the Lower
Reservoir.
To use these waters, large pumps, totalling 140,000 horse-power in capacity, would
be installed at Whitehorse to lift the stored waters from the Lower Reservoir into the
Upper Reservoir.
It has been stated that the water storage of the two reservoirs is, next to the Great
Lakes, the largest in the Americas. The total storage to be developed is estimated to be
some 14,000,000 acre-feet, or 3.8 trillion gallons.
 KK 98
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Stage 3.—A later development would be the diversion of some of the upper wate
of the Alsek River into the Lower Reservoir by the construction of a dam on the Alsek
River in the Yukon and a diversion canal at Champagne which would divert the Alsek
Dezadeash waters into the Takhini River.   The latter flows into the Yukon River below
Whitehorse. f|
Preliminary estimates made by the Northwest Power Industries Limited have indicated a uniform flow of some 28,000 c.f.s. to be available on completion of the three
power stages, which, in conjunction with an available head of some 1,100 feet between
the Upper Reservoir and the Nakonake power-site, would result in a maximum power
output of some 2,800,000 horse-power at the site.
Fig. 3.   Aerial view of Sloko and Atlin Lakes in North-western British Columbia, looking
/<_»i*_*"_r*L-_^___-_________jL__^__l_ ■• _r     _ ■ . _._■%.__._
?!!„!?•    S. °Wi_n9,the, ,0^ation of the major diversion works, as proposed by the Northwest Power
' of
'ec
...  "v.er near Whitehorse and Carmacks, which will store the wa.er_ of
the upper Yukon River in a vast lake system, of which Atlin Lake is shown in the photograph,
from Atlin Lake the stored water would be drawn southward by means of tunnels to a hydro plant
on Nakonake River, Sloko Lake serving mainly as a canal between the two tunnels.
--- , .. .v_...,.y UIC luuuun or rne major diversion works, as proposed by the Northwest ruwc.
Industries Limited, which will ultimately result in the production of 2,800,000 horse-power of
hydro-electric energy at a power-site on Nakonake River. The hydro potential will be achieved
by storage dams on Yukon River near Whitehorse and Carmacks, which will store the waters of
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK 99
In conjunction with the third stage, a third tunnel is being contemplated between
the Nakonake River and the Taku River above Inklin to conduct the tail-waters from
the Nakonake hydro plant for additional power generation at a hydro plant on the
Taku River. Maximum output at this plant, near Inklin, is estimated at approximately
1,500,000 horse-power.
A final dam on the Taku River below Inklin is also being considered, which would
convert the tail-waters of the above-mentioned plant, together with the natural flow of
the Taku and Inklin Rivers, into hydro-electric energy amounting to some 600,000
horse-power. # ||||
The total maximum power output resulting from these developments, which are
expected to be completed in fifteen years, would amount to some 4,900,000 horse-power.
2. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
The industrial phase involves the construction of electrolytic smelters and refineries
to treat ores and concentrates which will be shipped in from distant parts of the world
as well as from British Columbia, Yukon, and Alaska.
One of the proposed sites for this industrial development is located near Tulsequah,
on the right side of the Taku River just east of the Canada-Alaska Boundary in British
Columbia. The feasibility of this site is under investigation. Electric energy from the
Nakonake and Taku power plants would be conducted to this site by some 45 miles of
transmission-lines, and ores and concentrates would be transported by barge from tidewater at Taku Inlet some 20 miles up the Taku River to the metallurgical site. The
feasibility of overland transportation along the river to tide-water is also being investigated.
Farther south on the British Columbia coast, at Stewart, an alternative industrial
site on deep tide-water is also being investigated to determine, among other factors,
whether the extra cost of the longer transmission-lines that would be necessary from the
power-sites to this area would be balanced by the economics of the available deep-water
docking facilities and cheaper transportation.
Detailed studies, pertinent to various phases of the hydro-power development of this
project, are being made jointly by the Water Rights Branch of the British Columbia
Department of Lands and Forests and the Water Resources Division of the Department
of Northern Affairs and National Resources.
 KK 100 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH COMMITTEE WORK
DOMINION-PROVINCIAL BOARD, FRASER RIVER BASIN
The Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin, was established jointly by the
Federal and Provincial Governments on March 19th, 1949, by an agreement which said
in part:—
I Whereas it is desirable in the public interest to make a survey and report on the
water resources and requirements of the area comprising the Fraser River watershed"
and that | the Board shall plan, supervise and carry out the aforesaid survey and report
and shall determine what developments and controls of the water and other resources of
the-Fraser River basin, in its judgment, would be advisable and in the public interest,
with reference to:—
j§ "(a) Domestic water supply, sanitation and pollution:
"(b) Erosion and silting:
"(c) Fisheries:
"(d) Floods:
"(e) Irrigation:
" (/) Land management:
"(g) Navigation:
"(h) Reclamation of land subject to flooding:
"(/) Water power:
"(/') Wildlife and recreation:
"(k) Any other development or controls which may be a public benefit."
And, further, " the Board shall also investigate and report upon all existing dams,
irrigation systems, hydro-electric plants, aids to navigation, fishways, dykes, sanitary
systems, sources of pollution, and all other works located in the Fraser River basin in so
far as these may be germane to the developments and controls proposed."
The expenses incurred by the Board are shared on a 50-50 basis between the two
Governments. The members of the Board are senior officers in various governmental
agencies, both Provincial and Federal, engaged in the accumulation of basic physical
data and in the construction, maintenance, and control of works in the Fraser River
watershed.
The Comptroller of Water Rights is an active permanent member of the Board.
Five standing committees of Board members were appointed in 1952 as follows:—
Committee No. 1: Flood control, water power.
Committee No. 2: Water-supply, sanitation, and pollution.
Committee No. 3: Fisheries, wildlife, and recreation.
Committee No. 4: Irrigation, land management, reclamation.
Committee No. 5: Erosion and silting, navigation.
The Comptroller of Water Rights is a member of Standing Committees Nos. 1 and 2.
In December, 1953, a working group was set up under the direction of Committee
No. 1 and the office engineer of the Water Rights Branch is a member of this working
group.    This working group recently compiled a report,  "Survey and Investigation
Requirements," which, as the title suggests, recommends a plan of future surveys and
investigations of flood-control and water power within the basin.§
Since the inception of the Board, the Water Rights Branch has carried out much of
the field work, particularly in regard to water power, flood-control, snow surveys, and
sedimentation, as well as actively participating in the Board's planning of same.
THE DOMINION-PROVINCIAL CO-ORDINATING COMMITTEE
ON LAND RECLAMATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
This Advisory Committee was initiated on August 17th, 1948, and is composed of
senior executives from the Provincial Departments of Agriculture and Public Works, the
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK 101
Water Rights Branch of the British Columbia Lands Service, the Federal Department of
Agriculture Experimental Farms Service, the Federal Department of Agriculture (" Prairie
Farm Rehabilitation Act"), and the Soldier Settlement and Veterans' Land Act adminis
tration.   The Comptroller of Water Rights is on this permanent Committee representing
the Provincial Department of Lands and Forests. 6
This Committee was formed originally (1) to review the status of projects under
consideration in British Columbia, and (2) to make a review of all information available
on proposed projects in British Columbia.
Since its inception there has been a direct liaison between the Government departments forming the Committee, and this co-operation and mutual exchange of information
and services has led to the initiation of a number of projects, some of which have now
been completed. A number of the field investigations made by the Water Rights Branch
during the last several years have been carried out under the Committee's recommendation
to the Provincial Government.
THE INTERNATIONAL COLUMBIA RIVER ENGINEERING
COMMITTEE AND WORKING GROUP
The work of this Committee is outlined in the section j Columbia River Basin in
British Columbia."
 KK 102 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
WATER RESOURCES DIVISION
T. A. J. Leach, B.Sc, M.E.I.C, Assoc.M.A.S.C.E., P.Eng., Chief Engineer
The Water Resources Division performs a function which is quite separate from the
general administration of the " Water Act." Although the function is separate, it is also
entirely complementary and neither function can work well without direct and active
liaison with the other. I
The Water Resources Division is headed by the Chief Engineer, who acts under the
general direction of the Comptroller of Water Rights. A Chief Hydraulic Engineer, an
office engineer, five hydraulic engineers, one assistant hydraulic engineer, one engineer-in-
training (on leave of absence), one technical survey assistant, and two draughtsmen
complete the permanent staff of this Division.
SECTION A.—PROVINCIAL WATER-RESOURCE INVESTIGATION
The administration of our water resources requires an adequate inventory of the
numerous rivers and streams within British Columbia, including measurements of stream
discharges, the fluctuation in river and lake levels, topography and nature of the drainage-
basins, rainfall and snow measurements, and other hydrologic data which is basic to all
hydraulic engineering planning and studies.
The original investigation some forty years ago was mainly in the hydro-electric
field, and while this is still in the forefront to-day, other water-use aspects are also being
considered. These include obtaining* the basic information mentioned above and its
application to such engineering problems as irrigation and flood storage, drainage and
dyking, domestic water supplies, and sedimentation and erosion.
Most of these investigations and surveys have been covered by engineering reports
which are available for study at the Water Rights Branch in Victoria, or which can be
purchased on the payment of typing, draughting, and assembly cost. More than 200
reports now exist, and the number is increasing each year.
Following the formation of the Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin, in
1949, attention was focused on this drainage area, and field investigations were carried
out for the Board by hydraulic engineers of the Branch.
At present, therefore, the Water Resources Investigation Division's work can be
broadly divided into:—
(a) Water-resource surveys financed by the Provincial Government:
(b) Water-resource surveys financed jointly by the Federal and Provincial
Governments under the Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin.
I Provincial water-resource investigations carried out by the Division during 1954
included dyking, drainage, river-bank protection, irrigation, domestic water-supply,
ground-water, and hydro-electric surveys. These investigations varied from a one-day
inspection by one engineer followed by a letter-report to an over-all summer investigation
and survey lasting several months and culminating in an engineering report including
design drawings and estimates.
A good deal of the work done during the calendar year has been office studies based
on the field work done in 1953. Plate 6 illustrates the areas where work was done during
the year, either by field work including office studies or by office studies alone.
1. Irrigation Investigations
This Division is frequently requested by the Government to carry out investigations
covering the possibilities of bringing new land into use by irrigation or by rehabilitating
older irrigation systems.   These Governmental requests for this work often stem from
* Stream discharges and lake levels are obtained by the Federal Department of Northern Affairs and National
Resources.
 Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
 KK 104
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
direct recommendations made to the Government either by the Co-ordinating Committee
on Land Reclamation in British Columbia or by the local inhabitants within an irrigation
district, water-users' community, or municipality.
During the past year, investigations made by the Division were carried out covering
a proposed rehabilitation of the irrigation system used by the B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation
District north and west of North Kamloops; a proposed irrigation of the lands which have
been used by the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood, or more commonly
known as the Doukhobor lands; the possibilities of irrigating about 1,300 acres of land
immediately north of Creston known as the Alice Siding area; and a survey of the existing
system operated by the Westbank Irrigation District with a view to its rehabilitation.
irrigation Investigations for B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District,
Doukhobor Lands, and North Creston
J. P. Riley, B.A.Sc, M.Ag.E., AssocM.A.S.CE., P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District.—The B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District includes
approximately 4,000 acres of land near the junction of the North and South Thompson
Rivers at Kamloops (see Fig. 4). The accompanying key plan (Plate 10) shows a
general outline of the district, which is divided by natural topography into three distinct
areas designated as Blocks A, B, and C. Since the area is in the flood-plain of the North
Thompson and Thompson Rivers, the surface soil is for the most part made up of water-
deposited sand and silt.
PLATE 10
In 1912 the B.C. Fruitlands Company Limited built an irrigation system to supply
gravity water by concrete canal, flume, and pipe from Jamieson Creek. In the years
following several different companies owned and operated the system, but none of these
companies established a fund for the renewal of the works. As might be expected, by
the early 1940's the system deteriorated to such an extent that for any given year there
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
KK 105
could be no guarantee that water would be available for the crops. Therefore in June
1946, the farmers within the area petitioned the Government of British Columbia to form
an irrigation district under the Provincial " Water Act."
The B.C. Fruitlands District was thus formed in 1947, and since then has, under
extreme difficulties, supplied water to the area. Because of the deteriorated condition
of the system and lack of capital for replacements, the supply has been both inadequate
and uncertain.
This situation prompted the district to approach both the Federal and the Provincial
Governments for assistance, and in February, 1954, the Minister of Lands and Forests
requested that the Branch prepare a design for a new irrigation system.
Under the system proposed, Block A and the northerly portion of Block B (300
acres) would be separated from the existing district and served by gravity water from
Jamieson Creek. This area could take good advantage of the existing storage facilities
and use the only portions of the remaining distribution-works which could be economically
reclaimed. The remainder of Block B and Block C each would be served by separate
pumping systems from the Thompson River, but operated under a single management.
A summary of the estimated capital and operating costs of the proposed irrigation
systems for Blocks A, B, and C is given below. Note that for the gravity system of
Block A, only one scheme was considered, while for the pump systems of Blocks B and
C there are three alternative plans. Since the lands within the irrigation proposal were
restricted to those which are now cultivated, the total irrigated area is considerably less
than the 4,000 acres within the original district. The Royalite lands, referred to in the
summary below, are 73 acres in Block C owned by the Royalite Oil Company. These
lands will be occupied by administration buildings for the near-by refinery, and therefore will require only small quantities of water for domestic use. The company would
prefer to meet this demand from its own private pump system from the Thompson River.
Therefore, in the design of the proposed irrigation system two alternatives were considered, one including and one excluding these lands.
Area Irrigated
Acreage
Included
Maximum Rate
Water Application per
Month
Total
Capital
Costs
Annual Operating, Maintenance, and
Renewal Costs
per Acre
Block A	
780
2,202
2,129
2,129
10"
12"
12"
10.5"
$49,105
546,293
534,331
516,144
$13.00
Blocks B and C, Royalite included	
14.62
Blocks B and C, Royalite excluded	
14.68
Blocks B and C, Royalite excluded	
13.88
Doukhobor Lands Irrigation.—The term § Doukhobor lands " applies to approximately 18,500 acres of Crown land located in the vicinity of Grand Forks and scattered
throughout the west part of the Kootenay area from a few miles north of Trail (see
Fig. 5) up the Kootenay and Slocan Rivers as far as Perry Siding. The larger blocks
of these lands are shown on Plate 11, and it is on these areas that the present irrigation
study is being conducted. I
The Doukhobor lands were originally held in the name of the Christian Community
of Universal Brotherhood, a corporate body established by the Doukhobors shortly after
the arrival of the group in Canada more than forty years ago.
Irrigation is essential to successful agriculture in the Kootenay District, especially
when intensive crop production is practised. Therefore, to construct irrigation systems
and to bring the lands into production, the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood borrowed funds from private loan companies. Large tracts of orchard were planted
and even a successful jam-factory established. The area seemed to prosper generally
for a few years.   Its slow decline may be traced to a rising radical faction within the
 KK 106
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Doukhobor group, and to the decline of the strong, central control which culminated I
the bankruptcy of the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood in 1937.   The lo **
companies to whom the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood owed mone
were attempting to recover their debts by foreclosure when the Provincial Government
to avert mass evictions, assumed control of the Doukhobor lands by an Act of Legislator
in 1939. e
J-OWJZR
ARROW
LAKE
PLATE 11
UPPER   PASS
CREEK
CAST LE GAR
BRILLIANT
Ch*R/ST/A/A
Ls4rT£
GRAND
FORKS
CANADA
U. S-A-
CHAMPION
CREEK
TRAIL
ROSSLAND
SCALE
=E
3 MILES
KEY   MAP
SHOWING    DOUKHOBOR    LANDS
SURVEYED    FOR   IRRIGATION
In 1950 a group known as the Doukhobor Research Committee was authorized by
the Government of British Columbia to study the many phases of the Doukhobor problem. This Committee made a series of recommendations regarding land-ownership and
tenure aimed at solving the existing unsatisfactory condition. As part of the information
necessary to implement these recommendations, the Branch conducted a survey of the
engineering aspects of supplying irrigation-water to the Doukhobor lands. This survey
has been completed for the larger blocks of former C.C.U.B. holdings, and the information thus gathered, which includes preliminary designs and estimates of cost together with
material supplied by the former Land Utilization Research and Survey Division of the
British Columbia Lands Service, is now being compiled into a report by the Water Rights
Branch. It is possible that the irrigation systems so designed could bring water once
again to a large proportion of the Doukhobor lands.
North Creston (Alice Siding) Irrigation.—Alice Siding is a triangle-shaped area of
approximately 1,300 acres of arable land situated on a lake-bottom bench along the east
side of the Kootenay River valley. The area is bounded on the south by the Village of
Creston and extends northward 2V6 miles, tapering to a point with the steep slope of
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK m
Goat Mountain on the east and the reclaimed flood lands of Kootenay River flats on the
west (see Fig. 6).
Alice Siding has been settled and under cultivation for many years with apples as
the main crop, and although irrigation in the Kootenay District is a requirement of
optimum crop production, an over-all water-supply system for this area has never been
developed. Those farmers situated toward the north end of the area adjacent to Goat
Mountain have tapped springs on the mountain and pipe the water to their lands* many
of those on the sloping land rising to the bench from the river flats pump water from the
sloughs; while one or two houses adjacent to Creston draw domestic water from a small
Fig. 6.
pipe-line extending a short distance northward from the village system. Eventually,
however, the reclamation of the flats eliminated the sloughs, while, more recently, subdivision and the consequent increase in population density of the block immediately
north of Creston have considerably increased the number of homes supplied from the
village. Because of an apparent water shortage during the summer months within
Creston itself, the village has not been willing to enlarge the line now serving these homes
north of its present boundaries. Thus the water-supply to this outlying area during the
irrigation season is now insufficient to meet even normal domestic requirements. In
general, therefore, the water-supply for the more southerly portion of the Alice Siding
area, comprising approximately 600 acres, is now entirely inadequate, not only for
tfrigation, but also for domestic purposes.    The remaining more northerly section of
 KK 108 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Alice Siding is an area of approximately 700 acres. The property-owners within this
block are satisfied with their present privately developed supplies from various springs
on Goat Mountain and do not wish to be included in any water-development scheme
During 1953 representatives from the southern portion of Alice Siding, in an
attempt to solve the critical water-supply problem for their area, approached the Government for engineering assistance and advice. Following this request, in the summer of
1954 the Branch conducted a preliminary engineering study of the entire problem.
Various alternative plans for bringing irrigation-water to the more southerly lands of
Alice Siding were investigated and will be presented in a subsequent report.
Westbank Irrigation District
A request has been made by the Trustees of the Westbank Irrigation District that
the Branch carry out a complete investigation of their entire irrigation system with the
view of making it an all-pressure system which will make possible more general use of
sprinkler irrigation, which is desired. |?
Since this will mean replacing certain existing flumes with pressure pipes, it was
considered that a master plan of the entire system should be devised in order to have the
most efficient over-all system.
The District Engineer of the Kelowna District office has been given this assignment,
but on account of the lateness of the season and a shortage of technical staff, little progress
has been made to date. 8
2. Domestic Water-supply
The Water Rights Branch, at times, provides engineering assistance to small communities, municipalities, or improvement districts in making field surveys, preliminary
designs, and estimates of costs of domestic waterworks systems.
Such factual reports serve to indicate the cost and feasibility to potential improvement districts of providing water to the local inhabitants. After the district is formed,
application may be made for a Government loan based on the cost estimate contained
in the report or, alternatively, the capital cost may be financed by the selling of debentures.
Domestic water-supply investigations during 1954 included the following areas:
Clearbrook Village, Edgewood Waterworks District, Casino Waterworks District, Duha-
mel Creek Waterworks District, Rutland Village, Lumby Waterworks District, West
Fernie Waterworks District, Ucluelet Village, and the proposed Provincial Penitentiary
at Maple Ridge, and the Duncan-Chemainus-Saltair area.
Reports were completed this year based on last year's field work as follows: Sunny-
brae Community, McBride, Decker Lake, and area along Fraser River between Prince
George and Quesnel. ft
Casino Waterworks District
Casino, a small community about 4 miles south-east of Trail, has recently been
incorporated as a waterworks district. In the course of the incorporation of this district,
the Nelson District office made some limited field surveys and prepared a preliminary
design in order to establish an estimate of the costs of providing a supply of domestic
water to this community of about seventeen households. w
Duhamel Creek Waterworks District
A small community exists on the delta fan of Duhamel Creek where it empties into
the West Arm of Kootenay Lake about 6 miles north of Nelson. This area has recently
been, incorporated into an improvement district with waterworks as the object, the
Letters Patent being dated June 29th, 1954. %
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK m
The Nelson District office carried out limited surveys and has obtained a preliminary estimate of cost of constructing a gravity waterworks system which will obtain its
water from Duhamel Creek and provide domestic water service to about thirty-eight
existing homes and ultimately to about fifty. A moderate amount of fire protection has
been included in the scheme proposed.
Edgewood Waterworks District
The village of Edgewood, on the west shore of Lower Arrow Lake at the mouth
of the Inonoaklin Creek, was incorporated into a waterworks district by Letters Patent
dated November 16th, 1946.
Several waterworks systems have been suggested for the area since incorporation,
and recently studies have been made to find out the suitability of obtaining water from
near-by Eagle Creek.
Several visits were made to the area by engineers and also the solicitor of the Branch
in an attempt to expedite the establishment of a suitable water-supply for the area.
To date there has been no satisfactory waterworks scheme submitted by the district,
and the Comptroller of Water Rights has therefore not been able to recommend the
granting of a Government loan. 9
Rutland Village Domestic Water-supply
Rutland, an unincorporated community about 4 miles due east of Kelowna, has
a small business area surrounded by building lots, small holdings, and commercial
orchards.   The population of the entire area is estimated to be about 3,000 people.
The present domestic water-supply for this area is largely by individual wells, some
of which are seriously affected by a lowering of the water-table at certain times of the
year. There is a privately owned pumping system which provides fire protection to the
Rutland Sawmill as well as providing a domestic water-supply to a few houses adjacent
to the mill. The Rutland Waterworks District provides pumped water to the small area
within its boundaries, which includes only a small part of the entire Rutland community
area. There are also seventy-two other users who obtain their water from Gopher
Creek; this water-supply is satisfactory for the area served but not capable of expansion.
The Rutland Board of Trade requested the Government to make a preliminary
survey of the requirements of the entire area in order that the estimated cost of constructing a suitable water-supply could be determined.
wt Accordingly, the Kelowna District office conducted an investigation and submitted
a report and cost estimate. The report considered four alternative water sources, but
finally recommended that a pumped system from Mission Creek, with a 40,000-gallon
storage tank, would provide 300 gallons of water per day to each of the 250 buildings
concerned at a cost of $2.25 per month for each service connection.
Lumby Waterworks District
A report has been prepared by the Kelowna District office for and at the request
of the Lumby Waterworks District.
Lumby, situated about 15 miles east of Vernon, is an unincorporated community
with a population of about 750 people. Its estimated future population is taken as 2,500
people in the report. |J
The report deals with a waterworks system to provide domestic water and fire
protection to the area lying within the boundaries of the waterworks district.
Three sources of supply were considered, but the recommended system suggests
the use of a known artesian ground-water basin, a pump, an elevated storage tank, and
a distribution system.    A previous report by a ground-water specialist indicates the
 KK HO II DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
existence and present use of this artesian ground-water reservoir and suggested a test
well be drilled. |§
Assuming that the proposed well provides the required amount of suitable water
the annual taxes and tolls required to finance the works are estimated to amount to $5
per parcel of land, $36 per house or business establishment, and $50 for each of four
schools.
West Fernie Waterworks District
The West Fernie Waterworks District was incorporated by Letters Patent on
April 15th, 1954. j
The Nelson District office carried out a water-supply investigation so that the waterworks district could obtain an estimate of cost of constructing a system.
The investigations indicated that a population of about 520 people could be served
with domestic water and fire protection for about $4.28 per connection per month. This
toll rate will finance the scheme, including a forty-year renewal fund.
Maple Ridge Penitentiary-site Water-supply
A report has been prepared covering the water-supply for a proposed Provincial
Government Penitentiary to be constructed within the Maple Ridge Municipality in the
Lower Fraser Valley. This report includes a report prepared by the Provincial Department of Agriculture on irrigation-water requirements for the 100 acres of farm land
associated with the Penitentiary. The Water Resources Division report recommended
using a ground-water source with two wells, one for the domestic and fire-protection
supply and one for irrigation-water. The annual cost of such domestic water has been
computed to be about 11 cents per thousand gallons, and this figure does not include
amortization of the capital costs. ||
An alternative source was also studied, that of bringing in a lateral from a Greater
Vancouver Water District water-main. This system, however, has been computed to be
considerably more expensive, and the capacity of the main may be insufficient to supply
its present water-users and the Penitentiary irrigation-water supply in addition.
Saltair Water-supply
The Saltair Ratepayers' Association retained a consulting engineer to locate a suitable
domestic water-supply for its area, and Chemainus community has likewise retained
a consulting engineer to report on a domestic water-supply to suit its needs.
The Water Resources Division made a very brief study in 1954 which included
a minimum field inspection of a scheme, of much wider scope, which envisioned a 60-foot
dam on the Chemainus River at the up-stream end of Copper Canyon which would
create a fairly large valley reservoir which could be tapped by waterworks systems for
Saltair, Chemainus, and the Duncan area as well. This scheme, as outlined in the report,
would satisfy the needs of the Saltair-Chemainus-Duncan area for the next thirty years,
assuming the population would increase from the present 9,400 to 25,000. There is
a possibility that this reservoir would provide for irrigation of the Duncan area as well.
This over-all water-supply scheme has not been the subject of an intensive investigation, but even a reconnaissance study indicates that it is worthy of further consideration.
Clearbrook Waterworks District
The Clearbrook Waterworks District, situated on the Lower Mainland about 2 miles
west of Abbotsford, was incorporated by Letters Patent on August 14th, 1953.
Two inspections of the waterworks system of the district were carried out by
a hydraulic engineer concerning the conditions of the system and the water costs which
could be carried by the district.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK 111
Ucluelet Water-supply
Ucluelet Village Municipality, situated on the west coast of Vancouver Island has
at present a population of about 400 people. To date it has obtained water from individual systems and this has served its purposes only in a minimum way.
The Water Resources Division conducted a field survey, followed by a report
in 1948 which outlined the problem of obtaining a suitable water-supply.
Since the community is growing and is expected to accelerate its growth when the
proposed west coast road is built, a brief investigation was made this year by the Victoria
District office, with the view of revising the 1948 report. This revision is in progress and
will be completed next year. .Jg
Sunnybrae Community Domestic and Irrigation Water-supply
The Kamloops District office completed a report this year which gave a preliminary
design and estimate of costs of providing water to thirty domestic users and irrigation-
water for from 159 to 183 acres of land located at Sunnybrae, a small community on
Shuswap Lake near Salmon Arm. Three alternative waterworks schemes were outlined,
but the one recommended was pumping from Shuswap Lake; the total annual cost to
finance this proposal amounted to $25.50 per acre and $66 per domestic service.
McBride Domestic Water-supply
Certain areas on the outskirts of the boundaries of McBride Village Municipality
have been in the need of an improved water-supply, and in this connection a report was
completed this year by the Water Resources Division.
The report stated that " the most suitable means of supplying domestic water to
the areas around the Village of McBride is by extending the existing waterworks system
of the village." This outlying area has been divided into two farming zones with widely
spaced dwellings and one residential zone, with closely spaced dwellings. The cost of
domestic water would be about $7.25 per month per connection for the residential area
and $17.25 per month per connection for the farming areas. This cost does not include
any money put into a renewal reserve fund. The costs are high, and it is probable that
a domestic water-supply for the farming areas could be developed economically if combined with an irrigation system.
Decker Lake Community Water-supply
Decker Lake, a small community with an estimated population of 350 people located
4 miles west of Burns Lake, has been reported on this year in regard to a proposed central
water-supply.
The sources of water-supply covered by the report include a pumped supply from
Decker Lake and a gravity supply from Piche Creek.
Three alternative waterworks schemes were designed and estimated as to cost (based
on a population of 500), varying from about 55 cents per 1,000 gallons ($6.60 per
household per month) to about 71 cents per 1,000 gallons ($8.50 per household per
month). The lowest cost includes only a small amount of fire protection, and all costs
include amortization of capital, renewal fund, operation, and administration. Costs are
extremely high, and a water-supply to this area does not appear feasible at present.
Surface-water Supplies in the Quesnel-Prince George Area
East of the Fraser River
The British Columbia Department of Mines carried out a ground-water survey during
1953 covering the agricultural area on the east side of the Fraser River between Quesnel
and Prince George with the view of obtaining more satisfactory domestic water sources
than are presently used.
 KK 112 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Complementary to the ground-water survey, the Water Resources Division during
1954 carried out a similar survey covering surface waters.
A total of eight creeks were examined and metered with a programme of further
gauge-reading arranged.
The report is of a preliminary nature, and it recommends further study in certain
areas. In the meantime a continuing programme of creek-discharge measurements is
being carried out through the assistance of the British Columbia Forest Service.
3. Dyking and Drainage
The Dyking Commissioner deals with most matters concerning dykes in this Province, and his office in New Westminster administers the " Dyking Assessments Adjustment
Act" and the "Dykes Maintenance Act." However, from time to time the Water
Resources Division of the Water Rights Branch is requested to provide technical assistance to the Commissioner, and also to make certain investigations on flooding, drainage,
and river-bank protection. Jj|
The Water Rights Branch, through its administration of the improvement districts,
often incorporates these districts under objects such as waterworks, irrigation, and also
dyking and drainage. Because the Comptroller is called upon to recommend the
granting of Government loans, he needs factual information regarding the economies
and feasibilities of the schemes under question, and the Division often supplies factual
information based on preliminary investigations.
During 1954 a number of investigations of this type were carried out. The two
major assignments in this field were initiated at the request, and costs met by, the Fraser
River Basin Board. The resurvey included all the dykes and appurtenant structures in
the Lower Fraser Valley and an appraisal of river-bank erosion along Fraser River below
Hope.
Flooding in Courtenay-Comox Area
The low-lying area immediately east of Courtenay has been the subject of considerable undesirable flooding since it has been used for agricultural purposes. It was a flood-
plain of the Courtenay and Tsolum Rivers and has been dyked in an attempt to keep it
from flooding. During the month of November, 1953, this area, about 600 acres in
extent, was inundated severely, and the Water Rights Branch was requested to investigate
the matter.
This investigation has been completed and a repprt made which outlines the probable
reasons for flooding in this area. The report concludes that complete protection of this
area against flooding does not appear to be economically feasible, but gives suggestions
which would improve the existing flood-protection works.
Campbell River Flooding
During November, 1953, the lower reaches of Campbell River reached flood stages
and contributed to certain damages and to considerable inconvenience to residents of
the Village of Campbell River. Since Campbell River is used by the British Columbia
Power Commission for hydro-electric power purposes, those suffering from this flooding
laid complaints against the Commission before the Comptroller of Water Rights. In this
regard the Comptroller held a hearing at Campbell River on February 18th, 1954.
A brief reconnaissance survey was made of the British Columbia Power Commission's storage on Lower Campbell Lake in order to determine if an auxiliary spillway
was feasible to spill flood-water into another watershed. The report resulting from this
survey indicated that such a spillway was feasible and that flood-water could be diverted
into Menzies Bay via Mohun Creek.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
KK 113
PLATE.- 12
KEY    PLAN
peltta     Survey
]| New Westminster 10 mi.
gl 2 3   MIL-ELS
Scale   of   sheets:  200ft. = lin.
Spot elevations   shown
 KK 114 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Delta and Richmond Municipalities Drainage and Irrigation
Requests from these two municipalities, situated at the mouth of the Fraser River
made to the Minister of Lands have led to field work being done this year by the Departments of Lands and Agriculture. The Lands Service provided survey parties under the
direction of the Water Rights Branch which carried out ground-control surveys (both
horizontal and vertical); these survey data were then used by the Air Division to compile
maps at a scale of 200 feet to 1 inch. The Delta map is the usual type of drawn map,
while the Richmond map is a controlled aerial photograph mosaic. Spot heights have
been used in place of contours because of the very flat nature of the land.
The Soil Surveys Division of the Provincial Department of Agriculture has carried
out soil-classification studies.
All this basic information will be examined, and proposed designs for irrigation
structures will be made by the appropriate Government agencies.
Map-sheets available for these areas are shown on Plate 12 (Delta) and Plate 13
(Richmond).
4. Ground-water Investigations
The I Water Act I does not specifically regulate the use of ground-water, and, therefore, the Water Rights Branch in the past has carried out very little water-resource investigations covering this source of water. However, ground and surface waters are so allied
that the Comptroller has found it necessary to obtain reliable information on groundwater in order to carry out the normal functions of the Branch.
During 1954 three projects involved obtaining data about ground-water.
Investigation of the Extent of Use of Ground-water in British Columbia
V. Raudsepp, C.E., P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
A preliminary survey was undertaken in the summer of 1954. It was intended to
bring together available information on the existence of sizeable bodies of ground-water
and on their utilization. The numerous small domestic wells were generally excluded
from the survey.
In British Columbia the most common occurrence of ground-water appears to be in
narrow river-valleys that are underlain by unconsolidated deposits. In such valleys the
ground-water is usually very closely related to the water in stream-channels.
Wells tapping such aquifers are community wells at Invermere, Wasa, Castlegar,
Enderby, Merritt, Oliver, and Hope; irrigation-wells in the Kettle River valley at Midway
and Grand Forks and one well in the Goat River valley at Creston; also irrigation-wells
at Cawston in the Similkameen River valley and at Westwold in Salmon River valley.
The largest withdrawal in this class is the water-supply development for the MacMillan & Bloedel pulp-mill at Harmac, near Nanaimo. By means of pumps installed in
six large wells with total capacity of about 30,000 imperial gallons per minute, water can
be pumped out of ground-water occurring in the permeable deposits at the confluence
of Nanaimo River and Haslam Creek. The wells are put in operation when the stream-
water is too silty to be used in the pulp-mill. The water withdrawn from ground-water
is replaced at the same time by induced infiltration from both stream-channels so that the
water-table in the vicinity appears to remain unaffected. The function of the wells is
actually that of a filter plant. I
The second class of ground-water bodies is such where ground-water does not appear
to be connected closely with the surface water, at least in the immediate vicinity. Such
ground-water reservoirs generally are recharged by precipitation, although their contact
with surface water may be possible. In some ground-water reservoirs of this type the
water is under pressure.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK 115
Wells tapping such ground-water reservoirs are known to exist at localities as
follows:—
Wells at Golden and Elko, in Kootenay District, appear to withdraw water from
deep aquifers separated from the river-channel by impervious clays.
One irrigation-well at Myers Flat, about 6 miles north-west of Oliver; community
well at Lumby, east of Vernon; about twenty artesian domestic wells and one irrigation-
well in the Vernon area between Swan Lake and Okanagan Landing.
M  In the Middle Fraser area, east of 93 Mile House, a number of domestic wells tap
a reservoir which underlies a rock formation.
In the Vanderhoof area, the village well and some thirty-five farm wells are tapping
an artesian aquifer. Some of the wells are flowing freely. A few artesian wells are also
reported to be at Fort Fraser and Fort St. James. 11
On Vancouver Island, the Village of Comox and the airport are supplied by water
withdrawn from a reservoir just north of Comox. A ground-water reservoir is known
to occur in the centre of Saanich Peninsula.
One of the most important areas in the Province underlain by ground-water reservoirs
is the Lower Mainland. The Geological Survey of Canada has been investigating the
ground-water resources there since 1950. The number of drilled wells in the Lower
Mainland, mostly in Surrey and Langley Municipalities, is estimated to be in the neighbourhood of 1,000. About 400 to 500 of them are flowing artesian wells. A number
of these artesian wells have been flowing for over forty years.
A list of larger community wells in the Lower Mainland would include the developments of the White Rock Water Works Company, Surrey Municipality, Grandview
Heights, Delta Municipality, and some privately owned wells in Langley Municipality.
Only a few wells are used for irrigation or industrial purposes.
A report on the ground-water resources of Surrey Municipality, published by the
Geological Survey of Canada, suggests that the annual recharge of the aquifers by precipitation could amount to about 4,500 million imperial gallons. The annual consumption was estimated to be about 600 million gallons. The remaining 3,900 million gallons
would supply enough water to irrigate 25 square miles of land.
Ground-water Studies in the Agassiz-Harrison Lake Area and the
Cawston Irrigation District
P. G. Odynsky, B.A., B.A.Sc, Jr.M.C.I.M., P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
Agassiz-Harrison Lake Area.—In conjunction with storage surveys of Harrison
Lake and River carried out in 1952 by the Water Rights Branch for the Fraser River
Basin Board, ground-water studies were initiated to determine the effects that flood-
waters stored in Harrison Lake would have on ground-water levels in the Harrison Hot
Springs-Agassiz area. A number of privately owned wells were selected throughout the
area for a programme of ground-water level measurements.
In 1953 contour maps showing 5-foot contours of this area were compiled to provide the necessary data for more detailed studies and planning. Key plan of these is
shown by Plate 14.
To study the characteristics of the ground-water formations in the Harrison Hot
Springs area, engineers from the j Prairie Farms Rehabilitation Act I administration
carried out a detailed programme of test-hole drilling, logging, and pumping in 1953.
Ten piezometers were driven in that area for a continuing programme of ground-water
level and lake-level measurements.
On the basis of measurements obtained from the privately owned wells in the
Harrison Lake-Agassiz area, the Water Rights Branch decided to install a series of pie-
 KK 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
zometers throughout the area to augment the information from the P.F.R.A. piezometers
and to eliminate inconveniences resulting from the measurement of many of the privately
owned wells.
PLATE 14
KEY PLAN
Harrison Lake-Agassiz
ground   water survey
HA^'£0"
^K£-     ^Scale of sheets: 200ft.=1in.
Vertical Interval :5ft.
 Water Rights Branch
Piezometer Installation at Agassiz
?___$:__» MM_1
S^__^_^^i_ii_g__ml_SPgifiMlSli_i_
____S*__Si__S_s
lliliiSli__liiii
Fig. 7.  Driving 1 Va-inch-diameter piezometer with 75-pound hammer suspended from sheave
at apex of portable A-frame made from extension ladders.
ilium
MM
*&__!____
iMftli^tlfi
_f_i^
Fig. 8.  Testing piezometer with portable pump.
 KK 118 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Fourteen 1 Va -inch-diameter piezometers were installed throughout the Agassiz-
Harrison Lake area during June, 1954, to depths well below the lowest stage of the
water-table on record. The piezometers, which varied in depth from 12 to 25 feet
nearly all struck very coarse material, judged to be hard-pan or boulder-clay, within
3 to 5 feet of the surface. Below this material, wjiich varied in thickness from 4 to
15 feet, water-bearing sands and gravels were encountered and pentrated until 10 to 15
feet of water was obtained in the points, depending on location.
The piezometers were driven along road rights-of-way and allowances on a 1-mile
grid pattern designed for access and adequate information (see Figures 7 and 8).
Ground-water data are now being collected periodically from twenty-five piezometers, wells, gauges, and bridges by the Water Rights Branch in addition to data
from the ten P.F.R.A. piezometers at Harrison Lake.
Cawston Irrigation District.—During the spring of 1951 orchardists in the Cawston
Irrigation District, which is located on the valley flat at the confluence of Keremeos Creek
and the Similkameen River about 1 mile south of Keremeos, discontinued using surface
water for their irrigation.
Pioneer efforts at sprinkler irrigation by using ground-Water as a source of supply
were proving to be successful enough in the area so that the costly flume system, supplied
by surface sources of water, was dispensed with in favour of individually owned irrigation
wells and sumps. By the fall of 1951 some fifty-five irrigation wells and sumps were
dug, of which the majority have to date supplied sufficient pumped ground-water for
irrigation needs.
During the summer of 1951 ground-water studies were initiated in the area by the
Water Rights Branch to determine the characteristics of the ground-water formations.
A number of privately owned wells and sumps were selected throughout the district for
a continuing programme of ground-water level measurements. Pertinent data of the
Similkameen River and Keremeos Creek were also included in the programme.
Because of almost continual draw-down conditions being present in the wells and
sumps during the irrigation seasons, only off-irrigation season measurements could be
attempted in them. Winter measurements were made difficult by heavy ice accumulations in the wells and sumps. Very few domestic wells could be measured, since most
of them consisted of gravel points close-circuited to pressure systems.
During the spring of 1954 a system of piezometers was installed throughout the
area. Accordingly, eighteen 1 Va -inch-diameter piezometers were installed during July,
1954, to depths 5 feet or more below the bottoms of adjacent privately owned wells.
The piezometers, which varied in depth from 12 to 22 feet, were driven until a minimum
of 10 feet of water was obtained in the points.
Most of the piezometers were driven along road rights-of-way and allowances on
a grid pattern designed for access and adequate information.
An uninterrupted programme of ground-water measurements is now possible, and
data are being collected periodically by the Branch from twenty-seven piezometers, wells,
gauges, and bridges.
5. Hydro-electric Investigations
The Water Resources Division hydro-electric investigations and surveys have been
expanded considerably in the past few years. The resulting reports, with their preliminary designs and estimates of cost, have frequently led to the actual development of such
projects as the Alcan, Campbell River, and Whatshan hydro-electric developments.
While most power investigations in 1954 were concentrated within the Fraser River
basin, considerable time was spent on office studies concerning the Columbia River basin
(see Columbia River portion of report). In conjunction with dam-site investigations at
the outlet of Lower Arrow Lake a party was employed during the fall months in a flowage
study and assessment of improvements adjacent to the lake.
Several reports were also completed in 1954 based on earlier field work.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK 119
Zymoetz River Hydro-electric Power Investigation
A report outlining the hydro-power potential of the Zymoetz (Copper) River near
Terrace was completed this year. Three alternatives were outlined, varying from 5,000
to 14,000 horse-power. Although favourably located to service the Terrace area,' the
schemes studied indicated that the cost of development would be high, varying from $418
to $580 per installed horse-power. The reason for this high estimated cost is that little
flow regulation would be possible and the head would have to be created by the dam.
Horsethief Creek Hydro-electric Investigation
A hydro-electric investigation has been made on Horsethief Creek near Windermere.
Four alternative schemes were considered and estimates of costs made. About 12,500
horse-power at a cost of $442 per horse-power or 18,600 horse-power at a cost of $534
per horse-power would be available according to the report. #j
6. Snow Surveys and Water-supply Forecasting
Jack Doughty-Davies, B.A.Sc, P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
The Water Rights Branch since 1935 has established a number of snow-measuring
stations (snow courses) throughout the principal watersheds in the southern half of the
Province (see map, Plate 15). At present there are eighty-two such snow courses. These
snow courses are sampled during the spring months of each year in order to gather
information as to the amount of snow and its water content. This information, when
combined with other hydrological elements such as rainfall, stream-flow, and soil moisture,
allows the Water Rights Branch to make a spring forecast of the amount of stream-flow
which will occur during the summer months. It is to be noted that it is the amount
of water which is forecast and not the time of peak flow or rate of maximum flow. This
fore knowledge of available water-supply means money in the pocket to certain types
of water-users in the field of agriculture, industry, and hydro power.
During 1954 two extensive field-trips were made in connection with the snow-
survey programme. Arrangements were made to replace observers for six courses. Two
snow courses were relocated because the original sites were either disturbed by logging
operations or were too difficult to reach in winter.
Three new snow courses were set out this year—one on Pavilion Mountain at the
Diamond S Ranch, one at Fort St. James, and the third near Knouff Lake north of
Kamloops. The first two courses were set to supply additional data for the Fraser River
run-off forecast, and the third to forecast the flows for an irrigation district.
s
Accuracy of the 1954 Summer Run-off Forecasts Based on Snow-survey Data
The greater-than-normal snowpack run-off was augmented by the above-normal rainfall in most areas of British Columbia. This run-off, however, was controlled by the long
cool spring so that no excessively high flood peaks occurred. While the forecast runoffs were higher than any on record, the actual run-off exceeded the forecast in most of
the cases.
In spite of the above-normal snow and rain conditions, it is believed that the
accuracy of this year's forecasts was extremely good. In 60 per cent of the forecasts the
difference from the actual run-off was less than 10 per cent, and in 87 per cent of the
forecasts the difference was less than 15 per cent from the actual run-off. (It should be
noted that the actual run-off figures have an inherent error of measurement of at least
5 per cent.) It is therefore concluded that the forecasts for 1954 supplied accurate and
valuable information to water-users who use these forecasts in their planning.
The forecast that differed most widely from the actual run-off was the forecast for
the inflow to Okanagan Lake (22 per cent difference).   It is thought that the long cool
 KK 120 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
spring induced many of the water-users around Okanagan Lake to lower their storage
reservoirs during the period April to July, so that the inflow to Okanagan Lake was
increased above normal for this period.
SECTION B— INVESTIGATIONS CARRIED OUT BY THE WATER RIGHTS
BRANCH FOR THE DOMINION-PROVINCIAL BOARD, FRASER RIVER
BASIN.f
In addition to the investigations carried out under Provincial Government funds
the Water Resources Division carries out field investigations and office studies for and
at the request of the Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin, which expenses
are shared equally by the two Governments. Other studies made for the Board are
| farmed | out to other Provincial and Federal Government agencies.
Field work done for the Board this year included extensive inventory surveys of the
Fraser River dyking structures and river-bank erosion in the Lower Fraser River valley,
further topographical work on the proposed Moran Dam reservoir, and some limited
sedimentation surveys.
Office studies based on last year's field investigations were made during this year,
and they included hydrological studies on the Clearwater River and flood-control and
power studies on the Lillooet River.
Investigations in the Lower Fraser Valley
G. E. Simmons, B.A.Sc, P.Eng., and J. Buchanan, B.Sc., P.Eng., A.M.I.C.E.,
Hydraulic Engineers
Resurvey of Dyking Systems
In 1948 the second largest flood in the brief history of the Province inundated the
Lower Fraser Valley, wrecking homes, destroying crops, and depositing layer upon layer
of silt, sand, and gravel on the fertile land. Dyking systems then in existence were unable
to withstand the waters and, being breached in many places, allowed the river to extend
over its old original flood-plain to cause some $9,000,000 in damage. During the
succeeding two years the Fraser Valley Dyking Board, set up under the direction of both
the Federal and Provincial Governments, completed the gigantic task of restoring order
to the valley and making provision to restrain the river against widespread flooding in
future years.
The principal work of the joint agency was to repair or rebuild the dykes protecting
the land. During the course of the two operating years of the Board, over 5,000,000
cubic yards of material was placed into 163 miles of dykes extending from Agassiz to
the mouth of the river at a cost of $11,000,000. jjSJ|
A contoured map of the Lower Fraser Valley shows that the river flows along the
northern edge of the vast flood-plain which extends from the southerly limit of the Coast
Mountains to Bellingham in the State of Washington. Extensive land changes through
the years have produced low areas in this region, and man is now intensively farming
these fertile pockets. There are many such agrarian sections along both banks of the
Fraser River and it is these that have been dyked and classified as dyking districts. In
some instances land is protected by privately owned dykes, and their maintenance is the
responsibility of the owner. In all there are about 330 miles of dykes in the Lower Fraser
Valley protecting approximately 194,000 acres of land.
The diversified problems created by such an extensive river system as the Fraser
involve many factors directly connected with the expansion of the Province. These issues
are both internal and external and warrant care and consideration by both Provincial and
Federal bodies, and accordingly the Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin,
includes the Lower Fraser River valley in its over-all planning.
 Dyking Systems, Lower Fraser Valley
Fig. 9.   Inundated berry-farm behind the dyke on Nicomen Island.
"^^^^^w?^_Ss??^j|
Fig. 10.  A Nicomen Island dyke.
 KK 122 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
One of the major problems confronting the Board is the ever-existing threat of
another major flood in the Lower Fraser Valley. While the dykes were repaired in 1950
man and nature have a way of breaking down such structures. It was felt that an assessment of conditions along the dykes was now necessary, and the Board called upon the
Comptroller to furnish a field staff for a resurvey of the dyking systems and to submit a
report and plans. The field work was carried out during the summer of 1954, and it is
expected that the studies will be completed early in 1955. I
Field Work
In order to cover the area as completely as possible within one season, one party
covered all dyking systems along the north bank of the river as far as New Westminster.
A second party surveyed those systems on the south side of the river as far as the Strait
of Georgia, as well as certain sections of Lulu Island. An extensive system of dykes in the
Boundary Bay region was not included.
The assessment involved the re-establishment of the top elevation of each dyke (for
comparison with the original design), cross-sections at 500-foot intervals to determine
both the outside and inside slope, examination of the general condition of the dyke with
respect to non-uniformity of shape, damage by cattle and rodents, vegetation, and borrow-
pits and drainage-ditches along the dyke toe. Some attempt was made to ascertain the
dyke material, since it has become apparent that in certain areas material has been used
which is unsuitable for dyke construction. Attention was also paid to drainage structures,
such as pumping-stations, flood-boxes, and culverts, wherever they have any connection
with the dykes.
Work was started in the latter part of May at the up-stream end of the valley, with
the north-shore party commencing near Agassiz and the south-shore party in the Chilliwack area. By the middle of September both parties had completed all the major dyking
systems on both sides of the river as far as the sea for a total of just over 200 miles of
dykes. The districts covered and their respective dyke-lengths are showfr on Plate 16.
In general, the dykes appear to be in reasonable shape after four succeeding years
of high water since their reconstruction. It was found that in places excessive brush-
growth hampered the examination and necessitated considerable cutting in order to carry
out the survey. During the high stage of the river in June and July of 1954, some water
was observed behind the dykes, and at the west end of Nicomen Island emergency pumping was required to remove excess water from farm land (see Figs. 9 and 10). This
condition w;as not extensive throughout the valley, although when the Mission gauge
showed its highest reading of just over 19 feet, the water was well up the outside slope
of several of the dykes.
River-bank Erosion
A second major problem confronting the Fraser River Basin Board is the continual
erosion of valuable land. Many parts of the river-bank are disappearing as the movement
of the water cuts away the soft materials during falling stages of the river. The undercut
banks become unstable and the top strata plunge into the water. The problem is widespread in all rivers and represents the natural function of rivers to reduce the land to a
more or less level plain.
Bank erosion in the Lower Fraser Valley is a changeable thing, since the river, in
carrying gravels and silts from the higher regions, builds up and also removes bars in and
around the main channel. The occurrence of new bars tends to change the direction of
the main stream, this being the chief eroding factor. Thus sections of the bank which have
been subjected to erosion in the past are now barely touched, while other parts Which
have until recently been in backwater sections are now being savagely attacked. In places,
bank recession has been continual for many years as the river gradually cuts off a corner
or deepens a curve. The rate is not necessarily constant, for an area which has been under
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK m
slow but steady erosion for some considerable time may be severely stricken during a
single year. At those points where erosion is more or less continual, the main channel is
gradually shifting toward the recedmg bank, thus leaving slower-moving water on the
opposite shore with subsequent deposition of gravels and silts to form bars. This has the
effect of moving the whole river over rather than a general widening of the channel
Major erosion to-day is taking place in the alluvial deposits which lie in pockets
along both banks of the river, and many of these relatively small areas have been dyked
against flooding during the high-water stages of the river. While the loss of land in unprotected agricultural areas and sections yet to be cleared is a serious issue, the threat to
dykes and dyked land constitutes a graver hazard when contemplated in terms of the
additional investment involved. ||
During October, 1954, points of erosion on the Fraser between Agassiz and the
mouth of the Pitt River were visited by. the authors with the object of ascertaining the
major erosion sections and obtaining data on bank material, rate of erosion, and value of
the land being affected. Particular attention was paid to the position of local dykes and
their present distance from the eroding bank. During the reconstruction of the dykes in
1949-50, the Fraser Valley Dyking Board dumped rock along the river-bank at points
where it was considered the dyke was in jeopardy or would be within five years. Since
that time it has been found necessary to extend some of this rockwork, usually downstream from the original sector, as the bank-edge has crept closer to the dyke. Sectors
of eroding and stabilized bank along the Lower Fraser may be seen in Figs. 11 and 12.
While erosion is taking place on both sides of the river, the most extensive areas
occur, for the most part, on the right or north bank. This gives a general impression that
the river is attempting to move northward in its flood-plain. The most severe sections
examined are at Agassiz, immediately west of Hopyard Mountain, where rock placed
along the bank during May and June of 1954 was being replaced in October of the same
year, and an unprotected section of bank some 3,000 feet in length immediately downstream from Albion, opposite McMillan Island, which has approached to within 100
feet of dwellings. Fig. 11 shows concave sloughing in the bank at the Agassiz section
where rock placed earlier in the year has been undercut and lost. Fig. 12 shows the
remains of a house foundation broken in half through bank erosion just west of Albion.
As indicated by the severe erosion at Agassiz, the mere placing of rock along the
bank does not always solve the problem of river-bank erosion. Considerable study must
yet be made in the ways and means of stabilizing the banks of the Fraser to reduce the
loss of valuable land.
Fraser River Multi-purpose Hydro Studies
Hydro-electric investigations have been carried out by the Water Resources Division
within the Fraser River basin since the middle twenties, and several extensive and valuable
reports have been made available to the Government and industry as a result. The
Chilko-Homathko, Eutsuk-Kimsquit, and Tahtsa-Kemano schemes have been reported
on fully; the report on the latter scheme no doubt played a paramount role in bringing
the Aluminum Company of Canada to this Province to develop its great industry at
Kemano and Kitimat. fjp
A certain amount of work had been done on the main stem of the Fraser River
prior to the establishment of the Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin, notably
the Lillooet site and some preliminary work on the Moran site.
Since the Fraser River Basin Board came into existence in 1949, further funds have
been made available and active investigations have been carried out by the Water Rights
Branch on the main stem of the Fraser River.
Dam-site and reservoir surveys have been made covering dams proposed at Moran,
Cottonwood Canyon, Fort George Canyon, and Grand Canyon, all on the main stem of
the river. Dam-site and reservoir surveys have also been carried out on the Clearwater,
west Road, and Lillooet Rivers.
 KK 124
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH KK n5
The ground-control surveys were carried out by the Branch, and the multiplex man
ping was done by the Air Division. F F
The basic topographical information which has thus been obtained has been mapped
at a scale of 500 feet to 1 inch with contour intervals of 20 feet for the reservoir maps
Maps giving detailed information of the dam-sites are on a larger scale;  that is   100
and 200 feet to 1 inch with contour intervals of 5 and 10 feet respectively.
These maps have been and are being prepared as linen tracings. Prints may be
obtained by interested persons on request to either the Map Distribution Room, Geographic Division, Surveys and Mapping Branch, Lands Service, Victoria, or 'to the
Comptroller of Water Rights, Water Rights Branch, Lands Service, Victoria.
Index maps showing the sheets available are as follows: Moran dam, Plate 18;
Cottonwood Canyon, Fort George Canyon, and West Road River dams, Plate 19; Grand
Canyon and Lillooet River dams, Plate 20; Clearwater River dams, Plate 21; Harrison
Lake-Agassiz area, Plate 14. H
The investigations to date have made it possible to make certain evaluations of the
power and flood-control potential of the river.
Storage possibilities for this potential are available as follows: Stuart Lake, about
1,500,000 acre-feet; Babine Lake, 1,000,000 acre-feet; Quesnel Lake, 2,000,000 acre-
feet; and also the valley storages behind the power dams. Babine Lake is not in the
Fraser River drainage-basin but could be diverted by means of a 5-mile tunnel.
The major power-sites would provide power as follows: Lillooet site, 295,000
firm horse-power; Moran site, 1,636,000 firm horse-power; and Cottonwood Canyon
site, 402,000 firm horse-power.
So far little analysis of the hydrological and topographical data which have been
obtained has been made to evaluate the flood-storage possibilities of these projects in
order to reduce the flood stages on the river below Hope, but this factor is, of course,
considered as part of the over-all study.
The Fraser River Basin Board has many years of detailed study and further surveys
before the tremendous boom to this Province's economy caused by a unified development of the Fraser River can be accurately estimated. Much of the field work has been
done to date, and the large gaps in required information now fall in the hydrological field.
Moran Reservoir Survey, 1954.—Field investigations made during 1954 covering
this part of the Branch work consisted of one survey party carrying out further Moran
reservoir surveys on the Chilcotin River and Churn Creek.
Clearwater River Power Investigation.—An interim report has been completed
during 1954, based on field investigations made in 1953, on the power possibilities of
the Clearwater River. This report indicates that a 500-foot dam located immediately
below Hemp Creek would create a reservoir to elevation 2,100 feet and would include
Mahood Lake. This, coupled with the lowering of the Mahood River at its outlet, would
allow the storage of 1,200,000 acre-feet and produce 168,000 firm horse-power. Additional storage in Clearwater Lake of 800,000 acre-feet would increase the hydro-electric
potential to 238,000 horse-power at an estimated cost of about $480 per horse-power.
The construction of a second dam farther down-stream would bring the over-all
development to 275,000 horse-power at a cost of $435 per horse-power.
Flood-control and Hydro Power, Lillooet River.—A report has been virtually completed concerning the above, based on field investigations carried out in 1953. This
report points out that there are six possible dam-sites between Lillooet Lake and Harrison Lake, and that of these the two lower ones, Sections 5 and 6, are the best.
At .Section 6, just above Fire Creek, a 520-foot-high dam would store about
1,900,000 acre-feet of water, while at Section 5 a 472-foot-high dam would impound
about 1,200,000 acre-feet of water. I
The report outlines how these proposed reservoirs could be operated as flood-water
detention-basins or as hydro-electric power regulating-reservoirs, and also as a combi-
 KK 126
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
JvK 127
nation of the two.   The complexities involved in such operating procedures are outlined
in the report.
Since the Lillooet River system is considered to have been partly responsible for the
high 1948 flood stages in the Lower Fraser River, it is important to note that this reoort
points out that available storage in a proposed Harrison Lake reservoir and in the reser
voir behind Dam-site No. 6 would have completely controlled the Lillooet River for
the twenty-two-day critical period in 1948.
Not considering any flood-control, Dam-site No. 6 could produce about 203 000
firm horse-power at a cost of $710 per horse-power or 350,000 secondary horse-power
(non-continuous) at a cost of $412 per horse-power.
Sedimentation Surveys
Basic information on the amount of sediment carried by the Fraser River is essential to the study of its resource potential, particularly in the fields of power production
flood-control, and navigation.
Since 1949 the Water Rights Branch has carried out sedimentation surveys for the
Fraser River Basin Board.
Measuring or sampling stations have been established at Hope, Lillooet, Marguerite,
Quesnel, Hansard, Desmond, and Bridge River. An interim report was prepared in
April, 1953, describing the work and results obtained until then.
The programme this year was reduced, and only critical measurements were taken
at Marguerite and Hope.
ERNEST HENRY TREDCROFT
1889-1954
It was with regret that we have to report the passing of the late Comptroller
of Water Rights on September 8th, 1954. |
He had been in the employ of the Water Rights Branch from May, 1937, until
his death. He has held the following positions: Hydraulic Engineer (May, 1937,
to October, 1946); Chief Hydraulic Engineer (October, 1946, to October, 1948);
District Engineer at Kelowna (October, 1948, to March, 1949); Chief Engineer
(March, 1949, to April, 1950); Deputy Comptroller and Chief Engineer (April,
1950, to March, 1951); Comptroller of Water Rights (March, 1951, to September, 1954). §
  DYKING COMMISSIONER
 Dyking Commissioner
S_8BS
\
River-bank, West Nicomen Island, showing effects of erosion before
rock protection work had been done.
The above river-bank after rock protection work done in 1954.
 DYKING COMMISSIONER KK 131
DYKING COMMISSIONER
j. L. MacDonald, B.Sc, P.Eng., Inspector and Commissioner of Dykes
With the memory of the 1948 flood fresh in their minds, people living in the valleys
of the Province were very apprehensive in April of this year. This uneasy feeling was
shared by everyone interested in the run-off from our rivers. Measurements indicated
that an exceptionally heavy snowpack with above-average water content existed in all
watersheds. This, together with the fact that little, if any, run-off had taken place in April,
caused increased concern among the people located on lands subject to flooding. Organizations were formed in all districts to combat the high water if it should occur. Trucks,
loaders, and bulldozers were prepared to go to work immediately if needed, and sandbags, heavy rock, gravel, and other repair materials were stocked at convenient points.
The situation had not improved by May. A state of near panic existed among quite
a number of people in the districts; some were not putting in their crops, while others
were contemplating moving out. The Government, at this time, May 18th, issued a
Proclamation putting into effect regulations to handle the situation under authority of the
"Flood Relief Act" of 1948. These regulations stated that 1 the Minister of Public Works
shall be responsible for all flood control and relief measures throughout the Province,"
and that | the Deputy Minister of Public Works, under direction of the Minister, shall
be responsible for the over-all supervision and direction of all flood-control operations,
and may authorize such preventive measures as are deemed advisable before a state of
emergency flood condition in any area is proclaimed by the Minister."
Area Directors, acting under the over-all supervision and direction of the Deputy
Minister, were named for all potential flood areas in the Province. Civil Defence Coordinators were also appointed for these areas. A change in the attitude of the people
was immediate when these regulations were put into effect. They had an assurance that
everything was being done that could be done in preparing to meet the threat of high
water. This confidence was increased when certain preventive measures were taken by
reinforcing any known weak points on the dykes where a failure might occur. Athough
the people were still conscious of the possibility of high water, their confidence was
restored and a normal way of life was resumed, planting w!as completed, farms changed
ownership, and the affairs of the community went on as usual without a sense of panic.
Due to the fact that the temperatures during the spring and summer were below
normal, the run-off extended over a long period but the river did not rise to any alarming
height. During the entire month of June the Mission gauge averaged a reading of 20 feet.
This caused concern as this height of water over such a long period of time had a tendency
to saturate the dykes. On July 1st a heavy rain-storm swept over the Province. This
caused a rise in the river, and if this rain had been followed by a heat wave, serious conditions would have resulted, especially since the dykes were already saturated. Extra
patrols were put on the dykes at this time and the organizations for flood-fighting were
alerted. It is believed that the precautionary repairs made earlier in the season prevented
trouble that could have occurred at this time. No serious trouble did develop, although
the reading on the Mission gauge did not go below the 20-foot mark until July 20th.
Although, fortunately, it was not necessary this year to call into action all the provisions of the regulations published on May 18th, the value of these regulations has been
proven. Also much useful experience has been gained in the practice of these regulations
and the working-out of co-operation between the agencies named in these regulations,
such as the Area Directors, Civil Defence Co-ordinators, etc. This experience will undoubtedly be of future value.
Due to the extended period of the run-off, the normal programme of repairs and
improvements in the districts was retarded. A summary of the activities in each district
follows.
 KK 132 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development District is located within the boundaries
of Sumas and ChiUiwhack Municipalities and contains approximately 28,000 acres. The
yearly programme of drainage-ditch cleaning Was carried out. The clearing of snags and
obstructions in the Sumas River, which stopped at Vye Road last year, was continued
south from Vye Road to the United States border. It is hoped that this clearing will allow
a quicker run-off in winter flash floods and prevent freezing and snow blockage. Before
high water the toe or seepage dyke east of the Vedder was extended, which cut down the
amount of seepage in this area. There is a strong feeling that the pumping capacity should
be increased, both in the area west of the Vedder and at McGillivray Creek east of the
Vedder, to take care of winter storms. The possibility of being able to finance this increase
in pumping is being explored, and it is hoped some action can be taken next year.
Matsqui Dyking District is located south of the Fraser River and is within the boundaries of the Municipality of Matsqui and comprises 10,039 acres. An area of 4,000 acres
situated south of Hallert Road within the dyking district is organized as a drainage district.
There is no physical reason for limiting the boundary of the drainage area on the north
by Hallert Road. There is considerable agitation to have the boundaries of the drainage
district extended to include all the land within the dyking district. This would appear to
be logical, and an over-all plan to improve drainage conditions for the whole area would
be easier to plan and put in effect if this were done. Several places along the dyke that
had eroded were repaired in the early spring by placing additional quarried rock along
the river side of the dyke. The most serious section was near the south-west end of the
Mission Bridge. The section of dyke which encloses the flood-boxes and discharge-pipes
at No. 1 Pump-house has always given concern. This year, when the Fraser started to
rise, seepage was noticed and cracks appeared in the concrete walls of the flood-boxes.
Colour tests were made, and they showed that the material of the dykes was very porous.
Cement grout was pumped in through the floor and walls of the flood-boxes under pressure up to 700 pounds. This has corrected the condition and no more seepage has been
detected. During the extreme high water the area was under observation, and where
blow-holes previously occurred when the water was high, none developed this year.
South Westminster Dyking District is located in the Municipality of Surrey and has
a total of 1,400 acres. This year it was possible to strengthen and raise a section of dyke
from near the Timberland Mill to Pattullo Bridge. Also a ditch was reopened from Yale
Road to the pump under Pattullo Bridge. The main ditch from Pattullo Bridge to Sandell
Road was also cleaned by the dragline. It is intended to clean the ditch from Sandell
Road to Port Mann next year. When this work is completed, the system of dykes, ditches,
and pumps will be in a good state of repair. J However, the system was never designed or
constructed to take the volume of drainage that is poured into it now. When the system
was constructed, the drainage area outside the district of approximately 4,000 acres was
mostly wooded and the run-off from it into the system was gradual. The area has now
been cleared and built up with paved streets and ditches. During a winter storm the
water from these 4,000 highland acres pours on to the 1,400 flat acres within the district
and overflows the ditches, overtaxes the pumps, and causes distress to the people within
the district. The taxpayers of the district are paying a high tax already for maintenance
and sinking fund to retire their capital debt borrowed for the original construction. There
does not seem to be any way to enlarge the ditches and increase the pumping capacity
until some arrangement is made with the owners of high lands to contribute to the cost
of disposing of the waters from the highland area.
Coquitlam Dyking District is partially in the Municipality of Coquitlam and partially
within the city limits of Port Coquitlam. The area, for assessment purposes, is 3,050
acres. The 8.4 miles of dyke in this district is in good shape. Some sections along the
Pitt River will require attention soon due to the effects of erosion. Also some sections
are not of sufficient width and the inside borrow-pit has not been filled. The drainage in
 DYKING COMMISSIONER KK 133
the north-east section of the district was improved this year by the construction of a ditch
paralleling the dyke from the area to the pumps at Dominion Avenue. This ditch has
improved conditions for a large area by lowering the water-table 2 feet.
Maple Ridge Dyking District is mostly within the boundaries of the Municipality of
Pitt Meadows but does extend into the Municipality of Maple Ridge. There are 8,380
acres assessed in the area. There has always been dissatisfaction that a further 600 acres
within the dykes but not flooded in 1924, and so not included in the district, do not contribute toward the maintenance of the dykes. Drainage from this 600 acres and acreage
outside the district in Maple Ridge finds its way into the ditches and through the pumps
of the district. It is thought that these areas should pay toward the upkeep of the district's
works in proportion to protection and benefits received. The pumps will not remove the
water fast enough to prevent some flooding in low-lying land during prolonged winter
storms. This is aggravated when the Fraser rises and flood-gates close so that all the water
must be pumped. Formerly, this condition was accepted as the residents did not think it
financially sound to provide pumps and pay pumping charges to take care of these infrequent storms. This opinion seems to have now changed, and it may be necessary to
increase the pumping capacity to lessen the effect of flash winter storms. The usual yearly
programme of dyke repair and cleaning of ditches has been carried out.
Pitt Meadows No. 2 Dyking District is north of the Alouette River and is within the
boundaries of Pitt Meadows Municipality, with 7.2 miles of dyke protecting an area of
1,060 acres. This area has never attained the degree of development and prosperity
thought possible for it. It is the opinion of those familiar with the area that the reason
for lack of proper development is that the area has never had sufficient drainage. Agriculturists have given a water-level that they claim must be maintained if the land is to
produce as it should. The Provincial Government has loaned the district money to finance
the construction of a system of ditching that, when completed, will give the desired results.
This work has been started and should begin to show benefits next year.
Dewdney Dyking District is partly within the Municipality of Mission but mostly in
unorganized territory east of the municipality.
South Dewdney Dyking District is located south of Dewdney District, the districts
being separated by the Canadian Pacific Railway grade.
The two districts are protected by a new dyke south of the railway grade and are
served by a flood-box and by two pumps with a combined capacity of 80,000 gallons per
minute. This spring additional gravel was added to the entire length, 7.4 miles, of the
dyke and graded to make a smooth road-bed for trucks, to facilitate repairs during high
water. The main problem in Dewdney District is the flooding of low lands adjacent to
Legace Creek during winter storms. Legace is a turbulent mountain stream, which during
winter storms deposits its heavy sediment load into Hatzic Slough, overflows the channel-
bed, and floods the land and frequently covers fields with sand and gravel. Different
methods to prevent this flooding have been investigated, but so far the cost of any method
considered has been prohibitive. Cleaning of the channel has been done frequently by
the Department of Public Works in order to protect roads and bridges in the area. This
cleaning helps the situation for a time until the channel-bed fills again.
West Nicomen Dyking District is unorganized territory and is located east of the
Dewdney Bridge. The 4,138 acres making up the district are protected by 13.62 miles of
dyke. There are three small pumping-stations, one pump each, with a combined capacity
of 8,500 gallons per minute. This year, due to the river keeping a fairly high level over
a long period of time, seepage was excessive, and the pumps were not adequate to keep
the seepage water at the desired level. §j
Last year mention was made of a serious threat to the dykes caused by the Fraser
eroding a mile-long stretch adjacent to the dyke in the vicinity of the Yeoman's property.
At the beginning of this year, conditions in this section had worsened.   It was obvious
 KK 134 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
that rock protection work would have to be done before the spring freshet to ensure
against a break-through of the river and the flooding of a large area. The estimated cost
including the acquiring and development of a rock quarry, was $75,000. This money
was provided by the Federal Government, the Provincial Government, and the West
Nicomen Dyking District, each contributing one-third of the cost. The dyking district
sold debentures, payable in ten years, secured by a first charge on the lands of the district,
to raise its $25,000 share.
Crown land adjacent to the point where the dyking system joins the mountain was
set aside for the West Nicomen District for use in protection of the dykes. This property
is solid rock and will be a source of material for all time. Crews of miners were hired,
working three shifts, and a 50-foot tunnel 5 feet square was driven into the rock bluff
approximately at right angles to it. At the end of this 50-foot tunnel, two 100-foot
tunnels on each side of it were driven. Under the supervision of Canadian Industries
Limited engineers, 13 tons of explosives were placed in the cross-tunnels and all the
tunnels back-filled with sand. When blasted, an estimated 40,000 cubic feet of rock was
obtained. The eroded banks along the dykes were bulldozed to a flat slope, and the rock
was hauled and placed before freshet time. To date $59,000 has been spent on the job.
The balance of the funds will be used to extend the work when weather conditions permit
before the 1955 freshet. §
East Nicomen Dyking District is in unorganized territory and is located directly east
of West Nicomen District. This district of 1,180 acres maintains 5.4 miles of dyke; 2.7
miles of this dyke is through Indian reserve, from which no revenue is collected to maintain the dyke. Several sections of dyke were rocked this year to prevent erosion. Two
flood-boxes were repaired by replacing spillways and wing walls.
Several smaller districts under the I Water Act"—namely, North Nicomen, Harrison
Mills, and Silverdale—have petitioned to have their affairs administered by this office, and
it is expected that arrangements will be made to do so in 1955.
EROSION
The greatest worry of residents within the dyked areas and the greatest threat to
safety of the dykes in the Fraser Valley is erosion caused by action of the river. The districts feel that they can maintain the dykes to prevent overtopping during freshets of
recorded heights, but that it is beond their ability, financially and otherwise, to control the
river to prevent it eroding the dykes. This situation is one of concern in the Creston area
as well as in the Fraser Valley. The Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin, has
this subject under consideration for the Fraser Valley, and its recommendations may give
a solution to the problem.
I DRAINAGE
There was a time when the settlers were not unduly concerned with winter flooding
of their lands. Pumps in some districts were only used to drain the land in the spring in
time for cropping and to keep out seepage water during the freshet. They estimated that
this system was more economical than to attempt to ensure against winter flooding by
additional pumping and ditching. Opinions on this matter have changed due to a change
in the type of crops raised and a demand for greater productivity from the land. The
districts are able and willing to make the necessary changes and improvements to drain
the water that falls on the area within the district. In addition to this rainfall, they must
contend with the water from the watersheds surrounding them.
Development is constantly increasing in these adjacent watersheds, and each year
more trees are being felled and the new ditches are conveying an increased load of water
into the drainage system of the lowland district. This means that to maintain the degree
of drainage necessary for present-day farming the capacity of ditches and pumps within
 DYKING COMMISSIONER
KK 135
the
areas
district must be increased.   It is the general opinion in the districts that the highland
is should contribute to the cost of conveying this extra water to an outlet.
ADMINISTRATION
W. R. Meighen, C.E., P.Eng., was appointed Assistant Dyking Commissioner this
year; he was formerly Divisional Engineer for the Department of Public Works stationed
at Prince Rupert.
  SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
 Southern Okanagan Lands Project
Control dam at Mclntyre Creek (Vaseaux Lake) under construction.
S.O.L.P. intake in left foreground, concrete-pipe drain.
Intake at diversion, shortly after commencement of construction.
 SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT KK m
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
F. O. McDonald, Project Manager
An important staff change took place at the end of October, 1954.   D. W. Hodsdon
who had been manager of the Project since 1946, retired and was replaced by F. o'
McDonald.   It is also noted that the outside staff was reduced at the end of September
by two employees. a|       ^
Due to many inquiries over the past twelve months, both as to the function of the
Project and the availability of land for farming and settlement, the following short description may prove of interest. The Project area extends from a point 5 miles north of
Oliver to the International Boundary and encompasses a tract of land of approximately
22,000 acres. Of this, some 13,000 acres can be utilized for farming, provided irrigation-
water is made available. Under the existing irrigation system, comprising some 64 miles
of concrete-lined ditches, metal flumes, and pipe-line, it has been possible to irrigate about
5,000 acres, the planting of which has been largely to fruit-trees—apples, pears, peaches,
apricots, cherries, etc. In order to increase the irrigable acreage, pumping from Okanagan
River would be necessary. This irrigated area is situated on the lower benches mainly
to the west of Okanagan River and Osoyoos Lake respectively, although there are several
hundreds of acres north of Osoyoos Lake on the easterly benches presently under grazing
lease. (It is interesting to note here that the Project area and to the north as far as
Kelowna is the only part of Canada where apricots are grown commercially.)
The irrigation system is presently operating to almost full capacity, and, in consequence, no further land will be offered for sale to the public in the immediate future,
unless, as above noted, pumps are installed.
The Project also attends to the sale of building lots within the boundaries of the
Village Municipalities of Oliver and Osoyoos. At this time twenty-six lots in Oliver and
ten lots in Osoyoos, averaging in size 60 by 100 feet and priced at about $300 each,
remain unsold. They may be purchased under a three-year instalment plan, with interest
being charged on the deferred payments. The sale of these lots will complete the disposal of the Crown lands within the boundaries of the villages.
In February, 1954, the British Columbia Natural Resources Conference was held
in Victoria, at which Conference we were represented, and during the proceedings special
reference to the Project was made. The report is printed in book form and may be
obtained from the Director of Conservation, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria
(price, $3.25). | I
Prior to the opening of the irrigation season, 1,100 feet of old metal-pipe lateral
was replaced. Also the policy of renewing the main-canal concrete bottom was continued. No other major repairs or replacements were undertaken during the early
months of the year. jl f
On April 9th, 1954, the water was turned into the main canal and growers under
the gravity supply commenced to irrigate their orchards. On May 6th the pumps were
switched on to serve the higher levels of the Project.
MAIN-CANAL FAILURES
The system ran smoothly until May 25th, when, due to the effects of heavy rains,
a 320-foot length of No. 1 Flume, to the east of Gallagher Lake, was carried away by
a rock-slide. The necessary repairs were effected within forty-eight hours, and the
system again became fully operative.
There were no further breakdowns until July 2nd, when part of the mam canal at
the head of Osoyoos Lake gave way and 80 feet of concrete canal collapsed. Following
heavy rains, seepage water from the higher levels had saturated the ground supporting the
canal, causing it to slide on the bedrock, which, at this point, dipped at a steep angle.
 KK 140 \ DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Temporary repairs were made, and on July 8th the system was again functioning.  No
other incidents of any magnitude occurred, and water was finally turned off on October
7th, 1954.
Ij Immediately after the system was drained, permanent repairs were made to the
section at the head of Osoyoos Lake. The supporting trestles were placed on concrete
foundations, replacing some of the mud sills previously used. These mud sills will be
abandoned in favour of concrete, although for hasty repairs during the busy season, mud
sills will, of necessity, be a temporary expedient. The balance of the wooden footings
will be replaced by concrete as soon as time and weather permit.
RELATIONSHIP OF WEATHER TO REPAIRS
It must be understood that a project such as this is at the mercy of the weather
conditions between November and March, when all repairs must be accomplished. The
routine is, therefore, to fit in concrete-pouring whenever outside temperatures permit.
A system of heating to speed up the setting process has recently been inaugurated.
The ditch is first covered with tarpaulins and blankets, under which are placed oil flares
consisting of gallon cans filled with diesel oil. (N.B.—This is the same type of heating
used in the orchards when frosts threaten the blossoms.) It is hoped that this method
will cure the concrete quickly and produce a more satisfactory finished job.
CANAL-BOTTOM
A total of 1,500 feet of new canal-bottom has been poured this fall. This work is
still progressing and will continue as long as weather permits. It is obvious that one of
the main causes of the heaving of the canal-bottom and consequent cracking is the
absence of proper drainage. This point is receiving consideration in all renewals. Two
small sections in the West Lateral ditch, approximating 150 feet of canal-bottom, have
been renewed. This lateral serves a rich orchard area to the north of Oliver and west of
Okanagan River. '9      m
1 SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
The modern trend in orchard management is to use sprinklers instead of open ditches
to convey water to the trees, and this is having a beneficial effect on the system, since it
requires somewhat less water to keep the trees in good health with sprinklers than with
open ditches. This type of irrigation renders the old distribution-boxes obsolete, as with
sprinklers it is necessary to have the distribution-box level with the top of the canal. In
this way, when sprinkler-heads clog, as is often the case, the water is diverted back into
the canal, thus preventing an overflow from the distribution box and the consequent
possible erosion of orchard land below.
McINTYRE CREEK
The Department of Public Works is presently constructing a new, modern highway
bridge over Mclntyre Creek a short distance south of our intake dam, and is also providing a better cross-over where the road crosses the main canal to the north of Mclntyre
Creek. In order to dry up the creek and allow for the pouring of footings, the Project
allowed the contractors to divert the creek into the main canal, spilling the water into
Wolf Creek east of the Village of Oliver. This diversion has saved the contractors the
necessity of sheet piling or otherwise excluding the water from the footings.
INTAKE
Okanagan flood-control engineers are presently constructing a dam, spillway, and
intake for water to the Project's main canal.   This dam will control the level of water m
 SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT KK 141
Vaseaux Lake.   The intake will be equipped with power-gates, which will greatly facilitate the regulation of volume of discharge as requirements dictate.
WEATHER
Due to a cool summer, accompanied by heavier than average rainfall, demand for
irrigation-water was below average. The following figures are illustrative and show
precipitation figures for the past eleven years:— f
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
July	
August—
September
0.75
0.08
0.73
0.21
0.26
0.95
0.41
Nil
0.64
1.50
0.08
0.48
1.90
2.09
0.60
1949   1950
1951
0.24
0.63
0.53
2.00
0.48
0.69
1.08
1.92
0.39
1952
0.24
0.19
0.16
1953
0.11
3.34
0.05
1954
1.23
1.48
1.76
The average precipitation for July, August, and September covering the period
from 1923 up to and including the year for which the figure is given is as follows:—
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
July.	
August—
September
0.61
0.55
0.71
0.59
0.53
0.72
0.58
0.51
0.72
0.62
0.49
0.71
0.67
0.55
0.71
0.66
0.56
0.70
0.71
0.56
0.70
0.72
0.60
0.69
1952
1953
1954
0.70
0.59
0.67
0.68
0.68
0.65
0.70
0.71
0.69
It is noted that summer precipitation is on the increase, particularly in the months
of July and August. This has resulted in the appearance of springs, swampy areas, and
a condition of saturation in areas of drainage accumulation and a general rising of the
water-table. This will be borne in mind in assessing the need of the Project in the
matter of water-supply in the future. Some orchards in the area are presently suffering
from drainage problems which threaten the trees with 1 wet feet I and eventual destruction. The Project takes the stand that drainage and water-table problems are not its
concern, but, of course, when possible, corrective measures are taken to protect growers
from seepage water originating in the distribution system.
OLIVER DOMESTIC WATER SYSTEM
Some of the pipe-lines are due for replacement because of age and consequent
rotting of the wood staves. The relatively high static pressure—namely, 125 pounds—
in the system makes it obligatory to keep all pipe-lines in good repair and condition.
Oliver's industries—the Oliver Sawmills Limited, the B.C. Fruit Processors, the Canadian Canners (Western) Limited, the Oliver Co-operative Growers' Exchange, the Canadian Pacific Railway, the Southern Co-operative Exchange, Trump Limited, St. Martin's
Hospital, etc.—are all dependent on the Project domestic water system for their water-
supply. Some of the above are heavy water-users, and, as such, it is most important
that a guaranteed adequate supply is maintained. Fire protection for the Village of
Oliver is also an all-important consideration. Two replacements are under consideration
at the present time: (a) Replacement of one 60,000-gallon tank removed in July, 1954,
and (b) renewal of the Main Street fine.
VILLAGES OF OLIVER AND OSOYOOS
Oliver.—Population, 1,000. 1
The assessment roll of Oliver is $2,592,526. This includes a highly modern, up-to-
date school costing in excess of $700,000.
St. Martin's Hospital, with accommodation for thirty-five patients and operated by
the Sisters of the Roman Catholic Church, is ultra-modern and serves the entire district
from the International Boundary north to Okanagan Falls.
 KK 142 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Osoyoos.—Incorporated as a village in 1946, one year after Oliver, is located on
the west side of Osoyoos Lake just north of the International Boundary.
Population, 899; land assessment, $189,799; improvement assessment, $1,064,910
The industries of Osoyoos are limited to two sawmills and several fruit-packing
houses.   A new customs house was completed in 1953 and is a fine, modern structure.
Lot sales during 1954 were as follows:—    |;
Farm lots, 27.53 acres  $1,973.06
Lake-shore lots         360.00
Total  -  $2,333.06
OSOYOOS, EAST OSOYOOS, AND BLACK SAGE IRRIGATION
DISTRICTS
These three districts are pumping projects operated privately, except that the Project
supplies all three with ditch-rider service. It may be mentioned that applications have
been filed for their inclusion in the Southern Okanagan Lands Project.
1954 CROP RETURNS
Unfortunately a spring frost occurred at blossom-time which virtually wiped out
the stone-fruit crops. As a consequence, most of the growers are experiencing difficulty
in financing. This is having an effect on current collections of irrigation rates. It should
be mentioned that the fruit-growers under the Southern Okanagan Lands Project enjoy
the lowest rate for irrigation-water of any district in the Okanagan Valley. This is all
the more remarkable when it is considered that the demands for water in terms of acre-
feet are heavier than in the sections to the north.
SUNDRY COLLECTIONS FOR 1954
(Estimated for month of December.)
Principal  $10,000.00
Interest jf I 900.00
Lease rentals 1 1,200.00
Realization  1,270.00
Water rates—
I Oliver domestic  15,430.00
I Irrigation   51,200.00
Total   $80,000.00
 UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
 University Endowment Lands
Changes of the Years
1927. When the University of British Columbia came to Point Grey, a residential area was devel
oped adjacent to the campus.    Photograph above shows the first homes and the U.E.L. office.
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large units have been developed and all lots sold, and further subdivision is being planned (see
cleared area at right of photograph).
 did
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS KK H5
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
M. E. Ferguson, Manager
Despite the fact that the predictions in the 1953 Report regarding a new subdivision
uiu not materialize, it seems probable that the delay will be overshadowed by the accomplishments and planning in the near future. As predicted for 1954, however, most
of the detail planning and estimating was completed for the new subdivision, and this
information will prove valuable when subdivision implementation is authorized.
LOT SALES
The last residential lot available was sold during 1954, and from the continued
inquiries from interested parties and from real-estate agents there is a growing demand
for lots in this area. While there does not seem to be much likelihood of the Department
being able to meet such a demand before the end of 1955, it is to be hoped we will be in
a position to maintain this interest by embarking on a development scheme wherein
availability of property within a reasonable time can be forecast and an estimate of
proposed price ranges provided. M
BUILDING
Although there are but few lots yet without dwellings, construction continued to a
surprising degree throughout 1954. At the year-end only nine lots in the residential area
remain unbuilt upon.
In addition to the new homes, a new modern service-station was constructed, replacing the old one which had been in use since the early days of the development. The new
station was planned for further expansion, and this should serve the area adequately for
many years to come.
Construction of the long-awaited junior high school was started in 1954, and it was
found possible to use some of the classrooms for the September opening of the school.
The gymnasium and administrative offices were finished in late November.
SEWERS
The Marine Drive trunk sewer was completed in June, 1954. This eliminated the
use of the Acadia out-fall, which has been a maintenance problem for years as well as
constituting a serious health menace.
Following and in consequence of many meetings between members of the tax committee, sub-committees, residents, members of the administration staff, and involving in
the final stages of discussion the Deputy Minister and the Minister, the Honourable R. E.
Sommers, the last two remaining sewer problems were undertaken. Based on the recommendations of recognized experts, new sewer work was approved, and the Vancouver
and Districts Joint Sewerage and Drainage Board was authorized to proceed with the
immediate installation. This work is now well advanced, and it is expected that the main
sewers and private connections to property lines will be completed early in 1955. When
this is done and connections made from private properties to the new sewers, a potential
health problem will have been solved. In addition, the new and modern sewer service
will add considerably to the various property values of the homes in this section.
The Department is currently considering the extension of the Acadia relief sewer to
the Marine Drive trunk sewer.   It appears likely this should be completed early in 1955.
WATERWORKS
The new water-main and storage tanks again proved satisfactory, and with the
absence of prolonged dry weather during the past summer no sprinkling restrictions were
necessary.
 KK 146
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TAXATION
We were fortunate in being able to hold the 1954 mill rate to a fraction of a mill
increase. This was a noteworthy accomplishment considering the increases experienced
in neighbouring districts. It is quite evident this will not be possible next year. Several
sewer projects are to be amortized over a twenty-year period and charged as a special
levy against the properties concerned. In addition, the maintenance budget is being
increased to provide further funds for improvements to roads, sidewalks, boulevards, etc.
which now, twenty-five years old, require additional work to prevent their rapid deterioration. In the face of these expenses, however, it is expected that the general mill rate will
not be increased more than 3 or 4 mills, apart, of course, from the special levy. This
favourable provision should keep the taxes in the area acceptable to potential purchasers.
GENERAL
During 1954 the Canadian Equity and Development Company made a survey of
the potentials of the area and subsequently submitted a report. From this report and
previous reports and data it now appears a new development policy will be established.
Any such policy will undoubtedly include arrangements for review of and modernizing
of our existing master plan.   It may entail the preparation of a completely new master
plan. ||
Several meetings and discussions were held during 1954 relative to a proposed
apartment development at Spanish Banks. An early decision is expected whereby this
scheme either will become a reality or be abandoned. m
CONCLUSION
There is every reason to feel 1955 will prove very interesting and could surpass all
previous years from the development point of view. Just how far reaching our accomplishments will be in 1955, only time will reveal.
STATISTICAL
Table A.—Lot Sales
1952
1953
1954
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
Unitl	
2
7
$4,445.12
50,599.38
2
1
$5,940.00
8,820.00
1
Unit 2	
$10,541.25
Totals...
9
$55,044.50
3
$14,760.00
1
$10,541.25
Table B.-
—number and value of building permits issued during the years
Ended December 3 1st, 1952, 1953, and 1954
1952
Number
Value
1953
Number
Value
1954
Number
New school	
New houses	
New apartments
Fraternities	
Alterations	
New stores	
Garages, etc	
Totals..
43
3
1
10
$821,900
315,000
57,308
21,700
7,800
64
$1,223,708
13
1
3
1
18
$263,000
40,000
4,750
50,000
16,475
36
$374,225
1
7
11
1
8
28
Value
$368,565
187,500
28,100
19,857
jM50_
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147
  LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD
  LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD KK 151
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD
Clara Stephenson, Secretary
The Land Settlement Board was formed in the year 1917 under the provisions of
the 1 Land Settlement and Development Act," superseding the Agricultural Credit Commission. It was empowered to advance money by way of loans secured by mortgage, to
purchase, develop, and colonize lands considered suitable for settlement, and to declare
settlement areas, having for its main purpose the promotion of increased agricultural
production.
Settlement areas were established in Central British Columbia—namely, in the
Bulkley Valley, Nechako Valley, Francois Lake district, and the Upper Fraser River
valley—where land had been taken up as speculation by non-resident owners, which was
retarding the settlement and development of these districts. Establishing settlement areas
throughout these districts on those unoccupied alienated lands helped to relieve this
situation and to bring the land within reach of the actual settler at reasonable prices.
Development areas were established at Merville on Vancouver Island, Lister, Fernie,
and Kelowna. The development area at Kelowna is under lease to a tenant for a term
of years.
The Board has under its jurisdiction the administration of the former Doukhobor
lands, which were acquired by the Government under authority of the | Doukhobor Lands
Acquisition Act "of 1939. These lands are largely occupied by Doukhobors on a rental
basis.  They are reserved from sale at the present time.
By Order in Council No. 2028, approved on September 8th, 1954, His Honour
Judge Arthur Edward Lord was appointed a sole Commissioner under the provisions of
the I Doukhobor Lands Allotment Inquiry Act 1 to make a complete investigation in
relation to the former Doukhobor lands.   His investigations are proceeding.
The Board holds approximately 7,200 acres scattered through the various parts of
the Province, representing properties on which it held mortgages and to which it obtained
title through tax-sale proceedings. Several of these properties, representing considerable
acreage, were sold this year.
The Board's balance-sheets will appear in the Public Accounts of the Province, as
in the past. The following is a brief summary of the Board's activities and collections
for 1954:—
During the year the sales made by the Board amounted to $15,218.30. Forty-one
purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and seven borrowers paid up in
full and received release of mortgage.
Collections
Loans  $ 16,340.26
Land sales     36,318.23
Dyking loan refunds, etc     10,250.54
Foreclosed properties and areas—stumpage, rentals, etc.      8,574.30
Total  $71,483.33
The above figures include proceeds received from the sale and rental of Doukhobor
lands. P
REPORT BY I. SPIELMANS, INSPECTOR
As in previous years, the collection of rentals from occupants of the former
Doukhobor lands, which are under the administration of the Land Settlement Board,
has constituted the main part of my duties. In addition to rentals submitted direct to
Victoria, the total collections through this office for the year ended December 31st, 1954,
amounted to $7,218.04.
 KK 152 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The amounts collected by localities are tabled hereunder:—
Crescent Valley |  $65.00
Perry Siding  75.00
Slocan Park  100.00
Brilliant  920.00
Pass Creek  230.50
Winlaw   125.00
Kamminae   150.00
Ootishenia  436.69
Shoreacres |  354.40
Glade   162.15
Krestova   90.00
Clay Brick |  105.00
Perepelkins  50.00
Raspberry  820.00
Grand Forks  3,534.30
Total  $7,218.04
In view of unsettled conditions in this area, collections have been difficult, but since
the appointment of His Honour Judge Lord as a Royal Commissioner to make investigations in relation to these lands, the situation has improved as it has given hope to the
tenants that the Doukhobor problem, and the land question in particular, will be settled
in the near future to their satisfaction.
I have been authorized to co-operate with the Commissioner and his staff in these
matters.
   PERSONNEL OFFICE j^
PERSONNEL OFFICE
J. H. Palmer
On August 9th, 1954, with the establishment of a Personnel Office, the payroll
and personnel records functions were separated, except for the actual typing of the
payrolls, which continues to be done in this office. The Personnel Assistant was appointed to assist in the administration of the classification and wage plans, to perform
various studies, and to assist in the general personnel administration of the Department.
With the assistance of the branches, a number of position specifications were prepared or brought up to date. These descriptions were required particularly by the Salary
Committee for its studies in connection with the evaluation of professional engineering
type positions as well as for normal purposes.
This office provided information needed for the preparation of salary estimates for
the fiscal year 1955-56 and collaborated in a review of submissions from the divisions.
Investigations and organizational studies were conducted with a view to checking
on the feasibility of certain proposals and of arriving at suggested forms of organization.
The results of some of these studies have been implemented and others remain pending.
Several classification studies were conducted, and twelve reclassifications were implemented. The Personnel Assistant assisted in the selection and processing of twelve
competitions for promotion.    Five in-service transfers were effected.
Two deaths and one retirement occurred in the Service during the latter part of
1954. In addition, twenty-one persons left the Service for various reasons and twenty-
nine appointments were made to fill these and previous vacancies. A turnover rate covering less than half the year would not be meaningful, but it is noted that the Department
experienced the highest percentage of resignations from the hydraulic engineering staff.
Stenographic replacements, while high, have probably not been above the average for
the Civil Service.
Some changes were made in the personnel filing and card system. Personnel records were maintained for approximately 380 current employees. This included administration of the leave-of-absence regulations as well as recording of promotions, transfers, terminations, etc.
In general, the Personnel Assistant acted in a staff capacity lending assistance to
supervisors and employees as requested and in a liaison capacity between the Department and the Civil Service Commission.
    MAIL AND FILE ROOM
MAIL AND FILE ROOM
John A. Grant
The number of letters recorded in the File Room during 1954 dropped to 87 913
as compared to 111,837 in 1953. Care should be taken to note the word " recorded "
If the incoming mail had been registered as was done prior to 1953, it is estimated that
the total recorded mail would be close to 140,000 letters. These, together with approximately 160,000 vouchers, receipts, statements, invoices, reports, etc., that are never
numbered, would show that 300,000 pieces of mail passed through the File Room in
1954.
The ever-increasing mail since the war years has necessitated drastic reduction in
the types of letters which are numbered by the File Room. Mineral claims, cruise
reports, acknowledgments, inter-office memorandums, etc., are now passed directly to
the office concerned. This policy was started during the last few years but reached its
apex in 1954.   The result is that recorded mail shows a decided decrease.
There have been other changes instituted also. Notably a card system has been
introduced in substitution of the old letter inward form. This eliminates the necessity
of posting 80 per cent of the recorded mail. Only registered letters and correspondence
containing money are now posted in the File Room registers. This and other labour-
saving short cuts, such as the elimination of the numerical letter inward registers and
the reduction of the recording of letters outward, resulted in the saving of many man-
hours. These savings have enabled the File Room and Vault staffs to complete the
charging of the Monday lists of files each week, thu& enabling hard-pressed offices to
cope with the backlog of work. As a matter of fact, the saving in man-hours enabled
the File Room to release a man to the Lands General Office.
The collections of the Department amounted to $21,500,000 in 1954.
The microfilming of old files is continuing. Up to date over 400,000 files have
been microfilmed and destroyed. It is noteworthy that only 2,783 were considered
active and returned to circulation. At present, obsolete and inactive timber-sale files
are being microfilmed, and it is expected that when these are completed the inactive
timber-mark files also will be microfilmed and destroyed. The work done so far has
provided several years of filing space, and it is expected that as the microfilming project
continues the problem of vault storage space will be solved for all time.
Letters Inward (Recorded)
Branch
1954
1953
10-year Average,
1945-54
Lands Service-
24,266                   27,960
35,264                   59,079
13,223                    11,548
15,160                   13,250
30,113
Forest Service
56,061
Water Rights Branch
10,007
Surveys and Mapping Branch                                                       	
10,392
Totals	
87,913
111,837
106,573
—	
Letters Outward (Recorded)
Branch
Lands Service
Forest Service       |
^ter Rights Branch
burveys and Mapping BVanchZZZZ
Totals	
1954
8,847
8,183
1,793
23
18,846
1953
10,220
8,216
1,548
609
20,593
10-year Average,
1945-54
22,369
14,124
5,790
4,674
46,957
 KK 160
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Miscellaneous Reports Received
Designation
1954
Forest-fire reports	
Slash-disposal reports	
Logging-inspection reports—
Land-classification reports.. ...
Totals	
Cruise reports	
Stumpage-adjustment notices
Totals	
18,340
2,915
11,300
32,555
New Files Created
Designation
1954
"0" files	
Timber-mark files
Timber-sale files—
Totals	
3,991
1,456
3,700
9,147
1953
10-yearAv^agT
1945-54    '
1953
10-year Average
1945-54
4,632
1,238
3,480
9,350
4,619
1,332
2,660
8,611
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955
1,500-155-4153

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