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BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCIAL MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY and ANTHROPOLOGY REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1953 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1955]

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Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
  To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1953.
Minister of Education.
Office of the Minister of Education,
March, 1954.
 Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology,
Victoria, B.C., March 5th, 1954.
The Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C., B.A., LL.B.,
Minister of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The undersigned respectfully submits herewith a report of the activities of the
Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the calendar year 1953.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
The Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C., B.A., LL.B., Minister.
H. L. Campbell, B.A., M.Ed., Deputy Minister and Superintendent.
G. Clifford Carl, Ph.D., Director.
George A. Hardy, Botanist and Entomologist (to August 31st).
Charles J. Guiguet, M.A., Biologist.
Wilson Duff, M.A., Anthropologist.
William A. Hubbard, M.A., Botanist (from September 8th).
Frank L. Beebe, Illustrator and Museum Assistant.
Margaret Crummy, B.A,, Senior Stenographer.
Betty C. Newton, Artist.
Sheila Y. Davies, Clerk.
Mary Eleanore Wheeldon, Clerk.
E. J. Maxwell, Attendant.
J. Moffat, Relief Attendant.
(a) To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the Province.
(b) To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the
(c) To obtain information respecting the natural sciences, relating particularly to
the natural history of the Province, and to increase and diffuse knowledge regarding the
(Section 4, g Provincial Museum Act," chapter 273, R.S.B.C. 1948.)
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free, on week-days, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.,
and on Sunday afternoons, 1 p.m. to 5 p.m.
Report of the Director.  9
New Exhibits  9
Special Exhibitions  9
Held Work  11
Publications  11
Motion Pictures  12
Museum Lectures  13
Other Lectures  13
School Loan Material  14
Attendance __— 14
Building Maintenance and Equipment _  15
Staff Changes  15
.    Obituary  15
Report of the Botanist and Entomologist j  15
Report of the Biologist  17
Report of the Anthropologist  19
Accessions  24
Article—" Collector's Items from Commercial Fishing-gear," by Lela M. Griffith __ 31
Early in the year a new type of display-case for small mammals was designed and
an experimental unit was constructed. The new case, showing white-footed mice in
a beach habitat, has proven so successful that others are in preparation and more are
planned for the future. The main features of the new design are a glass front sloping
inwardly to eliminate reflections, a dust-tight inner unit holding the specimens, and a
concealed source of artificial light. The background and accessories have been prepared
by Mr. Beebe; the taxidermy is by Mr. Guiguet.
Many of the labels in both the mammal and the bird section have been replaced by
those of a more legible style, similar to those introduced in 1952.
Two of the large mounted mammals, a bull elk and a caribou which had been on
exhibition for more than fifty years, were withdrawn. Instead of destroying the specimens directly, they were removed to a play-field in Beacon Hill Park, where children
enjoyed riding them until they eventually fell apart.
A number of small mammals of similar age were removed from display. Most of
these were turned over to Denis W. Brown, of the Audio-Visual Education Branch,
Greater Victoria School Board, who distributed them among certain school museums.
To mark Coronation Year a special exhibit was arranged featuring plants, animals,
and Indian dress connected with royalty or having names suggesting such an association.
Natural-history specimens included king-of-the-salmon, kingfish, king crab, golden-
crowned sparrow, queen's cup, and prince's pine, while Indian material consisted of a
chief's head-dress trimmed with ermine displayed against a Chilkat blanket.
As a result of considerable local interest in primitive stone sculpture, several examples of this art were placed on display along with photographs and data concerning
recent finds. The carvings of greatest interest are each of a human figure holding a bowl;
the function or purpose of such carvings is unknown.
During Education Week a special display was maintained showing the functions of
the Museum, and on Friday, March 6th, " open house " was held for the general public.
For the occasion, several special exhibits were arranged and the following demonstrations
were given: Air-brush art work by Frank Beebe; mask-carving by Mungo Martin; string
figures by Mrs. Mungo Martin. Conducted tours were made through the study collections
and a Museum-produced film was shown.   Several hundred people attended.
A special exhibit of outstanding interest was the annual display of the Victoria
Aquarium Society, which took place during the period June 29th until July 5th.   Some
local and many exotic species of fish were shown in a series of about thirty beautifully
arranged tanks.   Many favourable comments were received from visitors viewing the
On July 20th, H. L. Campbell, Deputy Minister of Education, officially opened the
Twelfth Annual Exhibition of British Columbia Indian Arts and Crafts, consisting of
more than 240 entries from several Indian schools and individual artists. The display was
 B 10
Frank Beebe making plaster cast of common dolphin.
White-footed mice—a recently installed habitat group. L   Js*
(Photos by G. C. can.;
sponsored by the British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society, under the chairmanship of B. T. Hill.
To mark the completion of the Kwakiutl house in Thunderbird Park and the erection
of Mungo Martin's totem-pole, programmes of dances and dedication ceremonies were
presented in the new house on December 14th, 15th, and 16th.
Field work was carried on throughout the year as usual, the major trips being as
July 3rd to 12th: Dr. Carl and Mr. Beebe visited Stum Lake, 25 miles north
of Alexis Creek, Chilcotin district, to photograph a pelican colony.
July 26th to August 31st: Mr. Duff visited Alert Bay and several old village-
sites on the Queen Charlotte Islands in connection with the totem-pole
restoration programme as reported elsewhere.
July 31st to August 7th: Mr. Hardy collected material in the Forbidden
Plateau region.
September 15th to 22nd: Dr. Carl and Messrs. Beebe, Guiguet, and Hubbard
visited Wells Gray Park on a preliminary survey for possible field work
in the future.
In addition to the above, staff members made numerous short trips to several points
on Vancouver Island and vicinity to collect specimens or information as noted elsewhere.
The following publications have originated from the Museum during 1953:—
By Frank L. Beebe—
"Two Common Shore Birds."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 9, No. 8, pp. 85-86.
"Notes on the Industrial Plastic 'Styrfoam' as a Modelling Material for
Museum Exhibits."   Clearing House for Western Museums Newsletter
163, September, 1953, pp. 611-612.
By G. Clifford Carl—
" Limnobiology of Cowichan Lake, British Columbia."   Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol. 9, No. 9, pp. 417-449.
"Submarine."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 53-54.
"Wasps."   Victoria Daily Times, September 10th, 1953.
By Wilson Duff (editor)—
"Anthropology in British Columbia, No. 3," 1952.
Anthropological Research and Publications, 1952, by Viola E. Garfield and Wilson Duff. :§f
Notes on Coast Salish Sea-mammal Hunting, by Wayne Suttles.
Gitksan Totem Poles, 1952, by Wilson Duff.
Results of Archeological Investigations in Central British Columbia,
by Charles E. Borden.
A Uniform Site Designation Scheme for Canada, by Charles E.
An Archeological Survey in the Lower Nooksack River Valley, by
R. V. Emmons.
The Upper Stalo Indians." Anthropology in British Columbia, Memoir No.
1, pp. 1-136.
Prehistoric  Carvings  Puzzle  Anthropologists."     Victoria  Daily  Colonist,
March 1st. ||
I Will Rebuild Indian House."   Victoria Daily Colonist, May 24th.
 B 12
By C. J. Guiguet—
"An Unusual Occurrence of Turkey Vultures on Vancouver Island." Murrelet
Vol. 33, No. 1, 1952, p. 11.
I California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus (Lesson)) in British Columbia."
Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 67, No. 3, p. 140.
I Enigma of the Marbled Murrelet."   Victoria Daily Colonist, April 26th.
"About Salmon Fishing."   Victoria Daily Colonist, September 13th.
"The Ancient Murrelet."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 68-70.
By George A. Hardy—
I Some Early Spring Flowers in the Vicinity of Victoria."   Victoria Naturalist,
Vol. 9, No. 8, pp. 87-89.    |
" Nesting of the Mourning Dove on Vancouver Island."   Victoria Naturalist,
Vol. 10, No. 4, p. 47.
| Notes on Some Insects from British Columbia."    Report of the Provincial
Museum for 1952, pp. 26-29.
I Some Conspicuous Spiders and Insects in British Columbia." A single-page
leaflet illustrated by F. L. Beebe.
By I. McTaggart Cowan and C. J. Guiguet—
| Three Cetacean Records from British Columbia."   Murrelet, Vol. 33, No. 1,
1952, pp. 10-11. . |
By Josephine F. L. Hart (volunteer assistant)—
" Northern Extensions of Range of Some Reptant Decapod Crustacea of British
Columbia."   Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 67, No. 3, pp. 139-140.
In addition to the above, Mr. Guiguet and Mr. Beebe together have contributed an
illustrated article on birds each week to the Victoria Daily Colonist and Dr. Carl has
contributed a weekly article to the Victoria Daily Times on the life-history of a cohoe
During the year, Handbook No. 5, " The Fresh-water Fishes of British Columbia,"
by G. C. Carl and W. A. Clemens, was revised and reprinted to take care of the continuing demand for this publication. Considerable work was also done on the manuscript
" Mammals of British Columbia," by I. McTaggart Cowan and C. J. Guiguet, which
should be ready for the printers next year, and some revision was made to the newspaper
material on shore-birds with a view to issuing it in booklet form.
Material obtained in the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1952 was combined in a 1,200-
foot colour film I Birding in Haidaland," and a print was obtained for use in lecturing.
Two other new films were completed, " Pelican Parade," by Dr. Carl, featuring the Stum
Lake pelican colony in the Chilcotin district, and j Totem Heritage," taken by Mr. Duff
to show the present condition of totem-poles at Alert Bay, on the Skeena, and at old
village-sites on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
When opportunity permitted, motion-picture material on common plants and animals
was gathered for a film to be entitled " Backyard Exploration." Insects, spiders, and
native plants are the principal features.
For use on a forthcoming Audubon Screen Tour, material from several films was
combined to form a new lecture film to be called " Secrets of the Sea."
In co-operation with the Victoria Amateur Movie Club, several hundred feet of
colour film was obtained on steps in making an Indian mask, featuring Mungo Martin,
chief carver at Thunderbird Park.
Materials on amphibians of British Columbia supplied to the Division of Visual
Education have been assembled into a film-strip, principally for use in schools.
B 13
Museum Lectures
A programme of films was presented to school-children of the Greater Victoria area,
as shown by the following schedule:— §
February 21st
February 28th
March 7th	
March 14th..___
March 21st—
March 28th„.._
" In the Beginning "	
" Sea Creatures "	
" Fishes and Reptiles ".
" Birds of a Feather "...
" Mites and Monsters "
" Native Peoples "	
Again we appreciate the help given by the Audio-Visual Education Branch of the
Greater Victoria School Board is distributing tickets, by the British Columbia Electric
Railway Company in granting special travel privileges to school-children attending the
lectures, and by the Public Relations Branch, British Columbia Forest Service, in the loan
of a phonograph turn-table.
A similar series of films was presented to the general public on Sunday afternoons
during this period.   More than 2,200 persons attended the six presentations.
Other Lectures
During 1953 the Director gave lectures and film-shows to the following groups:
Saanich Board of Trade (Brentwood), Victoria North Kiwanis, Victoria Women's Canadian Club, Victoria West Parent-Teacher Association, Victoria Outdoor Club, Oak Bay
High School, Victoria Amateur Movie Club (two shows), Oak Bay United Church
Ladies' Club, United Church Ministers (Retired), St. Matthias A.Y.P.A., Victoria College Science Club, Cowichan Fish and Game Association (Duncan, two shows), Duncan
Rotary Club, Chilliwack Canadian Club, View Royal Community Club, Victoria Kinsmen
Club, British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society, Quadra School, First United
Church Ladies' Group, Canadian National Railway Veterans' Association, Victoria Hi-Y,
Cordova Bay Parent-Teacher Association, Victoria Cosmopolitan Club, Colwood Community Club, Native Sons and Daughters (Ladysmith), P.E.O. (Victoria Chapter), Victoria Natural History Society, Victoria West Community Club, Qualicum Junior-Senior
High School, Comox Parent-Teacher Association, Courtenay Elementary School, Quathi-
aski Cove Parent-Teacher Association, Campbell River Elementary-Senior High School
(two shows), Victoria Welsh Society, Mount View High School Parent-Teacher Association, Victoria Electric Club, Victoria Film Council, St. John's Older Young People's
Group, Oak Bay United Church Men's Club, Victoria Rotary Club, Municipal Officers'
Association, International Milk Board, Victoria Lions Club, Victoria Gyro Club, Victoria
Registered Nurses' Association, Victoria Business and Professional Women's Club, Victoria Kiwanis Club, St. Michael's School, Victoria Musical Arts Association (two shows),
Craigflower Parent-Teacher Association, Canadian Pacific Railway Veterans' Association,
Entomological Society of Canada and Entomological Society of British Columbia (joint
meeting), South Park Parent-Teacher Association, Victoria Sixty-Up Club, George Jay
Home and School Club, Oak Bay Kiwanis, Pacific Northwest Bird and Mammal Society
(Vancouver), Langford and District Lions Club, and Ballard Church Group (from
Seattle). g§|
On April 2nd Dr. Carl, Mr. Duff, and Mr. Gordon Fields of Victoria College took
part in a panel broadcast from a local radio station on the subject " Let's Look at
Museums," under the chairmanship of Robert Wallace, Director, Evening Division,
Victoria College.
 B 14
On September 9th Mr. Duff contributed a brief account of the totem-poles on the
Queen Charlotte Islands on C.B.C. " News Round-up."
School Loan Material
A number of mounted small mammals and various other specimens no longer of
use as exhibition material were turned over to the Audio-Visual Branch of the Greater
Victoria School Board for possible use in school museums. f|.
Miss Newton has continued colouring photographic copies of dioramas depicting
Indian life, which are being assembled for circulation among the schools of the Province.
The number of visitors to the Museum during 1953 is summarized as follows:—
January    1,255
February   2,550
March   4,686
April   2,030
May   2,738
June   6,462
July  11,949
August  11,764
September  5,230
October  1,986
November __:  1,085
December  692
Totals  52,427 69,569
In addition to these visitors, there were 3,691 children who attended the Saturday
morning film programmes, 30 school classes, 24 meetings of Junior Naturalist classes,
2,225 persons who attended the Sunday afternoon programmes in February and March,
3 Brownie groups, 1 church group from Seattle, and 285 persons attending " open house I
evening in March, making an estimated grand total of 77,252. §|f
The attendance record for the month of July has been broken down by Mr. Maxwell
as follows:—
Residence Registration
British Columbia  1,994
Alberta  623
Saskatchewan  385
Manitoba  392
New Brunswick	
Nova Scotia	
Prince Edward Island
Newfoundland ___
Residence Registration
Washington  1,837
Oregon  1,163
California  2,468
Other States  2,277
Alaska  10
Great Britain  109
Other countries  105
Total     7,969
Grand total 11,949
Total   3,980
The sum of $498.74, collected by the Solarium donation-box during the year, was
turned over to the Queen Alexandra Fund for Crippled Children.
An experimental innovation which has proved to be a success was the installation
of an automatic record-changer and high-fidelity amplifier to supply background music
to the public galleries. The effect has been to dispel the false feeling for the need of
silence which one usually experiences in libraries, art galleries, museums, and similar
public buildings. Many favourable comments have been received since music was
introduced early in the summer season.
During the year Venetian blinds were installed on the windows of the main floor,
permitting a much more efficient control of daylight.
In the attic storage-rooms four new cases for bird-skins and three vermin-proof
boxes for insect collections were added in 1953. A storage-case of glass-topped drawers
was also purchased to house some of the named insects in the study collection.
On August 31st George A. Hardy retired as Botanist on the Museum staff after
having served in this capacity since 1941. Previous to this time he had been associated
with the Museum from 1924 to 1928 as Assistant Biologist.
With the retirement of Mr. Hardy the Museum lost the services of a botanist, an
entomologist, and an all-round naturalist, for he proved himself competent in many
fields. While with us he added greatly to both the botanical and entomological collections and maintained them in good order.
In addition to these duties and to the multitudinous demands made upon persons
in small museums, he found time to conduct research upon the life-histories of many
local moths and to report his findings in scientific papers. With more leisure, now he
is able to make such pursuits a full-time hobby.
To carry on the work in the botanical department, William A. Hubbard was
appointed to the staff in September. A graduate of the University of Saskatchewan and
the Utah State Agricultural College and a former research-worker of the Federal Range
Station at Manyberries, Alta., Mr. Hubbard brings with him a grounding in technical
knowledge combined with practical field experience. We are pleased, indeed, in having
him associated with us.
Fenwick Lansdowne served as student assistant during the summer, while John
Moffat acted as relief attendant.
We regretfully record here the death of A. R. Whittemore, nationally known conservationist, who passed away suddenly on March 19th while visiting in Victoria. As
editor of Canadian Nature magazine he had accomplished much in fostering a true
appreciation of nature; the publication continues as a memorial to his work.
We also regretfully note here the death on October 12th of the Honourable Tilly
Jean Rolston, Minister of Education since August 1st, 1952.
This covers the period from January 1st to August 31st, 1953, when the holder of
this office was retired on reaching the statutory age limit.
The number of plants accessioned amounted to 1,660; many of these were acquired
during previous years, but due to lack of readily accessible storage they had not been
checked in detail.
 B 16
As in previous years, Mrs. S. Davies has been responsible for the work of accessioning, mounting, cataloguing, and shelving, in addition to the general office routine.
This left the Botanist more time to devote to identification and to answering inquiries
which have been numerous and have covered a wide range of subjects. A rough tally of
such inquiries amounted to 409, though during the peak of the season many were not
The seasonable exhibit of wild flowers has continued to be a source of profit and
pleasure to the public interested in a ready method of identification and information
concerning the commoner and more obvious species of plants. This is a twelve-month
service dealing with the flowering plants in spring and summer, their fruits in the fall,
and evergreen trees and shrubs during the winter season. Occasionally special exhibits
of weeds, edible plants, or habitat association of plants are shown as opportunity offers
or suggests.
To keep this exhibit going, periodic field-trips to places easily reached from the
Museum were undertaken. A short visit was made to the Forbidden Plateau area for a
study of the natural history in the neighbourhood of the lodge at the 2,000- to 3,000-
foot level. Several day or half-day excursions were made to points on Southern Vancouver Island.
The services of the Botanist were requested from time to time for talks, demonstrations, and lectures. This included two lectures at the Summer School, a talk to the
boys at St. Michael's School, lantern exhibits of wild flowers to various clubs and societies, and so forth. The Botanist also gave a series of twelve lectures on the wild flowers
of Vancouver Island, under the auspices of Victoria College.
The accumulation of specimens has continued apace, keeping the Entomologist
busy to find accommodation for them. With the thousands of insects under his care,
storage has been one of the major difficulties. This situation is now well in hand, since
the inauguration of a policy of a progressive-unit programme, whereby a standard set of
cabinet drawers in twelve each is being added to each year. Eventually the collections
will all be housed in a convenient and uniform series, and any insect referable at a
moment's notice.
The Entomologist has been constantly consulted in matters pertaining to our common insects, whether useful or injurious. Much time has been saved since the issuance
of a leaflet showing a drawing made in life-like manner by Frank Beebe and accompanied by a brief description of the more common insects that have proved to be, over
the years, of more than ordinary interest to the public. §
Mrs. Davies has, in addition to her botanical responsibilities, rendered valuable
help in the organization of the insect-cabinets and, with the help of Jerry Maxwell, has
lined all the drawers with cork and paper, all ready for use.
The Entomologist has continued his researches into the life of various lepidoptera.
Four papers have been submitted for publication by the Entomological Society of British
In August of this year Mr. Hardy retired from the Museum staff, to be replaced by
William A. Hubbard. Hence the report is more or less in two sections—namely, January 1st to August 31st and September 1st to December 31st. Mr. Hardy, whose excellent knowledge of all phases of natural history is well known, has compiled the entire
section on entomology.
During the latter part of 1953 several trips were made by the new Botanist to parts
of the southern tip of Vancouver Island to study the typical vegetation of the region,
and in September a two-week field-trip was made to Wells Gray Park with other tech-
nical members of the Museum staff. This was a preliminary survey to obtain a general
knowledge of the area with the intent that a more-detailed survey might be made at a
later date. The area is part of the Columbia or rain forest. The major dominants of
the association are Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni), western red cedar (Thuja
plicata), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and balsam
(Abies lasiocarpa). As most of the plants in the area were well past the flowering stage,
very little collecting was done.
Work has been started on a new handbook, " The Known Grasses of British
Columbia."   This will be illustrated by Mr. Beebe, of the Museum staff.
The seasonal wild-flower case was maintained until the end of November, but has
been replaced by a number of cut sections of our native trees with some of the foliage
of the conifers.
The majority of the inquiries brought into the botanical office since the beginning
of September were for the identification of mushrooms; this seems to have been an
exceptional year for them, and inquiries have numbered over sixty. Others included
botany, sixty-seven; entomology, eight; and miscellaneous, twenty-one. This is only
an approximate check.
There have been 145 plants identified and mounted. These have not been filed in
the herbarium for lack of space. Jf
Specimen examples of the genus Rosa were returned to the Museum by Dr. T.
Taylor, of the University of British Columbia, after a study of the material had been
made by Mr. Lewis.
A talk supplemented with fifty coloured slides was given to the Victoria Branch of
the Agricultural Institute of Canada.
Field work planned for the summer of 1953 was greatly curtailed due to circumstances beyond our control. The programme of zoological exploration along the west
coast of Vancouver Island was again delayed. A preliminary examination of Wells Gray
Park was undertaken in September with a view to adding the area to the Museum's
agenda of regional studies in birds, mammals, and plants.
In January the Museum Biologist accompanied Don Robinson, regional game biologist, in an investigation of the elk in the vicinity of the Nanaimo Lakes, where logging
operations are beginning to encroach upon the winter range of those animals. Two specimens were secured for the Provincial mammal collection. In April a trip was made to
the whaling-station at Coal Harbour, where a grey whale was skeletonized for the Provincial mammal collection. This specimen is stored at Coal Harbour to weather.
Investigations instituted two years ago at Oak Bay with regard to speciation in
coastal white-footed mice were continued this year. A record on the progress of this
research follows this report.
When possible, one day per week was allocated to field work on Vancouver Island
in order to keep a record of conditions and movements of local birds and mammals, and
to collect specimens. The notes accruing during the past year have been indexed and will
be included in Volume II of the Museum's three-year field-journal series. Volume I was
completed and bound last year. W
One occasional paper and several lesser publications were completed this year and
have appeared at various sources (see Director's report). The British Columbia bird-
booklet programme initiated last year was continued. To date eighty-four species are
written up and have appeared in a local newspaper as weekly natural-history features.
Sufficient material has now accumulated to publish at least five illustrated booklets in
this series.
 B 18
The manuscript of the 1 Mammals of British Columbia " is completed in rough draft-
keys to the orders, families, and species of mammals are completed, and cuts of each
mammal have been made. This large project is, of necessity, a slow process, as both
senior author, Dr. McTaggart Cowan, and the Museum Biologist are subject to continued
interruptions through pressure of other duties.   However, it is hoped the book will appear
in print next year.
Routine curatorial activities dealing with nearly 16,000 scientific-study skins of birds
and mammals, specimen preparation, preparation and rearrangement of exhibits, cataloguing and indexing of material, specimen identification, lecturing, research, writing, and
the host of minor activities associated with museum work, combined with the field activities, completely utilized the Biologist's time during 1953. |
We wish to acknowledge the continued voluntary co-operation of the many citizens
of this Province who contribute annually to our biological collection and knowledge,
especially members of the Victoria branch of the Game Commission, Inspector Stevenson, Game Wardens Joseph Jones and R. Sinclair, and Don Kiers; Game Warden W.
Webb and Constable D. Drapper, R.C.M.P., of the Albernis; Bruce Irving, George
Hillier, Vince Madden, and the late Bill Hillier, of Carmanah Point and Ucluelet; Bert
Robinson, of Atnarko; Len Newbigging, of the Greater Victoria Water Board; Doii
Robinson, of the British Columbia Game Commission at Nanaimo; R. H. Mackay, of
the Canada Wildlife Service; Gordon Pike and F. H. J. Taylor, of the Pacific Biological
Station, Nanaimo, and Superintendent Cowie and staff of Coal Harbour whaling-station;
and many others whom we may have failed to mention here.
(Report of Progress in 1953)
This research began in 1951, was continued in 1952-53 (see British Columbia
Provincial Museum Annual Report for 1952, pp. 17-18).
Continued investigations on Strongtide Island indicate that the introduction of
Peromyscus to that island was a failure. Forty-eight live-trap nights failed to secure
any mice. Close examination for droppings and evidence of feeding activity revealed
no sign whatsoever during the months of January and February. The island was revisited
from time to time during the summer months, and a final examination was made in
November of this year; no evidence of Peromyscus was found.
Vegetation on this island is almost completely denuded by domestic rabbits which
were introduced some years ago, and it is highly probable that insufficient food and cover
exists for other small mammals.   The island has been written off as a unit in this work.
Chain Island has not been live-trapped to determine success of the introduction
there. However, a very close scrutiny of the undercover was made from time to time
throughout the year by Mr. Hardy and the Museum Biologist. We found no evidence
of cutting, runways, or droppings. It is believed that the family of young mice introduced
there succumbed. If this is verified by the pending live-trap programme, a pair of
meadow mice (Microtus townsendi) shall be released this spring. Two of these animals
are now in captivity at the Museum.
Investigations and information received from residents on South Trial Island indicate an unsuccessful introduction there. Mr. Hardy and the Museum Biologist could
find no evidence of droppings or cuttings on the island, and Mr. Evans, the light-keeper,
has seen no mice, nor their sign, about his buildings. In view of the ample evidence
present on North Trial Island, we are fairly certain that Peromyscus are not reproducing
on this island, although it is possible one or two of the same sex may have survived.
A complete programme of snap-trapping and an elapse of considerable time must ensue
before a new introduction is made, unless Microtus are utilized.
North Trial Island is now overrun by Peromyscus. Runways and cuttings of Elymus
from which the seeds had been removed are in such evidence that live-trapping is unnecessary on this island.   A population is well established.
The Chatham Isles (Front and Back) now have well-established populations of
Peromyscus, as was indicated by the live-trapping last year. Residents on the isles
report mice in their dwellings, and several have been trapped on Vantreight Island, where
they apparently crossed over at low tide. Jack Savannah and native residents have taken
Peromyscus in their dwellings.
Discovery Island has not been investigated by live-trapping or visual examination.
However, reports from Mr. Pike, resident light-keeper, indicate that the introduction
there has been successful; Mr. Pike recently destroyed eleven immature Peromyscus
about his buildings.   These reports will be verified by five-trapping later in the season.
The three small islets lying between Chatham and Discovery Islands, and upon
which Peromyscus were introduced last March, have yet to be examined.
Mary Tod Island has been selected as the control unit. Two male and two female
Peromyscus maniculatus interdictus taken at Wolf Lake in mid-March were released
there in mid-June, 1953. From time to time additional stock will be released to maintain a continuous gene flow from Vancouver Island.
One major field-work project was undertaken during the year—a five-week visit to
the Queen Charlotte Islands and Alert Bay. The purpose of the trip was to visit as many
totem-pole villages as possible, examine and photograph the remaining poles, and investigate the possibility of salvaging and restoring them. Travelling alone, the Anthropologist
spent three days at Alert Bay, then proceeded on to Queen Charlotte City. Through the
kindness of the Federal Department of Fisheries, and especially Inspector Jack Bishop
and the crew of M.V. "Agonus," he was able to visit three of the isolated and long-
deserted villages south of Skidegate—Cumshewa (for one day), Skedans (for five days),
and Tanoo (for five days). Visits were also made to the old sites on Maude Island and
Lina Island. At each village the remaining poles were examined, and movies and still
pictures were obtained. Several days were spent with Haida informants at Skidegate
Mission. Information on ownership of the poles in the deserted villages was obtained;
in addition, movies were taken of the carving of argillite totems.
It was discovered that in three of the deserted Haida villages there still exist six
complete poles and sections of about two dozen others that are still in salvable condition.
These are fine carvings, and are sound enough to be brought out if handled carefully; not
to be used as outdoor displays, but to be kept indoors as museum exhibits and as originals
from which replicas can later be made. Left where they are, these poles will rot away
completely in a very few years.
On returning home, the Anthropologist edited the summer's films and made up a
twenty-five-minute movie, "Totem Heritage." Showings of the movie, lectures, and
newspaper and radio publicity have aroused much public interest in these Haida totem-
poles, and at the year's end there was some promise that a programme of salvage could
be arranged for the near future, drawing support from outside sources.
A continuing study of Coast Salish winter spirit dancing took the Anthropologist
to many of the reserves between Duncan and Victoria during January, February, and
March. Fourteen dances were attended, and several other trips were made to obtain
background information. The field-notes obtained have since been rewritten and typed.
Other field work has consisted of a few trips to local archaeological sites.
 B 20
Educational activities increased during the year. Twenty-nine school classes and
three other children's groups (about 1,100 children) made supervised visits to the
Museum and were given talks and demonstrations illustrated by Indian material from
storage. Lectures and films on anthropological subjects were given to the following
outside groups: Victoria Rotary Club, Victoria Kiwanis Club, Victoria Shrine Club, Lake
Hill Women's Institute, Multiple Sclerosis Society, Oak Bay Kiwanis Club, Victoria White
Cane Club, Oaklands Parent-Teacher Association, British Columbia Indian Arts and
Welfare Society (twice), Colwood Community Club, Tillicum Parent-Teacher Association, Order of the Eastern Star, Coqualeetza Fellowship (Vancouver), and University of
British Columbia Anthropology Club. Performances of Kwakiutl dances by Mungo
Martin and his family were arranged for two groups—Victoria Lions Club and Margaret Jenkins Parent-Teacher Association. In April a trip was made to Alberni to show
the Alberni Indians the Museum's movies of their recent dance revival and their performance on the occasion of the Royal visit in 1951.
Two publications were published and distributed—Anthropology in British Columbia, No. 3, and Anthropology in British Columbia, Memoir, No. 1, The Upper Stalo
Indians. Two articles were written for the Sunday magazine section of the Victoria
Colonist and one for Canadian Art magazine. Work was started on a study of early
Indian censuses in British Columbia.
Two new exhibits were installed—one a display of prehistoric Indian stone sculpture
and the other a general introduction to the native tribes of British Columbia. In addition,
several other display-cases were reorganized and improved. Display work continues to
be hampered by lack of storage and work space.
Closest possible relations have been maintained with other institutions. Several
informal conferences on matters of joint interest have been held with colleagues at the
University of British Columbia. In May the Anthropologist attended the Northwest
Anthropological Conference in Pullman, Wash., and Moscow, Idaho. A Museum movie
was shown, and a report on the anthropological work of the Museum was given.
Curatorial duties, such as the accession and care of collections, reception of visitors,
and correspondence have made their usual demands on time. The photographic files and
the library of recorded Kwakiutl songs have been expanded.
Administration of the totem-pole restoration programme in Thunderbird Park
throughout its second year has been the greatest single responsibility of the Anthropologist. The main accomplishment was the construction of a full-sized and authentic
Kwakiutl Indian house as the "centre-piece" of the park. The opening ceremonies
marking the completion of the new house brought the year to a spectacular close.
The Kwakiutl carvers, Mungo Martin and David Martin, worked steadily throughout
the year. In addition, Robert J. Wallace, carpenter, was employed from May 12th to
November 30th to assist in the construction of the house. Early in the year the carvers
made a replica of a Bella Coola grave figure (Museum No. 2311) and, working indoors
on the coldest days, carved three large masks for the Museum collection. Then they
carved the four house-posts for the new house. In May the old Indian "house" was
dismantled, the exhibits from it were set aside to await storage-space, and construction
was started on the new house. Excavation and the construction of concrete footing for
the walls and house-posts were costly and time-consuming preliminaries, but were
necessary in the interests of permanence. By July the carved posts and adzed beams
were in place, and the house began to take shape. Before each timber or plank was
fitted into place, it was adzed by hand to give an authentic appearance, a process which
consumed much time and energy. However, by the end of November the house was
complete, the house-front painted, and the large original totem-pole which Mungo Martin
had carved in 1952 was ready to be erected. On November 30th this pole was raised in
front of the house, and in a brief ceremony Mungo Martin announced the date for his
house-opening potlatch.
It is a pleasure to report that generous donations were made by business firms and
other Government departments. Flavelle Cedar Limited, of Port Moody, donated the
greater part of the cedar house timbers and planks. MacMillan & Bloedel Limited
continued to give the cedar logs for the carved poles. The Parks Branch of the British
Columbia Forest Service co-operated by drawing up the detailed plans for the new
house, and by making available the skilled services of Joseph St. Pierre to help with the
adzing of the cedar planks and timbers. The Public Works Department made available
another dwelling, into which David Martin and his family moved in June. The Photographic Branch, Department of Trade and Industry, did a steady and excellent job of
obtaining still and movie records of the progress in the park and of the house-opening
ceremonies. All this assistance from outside sources has allowed a better and more
comprehensive programme than would otherwise have been possible.
Two main shortcomings have become apparent in the programme. The first is the
lack of storage-space for the fine old original poles as they are taken down and for the
canoes formerly on display. These are still exposed to weather and decay. There is
planned a temporary storage-shed, which will serve as a stop-gap measure, but until
permanent, dry indoor storage is provided, these irreplaceable specimens will continue
to deteriorate. The second need is for. more apprentice carvers. It is now apparent
that on its present scale the programme can support only Mungo Martin and one younger
apprentice. An original intention of the programme was to include a school for totem-
carving to produce several skilled carvers for the future. Suitable young men are now
available, but there are no funds to employ them.
Kwakiutl houses of the nineteenth century were highly distinctive in construction.
Often as large as 90 feet square, they had a massive central framework of carved posts
and beams. The rest of the frame was of hand-hewn timbers, and to this were fitted the
wide, adzed cedar wall and roof boards. Though all are basically similar, the houses
differed in details. The crests carved on the house-posts, the painting (if any) on the
house-front, and other details were inherited family property. No two houses were
This new house is more than just an authentic Kwakiutl house. It is Mungo Martin's
house, and bears on its house-posts hereditary crests of his family. It is a copy of a house
built at Fort Rupert about a century ago by a chief whose position and name Mungo
Martin has inherited and assumed—Naka'penkim. The house of old Chief Naka'penkim
was twice as large, but its general style of construction and the carvings on the house-posts
have been faithfully copied. J§§ §
The house-posts bear the crests of three clans to which Naka'penkim was related
by heredity or marriage. The mythical bird Ho'hoq on the back posts is the main crest
of Gi'ksem clan of the Kwakiutl. The Grizzly Bear on both front and back posts is from
the Wa'walibui clan of the same tribe. The Dsonoqua (mythical wild woman) on the
front posts is a crest of Kwi'ksutenuk tribe of Tribune Channel. Each of these creatures
was prominent in the origin story of the clan concerned.
The house of an important Kwakiutl family sometimes had a name, and this house
has been given the name " Wa'waditla." This was one of two house names owned by
old Naka'penkim, and Mungo Martin has chosen it for this house. It means " he orders
them to come inside "—the chief in this house is so powerful that he can order anyone
else to come in and be his servant. I
B 22
Mungo Martin's new Kwakiutl house erected in Thunderbird Park.
Masked dance performed by Henry Hunt during opening ceremonies of Mungo Martin's
house in Thunderbird Park, December 13th to 15th, 1953.
(Photos by B.C. Government Travel Bureau.)
It was customary for the tall heraldic pole in front of the house to display the crests
of the clans to which the owner of the house belonged. The great pole in front of this
house, however, was carved by Mungo Martin to represent all of the Kwakiutl tribes,
and it shows crests of four of them—the Awaitla, Nakoaktok, and Nimpkish, as well as
the Kwakiutl proper.
The top figure is Tsoona, the Thunderbird, a crest of the Tsoo'tsuna clan of the
Awaitla tribe of Knight Inlet. The original ancestor of this clan was the Thunderbird,
who became a man. Later his son returned to the sky to control thunder and lightning.
Next is Wa'libui, the Grizzly Bear ancestor of the Wa'walibui clan of the Kwakiutl, and
then a man, representing the same being after he became human. Next is the Beaver,
Tsa'wa, an ancestor of the Nakoaktok tribe, Blunden Harbour. One clan of the Nimpkish
tribe has the mythical giantess Dsonoqua as its crest. According to the clan tradition,
one of two brothers once pursued the creature, who had been stealing drying fish. He
eventually married her, and their son Tsee'lthwalakami, half man, half Dsonoqua, became
the founder of the clan. The bottom figure on the totem-pole represents this tradition,
and shows Dsonoqua holding her son.
Mungo Martin's huge painting on the front of the house serves to represent yet
another of the two dozen Kwakiutl tribes—the Tenaktok of Knight Inlet. The design
shows Tsee'akis, a supernatural sea-monster shaped like a bullhead (sculpin). This
design was formerly painted on the front of the house of a chief called Kwaksistala, at the
village of Kalokwis.   This man was a distant " uncle " of Mungo Martin.
It was customary among the Kwakiutl to mark the completion of a new house with
great ceremonies. At such house-warmings, the owner usually explained his right to the
carved and painted crests he had used by relating family traditions. He usually "pot-
latched " gifts to those who had helped build the house and those whom he had invited
to attend. He often took the opportunity to bestow important inherited names upon
members of his family, and to display the masked dances and other ceremonies which
belonged to his family.
It was understood from the start that opening ceremonies along these lines, with
Mungo Martin as host, would mark the completion of this house. Accordingly, plans
were made for three days of ceremonies—December 14th, 15th, and 16th. Mungo Martin
sent word to the Kwakiutl villages, and certain of the native singers and dancers came
to assist—Daniel Cranmer, as interpreter; Tom Omhid, the tribal song-leader; George
Scow, Charles No well, and others. Several rehearsals were held on the nights before
the event.
The first day was for Indians only, so that Mungo Martin could perform his
traditional ceremonies and display his masks and dances in a setting as authentic as
possible. This was a completely authentic and serious affair, not a show for outsiders.
It was attended by natives from most of the tribes of the Coast. The only whites allowed
in were a few anthropologists from Victoria, Vancouver, and Seattle, who had been
invited in accordance with Mr. Martin's wish to have the customs, songs, and speeches
recorded. The people gathered at the house in the afternoon. Mourning songs for
recently deceased relatives were sung first. Then the ceremony opening the winter dance
season was performed: songs were sung, red cedar-bark head-bands were passed out,
and down was placed on the heads of guests. A family ceremony—the cradle ceremony—
was performed in honour of David Martin's daughter. Then feast songs were sung, and
there was a break for dinner, which was provided near by in the Crystal Garden. In the
evening many colourful masked dances were performed.
On the second day, in the afternoon, a special series of dances was staged for the
press, movies, radio, news-reel, and television.    Government photographers obtained
 B 24
600 feet of colour movies.    The television film was shown across Canada on C.B.C
television news telecasts.   Photographs obtained by the press were published in numbers!
In the evening of the second day a two-hour programme of the ceremonies and
dances was presented for an audience of over 200 local and Provincial Government
officials, donors of materials, and other guests. Printed invitations and souvenir programmes were prepared for this event.
On the final day, in the afternoon and again in the evening, similar programmes
were presented and the general public was invited. Public interest was intense, and
although more than 300 were crowded into the house on each occasion, many had to
be turned away. In the evening an estimated 1,500 were not able to get in. Because
the Indian performers had to return to their homes, it was not possible to stage additional
At a final ceremony in the presence of the Indians, the Anthropologist formally
thanked Mungo Martin for building his house here in Thunderbird Park, and promised
him that it would be well cared for in the future. He also thanked Mr. Martin for performing his family dances and ceremonies and allowing them to be recorded. Thanks
were given also to the dancers who had come long distances to assist.
The ceremonies as a whole aroused tremendous interest in native culture and the
preservation of native art and ceremonies. At the year's end several groups were
attempting to promote an extension of Thunderbird Park and the construction of a new
museum.   The latter is long overdue, and it is to be hoped that these efforts are successful.
During 1953 the following specimens were added to the catalogued collections
(figures in parentheses indicate the total number on December 31st, 1953): Indian
material, 591 (7,858); plants, 1,527 (24,468); mammals, 14 (5,803); birds, 33
(10,103); reptiles and amphibians, 4 (888); fishes, 4 (766).
The Claud Barlow Collection.—(Gift.) A collection of Interior Indian points,
blades, drills, and scrapers, donated by C. Barlow, Victoria.
The B. K. Shade Collection.—(Gift.) A small collection of Haida and Nootkan
Indian material, donated by B. K. Shade, Victoria. fj
The B. G. Hamilton Collection.—(Gift.) A large collection mainly of Kootenay
and Huron Indian material, collected by the late Basil G. Hamilton, of Invermere, and
presented to the Museum under the terms of the will of the late Dr. Mary E. Crawford.
The St. Roch Collection.—A collection of Eskimo implements collected by the
R.C.M.P. vessel I St. Roch," and presented by Inspector H. A. Larson to the Provincial
Archives, was transferred to the Museum. m
4 Haida
Fish-hook.   Jeannette C. Conn, Yarmouth, N.S.
Spruce-root baskets, four.   In Shade collection.
Wooden spoon.   In Shade collection.
Carved staff.   In Shade collection.
Halibut-hooks, two.   In Shade collection.
Stone hand-maul.   J. Groven, Queen Charlotte City.
Tobacco-pestle.   J. Groven, Queen Charlotte City.
Skull and jaw.   Staff.
Stone hand-maul.   Provincial Archives.
Stone hand-hammer.   Provincial Archives.
Stone chopping-adze.   Provincial Archives.
Paddles, four.   Provincial Archives.
Argillite totem-pole.   Mrs. B. Lukin Johnston, Victoria.    (Purchase.)
Woven spruce-root basket.   In Hamilton collection.
Halibut-hook.   In Hamilton collection.
Raven mask.   Mungo Martin, Fort Rupert.    (Purchase.)
Horn spoon.   In Shade collection.
| Bird " rattle.   R. W. Parsons, Victoria.
Stone club-head.   In Hamilton collection.
Dance masks, three.   Mungo Martin.
Skull (fragmentary).   Mrs. A. Hoskins, Bamfield.
Lance-blade.   In Shade collection.
Wooden spoons, five.   In Shade collection.
Small woven baskets, two.   In Hamilton collection.
Coast Salish
Slate knife.   Department of Mines, per A. S. Brown.
Bone harpoon fragment.   Mrs. G. G. Aitken, Milnes Landing.
Parts of two skeletons.   Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ganges.
Human skull.   G. Cummings, Victoria.
Nephrite celt.   Mrs. J. W. Anderson, Victoria.
Stone hammer.   H. J. Lawrence, Galiano Island.
Slate knife, fragment.   H. J. Lawrence, Galiano Island.
Nephrite celt.   H. J. Lawrence, Galiano Island.
Antler wedge.   H. J. Lawrence, Galiano Island.
Antler flaking-tools, three.   H. J. Lawrence, Galiano Island.
Club-handle, whale-bone.   H. J. Lawrence, Galiano Island.
Parts of skeleton.   H. J. Lawrence, Galiano Island.
Worked antler fragments.   H. J. Lawrence, Galiano Island.
Antler implements, two.   H. J. Lawrence, Galiano Island.
Antler bark-lifter.   H. J. Lawrence, Galiano Island.
Parts of skeleton.   Warden Allen, Victoria.
Bone harpoon-point.   Mrs. G. G. Aitken, Milnes Landing.
Celt.   W. J. Davey, Milnes Landing.
Nephrite celt.   Arthur Peake, Haney.    #
Skull.   Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Victoria.
Nephrite celt.   J. A. Heritage, Victoria.
Ground slate point.   J. Bishop, Queen Charlotte City.
Stone hammers, two.   Provincial Archives. 9.
Stone artifacts, three.   Qualicum.   Mrs. R. I. Kellie, Victoria.
Stone blades, two.   Melvin G. Briggs, Victoria.
Interior Salish
Perforated charm stones, three.   Miss M. Pease, Hollyburn.
Nephrite celts, twenty.   In Barlow collection.
 B 26
Stone maul.   In Barlow collection.
Arrow-smoothers, nine.   In Barlow collection.
Antler wedges, two.   In Barlow collection.
Dentalium-shells.   In Barlow collection.
Chipped scrapers, blades, points, and drills (325).   In Barlow collection.
Parts of skeleton.   Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Oliver.
Coiled basket.   In Hamilton collection.
Beaded deerskin leggings.   In Hamilton collection.
Beaded papoose-carrier.   In Hamilton collection.
Woman's buffalo-hide bag.   In Hamilton collection.
Parfleches, cattle-hide, three.   In Hamilton collection. w
Pairs of antler saddle-horns, three.   In Hamilton collection. jj|
Saddles, three.   In Hamilton collection.
Coiled baskets, two.   In Hamilton collection.
Sample of roots used for baskets.   In Hamilton collection.
Birch-bark dipper.   In Hamilton collection.
Birch-bark basket.   In Hamilton collection.
Horn ladle.   In Hamilton collection.
Bone graining-tool.   In Hamilton collection.
Bone awl in antler handle.   In Hamilton collection.
Indian food.   In Hamilton collection.
Stone mauls, grooved for haft, nine.   In Hamilton collection.
Broken stone mauls, two.   In Hamilton collection.
Stone pestles, five.   In Hamilton collection.
Stone chopper.   In Hamilton collection.
Nephrite celt.   In Hamilton collection.
Iron knife-blade.   In Hamilton collection.
Iron axe, badly rusted.   In Hamilton collection.
Stone sinkers, seven.   In Hamilton collection.
Obsidian points, two.   In Hamilton collection.
Gaff.   In Hamilton collection.
Stone charm.   In Hamilton collection.
Chipped arrow-point.   In Hamilton collection.
Antler club.   In Hamilton collection.
Arrowshaft-smoothers, two.   In Hamilton collection.
Leister (fish-spear).   In Hamilton collection.
Chipped dart-point of Eden (Yuma) type.   In Hamilton collection.
Scraper.   In Hamilton collection.
Native pigment samples, two.   In Hamilton collection.
Stone food-beater.   Provincial Archives.
Chipped points and scrapers, six.   H. A. Wickes, Victoria.
Stone celt fragment.   Mrs. L. R. Harrison, Vancouver. 1
Beaded buckskin fire-bag.   In Hamilton collection.
Beaded band.   In Hamilton collection. I
Beaded belt.   In Hamilton collection.
Pair of moccasins, two.   In Hamilton collection.
Chipped knives, eleven.   C. P. Lyons, Victoria.
Huron (Ontario)
Tomahawks, three.   In Hamilton collection.
Pottery bowl (in pieces).   In Hamilton collection.
Stone adze.   In Hamilton collection.
Stone celts, six.   In Hamilton collection.
Piece of pipe-stem, stone pipe, pottery pipe fragments.    In Hamilton collection.
Sheet copper arrow-head, arrow-head.   In Hamilton collection.       E
Lacrosse stick.   In Hamilton collection.
New Zealand
Jade adze.   Mrs. W. C. Cryer, Victoria.
Bow and arrows in case.   In Shade collection.
Stone lamp.   In Hamilton collection.
Hunter's outfit.   In St. Roch collection.
Soapstone cooking-pot.    In St. Roch collection.
Soapstone lamps, four.   In St. Roch collection.
Musk-ox horn ladle.   In St. Roch collection.
Horn spoons, two.   In St. Roch collection.
Whale-bone tray.   In St. Roch collection.
Adze with slate blade.   In St. Roch collection.
Adze with jade blade.   In St. Roch collection.
Hafted jade hammer.   In St. Roch collection.
Bone adze-handle.   In St. Roch collection.
Jade adze-blade.   In St. Roch collection.
Whaling-harpoons with slate blade, two.   In St. Roch collection.
Slate blade for whale-harpoon.   In St. Roch collection.
Sealing-harpoons with slate blades, two.   In St. Roch collection.
Long bone harpoon.   In St. Roch collection.
Short bone harpoon.   In St. Roch collection.
Antler fish-spear prong.   In St. Roch collection.
Gaff of bone and copper.   In St. Roch collection.
Hafted slate knives, four.   In St. Roch collection. %
Blades for slate knives, three.   In St. Roch collection.
Knife with bone handle.   In St. Roch collection.
Pair of wooden snow-goggles.   In St. Roch collection.
Pair of bone snow-goggles.   In St. Roch collection.
Soapstone pipe.   In St. Roch collection.
Carved bone drum-handle.   In St. Roch collection.
Carved bone needle-case.   In St. Roch collection.
Bone needle.   In St. Roch collection.
Chipped points, four.   In St. Roch collection.
Short bone-handled knife.   In St. Roch collection.
Short scraper.   In St. Roch collection. |p
Short drill.   In St. Roch collection.
Lignite labrets, three.   In St. Roch collection.
Ivory pendants, two.   In St. Roch collection.
Lump of native copper.   In St. Roch collection.
Petrified wood.   In St. Roch collection.
Miscellaneous bone and ivory pieces.   In St. Roch collection.
 B 28
Several chipped arrow-heads, Saskatchewan.   Mrs. A. S. Worthen, Victoria.
Selection of chipped artifacts from British Columbia.   Miss Bessie Thomas, Victoria.
By gift-
Ralph Wherry, Victoria, two mink skeletons.
A. W. Vinson, Vanderhoof, head of a mouse.
British Columbia Game Department, Victoria, two cougar heads, one racoon.
A. Morod, Zeballos, eight marten skulls.
Art Colden, Kyuquot, one Stellar sea-lion skull.
E. G. Flesher, Phillips Arm, one collection of mammal skulls.
D. Leavens, Egmont, one mink skull.
Patsy Thomas, Victoria, one Baird's dolphin (found on beach).
John Newbigging, Esquimalt, three Townsend voles.
George Hillier, Ucluelet, one California sea-lion skull.
Mrs. E. C. Carson, Victoria, one mounted moose head.
G. D. Sprot, Victoria, one wolverine skin.
F. H. C. Taylor, Nanaimo, one porpoise skeleton.
Gordon Pike, Coal Harbour, one grey-whale skeleton.
L. Drummon, Quesnel, one fisher (by purchase).
J. A. Flett, Cobble Hill, one black rat.
By the staff |  25
By gift~ m
Mrs. H. M. S. Bell, Victoria, one Cooper's hawk, one song-sparrow.
W. H. Turnbull, Victoria, one Cedar waxwing.
Col. S. Goode, Victoria, one song-sparrow.
Morris Jackson, Fanny Bay, one russet-backed thrush.
Mrs. J. W. Anderson, Victoria, one olive-sided flycatcher.
W. J. Banning, Victoria, one night-hawk, two horned owls, one screech owl,
one Cooper's hawk.
J. Scarlet, weather ship " Stonehouse," Victoria, one black-footed albatross,
one boreal petrel.
B. Irving, South Pender Island, one Bullock's oriole, one poorwill. one northern
Mr. Moore, Victoria, collection of mounted birds.
F. H. C. Taylor, Nanaimo, one pink-footed shearwater, one Pacific fulmar, two
long-tailed jaegers, four pomarine jaegers, three skuas, one murre, one
boreal petrel, one tufted puffin. I
Mr. Stevenson, Victoria, one mounted hawk and collection of mounted birds.
T. L. Thacker, Hope, one sora rail.
T. Turner, Victoria, one osprey.   |
P. Walker, Victoria, one blue heron.
J. J. Woods, Saanichton, one peregrine falcon.
Fen Lansdowne, Victoria, one northern fulmar.
Ted White, Victoria, one golden-crowned sparrow.
Judy Carl, Victoria, one varied thrush. §'!
J. O. Clay, Victoria, one red phalarope.
Lionel Kirkham, Victoria, one lesser snow-goose.
Charles Estliri, Courtenay, one whistling swan.
Frank Beebe, Victoria, one Swainson hawk.
Alec Johnston, Victoria, one Peale's falcon, one golden-eye duck.
British Columbia Game Department, Victoria, one pigeon-hawk.
J. F. Rowe, Victoria, one red crossbill..
R. Fryer, Comox, one horned lark.
Hiscocks & Clearihue Limited, druggists, Victoria, one wandering albatross
(head and wings).                          ||
Miss M. C. Milburn, Victoria, one Pacific fulmar.
John Dunn, Olalla, one golden eagle.
By the staff  21
Amphibians and Reptiles
By gift-
Henry Biles, Victoria, one alligator-lizard.
Miss Peggy Carl, Victoria, one western spotted frog.
Avery S. King, Penticton, one rattlesnake.
By the staff     1
By gift— §
Kerry Beebe, Victoria, one chub.
Mrs. G. C. Carl, Victoria, one arrow goby.
H. Cotterill, Victoria, sculpin-egg mass.
Robert Ellis, Victoria, one wolf-fish.
A. Gorie, Victoria, sculpin-egg mass.
A. H. Hacklett, Victoria, one crucifix fish skeleton.
G. D. Heritage, Powell River, one stickleback.
R. A. Prince, Victoria, one prow-fish.
By gift-
Miss Diane Andrews, Victoria, one California prionus grub.
James W. Arden, Sooke, one prawn.
Miss Dorothy Carson, Victoria, one California prionus.
Mrs. P. Corry, Victoria, one crab-spider.
W. Fletcher, Victoria, one banded borer.
Miss C. Gillespie, Victoria, one "hair snake."
F. Goertz, Osoyoos, one mantispid.
Carol Harris and Judy Hunt, Victoria, one king-crab.
Mrs. I. Jonas, Nanaimo, one sphinx-moth.
G. Laurence, Victoria, one striped cockchafer.
Miss Sonja Mordby, Victoria, one banded argiope.
Mrs. M. G. Murray, Port Washington, one electric-light bug.
S. L. Neave, Kyuquot, one crinoid.
E. O. Olson, Victoria, one California prionus.
A. Peake, Haney, one fossil ammonite.
Mrs. M. G. Sember, Victoria, one shell of turtle-crab.
Mrs. W. E. Sims, Victoria, one caterpillar.
F. C. Smith, Victoria, one scorpion.
T. L. Thacker, Hope, mollusc specimen.
 B 30
P. Walker, Colquitz, one spider (Aranea trifolium).
N. Webb, Lake Cowichan, collection of fairy-shrimps.
By gift— I
Mrs. K. Aitkens, Victoria, four fossils and four concretions.
R. K. Bradley, Westview, one fossil.
Miss Georgina Crewe, Victoria, one fossil.
H. R. Erb, Victoria, one fossil.
William Higgs, Nanaimo, two fossils.
Mrs. R. I. Kellie, Qualicum, fossilized portion of coral colony.
A. J. Ostrem, Fort St. James, fossil samples from Frances Lake.
A. Peake, Haney, one fossil.
Bygift— |
J. H. Scarlett, Victoria, 50 feet of movie film.
Mrs. E. M. Simson, Victoria, on behalf of the late Thomas Stanley Simson,
twenty-eight books and one magnifying-lens.
By Lela M. Griffith, Egmont, B.C.
To us commercial fishing has always had an important by-product—molluscs and
other forms of life from deep water. Our shell collection was actually started, not with
shells gathered on the beach and not even with molluscs, but with two species of
brachiopods snagged on trolling-gear some years ago. They were taken in Sechelt Inlet
and brought home as curiosities, later to be identified as Laqueus jeffreysi, a smooth
round broVnish lamp-shell, and Terebratalia transversa, quite heavily ribbed and of a
reddish colour, each attached to a sponge by a peduncle or stalk. We still have them, and
to this modest beginning have added from time to time all that our own gear brought up
and all that we could persuade anyone else to save of deep-water material.
It is not quite accurate to say the shells were snagged on the gear, although once in
a while a scallop closes on a hook. What the hook catches as it is hauled along the
bottom is much more likely to be a sponge or bryozoan which, in turn, often brings up
the rock to which it adheres, and either the sponge or the rock may carry a variety of
shells and other small creatures. The population of one more or less typical rock consisted of the following assortment: Four bryozoans of three different species, one snake's
head lamp-shell (Terebratulina unguicula), one brachiopod (Platidea aneminoides), two
ridged clams (Humilaria kennerlyi), one horse-mussel (Modiolus modiolus), three
checked hairy-shells (Trichotropis cancellata), one Lyonsia pugettensis, and two corals
(Balanophyllia elegans). These ranged in size from a 3-inch bryozoan to a Platidea no
bigger than the head of a pin. Naturally a good many rocks and sponges are barren and
not all types of fishing-gear have hooks, but each has contributed at one time or another
something besides the commercial product for which it is used.
Aside from those already mentioned, we have had few shells of any value from
trolling-gear but did pick off kelp, dragged from 6 fathoms near Grant Reef, a tiny pearly
Cyprceolina pyriformis, a snail shaped like an infinitesimal cowry, and one Clinocardium
californiense, a small cockle with more and finer ribs than the common basket-cockle.
Seines and gill-nets with their too-large mesh are poor equipment for collecting
shells, but sometimes they bring up mud and debris, embedded in which there may be
specimens. From such a source have come some interesting species, particularly small
round mussels (Modiolaria nigra obesus), each in its protecting gob of jelly. These came
up in a gill-net in Rivers Inlet. Also from a gill-net but off the Point Grey flats we
obtained a fine little moon-snail (Polinices pallida) and a bent-nosed clam (Macoma
nasuta), and in Johnstone Strait a Chinese-hat snail (Calyptrtea fastigiata), like a conical
limpet outside but with a spiral deck inside. These were attached to kelp holdfasts which
came aboard in the net. Here in Jervis Inlet a gill-net inconveniently sank when its floats
water-logged, but to make up for the trouble it caused it brought up our first Cidarina
cidaris, pearly little turbans with spiral rows of beading, and several more of the brown
lamp-shells (Laqueus jeffreysi).
Seines have not yielded much—one hairy brown horse-mussel (Modiolus modiolus)
and, from Deserted Bay in Jervis Inlet, a number of long slim jack-knife clams (Solen
H Last year a friend gave us a fine big scallop (Chlamys caurina), the only perfect
specimen we have of this species. Her son brought it home after working on a bottom-
dragger in Hecate Strait several years ago. These shells, much sought after by collectors,
are commonly taken, I believe, in trawls, but, unfortunately, we do not know nor have
we been able to contact any trawlers.
Shrimp-traps " catch " no bivalves, but snails are sometimes attracted by the smell
-- the bait intended for the shrimps. From traps put down in a depth of nearly 100
fathoms in the vicinity of Cortez Island, we had a donation of nine specimens of Neptunea
Phoenicia large handsome brown snails with distinct spiral ribs, and from the same
source but taken in Bute Inlet, we obtained one huge ridged whelk (Neptunea liratus)
bigger and handsomer even than its aforementioned cousm. Shrimp-traps in 70 fathoms
of water off Shannon Creek in Sechelt Inlet invariably bring up a quantity of Colus
morditus and C. jordani, more or less evenly divided as, to numbers. They are smooth
brown snails, 1 to W2 inches, usually partially covered with black growth and rather
difficult to tell apart. With them once was the larger more distinctive Colus herendeeni,
with fine spiral lines and a thin olive-brown periostracum. After these aristocrats the
take in Jervis Inlet has not been very spectacular, mostly the large hairy Oregon tritons
(Argobuccinum oregonense) with sadly worn apexes from being dragged by their owners
over rocky bottom, the lowly black spindle-shells (Searlesia dira), and a few all-too-
common dog-whelks (Nassarius mendicus).
Although there is no commercial crab-fishing in this inlet, we have tried crab-traps
for snails but with very indifferent success. We are too near the Skookumchuck and the
strong tide fouls the buoy-line, and finally it breaks, thereby losing the trap. The odd
times it came safely up we got mostly the same old spindle-shells and dog-whelks but
did secure one prize, the lovely little spotted top-shell (Calliostoma variegatum) and one
Puncturella cuculata, a limpet-like shell with sharp ridges and a slit at the apex of
the cone.
«; Cod hand-lines have supplied us with several scallops each year. Three kinds are
in the inlet—Chlamys hindsi, C. hindsi kincaidi, and C. hericius—all in varying shades
of pink and all very beautiful. The first two are about 2 to 2Vi inches across, the last
mentioned a bit larger and more vividly coloured, with coarse spiny ribs. These are
swimming shell-fish, and when a line drags between the valves, they immediately snap
shut instead of prudently backing off.
Sometimes from the stomachs of the cod we get the ribbed top-shell (Calliostoma
costatum), the outside layer of the shell dissolved away by the action of the stomach
acid, leaving the pretty pink and blue pearl exposed. Once, in an urn-shaped sponge
stuck on the hook, we found a young octopus (Polypus hongkongensis).
The set-line or long-line has been by far the most prolific producer of shells, etc.
It may be from 100 fathoms to a mile in length, lies on the bottom with short gangings
at regular intervals, each bearing a hook—perhaps a thousand on a mile of line. It is
lifted by a buoy-line and drags a bit on the sand or rock as it is pulled, the empty hooks
catching this and that as they go by. At least it used to work that way. For two or three
years now there has been no market for dogfish-livers, and hence, to our intense regret,
no set-line fishing.   However, we have had, over the years, a prodigious haul.
Many of the species from other gear also showed up from the set-line. A few each
of Cidarina cidaris, Calliostoma variegatum, Puncturella cuculata, Colus morditus and
C. jordani, Modiolus modiolus; one only Colus herendeeni; and one Polypus hongkongensis, the latter from the stomach of a dogfish. A good many each of Argobuccinum
oregonense, Searlesia dira, Nassarius mendicus, Laqueus jeffreysi, and about a dozen
Neptunea Phoenicia. Always a fair supply of the three scallops Chlamys hindsi, C. hindsi
kincaidi, and C. hericius—one notable contribution of nine specimens; seven C. h. kincaidi and two C. hericius; these last two from the stomach of a large red anemone—all
taken at the same time from approximately the same spot. jt
The list of those peculiar to the set-line is quite impressive. A tiny brown limpet
making its home on kelp (Acmea instabilis); Lepeta concentrica, small, whitish, and
limpet-like with faint striations and the periostracum eroded away at the apex; Solarielk
peramabilis, a pearly turban looking like a small tube wound round leaving an open
umbilicus; the common little checkered littorine (Littorina scutulata); the white slipper-
shell (Crepidula nivea), oval, clinging flatly, pearly inside with a deck squarely across
one end; Melanella comoxensis, tiny pink-spired snails (our specimens were picked oft
an old shoe); Ocinebra fraseri, a knobby little fellow with a sort of basket-work sculpture;
Trophon tenuisculptus, similar to the last but longer and slimmer with an elongated and
twisted canal; Olivella boetica, the little olive, purplish and porcelain-like, one only taken
off Scuttle Bay; Siphonaria thersites, looking like a brown horn-limpet but with a slight
groove running from the vertex to the margin inside; Loligo opalescens, the slim squid
with its opalescent hues. /
Bivalves, too, are well represented. Two thin white transparent scallops about the
size of a finger-nail—Pecten vancouverensis and P. randolphi, the former with a few
roughish lines and the latter smooth; two little brown clams, one with heavy concentric
ridges (Astarte alaskensis) and one with fighter broken ribs (Astarte esquimalti); small
yellowish Kelly shells (Kellia suborbicularis), two juveniles only we have; Panomya
ampla, a heavy irregular shell, chalky white in colour; Hiatella gallicana, an oblong
misshapen little clam found burrowed into sponges and in crevices in rocks; the white
ridged clam (Humilaria kennerlyi); Lyonsia pugettensis, small, silvery, and delicate.
To these we add two brachiopods—one flat, round, brown, and of very minute
dimensions (Platidea aneminoides), the little lamp-shell; the other about an inch long,
white with fine lines radiating from the area of the beaks (Terebratulina unguicula), the
snake's head lamp-shell.
In addition to molluscs and brachiopods, the set-lines and cod-lines pick up other
items which may be of interest. First, two protozoa hardly large enough to see—a round
one looking as if it were made of overlapping plates (Foraminifera discorbis) and a slim
curved one (Foraminifera dentalina).
In the coelenterates are the very pretty, hard, little pink " corals' (Diaperoecia
vancouverensis); two gorgonian corals, the large spreading fan-shaped structure, soft
and brittle, of a gorgeous red colour (Euplexora marki); and the yellow " huckleberry-
bush," equally large but strong and shrubby, sometimes with a trunk like a young tree,
a species of Eunicea. Then there is our only true coral, Balanophyllia elegans, called the
cup-coral, quite small, round, and cup-shaped, of a vivid orange hue. Two sea-pens are
fairly common. Ptilosarcus quadrangularis is up to a foot long, the "stem5 thick and
fleshy, polyps on leaf-like attachments along more than half the length, all bright reddish-
orange. Stylatula elongata is similar in structure but much slimmer, up to 6 feet long
and a pale ivory colour.
The most attractive echinoderm is the pale lacy basket-star (Gorgonocephalus caryi)
with a very small body but surrounded by many waving arms, the original five each
branched twelve times. Another odd starfish is Ceramaster arcticus, also pale but flat
and almost a perfect pentagon, seemingly with no arms at all. From 400 fathoms come
heart-urchins (Lovenia cordiformis), very spiny and more fragile than the shallow-water
A few crustaceans are worthy of note: the squat lobster (Munida quadrispina) with
his short red body and long red legs, not quite a lobster and not quite a crab; the great
warty box-crab (Lopholithodes foraminatus), which folds so that his shelly parts fit
tightly around openings between the front legs, permitting passage in and out of water
currents; the equally large and very similar king-crab (Lopholithodes mandti), distinguished by the lack of the foramen. Strangely enough we have taken box-crabs in all
sizes but only large king-crabs. Not off the fishing-gear but on kelp lifted by the anchor,
we collected two choice species—from Baker Pass a pair of wee white gem-clams (Gemma
gemma) and from Rivers Inlet one fat brown chink-snail (Lacuna porrecta).
So much for what we have. The fishing season is on again and we anticipate what
it will bring, perhaps not much but always the chance of something strange. Perhaps
were will be set-line fishing again one day. Perhaps we shall meet a co-operative trawler.
And who knows? Perhaps this article will inspire some fisherman to save those oddities
that come up on his gear.    Of course, there is, too, the dredge, but that is another story.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty


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