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REPORT of THE FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST 1953 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1955

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. R. E. SOMMERS, Minister DR. C. D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1953
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1954
  Victoria, B.C., March, 1953.
To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
m   Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of the
Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1953.
m R. E. SOMMERS,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
 The Honourable R. E. Sommers,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1953.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.
 CONTENTS
Item Page
1. Introductory _  9
2. Forest Surveys and Inventory   15
Forest Surveys  15
Forest Inventory  15
3. Forest Research _  43
Cowichan Lake Experiment Station  43
Aleza Lake Experiment Station  43
Genetics  44
Statistics  45
Permanent-plot Studies  45
Field Projects  45
Research Publications  52
4. Reforestation-—  53
Forest Nurseries  5 3
Seed Collections  54
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  54
Planting  54
Preparation of Planting Areas _■__ 55
Plantations  55
Plantation Improvement  55
5. Parks and Recreation  56
Administration and Development  5 6
Planning  60
Reconnaissance and Inventory  61
Wildlife Management  62
Engineering and Architectural Design  62
6. Working Plans  64
Forest Management Licences %  64
Public Working-circles  64
Farm Wood-lot Licences  65
Tree-farms  65
Summary  65
7. Forest Management  67
General  67
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  68
||    Forest-cover Maps .  68
Aerial Photographs  69
Forest Management Licence Administration  69
Silvicultural Fund 1  69
8. Grazing  70
Introduction  70
General Conditions I  70
Administration..  71
Grazing Permits  71
Hay Permits %  71
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees  72
Co-operation jjj 72
Range Improvement  72
Range Survey  74
5
 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
6
Item Page
8. Grazing—Continued
Miscellaneous  74
I  Live-stock Losses  74
|§L _  _   Diseases-of Live Stock  74
|| Markets and Prices  74
Live-stock Counts  75
Prosecutions  75
9. Engineering Services    76
Engineering Section  76
General Engineering  76
Engineering Design  77
Road Reconnaissance  77
Location Surveys  77
Road Construction  78
Mechanical Section  81
Equipment Selection and New Equipment Consideration  81
Inspection and Maintenance  83
Structural Design and Building Construction Section  83
Forest Service Marine Station  85
Radio Section  86
10. Forest Protection    91
Weather  91
Fires  91
Occurrences and Causes  91
Cost of Fighting Fires  92
Damage  92
Fire-control Planning and Research  92
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers  92
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography I  92
Fire-weather Records and Investigations  93
Fire-suppression Crews  94
Aircraft  94
Roads and Trails  95
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  95
Fire-law Enforcement  96
Forest Closures  96
Co-operation—Other Agencies  96
11. Forest-insect Investigations    97
12. Forest-disease Investigations  100
Forest-disease Survey  1W
Nursery, Seed, and Cone Diseases  10°
Diseases of Immature Forests  101
Diseases of Mature Forests  *02
13. Forest Ranger School  104
Extra Courses   $ ---
Building and Grounds  -^
Acknowledgments    107
14. Forest Accounts _  -~-
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 7
t-._,». Page
Item
15. Public Relations and Education  109
Press and Radio  109
Publications and Printing  109
Photography and Motion Pictures  109
Film Library  110
Signs and Posters  110
Co-operation  110
Library  110
16. Personnel  111
Administration  111
Services  111
Communications ___  111
Training  113
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turn-over  113
Classifications and Salaries  114
Boys' Training and Youth-rehabilitation Camps    114
Miscellaneous  114
17. Personnel Directory, 1954 — 116
18. Appendix — Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service  125
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE
Legislation
Amendments to the " Forest Act" included the addition of one month to the closed
season for fires, establishing it as from May 1st to October 31st, with the provision that
this period may be altered by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council.
Provision was made for the use by the public of logging rights-of-way over Crown
lands. Such rights-of-way are declared to be private property, and the owner has certain
authority as regards their use by the public. He may require the user to obtain permission, and may restrict the use or close such road if damage may result to it, or if such use
endangers life or property. Also, the owner may remove any vehicle or animal unlawfully
using the road. However, if the owner refuses permission to use the road, the applicant
may appeal to the Minister of Lands and Forests and the latter may grant such right.
Such roads are not highways, as mentioned in section 120. Unauthorized use of such
roads is made an offence under the provisions of the Act.
A significant amendment to the j Forest Act," both from the forestry standpoint and
for the Provincial economy, was the provision requiring reforesting of private lands.
Such land was defined as lands alienated by the Crown. The Minister may cause land to
be examined to determine if it will find its best use under forest crop, and the extent to
which it is stocked with forest-growth. If the land will find its best use as forest crop, it
is classed as forest land which is either satisfactorily or unsatisfactorily stocked. Notice
of the classification is given, and registration of such notice can be made in the Land
Registry Office. If the lands are unsatisfactorily stocked, the Minister may direct the
owner to reforest the land to the extent and at the times specified. The owner is required
to carry out the Minister's instructions, and if he fails to do so, the Minister may have the
land reforested and the costs charged to the owner, who is required to pay at an annual
rate not exceeding 10 per cent of the amount. The Crown also has a lien on the land for
the costs.
Of interest to forest-owners, although not related to the " Forest Act," are two other
items of legislation. The § Taxation Act" was amended to permit taxation of lands held
in timber lease and timber licences where stumpage had not been reserved to the Crown.
Returns are required as set forth in the Act and include the submission of records of
accrued timber on the area. The taxation rate is 1 per cent of the assessed value. There
is a provision permitting the remission or deduction of taxes on lands where the owner
has been directed to reforest them under the " Forest Act," but the reduction shall not
reduce the tax to less than 1 per cent of the assessed value.
An Act, known as the | Logging Tax Act," provided for a tax of 10 per cent of the
income in excess of $25,000 derived from logging operations.
Forest Surveys and Inventory
During the year, the third under co-operative agreement with the Canadian Government in a survey of the forest resources of the Province, a total of 21,987,000 acres were
surveyed in the Columbia, Fraser, Peace, Morice, Buckley, and Babine drainages. This
programme employed 284 persons. The work of some of the cruising parties was extended to include the acquisition of data as a basis for suitable volume tables and cull
factors to control non-sampling errors in the volume estimates for the forest inventory.
Forest Research
Work was begun on the renovation and relocation of some camp buildings at Cowichan Lake Experiment Station.   Considerable trail-widening was undertaken to increase
 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
accessibility to all parts of the forest for protection and management purposes. At Aleza
Lake Station, a 20,000-gallon reservoir was added to the water system. A small forest
nursery was established. The access road through the forest to the Bear River was
improved by ditching, gravelling, and bridge work.
Work in a new field for the Division—forest genetics—was initiated during the year,
and a start made at collecting Douglas-fir seed from different stands at various elevations!
A member of the staff with advanced training in statistical methods was assigned to
collaborate with officers of this and other divisions in the design of research projects.
Re-examination was completed of those permanent growth-study plots due for periodic review. There were thirteen parties in the field during the year, handling thirty-two
separate studies. All studies are listed and some findings given in detail. Of particular
interest was an investigation into factors effecting the formation of heart-wood in Douglas
fir, a study of chemical treatment of trees to facilitate debarking, and studies of direct
seeding and rodent-control.
A number of thinning experiments were worked upon, as follows: Two at Cowichan
Lake Station in Douglas fir; one in lodgepole pine on the Upper Kootenay River; and
one in second-growth hemlock on East Thurlow Island.
Research was started on the interrelationship between timber and grazing values on
certain areas in the Cariboo country. Four publications were written by officers of the
Division and a fifth revised.   All were printed and distributed during the year.
Reforestation
Slightly less than 53A million young trees were shipped from the four nurseries
during die year, and seed-beds sown for 10 million seedlings in 1955. Conditions for
seedling growth were ideal, and, as a result, there will be full production of planting stock
in 1954. Soil-fertility studies were continued at all nurseries. No seed was collected as
the cone-crop on all species was poor.
Planting maps were prepared for 7,000 acres on Vancouver Island and 21,500 acres
reconnoitred.  A regeneration survey in the East Kootenay covered 36,500 acres.
On the Coast, planting was undertaken both in the spring and fall, and similar
projects were planned for the Interior but the fall project was cancelled due to climatic
conditions.
The dry conditions during the past two summers have reduced the survival count on
plantations established from 1950 onwards. The count is particularly low in the East
Kootenay due to the additional factor of poor site, only the Newgate plantings showing
the effects of good site.
Parks and Recreation
Work of the Division during the year was largely concentrated in Miracle Beach,
Mount Seymour, Cultus Lake, Manning, and Wells Gray Parks, and on the extension of
the roadside picnic- and camp-site programme. Miracle Beach Park, only opened to the
public in June, was experiencing overcrowding within a month, and plans were developed
immediately to add fifty camping units to the sixty originally established. Bridges were
replaced in Little Qualicum Falls, Englishman River, and Wells Gray Parks. Extensive
road and trail development was completed in Manning and Wells Gray Parks. Reconnaissance of potential recreational areas in the Powell River, Quesnel Lake, and Horsefly
Lake areas was carried out.
Mount Seymour and Cultus Lake Parks, which bear the brunt of recreational traffic
from the heavily populated Lower Fraser Valley, received intensive attention through the
provision of picnic-sites, camping units, parking areas, road improvement, ski-ing faculties, and other amenities. I
Research by the Wildlife Management Section of the Division dealt with moose and
fur-bearers in Wells Gray Park, beaver and trout in Manning Park, and deer to the Say-
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 11
ward Provincial Forest.   A reconnaissance was made of game species in Mount Robson*
Park.
Working Plans
It is the responsibility of the Working Plans Division to make the necessary plans
and analyses leading to the establishment of the four types of sustained-yield tenures—
forest management licences, public working-circles, farm wood-lot licences, and tree-
farms. Once approved and in operation, their administration devolves upon the Management Division. g
To date fourteen forest management licences have been granted, an increase of one
during the year, comprising 2,088,350 acres of productive forest area. Eight additional
applications have been approved. Twenty-five public working-circles are in operation
and fifteen additional units are under review. Twenty farm wood-lot licences have been
established, and twenty additional applications are under review. Certified tree-farms
number six, with one other application on hand.
The estimated sustained annual yield from present forest management licences and
public working-circles is 201 million cubic feet. The total cut in the Province this year
was 906 million cubic feet and, therefore, presently established forest management units
can sustain about 22 per cent of the present cut.
Forest Management
The value of forest production during the year reached a new record ($512,288,656),
as did the total cut. For the first time the cut exceeded 5 billion feet, totalling
5,292,000,000 feet board-measure, 354,000,000 feet higher than the previous record.
There was a sharp drop in exports to the United Kingdom, which fell to 503 million
feet, but this was compensated for by an increase of over 100 per cent in United States
shipments.
Douglas fir continued to lead in volume cut with 39 per cent of the total, followed by
hemlock, 20 per cent; cedar, 15 per cent; spruce, 13 per cent; balsam, 6 per cent; and
all others, 7 per cent.
Forty per cent of the cut (2,086 million feet board-measure) was derived from
timber sales, Crown grants supplied 1,212 million feet, and timber licences 739 million
feet. The cut on forest management licences was 22 million cubic feet.
3 There were 2,881 timber sales awarded, with an estimated value of $17,322,932.
This is a decline in value of 27 per cent. A total of 7,287 sales were in force at the end
of the year. The number of operating sawmills (2,472) was another all-time high.
Log prices on the Coast remained at the low level reached toward the end of 1952.
Lumber prices in the Interior continued to decline, and stumpage prices in that area fell
by approximately 20 per cent.
With the establishment of a management licence in the East Kootenay, fourteen such
units are now administered by the Division. The maintenance of forest-cover maps and
aerial-photo libraries at Victoria, district, and ranger offices was continued. A silvicul-
tural programme comprising tree-marking, slash-disposal projects, silvicultural studies,
and working-circle planning was carried out.
Grazing
The weather during the year was generally favourable to the growth of forage and
reserve feed, following a mild winter with light snowfall and an early period of warm
weather and near-drought. Following spring rains, forage was abundant and of good
quality, and favourable temperatures extended the growing season later than usual. The
hay-crop was heavy but variable due to summer rains. Grasshopper damage was less
than anticipated. Ranch-labour continued difficult to obtain and retain, increasing tendency to mechanization; but machinery, although in good supply, is extremely expensive
 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
in relation to live-stock prices.  Grazing fees were lowered, as a result of the drop in livestock prices the previous year, and there will be a further reduction in 1954.
The Land Inspection Division of the Lands Service assumed full responsibility for
inspection work on almost all of the range area. This, coupled with increased Ranger
time as a result of the light forest-fire season, enabled increased effort on grazing
administration.
Approved range-livestock associations in the Province now number forty-five. These
held 125 meetings, 116 being attended by Forest Officers. The sum of $55,162.95 was
spent on a diversity of range improvements, including an experimental gopher-control
project in the Cranbrook area. Pilot range-seedings were continued in co-operation with
the industry, with some success being manifested on logged-over and burned-over forest
lands. Goatweed-control was continued on a reduced scale. The horse-control programme removed 93 head and destroyed 115 wild and useless animals. A total of
647,478 acres were covered by standard grazing surveys and a further 185,880 acres
reconnoitred.
There were increases in losses of stock from hunting and highway accidents, but no
serious outbreaks of disease occurred. Shipments of live stock increased slightly but still
remained below normal due to prevailing low prices. Wool prices, on the other hand,
were roughly 10 per cent higher. There were no prosecutions laid under the "Grazing
Act" and regulations.
Engineering Services
Unusually wet weather in the spring months somewhat hampered road construction
in the Prince George Forest District. Work of the Division included the preparation of
plans and specifications for the district office building at Prince Rupert, studies of slash-
disposal equipment and techniques on right-of-way slash, design and construction of
short-span timber bridges, reconnaissance of bridge-sites, survey and preliminary designing of a dock for service craft in the Vancouver Forest District, extensive construction of
access roads; inspection, purchase, and maintenance of a wide variety of mechanical
equipment; designing and construction (by own crews or by contract) of numerous buildings required throughout the Province, supervision and direction of the Forest Service
Marine Station, and maintenance and development of the Forest Service radio network.
At the end of the year there were 718 vehicles of various types and sizes owned by
the Forest Service, 271 outboard motors, 527 fire-pumps, 258 chain-saws, plus dozens of
other items of mechanical equipment. It was finally possible to secure a full complement
of mechanical supervisors. The radio network embraced 687 stations plus 151 'walkie-
talkie " type machines not counted as stations.
In the year under review 146 miles of road reconnaissance was completed, 40 miles
of main road located, and 13 miles of access road built, with 32-foot subgrade.
A series of fire-fighting pump and hose tests were run at 4,000 feet elevation with
interesting results, particularly with multiple pumps connected in series.
Construction at various stages on a diversity of buildings is under way at eighteen
locations throughout the Province. In addition, eight miscellaneous trailers were produced. The Marine Station built fourteen boats, ranging from 9-foot dinghies to a
46-foot Ranger launch. Twenty-two prefabricated buildings were built. Frequent
repairs and overhauls of boats, pumps, outboards, chain-saws, lighting plants, and other
equipment were undertaken.
Forest Protection
The fire season was the lightest the Province has enjoyed since 1948, due to low
hazard during early spring and generally well-distributed rain during the subsequent
months. Fires occurred most frequently during the third week of August when lightning
strikes were frequent, but accompanying or subsequent rain minimized the damage and
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 13
costs. A total of 1,420 fires were recorded. Lightning caused 42 per cent; campers
and smokers, 24 per cent; and railway operations, 13 per cent.
The total area burned was 38,645 acres, representing less than 12 per cent of the
annual average for the past decade. Half of the total acreage was in non-productive
scrub in the perma-frost zone of the Prince George District. 1 W*
Visibility mapping and lookout photography were continued, with two crews in the
field. Thirty-five sites were examined, and panorama photographs and maps completed
for each. Ten primary and two secondary lookout locations were recommended. The
fire atlas, statistical ledgers, and fire-classification atlas were maintained. Fire-weather
recording was expanded, and the effect of the various weather elements on fuel moisture
content studied.
Sixteen fire-suppression crews were in the field, and dealt with 178 fires, only one
of which developed over 50 acres. Protection aircraft were employed under the existing
contract for 2,200 hours, operating out of all districts except Prince Rupert.
In all, 231 miles of new roads or trails were built and 1,607 miles maintained.
Ridge roads, for ready access to lightning fires by four-wheel-drive vehicles, were developed as an experiment in new technique.
Unfavourable weather handicapped slash-burning, but snag-falling concurrently
with logging was maintained satisfactorily. A grand total of 82,270 acres were snagged
by all agencies.  -j
There were twenty-seven prosecutions for infringement of fire regulations. Four
forest closures were imposed.
Forest-insect Investigations
There were no severe insect outbreaks during the year, but a number of potentially
dangerous insects caused concern. These were the black-headed budworm, spruce bud-
worm, hemlock looper, bark-beetles, and ambrosia-beetles.
The black-headed budworm has increased steadily since 1951 and caused heavy
defoliation in the northern coastal area, but this species does not result generally in
complete kill of the tree. The spruce budworm was active in the vicinity of Boston Bar,
Harrison, and Lillooet. The hemlock looper has increased during the past two years,
particularly on Jervis Inlet and on the Big Bend. The Douglas-fir bark-beetle was
prominent on Vancouver Island and in the central portion of the Province, primarily
following logging operations. Ambrosia-beetles assumed increasing importance, and
some industrial organizations undertook studies of chemical control on their operations.
The forest-insect survey yielded 6,386 collections. A Forest Biology Ranger Station was built at Pendleton Bay on Babine Lake, and sites selected at New Denver and
Christina Lake for two other stations.
FOREST-DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS
The forest-disease survey resulted in 2,454 collections being submitted to the laboratory, including three records new to Western North America and twenty-five records
new to British Columbia. ff   f
Studies were continued of the Poria weirii root-rot in Douglas fir, including the
hydraulic excavation of nine trees to examine rooting characteristics and other factors.
Investigations of pole-blight in western white pine were concentrated largely on interpretation of cambial lesions. Other studies in immature forests dealt with western white-
pine blister-rust, Keithia needle-blight of western red cedar, and Rhabdocline needle-cast
of Douglas fir.
In studies of mature forests, information on cbnk-rot indicated this condition occurs
on thirteen species of conifers, and, on the basis of data obtained, Forties pini may be
considered as the most important fungus causing decay in living conifers.
 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Ranger School
The sixth class completed its training in April, and the seventh class entered for
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first of its three three-month terms on September 21st.   There was considerable revision
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uian      __-_.-_  «-___•  *-__-_.~  _. -__,  _.«.tvul Of pro
tection and administration subjects.   Ranger District Organization and Public Relation:
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of the curriculum, with Grazing Administration and Range Management being with-
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drawn and the time allotted to certain technical subjects being reduced in favour of
tection and administration subjects.   Ranger District Organization and Public Relat
courses were added.   The usual one-week course for Vancouver District lookout-
was given.
Forest Accounts
The volume of business attained a new record, with revenues of $18,684,238.24
and expenditures totalling $7,734,365.78. The decentralized accounting system instituted in 1952 was extended to include all forest districts except Kamloops.
Public Relations and Education
A reduction of more than one-third in the funds allotted for this phase of Forest
Service activities necessitated a material reduction in the volume of work and some in
the diversity thereof. It was possible, however, by substantial economies in press and
radio advertising to maintain basically the same services to the public. Some reduction
was made in printing of semi-technical publications and literature for public education.
The co-operative project in conjunction with the British Columbia branch of the Canadian Forestry Association to continue lectures on conservation to schools throughout
the Province was continued at top level. Library and photographic work again showed
expansion. Numerous tours of Forest Service and industry installations were organized
and conducted by Division personnel.
Personnel
Staff of the Division was increased to four. All of the personnel records system
was reviewed during the year and reorganized in the light of current needs. A bulletin
outlining the organization of and conditions in the Forest Service entitled "A Career in
British Columbia's Forest Service " was produced.
The youth-training programme of the two previous years was continued, with 235
boys from 16 to 18 years of age employed in crews of from ten to twenty in number.
One crew was comprised of first offenders, administered and supervised by the Department of the Attorney-General.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 15
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
The Division completed the third year during which financial aid from the Canadian Government has contributed to the survey of the forest resources of the Province
according to the specifications of the Agreement for Inventory implemented under the
Canada Forestry Act.
FOREST SURVEYS
In the 1953 field season, 284 persons were employed on forest-survey parties, and
work was done to provide maps and forest data, when compilations are complete, of the
following areas:— f ■       $
Acres
Columbia drainage (Lower Arrow, Okanagan, Elk, Spil- ft
limacheen)  14,317,000
Fraser drainage (Shuswap, Adams)   4,084,000
Peace drainage (Crooked River)   780,000
Other coastal drainages (Morice, Bulkley, Babine)  2,846,000                !
Special cruises  §  320,000              h
Total   21,987,000
Included with this Report is a key-map indicating the areas covered by the field
work hatched on the index-map showing the numbering of the regions which comprise
the area reference system for the inventory. The 1953 coverage, together with previous
coverage not yet reported, has resulted, to date, in the whole or partial survey of the
following regions:  Nos. 8, 10 to 27, 30 to 54, 56 to 58, 60, 64 to 69, and 75.    f    fl
The results of the survey of each region will be reported individually as soon as
possible. Accordingly, the results of the work done in the following regions are presented
in tabular form in this Report, together with key-maps showing the compartment numbering systems. The data are for the whole of these regions; however, similar data are
available for each compartment shown on the key-map. The regions reported upon are:
Nos. 12, 13, 25, 26, 30, 31, 34 to 36, 38, 46, 50 to 53, and 64.
FOREST INVENTORY
With the objective of controlling non-sampling errors in the volume estimates for
the Provincial inventory, the work of some of the cruising parties was extended to include
the measurement of felled and bucked trees to provide suitable volume tables and preliminary cull factors for volume compilations to the specifications of the Agreement.
The work of compiling the results is incomplete; however, the table that follows
indicates preliminary average losses in the major species sampled in the areas listed.
 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Some Preliminary Loss Factors Relating to Average, Mature-stand
Defect in the Major Species Sampled during 1953
(Average percentage of decay (cubic-foot basis).)
Upper Fraser
Region2
South Fraser
Region3
Upper Arrow*
Residual         m
Class                W
_£
Kootenay-
Species
9
•iH  GO
y*
a
Qt co
S_S
All Living
Trees
yM
a
3
"O vj
••_• co
■_*
o
C_ co
S3 3
__0
All Living
Trees
at
§
"_)  CO
*!_S w
•4->
o
•   yy CO
2 w
All Living
Trees
u
8."
3 i—(
y
0
>
r_   0
Interior sonice soecies   	
5
17
4
3
12
24
12
14
9
21
10
11
60
32
49
11
27
21
12
27
35
47
22
21
32
29
12
49
(6)
(fl)
(6)
(6)
12
8
1
(6)
(8)
(6)
(e)
39
22
1
(e)
(e)
(6)
(8)
35
48
To
5
(8)
(e)
5
3
9
t
Interior balsam species
(6)
(e)
12
8
27
T odaeoole nine
9
5
Western hemlock ....
Western red cedar
....
Coast balsam species ..
~"
Western white Dine ..
Cottonwood
Birch	
Aspen  .    . ....
—
i Coniferous species 81 years and over, deciduous species 41 years and over.   AU species 5.1 inches d.b.h. and over.
2 Call factors derived from samples taken in the Crooked River area, 1953.
8 Cun factors derived from samples taken in the Skagit River, Emory Creek, and Coquihalla area, 1953.
* Cull factors derived from samples taken in the Wilson Creek and Kuskanax Creek areas, 1953.
6 Cull factors derived from samples taken in the White Swan Lake area, 1953.
o The species was sampled, but the data are as yet incomplete.
With the objective of controlling sampling errors in the volume estimates for the
Provincial inventory, aerial-photo volume tables were constructed for some regions, in
preliminary form.   Such a table, for Naver Forest tree species, is presented in this Report.
Aerial-photo volume tables are an aid in estimating stand volumes. Their use, in
conjunction with ground samples in a double-sampling plan, is to reduce the error of
estimate.
As an example, a forest area of approximately 10,000 acres in Region No. 59,
Compartments 137 and 138, which was a portion of a much larger area inventoried, had
been sampled by nine ground plots giving an estimate, for the portion, of 28.1 million
cubic feet plus or minus 11.7 million. When fifty photo plots were added in a double-
sampling plan with the nine ground plots, the estimate was improved to 36.5 million
cubic feet plus or minus 5.8 million. In other words, the error of the estimate was cut
in half for the outlay of a few days' office work. To obtain the same accuracy from
ground plots alone, nineteen more ground plots would have been necessary.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
17
AERIAL    PHOTO     VOLUME   TABLE
FOR    NAVER    FOREST    TREE    SPECIES.
PHOTO HEIGHT
(Feet)
145 r
140-
135-
1301-
125-
120-
115 7
110 L
»os|-
100:
95:
90]
85:
801
75:
70 f
60-
50'
40-
PHOTO VOLUME
(Gross cu.ft.per acre)
lOXJOOr-
9500F
9000
8500
8000
7500
7000
6500
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
PHOTO CROWN
DIAMETER
(Feet)
26r
25
24
23
22
21
20:
19
18
17
16
15
14-
I3r
12:
II r
IOr
9:
8r
7r
6r
5:
4t
3:
2r
ll
oi
PHOTO CROWN
DENSITY
(Percent)
IOOr
85
70
55
40
25
10
 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
COMPARTMENT KEY MAP
REGIONS-  9   NORTH SHORE.
10   HARRISON,   II FRASER SOUTH
and    26   FRASER    CANYON
SCALE
S_      0 lp
25    MILES
J
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»°'
fN
fN
VANCOUVER
o  /
50 OS
0     >
49 66
U.      S    _A.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
19
COMPARTMENT   KET  MAP
REGIONS -   12 SKAGIT.
IJ   SIMILKAMEEN.
*nct 25 PENNASK.
fSI
0    /
50 fie
SCALE
10 5 0 10
1 *- — n c—
25    MILES
O     /
49 29
IS.
^
^4..
 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
COMPARTMENT   KEY   MAP
REGIONS-30   COAST ISLANDS.
31  LOUGHBOROUGH.   49 KLINAKUNI.
50  KINGCOME and   51   GILFORD.
SCALE
0 ip
Macs
o    /
52 GS
0      >
51 M
F
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1953
21
56.811
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
55911
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oo 811
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
23
COMPARTMENT  KEY MAP
REGIONS 46 gnd47
TRANQUILLE and   CARIBOO
SCALE
MILES
B—93
O
92
A
ULLOOET&
52° 23
e    •
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a
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
COMPARTMENT  KEY MAP
REGIONS-52 SEYMOUR  and  53 RIVERS
m       s
S CAL E
0 10
_ -*r__
25     MILES
9
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
25
COMPARTMENT     KEY    MAP
REGIONS -   61  KIT I MAT   and  64   LOWER   ARROW
SCALE
+ 55 an-
 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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  FOREST INVENTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1953—Continued
Crown Mature Volume and Area Classification of Productive Forest Land by Regions and Land Administration Classes
(In thousand cubic feet and acres.)
35
J
  Quatsino-—
Nimp-!*——
KyuquoU	
Sayward—•—
Qayoquot ■
juandeFuca—
; & N. RaUway Belt—
Gulf Islands—-
North Shore:—.
Fraser South—
Skagit—	
Similkameen—
Kootenay—
Yahk	
Elk	
Flathead—
WMermere-
Slocan	
lower Arrow.
Fraser Canyon-
Loughborough-
Nicola—
mtel
Shuswap	
Spallumcheen...
Upper Arrow-
Duncan	
BigBend.
Celista,
Tranquille
Cariboo..
_#(	
fiigcoine_
%mour_______
Rivers	
Bella CooIa_I_r~
Westroad ~
Quesnel. t_ _
Nehalliston	
North Thompson-
Upper Fraser	
Nechako__	
Kitimat	
Moresby J
Graham—_____
L°werSkeena	
Upper Skeena	
Babine	
Morice_.______I
Stuart	
Parsnip______
Pme_____I__^
Klskatinaw	
Beatton	
Peace ~	
Omineca
Nass. ~
Stikine _~
Finlay ~    ■
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
FOREST INVENTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1953—Continued
Crown-grant Mature Volume and Area Classification of Productive Forest Land by Regions and Land Administration Classes
(In thousand cubic feet and acres.)
37
Land Administration
Class
Acres
Volume
Fir
Cedar
Hemlock
Spruce
Balsam
White
Pine
Yellow
Pine
Lodge-
pole
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Cottonwood
Other
Deciduous
Total
1   I Management licences-
I Other—	
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
Totals-.
2 jOther-
3 Other-
4   | Management licences-
I Other. —	
Totals-
Other—
6   | Watershed-
I Other	
Totals-
7   I Management licences-
| Watersheds	
I Other	
Totals	
j Other-
j Other-
| Other-
| Other-
j Other-
| Other-
j Other-
| Other-
| Other-
j Other-
| Other-
| Other-
| Other-
[ Other-
j Other-
| Other-
| Other-
| Other-
j Other-
| Other-
| Other-
I Other-
30   j Management licences.
I Other	
Totals-
Other-
Other-
| Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other..
Other-
Other-
Other..
Provincial parks_
Other_	
Totals..
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other-	
Other	
Other	
Other.	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other.	
Other	
Other	
| Other	
| Other	
| Other	
I Other	
| Other	
| Other.....
| Other—
I Other.....
| Other—.
| Other—
I Other.-.
I Other—
I Other—
I Other—
I Other—
I Other—
I Other—
I Other—
I Other—.
Other-
Total Crown grants	
Management licences-
Provincial parks	
Watersheds	
Other	
5,5741
20,344]
1,000
1,980
6,460
36,610
25,918
10,312
8,275
2,269
2,980
21,290
9,260
2,960
43,070
16,430
11,540
2,269
12,689
1,190
25,047
2,960
6,530
5,476
30,160
26,237
74,729
11,831
679,477
35,636
339,270
59,820
2,767,040
766,037
23,987
16,767
2,628
2,188
523
13,015
43,755
17,340
3,900
57,024
3,286
8,574
2,250
19,750
1,368
1,630
3,722
33,733
1,377
8,470
5,120
270
40
3,149
3,166,130
49,531
10,240
4,130
1,820
1,560
19,020
16,783
10,358
86
7,462
1,390
2,557
77
12,812
630
408
1,998
52,610
1,910
8,245
7,360
390
90
12,590
3,189
955
2,073
4,851
37,444
22,422
3,301
2,514
5,845
6,810
4,300
600
2,200
12,680
200
6,280
26,693
73,140
60,170
8,150
2,430
2,280
1,163
422
246
386
2,800
31,420
500
19,326
4,432
95,027
36,695
922
530
720
630
2,240
11,774
2,330
7,134
15,787
6,624
15,794
13,685
8,105
990
750
24,740
3,975
5,862
4,180
7,946
35
710
410
4,023
25,337
20
632
2,795
203
26,076
6,950
148,627
15,875
685
190
270
50
110
6,250
2,082
2,324
21,523
1,182
2,028
2,684
40
1,200
860
10
1,571,571
80,343
600
13,021
1,477,607
3,892,417
340,360
246
65,296
3,486,515
2,310
2,310
24,540
527
26,150
26,677
75,570
5,580
745,350
826,500
7,712
32,980
1,550
590
910
120
948
961
1,064
12,621
3,900
3,111
200
548
26
950
830
4,073
9,130
810
40
5,130
5,170
2,900
640
300
140
660
16,950
3,903
3,284
357
136
493
35,413
165
299
4,980
400
450
830
1,470
6,670
11,330
1,012
1,061
2,180
7,723
11
13,225
626
558
35,560
884
2
91
2,534
1,196,015
82,070
357
6,107
1,107,481
17,100j
47,800|
400|
1,060
9,120
25,690
64,900|
I
27.540J
22,1901
1,460
1,970
900
5,9301
5,930|
24,540|
I
2371 .
34,620|
34,857
225,330
12,900
2,070,110
2,308,340
414
35,190
3,140
830
760
233
275
17,408
530
310
334
60
3,450
2,663
15,680
580
100
4,940
5,040
2,670
320
513
12,120
3,508
3,707
95
24
119
17,772
73
640
2,500
2,340
910
4,450
9,155
740
158
380
1,750
209
26,953
2,688
3,060
67,390
3,349
327
1,247
52,006
2,796,248
242,530
95
13,137
2,540,486
140
34,810
7,960
10,170
140
1,900
1,300
1,300
130
2,490
2,620
4
810
30
3,50
50
1,990
1,585
1,018
3,810
28,139
460
10,310
3,871
1,060
630
541
381
7,180
410
264
4,220
140
460
460
260
120
283
2,540
3,420
1,170
394
1,070
805
2,708
613
1,972
2,5851
I
22,433
718
5,111
830
11,210
17
274
140
160
30
430
4,367
1,315
4,797
2,539
6,345
29,216
6,097
10,307
1,980
2,710
18,480
1,569
5,116
2,281
11,701
60
581
8521
7,9211
23,6311
221
276,598
530
613
275,455
1,870
1,870
11,360
28
23,520
23,548
50,530
1,500
548,120
600,150
625
18,570
980
500
210
400
23
176
3,046
8,072
340
1,222
596
167
460
332
246
1,900
1,780
1,171
6,670
160
10
400
410
980
120
273
840
1,020
250
455
1,090
320
687
85
513
598
6,313
213
2,823
680
4,100
205
130
250
120
1,250
3,672
135
1,738
713
2,624
8,160
717
12,605
27,160
1,914
2,749
1,026
2,089
30
170
203
20,480
6
846,832
59,660
85
1,528
785,559
110
460
570
1,190
400
110
110
370
410
410|.
I
9,590|
1,320|.
87,900|
42
990
50
10
10
20
237
94
7,661
50
70
128
200
460
150
10
120
120
20
70
212
690
776
290
46
28
74
2,151
54
460
186
117,145
9,700
46
1,320
106,079
610
4,370
180
4,980
1,080
930
440
27
70
440
2,780
2,620
97       2,620
850
70
10,890
11,720
1,180
115,130
98,810 11,810
2,580
11,876
2,318
957
1,050
158
355
340
52
498
9,020
100
30
20
128,030
3,500
261
1,314
962
280
4,706
1,511
925
30
30
493
7,840
1,180
,420
70
20
10
155
780
70
10
50
393
2,384
8,090
4,660
870
1,880
440
210
250
110
120
300
27
16
411
20
40
6
1,348
690
5,350
18
50
48,920
48,920
427
75
139
540
10,021
4,551
40
301
1,061
788
1,349
24
8,252
3,651
180
185
4,443
1,574
14,610
10
388
133
1,398
4,860
710
1,120
35,510
119,090
6,756
7,282
206
8,236
610
2,490
1,668
30
149
1,451
20
45
390
141
108
10
50
360
450
1,502
808
56
6
7,450
315
101,897
850
16
97
100,934
156,452
12,330
1,180
142,942
1,830
260
410
10
90
10
130
144
1,960
154,600
77,900
55,800
13,770
13,770
72,150
6,439
120,900
90
40
10
2,104
250
20
4,260
50
30
50
170
40
553
1,160
2,010
2,370
20
4,530
770
1,250
2,460
120
99
40
730
10
370
10
170
127,339
713,280
82,390
6,351,300
7,146,970
58,328
103,030
11,250
6,770
3,500
27,790
38,884
23,897
8,581
91,518
9,810
24,554
6,055
16,987
2,700
2,522
5,093
82,300
8,700
17,031
47,910
2,170
240
23,830
20
1,740
90
39
10
100
186
330
2,684
14
1,530
21
20
110
41
506
2,165
29,582
29,582
16,129
40
16,089
170
30
40
300
110
130
30
560
80
1,560
10
40
110
170
46
800
270
1,430
135
10
410
300
1,601
10
12
10
101
1,820
24,070
7,060
7,670
30,366
89,570
67,630
10,350
5,099
37,310
10,616
11,233
1,458
3,470
4,928
86,952
1,432
35,796
9,770
186,398
20,461
2,331
3,440
3,940
2,980
13,570
36,933
4,639
12,529
27,663
12,921
61,243
13,504
63,962
5,350
6,334
158,160
7,901
14,158
6,239
30,971
120
1,151
1,036
10,129
107,811
28
25,4281
960|
164|
24,304
9,503,663
749,030
1,458
88,829
8,664,346
Immature by Age-classes (Years)
1-20
21-60
490
93
1,906
7,574
583
145
3,278
61+
9,480
588
637
60
5,960
3,278
100
412
8,895
9,307
35,362
1,495
176,445
6,020
323
620
29,581
30,201
10,478
4,144
185,965
213,302
17,032
3,227
137
18,057
320
2,800
2,430
17,311
2,865
9,261
3,033
1,946
6,313
8,379
3,510
678
1,290
2,640
580
118
1,557
200,587
34,186
49,487
550
61,038
399
7,289
8,860
16,382
9,842
72,722
34,505
33,966
75
78,671
9,402
29,577
13,948
21,647
2,840
3,870]
21,5O0|
10,330]
I
2,479|
11,642!
1,675
250
1,863
4,234
1,535
862
3,765
170
5,825
1,310
144
170
14,121
2,794
6,989
1,140
11,039
35,509
11,393
50,331
24,613
20,865
4,910
2,603
15,121
314
647
363
5,217
3,514
90
200
60
20
1,336
443
3,359
445
1,351
4,039
2,460
17,724
2,853
380
2,590
3,380
20,194
104,480
21,066
1,080
560
25
50
890
1,960
2,849
1,094
3,779
358
6,574
5,295
4,880
230
663
402,518
35,970
144
1,907
364,497
150
2,822
8,391
36,266
28,362
22,620
47,572
54,086
20
75
1,970
7,513
13,951
39,344
28,675
7,168
2,330
25,638
25,886
19,032
56
1,316
1,500,176
14,923
2,603
4,764
1,477,886
Total
Not
Satisfactorily
Stocked
Total
Productive
354
80
133
213
258
1,033
9,565
10,598
307
754
23,319
24,380
17,769
6,664
1,714
8,991
913
24,862
69,830
4,653
32,636
8,534
8,528
1,015
22,435
10,107
21,046
1,964
8,370
1,410
4,375
4,375
1,370
235
6,067
10,224
33,371
29,066
43,387
32,279
1,093
9,269
10,362
1,710
320
7,210
21,420
10,906
82,479
8,156
630
460
100
2,464
5,151
6,331
12,137
6,526
47,758
47,347
90
220
4,227
7,311
4,372
28,540
4,689
897
33,528
27,653
24,888
24
1,670
296
857,490
387
1,093
1,787
854,223
2,396|
7,6671
1,836|
6,8291
9,806
34,840
10,0631
I
942 j
7821
I
140|
9,3711
8,665
6,999
347
315
7,051
9,511|
I
68l]
I
2,065]
48,0411
7,366
3,674
125
25,692
44,646
18,253
9,404
455
18,691
19,146
17,044
3,380
98,780
50,106|  25,817
46.147J
6,3931
385,7291
37,464
1,899
280,911
102,160
158,340
20,123
1,346,117
438,269|  320,274 1,524,580
68,987 j
59,3781
2,401 j
88,086|
1,632]
34,9511
81.120J
33,6931
17,360|.
114,619]
46,0721
42,4941
1,090|
103,0521
19,5091
35,890|.
22,3271
46,2031
5,482|
5,160|
32,510]
12,320]
I
2,5971
17,5741
20,444
22,521
7,989
38,801
1,563
4,122
22,895
1,500
5,560
9,014
250
1,350
9,898
100
16,569
1,720
3,790
2,940
370
228
5,538
113,418
98,666
13,018
129,075
3,718
52,088
147,770
52,533
21,260
177,203
58,372
51,318
3,340
124,152
30,775
37,520
26,149
96,505
8,579
17,420
40,570
12,960
2,865
26,261
20,171|
I
4,414|
9,087|
7,2071
25,4971
70,415]
41,321|
97,4831
57,062 j
26,690]
6.220J
I
3,840]
24,5601
5,7661  29,126
1,262
1,653
3,754
11,234
6,054
2,195
4,280
3,530
1,430
300
1,900
6,631
12,813
15,812
74,175
98,891
46,817
104,277
66,437
33,500
11,950
4,740
28,660
28,400
5,210
700
9,800
24,800
31,463
192^176
32,736
1,800
1,220
60
270
6,622
13,985
45,956
40,944
30,497
99,369
103,893
110
100
50
3,080
13,700
24,111
43,716
58,309
15,636
3,585
65,740]
58,834|
48.800J
80|
1,900]
2,275
2,200
3,780
2,920
4,600
7,340
54,930
4,265
310
490
277
150
1,159
9,878
17,705
18,670
1,910
25,223
37,335
220
8,310
1,430
33,046
11,226
29,687
784
10,725
187,157
64,660
21,270
250
2,978
175
33,400
40,410
3,620
10,300
48,726
43,235
342,133
73,696
2,722
840
2,430
967
2,660
19,555
26,193
70,795
75,401
39,031
140,386
154,913
8,435
1,090
800
36,130
19,105
63,019
59,122
95,942
16,455
15,020
252,897
123,904
74,093
330
30,215
2,275
195
2,760,184|
51.280J
3,840|
8,4581
2,696,606
1,150,756
39,843
300
2,024
1,108,589
5,482,511
171,466
4,740
23,503
5,282,802
  Coast Islands—
idge_
Spallumcheen_
Upper Arrow-
Duncan	
Upper Columbia.
| FOREST INVENTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1953—Continued ^
Timber Licence and Lease Mature Volume and Area Classification of Productive Forest Land by Regions and Land Administration Classes
(In thousand cubic feet and acres.)
39
ia, Big Bend.....    42
Niskonlith-
Chilcotin	
Knight	
Kingcome-
Seyniour_
Rivers	
Coola_	
N»rth Thompson
W Fraser	
Nechako '
~ithnat—_____
|\More.b.-_
;Qraharn_ ~
fow«Skeena-
UPPer Skeena _
Bablne	
Nass ~~
30
31
32
41
52
53
54
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
75
Land Administration
Class
Management licences-
Other.	
Totals..
Other..
Provincial parks..
Other	
Totals-
Management licences-
Other	
Totals..
Provincial parks..
Other	
Totals..
Other..
Other-
Provincial parks..
Watersheds	
Other	
Totals..
Other-
Other .
Other .
Other.
Other-
Other
Other
Other-
Other-
Other..
Other.
Other.
Other-
Other..
Management licences.
Other	
Totals-
Management licences..
Other	
Totals	
Management licences-
Other	
Totals-
Other-
Other-
Other..
Other_.
Other..
Provincial parks..
Other	
Totals-
Provincial parks.
Other	
Totals..
Other..
Other..
Other..
Other..
Other..
Other..
Management licences-
Other	
Totals-
Other .
Other-
Other ..
Other..
Other-
Other-
Other _
Other..
Other..
Other..
Other..
Other..
Other_
Acres
Total licences and leases
Management licences	
Provincial parks	
Watersheds	
Other	
78,938
58,765
137,703
160,327
128
104,313
104,441
22,724
40,163
62,887
5,861
132,972
138,833
206,553
500
2,082
594
43,885
46,561
23,153
4,386
2,851
800
590
4,115
7,574
70
370
10,645
40,060
38,340
12,600
3,149
1,363
Volume
Fir
10,590
5,650
16,240
121,160
330
102,970
103,300
5,940
39,450
45,390
8,290
143,330
4,512
6,740
48,596
55,336
660
6,491
7,151
3,600
4,210
39,734
27,265
1,800
33,814
6,450
40,264
3,300
18,060
21,360
400
3,900
160
1,540
14,016
4,606
24,177
28,783
35,647
46,350
80,921
42,621
24,919
200
109,850
81,737
80,150
10,410
100
495
4,580
1,775,370
116,817
45,185
594
1,612,774
151,620
169,330
1,171
240
120
21,570
Cedar
Hemlock
21,930
29,300
6,560
1,220
5
' 157
270
101
10
40
18,650
47,323
34,190
5,210
2,400
5,570
7,970
3,370
17,570
20,940
740
14,080
14,820
3,491
3,054
12,240
4,136
195
12,600
2,288
14,888
296
1,233
1,529
137
2,767
138
939
4,240
1,620
5,040
6,660
2,100
22,690
32,233
12,903
2,130
199
580
944,156
24,660
21,756
120
897,620
82,010
112,480
194,490
346,020
180
157,920
158,100
34,020
63,920
97,940
7,160
226,390
233,550
305,050
16
5,760
660
100,050
106,470
47,020
4,720
70
492
166
6,500
100
1,200
10,250
28,871
87,160
25,170
3,160
' 1,340
4,500
14,010
123,110
137,120
2,920
10,450
13,370
1,268
51,080
15,592
1,642
20,894
1,237
22,131
3,770
17,900
21,670
76
656
1,958
30,790
10,490
61,120
71,610
88,070
73,890
59,057
38,218
12,410
56,550
94,573
85,506
12,990
26
1,713
2,549,821
146,610
37,764
660
2,364,787
Spruce
253,100
132,000
385,100
511,550
310
272,980
273,290
45,910
74,880
120,790
16,490
300,890
317,380
537,810
41
4,190
1,190
83,450
88,830
37,570
6,200
50
632
195
2,420
22
50
900
17,250
21,637
100,060
33,930
8,650
200
8,850
20,450)
152,370
172,820]
I
1,260
9,950
11,210
1,012
52,090
13,636
1,678
5,885
226
6,111
1,876
10,046
11,922
97
206
1,636
41,220
12,940
67,930
80,870
76,810
114,730
59,349
6,065
4,120
153,997
217,306
170,770
29,910
73
6,735
3,698,930
342,310
28,751
1,190
3,326,679
Balsam
White
Pine
6,590
3,050
9,640
19,480
20
12,090
152,330
69,630
221,960
243,760
80
130,290
12,110
370
2,490
2,860
690
11,400
12,090
20,380
1
30
10
2,090
130,370
22,640
31,750
54,390
7,450
131,530
138,980
261,990
2,140
750
38,680
2,130
1,550
560
4,740
228
164
8,320
20,786
30
460
2,560
818
28,370
11,100
770
920
1,690
1,470
15,330
16,800
80
540
620
164
586
40,080
3,169
1,045
32,976
6,976
41,570
8,980
2,080
1,910
32
67
930
4,713
300
5,980
13,068
39,520
13,050
870
730
1,600
6,540
44,100
50,640
70
28,700
28,770
69
705
24,720
1,305
232
6,184
2,074
39,952
2,393
10,610
13,003
308
6,682
403
11,800
1,340
4,040
5,380
1,160
28,170
28,016
34,750
55,440
117
45,965
132,364
125,974
15,430
37
890
12,891
8,258
675
2,896
3,571
150
2,010
604
8,120
2,220
15,800
18,020
17,280
54,800
23,706
5,320
22,290
13
51,022
14,670
40
470
5,910
781,263
10,620
36,109
10
734,524
1,527,945
184,670
16,529
750
1,325,996
Yellow
Pine
1,500
1,490
2,990
9,970
10
5,390
5,400
630]
1,940
2,570
310
6,210
6,520
8,670
20
20
10
2,130
2,160
1,510
150
20
254
66
10
8
10
900
2,514
690
150
280
40
3201
80
790
870
40
330
370
328
1,760
3,107
132
1,836
267
2,103|
231
963
1,194
71
103
12
3,965
58,917
2,530
2,407
10
53,970
Lodge-
pole
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Cottonwood
1,080
10
63
2,220
1,754
133
4,180
4,180
7,940
13,350
21,290
36,010
10
420  14,450
420
30
30
190
220
90
170
5
470
1,784
470
230
30
100
10
14,460
14,020
15,770
29,790
440
21,280
21,720
28,960
610
80
9,240
9,930
3,440
110
1,106
9,860
3,620
10
110
10
70
80
20
20
75
10
2,990
196
966
1,162
470
10
210
3,720
3,930
30
710
740
470
426
15
1,960
20
1,804
413
8,520
90
30
140
5
120
290
106
1,160
370
3,770
4,140
11,130
5,790
2,273
4,969
8,284
8,379
1,730
23,939
110
196
23,633
232,942
22,570
1,060
80
209,232
Other
Deciduous
Total
Immature by Age-classes (Years)
1-20
12,280
2,560
14,840
11,010
7,080
30
7,080
170
180
350
100
4,270
4,370
12,910
10
20
1,490
37
100
17
39
2,460
597
23
30
80
20
90
10
140
510
250
1,520
2,310
610
30
20
10
230
186
1,160
260
170
40
210
100
830
930
40
310
310
788
7
795
350
50
1,720
150
640
315
1,490
650
14,090
6,215
480
200
840
1,040
850
750
1,700
2,300
4
200
780
60
360
526,340
340,210
866,550
1,300,040
940
703,590
704,530
123,700
230,380
354,080
40,930
845,330
886,260
1,345,290
1,249
13,000
2,840
258,730
3,273
3,273
25,785
788
24,997
68,680
12,960
110
20
55,590
274,570
131,980
20,990
8,220
1,680
983
21,250
27,431
200
2,920
56,540
115,523
301,750
92,770
16,400
8,860
25,260
46,240
357,890
404,130
5,180
65,090
70,270
5,603
7,135
189,450
41,542
4,947
81,359
14,041
95,400
9,241
44,118
53,359
839
12,850
138
5,673
97,810
29,180
158,540
187,720
199,510
301,480
208,453
101,634
108,700
423
313,963
452,527
390,629
89,740
181
1,540
34,119
9,919,831
747,040
145,470
2,840
9,024,481
1,995
384
2,379
574
574
1,780
4,706
6,486
76
1,974
2,050
1,456
1,365
147
549
696
86
528
840
620
64
2,330
32
2,590
1,435
4,020
3,310
707
900
21-60
1,607
1,980
1,530
3,510
358
358
980
6,785
1,706
100
311
55
366
12
12
25
892
60
3,783
3,843
6,240
3,595
617
45
210
2,300
2,660
111
14,106
1.975
16,081
7,079
2,997
2,997
190
1,681
1,871
18
1,519
1,537
3,671
735
125
1,588
6,025
7,738
3,062
2,034
129
284
688
729
15,820
132
2,412
40
2,379
4,305
2,580
3,240
3,883
758
61+
Total
4,641
2,765
3,627
6,392
160
1,353
1,513
4,800
3,290
5,830
6,564
400
8,365
1,265
9,630
120
120
5,173
300
2,299
270
6,799
7,069
1,960
1,010
4,082
1,070
20
65
1,200
1,500
670
416
66,8231
6,522 j
534
59,767
149,557
21,374
8,508
1,588
118,087
1,136
1,136
10,953
598
598
392
143
535
576
576
81
446
1,803
2,249
3,601
3,276
4,715
16
278
70
200
86
191
2,744
1,410
950
7
405
412
950
1,640
2,590
95
95
680
7,800
10,043
3,634
880
4,514
108
108
6,473
175
715
270
3,540
3,810
535
855
5,998
2,460
655
700
140
170
28
220
82,841
2,755
4,080
76,006
17,237
2,359
19,596
18,032
4,169
Not
Satisfactorily
Stocked
4,169]
I
2,362]
6,5301
8,892
94
4,069
4,163
5,208
2,100
718
1,588
8,377
10,683]
I
6,749
5,838
5,684
920
1,030
3,129
16,020
250
2,603
40
7,713
5,740
8,010
7,500
4,597
2,063
6,660
5,695
6,797
12,492
160
1,806
1,966
5,480
12,070
22,658
8,270
500
12,310
2,200
14,510
240
240
11,646
500
3,906
600
14,122
14,722
8,735
1,865
13,675
1,687
2,525
930
4,200
4,300
840
555
220
299,221
30,651
13,122
1,588
253,860
15,668
16,058
31,726
28,165
6
5,586
5,592
6,117
14,807
20,924
2,400
11,028
Total
Productive
13,428
36,734
814
444
16,337
17,5951
I
38,349
6,732
1,130
2,388
700
309
100
7,082
300
13,400
4,310
1,259
533
1,792
2,565
10,339
12,904
620
300
920
160
2,740
8,035
3,080
900
3,980
150
800
950
1,100
4,787
7,893
7,840
15,733
6,824
1,470
2,840
250
1,029
1,300
35,433
6,750
690
350
111,843
77,182
189,025
206,524
134
114,068
114,202
31,203
61,500
92,703
8,355
148,069
156,424
248,495
2,600
3,614
2,626
68,599
74,839
68,251
16,956
9,665
1,720
1,620
9,632
23,594
950
2,982
510
25,440
46,100
59,750
24,410
9,005
3,959
12,964
15,000
65,732
80,732
1,440
8,597
10,037
9,240
19,020
70,427
35,535
2,300
49,204
9,550
58,754
3,450
19,100
22,550
1,100
400
15,546
160
2,040
22,709
13,099
46,139
59,238
51,206
49,685
97,436
44,558
28,473
200
112,080
121,370
91,200
11,940
655
715
4,930
339,001
34,122
6,450
444
297,985
2,413,592
181,590
64,757
2,626
2,164,619
  Region
Name
Quatsino	
Nimpkish—	
Kyuquot	
Sayward	
Clayoquot	
juandeFuca -—
E.&N. Railway Belt-
Gulf Islands	
North Shore	
Harrison ~
Fraser South	
Skagit	
Similkameen	
Okanagan	
Yahk	
Windermere—
Lower Arrow..
Pennask-
FraserCanyon.
Lillooet	
Sechelt	
Powell _
Coast Islands—
Loughborough-
Toba	
Bridge	
Monte HillS-
Shuswap-
Spallumcheen_
Upper Columbia	
Columbia, Big Bend-
Momich_.	
Celista	
Niskonlith	
Tranquille	
Cariboo	
Cliilcotin	
Knight	
Kingcome	
Gilford	
Seymour	
Rivers	
Coola_
Westroad	
Quesnel	
Nehalliston..
North Thompson-
Upper Fraser	
Nechako	
Kitimat	
Moresby. ,	
Graham	
Lower Skeena	
Upper Skeena	
Babine	
Morice	
Stuart %_	
Parsnip	
Peace	
Omineca	
Nass	
Finlay_
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
18
19
21
23
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
36
37
38
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
73
74
75
76
77
FOREST INVENTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1953—Continued 1
Canada Control Mature Volume and Area Classification of Productive Forest Land by Regions and Land Administration Classes
41
Land Administration
Class
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves ._
Indian reserves _.
Indian reserves.-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
National parks...
Indian reserves.-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves—
Indian reserves—
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves—
Indian reserves...
Indian reserves._
Indian reserves _.
National parks—
National parks	
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves...
Indian reserves.-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves.-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves.—
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves	
Indian reserves—
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves....
Indian reserves—
Indian reserves—
Indian reserves—
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves—
Indian reserves	
Indian reserves.-.
Indian reserves	
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves ~
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves ...
Indian reserves.-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves.-
(In thousand cubic feet and acres.)
Acres
Volume
Fir
Cedar
Hemlock
Total Canada control-
National parks	
Indian reserves	
782
95
853
25
1,939
2,531
3,090
1,988
110
2,105
485
6,970
18,650
66,560
12,771
181
2,820
40
399
110
100
1,240
5,232
47,800
17,890
9,800
7,519
6,710
350
95
585
199
1,280
5,340
590
1,820
320
2,100
6,565
230
1,610
26,850
1,457
1,770
2,216
180
11,917
150
284,419
132,250
152,169
60
10
470
180
2,510
18,720
4,357
60
1,240
50
7,740
3,180
16,239
17,410
380
2,739
40
1,410
350
290
1,513
7,280
4,343
15,060
10,357
3,048
235
20
120
190
2,990
111
2,990
30
281
25
1,080
70
1,370
10
4,030
3,410
2,650
446
80
870
60
15
140
110
800
970
170
110
60
42
21
9,071
170
160
375
140
1,410
520
1,630
3,929
40
788
10
2,729
170
694
22,150
381
4,690
126,8261
20,5821
106,244
64,773
9,092
55,681
Spruce
Balsam
White
Pine
Yellow
Pine
Lodge-
pole
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Cottonwood
Other
Deciduous
Total
2,240
340
2,220
70
4,050
5,340
4,600
41
220
1,440
120
415
560
300
229
760
520
550
20
40
9,257
39
294
260
1,460
480
3,020
4,196
4,747
282
2,454
19,220
1,342
315
16,524
40
10
90
70
190
1
50
20
310
43
50,415
1,080
20
4
240
30
10
160
210
21,584
2,628
4,396
1,930
67
10
120
40
590
,537
269
550
830
1,166
2,030
164
1,512
4,590
527
1,448
1,430
205
10,903
167
87,9651
9,6721
78,293
112,686
74,627
38,059
1,310
210
1,100
40
2,020
3,000
530
130
210
70
50
1,851
430
60
11
250
50
60
10
70
40
4,684
349
1,244
840
92
20
160
120
800
2,033
110
170
25
2,570
10
30
30
50
370
20
10
20
4,030
6,968
248
6,470
10
10
10
594
2,950
39
10,030
631
879
468
66
5,216
42
42,051
6,884
35,167
671
630
40
100
10
100
10
470
270
250
10
30
530
3
30,656
1,150
10
10
10
200
21,298
1,954
231
477
467
15
13
210
50
220).
9361
150
10
160
17,616
150
40
20
62
90
20
40
50
240
10
3,330
910
20
37
70
10
100
20
390
416
666
607
607
22,571
248
22,323
720j
83 j
1,7951
4
6,170
2,192]
2741
390[
—_|
151
265
63,9491
53,9081
10,041
9,441
9,441
40
204
80
10
10
4,930
670
5,420
130
10,900
15,010
27,170
4,865
510
7,340
1,270
12,700
10,468
117,440
27,390
890
3,791
2,430
2,190
1,090
390
2,439
10,680
51,930
23,259
21,850
150
20
10
10
80
6
10
41
90
10
20
7,885
80
30
24
10
30
10
14,544
3,515
1,088
450
3,390
1,190
6,670
16,398
596
3,820
1,290
2,432
12,818
616
4,664
63,000
2,964
4,457
3291
101
5,227
565
3901
46,263
224
17,776|
17,616].
160]
8,652|
 1
8,652
6,0361
6,0361
563,333
192,629
370,704
Immature by Age-classes (Years)
1-20
21-60
213]
871
110;
2,230
1,268
6
39
4,930
490
779
60
166
871
395
5
340
290
60
490
85
928
45
5
220
285
490
770
170
60
447
25
50
1,864
58
29
50
531
160
36
19,137
575
18,562
397
143
105
344
5
849
2,270
3,439
506
119
947
40
690
6,430
7,750
59,391
240
6,435
1,489
1,185
1,580
60
714
85
2,429
6,762
819
17
4,723
10
6,370
850
1,770
2,400
4,413
14,910
6,723
540
30
145
10
1,057
2,043
1,485
420
1,600
3,120
3,262
25
150
7,001
2,672
1,440
1,443
90
2,070
168
2041
61+
176,384|
66,611 j
109,773
53
17
391
90
942
248
158
3,930
9,220
4,938
19,817
5,303
2,910
210
20
7,580
6
2,120
570
2,940
765
2,330
300
2,090
13,064
3,239
315
10
300
840
1,192
70
300
2,851
40
3,380
4,649
160
425
60
2,709
72
1,690
60
102,374
23,522
78,852
Total
Not
Satisfactorily
Stocked
610
196
105
431
22
1,350
4,590
5,649
506
373
1,144
8,900
10,400
12,147
7,750
79,208
300
11,904
5,270
1,580
1,790
60
719
445
2,429
14,342
1,115
17
6,903
580
9,800
1,700
4,100
2,700
6,503
27,974
10,890
900
45
665
295
490
2,667
3,405
1,485
490
1,900
3,180
6,560
40
50
150
50
12,245
7,379
1,600
1,897
200
5,310
240
1,850
'300
297,895
90,708
207,187
Total
Productive
246
169
346
140
547
1,125
1,300
692
7,530
2,893
206
2,440
3,370
2,382
80
3,301
290
100
1,020
1,440
1,400
1,892
4,749
692
26
860
140
1,400
100
560
5,997
500
300
630
110
172
530
100
1,430
860
340
1,010
100
680
400
3,018
878
7,085
6,083
71,6591
1,480|
70,179
1,638
460
1,304
596
2,508
5,006
8,980
7,637
1,308
10,008
4,522
206
18,310
32,420
14,529
7,750
145,848
300
27,976
5,741
4,500
2,850
60
2,558
1,955
4,421
20,331
7,039
43
7,763
720
59,000
19,590
100
4,100
12,500
7,063
41,490
18,100
1,550
770
1,360
666
2,300
8,107
5,425
1,485
3,170
1,900
3,840
9,670
6,705
280
. 1,760
27,580
14,102
12,167
1,600
4,991
380
12,395
240
19,850
300
150
653,973
224,438
429,535
    REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 43
FOREST RESEARCH
An active programme of research was carried out in four of the five forest districts.
A number of the projects are of a continuing nature, and progress reports are submitted.
Several new studies have been initiated during the year which are also reported upon.
COWICHAN LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
The Cowichan Lake Experiment Station has been well maintained. Improvements
included demolishing an old boat-house no longer being used, building a new storage-
shed, and a hut to house all fire-fighting equipment. A wooden box-reservoir, over
a natural spring that supplies the camp with water, was replaced by a concrete cylinder
to give a 7-foot well.
Plans for the renovation and relocation of some of the camp buildings used by
planting and research crews were drawn up, and reconstruction by the Reforestation
Division has already commenced.
A timber sale covering the decadent old-growth timber on the south-west portion
of Mesachie Forest has now been logged, realizing some 280,000 cubic feet (bush scale)
of Douglas fir and western cedar, and western hemlock understory. The early, heavy rain
precluded the completion of slash-burning satisfactorily this year. This logging operation
was in the interest of forest management and was not a research study.
The cook-house was in operation for four months, the camp housing from ten to
thirty men during the summer.    Six visiting foresters were entertained.
A boys' training camp was again in operation at Cowichan Lake, with twenty boys
employed. The boys were engaged in trail, road, and culvert improvement. Good
progress was made on trail-widening, so that a number of the original foot-paths are
wide enough to permit the passage of trucks through the second growth. This is part of
a plan to make all parts of the forest readily accessible in the event of fire, and will also
facilitate the extraction of large amounts of Douglas-fir thinnings. In addition to maintenance work, the boys hand-split 140 bundles of cedar shakes from bolts cut from felled
snags lying in the forest.   These will be used on the new camp buildings.
ALEZA LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION »
At Aleza Lake Experiment Station the camp was in operation for nearly six months,
housing from twelve to thirty research personnel, boys, and construction-workers.
Maintenance consisted largely of repainting the camp buildings and making improvements around the foreman's new residence. Further work on the water system was
carried out by the Engineering Services Division. A 20,000-gallon wood-stave reservoir
was installed. Winter weather prevented the completion of the distribution system.
This Division was also engaged in improving the access road to the Bear River, but, due
to unfavourable weather, progress was poor; however, some ditching, gravelling, and
a bridge over Camp Creek were completed. J|
A small experimental nursery was completed this summer, and initial fall sowings
of white spruce, balsam fir, Douglas fir, white birch, five varieties of birch from Norway,
and Scotch pine from Finland were established. The purpose of the nursery is to establish
technique and methods, and to determine the suitability of different species and races to
northern conditions.
Cutting continued on two marked timber sales. Marking and preparation of a
further sale was completed.
A boys' training camp for seventeen youths was in operation during July and
August.  They were engaged in slash-disposal, trail-clearing, and road work, as well as
siting in tree-marking and research projects.     f|i
 44
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Experimental Nursery, Aleza Lake Experiment Station, 1953.
Cut-banks on the new access road were seeded during the spring and early fall of
1952. A mixture in the following proportions by weight was sown at the rate of
10 pounds per acre: Brome-grass, 10; creeping red fescue, 3; Kentucky blue, 3; and
white Dutch clover, 2. Germination of all species was good, but, during the summer
of 1953, the grass began to die out. The clover took strongly and by September formed
a good protective cover over many of the banks. In future it is recommended that
consideration be given other species of clover as well as the white Dutch.
GENETICS
A new field of study was initiated during 1953. Forest genetics has been somewhat neglected in British Columbia, considering that the earliest reforestation projects
began in the coastal region in 1932. At the end of 1952, 106,322 acres had already
been planted, by far the greater part of this area being on Vancouver Island, with Douglas
fir being planted almost exclusively. Therefore, a programme that has, as its mam
object, improved quality of seed would seem very timely, especially as there is very
limited knowledge concerning the many races and strains into which an importan
species such as Douglas fir is almost certainly divided. The area which has been reforested at the present time covers a wide variety of sites and conditions, one obvious
example being that of elevation. Planting has taken place on areas almost at sea-leve
to mountain-slopes at elevations up to 3,000 feet. Careful experimental work in Europe
and on this continent has shown that a species covering a wide area such as the Doug a
fir is undoubtedly split up into races and strains, often characterized by sharp cluna l
limitations. Moreover, each race is especially adapted to its own specific zone and my
not be able to compete successfully in other zones—a finding of considerable prac i
importance in seed-collecting for reforestation purposes. . ,  be
Furthermore, future reforestation projects on the coast will almost certal^bef
confined to the higher elevations, where the greater part of the existing mature tim
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 45
remains, so that information on the limits to which seed can be safely used at elevations
above that of its source is very desirable. A brief survey of those plantations which have
been established at the higher elevations was made in 1952, and a start was made in
collecting seed from different stands at various elevations. When seed from sufficient
representative areas has been collected, progeny tests will be initiated, the seedlings from
the different elevations being planted out together in replicated blocks in different areas
at various elevations. Under such uniform conditions, with complete control from cone
collection to planting, it is hoped to obtain valuable information on the effects of moving
seed from one locality and elevation to another. Some seed from the higher elevations
was collected this fall, cone production at elevations of 2,000 feet and over being plentiful
in certain localities. Collecting cones at these elevations can be carried out in September, the cones maturing later than those at lower elevations. A start is also being made
in locating accessible seed-collecting areas at such elevations.
On the more intensive side of forest-genetic research, controlled pollination experiments are being carried out on Douglas fir in order to investigate self-incompatibility
relationships and the effects of inbreeding.
STATISTICS
Another new development during the year was the assigning of a member of the
staff, with experience in mensuration activities and advanced training in statistical
methods, to fill the roles of mensurationist and statistician.    His duties include:—
(1) Working in close co-operation with the various research officers in the
mensuration phases of all projects, thereby achieving and maintaining a
consistently high standard of measurement compatible with the aims of
the Forest Service and the objects of individual experiments;
(2) Working on the design and analysis of projects either directly or in an
advisory capacity, dependent on the experience of the research officers;
(3) Undertaking directly any special studies that are primarily mensuration-
methodology projects; for example, relative efficiency of various sampling
schemes; and
(4) Working in close co-operation, when requested by officers of other divisions, on the mensuration and sampling phases of their activities.
During the year direct assistance or guidance was given on Research Division
projects; assistance was given Surveys and Inventory Division officers on volume table,
decay, and photo-mensuration projects; studies and reports on balsam decay, for in-
Service distribution, were completed for the Management Division; and, for the Working
Plans Division, assistance on sampling for growth on management units. In addition,
assistance was given to a number of individuals on minor technical matters along the
same lines. 1 Wm
PERMANENT-PLOT STUDIES
The re-examination of permanent growth-study plots was maintained with the
^measurement of 4 empirical plots of 36 sub-plots at Lakelse and Kitsumgallum Lakes,
one empirical plot of 29 sub-plots on Vancouver Island, and 35 standard plots and
5 empirical plots of 124 sub-plots in the Prince George region. No new plots were
established during the year nor were any plots abandoned.
FIELD PROJECTS
■ During the year some thirty-two separate studies were undertaken by thirteen field
Arties.   Some of these projects are now completed, while others are of a continuing
nature.
 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
^
Zyfeji/yiDjacf au/n/O/i
y <-
9j
I
I
!
I
1
sits
3>s$w
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
47
Alder one year after treatment with arsenite solution.
Diameter, 7.5 inches;  height, 65 feet.
I
 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hemlock ten months after treatment.   An example of very clean and easy peeling.
-c
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 49
A study on the factors affecting the formation of heart-wood in Douglas fir has now
been completed, in which some new information is gained on the role played by thinning
and pruning in the transformation of sap-wood to heart-wood.
Another study concerns chemical treatment of trees as a method of debarking.
Hemlock, Douglas fir, and alder were treated with sodium arsenite and ammonium sulpha-
mate at various times throughout the year. No satisfactory results were achieved with
Douglas fir. With alder, however, the bark was completely shed or hung loosely on the
bole of trees treated with sodium arsenite in July and over-wintered. The results were
not so spectacular with hemlock, though easy peeling of the bark was achieved through
the use of arsenite applied to band girdles. A full report is being prepared. No further
work on this study is planned.
In order to learn something on accuracy control on timber-sale cruises, a 100-percent cruise was made of an area using %o-acre plots. These plots were combined in
various ways to test the most efficient size and shape of plot, scheme of sampling (systematic, random, stratified random), and intensity of coverage to give precisions of
volume estimates within an expected desirable range for timber-sale administrative purposes (±15 per cent, nineteen out of twenty times).
Progress is being made on direct seeding and rodent-control investigations. Good
control of seed-eating mice is achieved by a new rodenticide developed by the United
States Fish and Wildlife Service called § tetramine." This chemical, however, has a
depressing effect on germination of seed, and further work on carriers is under way. In
two trials, areas seeded with treated seed showed 43 and 50 per cent stocking after one
year.  The control areas sown with untreated seed were 19 and 18 per cent stocked.
Several thinning experiments were initiated or required re-examination. Two of
these are at the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station. A third involved thinning a 52-year-
old lodgepole-pine stand located on the Upper Kootenay River. The stand was thinned
to densities ranging from 90 to 20 per cent of normal stocking. A fourth project involves
thinning a 55-year-old hemlock stand occurring on East Thurlow Island. The object
in this instance is to demonstrate the economic opportunities and silvicultural benefits of
partially cutting a vigorous young stand for pulp-wood. In co-operation with a private
logging company, 80 acres are being thinned to four different densities. The thinnings
are being skidded to the beach, bundled, and made up into booms for towing to the
pulp-mill.
A number of studies connected with maintaining nursery fertility are receiving
attention. At the present, particular emphasis is placed on ways and means of providing
adequate organic matter through composts, mulches, and green manures.
Two parties are engaged in ecological investigations in which the object is to determine a system of classification in terms of forest associations or forest site-types, and to
acquire further information on successional trends. One study is based on Coast types,
while the other is restricted to the spruce-balsam types of the Interior.
Cutting methods for overmature, mature, and thrifty immature stands are the subject
of three projects. In two instances the studies are concerned with silvicultural methods
for spruce-balsam stands in the Kamloops and Prince George regions. The third instance
deals with a mixed Douglas fir-hemlock-cedar-larch type occurring in the Arrow Lakes
region.
The characteristics of various types of seed-beds in relation to regeneration of spruce
and balsam is receiving attention. The ultimate objective is to be able to naturally or
artificially influence the creation of favourable seed-beds and thus assure adequate
regeneration.
A study was initiated on problems arising out of forest and grazing use of timbered
range lands of the Cariboo District. It was found that regeneration as encroachment on
grass lands and as an understory in present stands is materially reducing and restricting
 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Fifty-five-year-old hemlock thinnings felled and bucked.   The cutting removed
25 per cent of the volume.
D-6 Caterpillar tractor with rubber-tired arch bringing a turn of logs to the landing.   Average mi
diameter of the logs is 9 inches;  minimum top diameter, 4 inches; length, 24 feet.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
51
A turn of logs being pushed on to the bunk. Note one of the two stakes which are secured
in upright position 14 feet apart by means of choker wires and slip locks. When the wires are
released, the stakes drop forward and lie flush with the ground, allowing the strapped bundle to
be pushed down the ramp into the water.
Log bundles and boom (in the water) at low tide.   The bundles shown on dry land will float again
at high tide, the rise of tide being 12 to 14 feet.
 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
grazing values. Overgrazing, logging, and fire in various ways contribute to this situation. Fire as a solution has generally been a failure and succeeds only in reducing both
grazing and forest values. The study will be continued with the object of determining if
an economic silivicultural method can be devised to increase the compatibility of these
two resources, or if other means exist for improving grazing potentials without endangering the timber resource.
The following is a list of individual studies undertaken during the past year:—   m
Experimental
Plot No.
22
343
344
362
368
370
371
373
374
378
381
382
383
384-5
386
387
388
390
391
392
418
419
422
423
425
428
429
Title of Study
Periodicity and size of cone-crop	
Thinning experiments in red alder—I—j \ _
Chemical treatment of standing trees as a method of debarking.
Rodent ecology project	
The adaptability of tree species to forest sites	
Partial cutting experiment—Interior Wet Belt type	
Cutting experiments in overmature spruce-balsam	
Ecological investigations in spruce-balsam forests	
Group seed-tree study	
Ecological investigations	
Germination and survival—western hemlock	
Nursery fertility studies	
Nursery fertility studies _	
Thinning experiment in lodgepole pine .	
Accuracy control on timber-sale cruises	
Factors affecting reproduction in the Boreal Forest region	
Commercial thinning in western hemlock .	
Direct-seeding studies—Dougl as fir	
Annual morphological analysis of nursery stock	
Field survival of experimentally treated nursery stock	
Tm'nning experiments in Douglas fir	
Factors affecting the formation of heart-wood in Douglas fir—
Cutting methods in spruce-balsam forests	
Direct-seeding studies—Douglas fir	
Estimation of site quality by stump measurements	
Survival of spruce transplants, sub-alpine region	
Timber-range grazing studies j	
Location
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Coastal Region.
Slocan Lake.
Kamloops.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Coastal Region.
Vancouver Island.
Cranbrook.
Green Timbers.
East Kootenay.
Kamloops.
Aleza Lake.
Thurlow Island.
Vancouver Island.
F.S. Nurseries.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Cariboo.
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
"A Commercial Thinning Experiment in Douglas Fir," by C. Joergensen, B.C.
Forest Service, Research Note No. 22, 1952. I 1
"Experimental Pruning of Douglas Fir in British Columbia," by J. M. Finnis,
B.C. Forest Service, Research Note No. 24, 1953. 1
"A Note on the Bud Count Method of Forecasting the Cone Crop of Douglas Fir,"
by J. M. Finnis, Forestry Chronicle 29:2:122-127, 1953.
| Relative Efficiency of Some Specific Plot Sizes in Estimating Timber Volumes
in Some Specific Timber Types," by M. B. Clark, Forestry Chronicle 29:3:254-260,
1953.    Reprinted as B.C. Forest Service Technical Publication T. 40, 1953.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 53
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
Weather conditions were ideal for growing seedlings this year, and, in consequence,
for the first time in five years, there will be full production of planting stock for the spring
of 1954. Precipitation for the year was the highest on record at all nurseries. Excessive
rain fell during the winter months, but it was well distributed during the growing season
so that sprinkling was hardly necessary. This type of weather did, however, increase
weeding costs. The mild winter of 1952-53 resulted in very little frost-heaving in the
hemlock-seed beds, but the proper technique for keeping this type of stock in the ground
during a normal winter season has still not been found. Continuous shading of hemlock
for the two seasons it is in the nursery is essential.
Holland tree-transplanter setting out 1-0 yellow pine at East Kootenay Nursery.
At Gieen Timbers !>300,000 trees were shipped in the spring and 400,000 trees in
rA a t0 var*ous planting projects. Serious loss of seedlings resulted from weevil and
ford damage, with frost-killing in the winter of 1951-52.   Production problems which
ave affected this nursery for a number of years have now been overcome, and shipping
quotas should be maintained in future.   Seed-beds were sown to produce 3,000,000 seed-
gs in 1955 Ornamental stock was shipped to eleven Ranger Stations in Vancouver
JICSt Dist*ict ai}d to Canadian Engineers camp at Chilliwack.   A small insulated room
1   a refrigeration unit was constructed in the root-cellar for seed storage with the
mPerature being maintained at approximately 38° F. # f 1
 54
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
At Campbell River 1,628,000 trees were shipped during the year to planting projects
in that area. Seed-beds were sown for the production of 3,000,000 seedlings in 1955
Seven acres of adjacent Crown land were cleared and prepared for seed-beds in 1954'
This will permit a four-year rotation of crops and rebuild the soil-fertility in the present
nursery area which has deteriorated rapidly over the past three years.
At Duncan 2,036,400 seedlings were shipped during the year to various projects in
the Cowichan Valley. Seed-beds were sown for the production of 3,000,000 trees in
1955. An experiment on pre-sowing treatment of Douglas-fir seed was carried on at this
nursery. Six different treatments with a check-plot of untreated seed were used, and in
all cases an appreciable improvement in germination occurred, with the best results being
obtained from thirty hours' soaking and fifteen days' cold storage. Further tests will be
made in 1954, and if results are similar, considerable quantities of seed can be saved in
sowing the seed-beds.
The East Kootenay Nursery shipped 330,000 trees to planting projects in that area.
Seed-beds were sown to produce 1,000,000 seedlings of yellow pine, Douglas fir, and
Engelmann spruce. An additional 6 acres were cleared and made ready for transplants.
A four-car garage and a workshop were constructed to increase the facilities of the
nursery.
Experimental soil-fertility work was continued at all nurseries, and is reported on in
detail elsewhere in this Report by the Research Division under the heading of | Nursery
Fertility Studies." Sk__       1
SEED COLLECTIONS
The cone-crop for all species throughout the Province was so poor that no seed was
collected in any district. Sufficient supplies are on hand to maintain production at all
nurseries through 1954.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
During the summer, 7,000 acres on Vancouver Island were intensively examined
and planting maps prepared for the two areas concerned. Reconnaissance of one area
of 1,500 acres on Great Central Lake revealed the need for planting. This area will be
intensively surveyed and a map prepared next year. A further 20,000 acres in the Esqui-
malt and Nanaimo Railway land grant were also reconnoitred.
In the East Kootenay a four-man crew was engaged in regeneration survey from
June 1st to September 20th. During this period, work was confined to two main areas,
totalling 36,500 acres. The larger area at Wasa included 20,100 acres, of which an estimated 60 per cent is insufficiently restocked. At Bull River, of the 16,400 acres examined, roughly 75 per cent will require planting. Maps of these areas are in the process
of completion.
PLANTING
The mild winter enabled planting projects to get under way on the Coast by February 15th. Owing to shortage of planting stock, all camps were finished the spring work
by the middle of March. Five projects covered 2,510 acres with 2,000,000 seedlings,
and in the fall 400 acres were planted with 400,000 trees.
In the East Kootenay region 286 acres were planted in the spring with 200,000
seedlings. Two projects were organized for the fall, but, unfortunately, the extremely dry
weather prevented their operation all through October, and then freezing temperatures
made it impossible to plant.
During the year a total of 3,200 acres were planted with 2,690,000 seedlings in the
two regions. Logging companies planted an additional 3,900 acres with 2,800,000 trees.
(See page 128 of Appendix for statistics of planting over past ten years.)
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 55
PREPARATION OF PLANTING AREAS
The large area of cut-over Crown land within the boundaries of the Sayward Forest
has, for the most part, been rehabilitated. This area has received the most vigorous
attention for the past fourteen years and offers a gratifying picture to-day as the plantations become more evident. Planting on the Drinkwater River area at the west end of
Great Central Lake was completed during the fall. The camp buildings were dismantled
and will be moved to a location approximately 8 miles from the east end of the lake.
A new office building is currently under construction at Cowichan Lake, together with
improvements to bunk-houses and wash-house. This work is being done by a reforestation crew.
A total of IV2 miles of old logging grades were converted for truck use, and three-
quarters of a mile of new road was constructed. Approximately 200 miles of existing
access road was maintained.
Standing snags were cleared from 7,820 acres. Reforestation hand-fallers snagged
6,253 acres, and the remainder was felled by contract fallers using chain saws.
PLANTATIONS
As soon as possible after the completion of planting, a total of 682 %00-acre plots
were established in the plantations. Every planted and natural seedling on these plots
is recorded and observed for three years. Re-examination of 728 plots previously
established in the 1952 Coast plantations revealed an average survival of 72 per cent.
This is considered good in view of the fact that the April-September precipitation in
1952 was even less than during the extremely hazardous summer of 1951. Two very
dry summers have reduced the initial survival of 71 per cent on the 1950 plantations to
64 per cent. In spite of this, the 849 plots examined show an average total of 1,080
planted and natural trees per acre.
Experimental planting carried on to date in the East Kootenay region indicates
many problems connected with weather and soil conditions which must be overcome.
The original 1950 fall planting at Elko shows a survival after two growing seasons of
18 per cent. This is a direct result of the planting-site, which was on a dry gravel flat.
The spring planting in 1951 and 1953 was on a better site, and this is reflected in the
survival of 44 per cent. Even this figure may seem disappointing until it is seen that it
represents 300 or more trees per acre, which is considered ample for the yellow-pine
region. Fall planting done in 1951 at Wasa now has a survival of 41 per cent. The
spring planting of the next year has only 18 per cent survival, caused mainly by an
extremely dry planting season.
At Newgate, 1952 spring planting has a survival of 37 per cent or 306 trees per
acre. An examination in the fall, of the 1953 spring planting here, revealed 78 per cent
survival for machine-planting and 76 per cent for hand-planting. These figures may be
expected to decline at least 10 per cent after a second summer, but the Newgate area
does seem to have much better moisture conditions than the other areas so far planted
in the East Kootenay District. This was the only area in the district with sufficient soil
moisture to permit planting in the fall of 1953. Further planting and study are still
necessary to reveal whether spring or fall planting is generally superior. At present
there appears to be considerable variability with locality and weather conditions at time
of planting.
PLANTATION IMPROVEMENT
In January and February, 12 acres of plantations at the Green Timbers station
were weeded and brushed. During the summer a start was made on replacing some of
jhe exotic plantations which have proved a failure on this site. Species removed were
Jodgepole pine and Sitka spruce. Several acres were slashed and the brush piled and
burned in preparation for replanting with other species.
On the Campbell River Experimental Forest, the plan to make the whole of the
rest readily accessible was extended by the slashing of 2 miles of old railroad grade.
 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PARKS AND RECREATION
The past year demonstrated very conclusively that, once acceptable access and
basic facilities are provided in park areas, the public are eager to participate. Miracle
Beach Park, near Courtenay, was officially opened in June and, a month later, was
overcrowded, necessitating immediate planning for expansion. Cultus Lake Park,' with
fifty-eight camp-sites, proved inadequate to handle visitors that numbered over 1,400
in one day. Counts showed an increase of 67 per cent in public use from the previous
year. Additional camp and picnic areas were started in the fall. Mount Seymour Park
already well known for the excellence of its winter sport facilities, is becoming famous
for its scenic summer drive and hiking possibilities. As many as 6,000 visitors a day
were recorded. New parking areas holding 270 cars were completed, trails were improved, and catering facilities expanded.
Despite the relatively poor road system to Wells Gray Park, the fine fishing and
hunting resulted in a substantial increase in numbers of visitors. A road, trail, and
camp-site programme have now provided amenities conducive to more enjoyable use
of that park. In Manning Park, work was pushed ahead on the fire-protection plan,
which will also provide hiking and riding outlets.
From counts and studies conducted in the more extensively used parks, it is apparent that over 800,000 visitors enjoyed the Provincial parks during the year.
The number of youths employed on the Youth Training Programme reached eighty-
seven, an appreciable increase from the former year. Again, their aptitude for many
aspects of park development resulted in much-needed roadside sites and added facilities
within established parks.
ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
The addition of two large parks, Garibaldi and Mount Robson, to the Provincial
park system necessitated the placement of a supervisory officer for each area. The
recreational officer in the Prince Rupert District was transferred to Nelson, thus leaving
the Prince Rupert and Fort George Districts under one officer at Prince George. Where
possible, Victoria headquarters personnel gave advice on planning and development
aspects.
Little Qualicum Falls Park.—A new bridge, 55 feet in length, was constructed to
replace the original car-bridge built in 1938. An old foot-bridge was found unsafe and
demolished. The original wooden railings at the falls view point were removed and a
60-foot-long rock wall with pipe railings installed. A further expansion of five sites at
the camp-ground was carried out. ||       iBl
Englishman River Falls Park.—The upper foot-bridge, started in the previous year,
was completed, and the bridge at the lower falls was redecked. Two new camp-sites
were added.
Elk Falls Park.—A washout, caused by leakage from a new penstock pipe of the
John Hart hydro project, did considerable damage to the drainage system above the falls.
The Power Commission undertook the replacement of 50 feet of 36-inch wood-stave
drain-pipe and the refacing of a concrete intake catch-box. |
Miracle Beach Park.—The main road and the parking-lot were brought to finished
grade, oiled, and the drainage system completed. In the picnic area, 32 tables were
placed on concrete foundations, and trails and drinking-fountains constructed. The
picnic shelter was completed. The change-house and toilet building were completed by
early summer. In an effort to stabilize and, if possible, improve the sand beach, 60
concrete crosses 4!/2-by-4-feet were placed on the foreshore. The camp-ground was
readied by completing the road and trail system. Sixty individual camp-sites and
attendant services were completed.    The camp-ground water-supply was improved,
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
57
Mount Robson and the Tumbling Glacier.
 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
through the construction of a concrete storage-tank and seven new outlets. Approxi
mately IVi miles of drainage-ditch will materially improve the low-lying camp-ground
Because of the great demand for more camping and picnicking facilities, a new parking-
lot, 135 by 500 feet, has been cleared. Almost a mile of new camp-ground road has
been slashed, and a further mile brought to grade to enable the hauling of gravel to the
park area. One new wash-house and one cabin for crew quarters were built to replace
those destroyed by fire.
Mount Seymour Park.—Although hampered by exceptionally wet weather, a construction crew was able to enlarge the service area, extend the road, create two new
parking-lots, improve the surface of existing lots, and lay 1,000 feet of wood pipe, thereby
closing the water system. The completion of this pipe-line and a temporary earth dam
permitted the opening of the water service to the ski lodge. Increased use of the lodge
facilities was met by construction of a new kitchen. Closer co-operation within the park
organization was furthered by a radio installation, permitting three-channel transmission
and receiving.   In conjunction with this, two service vehicles were radio-equipped.
The wearing resistance of the road was improved by laying a second bituminous
armour coat throughout the 8 miles. Two culverts were added to reduce drainage
problems. Roadside parking was improved by adding surface aggregate, and the appearance of the right-of-way was enhanced by the removal of slash remaining from early
construction. The annual road work consisted mainly of ditch-clearing, culvert repairs,
pot-hole patching, and the repairing of road shoulders. Machinery maintenance entailed
the overhaul of snow-removal equipment, construction machines, light plants, and ski-
tow motors. In addition, steps were taken to reduce the rate of deterioration of the
service buildings and cabins. Throughout the snow period the road was kept open by
the efficient teamwork of a grader and a rotary plough.
In general, the ski tows gave satisfactory service; however, it was necessary to
remodel the twin tow to improve its efficiency. All tows received a thorough inspection.
Removal of slash was continued on Enquist Hill, and preliminary clearing was begun
for a new tow. The Youth Training Programme crew, present during the summer months,
helped with landscaping projects, improved the trail system, carried out general clean-up,
and constructed new picnic areas. Three miles of electric cable was buried within the
park by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. This provided the power connection
for the television transmitter located just outside the park at the 2,800-foot level.
Cultus Lake Park.—Rapidly increasing public use brought a corresponding effort
to provide facilities. Although twenty complete camping units were added to Delta Grove
Camp-site, the continuing pressure for additional areas necessitated a further expansion of
forty sites as part of a winter programme. Picnicking facilities were implemented by a
new development at the north end of Delta Grove. This consisted of a parking-lot for
forty cars and ten picnic tables with associated services. A service area, adjacent to the
residence building, was cleared and graded, and service roads and parking facilities
completed as part of the residence-site design. An innovation in park services was the
installation of a life-guard at Delta Grove Beach during periods of heavy use. Three
persons were rescued from almost certain drowning and several others were helped when
in difficulty.
Manning Park.—Further landscaping improvements were carried out in early
summer, when 4 acres were seeded to grass, native plantings made, and rockeries built,
which helped to control traffic around the new motels. Jeep-trail construction resulted
m gj| miles completed and a further mile of old trail opened up on the Gibson Pass
Trail, 2 miles on the Memaloose Creek Trail, 1 mile on the Chuwanten Creek Iran,
and two heavy-duty bridges. Clearing and draining were carried out on 8 acres o
meadow to provide topsoil and pasture. All buildings in Manning Park were given two
coats of either Timberlox or boiled linseed-oil. The entire road and trail system was
cleaned up and graded.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
59
Garibaldi ParL—With the extremely limited funds available for this park, only
minor improvements were undertaken.   Some trail repair and the construction of four
log foot-bridges were the main items.   Considerable time was spent on reconnoitring
possible access routes into the Black Tusk Meadows area.   A summer employee in the
Black Tusk Meadows region and one in the Haney area directed activities and earned
out the necessary maintenance in these undeveloped zones.
Mount Garibaldi and 'Garibaldi Neve.
Wells Gray Park.—The remaining 6 miles of road to Clearwater Lake were slashed
and made passable for vehicular traffic. This completes a 20-mile-long road system
from the park boundary to Hemp Creek. The crossing of Falls Creek necessitated a
32-foot bridge. Service parking for three cars was provided adjacent to the Foretf
Service cabin, and a public parking-lot will accommodate sixteen cars. One thousand feet
of a side-road spur, 1,400 feet long, leading to the proposed bridge crossing of the
Clearwater River was cleared and partially grubbed. Through the efforts of a Youth
Training Programme crew much-needed camp and picnic sites were developed close to
the Murtle River Bridge. A planned trail—and view point—system for popular Dawson
Falls was also completed. Over a mile of new trail toward the Pyramids and some
repair on the route along Deer Creek were undertaken to implement both title wildlife
and protection programmes. The season was one of low fire-hazard, and no fires of
any note occurred. A complete set of weather-recording instruments was installed,
"ftis station will supply information required by the Canadian Government The previously constructed portions of the Clearwater Lake Road in Wells Gray Park wefe
^graded, and a large amount of surfacing material placed. Minor trail niiictiiteniiiiix
was undertaken by the staff and the Youth Training Programme crew.
Mount Rohson Park.—Efforts during the first year of ac_____inistral_k>n wore directed
t0 ^e protection and an inventory of natural and man-made features.
 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Peace Arch Park.—This park received the most intensified use, per acre of land
of any park in the Province. Fortunately, the necessary facilities to handle large numbers of visitors have been stabilized and problems are concerned almost solely with
maintenance. Once again, an approximate 10-per-cent increase over the previous year
was noticed in the number of persons registering at the three main centres: Visitors at
summer house, 18,273; visitors at picnic kitchen, 5,649; club and association picnic
visitors, 16,987.
Langford Workshop.—The distinctive furniture and signs used in Provincial parks
and roadside camp and picnic sites throughout the Province are supplied through this
workshop. During the past year the following material was provided: 479 picnic tables,
272 fireplaces, 39 incinerators, and 527 carved signs. In addition, such specialized
orders were prepared as a large entrance sign, two 2-ton incinerators, 34 table-lamps
and tables, and 200 carved miniature axes and peavies. An improvement to shop facilities was the completion of a varnishing-room fitted with infra-red lamps to speed drying.
A storage-shed, 20 by 60 feet, with a portion designed for welding operations was nearly
completed.
Maintenance.—Each year records an appreciable increase in the number of visitors
to the Island parks. These relatively small areas see very intensive use, and require
constant daily maintenance throughout the summer. Because of the great influx on
certain days, the proportion of people registering has dropped from 40 to 30 per cent.
However, the following table shows a total registration of 12,643 in excess of the previous
year and an increase in campers of 1,118 persons. Number of
Registered Number of
Name of Park Visitors Campers
Little Qualicum Falls  24,118 f 3,889
Englishman River Falls  11,099 1,786       #
John Dean     6,632 1,037
Stamp Falls     8,182 964
Ivy Green and Twin Firs Picnic-sites     6,520 801
MacMillan  11,811 	
Elk Falls  14,703 2,515
9 Totals  83,065i 10,492
i Check counts indicate 30 per cent of visitors sign the guest-book.
|;    PLANNING
Planning efforts for the year can be summarized as follows:—
Wells Gray Park.—Field studies were continued toward the preparation of an overall development plan, and detail site-plans were drawn up for the increasingly popular
Dawson Falls and Clearwater Lake areas. A plan was also prepared for a park residence
and service area.
Manning Park.—Further mapping was carried out in the Lightning Lakes valley
and along the Similkameen River to provide for expansion of present recreational areas.
A fifty-eight-unit camp-site was planned and the field layout completed. A further plan
was drawn up for an extensive picnicking development in the Cambie area.
Cultus Lake Park.—An extension to the present camp-site was planned to include
another forty sites. 1
Miracle Beach Park.—The topographic map was completed and plans formulated
expanding the camping area by another fifty units. Plans were also completed for expansion of picnicking facilities. This included a new 172-car parking-lot and a picnic-site
designed for organized group picnics.
Petroglyph Park.—-This small park was mapped in detail and a new development
plan drawn up, including a parking-lot, picnic-site, and trail system.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 61
Deep Creek Park.—This valuable area on Okanagan Lake was mapped and planned
as a roadside camping-site adjacent to the popular Antler Beach Picnic-site.
McDonald Park.—A topographic map was finished as the first stage in planning.
Roadside Picnic and Camp Sites.—Four potential sites between Hope and New
Westminster were mapped and layouts made. Similar treatment was given one area on
the Hope-Princeton Highway near Hope. A study of potential roadside picnic-sites
between Victoria and Campbell River was completed, and a set of plans drawn up for the
initial development to be carried out in co-operation with the Department of Public
Works.
Landscaping.—A small specialized crew was employed on this work for most of the
year. The work included the complete landscaping of the Mount Seymour Park personnel
building, Miracle Beach Park attendant's residence, and small areas in Manning Park.
Landscaping of roadside springs within Cultus Lake Park was undertaken and a start was
made in improving the grounds around the attendant's residence. Various touch-up jobs,
such as fertilizing, top-dressing of lawns, and weed-spraying, were carried out in areas
previously landscaped. Twin Firs Picnic-site, near Ladysmith, was completely rebuilt*
tables were all placed on concrete bases, and considerable planting and placement erf
barriers was done to reduce wear and to keep the public to the paths provided. Concrete
bases were placed under all the tables at the various picnic-sites within Cameron Lake
Park. The crew also constructed the Gulf View Picnic-site, adjacent to John Dean Park.
RECONNAISSANCE AND INVENTORY
The main focus of reconnaissance for public reserves was again on the lower coastal
region and on a large management-licence application.
On Sechelt Peninsula, a follow-up on last year's reconnaissance resulted in final
selection of possible recreation areas. A recreation survey of the Powell River district
was conducted. On the Lower Mainland, because of the recognized need for recreation
areas, reconnaissance was directed to small lakes in logged-over lands on the north side
of the Fraser River. Sites were sought to extend the Provincial roadside picnic- and
camp-site programme to the Lower Fraser Valley between Hope and Langley.
Some 250 miles of shore-line on Quesnel and Horsefly Lakes were traversed, and
the beaches and frontage more favourable for public use located and reserved. Final
assessment of Hamber Park and a further examination of Mount Robson Park were
undertaken to determine the place of these two large and important areas in the Provincial park system. A series of scattered examinations for reserves and small parks in the
Kootenay, Lillooet, Yale, and Similkameen Districts formed another part of the work.
The acreage under various park classifications as at December 31st, 1953, is:—
Class of Park Number Acreage
A"               28 1,426,384.9
B"          ___     |              5 7,055,211.0
"C" \           31 4,138.8
Special Act  1 529,920.0
Totals  65 9,015,654.7
The acreage under various reserve classifications as at December 31st, 1953, is:—
Class of Reserve Number Acreage
Designated recreational  areas  within forest
reserves      71 6,790.9
"Land Act" reserves  265 18,829.0
Temporary (map) reserves  192 257,640.0!
Totals 528 283,259.9
-istorted by the
n Lakes and Hudson Bay Mountain.
Bowr1.??-^**1 'ho^n * di^orted by the inclusion in the temporary reserve classification of two large areas; namely,
 62
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Additions to and Withdrawals from the Provincial Park System, 1953
Name
Lockhart Beach—
Ethel F. Wilson	
Nakusp Recreation
Nakusp Recreation
Crescent Beach	
Little Shuswap	
Date
Added
Apr. 2,1953
July 21, 1953
Jan. 30, 1942
Date
Withdrawn
Apr. 17,1953
July 21,1953
Dec. 2, 1953
Acreage
4.9
71.4
84.1
39.2
227.0
3.0
Class
"C"
"A"
"C"
"C"
"C"
"C"
Vicinity
Boswell.
Burns Lake.
Nakusp.
Nakusp.
Crescent Beach.
Chase.
Two changes in classifications were made in 1953, these being the Garibaldi Park
Act having been repealed, and the park now constituted a Provincial park, Class "A";
and the Mount Robson Park Act having been repealed, and the park now constituted a
Provincial park, Class "A."
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
The main wildlife research projects undertaken were with moose and fur-bearers in
Wells Gray Park, beaver and trout in Manning Park, and deer in the Sayward Forest. Of
these, moose received the most emphasis. This study is now at the end of its initial,
intensive phase. A moose corral was built to enable studies on the type and amount of
browse consumed. Future work will place more emphasis on other big-game species.
The moose studies revealed the necessity for another open season on cow moose in Wells
Gray Park this year. In Manning Park, trout research led to a reduction in the size-limit
for anglers.
A preliminary reconnaissance of Mount Robson Park showed that game species
are an important attraction in this area. Especially noteworthy are the abundance of
mountain-goat, grizzly bear, and moose, while caribou, elk, mountain-sheep, mule deer,
black bear, and many lesser species also occur.
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
Elk Falls Park.—(1) Supervision provided for the repair and replacement of 50
feet of 3-foot-diameter wood-stave drain-pipe. The work was done by the British Columbia Power Commission at its expense. (2) Survey of certain portions of the park
undertaken preliminary to future development.
Englishman River Falls Park.—(1) Design and construction of a new foot-bridge
across the Englishman River was completed. This bridge, at the upper falls, is 110 feet
long and is approached by a newly constructed stairway 42 feet long.
Little Qualicum Falls Park.—(1) The car-bridge above Little Qualicum Falls was
replaced by an arched Glulam beam structure supported by concrete abutments. To
co-operate with the Forest Protection Division, the bridge was designed to take light
vehicular traffic.
Mount Seymour Park.—(1) The Mount Seymour Park road was resurfaced under
contract, and Parking-lot No. 2 was scarified, rolled, and flush-coated with medium
curing-oil. Supervision was provided for these projects. (2) Following additional surveys, a much-needed map was drawn to show all present developments. (3) Core drilling
at the proposed Whistler's Pass dam-site was completed under contract. The findings,
coupled with other studies and a report from Dr. Victor Dolmage, provide data for the
final design and construction of the dam. (4) Other projects surveyed and constructed
include the following: (a) Extension and completion of the service area; (b) extension
of the Mount Seymour Park road, up to and including the turn-around parking-lot, to
subgrade standards; (c) jump-hill parking-lot with a capacity of 150 cars; (d) layout
and installation of 1,000 feet of 5-inch water-main;   (e) revision of the concession
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 63
building with kitchen extension. (5) Preliminary studies of power requirements in the
recreational area.
Wells Gray Park.—(1) Road extended to Clearwater Lake. (2) King-truss bridge
constructed on 32-foot span across Falls Creek. (3) Detailed survey of bridge-site on
the Clearwater River completed, together with establishment of reference pins and bench
marks.   Continued high water prevented commencement of bridge construction.
Miracle Beach Park.—(1) Technical supervision was provided for the completion
of the picnic shelter, change-house, and catch-basin. (2) In view of the first summer's
heavy-use figures, a study was made of additional water sources. (3) In order to prevent erosion of the existing sand beach, and with the purpose of catching more sand
during winter storms, sixty concrete crosses were constructed, to be placed so as to best
intercept the littoral current.
Cultus Lake Park.—An excellent source of water to supply the camp-site area was
located, and a catch-basin and pipe-line location surveyed.
 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
WORKING PLANS
The function of the Working Plans Division is to carry out the detailed planning
and analysis incidental to the establishment of forest management licences, public
working-circles, farm wood-lot licences, and tree-farms. When these management
units have been approved, and are in actual operation, their administration becomes the
responsibility of the Management Division. From this point the Working Plans Division
acts in an advisory capacity, with particular reference to working-plan requirements
and revisions.
FOREST MANAGEMENT LICENCES
One management licence was awarded during the year, bringing the total to fourteen, as listed below:—
F.M.L.
No.
Forest District
Name of Licence
Licensee
Productive
Forest Area
Annual
Allowable
Cut
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Prince Rupert ~
Vancouver	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Prince George
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Nelson	
Kamloops	
Vancouver	
Nelson	
Vancouver——
Nelson	
Nelson	
Totals.
Port Edward	
Duncan Bay	
Little Slocan	
Blind Channel	
Mackenzie-Cariboo.
Quatsino	
Salmon River	
Boundary Creek	
Okanagan (West)...
Toba	
Carmi	
Hardwicke	
Bull River	
Spillimacheen	
Columbia Cellulose Co. Ltd	
Elk Falls Co. Ltd	
Passmore Lumber Co. Ltd	
D. Morrison 	
Western Plywood (Cariboo) Co. Ltd
Alaska Pine & Cellulose Ltd	
Salmon River Logging Co. Ltd	
Boundary SawmiUs Ltd	
S. M. Simpson Ltd	
Timberland Development Co. Ltd.	
Olinger Lumber Co. Ltd	
Bendickson Logging Co. (1939) Ltd.
Galloway Lumber Co. Ltd	
Cranbrook Sawmills Ltd	
Acres
664,337
286,503
92,960
3,881
78,372
296,210
115,394
87,380
170,633
24,928
69,295
15,497
37,880
145,080
2,088,350
MC.F.
14,500
15,000
1,800
228
1,500
18,000
10,800
1,260
1,800
1,083
630
1,330
357
2,400
l0,68T
Eight applications have been approved, contingent upon submission of a satisfactory
working plan, as follows:—
Forest District
Applicant
Location
ADproximate
Productive
Forest Area
Vancouver	
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd. (Alberni Pacific Lumber Division)
Clarke Bros. Timber Co. Ltd.
Alberni-Clayoquot	
Harrison Lake	
Acres
199,700
33,360
Prince Rupert	
Alaska Pine & CeUulose Ltd— 	
Queen Charlotte Islands
Bella Coola       	
118,200
Allison Logging Co. Ltd 	
Clearwater Timber Products Ltd.
16,500
Kamloops	
North Thompson	
165,900
Pondosa Pine Lumber Co. Ltd.
115,600
Oliver Sawmills Ltd	
90,200
Nelson.         	
Celgar Development Co. Ltd	
807,600
Total ..
1,547,060
 -
In addition, there are approximately 100 applications for forest management licence-
in various stages of review. Thirty-two of these have completed the necessary advertising.
PUBLIC WORKING-CIRCLES
Twenty-five public working-circles are now in operation, with a cutting-control ledger
established to aid in balancing the yearly cut with the approved annual allowable cut in
each case.
The combined productive forest area of these " circles " is approximately 6,000,000
acres, with a total sustained annual yield of 132,000,000 cubic feet.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 65
The present distribution of public working-circles by forest districts is as follows:—
Vancouver District     g
Prince Rupert District     2
Prince George District     7
Kamloops District     3
Nelson District     5
Total  251
1 The 1952 Forest Service Report listed thirty public working-circles as being delineated. This figure included aU
" circles," both approved and under review, whereas the above list includes only those for which annual aUowable cuts
have been established and cutting ledgers placed in operation.  There are fifteen additional units under review as at the
end of 1953.
FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
Total number of farm wood-lot licences awarded by districts is as follows:—
Vancouver District g     6
Prince George District     2
Kamloops District     6
Nelson District     6
Total  20
Twenty additional applications are on hand and in various stages of review.
TREE-FARMS
Three tree-farms were certified by the Forest Service during the year, bringing the
total number to six. These are listed below.
No.
Owner
Location
Total Area
1
T. G. Wright....                                                                          §
Sechelt Peninsula	
Acres
324
2
H. R. Nickson                                                                                	
Sechelt Peninsula ....	
180
3
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd.                                                            	
Fanny Bay  	
24,762
4
Powell River Co. Ltd	
Valdes and Galiano Islands	
Cowichan -	
Sooke	
9,719
5
Western Forest Industries Ltd	
8,538
6
G. E. Bernard	
3,075
46,598
(
Dne additional application is
on hand.
SUMMARY
The fourteen forest management licences awarded and the twenty-five public
working-circles approved comprise a total productive forest area of approximately
8,000,000 acres and will provide a total sustained annual yield of close to 201,000,000
cubic feet.
Comparing this yield figure with the total cut of forest products in the Province, for
^ year, of 906,000,000 cubic feet, it is apparent that the presently established forest-
management units (working-circles and management licences) can sustain about 22 per
cent of the present cut.   ||       m-
Work during the year has been largely concentrated on management licences and
working-circles. The large number of management-licence applications on hand has
required a detailed review of the many proposals.
A number of applications had been held in abeyance due to the lack of a satisfactory
forest inventory. During the year a considerable volume of inventory data became avail-
able>wi& the result that some of these applications could be reviewed. The same situation
 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
existed with regard to some of the proposed working-circles, and the availability of
improved inventory information has made it possible to review these areas on a sounder
basis.
The backlog of farm wood-lot applications, which were on hand at the end of 1952
have been processed, and with activity slacking off in this phase of the work, some
attention can be given to the problem of establishing strategically located demonstration
wood-lots.
   REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 67
FOREST MANAGEMENT
GENERAL
The total estimated value of all forest products for the year amounted to
$512,288,656. This is an all-time high and was due primarily to the increased volume in
pulp and paper, and plywood production. The volume of lumber produced was higher
than last year, but unit values were lower, which gave a total value equivalent to 1952.
Generally, the value of minor products was slightly lower, with the box industry showing
the greatest individual loss. This industry has fallen from a value of $10,430,608 in 1947
to $1,810,376 in 1953. J
The total cut for the Province amounted to approximately 5,292,000,000 board-
feet, in comparison with 4,938,000,000 board-feet in 1952, or an increase of 354,000,000
board-feet. This constitutes an all-time high, and was, no doubt, due to the fact that there
was no strike in the industry on the Coast and no prolonged dry spell.
Water-borne shipments for 1953 were approximately 1,392,000,000 board-feet,
being an increase of 244,000,000 board-feet over 1952. Shipments to the United Kingdom decreased sharply to 503,000,000 board-feet, while shipments to the United States
more than doubled to a total of 542,000,000 board-feet. It is interesting to note the
increase in shipments to Japan and Korea from 82,000 board-feet in 1952 to 24,000,000
board-feet in 1953.
The statistical tables in the Appendix to this Report supply details of the Forest
Management Division activities during the year. In commenting on these tables the
following highlights are considered worthy of special mention.
Of the total cut of 5,292,000,000 board-feet, Douglas fir continues to maintain its
leading position in volume cut by species; namely, approximately 2,076,000,000 board-
feet, or 39 per cent of the total in comparison with 41 per cent in 1952. Other important
species in order of output are hemlock, 1,084,000,000 board-feet, or 20 per cent; cedar,
812,000,000 board-feet, or 15 per cent; spruce, 677,000,000 board-feet, or 13 per cent,
in comparison with 19, 14, and 13 per cent, respectively, for these species during 1952.
Other species in order of scaled output were: Balsam, 6 per cent; lodgepole pine, 2 per
cent; larch, 2 per cent; and all other species with a combined total of 3 per cent.
The increased cut of 354,000,000 board-feet comes from the Coast, with the exception of 4,000,000 board-feet from Prince Rupert Forest District (Interior) and 5,000,000
board-feet from the Prince George Forest District. The Vancouver Forest District registered the largest gain in cut over 1952; namely, 277,000,000 board-feet. It is significant
that the trend in the increased cut was just the reverse of 1952, where the largest gains
were made in the Interior districts. This increase in the Vancouver figures was due to the
faffing selling prices and the strike in the industry in the Interior as against the increase in
pulp production by new and expanded plant facilities on the Coast.
On the basis of the origin of cut, 2,086,000,000 board-feet or 40 per cent of the
total came from timber sales, an increase of 157,000,000 board-feet or 8 per cent over
1952. Old Crown grants came next with 1,212,000,000 board-feet, or an increase of
78,000,000 board-feet over 1952, followed by timber licences with 739,000,000 board-
feet, or an increase of 88,000,000 board-feet over 1952. The cut from management
licences increased to 22,000,000 cubic feet from 16,000,000 cubic feet in 1952.
Timber sales awarded, including cash sales, numbered 2,881, an increase from 2,594
«i 1952. The estimated value of sales made amounted to $17,322,931.92, in comparison
with the 1952 valuation of $23,584,741.49, or a decline of 27 per cent. This was due to
the steady decline in stumpage rates during the year. The total number of sales as at
December 31st, 1953, was 7,287, as compared with 7,143 at the end of 1952. The total
area held under timber-sale contract is 2,094,280 acres. Moneys held as guarantee
deposits on timber sales at December 31st, 1953, amounted to $6,682,253.35.
 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The number of operating sawmills throughout the Province showed another increase
during 1953, reaching an all-time high of 2,472, including 59 shingle-mills. The increase
was confined to the Prince Rupert, Prince George, and Kamloops Forest Districts.
The total log exports amounted to 120,000,000 board-feet, in comparison with
125,000,000 board-feet or a decrease of 4 per cent. Of the total, 98,000,000 board-feet
came from old Crown grants carrying export privileges, leaving 22,000,000 board-feet
from other areas exported under permit.
The value of minor products marketed outside the Province amounted to $8,120,489
This is a $2,147,702 or 21-per-cent decrease from 1952 shipments, and was'due'toa
general falling-off throughout the year of the selling prices for poles and piling. Volume
of this product shipped was approximately the same as last year.
Timber sales to the number of 2,579 were cruised, having a total area of 719,234
acres. This shows an increase of 239 in number over 1952, but a decrease in area of
309,965 acres. Due to falling selling prices and uncertainty of future markets, this indicated the trend of many operators to obtain smaller timber sales with shorter terms and
not undertake long-term commitments.
H The volume of logging-inspection work again showed an increase and hit an all-time
high of 20,656. This increase, however, took care of only the increased operations, and
the frequency of inspections is still below the required standard.
The number of cases of trespass cutting for 1953 was 446, an increase of 27
over 1952.
A total of 4,139 timber marks were issued during the year, in comparison with 4,428
in 1952. I
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Coast log prices, following their decline in 1952, remained at a relatively low level
throughout 1953. Prices for pulp-logs reached their lowest level since 1949. As a result,
appraised upset stumpage prices and average stumpage prices bid seriously declined in
comparison to those in recent years. This decline in Coast stumpage prices had begun in
the latter part of 1952, when the weighted average price bid for all species on the Coast
fell to $3.55 per hundred cubic feet.  Comparable average price in 1953 was $3.25.
In the Interior of the Province the gradual decline in average net prices for dressed
lumber that had begun in 1951 continued through 1953. This was interrupted during the
early summer months by the usual seasonal increase, but throughout the year prices
remained at lower levels than at the corresponding period of the previous year. Prices
for Douglas fir suffered the most serious decline, while prices for white pine and ponderosa
pine remained fairly stable. Average stumpage prices bid for all species in the Interior
dropped from $4.67 per hundred cubic feet in the latter part of 1952 to $3.77 during
1953. |
Efforts to improve stumpage-appraisal data were continued. In addition to the
customary collection of lumber selling-price data, mill studies were carried out at 100
sawmills to obtain information on average standards of utilization and factors affecting
the relationship between the cubic-foot scale and the average lumber-recovery obtained.
FOREST-COVER MAPS
In the course of the year, 1,034 forest-cover maps were revised, as follows: Victoria,
135; district offices, 460; and Rangers' offices, 439. Of the above, 80 are new replacements. New replacements include 42 new forest-survey editions, and 177 maps comprising these were distributed or are in the process of being distributed and filed ^ the
offices concerned.   Thirty-eight maps were replaced for wear and tear at district officer
Conforming to forest-inventory requirements, the standard legend for district-report
mapping was revised for printing and distribution to all district offices.   Card mdexe
for listing maps and plans were printed for distribution and use as central register-
district offices.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 69
AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS
During the year 18,548 aerial photographs were added to district aerial-photographic
libraries, as follows: Vancouver, 3,082; Prince Rupert, 725; Prince George, 2,935;
Kamloops, 7,833; and Nelson, 3,973.
Aerial-photograph map-indexes issued with aerial-photograph supplies were filed at
all offices concerned. Card indexes for listing aerial photographs were printed for
distribution and use as central registers at district offices.
FOREST MANAGEMENT LICENCE ADMINISTRATION
During 1953, Cranbrook Sawmills Limited was awarded a forest management
licence, which increases to fourteen the total number of management licences presently
being administered by the Division.
On the fourteen licences, thirty cutting permits were in effect in 1953, and twenty-
three cutting permits have been issued for the calendar year 1954. Volumes to be cut
on the twenty-three cutting permits issued for 1954 amount to 31,000,000 cubic feet.
The total cut from management licences during 1953 was approximately 21,730,000
cubic feet. H
SILVICULTURAL FUND
For the fiscal year 1953-54, moneys were allotted under the Silvicultural Fund for
a programme to be carried out by the four forest districts in the Interior. The programme
included tree-marking, silvicultural studies, planning in working-circles, slash-disposal
projects, and co-operation with other agencies, such as the Forest Pathology Unit, Science
Service, Canada Department of Agriculture. The following is a summary of the work
accomplished.
In four districts (Prince Rupert, Prince George, Kamloops, and Nelson) 134 timber
sales covering an area of 21,805 acres were marked for selective cutting. Although
some marking is still being done by axe, the majority of sales were marked with paint.
Due to such variables as volume per acre, type of terrain, etc., on different sales, it is
difficult to determine a Province-wide average cost for marking, but such costs range
from 50 cents to $4 per acre and from 10 to 60 cents per hundred cubic feet.
In the Prince George District the results of a direct-seeding experiment and a
thinning experiment have not as yet been compiled, and until all data have been analysed
no definite conclusions are available. Growth and yield plots are being established in all
marked sales in the district, with the objective of determining the effect of release upon
the reserve stand.
The Kamloops District commenced a study of the effects of various scarification
treatments on cut-over spruce-balsam types near Sock Lake in the Lower Clearwater
area, and the regeneration studies were continued in the Bolean Lake area.
The Research Division, in co-operation with the Nelson District, established a series
of plots in the vicinity of the Kootenay River and Slocan Lake, to determine the effect
of various thinning procedures carried out under timber-sale conditions.
Inventory work in working-circles was continued in all four Interior districts in order
to improve upon present information, and, in addition, a number of timber sales were
laid out in the working-circles on a planned-management basis.
Throughout the Province, nine slash-disposal crews consisting of from three to ten
men each were employed in reducing the fire-hazard on timber sales, old mill-settings,
and logging-roads. In addition, small slash-disposal crews under Ranger direction were
employed in sixteen Ranger districts. Lopping, scattering, piling, and burning were
carried out on 6,500 acres, 480 old mill-settings were burned, and 22 miles of road was
rebuilt or repaired.
As in years past, the Forest Service again co-operated with the Vernon Entomology
Laboratory by submitting insect collections from areas in which insects appeared to be
active. In co-operation with Prince George District officers, a deterioration study in
^d-thrown spruce and balsam was commenced by the Forest Pathology Unit, Science
**vice, Canada Department of Agriculture.
 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GRAZING
INTRODUCTION
-4-The management and administration of the Crown range has been an important
phase of Forest Service activity in the ranching areas of British Columbia since the
enactment of the I Grazing Act " in 1919. The broad objectives have been to achieve
sustained, high-level production of forage and the equitable distribution of grazing
privileges amongst stockmen requiring the use of Crown range, with due consideration
being given to the co-ordination of grazing with the other uses of which this land is
capable. Management practices on the Crown ranges have improved tremendously
during this period, and there is no doubt that the adoption of a sound basis for range-
use allocation has had a stabilizing influence on the live-stock industry and its dependent
communities. Although progress has been made, many problems remain to be solved,
and continued effort is required to secure maximum yields from our range lands.
GENERAL CONDITIONS
Weather has a profound effect upon range forage production as well as upon other
phases of live-stock management. Therefore, the wide variations in weather conditions
from year to year, a feature of the range country, are a complicating factor in both
range and live-stock management. The volume of forage produced varies according to
both precipitation and temperature, and the distribution of precipitation within the year
may affect the quality of the forage available. Although the judicious marketing of
stock and the supply of supplemental forage in dry years can help to meet this situation,
it is not normally feasible to make the radical, short-term adjustments in live-stock
numbers necessary to meet fully these annual and unpredictable fluctuations. The rate
of stocking allowed on any range unit must be such that the over-utilization of forage
in poor years does not occur sufficiently often to result in range deterioration. The dates
at which ranges are properly ready for grazing also vary widely from year to year,
according to weather, and live-stock operators must have adequate reserves of feed on
hand for those years when forage-growth is unduly late. The supply of water on the
range, the incidence of range and live-stock pests, haying conditions, and numerous
other factors are also affected by weather.
On the whole, the weather during 1953 was favourable. The winter of 1952-53
was extremely mild. Snowfall was very light, resulting in sub-normal soil-moisture at
the commencement of the growing season. Most of the range area experienced warm,
dry conditions during the early spring. The near-drought was not broken until the onset
of rains and lower temperatures during late April, May, and early June. From then on,
temperatures were normal and well-distributed rains occurred throughout most of the
range area.   The fall was extremely mild. 1|
Owing to the short, mild winter, hay-supplies were generally adequate. The spring
growth of forage was light owing to inadequate moisture, but, following the rains, forage
was abundant, being above normal in quantity and of high quality in most areas. Fall
rains and persistent favourable temperatures extended the grazing season later than
usual. Although some lakes and pot-holes held lower levels than normal, due to the
light snowfall and dry spring, there was no shortage of water for range stock.
In general, stock came off the range in excellent condition. In a few areas the
finish of market animals was rather 1 soft 1 owing to the lush forage available throughout the season.   For the same reason, the growth of calves was particularly good.
With the exception of areas where natural sub-irrigation is depended upon, hay
production was heavy. However, intermittent summer rains resulted in highly variable
quality.   In some areas as much as 40 per cent of the hay-crop was seriously weathered.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 71
The hay-supply should be adequate for the winter of 1953-54, however, particularly
in view of the mild, open fall and the carry-over of hay from the previous year.
Grasshopper damage was not nearly as extensive as anticipated for the peak year
of their cycle. This is attributed to the extensive poisoning campaign carried out in the
grasshopper-control areas and the cool, wet weather which prevailed generally through
the egg-hatching season.
Good ranch-labour is still difficult to obtain and hold on the ranches. This interferes seriously with ranch and range management practices, and there is a growing
tendency toward mechanization wherever possible. Ranch machinery is in good supply
but extremely expensive in relation to current live-stock prices.
ADMINISTRATION
A reduction in the number of particularly troublesome problems, requiring immediate attention during the year, permitted the concentration of a greater effort on the
development and accomplishment of improved management plans. An increased amount
of time was spent in the field on this type of work, by the specialized grazing personnel.
Due to the light fire season, the Ranger staff was able to spend proportionately more
time on grazing inspections, and outstanding reports were reduced to a minimum.
During the year it became possible for the Land Inspection Division of the Lands Service
to assume full responsibility for all phases of land-inspection work over practically all
of the range area. The Land Inspectors are now contacting the live-stock associations
regarding land applications, and are making final recommendations on the effect of land
alienations on the use and management of Crown range. Any information available
from grazing maps and records which might be of value to the Land Inspectors in making their examinations and reports on applications within the range area is passed to
them by Forest Service district offices. This has resulted in some reduction in the workload in connection with land examinations, but this has been more than counterbalanced
by the demands of other activities.
Grazing Permits
Under the provisions of the I Grazing Act " and regulations, the privilege of grazing
live stock on Crown range is allocated by the Forest Service through the issuance of
grazing permits to qualified applicants. Preference is given to resident owners of ranch
property and live stock who require Crown range to round out their year-long feed-
supplies. Grazing permits specify the number of stock which may be run on Crown
range, the area over which grazing is permitted, and the period during which the stock
may be on that area. Numerous other conditions are included to ensure the proper
management of the range. Thus both the Crown range and the bona fide rancher are
protected. |
A total of 1,730 grazing permits were issued, authorizing the grazing of 108,894
cattle, 4,133 horses, and 23,172 sheep on Crown range. These figures represent an
increase over those for 1952 in both the number of permits issued and amount of stock
covered. The tabulation on page 166 shows a breakdown of the above figures by forest
districts and a comparison of those for the past ten years.
Hay Permits
The cutting of wild hay on Crown range may also be permitted under the provisions of the 1 Grazing Act." Two hundred and eight permits were issued, authorizing
the cutting of 2,388 tons of hay.
 72
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees
Grazing fees are on a sliding scale, based on live-stock prices for the previous year
For 1953 the fees per head per month were 18 cents for cattle, 22Vi cents for horses and
3V4 cents for sheep. This represents a drop of 28 per cent for cattle and horses and 38
per cent for sheep from fees charged in 1952, and reflects the marked drop in live-stock
prices which occurred in that year. Hay-cutting fees, which are not on a sliding scale
remained at $ 1 per ton. Reference is made in another section of this Report to a further
drop in live-stock prices during 1953. This will result in a further reduction in grazing
fees in 1954. f
Although there were more stock on Crown range, the above-mentioned drop in fees
resulted in reduced billings and collections during 1953. The figures for 1953 and the
past ten years appear in the table on page 166.
CO-OPERATION
The effective administration and management of the extensive area of Crown range
cannot be achieved without the full co-operation of the stockmen. This is recognized in
the | Grazing Act" and regulations, which provide for close co-operation between the
ranchers and the Department through the medium of live-stock associations. There are
now forty-five approved, local, range-livestock associations. The co-operative spirit displayed by these groups was very helpful in resolving the range problems which came up
during the year. Close contact was also maintained with the British Columbia Beef Cattle
Growers' Association and the British Columbia Sheep Breeders' Association in connection
with matters of policy affecting the whole industry. A total of 125 association meetings
were reported, of which 116 were attended by Forest Officers.
Close contact was maintained with various other agencies, amongst which were the
Canada Range Experiment Station at Kamloops in connection with research work, the
Game Department regarding game-livestock relationships on the range, and the Live
Stock Branch of the Department of Agriculture in connection with live-stock management
problems. Continued co-operation was received from Indian Agents in dealing with the
problem of regulating the use of Crown range by Indians.
The annual meeting of the Pacific Northwest Section of the American Society of
Range Management was held at Penticton on November 16th and 17th. Grazing Division
personnel assisted in the organization and participated in the programme of this international meeting, which was attended by approximately 100 members and interested
individuals from both sides of the border.
RANGE IMPROVEMENT
The range-improvement programme was further expanded during the year, and
$55,162.95 was spent as follows:—
4 stock-bridges     $539.73
13 cattle-guards      4,291.43
1 corral         191.17
38 drift-fences  13,014.33
4 experimental plots     1,962.45
1 gopher-control       256.45
6 holding-grounds     1,073.57
I meadow improvement      _____ _                 75.00
13 mud-holes    4,222.22
9 range-seedings j         392.55
37 stock-trails  10,220.80
II water developments       861.83
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 73
1 weed-control measure   $942.94
Wild-horse disposal  2,518.62
Equipment and machinery (purchase)  315.02
Maintenance and operation of equipment  1,789.71               j
Supervision, surveys, and technical studies  12,495.13               I
In addition to the above projects, authority was extended to stockmen to construct
the following improvements: 4 breeding-pastures, 1 bull-pasture, 4 corrals, 9 drift-fences,
1 holding-ground, 2 horse-pastures, and 1 gate.
It was still difficult to get range-improvement work done under contract, and a
number of projects, for which money was available, could not be completed. The range-
improvement crew was continued in the Kamloops Forest District and completed twenty
projects. Although much valuable work has been done by this crew, the construction of
range improvements by this means results in higher costs than would be the case if local
residents could be interested in doing this work under contract. This is due to the small
size of most range-improvement projects, and the fact that they are scattered over a wide
area. A crew, of economical size from the standpoint of supervision and other overhead,
must make frequent moves from project to project, with the result that much time is lost
through travelling and camp-removal. However, it would appear that, under present
conditions, such a crew is necessary to install many of the projects required to effect
improved management plans.
Pilot range-seedings were continued in co-operation with individual stockmen and
live-stock associations. Numerous inspections of seedings made in previous years were
also carried out. The results from seeding on open grass lands have not been encouraging
to date. On the other hand, the seeding of logged-over and burned-over forest areas has
been considerably more successful, and it is now felt that this work can be expanded with
some degree of confidence in those areas where summer range is in short supply and
suitable sites are available. The costs listed above cover only the cost of seed used. The
actual seeding was done by Grazing Division personnel and co-operating stockmen.
Preliminary surveys, site selection, and the necessary continuing technical studies are
carried out by technical grazing personnel, with the costs being included under the general
heading for these items.
The goatweed-control project was continued on a somewhat reduced scale. Past
experience has indicated clearly that this dangerous range weed cannot be eradicated by
chemical means under range conditions. It was decided, therefore, to limit chemical and
manual control measures to those infestations along roadsides and other areas considered
particularly dangerous as sources of further infection. Studies on the biological control
of this weed, using Chrysolina spp. beetles, were continued by the Division of Entomology, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, with the Forest Service cooperating. It will be some time before the effectiveness of these beetles under British
Columbia conditions can be determined, but results to date are not discouraging.
The gopher-control project listed above is a new departure, undertaken on a trial
basis on a badly infested area of open grass land on the Cranbrook Stock Range. Results
obtained will not be fully evident until next year. f§|
A preliminary ecological study of burned-over forest range was carried out during
the year. This work was under the technical direction of the Research Division and is
dealt with more fully in the report of the activities of that Division.
The horse-control programme resulted in 93 head being rounded up and 115 wild
and useless animals being shot. One man was employed directly by the Service to carry
out this work and, in addition, twenty-two round-up permits and sixteen horse-shooting
hcences were issued. The Belt, Cariboo, Vernon, Nelson, and Cranbrook Grazing
Oistricts were closed to horses for varying periods during the winter of 1952-53 to permit
Jms work.   These closures resulted in many horses, in addition to those listed above,
mg amoved from the range by their owners.
3
 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
RANGE SURVEY
The range-inventory programme was continued, with the following areas being
covered by standard grazing surveys:— ^
Lone Butte Stock Range  243,360 If
Martin Prairie Stock Range  245,218
McKinney Unit, Kettle River Stock Range    15,900
Cranbrook Stock Range  143,000
Total   647,478
In addition, extensive grazing reconnaissances were carried out over the following
areas: Acres
Rocky Point Unit, Okanagan Mission Stock Range  46,000
Adams Plateau  j  12,000
Pukeashun and Lichen Mountains  34,560
Rusty Creek and Fountain Valley  28,320
Chu Chua Stock Range  52,000
Pike Mountain (south portion)   13,000
Total   185,880
MISCELLANEOUS
Live-stock Losses
Losses of stock on the range due to poisonous weeds, mud-holes, and predatory
animals appeared to be about normal this year. Timber milk-vetch (Astragalus sero-
timus) continued to take a heavy toll, and was more troublesome than ordinarily in the
Cariboo and Chilcotin. Among predatory animals, bear appeared to be the most
destructive, and a considerable number of animals were lost. The Game Department
continued its active predator-control programme in range areas, which was extremely
helpful in keeping losses from this cause to a minimum. Losses in mud-holes were light
in spite of low water-levels in many lakes and pot-holes, normally a dangerous situation.
This was due, at least partly, to the programme of mud-hole fencing carried out over
the years, as well as to the frequent summer rains, which lowered stock water requirements and also provided alternate safe watering-places not found in drier summers.
Hunting in range areas is causing increasing losses to stockmen. In some areas
where hunting pressure is particularly heavy, it has become all but impossible to hold
stock on the range during the hunting season. Considerable damage to fences and loss
of numerous cattle through gunshot wounds have also been reported.
Losses due to highway accidents are also on the increase. For instance, at least
twelve cattle and one horse were killed on the Cariboo Highway between Clinton and
the 83 Mile House alone this year. Ticks, theft, and garbage dumped on the range also
accounted for some losses. jj
Diseases of Live Stock
No serious outbreaks of disease occurred to interfere with range management during
the year.  A few herds had to be grazed under quarantine conditions for various reasons.
The disease-control and clean-up programme of the Live Stock Branch of the Departmen
of Agriculture continued with minimum disruption to established range management an
allocation practices. flv
Markets and Prices
Shipments of live stock were up slightly, but were still below normal. This is^ probably due to low prices prevailing and the fact that adequate hay-supplies will permit m
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
75
animals to be held over in anticipation of a stronger market. Prices paid to the producer
were down approximately 20 per cent for cattle and 1V2 per cent for sheep compared
with those of 1952. Wool prices averaged approximately 10 per cent higher than in the
previous year.
'Jr Live-stock Counts
One extensive winter count was undertaken covering all of the stock owned by
permittees in one Ranger District. Several other spot checks were also made. No cases
of flagrant misrepresentation of numbers were revealed.
Prosecutions
There were no prosecutions for infractions of the 1 Grazing Act" and regulations.
There were a number of minor violations, but these were, for the most part, rectified
promptly when brought to the attention of the owners of the offending stock.
 76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ENGINEERING SERVICES
All five sections of the Division maintained a relatively high level of accomplishment
during 1953. However, as a result of the adverse weather conditions prevailing through
much of the summer period when high production is normally expected, road construction
fell behind schedule and was somewhat disappointing.   Separate reports from each of the
sections follow.
ENGINEERING SECTION
Field work was seriously hampered by an unusually wet season, and four-wheel-drive
vehicles really proved their worth. Nevertheless, all phases of engineering work progressed satisfactorily except main-road construction in the Prince George Forest District,
where conditions caused higher costs and decreased production, in spite of good equipment, latest construction methods, and hard-working crews.
General Engineering
Projects undertaken included the following:—
(1) Determination of the best machines for transporting common and surfacing material on construction of main forest roads. This investigation
included compilation of capital costs, mechanical design, operating costs,
production costs, and construction methods. When several of these
machines were operating on forest roads under construction by the
Engineering Section, operating and production costs were surveyed and
analysed.
(2) Statusing and acquisition of rights-of-way for access roads, property for
Ranger stations and other purposes, foreshore leases for wharves, and
water rights for various establishments. Public applications for land in
areas long considered too isolated for settlement have made it necessary
to clarify the ownership of lands used as sites for Ranger stations, patrol
headquarters, lookouts, remote-control radio stations, boat-houses, and
similar buildings. Although this work was handled on a part-time basis
during the past year, there is enough work of this type to justify a full-time
position.
(3) Investigation and testing of two types of slash-disposal equipment,
namely:—
! (a) A flame-thrower mounted on D-2 Caterpillar tractor.   This
machine has proved very successful, and was particularly useful on the
construction of main forest roads during the past wet season. It was
possible to burn right-of-way slash economically, except when confronted
by a combination of very wet weather and green slash. This machine has
been so successful that it is proposed to build another for the coming
construction season.
! (b) A high-speed portable chipper was tried on the lighter slash
i material from the right-of-way.   It was found, however, that this machine
was too hard to transport over the rough, brush-covered ground, and tna
it did not have sufficient capacity to meet the requirements of the job.
It is possible that, with further development on a larger machine, production cost could be decreased and the volume handled greatly increase •
(4) The Maintenance Unit of the Engineering Section completed the sec<fl
year of maintenance following construction of the Fly Hills Access K
in the Salmon Arm Public Working-circle.    This mountain road is presenj
being used by several operators and has withstood the traffic well c
sidering the low cost of construction.   The Unit also completed tne
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 77
year of maintenance after construction of the McGillivray Lake Access
Road in the Niskonlith Public Working-circle.
(5) A 20,000-gallon treated-wood tank was installed at the Aleza Lake
Experimental Station. The main road at that station was improved
considerably, although the wet season prevented complete maintenance
of it. Work included approximately 20,000 feet of ditching and the
placing of 3,000 yards of gravel and rock. U
Engineering Design
Work carried out by this subsection included:—
(1) Participation in the preparation of plans and specifications for a reinforced-
concrete office building.
(2) A survey, preliminary design, and estimates for the dredging and construction of a dock for Forest Service craft in the Vancouver Forest District.
(3) A report summarizing current practice for preservation of timber and
a tentative scheme for the rating of preservatives.
(4) Design and construction of short-span timber bridges in the Prince George
Forest District.
(5) Reconnaissance of bridge-sites, preliminary estimates, and plans for
certain future bridges.
(6) Classification and design of bridges for the heavy loads and variable
conditions encountered on access forest roads, investigation of the design
and construction of camp trailers, and the assessment of gravel-crushing
plants.
Road Reconnaissance
Reports were completed on the 140 miles of road reconnaissance accomplished
during the previous field season. Work of the reconnaissance subsection during this field
season included the following:—
(1) Vancouver Forest District: (a) On the west coast of Vancouver Island,
in the Barkley Sound Public Working-circle, reconnaissance for 6 miles of
proposed road along the Effingham River; (b) in the Chilliwack Public
Working-circle, 30 miles of reconnaissance through the Chilliwack Valley
to Chilliwack Lake. The proposed road would have a value for timber
utilization, recreation, and forest administration.
(2) Kamloops Forest District: Accumulation of data for clearing-cost analysis
based on the clearing operations on the Salmon Arm and the McGillivray
Lake Access Roads.
(3) Prince George Forest District: Accumulation of stand data for clearing-
cost analysis on the Stone Creek and Naver Creek Access Roads.
(4) Nelson Forest District: (a) In the Nakusp Public Working-circle, 13
miles of main-road reconnaissance along the Kuskanax River; (b) in the
Edgewood Public Working-circle, 11 miles of main-road reconnaissance
along Worthington Creek; (c) in the Kettle River and Edgewood Public
Working-circles, 40 miles of main-road investigation; (d) on the proposed
long-term timber sale in the valleys of Cabin and Storm Creeks, 40 miles
of main-road reconnaissance; (e) on the proposed long-term timber sale
in the valleys of Bloom and Caven Creeks, 6 miles of main-road reconnaissance to check and advise the district staff.
Location Surveys
During the early spring, party chiefs were busy completing quantity analyses, maps,
and designs of roads located during the previous field season, and in preparing for the
 78
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
current season.   Throughout the summer and fall, field work was completed and analysis
begun on the following roads:— i
(1) White River Access Road, the main road, which leaves the highwa
approximately 3 miles south of Canal Flats in the Nelson Forest Dkricf
— ■■•-- was located for 20.6 miles to a point beyond the crossing of the White
River. This road is designed for speeds from 30 to 40 miles per hour
except for a short distance through the steep, rocky Lussier Canyon
| The party also located 12.5 miles of major branch roads along the White
River and Inlet Creek. The location survey is a start in the development
of 102,000 acres of timber land covered with 323,000,000 cubic feet of
timber.
(2) The location of Naver Creek Access Road was extended from Mile 13 to
Mile 23. This road, which was designed for speeds of 40 miles per hour
traverses numerous swamps, creeks, and rolling clay hillsides to make
accessible 30,000 acres of timber in the Naver Creek Valley.
(3) In the Morice Forest the main-road location was extended from Mile 23
to Mile 32.8. During the survey a D-6 tractor built 21 miles of jeep-
trail in order to facilitate road location, road construction, compilation
of cost estimates, planning of construction, and administration of the
50,000-acre forest.
Road Construction
Activities of this subsection finalized most of the work of the remainder of the
Engineering Section into forest-access roads designed and constructed as the most suitable
for the use required. After establishment of a public working-circle, construction of
the main forest road is often the next step in making timber readily available to a number
of operators. By having the main road built by a central authority—the Forest Service—
and by employing skilled construction workers and engineers equipped with the latest
machines for logging-road construction, it is possible to build permanent, high-class
forest roads at costs comparable to those on the average timber sale. The results are
minimum hauling costs, ready accessibility for the forest industries, and better forest
administration.
This year, road construction was confined to the Prince George Forest District,
where the following two roads were extended:— m
. (1) The Stone Creek Access Road. This project was operated during the
winter, summer, and fall. Crews were worked on two shifts a day dunng
July, August, and part of September, to take advantage of better weather
and to hasten construction. Most of the road is through dense timber,
averaging in volume from 2,000 to 5,000 cubic feet per acre. Because
of the dense stand, cost of clearing a right-of-way 80 feet wide is about
one-quarter of the cost of the road, and is the chief difficulty to be overcome. One thousand five hundred feet of corrugated-iron and creosoted-
wood culverts were placed, varying from 12 to 42 inches in diameter.
The subgrade, which is 32 feet wide, was constructed from the puouc
highway for a distance of 8 miles. Approximately 30,000 yards of banK-
run gravel was placed on the subgrade from Mile 0 to Mile 8.
(2) The Naver Creek Access Road. During the winter, summer, and ran,
construction proceeded on the Naver Creek Access Road, where 4 m
were cleared from Mile 5 to Mile 9. About 800 feet of peimanent-^
culverting, in sizes from 18 to 48 inches, was placed. In spite ot a JJ
wet season and some very difficult construction ground, the 32-roo ^
grade was completed to Mile 6. Approximately 45,000 yards ot g
was spread on the 20-foot surface from Mile 0 to Mile 5.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
7S>
Mosaic and location of Stone Creek Access Road.
Subgrade construction on the Stone Creek Access Road.
 80
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
:_5W5«ifcK*5».
Temporary construction road through Naver Forest.
Versatile machines start construction of the Naver Creek Access Road.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
81
On both operations, self-propelled scrapers proved very economical for filling and
compacting the subgrade and for hauling surfacing gravel.
MECHANICAL SECTION
The mechanical equipment operated by the Forest Service is listed hereunder. It
will be noted that, in some cases, the figure shown in the final column is not the sum of
columns 1 and 4. The apparent discrepancies are due to the sale of vehicles to employees
and disposal of worn-out equipment. , I
Forest Service Mechanical Equipment
Total
Units, Jan.
1, 1953
1953-54 Purchases-
-Losses
Total
Replacements
Additions
Total -
Units, Dec.
31, 1953
Sedans               	
57
98
32
18
14
11
72
10
199
68
51
13
49
1
5
4
39
13
2
240
499
195
41
9
1
1
20
6
43
28
5
3
3
3
6
10
9
1
4
1
2
1
4
"9
3
5
2
2
4
9
4
1
2
31
37
63
9
6
1
5
5
7
7
2
1
4
9
3
10
5
2
2
4
9
4
1
2
31
46
63
10
6
1
5
5
55
85
Suburbans           	
34
Station waeons. four-wheel-drive	
19
Land rovers, four-wheel-drive     	
18
Willys jeeps, four-wheel-drive .  	
10
Willys pick-ups, four-wheel-drive  	
80
Dodge power wagons, four-wheel-drive  	
13
V_-ton pick-ups	
%-1-ton pick-ups   	
2-3-ton trucks  	
198
72
50
Heavy-duty (25-40,000 G.V.W.) trucks	
14
Austin countryman    	
52
Thames estate wagon   	
V_-l-ton panel deliveries   	
1
14
Sedan deliveries	
3
Tractors._   	
Graders..	
43
14
Scrapers (self-propeUed)   	
2
Power-shovels 	
2
Outboard motors	
271
Fire-pumps 	
Chain-saws 	
Lighting plants	
527
258
51
High-pressure F.F. units (Bean)	
Snow-ploughs (Sicard)	
Snow sedan _ 	
15
1
1
Speeders..
Trailers—low-bed
20
7
Trailers—-dweUing, bunk-house, etc   	
Trailers—miscellaneous	
Air-compressors	
Gas-powered rock-driUs   .	
48
33
5
3
Cement-mixers	
3
The Government directive of September 24th, 1952, re g Use of Motor-vehicles on
Government Business " encouraged the sale of thirty-two Forest Service vehicles to
employees who are now operating them on a mileage basis. An additional 112 private
cars are also authorized on the mileage basis, including sixty-one used by the Vancouver
scaling staff.
The sale of Government vehicles and use of privately owned cars caused considerable rearrangement of Departmental organization charts in so far as the recording of
mechanical equipment is concerned. However, the commencement of 1954 should see
the whole position clarified.
Equipment Selection and New Equipment Consideration
A year ago, a moderate number of light-weight fire-pumps, manufactured in the
Province, were purchased, in view of the many desirable features for forest-fire suppression work incorporated in the design.    The units consisted of an air-cooled chain-saw
 g2 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
engine driving a centrifugal pump. In the few instances they have been put to use
performance has been satisfactory, but as yet they have not had a real chance to prove
their worth nor display hidden weaknesses, if any. Test of the units under actual pressure
of severe fire-line conditions will have to await the development of suitable opportunities
In the scope of fire-fighting pumps, a very valuable series of tests were run at
Manning Park (elevation 4,000 feet) in September. These tests sought to check the
characteristics of certain new brands of high-pressure fire-fighting hose and particularly
to compare the flow of water through unlined and rubber-lined hose with a view to
determining, primarily, the practical limits to which water could be pumped up mountain-
slopes.
m In order to obtain sufficiently high pumping-pressure, two centrifugal-type pumps
were connected in series. Altogether four pumps were employed—two of each of two
different makes. Flow tests were made on level ground through 2,000 feet of unlined
linen hose, and again through 2,000 feet of rubber-lined hose. Standard-size nozzles
were used, and the results ran very close to the figures published by the National Research
Council in 1938 in so far as unlined linen hose was concerned. Figures for rubber-lined
hose did not seem to be available, but the results showed that the flow figures published
for iron pipe constituted a fairly reliable guide.
The chief advantage of high pressure is its ability to overcome static head, push
water to higher elevations, and overcome the frictional losses of long hose-lines. In the
tests conducted, water was elevated to 500 feet through 2,400 feet of rubber-lined hose
with one pump, with zero pressure obtaining at the nozzle. With two pumps at the same
elevation as much as 200 p.s.i. pressure at the nozzle was obtained using Vs-inch orifice.
At 1,000-foot elevation, a flow of about 3 gallons per minute was recorded at zero nozzle
pressure, but at 700-foot elevation good usable pressures and flow were found possible.
To carry the experiment one step further, three pumps were connected in series and water
was pushed up to an elevation of 1,200 feet above the pump through a hose-lay 4,400
feet long. At this point the pressure at the pump was 540 p.s.i. and a flow of 4.4 gallons
per minute was recorded. Many varied tests were carried out, and the whole project is
the subject of a separate report which is carried on the relevant Forest Service files.
It is evident from the results that, in future, pumps will be required to produce
pressure up to 600 p.s.i. in order to utilize the improved capacity of the latest type of
fire-fighting hose.
The brush-chipper mentioned in the last Annual Report was used for a time on
right-of-way clearing, but was not considered a satisfactory solution to the problem of
slash-disposal.   Burning still seems to be the cheaper method.
The new outboard motors with clutch, reverse, and separate gas-tank found immediate approval in the districts, particularly where operators work on fast-running rivers.
The Forest Service is not always able to obtain men who have, in addition to other
necessary qualifications, knowledge of outboard motors in fast water. The clutch and
reverse are of great assistance to such men until they have gained confidence and
experience.   In fact, these refinements are useful at all times.
In the chain-saw field it is unlikely that future Forest Service purchases will be
much more than enough to cover replacements, unless some unforeseen development
arises. Chain-saw competition has become keener in the last year or so, with saws being
reduced in weight and increased in power. A recent development in a Vancouver-made
unit is the introduction of a high-speed chain, made possible by discarding the usual
transmission with its step-down ratio. The chain-sprocket on this unit is driven at crankshaft speed, and the resultant effect is a considerable improvement in brush and small-
limb cutting ability.
An attempt to buy small two-wheel trailers of less than 1,500 pounds carrying
capacity met with the surprising information that such units were apparently not ma
nor marketed in quantity.   As several such units are required, it may be found necessa y
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 83
to fabricate trailers at the Forest Service Marine Station using standard axle-and-wheel
assemblies. ||
Two new pieces of heavy equipment were obtained by the Engineering Section.
These were self-propelled scrapers in the 6-7-yard bracket, powered by diesel motors
and using electric controls for apron, bucket, steering, and other parts. Some months'
experience with this type of equipment indicates that the use of trucks of 8 yards capacity
and over may be superseded by any of the various types of self-powered scrapers.
A used yarder was obtained with the idea of doing right-of-way clearing, and, in
another location, the ball-and-cable method of land-clearing was tried, using two of the
largest-size tractors for power. These projects will be the subject of separate reports by
the Engineering Section. |
M A third self-propelled scraper of 12-cubic-yard struck capacity is in the process
of selection and purchase at the present time, as well as a tractor in the D-8 TD24-HD20
classification.
All operators of Forest Service lighting plants were requested to submit data regarding fuel and oil operating costs, and the tabulated results, while varying over a fairly
wide range, showed that the cost per kilowatt-hour was higher with smaller units than
with the larger ones; that it was higher with lighter loads and shorter periods of operation; and that, in the 5-kilowatt range, diesel operation could be considerably less than
the cost of gasoline operation. As the size increases, the saving in fuel and oil costs is
likely to be even more pronounced.
With an increase in the size of certain Ranger-station establishments, and with the
increased electric loads imposed by water-pumps, lighting, heating, and other requirements, the 5-kilowatt diesel light plant will probably be more frequently purchased in
the future.
Inspection and Maintenance
In September the Service was very fortunate in finally securing the services of
a number of mechanical supervisors, and, for the first time, it was possible to have one
supervisor to each of the five forest districts. As the districts had operated with little
or no such supervision for periods up to two years, the new men will have some considerable backlog of work, but it should be possible for the 1954 season to produce a big
improvement in the supervision and operation of the many types of equipment used,
with a resultant increase in efficiency and decrease in costs.
The Engineering Section—which operates a number of large machines in semi-
remote locations—has also been able to increase its mechanical staff with more experienced men. As some equipment is now two and three years old, this added help is very
necessary to avoid costly breakdowns.
An attempt is being made to give mechanical inspection and assistance to the Lands
Department, also a limited amount to the Departments of Finance and Mines. The bulk
of this work falls on one man at present.
The Parks and Recreation Division and the Surveys and Inventory Division, having
had the services of one man each for the past year or two, have no major inspection or
maintenance problems, and their 1953 season passed very satisfactorily from a mechanical-equipment standpoint. f|
STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SECTION
The value of construction work undertaken by contract during the year was about
equal to that of 1952. The amount would have been greater if a contract for the Prince
Rupert office and warehouse building had been awarded. However, only one tender on
^s project was received, due to the large construction programme general throughout
4e Province, and it was decided to readvertise early in 1954, when more competition
for the contract might be anticipated.   The remainder of the programme consisted of
 84
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
accommodation for Ranger districts, a Surveys and Inventory Division warehouse    d
district warehouse for Vancouver.   Details of this construction are shown in the followi
table:
Location
Building Construction Undertaken during 1953
Celista r_.
Cranbrook	
Cranbrook	
Cranbrook	
Castlegar	
Canyon Creek..
Canyon Creek-
Duncan	
Giscome	
Green Timbers
Horsefly	
Kamloops	
Merritt	
Nelson	
Prince George-
Summit Lake-
Summit Lake—
Spillimacheen..
Squamish	
Vancouver.	
Vancouver.	
Type of BuUding
Two-car garage	
Office	
Warehouse extension	
Nursery buildings	
Office	
Office	
Warehouse and residence |
Office and stores building, four-car garage	
Assistant Ranger headquarters	
Surveys warehouse	
Office and stores building, and residence	
Office	
Office	
Retaining-wall .	
Warehouse	
Office	
Warehouse and residence	
Residence, office, and stores building, three-car garage
Residence	
Floats	
Warehouse  _
Construction
Agency
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract.—	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Forest Service
Contract	
Contract	
Stage of
Construction
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Tenders called.
Tenders called.
Completed.
Completed.
Tenders called.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Tenders called.
Tenders called.
Completed.
Completed.
Tenders called.
Architect's drawing of Vancouver Forest District warehouse, now under construction.
In addition to building construction, a number of miscellaneous projects were
undertaken during the year. These included the supervision of construction of a reduced
trailer programme, consisting of eight miscellaneous trailers, and (by the Marine Designing Section) the design of a barge for transportation of tractors on one of the Interior
lakes.
The general construction outlook for the coming year indicates increased activity in
the residential field due to new Federal legislation, and, although this should not affect
the commercial and industrial materials supply, some shortages might be encountered
m the labour market and contractors for out-of-town jobs. Conditions such as these
have a tendency to raise prices in locations where a large percentage of our projects
are built.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION
85
The year was again a very busy one, with all departments of the Station working
at full capacity. The marine ways were occupied thirty-six times, and thirty launch
overhauls were completed, including three major engine overhauls, and replacement of
engine in the launch | Tamarack." In addition, twenty-eight minor repair jobs were
done on launches and thirty-one small boats received attention.
I Forest Ranger II | built at Forest Service Marine Station.
New construction by the marine department of the station included the completion
of the 46-foot Ranger launch 1 Forest Ranger II " and the 26-foot speed-boat | Ocean
Spray," as well as seven 30-foot river-boats, three 14-foot sectional boats, and two
9-foot planing dinghies. A second 26-foot speed-boat is in process of construction, being
about 50 per cent completed. Many small jobs, such as ship's stools, card and other
cabinets, and signs, were also done.
An extensive research programme in the use of glass cloth and plastic resin was
undertaken in connection with launch and small-boat construction. A combination of
these two materials provides a strong, water-tight, and light sheathing which makes it
possible to build light boats with no sacrifice in strength or seaworthiness. The treated
glass cloth can also be used in the manufacture of water-tanks and similar equipment.
In the woodworking shop, the construction of prefabricated buildings was less than
in the previous years, amounting to thirteen 20- by 24-foot sectional buildings and nine
lookout buildings. However, there was a marked increase in miscellaneous smaller jobs,
including some 632 tool or equipment boxes, crates, and chests. Production also included
ninety-four pieces of office furniture, forty-six fire-finder stands, thirty Ranger-station
S1gns, and ninety-four roadside directional signs.
The usual volume of work on the overhaul of fire-pumps did not develop in 1953
due to the light fire season.   Pump overhauls were down 33 per cent.   However, the
 g6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
machine-shop did not experience any appreciable lightening of the work-load as there
was an increase in the number of outboard motors, chain-saws, and lighting plants shipped
in to the station for overhaul. In all, repairs were made to 107 pumps, 136 outboard
motors, 36-chain-saws, 13 lighting plants, a rock-drill, and a brush-burner. New units
tested, crated, and shipped included 56 pumps and 28 outboard motors. A trailer was
manufactured to carry a Bean pumper for the Vancouver Forest District. Other
machining jobs included 39 fire-finders, 56 suction-hose couplings, 160 brass adapters
89 three-way valves, 100 suction-strainers, a winch for the launch "Forest Ranger II"
and hardware for sectional buildings. i
A noteworthy feature of the year's operations was the amount of time spent on the
development of special equipment and testing of different types of commercially manufactured products such as fire-hose and nozzles. Data were accumulated on the efficiency
of foot-valves and various types of nozzles; a simple check-valve, for use in hose-lines
when high pressures are necessary, was developed; and, of major importance, the prototype of a reasonably inexpensive epidiascope, suitable for Ranger use in map-making
from aerial photographs, was produced.
RADIO SECTION
The year was a progressive one for radio communication. Seventy-two units of
various types, not including light-weight portables, were purchased during the year, the
emphasis being on mobile installations. Two new types were completed by the Forest
Service—one to supersede the type SPF, the other to provide battery-operated V.H.F.
for lookouts.
1        New Radio Units Purchased 1953-54
Type SPF  17
Medium frequency mobiles, 20-watt  22
AD 10, 5-watt    9
LRT 50B, 50-watt    4
Total  52
Ranger station 100-T, 100-watt    1
Ranger station 50-T, 50-watt    1
V.H.F. lookout, Vi -watt 1    7
V.H.F. Ranger station, 1-watt, A.C.-operated    4
Remote receiver installation    7
Total  20
Total, all types  72
Type LWP fire portable, not counted in above total  71
The new-type LWP radiophone intended as a short-distance fire-line portable, which
at first proved less effective for this application than as a long-distance unit, was used
with some success on the fire-line during the year. The very small supply of whip aerials
at present on hand militates against proper use of the LWP, and steps are now being
taken to correct the situation.
The medium-frequency mobile transmitter, used in quantity for the first time during
1953, proved highly successful, and will undoubtedly be an important feature of Forest
Service communications in the future. No attempt was made to add to the number of
V.H.F. mobiles during the year as the high cost is not in keeping with the limited range
of these sets. The usefulness of a V.H.F. mobile being dependent on the concentration
of repeaters or fixed stations in its vicinity, the point is approaching but has not yet been
attained where the Service has a large enough V.H.F. network to make the V.H.lv
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
87
■...;-.,.v..l -_.: ■: __.■_
Front and rear views of British Columbia Forest Service Model B portable radiophone, 2Vi
watts. Power-cable reaches to floor level for heavy-duty battery use when self-contained batteries
not required.
'•&ZffiX%^X&&&&
Rear view  of  British   Columbia   Forest  Service   modification   of  commercial   type  V-H.F.
Handy-talkie."   Normal battery compartment removed and replaced by base containing speaker,
amplifier, and wiring.    Long battery-cable (not shown) allows use of heavy-duty batteries.    Designed for use on lookouts.
 88
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
equipped Ranger car a practical tool. The medium-frequency mobile, on the other
hand, with a range often in excess of 100 miles without repeaters, proved invaluable
wherever used.
§ Experimental work carried out m 1953 was designed to test the feasibility of using
extremely low-power V.H.F. transmitters from lookout to Ranger station, thereby
relieving congestion on the regular forest-district channels.
Modification of a commercial model I walkie-talkie " type set was completed in the
Victoria laboratory by late summer, and installations were made at five lookouts and two
Ranger stations. In spite of the short period of trial remaining before the end of the fire
season, it was evident that the experiment would fully justify immediate plans to extend
V.H.F. coverage to as many lookout-sites as possible.
While no new fixed V.H.F. stations were added to the present F.M. network during
the year, except at locations where the materials and equipment for installation were
already available, attention was turned to the area north of Nanaimo where all previous
attempts to establish F.M. contact with Vancouver and Victoria had failed.
Field work proved that Cottle Hill near Nanaimo would provide the much-needed
repeater for all points between Nanaimo and Campbell River, and installation was completed in November. Cottle Hill was then linked by V.H.F. with Mount Newton at
Saanich. First tests showed that Vancouver triggered both repeaters simultaneously,
causing mixed signals and confusion, and once again the stations north of Nanaimo were
unable to operate. Late in December, by a change of frequency in Vancouver, the new
system worked for the first time. When Campbell River is provided with an F.M. unit,
coverage will be complete from all F.M. stations on Vancouver Island, except Alberni, to
Vancouver, Victoria, and Chilliwack. With two repeaters in operation, many other
points on the Lower Mainland will be within range of the V.H.F. network when sets
become available.
Continuing the policy of using V.H.F. channels wherever practical, necessitated by
the assignment, in the United States, of frequencies very close to our district channels, the
first experimental V.H.F. work in the Interior was carried out during the past summer.
Contacts were tested in the vicinity of Penticton with the object of establishing at once
a complete Ranger-district network comprising fixed stations, lookouts, mobiles, and a
repeater on Campbell Mountain. It was established that useful coverage was available
in the vicinity of Campbell Mountain, and it is hoped that this coverage may extend to
Kelowna when the permanent repeater is installed.
With the establishment of a telephone company repeater station at the summit of
Mount Begbie near Clinton, a new repeater-site became available for the Forest Service.
No tests have been run from this location as yet, but preliminary investigation promises
V.H.F. coverage for at least 100 miles of the Cariboo Highway.
A deviation from standard procedure initiated during the past year was the
separation of Forest Surveys and Inventory Division communications from the Provincial
network. With the operations of that Division growing in scope, and its radio requirements increasing rapidly, any attempt to add this group of radio stations to the already
crowded forest-district channels would have resulted in complete confusion. Forest
Surveys, therefore, operating on channel 4a, established five fixed stations at Victoria,
Green Timbers, Kamloops, Nelson, and Smithers. These units, collecting information
from field parties in each vicinity, kept Victoria in continual touch with field operations
by means of radio contact with the Weiler Building. Only in special cases did the
Surveys stations make contact with the forest district in which they were working.
In the forest districts, no significant changes took place during the year. Partial
saturation caused a reduction in the annual demand for new SPF sets, but each district
installed, or did preliminary work for, additional remote-control installations. The fate
of remote units at Kamloops District headquarters and at the Kamloops Ranger station
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 89
remains uncertain as a result of building and power-line encroachment. New remote-
sites were tentatively located during the summer.
A forward step was taken with the assignment of small panel-type vehicles to district
technicians in all districts except Vancouver. Maintenance without delay and preventive
inspection have undoubtedly increased the general efficiency of district communications.
Interference troubles, always prevalent, were more severe than usual. In the
Vancouver District shortly after the commencement of the fire season, all signals on
channel 5 were obliterated by a new 3,000-watt station across the United States border.
Only after much negotiation and the purchase of a specially selective receiver was this
interference overcome, much time having been lost during the busiest period of the year.
In Kamloops, the troublesome M.A.R.S. network in the United States was at times
eliminated but always returned eventually, and at the end of the year was a continuing
source of trouble to Forest Service stations. Late in December a teletype signal appeared
on the Prince George frequency, and this, too, is still very much in evidence.
In the Victoria laboratory, with the greater part of the summer given up to
exploratory work in the field and the installation and servicing of F.M. equipment,
considerable construction and development took place during the spring and autumn.
Equipment construction included remote-control receivers, 50- and 100-watt Ranger-
station transmitters, and four prototype units of the new Model B portable radiophone.
Research work included the development to completion of the successor to the SPF
portable, the Model B. This unit has been field-tested with pilot models and is now in
the hands of manufacturers for production. In addition, the commercial " Portaphone '
was developed from the comparatively useless | Handy-talkie " to a loud-speaker unit
with greatly increased battery life. The modification was at once adopted by the manufacturer of the original. Further research work, so far unsuccessful, attempted the
construction of a highly selective receiver for remote control to combat the current
wave of interference. To date it has been concluded that this can be achieved only at
a prohibitive cost.
 90 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The list which follows represents the total of British Columbia Forest Service unit
employed as fixed, semi-fixed, and portable stations at December 31st, 1953. S
SPF, 2*4-watt  457
AD 10, 5-watt      9
PAC, 10-watt     74
S-25, 25-watt      5
MRT 25 fixed station, 25-watt      3
S-l 10-C, 50-watt       1
LRT 50 B, 50-watt      4
Composite, 50-watt       1
Total  554
LRT80E, 75-watt  4
%     RS100T, 100-watt  6
HQ200T, 200-watt  6
N504B marine, 25-watt  2
MRT25 marine, 25-watt  11
KARR25 marine, 25-watt  1
VRL50 marine, 50-watt  2
N502 marine, 65-watt  3
Total    35
MRT100 marine, 100-watt  10
VRL marine, 100-watt  1
877 M.F. mobile, 20-watt  32
MBL25 M.F. mobile, 20-watt  1
F.M. V.H.F. mobile  3
F.M. lookout, battery, Vi-watt  7
F.M. lookout or R/S A/C, 1-watt  4
F.M. Ranger Station, 30-watt  11
Total :    69
F.M. repeater, 30-watt      2
Remote receiving installations, Ranger    21
Remote receiving installations, district headquarters      6
Total    29
Total, all stations  687
"Walkie-talkie" types not counted as stations and not included in above totals:
LWP M.F., 1/2-watt  141
Littlephone V.H.F., 1-watt      -
Portaphone V.H.F., ^-watt      9
Total         1 I   151
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 91
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
The fire season was the lightest since 1948, which in turn was the most favourable
experienced in many years from a forest-protection standpoint. Nowhere in the Province
did the hazard build-up extend long enough to create extreme conditions.
In the Vancouver Forest District there was practically no spring hazard, as the
weather remained cool and moist until the green growth was well established and the
occurrence of rainfall thereafter was such that no serious build-up developed. Substantial rains in September and October prevented the past season's experience of escaped
fall fires.
For the third year in succession a light fire season was experienced in the Peace
River portion of the Prince George Forest District. West of the Rockies, in both the
Prince George and Prince Rupert Forest Districts, a low spring hazard period again
obtained, but in neither case was this period so intensive or of the same length of time as
in the previous year. From June on, both districts experienced such a well-distributed
monthly rainfall that no serious trouble with large fires occurred in either district.
In the Kamloops Forest District the season opened with rain and low hazard. By
the middle of May, the average number of fires had occurred in the southern portion of
the district, but none of them proved difficult to control. From July 1 Oth to August 17th,
numerous lightning-fires were started, but fortunately these were usually accompanied by
rain or followed by rain within a day or two. The week of August 17th to 24th started
with the heaviest occurrence of lightning fires and represented the peak effort on the part
of the forest-protection staff. During that week, 105 fires started, 18 per cent of the total
for the season, but on August 20th heavy rains assisted fire-fighting and reduced the
hazard to low, where it remained for the balance of the season.
In the Nelson Forest District the 1953 season commenced with few fires. Mean
temperatures were a little above normal, and, although monthly rainfall was normal for
May and June, the number of days with rain was considerably above normal and well
spaced, which greatly aided fire-fighting and promoted an early growth which eliminated
the spring hazard. Conditions remained fairly easy until a twelve-day build-up to July
12th, on which date one fire reached 250 acres in the first two hours and eventually
increased in size to 2,380 acres. As in the Kamloops Forest District, the lightning-storms
of early August continued to give trouble until the heavy general rains of August 23rd
ended the hazardous part of the fire season.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
During the season, 1,420 fires were reported, 494 less than the previous year and
162 less than the annual average for the past ten years. The spring hazard of March to
May, inclusive, accounted for 17 per cent of the total fires, and, as is normally the case,
My to September 15th, inclusive, accounted for over 77 per cent of the total. Shown
below for comparative purposes are figures of fire occurrence by districts during the past
decade:—j Fire Occurrence Percentage
during Ten-year of AU Fires
Forest District Period, 1944-53 in B.C.
Vancouver  4,334 27.41
Prince Rupert                             _     697 4.41
Prince George                                   1,642 10.38
Kamloops            _    ___      4,974 31.45
Nelson  4,169 26.36
Totals  15,816 100.00
 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The three main causes of fires were lightning, 42 per cent; campers and smokers
24 per cent; and railways operating, 13 per cent. Lightning-fires were up 8.7 per cent
over the past ten-year average, and fires caused by campers and smokers were down 7
per cent.  This decrease can be attributed partly to the results of public education and
 „+:_™   Knt it alcr. i« rhip nartlv to fewer fire-davs and a sbnrtpr fir.* <-__    *
L/y-I.       V/VX-V. ■_.____.       -_-_■-._.-.  __ „ -       y  — _-__._.
co-operation, but it also is due partly to fewer fire-days and a shorter fire season. Rail-
ways operating fires were 3 per cent less than the ten-year average. The Pacific Great
Eastern Railway of the Vancouver Forest District was responsible for 85.4 per cent of
the ninety-six railway fires occurring in that district during the past season.  For further
1      _       •! W    JC ~~n~     «*%/4     /^QllCOC COO    T«_l.._»e     MnC        f.1 CO        r>y*A     CC    ~£   _1_ A
IjJLxVy      X JL -LAX V/ V   Y        __F__.___L      «__ %*•"-»"■■   »»   ^"^J Ky* y»* ~*"w ww VAJ.I J
details of fire occurrence and causes, see Tables Nos. 51, 52, and 56 of the Appendix.
Cost of Fighting Fires
The 1953 fire-fighting costs were $103,000 less than the ten-year average and 37
per cent less than the 1952 Forest Service fire-fighting costs. For further details of fire-
fighting costs, see Tables Nos. 56 and 58 of the Appendix, also Table No. 42 for the cost
to other agencies.
It will be noted that despite the relatively easy fire season, lightning-fires cost
$87,827, or 41 per cent of the Forest Service fire-fighting bill. Of this amount, 34 per
cent was in the Kamloops Forest District and 62 per cent in the Nelson Forest District.
Campers' and smokers' fires accounted for 43.6 per cent of the total Forest Service costs,
of which the Nelson Forest District's share was 64.8 per cent.
Damage
The total area burned was estimated at 38,645 acres (see Table No. 55). This is
only 11.7 per cent of the average annual acreage burned in the last ten years. Actually,
one fire in the perma-frost zone, between Fort Nelson and the Beatton River Airport in
the Peace River area of the Prince George Forest District, accounted for 19,360 acres,
or 50 per cent of the area burned. As the forest-cover type of this burn was classed as
100 per cent non-productive scrub, the small acreage of productive timber-types burned
this year is a record of minimum destruction since the Forest Service started to keep
comprehensive fire reports.
As shown in Table No. 56, industrial fires are responsible for 46.13 per cent of the
total damage, with campers next with 26.76 per cent. Although lightning-strikes this
year accounted for a major expenditure in fire-fighting costs, the damage done by the
resultant fires was confined to only 9.09 per cent of the total damage bill. This is simple
proof of the fact that when lightning-storms are accompanied by rains, or followed
shortly thereafter by rains, as in the 1953 season, fire-fighters have a better chance to
corral them before extensive acreage is burned over.
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers
The Provincial fire atlas has been brought up to date, and the 1,420 accidental
fires for the year have been plotted. In addition, 247 intentional slash-burns have been
plotted. Work is proceeding on bringing fire-statistics ledgers up to date and plotting
accidental fires on the fire-classification atlas.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
Thirty-five hill-tops were examined this year by two visibility-mapping crews.
Panorama photographs and seen-area maps were completed for each point.  The> intor-
mation obtained has been summarized, compiled into book form, and forwarded
the forest districts concerned.   Lookouts recommended are as follows:  Vancouver,
primaries; Kamloops, 1 primary and 1 secondary; Prince George, 5 primaries ana
secondary; Prince Rupert, 2 primaries. t
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 93
During overcast and rainy weather, the mapping crew completed the traverse of the
Beaver Bluff Lookout trail, Mara Lookout road, Cherry Ridge fire-access road, and 9
miles of the Silver Hills fire-access road.
Lookout photography was carried out in conjunction with the visibility mapping
this year. Six points in the Vancouver and Prince George Forest Districts were photographed.
Fire-weather Records and Investigations
There was no major expansion of the fire-weather network over that detailed in
last year's Annual Report. However, two additional lookouts and one valley station
were added to the weather network in the Kamloops Forest District.
In the Vancouver Forest District the radio weather-collection was augmented after
the middle of July by fire-weather reports from six co-operative industrial stations. The
value of these extra reporting-stations will be more fully emphasized during years of
higher hazard than prevailed in 1953. Il
This year 435 sets of hazard-indicator sticks were distributed, of which 278 went
to industry. The table below gives the number of sets supplied to industry, showing the
steady increase in demand in the last five years:—
Distribution of Hazard-indicator Sticks to Industry
Year Number Year Number
1949 140      1952 * 231
1950 157      1953 278
1951 194
In addition, twelve sets of V^-inch sticks were made up as experimental models
and set out on a co-operative logging operation. These sticks were found to be too
fragile for field use in their present form. At the end of the season they were recalled,
oven-dried, and weighed to obtain the loss due to weathering. This amounted to a little
over 2Vi per cent after 75 days' exposure and about 3% per cent after 170 days. This
is almost three times the loss from weathering found in the tests conducted in 1946 on
the standard ^-inch sticks.
The effect of various weather elements on fuel moisture content of V_i-inch sticks
is being studied. One method of presenting these effects is to show the equihbrium value
of moisture content at 4 p.m. for various conditions; that is, the value of the moisture
content at 4 p.m. which would be reached if those conditions persisted for a sufficient
length of time. This is illustrated in the following table by studies of eight lookout stations On Vancouver Island:  Equilibrium Values
of Stick Moisture
Content at 4 p.m.
Weather Factors Considered (Per Cent)
Cloudy or overcast (no rain)   11
Clear—maximum overnight relative humidity 81 to 100
per cent  7
Clear—maximum overnight relative humidity 61 to 80
per cent  5 Vi -6
Clear—maximum overnight relative humidity 60 per cent
or less  4V_. or less
Thus, under average conditions at Vancouver Island lookout-sites, a spell of overcast weather would be expected to maintain 4 p.m. stick moistures close to 11 per cent,
while a spell of clear weather, with maximum overnight relative humidities between 61
and 80 per cent, would tend to maintain them between tWi and 6 per cent. Further-
m(*e. it can be seen that 4 p.m. stick moisture content cannot be expected to reach
values much above 7 per cent under clear conditions, regardless of the relative humidity.
 94
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A project has been started to study conditions associated with heavy lightning-fi
outbreaks, in an attempt to improve the prediction of these conditions.   Due to the
necessity of gradually accumulating information on localized areas, a final report will
not be available for some years.
The results of two investigative studies were published as technical circulars. These
were (1) "Intensive Drying Periods over the Southern Coast of British Columbia"
Meteorological Division Technical Circular No. 154, June, 1953; and (2) "AnExample
of Abnormal Diurnal Variation in Relative Humidity at Courtenay Lookout," Meteorological Division Technical Circular No. 168, October, 1953.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
1 Fire-suppression crews were again placed in the Vancouver, Kamloops, and Nelson
Forest Districts. In all, sixteen crews were stationed in localities where fires were likely
to occur within striking distance from existing roads. The actual locations of those
crews were as follows: In the Vancouver Forest District, in the vicinity of Langford,
Duncan, Nanaimo, Parksville, Campbell River, and Alberni; in the Kamloops Forest
District, in the vicinity of Kamloops, Kelowna, Penticton, Princeton, Merritt, and Chase;
and in the Nelson Forest District, in the vicinity of Elko, Cranbrook, Castlegar, and
Kettle Valley. All crews comprised ten men, except for those at Chase and Merritt,
where they consisted of only five men. These crews were fielded for an average of 100
days in mid-fire season. They were called to 178 fires, of which 97.8 per cent were held
to a subsequent spread of less than 5 acres. For the analysis of suppression-crew fire-
fighting activities, see the table following. In addition to fire-fighting, 23 per cent of the
gross time of all crews was spent, during non-hazardous weather, in doing essential work
on new improvements and maintenance.
SUPPRESSION-CREW OPERATIONS
Number
of
Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
Size of Fire When Attacked
lA Acre
or Less
Over
y<\ Acre to
1 Acre
Over
1 Acre to
5 Acres
Over
5 Acres to
50 Acres
Over
50 Acres
Spot (up to y* acre)— 	
135
18     j
21
4
126
7
4
5
9
6
1
3
2
10
1
1
1
1
Over y* acre and up to 1 acre	
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres
__
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres
1
Totals	
178           1        1T7           1          7,
16
3      1       1
AIRCRAFT
Protection flying under the existing contract with Pacific Western Airlines Limited
(formerly Central B.C. Airways Limited) was continued. A total of 2,220 accident-free
flying-hours were logged throughout the Province during the period from April 15th to
November 15th, as follows:—
Forest District
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George.
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals.
Base
Vancouver	
Lakelse Lake-
Prince George.
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Type of Aeroplane
Beaver	
Fairchild 171	
Fairchild 171	
Beaver and Junkers.
Beaver and Junkers.
Hours Flown
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
95
As previously, all aircraft were radio-equipped, capable of carrying a 1,000-pound
pay-load, and also equipped for parachute-dropping.
Even during the past light fire season these aeroplanes proved most effective in
helping to spot | sleeper | fires caused by lightning in inaccessible areas. In addition,
supplies and equipment were dropped to smoke-chasers and fire-fighters, allowing them
to travel light and fast, and to arrive at the fires fit for work. Thus, with the weather
aiding in holding this type of fire to small size until the crews could arrive, the damage
from escaped lightning-fires was held to a minimum. Such is not the case in hazardous
years, when the proper aids to fire protection would be more access roads and helicopters.
ROADS AND TRAILS
The road and trail programme for forest-protection purposes was carried out within
the limits of the funds available. As shown in the table below, 231 miles of new roads
and trails were constructed and 1,607 miles were maintained. These totals include project
work done by suppression crews and 19 miles of forest-protection ridge roads for four-
wheel-drive equipment only. Grades up to 35 per cent are allowed on this latter, experimental type of lightning-fire access roads, as their principal use will be in dry weather.
They are engineered for low cost (average in 1953, $388 per mile) and for minimum
maintenance costs in the future.
Construction of Protection Roads
and Trails
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
New road construction	
Miles        Miles        Miles
85      |        25              21
260      j        21              85
Miles
131
Road maintenance 	
366
Total road construction and maintenance..  .	
345
46
851
46
106
497
New trail construction.            	
29
263
25            100
Trail maintenance  	
127          1.241
1,341
Total trail construction and maintenance	
897      1      292
152
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
The general weather conditions during the spring in the Vancouver Forest District
were cold and damp with only a few dry spells, which was a great deterrent in spring
slash-burning. In consequence, only 130 acres were broadcast-burned and 1,440 spot-
burned (see Table No. 46 of the Appendix). £
Forest litter remained damp throughout the summer, which is reflected in the
smallest area on record (17 acres) burned due to escaped slash fires. With the favourable
summer and absence of industrial disputes, most operators were in a good position for
the disposal of extensive areas of slash, most of which were well prepared and well pre-
organized in advance of the fall burning weather. §
In spite of this, on only 22,220 acres, or 57 per cent of the previous year's area, was
4e slash hazard dissipated satisfactorily. It is now apparent that the costly escaped
slash-burns of last year made many operators overcautious in starting to burn this fall.
What was overlooked was that, due to the favourable summer, very different conditions
obtained in the standing timber this fall than after the previous year's dryness. Those
operators who commenced burning on September 15th and 16th of this year secured
satisfactory burns. The heavy rains of September 26th precluded any further satisfactory
broadcast-burns, although spot-burning continued throughout October and part of November with varying success.
Changes in logging methods, closer utilization in some instances, and varying terrain
tove emphasized the fact that areas which would normally have been recommended for
 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
burning must now either be exempted entirely or restricted to spot-burning of heaw
accumulation. From Table No. 45 of the Appendix, it will be noted that of the 88171
acres of slash examined, 23,004 acres were required to be slash-burned and 20,936 acres
to be spot-burned. Of this latter acreage, less than 10 per cent of the area'would be
actually swept by fire in burning the accumulations of slash; hence, actual burning was
required on 28.4 per cent of the total logged area examined in the Vancouver 1
District in 1953. I
Again, snag-falling concurrently with logging was satisfactory, as on only 521«
or less than 1 per cent of the area required to be snagged, was snagging not done (see
acres,
Table No. 43 of the Appendix). In addition to the 73,566 acres snagged by industry,a
further 884 acres of old snags were felled by the Forest Service under contract in the
Bowser area of Vancouver Island. A further 7,820 acres of snags were felled by the
Reforestation Division in advance of planting.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
The twenty-seven prosecutions, which were only 67 per cent of the average annual
number of prosecutions for the past decade, are low in number because of the easy fire
season. They are further analysed in Table No. 59 of the Appendix.
FOREST CLOSURES
After two years in succession of general closures in the Vancouver Forest District,
1953 was notable for its freedom from such a paralysing closure. In fact, throughout the
Province only four regional closures proved necessary, as shown in the table below. It
will be noted that the Forest Service protection access road from Horsefly Lake to
Quesnel Lake was closed to prevent damage to it last fall, and will not be opened to
vehicular traffic until after the spring break-up.
Forest Closures, 1953
Area
District
Effective
Date
Termination Date
Sayward Forest. .  .„	
Vancouver
Kamloops
Nelson
Kamloops
July 8
July 15
Aug. 10
Sept. 24
Sept. 22
Bear Creek	
Sept. 22
Koch Creek. .  .      .  ._                               	
Aug. 28
Horsefly Lake-Quesnel Lake Road	
	
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES
The excellent co-operation from Honorary Fire Wardens must be acknowledged
with appreciation. During the 1953 fire season 927 of these public-spirited citizens
accepted appointment to take voluntary action on fires should they occur in their vicinity.
Even during the light fire season the value of these appointments was again evidenced.
In addition, there were 932 Forest Fire Prevention Officers appointed under authority of
section 123 of the " Forest Act." These men, appointed at the request of their employers,
have the same authority as a Forest Officer on the particular operation with which they
are concerned. Acknowledgment also is made for the excellent co-operation received
from the Royal Canadian Air Force and from commercial air lines and private pilots in
detecting and reporting fires.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 97
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS*
The year 1953 was not marked by any severe general insect outbreak in the forests
of British Columbia. Several insect problems, however, caused considerable concern
to both the industry and the Province. The potentially dangerous insects of immediate
concern may be singled out as the black-headed budworm, the spruce budworm, the
hemlock looper, bark-beetles (especially in Douglas fir), and ambrosia-beetles.
The black-headed budworm has been increasing steadily since 1951, and during
the year there was very heavy defoliation of hemlock along much of the coastal area
north of Prince Rupert. The greatest population was evident along the Portland Canal
and Alice Arm. This seems to be the southern limit of the extensive Alaskan outbreak.
An egg survey in the fall of 1953 showed that a very marked decline in the population
will result in 1954. The Queen Charlotte Islands, on the other hand, seem to be the
centre of a rising population. This was low in 1952 but had increased decidedly in
1953, with fall egg surveys indicating a very definite increase for 1954. Defoliation was
very light in 1953, but heavier defoliation may be expected next year, particularly in
the area between Port Clements and Queen Charlotte City, and at Copper Bay. The
same applies in the Kitsumgallum area east of Prince Rupert. It should be noted, however, that the history of the black-headed budworm is one of rapid increase with heavy
feeding followed by a sudden collapse of the population before extensive tree-ldlling
occurs. Damage, as a rule, consists of a considerable amount of top-killing of defoliated
trees and a decided set-back in increment until recovery is effected. Elsewhere on the
Coast the black-headed budworm appears in small numbers but in increasing populations.
The spruce budworm has shown considerable activity in various parts of the Province, particularly in the Boston Bar section of the Fraser and in the Harrison-Lillooet
drainages. Heaviest attack occurred where Douglas fir constituted over 95 per cent of
the stand. Killing has not been pronounced, except where bark-beetles entered subsequent to defoliation.
Other spruce-budworm populations are found primarily in the spruce-balsam type.
In such areas in British Columbia the budworms are of the two-year variety; that is,
two years are required to complete their development. A widespread population of this
variety occurred throughout the Central Interior of the Province but, because 1953 was
the off-year for heavy feeding, defoliation was negligible.
Populations of the hemlock looper have shown a steady increase over the past two
years, but thus far no area can be singled out as due for a heavy attack. The greatest
populations so far recorded in the present upswing of the looper are on Jervis Inlet and
on the Big Bend of the Columbia in the Interior Wet Belt. This does not imply, however, that these are to be the future sites of severe defoliation. Several other areas show
a steady increase of the hemlock looper, and forest-insect surveys in 1954 will attempt
to keep abreast of all such looper developments.
The Douglas-fir bark-beetle was the subject of considerable study in 1953 as it has
come into much prominence, particularly in Central British Columbia and on parts of
Vancouver Island. In all instances the problem has arisen in conjunction with logging.
One of the most extensive beetle outbreaks in Douglas fir developed on Vancouver Island,
necessitating the reopening of logging to salvage the infested timber.
Elsewhere in the Province, bark-beetle outbreaks in white pine, lodgepole pine,
ponderosa pine, and Engelmann spruce have occurred over widely scattered areas. The
anticipated widespread destruction of spruce stands by the Engelmann-spruce beetle in
™ region north of Idaho has not materialized. Small isolated infestations have occurred,
^on^on a particularly destructive scale.
of Agricnftared by H' A* Richmond, Forest Zoology Unit, Forest Biology Division, Science Service, Canada Department
um-re, Victoria and Vernon Laboratories.
 y^^^'f^^S^^U
g£^sF,v*
11»1MI1™^1&1
<#5S_?
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 99
The ambrosia-beetle problem continued with increasing importance and widening
interest throughout the forest industry. Although research by the Forest Insect Laboratory was limited because of other active projects, considerable work was done by the
British Columbia Forest Products and Canadian Forest Industries in chemical control
within their woods operations. For this purpose, benzene hexachloride was used.
Results have been generally promising, but they have not been entirely uniform. Although
chemical control is still in the experimental stage, several facts seem evident. Spray
must be applied thoroughly to all surfaces of the log, either by use of power equipment
or a back-pump. Costs will vary greatly with the ease or difficulty of reaching the logs
concerned. A general figure for the treatment of high-grade peelers might be set at 48
to 50 cents per thousand f.b.m. Lake spraying of boomed logs should run around 15
cents per thousand, these costs being based on limited experiments.
It is very evident from these pilot tests that some very extensive study must be
done before definite conclusions can be reached. There are too many unanswered
questions at the present time to permit wide-scale recommendations to the industry.
The Forest Insect Survey operated smoothly throughout the Province with increased
participation by the British Columbia Forest Service.    Collections for 1953 totalled
6,386. I
Matters of general interest include continued participation by the Forest Biology
Division in the British Columbia Forest Service Ranger School where five half-days
were devoted to forest insects.
A new Forest Biology Ranger Station was erected at Pendleton Bay, Babine Lake.
Sites for two additional stations were selected at New Denver and at Christina Lake.
Powder Post-beetles.—The larvae of the powder post-beetle eat the hard dry wood, tunnelling
trough timbers in successive generations until the interior is completely reduced to fine powder
and the surface shell is perforated by many small shot-holes. These insects are increasing in
'mportance on the Pacific Coast, and the destruction of structural timbers in buildings has, in
many instances, developed into serious situations.
Top: Emergence holes of powder post-beetles on outer face of lumber from packing-crate,
from infested house, Victoria, B.C. Centre: Close-up of inner aspect of galleries bored in wood
by powder post-beetle larvae. Bottom: Collapsed post and broken sheathing, 60-year-old house,
Victoria, B.C.
 100
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST-DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS*
Responsibility for disease-survey activities within the National parks in British
Columbia was transferred from the Victoria to the Calgary Forest Pathology Unit In
addition, the terms of reference of the two units were revised to ensure close liaison in
problems of mutual concern. A Section Officer responsible for studies in bio-climatology
was transferred to British Columbia. The professional staff assigned to forest pathology
was increased to ten through the appointment of a forest ecologist to the Victoria Laboratory. These administrative changes enabled the British Columbia unit to devote a greater
proportion of time to project activities and to establish a co-ordinated work programme
in dealing with certain of the more complex problems in forest disease.
Co-operation from the British Columbia Forest Service was again enjoyed in the
submission of survey material, reporting of unusual disease occurrences, and assignment
of personnel to assist in various co-operative field activities.
Publications distributed included the following:—
Foster, R. E. and A. T.: Estimating Decay in Western Hemlock, II.   Suggested aids to
utilization on the Queen Charlotte Islands.   B.C. Lumbermen, Vol. 37, No. 4,
April, 1953.
 Estimating Decay in Western Hemlock, III.   Suggested aids to the
management of mature hemlock-spruce forests on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
B.C. Lumberman, Vol. 37, No. 10, October, 1953.
Thomas, G. P., and Podmore, D. G.: Studies in Forest Pathology, XI.  Decay in black
cottonwood in the middle-Fraser region, British Columbia.  C. J. Botany 31:675-
692.   September, 1953. W ff
FOREST-DISEASE SURVEY
During the year 2,454 collections of forest disease were submitted to the laboratory
for examination. Included in these collections were three new records for Western North
America and twenty-five new records for British Columbia. All of the new records are
believed to represent native diseases of long-standing occurrence in British Columbia.
Two of the new records were of particular interest—a cone-rust of alpine fir and a canker
of ponderosa pine. The rust was observed in the vicinity of Aleza Lake. Its distribution
was general in that area, but damage was negligible. It is believed to be the first record
of a cone-rust on true fir. The ponderosa-pine canker was first reported near Kelowna,
where it had caused damage to a young plantation. It was later observed near Kamloops
and Hedley. In all cases extensive flagging and some mortality of affected trees were
noted.
Studies were initiated to determine the fungus flora of Douglas-fir forest associations
on Vancouver Island. These studies were designed to provide a comprehensive check-list
of the fungi affecting Douglas fir, and to appraise the occurrence and incidence of fungi
under well-defined conditions of forest growth and influence. Sampling to date has been
confined to the Douglas fir-sword fern and Douglas fir-salal associations. Forty sample
plots have been established between Campbell River, Courtenay, Royston, Bowser,
Cameron Lake, and Parksville. Bi-monthly examinations of the fungus populations are
being made. | j:
NURSERY, SEED, AND CONE DISEASES
Studies of root-rot in ornamental cypress were continued. This disease is responsible
for severe damage in commercial plantations of Lawson cypress and other ornament
Charruecyparis spp. on the Lower Mainland.   Investigations of forest-seed contanunan
were also carried forward.
* Prepared by R. E. Foster, Forest Pathology Unit, Forest Biology Division, Science Service
Agriculture, Victoria Laboratory.
Canada Department of
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
101
Losses from damping-off were recorded in all Forest Service nurseries, but in no
• tance was damage severe. Stunting and some mortality were observed at the Cran-
fook Nursery, but subsequent studies by the Forest Service Research Division related
Base camp established by Forest Pathology field staff during study of the deterioration of
looper-killed hemlock on Southern Vancouver Island.
DISEASES OF IMMATURE FORESTS
Investigations of the Poria weirii root-disease of Douglas fir were continued. Re-
measurements were made of fourteen permanent sample plots established in the North
Arm Forest of the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station in co-operation with the Forest
service Research Division to determine the influence of thinning on the incidence and
development of the disease. Initial studies of the root and soil characteristics associated
Wh diseased trees and stands were carried out in the Lake Cowichan area to aid in the
^termination of factors which influence the establishment, development, and spread of
fona weirii Murr.
...A stU(ty of the rooting characteristics and ecology of immature Douglas fir was
mated. Hydraulic excavations of nine trees were undertaken in selected, apparently
^sease-free, plots adjacent to the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station. Structural and
eaing root-elements, associated mycorrhiz_e, and related stand and soil characteristics
Were investigated.
intemInVeS-i8ations of Pole-blight °- western white pine were directed in large part to
rpretation of camhiai Ueirmc k__.;_--/-_s. *,. u__ ocelot.*.-, ™\th thf> disease.   Analvses
an
of cambial lesions believed to be associated with the disease.   Analyses to
 102
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
date indicate that lesions are a secondary manifestation of pole-blight, possibly
tributing to decline in growth and vigour but not directly responsible for tree mortality
Remeasurements were made of permanent sample plots designed in part to interpret the
value of sanitation thinning experiments carried out in 1950 in the Arrow Lakes region
The blister-rust disease of western white pine continued to receive consideration
Further tests were made to determine if rust-resistant pine occurs in British Columbia the
nature and inheritance of any resistance found, and the biology of the causal fungus in
terms of its genetic stability.
A 20-year-old Douglas fir excavated to provide information on structural and feeding-root elements
and to determine rooting habits in relation to stand and soil characteristics.
An investigation of the biology of Keithia needle-blight of western red cedar was
started. Experiments were designed to provide an understanding of the factors contributing to variation in the occurrence and severity of the disease. Such variation is known to
exist, but it is not known if it arises through environmental predisposition, host resistance,
or variation within the fungus per se.
Attempts to clarify the life-history of Rhabdocline needle-cast of Douglas fir were
continued. Further information was gained on the biology of forest-tree rusts. The
alternate hosts of two important rusts were established, and the life-history of a new cone-
rust of Sitka spruce was clarified.
DISEASES OF MATURE FORESTS
A study of decay in Douglas fir in the Interior region of British Columbia was
initiated in co-operation with the Forest Service Surveys and Inventory Division, W
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
103
four sample plots in eleven areas of the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts were
examined. Samples were obtained and measurements recorded on 206 fir containing
varying amounts of defect.
Information on the distribution, host range, and importance of conk-rot caused by
Fomes pini (Thore) Lloyd were summarized. The disease was found to occur on thirteen
species of conifers, to have a distribution coincident with the geographical range of
susceptible hosts, and to cause 50 per cent of the total decay in some areas. On the basis
of these data, Pomes pini may be regarded as the most important fungus causing decay in
living conifers in British Columbia. §
romespini on Douglas fir.  This fungus is responsible for most of the decay in Douglas fir in both
the Coast and Interior regions and is of considerable importance on other coniferous hosts.
Final field analyses of the progress of deterioration of western hemlock defoliated
by the hemlock looper in 1945-46 were carried out in the Wilson Creek area on Lower
ancouver Island.   Continuing analyses were made of the progress of deterioration in
^thrown white spruce and alpine fir in the Crescent Spur area (Fort George Forest
Studies of the ecology of the Indian-paint fungus, Echinodontium tinctorium Ell. &
er.5 were continued in the Interior region.   Several well-defined forest conditions, each
resenting different fungus habitats, were found in each of a number of Interior hem-
apnr     «tS' Several of these forest conditions are being studied in an attempt to gain an
amountatf0n °f SOme of'the more important factors which contribute to differences in the
°t E. tinctorium decay occurring in different areas.
 104
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL
The 1952-53 class completed its third and final term on April 10th, 1953 com
prising the subjects detailed later in this report. The 1953-54 class commenced the
course on September 21st, 1953, the first term ending for Christmas recess on December
19th, 1953.   The subjects for this term are also listed later.
Commencing with the 1953-54 class, certain changes were made in the curriculum
Grazing Administration and Range Management have been eliminated from the course
because, of the five forest districts, only two are, at present, concerned to any extent.
In each case much of this work, especially Range Management, will fall within the scope
of the technically trained staff attached to district headquarters. In respect to Grazing
Administration, the Ranger will receive his training in the field.
All other subjects are retained, but with changes in the time allotted. In general
the periods allocated to technical subjects were decreased and the time thus saved added
to those considered more practical. Forest Mensuration and Botany may be given as
examples. In each case the time previously allotted was cut and the saving added to
Forest Fire Control. Subjects dealing with administration policy and procedure also
benefit from time taken from technical matters.
In keeping with this trend, two new subjects were added to the curriculum:—
(1) Ranger District Organization.—This course will deal with the various
problems of organization within the Ranger district and at the Ranger
level. II
(2) Public Relations.—Under this general heading, Public Relations, Personnel Management, and Written-Oral Expression will be dealt with.
It is felt that these changes should be an improvement in the somewhat specialized
training required by the Forest Ranger. While those officers must, of necessity, have a
good knowledge of general forestry in order to carry out their duties efficiently, much of
their work is directly concerned with the more practical aspects of field work and the
administration of Departmental policy and procedure.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 205
Third Term—Spring, 1953
Number of
Subject Hours
(1) Operation and Care of Mechanical Equipment ft 76
Cars, trucks, tractors, pumps, outboard engines, and
power-saws.
(2) Forest Fire Control  100
Meteorology and fire behaviour; Fire-camp organiza- ft
tion; Fire-line organization; Fire-line location; Use
of water on forest fires;  Problems and examples;!
Slash-burning.
(3) Construction Techniques     50
Forest roads and trails; Telephone-lines and equipment; Building maintenance.
(4) Office Methods     30
Standard filing systems; Property accounting; Reports and standard forms; Office routine for Ranger
offices.
(5) Stumpage Appraisals     50 j|
Overturn and Rothery methods; Working out examples.
(6) Silviculture     70
Elementary silvics; Application of silvics in British
Columbia.
(7) Botany (Part 2)     35
Dendrology; Wood technology.
(8) Miscellaneous subjects     40
Field-trips.
(9) Examinations      50
Total  501
 106
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
First Term—Fall, 1953
c | .   I Number of
Subject Days
(1) Fire Law and Operation Procedure  jg
Part XI of the "Forest Act," and regulations; Operation Manual; 1 Summary Convictions Act I and Court
procedure; General Order No./548 and railway fires.
(2) Preliminary Fire Organization  13
Fire occurrences; Hazard indices; Detection and
transportation systems; Distribution of personnel and
equipment; Training key personnel for fires; Special
equipment and aerial transportation; Radio communication; Fire-prevention programmes and public relations.
(3) Forest Inventory I    4
Cover mapping.
(4) Botany—Dendrology    9
Classification and properties of trees native to British
Columbia.
(5) Pathology    3
Tree diseases in British Columbia.
(6) Entomology    4
Injurious forest insects of British Columbia.
(7) Public Relations 1  10
Public speaking; Written expression; Public relations;
Personnel management.
(8) Miscellaneous subjects    5
Field-trips.
(9) Examinations     6
Total  70
EXTRA COURSES
A one-week course was given to newly appointed lookout-men of the Vancouver
Forest District. This appears to be an annual necessity due to the large turn-over in
this position.   A fairly representative group of nineteen men completed the course.
A feature of this course is the training in operation and maintenance of weather-
recording instruments, the lookout-men being responsible for reporting data on this
important aspect of forest protection.
1 BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS
I No new improvement work was carried out during 1953. Maintenance, an ever-
increasing problem, consisted of redecorating all bedrooms and other parts of the living-
quarters, the repainting of the workshop and tool-cache, with minor paint jobs to otiier
parts of the administration building. All such work was performed by the permanen
staff during summer recess.
The varnished exterior of the living-quarters has faded badly, leaving a mottle
and untidy effect.   A number of varnish finishes have been used during the years 1
building has been in use, but none has proven satisfactory.   A paint cover during
next summer recess is being considered.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 107
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The School wishes to acknowledge assistance received from the following: Forest
Zoology and Forest Pathology Units, Laboratory of Forest Biology, Canada Department
of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.; Forest Products Laboratory, Canada Department of
Resources and Development, Vancouver, B.C.; Fire Marshal's Office, Department of
Attorney-General, Vancouver, B.C.; and St. John Ambulance Society (first aid). To
the above organizations, and particularly to the personnel concerned, the School tenders
its sincere thanks for the lectures and co-operation so willingly given.
 108
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST ACCOUNTS
The volume of business handled by the Division again reached record proportions
as is indicated in the revenue and expenditure tables appearing elsewhere in this Report
Fluctuations in the selling prices of forest products also resulted in additional work
as an increased number of revisions of timber-sale stumpage rates had to be dealt with!
Arrangements were completed during the year for the acceptance of certain bonds
in lieu of cash as timber-sale deposits, and a large number of licensees took advantage
of these provisions. ffl
A new pre-carbonized form of cheque was introduced for use in the payment of
fire-fighters which has simplified the issuance of cheques and subsequent accounting.
By the end of the year, only the Kamloops Forest District remained to be placed
under the decentralized accounting system instituted during 1952, and plans were in hand
to extend it to this district, effective February 1st, 1954.
An additional field auditor was employed during the year to assist in investigation
of mill records for collection of lumber selling-price data and information respecting
purchases of logs unreported and unsealed.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 !09
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION
A substantial reduction (37.5 per cent) in the funds allotted to the Division necessitated curtailment in the diversity and scope of the work. Economies were effected
by cutting expenditures on press and radio forest-protection advertising m half and by
major reduction in printed publications of various types.
PRESS AND RADIO
It was decided to maintain as much as possible the frequency of press advertisements
and reduce the size to accomplish the necessary saving in expenditures. Accordingly,
the regular forest-protection campaign was undertaken with five instead of six advertisements, each of 15 instead of 30 column-inches. These advertisements appeared in eleven
daily and eighty-four weekly newspapers, as well as nine miscella____XHis publications.
This campaign was preceded by two, instead of the customary three, pre-fire-season
advertisements.   Thirteen special advertisements also were inserted in other publications.
Thirty-two flashes and sixteen spot announcements were broadcast during eight
weeks of the fire season over all radio stations in the Province. This represents a
one-third reduction in volume, but, through the courtesy and co-operation of the stations,
the advantageous rates of the previous year were maintained. In addition, the Division
guaranteed financial responsibility for up to fifteen hazard broadcasts on authorization
of the District Foresters. Due to generally favourable weather conditions, this quota was
not all used.
I PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTING
The Annual Report of the Service for the calendar year 1952 was edited and distributed. The Forest Service calendar and various items of printed educational
material—-warning-cards, decals, blotters, and posters—were produced. The Division
continued collaboration with the Canadian Forestry Association in the production of
"Conservation Topics," a series of leaflets to be used as teaching aids in schools in
combination with the lecture and film service maintained by the two organizations.
Services to other divisions included editing, supervision of printing, and distribution
of the following material: Revised editions of the Provincial parks folder, the roadside
picnic- and camp-site folder, and two non-technical publications; one research note;
four forest-protection bulletins; two forest topics; three different publications dealing
with scaling lessons; and a new publication on employment in the Forest Service.
In addition, the Division produced seven personnel news-letters before that publication
was discontinued in August. mm
PHOTOGRAPHY AND MOTION PICTURES
Continuous extensive use of the services and specialized knowledge of the Photographic Section staff was made by other divisions, particularly Research, Engineering
™ces, Protection, Reforestation, and Grazing.
. ^e Mowing work was produced: 260 black-and-white photograph negatives;
ty-six rolls of film developed; 81 negatives copied; 3,882 black-and-white prints
and?' 5'000 feet of 16"mm- commercial colour film photographed; 1,366 black-
nw prints secu*ed through outside laboratories; and 885 pictures added to the
^graphic files.
soitahr  PIlotoSraphic Section extended counsel to other divisions in the use and
p of various types of cameras.
"Hvin Vf interest ^ one of the motion-picture titles produced by the section,
natinJ ^yors," has been broadcast over the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's
UOnal television network.
 110
DEPARTMENT OF. LANDS AND FORESTS
Film Library
No films were removed from the library during the year, and three new titles were
added. In addition, four of the Disney wildlife series were leased for use on the school-
lecture circuit. These four films were reviewed by a total audience of 61,735. Of the
eighty films in the regular library, seventy-nine were loaned out during the year to a total
audience of 174,361. This number, added to those viewing the leased films, brought the
aggregate audience figure slightly above the previous year but fell considerably short of
the record established in 1951. The drop was the result of the school-lecture work in
the Greater Vancouver area again being allotted to the Canadian Forestry Association
lecturers.
SIGNS AND POSTERS
Signs of modern style, utilizing green plastic letters on a white sign-board, from a
design produced by the Engineering Services Division, were supplied to a number of the
newer Ranger stations throughout the Province. These signs were produced by the Forest
Service Marine Station. Additional protection signs made of reflecting fabric were
secured, and three new management and one new protection poster produced, in addition
to revisions of older designs.
1 CO-OPERATION
The services of one of the school lecturers were contributed at the two camp periods
operated by the Canadian Forestry Association for their Junior Forest Wardens during
the summer. The co-operative project with that organization in providing a lecture-film
programme to every school in the Province that it was possible to visit was continued.
The three lecturers on this work during the spring term and the two during the fall term
visited 436 schools, and gave 528 talks illustrated with appropriate films to 68,274 people.
Following the spring tour a questionnaire was addressed to every school principal in
public schools throughout the Province requesting their views on the project. Replies
were received from over 50 per cent of those addressed, and roughly 95 per cent endorsed
the project in the form now being carried on.
The policy of appointing honorary fire wardens by the district offices was continued,
and a total of 927 appointed. This Division addressed a letter of thanks from the Minister to each appointee and secured for each a year's subscription to a conservation
magazine.
LIBRARY 1
The work of the library has been maintained on a level of increased activity, both in
number of publications processed and in the use made of these publications by Forest
Service personnel and the general public.
Amongst additional services provided by the library this year should be mentioned
the distribution of suitable books and magazines to sixteen boys' crews during the summer.
A follow-up inquiry on the success of this scheme indicated that it was well received and
should be continued next year.
During the year the library began subscribing to the Centralized Title Service of the
Commonwealth Forestry Bureaux, which provides a complete card-catalogue service on
the huge volume of forestry literature produced throughout the world, and precedes by
several months the service provided by Forestry Abstracts. It is hoped this service win
be of particular use to research-workers.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 m
PERSONNEL
ADMINISTRATION
By the commencement of 1953, the previous year's organizational changes were well
established, dividing the f line " administrative responsibilities into two main branches
of Technical Planning and Operations, each with an Assistant Chief Forester in charge,
while the " staff " functions of Forest Counsel, Personnel, Accounting, and Public Relations and Education come directly under the Chief Forester. With the two new Divisions
of Working Plans and Engineering Services now properly established, the headquarters
divisions are thirteen in number, plus Forest Counsel, and the forest districts remain
at five (^ chart). 1
This major reorganization of the Forest Service clearly segregated under the Chief
Forester the functions of Personnel Administration from those of Technical and Operational Administration. Consequently, a greater measure of independent responsibility
and a broadened scope for providing services fell to the Personnel Office. In addition, the
redistribution of functions formerly carried out by the Lands and Forests Recorder's
Office resulted in the segregation of records of the Lands Branch and the Forest Service
and the transfer of all Forest Service personnel files, records, and functions to the
Personnel Office.
Consequent upon these changes, the Personnel Office staff was increased from two
to four, and, at the commencement of 1953, consisted of the Personnel Officer, an
assistant, secretary, and clerk. During the course of the year the entire personnel
records system was reviewed and revamped in the light of current needs. New personnel
establishment records were prepared, record cards were redesigned for increased usefulness, a Linedex record of all monthly-salaried staff was set up for quick and reliable
reference, and several forms in current usage were modified.
The recording and administration of sick-leave and holiday-leave was delegated to
departments by the Civil Service Commission, and, within the Forest Service, was delegated in turn to District Foresters under the uniform control and administration of the
Personnel Office. Letters of appointment and instruction to seasonal field staff, clearly
outlining conditions of appointment, were reintroduced following occasional misunderstandings the previous year. The preparation of personnel estimates and administration
of the salary vote became Personnel Office functions.
SERVICES
The Personnel Office provided the following services:   Employment office for staff
recruitment, selection, placement, and handling of inquiries, correspondence, and documents regarding employment;   information bureau for inquiries regarding location or
service of present and former employees; personnel records office;  administrative office
eating with leave, retirement, efficiency ratings, establishment control, work organiza-
»n advice, salary and classification administration;  liaison office for resolving Forest
.lce Personnel matters with the Civil Service Commission; communication centre for
^tmction, training, and promulgating of personnel policies and information; employee
unselling service;   and personnel research centre.    The Personnel Officer attended
eetmgs of *e Professional Salaries Board, and was a member of the committee
rent nf ^^ *e Civil Service Commission to investigate and report on the policy of
a barges to employees living on premises owned by the Government.
COMMUNICATIONS
ncedt °rf*nimiiom £row and administrative policies change, there is an increasing
^tato *      efficient' and °Pen lines of communication, both vertically and hon-
y> throughout the various divisions and branches of the organization.   This need
 112
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1953 113
is particularly recognized in the personnel field, where normal staff turn-over, combined
with policy changes, rumours, and lack of personal contact due to the size of an organization, can result in misunderstanding, lowering of morale, and resultant lower production,
if adequate contact and mutual confidence are not consciously sought and maintained.
The Personnel Office sought to maintain and improve communications within the Forest
Service by written and personal contacts.
The mimeographed information sheet, " Outline of the Organization and Conditions
of Service in the Forest Service," was revised and expanded in co-operation with the
Public Relations Division, and published as an illustrated printed booklet, "A Career in
British Columbia's Forest Service." Following discontinuance of the " Forest Service
News-letter," a series of brief mimeographed " Personnel Notes " was commenced, of
which two were issued during the year, dealing with phases of personnel administration
of particular interest to administrative staff—"Human Relations: A New Art Brings
a Revolution to Industry " and " Passing the Buck." The policy of notifying all offices
of important staff changes or changes of duties was expanded by use of a circularized
notification form.
Personal contacts were maintained by attendance at most major Forest Service
meetings. Talks were given at the District Foresters' meeting, Kamloops Ranger meeting
(the only one held during 1953), the Ranger School, and Victoria Lions Club. Seventeen
field-trips were made, averaging nine days in each forest district, including visits to
numerous Ranger offices. Twenty per cent of the Personnel Officer's time was spent in
district visits. The Personnel Office played an active part in organizing the Western
Regional Conference of the Civil Service Assembly of the United States and Canada held
in Victoria in June.
| TRAINING
The series of five training lectures for staff supervisors, which was commenced during
the previous year by the Civil Service Commission training officer, was given in the Prince
Rupert and Prince George Districts in January, and this completed the Forest Service
coverage. As a result of discussions and a resolution at the District Foresters' meeting in
January, the Ranger School curriculum was revised to include, amongst other things, six
hours of instruction in personnel and man management. This instruction was given during
the fall session of the Ranger School by the Personnel Officer in the form of lectures, discussion, and participation in situational role-playing.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURN-OVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment approved for the Forest Service by the
Legislative Assembly for the fiscal year commencing April 1st, 1953, was 747, with 49
additional positions provided under the salary contingencies vote. Of these latter positions, 39 were approved prior to the end of the year. During 1953, 158 persons received
Civil Service appointments and 124 left the Service. One twenty-five-year service badge
was presented, and there were ten retirements during the year. Sixty-eight staff transfers
took place. Assistant Ranger examinations were well attended for the first time in several
yjars, and successful applicants were just sufficient to fill all vacancies at the beginning
ot the season.
Approximately 460 applications for employment were handled by correspondence,
Part from Youth Training Camp applications, and many interviews were held with applicants for work. Oral tests were prepared for use in panel examinations for promotion to
dmor clefical positions. Panel interviews were held with eighteen graduate foresters
^ December for the filling of twelve Civil Service positions throughout the Service.
©Fersonnel Officer sat on selection panels filling thirty-six positions, participated in
mg Sections for seventy-five other Civil Service positions and was the Victoria
J
 114
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
in
examiner on the Assistant Ranger examinations held in the Prince Rupert District i
March.
CLASSIFICATIONS AND SALARIES
Prior to the 1953 field season, the Personnel Office assisted other divisions in exam-
.~x. o+«flF i.o+__._ r»f Tkcwr and inh snp.r.ific.atinns      Hiis rpen1tf*H in o ^.-^-^i.j..  ,
ining temporary-staff rates ot pay ana jod specmcauons. ims resulted m a consolidated
table of rates and conditions for all Forest Service temporary staff. Representations were
made to the Civil Service Commission which resulted in an increase in honorarium for
first-aid men in remote areas. Recommendations to raise the salary range of Forest Pro-
tAPtinn nflfWr a™de, 1 _ and Assistant Forester, Grade 2, bv one nav sten Jwancp ^f ^
i men m remuic cucaa. xv&^^ii_iii^__v_«.-x^_±o _i_» x_i_o^ _A_^ o«±ax_y lau^c ui rorest rro-
tection Officer, Grade 1, and Assistant Forester, Grade 2, by one pay step because of the
administrative responsibilities of these positions in district offices were accepted. The
position specifications for Forest Agrologist grades, Launch Captains, and Launch Engineers were revised.
Numerous individual position-classification reviews were carried out. Of the ninety-
eight which were submitted to the Civil Service Commission for approval of reclassification, seventy-five were approved, fourteen rejected after intensive review, seven approved
in modified form, and two are pending decision. During the year ten annual increments
were withheld.   No dismissals by Order in Council were required.
BOYS' TRAINING AND YOUTH-REHABILITATION CAMPS
The youth-training programme instituted in 1951 was again carried out. Two
hundred and thirty-five boys in the age-group from 16 to 18 years were employed during
the months of July and August. They were assigned to crews varying in sizes from
ten to twenty members under the immediate supervision of a foreman, who in turn was
under the supervision of staff of the various forest districts or divisions. The boys lived
in tent camps at the site of the project. The camps are equipped with all equipment
necessary for woods work. A motor-vehicle is assigned to the foreman of the crews
to keep the camp supplied with food and materials and for use in cases of emergency.
These crews were employed to a large extent in park and picnic-site development,
but other phases of field work were carried out, such as trail and access-road maintenance
and construction. The boys are ideally suited for clean-up work, light trail construction
and maintenance, and for the varied jobs entailed in camp- and picnic-ground development. The training given the boys, in addition to carrying out project work, was varied.
In research they assisted in tree-marking, sample-plot work, cone-collecting, and seeding
and ecological studies. Instruction was given the boys in the use of hand-tools, such
as axe, shovel, pick, and carpenter's tools. The duties of a Forest Ranger were explained
to them, with a practical demonstration in the use of compass, chain, abney levels, and
other technical equipment.
MISCELLANEOUS
Discussions and correspondence were carried on throughout the year with the Unemployment Insurance Commission, both locally and in Ottawa, in a continuing effort to
bring forestry in British Columbia (with the exception of casual fire-fighting) within the
scope of the " Unemployment Insurance Act." f
Effective August 1st, the five-day week with no reduction in working-hours per week
was introduced into the Civil Service and applied within the Forest Service to all staff
with the exception of project crews and official log-sealers. The privilege was extended to
official scalers (permanent) in December.
In addition to crews working directly under the administration of the Forest Service,
funds were provided for the establishment of a camp of twenty youths from the first
offenders' category, administered and supervised by the Department of the Attorney-
General. The camp was operated on lines similar to Forest Service procedures. The
boys were employed for the months of June, July, August, and September on slashing
 I ' REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 115
arid clearing a 40-foot right-of-way on a forest-protection access road, and much useful
work was accomplished.
For recreation the camps were supplied with sport equipment for softball, volleyball,
and quoits. A boat for fishing was provided wherever possible. Campers were able
in some cases to compete in ball games with local teams. Reading material, moving
pictures, and organized trips to industrial operations were supplied or arranged for them.
Every effort is made to instruct and acquaint the boys in the art of living and
working in the forests. There is often a marked diversity in personalities of the boys,
and the blending of these into a functional and co-operative group is one of the most
valuable assets of the programme.    Expenditure on this project totalled $126,814.
 n6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1954
VICTORIA OFFICE
Dr. C. D. Orchard Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.
Druce, E Forester i/c Public Relations and Education
Division.
Monk, D. R Public Relations Officer (Administration).
Golding, R. C. T Photographer.
Jones, T. C Technical Forest Assistant (Photography).
Hall, R. F Technical Forest Assistant (Lecturer).
Guthrie, Mrs. I. V  Forest Service Library.
Hicks, W. V Departmental Comptroller.
MacLeod, D Assistant to Comptroller.
Higgins, W. C Chief Accountant.
Robertson, D Assistant Accountant.
Cooper, C Forest Counsel.
Williams, W. J Personnel Officer.
Palmer, J. H Assistant Personnel Officer.
R. G. McKee Acting Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations Branch.
Gayle, W. B Acting Forester i/c Protection Division.
Dixon, A. H Assistant Forester (during 1954 fire season).
Henning, W. G Assistant Forester.
Flanagan, R. T Assistant Forester (Research).
Moyes, E. A Assistant Forester (Research).
Turner, J. A Meteorologist.
Stringer, A Chief Clerk.
Stokes, J. S Forester i/c Management Division.
Marling, S. E Forester.
Hope, L. S Forester.
Reid, J. A. K Assistant Forester (Appraisals).
McRae, N. A I Assistant Forester (Silvicultural Fund).
Bancroft, H. G Assistant Forester.
Collins, A. E Assistant Forester (Cover Maps).
Axhorn, C. P Chief Clerk (General).
Chisholm, A Chief Clerk (Timber Sale Administration).
Greggor, R. D Forester i/c Engineering Services Division.
Slaney, F. F Chief Engineer.
Hemphill, P. J Assistant Engineer (Construction).
Thomas, R. D Assistant Engineer (Surveys).
Priestley, C. N Assistant Engineer (Design).
Playfair, G. A Radio Superintendent.
Taylor, J. H Marine and Structural Superintendent.
Crowe, A. B Mechanical Superintendent.
Hill, H. H .Superintendent, Marine Station (Vancouver).
Foxgord, J. E Senior Clerk.
Pendray, W. C Agrologist i/c Grazing Division.
Pedley, J. A JForester i/c Ranger School (New Westminster).
Dixon, A. H Assistant Forester.
Levy, G. L Clerk.
F. S. McKinnon ; Assistant Chief Forester i/c Technical Planning Branch.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 117
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued
Pogue, H. M Forester i/c Surveys and Inventory Division.
Silburn, G Assistant Forester.
Cliff, H. N Assistant Forester.
Allison, G. W Assistant Forester.
Calder, C. J Assistant Forester.
Lyons, E. H Assistant Forester.
Macdougall, D Assistant Forester.
Breadon, R. E Assistant Forester.
Fligg, D. M Assistant Forester.
Ford, B Assistant Forester.
Frey, J. H Assistant Forester.
Jones, R. C Assistant Forester.
Malcolm, R. M Assistant Forester.
Tannhauser, J. R Assistant Forester.
Young, W - Assistant Forester.
Highsted, C. J Assistant Forester.
McLaren, J. G Assistant Forester.
Vaughan, E. G Assistant Forester.
Rhodes, A. E Chief Clerk.
Spilsbury, R. H Forester i/c Research Division.
Fraser, A. R Assistant Forester (Technical Advisor).
Warrack, G. C Assistant Forester (i/c Cowichan Lake Exp. Stn.).
Decie, T. P Forester-in-training (i/c Aleza Lake Exp. Stn.).
Garman, E. H Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Orr-Ewing, A. L Assistant Forester (Genetics).
Clark, M. B Assistant Forester (Reg'l Res. Off., Kamloops).
Schmidt, R. L Assistant Forester (Ecology).
Finnis, J. M | Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Arlidge, J. W. C Forester-in-training (Ecology).
Borzuchowski, R Forester-in-training (Silviculture).
Stewart, M Forester-in-training (Silviculture).
Benteli, S Acting Forester-in-training (Silviculture).
Knight, H. A. W Forest Agrologist (Soils).
Prochnau, A Forest Agrologist (Silviculture).
Roberts, E. A Foreman, Cowichan Lake Experiment Station.
Hellenius, R. A Foreman, Aleza Lake Experiment Station.
McWilliams, H. G .Forester i/c Reforestation Division.
Bamford, A. H Assistant Forester.
Whiting, E. G Assistant Forester.
Grainger, W. D Assistant Forester (Cranbrook).
Berg, W. E 1 Nursery Superintendent (Cranbrook).
Long, J. R Nursery Superintendent (Duncan).
Turner, W Nursery Superintendent (Quinsam).
Wells, T  Nursery Superintendent (Green Timbers).
Wharf, N. G Clerk.        . §
Oldham, E. G Forester i/c Parks and Recreation Division.
Lyons, C. P Assistant Forester.       H
Brooks, L Assistant Forester (Planning).
Edwards, R. Y Biologist (Wildlife Section).
Ahrens, R. H Porester-in-training   (Reconnaissance  and  Inven-
•   tory).
Velay, C. J ;_;___. Engineer-in-training (Maintenance and Construc-
tion). •
McGowan, E. A Engineer-in-training (Engineering Section).
Macmurchie, D. L  Technical Forest Assistant (Administration).
%d, R. H  1 Park Officer (Manning Park).
Cook, L. E  Park Officer (Wells Gray Park).
[enner, C. A Park Officer (Garibaldi Park).
u       n' °' N  Park Officer (Mount Seymour Park).
McFarland, F. J  Park Officer (Cultus Lake Park).
Sanson, S. J „; Park Officer (Peace Arch Park).
 n8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued
Wilson J. A - Park °fficer (Mount Robson Park).
Lewis C F.         Park Officer (Island Parks).
Charlton, E."_"_-- Clerk (Administration and Accounts).
Park S E.  - -Clerk (Public Relations).
Shaw' L. A-  - \ Foreman (Langford Workshop).
Hughes, W. G Forester i/c Working Plans Division.
Carey, D. M Assistant Forester (Farm Wood-lots).
Judd, P. H Forester-in-training (Farm Wood-lots).
Mason, N. V Assistant Forester (Management Licences).
Burrows, I. R - Assistant Forester (Management Licences).
Leesing, W Assistant Forester (Public Working-circles).
Owen J. E.  Technical Forest Assistant  (Temporary)  (Farm
Wood-lots).
VANCOUVER DISTRICT
D. B. Taylor District Forester. ff
Cameron, I. T Assistant District Forester.
Bennett, C. E. (Management);   Fisher, R. B.;
Hubbard, T.; McGee, C. jt| Williams, F. S._ Assistant Foresters.
Holmberg, J. H. (Operations); Neil, P.; Sweat- j
man, P - Forest Protection Officers.
Charnell, G. S.; Johnston, G. R.; Tuttle, W. F...Foresters-in-training.
Haddon,  C. D.  S.;   McNeill,  J.;   Morrison,
R. H.;  Owen, D. H.; Tannock, F Supervisors.
Evans, C Mechanical Inspector.
Armstrong, C. L. (Supervisor); Heard, A. C.
(Assistant Supervisor); Munn, H. A. D.
(Assistant Supervisor) Scalers.
Marriott, G. L.; Templeman, J.H Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Clutterbuck, F Export Inspector.
Dunn, H. J Tabulating Supervisor.
Benwell, S. A Chief Clerk.
Barrett, R. J. (Chilliwack); Ginnever, A. F. W.
(Hope); Rockwell, I. (Harrison Lake);
Robinson, J. H. (Mission); Aylett, R. W.
(Port Moody); Barker, H. (Squamish);
Chamberlin, L. C. (Sechelt); Jones, R. W.
(Madeira Park); Black, W. (Powell River);
McKenzie, K. A. (Lund); Henderson, J. E.
(Thurston Bay East); Brooks, F. T. (Act.)
(Thurston Bay West); Lorentsen, L. H.
(Chatham Channel); Mudge, M. H. (Echo
Bay); Rawlins, W. P. (Alert Bay); Webb,
R. A. (Port Hardy); Brewis, D. W. (Campbell River); Silke, S. (Courtenay); Glass-
ford, R. J. (Parksville); Haley, K. (Nanaimo); Waldon, W. (Act.) (Duncan);
Frost, S. C. (Ganges); Wagner, C. J. (Langford); Morley, K. A. (Act.) (Lake Cowichan); Reaney, R. J. C. (Alberni); Wilson, R. S. (Zeballos) Rangers.
PRINCE RUPERT DISTRICT
P. Young District Forester.
Boulton, L. B. B Assistant District Forester.
Knight,   E.   (Management);    Selkirk,   D.   R.
(Management, Inventory); Corregan, R. W.
(Management,  Licences);    Schultz,  A.   C.
(Management);   Munro, J. F. (Operations,
Protection) Assistant Foresters.
Couling, H. L. (Operations) Forest Protection Officer.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 119
PRINCE RUPERT DISTRICT—Continued
Young, V. (Public Working-circles); Pinder,
j m (Protection, Planning) Foresters-in-training.
Campbell, W. H. (Management, Appraisals);
Dahlie, C. (Project Supervisor) Technical Forest Assistants.
Scott, J. B.; Whitehouse, W. D Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Harrison, D Scaler.
Strimbold, S. T. (Coast); Antilla, W. A. (Interior)  Ranger Supervisors.
Thompson, H. W Mechanical Supervisor.
Smith, C. V Chief Clerk.
Gibson, C. L. (Burns Lake); Brooks, R. L.
(Burns Lake); Taft, L. G. (Hazelton); MacPherson, A. C. (Terrace); Bruels, W. F.
(Terrace); Hlady, E. (Prince Rupert); Bot-
ham, C. L. (Q.C. City); Hammer, H. B.
(Ocean Falls); Tourond, A. L. (South-
bank); Smith, D. R. (Smithers); Gilmour,
J. R. (Houston); Kullander, M. O. (Pendleton Bay); Mould, J. (Kitwanga); Lind-
strom, W. C. (Act.) (Atlin) Rangers.
PRINCE GEORGE DISTRICT
W. C. Phillips District Forester.
Abernethy, G. M Assistant District Forester.
Bruce, J. B.   (Management);    Glew,   D.   R.
(Silviculture  and  Working  Plans);   Trew,
D. M. (Silviculture) Assistant Foresters.
Nelson, F. H Forest Protection Officer.
Robbins,  R.  W.   (Management);    Cuthbert,
J.A. (Management); Talbot, T. P. (Management); Armit, D.  (Management);   Olson,
H. A. (Protection) Foresters-in-training.
Willington, L. A Senior Forest Assistant.
Flynn, D. M. (Silviculture);   Burbidge, D. P.
(Working-circles);  Reaugh, I. F. (Marking).Forest Assistants.
Layton, H. R.; Threatful, N Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Watts, C Mechanical Supervisor.
Carter, R. B Chief Clerk.
Macalister, J. S. (McBride);  Northrup, K. A.
(Penny); Kerr, R. D. (Prince George E.);
French, C. L. (Prince George W.); O'Meara,
A. V. (Fort St. James);  Kuly, A. (Quesnel
E.); Barbour, H. T. (Pouce Coupe);   Co-
sens, A. S. (Aleza Lake);   Graham, G. W.
(Vanderhoof);   McQueen, A. L.  (Fort St.
John); Moen, A. (Fort Fraser);   Irwin, K.
(Summit Lake);   Meents, G. E.  (Quesnel
W.);   Angly, R. B.   (Prince George W.);
Keefe, J. J. (Hixon) Rangers.
Mahood, W. J. (Vanderhoof) Deputy Ranger.
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT
LF Swannell  District Forester.
Johnston, J. R   Assistant District Forester.
Kobmson. E. W. jjg Management); Kerr,
M-L. (Management); Milner, L. J. (Management). Clark, J. D. (Silviculture);
Jfnne, L. W. W. (Management Licences);
pT/A A-   (Working   Plans);    Bodman,
"' Operations); Broadland, T. R. (Parks)-Assistant Foresters.
 120 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
KAMLOOPS DICTRICT—Continued
Kirk, A. J. (i/c Protection);   Noakes, H. S.
(Protection) Forest Protection Officers.
Neighbor, B. E. (Christmas Trees, Farm Wood-
lots); Robinson, J. F. (Management);
Boulton, G. B. (Management) Foresters-in-training.
DeBeck, H. K. (i/c Grazing); Pringle, R.
(Grazing); Smith, E. R. (Grazing); Wallace, M. T. (Grazing) Assistant Forest Agrologists.
Murray, W. K. (Grazing) Porest Agrologist-in-training.
Bodman, G. F.  (Grazing);  Downing, C. R.
(Silviculture); Muffman, C. H. (Marking) Technical Forest Assistants.
Charlesworth, E. A.; Williams, C inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Fraser, D. P.; Mayson, H. G.; McGuire, C. J..__.Supervisors.
Painter, M.F | Engineer-in-training.
Cowan, W. P Chief Clerk.
Johnson, M. A. (Lumby); McKenna, L. J.
(Birch Island); Smith, W. W. (Barriere);
Hewlett, R. C. (Kamloops W.); Paquette, O.
(Chase); Boydell, J. (Salmon Arm); Jones,
G. G. (Sicamous); Hayhurst, J. W. (Vernon); Scott, E. L. (Penticton); Dealing,
J. H. (Princeton); Robertson, C. E. (Clinton); Petersen, K. N. (Williams Lake);
Gibbs, T. L. (Alexis Creek); Eden, R. B. W.
(Kelowna); Cook, L. E. (Wells Gray Park);
Williams, R. V. (Merritt); Cameron, A. G.
(Blue River); Hewlett, H. C. (Enderby);
Boyd, R. H. (Manning Park); Specht, G. H.
(100 Mile House); Campbell, H. W. (Kamloops E.); Weinard, J. P. (Horsefly) Rangers.
McLean, W. J. (100 Mile House); Noble, J. O.
(Kelowna) Deputy Rangers.
NELSON DISTRICT
H. B. Forse .District Forester.
Young, E. L Assistant District Forester.
Payne, J. C. (Management); Waldie, R. A.
(Management, Silviculture); Isenor, M. G.
(Management); Parlow, A. L. (Management, Working-circles); Hall, J. G. (Management); Bishop, W. G. (Management,
Management Licences); Munro, D. W.
(Management) Assistant Foresters.
Johnson, I. B JForest Protection Officer.
Gill, R. G. (Management, Working-circles);
Sutherland, F. E. (Management, Cruising);
Hepper, W. H. (Recreation Officer); Price,
G. W. (Operations ) Poresters-in-training.
Milroy, J. E.; Paulsen, A Assistant Forest Agrologists.
Barnes,'J. N. (Operations); Shinde, Y. (Management, Cruising); Melenka, D. (Management, Cruising) .Technical Forest Assistants.
Robinson, G. T  Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
Chase,   L.   A.   (Protection);   Palethorpe,   G. 1     H
(Protection); Christie, R. O. (Rangers);
MacDonald, J. P. (Rangers); Kettleson,
O. J. (Rangers) Supervisors.
Lees, J . Mechanical Inspector.
Simpson, S. S _Chief Clerk.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 ni
NELSON DISTRICT—Continued
Hopkins, H. V. (Invermere); Damstrom, R. A.
(Fernie); Ivens, J. H. (Golden); Gierl, J. B.
(Cranbrook E.); Ross, A. I. (Creston);
Humphrey, J. L. (Kaslo); Raven, J. H.
(Lardeau); Larsen, A. J. (Nelson); Robinson, R. E. (New Denver); Wood, H. R.
(Nakusp); Killough, J. F. (Castlegar); Reid,
E. W. (Grand Forks); Stilwell, L. E. (Kettle
Valley); Cartwright, G. M. (Canal Flats);
Connolly, J. E. (Arrowhead); Haggart,
W. D. (Edgewood); Hesketh, F. G. (Elko);
Snider, J. 1 (Spillimacheen); Hill, F. R.
(Cranbrook W.); Uphill, W. T. (Beaverdell); Webster, G. R. (Winlaw); Jackson,
R. C. (Revelstoke) Rangers.
  APPENDIX
  II REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 125
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS WM
General
Table No. Page
I Distribution of Personnel, 1953  _.  127
Reforestation :||||
2. Summary of Planting during the Years 1944-53  128
Forest Management
3. Estimated Value of Production, Including Loading and Freight within the
Province, 1944-53 p  129
4. Paper Production (in Tons), 1944-53  129
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade' (in M B.M.), 1944-53  130
6. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the years 1952-53,
(A) inF.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  131
7. Species Cut, All Products, 1953, (A) inF.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  132
8. Total Scale of All Products, 1953  (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts), (A) inF.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  133
9. Timber Scaled in British Columbia in 1953 (by Months and Forest Districts)  134
0. Logging Inspection, 1953 :  136
I Trespasses, 1953  136
2. Pre-emption Inspection, 1953  136
3. Areas Examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the "Land Act," 1953  137
4. Classification of Areas Examined, 1953  137
5. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1953  137
6. Timber-sale Record, 1953 !  138
7. Timber Sales Awarded by Districts, 1953  139
8. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-timber
Cruised on Timber Sales in 1953, per C C.F. Log-scale____  140
19. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-
M     timber Scaled on Timber Sales in 1953, (A) per M B.F. Log-scale, (B)
per C C.F. Log-scale  141
20. Timber Cut from Timber Sales during 1953 -  142
21. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1953__  143
22. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1953 - _~ 143
23. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1953____ 144
f4. Summary for Province, 1953______  144
25. Timber Marks Issued, 1944-53 - ---. —- 145
* Forest Service Draughting Office, 1953 | - ----- 145
Forest Finance U
• Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as Compiled from
Taxation Records !________  146
29 Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  146
• Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as
Compiled from Taxation Records  146
 126
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table No. p
30. Forest Revenue        147
31. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1953    "
32. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1952-53  I 149
33. Forest Revenue, (A) Fiscal Year 1952-53,  (B) Fiscal Years 1936-37 to
1952-53 150
34. Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1952-53 151
35. Scaling Fund 152
36. Silviculture Fund ^
37. Forest Reserve Account _ ^
38. Grazing Range Improvement Fund 153
39. Forest Development Fund 154
40. Forest Protection Fund 154
41. Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1953,
by the Forest Service 155
42. Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by Other Agencies,
1953 ! 156
Forest Protection
43. Summary of Snag-falling, 1953, Vancouver Forest District 156
44. Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1953, Vancouver Forest District 156
45. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1953, Vancouver Forest District.. 157
46. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1953, Vancouver Forest District 157
47. Summary of Operations, 1953, Vancouver Forest District 158
48. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1953, Vancouver Forest District... 158
49. Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-53 159
50. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1953 159
51. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1953 159
52. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years 160
53. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1953 160
54. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1953 160
55. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1953 161
56. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1953 161
57. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years 162
58. Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of Fire-
fighting, 1953 1 162
59. Prosecutions, 1953 163
60. Burning Permits, 1953 164
Ranger School
61. Enrolment at Ranger School, 1953 165
Public Relations f|
62. Motion-picture Library ^
63. Forest Service Library ^
Grazing jj
64. Grazing Permits Issued ^
65. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected   16
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
127
(I)
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1953
Personnel
Forest District
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Fort
George
Continuously Employed
Chief Forester, Assistant Chief Foresters, and Division
Foresters -r	
Forest Counsel and Personnel Officer	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters	
Foresters and Assistant Foresters	
Agrologists and Assistants	
Foresters-in-training	
Forest Protection Officers	
Supervisor of Rangers	
Rangers	
Supervisor of Scalers and Assistants	
Scalers, Official	
Scalers, Official, Temporary	
Comptroller and Audit Assistants	
Engineering, Mechanical, and Radio	
Technical Forest and Public Relations Assistants	
Nursery, Reforestation, Parks, Research, and Survey
Assistants	
Nursery Superintendents	
Draughtsmen |
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers	
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Marine
Station	
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians	
Launch Crewmen	
Assistant and Acting Rangers	
Dispatchers	
Cruisers and Compassmen	
Truck and Tractor Operators	
Foremen	
Miscellaneous	
Total, continuous personnel _
Seasonally Employed
Assistant and Acting Rangers	
Patrolmen	
Lookoutmen	
Dispatchers and Radio Operators	
Fire-suppression Crewmen	
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc	
Cruisers and Compassmen	
Truck and Tractor Operators	
Student Assistants	
Silvicultural Crewmen ....I......."".....".."""™
Foremen	
Boys' Training Crews 	
Miscellaneous	
Total, seasonal personnel	
Total, all personnel	
2
4
4
3
5
24
5
43
40
3
1
5
76
14
37
21
5
2
1
295
14
7
33
3
43
5
3
8
20
136
431
91
10
4
16
3
3
4
2
20
10
72
2
2
4
3
2
6
1
1
2
3
12
15
2
2
1
2
—
3
3
2
16
3
2
23
21
4
—
17
19
6
5
5
2
101
163
14
5
16
5
4
3
20
12
85
186
Kamloops
2
3
5
7
2
3
22
2
3
4
3
27
29
5
17
1
2
137
13
12
26
15
44
9
8
25
10
20
3
Nelson
185
2
7
2
4
1
4
22
1
2
1
3
23
38
9
2
322
124
6
12
35
21
36
8
38
12
50
55
273
397
Victoria
14
2
63
2
11
7
30
16
73
4
35
120
5
37
3
2
27
15
49
"517"
2
3
1
2
500
1
32
276
6
125
54
1,002
1,519
Total
14
2
10
84
9
34
8
17
97
12
44
42
7
44
40
73
4
51
290
5
37
21
140
46
33
29
17
55
1,265
59
43
127
49
123
500
18
61
276
67
41
235
154
1,753
3,018
 128
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the
Years 1952-53 in F.B.M. 1
(All products converted to f.b.m.)
131
Forest District
Vancouver ~—	
Prince Rupert (C.)	
Totals, Coast—
prince Rupert (I.)	
Fort George-— ■
Kamloops—	
Kelson —	
Totals, Interior-
Grand totals—
1952
3,102,784,132
232,357,458
3,335,141,590
181,210,362
493,962,117
561,752,841
365,898,533
1,602,823,853
4,937,965,443
1953
3,380,185,149
321,912,609
3,702,097,758
185,052,018
499,158,516
559,962,750
345,316,282
1,589,489,566
5,291,587,324
Gain
277,401,017
89,555,151
366,956,168
3841,656
5,196,399
9,038,055
375,994,223
Loss
1,790,091
20,582,251
22,372,342
22,372,342
Net Gain
353,621,881
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the
Years 1952-53 in Cubic Feet
m\ (All products converted to cubic measure.)
Forest District
1952
1953
Gain
Loss
Net Gain
Vancouver
517,130,689
38,726,243
563,364,192
53,652,102
46,233,503
14,925,859
Ptfnr* Rupert (C)
Totals, Coast
555,856,932
617,016,294
61,159,362
Prince Rupert (T.)
32,947,338
89,811,294
102,136,880
66,527,006
33,645,822
90,756,093
101,811,409
62,784,778
698,484
944,799
Fort George
Kamloops	
N'-lson
325,471
3,742,228
	
Totals, Interior	
291,422,518
288,998,102
1,643,283
4,067,699
Grand totals	
847,279,450
906,014,396
62,802,645
4,067,699
58,734,946
 132
department of lands and forests
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
Total Scale of All Products, 1953, in F.B.M. (Segregated
by Land Status and Forest Districts) I
133
Land Status
Timber licences -	
Timber berths—	
Timber leases	
Pulp leases	
pulp licences —	
Hand-loggers'licences-	
Federal lands __	
Management licences	
Farm wood-lots.	
Timber sales— —
Pulp-timber sales.	
No mark visible	
Miscellaneous—	
Forest Reserve Account	
Crown grants—
To 1887-	
1887-1906	
1906-1914	
1914 to date	
Totals	
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
681,933,329
139,595,030
113,504,297
16,309,921
20,188,623
13,340
30,132,183
36,019,716
54,570
829,877,090
15,909,815
28,161,266
37,276,001
112,774
4,307,999
27,248,136
1,758,806
97,195,476
64,143,175
88,190,5371
29,862,861 j
7,014
22,921,833
1,165,621,611	
118,287,442| 8,783,567
41,227,13l| 4,809,963
69,360,454 11,042,604
3,473,578
37,840,203
129,912,992
2,838,154
267,609
4,072,528
4,888,148
3,38O,185,149|321,912,609|185,O52,018
8,829,598
2,360,765
22,132
435,581,589
6,801,004
860,783
329,500
6,698,622
37,674,523
7,293,369
16,404,691
6,782,213
4,966,451
19,679
370,617,154
11,822,912
42,584,316
17,740,781
31,403,958
50,327,226
23,145414
3,077,826
242,702
851,321
16,350,942
222,755,334
5,008,873
2,634,366
38,979,699
10,251,422
22,018,283
738,870,431
159,077447
113,746,999
44,471,187
57,464,624
126,114
45,54734
124,786,213
96,381
2,085,939,635
64,143,175
88,190,537
79,255,637
7,014
1,211,701,076
184,388,598
98,463,624
195,311,238
499,158,516|559,962,750|345,316,282|5_291,587,324
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of
this Province is included under the various land-status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Government is shown
under the heading " Federal lands."
N.B.—For details of material actually scaled in cubic feet and units of measurement other than f.b.m., see Table 9.
Total Scale of All Products, 1953, in Cubic Feet (Segregated
m by Land Status and Forest Districts)
(Conversion factor: Coast—6 f.b.m.__:l cu. ft.; Interior—5.5 f.b.m._=l cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Timber licences	
Timber berths	
Timber leases	
Np leases	
Pulp licences	
Hand-loggers' licences	
Federal lands _	
Management licences	
farm wood-lots	
Timber sales ~
Pulp-timber sales__.	
No mark visibie	
Miscellaneous _
Forest Reserve Account "IT"
v-rown grants—
To 1887
1887-1906 I     	
1906-1914 f]	
WW to date  ~~
Totals	
113,655,555
23,265,838
18,917,383
2,718,320
3,364,770
2,223
5,022,031
6,003,286
9,095
138,312,848
14,698,423
4,977,143
1,169
194,270,269
19,714.574
6,871,189
11,560,076
563,364,192
2,651,636
4,693,544
6,212,667
18,796
718,000
4,541,356
16,199,246
10,690,529
3,820,306
1,463,928
801,660
1,840,434
319,783
631,560
6,880,037
23,620,544
516,028
48,656
740,460
888,754
53,652,102   33,645,822
1,605,3811
1,326,067
2,982,671
429,230
4,024
79,196,653
1,236,546
156,506
59,909
1,217,931
6,849,913
1,233,130
902,991
3,578
67,384,937
2,149,620
7,742,603
3,225,596
5,709,811
9,150,405
4,208,275
559,605
44,128
154,786
2,972,898
40,500,970
910,704
478,975
7,087,218
1,863,895
4,003,324
123,766,697
26,808,114
18,961,511
7,411,864
9,577,437
21,019
7,759,507
21,729,798
16,697
365,215,198
10,690,529
14,698,423
13,610,347
1,169
202,648,353
31,599,881
17,204,946
34,292,906
90,756,093|101,811,409! 62,784,778
906,014,396
M|. l^^'^M*^™~-----_----------------i       -------_-ii>---------__---m«^"^mim"" "
^Chce^ landS ™ the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of
Only timSU^1Uded under the various land-status headings shown above.
^erthVw    om Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Government is shown
N3JP*!8 federal lands."
or details of material actually scaled in units of measurement other than cubic feet, see Table 9.
 134
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 136
(10)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Logging Inspection, 1953
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert •—
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals, 1953_. ._-
Totals, 1952	
Totals, 1951 :	
Totals, 1950	
Totals, 1949	
Totals, 1948 |
Totals, 1947	
Totals, 1946	
Totals, 1945	
Totals, 1944	
Ten-year average, 1944-53
1,222
890
1,149
1,936
654
4,848
Type of Tenure Operated
Hand-
loggers'
Licences
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions
1
2
5,851
3
5,822
6
5,448
6
5,189
6
6,405
7
4,847
5
4,428
5
3,627
6
3,492
9
3,373
4
1,322
146
484
2,091
816
Totals
Number of
inspections
(U)
Trespasses, 1953
VJ
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09
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X
a
125
Areas Cut Over
(Acres)
Quantity Cut
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1
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P
\yy\
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Forest District
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Ph
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HH1
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Christmas
Trees
Cedar
Shakes,
Car-stakes
Vj
4-
VJ
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Ph
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1
1
y
0
6
1
Vancouver— 	
103
54
59
149
81
1
626 1,288,339
734|   311,546
707 [   389,024
3,33711,447,738
4,784|   636,227
11,623
19,223
10,065
134,571
55,154
1     1
861  1 5.193
97,368
1
3
$53,399.34
Prince Rupert
466,401
1831 3,896
1191  1.390
18,211.39
Prince George ._   ~  	
19,000
6,770
19,151
4,742
27,007.31
Kamloops     	
2,5291 1,0491 8,488
 |    2,633
84,575.96
Nelson  	
37,806.12
Totals, 1953	
446
10,188
4,072,874
466,401    230,636
2,917
6,335
16,314
116,368
30,663
4 $221,000.12
Totals, 1952  	
419
5,768
372,788
24,247,327    272,770
1,147
5,237
10,921
227,267
3,991
13  $312,774.33
Totals, 1951..	
454
5,999
24,545,775
159,064
1,779
20,976
28,121
13,325
41  $237,588.00
Totals, 1950	
276
3,072
12,753,405
360,190
1,475
1,806
6,312
75,309
7,550
16    $87,58^23
Totals, 1949 	
418
4,132
20,419,563
244,655
1,298
3,514
9,022
34,070
8,785
4,100
28    $81^923^27
Totals, 1948	
312
3,062
11,738,855
470,674
3,569
18,211
3,711
11,135
8    $59,654.37
Totals, 1947	
316
5,132
17,234,601
659,621
5,599
5,235
15,416
439,554|17,506
15    $74,761.43
Totals, 1946	
226
2,568
7,084,343 1,760,574
1,469
2,900
10,148
41,377(35,997
8 | $27,530.63
Totals, 1945	
267
3,313
24,322,556
516,960
1,910
9,902
2,438
10    $37,877.1-
Totals, 1944	
210
2,467
12,317,066
179,219
3,369
4,231
3,781
 1	
5    $29,193.10
Ten-year average,
1944-53	
1
334   4.572
15,513,065
485,437
1           1        1
M
15
$116,989.06
— >    ■h'     ■
■,_._-~ |
W,_   —'
(12)
Pre-emption Inspection, 1953
Vancouver    4
Prince Rupert B
Prince George '-—
Kamloops _  28
Nelson ZI_ZZZZ"____  19
Total    lIll   f    I.        51
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
137
(»
Areas Examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
"Land Act," 1953
Forest District
Applications
for Hay and
Grazing Leases
Applications
for Pre-emption
Records
Applications
to Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
2
18
5
43
7
277
4,246
740
7,634
1,151
7
12
17
1,105
1,851
3,448
104
68
133
217
127
5,024
6,895
15,602
20,905
11,645
39
13
1
19
5
70
157
145
106
151
296
139
5,371
12,403
18,193
32,202
Prince Rupert...	
prince George	
215
260
13,056
Totals
75
14,048
36
6,404
649
60,071
77
702
837
81,225
(H)
Classification of Areas Examined, 1953
Forest District
Total Area
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George.
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals
Acres
5,371
12,403
18,193
32,202
13,056
81,225
Agricultural
Land
Acres
2,288
1,234
9,236
4,764
3,091
20,613
Non-agricultural Land
Acres
3,083
11,169
8,957
27,438
9,965
60,612
Merchantable
Timber Land
Acres
752
1,421
680
5,419
1,440
9,712
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land
M F.B.M.
13,794
14,283
2,177
15,545
3,087
48,886
(15)
Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1953
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cord-
wood
(Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
etc. (No.)
Saw-
timber
(C C.F.)
Vancouver
781
453
474
613
258
92,598
61,548
162,579
234,732
167.777
308,560
1,580,270
263,950
6,877,955
3,857,147
4,497
3,204
2,500
550
1,577
3,100
39,486
95,435
439
2,853
39,750
1,591,230
460,120
947,997
1,232,541
1.384.123
^ce Rupert
Prace George
183,000
55,277
416.155
Kamloops
Nelson
Totals, 1953
2,579        719,234
12,887,882
12,328
141,313
694,182    5,616,011
totals, 1952
2,340
1,029,199
2,543,890
40,005,329
13,405
989,144
518,652
11,883,605
Totals i<ki
Totals 1950
2,704
934,475
6,577,298
20,674,280
25,630
316,954
432,000
Totals, 1949
2,196
333,435
1,777,025
7,388,875       24,522
123,091
352,440
1,638
269,576
1,355,342
9,599,176
57,002
170,475
738,510
Totals, 1948
1,851
346,648
1,817,737
7,603,641
44,726
180,602
1,947,010
Totals, 1947
1,960
361,834
1,481,715
23,015,436
50,346
299,501
1,064,125
Totals io_i<
"10> I_"f0
Totals 194s;
2,059
362,587
1,230,716
40,760,769
90,078
216,892
2,718,706     	
Totals, 1944
1,488
261,150
948,673
48,743,325 |    95,774
301,276     1,802,468
r en-year a»_,„ -.   __»_ _
1,476
334,729
1,205,308
8,166,829
137,737
483,363     1,345,439
jwr average, 1944-53
2,030
495,286
55,156
322,257
1,141,354
!
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X,07-.,/_>^     |
1
Z1,OOH,JJJ
 138
(16)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Timber-sale Record, 1953
Forest District
Sales
Made
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals.	
Cash sales.
Total sales
717
468
497
627
291
2,600
281
2,881
Sales
Closed
763
367
467
515
344
2,456
Total
Existing
1,830
1,361
1,356
1,834
906
7,287
Total Area
(Acres)
407,985
311,699
343,475
688,128
342,993
2,094,280
Acreage Paying Forest
Protection
Tax
307,679
285,860
291,484
676,608
328,080
1,889,711
. Total
10-per-cent
Deposits
$2,468,312.26
640,278.39
1,119,114.13
1.619,627.41
834,321.16
"$^682^25335
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
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 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
143
(21)
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1953
Forest District
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops—	
Nelson- —
Totals, 1953.
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals;
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
1952.
1951..
1950.
1949..
1948-
1947-
1946.
1945..
1944..
Ten-year average,
1944-53	
Operating
Sawmills
Number
380
345
689
675
324
1,650
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
Shingle-mills
Number
8,739
2,047
5,394
4,045
3,075
2,413
23,300
2,223
23,433
2,100
21,748
1,826
19,143
1,671
19,082
1,671
18,570
1,634
17,546
1,228
15,256
931
13,590
807
14,974
18,664
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M
53
1
2
3
7,786
4
25
33
59
7,848
59
8,068
60
8,185
65
8,636
61
7,708
68
8,464
73
8,609
59
8,656
51
7,054
51
6,695
61
7,992
Shut Down
Sawmills
Number
89
25
79
38
55
214
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
952
192
617
6
419
286
2,186
332
2,092
294
1,474
234
1,462
314
2,373
179
840
143
754
115
741
137
808
110
702
1,344
Shingle-mills
Number
6
2
1
3
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M
270
8
11
41
12
330
24
818
16
546
11
178
17
513
11
360
6
100
8
165
7
150
16
581
5
374
Export of
Logs (in _
F.B.M.), 1953
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Rr
2,666,923
1,867,457
8,653
786,770
4,259,690
4,216,380
155,363
7,115,169
2,896,696
5,406,883
736,505
64,446,360
5,198,074
819
304,375
275,074
2,199
7,612
683
15,021,383
11,491,539
1,204,896
Cedar.
Spruce
Hemlock—
72,623,373
Balsam....
18,974,550
18.976,749
White pine
17,061
82,557
63,734
530,860
99,595
453
6,378
88 407
Cypress
11,773
625,873
99,595
larch	
Hardwoods...
453
Cottonwood
6,856
69
13,303
Totals, 1953
5,341,576
15,853,076
74,187,464
18,974,550
5,788,905
120,145,5711
Totals, 1952
4,732,890
15,944,292
84,757,110
18,400,266
1,161,660
124,996,218
Totals, 1951
5,901,140
12,229,159
51,699,605
10,202,844
2,224,693
82,257,441
Totals, 1950
8,659,552
21,625,295
88,031,088
19,210,615
137,526,550
Totals, 1949
6,392,228
21,382,979
103,550,707
14,228,041
145,553,955
Totals, 1948
T _ <
9,380,092
31,127,805
106,739,296
16,367,096
163,614,289
Totals, 1947
7,156,095
21,100,803
52,368,152
7,552,386
88,177,436
Totals, 1946
6,843,046
17,485,065
28,308,163
33,898,926
86,535,200
Totals, 1945
1__ «                                                    ~   	
3,852,321
20,696,800
24,903,105
32,624,170
82,076,396
fotals, 1944
6,724,297
29,051,958
33,851,519
32,027,805
101,655,579
-«-year average, 1944-53
6,498,323
1
20,649,724 |
1
64,839,619
20,348,671
1
113,031,393
—ill	
*«eex_it0ta!' 97>910>425 f.b.m. were exported from Crown grants carrying the export privilege; 22,235,146 f.b.m.
"Ported under permit from other areas.
 144
(23)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts,
Railway-ties, etc., 1953
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Vancouver—
Poles lin. ft.
Piling      »»
Sticks and stakes :     »
Pulpwood cords
Posts.. I pieces
Shakes    »
Blanks     »»
Christmas trees    |
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling lin. ft.
Hewn ties pieces
Posts      f>
Prince George—
Poles  lin. ft.
Posts pieces
Ties    »>
Kamloops—
Poles and piling lin. ft.
Mine-timbers     „
Posts pieces
Hewn ties     ,,
Christmas trees     „
Nelson—
Poles and piling lin. ft.
Orchard-props     „
Mine-timbers     „
Corral-rails    „
Mine-props   cords
Fence-posts     „
Cord wood     ,,
Pulpwood     ,,
Hewn ties pieces
Christmas trees    ,,
Total value, 1953	
Total value, 1952	
4,719,137
2,031,658
323,800
1,785
37,657
11,845,995
25,800
192,637
1,961,504
170,605
5,224
623,727
173,058
179,020
7,781,080
2,772
4,970
972
742,146
4,652,841
222,000
1,124,642
72,464
556
10,905
26
466
18,503
1,077,927
$1,878,921.00
347,834.00
1,619.00
31,238.00
11,297.00
625,204.00
1,548.00
77,055.00
588,301.00
262,732.00
2,612.00
182,986.00
25,959.00
286,356.00
1,246,061.00
222.00
125,150.00
1,137.00
371,073.00
1,145,130.00
2,220.00
64,105.00
1,377.00
9,191.00
327,150.00
398.00
6,058.00
34,046.00
463,509.00
$8,120,489.00
Where Marketed
United
States
$10,268,191.00
3,715,505
246,359
323,800
1,785
4,667
11,449,515
21,000
192,637
1,474,770
430,739
3,550,385
36
658,390
2,981,388
- 222,000
2,664
466
948,862
Canada
999,854
209,761
32,990
4,800
486,234
170,605
5,224
192,988
173,058
179,020
4,230,695
2,772
4,934
972
83,756
1,571,463
1,124,642
72,464
556
8,241
26
18,503
129,065
Other
Countries
3,778
1,575,538
396,480
(24)
Summary for Province, 1953
Product
Poles and piling._
Mine-timbers	
Orchard-props	
Corral-rails	
Sticks and stakes
Pulpwood	
Mine-props	
Cordwood	
Fence-posts	
Fence-posts	
Shakes	
Blanks	
Hewn ties 	
Christmas trees...
lin. ft.
»»
cords
»»
.pieces
Total value
»>
»»
»»
»»
Volume
21,769,947
1,127,414
222,000
72,464
323,800
2,251
556
26
10,905
220,909
11,845,995
25,800
369,100
2,012,710
Value
$5,389,233.00
64,327.00
2,220.00
1,377.00
1,619.00
37,296.00
9,191.00
398.00
327,150.00
165,018.00
625,204.00
1,548.00
584,271.00
911,637.00
1^12A489l0"
Per Cent of
Total Value
66.3659
0.7921
0.0273
0.0170
0.0199
0.4593
0.1132
0.0049
4.0287
2.0321
7.6991
0.0191
7.1950
11.2264
loooooo'
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
145
(25)
Timber Marks Issued
Old Crown grants--.------	
Crown grants, 1887-1906	
Crown grants, 1906-1914 	
Section55,"ForestAct 	
Stumpage reservations    ----
Pre-emptions under sections 28
and29, "Land Act"	
Timber berths	
Indian reserves	
Timber sales	
Hand-loggers	
Special marks and rights-of-way
Pulp leases	
Pulp licences	
Totals	
Transfers and changes of marks
1944
280
89
81
234
51
1
9
10
1,893
8
6
1
1
251
1945
1946
1947
1948
329
115
106
337
53
2
3
16
1,898
6
15
631
200
176
473
70
3
8
15
2,637
~35
327
486
738
191
176
489
75-
8
9
18
2,469
~32
2,664 2,882 I 4,248  4,206
655
791
156
150
439
82
5
4
20
2,612
40
2
745
1949
548
128
97
352
60
7
18
2,525
26
1
1
1950
549
169
165
505
69
5
8
32
2,591
~27
4
4
1951
1,062
269
218
714
108
3
6
41
2,962
73
2
4,301  3,763  4,134  5,458
550   752 I 1,086
696
201
204
538
62
8
7
13
2,594
98
6
1
983
1952  1953
381
134
136
409
95
10
3
24
2,881
63
3
744
Ten-year
Average,
1944-53
600
166
151
449
71
4
6
20
2,506
41
1
1
4,428     4,139       4,016
659
(26)
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1953
Month
Number of Drawings Prepared or Tracings Made
Timber
Sales
Timber
Marks
Examination
Sketches
Miscellaneous
Matters
Total
Number of Blue-prints or
Ditto-prints Made from
Draughting Office Drawings
Blueprints
Ditto-
prints
Total
January.	
February	
March	
April	
May.	
June	
July ." ~ £g|
August _
September	
October. ~	
November	
December	
Totals, 1953	
Totals, 1952	
Totals, 1951	
Totals, 1950	
Totals, 1949	
Totals, 1948	
Totals, 1947	
Totals, 1946	
Totals, 1945	
Totals, 1944	
Ten-year average.
1944-53_
25
24
30
30
31
22
20
27
13
13
14
21
590
198
72
160
118
160
206
208
278
97
116
90
120
1,998
87
84
121
85
5
270
1,823
382
491
2,827
1,387
1,008
3,196
1,336
828
2,050
1,108
514
1,547
988
681
2,300
1,247
500
2,223
1,238
604
1,931
1,028
569
1,193
693
442
889
459
987
19
22
23
22
56
18
32
30
39
26
27
36
350
1,068
1,891
805
353
241
290
525
684
544
675
319
202
334
225
202
246
252
335
149
155
131
177
2,825
5.773
7,431
4,791
3,402
4,469
4,251
4,088
3,139
2,334
4,250
1,125
940
863
702
532
481
455
693
268
288
262
367
555
510
855
735
764
590
520
815
315
370
410
550
1,680
1,450
1,718
1,437
1,296
1,071
975
1,508
583
658
672
917
6,976
6,989
13,965
18,924
10,320
29,244
17,540
19,360
36,900
13,759
16.599
30,358
10,184
10,344
20,528
13,625
12,959
26,584
12,026
9,844
21,870
9,113
7,300
16,413
6,495
6,701
13,196
4,159
4,983
9,142
11,280
10,540
1
21,820
1
 146
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(27)
Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year
Acreage
Assessed as
Timber
Land
1953.
1952
1951.
1950
1949.
1948
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942-
1941.
1940
1939-
1938.
1937-
1936.
757,516
718,284
682,746
631,967
597,790
571,439
596,900
601,148
591,082
571,308
543,044
527,995
543,633
549,250
719,111
756,328
766,413
766,186
Coast
Logged
Acres
201,264
203,249
191,435
207,308
172,024
158,120
153,072
146,331
142,504
134,194
125,313
112,834
105,541
103,486
89,209
106,833
96,598
92,892
Timber
Acres
444,014
433,496
410,037
378,985
340,200
326,738
354,207
364,556
357,037
345,378
325,996
322,306
335,468
338,419
338,794
344,858
363,693
352,582
Interior
Logged
Acres
27,692
29,418
31,333
8,635
30,625
25,485
26,591
23,125
21,536
20,816
20,205
20,072
26,016
24,852
153,032
157,508
153,566
152,846
Timber
Acres
84,546
52,121
49,941
37,039
54,941
61,096
63,030
67,136
70,005
70,920
71,529
72,781
76,608
82,493
138,075
147,129
152,556
167,866
(28)
Acreage of Timber Land
District Acres
Alberni  93,199
Comox   145,333
Cowichan  146,002
Fort Steele  9,160
Kettle River  722
Lillooet   25,542
Nanaimo   165,217
Nelson  1,997
by Assessment Districts
District Acres
Omineca  160
Prince George  800
Prince Rupert  33,123
Princeton  1,777
Revelstoke   33,189
Slocan   38,891
Vancouver  3,675
Victoria  58,729
Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
(29) as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year Area (Acres)
1953  757,516
1952  718,284
1951  682,746
1950  631,967
1949  597,790
1948  571,439
1947  596,900
1946  601,148
1945  591,082
1944  571,308
1943  543,044
1942  527,995
1941  543,632
1940  549,250
1939  719,112
1938  754,348
1937  743,109
Year Area (Acres)
1936  515,924
1935 -- 535,918
1934  557,481
1933   567,731
1932"       552,007
1931 _ 602,086
1930  629,156
1929  644,011
1928        671,131
1927 1 690,438
1926   688,372
1925 - 654,016
1924  654,668
1923                   - 883>344
1922 ~   887,980
1921   845,111
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
147
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u
 150 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(S3A) Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1952-53
Ten-year Average
Timber-licence renewal fees        $370,327.49 $387,346.74
Timber-licence transfer fees              1,880.001 2,54L85
Timber-licence penalty fees              2,099.53 5,177.05
Hand-loggers' licence fees                   75.00 179.55
Timber-lease rentals            50,066.57 50,266.39
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest                134.66 65.71
Timber-sale rentals          172,896.94 90,111.03
Timber-sale stumpage     14,959,481.96 5,103,486.72
Timber-sale cruising            81,424.83 37,610.96
Timber-sale advertising            22,989.13 9,377.81
Timber royalty       2,100,071.70 2,365,824.59
Timber tax            39,971.17 23,190.13
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)           10,310.05 2,341.19
Exchange                  112.20 87.48
Seizure expenses              2,017.80 1,004.36
General miscellaneous            56,312.21 24,718.53
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees           20,166.61 18,810.57
Interest on timber-berth rentals      30.24
Transfer fees on timber berths                   80.54 77.94
Grazing fees and interest          125,606.78 51,981.90
$18,016,025.17 $8,174,230.74
Taxation from Crown-granted timber
lands          588,821.78 353,380.08
Taxation collected under authority of
"Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Belt Land Tax Act I          418,395.59 173,577.19!
Totals  $19,023,242.54 ' $8,701,188.01
- Collection of this tax has only been authorized during the last three fiscal years, but average has been calculated on
a ten-year basis.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
151
(S3B)
Forest
Direct
r_,_iYear Forest Revenue
S 53 $18,016,025.17
951-521  13,703,715.41
950-51   ______ 10,089,884.69
1949-50  8,331,497.19
1948-49     7,977,676.22
1947-48  7,010,038.77
J946-47  4,880,232.89
1945-46  4,352,179.14
194445  4,017,653.53
1943-44     I 3,703,703.13
1942-43  3,519,892.44
1941-42  4,057,437.86
1940-41  3,549,931.53
1939-40  3,236,731.36
1938-39  2,982,702.42
1937-38  3,257,525.05
1936-37  3,001,054.84
Revenue by Fiscal Years
Taxation Collected under
Taxation from Authority of " E. & N
Crown-granted Railway Belt Land
Lands Tax Act"
$588,821.78 $418,395.59
484,475.51 972,156.13
440.213.07 345,220.16
445,632.68 	
453.980.08 	
253,345.02 	
237,506.83 	
244,980.89 	
213,912.46 	
203,457.36 	
206,146.21 	
211,410.13 	
224,652.87 	
267,290.48 	
241,109.96 	
269,285.54	
299,992.41 	
Total
$19,023,242.54
15,160,347.05
10,875,317.92
8,777,129.87
8,431,656.30
7,263,383.79
5,117,739.72
4,597,160.03
4,231,565.99
3,907,160.49
3,726,038.65
4,268,847,99
3,774,584.40
3,504,021.84
3,223,812.38
3,526,810.59
3,301,047.25
m
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1952-53
Forest District
Salaries and
Cost-of-living Bonus
Expenses
Total
Forest Service Marine Station.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson..	
Victoria	
Totals.
Canadian Forestry Association	
Forest management	
Forest research	
Reforestation	
Public relations	
Provincial parks	
Ranger School	
Boys' training camp	
Rentals .	
Office furniture and equipment	
Forest Development Fund	
Grazing Range Improvement Fund1.
Forest Protection Fund1	
Forest Reserve Account1	
Grand total.
$83,321.79
361,343.97
200,123.50
182,496.94
299,542.69
275,324.49
563,267.56
$1,965,420.94
contributions from Treasury to special funds detailed elsewhere.
$72,283.13
164,127.35
78,838.14
54,213.68
79,358.53
77,119.78
575,262.67
$1,101,203.28
$155,604.92
525,471.32
278,961.64
236,710.62
378,901.22
352,444.27
1,138,530.23
$3,066,624.22
5,000.00
127,550.15
81,012.92
450,153.51
97,855.49
874,702.57
55,385.09
121,099.24
56,306.72
46,474.06
185,000.00
54,163.54
2,000,000.00
513,038.27
$7,734,365.78
 152
(33)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Scaling Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1952 (credit)     $13,437.67
Collections, fiscal year 1952-53    665,185.34
Expenditures, fiscal year 1952-53
$678,623.01
582,031.11
Balance, March 31st, 1953 (credit)    $96,591.90
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1953—   535,263.06
$631,854.96
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1953    463,040.26
Balance, December 31st, 1953 (credit)  $168,814.70
(36)
Silviculture Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1952  $671,227.98
Collections, fiscal year 1952-53    248,654.76
Expenditures, fiscal year 1952-53
$919,882.74
782,319.58
Balance, March 31st, 1953 (credit)  $137,563.16
Collections, nine months to December 31st, 1953    805,365.97
Expenditures, nine months to December
31st, 1953  $548,213.93
Less refunds        8,695.52
$942,929.13
539,518.41
Balance, December 31st, 1953 (credit)  $403,410.72
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
00                               Forest Reserve Account
Credit balance as at April 1st, 1952	
Amount-received from Treasury, March 31st, 1953
(under section 32 (2), "Forest Act")	
Moneys received under section 32 (4), " Forest Act"
Amount received under Federal-Provincial Agreement dated December 4th, 1951—
Contribution, 1951-52	
Contribution, 1952-53	
Expenditures, April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953
Credit balance, March 31st, 1953	
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1953
(Debit)
Collections to December 31st, 1953 (under section
32 (4), "Forest Act")	
(Debit)
Amount received under Federal-Provincial Agreement dated December 4th, 1951—Interim contribution, 1953-54 	
Balance, December 31st, 1953 (Credit)
$478,417.75
513,038.27
10,998.12
203,000.00
420,692.47
153
$1,626,146.61
927,516.62
$698,629.99
700,825.34
$2,195.35
2,035.00
$160.35
175,458.48
$175,298.13
w
Grazing Range Improvement Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1952 (credit)  $15,305.93
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")    54,163.54
Other collections         725.99
$70,195.46
Expenditures, April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953____-_    49,685.61
Balance, March 31st, 1953 (credit)  $20,509.85
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")    62,817.45
Other collections           110.34
$83,437.64
Expenditures, April 1st, 1953, to December 31st, 1953    44,486.98
Balance, December 31st, 1953 (credit)  $38,950.66
 154
(39)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Development Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1952 (credit)	
Amount received from Treasury (authority, "Forest
Development Loan Act, 1948 ")	
Collections (authority, section 164 (4), "Forest Act")
$54.90
185,000.00
10,582.22
Expenditures, fiscal year 1952-53
$195,637.12
161,378.25
Balance as of March 31st, 1953 (credit)    $34,258.87
Balance, April 1st, 1953 (credit)	
Amount received by authority of Legislature (Vote
317,1953-54) _	
Collections, nine  months to December  31st,   1953
(authority, section 164 (4), "Forest Act")	
$34,258.87
405,000.00
18,036.00
$457,294.87
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1953
(net)     270,806.51
Balance, December 31st, 1953 (credit)  $186,488.36
(40)
Forest Protection Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1952 (credit)	
Government contribution  $2,000,000.00
Collections, tax       385,078.88
Collections, slash and snags f  $23,457.50
Less refunds       6,530.29
  16,927.21
$267,274.27
2,402,006.09
Expenditures, 1952-53  $2,904,612.57
Less refunds           46,651.60
$2,669,280.36
2,857,960.97
Balance, March 31st, 1953 (debit)	
Collections, tax, nine months, April to December, 1953
Collections, miscellaneous	
Refunds of expenditures	
Government contribution	
$188,680.61
$293,426.18
2,425.75
35,518.30
1,500,000.00
-   1,831,370.23
$1,642,689.62
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1953    1,666,693.
Estimated deficit, December 31st, 1953       $24,003.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953                                          155                                  j
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 156
(42)
department of lands and forests
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection
by Other Agencies, 1953
Forest District
Expenditures
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals { —.
Ten-year average, 1944-53
$182,201.00
30,614.00
7,000.00
3,035.00
14,716.00
$237,566.00
$160,524.00
$268,623.00
73,211.00
10,000.00
20,899.00
39,870.00
$412,603.00
$242,657.00
Fires
$22,402.00
85,269.00
6,545.00
7,983.00
5,790.00
$127,989.00
$279,680.00
Improvements
$21,620.00
23,700.00
6,000.00
8,628.00
30,041.00
$89,989.00
$38,279.00
Total
$494,846.00
212,794.00
29,545.00
40,545.00
90,417.00
1-68,147.00"
1721,140.00"
<43>        Summary of Snag-falling, 1953, Vancouver Forest District
Acres
Total area logged, 1953  79,198
Logged in snag-exempted zone1  2,663
Logged on small exempted operations1  2,438
  5,101
Assessed for non-compliance, less 227.5 acres subsequently felled     521
1     5,622
Balance logged acres snagged, 1953  73,566
i Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act."
Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1953, Vancouver
(44) Forest District
Acres
Total area logged, 1953  79,198
Area covered by full hazard reports  62,363
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-
disposal 1     2,663
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from
slash and snag disposal)x         2,438
 - 67,464
Slash created too late to be dealt with in 1953— 11,734
iExemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act."
 (0)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 157
Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1953,
Vancouver Forest District
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1953 1953 Total Acres
Broadcast-burning ____  10,610 12,394 23,004
Spot-burning    10,097 10,839 20,936
Totals  20,707 23,233 43,940
1953 reports not recommending slash-disposal  39,130
1953 slash examined for snags but exempt from slash-disposal    2,663
1953 slash in zone completely exempted  2,130
1953 slash on very small operations exempted without special examination      308
    2,438
Total area of slash dealt with, 1953  88,171
Nora.—Above table does not include the estimated 11,734 acres (see Table No. 44) created too late to be dealt
with in 1953.
Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1953, Vancouver
w Forest District
Acres
Total disposal required (see Table No. 45)  43,940
Acres of Slash
Type of Disposal Prior to 1953 1953 Total Acres
Spring broadcast-burning  130 Nil 130
Spring spot-burning1   1,444 Nil 1,444
Fall broadcast-burning jl 5,410 3,009 8,419
Fall spot-burning*  6,453 5,774 12,227
Total burning completed   13,437        8,783 22,220
Burned by accidental fires  17
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc  63
Total   22,300
Balance reported slash not yet abated  21,640
Slash created prior to 1953—acres assessed     2,365
Slash created, 1953—acres assessed  3
    2,368
Remainder waiting final disposition, 1954  19,272
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with,
1953  11,734
Total area of slash carried over to 1954 for disposition  31,006
2aS "ea bumed in sPrin8 spot-burning, 56 acres.
*«uai area burned in fall spot-burning, 1,196 acres.
 158 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(47) Summary of Operations, 1953, Vancouver Forest District
Total operations, Vancouver Forest District  1,555
Intentional slash-burns 1  217 f
Operations on which slash was disposed of by lopping,
scattering, land-clearing, etc    21
Operations on which slash was accidentally burned      9
Operations not required to burn  868
Operations given further time for disposal      6
Operations granted total exemption under subsection
(3), section 113, "Forest Act"  349
Operations where  compensation  assessed  or  security
deposit posted    46
Operations in snag-felling only area    78
Operations pending decision re assessment or further
time for disposal    49
I   l,634i
1 Difference noted above is accounted for by slash on some operations being disposed of by both accidental and
intentional means and some operators conducting both spring and fall burns.
Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1953, Vancouver
(48> Forest District
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1953        4
Net damage to forest-cover  $2.00
Net damage to cut products      Nil
Net damage to equipment and property      Nil
Total damage  $2.00
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Cost per    Cost per
Total Cost Acres       MB.M.       Acre
(a) Spring broadcast-burning _     $830.00 130 $0.16 $6.31
(b) Spring spot-burning     2,928.00 1,444 .06 2.02
(c) Fall broadcast-burning ____ 20,341.05 8,419 .06 2.41
(d) Fall spot-burning  22,700.08 12,227 .06 1.85
(a) and (c) based on volume of 40 M B.M. per acre.
(_») and (_0 based on volume of 30 MB.M. per acre.
The following not included in above tables (reported too late for 1952 Annual
Report): Fall spot-burn, 1,137 acres; fall broadcast-burn, 1,902 acres.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
159
(49)
Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-53
Acres of Slash Burned
Year Accidentally Intentionally
1953 j 17 22,220
1952     3,856 39,064
1951  11,614 10,436
1950     1,700 25,389
1949     1,468 53,543
1948     2,215 30,652
1947     2,663 34,414
1946     2,174 25,498
1945 1     3,897 46,467
1944     5,121 27,278
1943     2,046 40,013
1942     4,504 80,226
1941     3,385 5,524
1940 I     2,265 33,034
1939     1,930 51,603
1938  35,071 50,033
1937     3,015 27,516
1936     1,340 7,691
1935  11,783 13,239
1934     4,927 15,935
m
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1953
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals	
Percent	
Ten-year average, 1944-53
Percent	
18
1
3
32
22
3
19
2
1   7
25
9
1   n
97
32
6
23
8
0.44
3.35
13.53
89
15
22
123
60
19    30    196    73    309
1.34   2.11   13.81   5.14  21.76
7    53    214    184 |  452
11.63       28.57
113
5
25
255
242
September
October
Total
59
318
4
48
1   6
112
52
3
574
26
3
368
Per
Cent
22.39
3.38
7.89
40.42
25.92
640
147
6
1,420
100.00
45.07
10.35
0.42
100.00
465
182
25
1,582
29.39    | 11.51 1.58       100.00 I
(51)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1953
Forest District
e_
a
x
Vancouver^.
jjtoe Rupert   """"
J^ce George...
Sloops
Totals  "
Percent	
J**ar average, 1944-53
Percent
50
7
35
249
256
597
449
28.38
09
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22
7
14
113
18
96
1
82
5
174
184
42.04     12.26     12.96
211
254
13.34 I  16.06
55
11
12
8
8
4
55
18
41
6
3
4
1
2
171   47   10
12.04  3.31  0.70
285   78   14
18.02 | 4.93  | 0.88
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73   17
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19
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19
116
8.17
165
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574
368
36       1,582
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3.38
7.89
40.42
25.92
28  1,420  100.00
1 97  100.00
 160
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(S2)        Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years
Causes
1944
Lightning	
Campers	
Railways operating jj	
Smokers	
Brushhburning (not railway-clearing)	
Road and power- and telephone-line construe
tion	
Industrial operations	
Incendiarism	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
Totals	
408
203
329
342
51
10
51
13
210
50
1,667
1945
1946 I 1947
541
183
426
356
69
5
32
32
155
39
1,838
515
263
231
326
117
16
38
10
159
32
326
193
270
245
51
8
53
13
144
29
1,707 | 1,332
597
4,487
174
2,113
184
2,541
171
2,855
47
779
10
136
83
730
10
168
116
1,649
28
358
1,914 | 1,420 I 15,816
(53)
Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1953
Total Fires
Under Va Acre
Va to 10 Acres
Over 10 to 500
Acres
Over 500 Acres
in Extent
Damage
09
03
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Vancouver	
318
22.39
1
234)73.58
24.79
1
82|25.79
20.55
2
0.63
2.98
__     .|	
313
1
4|   1
Prince Rupert
48
3.38
20(41.67
2.12
17|35.42
4.26
10
20.83
14.93
1
2.081 10.00
42
1    5
Prince George	
112|
7.89
61J54.46
6.46
30J26.79
7.52
15
13.39
22.39
6
5.36  60.00
98
10|   4
Kamloops	
5741
40.42
34960.80
36.97
195J33.97
48.87
29
5.05
43.28
1
0.18   10.00
536
28   10
Nelson
368
25.92
280|76.09
29.66
75J20.38
18.80
11
2.99
16.42
2
0.54J 20.00
353
7
8
28
Totals
1,420
100.00
944
100.00
399
100.00
67
100.00
io| si
100.00
1,342
50
Per cent.,
100.00
66.48
28.10
4.72
0.70|	
	
94.51 3.521.97
Ten-year aver
1
1
1
1
1     1
age, 1944-53
1,582|
_
892|	
464
	
—
179
	
47
1,459
76
| 4/
|2.97
Per cent  .
100.00|
1
1
56.381
29.331
11.321
	
2.97
_l..
92.2314.80
i
1
	
(34)
Damage to Property Other than Forests, 19531
Forest District
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture
Buildings
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment
Vancouver—	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals	
Per cent-	
Ten-year average, 1944-53
Per cent	
$342.00
37,415.00
29,794.00
113.00
$10.00
25,405.00
2,230.00
$2,977.00
8,000.00
4,500.00
25.00
$67,664.00       $27,645.00       $15,502.00
59.00
24.10
13.52
$174,799.00       $24,641.00     $186,302.00
42.28
5.96
45.06
i Does not include intentional slash-burns.   (For this item see page 158.)
Miscellaneous
600.00
282.00
3,000.00
Total
$3,329.00
45,415.00
60,299.00
2,650.00
3,000.00
$3,882.00 | $114,693.00
PerCent
of Total
2.90
39.60
52.57
2.31
2.62
Toooo"
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953 161
(55j   Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1953—Part I-
Forest District
Accessible Merchantable Timber
Inaccessible Merchantable
Timber
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p
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Vancouver —	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson—	
Totals——	
Per cent	
Ten-year average, 1944-53
Per cent	
Acres
3
402
128
341
474
M B.M.
45
3,486
874
718
2,950
M B.M.
1,562
782
480
1,856
1,348         8,073         4,680
3.49         97.17         57.97
17,708     129,173       49,502
5.37
95.54
38.32
-    H
Oh>
$
271
12,586
670
5,704
15,783
Acres
16
1,152
55
M B.M.
12
86
137
35,014         1,226           235
23.99           3.17          2.83
207,340         1,980        6,028
45.70
0.60
4.46
$
139
182
23,320
1,370
Acres
146
618
154
1,359
1,733
$
1,325
15,013
4,034
19,200
7,585
25,011 4,010 j    47,157
17.14
10.38
32.31
11,152 |    46,709     159,909
2.46
14.18
35.25
i Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 158.)
(55)   Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1953—Part II1
Forest
District
Not Satisfactorily
Restocked
•o
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Cover
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Pasture
Land
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a
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Sites
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Grand Totals
Vh
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&
rt
Q
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
son	
Totals	
Percent	
Ten-year average
1944-53	
Percent	
18
208
1,002
115
199
| Acres
Acres
29
2
87
14
1,060
1
723
8
129
$
387
118
17,029
8,507
4,222
1,542      139   1,914 30,263
3.99     0.36     4.95   20.73
6,525| 3,955132,429128,202
1.981    1.201    9.84
6.22
Acres j
47|
203 j
3,838J
376]
1,264
$
9
52
1,691
888
196
5,728     2,836
14.82
1.94
112,582   30,338
34.16|      6.69
Acres
9
138
1,919
530
141
2,737
7.08
54,032
16.40
$
Acres)
901
1731
7
169
19,3971
38
2011
476
140|
$
22
42
4,843
47
32
690 20,001   4,986
0.47   51.76     3.42
1           1
3,314|53,616|13,410
0.731 16.271    2.95
Acres
1
M B.M.j
347
571
1,829
3,4861
27,528
960
4,798
718|
4,143
3,0871
$
2,153
27,818
28,618
57,704
29,664
38,645      8,308    145,957
100.00|   100.00      100.00
1              1
329,536| 135,201 j   453,665
100.001   100.001     100.00
!Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 158.)
(56)
Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and
Total Damage, 1953
Causes
Lightning	
Campers	
^aysoperatiigT"""
toiokers_  ~
^Wal operation!"	
^aneous (known causes~)ZZr
UI«nown causes	
Totals
Number
Per
Cent
Acres
597
42.04
174
12.26
184
12.96
171
12.04
47
3.31
10
0.70
83
5.85
10
0.70
116
8.17
28
1.97
1,420
100.00
Per
Cent
3,868
10.01
8,682
22.47
461
1.19
20,501
53.05
1,683
4.35
54
0.14
1,429
3.70
384
0.99
1,092
2.83
491
1.27
38,645
100.00
Cost
$87,827.00
85,751.00
1,873.00
7,601.00
3,569.00
69.00
19,330.00
1,154.00
5,168.00
1,545.00
Per
Cent
41.06
40.09
0.88
3.55
1.67
0.03
9.04
0.54
2.42
0.72
$213,887.00 I  100.00
Damage
$23,683.00
44,705.00
5,518.00
25,035.00
23,489.00
6,712.00
120,247.00
295.00
5,929.00
5,037.00
$260,650.00
Per
Cent
9.09
17.15
2.12
9.61
9.01
2.58
46.13
0.11
2.27
1.93
100.00
	
 162
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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UP
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
163
Prosecutions, 1953
Forest District
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Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson :	
Totals	
Ten-year, average, 1944-53.
14
3
10
1
12
2
2
—
—
—
1
4
3
1
4
7
3
4
—
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4
27
11
5
10
1
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40
15
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 164
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Ph
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1953
Enrolment at Ranger School, 1953
Forest District
Rangers
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Parks and Recreation—
Attendance, 19531
Attendance, 1953..
Attendance, 1952.-
Attendance, 1951 ~
Attendance, 1950..
Attendance, 1949-
Attendance, 1948..
Attendance, 1947-
Attendance, 1946..
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
6
3
3
3
5
1
....
21
—
—
20
—
—
20
3
3
15
3
3
15
3
2
16
4
2
12
8
—
12
Clerks
Total
6
3
3
3
5
1
21
20
20
165
Graduations
20
—
21
21
—
21
21
■ —
21
—
2
20
20
—
20
20
—
20
20
i New class, 1953-54, commenced at fall term.
Notb.—Commencing with the class of 1949-50, each class takes one and one-half years to complete the course.
(y)
Motion-picture Library
Stock Records
Year
19451
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
Films in library at January 1st	
74
4
5
75
(2)
75
2
2
75
61
75
8
7
74
77
74
2
5
77
77
77
3
1
75
74
75
6
9
78
76
75
8
7
74
71
74
3
6
77
72
77
Films withdrawn during year	
New films added during year	
Films in library at December 31st	
3
80
Films used during year-
79
Circulation Records
Number of loans made during year	
Number of film loans during year (one
film loaned one time)	
Number of showings during year....
Number of audiences-
Adults	
Children..	
Mixed	
Totals...
56
85
76
2,341
6,676
8,730
164
328
371
11,940
10,408
10,285
235
632
812
8,009
25,362
24,351
436
1,122
1,293
21,633
20,455
42,930
17,747     32,633
57,722
85,018
397
1,075
1,505
14,568
24,031
87,506
416
1,046
1,880
26,988
95,1028
43,282
461
1,057
2,943
13,542
264,2453
26,706
492
1,218
2,764
13,655
157,085
59,182
490
1,158
2,288
12,640
118,622
43,099
126,105 |165,3723|304,4933|234,396*|174,367*
| Recording of film circulation only commenced in 1945.
' No record.
Includi
Includ
ing attendances of lecture tour of two school lecturers.
mg attendances of lecture tour of three school lecturers.
Leased Films, 1953
Title
Number
of
Showings
Javer Valley"
Olympic Elk "___
lThreeo
180
139
21
167
Adult
328
874
440
Number in Audience
Children
24,360
20,062
1,672
13,017
Mixed
15
183
784
Total
24,703
21,119
1,672
14,241
 166
(63)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Service Library
Classification
Items Catalogued and Indexed
1944
Bound volumes	
Government reports and bulletins-
Other bulletins and reports	
Periodicals	
Serials!	
References indexed	
12
49
63
50
1,175
1945
13
80
61
48
1,294
1946 I 1947
1948
1949
1950 I 1951
1952
12
126
79
51
1,523
14
231
90
72
1,798
39
123
140
72
3,543
36
100
153
80
2,074
27
62
140
102
1,960
23
109
152
110
2,650
9
122
337
115
2^203
1953
41
484
90
111
66
1,800
Ten-year
Average,
1944-53
23
148
130
81
2,002
i Previous to 1953 included with periodicals, bulletins, and reports.
(64)
Grazing Permits Issued
District
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George-
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Totals
Sheep
1953
1952.
1951.
1950
1949.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
Ten-year average, 1944-53.
1,234
457
39
95,671
11,090
2,133
1,730
108,894
1,621
104,610
1,561
100,082
1,562
98,484
1,496
101,349
1,444
110,333
1,322
105,723
1,378
106,273
1,378
109,201
1,320
101,606
1,481
104,655
2,964
947
222
21,577
1,534
61
4,133
23,172
4,040
23,565
4,350
22,282
4,650
23,100
5,029
25,842
6,644
29,444
5,513
25,289
6,025
31,274
5,064
39,235
4,862
40,858
5,031
28,406
N.B.—Some of the figures in this table for the years 1944 to 1951, inclusive, have been revised and differ from those
shown in previous Reports. Past tables have shown net figures for some years and gross figures for others. This table
shows the total number of permits issued and the net number of live stock covered for each of the years listed.
(65)
Grazing Fees Billed and Collected
Year
Fees Billed
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943.
$95,088.64
125,495.09
108,400.14
80,178.43
27,819.65
28,960.42
28,584.74
30,120.38
30,066.34
28,554.02
24,680.37
Fees Collected
$102,460.00
110,731.32
106,161.36
74,305.08
28,299.94
27,089.74
29,203.74
31,412.24
31,465.28
31,000.34
31,148.36
Outstanding
$20,618.23
27,989.59
13,225.82
10,986.74
5,113.39
5,597.18
3,726.50
4,345.50
5,637.36
7,036.25
9,482.57
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1954
1,410-454-8723
  

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