Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

ANNUAL REPORT AND SUMMARY OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY 1968 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1969

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0365694.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0365694.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0365694-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0365694-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0365694-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0365694-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0365694-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0365694-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0365694-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0365694.ris

Full Text

 ANNUAL REPORT
AND
SUMMARY OF
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
1968
PROVINCE  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT  OF   INDUSTRIAL  DEVELOPMENT,
TRADE,  AND  COMMERCE
PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, VICTORIA,  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
HON. WALDO   M.   SKILLINGS,   MINISTER
ROBT.  F.   RENWICK,  DEPUTY MINISTER
  To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C, O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit the Report of the Department of Industrial Development, Trade,
and Commerce for the year ended December 31, 1968, with which is incorporated
a summary of economic activity for the Province of British Columbia.
The operations of my Department are reviewed and the Government's role is
recorded in the industrial development and economic well-being of the Province.
The Summary of Economic Activity section comprehensively reviews the performance of the Provincial economy and examines trends and events of economic importance which occurred during 1968.
Noteworthy in 1968 was the continued high rate of industrial expansion
recorded in British Columbia. In all regions, projects announced or commenced
during the year will contribute to significant increases in the level of over-all business
activity in coming years. In 1968 industrial capital investment in the Province was
impressive in that substantial investment was recorded in all regions and covered a
wide range of projects.
In the East Kootenay district, important investment was recorded in the
primary sector, notably forestry and mining, and in utilities.
In the West Kootenay region, the largest development continued to be the
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority's Columbia River project, although
investment in other industry was also recorded.
Secondary industry developed strongly in 1968 in the Okanagan-Similkameen-
Boundary region. Investment in secondary industry in this region has been very
impressive in recent years, with the mining sector accounting for the largest project.
In the Lower Mainland region, investment in 1968 covered a wide range of
industrial projects. Investment was recorded in primary industry, utilities, transportation, and service industries. Expansion in secondary manufacturing in the
Lower Mainland was also noteworthy during 1968.
Forest-industry enterprises highlighted industrial expansion on Vancouver
Island.
In the Peace River area, hydro-electric projects have been brought into operation. A new cement factory near Kamloops and a very large forest-products complex
at Kitimat will all make significant contributions to the economy of the Province.
Additional investments have been made in this general region in the forest sector
and in transportation industries.
Additional information is contained in the body of this Report recording a year
of progress ended December 31, 1968.
WALDO M. SKILLINGS,
Minister of Industrial Development,
Trade, and Commerce.
 To the Honourable Waldo M. Skillings,
Minister of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce,
Victoria, British Columbia.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Report of the Department of
Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce for the year ended December 31,
1968, with which is incorporated the Summary of Economic Activity, 1968.
ROBERT F. RENWICK,
Deputy Minister of Industrial Development,
Trade, and Commerce.
 CONTENTS
Annual Report of the Department of Industrial Development,
Trade, and Commerce
Pace
General Departmental Affairs     9
Economics and Statistics Branch  10
Data Processing Centre  11
Expo '70, Osaka, Japan  13
British Columbia House, London  14
British Columbia House, San Francisco  16
British Columbia Research Council  18
Organization of Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce 20
Summary of Economic Activity, 1968
General Review.
Forestry	
Mineral Industry.
  23
  24
  28
Agriculture  30
Commercial Fishing  33
Travel Industry  35
Electric Power  36
Manufacturing  39
Capital Investment  41
Foreign Trade  42
Transportation  46
Statistical Abstract of British Columbia, 1958-68
Population
  53
Employment  55
Income    57
Prices  59
Internal Trade    61
Primary Industry  64
Travel Industry  73
Electric Power  74
Manufacturing  75
Capital Investment  76
External Trade  79
Transportation  81
  ANNUAL REPORT
OF  THE
DEPARTMENT OF
INDUSTRIAL
DEVELOPMENT,
TRADE, AND
COMMERCE
FOR   THE   YEAR   ENDED
DECEMBER   31
1968
  GENERAL DEPARTMENTAL AFFAIRS
The activities of the various divisions of the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce in 1968 were directed toward expanding British Columbia's industrial base by promotion of new industrial and commercial enterprises, by
providing assistance to established businesses, and by further development of
domestic and export trade.
These activities were carried out in co-operation with other British Columbia
Government departments, the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, Federal
Government departments, Boards of Trade and Chambers of Commerce, manufacturing associations, industrial commissions, railway industrial agents, and foreign
trade representatives in Canada and overseas.
The Department provided industry with data on location-sites, including zoned
industrial areas, availability of raw materials, and information on the services and
facilities offered by the British Columbia Research Council on matters relating to
industrial and scientific research. In addition, the Department provided monetary
support for various regional industrial expansion publications. A new composite
industrial map on the Central Interior region (Prince George, Quesnel, Smithers,
Vanderhoof, Burns Lake, and McBride) was published during the year, and work
was commenced on a similar map covering the West Kootenay region.
During 1968 a senior position of Executive Director, Economic Research, was
established. Mr. M. H. A. Glover was appointed to the position and will undertake
special assignments of an economic or statistical nature for the Government of
British Columbia as well as the Department. The Executive Director has particular
responsibility for transportation economics and for industrial-development methods.
General Trade and Industrial Promotion
During the year the Department continued to maintain liaison with manufacturers with respect to the establishment of branch plants in British Columbia or,
alternatively, having their products manufactured under licence. New industry was
also encouraged to establish in the Province. Representatives of large manufacturing
firms visited the Department requesting information on raw materials, markets, and
site locations.
The Department's Trade and Industry Bulletin lists trade inquiries, export
opportunities, manufacture under licence agreements available to British Columbia
firms, notices of tender, and news of general commercial interest. The bulletin
includes special features covering participation in trade fairs, market reports on
selected regions, and details of trade missions. The use of the bulletin by businessmen and the trade representatives of other nations bears out the importance of this
publication to commercial and industrial organizations in Western Canada. The
circulation of the bulletin has increased to 2,020 copies per month.
The survey of regional investment opportunities continued to be of interest,
and, accordingly, a new edition is under preparation and should be available early
in 1969. The survey lists numerous investment opportunities in the field of professional openings, hotel and motel requirements, housing developments, warehousing, and wholesale and retail outlets.
Seminars and Conferences
A major effort by the Department was represented by the Economic Outlook
Conferences held in 1968 in Vernon and Prince George.   A third conference was
 DD  10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
held in Vancouver in January, 1969. These conferences were jointly arranged by
the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Industrial Development,
Trade, and Commerce, and were well attended by representatives of business,
industry, and government.
The Department of Industrial Development was well represented throughout
the year at a variety of conferences and general business meetings. On the National
level these conferences included the Federal-Provincial Conference on Formation of
Standards Council of Canada (Ottawa); the Provincial Governments' Trade and
Industry Council meetings (Toronto and Regina); Dominion-Provincial Economic
Statistical Conferences (Ottawa); Regional Planning Conference (Ottawa); Railway Costing Inquiry (Ottawa); Provincial Mines Ministers' Conference (Quebec).
Other seminars or conferences included the Pacific Northwest Industrial Development Councils' annual meeting (Oregon); Conference of Federated Council of
Sales Finance Companies of Canada (Victoria); Natural Resources Conference
(Vancouver); Seminar on Government Services Available to Industry (Castlegar).
Many other general business meetings were attended by Department staff or were
hosted by the Department.
Department personnel travelled extensively throughout British Columbia in
1968 in conjunction with regional economic surveys being prepared by the Department or on trade promotional tours or to investigate industrial development in the
Province. Representatives of British Columbia House, London, and British Columbia House, San Francisco, toured many communities studying industrial and trade
opportunities. The Department's portable exhibit indicating the industrial expansion
taking place in the Province was used effectively during the year.
ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS BRANCH
The Economics and Statistics Branch is responsible for undertaking a broad
range of research relating to the economic development of the Province. The establishment consists of 14 professional economists and research officers and a support
staff numbering 17.
During 1968, 14 staff members were associated with a number of studies
undertaken in co-operation with other Government departments or agencies. These
included the Departments of Agriculture, Finance, Labour, Mines and Petroleum
Resources, Municipal Affairs, and the Provincial Secretary.
In addition, the Branch provides services based on the staff's expertise in such
areas as marketing, transportation, regional economic development, resource economics, domestic and international trade, forecasting, and statistical analysis. These
services are provided to both the public and private sectors.
In line with the Branch's responsibility for analysing and disseminating information of an economic or statistical nature, a number of publications were issued in
1968.   These included the following:—
Bulletins of Business Activity (monthly).
Summary of Economic Activity.
British Columbia Business Outlook.
British Columbia Facts and Statistics.
Preliminary Statement of Trade through British Columbia Customs Ports.
Economic Monographs on Trade (several published).
Import Items Meriting Investigation.
Statistical Record of the Forest Industry (four parts).
The Cranbrook Region—an Economic Survey.
Survey of Wage and Salary Rates (two publications).
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 11
British Columbia Housing Statistics.
Industrial Expansion by Census Divisions (quarterly and annually).
Establishing a Business in British Columbia.
The Soap and Detergent Industry Study.
Publications in the course of preparation in  1968 included three regional
economic studies, four industry studies, various trade studies, and several special
economic reports.
Throughout the year, the library facilities of the Branch were continually improved. This library is one of the most comprehensive sources of economic and
statistical data in the Province. During 1968 the library continued its policy of
procuring major government publications and most leading economic, business,
trade, and commerce journals. Inter-library loan agreements ensure that a full range
of research material is available to the Department.
DATA PROCESSING CENTRE
During 1968 the Data Processing Centre was required to redesign and repro-
gramme many of the assignments handled on a continuing basis because of equipment changes made in 1967. Also, during 1968, organizational changes were made
to improve co-ordination and work flow. The present staff of the centre totals 119
persons.
Systems and Programming Division
In this Division, time spent on training continued to be very high because of
recruitment of eight programmer trainees and the continuing changes being made to
System 360. Trainees were occupied a large part of their time on formal and on-
the-job training.
Throughout the year, requests for changes to existing computer programmes
were combined with analysis and reprogramming for the System 360 computers.
Major reprogramming took place for Hospital Insurance Service applications, the
Department of Social Welfare drug programme, and the Motor-vehicle Branch
vehicle and drivers' record-keeping.
During the year, systems work began on two major new projects—Liquor Control Board applications and mechanization of many clerical procedures used in the
Superannuation Branch.
Systems Management Division
This Division was established in July of 1968 by the transfer of three senior
staff members from Administration and Systems and Programming. During the past
year, Systems Management was occupied almost full time implementing new software
for the 360 and continually revising this software as required by changes and revisions made by the manufacturer.
In 1969 this Division will concentrate on development of standards and the
preparation of instruction manuals.
Operations Division
Because of equipment changes, reprogramming, and a number of changes in
software, all sections in this Division were required to make several changes in work
methods during the past year. This will allow Operations to standardize work
methods and procedures and, as a result, provide more reliable services to users.
The following tables show the estimated values and percentages of work done
in the Data Processing Centre for various departments.
 DD  12
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 1.—Estimated Value of Services by Portfolio for Five Years Based on
12-month Period Ended September 30,1968
Portfolio
Value to Nearest $1,000
Five-year
Increase
Increase
over
Previous
Year
Per Cent
1963/64
1964/65
1965/66
1966/67
1967/68
Value
Per Cent
Agriculture —	
$5.8
12.1
16.2
25.6
17.3
30.1
0.5
106.3
2.7
20.9
1.7
23.8
39.3
0.1
$8.0
50.7
1.7
14.0
35.5
17.6
38.4
0.6
101.5
0.7
17.5
7.9
29.5
41.9
1.3
$5.7
147.9
1.1
12.8
0.2
46.3
24.2
47.9
0.4
;
119.0
1'
1.3
25.0
1       	
6.0
|      34.6
57.8
1.4
$17.4
451.6
2.6
20.8
2.9
74.3
35.3
10.7
1.7
168.2
0.8
30.8
0.3
9.3
61.7
94.1
3.8
$27.3
575.1
4.6
27.8
6.5
63.8
57.1
14.7
5.0
144.6
82.5
0.4
11.5
48.0
139.7
$21.5
563.0
4.6
11.6
6.5
38.2
39.8
— 15.4
4.5
38.3
-2.7
61.6
0.4
9.8
24.2
100.4
—0.1
1
2.4
62.1
0.5
1.3
0.7
4.2
4.4
-1.6
0.5
4.2
-0.3
6.8
1.1
2.6
11.1
56.9
27.4
76.9
33.7
Finance - 	
Health  Services and Hospi-
124.1
— 14.1
Highways  - 	
Industrial   Development,
Trade, and Commerce	
Labour 	
Lands,  Forests,   and  Water
Resources	
Mines   and   Petroleum   Resources       	
61.8
37.1
194.1
-14.0
— 100.0
167.9
Public Works
33.3
Recreation and Conservation
23.6
—22.2
48.5
Other	
-100.0
Totals	
$302.4
$366.8
$531.6
$986.3
$1,208.6
$906.2
100.0
22.5
Table 2.—Estimated Value of Services Provided to Departments for the 12-month
Period Ended September 30, 1968, by Portfolio and Percentage of Service
Used.
Estimated Value
to Nearest $1,000
Percentage of Service
Portfolio
Data
Preparation
Computer
Systems
and Programming
Total
Data
Preparation
Computer
Systems
and Programming
Total
Service
$5.5
254.3
1.2
9.8
1.2
10.2
0.8
0.4
30.0
21.1
0.4
2.7
26.5
26.1
$7.8
292.2
1.9
10.4
6.5
42.8
46.7
9.7
1.9
100.0
44.8
	
0.7
11.7
72.1
$14.0
28.6
1.5
7.6
19.8
0.2
4.2
2.7
14.6
16.6
8.1
9.8
41.5
$27.3
575.1
4.6
27.8
6.5
63.8
57.1
14.7
5.0
144.6
82.5
0.4
11.5
48.0
139.7
1.4
65.2
0.3
2.5
0.3
2.6
0.2
0.1
7.7
5.4
0.1
0.7
6.8
6.7
1.2
45.0
0.3
1.6
1.0
6.6
7.2
1.5
0.3
15.4
6.9
0.1
1.8
11.1
8.3
16.9
0.9
4.5
11.7
0.1
2.5
1.6
8.6
9.8
4.8
5.8
24.5
2.2
Attorney-General-  	
47.5
0.4
Education—	
2.3
0.6
Health Services and Hospital
Insurance 	
5.3
4.7
Industrial      Development,
Trade, and Commerce
1.2
0.4
Lands,  Forests,  and  Water
Resources - -
12.1
6.8
Public Works 	
Recreation and Conservation...
1.0
4.0
11.5
Totals	
$390.2
$649.2
$169.2
$1,208.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE.  1968      DD  13
«■■■
We
The Honourable Waldo M. Skillings participating in the Shinto ceremony during the ground-breaking programme held on October 21, 1968,
near Osaka, Japan, at the British Columbia pavilion-site.
BRITISH COLUMBIA PAVILION, OSAKA '70, JAPAN
During the year the Honourable Waldo M. Skillings, Chairman of the British
Columbia Osaka Seventy Cabinet Committee, actively co-ordinated the organization
of this Province's forthcoming participation in the 1970 World Exposition to be held
at Osaka, Japan, from March 15 to September 30, 1970. Officers of the Department
worked closely with a technical sub-committee and also attended Federal Government meetings held in Ottawa. On December 1, 1968, the Government announced
the appointment of Mr. J. Southworth as Commissioner; one of his duties is to be
resident in Japan and responsible for all phases of administration.
In April the Government awarded the contract for design and construction of
the British Columbia pavilion to a consortium headed by Dominion Construction
Company Ltd., Cunningham Design Consultants Ltd., and Architect Barclay Mc-
Leod, all of Vancouver. Subsequent to their obtaining the contract, the consortium
awarded the sub-contract for actual construction to the Shimizu Construction Company, one of the five largest integrated construction companies in Japan. On
October 21, 1968, the Minister participated in ground-breaking ceremonies at the
Expo '70 site near Osaka with representatives from the Japanese association for the
World Exposition and other Government dignitaries. Actual construction commenced December 1, 1968, and the pavilion is scheduled for completion by the end
of 1969.
An outstanding feature of the British Columbia pavilion will be the sculptured
wood structure formed from whole British Columbia Douglas fir trees trimmed of
branches standing vertically and curving gracefully upward to a maximum height
of over 160 feet. This structure, symbolic of the richly timbered mountain-slopes
of British Columbia, is believed to be the tallest wood structure in the world.
The Douglas fir trees were cut in the Chemainus-Nanaimo area of Vancouver
Island and were transported to Kobe by a selected log-carrier ship during December.
 DD 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
British Columbia House, 1 Regent Street, London S.W. 1, England.
The distinctive log structure will house a theatre, where a revolutionary film
technique will describe British Columbia in colour and sound. Beneath the structure
and extending the full dimension of the remainder of the site will be a lake and
waterfall area, a simulated mine, and areas depicting the variety of industrial, agricultural, and recreational activities in British Columbia.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HOUSE, LONDON, ENGLAND
The year was marked by the retirement on September 30th of Mr. Earle C.
Westwood as Agent-General and the arrival of his successor, Rear-Admiral M. G.
Stirling, CD. On February 1st it was announced that Mr. F. MacKay had been
appointed British Columbia Trade Commissioner, to assume his post early in 1969.
Tour of the Prime Minister
British Columbia House was associated with the European tour undertaken in
1968 by the Prime Minister, the Honourable W. A. C. Bennett, P.C, LL.D.,
D.Pol.Sc. The Prime Minister visited Britain, Holland, Austria, Germany, Spain,
and Portugal. The mission was undertaken to encourage British and Continental
European capital investment in the Province and to promote further trade. Invitations were extended to leading European businessmen to participate in the international trade fair planned for Vancouver in 1971.
Visitors, Films, and Publicity
During the year 4,098 visitors to Britain registered by signing the visitors'
book maintained for British Columbians. In addition, 20,362 letters and parcels
were handled on their behalf.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,   1968       DD  15
British Columbia House distributed a number of films depicting life and industry in the Province to schools, associations, clubs, business gatherings, etc. The
film audience numbered approximately 27,550.
The News Letter, published in the name of the Agent-General, is steadily
increasing circulation. This publication reaches the desks of high-level business
executives, industrialists, bankers, Members of Parliament, etc.
Special Projects
In 1968 British Columbia House was of assistance to the Department of Education in the recruitment of school-teachers. Mr. A. R. MacNeill and Mr. D. L. Feir,
District Superintendents of the Department, visited Great Britain to interview from
a list of some 400 applicants. The subsequent appointments led to 81 positions
being filled. Interviews were also arranged with a view to selecting librarians, badly
needed in the Province.
Dr. F. G. Tucker, Deputy Minister of Mental Health Services, conducted
interviews ,in the United Kingdom in a search for staff for the Mental Health
Services in the fields of psychologists, mental health nurses, etc. Much of the
preliminary work was done by this office in arranging interviews.
Report of the Industrial and Trade Counsellor
During the year, inquiries from the United Kingdom and the countries of Western Europe continued on about the same level as the previous year. Eighty-three
inquiries were received from British Columbia companies. In all cases the office
endeavoured to make suitable contacts for these firms wishing to establish new export outlets. The following commercial inquiries were received from territory served
in the United Kingdom and countries of Western Europe:—
Sales offices or representation in British Columbia  160
Establishing a factory or warehouse in British Columbia     24
Patents, processes, technical assistance       7
Partial manufacture or assembly     10
Investment     19
Establishment of small businesses or professionals     75
Total   295
Trade Promotion
British Columbia lumber and plywood manufacturers maintain a high level of
promotional activity from their offices in London and in Utrecht, Holland. The
main emphasis is on timber-frame housing and other uses for plywood, such as
export casing, cement forms, etc.
There are three packaged-lumber docks in the United Kingdom—two at Tilbury, London, and one at Newport, South Wales. Another such dock is under
construction at Tilbury, London. These docks are financed and built by lumber-
producers in British Columbia. A Swedish company has built a bulk-handling dock
at Tilbury for the storage and distribution of pulp.
In February, 1968, Cominco Ltd., in association with Williams-Hudson Ltd.
(parent company of Vancouver Wharves Ltd., North Vancouver), established a
lead and zinc ingot warehouse. This is the first time permanent stocks have been
held in the United Kingdom. Cominco is thus able to offer a direct delivery service
to users throughout the country.
 DD  16
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Trade Missions from Europe
Two important trade missions visited British Columbia during the year. The
Dutch housing mission to Canada consisted of 10 members, including the Dutch
Government Minister of Housing. The mission spent considerable time in British
Columbia during its Canadian visit from September 13th to 29th. The housing
mission from France toured Canada from October 15th to November 1st, spending
a large portion of its time in this Province. Both these missions were sponsored
and organized by the Canadian Government with co-operation by the lumber-
manufacturers and the plywood-manufacturers of British Columbia.
Trade Missions from the United Kingdom
The following missions visited British Columbia during the course of the year:
Leicester and County Chamber of Commerce, visiting Vancouver and Victoria;
Briar Pipe Trade Association of the United Kingdom, visiting Vancouver; Glasgow
Chamber of Commerce to West Coast of North America, visiting Vancouver; South
Devon Herd Book Society; The Milk Marketing Board, visiting the Fraser Valley
and Vancouver; Ship and Boat Builders' National Federation, visiting Vancouver
and Victoria.
Investment in the Province
There have been many offers during the year of substantial Eurodollar funds,
both from sources in the United Kingdom and from Europe. Eurodollars (now to
be known as European Units of Account) are being offered by banks and merchant
banking houses throughout Europe. The requisite is that they be paid to either a
government department or a government-sponsored project and (or) guaranteed
and administered by a chartered Canadian bank. Such large-scale loans from
Europe have been negotiated on behalf of the Canadian Government and a number
of Provincial Government agencies in Canada. Large blocks of U.A. funds, however, are available to private enterprise providing they are made under the auspices
of a Canadian chartered bank.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HOUSE, SAN FRANCISCO
British Columbia House, San Francisco, under the direction of Mr. N. P.
Stacey, Commissioner, was established in 1961 in order to promote trade and commerce in California and the Western United States on behalf of Provincial business
firms. British Columbia House receives inquiries from American companies seeking
opportunities to develop sales and to establish branch plants in British Columbia.
Inquiries are also received from companies seeking opportunities to operate on a
licensed agency basis with British Columbia companies.
Industrial and Trade Promotion
During the year 186 important contacts were made through the office with
companies interested in establishing in, or selling to, British Columbia. These companies included Kaiser Corporation, Utah Construction Company, Union Oil Company, the North American Oil Company, the Occidental Chemical Company, and
the Harvey Aluminum Company, which were interested in petroleum and mining
activities. Other inquiries were received from companies interested in component
parts for furniture, brokerage service, steel-fabricating, electronics, and construction.
Many requests related to general information on the transportation industry in British
Columbia.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD  17
British Columbia lumber entering San Francisco Harbour.
Japanese companies made numerous inquiries relating to Provincial coal, oil,
and gas resources through representatives in California. In all cases they are given
as much information as available.
During the year many requests were received from British Columbia business
organizations for information on American goods for import into British Columbia.
Information was provided on aviation parts, alfalfa pellets, oil-drilling equipment,
heavy machinery, furniture, canned fruits and vegetables, fresh fruits and vegetables,
and electronics. The British Columbia Research Council requested data on furniture companies interested in British Columbia components for chairs, desks, etc.
A limited number of British Columbia firms directed inquiries to this office regarding market potential for their products in California.
Conferences, Seminars, and Representational Activities
Several major conferences or seminars were sponsored by British Columbia
House, as well as numerous general business meetings. A luncheon conference held
in Los Angeles under the chairmanship of Mr. R. F. Renwick, Deputy Minister of
Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce, was attended by 140 California
businessmen. Dr. Gordon Shrum, of the British Columbia Hydro and Power
Authority, was guest speaker, and his address outlined present economic development in the Province and future opportunities for industrial expansion.
The Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce sponsored a luncheon meeting known
as " Canada Can (and Does) Day " that was attended by 160 business executives.
Mr. C. Taylor, general manager of Air Canada, outlined commercial planning,
market, and economic research activities carried out by Air Canada.   British Colum-
 DD  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
bia House was represented at this conference, and numerous inquiries relating to
the Province were received.
Staff Expansion
The increase in activity carried out by British Columbia House in both San
Francisco and Los Angeles has necessitated staff expansion. Accordingly, in 1968,
several new representatives were recruited, bringing the staff complement to five
persons. Mr. F. MacKay, previously of British Columbia House, was transferred,
in 1968, to London as British Columbia Trade Commissioner.
BRITISH COLUMBIA RESEARCH COUNCIL
The British Columbia Research Council is an independent non-profit applied
research institute, which was incorporated in 1944 under the Societies Act. The
Council provides scientific, technical, economic, and marketing services to industry.
A primary objective is to conduct research leading to the establishment of new
industries and the development of the natural resources of British Columbia.
The Council employs a staff of about 95 and operates from offices on the
campus of the University of British Columbia. New offices and laboratories currently under construction are being financed by the Government of British Columbia
through the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce.
Financial support comes from a Provincial grant through the Minister of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce and from earned income through
contract research for industry and government agencies. It also receives a limited
amount of financial assistance from the National Research Council and other
organizations.
Each year the British Columbia Research Council publishes an annual report
on its programmes, operations, and financial affairs, which may be obtained upon
request from the Director of the British Columbia Research Council.
The Council is supervised by the Board of Management, which met and reviewed the activities of the Council on April 24, July 3, and November 13, 1968.
Membership consisted of the following:—
The Honourable Waldo M. Skillings, Minister of Industrial Development,
Trade, and Commerce (Chairman of Board of Management).
Dr. P. C. Trussell, Director of the British Columbia Research Council.
Dean W. M. Armstrong, Faculty of Applied Science, University of British Columbia.
Mr. E. Benson, Vice-President and General Manager, Pacific Press Limited.
Dr. R. E. Foster, Director, Forest Products Laboratory.
Mr. A. Fouks, Q.C., 6637 Cartier Street, Vancouver 14, British Columbia.
Mr. J. C. Gilmer, President, Canadian Pacific Air Lines Ltd.
Dr. R. R. Haering, Head, Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University.
Dr. Harold Madsen, Head, Entomology Section, Research Station, Canada
Department of Agriculture.
Mr. R. J. Meyers, General Manager, Vancouver Pile Driving & Contracting
Company Limited.
Mr. H. T. Miard, Deputy Minister, Department of Highways.
Mr. L. A. Mitten, General Manager, Canadian Car (Pacific) Ltd.
Mr. C. W. Nash, Manager, Load Development, British Columbia Hydro and
Power Authority.
Mr. A. F. Paget, Deputy Minister of Water Resources, Department of Lands,
Forests, and Water Resources.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT. TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD  19
Mr. R. F. Renwick, Deputy Minister, Department of Industrial Development,
Trade, and Commerce.
Mr. T. G. Rust, Executive Vice-President, British Columbia Forest Products
Limited.
Mr. E. Scholz, Vice-President, Exploration, Placer Development Limited.
Mr. E. G. Shorter, Vice-Chairman, Board of Directors, MacMillan Bloedel
Limited.
Mr. E. Sims, Canadian Director of the International Brewery Workers' Union.
Dr. Gordon M. Tener, Professor, Department of Biochemistry, University of
British Columbia.
1200
INCOME
1100
1000
900
From   Research   Contracts M
OF   DOLLAR.
■>!             CD
O             O
O            O
CO
o 600
z
CO
O 500
X
400
300
«*
•
200
+
S
From   B. C  Government
/
•
'
1944  46   48   50   52   54   56   58   60   62   64   66   68  1970
YEARS
 DD 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA
ORGANIZATION OF DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT,
TRADE, AND COMMERCE
MINISTER OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE
DEPUTY MINISTER
DIRECTOR, DATA PROCESSING
CENTRE (All Departments)
GENERAL
ADMINISTRATION
INDUSTRY AND
TRADE OFFICE
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR.
ECONOMIC RESEARCH
ECONOMICS AND DATA PROCESSING
STATISTICS BRANCH CENTRE
BRITISH COLUMBIA HOUSE,
LONDON, ENGLAND
BRITISH COLUMBIA HOUSE,
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.
 SUMMARY OF
ECONOMIC
ACTIVITY
1968
  GENERAL REVIEW
As 1968 progressed it became evident that the British Columbia economy was
entering a new expansionary phase. Many economic indicators showed fairly high
rates of growth. Increased activity in both the primary and secondary sectors, substantial expansion of revenue generated by tourism, and maintenance of large capital
expenditures stimulated the Provincial economy.
Total personal income reached $5.4 billion in 1968, reflecting gains in total
wages and salaries. Per capita personal income, at $2,705, continued to exceed the
Canadian average appreciably.
Growth in Provincial population has continued at a rapid pace. On June 1,
1968, British Columbia's population was estimated to be 2,007,000, a rise of 60,000
persons or 3.1 per cent over the previous year. About 72 per cent (43,257 persons)
of the increase was a result of net immigration, while the remainder (16,743 persons)
was a result of natural increase. The latest figures indicate that the trend shows no
signs of abatement; official estimates placed the population at 2,045,000 on January
1, 1969, a gain of 38,000 persons in a seven-month period.
The labour force during 1968 averaged 797,000, up 4.6 per cent over the preceding year, while employment increased to 750,000 for a rise of 3.7 per cent.
Once again the greatest relative increase in employment was registered by women,
6.2 per cent, while male employment rose by 2.6 per cent. Females now account
for 32 per cent of the total labour force, compared to 24 per cent a decade ago. The
5.9-per-cent rate of unemployment during the year was higher than the preceding
five-year average and was largely attributable to substantial in-migration of persons
seeking employment.
Retail sales by British Columbia merchants registered the largest gain in three
years, up 8.4 per cent to $2,797 million. The increase of $67 per person yielded
record per capita retail sales of $1,393, the highest in Canada.
The Canadian Consumer Price Index recorded the highest yearly average increase since the Korean War, rising by 4.1 per cent. No component of the index
was immune from fairly high percentage gains; for example, food and clothing prices
rose by approximately 3 per cent and the increase in housing costs exceeded 4.5 per
cent. Canadian wholesale prices exhibited somewhat more stability, rising by 2.2
per cent in 1968, an increase slightly above the preceding five-year average.
Shipments from British Columbia manufacturing establishments rose substantially in 1968, largely a result of a buoyant North American economy. In the
wood and paper products sectors, which annually account for about one-half of
total shipments, production was higher than a year earlier. High levels of activity
in Coast lumber-mills during the entire year, and in Interior mills after termination of
the woodworkers' strike, pushed total lumber production to a record level of 7.8
billion board-feet. Demand was strong in the United States, European Common
Market, and Japan, and prices were high. Total pulp and paper production was up,
although there was still over-capacity in some sectors of the industry.
Continuing expansion characterized the British Columbia mineral industry in
1968 with total production valued at $405 million.
Farm cash receipts increased to $212 million from $196 million in 1967.
Receipts were higher in all major categories of agricultural activity.
1968 was an exceedingly good year for the travel industry. The number of
non-immigrant visitors entering British Columbia directly from the United States
23
 DD 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
reached an estimated 3,026,900, while revenue generated by tourism increased to
$346 million.
Capital investment was below 1967 record levels. Lower expenditures in the
manufacturing and utility sectors were partially offset by higher investment in housing
and in commercial and primary industry. The value of building permits was up
in 1968, and construction was started on an estimated 26,195 housing units, a
record number. Many major construction projects were completed during the
year. The most noteworthy examples were the W. A. C. Bennett and High Arrow
Dams, pulp-mills at Prince George and Skookumchuck, and the Vancouver International Airport.   Record investment is forecast for 1969.
The general outlook for the British Columbia economy in 1969 is encouraging.
The economic upsurge that commenced in 1961, and has continued almost without
pause, has now exceeded by a fair margin any similar period in our history. Furthermore, the underlying strengths of the local economy, such as resource development,
large population growth, and future expansion in export markets, give assurance that
this stage of the business cycle has far from run its course.
FORESTRY
The 1968 market situation for the products of British Columbia's largest industry improved considerably. Strong demand for wood products, based on a resurgence in home-building, pushed selling prices to record highs. The Provincial
wood-pulp and newsprint industries continue to operate at less than capacity, but
the sulphate (kraft) pulp market has firmed to a degree where price increases in
1969 were expected. The 1968 net value of forest-industry production has been
estimated at $1,055 million, up 14 per cent over the estimated value for 1967. Substantial gains were exhibited by the wood industries (saw and planing mills, veneer
plywood plants, shingle-mills, etc.) and the logging industry.
Exceptionally good lumber, plywood, and shingle markets, characterized by
steadily rising prices, highlighted the year. Lumber production exceeded the previous record established in 1966, while plywood production advanced for the ninth
consecutive year. The 1968 increase in wood-pulp production maintained, unbroken, the upward trend begun in 1958. Newsprint output remained approximately
the same as in 1967, but production of other papers and paperboards was up by
nearly 12 per cent.
Capital investment in the forest industry was approximately $177 million, down
from 1967's figure of $229 million, but exceeding the 1958-67 average of $155
million. The decline in 1968 expenditures was attributable to a slower rate of expansion following the spectacular achievement of completing seven major pulp and
paper projects in the 1965-67 period. In 1968 pulp and paper industry investment
at $97 million continued to lead the sector. Logging, second at $53 million, was
followed by the wood industries at $28 million.
Two new sulphate-pulp mills came on line during 1968. A $70 million,
210,000-tons-per-year mill at Prince George began producing in June, and a $42
million 140,000-tons-per-year mill started up at Skookumchuck late in the year.
Provinical sulphate (kraft) pulp capacity is now about 3,722,000 tons per year,
while productive capacity for all wood pulp (including sulphite and groundwood)
totals 5,576,000 tons per year.
Newsprint capacity reached 1,645,000 tons per year with the introduction of
a second machine at Crofton. Productive capacity for other paper and paperboard
approximates 490,000 tons per year. Some newsprint capacity can be used to produce other papers and boards should the market warrant.
 Pulp and paper operations at Crofton, Vancouver Island.
L
 DD 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
A new 260,000-tons-per-year kraft pulp and paper mill near Kitimat is expected to be completed in 1970 at a cost of $85 million. Four additional mills with
secured timber supplies are planned for completion before 1972. Plants are scheduled to be built near Quesnel, Houston, and two near Mackenzie at a combined cost
of $300 million.
Large new sawmills will soon be in production at Kitimat, Houston, and Fort
St. James, while many other mills are being renovated and expanded. A notable
expansion in the veneer and plywood industry occurred at Nelson in 1968, where
a mill increased capacity of spruce plywood from 40 to 72 million square feet (%-
inch rough).
Total forest-industry employment exhibited a small gain on the strength of
increased logging activity and expanded pulp capacity. Average annual employment
in the wood-products industries declined slightly as a result of the Southern Interior
woodworkers' strike, which did not end until April.
The value of British Columbia forest products exported through all Canadian
customs ports during 1968 increased by approximately $186 million from the corresponding 1967 value. Higher prices were a significant factor in this increase.
Both wood products and pulp and paper products exported to the United States,
the European Common Market, and Japan increased in value over 1967. The value
of wood products (lumber, plywood, shingles, etc.) exported to the United Kingdom
declined, while that of pulp and paper products went up, resulting in a small over-all
gain. Japan has replaced the United Kingdom as the second most important market
for British Columbia's lumber exports.
Logging
The total timber scale for the year was estimated at 1,702 million cubic feet,
up 8.3 per cent from 1967. Labour troubles in the Interior curtailed production in
the first five months of the year, but a summer relatively free of fire hazard enabled
the loss to be recouped.
The Prince George, Prince Rupert, and Vancouver Forest Districts showed
lower production figures during the first quarter of 1968 than for the same period in
1967, but maintained comparatively higher levels of production during the remainder
of the year. Timber scaled in the Nelson Forest District was lower than the preceding year.
Timber Scaled in British Columbia Forest Districts1
(Millions of cubic feet.)
Forest District
January
1 to December 3
Percentage
Change
1968-67
1966          |
1
1967
[
1968
Vancouver  	
1
778.1        ]
131.7
|
775.5        |
124.5        |
858.1
126.7
-f-10.6
+ 1.8
Totals, Coast 	
909.8
900.0        |
984.8
+9.4
74.4
220.1
234.7        1
163.4
94.6         |
238.1         |
212.6
127.3
105.6
274.0
218.4
119.5
+ 11.6
+ 15.1
+2.7
—6.1
Totals, Interior  	
692.6        ]
672.6        |
717.6
+6.7
Totals, Province 	
1,602.4        |
1
1,572.6
1
1,702.5
+ 8.3
i Based on monthly billings.   May not add due to rounding.
Source:   British Columbia Forest Service, Victoria.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 27
Average 1968 prices on the Vancouver log market moved up 10 to 25 per
cent, but the quantity of logs sold dropped slightly. Log exports to Japan during
1968 were 113,197,000 board-feet, down from the figure of 143,022,000 board-
feet for 1967. Total log exports, which were 2.2 per cent of the year's scale in 1967,
decreased slightly in 1968.
Lumber
Provincial lumber production was estimated at 7,847 million board-feet, an
increase of 7.3 per cent from 1967. Coastal mills maintained high levels of production through most of the year, and Interior mills operated at better than normal
levels when the strike ended. Shipments of British Columbia lumber were estimated
at 7,783 million board-feet, up over 4.5 per cent from 1967.
Year-end prices were from 10 to 25 per cent higher than those of December,
1967, and demand remained strong in all markets except the United Kingdom.
Average/lumber prices reached an all-time high.
Housing starts in British Columbia showed an 8.7-per-cent increase in 1968
over 1967. This is a significant increase when it is recognized that 1967 starts were
36 per cent higher than in 1966. The Canadian increase over the year was 20 per
cent. In the United States, housing starts were 17 per cent higher in 1968 compared
to 1967.
Production of red cedar shingles increased steadily throughout the year, reflecting the improvement in United States housing starts. During 1968, shipments
exceeded production and prices reached record levels. Exports of shingles and
shakes were valued at $44.7 million, compared with $26.4 million in 1967.
Plywood
Following a slow first quarter, plywood production gained momentum but did
not consistently exceed last year's figures until mid-year. Production for the year
was 1,847 million square feet (%-inch rough), 7.6 per cent above 1967, despite
the strike-induced shut-down of four Interior mills during the early months of 1968.
Shipments of plywood were up 9 per cent by June, but thereafter tended to
decline until the fourth quarter, when they again picked up. The value of exports
to Great Britain was constant, and those to the United States increased by more
than five times over last year. During 1968, exports of fir plywood to the European
Common Market rose 57 per cent in value.
Pulp and Paper
Excess capacity continued to characterize the pulp industry in 1968. The industry operated at 89 per cent of capacity during the first half of the year, a gain of
one point over the corresponding period in 1967. Production and sales increased
as buyers hedged against the possibility of an industry-wide strike during the summer. When the strike did not occur, sales fell off. High inventories resulted, and
the operating ratio for the second half was somewhat lower. Several mills closed
down temporarily for purposes of inventory control, at which time routine maintenance was carried out. Total production for the year was 4,389,000 tons, up 14.3
per cent from 1967. Total pulp sales for 1968 were 2,686,500 tons, up about 20
per cent over the previous year. There was evidence that sulphate-pulp markets
had become more stable during the fourth quarter, and the trend continued into
1969.   A price increase of $5 per ton was announced in January, 1969.
 DD 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Newsprint production was about the same as in 1967. Hedge buying caused
production to increase during the first half of the year, but a cutback occurred in
August. The industry, which had been operating at 81 per cent of capacity during
the first half of the year, reduced production to less than 70 per cent of capacity
during the third and fourth quarters. A strengthening of the market is anticipated
for 1969.
Mills producing paper and paperboard, other than newsprint, operated at near
capacity levels throughout the year. Output was estimated at 481,000 tons, up
nearly 12 per cent over 1967. Added to newsprint, this would place production of
all paper and paperboard at 1,706,000 tons, a total increase of 3.3 per cent over
1967.
MINERAL INDUSTRY
The growth of British Columbia's mineral industry continued in 1968. Estimated value of mineral production was $405 million, 5.7 per cent greater than the
previous year. Metals, structural materials, and fuels showed increases over 1967;
however, production of industrial minerals declined. Throughout the year, markets
remained firm and prices were generally stable.    Exploration continued unabated.
Metals represent 62 per cent of the total value, followed by fuels at 21 per cent,
structural materials at 11 per cent, and industrial minerals at 6 per cent.
Metals
Copper continued to rank as the Province's number one metal, with a value
of $87 million, although the quantity produced was below the previous year. Increased production by a number of companies was offset by a reduction at the Craig-
mont mine during a switchover to underground operations. Production of copper is
dominated by Bethlehem, Craigmont, Granisle, Britannia, and Tasu mines.
The average price for copper was 54.2 cents (Canadian) per pound, although
the highest monthly average was 66.9 cents and the lowest 48.3 cents.
Copper production will receive a substantial boost when Granduc and Brenda
mines come into production during the latter part of 1969. Extensive exploration
during the past few years has indicated the existence of vast copper reserves, particularly in the south-central and north-western parts of the Province and Northern
Vancouver Island. This points to a very optimistic long-range outlook for copper.
Zinc ranked second among metals, with an estimated value of $44 million. The
major producers are Sullivan, Bluebell, Lynx (Western), Britannia, Jersey, and
Reeves MacDonald mines.
For many years, zinc was the leading mineral, but from 1962 to 1967 there
was a steady decline in production. The 1968 value, however, indicates an 11-percent increase over 1967 in production. There was a slight decline in the average
price for zinc during the year.
Provincial production of lead has been decreasing since 1961, although the
total value of output did not reflect this trend until 1966. Production was up 11 per
cent in 1968 over 1967, and, although the price weakened fractionally, the total
value rose moderately to $32.7 million.
Molybdenum production was valued at $32.6 million, and would have been
higher except for a strike at Endako. Output reflects the first full year's production
from the Alice property, near Alice Arm, which commenced operations in late 1967.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 29
Oil drilling near Fort Nelson, British Columbia, on the
Alaska Highway.
Output of bismuth, cadmium, and silver increased over 1967, whereas antimony, gold, iron concentrates, nickel, and tin were down slightly. Canada's only
mercury mine, situated at Pinchi Lake, came into production during the latter part
of the year.
Fuels
The value of crude oil was estimated at $50 million, an increase of 12 per
cent over 1967, and ranks second in value among all minerals. Exports of British
Columbia crude oil to the United States were higher, and deliveries to British Columbia refineries rose considerably.
The value of natural gas delivered to pipe-lines was estimated at $24.5 million,
a 13-per-cent increase over 1967. Both domestic and export sales increased over
the previous year.
Coal shipments were valued at $7.6 million, up slightly over 1967. Arrangements were finalized in 1968 between Kaiser Coal Ltd. and Japanese interests for the
shipment of 50 million short tons of coking-coal to Japan over a 15-year period.
This development was contingent upon the creation of bulk-loading facilities at
 DD 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Roberts Bank and the provision of suitable rail transport by 1970. These events
herald a new era in coal-mining in this Province, with major additional contracts
likely to be negotiated with Japan and the United States.
Structural Materials
Sand and gravel constitute, by value, almost one-half of the structural-materials
category. Production at $20.3 million was slightly lower than in 1967. Cement,
with a value of $13.6 million, was up fractionally from 1967.
Industrial Minerals
Asbestos and sulphur are the principal commodities in this group. Shipments
of asbestos in 1968 were valued at $14.8 million, about $3.4 million less than in
1967, due to shipments from new production facilities in the Yukon.
Sulphur, partially obtained as a by-product of our natural-gas production, was
valued at $9.6 million, about the same as the previous year.
AGRICULTURE
Farm cash receipts rose to $212 million in 1968, 8 per cent above the previous
year's record level. Receipts were higher in all major categories of agricultural
activity.
Live Stock
Farm cash receipts from live stock and related products were up an estimated
10 per cent. Cattle slaughtered in Federally inspected packing plants totalled
97,376, up 19 per cent over 1967. However, calves slaughtered, at 15,951, were
off the 1967 pace by 27 per cent. Shipments of cattle to Eastern Canadian and
American markets were greater than in 1967. The American market was particularly strong in the latter part of the year. Earlier, weakness of the Washington
State market, combined with a Prairie grain surplus, resulted in a relatively large
movement of cattle to Eastern Canada. Ample beef supplies and a somewhat
sluggish market at times during the year tended to hold Vancouver choice steer
prices down slightly.
The number of hogs slaughtered increased substantially. Prices throughout
the year were steady. Production in 1969 should increase appreciably as a result
of the establishment of increased production facilities, chiefly in the Fraser Valley.
Marketings of sheep and lambs were down considerably in 1968. Total
slaughter for the year was 26,569, a decline of 24.8 per cent. A survey as of June
1st numbered stock at 58,000, below the 65,000 recorded in 1967.
Dairy Products
Farm cash receipts from the sale of dairy products rose 4 per cent in 1968,
owing to an increase in both production and prices. Dairy stocks were maintained
at 1967 levels; the mid-year survey reported 82,000 head of milk cows, while dairy
heifers were up 10 per cent to 22,000. Total milk production increased by 2.3 per
cent to 916,325,000 pounds, due in large measure to favourable pasture conditions.
-Production and utilization of milk for the year are shown in the following table:—
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 31
Production and Utilization of Milk, January to December, 1967 and 1968
(In thousands of pounds.)
Total Milk
Production
Utilization
Year
Factory
Products
Farm             Farm-home
Butter            Consumed
Fed to
Livestock
Fluid
Sales
1967
1
895,392                318,416
916.325                   343.975
2,831
2,574
1                             1
22,290                  24,760        j         527,095
1968  „
22.000                   25.610         !         522.166
Source:   Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Catalogue No. 23-001, The Dairy Review.
Poultry and Eggs
Estimated farm cash receipts from the sale of poultry and eggs were little
changed from the previous year. Poultry receipts were down from 1967, but this
was more than offset by an increase in egg production and sharply higher egg prices.
Eggs graded in registered stations in British Columbia totalled nearly 1.4 million
cases (of 30 dozen), up 6 per cent. During the year the British Columbia Egg
Marketing Board established quota positions for Provincial producers to counter
overproduction and declining prices. Average weighted price for the year was
33.5 cents per dozen, compared with 25.8 cents in 1967.
The market for poultry meat did not develop strongly in 1968. To November
30th, poultry slaughtered in registered stations totalled 14,028,000 birds, amounting
to 49,067,000 pounds, down from 14,616,000 birds with a weight of 53,392,000
pounds in 1967. Price levels for broilers and hens were steady throughout the year.
Turkey prices were lower due to excessive production throughout the country.
Fruits
Provincial farm cash receipts from fruit sales in 1968 were close to the 1967
figure. Production of most major fruit crops was down, as is revealed by the
following table:—
Production of Selected Fruit Crops
(In thousands of pounds.)
TREE FRUITS
1967
1968 (Est.)
SMALL FRUITS
1967
1968 (Est.)
303,141
39,452
22,105
13,424
15,749
6,588
309
245,958
42,637
13,890
10,310
9,749
8,492
353
Strawberries __ ,_	
Raspberries 	
Blueberries	
Cranberries	
Loganberries 	
Grapes 	
16,466
17,220
4,572
2,437
1,609
7,508
16,207
Pears	
12,634
5,153
3,070
Cherries _	
Apricots	
Plums	
1,600
10,970
Source:   British Columbia Department of Agriculture
The apple crop declined 16.8 per cent from 1967. A late spring frost reduced
the crop potential in all commercial apple-growing regions. Cool weather during
the blossom period, coupled with a light bloom on some varieties, also contributed
to lower production. However, cool weather in the latter part of August and early
in September favoured good coloration of the crop. Prices for quality apples were
• good. The traditionally important United Kingdom market was weak as there was
severe competition from Golden Delicious apples of France and fruits from Germany
and Italy, coupled with the effects of devaluation of the Pound.
 DD 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Record prices for cherries more than offset a below normal crop. The peach
crop was adversely affected by the relatively cool season and spring frosts in some
areas.
Small-fruit plantings benefited from the cool, wet weather during the growing
period. The 1968 grape harvest was up by 43 per cent, by far the most impressive
gain recorded in small-fruit production.
Grain and Other Field Crops
Cool, wet weather during the latter part of the 1968 season slowed the maturity
of crops and interrupted grain-harvesting in the Peace River Block. With the exception of flax seed and tame hay, the production of all major grains and field crops
surpassed levels posted in 1967.
Acreage and Production of Principal Field Crops
Area
Yield per Acre
Production
1967
1968 (Est.)
1967
1968 (Est.)
1967
1968 (Est.)
Acres
101,000
67,100
180,000
3,100
1,400
5,200
1,900
9,900
450,000
7,000
Acres
158,000
77,900
160,000
3,400
800
4,700
1,600
10,800
429,000
9,400
Bu.
20.8
37.3
21.1
31.0
9.3
43.5
18.9
Cwt.
191.9
Tons
2.44
17.00
Bu.
28.5
56.5
36.9
32.5
11.1
48.6
28.3
Cwt.
194.4
Tons
2.56
17.55
Bu.
2,100,000
2,500,000
3,800,000
96,000
13,000
226,000
36,000
Cwt.
1,900,000
Tons
1,100,000
119,000
Bu.
4,500,000
Oats for grain	
Barley	
4,400,000
5,900,000
110,000
9,000
Mixed grains	
228,000
45,000
Cwt.
2,100,000
Tons
1,100,000
165 000
Potatoes - 	
Source:   Field Crop Reports, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Catalogue No. 22-002.
Spring wheat acreage increased by 56 per cent, and production was estimated
to be double the level attained in 1967. Similar production gains were recorded by
oats and barley.
Crop insurance in British Columbia had its first major test in 1968. Many
Peace River grain-farmers had crops destroyed by heavy frost in August. These
losses were aggravated by heavy hail-storms in the South Peace area. Fortunately
a total of 119,193 acres of Peace River grain was insured. The crop insurance plan
for wheat and grain farmers of the Peace River Block requires a minimum insurable
crop worth $2,000.
Other Developments in 1968
The newest marketing board to commence operation in the Province was the
British Columbia Cranberry Marketing Board. The Richmond area of the Lower
Mainland produces approximately'80 per cent of Canada's cranberries.
The Pacific Great Eastern Railway came to the assistance of feed-grain producers in 1968. A glut of feed grains in Western Canada, resulting from the St.
Lawrence Seaway and grain-handlers' strikes, as well as the Prairie grain surplus,
caused a 15-per-cent reduction in feed-grain prices in August. Prairie feed grains
were funnelled west instead of east, and price levels dropped because of the highly-
competitive situation created by the strikes.   Prices to Peace River farmers, how-
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 33
ever, were within 1 per cent of previous levels as decreased freight rates were offered
by the railway.
The change in feed freight assistance initiated in July by the Canadian Livestock Feed Board has led to considerable interest in feeding cattle in the North
Okanagan and Kamloops areas. If plans materialize, local demand for feeder
cattle should be strengthened considerably.
Construction related to agriculture in 1968 featured the $4.6 million feed mill
and warehouse of the Surrey Co-operative Association at Abbotsford. This complex is one of the world's largest and is unique in its completely electronic operation;
it will supply poultry, dairy, and most other major commercial feeds.
COMMERCIAL FISHING
British Columbia's commercial fishing industry experienced an excellent year
in 1968 because salmon catches, particularly sockeye, were outstanding. The landed
value of fish and fish products—that is, returns to fishermen—was estimated at
$55.7 million, 16 per cent over the previous year and second highest on record.
Similarly, the wholesale or marketed value of $119 million was well over the preceding year's $99,814,000 and exceeded the record $117,984,000 posted in 1966.
The Province's fishing industry is highly dependent on salmon, which in 1968
accounted for approximately 84 per cent of the total wholesale value of fish and fish
products. Salmon landings totalled 182 million pounds with a value of $44.9
million, the highest value recorded in the history of the industry. Salmon landings,
by species, are shown in the following table:—
Salmon Landings, 1968 and 1967, by Species
1968
1967
Species
Total
Landings
Landed
Value
Total
Landings
Landed
Value
Spring           	
Sockeye.-.- -	
Coho	
152,370
413,900
333.810
6,798
15,630
10 448
Cwt.
137,885
368,137
203,985
479,849
121,353
2,534
$000
6,681
13,872
7,125
Pinks   .    	
Chums - 	
556,000      |        6,996
365,100               4,950
2,220                     65
6,640
1,611
72
Totals...   	
1,823,400       |       44,887
1
1,331,743      |      36,001
1
Source:  Department of Fisheries of Canada.
The salmon fishery was characterized by several outstanding developments.
In July, salmon landings were valued at $22,901,000, exceeding the previous
monthly record of July, 1966, by over 50 per cent.
Sockeye landings in 1968, the second highest ever recorded, were boosted by
a spectacular catch of over 2.8 million large sockeye at Rivers Inlet. The Skeena
and Fraser River runs also produced well. The value of coho was up, due largely
to very high troll landings, in fact almost double 1967 levels. Chum landings were
more than double 19*67 totals, while pinks and steelhead were down slightly.
Halibut is of substantial importance to the fishing industry and, while landings
in 1968 ran slightly ahead of 1967, the season was not satisfactory. The International Pacific Halibut Commission reports total landings were the lowest in 33
years, with United States catches down considerably. Landings by British Columbia
 DD 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
fishermen totalled 29,390,000 pounds with a value of $7,348,000. Under international agreement, Canadian fishermen may land halibut at United States ports,
and, during 1968, 6,883,000 pounds valued at $1,580,000 had been landed in the
United States.
The price weakness in the halibut industry stems from competition from turbot
or " Greenland halibut." Eastern producers of turbot have been marketing their
product under the name halibut at a low price in the United States market. Since
the United States is the most important market for Pacific halibut, the result has
been very depressed prices for British Columbia producers.
The Pacific halibut industry has opposed the marketing of turbot as halibut. In
1968 the United States Food and Drug Administration declared that turbot, labelled
as " Greenland halibut," is misbranded under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. In
the future it will be labelled " flounder " or " northern flounder." This should
result in a stronger American market for British Columbia halibut.
The herring fishery has been virtually eliminated. In 1963, for example,
herring landings totalled 572,202,000 pounds with a value of $6,477,000. In 1968,
herring production totalled only 12,748,000 pounds, valued at $231,000. The
demise of this sector has been attributed to both natural depletion of the resource
and heavy catches in previous years. Fishing was suspended early in 1968 to allow
for a build-up of stocks.
Production of other species—namely, cod, sole, flounder, and tuna—amounted
to $3,041,000 for 1968. Notable in this sector were tuna landings, the highest
since 1950. Shellfish, including shrimp, crabs, oysters, etc., were valued at
$1,931,000.
Marketing of Fish and Fish Products
Foreign markets consume the greatest proportion of British Columbia's fish
and fish products. Exports in 1968 totalled $56.6 million, down 1.7 per cent from
1967.   Exports are shown in the following table: —
Exports of Fisheries Products through British Columbia Customs Ports
Country 1967 Total 1968 Total
United States    $10,672,066 $12,530,355
United Kingdom     25,149,033 22,872,103
European Common Market       11,403,067 10,486,635
Australia-New Zealand       2,822,479 2,015,907
Other countries       7,519,753 8,655,441
Totals   $57,566,398      $56,560,441
Source:   Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria, British Columbia.
Most of the salmon catch is canned, while lesser quantities are marketed in
fresh, frozen, mild-cured, or other forms. The canned-salmon pack in 1968 totalled
1,746,989 cases (of 48 pounds), with a wholesale value of $67,436,000. The total
pack in 1967 was 1,465,708 cases, which had a wholesale value of $57,141,000.
Licence Control in the Salmon Industry
A major development during the year was the introduction of a licence-control
programme, designed to limit the number of vessels and fishermen in the Pacific
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 35
Coast salmon fishery. The objectives of the programme are to increase the earning
power of individual salmon fishermen and to permit more effective management of
the salmon resource. The programme will be reviewed in 1970 by the Department
of Fisheries.
Other Developments
In September the Canada Department of Fisheries launched a $2.8 million
vessel to be used in British Columbia waters for research and patrol purposes.
Development of the Babine Lake sockeye project continued in 1968. The
spawning-channel and dam on the Fulton River is designed to increase the Skeena
River run by 1 million fish, adding an estimated $5 million annually to the industry's
revenues.   The $8 million project will be completed in two years.
TRAVEL INDUSTRY
During the year it was estimated that over 6 million tourist visits were made
in British Columbia. According to the Department of Travel Industry, travel
receipts amounted to an estimated $346 million, an 8.8-per-cent rise over 1967.
American Visitors
Visitors from the United States form the largest and most important segment
of British Columbia's travel industry. In total, the number of United States residents
who visited British Columbia during 1968 was estimated to be about 3,717,850, a
substantial increase over the preceding year.
Nine hundred and eleven thousand passenger vehicles entered the Province
at British Columbia-United States Border ports, bringing 2,502,893 persons. An
additional 787,000 United States residents are estimated to have travelled to
British Columbia by automobile after entering Canada at customs ports in other
Provinces or the Yukon. A further 427,949 persons came to British Columbia
from the United States by other means of transport.
Of the passenger vehicles which entered at border ports, the number which
returned the same day increased by 4.7 per cent to 468,222, and the number
remaining in the Province for one or more nights experienced an 11.4-per-cent gain
to 442,949. This gain in stay-over traffic is more than twice the annual average for
the last eight years.
Included in the total of arrivals by other means of transport are those travelling
by public carrier (176,048 by boat, 146,683 by air, 82,107 by bus, and 23,111 by
rail). The largest relative increase occurred in air traffic, while rail volume suffered
another decline. Also included is the number of Americans who travelled to
British Columbia on their own pleasure craft. A total of 8,800 permits was issued
to marine vessels cruising the Gulf Islands and the Strait of Georgia, and 6,500
permits were issued to private aircraft. These figures represent increases over the
previous year of 8.2 and 7.4 per cent respectively. The ports of Vancouver (including Abbotsford) and Penticton were the most popular landing areas for aircraft,
issuing 41 and 13 per cent respectively of all permits to aircraft. Over 90 per cent
of marine permits were issued at Victoria and Gulf Islands points.
Almost 40 per cent of American visitors came during the prime tourist season
of July and August. During the year, evidence indicated a lengthening of the stay-
over period, larger relative increases in traffic in the spring and autumn, and a
larger proportion of traffic remaining one night or more. These developments have
tended to extend the tourist season.
 DD 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Canadian Tourists
Since records are kept at border ports, the number of foreign visitors can be
stated reliably. Estimates of interprovincial travellers and the number of British
Columbians touring their own Province are more difficult to compute.
The most reliable indicator of the number of Canadians from other Provinces
who visit or vacation in British Columbia is information gathered at Rogers Pass.
This, coupled with other border-crossing counts, indicated that about 2 million
persons from other parts of Canada visited the Province in 1968. The number of
interprovincial Canadian passenger vehicles (including buses) which travelled westbound over Rogers Pass was 265,935, carrying 810,176 visitors.
Eastbound traffic over Rogers Pass numbered 931,856 in 1968, of which
778,354 were passengers in Canadian cars.
Tourist Accommodation
The Department of Travel Industry approved 1,993 tourist establishments
(hotels, motels, cabins, dude ranches, private camp-sites, etc.) in 1968, providing
51,767 units of accommodation. Of these establishments, 572 provided meals and
337 were fully licensed. Average occupancy rate during the prime tourist season
was 70 per cent. In addition, 154 establishments were recorded which did not meet
the Department's minimum standards or did not wish to register and, therefore, were
not approved.
Recreation
In the Province of British Columbia, 263 parks and two recreation areas provide 6,489,520 acres for the use and enjoyment of residents and visitors alike.
During 1968 about 6,245,000 visits were made to these parks, a 4-per-cent rise over
the previous year. The number of camper nights suffered a decline, however, to
1,255,000, largely as a result of poorer weather experienced throughout the Province
in August.
Conventions
The cities of British Columbia hosted 232 conventions in 1968, which yielded
$16 million in total revenues. This figure represents a small increase over 1967
convention revenue and indicates the rapid utilization of the potential which exists
for cities which are able to provide adequate service. Vancouver was, of course,
the site of the majority of conventions, but Penticton, Victoria, Kelowna, and Prince
George were also popular centres.
ELECTRIC POWER
September 28, 1968, marked the initial generation and transmission of power
from the $725 million Peace River power project.
The power-house at year-end contained three 310,000-horsepower turbines,
the largest ever built outside of Russia. Installation of the fourth and fifth units
was completed early in 1969, well ahead of schedule. Five additional turbines will
be brought into service later on—one in 1971, two in 1972, and the last two in
future years, corresponding to the increase in demand for power. The ultimate
generating capacity of the project, with all 10 units in operation, will be 2.3 million
kilowatts.
Total electric-power consumption in British Columbia in 1968 reached 24.3
billion kilowatt-hours, an increase of 7.5 per cent over the previous year.   For the
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968       DD 37
Construction of high-tension transmission-lines in British Columbia.
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, which now distributes electricity in
nearly all areas of the Province,* the rate of growth was even higher, 10.5 per cent.
Total generation was approximately 23.5 billion kilowatt-hours. The difference between generation and consumption is largely accounted for by the receipt of
downstream power benefits from the United States for early completion of work
under the Columbia River Treaty.
The breakdown of the Provincial load for the year was approximately as follows: Industrial power, 69 per cent; domestic and farm, 17 per cent; commercial,
11 per cent; and losses and incidentals, 3 per cent.
Hydro-electric sources account for an estimated 75 per cent of Provincial
generating capacity, but as a portion of thermal capacity is utilized for reserve purposes, hydro accounts for approximately 85 per cent of the actual power generated.
Total generating capacity in 1968 was estimated at approximately 4,808 megawatts, up 22.2 per cent from the year earlier.   Most of the increase is attributable
* Main exceptions are the industrial loads of Alcan and Cominco  and communities served by the West
Kootenay Power and Light Company,
 DD 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
to the installation of initial generating units at the W. A. C. Bennett Dam. In
addition, the fifth 150,000-kilowatt unit of the Burrard Thermal Generating Plant
was tied into the system on August 15, 1968. The present generating capacity of
this plant is 750,000 kilowatts.
British Columbia has now completed two of three storage dams to be built
under the Columbia River Treaty. The Duncan Dam came into operation in July,
1967; the Arrow Dam was declared operational on October 10, 1968, nearly six
months ahead of schedule. Completion of the 170-foot-high earth and concrete
structure resulted in early payment by the United States of $56 million (Canadian)
in flood-control benefits. Additional interest from this early payment will amount
to nearly $2 million.
Mica Dam, largest of the three Columbia River Treaty projects, is under
construction 85 miles north of Revelstoke. The structure, which will tower 645
feet above the river-bed and will be one-half mile long at the crest, will require the
placing of 42 million cubic yards of rock, sand, and gravel. Excavation is now in
progress to a depth of 155 feet to reach a solid rock foundation. Under the Columbia River Treaty, the dam is to be operational for storage purposes by 1973. Ultimately the project will have a power generating capacity of 2 million kilowatts.
Construction of the Columbia River dams will facilitate future development of
three additional downstream power-sites at Murphy Creek, Downie Creek, and
Revelstoke Canyon.   These projects, however, are still in the planning stages.
During 1968 an estimated 700 miles of transmission-line were put into service
in the Province. The major portion was 575 miles of 500,000-volt transmission-line
extending from the Peace River project to the Vancouver area. Clearing for a
second 558-mile line has been completed, except for a 66-mile section near Clinton.
Towers have been erected and conductor cable strung along most of the portion
between Portage Mountain and Prince George. This line will be in service as far
as Kelly Lake in 1969. A 30-mile 60,000-volt line will distribute power between
Fort St. James and Pinchi Lake, the site of the mercury mine which came into production in the fall of 1968. A 230,000-volt line extends in an east-west direction
for 56 miles between Kelly Lake and Savona.
Plans are finalized for construction in 1969 of 690 miles of transmission-line,
a substantial portion of which will be accounted for by the second Peace River
power transmission-line.
Electric service to the Sechelt Peninsula has been reinforced with the placing
in service of a 230,000 high-voltage transmission-line. The new 50-mile line, which
has been energized initially at 138,000 volts, makes more power available to the
area north-west of Sechelt, including the MacMillan Bloedel Limited plant at Powell
River. The Sunshine Coast communities previously were served by a single
132,000-volt line originating at Cheekye.
The initial stage of the high-voltage direct-current interconnection between the
Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island, the first of its kind in the Western Hemisphere, was completed on July 1, 1968, making an additional 78,000 kilowatts of
electric power available for Vancouver Island users.
Customers served previously by the East Kootenay Power Company were transferred to the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority on April 1, 1968.
Expansion of the Jordan River hydro project in South-western Vancouver
Island, at a cost of about $30 million, has been announced. This will help to meet
peak power needs up to 1975.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 39
Truck assembly-line, White Truck Manufacturing Limited, Kelowna,
British Columbia.
MANUFACTURING
The value of factory shipments from British Columbia manufacturing plants
totalled $3,512 million in 1968, an increase of almost 10 per cent over the 1967
level, reflecting, in part, generally higher prices. The index of persons employed in
manufacturing dropped 2.4 per cent in 1967, followed by a further 1.1-per-cent
decline in 1968. A rise of 7.2 per cent in average weekly wages and salaries increased total manufacturing payrolls by $45 million or 6 per cent.
The manufacturing industries include the processors of primary products (pulp
and paper mills, sawmills, smelters, canneries, etc.), as well as producers of industrial and consumer goods at the secondary manufacturing level. Various primary
manufacturing operations have been discussed in other sections of this report; for
example, forestry, fisheries, and mining.
Up-to-date information, unfortunately, is not available for all areas of manufacturing. Hence it is not possible to give a complete breakdown of factory shipments for 1968. Some indication of the relative importance of the various segments
of the industry, however, can be observed from a review of the summary statistics
for 1966, the latest year for which detailed information is available. In that year
the distribution of manufacturing output by main industry groups was as follows:—■
 DD 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Value of Per Cent
Factory Shipments, of
Industry Groups 1966 Total
Wood   $854,881,000 27.9
Food and beverage  570,279,000 18.6
Paper and allied industries  525,950,000 17.2
Primary metal  214,857,000 7.0
Metal-fabricating  li. 179,363,000 5.8
Petroleum and coal  145,602,000 4.8
Chemicals and chemical products   106,338,000 3.5
Transportation equipment   99,177,000 3.2
Printing, publishing, and allied industries  80,150,000 2.6
Non-metallic mineral products  67,532,000 2.2
Totals, 10 leading groups  $2,844,129,000 92.8
Grand totals      3,063,675,000        100.0
The pre-eminence of the forest-oriented industries will be noted; together the
wood industries and pulp and allied industries account for approximately 45 per
cent of the total value of factory shipments. Since 1966 this percentage has probably
increased.
Capital expenditure by the manufacturing industries was expected to exceed
$207 million in 1968, down about $80 million from the previous year. This decline
was largely the result of a slow-down in pulp- and paper-mill construction following
the boom years of 1965 to 1967. Investment in the chemical and chemical-products
industry followed a similar pattern. Most other manufacturing industries maintained
fairly steady levels of capital investment during the last five years (1964 to 1968).
In the secondary manufacturing field, many new plants started producing during 1968. Chief among these were a mobile-home factory at Penticton, an aluminum-pipe plant at Vernon, and an aluminum extrusion plant at Port Coquitlam.
Further new facilities located at various centres will produce relocatable buildings,
kraft paper bags, cans, beverages, electronic equipment, fertilizers, lumber, shingles,
pressure-treated wood, aircraft components, and numerous other items.
The continuing development of our primary-based industries is making possible
diversification and expansion in secondary manufacturing industries that provide
process supplies, packaging, and equipment. Expansion in the consumer-based
manufacturing industries is keeping pace with growth of population and technological development.
An examination of indexes of employment shows that the number of Canadians
employed in manufacturing rose 23.2 per cent between 1961 and June, 1968. In
British Columbia the corresponding increase was 22.4 per cent. The Canadian average was bolstered by a 73-per-cent increase in jobs in the motor-vehicle industry,
whereas the British Columbia figure was affected by a drop of 12 per cent in shipbuilding employment. Within the Province, the majority of new jobs were created
in Vancouver, but the growth rate was higher in the smaller communities.
In terms of new manufacturing establishments, British Columbia has also fared
very well. Of the 14,195 Canadian firms reporting for the first time to annual census
of manufacturers between 1958 and 1967 (and still in production), 1,925 or 13.6
per cent were located in British Columbia. Of these new manufacturers, 926 were
located within Greater Vancouver and the remaining 999 were spread across the
Province. These figures indicate a trend toward industrial diversification and some
decentralization in British Columbia.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 41
CAPITAL INVESTMENT
Capital and repair expenditures declined from the 1967 level to $2,588 million
in 1968. Of this total, an estimated $1,597 million was spent on construction and
$991 million on machinery and equipment.
Increased spending was recorded by all sectors of the economy except manufacturing, the utilities, and government services. The decrease in manufacturing
expenditure was largely confined to the pulp and paper industry. Expenditures by
utilities declined slightly as several hydro projects reached completion during the
year. In the primary sector, capital investment by the mineral industry continued
at a high level. Housing construction set a record as 26,195 new dwelling units
were started, a 9-per-cent increase over the preceding year.
Industrial Investment
Total capital expenditures by the pulp and paper industry decreased in 1968
as a number of large projects were completed. These included a $70 million pulpmill at Prince George and a $42 million pulp-mill at Skookumchuck. At Kitimat,
construction started on an $85 million pulp and paper mill with completion
scheduled for 1970. Major expansion projects completed in 1968 included a $105
million project at Powell River and a $22.5 million expansion at Crofton.
The sawmilling industry undertook major investment projects in various communities, including Canal Flats and Elko in the East Kootenay; Kamloops, Williams
Lake, and Quesnel in the Central Interior; Mackenzie in the Peace River area;
Houston in the Bulkley Valley; and Kitimat in the Coastal region.
The $725 million Peace River power project reached a major milestone on
September 28, 1968, with the initial generation of electrical energy. Construction
of the W. A. C. Bennett Dam was completed in 1967, and 1968 witnessed completion of the power-house, spillway, control building, the first of two transmission-lines
to the Lower Mainland, and installation of the first three generating units. Work
continued on the installation of the second transmission-line, and installation of the
fourth and fifth generating units was completed early in 1969.
High Arrow Dam, the second of three to be constructed under the Columbia
River Treaty, was declared operational on October 10th. Duncan Dam was completed in 1967. Construction of Mica Dam continued on schedule, with completion
set for 1973.
Two major electric-power projects completed in 1968 were a fifth generating
unit installed in the Burrard thermal station at a cost of $10 million and a $14 million
under-water direct-current link between the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island.
Expansion of transportation and distribution facilities in the Province was
highlighted in 1968 by a number of major projects. Construction of the Roberts
Bank deep-sea bulk-loading terminal has commenced, with an initial investment of
$15 million. At Vancouver International Airport, a new $32 million air terminal
was opened and a $26 million maintenance base is nearing completion for Canadian
Pacific Air Lines. A $32 million Canadian National Railways expansion project
in the Vancouver area is almost finished, and a $24 million grain elevator commenced
operation on the North Vancouver waterfront. Construction was completed on a
$26 million natural-gas pipe-line from Summit Lake, near Prince George, to Prince
Rupert and Kitimat. An $85 million expansion of the natural-gas pipe-line between
the Peace River area and the Lower Mainland was completed in the autumn.
The mineral industry spent $200 million on capital development in 1968. Two
of the principal properties under development were Granduc Mines Ltd., near
 DD 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Stewart, and Brenda Mines Ltd., near Peachland.   Both are scheduled for completion
in 1969.
Manufacturing capacity was increased in many industries during 1968 through
the addition of new facilities and the expansion of existing ones. A wide range of
industrial projects was included in the $139 million spent on capital and repair
facilities by manufacturing industries other than those in the forestry sector. Several projects under construction at the end of 1968 included a $12 million cement
plant at Kamloops, a $10 million oil-refinery expansion at Port Moody, and a $4.5
million glass-products plant expansion in Vancouver.
Housing and Other Social Capital
Capital expenditures in housing, at $509 million, were nearly $72 million
higher than in 1967. The 9-per-cent increase in the number of dwelling units
started in the Province reflected strong demand for new housing, in spite of high
interest rates and increased construction costs. Construction activity in both Metropolitan Vancouver and Victoria was highlighted by the large increase in the number
of apartment units started.
In order to stimulate new housing construction, the Provincial Government's
home-acquisition grant was amended to provide a grant of up to $1,000 to the first
owner-resident of each new dwelling unit constructed since February 8, 1968.
Capital expenditures by institutional services and governments was estimated
at $366 million in 1968. Included in this sector are hospital, university, and highway construction.
FOREIGN TRADE
Products exported through British Columbia customs ports during 1968 were
valued at $2,249 million, up $214 million over the previous year. Imports reached
a value of $930 million, an increase of $143 million.
Products originating in this Province accounted for approximately 59 per cent
of the value of all exports through British Columbia customs ports and were up 11
per cent over the preceding year. Other exports, coming mainly from the Prairie
Provinces, include wheat, coal, potash, sulphur, crude petroleum, and natural gas.
Export Markets
The following table lists total exports by major markets for 1968 and 1967.
(The growth in exports over the past decade is shown in the appended statistical
abstract.)
Exports through British Columbia Customs Ports by Market Area,
1968 and 1967
(In millions of dollars.)
1967
1968
Percentage
Change
United States	
Japan	
United Kingdom..
Common Market -
Other countries
Totals
782.3 869.1 +11.1
475.3 505.9 +6.4
212.7 216.7 +1.9
155.1 |        184.8 +19.1
409.5 472.8 +15.5
2,249.3      |       +10.5
Source:   Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 43
Ships loading at Vancouver Harbour.
Approximately 39 per cent of the value of exports through British Columbia
customs ports during 1968 was accounted for by goods sold in the United States.
Shipments to the United States, at $869 million, were nearly $87 million greater
than in the previous year. This gain reflected a quickening in the rate of expansion
of the American economy. Increased exports of fish products, lumber, paper, non-
ferrous metals, asbestos, potash, sulphur, and fertilizers more than compensated for
reduced shipments of crude petroleum, pulp, metallic ores and concentrates, and
pulp chips and logs. It should be noted that these statistics are confined to products
exported through Birtish Columbia customs ports; large quantities of pulp, zinc,
lead, and lumber are exported to the United States from British Columbia via other
Canadian customs ports.
The value of exports to Japan through British Columbia customs ports during
1968 amounted to $506 million, up $31 million from the same period last year.
Early in 1968 the Japanese economy began to show signs of strain, and balance-of-
payments problems developed. Subsequently the Japanese Government took measures to restrain business expenditure and imports and to stimulate exports. Reports
indicate that most of the restraints will be eliminated during 1969. Moderate gains
in exports to Japan through British Columbia customs ports were achieved in fish
products (mostly salmon roe), lumber, wood pulp, metals in ores and concentrates,
coal, fertilizers, and fertilizer materials. However, exports of grains, non-ferrous
metals and crude wood materials (logs) were lower. Current statistics should be
interpreted in light of the outstanding growth of exports to Japan in 1967.
Despite the effects of devaluation and the heightened austerity programme in
Britain, exports to that country in 1968 were 1.9 per cent greater in value than in
1967.   Gains in exports of pulp, paper, metals in ores and concentrates, crude non-
 DD 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
metallic minerals (sulphur and asbestos), and wheat and other grains outweighed
reduced shipments of fish products, lumber and plywood, and non-ferrous metals.
Competition in Britain for many of our products is becoming more intense.
An example is provided by apples, which have traditionally found an important
market in the United Kingdom. Aid to apple-growers by governments in France,
Italy, Australia, and New Zealand have, in recent years, made it difficult for British
Columbia apple-exporters to compete in the British market. The devaluation of
sterling currencies in November, 1967, compounded these difficulties.
During most of 1967 and early 1968, several Common Market countries (Germany, France, and The Netherlands) experienced a slow-down in economic growth.
However, expansion resumed as the year progressed, and this was reflected by a
19-per-cent gain in exports through British Columbia customs ports during 1968.
Almost every category of export recorded gains; lumber, plywood, pulp, metals in
ores and concentrates, fertilizer materials, and wheat showed the most outstanding
increases.
Exports were higher to Malta, Denmark, Finland, Spain, and Sweden, but sales
were lower to Austria, Ireland, Norway, and Portugal. Sales to Eastern European
countries decreased moderately because of reduced exports of wheat to Russia,
Larger sales to Israel boosted shipments to the Middle East, but exports to Africa
were lower owing largely to reduced trade with the Republic of South Africa.
Exports through British Columbia customs ports to Asian countries, other than
Japan, were valued at $253 million, up 27 per cent over 1967. Exports to New
Zealand were up 11 per cent from the previous year, and sales to Australia recorded
a substantial increase of 32 per cent. Reduced shipments to Venezuela, Peru, and
Ecuador were outweighed by increased exports to Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and
Chile. Exports to Central America and the Caribbean in 1968 dropped from $18.9
million to $17.9 million.
Imports
Imports through British Columbia customs ports, in large part, are related to
levels of private and public investment and consumer spending in Western Canada.
The chart in the appended statistical abstract demonstrates that imports have followed the prevailing upward trend of economic growth during the last 10 years.
The following table shows imports through British Columbia customs ports by
country or area of origin. It is of interest to note that the most important suppliers
are also the most important markets for our exports.
Imports through British Columbia Customs Ports, 1968 and 1967
(In millions of dollars.)
1967
1968
Percentage
Change
United States           	
1
445.8             548.9               +23.1
102.2      |      131.8      |        +28.9
58.9               53.2                  —9.7
42.2              42.6                 +1.1
13.2               23.0               +73.8
20.5               19.6                —4.3
104.9              111.3       |           +6.1
Totals	
787.6      j      930.2                +18.1
I
Source:  Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 45
Principal increases in imports were in passenger automobiles (up $36 million
to $88 million), food, beverages and tobacco, crude materials (principally ores for
refining), fabricated forest products (lumber and hardwood veneers and plywood),
and personal and household equipment. Imports of Japanese cars and trucks rose
from $3.9 million to $21.4 million. Reduced imports were registered in fabricated
textiles, chemicals, petroleum and coal products, iron and steel products (struc-
turals), and other fabricated products.
World Trade Conditions
Negotiations for new trade agreements on the world scene were held to a
minimum in 1968 following completion of the Kennedy Round in 1967. Britain's
continued failure to gain membership in the Common Market has led to increased
discussion and study of a North Atlantic free trade area, involving Canada, the
United States, Britain, and possibly Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. However,
little official recognition has been given to these proposals.
As 1968 progressed, there was general improvement in the economies of British
Columbia's major trading partners. Countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
were also reported to have experienced generally favourable economic gains. Hong
Kong, Australia, Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand enjoyed good conditions, but some
difficulties developed in New Zealand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.
India still has stringent economic controls and import restrictions. Economic activity in the countries of the Caribbean and Central America levelled off after the
gains made in 1967. South America, generally, made economic progress; much
room remains for improvement.
Middle Eastern and African countries have been affected by civil and national
disputes hampering economic progress. The Republic of South Africa, the most
advanced nation in this group, continued to make progress, although strong anti-
inflationary measures resulted in curtailed imports.
Canadian Events
Foreign trade activity in Canada was centred on a drive for exports, which
increased 19 per cent in 1968 according to preliminary figures. Much of the gain
was a result of increased exports of automotive products to the United States. During 1968 the United States and Canada conducted an exhaustive review of the automotive pact, and no immediate revisions appeared likely.
In order to improve its balance-of-payments position, the American Government passed a number of laws which could have had serious consequences for
Canada. These included discouragement or restriction on capital investment and
travel. Following negotiations, Canada received exemptions from these special
measures.
The Canadian Government drafted new anti-dumping legislation conforming to
standards established during the Kennedy Round negotiations, but implementation
was not finalized until 1969.
Other developments of interest included the $150 million wheat sale to Mainland China in December, 1967. This sale amounted to more than 2 million tons,
and delivery was made in the first 10 months of 1968. This was followed by a
further $115 million sale in November, 1968. Delivery to China of 1.5 million tons
began in December, 1968, and is to be concluded in July, 1969.
A number of British Columbia trade missions visited foreign countries during
1968, including an 18-day trip to Japan by 52 members of the Vancouver Board of
L
 DD 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Trade. Among the many missions visiting the Province were Netherlands and
French groups studying housing construction, a 10-man Scottish trade mission, and
a 17-member Hong Kong export sales promotion mission.
TRANSPORTATION
Shipping
The most important single development concerning the maritime industry in
1968 was the commencement of construction of the Roberts Bank deep-sea terminal
facilities, which will form a nucleus for the Roberts Bank Superport. A $3.8 million
contract was awarded for the reclamation of a 50-acre site and adjoining 15,000-foot
access causeway. The Roberts Bank complex will initially handle the bulk export
to Japan of 50 million tons of British Columbia coal over a 15-year period, commencing in 1970 (see section on mining). Investment in Roberts Bank will exceed
$15 million by this date.
When completed, Roberts Bank Superport, with its immense land area available for back-up facilities and industry, its uncongested accessability to all modes of
transport, and its unlimited deep-water manoeuvring area for superships, will undoubtedly place the Vancouver area in a favourable competitive position with other
major west coast ports vis-a-vis bulk loading, rapid handling methods and ultimately
containerization, and the increasingly popular land-bridge concept.
Considerable expansion of existing Vancouver area bulk-handling facilities
occurred during the year. Vancouver Wharves Ltd. is continuing its $15 million expansion programme, which will enable the terminal to handle 100,000-D.W.T. vessels by 1970. Entry of these ships into Burrard Inlet will be facilitated by dredging
of the First Narrows to a depth of 50 feet.
Terminal facilities of Pacific Coast Bulk Terminals at Port Moody now represent a capital investment of over $17 million. This terminal will be capable of
handling 6 million tons of bulk cargo annually when operating at full design capacity.
Neptune Terminals is spending $13 million on the first phase of development
for the handling of potash, phosphate, and coal, utilizing the unit-train concept.
Plans have been announced by the National Harbour Board to construct a $15
million containerized cargo facility adjacent to Neptune Terminals.
Other expansion includes a new grain elevator in North Vancouver capable
of a 50-million-bushel annual turnover, and additional wharfage in both Vancouver
Harbour and Fraser River ports.
During the fiscal year ended March 31, 1968, the British Columbia Ferries
system carried 4.6 million passengers and 1.6 million vehicles. The ferry fleet now
consists of 19 modern ships with a capacity of 1,775 cars and 14,759 passengers.
In 1968 the first commercial hydrofoil service in Canada was implemented in
British Columbia waters between Victoria and Seattle, but was discontinued after
the ship was damaged in collision with an under-water object. The first scheduled
intercity hovercraft service in this country was inaugurated in early 1969 between
Vancouver and Nanaimo.
Rail
It is estimated that 19.5 million tons of freight originated in British Columbia
in 1968, compared with 18.9 million tons in 1967. Carloadings on the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway reached 91,838 in 1968, as compared with 83,764 in 1967. Increased carloadings of wood chips, logs, wood pulp, chemicals, and paper were
achieved in 1968.
 Pacific Great Eastern Railway facilities at North Vancouver.
 DD 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Pacific Great Eastern Railway actively continued its expansion programme.
The 78-mile section from Odell to Fort St. James was officially opened during the
year. Contracts were let for the clearing and construction of the 73-mile section
from Fort St. James to Takla Lake and the 73-mile section from Fort St. John to
Nig Creek. The railway also added 60 high-cube chip cars and 150 high-stake flat
cars to its fleet of over 2,000 freight cars.
Canadian National Railways' $28 million Vancouver bridge, tunnel, and terminal facilities was completed in early 1969.
Canadian Pacific Railway was awarded the $150 million contract to transport
50 million tons of Japan-bound coal from Natal to Roberts Bank. Specially designed
100-ton hopper cars will be utilized in each of the three 100-car unit trains. Initial
investment for locomotives and cars is $13 million.
Air
The growing reliance on air transportation in British Columbia is evidenced by
the fact there are 65 air carriers of various size based in the Province and 11 companies offering helicopter service. In September, Vancouver, Canada's third busiest
airport, witnessed the opening of its new $32 million terminal, which increased
simultaneous handling capability from 18 to 30 commercial aircraft.
Air-line passengers handled at Vancouver by Canada's three largest carriers
(Air Canada, Canadian Pacific Air Lines, and Pacific Western Airlines) totalled
886,000 in 1967, an increase of 17.6 per cent over 1966. Estimated volume of
these three carriers at Vancouver in 1968 is over 1 million passengers. Other
British Columbia centres serviced by air are experiencing similar growth patterns.
The headquarters and major maintenance-shops of Canada's second largest
carrier (Canadian Pacific Air Lines) are at Vancouver, the geographical centre of
this world-wide air line's route pattern. Work is progressing on C.P. Air's new $26
million maintenance base at Vancouver, which will be capable of accommodating
both the supersonic aircraft and jumbo generation of jets when it opens early in
1969.
C.P. Air, in December, 1968, inaugurated jet service on its British Columbia
domestic routes with the first of its order of seven Boeing 737 short-medium range
jet aircraft.
Pacific Western Airlines, also based in Vancouver, is Canada's largest regional
carrier and Canada's first regional carrier to introduce jet equipment in its operations. This was achieved with the delivery in November of the first of three Boeing
737 jet aircraft on order. P.W.A. also possesses one of the large Boeing 707 long-
range jets, which it utilizes in charter operations, and owns the only Hercules large
cargo aircraft in commercial Canadian service.
Okanagan Helicopters Ltd. plays an important role in power-line and pipe-line
survey and construction work, as well as in fire control in the Province. Continued
modernization has resulted in the 1968 addition of 10 four-passenger turbine-power
helicopters to Okanagan's fleet of 57 machines.
Highways
Construction of new highways and reconstruction of existing roads continued
in 1968. Reconstruction of the Yellowhead route between Kamloops and Alberta
(Highways Nos. 5 and 16) is nearing completion.
Contracts have been called for reconstruction of the 6-mile Prudehomme Lake-
McNeil section and the 6.7-mile Prudehomme Lake-Galloway Rapids section of the
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 49
Northern Trans-Provincial Highway.     Construction of the  Prince  George-Tete
Jaune Cache direct route to Alberta is nearing completion.
A comprehensive programme is being undertaken in the Kootenay area to replace roads which will be eventually inundated by the various hydro-electric dam
projects. The 77-mile Revelstoke-Mica Creek section of highway is paved and
open.
A contract has been let to construct the Ruby Creek-Haig section of road,
including connections to the Trans-Canada Highway near Hope.
Highway improvement on Vancouver Island is continuing in the Victoria, Port
Alice, and Gold River areas, the Campbell River section, and the Port Hardy-
Beaver Cove Road.
Motor Carriers
Continued growth and expansion of the trucking industry is anticipated in 1969.
In 1968 terminal facilities valued over $2 million were completed or under
construction in Burnaby. The largest of these covers 100,000 square feet and is
capable of handling 250,000 tons of freight annually.
The first Interstate Commerce Commission licence in several years was awarded
in 1968, allowing a British Columbia carrier to operate in the United States.- A
second application is awaiting decision at the present time.
Pipe-lines
The natural-gas and oil pipe-line industries are of considerable importance to
British Columbia. Recent pipe-line throughput is shown in the following table.
Considerable growth is expected for natural-gas throughput in 1969 to meet increasing industrial and domestic demand. The decline of oil throughput is explained by
the reduced exports of Alberta crude to the United States.
Oil and Natural-gas Pipe-line Throughput
1966
1967
1968
Percentage Change
1966/67    1    1967/68
Oil pipe-line (000 barrels)    	
Gas pipe-line (000,000 cubic feet)
1
93,528    |     105,187
438.956     1     524.872
1                      1
100,364    |     +12.4              —4.6
596.324     1     -^19.6             4-136
|
Source:  Oil and Gas Production Report, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria.
Pacific Northern Gas Company has completed construction of a 403-mile
$26 million line from Summit Lake to Prince Rupert. This line will also serve the
aluminum smelter and pulp-mill at Kitimat.
West Coast Transmission has completed, at a cost of $87 million, installation of
100 miles of natural-gas pipe-line loops between Summit Lake and Savona. These
loops have increased main-line capacity by 26.7 per cent.
Columbia Natural Gas Company has completed a 35-mile line to serve the
Skookumchuck pulp-mill. Inland Natural Gas is constructing an 85-mile distribution system in the Kamloops area.
Trans Mountain Enterprises is in the process of building a 22-mile jet-fuel pipeline to serve Vancouver International Airport.
  STATISTICAL ABSTRACT
OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1958-68
  INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 53
POPULATION   IN   BRITISH  COLUMBIA.  1958-68
1958    1,538,000
1959   1,567,000
1960   - _ 1,602,000
1961     1,629,0821
1962  1,660,000
1963 _ 1,699,000
1964   1,745,000
1965    1,797,000
1966      1,873,6741
1967    1,947,000
1968   2,007,000
1 Census years.   Estimated as of June 1st for intercensal years.
Source:   Population Estimates, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 DD 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
BIRTHS,  DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,
1958-68
Births
De
iths
Number
Per
Thousand
People
Number
Per
Thousand
People
Number of
Marriages
1958.
1959..
I960..
1961..
1962..
1963..
1964..
1965..
1966.
1967-
1968..
39,577
25.7
13,741
8.9        |
39,971
25.5
14,336
9.2
40,116
25.0
14,696
9.2        |
38,591
23.7
14,403
8.8        |
38,128
23.0
14,912
9.0
37,478
22.1
15,029
8.8     ;
38,897
20.6
16,051
9.2        j
33,669
18.7
15,770
8.8         |
32,502
17.3
16,271
8.7
32,840
16.9
16,167
8.3
33,529
16.7
16,786
8.4
12,094
11,910
11,203
10,935
11,196
11,677
12,158
13,639
14,682
16,026
16,655
Source:  Division of Vital Statistics, Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance, Victoria.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968
LABOUR  FORCE,  EMPLOYMENT AND  UNEMPLOYMENT
IN   BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  1958-68
(Annual Averages)
DD 55
LABOUR  FORCE   IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
850
Cl
XI
850
750
650
550
■■■■■■■■■■
R CENT OF THE  LABOUR FORCE  UNEMPLOYED
BRITISH COLUMBIA
450
jr
o
c
(/>
D
3
-a
n>
Labour
Force
Male
Female
Employed
Unemployed
Per Cent
of the
Year
Labour
Force Un
(In thousands of persons.)
employed
1958 	
548
415                 133
501
47
8.6
1959  	
556
419                  137
520
36
6.5
1960  -	
565
423                  142
516
49
8.7
1961    	
575
590
610
639
426                  149
430        !         160
437                  173
452                  187
527
551
571
605
48
39
39
34
8.3
1962                                        	
6.6
1963                          	
6.4
1964	
5.3
1965      	
667
470                  197
639
28
4.2
1966 	
710
498                  212
678
32
4.5
1967	
762
525                  237
723
39
S.l
1968                              	
797
544                 253
750
47
5.9
Source:  The Labour Force, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 DD 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA
AVERAGE ANNUAL INDEX NUMBERS OF  EMPLOYMENT IN
SELECTED  BRITISH  COLUMBIA INDUSTRIES,  1961-1968
1961=100
Year
Logging
Mining
Manufacturing
Construction
Trade
Service
Industrial
Composite
1961   	
1962  	
100.0
105.0
109.7
110.7
118.4
118.9
109.4
111.5
100.0
104.1
107.4
106.7
116.6
126.7
127.1
131.6
100.0
103.8
106.6
109.2
116.4
123.0
120.1
118.8
100.0
103.7
108.6
120.2
154.2
176.7
191.2
158.3
100.0
100.2
104.4
109.9
117.1
125.6
130.9
135.3
100.0
101.9
103.5
116.7
131.8
146.4
157.2
163.5
100.0
102.1
1963  	
104.9
1964 ._..	
1965  	
109.4
118.2
1966       	
126.2
1967
128.8
1968 (preliminary) 	
128.7
Note.—Indexes based on firms of 20 or more employees.
Source:   Employment and Average Weekly Wages and Salaries, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 57
PERSONAL INCOME IN  BRITISH COLUMBIA,  1958-68
Year
Wages,
Salaries
Otheri
Total
Personal
Income
Personal
Income
per Person
(In thousands of dollars.)
($)
1958                                                                                  	
1,683,000
1,790,000
1,858,000
1,894,000
2,008,000
2,159,000
2,362,000
2,731,000
3,123,000
3,415,000
3,634,000
925,000
965,000
992,000
1,059,000
1,129,000
1,187,000
1,252,000
1,379,000
1,466,000
1,607,000
1,796,000
2,608,000
2,755,000
2,850,000
2,953,000
3,139,000
3,366,000
3,628,000
4,110,000
4,589,000
5,022,000
5,430,000
1,696
1959    	
1960                                             	
1,758
1,779
1961                                                                          	
1,813
1962                                                        	
1,891
1963                                                       	
1,981
1964	
1965- 	
2,079
2,287
1966   	
2,449
1967                                       .
2,579
1968 (estimated)                                          	
2,705
1 Includes supplementary labour income, military pay and allowances, interest, dividends, net rental income,
non-farm unincorporated business income, income of farm operators, and government transfer payments.
Sources:
National Accounts, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
Labour Income, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
1968 estimates by the Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria.
 DD 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES IN SELECTED
INDUSTRIES OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  1961-68
Year
Logging
Mining
Manufacturing
Construction
Trade
Service
Industrial
Composite
1961	
$96.33
102.53
105.38
112.23
122.87
127.66
138.57
150.24
$97.35
101.42
103.43
108.00
120.05
131.29
142.97
152.61
$88.84
91.32
94.70
99.11
105.09
110.90
119.76
128.42
$103.97
103.62
108.54
116.38
129.10
157.26
165.24
161.36
$70.06
71.82
74.24
76.63
79.87
83.86
88.55
96.52
$61.80
62.94
64.59
66.22
71.24
76.72
78.63
82.99
$84.99
1962	
87.10
1963	
1964  ....
1965	
1966	
1967	
90.10
94.11
100.71
107.33
114.40
120.69
Source:   Employment and Average Weekly Wages and Salaries, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 59
CONSUMER  PRICE  INDEX, CANADA,  1958-68
1961 = 100
.-«jnnS4i
■■■■■■■■■■
1962 3964 1966
ANNUAL AVERAGES
(1961 = 100)
Year
Food
Housing
Clothing
Transportation
Health and
Personal
Care
(Annual Averages.)
All
Itemsi
Annual
Percentage
Change
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
98.5
96.8
97.7
98.6
98.5
99.6
100.0
100.0      i
101.8
101.2      |
105.1
102.3
106.8
103.9
109.6
105.8      |
116.6
108.7
118.1
113.4
122.0
118.6      |
97.5
97.7
98.6
100.0
100.9
103.4
106.0
107.9
112.0
117.6
121.1
95.2
98.4
99.8
100.0
99.9
99.9
101.0
104.8
107.3
111.8
114.7
93.6
96.8
96.7
97.9
99.5
99.1
100.0
100.0
102.0
101.2
104.6
103.0
108.0
104.8
113.0
107.4
116.5
111.4
122.5
115.4
127.4
120.1      |
+2.7
+ 1.1
+ 1.2
+0.9
+ 1.2
+ 1.8
+ 1.7
+2.5
+3.7
+3.6
+4.1
1 Sub-indexes for tobacco and alcohol and for recreation and reading are included in all items but not shown
separately.
Source:   Prices and Price Indexes, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 DD 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
GENERAL WHOLESALE   PRICE  INDEX. CANADA.  1958-68
1935-39= 100
Wood
Products
Iron
Products
Chemical
Products
Building Materials*
General
Wholesale
Price Index
Year
Residential
Nonresidential
Annual
Percentage
Change
(Annual averages.)
1958 	
298.5
304.0
303.8
305.1
315.8
323.4
330.9
334.0
337.8
346.3
367.9
252.6
255.7
256.2
258.1
256.2
253.6
256.4
264.5
268.0
274.4
276.8
i
183.0      |      127.3
187.0      !      130.0
129.8
131.7
132.3
131.1
131.9
135.1
139.6
146.8
151.0
154.2
157.8
227.8
230.6
230.9
233.3
240.0
244.6
245.4
250.4
259.5
264.1
269.9
+0.2
1959	
+ 1.2
1960	
188.2
188.7
190.5
189.3
191.2
200.2
207.1
212.6
213.7
129.2
128.3
129.7
133.9
142.5
148.9
154.4
159.3
168.2
+0.1
1961  	
1962	
+ 1.0
+2.9
+ 1.9
1963	
1964	
+0.3
+2.0
+3.6
+1.8
+2.2
1965  	
1966                 	
1967  -   	
1968
i 1949=100.
Source:   Prices and Price Indexes, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 61
RETAIL SALES IN  BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1958-68
(In thousands of dollars.)
Year
Grocery
and
Combination
Department
Stores
Motor-
vehicles
Total, 1
All Trades
1958            	
284,774
301,888
309,203
365,364        |
381,439
398,812
428,212
468,033
522,570
560,720
612,868        I
1
228,147
241,406
245,111
255,431
271,555
290,004
324,510
354,422
382,218
414,754
404,7852
296,776
313,804
283,498
244,159
292,522
328,483
370,759
428,476
418,027
420,417
453,195
1 631 221
1959	
1960            	
1,707,057
1,668,360
1,604,204
1,736,665
1,850,260
2,039,599
1961	
1962 	
1963	
1964	
1965 ...                	
2,241,676
1966	
1967	
1968	
2,421,110
2,580,831
2,796,518
1 Excludes restaurants, caterers, cocktail lounges, and taverns.
2 Due to changes in the definition of " department stores," the 1968 figure is not comparable with the data
of previous years.
Source:   Retail Trade, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 DD 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHEQUES CASHED AGAINST INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTS AT
CLEARING-HOUSE CENTRES  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,
1958-68
1958 1960 1962 1964
0
966 1968
Year Value
($000)
1958  16,244,464
1959  17,626,917
1960  18,018,609
1961  20,433,555
1962  23,089,746
1963  25,069,589
Year
Value
($000)
   29,372,078
  33,646,743
1966 _ 38,057,010
1967  41,281,302
1968  46,638,961
1964.
1965.
Source:   Cheques Cashed in Clearing House Centres, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968       DD 63
GASOLINE CONSUMPTION  IN  BRITISH COLUMBIA,  1958-68
Year Gallons
1958   305,610,000
1959   320,813,000
1960   333,792,000
1961- - -.. 339,170,000
1962   -.. 358,835,000
1963  _ 377,625,000
Source:   Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria.
Year Gallons
1964   -   413,554,000
1965    -  445,773,000
1966-   _ 483,012,000
1967   -- 499,018,000
1968  -  528,490,000
 DD 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
ESTIMATED VALUE ADDED  BY  LOGGING  PRODUCTION
IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  1963-1968
(In thousands of dollars.)
1963     220,479 1966 (preliminary)  303,500
1964   — 261,919 1967 (estimated)   304,400
1965    289,897 1968 (estimated)   340,000
Sources:
Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria.
Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 65
VALUE ADDED  BY MANUFACTURE  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
FOREST  INDUSTRIES,  1958-1968
Year
1958	
(In thousands of dollars.)
Wood
Industries
    214,759
Pulp, Paper
and Allied
Industries
120,673
1959	
..   230,229
160,531
1960 	
     226,702
169,517
1961  .   	
---   220,444
182,960
1962	
     268,302
194,441
1963	
  306,663
209,087
1964	
     324,618
237,440
1965 	
     337,111
247,330
1966 	
  354,924
246,092
1967 (estimated) 	
  365,700
253,300
1968 (estimated) 	
  449,000
266,000
Sources:
Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria.
Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 DD 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
TIMBER SCALED  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  1958-68
(In millions of cubic feet.)
Year
Coast
Interior
Province
1958 	
503
574
702
659
783
814
829
858
909
900
985
405
475
498
508
560
659
686
675
693
673
718
908
1959    	
1960 -...-	
1,049
1,200
1961	
1,167
1962     	
1963 	
1,343
1,473
1964	
1,515
1965	
1,533
1966	
1,602
1967   	
1968 (estimated)	
1,573
1,702
Sources:
British Columbia Forest Service, Victoria.
1968 estimates by the Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 67
LUMBER  PRODUCTION  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  1958-68
Year
Lumber Production
(in Millions of F.B.M.)
Plywood
Production
(in Millions
of Sq. Ft.)i
Coast
Interior
Province
1958                      	
2,566
2,346
2,850
2,956
3,020
3,396
3,492
3,649
3,680
3,913
4,144
2,284
2,603
2,455
2,664
2,984
3,338
3.603
4,850
4,949
5,305
5,620
6,004
6,734
7.095
1,331
1959                    	
1,275
1960	
1,408
1961        	
1,620
1962    .              	
1,723
1963         	
1964  	
1,793
1,516
1965                    	
3,800        |        7,449
3,639                  7,319
3,239         j        7,152
3.702                   7.847
1,615
1966     	
1,629
1,716
1,847
1 One-quarter inch basis from 1958 to 1963;  three-eighth inch basis from 1964.
Sources:
Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
Plywood Manufacturers' Association of British Columbia, Vancouver.
 DD 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
PULP AND  PAPER  PRODUCTION  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,
1958-68
Year
1958
(In thousands of tons.)
All Wood-pulp
Production
.- - 1,454
All Paper
Productioni
829
1959
...... - 1,927
1,048
1960	
 .-. 2,125
1,150
1961    	
  2,256
1,136
1962                    	
 ....  2,411
1,201
1963    	
  2,501
1,240
1964
  2,827
1,352
1965 	
  3,275
1,539
1966
 3,669
1,688
-  3,842
1,651
 --- 4,389
1,706
1 Includes newsprint, other paper, and paperboard.
Sources:
The Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Montreal, Que.
Pulp and Paper Mills, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 69
VALUE OF MINERAL PRODUCTION  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,
1958-68
(In thousands of dollars.)
Year
Lead
Zinc
Copper
Molybdenum1
Crude Oil
Field and
Plant Condensates
Natural Gas
Delivered to
Pipe-lines,
Butane and
Propane
All
Minerals
1958
34,627
33,542
38,662
42,314
34,537
37,835
39,402
43,149
34,437
31,432
32,780
1
43,235
44,169
50,657
45,371
51,356
53,069
58,659
48,667
47,666
39,248
43,550
2,965
4,498
9,584
8,965
33,209
36,238
38,609
32,696
56,438
88,135
87,284     '
1,390
1,941
1,991
2,638
17,520
25,464
24,048
29,341
36,667
45,109
50,453
3,417
4,026
7,236
8,974
10,420
10,916
12,419
14,761
17,607
21,988
24,829
144,954
1959    	
147,664
1960
177,365
1961    .
179,807
1962	
229,371
1963	
255,864
1964	
1965	
47
12,405
27,606
31,183
32,553
267,139
280,652
1966	
1967	
1968  	
335,780
383,382
405,369
1 Production of molybdenum commenced in 1964.
Source:   Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria.
 DD 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
VALUE OF  NATURAL GAS1  AND CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION
IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  1958-68
o     == == 55
1958 I960 1962 1964
1 Includes marketable gas and natural-gas liquid by-products.
mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmBamBr^
i Includes marketable gas and natural-gas liquid by-products.
Source:   Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria.
OIL AND GAS WELLS CAPABLE OF  PRODUCTION AT
YEARS END IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  1958-68
Source:   Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 71
FARM CASH  RECEIPTS  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.  1958-68
(In thousands of dollars.)
Year
Live Stock
and
Products
1958 	
1959	
1960	
1961	
1962	
1963.-	
1964	
1965 	
1966	
1967  	
1968 (estimated)..
51,695
55,279
52,718
54,872
65,962
63,926
61,918
74,343
83,134
82,603
91,000
Dairy
Products1
34,304
34,172
34,192
34,835
34,335
33,708
34,682
36,611
42,026
45,229
48,000
I
Fruits and
Vegetables
25,408
25,076
29,504
29,909
32,309
34,687
37,787
34,642
41,291
46,747
48,500
Grain and
Other
Products
10,057
10,359
11,232
13,580
15,614
17,076
19,242
18,604
21,430
21,240
24,500
121,464
124,886
127,646
133,196
148,220
149,397
153,629
164,200
187,881
195,819
212,000
1 Includes dairy supplementary payments.
2 Revised series used for 1963 to 1968 and old series for 1958 to 1962.
Sources:
Farm Cash Receipts, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
1968 estimates by the Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria.
 DD 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WHOLESALE AND  LANDED VALUE OF  FISH  PRODUCTS
IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  1958-68
Year
Wholesale
Marketed
Value
of Fish
Productsi
1958    	
1959- -
1960 -
1961 _
1962  	
1963 - 	
1964	
1965-— 	
1966	
1967—	
1968 (preliminary).
Landed
Value 2
$000
$000
98,458
52,053
66,377
35,724
52,259
27,962
77,886
38,778
94,673
46,715
76,000
38,551
92,117
47,144
84,666
45,824
117,984
58,666
99,814
48,051
119,255
55,694
Canned-
salmon
Pack
(48-lb.
Cases)
1,900,025
1,077,097
631,150
1,405,158
1,816,585
1,203,271
1,255,308
913,957
1,819,215
1,465,708
1,746,989
1 Excludes imported tuna processed in British Columbia.
2 Excludes halibut landings by British Columbia fishermen at United States ports.
Source:   Fisheries Statistics of British Columbia, Federal Department of Fisheries, Vancouver.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 73
FOREIGN-LICENSED  PASSENGER VEHICLES ENTERING  BRITISH
COLUMBIA FROM THE  UNITED STATES,  1960-68
Yeari Foreign Vehicles
1960 — - - -  394,081
1961         -   447,996
1962 — — - _ 549,219
1963    — _ 505,531
1964      —  563,268
1 Data for earlier years not comparable.
Source:   Travel between Canada and the United Stat;
Year1
1965 .
1966 .
Foreign Vehicles
  627,759
 _ 761,563
1967    —   844,638
1968  - - 911,171
s, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 DD 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
ELECTRIC-POWER CONSUMPTION  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,
1958-68
(In thousands of kilowatt-hours.)
Year Consumption
1958     - 11,922,800
1959    12,530,200
1960   —-  13,689,900
1961   --  13,421,100
1962 — -  14,780,400
1963  - —-  15,625,200
Year
1964   -
1965    	
1966   ---	
1967  	
1968 (preliminary)
Consumption
.-. 17,277,000
— 18,952,100
— 21,109,100
... 22,635,000
... 24,331,000
Source:   Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 75
SELLING VALUE OF  FACTORY SHIPMENTS  IN  BRITISH
COLUMBIA,  1958-68
:F
I960 1962 1964 1966
(In thousands of dollars.)
Year
Number of
Employees
Salaries
and Wages
Cost of
Materials
Net Value
Selling Value
of Factory
Shipments
1958	
98,973
100,091
98,931
103,546
105,389
109,093
113,250
119,836
124,571
121,600    |
120,300
403,502
418,376
434,557
470,925
502,348
541,327
590,306
660,100
731,013
770,000
815,000
951,518
961,976
1,007,018
1,019,893
1,136,238
1,223,543
1,401,893
1,515,454
1,682,834
1,730,000
1,900,000
761,237
838,122
849,729
865,577
975,790
1,055,799
1,135,779
1,246,867
1,347,065
1,430,000
1,570,000
1,751,607
1959 -                	
1,841,339
1960                            	
1,908,543
19611    	
1,927,046
1962           	
2,150,532
1963 —  	
1964            	
2,322,273
2,573,832
1965                                    	
2,806,165
3,063,675
3,201,900
3,512,300
1966   	
1967 (preliminary)  	
1968 (estimated) 	
1 Series revised.
Sources:
The Manufacturing Industries of Canada and the Preliminary Statement of Manufacturers and Inventories, Shipments and Orders in Manufacturing Industries, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
1968 estimates by the Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria.
 DD 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
CAPITAL AND  REPAIR EXPENDITURES  IN  BRITISH
COLUMBIA, 1958-68
0
1958
1966' 1968
(In millions of dollars.)
Year
Construction
Machinery and
Equipment
Total
1958                      	
803.5
819.8
763.1
753.8
759.3
827.6
987.9
1,268.7
1,443.5
1,621.5
1,597.1
415.3
443.1
461.7
487.1
528.6
572.8
749.3
912.3
1,107.8
1,095.0
991.2
1,218.8
1959                                                 	
1,262.9
1960  	
1,244.8
1961                          	
1,240.9
1962                                  	
1,287.9
1963                                         	
1,400.4
1964                                            	
1,737.2
1965    ..                                                          	
2,181.0
1966                                                       	
2,551.3
1967                               	
2,716.5
2,588.3
Source:   Private and Public Investment in Canada, Department of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, Ont.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 77
VALUE OF  BUILDING  PERMITS  ISSUED  IN  BRITISH COLUMBIA
IN ORGANIZED AND COMMUNITY PLANNING
AREAS ONLY,  1958-1968
Year Value
1958    $265,000,000
1959   —-  255,711,000
1960      195,712,000
1961    —- 207,558,000
1962   - - 237,124,000
1963  — 270,809,000
Source:   Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria.
Year Value
1964    $360,469,000
1965     422,518,000
1966     429,305,000
1967   _    523,605,000
1968   -     560,000,000
 DD 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA
HOUSING STARTS  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.  1958-68
Year Starts
1958    19,299
1959    16,691
1960  12,004
1961   11,170
1962  13,892
1963   — 17,329
Year Starts
1964      21,665
1965     21,398
1966       17,753
1967 —- -  24,100
1968 -  26,195
Sources:
Canadian Housing Statistics, Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Ottawa, Ont.
New Residential Construction, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
I
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 79
VALUE OF  EXPORTS THROUGH   BRITISH  COLUMBIA PORTS,
1958-68
1 Irrespective of Province of origin.
(In thousands of dollars.)
Year
United
States
United
Kingdom
Japan
Other
Countries
Total
1958                                             	
333,107
360,103
395,519
426,066
554,625
556,419
615,170
673,482
757,479
782,255
869,106
166,948
171,633
178,159
140,550
150,162
184,013
220,312
219,140
180,581
212,661
216,711
94,241
119,229
137,950
173,928
176,853
256,397
272,895
278,229
334,946
475,278
505,922
211,954
220,982
247,276
340,240
363,072
401,891
516,227
453,054
530,475
564,664
657,604
806,250
1959                                                     - -
871,947
1960                         	
958,904
1961                                                	
1,080,784
1962                                          	
1,244,712
1963 	
1964                                               	
1,398,720
1,624,604
1965                                                                       	
1,623,905
1966                                                                	
1,803,481
2,034,858
1968                                                 .           .        	
2,249,343
Source:   Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria.
 DD 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA
VALUE OF  IMPORTS  THROUGH  BRITISH  COLUMBIA PORTS,
1958-68
0.4
-.   H H H       H       BHBW
■■m
0.4      o
0.2
1966
1968
i Irrespective of Province of destination.
(In thousands of dollars.)
Country of Origin
Year
United
States
United
Kingdom
Japan
Other
Countries
Total
1958   - „	
1959    	
238,515
">58.458
57,946
88.512
24,407
36,452
36,536
38,064
42,731
41,593
57,049
76,503
87,400
102 212
99,211
87,536
110,863
99,854
110,500
118,896
151,991
171,169
177,137
180 717
420,079
470,958
1960  	
226,526    j      66,396
226,425    1      57,260
271,757    |      52,049
250,765    j      47,177
299,872    |      54,402
360,894           52,712
407,145    j      54,470
445.791     I       58.861
440,321
1961  	
421,603
1962                                      	
477,037
1963   	
458,431
1964                                	
563,314
661,283
1965  	
1966  	
1967 -  	
726,152
787,581
930,227
1968    	
548.866     1        53.160           131.755     1      196.446
Source:   Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 81
BRITISH COLUMBIA SHIPPING STATISTICS,  1957-1967
Year
Foreign
Shipping
Coastal Shipping
Loaded
Unloaded
Loaded
Unloaded
1957                                   	
Tons
10,805,213
9,923,326
10,545,476
12,113,066
14,223,442
14,279,758
16,342,768
18,986,547
19,045,757
20,533,120
22,194,512
Tons
2,355,951
1,791,432
2,219,392
2,259,885
2,128,961
2,356,472
2,432,490
2,928,165
3,937,756
3,657,434
3,843,746
Tons
7,187,575
Tons
6,495,778
1958	
7,049,993
8,150,359
10,546,371
11,486,630
13,581,481
13,961,812
15,129,679
17,623,028
20,977,732
20,233,316
7,836,535
1959  —	
7,988,258
1960       	
1961	
10,412,760
11,661,142
1962 -     	
1963   	
13,483,726
14,121,152
1964 -	
1965	
15,028,314
17,778,920
1966	
1967     -   	
21,043,259
20,196,391
Source:   Shipping Report, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
 DD 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA
TOTAL RAILWAY  FREIGHT TRAFFIC ORIGINATED  IN  BRITISH
COLUMBIA  PLUS   RECEIVED   FROM CONNECTIONS,  1958-1968
Year Tons
1958    ._..   11,267,998
1959  -  12,047,665
1960 - -  12,557,705
1961 ...  13,072,665
1962 -  13,858,657
1963      14,741,324
Year Tons
1964 —-      15,803,376
1965   - - 17,072,754
1966    -  17,686,348
1967 .—  18,868,190
1968 (estimated)      19,500,000
Sources:
Railway Freight Traffic, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Ont.
1968 estimate by the Economics and Statistics Branch, Victoria.
 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, TRADE, AND COMMERCE,  1968      DD 83
MOTOR-VEHICLE  REGISTRATIONS  IN  BRITISH COLUMBIA,
1958-68
Licence-year
Passenger
Vehicles
Commercial
Vehicles
Total
Vehicles
1958 ._...	
393,337
419,422
446,050
467,370
495,308
531,116
571,807
623,742
664,791
702,002
740,979
117,866
121,941
114,221
116,671
120,729
126,058
133,573
143,927
153,321
163,214
177,633
511,203
1959  •
541,363
1960	
560,271
1961. 	
584,041
1962—    - -	
616,037
1963	
657,174
1964-	
705,380
1965	
767,669
818,112
1966	
1967  	
865,216
1968	
918,612
Source:   Licences Issued under the Motor-vehicle Act, Motor-vehicle Branch, Department of the Attorney-
General, Victoria.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1969
3,500-269-1606
 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0365694/manifest

Comment

Related Items