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REPORT OF THE Department of Recreation and Conservation containing the reports of the GENERAL ADMINISTRATION,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1968]

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Hon. W. K. Kiernan, Minister D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister
REPORT OF THE
Department of Recreation
and Conservation
containing the reports of the
GENERAL ADMINSTRATION, FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH,
PROVINCIAL  PARKS  BRANCH,   PROVINCIAL  MUSEUM   OF
NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGY, AND
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
Year Ended December 31
1967
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1968
  Victoria, B.C., January 25, 1968.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., C.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C., CD.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department
of Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1967.
W. K. KIERNAN,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 Victoria, B.C., January 23, 1968.
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1967.
D. B. TURNER,
Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 CONTENTS
Page
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation     7
General Administration   13
Fish and Wildlife Branch  17
Provincial Parks Branch  3 5
Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology  49
Commercial Fisheries Branch  59
COVER PHOTOGRAPH
Wildlife artist Clarence Tillenius, of Winnipeg, at work on the background of a
diorama that will be part of the bighorn
sheep exhibit in the new Provincial Museum.
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 Report of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation, 1967
D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister and Commissioner of Fisheries
INTRODUCTION
On April 1, 1967, a major change took place in the composition of the Department of Recreation and Conservation. The historic event was the creation of a new
department of government, the Department of Travel Industry. Two important
branches of the Department of Recreation and Conservation—-the British Columbia
Government Travel Bureau and the Photographic Branch—were formed into the
new separate Department. The Honourable W. K. Kiernan holds the portfolios of
both Departments, the old and the new.
Because of the tremendous growth of the tourist industry in British Columbia,
at a rate on the average exceeding 10 per cent annually for the past five years, and
because the magazine " Beautiful British Columbia " has had such unprecedented
popular and successful growth and circulation that it is now a leading Canadian as
well as British Columbia publication, the merging of the British Columbia Government Travel Bureau and the Photographic Branch into a detached department was
not only warranted but inevitable. The fact that the Honourable W. K. Kiernan
directs the policy for both Departments, however, indicates that the disassociation
is mainly an administrative one designed for decentralization of senior authority and
responsibilities, and for recognition of the fact that the travel industry, in dollar-
earning, now ranks as British Columbia's third major business, following forestry
and mining and leading agriculture and commercial fisheries. The separation, therefore, into two Departments must be regarded as mainly administrative and as
recognition of major status having been reached in the tourist-promotion field of
the Province as a whole. The association of the two Departments, in terms of common aims, purposes, and operations in the fields of recreation and conservation,
remains intact and unchanged, and liaison remains powerful and mutual.
All members of the four remaining branches of the Department of Recreation
and Conservation wish their colleagues in the new Department the best of success
and strong continued growth in their productive efforts to establish British Columbia
as a prime and major world vacation centre and playground.
In keeping with the need to keep the close association and harmony between all
of the original six branches of the Department of Recreation and Conservation,
arrangements have been made, and plans drawn which are presently under expedition, to house the two Departments under one roof. The former Liquor Control
Board six-story stone warehouse, at the foot of Fort Street at Wharf Street, is partially reconstructed, and the administrative offices, the major travel parts of the new
Department, the magazines " Beautiful British Columbia" and the " Wildlife
Review," and the Commercial Fisheries Branch of the Department of Recreation
and Conservation already occupy their new quarters. As renovation proceeds, the
Provincial Parks Branch and the Fish and Wildlife Branch of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation and the Photographic Branch of the Department of
7
 T 8
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Travel Industry will all be established at 1019 Wharf Street in what is to be known
as the Dogwood Building.
The year 1967 was a busy one for the Department of Recreation and Conservation, in keeping with the population, work, and play growths of a young and vigorous Province. The highlights of Departmental activities and projects can be read
in the pages immediately following. To single out events and accomplishments is
invidious perhaps, but special mention can be made here of significant and
noteworthy items: the high efficiency of the Accounts Section, under direction of
Mr. G. L. Levy, Comptroller, which serves both the new and the old Departments
and carries out the many and varied business operations related to the magazine
" Beautiful British Columbia "; the gratifying accomplishments in the Kootenay
regions of the Fish and Wildlife Branch in terms of the Meadow Creek spawning-
channel to accommodate the spawning kokanee and the completion of the plan for
Duck Lake to provide nearly 4,000 acres of nesting, resting, and feeding water and
marsh areas for migratory waterfowl; the translation of the abstract to the real by
the Provincial Parks Branch in the building and presentation to the public of
historic Fort Steele near Cranbrook; the excellent field and workshop activities and
projects in preparation for the opening of the nearly completed Provincial Museum
Building in Victoria; and the earnest studies and application of the Commercial
Fisheries Branch in the spheres of shellfish and aquatic plants. The Departmental
highlights for 1967 in the pages following provide a swift and succinct account of
other activities and accomplishments worthy of note and indicating the year's progress.
 HIGHLIGHTS  OF  1967
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
PERSONNEL SECTION
The Personnel Section processed 36 requisitions to the Civil Service Commission for the purpose of obtaining new and replacement positions. This Section also
processed 71 Civil Service requisitions for the Department of Travel Industry.
EXAMINATIONS
More than 200 applications were received from persons interested in becoming
Conservation Officers, and 80 applicants were selected to write examinations.
MOVE OF OFFICES
The offices of the Deputy Minister, Public Information Officer, General Administration, and the " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine subscription services
moved into new accommodation at 1019 Wharf Street.
FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
SPAWNING-CHANNEL COMPLETED
The Meadow Creek spawning-channel was completed and put into operation.
During the late summer and fall of 1967, 200,000 kokanee spawned in this 10,000-
foot spawning-channel.
DUCK LAKE PLAN COMPLETED
This plan provides for 850 acres of nesting area for waterfowl and improved
habitat on the remaining 3,100 acres of Duck Lake.
NUMBER OF RESIDENT HUNTERS INCREASED
Resident hunters increased from 132,780 to 143,003 in 1967, the largest
increase in one year since 1962.
NEW MANAGEMENT AREAS
New management boundaries were established on the basis of wildlife populations, watersheds, and access. There are now 28 management areas. The increase
of seven is due mainly to division of Northern British Columbia into smaller management units.
INTERIOR LAKES REOPENED
Sheridan Lake in the Cariboo and Niskonlith Lake near Kamloops were
opened after treatment and stocking.   Both produced good fishing during 1967.
 T 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
HISTORIC PARKS
The Fort Steele Historic Park was officially opened in June. The newly completed museum as well as other points of interest have proven to be major tourist
attractions.
WINTER RECREATIONAL FACILITIES
A new cafeteria and paving projects in Mount Seymour Park together with a
new chair-lift and other improvements at Gibson Pass area of Manning Park have
greatly improved winter recreational facilities at these two parks.
RATHTREVOR BEACH
Acquisition of further acreage this year will permit the development of a major
campground and picnicking area at this park.
PARK USE
An increase of almost 1,000,000 visits gave a total of over 6,000,000, and set
a record.
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
ARCHAEOLOGICAL "DIG"
A study of an old Indian village-site on Gabriola Island proved to be highly
productive.
DISPLAY PROGRAMME
The first of a series of dioramas was installed in the new building and background painting was commenced.
ATTENDANCE
More than 270,000 persons visited the museum, an increase of over 25 per cent
as compared with the previous year.
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
ABOVE AVERAGE VALUE
The value of 1967 fish production was above average but significantly less than
in 1966. Reduced herring, halibut, coho, and groundfish landings were partially
offset by good catches of sockeye, pink, and chum.
AQUATIC PLANTS
Six prospective aquatic harvesting companies were in various stages of development in 1966. Their long-term leases are subject to annual review and (or) production clauses.
SHELLFISH
Oyster production was considerably less than in 1966, chiefly as a result of
depletion of the wild crop of oysters originating from the heavy 1958 natural setting.
A moderate natural set occurred in 1967, which will again increase production by
1970 or 1971.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1967
INCREASED MOBILITY
T 11
Acquisition of the 28-foot patrol boat M.V. " Marten " increases both the
mobility and efficiency of the Branch.
INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS
Participation in international fishery meetings was a 1967 highlight, with the
Branch participating in the North Pacific Fisheries Commission meetings in Tokyo
and the South-east Alaska salmon discussion in Seattle.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL CO-OPERATION
Two productive Federal-Provincial British Columbia Fishery Committee meetings provided an effective vehicle for increasing liaison and co-operation between
the Federal Department of Fisheries and several Provincial agencies whose activities
affect fisheries management.
  GENERAL
ADMINISTRATION
  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967
T 15
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
General Administration consists of the Deputy Minister's Office, the attached
Public Information Officer, and the Accounts and Personnel Office.
The staff of General Administration works closely with all branches, including
the Department of Travel Industry, in such Departmental matters as putting policy
into effect, office and work facilities, personnel, and finance. Currently there is
liaison with the Department of Public Works for the purpose of planning and
organizing office and work facilities of new office accommodation.
The Personnel Section of General Administration processed 36 requisitions
to the Civil Service Commission for the purpose of obtaining new and replacement
positions for all branches of the Department. This section also processed 71 Civil
Service requisitions for the Department of Travel Industry. The Personnel Officer
sat in on many interviewing panels for the selection of these candidates.
During the month of September, examinations were conducted at Nanaimo,
New Westminster, Prince George, Kamloops, and Creston for the purpose of seeking potential candidates interested in becoming Conservation Officers with the Fish
and Wildlife Branch. There were more than 200 applications received, and from
these, 80 were selected to write this examination.
This Department had one employee selected to participate in the three-year
Executive Development Course. One employee in this Department was selected
for the one-year Basic Public Administration Course.
Regular meetings are held with employees of the Parks Branch and the Fish
and Wildlife Branch for the purpose of reviewing personnel accidents and seeking
methods of improving safety.
Five employees of this Department, four in the Fish and Wildlife Branch, and
one in the Parks Branch were awarded their 25-year continuous-service certificates
in December.
During the early part of 1967, the offices of the Deputy Minister, Public Information Officer, General Administration, and the " Beautiful British Columbia "
magazine subscription office moved to a new location. This is the first step toward
bringing together all branches of the Department of Recreation and Conservation
and the Department of Travel Industry.
  FISH and WILDLIFE
BRANCH
 The Duck Lake unit of the Creston Valley Wildlife Area, scheduled for habitat
development early in 1968.
Aerial view of Meadow Creek spawning-channel for kokanee from Kootenay Lake.
Flow is from right to left.   (B.C. Hydro photo.)
 r
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 19
FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
James Hatter, Director
ADMINISTRATION
The year 1967 marked a number of important advances in certain activities
of the Fish and Wildlife Branch. Some of the more important endeavours are as
follows:—•
(1) Meadow Creek kokanee spawning-channel was successfully completed
and became operational.
(2) The final engineering plans were completed for the development of the
Duck Lake component of the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area.
(3) A waterfowl specialist was appointed to supervise planning and development of the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area.
(4) An interdepartmental committee was established to study integration of
resource use in the East Kootenay region.
(5) Sheridan Lake in the Cariboo was opened after treatment and restocking
with rainbow trout.
(6) Habitat protection activity associated with mines, pulp-mills, logging, and
other resource uses was increased.
(7) A new administrative region was established with headquarters at Kamloops.
(8) A thorough review of the guiding industry was completed.
Habitat protection and management received more than usual attention in
1967. Both fisheries and wildlife personnel increased their activities in presentation of briefs, participation on committees, and direct field liaison with other
resource agencies. One intensive habitat-management project was completed—
namely, the Meadow Creek spawning-channel. Completion of detailed biological
and engineering plans for waterfowl at Duck Lake and on the Lower Mainland
were other undertakings of significance in this regard.
Senior Conservation Officer R. E. Allan and Conservation Officer F. H. Greenfield retired after long and diligent service to the Branch, which has benefited over
the years from the dedicated service of such persons. Twenty-five-year service
records were achieved by C. E. Estlin, L. G. Smith, W. H. Richmond, and R. J.
Guay.   The Branch is pleased to acknowledge the long service of these individuals.
Thanks are extended to other Provincial and Federal departments for their
valued assistance and co-operation. The stresses placed on fish and wildlife habitat
by accelerated development of other resources make this assistance increasingly
valuable. The British Columbia Wildlife Federation extended support, as did the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, who assisted our field staff as usual. Such cooperation is gratefully acknowledged. The British Columbia Hydro and Power
Authority was a major contributor to the Meadow Creek spawning-channel and
the Duck Lake waterfowl unit. Many other organizations, such as naturalists,
guides, universities, and private citizens, gave assistance and support for conservation-based activities of the Branch. Their interest and assistance is gratefully
acknowledged.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
The rapid social and economic development of the Province in recent years
and during 1967 continues to expose more of the wildlife resource to the influence
of human activities.   Rural settlement and development, industrial activities, Pro-
 T 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
vincial and municipal development schemes, urban extension, and the growing
participation in outdoor recreation are a few of the more obvious human activities
that influence wildlife resources and our ability to use and enjoy these resources.
The continuation of this trend in 1967 has furthered the need for the kind of
legislation, planning, and action that is capable of sustaining wildlife-resource capabilities and public opportunity to use the resource, along with the other aspects of
Provincial development.
Wildlife resources have capabilities that can be exploited along with other
resources of the environment, and the resources have limitations that cannot be
ignored without consequence. In essence, the art of managing the resource involves
the identification of these attributes and applying this knowledge in planning and
effecting the social and economic development of the Province.
Much progress has been made in improving our ability to effect the use of
wildlife resources in the Province. The increasing level of public participation in
wildlife-based recreation and continued increases in wildlife harvest reflect the
adequacy of legislation, policies, and methods pertaining to the use of the resource.
Of less note perhaps, but of more consequence, the aspect of wildlife management relating to the protection and integration of the resource in the development
of the Province has understandably been slower to emerge. Wildlife is a product
of the environment, and until management includes the protection and development
of the environment, the production and use of wildlife resources will remain an
accidental benefit—or loss—from other kinds of resource developments, and the
capacity of the land to sustain many wildlife species and public hunting opportunity
will continue to diminish.
The programme of wildlife management in the Province during 1967 sustained
activities relating to the use of the resource, and became more active in the field of
habitat evaluation and protection, and in supporting and assisting economic studies
relating to the resource.
MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME
Wildlife Population Management
The introductory section of this Annual Report refers to two major aspects
of the management of wildlife resources in the Province—that relating to use of
the resource, and that respecting the status of the resource itself. Management
activities relating to the use of the resource include an annual assessment of game
production, survival, and harvests.
Activities relating to the resource status include habitat evaluation, inventory,
and action relating to the protection and development of wildlife habitat.
The major features of the management programme are outlined as follows:—
Game Counts
Annually repeated population composition, survival, and production counts
provide a factual basis on which game seasons are determined. These counts include
winter aerial counts and ground counts.
Winter aerial counts in the Province involved a total of 250 hours of flying,
which yielded classified counts of 6,000 moose, 5,000 deer, and 1,700 elk. Preseason production counts recorded 4,100 deer and 200 elk. Waterfowl production
counts were conducted in all areas of the Province in co-operation with a programme
operated by the Canadian Wildlife Service. Grouse production counts were conducted in the Central and Northern Interior of the Province.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 21
Game Checks
Game check-stations were operated in numerous areas of the Province during
the 1967 game season, and the Cache Creek check-station continued operation on
a 24-hour basis throughout the season. Table II in the Statistical Supplement of this
report gives a summary of some comparative results of this check. Elsewhere in
the Province, 39 checking-stations operated at selected times during the fall months
of 1967 and recorded 46,000 hunters, with a bag of 17,800 big-game animals and
30,000 birds.
Hunter Sample
The 1966/67 season hunter sample published this year is the 16th consecutive
publication of this record of game harvests in the Province. The sample consisted
of 73,899 questionnaires mailed to big-game hunters, 24,589 to bird-hunters, and,
for the first time, 9,983 hunters were sampled regarding the hunting of cougar,
wolves, and coyotes. Comparative hunter sample statistics are given in Tables III
and IV in the Statistical Supplement to this report.
Regulations
Management area boundaries were redesigned in 1967 to provide a more
effective basis for the administration and management of wildlife resources.
Boundaries were generally designed to encompass natural ecological areas which
contain particular wildlife populations, and which were distinctive in other terms,
such as access, hunting opportunity, climate, and other attributes. A separate
management area description and map was published during the year, to eliminate
the need to annually duplicate this information in the game regulations. Seven new
management areas were added to the Province, mainly as a result of further dividing
the north half of the Province.
As a service to the hunting public and guides, tentative opening dates for male
big-game animals were published early in the year. The tentative dates were later
confirmed by the game regulations.
Black and grizzly bear seasons were changed to coincide with the calendar
year, enabling more effective administration and assessment of fall and spring
hunting of these species.
Small-game seasons were declared in the 1966/67 game regulations for the
first time, due in part to altered status of certain fur-bearing species under the Wildlife Act. At present, raccoon, skunk, bobcat, fox, and wolverine are in the small-
game category.
In general, game seasons for the 1966/67 season were little changed from those
of recent years. A five-day antlerless moose season in Management Area 11 was
allowed for the first time. A two-moose bag limit was initiated in Management
Areas 21 and 28, the latter to allow increased harvests in the vicinity of the Peace
River reservoir.
Extensive and prolonged forest closures occurred in the Province during 1967,
an event which may have reduced hunting success in various areas of the Province.
Forest closures can have a serious effect on hunting opportunity, and on the resulting economic benefits from wildlife resources.
Wildlife Habitat Management
Control of wildlife habitat on Crown land is vested by legislation in the Lands
Branch, and numerous submissions respecting the protection of habitat from alienation and from other inimical dispositions were made during the year. A number
of reserves for habitat protection were requested, and the establishment of a 10,000-
 T 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
acre reserve on the Beatton River for wildlife management and live-stock grazing
represented a precedent in purpose.
Liaison with the Forest Service and the Grazing Division respecting access to
wildlife, and protection of habitat from damaging use, was conducted on numerous
occasions during the year.
Habitat-development activities included a biological and engineering study of
the Duck Lake unit in the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area, completing
feasibility and cost appraisals for the development of this unit to mitigate wetland
habitat losses resulting from the Duncan Dam development. This project was conducted in co-operation with the Canadian Wildlife Service and the British Columbia
Hydro and Power Authority.
Negotiations with Ducks Unlimited for wetland developments in the Province
were conducted for the first time in 1967, and plans have been formulated for the
development of a marsh area on the Serpentine River in the Lower Mainland by
Ducks Unlimited. Preliminary arrangements for several other wetland developments by Ducks Unlimited were commenced.
The ARDA Canada land inventory of ungulate capabilities in the Province
operated on schedule in 1967, mapping capabilities for Vancouver Island and the
Chilcotin regions. This programme in the Province is well advanced, and will provide a wealth of technical information on which wildlife-resource management can
be based.
A land-acquisition budget was initiated in 1967 for the purpose of purchasing
land for wildlife management.
Regional Activities
Prince George Region
Familiarization with the region and its wildlife populations continued throughout 1967. During the winter months an extensive aerial inventory of big-game
animals was conducted over Northern British Columbia, yielding population data
on Stone sheep, wolves, caribou, and moose.
Cariboo-Coast Region
Waterfowl population studies, California sheep trapping and transplanting
operations, and evaluation of waterfowl ageing techniques were major activities
during 1967.
Kamloops Region
Work on the Wells Gray Park experimental burn was continued. To date 600
acres have been burned, and moose are using these areas, which are producing three
times the forage of surrounding unburned areas. A deer-tagging project was continued during 1967, and range boundaries and migration patterns are emerging.
Waterfowl population studies were conducted during summer months.
Okanagan Region
A detailed geographic and botanical description of all the major winter ranges
was commenced. This will be a major component of a long-range plan for deer
management in the Okanagan region. Policies and practices related to habitat
protection and developments are considered in this plan.
Kootenay Region
A study of whitetail deer food habits, based on rumen samples, showed a winter
preference for evergreen browse.   A wildlife capability inventory of 250,000 acres
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 23
of private lands in the East Kootenay was completed, as was an aerial survey of one
of the major Canada geese producing areas in the Province, the Columbia marshes.
Lower Mainland
In addition to routine management activities, a comprehensive report on the
status of waterfowl reserves was prepared. The report will serve as the basis for
waterfowl habitat development in the region. A deer-tagging programme was commenced on the international deer herd in the Skagit drainage to determine herd size
and migration patterns, and to provide a basis for appraising the effect of water
storage on winter deer populations.
Vancouver Island
Management activities were again directed primarily at deer. In addition, surveys were conducted into possible release sites for the reintroduction of the sea otter
(Enhydra lutris) to the Province. The annual Peale's falcon harvest was again
closely supervised, in conjunction with an inventory of the Peale's falcon nesting
population.
Research
Research attention was focused upon the range ecology and population dynamics of the bighorn sheep in the Rocky Mountain Trench.    In addition, studies on
blacktail deer reproduction, the effect of hunting and forage succession on deer populations, and the ecology of bighorn sheep ranges in the Ashnola were conducted.
Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep
Investigations included the determination that the disease complex had spread
to the last major low-elevation winter range and was limited to those animals utilizing these ranges. To date 56 sheep have been trapped for disease investigations and
marking for further studies of distribution movements and behaviour. Range condition assessments continued with the measurement of forage production and utilization. Fertilizer and reseeding trials were initiated to provide information on
improvement possibilities of specific winter ranges and to assess optimum productivity under sound range management.
Parasite and Disease Studies of Captive Bighorn Sheep
It has been demonstrated that a high-quality diet has obviated pathological
symptoms of bronchial pneumonia and parasitism.    Although several species of
parasite, including the lungworm, are still present, the two ewes and the lamb held
in captivity for this study are in excellent condition.
The Ecology of Land Snails-Lungworm Infections of Rocky Mountain
Bighorn Sheep
To test the hypothesis and implication of terrestrial land snails as intermediate
lungworm hosts in the disease complex, a study was initiated to determine the
species of snails present, their distribution and degree of infection. To date no
infected snails have been found, indicating that either the snails are not obligatory
as important vectors of the lungworms or that ecologic conditions have not resulted
in a significant infestation of the snails since the sheep die-off.
The Effect of Hunting and Forest Succession upon Deer Populations
Studies of the effect of hunting and forest succession on the structure and dynamics of the Northwest Bay deer herd have been continued in 1967. These studies
demonstrate that hunter harvests have had less effect on the deer population than
has the progressive decrease of quality habitat through advancing forest succession.
 T 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Ecology of the Ashnola Bighorn Sheep Ranges
This study is concerned primarily with the edaphic and climatic factors limiting
the productivity of certain ranges in the Ashnola area. The study has been expanded
to include adjacent grasslands in the Similkameen drainage and broadened to include
a study of the water budget of these dry-land ranges.
Parasites and Diseases of Wildlife
Although emphasis in this section has been placed upon the specimens obtained
from Rocky Mountain sheep, other specimens from a variety of wildlife species have
been received and examined.
The Reproductive Biology of Female Blacktail Deer
This study is designed to assess age specific reproduction of deer population on
Vancouver Island. The histological examination of 452 deer reproductive tracts
showed the peak reproductive rates reached at the age of 2V_ years.
Fur-management
Promotion of the wild-fur product abroad was continued this year with an
exhibit of selected British Columbia pelts at the Frankfurt Fur Fair. Fur management included active promotion of the humane animal trap amongst Provincial trappers, liaison with Federal authorities in the instruction of Indian trappers in the use
of this trap, and revision of the registered trap-line regulations, aimed at increasing
trap-line use in areas where this is desirable. Effort was also aimed at educating
trappers to produce higher-quality furs, which is a major factor in the value of the
wild-fur catch in the Province. Comparative fur yields are tabled in the Statistical
Supplement.
Special Investigations
Pesticide Studies
A continuing study of the occurrence of pesticide residue in wildlife was continued during 1967.
The use of pesticides for the control of insects and weeds is associated with side
effects which can be harmful to wildlife. Harmful side effects can be placed in three
categories—(1) mortality of wildlife due to the toxic properties of pesticides, (2)
damage to habitat, and (3) accumulation of pesticide residues in the tissues of edible
species.
Mitigation of side effects is achieved through co-operation with pesticide-users
to see that proper precautions are exercised. Co-operation and co-ordination with
users and other interested parties takes place in committees such as the Pest Control
Committee of the British Columbia Loggers' Association and the interdepartmental
Safe Use of Pesticides in Agriculture Committee.
Evidence of pesticide pollutions and evaluation of their seriousness are obtained
by monitoring wildlife populations for pesticide content. A total of 71 specimens
was submitted for analysis in 1967, of which 54 showed evidence of some pesticide
contamination. Analyses were performed at the Department of Agriculture pesticides laboratory.
Meetings
Conferences attended and participated in by Wildlife Management personnel
included those of the American Wildlife Society, the North-west Section of the Wildlife Society, the American Society for Range Management, the North-west Section
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 25
of the Range Management Society, the American Association for Conservation
Information, the British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, the Canadian
Society of Wildlife and Fisheries Biologists, the British Columbia Wildlife Federation, and a North American symposium on moose. Numerous professional and
private association and club meetings within the Province were attended by headquarters and regional staff during the year.
Personnel
Mr. Dwight Moore, a waterfowl biologist, was appointed under a contract with
the Fish and Wildlife Branch and the Canadian Wildlife Service to supervise development of the Creston Valley Wildlife Area.
Messrs. D. Low and J. Bone were employed as technicians at Kamloops and
Penticton respectively.
Publications
Bandy, P. J.    1967.    Forestry, fish and wildlife—our joint responsibility.   Forestry
Chronicle 43(3):242-246.
     1967.    The implications of the Canada land inventory for the wildlife
resource.   Annual proc, B.C. Wildlife Federation.
Clapp, B. C. 1967. Live-capture, immobilization and tagging of Rocky Mountain
bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) in the East Kootenay, 1965-1967.
Wildlife Research Div. report (unpublished).
Demarchi, D. A. 1967. An ecological study of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep
winter ranges in the East Kootenay region of British Columbia. Wildlife Research Div. report (unpublished).
Eastman, D. E. 1967. Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep population and their decline in British Columbia, 1965-1967. Wildlife Research Div. report (unpublished) .
Finegan, R. P. 1967. Environmental pollution by benzene hexachloride used for
control of ambrosia beetle.   Wildlife Management Div. report.
  1967a. Game harvest questionnaire analysis, 1966. Wildlife Management Div. report (unpublished).
Blood, D. A. 1967. Falconry management in British Columbia with particular
reference to Peale's peregrine in the Queen Charlotte Islands. Wildlife Management Div. report (unpublished).
Thomas, Anne. 1967. The parasite burden of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep
(Ovis canadensis canadensis shaw) in the East Kootenay region of British
Columbia.   Wildlife Research Div. report (unpublished).
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
The pursuit of game fish has become a year-round activity in most regions of
British Columbia as the popularity of ice fishing in Interior areas has recently grown
to rival the traditional winter steelhead fishery of Coastal areas. Eastern brook
trout lakes in the northern and Cariboo Districts, rainbow trout in the Kamloops-
Okanagan area, and cutthroat trout in several Kootenay District lakes have yielded
excellent catches during the winter months to predominantly family groups of
anglers. The advent of year-round angling has increased the problem of proper
management of the fisheries in many instances as the total harvest must be spread
over a greater time to a larger group of anglers. As the productive capacity of most
water bodies cannot be increased, more fish must be introduced through hatchery
plantings or individual catches must be reduced to provide angling for all. Future
management of the most popular winter fisheries will likely be based on a
combination of these two methods.
 T 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Open-water fishing during the winter months for mountain whitefish and burbot
or ling continue to provide considerable recreation in the East Kootenay. These
fisheries attract large numbers of anglers from Alberta as well as many local
residents.
Management Activities
Sheridan Lake in the Cariboo District was opened to angling on May 20, 1967,
after a five-year closure for treatment and removal of coarse-fish populations.
Excellent fishing for rainbow trout continued from opening day until late fall, and
a fishery for eastern brook trout is anticipated during the winter months when
rainbow trout activity is at a minimum.
Steelhead harvest questionnaires were mailed to 19,538 licensed steelheaders
during the latter part of March. Of these, 1,130 were to non-resident alien anglers,
while the remaining 18,408 licensees were residents of British Columbia or other
parts of Canada. Approximately 50 per cent of the anglers contacted completed
and returned the questionnaire. Of those contacted, 2,604 (27 per cent) did not
fish for steelhead, and of the 7,112 who did, 2,906 (41 per cent) caught one or
more steelhead while 4,206 (59 per cent) were unsuccessful.
Catch information from many of the northern and central district lakes and
streams was again collected at the Cache Creek checking-station during the fall
months. This station has been in operation since 1949, and useful information on
trends in angler use and catch success on various bodies of water has been obtained.
This year a new punch-card recording system was introduced to facilitate collection
of information from the angler and enable more rapid sorting and tabulation of
the data.
An intensive study of the steelhead fisheries of the Morice, Kispiox, and Copper
Rivers in Northern British Columbia was begun in September. Stomach samples
are being collected to learn more of the feeding habits of steelhead and to provide
a better basis for regulations regarding the use of various types of lures and
natural bait.
A casualty of the long hot summer was Nimpo Lake, one of the most productive
lakes in the Cariboo District, which suffered a severe summer kill in early September.
Weeks of hot, windless, sunny weather resulted in abnormally high water temperatures and an excessive bloom of algae, which eventually caused heavy mortalities of
all species of fish. Rainbow trout were particularly susceptible, and the usual excellent fall fishery for this species did not develop. A substantial planting of hatchery-
reared fish is planned to help bolster the natural recruitment to the lake.
An intensive investigation of the Kootenay Lake sport fishery was undertaken
to determine catch success and total fish production, as well as to provide information
necessary to determine a method of finding the actual economic value of the sport
fishery. A large creel-census crew used aircraft, fast boats, and shore interviews to
collect a variety of information from anglers in the West Arm as well as the main
body of the lake. As a result of the information obtained, the creel-census method
has been altered to provide better and more complete information on the fishery with
little increase in effort.
In co-operation with the Canada Department of Fisheries, studies on steelhead
migration patterns and angler success were continued at the Big Qualicum River on
Vancouver Island. Results during the past year were remarkably similar to those
of the previous two years and indicate that anglers are able to take only about 20
per cent of the steelhead in this river, regardless of the relative size of the run.
The fence count of steelhead entering the river increased from 405 in 1965/66 to
611 in 1966/67, but subsequent catches were 20.7 and 19.5 per cent of the respec-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 27
tive totals.    Work on the steelhead production of this river will continue, with
emphasis on total egg deposition, fry survival, and smolt production.
The extensive programme of investigation into the physical and biological
characteristics of Kootenay Lake and its sport fisheries was continued during 1967
with funds provided by the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority. The
purpose of this programme, now in its second full year, is to obtain information on
the effects of the changed water-flow regime in Duncan River upon the physical
characteristics of Kootenay Lake and upon the extensive and valuable sport fisheries
of the lake. Effort during the year was concentrated on gaining a maximum of
field data; however, a study of macrozooplankton was concluded and published.
Habitat Protection
Habitat protection involves alert response to all forms of activity in the Province which can result in reduction or impairment of habitat for fish in our streams
and lakes. The work largely involves providing advice based on field studies,
whereby industrial or commercial activities in or near fresh water can be modified
so as to minimize damage to sport-fish populations. Although effort in this field
tends to show few tangible results, the preservation of habitat is the most important
phase of fisheries work in the current period of rapid industrial expansion.
Investigation and mitigation of the effects of several industrial developments
and flood-control proposals on sport fish and their habitat have been two of the
prime objectives of the Fisheries Management Division during the year.
The Fish and Wildlife Branch submitted a brief to the Comptroller of Water
rights at a public hearing at Kamloops held to consider a water-use application by
Brenda Mines Limited to withdraw water from Pennask Lake for ore-milling purposes. The hearing was held to consider this water-use proposal in view of its
possible conflict with agricultural, other industrial, and recreational interests. Although the Fisheries Management Division had been aware of the water-use proposal
for some months and had been dealing with the company to prevent fish losses, the
Branch appeared at the hearing to apprise participants of the value of the Pennask
Lake sport fishery and the manner in which the fishery might be preserved.
Fisheries values are high in the drainage system. Pennask Lake provides good
fishing for rainbow trout throughout the ice-free period of the year. About 50,000
to 60,000 trout are taken in the lake annually by anglers. In addition, the inlet and
outlet streams (Pennask and Spahomin Creeks) provide 50 per cent of the rainbow
trout eggs taken for fish-culture operations throughout British Columbia. Spawning
fish from these streams have produced between two and five million eggs each year
since 1929.
Fisheries problems which were foreseen in this application for water rights
were that withdrawal of water for ore-milling could result in greater than normal
annual fluctuations in lake-level, and that the low dam required at the outlet of the
lake would prevent the return to Pennask Lake of small fish which had been spawned
and reared in Spahomin Creek (the outlet stream). As a result of opposition by
agricultural as well as fisheries interests, the application for water by Brenda Mines
was refused, and the company has since found alternative sources of water.
For the first time, the Branch, working through the Pollution Control Branch,
has been the sole fishery agency responsible for setting water-quality criteria for
protection of sport fish at a pulp-mill site. These criteria were required for issuance
of a pollution-control permit for disposal of pulp-mill effluent by Crestbrook Forest
Products to Kootenay River at Skookumchuck. The river contains populations of
rainbow and cutthroat trout and mountain whitefish.   As little is known of the re-
 T 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
sponses of whitefish to pulp-mill effluents, bioassays and behavioural studies will
continue to determine if more stringent regulation of waste discharges than those
presently proposed are required.
At a public hearing called by the Pollution Control Board to hear the views
of persons and organizations on the desirable standards of water quality to be maintained in the Lower Fraser River, the need for maintenance of water of adequate
quality to support healthy fish populations in the main stem and tributaries of the
river was outlined. The life histories and habitat requirements of the principal sport
fish in the system were described. The brief concluded with recommendations that
dissolved oxygen in the main stem of the river should not drop below 6 p.p.m., that
all industrial wastes be treated to reduce toxic materials to minimum practicable
levels, and that bioassay techniques be used to determine the maximum allowable
concentrations of toxic materials in waste discharges.
Several applications for permits to explore for and develop coal deposits in
the East Kootenay District have been referred to this Branch. These applications
cover 127 square miles of sparsely populated land and water, supporting populations
of sport fish such as cutthroat trout, Dolly Varden char, and mountain whitefish, as
well as big-game animals such as elk, moose, and bear. Areas involved in these
applications, their wildlife populations, the harmful and possible beneficial effects
of the coal-mining industry, and the methods employed elsewhere to minimize damage to animal populations are presently being studied. Some possible adverse effects
to fish and game populations uncovered to date include water pollution from dust
from stockpiles, sludge from washing plants, and phenols from coking operations.
Fish habitat may be destroyed by operation of heavy equipment in and near streams,
while critical game winter ranges may be reduced or destroyed in the same manner.
Effort will now be directed to the placing of protective clauses for wildlife and their
habitat in the leases.
A field study and report have been completed of the effects on fish and recreation of a proposal to effect complete flood control on Cowichan and Koksilah Rivers
near Duncan by channelling and dyking. These rivers flood over their banks in
some winters in areas downstream from the Trans-Canada Highway and in the
Village of Lake Cowichan.
The Cowichan River is probably the most important recreational fishing-stream
on Vancouver Island. An extensive and desirable fishery exists for anadromous
steelhead and cutthroat trout, as well as resident cutthroat, rainbow, and brown trout.
Salmon raised in the river contribute to an extensive sport fishery in Cowichan Bay
and to the commercial fishery elsewhere. The river is also used for swimming and
picnicking.
Studies in British Columbia and Montana show that fish populations are reduced by upward of 33 per cent in channelled sections of streams. While fish populations would not be totally lost as a result of the proposed channelization of the
Cowichan River, they would be reduced significantly. Discussions are being held in
an attempt to prevent losses to the fishery if the flood-control scheme is undertaken.
Other flood- and erosion-control proposals have been studied at several sites
in the Province. The streams involved in these schemes are Kitsuksis Creek at
Port Alberni, the Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers in the Lower Mainland, McLellan,
Gifford, Willbrand, and Clayburn Creeks near Matsqui, and Coldwater and Nicola
Rivers near Merritt. Sport fish inhabit all these streams, and recommendations for
their protection have been submitted to the agency responsible for design of the flood-
control proposal in each instance. These recommendations include restriction of
channelling activity, use of dykes set back from stream channels, and installation of
fish-passage facilities at man-made obstructions.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1967 T 29
An agreement has been reached with the Lands Branch of the Department of
Lands, Forests, and Water Resources whereby the Fish and Wildlife Branch will
receive notice of applications to remove gravel from submerged Crown lands. This
arrangement will allow the Branch the opportunity of restricting removal schemes
which might adversely affect fisheries values. A similar scheme for removal of
gravel under private tenure is not presently possible as in these cases an application
to the Lands Branch is not required.
Habitat Improvement
A spawning-channel for Kootenay Lake kokanee was completed in Meadow
Creek, a tributary of Duncan River. The purpose of this channel is to provide additional spawning-grounds to offset those lost as a result of the construction of Duncan
Dam. The channel, which is 11,000 feet long and 30 feet wide, providing 35,000
square yards of additional spawning area, was constructed by the British Columbia
Hydro and Power Authority with the Fisheries Division supplying design criteria
and construction supervision. During September and October a total of 200,000
kokanee spawned in the channel and deposited approximately 25,000,000 eggs.
Although fry production from this facility remains to be assessed in 1968, it is
expected that over-winter survival of eggs in the gravel will be much higher than
in the natural stream-beds of the Duncan River system.
Technical advice was provided to a local community organization for the
diversion of water into Chain Lake, Princeton area, for the improvement of water
quality and sport fishing.
During the course of the year, preliminary reconnaissance surveys were made
of a large number of possible sites for stream-improvement work. Of these, at least
three will be carried forward into the construction phase during 1968.
Follow-up studies in connection with the removal in 1965 of a natural obstruction to steelhead migration in the Coquihalla River has shown that both winter-run
and summer-run fish passed the former obstruction in good numbers during 1967,
and it now appears hopeful that these populations will be increased.
Trout Hatcheries
The Fish and Wildlife Branch administers the fish-culture programme for recreational fishing in the Province and operates three year-round trout hatcheries and
various supporting egg-collecting stations to produce fish for this programme. Species raised in 1967 included cutthroat (coastal and Yellowstone), eastern brook,
kokanee, lake trout, and rainbow. The permanent hatcheries are located at Abbotsford, Summerland, and Wardner (south-east of Cranbrook); the egg-collecting sites
are in the Okanagan, Kamloops, and East Kootenay regions. Hatcheries are staffed
by 13 permanent and six seasonal men.
Egg Collections
In 1967 cutthroat, kokanee, and rainbow eggs were collected. Cutthroat were
taken at Kiakho Lake near Cranbrook, kokanee at Eagle River near Craigellachie,
and rainbow at Beaver Lake (Kelowna), Niskonlith Lake (Chase), Pennask Lake
(Peachland), Premier Lake (East Kootenay), and Salmon Lake (Falkland). At
Pennask Lake the worst flood since 1948 allowed most of the spawners to escape
upstream past the trap, and only about 30 per cent of the anticipated egg collection
was realized. Flash floods at Beaver, Niskonlith, and Salmon Lakes also resulted in
reduced collections.
 T 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
To improve egg-collecting capacity in 1968, various additional facilities were
constructed. Since good runs of kokanee are anticipated in the Eagle River in future
years, a permanent fence was built on this stream. Rainbow spawner traps were
also installed at Taweel Lake (Little Fort), Tunkwa Lake (Savona), and at Premier
Lake (East Kootenay) during the autumn. Facilities were also extensively improved
at Beaver Lake.
Production and Liberations
Despite the kokanee and rainbow egg shortage, production in 1967 was increased to 48,000 pounds from approximately 30,000 pounds in 1966. Given the
required number of eggs in 1968, this upward trend will continue to the limit
imposed by current hatchery facilities.
Lake plantings were down in number slightly to 6,589,000 (6,780,000 in
1966), but the weight of fish planted increased from 24,000 pounds in 1966 to
48,000 pounds in 1967, reflecting the planting of larger fish. Despite these increases, the fish produced were still short of the programme quota. Details of the
fish liberations were as follows:—
By road vehicle (200 lakes)—
Cutthroat        67,700
Eastern brook  2,007,700
Kokanee  1,300,000
Rainbow  2,323,100
By air (120 lakes)—Rainbow      890,500
Total   6,491,100
(48,4461b.)
The planting of kokanee was the first in many years, and all were planted
in Green Lake, near 70 Mile House in the Cariboo. This marked the first three
of four annual stockings into this lake in an attempt to create a major self-sustaining kokanee fishery. This particular part of the fish-culture programme will be
extended in future years to include three lakes in the Lower Mainland region.
Fish planted varied in age from 2 to 15 months. The programme extended
from March until November, and, as noted, over 300 lakes were planted. The
extent of the 1968 programme will largely depend on the degree of success at
various egg-collecting sites, but an increase is anticipated and necessary.
Public Relations
Information published by the Fish and Wildlife Branch and the Department
of Travel Industry was available at the permanent hatcheries. In addition, Travel
Industry Counsellors were on duty at Kootenay Hatchery to assist tourists in planning their trips. At the latter site an extensive public display was included in the
building layout, and, perhaps significantly, over half of the 30,000 hatchery visitors
were recorded there. Throughout the year several talks supplemented with coloured
slides were given to public groups by hatchery personnel. To keep fishermen
regularly informed, a resume of lake stockings is now attached to the Fish and
Wildlife Branch monthly reports.
New Hatchery Facilities
Fish-producing capacity of the hatchery system was not increased in 1967,
although there were developments which will lead to increased production in the
next two or three years. At Abbotsford, where the Department has 30 acres of
property on which a small hatchery is presently located, the first phase of a water
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1967 T 31
survey for a larger hatchery was concluded. The final survey and assessment, as
well as foundation tests, should be completed in 1968.
At Summerland, where a water shortage has existed during most of the last
half of each year due to competing uses for the spring water supply, an agreement
was completed late in the year whereby the total flow will be available continuously
for hatchery use sometime in 1968. Planning toward increasing the rearing facilities at this hatchery can now be implemented.
In 1967 the weight of fish plantings and production were increased over that
of 1966 by 100 and 60 per cent respectively. Increased egg availability in 1968,
particularly rainbow trout, will mean further increases. However, even with an
unlimited supply of eggs, production will shortly level off because of restricted
hatchery facilities at Abbotsford and Summerland.
Fisheries Research
A major study of factors affecting production of juvenile rainbow trout was
begun on Pothole Lake, near Merritt, and Loon Lake, north of Cache Creek. Information on movement of adult spawners, fry populations, food supply, and feeding habits of young fish in inlet and outlet streams was obtained at both sites.
Timing of entry of young fish to the lake appears to be quite different in the two
systems. At Loon Lake many of the young leave the streams early in their first
year, while at Pothole Lake virtually all the young fish spend the first year of life
in the streams. Such differences in movement will have a marked effect on survival
and growth of the fish, and investigation of the reasons for such differences in habits
is continuing.
The field portion of a two-year investigation of survival and growth of
hatchery-reared trout in lakes containing no fish, trout only, and mixed populations
of trout and shiners was concluded during the autumn months. Three sizes of
trout varying in length from Wt. to 3V2 inches were planted in the 13 study lakes,
and extensive collections were made of these fish by means of gill-nets and chemical
treatment following a period of growth. The data are presently being analysed,
but some differences in growth rate and survival are already obvious as those lakes
containing shiner populations produced very few comparatively small trout. Information obtained from this study will be used to maximize the efficient use of
hatchery-reared trout in the Province.
Studies of spawning requirements and behaviour of Kootenay Lake rainbow
trout and Dolly Varden char continued during the year. Field studies of rainbow
trout on the Gerrard spawning-grounds and description and analysis of spawning
activities filmed in 1966 were completed. A small artificial spawning-flume was
constructed at Coffee Creek, north of Nelson, in order to observe and describe the
spawning activities and requirements of the large Dolly Varden char. Very little
is known about this species in British Columbia as they usually spawn in small
precipitous streams tributary to large lakes and rivers, making them very difficult
to observe. In many regions these small drainages are being seriously affected by
logging practices, and better knowledge of actual spawning requirements is urgently
required.
The field portion of a study of the migratory habits of trout populations which
live above and below impassable waterfalls was concluded during the year. Sizeable
collections of adult fish from several streams in the Kootenay District were transferred to the hatchery near Wardner, where they will be held over winter and artificially spawned next spring. The young from each group will be reared and
subjected to experiments designed to determine their response to currents. Observations to date indicate that above-falls populations are quite stable and make only
 T 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
minimal contributions to lakes and reservoirs farther downstream. The results of
this study should more clearly define the problems associated with fish spawning
and recruitment of young to reservoirs.
The Research Section also gave assistance in several problems directly involved with management. These included obtaining oxygen and temperature data
in hatchery water supplies and in several lakes which are subject to winter trout
mortalities, and a study of conditions in Chain Lake prior to a diversion of water
to improve water quality.
Meetings
A talk on the relation of fish movement and migration to production and a
review of research activities of this Division was presented to the Department of
Zoology of the University of Manitoba, and the Freshwater Institute of the Fisheries
Research Board in Winnipeg following attendance at the annual meeting of the
Canadian Committee on Freshwater Fisheries Research in Ottawa in January of
1967.
Other meetings attended during the year included the International Symposium
on Eutrophication in Madison, Wise, the Tenth International Ethological Conference in Stockholm, Sweden, as well as annual meetings of the American Fisheries
Society and the Canadian Society of Wildlife and Fishery Biologists.
Publications
Halsey, T. G. 1967. Supplementary ice thickness observations and ice conditions
for British Columbia, Canada. In Ice Thickness Observations, North American Arctic and Sub-arctic, 1962-63, 1963-64, Pt. Ill, by M. A. Bilello and
R. E. Bates. Special Report 43, U.S. Gold Regions Research and Engineering
Laboratory, 91-93.
Hartman, G. F. 1967. Growth rate and distribution of some fishes in the Chilliwack, South Alouette and Salmon Rivers. Fish and Wildlife Branch Management Publication No. 11.
Northcote, T. G. 1967. Lakes of British Columbia . . . Garibaldi. In Wildlife Review, IV (6) :9-12.
 ■ 1967. The relation of movements and migrations to production in freshwater fishes. In The Biological Basis of Freshwater Fish Production, ed.
S. G. Gerking.   510 pp.
1967.   An investigation of summer limnological conditions in Chain Lake,
British Columbia, prior to introduction of low nutrient water from Shinish
Creek.   Fish and Wildlife Branch Management Report No. 55.    19 pp.
Peterson, G. Ross. 1966. The relationship of invertebrate drift abundance to
the standing crop of benthic organisms in a small stream. M.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia.   39 pp.
Stringer, G. E. 1967. Comparative hooking mortality using three types of terminal
gear in rainbow trout from Pennask Lake, British Columbia. The Canadian
Fish Culturist.   39:17-21.
     1967.    Introduction of Mysis relicta Loven into Kalamalka and Pinaus
Lakes, British Columbia.   J. Fish.   Res. Bd. Canada 24 (2), 1967.
Taylor, Gerald David. 1966. Distribution and habitat responses of the coast range
sculpin (Cottus aleuticus) and prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) in the Little
Campbell River, British Columbia. M.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia.   84 pp.
Zyblut, Edward Ronald. 1967. Temporal and spatial changes in distribution and
abundance of macro-zooplankton in a large British Columbia lake. M.Sc.
thesis, University of British Columbia.    121 pp.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967
STATISTICAL SUPPLEMENT
Table I.—Hunting Licence Sales
T 33
1963
1964
1965
1966                  1967
129.110             131.668
133,977
5,791
I
132,780             143,003
Non-resident	
5,356
5,399
6,793                6,814
1
Table II.—Cache Creek Check-station
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
Moose —	
Deer 	
5,456
3,670
169
70
61
156
26
7,318
3,033
19,550
3,300
5,502
3,450
135
48
111
213
30
7,085
4,136
18,349
3,236
5,931
2,232
138
54
149
213
13
7,118
5,894
17,424
3,384
7,264
3,008
197
74
138
414
22
7,265
6,494
19,123
4,093
7,258
3,635
183
63
121
Caribou _ •'
Elk           -	
514
21
6,720
17,482
20,503
4,106
Table HI.—Provincial Game Harvests by Resident Hunters, Hunter Sample
Estimates, 1962-66
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
360,500
460,500
64,700
16,675
2,300
69,500
245,470
368,570
54,940
16,510
3,950
71,520
1,625
522,064
383,961
48,884
17,853
3,230
78,435
1,567
295
465
621,150
474,670
39,223
15,190
1,800
56,877
1,967
242
523
508,514
491,493
29,207
19,940
Elk     	
1,970
76,692
1,762
Deer  	
226
Caribou   ___	
798
Table IV.—Estimated Regional Game Harvests by British Columbia
Resident Hunters in 1966
Region Hunted
Caribou
Deer
Elk
Moose
Goat
Sheep
Grouse
Ducks
Vancouver Island (G.M.A. 1) —
Hunters _	
22,054
25,450
14,104
9,439
48,564
26,899
9,770
2,623
4,049
1,454
12,920
7,425
2,764
3,349
94,465
76,692
1,261
109
22
	
10,217
100,454
11,551
85,243
14,899
172,481
5,070
40,156
2,563
29,740
6,168
64,695
1,785
15,745
52,253
508,514
5,397
Harvest 	
574
266
696
248
920
484
272
176
1,083
411
269
174
3,672
1,762
66,716
Lower Mainland (G.M.A. 2 and 3) —
Hunters  	
129
23
17,691
4,827
21,213
10,844
5,919
3,646
2,466
531
331
56
40,521
19,940
	
14,741
456
32
20
235,602
9,866
101,145
2,371
Interior (G.M.A. 6 to 9, 13 to 19) —
Hunters    	
306
39
688
228
1,104
499
136
32
496
20
92
15
243
52
8,592
1,773
12
Northern British Columbia (G.M.A.
20)—
21,240
Peace River (G.M.A. 21) —
Hunters.  __
Harvest _  	
Kootenay (G.M.A. 10,11, and 12)—
Hunters 	
534
184
174
8
1,668
18,494
2,477
31,976
Upper Coast (G.M.A. 4 and 5)—
1,495
16,320
Province—
Huntersl   	
Harvests   _.__
2,160
798
10,551
1,970
1,119
226
35,033
491,493
1 Many hunters hunt in more than one area.
2 Includes kill in unspecified areas.
3
The Provincial totals are corrected for this.
 T 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—Fur Yield and Value in British Columbia, 1962-66
Species
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
Yield
Value
Yield
Value
Yield
Value
Yield
Value
Yield
Value
Beaver   	
26,529
8,099
197,072
11,896
39,811
12,570
1,363
10,821
40
$385,996
92,814
88,682
136,804
64,095
190,812
28,636
8,007
26,638
7,266
72,188
10,629
27,663
7,225
1,245
7,457
214
534
183
38
1,025
$395,574
66,992
51,253
126,059
39,558
111,409
33,328
7,158
3,297
7,892
1,200
2,992
21,769
2,749
133,600
5,593
30,058
3,193
1,055
5,647
165
562
126
165
389
$254,914
27,407
82,832
68,178
54,104
64,722
25,330
7,510
3,187
4,451
933
1,641
1,338
28,751
5,271
63,103
5,936
37,300
2,705
1,094
11,807
250
868
367
394
548
$464,903
54,607
37,230
64,346
70,870
102,276
36,342
17,828
7,480
11,796
4,804
8,317
1,852
25,309
7,613
92,052
6,409
35,604
1,577
996
10,369
309
741
326
287
357
$333,825
88,843
Squirrel	
49,708
47,490
45,217
41,380
Otter	
20,477
14,309
9,514
Fisher 	
Fox_ 	
605
893
123
9,401
6,094
9,477
3,506
1,624
Raccoon  	
625
2,156
1,306
$1,024,878
	
$85,422
$600,316
$889,332
	
$66,682
BRITISH COLUMBIA
MANAGEMENT
AREAS
 PROVINCIAL
PARKS
BRANCH
 The Honourable W. A. C. Bennett officiates at the opening of the Fort Steele
Historic Park and Museum, lune 24, 1967.
'"
At the Langford workshop a skilled craftsman puts the finishing touches on a
carved dogwood emblem.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 37
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
H. G. McWilliams, Director
The exceptionally good weather which prevailed from early June through
September was probably responsible for the largest annual increase in park use
in the history of the Parks Branch, with more than six million visits recorded.
The acquisition of additional acreage at Rathtrevor Beach on the east coast of
Vancouver Island now makes it possible to proceed with the development of a major
picknicking and camping area at that site.
The construction of a new coffee-shop on Mount Seymour and a twin chair-lift
in Manning Park will add a great deal to the recreational use of these parks for
winter sports.
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
During 1967 a 4-per-cent increase in development and maintenance appropriations was accompanied by an 18-per-cent increase in public use of Provincial
parks and a 5-per-cent increase in the price of labour. In the same period, camping
fee revenue was increased to $19,662.
The widely recognized trend toward an increasing per capita use of parks was
apparent throughout the Province, with more than three visits to Provincial parks
recorded for every man, woman, and child in British Columbia.
During the year a special appropriation enabled a $350,000 expansion of ski
facilities at Gibson Pass in Manning Park. For the first time, Parks Branch management personnel undertook the operation and maintenance in Manning Park of
the lifts, tows, and patrols so essential to the enjoyment of modern ski slopes.
The unprecedented establishment of 11 new regional districts in a single year
placed new responsibilities on district and regional management personnel, who
must now function on regional planning committees and provide advisory and consultative assistance, in the outdoor recreation field, to these numerous local authorities.
While all of these responsibilities and conditions combined to complicate the
maintenance and operation of Provincial parks, field personnel generally maintained
high standards throughout the system. The whole-hearted co-operation of Royal
Canadian Mounted Police detachments throughout the Province resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of hoodlumism and vandalism in parks.
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
The Public Information and Education Office was not staffed for the first
three months of the year due to the untimely death of Public Information Officer
W. D. Reith.
Requests for information from the general public and special groups and
individuals reflected the tremendous increase in park use during 1967. The correspondence file bulged with letters, some from as far afield as Poland and Viet Nam.
Two fifteen-minute television programmes on parks and interpretation were
arranged. These were taped in Vancouver in May and broadcast in July as part of
a daily feature on British Columbia.
The extreme forest fire hazard during the late summer which resulted in restrictions and the closure of a number of parks necessitated the preparation of special
press, radio and television releases to keep the public informed of the changing
situation.
 T 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A new " Manning Park " folder was completed and forwarded for printing, and
will be ready for distribution early in the new year. " Mount Seymour " and " Garibaldi " publications were substantially revised and issued. In addition minor
revisions of other information booklets were carried out and a new campground
guide was prepared.
Several illustrated talks were given to various interested groups in the course
of the year. The Canadian Forestry Association was assisted in its Vancouver night
school adult education programme. A special presentation was made to the British
Columbia Government Travel Bureau Counsellors Training course in Vancouver.
The Public Information Officer was seconded to the Department of Travel
Industry to take part in a goodwill tourist promotion tour of Saskatchewan in June.
He was also a delegate to the annual conference of the American Association for
Conservation Information which was held at Victoria the same month.
INTERPRETATION AND RESEARCH
In 1967 public participation in our interpretation programme once more
showed a steady increase. By actual count our naturalists made 76,130 visitor contacts at our three nature houses and 34,860 contacts on conducted walks and evening campfire talks. Additionally, it is estimated that over 15,000 people contacted
our naturalists on non-scheduled activities. Many more park users walked our
nature trails, studied the natural-history displays on park information shelters, and
visited parks where natural history is the principal or only attraction. In total the
various phases of park interpretation served at least 260,000 people.
Ten parks held interpretation programmes conducted by park naturalists. Of
these, Manning, Miracle Beach, and Shuswap Lake Parks had programmes based
upon nature houses. Goldstream, Wickanninish, Mitlenatch Island, Ellison, Okanagan Lake, Haynes Point, and Kokanee Creek Parks had naturalists giving walks
and talks only. All three of the nature houses experienced record one-day attendances.
A major advance in 1967 was the opening of the new permanent nature house
at Shuswap Lake Park. This new building, half the size of those at Manning and
Miracle Beach Parks and retaining their general style, replaces the temporary tent
structure that had been in use since 1962.
Also new in 1967 was the Mule Deer Nature Trail at Manning Park. A careful survey of this and other self-guiding nature trails indicates their use by approximately 70,000 people during the season. Spot checks showed that several dozen
people per day hiked the new 12-mile Mount Frosty Trail in Manning Park. This
number of hikers indicates the willingness of many park users to participate in this
kind of strenuous activity.
The programme of interpretation at Kokanee Creek Park was a trial one of but
two weeks' duration. It was carried out concurrently with a survey of the park's
flora and fauna with a view to determining the park's potential for a future programme. Indications are that the park will be an eminently suitable site for expansion of the interpretation programme into the Kootenay District, especially if the
campground is enlarged.
Four new interpretive pamphlets were completed this year—" Berries," " Starfish," " Flora of Manning Park," and Volume II of " Things to Do Outdoors."
This year, for the first time, a naturalist was appointed specifically to provide
field supervision of summer staff. In particular, his attention was directed toward
assessing and improving the quality and content of conducted walks and evening
talks.   This was done in conjuction with the short course given new naturalists at
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 39
the beginning of the season. As our over-all programme grows, the task of training
and supervising seasonal staff increases and will continue to increase.
The interpretation workshop at Langford had a busy season, producing 28 new
displays, mostly for the new Shuswap Lake Nature House, as well as the year's
requirements of nature-trail cards, posters, and signs.
In general, 1967 was a year of excellent progress for the Section. We did have
one very serious loss. Mr. R. Y. Edwards, Park Officer i/c Research and Interpretation, left in midsummer to join the Canadian Wildlife Service. It should be
recorded that our programme has been shaped by Mr. Edwards since its inception
10 years ago, and it is largely to his individual credit that today the programme is
widely regarded as one of the leaders of its kind in North America.
PLANNING DIVISION
In addition to discharging its responsibilities in Provincial parks, the Parks
Branch Planning Division, through an interdepartmental steering committee, maintained contact with and rendered assistance to The Canada Land Inventory-Recreation Sector being conducted under the ARDA programme.
The Branch also provided representation from British Columbia on an Intergovernmental Advisory Committee on Outdoor Recreation and Wildlife created by
the Canadian Council of Resource Ministers to review and report on legislated basis
and administrative organization for, as well as major problems confronting, use of
natural resources for recreation.
A government-university committee has been named, as a consequence of
meeting in 1967, to investigate the possibilities for selecting " ecologic preserves "
representative of the 33 major biotic zones and sub-zones of British Columbia, and
to recommend the best means of setting these aside for scientific study purposes.
A degree of involvement of Provincial parks is anticipated. Master plans are now
to take these areas into account where it is necessary they be established in Provincial parks.
PARK SYSTEM PLANNING
The potential for resource-oriented parks north of the 57th parallel was again
placed under scrutiny this year, and interesting park values were found in the
vicinity of Hayworth, Tuchodi, Redfern, Denetiah, Fishing, Jennings, and Wokk-
pash Lakes.
Intensive ground surveys followed last year's work by air in the vicinity of
Kiniskan Lake, Edsisa Mountain, and on Esker Lake formations near Hyland River.
Alpine areas in the Okanagan District were given a close comparative examination
this year to determine the most desirable for park purposes. With the assistance of
both the Fish and Wildlife Branch and the Forest Service, the Parks Branch was
able to examine at least a portion of the coastal waters between Prince Rupert and
Campbell River for marine park potential. The Nass River lava bed was given
attention again with a view to providing for industrial use without destruction of the
natural geological feature. An alpine area west of Kimberley at the headwaters of
the St. Mary River received a close examination, and Mclntyre Canyon in the Okanagan Valley was assessed to determine suitable boundaries for a park containing
winter range for the California bighorn sheep.
Nine new Class A parks, containing 2,138 acres, and three new Class C parks,
containing 143 acres, were created during 1967. The Eutsuk Nature Conservancy
Area, containing 629,300 acres, was zoned in Tweedsmuir Park. The last significant inholding in Bowron Lake Park was purchased, and an agreement negotiated
 T 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
which will lead to the acquisition of a marine park at Pender Harbour. The establishment of Golden Ears Park, Class A, marked the formal division of Garibaldi
Park. An additional 8,500 acres in the Tingle Creek-Stave River drainages was
added to Golden Ears Park. Mount Judge Ho way Recreation Area, containing
15,270 acres, in the Tingle Creek-Stave River area, was also established. The
Cathedral Park proposal was further assisted through the co-operation of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, which established a mineral reserve
over the area. Through the joint efforts of this Branch and Malaspina Ratepayers'
Association, Myrtle Rocks near Powell River were made available for park purposes.
The boundaries of nine Class A parks were extended by a total of 10,860
acres. Three Class C parks were enlarged to include an additional 241 acres. Five
Class A parks were reduced in area by 3,019 acres, and 355 acres were deleted from
two Class C parks.
With the co-operation and assistance of other departments of the Government,
it was possible to have 113 areas, containing 2,341 acres, reserved for public recreational use. In the same period, 10 reserved areas containing 5,307 acres were cancelled. To date approximately 2,341 sites, containing a total of 357,646 acres, have
been reserved to meet future recreational-site requirements of the people of this
Province.
The people of British Columbia are indebted to the following for their
donations of land for park purposes involving 141.5 acres:—
The Gibson family—the Ahousat Hot Springs, now established as Gibson
Marine Park near Tofino in honour of Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Gibson.
Mr. Gordon Harvey—a fossil bed near Smithers, now established as Driftwood Canyon Park.
The British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority—an access point on
Wahleach Lake near Hope.
Mrs. B. F. Leary—the mineral rights to the land surrounding Nakusp Hot
Springs.
PARK-USE PLANNING
The pattern of recent years—planning for the improvement and refurbishing of
existing developments in parks—continued through 1967, but there was an increasing emphasis on planning for major parks. Planners spent a large proportion of
their total effort on Manning, Strathcona, Garibaldi, Bowron Lake, Tweedsmuir,
Mount Robson, and Wells Gray Parks. With the exception of Manning Park, actual
developments in these large parks have been on a small scale. Moreover, in parks
generally, new developments have been slow paced in recent years because funds
have had to be stretched to fit the needs of an expanded system. The hiatus, until a
new era of expansion begins, is giving staff the opportunity to dig into some of the
basic planning requirements of major parks.
In Manning Park, plans were formulated for a dramatic expansion of the
existing ski developments in Gibson Pass. The expansion included a chair-lift, a
beginners' rope tow, and the slope-clearing to accommodate these facilities. The
chair-lift has a vertical lift of 732 feet and a capacity of 1,200 skiers per hour; the
rope tow has a vertical lift of 165 feet and a capacity of 4,500 skiers per hour. These
projects necessitated all planning functions—field studies, mapping, design, layout,
and supervision—during development.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 41
In Strathcona Park, planners gave close surveillance to the road being constructed along the shore of Buttle Lake so that recreational values were preserved
as much as possible. The road gives access to Ralph River Campground, which was
planned and partially developed during the year. Another campground was also
planned and partially developed at the north end of Buttle Lake. As the park
boundary excludes most of the north end of the lake, steps were taken to make additions to the park in that area.
Trail-system planning was the main activity in the northern portion of Garibaldi
Park. Planners decided on improvements and relocations for the trails of the Black
Tusk Meadows, where human erosion has been serious. A youth crew completed
the Barrier Cut-off Trail, which gives a direct approach to Garibaldi Lake without
the climb to the meadows. Another youth crew built about 3,000 feet of trail along
the sidehill of Rubble Creek to replace the old trail, which traversed the stony floor
of the valley. The Varsity Outdoor Club continued its volunteer trail-building up
Fitzsimmons Creek. It hopes to complete this trail to Singing Pass in two more
seasons. Another volunteer effort was that of the British Columbia Mountaineering
Club, which began the erection of a public shelter near the pass.
The Ranger headquarters and youth crew camp in Black Tusk Meadows were
shifted from the Taylor Cabin to Battleship Islands Bay, where fixed-wing aircraft
rather than helicopters can be used for transportation. Permanent A-frame shelters
were built for the youth crew at this site.
The most significant work in Bowron Lake Park during 1967 was the building
of the Isaac River portage trail. Planners flagged the route in the spring, and a small
crew constructed about a mile of trail from Isaac Lake to the foot of the Cascades
during the summer. Prior to this work, portaging a canoe across the crude and
bouldery trail was the one bad feature of a trip around the lake quadrangle. Another
job was the reopening of the old canal between Skoi Lake and Spectacle Lake, so
that the decrepit railway across the portage can be removed. First steps were taken
to plan Bowron Lake Campground, which will be the main development for public
use in the park.
Planning staff spent about a month making a survey of all licensed guides operating in Tweedsmuir Park. Conservation Officers at Burns Lake, Vanderhoof, and
Bella Coola, as well as Regional Biologists at Prince George and Williams Lake,
co-operated. Information was gathered also on wildlife problems, particularly in
regard to caribou and grizzly bears. Planners explored the Turner Lake Chain, the
southern Rainbow Mountains, and Knott Lake.
This was the second year in a three-year study to produce a master plan for
Tweedsmuir Park. An outcome of the work so far was the delineation of Eutsuk
Nature Conservancy Area, covering 629,300 acres of the park. Special protection
is now given to this zone because of its superlative natural beauty, outstanding wilderness qualities, and wildlife.
Planners dealing with Mount Robson Park have continued to be concerned
with the reconstruction of Highway No. 16. They worked on plans for roadside
view points and an entrance portal at the British Columbia-Alberta Boundary.
A study of the west boundary of the park led to the conclusion that some non-
recreational land should be excluded from the park.
In Wells Gray Park, reconnaissance was carried out for a new crossing of the
Murtle River and access to Battle Mountain. Staff also laid out the roads for the
new campground at Mahood Lake.
Improvement and refurbishing of existing developments occurred at numerous
parks:  Quinsam Campground was enlarged; the entrance to Skihist Park was re-
 T 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
designed; Savona Park was changed from a campground to a picnic-ground; and
the service yard at Ten Mile Lake was extended.
In Mount Seymour Park, completion of the cafeteria was a big step forward.
The high-use area took on a much more finished appearance with the paving of the
upper portion of the road and the chair-lift parking-lot. The new ski bowl at Little
Twin Tow was shaped, and additional slopes were cleared of trees to facilitate ski
instruction, which has become extremely popular on the mountain. Metal signs
were placed along the ski runs.
New developments were planned and carried out at Kawkawa Lake picnic-
ground, China Creek boat-launching ramp and picnic-ground, and at Clearwater
River Park (roads for campground). Prison labour did the work at Clearwater River
Park and on the continuing development of a campground at Paul Lake Park.
Plans were drawn up for major campgrounds and day use areas at Moyie Lake
Park, Charlie Lake Park, and Syringa Creek. A campground was also planned for
Green Lake Park, a picnic-ground for Christie Memorial Park, and an expansion
of the existing picnic-ground at Saltery Bay.
A planning report was prepared for the proposed Sasquatch Park, covering
Hicks and two neighbouring lakes. The report urged the establishment of this park.
Technical advice and assistance (extension planning) to local organizations
in connection with recreational developments were extensive during 1967. Help
was given in regard to Girl Guide camps at Sproat Lake, Koksilah River, and at
Chilliwack. Maps were produced for local parks near Kelowna and at the 100
Mile House.   Parks at Royston, Wellington, and Comox also received attention.
One member of the planning staff made a short survey of possible park-sites in
the vicinity of the W. A. C. Bennett Dam. He attended meetings with B.C. Hydro
engineers on the recreational potential of the reservoir area adjoining the dam.
A small crew mapped about 550 acres where development is intended. The
crew was able to stay afield much of the winter by working in snow-free parks on
Vancouver Island. The mapping is done to a scale of 50 feet equals 1 inch, with
5-foot contours. Areas included Rathtrevor Beach, Ralph River, the north end
of Buttle Lake, Gibson Pass, Bowron Lake Campground, Syringa Creek, Nakusp
Hot Springs Park, Kokanee Creek Park, Peckhams Lake, Otter Lake, and Paul
Lake Park.
In co-operation with the Federal Government and local people at Hazelton
who are developing K'san Indian village into a handicrafts and museum centre, a
parcel of land to be devoted to a commercial campground was mapped.
Two members of the planning staff had the opportunity to attend training
courses. One was the short course on administration of National parks given at
Jackson, Wyo.; the other was the National Park Service winter ski and avalanche
rescue school at Banff, Alta.
HISTORIC PARKS AND SITES
Barkerville Historic Park
For the first time since Barkerville opened in 1958, a drop in attendance was
noted over the preceding year. This is attributed partly to the fact that 1966 was a
record year, partly to the hot dry summer, and partly to the pull of Expo. Approximately 154,000 visitor-days were recorded, with registration in the museum's
visitors' book totalling 41,705.
Department of Provincial Secretary's funds were expended toward projects
approved by the Barkerville Restoration Advisory Committee.   In the restoration
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 43
area the Cariboo Sentinel Building was constructed and foundations of the Barnard
Express Office were laid. Considerable renovations, repairs, and decorations were
done at the Nicol Hotel, the Wesleyan Methodist Church, Kelly's Store, Masonic
Hall, Theatre Royal, and several residences.
A start was made toward installation of an underground wiring system on the
main street. A 3,000-gallon septic tank was constructed in conjunction with staff
housing.
Considerable work was done on the J. P. Taylor Drug-store exhibit with the
co-operation of the British Columbia Pharmaceutical Association. A United
Church student minister conducted services in the Methodist Church. Andrew
Kelly artifacts donated by Mrs. R. Armour were displayed in the museum.
Cottonwood House Historic Park
With removal of the tenant, a comprehensive programme has been started to
restore this historic house to the period of the 1880's and 1890's. Foundations
have been replaced, and interiors of all rooms have been restored or renovated
as required.
A great deal of exhibit material, some of which belonged to the Boyd family at
Cottonwood, has been gathered and stored toward a furnishing programme slated
for next year.
Fort Steele Historic Park
The park was officially opened on June 24th by Premier W. A. C. Bennett.
The new museum was also opened at that time, and by the end of October more
than 78,000 people had been tallied through its display area. Approximately
100,000 visitor-days were recorded in the park during the year.
Several projects were undertaken in a co-operative programme between the
Fort Steele Foundation and the British Columbia Centennial Committee. These
included introduction of the Dunrobin Centennial train, operation of the four-horse
stagecoach, and performances of the Fort Steele Follies.
Phase three of the museum building was completed. This included the complete display area, offices, and public washrooms on the main floor, the tearoom-
cafeteria on the second floor, and a covered balcony around three-quarters of the
second floor.
New construction included the bandstand, barber-shop, N.W.M.P. sergeants'
quarters, and N.W.M.P. blacksmith and saddler's building.
Besides the major display in the new museum, exhibits were started in Dr.
Watt's office, dentist's office, blacksmith-shop, express office, courtroom, and the
Anglican rectory. Also, Kootenay Indians exhibited some of their fine hand-crafts.
An air locomotive with several cars was donated by Crow's Nest Industries.
Seven thousand feet of track was laid toward operation of the Dunrobin outside of the palisaded village complex next summer. Two thousand two hundred
feet of track will be completed to supply the old water storage tank. It is hoped
that a new reservoir can be started next year.
" Stop of Interest " Plaques
In a co-operative programme with the British Columbia Centennial Committee,
15 " stop of interest" plaques were cast. This brings the total of this type of
marker in the Province to 106.
A special commemorative ceremony was held on October 29th east of Abbotsford, with the placement of the " Sumas Reclamation " plaque.   Unveiled by Deputy
 T 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial Secretary L. J. Wallace, the plaque represented the 100th marker of its
type to be placed throughout the Province since the start of the programme in 1958.
ENGINEERING
Vancouver Island Region
New campgrounds and boat-launching ramps were constructed at the north
end of Buttle Lake and at Ralph River in Strathcona Park. A water system was
installed at Wickaninnish Beach Park, and the waterworks were completed at
Miracle Beach Park. A deep well and pump were installed at Prior Centennial
Park, and at China Creek Park a boat-launching ramp was built and a picnic area
developed.
Garibaldi Region
Work continued on Nairn Falls Park campground, and major improvements
were effected to Diamond Head Chalet. The Black Tusk area, which has come
under full-time administration, was the site of considerable trail building and reconstruction.   In Alice Lake Park, roads were oiled and some paving took place.
Alouette Region
The electrical system at Alouette Lake was completed. Improvements were
made to the lakeshore in Rolley Lake Park and to the road in Davis Lake Park.
Cultus Lake Region
The Cultus Lake Park water system was improved, and work was done on the
parking-lot and boat-launching area at Jones Lake. At Peace Arch Park new roofs
were placed on the kitchen and toilet buildings.
Mount Seymour Region
A boat-launching ramp was built at Saltery Bay Park, and minor improvements were made to floats and the water supply at Princess Louisa Marine Park.
The camp-sites at Roberts Creek Park were gravelled, and at Mount Seymour Park
the parking areas were paved, three-quarters of a mile of road was reconstructed,
a new equipment-shed built, and there were major improvements to ski slopes and
runs. Furnishings and kitchen equipment as well as water and sewage facilities
were installed at the new Mount Seymour Park cafeteria.
Manning Region
Picnic-grounds at Allison Lake and Otter Lake Parks were improved, while
at Kawkawa Lake Park, parking area, picnic, and lakeshore development took
place. In Manning Park the Centennial Trail was finished; new sewage fields were
built and a new electrical station installed for the Pine Woods area; a chair-lift,
beginners' rope tow, ski-slope improvements, temporary warming shelter, ski-rental
buildings, additional parking-lot, and an electrical station were completed at the
Gibson Pass area.
Shuswap Region
A new campground was under construction at Paul Lake Park, and at Lac
Le Jeune Park exploration was under way for a deep well and work was being
done on the service area.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 45
Okanagan Region
Water systems were installed at Ellison and Okanagan Lake Parks. The road
to the Okanagan Lake Park picnic-ground was paved, and a toilet-change house
was built at Christie Memorial Park.
Cariboo Region
The highway entrance to Skihist Park was altered, and a deep well and pump
were installed at Goldpan Park.
Wells Gray Region
Development of campgrounds in Clearwater River Park and at Mahood Lake
continued, utilizing Corrections Branch inmate labour. A water system was installed at the Wells Gray Park administration centre, and an access road to Battle
Mountain was built.
Bowron Lake Region
i
Improvements were made to the parking area, trail system, and portages in
Bowron Lake Park.
Lakelse Lake Region
A campground and boat-launching site were constructed in Lakelse Lake Park.
The parking-lot and campground in Seeley Lake Park and the portage railroad in
Tweedsmuir Park were improved.
Bear Lake Region
Campgrounds were under construction in Charlie Lake and Moberly Lake
Parks, with expansion under way to the existing campground in Ten Mile Lake
Park. Water systems were installed in Beaumont and Ten Mile Lake Parks, and
minor improvements were carried out in Liard Hot Springs Park.
Mount Robson Region
Minor improvements to existing facilities in Mount Robson Park were carried
out.
Wasa Region
Improvements were made to the sewage facilities and campground in Wasa
Lake Park and to the road in Columbia Lakes Park.
Kokanee Region
A water system was installed, an entrance portal erected, and the main access
road and parking-lots were paved at Champion Lakes Park.
Youth Crew Programme
The 140 boys employed in the youth crew programme spent the summer
engaged in trail work, campground reconstruction, and installation of water systems
in Garibaldi, Nairn Falls, Alice Lake, Manning, Ten Mile Lake, Champion Lakes,
and Mount Robson Parks.
Parks Branch-Attorney-General Programme
Again in 1967, as in previous years, the Attorney-General's Department
assisted the Parks Branch by permitting the employment of Corrections Branch
inmates on various parks projects.
 T 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The inmates were engaged in campground expansion in Elk Falls Park and
firewood-cutting in Miracle Beach Park on Vancouver Island. They worked at
campground maintenance in Cultus Lake Park and campground and picnic-ground
maintenance at Alouette Lake, as well as lakeshore development in Rolley Lake
Park. In Wells Gray Park, inmate labour was employed on campground construction, road work, and firewood-cutting. Inmates also worked on the campground
in Clearwater River Park and on the campground and boat-launching area in Paul
Lake Park.
Langford Workshop
Manufacture of wood products, such as tables, benches, and signs, and plastic
products, such as lifeboats, marine buoys, and toilet stools, continued, with an
increase shown in plastic products production over 1966.
Plans were prepared for a new shop.
Design and Contract Preparations
Tenders were called and contracts awarded for the construction of a toilet-
change house in Christie Memorial Park and for road and parking-lot paving in
Mount Seymour and Champion Lakes Park. Contracts were also awarded for
electrical installations in Manning and Mount Seymour Parks.
A major water- and sewage-system plan was commenced for Manning Park.
Plans were prepared for a garage workshop in Wells Gray Park, a toilet-change
house in Rathtrevor Beach Park, and a warming-shelter for Manning Park.
SUMMARY OF PROVINCIAL PARKS, 1967
Classification Number Total Acreage
Class A parks  175    1,780,501     1,780,501
Nature conservancy areas in B parks (4)        932,094
Total protected park acreage       2,712,595
Class B parks       9 4,614,548
Class C parks     76 29,246
Total parks  260 6,424,295
Recreation areas       2 15,345
Nature conservancy areas in A parks (1)—North Garibaldi (Garibaldi
Park)     44,032
Nature conservancy areas in B parks (4)—
Big Den (Strathcona Park)      29,784
Central Strathcona (Strathcona Park)  215,000
Comox Glacier (Strathcona Park)     58,010
Eutsuk (Tweedsmuir Park)   629,300
  932,094
Total nature conservancy areas (5)  976,126
 ANNUAL   ATTENDANCE
65
60
55
50
4-5
40
— °
— £
>
35
±   30
2-5
20
CAMPER  NIGHTS      |<^j
DAY   VISITS M
wz
77
2
II
SS
/ —
151
101
- 2 "
CO ^
CN
1957     1958     1959     1960     1961      1962     1963     1964     1965     1966     1967
YEAR
  PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
 British Columbia Provincial Museum and Archives complex with Carillon Tower in
foreground, as it looked in November, 1967.
v
s'';:%«
W'MUUi-MSSuBiM
■.■'■i.' '''<■'■. '•'•♦-•
_____________E__HH_i?%
Site of archaeological dig at Gabriola Island, August, 1967.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 51
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
G. Clifford Carl, Director
The year 1967 was a particularly busy one for the Provincial Museum. Apart
from field work undertaken by members of all divisions, the major activity concerned
the planning and production of displays for the building under construction. The
Museum's scope of activity was also broadened and deepened by several additions
to staff, and attendance figures almost reached an all-time record. The details are
given in the following sections.
FIELD WORK
Natural History Division
Field work carried on by staff in this Division has been directed toward collecting material either for exhibits or for research. For example, Mr. C. J. Guiguet
spent several seasons in the field, first in the Lower Fraser Valley, accompanied by
Mr. M. D. Miller, to collect small mammals and birds, and then later in the Nanaimo
Lakes area on Vancouver Island and in the Fort St. John area in the northern part
of the Province to collect big game for mounting. While in the latter area he was
joined by Dr. A. F. Szczawinski, who collected local vegetation for use in a diorama
under construction. Also involved in this particular project were Conservation
Officer G. D. Gosling and W. G. Pratt and Senior Conservation Officer B. G. Paull,
whose combined help was greatly appreciated.
In the research category was field work carried on by Mr. Guiguet on several
islands in the Barkley Sound area near Bamfield. The objective here was to collect
significant samples of small mammals as part of a long-range project concerning
mammalian populations on coastal islands.
On the botanical side, extensive plant collections were made in various parts of
Saanich Peninsula by Mr. S. Harrison, under the direction of Dr. Szczawinski, as
the second phase in a survey of vegetation cover of this part of Vancouver Island.
The volunteer help of Miss M. C. Melburn in this project is gratefully acknowledged.
Human History Division
A wide variety of field work was carried on by staff members in this Division
in several parts of the Province. Of major importance was an excavation undertaken at a very large archaeological site on Gabriola Island facing False Narrows.
Here a crew under the direction of Mr. John Sendey spent four months, during
which a representative profile was completed and a series of burials was studied in
detail. The results promise to be most significant in interpreting the prehistory of
the Gulf Islands area. At the same time, the operation attracted a great deal of
public interest; more than 2,000 persons visited the site before the crew left at the
end of August.
Another productive venture was a boat trip up the coast as far as the head of
Bute Inlet through the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. R. I. Stewart, of Canoe Cove,
Sidney, B.C., who offered their services and accommodation aboard M.V. "Point
Hope" for this purpose. The several staff members who took part were able to
visit and record a number of archaeological and historical sites located in relatively
inaccessible areas.
 T 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Provincial Museum wishes to acknowledge its gratitude to the following
volunteers, who gave significant assistance to these and other archaeological projects
during the year: Mr. and Mrs. Frank Fleming, of North Vancouver; Mr. Stanley
Waters, of Philadelphia; and Messrs. Alan Carl, John Hall, and David Sawbridge,
all of Victoria, who helped in the excavation at False Narrows. Mr. William O.
Payne, of Newport Beach, Calif., carried out a site survey for the Museum among
the islands off Sidney and also joined the coastal survey crew aboard the "Point
Hope." Mr. S. Whalens also assisted on the " Point Hope " survey, as did Mr. and
Mrs. Stewart's daughters, Mrs. Ann Neelley and Miss Merrie Stewart. Mrs. Nancy
Hayden has given considerable help with cataloguing artifacts in the Museum.
Thanks are also due to other Government departments which contributed
materially to the success of the False Narrows project. The Archaeological Sites
Advisory Board (Department of Provincial Secretary) provided the salary for one
regular crew member, Alan Hoover. The Surveys and Mapping Branch, Topographic Division of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, produced an excellent topographic map of the site to our specifications.
On several occasions Mr. P. Nacnair and occasionally other staff members
were able to witness natice dances and other ceremonies both locally and at Alert
Bay. Other trips were as follows: D. N. Abbott and P. Macnair to Friendly Cove
to investigate totem poles; P. R. Ward and John Smyly to Hazelton to inspect and
advise on conservation of totem poles; John Sendey and G. Moore to Alert Bay
and Fort Rupert to purchase Indian material; Miss C. M. Case to Southern British
Columbia and Williams Lake to purchase historical material; Messrs. Moore and
Ward to Alert Bay and Fort Rupert to establish contacts with both communities and
to reconnoitre island sites in Johnstone Strait; Messrs. Moore and Ward to the
Okanagan Valley to visit museums and historic sites; several staff members to
Comox to produce a short historical documentary film on board the replica of the
S.S. " Beaver " on her last trip before retirement.
While on a personal trip to Eastern Canada, Mr. Moore visited the new
Museum of Science and Technology at Toronto and the Peabody Museum at Yale.
DISPLAY PREPARATION
The planning and production of new exhibits was carried on throughout the
year with no interruption, but occasionally slowed when key staff members were on
leave or away on other business. However, real progress has been made; many
display units are now ready for final installation, and a number of others are in
various stages of planning and construction.
Four dioramas, which are major exhibits in the Natural History Section, have
been assembled in their location on the exhibit floor. Although lighting fixtures,
glass, and other components have not been completely installed, the background
painting for the bighorn sheep group has been well started by Mr. Clarence Tillenius,
and work on all four is expected to proceed smoothly in the new year. In the meantime Mr. John Hermann-Blome, Vancouver taxidermist, has mounted and delivered
three bighorn sheep and four caribou; in preparation are three elk, four mule deer,
and a bull moose.
Various exhibit accessories have also been prepared, including mounted small
mammals and birds, artificial tree trunks, wild flowers, rocks, and working models
of several types. Most await construction of exhibit cases before they can be
installed.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 53
In the human history field a number of large totems and other wood carvings
have been expertly repaired and restored by Mr. Smyly, ready for placing on display,
and outstanding examples of art have been selected by Mr. Bill Holm, an expert
in this field, for inclusion in a hall being designed by him.
Not directly related to the Museum programme were two other activities of the
Display Division—namely, involvement of technical staff in the training programme
sponsored by the Vancouver City College in February, and active participation in
various workshops held in connection with the annual meetings of the British Columbia Museums Association held in Victoria in September. For the latter, considerable
time and labour went into the construction of an animated map in conjunction with
a rear projection cabinet.
CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES
Natural History Division
In addition to routine inspection and care given to the bird and mammal collections, the entire bird skeleton collection was reorganized by Miss Veronica Harrison.
During her term of employment she also prepared and catalogued a significant part of
our large accumulation of bird and mammal material. Special attention was also
given to the stored insect collection and to the fish, amphibian, and reptile collections
preserved in liquid, neither of which had been checked for some time.
As a spare activity, Mr. E. Thorn has reorganized the collections of spiders,
millipedes, and centipedes and has submitted a number of the former to specialists
for study and identification.
During his travels in various parts of the Province, Mr. Moore has arranged for
further specimens to be collected to augment the Provincial collection.
Human History Division
A great deal of time and energy was spent on the Indian collection during the
year as a result of several major projects. The first was the selection, documentation,
and transportation of a large number of items which were loaned to the Vancouver
Art Gallery as our contribution to the very successful "Arts of the Raven " exhibit
on view from June 15th to September 24th.
Loans of Indian material were also made to exhibits at Expo 67 in Montreal, the
most important being a mask displayed in the International Fine Arts Exhibition.
Another flurry of activity was occasioned by the necessity to move our extensive
collection of Indian artifacts from a storage place in the Dogwood Building to temporary quarters in another location, where the material will remain until required for
display or until moved into permanent storage quarters.
With the appointment of Miss C. M. Case as Curator of History, a system of
accessioning and recording historical material was set up, and much time was spent
in organizing collections in this field and in acquiring further material. The number
of valuable historical items that have been turned over to the Museum as a result of
her activities has been most gratifying.
Miss Case has also devoted some time giving technical advice in connection
with the operation of Helmcken House and Craigflower Manor.
In connection with all the above activities, the services of Mr. P. R. Ward have
been in constant demand concerning conservation and handling of the various objects
concerned. This has involved cleaning, repairing, photographing, documenting, and
handling a great many objects, mostly examples of Indian art; checking environmental conditions in display and storage areas; and visiting other places in the
Province where his advice was required.
 T 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Messrs. Moore, Ward, and Smyly, together with Miss Case, collaborated to produce a plan (including a brief and a model) for a proposed reconstruction of the
Father Pandosi Mission near Kelowna at the request of the Okanagan Historical
Society; the early stages of the project were implemented in November.
RESEARCH
While most of the Museum staff time has been devoted to routine matters and
to the display programme, a portion has been utilized in research. As already
reported, field collecting of research material was carried on in connection with the
long-term study of small-mammal distribution, with the plant survey of Saanich
Peninsula which was started last year, and with the survey of archaeological sites on
the Gulf Islands. Materials so collected have yet to be critically examined in detail.
Progress has also been made in the study of the flora of the Province, a joint undertaking of Dr. Szczawinski and Dr. T. M. C. Taylor, of the University of British
Columbia.
Other research projects under way include an analysis of archaeological material
from the Pedder Bay area by Mr. Abbott, a taxonomic study of local spiders by
Mr. Thorn, an investigation of wood preservation by Mr. Ward, a study of data
retrieval systems by Mr. Moore, and a study of plant preservation by dehydration by
Mr. F. L. Beebe and Mr. Miller.
THUNDERBIRD PARK
Early in January a 60-foot pole carved by Messrs. Henry and Tony Hunt was
completed and shipped to Montreal for erection in the Indian Pavilion at Expo 67.
The original log was generously donated by MacMillan Bloedel Limited (Shawni-
gan Division). At the same time, a " welcome figure " designed and carved by
Simon Charlie, of the Cowichan Band, was also completed and sent to Montreal.
The log for this carving was donated by British Columbia Forest Products Limited.
Later Mr. and Mrs. Henry Hunt, Mr. Jonathon Hunt (Henry's father), Mr. Tony
Hunt, and Mr. Simon Charlie flew east to take part in the dedication ceremonies at
the Indian Pavilion.
In April and May Mr. Charlie designed and carved two 12-foot poles which
were presented by the Honourable W. K. Kiernan to the 3rd Field Squadron, R.C.E.,
for erection at the entrance to the camp at Vedder Crossing. Mr. Charlie also spent
a week in San Francisco demonstrating carving as guest of the Canadian Government
Travel Bureau.
The remaining time of the carvers was spent producing house posts and adzed
planks to be used in constructing a replica of a dance house in the new museum.
Logs for the planks were donated by MacMillan Bloedel Limited, and those for the
house posts by British Columbia Forest Products Limited.
OUT-OF-PROVINCE TRAVEL
During 1967 various staff members travelled outside of British Columbia, as
follows:—
Abbott: Ann Arbor, Mich., to attend annual meetings of the Society for American Archaeology, returning by way of Toronto and Ottawa (May).
Abbott:  Bluff Creek, Calif., to investigate reports of Sasquatch.
Carl: Toronto, to attend joint meetings of the Canadian Museums Association
and American Association of Museums, returning via Montreal (May).
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 55
Guiguet: San Francisco, to attend annual meeting of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, returning by way of Denver, Colo.,
to study diorama presentation (March).
Macnair:   Seattle, to attend Northwest Anthropological Conference (March).
Moore: Portland, Oreg., to attend a seminar as guest of the American Association of State and Local History (September).
Thorn: Toronto, to attend the joint meeting of the Canadian Museums Association and the American Association of Museums. He also visited the
National Museum of Canada, Expo 67, Museum of History and American
Museum of Natural History, New York (May).
Ward: Anchorage, Alaska, to attend the second conference on Southeast
Alaska Native Artifacts and Monuments, and the inaugural meeting of the
Alaska Historical Society at Anchorage, Alaska (November). (Mr.
Moore accompanied Mr. Ward as guest of the Alaska Government to
attend the same meetings as a consultant on organizational matters, and to
address the first annual meeting of the Alaska Historical Society.)
EXTENSION SERVICES
The chief activity under this heading was that of Mr. Moore, who was appointed
as Museum Adviser in October, 1966. In order to acquaint himself with the
museums of the Province and to learn of their needs and problems, Mr. Moore
travelled over much of British Columbia visiting as many institutions as possible and
conferring with all interested persons. In those cases where a personal call was not
possible, contact has been maintained by letter or by telephone.
The results so far have been most gratifying. In all cases he was able to offer
helpful advice or to put persons with common interests in touch with one another.
Often he acted as a catalyst between local groups requiring guidance in museum
matters.
Mr. Moore also took an active part in the training course offered by Vancouver
College by contributing to the teaching sessions in Vancouver and by arranging a
two-week training session in Victoria whereby 11 students received specialized
instruction at the Greater Victoria Art Gallery, the Maritime Museum of British
Columbia, and the Provincial Museum. In this connection the co-operation of local
residents who provided lodging and entertainment for the visitors was greatly appreciated.
In September Mr. Moore attended an intensive three-week seminar on museum
management sponsored by the American Association of State and Local History.
The meetings were held in Portland, Oreg.; Mr. Moore was the only Canadian to be
selected for the course.
Throughout the year various staff members have presented lectures and demonstrations on numerous occasions, especially during the September meetings of the
British Columbia Museums Association, hosted by the Maritime Museum of British
Columbia.   Two short television programmes were also given over Channel 8.
After an uninterrupted period of 12 years on the air, the weekly local radio
programme " Outdoors with the Experts," in which the Director took an active part,
was discontinued in May.
Mr. Abbott was appointed to the Advisory Committee to the 'Ksan project,
an ARDA-sponsored scheme to improve the economic situation of Indians around
the Bulkley and Upper Skeena Rivers. He has paid one visit to Hazelton to obtain
background for the proposed reconstruction there and in connection with a craft
training programme which he has been asked to organize.
 T 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In October Mr. Abbott organized a meeting of several dozen scientists and
other persons at the University of British Columbia to view a film made by Mr.
Roger Patterson, of Yakima, Wash., and purporting to show a Sasquatch photographed near Bluff Creek, Calif.
PUBLICATIONS
The following publications have appeared in 1967:—
G. Clifford Carl.
On Powdered Wings.    "Beautiful British Columbia," Spring, 1967.
The Lone Sentinel.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 23, No. 9, pp. 101-102.
Arthur Lionel Meugens  (1881-1967).    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 24,
No. 2, p. 21.
Between Tides on Southern Vancouver Island.   Naturalist's Guide to the
Victoria Region.   B.C. Nature Council, pp. 25-29.
Putting " Life " into Exhibits.    Museum Round-up.    British Columbia
Museums Association, No. 28, pp. 45-47.
Carolyn M. Case.
Cataloguing and Classifying.    Museum Round-up.    British Columbia
Museums Association, No. 28, pp. 27-32.
L. Colin Curtis.
The Mosquitoes of British Columbia.   Occasional Papers of the British
Columbia Provincial Museum No. 15, pp. 1-90.
George Moore.
Random Notes.   Museum Round-up.   British Columbia Museums Association, No. 25, pp. 15-17.
Twelve-day Workshop.   Museum Round-up.   British Columbia Museums
Association, No. 26, p. 3.
Museums and the Tourist Dollar.   Museum Round-up.   British Columbia Museums Association, No. 27, pp. 4-5.
Museum Management.    Vancouver City College,  Museum Workers'
Newsletter, November.
Robert F. Scagel.
Guide to Common Seaweeds of British Columbia.    British Columbia
Provincial Museum Handbook No. 27, pp. 1-330.
Adam F. Szczawinski.
Recommended References to the Flora of British Columbia.   Provincial
Museum 1967.
Erik Thorn.
Preliminary Distributional List of the Spiders of British Columbia.   Report of the Provincial Museum for 1966, pp. 23-39.
Philip R. Ward.
Conservation.   Museum Round-up.   British Columbia Museums Association, No. 28, pp. 48-51.
Some Notes on the Preservation of Totem Poles in British Columbia.
British Columbia Provincial Museum, manuscript report.   November.
In addition to the above, the following reprints were issued:    " The Birds of
British Columbia, (5) Gulls, Terns, Jaegers, and Skua," Handbook No. 13; " The
Birds of British Columbia,   (6)   Waterfowl,"  Handbook No.   15;   "Guide to
Common Edible Plants of British Columbia," Handbook No. 20;   " The Freshwater Fishes of British Columbia," Handbook No. 5.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967
T 57
In the meantime a manuscript on the Alcids and related sea birds is being
prepared by Mr. C. J. Guiguet for possible publication in 1968.
STAFF CHANGES
Coupled with the need to increase the production of new displays and with
the expanding scope of the Museum, several persons were added to the staff in
1967.
Two notable additions were Miss Carolyn M. Case as Curator of History and
Dr. T. C. Brayshaw as Associate Curator of Botany. A graduate in history from
the University of British Columbia, Miss Case spent several years in the museum
field in England before coming to the present post; she is now in charge of the
acquisition, documentation, preservation, and interpretation of historical items for
the Provincial collection. Dr. Brayshaw is also a University of British Columbia
graduate with special training in plant ecology and related fields. He has had
some 10 years' experience in the employ of Canada Department of Forestry as a
research scientist at Ottawa and Chalk River before returning to British Columbia.
At various times during the year Mr. Lloyd Cook, Mr. John Waters, and Mr.
Alex James joined the display division as technicians, and for the summer months
student help was employed as follows: Mrs. Nancy Hayden, Mr. E. J. Noury
(archaeology), Miss Veronica Harrison (zoology), Mr. S. Harrison (botany), and
Miss P. McAfee (display).
Mr. Robert Nichols left the Museum staff early in the year, and his duties as
Museum field agent were taken over by Anthropological Technician John Sendey.
From time to time, as required, Mr. Gordon King and Mr. N. W. Milke acted
as relief attendants.
We were saddened by the loss of Mr. Milke, who died suddenly on September
5th just after a short turn of duty. He had been acting as occasional relief attendant since July, 1966.
At a ceremonial potlatch given at Alert Bay in late December, Anthropological
Assistant Peter Macnair was greatly honoured by being given the Kwakiutl name
" Muhleedi " by Chief Peter Smith, of Tumour Island, B.C.
ADMINISTRATION
In order to provide authority for the Provincial Museum to operate in the
full field of human history, minor amendments to the Museum Act were proposed
and approved at the 1967 Session of the Legislative Assembly. At the same time
the objects of the Museum were rephrased in simpler and clearer terms.
ATTENDANCE
The following attendance figures are estimates based upon sample counts made
at irregular intervals:—
January  6,700
February  8,000
March  12,000
April  7,000
May  12,000
June  28,000
July  78,000
August     81,000
September
October.___
November
December
Total
27,000
5,000
6,000
3,000
273,700
 T 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Of the total attendance, 9,621 persons were members of groups classified as
follows:—
Kindergartens  7
School classes  117
Summer play groups  11
Guides or Scouts  44
Church groups  4
Birthday parties   7
Others (education for democracy, clubs, tours, etc.)   34
Total   224
The estimated total attendance is one of the largest on record, being matched
only by the attendance in 1962, the year of the World's Fair in Seattle, Wash. The
1967 figure shows an increase of about 29 per cent over that of the previous year.
As has been the policy in recent years, the Museum's hours were extended
to 9 p.m. each evening except Sunday during the summer months.
NEW BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
The contract for the final phase of construction of the main building of the
Museum-Archives complex was awarded to Farmer Construction Limited, of
Victoria, in December, 1966; work commenced almost immediately and continued
without interruption throughout 1967. A rough schedule of progress is as follows:—
January: Floors being poured; service tunnel to power-house under construction; retaining-walls and stairs being constructed in sunken garden
(Oliver Construction Company).
February: Service driveway poured, steam pipes and duct-work being installed.
March:   Pouring of third floor completed;  south wall being erected.
April: South and north wall completed; junction boxes for power-line installed along Government Street.
May:   Insulation applied to south wall;  some stone facing in place.
June:  Plaster walls being installed in basement; lecture theatre floor poured.
July: External stonework completed except for vertical columns; tarring and
gravelling of roof almost finished; insulation of interior steelwork largely
completed.
August:   Partitions being installed on exhibit floors and walls being painted.
September:   Metal framing for windows being installed.
October:   Installation of marble work almost completed.
OBITUARIES
We pay tribute here to several citizens of British Columbia who have passed
on in 1967.
Dr. Edgar C. Black, physiologist and faculty member of the University of
British Columbia School of Medicine, renowned for his work on physiology of
fatigue in fishes (March 11th).
Mr. Archie Nicholls, amateur naturalist and photographer of fungi, a longtime resident of British Columbia (July 17th in New Zealand).
Mr. Arthur Lionel Meugens, amateur oologist and photographer, co-founder
of the Victoria Natural History Society (July 27th).
Mr. Norman Milke, relief attendant, on the Museum staff since June, 1966
(September 5th).
 COMMERCIAL
FISHERIES
BRANCH
 Barge-load of oyster-shell strings for collecting oyster spat.
An oyster-spat raft in Pendrell Sound (left) and shell strings for collecting
oyster spat (right).
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967
T 61
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
R. G. McMynn, Director
GENERAL
Participation by the Commercial Fisheries Branch in the many facets of British
Columbia's commercial fisheries during 1967 resulted in a most gratifying year for
the staff. Activities ranged from enforcement work in the shellfish fisheries and
aquatic-plant industry to more or less routine licensing and inspection duties in
the processing sector through advisory and consultative services in matters of
pollution control and other resource-use conflicts. The Branch is finding more and
more that its major contribution to the well-being of the commercial fisheries lies
in its ability to act as the " Provincial voice " in the fisheries-management field,
which, by legislation, is predominantly a Federal responsibility. As a result, attendance at meetings and membership on a number of fishery committees and boards
is a time-consuming, but nevertheless, productive activity of the Commercial Fisheries Branch. For the first time in many years the Branch represented the Province
at two meetings international in scope in 1967—the North Pacific Fisheries Commission in Tokyo and the Southeast Alaska Salmon Fishery meeting in Seattle.
Two Federal-Provincial British Columbia Fishery Committee meetings have been
instrumental in improving understanding and co-operation between Federal and
Provincial Government agencies involved in fishery matters.
One new piece of Provincial fishery legislation was enacted in 1967. This was
a regulation aimed at preventing further spread of the oyster drill, a parasitic snail
very damaging to oyster beds. Considerable time was spent during the year in
drafting Provincial fish-inspection legislation to parallel recently enacted Federal
Acts and regulations, but these will not be ready until 1970 at least.
The acquisition of a 28-foot patrol vessel, the M.V. "Marten," late in 1967
greatly increases the mobility and effectiveness of the Branch's activities, especially
in the oyster and clam fisheries. As interest develops in the field of aquatic plants,
the M.V. " Marten " will be a valuable management tool. The vessel also means
that the Branch can maintain closer contact with fish buyers, packers, and processors, a difficult task when restricted to ground transportation.
The following figures indicate the wholesale value of fish and fish products,
the number of boats and fishermen, and the value of fishing-gear for the 1962—67
period. The significant decline in number of licensed boats and fishermen has
resulted from the imposition of higher salmon licence and boat registration fees in
1965. It is, however, necessary to point out that the reduction in the salmon fleet
has only involved the " putter fleet" (the small 12- to 16-foot boats operated by
part-time commercial fishermen); the building of new and larger salmon-trolling
vessels is still continuing.
Wholesale Value of Fish and Fish
Products
1962
1963
1964
1965
$94,673,000
76,000,000
92,117,000
84,666,000
1966  118,000,000
1967 (estimated)     80,000,000
Number of Licensed Boats
1962  9,143
1963  9,745
1964  9,343
1965 (not available)     	
1966  7,435
1967  7,341
 T 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Number of Licensed Fishermen Value of Gear
1960  14,191 1962  $9,946,000
1961   15,660 1963  10,096,000
1962  15,060 1964  10,711,000
1963  15,370 1965  11,281,000
1966  11,977 1966  11,414,000
1967   11,800
At the time of writing it is estimated that the wholesale value of fish and fish
products for 1967 will be above average for the past 10 years but considerably less
than the record value for 1966.
The very much reduced herring catches, as well as reduced halibut, coho, and
groundfish landings, have contributed to this decline from 1966. Fortunately, good
catches of sockeye salmon tended to offset the herring, halibut, and coho situation.
Current showings of coho, grilse, and chinook salmon in the winter sport fishery
give an optimistic outlook for these species in 1968.
The canned-salmon pack for 1967 was 1,466,288 cases, 352,927 less than
the 1966 pack of 1,819,215 cases. Although this year's pack was down, it was still
the second highest in the last five years. The total this year included 12,897 cases
of sockeye, 2,301 cases of pinks, and 1,104 cases of other species, totalling 16,302
cases, packed from salmon imported from the United States.
BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY
Twenty-two salmon canneries were licensed to operate in 1967. The locations
were as follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena River and Prince Rupert, 7;
Central Area, 3; Vancouver Island, 2; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 9. One
previously licensed cannery in the Vancouver area ceased production, and the
machinery and equipment were dismantled.
Comparative Pack by Species (48-pound Cases)
1966 1967
Sockeye  407,949 558,910
Chinook   14,585 14,962
Steelhead  2,480 1,294
Bluebacks  21,087 7,798
Coho   260,536 138,869
Pink  951,794 650,460
Chum  160,784 93,995
HERRING PRODUCTION
A ban on herring fishing in the coastal waters of British Columbia by means
of purse-seines and trawl-nets was imposed in October in order to rebuild the herring
population. This fishery has been declining in value for some time, and the catch
statistics for September, 1967, showed a production of only 3,070 tons, worth
$101,000, less than a third of the landings of the previous year. The winter herring
fishery was at one time valued at about $8,000,000, practically all from oil and meal
production. Prices have declined on world markets, and, this year, operators
offered fishermen $9.60 per ton, compared to the price of $17.40 per ton in effect
since 1965.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 63
Latest available reports for 1967 show herring-meal production of 2,711 tons
and herring-oil production of 401,589 gallons. The production to the same date
in 1966 was 8,062 tons of meal and 1,231,760 gallons of oil.
DOGFISH SUBSIDY
The Federal Government once again allocated a sum of money for continuation of the marketing assistance programme for production of dogfish flaps. This
programme, initiated last year, has an appropriation of $24,000, and this will
provide for the production of approximately 200,000 pounds of flaps. At present
the dogfish fishery cannot operate without government subsidy, but industry is
hopeful that it could, in time, turn into a self-sustaining operation.
AQUATIC PLANTS
Six companies now hold all British Columbia coastal areas under licence, and,
although only one company is at present actively engaged in harvesting or processing any aquatic plants, it seems more than likely that a sizeable industry has been
founded. In order to provide encouragement in this field, a new policy of issuing
21-year licences for harvesting areas is now in force, and four of the six companies
now hold such licences.
In the case of one of these companies, the Commercial Fisheries Branch has
made, as a condition of the licence, the harvesting by 1969 and 1970 a designated
minimum tonnage of kelp. If this condition is not met, the long-term licence will
be subject to cancellation. Each of the other long-term licences will also be subject
to annual review by the Minister of the Department of Recreation and Conservation.
HALIBUT FISHERY
The International Pacific Halibut Commission was set up under treaty between
Canada and the United States for the protection and rehabilitation of the halibut
fishery. For the purpose of regulations, the Pacific Coast is divided into a number
of areas.   The 1967 regulatory areas were as follows:—
Area 2—South of Cape Spencer.
Area 3a—Cape Spencer to Shumagin Islands.
Area 3b—Shumagin Islands to Atka Island, not including Bering Sea.
Area 3c—West of Atka Island, not including Bering Sea.
Area 4a—The edge between Unimak Pass and the Pribiloff Islands in
Bering Sea.
Area 4b—Fox Islands in Bering Sea.
Area 4c—South of a line between Cape Sarichef and Cape Navarin.
Area 4d—West of 175° W. and the north-eastern flats.
Catch limits in 1967 were not attained in either Area 2 or Area 3a, where the
bulk of Pacific Coast production is taken. The total catch by British Columbia
fishermen for the season was 24,091,000 pounds, compared to 31,831,000 pounds
in 1966. Landings were fairly evenly divided, 9,210,000 pounds in northern ports
and 8,556,000 pounds in the south. A total of 6,313,000 pounds was landed at
American ports.
PACIFIC OYSTER BREEDING, 1967
The summer of 1967 was characterized by long periods of exceptionally hot
weather, resulting in high water temperatures favourable to the breeding of Pacific
oysters. Setting occurred in Departure Bay, and breeding appears to have been
general in the Strait of Georgia.
 T 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Pendrell Sound
A considerable number of straight-hinged Pacific oyster larvae were taken in
five-minute tows as early as June 8th. On June 15th, although the number of
larvae was small, temperatures in the sound ranged from 22.2° to 24.0° C. On
June 22nd, with temperatures still well into the twenties, large numbers of early
umboned and late straight-hinged forms were taken in plankton tows. Surface
salinities were 16 ppt. on June 24th.
By June 28th, gear was available in the sound for quantitative sampling and
for making temperatures and salinity measurements to depths of 20 metres or more.
At this time, salinities were about 15 ppt. and surface temperatures were just about
22.0° C. There were 8.2 larvae per gallon, of which the majority (72.0 per cent)
were in the early umbo stage; together with the straight-hinged forms, these
accounted for 87 per cent of the larval population. By June 30th, early and mid
umbos made up the bulk of numbers (58 and 34 per cent respectively), but the
over-all concentration was down to 1.9 per gallon. Salinities were still around
15 ppt. at the surface, and temperatures lay between 21° and 22° C.
Between June 30th and July 4th setting started, but by July 4th there were
only 0.2 larva per gallon, all in the advanced umbo stage. The vast majority of
larvae, which had not been ready to set, had simply disappeared. Salinity in the
upper sound was still around 15 ppt., but in the middle sound it had dropped to
10 ppt. in the surface layers; temperatures were still well above 20° C. down to a
depth of 5 metres. It is possible, then, that there had been mortality caused by
low salinities.
This first set gave only about four spat per shell on the experimental strings.
Measurements of salinity on July 7th gave a most extraordinary picture; the
salinity rose from 11.3 ppt. at the surface to 11.6 ppt. at 4 metres but rose to
21.3 ppt. by the 5th metre, a sudden rise of nearly 10 ppt. in only a single metre
of depth. Temperatures remained between 21 and 22° C. Despite the low salinity, it appeared that spawning had recently occurred since, although larval concentrations were only 0.7 per gallon, 94 per cent of these were in the straight-hinged
stage.
No quantitative samples were taken on July 13th but a five-minute tow showed
a fair number of straight-hinged forms. Salinities in the upper and middle sound
lay between 11 and 12 ppt. at the surface. Temperatures on the surface were nearly
25° C, and even at 2 metres they were around 23° C. Quantitative samples taken
on July 17th showed straight-hinged larvae in a concentration of 8.2 per gallon;
surface salinities were generally between 11 and 13 ppt., while temperatures lay
between 22° and 24° C.
Readings taken on July 21st showed a drop in temperature of some 2° to
3° C, compared with the 17th; however, there had also been a rise in salinity of
1 to 3 ppt. Larval concentrations stood at 0.9 per gallon, all straight-hinged
forms, but by July 26th there were 120 straight-hinged forms per gallon, the highest concentration recorded during the summer of 1967. The salinity stood between
13 and 14 ppt., and surface water temperatures were between 22° and 24° C.
By July 21st the bulk of the larvae (86 per cent) were in the early umbo stage,
with an average length of 124 u.; over-all concentration was 71.4 per gallon.
Salinities were generally at 14 ppt. or slightly above; temperatures lay between
20° and 22° C. The heavy phytoplankton bloom which had accompanied the
preceding periods of low salinity was showing signs of disappearing. However,
readings made on August 3rd indicated that this upward trend in salinity was
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 65
being reversed; salinity was 12.4 ppt. at the head of the sound and fell progressively
toward the mouth, where it was only 8.5 ppt. at the surface. Temperatures were
around 20° to 22° C. There were 88 larvae per gallon, and a larger proportion
were in the mid-umbo stage. This growth was also reflected in the greater average
size of 180 u.
Salinity in the upper sound had further declined by August 7th, but had risen
in the lower and middle sound; temperatures were around 21° C. There were
98 larvae per gallon; the average size (length) was 154 u., and the majority were
in the early umbo stage. This apparent decrease in size must be put down to
sampling error. At this stage the salinometer became unserviceable, and it was
no longer possible to make comprehensive temperature and salinity profiles.
However, samples of water could be taken and their salinity measured by means
of a hydrometer.
Of the 88 larvae per gallon sampled on August 10th, 79 per cent were in the
mid-umbo stage and only 4 per cent were in the advanced umbo stage. Surface
salinities were 14 to 15 ppt. Setting began shortly after this date, giving about
35 spat per shell on the experimental strings. Sets on commercial strings varied
from 0 to 98 per shell. On August 14th there were only seven larvae per gallon,
and nearly all of them were dead or moribund. Salinities varied from 13.1 ppt.
in the lower sound to 16 ppt. at the head; temperatures were still in the twenties.
Since the larvae had already survived salinities lower than those prevailing at this
time, it is difficult to ascribe mortality to this source.
No further quantitative samples were taken after this date, and plankton tows
failed to reveal any significant numbers of larvae. The average final count for
commercial cultch was 38 spat per shell.
Ladysmith Harbour
Temperatures during July were around 20° to 21° C. On July 26th six larvae
in the advanced umbo stage were found in a five-minute tow at the head of the harbour, which was somewhat surprising since no straight-hinged forms had been
previously noticed. On August 2nd, with temperatures between 21° and 22° C,
eyed larvae were found in the plankton, and the local growers were accordingly advised to put out their cultch. Temperatures continued to rise, slightly exceeding
23 ° C. by August 16th, and fair numbers of umboed and eyed forms persisted in the
plankton. Some commercial shell was removed on August 29th and was found to
have 53.5 spat per shell. By September 8th a few advanced umbos were present
still, but water temperatures were down to around 18° C, so observations were
discontinued from this time.
CUSTOM CANNERIES
Four canneries designed to custom-can sport-caught salmon operated during
1967. They were located at Brentwood, Madeira Park, Nanaimo, and Quadra
Island. Production to the end of November, 1967, was 101,022 cans, and although
a new cannery operated this year, the total pack was 9,737 cans fewer than that of
1966. Three thousand two hundred and nine sportsmen used these facilities; 2,078
were residents, 1,131 non-residents. The following number and species of salmon
were canned: Coho, 6,846; chinook, 2,779; pink, 369; sockeye, 226; steelhead,
110; chum, 28. In addition, the canneries smoke-cured a total of 7,764 pounds of
sport-caught salmon.
 T 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REVIEW OF FISHERIES PRODUCTION, 1966
The total marketed value of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1966 amounted
to $118,000,000, which was $33,300,000 more than in 1965. The main reasons
for this increase were salmon landings of 163,000,000 pounds, compared with
90,000,000 pounds in 1965, and a canned-salmon pack of 1,819,215 cases, nearly
double the 1965 pack. The wholesale value of halibut at $10,700,000 exceeded the
previous year. Slighdy offsetting this was a decline in the value of herring fishery of
some $3,400,000.
As marketed, the principal species were salmon, with a value of $86,600,000;
halibut, with a value of $10,700,000; and herring, with a value of $8,300,000.
The landed value of the 1966 halibut catch was $8,687,000, as compared to
$8,699,000 in 1965.
In 1966 the marketed value of shellfish amounted to $3,426,000. The value
of the clam production was $383,000; oyster production, $964,000; crab production, $1,438,000;  and shrimp production, $641,000.
Gear and Equipment
i The 1966 inventory of fishing-gear included 9,843 salmon gill-nets, 511 salmon
purse-seines, 7 salmon drag-seines, 107 herring gill-nets, 119 herring purse-seines,
and 13 herring trawl-nets, with a total value of $7,583,000. Wire, cotton, and
nylon trolling-lines were valued at $545,000.
Salmon-cannery Operations
The Commercial Fisheries Branch licensed 23 salmon canneries to operate
in 1966, one more than in 1965. The operating canneries in 1966 were located as
follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena River and Prince Rupert, 7; Central
Area, 3; Vancouver Island, 2; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 10. This year
saw two new canneries in operation—one at Port Hardy on Vancouver Island, the
other at Shearwater near Bella Bella on the Mainland.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia, according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by canners licensed to operate in 1966, amounted
to 1,819,215 cases, 905,258 cases more than the 1965 pack. The canning industry
experienced an excellent year with a resultant record wholesale canned pack valued
at $64,062,000.
Sockeye Salmon
The 1966 sockeye pack was 407,949 cases. This total was well above the
pack of 245,798 cases in 1965 and the highest since 1958.
Pink Salmon
The pink pack of 951,794 cases was valued at $27,272,654. This was the
largest pink pack since 1962.
Coho Salmon
Although the 1966 pack of 281,623 cases was slightly below the pack of
295,284 cases in 1965, landings of 38,681,000 pounds were at a record level.
Wholesale value of coho was $20,847,000, highest in the last 10 years.
Chum Salmon
Landings of chum salmon were more than double those of 1965. The canned
pack of 160,784 cases had a wholesale value of $3,880,000.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1967 T 67
Chinook Salmon
Chinook salmon landings of 15,300,000 pounds were within 2 per cent of the
record production of 1963. The value of these landings, amounting to $6,700,000,
was $1,100,000 higher than the previous record of 1965.
Steelhead
The 1966 steelhead-trout pack amounted to 2,480 cases, 1,637 more than the
1965 pack of 843 cases. Although steelhead are not salmon, some are canned each
year, principally those caught incidental to fishing other species.
Other Canneries
Shellfish Canneries.—In 1966, 11 shellfish canneries were licensed to operate
in British Columbia and produced the following pack: Clams, 22,195 cases; crabs,
13,484 cases; abalone, 15 cases; shrimp, 84 cases; oysters, 20,412 cases.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—Two of the three tuna-fish canneries licensed to operate
in 1966 produced a pack of 192,977 cases of canned tuna.
Specialty Products.—Sundry processing plants produced the following: Fish
paste, 26,544 24/2Vi-ounce cases; battered salmon, 3,235 hundredweight; shredded
lingcod (Sushi), 162 cases; lingcod fish cakes, 54,000 Vi-pound cakes; canned
smoked oysters, 194^ 24/4-ounce cases; anchovy paste, 180 pounds; smoked-
salmon paste in assorted containers, 8,551 pounds; specialty pack smoked salmon
in mayonnaise and in oil, 1,615 pounds; canned smoked salmon, 349 cases of
various sizes.
Fish-curing
Eighteen smoke-houses processed the following: Herring (kippers, 56,547
pounds; bloaters, 6,420 pounds); cod, 484,798 pounds; salmon, 524,493 pounds;
eels, 5,000 pounds; mackerel, 4,450 pounds; steelhead, 302 pounds; shad, 300
pounds; sturgeon, 250 pounds; and trout, 35 pounds.
Dry-salted Herring
In 1966, 101.75 green tons of herring were salted; of these, 81 tons were
packed in boxes.
Pickled Herring
Four plants put up the following: 720 cases of 12/12-ounce jars; 1,659 cases
of 12/32-ounce jars; 4,040 cases of 12/16-ounce jars; 135 cases of 6-pound cans;
4,270 12-ounce jars; 3,480 14-ounce containers; 240 25-pound kits; 877 tins of
rollmops; 812 tins of Bismark herring; and 1,244 tins of specialty pack.
Frozen Herring Bait
Thirteen firms reported a total production of 39,835,200 pounds of frozen bait
in 1966.
Mild-cured Salmon
Five plants were licensed to operate in 1966 and produced 291 tierces with a
total weight of 2,400 hundredweight. In 1965, five plants were licensed and produced 541 tierces with a total weight of 6,087 hundredweight.
Salmon Roe
Ten plants reported the following production for 1966: 4,000 cartons of
24/3-ounce,  24/3%-ounce,  and 24/5-ounce glass  jars of  salmon-roe caviar;
 T 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
593,465 pounds of salted salmon roe; 338,000 pounds of salmon caviar Japanese
style; salmon-roe bait, 40,000 pounds; and 139,192 pounds of salmon roe, use
not specified.
Halibut
Halibut fishing opened in the Bering Sea on March 25th and off the British
Columbia coast on May 9th. The season started with good landings, bringing near-
record prices.
Landings by Canadian fishermen at British Columbia and United States ports
totalled 31,999,300 pounds, valued at $11,471,000. Halibut fishing in British
Columbia coastal waters closed August 25th.
Fish Oil and Meal
A six-week strike in the fall, coupled with a coast-wide scarcity of fish, gave
British Columbia fishermen their poorest herring season in five years.
The year's landings dropped to 153,826 tons, nearly 70,000 tons under the
1965 total and far below the record number of 286,290 tons landed in 1963.
There were 10 herring-reduction plants licensed to operate in 1966, and these
plants produced a total of 27,058 tons of meal and 27,560,000 pounds of oil. Total
value of all herring products was $8,305,000.
Fish-liver Reduction (Cod, Dogfish, Halibut).—Three plants were licensed in
1966, processing 170,939 pounds of fish livers and producing 181,992 million
U.S.P. units of Vitamin A. In 1965 two plants processed 78,748 pounds of fish
livers and produced 291,626 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A.
Fish-offal Reduction.—During the 1966 season nine plants were licensed to
operate and produced 6,540 tons of meal and 676,678 gallons of oil. In 1965 nine
plants produced 694.25 tons of meal and 59,772 gallons of oil.
STATISTICAL TABLES
Table I.—Licences Issued and Revenue Collected, 1963 to 1967, Inclusive
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
Licence
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Salmon cannery	
24
13
5
19
38
13
4
9
3
1
2
447
$4,800
1,300
500
1,900
38
13
4
9
3
100
200
11,175
21
1
9
4
20
45
14
3
8
3
1
403
1
3
$4,200
100
900
400
2,000
45
14
3
8
3
100
100
10,075
100
60
22
12
5
21
54
9
3
9
3
1
404
5
$4,400
23
9
4
19
59
11
3
9
3
1
1
400
1
10
3
26
19
$4,600.00
22
~8
3
19
86
11
1
9
1
1
387
145
4
44
189
2
$4,400.00
Herring reduction ...
1,200
500
2,100
54
9
3
9
3
100
7b,ioo
, 72
900.00
400.00
1,900.00
59.00
11.00
3.00
9.00
3.00
100.00
100.00
10,000.00
100.00
363.70
75.00
260.00
190.00
800.00
300.00
1,900.00
86.00
Shellfish cannery.
Tuna-fish cannery	
Fish-offal reduction	
Fish-liver reduction ■
Whale reduction  .
11.00
1.00
9.00
1.00
100.00
9,675.00
Province ofs B.C.. re-
2,375.21
100.00
Aquatic-plant harvest-
	
	
440.00
1,890.00
Aquatic-plant process-
:   'AC
20.00
Totals 	
578
$20,042'
537
$18;108
551
$18,625
601
$19,073.70
932
$22,108.21
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1967
T 69
Table II.—Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia,
1962 to 1966, Inclusive
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
$69,763,000
8,492,000
9,312,000
1,415,000
544,000
405,000
608,000
584,000
173,000
448,000
58,000
2,876,000
$48,960,000
11,695,000
7,993,000
1,573,000
492,000
705,000
781,000
643,000
162,000
340,000
57,000
2,599,000
$63,103,000
11,561,000
8,056,000
1,751,000
549,000
1.160,000
647,000
662,000
273,000
190,000
55,000
4,110,000
$52,071,000
11,752,000
10,191,000
1,740,000
723,000
1,800,000
708,000
661,000
321,000
296,000
15,000
4,197,000
$86,572,000
8,305,000
Halibut	
10,741,000
Crabs and shrimps	
2,079,000
Lingcod  	
797,000
1,837,000
964,000
Sole	
1,126,000
451,000
Clams 	
Livers and viscera	
Miscellaneous	
383,000
25,000
4,704,000
Totals  	
$94,673,000
$76,000,000
$92,117,000
$84,475,000
$117,984,000
Table III.—Statement Showing the Quantity of Herring Products
Produced in British Columbia, 1961 to 1967, Inclusive
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Meal
Oil
1961/62	
Cases
19,102
892
Tons
206.35
562.30
210.64
28.00
101.75
Tons
40,746
41,299
53,271
46,071
41,509
27,058
4,751,082 gal.
1962/63   .	
40,243,000 lb.
1963/64                ■'             	
50,037,000 lb.
iqfi4.fi'.
44,902,000 lb.
19fi5/fifi
43,442,000 lb.
27,560,000 lb.
1966/67 _
Table IV.—Statement Showing the Quantity of Meal, Oil, and Vitamin A
Produced from Sources Other than Herring, 1960 to 1967, Inclusive
Season
From Whales
Oil from
Fish Livers
From Other Sources
Meal
Oil
Meal and
Fertilizer
•     Oil
1960/61     .   .
1Qfi1/fi?.
Tons
2,661
3,060
3,398
2,931
2,399
Gal.
Unitsi
2,258,748
3,228,748
575,337
938,135
1,272,815
291,626
787,992
Tons
2,099
1,157
1,704
1,464
1,292
694
6,366.5
Gal.
62,983
127,580
1962/63	
1963/64              ..
1964/65	
639,060
707,596
663,200
591,703
535,250
167,349
403,309
279,452
59,772
684,703
1965/66	
1966/67	
1 Million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A.
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st annually.
 T 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1962 to 1966, Inclusive,
Showing Areas where Canned
(48-pound cases.)
These tables supplied by courtesy of the Canadian Department of Fisheries in Vancouver.
1962
Area
Species
Districts Nos.
land 3
District
No. 2
Total
198,001
1,217%
l,145i/2
l,698'/2
520'/2
12,097
120,038
508,8781/2
70,304
99,7151/4
904
1,190
1,019
294%
297,716i/2
2,12116
2,3351/4
2,717!/2
815
12,097
Coho—	
55,600
679,783
64,179
175,638
Pint
1,188,661%
134,483
Total?
913,9001/2
902,685
1,816,5851/4
1963
Sockeye..
Red spring-
Pink spring	
White spring-.
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho	
Pink	
Chum„
Totals..
125,4801/2
1,866
1,362
2,811
330
11,329
89,252
542,700!/2
62,9051/2
838,036
32,8941/2
912
1,078
1,971
441%
54!/2
56,847
214,752
56,2841/2
365,235
158,375
2,778
2,440
4,782
771%
11,383%
146,099
757,452%
119,190
T,203,271%~
1964
Sockeye-
Red spring-
Pink spring	
White spring..
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho	
Pink	
Chum-
Totals _
200,203
1,823
9531/2
1,906
438
36,259
90,665
140,4751/4
76,990
549,713
143,155'/2
777
2,076i/2
1,5911/2
824
77,8081/2
323,631
155,731!/2
705,5951/2
343,358%
2,600
3,030
3,49714
1,262
36,259
168,473%
464,1061/4
232,7211/4
1,255,308%
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1967
Table V
T 71
British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1962 to 1966, Inclusive,
Showing Areas where Canned—Continued
1965
Area
Species
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
Total
165,09514
4,682
1,567%
5,998
337V4
19,522
172,7481/2
121,543
17,161
80,702
1,718
3,003%
l,922i/2
506
1,778
101,235
166,382
48,054%
245,797V4
6,400
4,571
7,920i/2
8431/2
21,300
r.nhn
273,983V4
Pink	
287,925
65,215%
Totals 	
508,655
405,301%
913,9561/4
1966
Sockeye	
Red spring	
Pink spring	
White spring.
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho _
Pink	
Chuni-
Totals__
287,3191/2
4,254%
1,583
2,054
457%
20,989
136,7501/2
252,773
36,078
742,259
120,6291/2
l,743!/2
2,905
2,045
2,02244
98
123,785%
699,021
124,706
1,076,956
407,949
5,998
4,488
4,099
2,480
21,087
260,536
951,794
160,784
1,819,215
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1968
1430-168-1038
 

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