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REPORT of the FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1968 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1969

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister F. S. McKinnon, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of the
FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1968
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1969
  Victoria, British Columbia, February, 1969.
To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C, O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I respectfully submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of the
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for 1968.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
 The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, British Columbia.
Sir,—This is the Annual Report of the Forest Service for 1968.
F. S. McKLNNON,
Deputy Minister of Forests.
 (British Columbia Forest Service photo, 1968.)
Throughout summer months a number of university students work with British Columbia Forest Service in a variety of field projects. This young man, a U.B.C. engineering
student, worked as a compassman with a forest-road survey team in the Kakweiken River
area of Thompson Sound.
  CONTENTS
1. Chief Forester's Report
Forest Inventory Division-
Highlights	
1968 Progress-
Developments-
Forest Research Division.
Genetic Studies	
Seedling Physiology Studies.
Soil Classification	
Ecology _____
Data Processing-
Silviculture—
Vancouver Forest District-
Prince Rupert Forest District-
Prince George Forest District
Kamloops Forest District	
Nelson Forest District	
Canada Land Inventory.
4. Reforestation Division-
Forest Nurseries-
Improvements	
Forest Tree Seed	
Reconnaissance and Survey Work-
Planting	
Co-operation	
Page
.   11
. 13
. 13
. 13
. 14
. 15
. 15
. 16
. 16
. 16
. 16
  16
  17
  17
  17
  17
  18
  19
  19
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
Interdepartmental Forestry and Corrections Camp Programme 24
Public Information and Education Division-
News Releases and Special Articles	
Photography	
Motion Pictures	
Film Library	
Library	
School Lecture Programme	
Signs	
Exhibits	
Advertising	
26
26
26
27
27
27
27
28
28
28
 5 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Page
6. Forest Management Division  29
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  29
Lumber Prices  29
Log Prices  29
Stumpage Prices  29
Stumpage Adjustments  3 0
Sustained-yield Programme—
Public Sustained-yield Units  30
Pulp Harvesting Forests  31
Certified Tree-farms  31
Farm Wood-lot Licences  31
Tree-farm Licences  31
Working Plans  31
Silviculture  31
Scaling  32
Flood Basins—
Peace River  32
Mica  32
Libby  32
7. Grazing Division  33
General Conditions  33
Range  33
Hay  33
Markets and Prices  33
Range Management  34
Range Surveys  34
Range Improvements  3 4
Peace River Pastures  35
Co-operation  36
Administration  36
Grazing Permits  36
Hay Permits  36
Grazing Fees  37
Control and Enforcement  37
8. Engineering Services Division  38
Engineering Surveys  38
Design  38
Forest Management Engineering  38
Road Construction and Maintenance  40
Building Services and Marine Section  40
Mechanical Section  41
Forest Service Maintenance Depot  42
Radio Section  43
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
Forest Protection Division
Weather	
Fires	
Occurrence and Causes
Cost of Fire-fighting	
Damage	
Fire-suppression Crews
Aircraft	
9
Page
  45
  45
  45
  45
  45
  45
  45
  45
  46
  46
  46
  46
  46
  46
  46
  47
  47
  47
  47
  47
Fire Statistics    47
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  47
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks  47
Insect Survey and Control  47
Research Projects  48
Roads and Trails	
Slash and Snag Disposal	
Vancouver Forest District	
Prescribed Burns	
Vancouver Forest District	
Prince Rupert Forest District-
Prince George Forest District..
Kamloops Forest District	
Nelson Forest District	
Fire-law Enforcement	
Forest Closures	
Protection Planning and Research..
10. Forest Service Training-school	
Enrolment and Graduation.
  49
  49
Extra Courses and Functions  50
11. Accounting Division .
Fiscal	
  51
  51
  51
  53
Communications and Training  53
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  53
Classification, Salaries, and Working Conditions  54
Administration.
12. Personnel Division ..
13. Personnel Directory, 1968
55
14. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement the Report of
the Forest Service  59
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1968
CHIEF FORESTER'S REPORT
Production records were broken and progress in the forest industries was brisk
throughout 1968. The year also saw further steps taken toward maximum use of
our forest resources.
Here are some of the year's highlights:—
• Estimates show the unduplicated selling value of forest-industry products
was $1,375,000,000, an increase of 14.1 per cent over 1967.
• The timber harvest passed the 1,700,000,000 cubic feet mark, an increase
of nearly 130,000,000 cubic feet over the previous year.
• In wood products alone the value of shipments jumped nearly 20 per cent
with an increase of more than $140,000,000.
• Pulp and paper shipments climbed by nearly $35,000,000, about 7 per cent
over 1967. During the year two new pulp-mills were completed and started
operations—one at Prince George, the other at Skookumchuk—bringing
to 19 the number of pulp (only) mills now operating in British Columbia.
• Financial returns to the Province reached a record high. Royalty and
stumpage rates, combined with an 8.2-per-cent increase in the volume of
timber scaled, brought total charges to $58,036,564, 44.9 per cent above
the 1967 figure.
• Direct forest revenue was $53,841,116, up 26.7 per cent over the previous
year, with timber-sale stumpage (comprising more than four-fifths of this
revenue) rising to $44,390,571, an increase of 27.8 per cent.
• Beachcombers with special licences under section 150 (18) of the Forest
Act recovered nearly 900,000 cubic feet from Masset Inlet in the Queen
Charlotte Islands, about 200,000 cubic feet from shores of Vancouver
Island's west coast, and more than 23,000 cubic feet from beaches of
Babine Lake.
• The export of logs from British Columbia totalled 185,458,779 board-feet,
1.8 per cent of the year's cut. Of this, approximately 97 Vi million board-
feet came from Crown grants with export privileges, and nearly 88 million
board-feet deemed surplus to requirements of industry.
• There were 1,647 forest fires throughout the Province in 1968 (compared
with 3,216 in 1967), and they covered 33,381 acres. Fire-fighting costs
totalled $862,600.
Surveys on public sustained-yield units continued throughout 1968, and unit
standard information is now available on 78,000,000 acres. By the end of the
year, allowable annual cut figures for all existing (and proposed) units were available
to the public. The reports provide data on the volume of wood available under
three conditions: (1) where there are no licensees in a public sustained-yield unit
complying with close utilization (maximum use) standards, (2) where some operate
at these standards, and (3) where all licensees are following close-utilization
procedures.
ll
 12 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A revised form of timber-sale harvesting licence was introduced late in 1968
to encourage total adoption of close utilization and maximum use of forest resources.
It is also hoped operations of the wood-product industries will provide a greater
proportion of useable material for the pulp and paper industry.
Tree-improvement and seed-collection programmes received special attention
by the Research Division throughout the year, with encouraging results, while new
programmes were developed in its data-processing operations.
Among highlights of the Engineering Services Division's work in 1968 were
projects related to preparation for flooding of large forested areas at the Libby,
Mica, and Peace River dam-sites.
Progress made by the Reforestation Division indicates the target of 75,000,000
seedlings per year will be reached by 1975. Throughout 1968, 21,130,500 trees
were planted on 57,590 acres, of which the Forest Service handled 6,235,700 or
29.5 per cent. Close to 12,000 bushels of cones were collected, and they will yield
approximately 3 tons of seed.   Nearly 17 tons of seed are now in storage.
Initial development started on the new 465-acre Surrey Nursery, in Surrey,
with a planned ultimate production of more than 40,000,000 seedlings annually.
A major step was taken in the communications field in 1968 when the Forest
Service acquired Telex. Ten permanent units and one for seasonal use were
installed to provide an efficient and dependable communications system linking all
five forest districts and the Victoria headquarters.
Production of forage on Crown range was above average, and stockmen had
no serious problems connected with range use.
At Green Timbers, the Forest Service's training-school, 24 men graduated
from the 15th advanced course, and a similar number completed the seventh basic
training course. To date a total of 319 men have graduated from the school's
advanced course and 148 from the basic training programme.
The year saw major administrative changes in the Service's Information Division
with the appointment of a new forester-in-charge and a new assistant.
The permanent Civil Service establishment of the Service stood at 884 at the
end of 1968.
All told, 1968 was a good year for the forest business of our Province, and
there is every indication the favourable trends will continue. The way world
demand and markets for wood products are shaping up, it is quite likely the forest
industry of British Columbia will develop into at least a $2-billion-a-year business
within the next seven years. Such a target can be reached with wise management
and with maximum use of our resources.
   REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
13
FOREST INVENTORY DIVISION
HIGHLIGHTS
Unit survey progress on public sustained-yield units continued, and information to unit standard is now available for 71,000,000 acres. By 1976 all established
public sustained-yield units plus all proposed northern sustained-yield units should
have been surveyed to this standard.
Allowable annual cuts for proposed and established units were available by
the end of 1968. The calculations show the amount of wood available at close
utilization under three different conditions—(1) when no one (past), (2) a portion
(present), and (3) all (future) are operating to close-utilization standard.
A new Provincial inventory to be published early in 1969 will provide (by
unit) volumes to two levels of utilization, areas by cover class, mean annual increments, rotations, allowable cuts, and other pertinent information.
After two years of preparation, a cruising manual providing uniform method
and compilation among all forest districts, industry, and the Forest Service is being
distributed. Implementation and administration of the manual will be the responsibility of the Forest Management Division.
1968 PROGRESS
Field efforts were directed to classification and sampling of mature and immature stands, derivation of loss factors, and determination of the growth and yield of
immature stands.
In 1968 the Division completed field work to unit standard on five public sustained-yield units, one proposed public sustained-yield unit, one special sale area,
and three small parcels added to the Windermere Public Sustained-yield Unit. A
total of 12,089,880 acres was brought to unit standard.
Table A.—1968 Field Work
UNIT STANDARD INVENTORY
Unit
Maps
Classified
Number of Samples
Immature
Mature
Total
Estimated
Acreage
Adams P.S.Y.U  	
Fort Nelson P.S.Y.U. (proposed).
Kamloops Region S.S.A	
Kinbasket P.S.Y.U 	
Niskonlith P.S.Y.U 	
Quadra (Sechelt) P.S.Y.U. .
Rivers Inlet P.S.Y.U	
Windermere P.S.Y.U. (additions)..
Totals	
35
225
67
118
20
58
105
38
29
131
219
262
194
132
98
287
25
37
22
75
87
198
4
21
666
678
I     1,143
583,846
4,274,889
1,239,554
2,370,668
359,278
952,825
2,017,334
291,486
12,089,880
LOSS FACTORS
North Thompson P.S.Y.U.
231
1 Felled samples.
2 Permanent samples.
GROWTH AND YIELD
Cranbrook P.S.Y.U.                                   	
—
66
31
20
31
	
Fernie P.S.Y.U         .    	
Upper Kootenay P.S.Y.U  	
Windermere. PS Y.U. . ....                             	
Totals	
1482
—
 14
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Field crews used a wide variety of equipment. Good use was made of motorcycles on old logging-roads only accessible from salt water. Future operations in
northern units will require a suitable swamp vehicle.
The Division completed office work on all the 1967 units in Table B by
September, 1968, and all were released except the Purden and Bowron.
Table B.—Production of Final Forest-cover Maps for 1967 Projects
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Number
of Maps1
Forest and Non-forest Area in Acres
Volume in M Cu. Ft.
on Mature
Crown
Alienated
Total
Crown Area
22
326,925
30,267
357,192
479,6282
12
156,207
2,604
158,811
357,5822
20
297,938
14,279
312,217
331,6652
33
643,186
52,734
695,920
368,7372
23
311,847
17,902
329,749
396,7072
54
983,673
53,189
1,036,862
1,625,3362
37
609,197
1,508
610,705
1,691,5892
132
1,504,887
93,702
1,598,589
6,736,7683
36
557,435
48,368
605,803
767,7312
19
217,236
47,061
264,297
576,4423
30
517,862
40,212
558,074
342,3442
418
6,126,393
401,826
6,528,219
13,674,529
Barriere.	
Bowron	
Edgewood.
Granby.
Nakusp..
North Thompson .
Purden  —
Queen Charlotte..
Raft	
Quadra (Sayward).
Slocan 	
Totals-
i Scale: 20 chains to 1 inch.
2 Volumes, 7.1"-f-d.b.h. close-utilization standard less decay.
3 Volumes, 9.1"+d.b.h. close-utilization standard less decay.
The Loss Factor Section has completed new taper curves for larch, Coast
immature fir, cedar, hemlock, alder, maple, cottonwood, birch, and aspen. The
Division is also publishing new zonal diameter-class loss factors to replace or supplement those in Forest Survey Note No. 8. Local factors for hemlock and balsam in
the Bell-Irving, Dewdney, and Hazelton portion of the Skeena Public Sustained-yield
Unit are now available.
The Growth and Yield Section, using both temporary immature and permanent
immature growth samples, has produced an additional 49 local volume-over-age and
133 local diameter-over-age curves. The former provide mean annual increment,
and the latter average tree diameters for growth types at any stand age.
DEVELOPMENTS
During 1968 the Wapiti Public Sustained-yield Unit was established, and 20-
chain photography was obtained for a unit standard survey in 1969. Since 70-mm.
helicopter photography taken with two Linhof cameras suspended from a new boom
continues to be promising, it is planned to survey a portion of the Wapiti by this
method. To make interpretation and measurement possible with fixed-base 70-mm.
photography, a Wild 40 autograph plotter and EK5 co-ordinate printer have been
leased from Wild of Canada Ltd.   This system is finked to an I.B.M. card punch.
Other public sustained-yield units to be inventoried in 1969 are the Ashnola,
Big Valley, Cottonwood, Lardeau, Naver, Nootka, Similkameen, Willow River, and
proposed Fontas.
The loss-factor objective is to strengthen zonal diameter-class factors, especially
minor species in each zone, and to localize the factors for major species in public
sustained-yield units. Work will continue in the decadent hemlock-cedar stands of
the Arrowhead, Eagle, Longworth, and Robson Public Sustained-yield Units. Consideration must be given soon to a loss study of commercial species north of the 56th
parallel of latitude, as the unit survey programme is moving in that direction.
Since permanent growth samples have been established in the South Transition
Bioclimatic Region, the Interior Wet Belt Region, and the East Kootenay Region,
it is planned to establish samples in the South Coast Bioclimatic Region in 1969.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 15
FOREST RESEARCH DIVISION
A detailed report on the research programme for 1968 will appear in the
annual Forest Research Review compiled at the end of the fiscal year.
GENETIC STUDIES
The Cowichan Lake Experiment Station is the centre for Coastal tree-improvement investigations of Douglas fir. An additional 5 acres are being cleared adjacent
to the nursery-site. The sprinkler system was improved by installing a larger pump
and additional sprinklers for the transplant area.
A third series of intraspecific crosses of Douglas fir raised at the nursery were
established on five test-sites on Vancouver Island. A total of 13,879 seedlings was
planted in the spring, and survival on completion of the first growing season was
95 per cent. The first measurements on the test-sites established prior to 1968 will
be made in 1969.
There was adequate production of both female and male strobili at Lake Cowichan, and controlled pollinations were made on the clones of 16 plus trees and on
10 first-generation inbreds. The first pollinations were made on the progeny of two
trees which were selected for good form and vigour in 1954. Another 15 provenances of Douglas fir from New Mexico, Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana,
and British Columbia were established in the breeding arboretum.
A paper on " The Role of Tree Breeding and Other Tree Improvement Practices
in Reforestation " was given at the annual meeting of the Canadian Institute of
Forestry, St. John's, Nfld.
A total of 88 provenances of Douglas fir, raised at the nursery, was planted on
a 25-acre test-site at 400 feet elevation near Sooke on Southern Vancouver Island.
Sufficient 1 + 1 stock is available for planting two additional test-sites in the spring
of 1969. Seedlings were grown for planting 11 test-sites in the 1969/70 planting
season.
At Sooke all plants were treated with Arcotal as a precaution against browsing
by deer.
A range-wide collection of seed, cones, and foliage from 150 lodgepole pine
provenances has been assembled, and marks the first stage in a study of geographic
variation in this species. In the spring of 1968, seed of 30 provenances were sown
in the research nurseries at Cowichan Lake and Red Rock as a pilot study for
comprehensive sowings scheduled for 1969.
At the new Red Rock Research Centre, near Prince George, a small nursery
of 4 acres was graded, and a few beds were sown to lodgepole pine and white spruce
to test fertility and nursery practices.
A long-term programme for producing genetically improved seed of Interior
spruces has been planned for this centre. The first step was the selection of 183
trees from the adjoining region to the east. Six were selected with unusual form to
demonstrate inheritance traits, as opposed to environmental traits. The remaining
trees were selected for their better than average form, and these will be the basis
for a tree-improvement programme. Wind-pollinated seed was collected from them
and scion material for rooting and grafting was collected last winter. The seed will
be used for a small-scale progeny trial preliminary to controlled crossing of the scion
material when it reaches flowering stage.
A breeding arboretum of hardy spruces will be started from exotic material and
selected material from throughout the Interior of British Columbia.
 16 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SEEDLING PHYSIOLOGY STUDIES
A study in frost hardiness indicates no change in 2-0 Douglas fir nursery stock
results from storage in darkness (in plastic-lined paper bags) at 32° to 35° F.
Consequently plants lifted in September or early October and placed in cold storage
remain susceptible to frost damage. On the other hand, frost-hardy plants placed
in cold storage in January remain frost hardy at least until April, when plants growing outside in the nursery have lost much of their winter frost hardiness.
SOIL CLASSIFICATION
The soil-classification project to develop technique and criteria for mapping
and interpretation of forested lands, reported in 1967, has been favourably accepted
by tree-farm licensees, and a few companies are presently planning to undertake
mapping of their holdings on Vancouver Island.
An analysis and interpretation of the fertilizer projects initiated by Pacific
Logging and Cominco has been undertaken at the request of these companies, and
this information will be used in the interpretation of the above soil classification.
ECOLOGY
A field trip to Aleza Lake in September attended by Forest Service personnel
and industrial foresters examined part of the experimental area of E.P. 528, " Durability of Scarified Seedbeds " (B.C.F.S. Research Note No. 42). The purpose of
this field trip was to demonstrate that the effectiveness of soil scarification is of
limited duration because of rapid weed invasion, especially on moist sites.
DATA PROCESSING
Research requests for data processing during 1968 increased and constituted
the major work load throughout the year.
New programmes (information analysis, hierarchical polythetic classification,
descriptive statistics, silvicultural data summary, and other miscellaneous programmes) were developed, others were modified (scatter plot programme analysis of
variance, covariance analysis, multiple regression analysis) and one (Duncan's
multiple range test from the University of British Columbia) has been adapted to
comply with the local computing facilities.
Assistance has been given to the Canada Land Inventory programme in
developing its meteorological-data summary.
During 1968 a system was designed to compute adjustments to stumpage rates
as a result of fluctuations in lumber prices. Data for Nelson and Prince George
Forest Districts have been assembled and two months of adjustments calculated for
the Nelson Forest District.
Computer malfunctions of an intermittent nature occurred during the year,
and a system of control checks was added to the system to catch mismanipulation
of data.
A second forester was made available for training in systems design and
programming and has been undergoing training since May.
SILVICULTURE
Vancouver Forest District
Survival figures in the western hemlock establishment trial continue to demonstrate the advantages of a northerly aspect, shade, and a mineral-soil planting
 PUBLIC SUSTAINED YIELD UNITS (P.S.Y.U.'s)
PUBLIC SUSTAINED YIELD UNITS
P.S
.Y.U.
s G__£__ Ins
Lde Pulpwood Ha
P.H
-A.
NO.
1
9.
Big Valley
43.
Naver
15.
Carp
44.
Nechako
20.
Crooked River
52.
Parsnip
NO.
2
1.
Adams
45.
Nehalliston
5.
Barriere
46.
Nicola
6.
Barton Hill
47.
Niskonlith
11.
Botanie
49.
North Thompson
23.
Eagle
NO.
3
12.
Bowron
39.
Mon-man
37,
Longworth
55.
Purden
NO.
4
4.
Babine
40.
Morice
13.
Burns Lake
NO.
5
17.
Cottonwood
42.
Narcosli
NO.
7
53.
Peace
69.
Takla
P.
S.Y.O
' s 1  [put
side Pulpwood H
2.
Arrowhead
26.
Pinlay
3.
Ashnola
29.
Gran by
7.
Bell-Irving
30.
Hecate
8.
Big Bar
32.
Kettle
10.
Blueberry
33.
Kinbasket
14.
Canoe
34.
Kingcome
16.
Chilko
35.
Lac la Hache
18.
Cranbrook
36.
Lardeau
19.
Crest on
38.
Moberly
21.
Dean
41.
Nakusp
22.
Dewdney
48.
Nootka
24.
Edgewood
50.
Okanagan
25.
Fernie
51.
Ootsa
71• Stuart Lake
77. Westlake
79. Willow River
59. Raft
63. Salmon Arm
64. Shuswap
70. Spallumcheen
61. Robs on
68. Smithers
58.  Quesnel Lake
56. Quadra
57. Queen Charlotte
60. Rivers Inlet
62. Salmo
65. Similkameen
66. Skeena
67. Slocan
9. Soo
72. Stum
74. Upper Kootenay
75. Vancouver
76. Wapiti
78. Williams Lake
80. Windermere
81. Yalakom
SPECIAL SALE AREAS
27. Fort St. James (0-I-C 1888/65)
28. Furry Creek (0-I-C 3909/67)
31. Kamloops Region (0-I-C 1826/66)
54. Prince George (O-I-C 2811/62)
TREE FARM LICENCES
1. Celgar Limited
2. Elk Falls Company Limited
3. Pacific Logging Company Limited
5. Weldwood of Canada Limited
6. Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
7. MacMillan, Bloedel Limited
8- Boundary Sawmills Ltd*
9. S. M. Simpson Limited
10. Timberland Development Co.
Limited
11. Boundary Sawmills Ltd.
12. Bendickson Logging Ltd.
13. Galloway Lumber Company Ltd.
14. Crestbrook Forest Industries Ltd.
15. Oliver Sawmills Limited
16. Pondosa Pine Lumber Company, Ltd.
17. British Columbia Forest Products Ltd.38. Empire Mills Limited
18. Clearwater Timber Products Ltd.     39. MacMillan, Bloedel Limited
19. Tahsis Company, Ltd. 40. Skeena Kraft Limited
20. MacMillan, Bloedel Industries Ltd.   41. Eurocan Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd
T.F.L.
No.
21. MacMillan, Bloedel Industries Ltd.
22. British Columbia Forest Products
Limited
23. Celgar Limited
24. Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
25. Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
26. The Corporation of the District of
Mission
27. British Columbia Forest Products
Limited
30. Sinclair Spruce Lumber Company Ltd.
32. Vernon Box & Pine Lumber Co. Ltd.
33. Shuswap Timbers Ltd.
35. B.C. Interior Sawmills Ltd.
36. F. & R. Logging Co. Ltd.
37. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.
MAJOR PARKS
STATUS OF SUSTAINED-YIELD FORESTRY PROGRAMME
AS AT DECEMBER 31, 1968
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1968 17
medium. The species and spacing study initiated in 1962 is well established, and,
with the exception of the western red cedar, which have been heavily browsed, most
trees have assumed dominance over competing vegetation. Competition effects due
to spacing can be expected to commence soon. All the plots at Port Renfrew and
Franklin River have been cleaned and each tree numbered. Final measurements
of total height and current leader growth have been made.
The first in a series of plots comparing bare-root seedlings and mud-pack seedlings was established at four locations on the Coastal Mainland. Planting was
carried out at regular intervals throughout the spring, summer, and fall.
Prince Rupert Forest District
Research activities were concentrated on preparation of final reports for several
completed projects and maintenance of previously established active investigations.
Two new projects were initiated. A two-provenance lodgepole pine spacing trial
was established on a 10-acre clear-cut north of Fort Fraser, and preliminary field
studies related to the Prince Rupert District slash-burning programme were made to
determine the silvicultural impact of prescribed burning policies.
Prince George Forest District
A moderate to heavy seed crop on white spruce throughout the Prince George
District was successfully forecast on the basis of a bud-forcing trial conducted in
early February. The occurrence of this crop resulted in a study of seed maturity
on white spruce with weekly cone-sampling in four stands during August and September. A study was established to determine the feasibility of planting white spruce
on fresh to moist sites throughout the summer. The first of three annual plantings
was carried out during the summer of 1968. Early results suggest bare-root planting
throughout all or most of the growing season is feasible.
Kamloops Forest District
The study of the costs and benefits associated with the rehabilitation of decadent
stands was continued and expanded.
Despite numerous equipment failures, an aerial seeding trial of Douglas fir and
Engelmann spruce was completed early in 1968. The seeding of spruce was a
failure, but the Douglas fir seeding was successful with good germination and survival. The dispersal pattern of seed was unfavourable and indicated the necessity of
better ground control and a different flying pattern during aerial seeding.
Further seeding tests were carried out late in 1968 to determine the reasons for
the poor results obtained from the spruce seeding.
Nelson Forest District
After a 10-year study of a partial cutting in the Wet Belt forest type, satisfactory growth and regeneration were produced by a salvage cutting. Of the cutting
methods tried, this was the method that also removed the largest volume. The other
methods tried were a diameter-limit cutting, improvement cutting, and no cutting
(control).
The rehabilitation study of overmature cedar-hemlock stands at Blaeberry
Creek continues.   Bad weather interrupted the fall burning programme.
 18
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
CANADA LAND INVENTORY
The Research Division continues to be associated with several Provincial and
Federal organizations in the British Columbia programme of the Canada Land Inventory. Soil classification and capability rating for agriculture and forestry was
undertaken in the East Kootenay, Peace River, and North Central Interior regions.
The survey of the East Kootenay was completed.
The gathering of new climatic data was undertaken in these regions to aid in
land-use interpretations.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 19
REFORESTATION DIVISION
FOREST NURSERIES
Winter loss of stock was normal at most nursery-sites, but a mid-winter thaw
at Red Rock caused flooding in low areas and above-average losses. Flooding
followed by freezing temperatures and saturated soil resulted in minor frost-heaving
losses to spruce and hemlock at the Duncan Nursery.
Weather conditions during the year were generally favourable for nursery stock.
Nearly all nurseries reported above normal precipitation, particularly during the
growing season. Lower than average temperatures during this period in some cases
had an adverse effect on growth of stock and, to a lesser degree, on the rate of
germination. Spring and fall frosts were seasonal, and with irrigation frost damage
was minimal. Extremely low temperatures were recorded late in 1968, but snow
cover protected the nursery stock.
Except for a small number of beds at the Telkwa Nursery, all seed was drill-
sown during the 1968 season, and favourable results have been reported from all
nurseries.
In the older nurseries, control of weeds is still a major cost item. At Duncan
and Green Timbers a new technique of weed control in 1-0 stock was made possible
by drill sowing of seed-beds. Equipment was devised to protect the trees while
inter-row spaces were sprayed with Gramoxone. Gramoxone—a form of paraquat
—was used because it is non-selective and kills all species of weeds and grasses even
at advanced stages of growth. It dessicates all green growth but becomes inactive
on contact with the soil, and leaves no harmful residues. Extreme care must be
taken to prevent the material making contact with tree foliage, and equipment is
being improved to this end. Weeds are not a problem at new nurseries established
on newly cleared land and lighter soils.
Total seed-beds sown this season amounted to 10,913 (including 1,820 in the
fall of 1967), this being a record for any one year. Inventories of 1-0 stock indicate the planned production of 42,254,000 trees from these beds will be achieved.
In the faU an additional 889 seed-beds were sown at Red Rock, Telkwa, and
Campbell River.
A total of 20,905,000 trees was shipped from Forest Service nurseries to planting projects in 1968.
A highlight of the year was the acquisition of 468 acres south-east of Cloverdale. About 300 acres are well drained, with friable soil, excellent for growing
conifer nursery stock. Development has commenced at this new site, and sowing
of the first seed-beds is planned for the spring of 1969.
IMPROVEMENTS
Construction and improvements of new nurseries progressed actively. At the
Red Rock Nursery and Research Centre, the administration building started in 1967
was completed, with a domestic water supply, major pumping units, pump-house,
and field supply-lines for irrigation being installed. A six-bay implement-shed and a
seedling-storage unit is being built at Red Rock. Final clearing for 1969 seed-beds
and transplant beds was completed, and rough clearing and levelling were carried
out on the area to be sown next year.
The water-supply system at the new Campbell River Nursery was also completed in 1968. This project involves an intake pump at John Hart Lake, 3,000
feet of 6-inch pipe to the level-controlling tower, and a further 4,000 feet of 6-inch
 20
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
gravity line to the storage reservoir at the nursery. A 3,200-foot extension of 3-inch
pipe was also installed for the Snowdon Nursery, where another storage reservoir
is under construction.
These projects, together with the laying of 2,500 feet of field mains, were completed in November. A three-car garage, temporary office, and storage area were
also built. Production at the Campbell River Nursery commenced in 1968 with
the sowing of seed-beds on the first 18-acre block. Later, clearing was finished on
the second block and a start was made on the third.
Among projects started at the Chilliwack River Nursery were water mains for
three fields, a soil-shed also serving for cone storage, and a 10,700-foot fence.
Final clearing at the Chilliwack Nursery of an additional 20 acres and rough
clearing of another 35 brings the total area under cultivation there to 75 acres.
A start was made on developing the new Surrey Nursery. Main and secondary
power-lines, a well for domestic water, and repairs to an existing residence were
completed by the end of the year.
The improvement programme for existing nurseries was reduced but remained
active. An implement-shed and garage were built at Koksilah, while main projects
at Green Timbers involved curbing the road along one field and renovating a shelving system in the tree-storage units. The pumping-station was rebuilt at Rayleigh
Nursery, a four-bay implement-shed was constructed, and a new road—including a
railway crossing—was built to provide convenient access from Highway No. 5.
Complete development of the new nurseries, along with the projected expansion
at established ones, will provide sufficient facilities to produce the scheduled
75,000,000 trees annually by, or before, 1975.
FOREST TREE SEED
The 1967 flower-bud set, which showed promise of a good cone crop in 1968,
failed to produce the heavy crop expected. Abortion of flowers and conelets, combined with subsequent losses to frost and insects, resulted in light to medium crops
throughout the Province. Collectable crops were located only after much reconnaissance work.
Except for the low elevations and transitional zones, cone crops on the Coast
were light, while in the Interior crops were rated at light to medium and patchy in
distribution. Insects and rusts were particularly prelavent in the Kamloops District,
and this was reflected in collections far below those planned.
The best crops occurred in the Prince George District and, to a lesser extent,
in the Nelson District, where actual collections approached the goals set. Crops
were poorer than average in the Prince Rupert District. The following table summarizes cone collections of 1968:—
Summary of Cones Collected (Bushels)
Forest District
Species
Douglas
Fir
Sitka
Spruce
Interior
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Other
Total
Vancouver _.
Prince Rupert-
Prince George ..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals-
369.0
654.5
673.5
1,612.5
1,745.0
5,054.5
239.0
239.0
67.5
262.5
3,385.5
258.0
1,406.0
5,379.5
797.0
430.0
1,227.0
1.0
30.0
31.0
436.5
1,953.0
4,490.0
1,870.5
3,181.0
11,931.0
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
21
Extraction of the 2,625 bushels collected in 1967 was completed early in 1968
with a yield of 976 pounds of seed, most of which was Interior spruce and lodgepole
pine. The private extraction of cones collected by industry in 1967 produced an
additional 294 pounds of seed, which was put in storage for use by companies.
Extraction of the 1968 harvest commenced in November.
Minor improvements to the extractory were necessary, and a gravity table was
acquired for seed separation. Cleaner seed from this process is necessary for more
efficient use of seed drills during sowing.
A minimum of work was undertaken with seed-production areas in 1968.
This programme has reached the point in the Vancouver District where maintenance
and operation are being conducted very efficiently at the local level. In the Interior,
timing and application of fertilizers to these plots require more investigation, and
until this work can be pursued more aggressively, no further development is warranted. In the Prince George District, re-marking of boundaries and general clean-up
was completed on two areas, and 79.5 bushels of cones were harvested from one
plot.
At the Campbell River Seed Orchard, routine maintenance was carried out in
the clonal portion, while the remaining 6 acres were planted with half-sib seedlings
grown from plus-tree seed collected in 1966. Survival of these seedlings has been
good. The balance of this plus-tree stock, which was grown at the Research Division
nursery at Lake Cowichan, will be held for planting in the Koksilah Seed Orchard
and to replace future losses at Campbell River. During 1968, 61 of the ramets in
the Campbell River Orchard produced pollen and 28 ramets produced a total of
711 cones.
In the Seed Centre, 428 germination tests were completed—many for research
purposes. Among these was a study of an X-ray technique for predicting sowing
rates for Douglas fir.
Laboratory and field studies were also made to adjust the sowing rates of several
species from broadcast sowing to the use of seed drills. Other tests were made
with regard to cone and seed storage. Some 1,990 pounds of seed for 9,989 seedbeds were tested, weighed out, treated, and shipped to various nurseries, and 46
miscellaneous seed requests for 133 seed lots were processed.
Tree seed held at the end of 1968 totalled 33,585 pounds, most of which is
Coastal Douglas fir. In spite of the 1968 collections, shortages still exist, particularly
in the Prince Rupert District, where an estimated 1,000 pounds of seed is needed
to bring the inventory into line with indicated requirements. High-elevation Coast
Douglas fir remains in short supply, and approximately 5,000 pounds of this seed
is needed to meet the expected demand.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
The examination and plantability assessment of current cut-over and backlog
not satisfactorily restocked areas is a major part of the reforestation programme and
demands much time of the field staff. The information is necessary for annual programming and long-term planning of seed requirements. On the Coast, Vancouver
District crews examined 21,650 acres of new cut-over and 8,642 acres of old N.S.R.
tracts on the Mainland. Of this total, some 17,000 acres (56 per cent) were in
plantable condition, bringing the total area available for planting to approximately
41,000 acres.
On Vancouver Island, Divisional crews assessed 4,769 acres of which 4,102
(86 per cent) were ready for planting. Of this total, about 1,300 acres were
planted in the fall of 1968.
 22
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
In the Interior no large-scale regeneration surveys were made, but district
crews undertook limited surveys on special areas covering 36,927 acres, of wS
7,131 acres were in readily plantable condition. Increased site-preparation programmes are mdicated for the balance of these lands. For example in the Prince
George District, where 12,428 acres were examined, 4,578 were found to beun
satisfactorily restocked but only 687 acres (15 per cent) is plantable and in the
Kamloops District 13,038 acres were found to be N.S.R. whh only 4 754 (36 5
™i years ' * "** md SUCC6SS WiU not be kno™ fo'
a A Prelim,inary reconnaissance was made of the Blaeberry River prepared area
InW Cedar7heml°ck rehabilitation project with the recommenda fon a pre-
t SirofV1969e m ^ f°U0Wing C°mpleti0n °f site-P-P-^ion treatments
PLANTING
^DcUr,rnng 1968' the t0tal Plantin§ by all agencies amounted to 21 130 500 trees
on 14 203 aCTeS' ° rWCh T ^ SerVke Planted 6'235'700 **»   2 S pecent)
on 14,203 acres of Crown land.    (See summary of planting, Table 22.)
rar Jhe N™ Campbe11 Rlver Nursery.   Two 18-acre blocks have been cleared and prepared since he summer of 1967.  The first block contains 10 million seedlings which will L
ready for planting in the autumn of 1969.   In the background is the F1V Fatk™ i      -n
A new MacMillan Bloedel logging-road is seen in the foreground
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
23
On the Coast, Crown land planting was below that of 1967 because of reduced
fall planting. Limited access, accommodation, and tree-storage facilities in the field
continue to hamper planting operations, particularly in remote areas on the outer
coast.
The launch " Forest Cruiser " and two chartered boats were used to service
planting projects on the west coast of Vancouver Island. An analysis of survival
has emphasized the inadvisability of fall planting under more extreme site conditions, and fall planting was reduced and confined largely to low elevations of
Vancouver Island.
Following successful trials of mud-pack stock in 1967, the Vancouver District
planted 500,000 encapsuled seedlings in the spring of 1968. This operational trial,
designed to provide information on production and costs, revealed various problems
in co-ordinating tree supply and storage in the field. Knowledge gained from this
project will be of considerable value in the future.
In the fall 10,800 mud-packs, container (bullet), and bare-root seedlings were
planted out on a wide variety of sites by Division crews. This marked the start of
a study to determine the suitability of various types of planting stock to different
ground and climatic conditions, and the possibility of exending the planting season.
Contract planting of Crown lands, started in 1967 on a trial basis, was continued in 1968. Commercial (public auction) contracts were let for the planting
of 530 acres, and licensee contracts were awarded for an additional 1,072 acres.
Contractors' interest is encouraging, and results to date are satisfactory. Inmate
crews planted 274 acres under the Forestry Service and Corrections Camp programme.
In the Interior, planting started late in April, with all projects completed before
the dry weather. As on the Coast, access, crew accommodation, and labour supply
were the main factors affecting the reforestation programme. In the Prince Rupert
District, crews of women were hired on several projects with satisfactory results.
No fall planting was undertaken in the Southern Interior because of a stock shortage.
The Prince George and Prince Rupert Forest Districts completed a number of
projects before inclement weather arrived.
Trials with mud-packs and container seedlings were conducted in the Interior,
and formal studies are planned for 1969.
In the year's planting, 4,964 survival sample plots were established and 6,712
plots in older plantations were re-examined. Survival studies are continually providing useful information about the interacting effects of species, season, elevation,
and region on planting success. Spruce plantations in the Nothern Interior continue to prove successful—survival rates of over 80 per cent after five years are
quite common.
CO-OPERATION
The nursery-development programme continues to rely heavily on the cooperation of other Forest Service divisions. Facilities of the Engineering Services
Division enabled considerable progress in the planning and construction of improvements described earlier. Vehicles of the Engineering Services and Inventory Divisions hauled cones collected throughout the Province to Duncan and moved other
material for nursery establishment and operation.
With co-operation of the districts, two-day cone-collection workshops were
held at various centres in preparation for the 1968 cone harvest. They were well
attended by men from industry, correctional officers, and Forest Service personnel.
Some 200 men received training in cone-crop assessment, seed-maturity determination, collecting techniques, cone handling and storage.
 24 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Instruction was given to students at the University of British Columbia
and at the Forest Service training-school. In October, divisional staff personnel
took part in the " Skogdag " at Penticton and presented a display of planting and
seeding equipment and techniques. Various nurseries were opened to a number of
organizations for educational tours.
Close co-operation with industry and other Government departments is vital
to a number of projects. One of these is the development of the container and
mud-pack planting programme. During 1968, activities were well co-ordinated,
and some planting of this stock was carried out by crews representing the Federal
Government, industry, and the Forest Service. Information on these planting
studies is freely exchanged. The same spirit of co-operation exists in other activities,
including tree-farm Forestry Committees on the Coast and in the Interior, the
Reforestation Board, and the Tree Improvement Board. Representation at the
Western Forest Nurserymen's Biennial Meeting prompted a visit to the United
States to examine new nursery equipment and techniques.
Interdepartmental Forestry and Corrections Camp Programme
Inmate populations throughout the camps were comparatively lower in 1968
and work on many projects was restricted. Forest nurseries operating in co-operation with this programme maintained their production. Fire-suppression crews were
organized and trained in aU camps, but in a cool summer they had limited action.
Corrections staff from two centres attended planting and cone-collection workshops
sponsored by the Forest Service.
Inmate crews in the Chilliwack Valley cleared 5.5 miles of access road and
maintained the forest-development road and assisted in extension of the main road
to Paleface Creek and maintained the Ford Mountain and Frost Creek roads. Logs
salvaged from the road rights-of-way and the Chilliwack River log jam produced
lumber for camps and bridges in the area.
Inmate crews cleared 50 acres and stumped another 45 at the Chilliwack
Nursery site. Other crews lifted and shipped 1,320,000 trees from nursery fields.
One small planting project brought total inmate planting in the valley to 612,000
trees since 1958. Twenty-eight acres were cleared of vegetation, the 12-acre spacing
trial on Larsen's Bench was cleaned, and the Cultus Lake Ranger Station was landscaped.
Nursery work at Snowdon and Campbell River occupied crews from Snowdon
Camp, while Lakeview crews were busy with log salvage. At the Snowdon Nursery,
2,010,000 seedlings were transplanted and 1,314,000 trees were lifted and shipped.
At the Campbell River Nursery, inmate crews cleared 18 acres, salvaged logs, and
used smaller material for camp fuel. A 5-acre site was cleared and an implement-
shed was built. More than 2,300 seed-beds were prepared and drill sown, and
considerable work was done on a water-supply and irrigation system.
Inmate crews from Snowdon and Lakeview Camps planted 83,000 trees on
192 acres during the year, while others from Lakeview landscaped the Say ward
Ranger Station and worked on initial flood-control work.
Trainees from the Haney Correctional Institution did an outstanding job of
operating the Haney Nursery in 1968, with 770,000 seedlings transplanted and
287,000 trees lifted and shipped for out-planting. An extensive road-maintenance
programme was conducted in the Blue Mountain Forest and included redecking
of several bridges.
The Alouette Nursery shipped 500,000 trees, and nearly 1,000,000 seedlings
were transplanted by residents. Resident crews also undertook a 7-acre drainage-
improvement project and brushed out 6 acres of nursery ground.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1968
25
A considerable volume of salvage material was removed from Alouette Lake
but only a small portion was usable.
In the Prince George District, men from the new Hutda Lake Camp cleared
295 acres of snags in preparation for burning. Material from the sewage lagoon
and an expired timber-sale area was salvaged.
The Hutda Lake crews collected 212 bushels of cones, planted 31,000 trees,
and cleaned up the Forest Service property at Punchaw Lake. Crews from the
Prince George Gaol completed 20 miles of slashing and burning along the Willow
Forest Development Road and assisted in clearing and burning at the Red Rock
Centre.
Inmates from Kamloops help at the Rayleigh Nursery, where they constructed
a large implement-shed, painted nursery buildings, and landscaped the building
area. The highlight of the year was the initiation of a detached grazing project on
Opax Mountain, where 4 miles of fencing and trails were built in connection with
a range experiment. The Clearwater Camp supplied 3,000 treated cedar posts,
while Rayleigh Camp crews produced another 1,200. The stand treatment project
at Heffley Lake continued, and during the winter 12 acres were cleaned and
planted.   Inmates helped fight two fires during the summer.
 26 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION DIVISION
Progress of the Forest Service maintained a steady pace throughout 1968, and
this was reflected in activities of the Public Information and Education Division.
It was also a year of major change at the administration level following the
untimely death of its Director and departure of the Division's Assistant Director.
In August, a member of the Inventory Division was appointed Forester in Charge
of the Division, and in October a new assistant was named.
Despite a relatively quiet fire season, many news-media inquiries were handled
during the summer months, several feature-type articles were distributed, and about
2,000 individual queries about the Forest Service were answered.
By late 1968 the Division was making plans for intensified efforts in the fields
of news and feature release distribution, audio-visual presentations, public displays,
lectures, publications, and photography.
NEWS RELEASES AND SPECIAL ARTICLES
During the 1968 fire season—quiet compared to the previous year—a normal
pattern was followed in the release of fire-situation stories to the publicity media.
With co-operation from the Protection Division, it was possible to answer all queries
about various fires throughout the Province, and to issue a weekly summary. There
were no closures during the season, but special releases relating to suspension of
fire permits in certain areas were distributed.
About 60 news stories dealing with various activities of the Forest Service were
released during the year, in addition to a number of special feature-type articles
requested by individual magazines and other publications.
PHOTOGRAPHY
Photographic demands continued to expand during 1968, and with additional
requests for audio-visuals, the photographic staff was unable to cope with all assignments, partly through lack of funds and staff. Laboratory work was frequently
sent to commercial photo finishers to enable staff work on technical assignments.
This incurred further costs, plus staff time on shipping and sorting, taxing the
Section's function and funds beyond the point of economical efficiency.
A total of 14,117 prints was produced, a considerable increase over 1967.
Of these, 1,069 were in colour, compared with 317 the previous year.
To update the Section's photo library, major assignments of 1968 were all
still photography and resulted in 614 black-and-white and 646 colour file negatives,
a 100-per-cent increase over 1967. Black-and-white prints of these additions were
sent to all forest districts.
With the acquisition of slide duplicating equipment and increased demand for
35-mm. slides, 360 original colour slides were filed and 1,010 duplicates were made.
The largest requirement for duplicates was a sound-slide show, " Fire Season," the
first produced by the Division. Three copies of the show were made, and others
will be produced in 1969 for presentation to the general public.
Numerous special assignments were undertaken in 1968, including photo
stories on Coast scaling and a location survey on the Kokweiken River. Field trips
in the Kamloops and Prince George Districts provided photographs illustrating
allowable waste, its disposal, and close-utilization scale, primarily for the Management Division and district protection personnel.    Full photo coverage was given
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
27
the Red Rock Nursery and various Prince George District research projects. Clearing and progress in the Peace pondage area was also extensively photographed.
Colour coverage of new nurseries was provided for the Reforestation Division,
and colour shots of new Ranger buildings and Forest Service boats were taken for the
Engineering Services Division. Colour photographs and slides of logging slash in
the Sayward Forest were obtained for the Vancouver District.
In the fall the largest single assignment commenced—a comprehensive colour-
photo coverage of the falling, loading, hauling to tidewater, and final departure for
Japan of logs selected to form the British Columbia pavilion at Expo '70 in Osaka.
The demand for 70-mm. positives increased by 50 per cent over 1967, and
2,688 were produced, chiefly for the Engineering Services Division in the A-40
plotter.
More than 560 X-ray sheets were developed for the Research Division.
Motion Pictures
Increased requirements for still photography resulted in insufficient time and
funds to continue a full motion-picture programme.
Only 2,200 feet of 16-mm. colour film were shot, mostly on the Inventory
Division's safety training programme. Four subjects were filmed and rough-edited.
They covered axe safety in camp, fly-camp safety, clothing and safe work habits
for fieldmen, and power-saw use. Sound will be added to these in 1969. Two
demonstrations were filmed for the Protection Division.
The Forest Service film " Up in Smoke " was sounded and released early in
the year. The film was an award winner in the 10th annual industrial film competition sponsored by Industrial Photography Magazine.
Film Library
A total of 217,847 persons—adults and students—saw films made available
by the film library throughout 1968. This represented a 25-per-cent increase over
1967.
The heaviest demand for forestry films came from schools and various training
establishments, and another significant increase was noted in the number of persons
viewing films on permanent loan to British Columbia Houses in London and San
Francisco. In 1968 the combined audiences totalled 13,293, as compared with
5,740 in 1967.    ( See Table No. 31 in the Appendix.)
LIBRARY
The librarian visited the Vancouver Forest District to update its library, and
the Protection Officer requested a suitable classification for his division library. This
was completed and is working satisfactorily.
Inter-library loans numbered 247.
The library is. being used more extensively by Forest Service personnel and
by foresters in industry. Technical Forest Officers writing their British Columbia
registered forester's examination were assisted with numerous texts and papers.
SCHOOL LECTURE PROGRAMME
An acute staff shortage seriously curtailed the 1968 lecture programme. Two
schools were visited in the Vancouver Forest District. When time permitted, a
lecturer visited school librarians and teachers in lieu of presenting formal classroom
lectures. Such visits were useful for discussion of Forest Service publications available to schools and forestry teaching methods.
 28 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A teachers' convention and a careers exposition were also attended by the
lecturer.   (See Table No. 32 in the Appendix.)
SIGNS
A sign-evaluation programme was completed in 1968 with a decision to redesign and standardize all signs. Work commenced on this project and will continue
in 1969 and 1970 in co-operation with other agencies of the Pacific Northwest.
The highway sign-painting programme ("Keep B.C. Green — Use Your
Ashtray ") continued for the 15th and final year.
EXHIBITS
A new design was started for the Forest Service permanent display in the
British Columbia Building of the Pacific National Exhibition. Preliminary construction was completed for installation in the exhibit area in 1969.
The Forest Servce had a display in the Festival of Logging at the Pacific
National Exhibition for the third consecutive year, and approximately 28,000 people
toured the tower facilities. An estimated 35,000 visitors saw the complete exhibit,
in which the theme was " Reforestation and Research."
One new exhibit was constructed. Exhibits were also displayed at two
teachers' conventions, two exhibitions, and one careers exposition.
ADVERTISING
The paid advertising programme of 1968 was confined to radio announcements on 33 stations throughout the Province. Excellent co-operation was received
from the stations, which generously supplemented prepared tapes and scripts with
public service protection messages.
A limited number of display advertisements, authorized by the Department of
Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce, were also used.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 29
FOREST MANAGEMENT DIVISION
Despite the I.W.A. strike in the Southern Interior in 1967 and early 1968,
total production for 1968 rose to a record high of 1,702,454,852 cubic feet. Coast
operations showed a 9.4-per-cent increase and the Interior 6.7 per cent. The
Prince George Forest District registered a 15.1-per-cent increase, and the Interior
of the Prince Rupert Forest District recorded an increase of 11.5 per cent over 1967.
The I.W.A. strike resulted in a 6.1-per-cent production drop in the Nelson
District. During the first five months of 1968 production in the latter district
dropped 51.4 per cent from the same period in 1967, but in the last three months
increased 83 per cent.
There was no significant change in production by species, all contributing
approximately the same percentage as last year.
Considering increased production on a close-utilization basis, it is surprising
to note the number of chippers incorporated with sawmills dropped to 186, compared with 197 in 1967. This is attributed to the consolidation of a number of
mills and is borne out by the reduction of active mills from 931 to 902. Nevertheless, the production of chips increased from 4,379,684 units in 1967 to approximately 4,736,000 units in 1968.
Balloon logging, introduced in the Vancouver Forest District in 1967, is still
being used for logging inaccessible areas in the Greater Vancouver Water District.
This method is suitable for logging steep slopes and high areas, but must be restricted to areas that cannot be logged economically by conventional methods.
In the East Kootenay a mobile barker-chipper unit was tested. The company
concerned was faced with small-growth pine and pine-spruce types, and it wanted
a more economical way to chip such material on site.
The tree-shearer is becoming more common in the Interior, and finds its best
use on flat ground in smaller and more homogeneous stands of timber.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber Prices
The demand for lumber remained high throughout 1968, and lumber prices—■
at record highs in the last quarter of 1967—continued to increase. At the year's
end, selling prices were 35 to 40 per cent higher than the second quarter of 1967.
The lumber market will probably not hold at its present level but is not likely to
slip back to pre-1967 level, where lumber prices had fluctuated in the $60 to $65
per 1,000 board-feet range.
Log Prices
The demand for logs continued at a high level, and prices increased steadily,
throughout the year.
Stumpage Prices
Before Crown timber is sold, the Forest Service determines its market value on
the stump, and two factors which influence stumpage rates are the cost of converting the standing timber into merchantable products and the products' selling
price. The products' price must cover extraction and processing costs and provide
for a reasonable profit. Stumpage price is that portion of the selling price remaining
after provision for logging costs and profit. A small change in selling price will have
a substantial effect on the stumpage price.
 30 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A significant increase in products' prices during 1968 resulted in increased
appraised stumpage prices. The average price bid for Crown timber was $6.26 per
100 cubic feet, almost double the 1967 average of $3.21 and above the average for
the years 1962 to 1966, inclusive, when stumpage rates were $3.01, $3.36, $4.09,
$4.20, and $4.25 respectively per 100 cubic feet.
The weighted average price per 100 cubic feet for licences sold in the Interior
increased from $2.58 in 1967 to $5.86 in 1968, and the comparable average price
on the Coast increased from $6.03 to $7.38.
These average stumpage prices, shown in Table No. 65 in the Appendix, reflect
the volumes sold at " salvage value only " rates plus the volumes included in close-
utilization licences and cutting permits at a standard 55 cents per 100 cubic feet.
The average stumpage price per 100 cubic feet for all species, excluding close-
utilization and salvage wood, was $7.49 on the Coast, compared with $6.09 in 1967,
and $7.41 in the Interior, up from $3.10.
Stumpage Adjustments
Stumpage prices are adjusted to reflect changes in selling prices. There are
two adjustment procedures:—
(1) A sliding scale, providing for adjustment when the selling price increases or decreases by 15 per cent from the selling price on which existing stumpage rates are based.
(2) A schedule system, providing for a rate change when the selling price
changes by at least $5 from that on which the last effective rate was
based. This method is mandatory for all timber-sale licences sold after
March 1, 1967.
The sliding-scale system will continue for the term of existing licences providing
for such adjustment.
Selling-price increases resulted in 22,953 upward adjustments—7,397 under
the sliding scale and 15,556 under the schedule method.
SUSTAINED-YIELD PROGRAMME
Public Sustained-yield Units
The number of public sustained-yield units has increased through creation of
the Wapiti unit near Dawson Creek in the Prince George Forest District (see
Appendix Table No. 50). This, and new inventories in some units, contributed to
the increased productive area, volume, and commitment shown in the table.
As the pulp-chip market develops, more operations are converting to close
utilization, and as a result have been granted up to a maximum one-third increase in
annual allowable cuts.
Progress was made in policies and procedures to govern the sale of additional
cutting rights to complete the commitment of the annual allowable cut to close-
utilization standards. Undoubtedly, improved utilization procedures will leave
logged areas in better condition for reforestation.
During 1968, 39 timber-sale harvesting licences were sold throughout the
Province. This form of tenure enables consolidation of the licencee's operations in
a unit. Licensees will have to convert their operations to close-utilization standards
as soon as a chip market becomes available, and each licensee will contribute to
logging-operation planning, road development, and general unit management.
Interest developed in deciduous species for furniture stock and resulted in the
award of nine timber harvesting licences in eight units, permitting the harvest of
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
31
specified volumes of broad-leaved species. These licences limit the cut volume of
mixed coniferous trees and require construction of a plant to manufacture furniture
components. Through harvest of previously undesirable species, these licences
will contribute to greater use of wood and better unit management.
Pulp Harvesting Forests
The number of pulp harvesting forests was increased by one to 22, by designation of the Ootsa Public Sustained-yield Unit in March of 1968. They are included
as sustained-yield units in Table No. 50.
Certified Tree-farms
Two tree-farm certificates were cancelled on sale of property, but certificates
were renewed for two others, and the number certified remained at 45, as indicated
by Table No. 48.
Farm Wood-lot Licences
With cancellation of five farm wood-lot licences and reinstatement of two
others, the number of such licences in the Province was reduced by three to 43, as
indicated in Table No. 49.
Tree-farm Licences
Conversion to close-utilization standards continued in 1968, and increased
utilization showed the need for improved forest inventories for future production, and
many tree-farm licensees are planning or have completed a new forest inventory
based on modern techniques.
A new working-plan format, introduced in 1968, has already improved forest
practices generally.
Production from tree-farm licences continued to climb in 1968 with the record
cut of 515,466,148 cubic feet, representing an increase of 15 per cent over 1967.
Production is still within the sum of the allowable cuts for all tree-farm licences.
Working Plans
All five forest districts have established working plans for each public sustained-
yield unit and play a vital role in the timber-sale harvesting licence programme.
SILVICULTURE
The stand-treatment programme continued its important role in natural forest
regeneration. Stand treatment was practised by all forest districts to promote natural
regeneration.   A variety of cutting methods was used.
Most Interior forest districts were active in developing scarification programmes
for seed-bed preparation. In the Prince George Forest District, 3,482 acres were
scarified at an average cost of $13.43 per acre. Similar programmes were carried
out by tree-farm and timber-sale licensees.
The site-rehabilitation project in the Blaeberry River valley, near Golden, was
extended into the Noisy Creek drainage, near Mabel Lake. Surveys covering
16,000 acres have been completed in the Blaeberry River and Noisy Creek drainages. Clearing and burning operations started in the Blaeberry River valley,
where 1,250 acres have been cleared, including 250 acres also burned. Clearing and burning will continue in 1969 and will be followed by planting in 1970.
 32
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SCALING
Conversion from manual scaling to weight scaling continued, as seen in the
following table:—
Forest District
Vancouver-
Prince Rupert-
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals..
Number of Weigh-scales by December 31st—
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1
1
5
5
	
1
8
S
10
5
9
16
21
27
2
4
4
12
17
19
—
—
1
3
4
20
2
9
16
40
55
81
In the Prince George District 56 per cent of the district's total production was
scaled by weight. In the Kamloops and Nelson Districts nearly 50 per cent of
production was scaled by weight, and in the Prince Rupert District weight scaling
is expected to increase rapidly.
Scaling Licences
A total of 139 new licences was issued in 1968.
FLOOD BASINS
Peace River
Flooding behind the Bennett Dam started in 1968, with clearing operations
producing 23,022,381 cubic feet of timber. Clearing operations included recovery
of floating material.
Mica
In the Mica Dam flood basin production remained at the same level as 1967
with a total scale of 5,909,454 cubic feet. Dam-construction progress made it
necessary to set deadline dates for logging on timber licence areas. The Engineering
Services Division started planning clearing operations.
Libby
Five timber sales were sold during 1968 in the Libby Dam flood area. Further
sales will be made in the north end, but in the south and central areas the Engineering
Services Division is conducting clearing operations. Merchantable logs will be sold
by public auction.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 33
GRAZING DIVISION
GENERAL CONDITIONS
Although 1968 had its problems, notably adverse haying conditions, no single
factor had a profound influence on the range live-stock industry—in direct contrast
to 1967, when the long dry summer affected many aspects of the industry. A light
fire season permitted closer supervision of Crown ranges by the Forest Service field
staff and enabled attention to work neglected in 1967.
The winter of 1967/68 was milder than normal, except in the Peace River
area, where conditions were average. Feed supplies were adequate and stock was in
good condition. Range production was good and beef gains normal. Cattle prices
held up well, but costs of production were up. The ranch labour situation remained
difficult, particularly with respect to competent range riders. Ranch sales appear
to have declined.
The number of cattle permitted on Crown range was about the same, with
slight increases in the south offset by reductions in the north. Sheep numbers increased slightly.
Range
Slow early range growth was due to cool, dry weather. Range-growth studies
indicate this condition is normal, and range turnout dates must be set accordingly.
Above average range production was due to rain throughout the growing season.
Below normal production on wet natural meadows, particularly in the north, was
due to excess moisture and low soil temperatures.
Most ranges which suffered in the 1967 drought showed satisfactory recovery.
The exceptions were found on drier sites, which will require several years of careful
management before production is restored. Some range seedings on exposed sites
suffered winter damage and produced less than expected. Water levels were sufficient to provide average stock-watering conditions.
Loss of stock due to toxic plants and predatory animals was below normal.
Bears were responsible for losses in several localities, and coyotes were blamed for
killing 25 calves in the Princeton area. Timber wolves were a problem in the north.
No disease problems occurred during the year.
Highway accidents involving live stock took a heavy toll in some areas. This
problem is being eased with a progressive fencing programme by the Department
of Highways and grazing permittees, and with regulations making it illegal to have
stock on highways. The first such regulation covering several highways became
effective in September. The highway fencing programme will greatly facilitate the
management of adjoining range units.
Hay
Hay growth was excellent, but haying conditions were poor throughout most
of the range area. Many ranchers had insufficient hay last winter and quality was
poor. Well-organized farmers and ranchers who took advantage of weather breaks
or made silage had sufficient feed for at least a normal winter.
Markets and Prices
Cattle prices varied but were slightly higher than in 1967. The average price
received by cattlemen through the British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association was $22.37 per hundredweight, compared to $22.01 in 1967.
 r
34 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
RANGE MANAGEMENT
Most Crown ranges are stocked to capacity, and the demand for use exceeds
properly allowable limits in most areas. Careful management is required if Crown
range use is to be increased. Forage production and utilization can be increased
on most Crown ranges, but there are distinct limitations, such as soil type and
climate.
Most Crown range is timbered, and virtually all such areas are subject to other
uses which increase management costs and limit effectiveness and curtail development possibilities. For example, hunters and other recreationists may disturb the
distribution of stock, and because they often leave gates open, cattle-guards become
necessary. Drainage and brush-mowing may deprive waterfowl of nesting areas
and moose of winter browse, and timber production may also be affected.
Unplanned alienation removes productive land from the Crown range and
adversely affects range management. Alienation results in an immediate loss of
Crown range and usually impedes management by creating chequerboard land-
status patterns.
Several reserves from alienation were requested following discussions with
Lands Service personnel.
During the year every opportunity was taken to teach and promote improved
management techniques. Numerous illustrated talks were presented, and permittees
were encouraged to accompany Forest Officers on range inspections. In northern
areas, emphasis was placed on bringing turnout dates in line with range readiness.
Range readiness and yield studies provide a guide to proper turnout dates and
rates of stocking. The light fire season permitted more inspections to check range
use and condition, and efforts were made for a co-operative approach to range
management and improvement planning by units.   Results were encouraging.
Range Surveys
The range survey programme was continued in 1968. Field work commenced
in 1967 on the Big Creek and Lillooet Stock Ranges and on the Coldwater-Iron
Mountain unit of the Nicola Stock Range was completed. Field work was also
undertaken on the Joe Rich-Greystokes area of the North Okanagan Stock Range
and on the Loon Lake unit of the Clinton Stock Range. Extensive reconnaissances
were also carried out in a number of areas, and Grazing Division personnel participated in several land-use studies, mainly in the Peace River area.
Range Improvements
An extensive range-improvement programme was a major feature of Grazing
Division activity in 1968. The upward revision of grazing fees in 1967 resulted
in increased funds being available for range improvements in 1968. Permittees
also contributed extensively to the programme, mainly with labour and equipment.
During the year $145,586 was spent from the Range Improvement Fund. Net
assistance to the range-improvement programme from the Fund was $142,517.
The increased funds permitted a larger and more diversified programme.
Structural improvements included 2 stock bridges, 31 cattle-guards, 79 Vz miles
of drift fencing, 6 mud-hole fences, 11 fenced enclosures for experimental studies
or demonstration purposes, 163V_; miles of trail, and 37 water developments.
In addition, 685 acres of deciduous cover were cleared by bulldozer and seeded
to create improved pasture. In the East Kootenay Valley 150 acres of bitterbrush
were railed down and broadcast burned in an experiment to reduce this plant and
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 35
increase useful forage production. Miscellaneous treatments, including ditching and
brush-mowing, were applied to determine low-cost methods of improving the production of natural meadows. Approximately 3,700 acres of brush-infested range,
mainly in the Peace River area, were burned under controlled conditions. The
fertilizer trial commenced in the East Kootenay in 1967 was expanded.
In co-operation with the Department of Agriculture, 200 acres of Crown range
were treated for grasshopper control. Nine abandoned industrial sites covering
77 acres were cleaned up and seeded. In co-operation with the Department of
Agriculture, Department of Highways, and permittees, chemical control of noxious
weeds encroaching onto Crown range from highways was carried out in several
areas.
Beavers in some range areas are flooding valuable natural meadows. In cooperation with the Fish and Wildlife Branch, techniques have been developed to
curtail the beaver population in selected areas. Four sites were treated in 1968.
In four cases where predatory animals were causing severe losses of stock on Crown
range, the Fish and Wildlife Branch assisted in control measures.
Seeding continued in 1968. In all, 63,005 pounds of grass and legume seed
were used, the largest quantity to date: 37,905 pounds were sown on denuded
ground resulting from logging and other industrial activity on Crown range, 1,350
pounds were used on a prepared seed-bed on depleted grassland, and 3,750 pounds
on specially cleared sites. The remainder (20,100 pounds) was aerially seeded on
approximately 3,600 acres of usable Crown range which had been devastated by
wild fire the previous year. With the exception of the aerial seeding, most seeding
was undertaken by co-operating permittees, with seed, equipment, and supervision
being supplied by the Forest Service.
The Division devised a new system of recording range improvements. All improvements within a Crown range unit are now designated as a single project and
recorded on one map.
Peace River Pastures
Seven pastures were in operation in 1968. Improved pasture resulting from
past clearing, breaking, and seeding is confined to 4,800 acres on three of them.
Two other pastures have improvements, such as fencing, trails, and water developments.   The remaining two have only fencing designed to hold stock.
Eight miles of new or replacement fencing, 13 miles of trail, 7 miles of service
road, 2 small storage sheds, 3 stock-watering dugouts, 2 corrals, and 2 cattle-guards
were constructed. Routine maintenance was carried out on 90 miles of fence, 46.5
miles of trail, and 19 miles of service roads and other miscellaneous improvements.
Controlled burns are a useful tool in suppressing brush on the native ranges.
A total of 16,000 acres of pasture land was treated in this manner in 1968. Another 600 acres of such pasture were sprayed with herbicides, and 75,000 pounds of
fertilizer were distributed on 750 acres of cultivated pasture. The Beaverlodge
Research Station gave technical advice and other assistance in connection with both
the herbicide and fertilizer applications.   A total of $19,529 was spent on this work.
An uneconomic farm unit within the Groundbirch pasture was purchased under
the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act with the Federal Government
bearing one-half the cost of $10,000.
An expanded study of cattle gains was made in 12 herds for selected periods
on various forage types, and results will provide a useful guide in the economic
aspect of pasture development.
In 1968, 98 permittees grazed 2,371 cattle and 71 horses within the pasture
projects, a slight increase over 1967.
 36 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Pasture managers were employed in three pastures, with permittees paying an
assessment in addition to grazing fees for herding services supplied by the Forest
Service.
CO-OPERATION
The 66 live-stock associations recognized under the provisions of the Grazing
Act continue to perform a vital function in liaison between the Forest Service and
range users. Greater emphasis is being placed on contact with smaller range unit
groups for management and improvement planning, and such contacts are always
under the asgis of the recognized associations. During 1968 a total of 188 association or sub-group meetings was attended by Forest Officers.
The British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association remained active during
the year on subjects of industry-wide importance, including the use of Crown range.
The British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association again supplied
the live-stock price figures necessary for calculating the grazing fees under the sliding
scale. This producer-owned marketing agency sold approximately 47.6 million
pounds of beef animals from the range area during the year. The Forest Service
enjoyed excellent co-operation with a number of Provincial and Federal agencies
on a variety of range problems.
ADMINISTRATION
Grazing on Crown range remained approximately the same as in 1967, but
the increased range-improvement programme and competing uses of range land
added to the work load.
A Grazing Division staff meeting was held in Victoria in mid-year, and preparation of a grazing manual of instruction was nearly completed.
The establishment of Cathedral Park resulted in the loss of a range area, but
with adjustments in permit areas, reductions in existing permits will not be necessary.
Arrangements between the grazing permittee and the Fish and Wildlife Branch
resulted in grazing being discontinued in the Ashnola region in the interest of
California bighorn sheep. The proclamation of the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area Act in November placed final control of grazing under the Management Authority, but the Forest Service will continue to act as administrative agent
for the Management Authority with respect to grazing.
Grazing Permits
During the year, 2,053 grazing permits were issued authorizing the depasturing
of 188,183 cattle, 6,338 horses, and 7,090 sheep on Crown ranges. Permits issued
show a slight decrease from 1967. Cattle numbers were virtually the same, horses
slightly less, and sheep up slightly from the previous year. (See Table No. 81 in the
Appendix.)
Expressed in animal unit months (the equivalent of one mature cow on the
range for one month), total use authorized for all classes of stock was 857,219
animal unit months—9,320 less than in 1967.
Hay Permits
A total of 209 hay-cutting permits was issued for the harvesting of 2,148 tons
of hay, approximately the same as the previous year. The hay-cutting fee remained
at $1 per ton.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
37
Grazing Fees
Grazing fees are on a sliding scale related to prices received by producers the
previous year. Except for developed pastures in the Peace River area, grazing fees
per head per month were 44 cents for cattle, 55 cents for horses, and 11 cents for
sheep. These fees represent a 7.3-per-cent increase over those charged the previous
year.
A separate scale of fees is in effect for the fenced and reserved pastures in the
Peace River area. These fees are not on a sliding scale and remained at the rate
of 50 cents per head per month for cattle, 62M. cents for horses, and 12Vi cents for
sheep for natural forage, and $1 per head per month for cattle, $1.25 for horses,
and 25 cents for sheep on cultivated pasture.
Control and Enforcement
The extent of Crown range, together with the fact that private properties are
scattered throughout, makes control of use extremely difficult. However, frequent
range inspections, stock counts, and the judicious use of the authority to seize and
detain stock grazing in trespass pursuant to the Grazing Act result in reasonably
effective control. This situation was normal in 1968, and most infractions were
rectified with a warning. Direct action was necessary to remove stock from the
Crown range in a few instances. One case of repeated trespass was successfully
prosecuted in Court.
 38 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ENGINEERING SERVICES DIVISION
ENGINEERING SURVEYS
Area and route studies, special investigations, and road-location surveys with
design and cost estimates were carried out by several crews throughout the Province.
Table No. 91, Forest Road Programme, 1968, lists the jobs and miles of reconnaissance and location completed. Personnel also conducted site surveys, road classifications and evaluations, investigation and survey of right-of-way problems, and provided general engineering assistance on many requests from the District Foresters.
Broad area studies were continued in the Prince George, Kamloops, and Nelson
Districts to classify existing roads and plan long-term forest road systems. Some
2,900 miles of roads were traversed by vehicles in this work. An area investigation
of the Chilcotin region east of Tweedsmuir Park (including portions of the Chilco,
Narcosli, West Lake, Stum, Ootsa, and Nechako Public Sustained-yield Units) was
conducted for assessment of main access routes. A preliminary study was made of
the proposed Fort Nelson Public Sustained-yield Unit for an evaluation of road
requirements related to possible development of the area's forest resources. Development engineers also undertook numerous smaller investigations for District
Foresters.
Survey crews completed 86.8 miles of road location, which included new roads
as well as survey—for gazetting purposes—of existing roads through alienated lands.
Some relocations were made over public road and forest road; several miles of as-
built survey was done; site surveys and plans were completed for several bridge-sites,
highway junctions, and one public rail crossing. Thirteen miles of right-of-way to
facilitate an extension of the Willow River Forest Road as an off-highway haul route
to the industrial park immediately south of Prince George was located. Site plans
were also made for Snowdon, Red Rock, and Pierce Creek Nurseries.
The work of the Land Titles Subsection continues to increase with the growing
need to establish reserves, status investigation areas and road routes, and research
ownership of various roads and lands. During the year, several sections of road
through alienated land were gazetted as forest roads to consolidate essential forest
road systems.
DESIGN
Designs, drawings, and specifications were prepared for eight pressure-creosoted
timber bridges. These included two for the Bowron River Forest Road, two for the
Suskwa Forest Road, and for crossings of the Lillooet River, the Halfway River,
and the North Thompson River. About 18 preliminary sketches and estimates for
proposed bridges were made.
Studies on bridge overloads and their effects included the collection of data on
logging-truck dimensions and weights, and the development of a simple recording
deflection gauge.
FOREST MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
Engineering work in connection with the preparation of large forested reservoirs
for flooding continued to be a major portion of the Division's activities. Surveys
were undertaken in the Mica reservoir area, and a programme was prepared for
waterway-improvement work prior to flooding. Another crew was assigned to the
Libby reservoir to complete the survey and layout work for clearing of the Canadian
portion of that pondage.
 Helicopter with boom and 70-mm. cameras suspended below on photographic
Mica reservoir area.
mission in
: Hi
-.■■: .
■,..,.       ■■:■ ■■      ■   ■     .   . ■■■■■■    :	
A recently constructed Ranger district administration buildin;
resource.
g serving the local forest
 40 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
On the Peace pondage, site preparation for navigation channels, shore access,
and other public-use areas continued on 14,800 acres. The Division's own forces
treated 10,600 acres while contractors prepared the remainder. Despite wet
weather conditions, non-merchantable wood material on 9,545 acres was disposed
of—primarily by burning. In the Peace River section, 1,200,000 cubic feet of
merchantable trees were felled and bucked for recovery and utilization after flooding,
and 1,530 boom sticks were made for the control of debris and holding of merchantable timber.
The forest-inventory method of using 70-mm. fixed air-base stereophotographs
developed by the Inventory Division was tested on an operational scale in the Mica
reservoir investigation. Photographs of several hundred possible sample plots were
taken, and measurement of tree height and crown diameter to obtain data for compilation of wood volume is now in progress.
Computer programmes were prepared for a number of problems. The major
ones were the calculation of tree heights, diameters, and volumes from photogram-
metric measurements, evaluation of radio-wave harmonics, retrieval of data from
forest-fire statistics, and control of random timber marks. The latter two programmes were prepared for Protection and Management Divisions respectively.
ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
Construction work was undertaken on nine projects. Work on the Chilcotin
South, Nicoamen River, and Chilliwack River Forest Roads was completed, while
unfavourable weather for construction delayed completion of projects in the northern
part of the Province until 1969. Rehabilitation of the Elk River Forest Road and
the Goat River Forest Road was started, to improve access for the protection
and administration of the forest resource in these two valleys. During the year 49.9
miles of road were completed, including seven permanent timber bridges.
Structural maintenance was carried out on 900 miles of existing road. A major
reshaping and resurfacing job was completed over a 25-mile section of the Parsnip
River Forest Road, and structural maintenance on other roads was greater than that
of previous years. The gravel resurfacing programme on selected forest roads was
resumed after a year's delay due to other work of higher priority.
BUILDING SERVICES AND MARINE SECTION
Requests for services continue to increase, particularly in the engineering phases
of the Reforestation Division's extensive forest-nursery development. Eight major
projects were in the final design stage late in 1968, with contracts to be called in
1969.
Price increases were experienced in all activities, with labour costs being the
major factor. Material delivery difficulties eased in some commodities, and utilization changes were made in others to overcome poor delivery dates.
The Division library increased over the year by 100 books and pamphlets—all
dealing with new developments in engineering.
1968 saw completion of a new station at Fauquier to replace the one at Edge-
wood and was the largest of 89 major and minor contracts awarded during the year.
Other major projects included construction of a Ranger office building at New
Denver and a refrigeration building now being built at the Red Rock Nursery.
Drawings were produced for the construction of a new station at Gold River, a
Ranger office building at Vernon, and a new station at Kelowna. These are now
being built by district project crews. Numerous miscellaneous projects were designed and constructed for district and divisional use.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 41
Maintenance carried out on service buildings included refurbishing the exterior
of the hangar at Smithers, renovation of the heating and ventilating system at the
Forest Service Training-school, and a ventilation system for the paint-shop and
repairs to a building at the Forest Service Maintenance Depot.
Three trailers no longer usable as dwelling units were reassigned for use as
lunchrooms by forest-nursery field workers. Twenty-one new accommodation
trailers, ranging from 16 to 40 feet, were purchased in 1968. Three truck-borne
camper coaches were acquired, and as a new departure for summer field parties one
hard-top tent trailer was purchased.
To provide accommodation for the land acquisition and clearing staffs in the
Libby pondage area, a 30- by 52-foot triple-unit office complex was designed, purchased, and installed at Cranbrook.
The Division inspected the manufacture of glue-laminated girders, ranging from
45 to 135 feet in length, for eight timber bridges. Two of the shorter bridges
were fabricated from the pieces of the Bulkley River Bridge girders damaged in transit in 1967. Inspection was also made of a damaged 135-foot glue-laminated bridge
girder, which was later purchased by the Department for a nominal sum and re-
fabricated to make a 60-foot float for use at Kitimat.
Two new nurseries, developed in 1967 at Campbell River and Red Rock, were
extended this year with major additions to the irrigation systems. Development of
the first phase of the water-supply and irrigation systems at the new Surrey Nursery
was placed under contract for completion early in 1969. Numerous domestic water
systems were designed for district and divisional operations, and a number of well-
drilling contracts were completed.
An additional five deep-vee fibreglass outboard and transom-drive runabouts
were provided for Ranger staff use. The majority of these were equipped with
trailers so boats may be stored at Ranger stations and then towed to operational
sites. A used 40-foot steel tug was purchased for use on the newly formed Peace
River pondage in the Prince George District. Several small craft were supplied
throughout the Service on a replacement basis.
MECHANICAL SECTION
1968 saw no significant change in the pattern of purchasing, though minor
trends were noticeable. The over-all increase was 16 vehicles. The largest increase
was in the pick-up truck category with 10 additional four-wheel-drive vehicles and
24 two-wheel-drive vehicles. Panels and station wagons decreased by 13. The
number of passenger vehicles and large trucks showed little change.
In the heavy-equipment category, five rubber-tired tractors in the 50-horse-
power range were purchased for use by the Reforestation Division, using two existing
tractors for trade-in. Three crawler tractors—one each of 385 horsepower, 280
horsepower, and 170 horsepower—were purchased for road construction and clearing projects. A medium-sized gravel-screening plant was purchased for forest-road
surfacing programmes. A boom drill mounted on a log raft was obtained for the
Peace pondage area.
A repair depot is being installed at Cranbrook to service Forest Service equipment being used in the East Kootenay area for road construction, reservoir clearing,
and other projects.
Considerable interest continues to be shown in mud, muskeg, and snow units.
Snow toboggans increased in number from 34 to 50, with the Nelson District taking
most of the increase. These units are filling a valuable role in forest-management
work, especially in winter cruising operations.   Demonstrations of various types of
 42 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
mud and muskeg units were held, and modest purchases have been made. The
small " Ranger " tractor has proven popular, and a four-wheel-drive swivel-frame
vehicle has also been found very useful.
Forty-two outboard motors and 67 chain saws were purchased, but 29 out-
boards and 41 chain saws were removed, resulting in a net gain of 13 and 26
respectively. A mild fire season reduced emergency purchases to zero, and the
fire-pumps and other fire-fighting equipment passed the summer with a minimum of
trouble.   A list of mechanical equipment is in Appendix Table No. 92.
To assist the mechanical staff to stay abreast of new technology in their
specialized fields, two district mechanical superintendents and one shop foreman
attended a mechanical maintenance course at the University of Seattle. In the fall
the Mechanical Section conducted a 10-day course of instruction at the Forest
Service training-school.
Inspection tours were made to all the districts, and the quality and maintenance
of all mechanical equipment were satisfactory.
FOREST SERVICE MAINTENANCE DEPOT
Modernization continued to improve efficiency at the depot. Machine and
mechanical repair-shops were reorganized and consolidated, and one central parts
room was established. In the reorganization, the Division's Victoria warehouse was
closed and engineering and other equipment was integrated with the warehousing
facilities at the depot.
Installation of heating and ventilation, foundation, paving, electrical work,
dredging, and placing of riprap to protect the dyke were completed.
The transport pool hauled a total of 2,892 tons of material and equipment, and
63 trailers and Porta building units were towed to projects and locations throughout
the Province.   The five truck units travelled 200,000 miles on 312 assignments.
Mechanical work included the overhaul and shipping of 742 fire-pumps, outboard motors, chain saws, light plants, lawn-mowers, trail motorcycles, and marine
engines. In addition, 132 new units were tested and shipped to the districts.
Reconditioning and repairing of field operating equipment continued, and the
coupling of 130,000 feet of discharge hose was completed.
Other work included the machining and assembling of 2,637 hose, pump,
valve, marine, and trailer fittings and the machining, cutting, and welding services
for the general work programme of the depot. Regular maintenance for five transport truck tractors and 17 trailer units was provided, and 76 light trucks and 17
units of heavy equipment were maintained and overhauled during the year. Twenty-
six new units were checked and fitted with necessary equipment, requiring the
fabrication of flat decks, A frames, and bodies for some units. The fabrication of
two fire-retardant mixers, 60-foot pile-driver leads, and similar work was completed.
The marine work programme included annual refits for 29 launches and 82
launch repairs. Jet craft, river boats, small runabouts, and landing-craft were
overhauled, and various types of new small craft were outfitted. A 40-foot-long
steel tug, purchased for the Peace pondage project, was moved to the depot for
modification.
Work started on the rebuilding and repowering of the launch " Oliver Clark II,"
formerly the " B.C. Surveyor."
Rebuilding, modifying, or repairs to 26 Porta buildings and trailers was completed, and 356 units consisting of crates, furniture, pallets, truck box liners, and
F.M. radio bases were manufactured.   Much work required in the changes to the
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 43
depot buildings for the consolidation of shops and stockrooms, and regular plant
maintenance, was carried out by the carpentry shop crew.
RADIO SECTION
Ninety radios were purchased during 1968—85 very high frequency (V.H.F.),
frequency modulation (F.M.) sets; and five high frequency (H.F.) single side band
(S.S.B.) units. Nineteen units were traded in against these purchases for a net increase for the year of 71 units. All F.M. units purchased were for use at the
Ranger district level.
A Province-wide study of radio communication requirements of the Forest
Service was carried out in 1967, and as a result Telex was introduced into the Service
in July of 1968. To date, one seasonal and 10 permanent machines have been
installed. Four are in Victoria, one at each district headquarters, one in Smithers,
and the seasonal machine is in Fort Nelson. The use of Telex for written messages
and Telpak for oral traffic made obsolete the H.F. and V.H.F. circuits used for
Victoria-district headquarters traffic, and this service was terminated in October.
A preventive maintenance programme for equipment, including maintenance
service and down-time records, was introduced during the summer. Three Victoria
radio technicians became responsible for co-ordinating the maintenance programme
and providing field supervision on an area basis.
Prior to the fire season, the performance of all available gain antennas for
mobiles was evaluated, and of all models tested, one proved to be particularly efficient. A sufficient number of these antennas was purchased to fully equip four
Ranger districts for field evaluation. Initial reports from the field show an average of
20 to 25 per cent increase in range due to these antennas. Though they are more
prone to damage under field conditions, the improvement in communication justifies
their use. It is expected these antennas, in conjunction with gain antennas at the
Ranger base station, should make a significant improvement in the communicating
range.
Of importance to the water bombing and aircraft patrol programme was the
provision by the Department of Transport of the frequency 164.04 megahertz
(MHz). This frequency, adjacent to the fire-fighting frequency of 163.83 MHz,
permits use of two-frequency portable radios to ensure an alternate voice-channel
back to the base of operations.
In the Vancouver Forest District, the portable F.M. repeater used for Pember-
ton-Squamish coverage was replaced by a line-controlled remote unit controlled by
either station. Communications in these high-hazard districts are greatly improved.
A mobile repeater at Newcastle Ridge is being installed and will provide coverage
for five northern Vancouver Island Ranger districts. Planning for further district
improvement is under way.
Mobile communications in the Prince George Forest District have been improved through the installation of a remote-control unit for Fort Fraser Ranger
District and a thermo-powered solid-state repeater in the Dawson Creek district.
The Prince Rupert Forest District mobile trunk system was improved. Two
weak paths through mountainous terrain were strengthened by means of higher gain
antennas. The mobile coverage for the Burns Lake Ranger District was greatly
increased with a low-powered remote-control unit located at Boer Mountain.
In the Kamloops Forest District a tube-type repeater powered by an unreliable
a.c. generator was replaced by a battery-powered solid-state unit. Tatla Lake and
Clinton Ranger Districts will enjoy improved communications through the installation of remote-control units in their areas.
 44 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A thermo-powered solid-state repeater was installed on Buchanan Mountain,
Nelson Forest District, giving improved mobile coverage to both the Kaslo and
Lardeau Ranger Districts. An H.F. S.S.B. circuit was installed between Nelson
headquarters and Mica Ranger Station, and though H.F. propagation characteristics
still limit communication on these frequencies, an improvement between Mica and
Nelson is noted.
During the summer, seven Ranger districts were given an intensive survey of
their communications needs. Several recommendations of the report are being implemented, and the survey programme will be continued in 1969.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 45
FOREST PROTECTION DIVISION
WEATHER
The 1968 fire season started with seasonal temperatures and below average
rainfall. The moderate hazard conditions which developed were reduced to low in
June, when most of the Province experienced cooler than normal temperatures with
above average rainfall.
During July and August thunderstorms developed at frequent intervals. As
a result, there were few locations where any appreciable hazard built up. In late
August unsettled weather developed and carried through September, and the fire
season officially terminated on September 30th.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
The summer of 1968 produced less than the average number of fires with a
total of 1,647, well below the 10-year average of 2,172. Lightning was the principal
cause, accounting for 43 per cent of the fires. This single cause is a considerable
increase over the serious 1967 season, in which only 29 per cent of the fires were
in this category and is above the 10-year average of 36 per cent. (See Tables
Nos. 103, 104, and 105 in the Appendix.)
Cost of Fire-fighting
Average fire-suppression cost to the Forest Service was $741 per cost fire, compared with $4,233 the previous year. Total suppression cost for the year was
$862,600, of which $698,700 was accounted for by the Forest Service and $163,900
by other agencies. The 10-year average for fire-suppression costs is $2,698,400.
(See Tables Nos. 102, 109, and 111 in the Appendix.)
Damage
The 33,381 acres of forest cover burned represented approximately 13 per
cent of the 10-year average of 252,610 acres. The damage to forest cover was
$455,872, compared with the 10-year average of $2,969,389. (See Tables Nos.
108 and 110 in the Appendix.)
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
There were 14 suppression crews of 7 to 10 crewmen plus foreman and cook,
and 11 two- or three-man initial attack crews employed at strategic locations in the
three southern districts. Sixteen two-man crews were also employed at various
locations in the Prince George and Prince Rupert Districts.
During the low-hazard periods of the season, these crews worked on a variety
of other projects.
For an analysis of suppression-crew fire-fighting activities see Table No. 115
in the Appendix.
AIRCRAFT
Thirty-five aircraft were under contract during the 1968 fire season. This is
slightly fewer than 1967. These were six helicopters, three fixed-wing general-
purpose aircraft, six light fire-spotter aircraft, four Canso air tankers, 11 Avenger
air tankers, and five aircraft for bird-dog duties.
The crash of one air tanker with the loss of its two crew members was deeply
felt by district personnel and the Forest Service as a whole.
 46
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ROADS AND TRAILS
The programme of road and trail construction and the reconstruction of existing
roads linking up Forest Service and logging roads was continued, improving access
to various areas for protection and management purposes. An exception was the
Prince George Forest District, where a wet summer prevented any major operations.
(See Table No. 116 in the Appendix.)
SLASH AND SNAG DISPOSAL
Vancouver Forest District
In the Vancouver Forest District, snags on 2,119 acres were felled. Contract
crews completed 75 acres, the Agassiz inmate crew handled 24 acres, and the
regular Forest Service crew looked after 2,020 acres.
PRESCRIBED BURNS
Forest District
Forest
Service
Industry
Total
Acres
Nil
1,536
285
3,059
1,020
Acres
77,831
4,893
[          Nil
3,351
7,590
Acres
77,831
6,429
285
6,410
8,610
Totals   ..       ...	
5,900
93,665
99,565
Vancouver Forest District
Wet conditions from late August through September reduced the number of
slash burns. Burning commenced in mid-August along the west and north coastal
areas of Vancouver Island. Results were generally poor, but some good burns were
made on southern exposures.
Similar conditions prevailed for the east coast of Vancouver Island and the
Mainland. Few slash burns were attempted until late September, when a high-
pressure ridge developed along the south coast and lasted through the first week of
October. During this two-week period most operators on the south-eastern portion
of Vancouver Island, the Sunshine Coast, Squamish, Pemberton, and Fraser Valley
commenced large-scale burning operations.
The 1968 slash-burning season was satisfactory, with considerably more slash
being abated than was anticipated in view of a wet August. In addition to the
77,831 acres cleared during 1968, 4,903 acres of older slash were considered abated
to a satisfactory level by natural means.
Prince Rupert Forest District
Slash-burning weather was limited during the year, and results were disappointing. Two spring burns were carried out—one at Terrace and one in the Jvlorice
Valley. The fall burning season started in Kitimat, Terrace, Kitwanga, and Hazel-
ton on August 20th. Rain started three days later and prevented further burning.
Despite inclement weather, 6,429 acres of slash were disposed of satisfactorily.
Prince George Forest District
A wet summer followed by heavy fall rains made slash-burning almost
impossible.   A total of 285 acres of slash was abated in the spring by the Forest
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 47
Service, and slash disposal over 15,611 acres which was planned for 1968 will
continue in 1969.
Kamloops Forest District
The wet fall of 1968 was poor for slash-burning, but the Forest Service handled
3,059 of 4,119 acres earmarked for burning. Industry burned 3,351 acres of 6,270
planned.   The remainder will be done in 1969.
Nelson Forest District
Wet weather commenced in late August, continued into the faU, and curtailed
the slash-disposal programme. Of 12,485 acres of slash to be disposed of by
industry, 7,590 acres were completed, indicating a good attempt by industry in the
hazard-abatement programme. The untreated areas will be attended to in 1969.
(See Tables Nos. 115 and 116 in Appendix.)
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
Prosecutions under Part XI of the Forest Act resulted in 14 charges. Ten of
them involved burning without a permit. Prosecutions of 1968 represented 42 per
cent of the 10-year average of 33.
FOREST CLOSURES
No forest closures were imposed during the 1968 season under section 122 of
the Forest Act, but campfire permits were suspended in the Vancouver Forest District between August 2nd and 14th.
PROTECTION PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Statistics
The Provincial Fire Atlas was maintained in the plotting of all fires by cause,
size, and location. This atlas continues to be a valuable reference to other divisions
and outside agencies.
The backlog of coding fire statistics has been completed and is now on a current
basis, and plans are under way on computerized programmes for various studies.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
No field work was required in visibility mapping or lookout photography during
1968.   It was the second time since 1945 that crews were not engaged in this work.
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks
The spring field test to determine acceptable tolerances for fuel-moisture sticks
manufactured during the winter was undertaken at Ashcroft in April. Of the 1,098
sets shipped in 1968, 59 per cent went to industry, 4 per cent to the Federal forestry,
and 37 per cent to the Forest Service.
During November, 1,280 fuel-moisture sticks were manufactured at the Forest
Products Laboratory in Vancouver for use in 1969.
Insect Survey and Control
To protect Interior pine stands, the European Pine Shoot Moth Regulations
were approved March 19, 1968 (Order in Council No. 864), and amended December 12, 1968 (Order in Council No. 3948). Vancouver Forest District was declared
a quarantine zone, and any movement of pines from that district required prior treatment and authorization.
L
 48
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A specialized balsam wooly aphid survey was made of ornamental balsam trees
and shrubs in all urban communities in the Southern Interior in the area lying south
of the 51st parallel, north and east of the Fraser River. This survey stemmed from
the 1967 discovery of Adelges picex in ornamental balsams in Oliver and Penticton.
No evidence of the aphid was found in the 1968 survey.
Research Projects
The Planning and Research Section was reorganized to provide definite fields
of responsibility to staff members and modified work procedures to increase
efficiency.
The Section obtained adequate space in a Government-leased building, permitting the construction of a shop for equipment testing and development, weather-
instrument repairs, and adequate storage of equipment and materials. Future work
will benefit substantially by this acquisition.
A new publication titled " Planning and Research Report" will keep all
Service staff advised of completed protection projects and where detailed information
can be obtained. Besides in-service distribution, the report is sent to all forest-
protection agencies in Canada with the hope it will result in a better exchange of
information between protection people. Seventeen reports were distributed during
1968.
Many projects were in various stages of completion at the end of 1968. Some
of the highlights were as follows:—
—After years of testing various products for protecting maps on lookout fire-
finders it was found a plexiglass cover worked best. Covers were cut, drilled,
and distributed to all lookouts.
—The Forest Service drip torch was modified again, and 200 were manufactured and distributed. This latest model will be used for future
production.
—A prototype flame-thrower, suitable for vehicle mounting for slash ignition,
was manufactured and sent to one forest district for testing.
—Supplies of two-man two-day ration kits were purchased, boxed, and distributed to all forest districts.
—A prototype portable fire simulator for training purposes was constructed
and is undergoing tests before being introduced for in-service training.   The
unit will cost less than $2,000.
—Reports were completed on sprinkler systems for prescribed burns, two
types of fire-camp mattresses, window-tinting of lookouts, a ground and air
fire-detection test using an Australian-made infra-red fire-detector telescope,
the pocket-size fuel-moisture stick balance, a secondary lookout shelter, the
practicability of lookout fire-finder telescopes, and a hose-carrier for roll-
fold hose.
—The preparation and revision of handbooks required considerable time, and
five handbooks should be ready for distribution in 1969. These cover guides
for fire supression, lookoutmen, fire-weather instruments, air-tanker operations, and broadcast burning of logging slash.
—Equipment evaluation and testing continued as new products became available from industry.
—Liaison continued with agencies in fields of mutual interest.   These embrace
meteorology, pest control, fire-danger indices, and representation on various
protection sub-committees of the National Research Council and on the
Rehabilitation Committee of the Forest Service.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 49
FOREST SERVICE TRAINING-SCHOOL
ENROLMENT AND GRADUATION
The 15th class of advanced trainees consisting of 24 men completed the second
term and graduated on April 5, 1968, bringing the total number of graduates of the
advanced course to 319.
The seventh class of basic trainees (Basic Course No. 7) consisted of 24 men.
They enrolled on September 16, 1968, and graduated three months later. The total
number of graduates from the basic course is now 148.
Subjects covered during the term were as follows: —
Advanced Course No. 15, Spring, 1968 (January 8th to April 5th)
Subject Days Allotted
Forest Management Policies and Procedures  9
Pre-suppression  3
Scaling (Coast)   14
Scaling (Interior)   1 Vz
Public Speaking  4 Vz
Fire Suppression  2
Vancouver Island Trip  4
Sales and Appraisals  6
Navigation   3
Measurements  8
Engineering Services  2
Photogrammetry   2
Public Information and Education  1
Personnel and Safety  2Vz
Fish and Game Department  1
Spares  1
Closing        Vz
Total days  65
Physical Training:  Three-quarters of an hour per day.
Basic Course No. 7, Fall, 1968 (September 16th to December 17th)
Subject Days Allotted
Mathematics   2Vz
Pre-suppression  8
Surveying  5Vz
Fire Suppression  13
Photogrammetry  3
Mechanical Equipment Maintenance and Operation  10
Measurements  6
Reforestation   Wz
Silviculture  3
Forest Protection Policies and Procedures  4
Forest Management Policies and Procedures  7
Mapping   1
Opening, closing       Vz
Total days  65
Physical Training:  Three-quarters of an hour per day.
 50 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
EXTRA COURSES AND FUNCTIONS
The following extra courses and functions were held at the school:—
Course for Lookoutmen.—The school provided room, board, facilities,
and instruction for this course.   Twenty-one men took the course—
11 from the Kamloops Forest District and 10 from the Prince George
Forest District.   The course was held during the period of April 29th
to May 2nd.
Course for Fieldmen of the Forest Inventory Division.—The school
provided room, board, facilities, and minor assistance with instruction for this course.   Two-and-one-half-day sessions for two different
groups were held.   A total of 60 men attended the sessions during
the period May 6th to 10th.
During the year the school's instructional facilities were used intermittently by
the Vancouver scaling classes, and short courses and seminars were conducted by
the Vancouver Cruising Section and the Reforestation Division.
Four groups of official scalers, totalling 75 men, attended a one-day introductory course conducted by the school staff.
The Canadian Forestry Association conducted one week of outdoor classroom
lectures, with  500 elementary students from the surrounding area attending.
During the summer one instructor assisted at a fire-control course held at
Williams Lake.
One instructor attended a one-week workshop on the fire simulator held at the
Forest Technology School, Hinton, Alta.
The annual Technical Forest Officer 2 examination was prepared and marked.
The reading course on the Forest Act was updated and 464 copies were distributed to the districts and divisions along with 390 copies of the mathematics reading
course.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 51
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
FISCAL
In direct reversal of the situation in the 1967 calendar year, the financial return
to the Forest Service in 1968 climbed to record proportions. While a significant
portion resulted from statutory increases in the rates of timber royalties, forest
protection tax- and timber-berth rentals and fees, the bulk of the additional revenue
was from timber-sale stumpage.
Confirming the encouraging market outlook at the beginning of the year, prices
being obtained for forest products rose to record heights and were reflected in
corresponding stumpage-rate adjustments. Other contributing factors were settlement of the costly strike in the Southern Interior in May and readjustment of some
zone price differentials on the Coast. At the close of the year, the outlook for the
industry was optimistic, with favourable market conditions expected to continue well
into 1969.
The increase in royalty and stumpage rates combined with an 8.2-per-cent
increase in the volume of timber scaled to push charges to $58,036,564 (see Table
No. 142 in the Appendix)—an increase of 44.9 per cent over the 1967 figure. All
forest districts registered substantial percentage increases—Prince Rupert District
leading the way with 59 per cent, followed by Prince George District with 53.5 per
cent, Vancouver District at 42.3 per cent, Nelson District at 38.3 per cent, and
Kamloops District at 35.8 per cent. Operations in the latter two districts early in
1968 were restricted by the strike.
Direct forest revenue (see Table No. 141 in the Appendix) increased by 26.7
per cent to $53,841,116. Timber-sale stumpage (which constitutes over four-fifths
of the revenue) rose to $44,390,571, an increase of 27.8 per cent over the previous
year. Timber-sale rentals and fees and timber-sale cruising and advertising
registered minor increases—2 and 9 per cent respectively. Many timber sales have
been included in timber-sale harvesting licences, and, under the latter tenure, rental
is only charged on the areas being operated currently.
Timber-licence rentals and fees were down 18 per cent, probably due to the
elimination of logged-off areas and later payment from some licensees than in 1967.
Timber-berth rentals and fees increased tenfold as the rates on these old Dominion
tenures were brought into line with those charged on timber licences, timber leases,
and timber sales. Timber-lease rentals and fees showed an increase of 14.4 per
cent, possibly due to deferred payment by some holders from the previous year.
Miscellaneous revenue increased by 20 per cent, mainly due to payment of
some large fire-fighting claims. Weight-scaling cost recovery was up 60.1 per cent
to $635,742 as the adoption of this form of scale spreads in the industry. Proceeds
from the Federal Forestry Agreement amounted to only $34,391, representing payment of the final claim under the Balsam Woolly Aphid Agreement, which expired
March 31st.
Financial tables, on a fiscal-year basis, for the period ended March 31, 1968,
are included in the Appendix (see Tables Nos. 143, 144, and 145), and detailed
expenditure information may be found in the Public Accounts, published annually
by the Department of Finance.
ADMINISTRATION
Work of the Division continued to expand, and staff turnover was a significant
problem. Long delays in obtaining replacements constituted a serious loss of man-
hours, which made it difficult to maintain maximum efficiency.
 52 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The fire season was moderate, but expenditure accounting remained at a high
level as field activity expanded in several areas, notably in reforestation and engineering projects.
Timber-sale accounting became increasingly complex as adjustments were
made to meet requirements of new policies established by Management Division.
Application of the " continuous deposit" system accelerated as older timber sales
expired, and will continue for many years until it is completely effective. Stumpage
adjustments resulting from rising market prices were frequent and time-consuming.
The condition of accounts receivable continued to improve, each district reporting only a small percentage of delinquent accounts. Difficulty experienced during
the Interior strike was adjusted later in the year.
In forms control, a catalogue was completed and supplied to all districts and
the training-school for use with an index, already in use. Meetings of the coordinating committee were held monthly.
Removal of marine hazards caused by drift logs continued in the log salvage
district. During 1968 permittees marketed 28,681,781 feet board measure through
Gulf Log Salvage Co-operative Association, licensee of the log-receiving station.
In addition, approximately 5,000,000 feet board measure of low-grade drift and
nearly 6,000,000 feet board measure of low floating logs and deadheads were recovered by permittees. This was a substantial increase in recovery and resulted in
a corresponding reduction in floating marine hazards.
The timber industry is proposing more effective security and protective measures to curb log losses from booms and storage areas.
Efforts to encourage clearing logs from beaches commenced in 1967 with the
advertisement and sale of licences to remove beached logs. Four licences were extended in 1968, resulting in removal of 894,326 cubic feet from shores of Masset
Inlet, Queen Charlotte Islands, and 190,580 cubic feet from the west coast of Vancouver Island.
During 1968 five new applications to remove timber from beaches were received, and two new licences were sold. One resulted in removal of 23,383 cubic
feet from the shoreline of Babine Lake.
Control of log export under Part X of the Forest Act continues to receive close
scrutiny by the Export Advisory Committee and the Accounting Division. Though
log stocks during the year have diminished considerably, pressure for export continues.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 53
PERSONNEL DIVISION
There were no changes in the senior administrative staff and no disruption in
the administration of the service. Reforestation continued its expansion programme.
A classification review was completed on the Mechanical Superintendent group,
resulting in salary increases for most of these personnel.
The Chief Forester and Personnel Officer met the committee of the Society of
British Columbia Forest Officers and the British Columbia Government Employees'
Association to discuss a society brief on working conditions and employee welfare.
At a second meeting the same group presented its brief to the Civil Service Commission.   A general salary increase for all employees became effective April 1st.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
The biennial District Foresters' meeting was held in Victoria, enabling District
Foresters and Assistant District Foresters to discuss problems of mutual interest.
Ranger meetings were held in the Kamloops, Prince George, and Prince Rupert
Districts, with local or zone meetings held in the Vancouver and Nelson Districts.
The Forest Management Division held three meetings with district staffs concerning
general management, scaling, and close utilization, and the Engineering Division
held a meeting for field engineers. Both Forest Inventory and Engineering Services
Divisions held pre-season training sessions for students employed for the summer
field season. The Research Division held a meeting of regional research officers in
Victoria to discuss projects and programmes.
The Personnel Officer and Assistant Personnel Officer took part in vocation-
day programmes at secondary schools in the Victoria area and other Forest Service
officers took part in similar programmes throughout the Province. One Forester and
one Forest Protection Officer commenced Class XIII of the Public Administration
Course under the Executive Development Training Programme. One employee, a
Forest Protection Officer, graduated from Class X of this programme.
Five employees were selected for Class V of the correspondence course in basic
public administration, and three employees graduated from Class IV of this course.
One Forester was sent on a three-month course in forest genetics. Informal training
continued for junior foresters and junior engineers, as well as field training for the
Ranger staff.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment of the Forest Service remained at
884, with no new positions added. During the year 111 persons received Civil
Service appointments and 127 left the Service. Four Forest Service 25-year
certificates and badges were earned. Five employees were guests at a Provincial
Executive Council luncheon, where they received certificates for 25 years of continuous government service. There were 10 retirements and 36 transfers of
permanent staff. Ten graduate foresters and one graduate engineer left the Service,
while 11 graduate foresters and two engineers were hired.
Turnover of Civil Service staff, including full-time casual staff, was 10.9 per
cent, an insignificant increase from 10.8 per cent in 1967. Prince Rupert suffered
the greatest disruption at 20 per cent, followed by Prince George, Vancouver, and
Kamloops with 12.5, 12.4, and 12.2 per cent respectively. Vancouver scaling and
Victoria headquarters were the same at 9.4 per cent, and Nelson was again lowest at
6.5 per cent.
 54 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Professional-staff turnover showed improvement at 4.6 per cent, compared
with 5.9 per cent in 1967, while technical-staff turnover increased from 3.2 per
cent in 1967 to 5.3 per cent in 1968. Highest turnover was recorded in the clerical
group at 21.3 per cent. Figures ranged from 37.5 per cent for the Prince Rupert
District to 12.9 per cent in the Nelson District.
In the matter of discipline, one employee was released during probation. Three
permanent employees were suspended with intent to dismiss—two resigned and one
was reinstated. A number of disciplinary suspensions were imposed, mainly for
minor infractions of rules and safety regulations. Four employees had annual
merit increases withheld.
A total of 1,211 written applications for employment was received and processed by the personnel office, in addition to those handled by district and divisional
staff. Promotional examinations were held by the Civil Service Commission for
draughtsmen and mapping assistants to the advantage of numerous Forest Service
employees. Written examinations were held for four competitions, and oral examinations were held at panel interviews to fill 45 positions. The Personnel Officer
and Assistant Personnel Officer helped to fill 127 other positions. More than 500
candidates sat for the annual spring examination for Technical Forest Officer 1, and
140 qualified for 18 vacancies. All vacancies were filled, and a long list of eligible
candidates remained for subsequent vacancies. At the same time, 172 employees
took the annual examination for Technical Forest Officer 2, and 96 qualified.
Twenty-four employees completed the basic training course at the Forest Service
training-school, and 24 others graduated from the advanced course and were promoted to Technical Forest Officer 3 as Deputy Rangers.
CLASSIFICATION, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Classification reviews were requested for 48 positions. At the end of the year
29 had been approved and 19 rejected. An organizational review was requested for
the administrative office of the Vancouver Forest District. A review of Forest
Agrologist salaries in comparison with the salaries of other positions with related
professional qualifications resulted in adjustments to some of the Forest Agrologist
grades.   This matter is still under review.
Nine employees were registered as professional foresters. General working
conditions were unchanged, but the Personnel Officers met with the Chief Personnel
Officer of the Civil Service Commission to discuss the granting and control of sick
leave. Discussions were held with the Civil Service Commission on housing problems and other matters of employee welfare. Results were indecisive, and the matter
is still under review.   Efforts will continue for improved working conditions.
A total of 277 accidental injuries was suffered by employees—24 to temporary
fire-fighters and 26 to temporary tree-planters and cone-collectors. Of the 227
injuries for the regular staff, 44 were time loss and 183 required medical aid only.
The time-loss frequency for regular staff was 9.9 time-loss accidents per million
man-hours worked, compared with 14.6 for 1967. Time-loss accidents for regular
staff were 19.4 per cent of the total accidents, compared to 28.5 per cent in 1967.
There were no fatal accidents in the Forest Service in 1968. Throughout the year
25 British Columbia Safety Council awards of merit were won by various groups in
the Forest Service. Worthy of note were the Kamloops and Prince Rupert Districts'
bronze awards; Prince George District's silver and gold awards; Forest Inventory's
gold award; and the Nelson District, which achieved a bronze-on-gold, a silver-on-
gold, and a " million man-hours " award. Net result: of the 19 Prime Minister's
safety awards presented to various British Columbia Government departments, six
went to the Forest Service.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
55
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1968
(As of December 31st)
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
F. S. McKinnon ------        -       - Deputy Minister of Forests
L. F. Swannell -----------     Chief Forester
J. S. Stokes -------    Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations
I. T. Cameron Assistant Chief Forester i/c Services
Staff Division Heads:
Cooper, C. Forest Counsel
Hicks, W. V.        --------        Departmental Comptroller
Lyons, E. H. -------        Forester i/c Public Information
McKeever, A. E. -       -       - Personnel Officer
Operations Branch Division Heads:
Phillips, W. C.     -        -        -        -        - -        -        Forester i/c Protection Division
Hughes, W. G.     -        -        -        -        - -        - Forester i/c Management Division
Pendray, W. C.  -       -       -       Director, Grazing Division
Lehrle, L. W. W.  Forester i/c Forest Service Training-school
Services Branch Division Heads:
Young, W. E. L. Forester i/c Forest Inventory Division
Robinson, E. W.  -        -        -        -        -        -        -   Forester i/c Reforestation Division
Spilsbury, R. H.   -        - Forester i/c Research Division
Hemphill, P. J. J. -        -        -        -        Engineer i/c Engineering Services Division
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver Forest District
H. B. Forse -
J. A. K. Reid
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Lorentsen, L. H. (Cultus Lake); McArthur, E. J. (Hope); Wilson, R. S. (Harrison Lake);
Nelson, J. N. (Mission); Mudge, M. H. (Port Moody); Neighbor, M. N. (Squamish);
Chamberlin, L. C. (Sechelt); Northrup, K. A. (Pender Harbour); Hollinshead, S. B.
(Powell River); Doerksen, V. J. (Lund); Stefanac, G. (Thurston Bay); Archer, W. C.
(Sayward); Campbell, R. A. (Echo Bay); Moss, R. D. (Port McNeill); Teindl, A. J. (Port
Hardy); Brooks, T. (Campbell River); Hannah, M. (Courtenay); Norbirg, H. (Parksville);
Howard, W. G. (Nanaimo); Sykes, S. J. (Duncan); Antonelli, M. W. (Langford); Thomas,
R. W. (Lake Cowichan); Haley, K. (Alberni); Doerksen, H. G. (Torino); Gill, D. E.
(Pemberton); de Hart, D. E. (Gold River);  Hawkey, G. F. (Chatham Channel).
Prince George Forest District
N. A. McRae
Young, W. -
District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Graham, J. G. (McBride); Little, J. H. (Valemount); McRae, M. A. (Prince George East);
Meents, T. G. (Prince George North); Brash, W. E. (Fort St. James); York, G. H.
(Quesnel); Barbour, H. T. (Dawson Creek); Amonson, D. A. (Aleza Lake); Osborne, H.
(Vanderhoof); Espenant, L. G. (Fort St. John); Griffiths, P. F. (Fort Fraser); Gibbs, T. R.
(Summit Lake); Doerksen, D. B. (Fort Nelson); Magee, G. E. (Prince George); Wallin,
D. F. (Hixon); Hewitt, E. W. (Quesnel); Rohn, K. (Quesnel); McQueen, L. (Chetwynd);
Magee, K. W. (Mackenzie).
 56 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Kamloops Forest District
A. H. Dixon -- -... District Forester
Boulton, L. B. B. -        -        - Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Hopkins, H. V. (Lumby); Ivens, J. H. (Birch Island); Wittner, D. J. (Barriere); Cameron,
A. G. (Kamloops South); Craig, V. D. (Chase); Jackson, R. C. (Salmon Arm); Jones,
G. G. (Sicamous); Berard, R. K. M. (Lillooet); Kuly, A. (Vernon); McDaniel, R. W.
(Penticton); Baker, F. M. (Princeton); Petty, A. P. (Clinton); Ward, J. G. (Williams
Lake); Donnelly, R. W. (Alexis Creek); Hewlett, H. C. (Kelowna); Noble, J. O. (Ashcroft); Pearce, F. (Merritt); Lynn, J. F. (Blue River); Loomer, I. M. (Enderby); Schmidt,
J. T. (100 Mile North); Weinard, J. P. (Kamloops North); Wanderer, J. (Horsefly);
Monteith, M. E. (100 Mile South); Perry, W. R. (Tatla Lake).
Prince Rupert Forest District
H. M. Pogue District Forester
W. F. Tuttle       - - Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Anderson, W. R. (Queen Charlotte City); Gilgan, N. P. (Prince Rupert); Harvie, T.
(Terrace); Quast, H. W. (Hazelton); Reiter, D. (Kitwanga); Pement, A. R. (Smithers);
Simmons, C. F. (Telkwa); Dodd, G. F. (Houston); Jaeger, J. F. (Burns Lake); Weinard,
R. H. (Bella Coola); Jones, W. H. (Southbank); vacant (Lower Post); Waldron, W. C.
(Kitimat).
Nelson Forest District
J. R. Johnston - District Forester
Isenor, M. G.     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -        Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Taft, L. G. (Invermere); Humphrey, J. L. (Fernie); Anderson, S. E. (Golden); Gierl, J. B.
(Cranbrook East); Ross, A. I. (Creston); Allin, G. B. (Kaslo); Benwell, G. L. (Lardeau);
Robinson, R. E. (Nelson); Jupp, C. C. (New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Nakusp); Wood,
H. R. (Castlegar); Reid, E. W. (Grand Forks); Uphill, W. T. (Kettle Valley); Cartwright,
G. M. (Canal Flats); Benwell, W. G. (Mica); Trenaman, R. G. (Edgewood); Russell, P. F.
(Elko); Webster, G. R. (Spillimacheen); Hamann, L. O. (Cranbrook West); Thompson,
H. B. (Beaverdell); Bellmond, C. N. (Salmo); Hamilton, H. D. (Revelstoke).
   REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968 59
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
THE REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
Table RESEARCH DIVISION
No. Page
11. Status of Research Projects Active in 1968     63
12. Research Publications, 1968     63
Reforestation Division
22. Summary of Planting, 1959-68     64
Public Information and Education Division
31. Motion-picture Library, 1959-68     65
32. Summary of Coverage by School Lecturers, 1959-68     66
Forest Management Division
47. Summary of Basic Data for Tree-farm Licences (Private Sustained-yield
Units)     67
48. Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-farms (Private Sustained-yield
Units over Crown-granted Lands)     67
49. Summary of Basic Data for Farm Wood-lot Licences (Private Sustained-
yield Units)     68
50. Summary of Basic Data for Public Sustained-yield Units     68
51. Value Added by Manufacture and Estimated Net Value of Logging,
1959-68     69
52. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.), 1959-68     70
53. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during Years 1967
and 1968:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet     71
54. Species Cut, All Products, 1968:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet____    72
55. Total Scale, All Products, 1968 (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts):   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet     73
56. Timber Scaled in British Columbia during 1968 (by Months and Forest
Districts)     74
57. Number of Acres Operating under Approved Annual Allowable Cuts,
1959-68     75
58. Total Scale of All Products from Areas Operated under Approved Annual
Allowable Cuts, 1959-68     76
59. Logging Inspections, 1968  77
60. Trespasses, 1968  78
61. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1968  79
62. Timber-sale Record, 1968  79
 60 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
TMiLE
No. Page
63. Competition for Timber Sales Awarded, 1968  80
64. Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1968  81
65. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Timber Sales during 1968, per C C.F. Log Scale  82
66. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Timber Scaled on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits during 1968  83
67. Timber Cut and Billed from Timber Sales, 1968  84
68. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1968  85
69. Export of Logs (inF.B.M.), 1968  86
70. Shipments of Poles and Other Minor Products, 1968  86
71. Summary of Export of Minor Products for Province, 1968  87
72. Timber Marks Issued, 1959-68  87
Grazing Division
81. Grazing Permits Issued, 1968  87
Engineering Services Division
91. Forest Road Programme, 1968  88
92. Forest Service Mechanical Equipment, 1968  89
Forest Protection Division
102. Reported Approximate  Expenditure  in Forest Protection  by  Other
Agencies, 1968  89
103. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1968  90
104. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1968  90
105. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last 10 Years  90
106. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1968  91
107. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1968  92
108. Damage to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1968—Parts I and EL92-93
109. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1968 94
110. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last 10 Years  94
111. Fires Classified by Forest District and Cost per Fire of Fire-fighting, 1968 95
112. Prosecutions, 1968  96
113. Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities, 1968  97
114. Construction of Protection Roads and Trails, 1968  97
115. Summary of Logging Slash Reported in 1968, Vancouver Forest District 97
116. Analysis of Progress of Slash Disposal, 1968, Vancouver Forest District 98
Forest Service Training-school
131. Training-school Enrolment and Graduations  98
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1968 61
Table ACCOUNTING DIVISION
No. Page
141. Forest Revenue, 1964-68  98
142. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1968  99
143. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1967/68 ___ 100
144. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1967/68  101
145. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1967/68  101
146. Scaling Fund  101
147. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  102
148. Peace River Power Timber Salvage  102
Personnel Division
151. Distribution of Personnel, 1968  103
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
63
(U)
STATUS OF RESEARCH PROJECTS IN 1968
Active at beginning of year
Terminated 	
New projects
Active at end of year
86
8
18
96
Research Projects by Districts
Subject
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Land classification..
Forest fertilization-
Tree breeding	
Plant ecology..
Silvicultural systems-
Natural regeneration-
Choice and trial of species-
Seed	
Nursery practice-
Direct seeding	
Planting-
Tending of stands..
Statistics	
Management: Economics-
Totals	
48
13
11
(12)
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS,  1968
Forest Research Review for Year Ended March, 1968, British Columbia Forest Service.
Hetherington, J. C. (1967): Crown Diameter: Stem Diameter Relationships in Managed Stands
of Sitka Spruce.   Com. For. Rev., 46:278-281.
Schmidt, R. L. (1968): A Simple Device for Sowing Experimental Seed Lots at Uniform Spacing.   Tree Planters' Notes, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 9-11.
van den Driessche, R.; Austin, K. H.; Balderston, M. B.; and Stewart, A. G. (1968): A Portable Meter for Measuring Impedence of Tree Seedling Stems. Forestry Chron. 44(2): 35-36.
van den Driessche, R. (1968): A Comparison of Growth Responses of Douglas Fir and Sitka
Spruce to Different Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Levels in Sand Culture. Canadian J. Bot. 46(5) :531-537.
van den Driessche, R. (1968): Growth Analysis of Four Nursery-grown Conifer Species. Canadian J. Bot. 46(11):1389-1395.
 64
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1968
67
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR TREE-FARM LICENCES (PRIVATE
(47) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Forest District
Number
of
Tree-farm
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Cut (M
Cu. Ft.)
Crown
Private
Total
171
61
2
7
6
2,441,224
3,452,387
461,625
722,380
1,268,638
1,204,999
168,111
1,599
1,841
47,833
3,646,223
3,620,498
463,224
724,221
1,316,471
6,588,983
10,741,284
521,617
776,669
2,677,277
334,090
126,617
10,600
14,585
40,550
Totals... —	
36
8,346,254
1,424,383
9,770,637
21,305,830
526,442
1 Two tree-farm licences located in both districts.
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS (PRIVATE
(48) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS OVER CROWN-GRANTED LANDS)
Within Tree-farm Licences
Number
of
Tree-farms
within
Tree-farm
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Mature
Volume
(MCu.
Ft.)
Estimated
Productive
Capacity
(MCu.
Ft.)
Forest District
Mature
Immature
N.S.R.
and
N.C.C.
Total
Vancouver	
Prince George..	
11
1
2
83,399
123
1,177
198,462
1,131
3,114
31,848
394
313,709 |     351,389
1,254 |         1,280
4,685 |         4,925
689,168
331
3,678
31,725
37
Nelson	
187
Totals	
14
84,699
202,707
32,242
319,648 |     357,594
693,177
31,949
Not Included within Tree-farm Licences
21
10
1
| 128,383
[ 112,258
1
272,790
177,815
34,063
80,814
435,236
370,887
473,304
494,016
109,337
219,035
36,286
9,154
(334,231)
Totals   	
31
| 240,641
1
450,605
114,877
806,123
967,320
328,372
45,440
(334,231)
Grand totals
45
1  325,340
1
653,312
147,119
1,125,771
1,324,914
1,021,549
77,389
(334,231)
Figures in parentheses are Christmas trees.
 68
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
(49) (PRIVATE SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Forest District
Number
of Farm
Wood-lot
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Total Mature Volume
(M Cu. Ft.)
Allowable
Annual
Cut fM
Cu. Ft.)
Crown
Private
Total
Crown
Private
Total
Vancouver 	
14
5
14
4
6
1,990
1,570
3,185
1,115
1,633
258
235
193
146
840
2,248
1,805
3,378
1,261
2.473
3,155
3,261
3,600
1,420
2,629
4,136
2,330
5,685
660
1,256
145
97
105
18
263
4,281
2,427
5,790
678
1,519
81.6
33.2
102.3
Kamloops	
26.0
33.4
Totals
43
9,493
1,672
11,165
14,065
14,067
628
14,695
276.5
(SO)   SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR PUBLIC SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS
Number
of
Units
Productive Area (Acres)
Total Area
(Including
Non-forest)
(Acres)
Mature
Volume to
Close-
utilization
Standards
(MCu. Ft.)
Annual
Commitment
(MCu.
Ft.)
Forest District
Mature
Immature
Total
Productive
(Includes
N.S.R. and
N.C.C.)
Vancouver  	
Prince Rupert (Coast)
Prince Rupert (Interior)
1
6 3,292,708
4    1    3,952,561
7 |    5,753,818
23    1  14.295.719
1,359,951
302,836
3,156,445
13.589.347
5,112,308
4,441,963
9,249,502
29.641.662
10,155,953
11,745,980
14,058,660
42,105,705
28,460,187
14.213.178
26,664,4311
27,334,5811
24,951,1512
43,415,0892
25,374,0662
10.555.2872
150,263
41,247
51,489
214,524
Kamloops	
23    |    9,164,437 | 11,120,533  1 21,530,775
14    |    2,681,983 |    4,959,722 |    8,569,697
127,319
67,338
Totals         .     .   .
77    1 39.141.226  I 34.488.834 I 78.545.907
120.739.663  1 158.294.605
652,180
1 Volume 9.1" + d.b.h. to close utilization.
2 Volume 7.1" + d.b.h. to close utilization.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
69
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
71
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING THE YEARS 1967 AND 1968 IN F.B.M.
(53A) (All products converted to f.b.m.)
Forest District
10-year
Average,
1959-68
1967
1968
Increase
Decrease
Net
Increase
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert (C.) —
Totals, Coast	
Prince Rupert (I.)	
Prince George	
Kamloops  	
Nelson	
Totals, Interior-
Grand totals _
4,200,686,268
608,122,050
4,653,042,390
747,114,468
5,148,302,292
760,630,644
4,808,808,318 | 5,400,156,858 | 5,908,932,936
383,919,444
1,114,353,444
1,281,402,617
752,845,591
544,193,121
1,368,965,440
1,222,232,110
731,900,911
606,829,585
1,575,963,519
1,256,150,882
687,444,016
3,532,521,096 | 3,867,291,582 [ 4,126,388,002
8,341,329,414 | 9,267,448,440
 |	
10,035,320,938
495,259,902
13,516,176
508,776,078 |
508,776,078
.     .
62,636,464 1
206,998,079
33,918,773
44,456,896
	
303,553,316 |
44,456,896
259,096,420
767,872,498
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING THE YEARS 1967 AND 1968 IN CUBIC FEET
(Conversion factors:  Coast—6 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.)
(53B) (All products converted to cubic feet.)
Forest District
10-year
Average,
1959-68
1967
1968
Increase
Decrease
Net
Increase
700,114,378
101,353,675
775,507,065
124,519,078
858,050,382
126,771,774
82,543,317
2,252,696
1
1
Prince Rupert (C.)	
Totals, Coast
801,468,053 |     900,026,143
984,822,156
84,796,013
84,796,013
	
66,768,599 1       94,642,282
193,800,599 |     238,080,946
222,852,629 1     212,562,106
130,929,668        127,287,115
105,535,580
274,080,612
218,461,023
119,555,481
10,893,298
35,999,666
5,898,917
7,731,634
Totals, Interior.	
614,351,495 |     672,572,449 |     717,632,696
52,791,881 |      7,731,634 |    45,060,247
1.415.819.548  1   1.572.598.592   1   . .702.454.852
	
129,856,260
 72 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(S4A)        SPECIES CUT, ALL PRODUCTS,  1968, CONVERTED TO F.B.M.
Forest District
Fir
Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert (C.)
1,242,968,844
29,278,674
1,054,911,936
113,635,314
77,480,010
184,899,714
394,506
371,610
1,827,097,362
342,577,164
1   804,010,056
66,969,306
30,207,480
Totals, Coast-
1,272,247,518]1,168,547,250
262,379,724]          766,116
2,169,674,526[   870,979,362|     30,207,480
16,135
134,964,575
660,158,403
125,002,303
58,855,977
3,582,762
39,032,385
91,006,854
174,688,191|   100,174,142
974,926,812]   400,147,963
303,387,279]   120,429,518
234,791,274]     32,751,770
181,483,616]     73,379,217
375,5211     57,866,424
30,513,933|     47,210,519
76,736,246]     59,363,420
Prince George
Kamloops	
Nelson 	
368,816
10,774,011
16,624,279
Totals, Interioi
920,141,416]   1192,477,978
1,687,793,556|   653,503,393
289,109,316|   237,819,580|     27,767,106
Grand totals—
2,192,388,934
1,361,025,228
1,950,173,280
654,269,509
2,458,783,842] 1,108,798,942
1
57,974,586
Forest District
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert (C.)
Totals, Coast-
Prince Rupert (I.)
Prince George	
Kamloops 	
Nelson _—
Totals, Interior
Grand totals	
352,488
78,253,854
5,658,924
180
7,539,678
88,812
16,011,900|
17,151,1261.
9,073,998
5,148,302,292
760,630,644
352,488]     83,912,778
     |                431
33,161,636 -
6,700,607|
39,862,243]                431
180]
7,628,490
      |
75,216
62,669
9,168,818|
41,700,903]
1,442,353
91,299
50,869,721]
1,671,537
40,214,731|     83,913,209
33,163,026|       9,073,998| 5,908,932,936
18,156,660
606,829,585
3,667,977
1,575,963,519
872,027
1,256,150,882
2,675,061
687,444,016
25,371,725
4,126,388,002
	
50,869,901
9,300,027
58,534,7511       9,073,998 10,035,320,938
(54B)
SPECIES CUT, ALL PRODUCTS,  1968, IN CUBIC FEET
(Conversion factors:  Coast—6 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.)
Forest District
Fir
Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert (C.)
207,161,474
4,879,779
175,818,656
18,939,219
12,913,335
30,816,619
65,751
61,935
304,516,227
57,096,194
134,001,676
11,161,551
5,034,580
 	
Totals, Coast_
212,041,253
2,806
23,472,100
114,810,157
21,739,531
194,757,875
10,235,822
623,089
6,788,241
15,827,279
43,729,954
127,686
361,612,421
31,562,368
65,308
5,306,771
13,345,434
145,163,227
12,761,603
10,063,726
8,210,525
10,324,073
5,034,580
30,380,555
169,552,489
52,763,005
40,833,265
17,421,590
69,590,950
20,944,264
5,695,960
Prince George
Kamloops	
 	
64,142
1,873,741
2,891,179
Totals, Interior
160,024,594
33,474,431
293,529,314
337,259,268
113,652,764
113,780,450
50,279,881
41,359,927
4,829,062
Grand totals....
372,065,847
228,232,306
411,892,302
186,523,154
9,863,642
Forest District
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert (C.)
Totals, Coast-
Prince Rupert (I.)
Prince George	
Kamloops 	
Nelson	
Totals, Interior
Grand totals....
58,748
13,042,309
943,154
58,748
13,985,463
75
5,767,241
1,165,323
6,932,564
75
6,991,312]     13,985,538
I	
30]
1,256,613
14,802
30
1,271,415
13,081
10,899
1,594,577
7,252,331
250,844
15,878
8,846,908
290,702
8,846,938|       1,562,117
I
2,668,650|
2,858,5211.
1,5_2,333|   858,050,382
 |   126,771,774
5,527,171|      1,512,333]  984,822,156
3,157,680
637,909
	
105,535,580
274,080,612
151,657
218,461,023
465,228
119,555,481
4,412,474]  |   717,632,696
9,939,645|       1,512,333|1,702,454,852
I I	
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
73
(55A)
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN 1968 IN F.B.M.
(SEGREGATED BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
1,011,224,838
92,722,866
256,031,994
158,691,234
19,055,196
368,484
1,103,781,228
781,312,524
50,668,452
101,443,152
25,047,753
3,950,187
41,281,843
8,933,695
53,140,350
1,150,599,625
187,145,059
256,031,994
32,271,594
190,962,828
45,138,582
264,469,980
262,463,886
64,193,778
223,784
283,279,109
273,513,672
890,405
1,306,458,868
81,636,022
67,079
914,505,369
50,937,416
144,049
326,942,763
184,424,586
1,693,801
4,199,437,317
Tree-farm licences   .
Beachcomb, trespass...
1,634,288,106
50,688,452
No mark visible .   .
244,821,252
244,821,252
4,047,720
20,891,304
12,866,148
53,567,029
20,762,204
7,035,171
119,169,576
Sub-totals, Crown
lands     	
3,722,725,788
20,173,788
1,199,251,008
76,730,424
20,503,830
Ids 017 414
726,678,498
15,407,106
251,718
1,384,278
6,045,222
569,882,713
1,692,633
1,467,600,077
2,410,084
268,565
914,520
18,014,313
86,755,960
1,031,504,098
23,115,167
41,432,608
17,647,210
35,558,241
106,893,558
580,620,614
836,688
18,565,600
37,748,790
12,265,354
37,406,970
8,099,011,788
63,635,466
1,259,769,499
135,955,418
100,709,343
376,239,424
Crown grants—
To 1887 	
1887-1906...	
1906-1914	
1914 to date	
1,530,196
8,322,383
25,401,660
Totals..	
5,148,302,292
760,630,644
606,829,585
1,575,963,519
1,256,150,882
687,444,016
10,035,320,938
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN 1968 IN CUBIC FEET
(S5B)        (SEGREGATED BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
(Conversion factors: Coast—6 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
168,537,473
15,453,811
42,671,999
26,448,539
3,175,866
61,414
183,963,538
130,218,754
8,444,742
40,803,542
16,907,192
4,356,131
686,989
7,179,451
1,553,686
9,241,800
192,041,471
31,875,062
42,671,999
5,378,599
31,827,138
7,523,097
10,698,963
38,919
154,853
227,210,238
14,197,569
11,666
159,044,412
8,858,681
25,052
56,859,611
32,073,841
291,904
44,078,330
49,265,932
720,422,061
Tree-farm licences   ....
43,743,981
47,567,595
276,660,421
8,444,742
40,803,542
Miscellaneous	
674,620
3,481,884
2,237,591
9,316,005
3,610,818
1,223,508
20,544,426
Sub-totals, Crown
lands 	
Federal lands	
Crown grants—
To 1887
620,454,298
3,362,298
199,875,168
12,788,404
3,417,305
18,152,909
121,113,083
2,567,851
41,953
230,713
1,007,537
1,810,637
99,110,037
294,371
255,234,796
419,145
46,707
159,047
3,132,924
15,087,993
179,392,017
4,020,029
7,205,671
3,069,080
6,184,042
18,590,184
100,977,498
145,511
3,228,800
6,565,007
2,133,105
6,505,560
1,376,281,729
10,809,205
210,398,299
1887-1906.	
1906-1914—	
1914 to date
266,121
1,447,371
4,417,680
23,078,372
17,322,284
64,564,963
Totals	
858,050,382
126,771,774
105,535,580
274,080,612
218,461,023
119,555,481
1,702,454,852
 74
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1968
LOGGING INSPECTIONS, 1968
77
Type of Tenure Operated
Number of Inspections Made
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Leases, Licences, Crown
Grants,
and Other
Tenures
Total
Timber
Sales
Other
Tenures
Total
Vancouver.	
966
472
1,223
1,432
626
1,641
530
2,681
1,345
1,561
2,607
1,002
3,904
2,777
2,187
2,431
2,102
7.046
2,916
889
1.060
5,347
2,991
8,106
Kamloops	
Nelson
4,153              3,243
1,748             1,984
7,396
3,732
Totals, 1968-	
4,719
7,758
12,477
17,480
10,092
27,572
Totals, 1967.
5,118
7,431
12,549
17,663
9,488
27,151
Total', 1966
5,566
6,174
11,740
18,593
9,576
28,169
Totals, 1965
6,231
6,514
12,745
17,869
6,365
24,234
Totals, 1964    	
6,557
6,560
13,117
17,789
13,311
31,100
Totals, 1963_            .
6,926
7,168
14,094
18,021
7,189
25,210
Totals, 1962 —
7,079
6,645
13,724
18,602
6,353
24,955
Totals, 1961	
7,088
6,463
13,551
18,330
6,242
24,572
Totals, 1960	
7,249
5,120
12,369
(!)
(!)
26,151
Totals, I'V
6,273
4,898
11,171
(!)
C1)
26,912
Ten-year average, 1959-68
6,281
6,473        i      12,754
1
	
26,603
i No breakdown made prior to 1961.
 78
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 (61)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES, 1968
79
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MC.F.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords)
Car Stakes,
Ties, Posts,
Shakes,
Etc.
(No.)
Vancouver   	
354
106
205
185
40
40,992
25,374
150,518
73,028
24,683
105,195
102,870
334,844
97,902
33,074
8,000
6,224
205
419,250
102,000
37,950
3,223,450
Kamloops
340
5,000
178,700
Totals, 1968	
890
314,595
673,885
3,269,400
6,769
704,950
Totals, 1967             	
848
310,325
549,807
6,014,850
12,352
319,450
Totals, 1966 	
998
361,021
679,486
3,674,100
25,675
837,244
Totals, 1965	
1,357
496,254
951,995
2,650,400
7,616
987,100
Totals, 1964	
1,709
661,821
1,107,428
2,944,004
25,154
478,520
Totals, 1963 	
1,862
716,699
1,165,976
3,887,525
32,519
656,680
Totals, 1962    ....
1,871
615,500
921,710
18,508,084
19,340
564,865
Totals, 1961 	
1,892
720,144
1,027,243
7,687,920
14,798
1,419,285
Totals, 1960	
2,122
767,351
1,142,479
8,807,614
29,050
1,419,179
Totals, 19S9
2,317
681,550
877,370
7,387,960
27,753
1,151,275
Ten-year average, 1959-68
1,587
564,526
909,738
6,483,186
20,103
853,855
(62)
TIMBER-SALE RECORD,  1968
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total
Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest
Protection
Tax (Acres)
Total
Security
Deposit
Vancouver. 	
332
60
194
162
45
458
247
255
318
118
994
494
841
1,156
416
402,915
241,786
457,637
742,985
485,122
392,837
223,468
392,426
704,076
461,383
$4,969,750.72
1,146,995.75
2,717,764.13
Kamloops 	
Nelson 	
3,236,636.54
1,931,261.40
Totals...       .  ..
793
448
1,396
3,901
2,330,445
2,174,190
$14,002,408.54
	
1,241
	
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...
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85
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 86 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(69) EXPORT OF LOGS (IN F.B.M.),  1968
Species
Grade
No. 1
Grade
No. 2
Grade
No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir..	
66,875
470,538
17,475,877
2,061,190
1,354,865
2,540,679
9,505,066
10,551,721
7,667,371
12,041,651
38,125,661
48,484,973
9,089,111
15,052,868
65,106,604
	
61,097,884
15,162,220
15,162,220
Yellow pine      .
Lodgepole pine 	
27,808
514,190
460,304
1,891,568
1,073,861
7,816,861
1,561,973
10,222,619
1,011,658
1,011,658
1,100,895
592,808
5,460,139
7,153,842
Totals, 1968	
21,717,373
26,897,011
120,670,517
16,173,878
185,458,7791
Totals, 1967       	
12,128,244
41,320,799
128,995,437
20,972,835
203,417,315
Totals, 1966 	
9,751,031
27,322,739
88,001,394
15,452,806
1,478,441
142,006,411
Totals, 1965  ..
3,355,224
10,766,201
35,846,770
8,625,979
14,650
58,608,824
Totals, 1964	
3,748,377
14,590,533
30,789,610
3,740,863
84,834
52,954,217
Totals, 1963	
3,468,986
16,149,811
62,790,210
10,274,991
107,529
92,791,527
Totals, 1962  .
3,773,734
11,215,447
46,151,663
13,143,092
696,436
74,980,372
Totals, 1961 	
9,216,534
28,611,982
48,009,763
12,202,800
3,311,119
101,352,198
Totals, 1960	
1,391,803
5,351,398
20,872,330
11,805,419
890,260
40,311,210
Totals, 1959	
486,685
2,601,653
19,608,208
3,999,901
1,839,030
28,535,477
Ten-year average, 1959-68...
6,903,799
18,482,758 ' 60,173,590
1
11,639,256
842,230
98,041,633
1 Of this total, 97,590,782 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege;
87,867,997 f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas.
(70)
SHIPMENTS OF POLES AND OTHER MINOR PRODUCTS, 1968
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where Marketed
Canada
United
States
Other
Countries
Vancouver-
Poles	
..lin. ft.
Piling 	
Stakes and sticks..
Fence-posts	
Cedar shakes	
Christmas trees	
Prince Rupert—■
Poles _ 	
. lin. ft.
Prince George—
Poles	
Piling	
Fence-posts	
Cedar shakes	
Kamloops—
Poles	
Fence-posts	
Christmas trees..
Nelson—
Poles and piling _
. lin. ft.
- cords
. pieces
.lin. ft.
Mine timbers	
Corral rails	
Fence-posts.
.cords
Palings and pickets	
Shake and shingle bolts..
Cordwood	
Christmas trees..
.. pieces
Total value, 1968
Total value, 1967
8,857,143
3,757,797
7,344
2,053
24,873,384
34,339
869,565
190,460
19,183
13,447
27,375
1,124,530
103
108,292
610,068
60,132
236,786
8,323
2,049
750
144
1,311,190
$2,124,831.00
757,123.00
734.00
308.00
3,233,540.00
63,527.00
434,790.00
161,964.00
17,264.70
3,841.45
1,642.50
729,411.50
4,635.00
95,946.20
326,046.00
15,033.00
7,104.00
291,305.00
38,931.00
18,000.00
2,592.00
1,048,952.00
9,377,521.35
$10,719,171.98
103,580
108,207
137,340
347,826
76,500
19,183
13,447
4,575
470,240
25
108,292
388,943
60,132
97,856
8.287
2,049
98
128
131,119
4,471,922
19,450
7,344
2,053
24,735,769
33,839
521,739
113,960
22,800
654,290
78
28,774
221,125
138,930
36
652
16
1,180,071
4,281,641
3,630,140
185
500
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
87
(71)
SUMMARY OF EXPORT OF MINOR PRODUCTS FOR
PROVINCE,  1968
Product
Quantity
Value
Percentage of
Total Value
Poles  lin. ft.
10,851,238
3,948,257
610,068
60,132
236,786
7,344
24,900,759
1,453,821
15,500
8,426
2,049
750
144
$3,450,996.50
774,387.70
326,046.00
15,033.00
7,104.00
734.00
3,235,182.50
1,208,425.20
4,149.45
295,940.00
38,931.00
18,000.00
2,592.00
36.8007
Piling       ....                       ....                                   „
8.2579
3.4769
0.1603
0.0758
0.0078
Cedar shakes                                                                       pieces
34.4993
12.8864
0.0443
Fence-posts         cords
Palings and pickets  .      —     „
3.1558
0.4152
0.1920
Cordwood                             .....                                          „
0.0276
$9,377,521.35
100.0000
(72)
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED,  1959-68
10-year
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
Average,
1959-68
Old Crown grants
299
315
268
300
313
356
328
341
277
328
312
Crown grants, 1887-
1906 	
103
115
121
150
125
148
150
130
147
173
136
Crown grants, 1906-
1914	
125
123
121
164
161
164
172
144
163
190
153
Section 58, Forest Act
524
517
470
589
608
672
649
679
680
805
619
Stumpage reservations
108
116
117
109
141
149
133
63
61
48
104
1
3
9
13
7
8
3
6
9
6
Timber berths	
9
4
4
12
12
9
14
10
4
1
8
Indian reserves 	
21
15
8
20
18
27
24
27
11
24
20
Section 24, Forest Act
20
214
347
58
1,926
2,136
2,141
1,991
2,183
2,281
1,614
1,126
1,149
1,241
1,779
Special marks and
rights-of-way	
85
113
91
90
97
121
153
117
95
101
106
Pulp-leases	
1
1
5
5
3
12
4
5
4
	
	
	
2
4
1
1
1
Totals	
3,201
3,456
3,349
3,441
3,671
3,934
3,248
2,676
2,812
3,273
3,306
Transfers and changes
of marks   .    ..   	
669
794
691
809
725
802
740
908
593 '
773
750
(81)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED, 1968
Forest District
Number
of Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
Kamloops  „ — 	
Nelson  V  —
1,204
450
394
5
149,944
23,648
14,444
147
3,710
1,187
1,423
18
5,820
818
452
Vancouver   	
Totals, 1968-     _
2,053
188,183
6,338
7,090
Totals, 1967
2,114
188,126
6,837
6,272
Totals, 1966
2,244
189,286
6,572
8,970
Totals, 1965 	
2,218
188,339
6,677
12,509
Totals, 1964
2,104
173,677
6,231
22,478
Totals, 1963  _
1,951
158,840
5,860
25,366
Totals, 1962	
1,924
146,830
5,007
23,370
Totals, 1961
1,825
132,749
4,985
21,309
Totals, 1960
1,726
127,148
4,504
19,460
Totals, 1959	
1,683
124,425
4,377
20,604
 88 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(91) FOREST ROAD PROGRAMME, 1968
Project
Regulation Unit
Reconnaissance
Location
Construction
Vancouver Forest District
Yale P.S.Y.U	
Miles
7.0
9.3
Miles
7.2
4.6
8.0
Miles
Quadra P.S.Y.U.
Kingcome P.S.Y.U	
T.illooetRivm-F.R.
Soo P.S.Y.U 	
1.0
Chilliwack River F.R	
Dewdney P.S.Y.U.
32.0
7.0
10.0
70.0
13.5
11.0
7.0
6.0
2.3
06
Prince Rupert Forest District
Dean P.S.Y.U	
Burns Lake P.S.Y.U	
Binta Lake F.R 	
Morice P.S.Y.U.    _
Ootsa P.S.Y.U	
Skeena P.S.Y.U.
Suskwa River F.R   	
5.0
Prince George Forest District
Wapiti P.S.Y.U.
Narcosli P.S.Y.U.
West Lake P.S.Y.U.
Nechako P.S.Y.U	
West Lake P.S.Y.U  _
Bowron P.S.Y.U	
Prince George S.S.A	
Proposed Fort Nelson
P.S.Y.U	
Blackwater Creek F.R 	
12.0
13.4
10.0
Willow River F.R	
Kamloops Forest District
Shuswap P.S.Y.U.
Barriere P.S.Y.U.
Chilko P.S.Y.U.
Stum P.S.Y.U.     	
Niskonlith P.S.Y.U.
Quesnel Lake P.S.Y.U.
Lang-Mofflt F.R.                                    	
Lac la Hache P.S.Y.U	
Barriere P.S.Y.U.
	
Shuswap P.S.Y.U.
12.5
1.0
1.0
9.2
2.8
15.1
Tang nip F,R,
Lac la Hache P.S.Y.U	
Lac la Hache P.S.Y.U.
Chilcotin South F.R,
Stum P.S.Y.U	
13.7
3.0
13.7
North Thompson P.S.Y.U	
Quesnel Lake P.S.Y.U _	
Botanie P.S.Y.U.
0.6
0.2
Nelson Forest District
Cranbrook P.S.Y.U	
Lardeau P.S.Y.U.....	
Fernie P.S.Y.U	
F,lk Hiwr p R
6.0
Goat River F.R    	
Creston P.S.Y.U	
Kettle P.S.Y.U	
1.0
Wilkinson-Stirling Creek F.R	
RMVerrlell-StatP Prppk F.R.
Kettle P.S.Y.U	
11.7
Kettle-Rendell
Kettle P.S.Y.U.    -       	
0.1
Cranbrook P.S.Y.U. ..
Upper Kootenay P.S.Y.U	
Windermere P.S.Y.U.
	
	
192
5,741
86.8
2,551.1
49.9
1,007.1
Totals, forest road programme, 1950-68.
5,933
2,637.9
1,057.0
F.R.=Forestroad.
P.S.Y.U. = Public sustained-yield unit.
S.S.A_=Special sale area.
 (92)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
FOREST SERVICE MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, 1968
89
Type
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1968
Removed
from
Service
New
Purchases
Total
Units,
Jan.1,
1969
Sedans	
Station wagons and sedan deliveries-
Panel deliveries	
Four-wheel-drive passenger types	
Four-wheel-drive pick-ups and panel deliveries..
5,000-10,000 G.V.W. pick-ups, V_ and 1 ton	
14,000-24,000 G.V.W. trucks, 2, 3, and 4 tons—
24,000-50,000 G.V.W. heavy-duty trucks.	
Fire-fighting tank trucks	
Total vehicles 	
Trail motor-cycles	
Tractors—tracked	
Snow and muskeg tractors (personnel carriers)..
Snow toboggans—various types	
Graders  _ 	
Scrapers*—self-propelled	
Scrapers—not self-propelled-
Shovels—power-
Loaders—self-propelled,.
Outboard motors	
Fire-pumps—various...
Retardant mixer pumps	
Bean fire-fighting units—high pressure..
Fire-pumps—portable tanker.	
Pumps—water supply. ,	
Chain saws	
Lighting plants	
Lawn-mowers—power-
Speeders—railway-
Trailers—low and high bed	
Trailers—dwelling and bunkhouse..
Trailers—miscellaneous	
Air compressors 	
Range-land drill _
Rock drills—gas-powered...
Mechanical wheelbarrows..
Welders	
Cement mixers 	
Augers—power planting-
Snow-ploughs—walking-
Rollers—self-propelled-
Rollers—compaction, towed..
Fork-lift trucks	
56
88
68
126
303
248
57
9
1
956
119
48
10
34
20
2
2
3
5
444
825
15
33
147
104
545
107
58
10
9
180
352
15
1
7
6
15
7
1
1
3
3
2
4
18
15
32
61
33
6
1
7
11
7
20
70
60
8
1
2
170
33
68
2
2
44
1
5
3
1
9
10
1
7
9
3
18
1
1
41
35
4
17
66
32
2
14
31
59
81
60
114
312
275
59
9
3
186        |      972
122
48
11
50
21
2
2
3
6
452
792
19
33
145
119
567
106
85
7
10
185
373
14
1
6
6
15
7
1
1
3
3
4
REPORTED APPROXIMATE EXPENDITURE IN FOREST PROTECTION
O02) BY OTHER AGENCIES,1 1968
Expenditures
Forest District
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
Vancouver
$242,987
103,200
7,300
2,500
172,096
$718,317
86,900
70,900
21,500
100,081
$56,777
16,950
10,709
31,972
47,448
$96,231
6,500
31,000
32,000
34,946
$1,114,312
213,550
119,909
87,972
354,571
Totals	
$528,083
$997,698
$163,856
$200,677
$1,890,314
Ten-year average, 1959-68	
$382,644
$676,674
$524,612
$349,097
$1,933,027
i Principally forest industry.
 90 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(.103) FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS,  1968
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver 	
35
2
5
2
19
29
37
32
63
94
43
14
22
25
68
7
52
28
64
217
95
58
23
42
335
183
10
4
1
20
13
1
4
174
114
201
788
370
10.6
6.9
Prince George.	
Kamloops	
Nelson      	
12.2
47.8
22.5
Totals    	
35
57
269
136
456
641
48
5
1,647
100.0
2.1
3.5
16.3
8.3
27.7
38.9
2.9
0.3
100.0
Ten-year average,
1959-68 	
30
84
288
317
669
603
160
21
2,172
1.4
3.8
13.3
14.6
30.8
27.8
7.4
0.9
100.0
(104)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES,  1968
Forest District
-0
.3
c
CO
3
•a 3
o £
sa
00
#c
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P.
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BSOpS
B
'c
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C
c
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■OS
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■O G."7
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a
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Slow
"c. 00
B.9
w co
•§o
crf.
b
c
<_
u
c
3 tn
o a
go
ll
eS
ca
3
c.
u
c
o
c
M
C
"rt
o
H
38
H 5-
<** o
g.s
0 -i
-  ■-
a, ft.
17
26
75
368
222
18
20
25
49
19
25
3
9
43
41
41
7
16
90
25
9
8
13
31
4
3
12
38
4
8
6
6
10
28
20
11
52
15
1
8
14
24
19
22
96
32
7
4
1
2
174
114
201
788
370
10.6
6.9
12.2
Kamloops.-	
47.8
22.5
Totals 	
708
131
121
179
65
53
34
126
23
193
14
1,647
100.0
43.1
8.0
7.3
10.9
3.9
3.2
2.0
7.6
1.4
11.8
0.8
100.0
_
Ten-year average,
1959-68	
785
219
148
255
89
122
49
163
37
257
48
2,172
36.1
10.1
6.8
11.8
4.1
5.6
2.3
7.5
1.7
11.8
2.2
100.0
(105)   NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE LAST 10 YEARS
Causes
1959
1
1960
1
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1           1           1
1966    1967 [ 1968 | Total
1           1           1
Lightning —	
Recreational (campers, etc.)	
184
172
88
211
75
190
30
204
34
253
33
1,166
241
245
257
82
87
36
137
54
271
59
1,426
269
154
336
86
179
36
194
49
290
83
615
182
41
162
60
62
35
109
25
183
62
1,144
221
65
220
82
95
24
141
62
250
41
277
144
51
129
66
79
11
81
45
178
59
1,000
315
89
310
89
193
89
223
24
309
44
374
230
170
281
156
149
101
164
14
292
36
958
288
455
464
128
138
93
248
42
348
54
708
131
121
179
65
53
34
126
23
193
14
7,852
2,193
1,479
2,549
889
1,225
489
Brush-burning (not railway or right-
of-way clearing)	
Road, power-, telephone-, and pipe-
Industrial operations (logging, etc.)
Incendiary	
1,627
372
2,567
Unknown causes	
485
Totals  „
1,474
2,635
3,102
1,536
2,345
1,120
2,685
1,967
3,216
1,647
21,727
536
1,478
	
  1	
i
	
	
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
91
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 92
(107)
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS, 1968*
Forest District
Forest
Products
Cut, Logs,
Lumber,
Etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of
Total
Vancouver	
$61,810
118
16,464
105
$300
225
300
4,800
$130,563
250
55
$5,660
580
1,315
855
$192,673
6,003
17,594
6,275
855
86.3
2.7
7.8
2.8
Nelson 	
0.4
Totals         	
$78,497              $5,625      |    $130,868
$8,410      |    $223,400      |    100.0
35.1                    2.5                  58.6
3.8      |          100.0      |
Ten-year average, 1959-68
$121,030             $42,367      |    $215,363
$29,005      |    $407,765      |	
29.7
10.4
52.8
7.1
100.0
J. Does not include intentional slash-burns (for this item see Table 121).
(.OS-
DAMAGE TO FOREST COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES,
-Parti) 1968—PART Ii
Merchantable Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
Net
Stumpage
Loss
Net Area
Killed
Present
Value
Acres
60
79
1,876
685
27
M Cu. Ft.
259
172
3,741
642
547
M Cu. Ft.
140
86
62
465
6
$
11,089
5,057
130,160
22,879
2,185
Acres
731
19
6,170
1,441
180
$
32,558
388
204,089
30,185
4,248
Totals
2,727
5,361
759
171,3702
8,541
271,4682
8.2
100.0
14.2
37.6
25.6
59.6
Ten-year average, 1959-68
42,048
75,254
31,932
1,425,525
56,475
1,256,600
16.6
100.0
42.4
48.0
22.4
42.3
i Does not include intentional slash-bums (for this item see Table 121).
2 The dollar value of losses in merchantable and immature timber represents only stumpage loss to the
Crown.   Actual payroll loss to the Province is 10 times these figures.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
93
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$
45,057
9,121
338,069
56,927
6,698
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97
(113)
ANALYSIS OF SUPPRESSION-CREW FIRE-FIGHTING
ACTIVITIES, 1968
Size of Fire When Attacked
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
Vi Acre
or Less
Over Vi
Acre to
1 Acre
Overl
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
Spot (up to !4 acre).  	
Over V4 acre and up to 1 acre	
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres	
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres..
Over 50 acres	
Totals-
209
33
29
12
6
194
9
11
1
4
21
2
1
289
215
28
6
3
11
3
1
24
14
(H4)       CONSTRUCTION OF PROTECTION ROADS AND TRAILS, 1968
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
14
715
Miles
16
461
Miles
24
243
Miles
54
1,419
729
477
267
1,473
3
69
15
5
7
8
91
72
15
12
99
(US) SUMMARY OF LOGGING SLASH REPORTED IN 1968,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Area covered by full hazard reports (Class A)-
Broadcast 	
Spot 	
Reported and not recommending slash disposal (Class B)
Acres
57,549
2,676
Total
Acres
Reported on very small operations exempted without special examinations
(Class C) 	
Total area of slash reported on during 1968 	
60,255
21,544
424
82,193
 98
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(116) ANALYSIS OF PROGRESS OF SLASH DISPOSAL,  1968,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Slash disposal required 1968 instructions	
Slash disposal required from previous seasons..
Total disposal required, 1968	
Results of 1968 Slash Burns
Acres
Area instructed, 1968  69,381
Area abated,  1968    	
To be reviewed in 1969    	
Area on extension  33,225
Area abated, 1968   	
Area to be reviewed in 1969    	
Areas assessed for failure to burn     3,169
Area abated, 1968  	
Area to be reviewed in 1969    	
Total acres to be reviewed in 1969    	
Areas abated by other means    	
Total acres abated   	
Acres
_ 60,225
_ 36,844
_ 97,069
53,063
24,312
456
5,977
83,808
16,318
8,913
2,713
27,944
(131) TRAINING-SCHOOL ENROLMENT AND GRADUATIONS
Enrolment, 1968
Basic course	
Advanced course	
24
Nil
Graduates, 1968
Basic course-
Advanced course..
24
24
Total Graduates since 1946
Basic course-
Advanced course-
Grand total..
148
319
467
(141)
FOREST REVENUE, 1964-68
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1964
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1965
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1966
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1967
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1968
Timber-licence
fees	
rentals   and
Timber-berth rentals and fees
Timber-lease rentals and fees
Timber-sale rentals and fees..
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising and advertising.
Timber royalties 	
Grazing permits and fees~
Forest protection tax	
Miscellaneous	
Weight scaling-
Federal Forestry Agreement
Totals	
$362,707.84
15,639.09
68,446.06
510,469.54
37,221,058.19
487,503.76
2,610,292.87
139,313.50
522,672.70
210,330.47
$720,919.31
15,024.33
86,230.58
765,651.17
42,031,437.70
325,847.00
2,629,476.11
151,079.95
559,007.55
273,738.16
$771,170.84
14,368.52
106,852.12
948,568.96
42,643,936.30
223,236.17
3,079,058.68
153,507.63
570,202.65
245,350.02
212,275.98
1,379,936.16
$42,148,434.02 | $47,558,411.86 | $50,348,464.03
 I I	
$825,100.86
13,436.63
76,121.31
881,812.16
34,732,239.51
229,857.61
3,509,720.06
310,718.84
579,928.17
394,388.82
396,894.14
542,146.97
$676,038.52
141,074.38
87,083.55
899,849.28
44,390,570.94
250,745.80
4,954,555.27
350,351.93
947,389.12
473,324.50
635,742.30
34,390.97
$42,492,365.08
$53,841,116.56
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
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 (144)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1968
FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1967/68
Timber-licence rentals and fees..
Timber-berth rentals and fees.-.
Timber-lease rentals and fees	
Timber-sale rentals and fees	
Timber-sale stumpage-
Timber-sale cruising and advertising.
Timber royalties-
Grazing permits and fees..
Forest protection tax	
Miscellaneous 	
Weight scaling..
Federal Forestry Agreement.
101
Total.
$897,696.29
13,425.13
88,790.77
849,029.82
33,505,020.40
228,076.84
3,214,893.35
355,168.23
583,651.52
405,766.68
389,636.70
66,936.96
$40,598,092.69
(145)
FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1967/68
General administration, protection, and management of forests..
Reforestation and forest nurseries	
Forest research	
Public information and education	
Forest Service training-school..
$14.
1
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association-
Engineering services and forest-development roads      3
Fire suppression      7
Forest surveys	
Silviculture        1
Grazing Range Improvement Fund1	
Peace River community pastures-
Forestry and Correction Camp Programme..
TotaL
105,891
157,363
142,558
61,048
126,351
17,500
063,926
148,688
795,098
290,586
78,721
20,000
13,000
$28,020,730
i Statement provided elsewhere.
(146)
SCALING FUND
Deficit, April 1, 1967	
Collections, fiscal year 1967/68.
Expenditures, fiscal year 1967/68..
Deficit, March 31, 1968	
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1968	
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1968..
Deficit, December 31, 1968	
$97,395.00
2,202,665.79
$2,105,270.79
2,246,369.38
$141,098.59
1,807,781.30
$1,666,682.71
1,774,026.06
$107,343.35
 102 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(147) GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Surplus, April 1, 1967	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act)-
Expenditures, fiscal year 1967/68.
Surplus, March 31, 1968	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act).
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1968.
Surplus, December 31, 1968	
..    $2,107.03
_    78,544.80
$80,651.83
..    78,721.26
._    $1,930.57
. 177,584.11
$179,514.68
.. 126,822.52
.. $52,692.16
(148)
PEACE RIVER POWER TIMBER SALVAGE
Expenditures, fiscal year 1967/68..
  $2,332,014.54
Recovered from British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority     1,000,000.00
Balance $1,332,014.54
 (151)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1968
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL,  1968
103
Personnel
Vancouver!
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victorias
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant Chief
2
12
3
102
18
68
85
6
5
92
9
42
18
36
6
3
17
2
10
2
87
1
15
2
1
3
42
3
9
41
2
5
2
13
2
3
109
4
50
5
5
35
9
43
2
2
2
15
6
1
1
126
3
3
36
1
5
3
6
34
4
52
3
3
3
2
12
2
2
110
3
4
25
3
32
2
3
4
8
1
3
101
28
2
39
6
14
3
36
8
29
97
60
2
3
15
23
66
4
8
1
Forest Counsel and Personnel Officers— _	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters — _
Frt rasters
3
10
163
10
Engineers   ___
Forest Protection Officers  	
29
13
573
25
Scalers, Official   -
Scalers, Official, temporary	
122
136
7
Engineering, Mechanical and Radio.. ~ 	
35
3
Reforestation, Research, and Survey Assistants	
40
8
52
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers.-     	
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Maintenance Depot
325
9
121
29
207
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators  	
Foremen 	
28
31
96
524
225
284
307
200
548
2,088
Seasonally Employed
5
32
3
54
6
6
22
3
8
1
23
2
6
1
8
10
32
3
20
30
6
3
6
32
4
65
4
6
81
3
41
7
44
5
39
8
1
1,362
31
82
81
68
112
29
Patrolmen
Lookoutmen.     	
4
160
20
183
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc. 	
1,398
58
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineering Aides
110
85
Fnrpmen
Miscellaneous^
71
254
139
41
110
198
139
1,745
2,372
664
266
394
505
339
2,292
4,460
1 Includes Vancouver Scaling Office and Forest Service Maintenance Depot.
2 Includes all divisional field staff except research personnel assigned to districts.
S Includes Stockmen, Cooks, Flunkeys, Timekeepers, Utility Men, Key-punch and Data Processing Operators,
Photographers, and Construction Accountants.
* Includes Bridgemen, Powdermen, Carpenters, Launch Crew, Mechanics, Watchmen, Labourers, and Rock
Drillers.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1969
2,530-269-1803
 

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