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BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCIAL MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY and ANTHROPOLOGY REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1967 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1968]

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Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
  To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.C, C.B., D.S.O., M.C., CD.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1967.
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Office of the Minister of Recreation and Conservation,
January, 1968.
 Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology,
Victoria, B.C., January, 1968.
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The undersigned respectfully submits herewith a report covering the
activities of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the
calender year 1967.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
The Honourable William Kenneth Kiernan, Minister.
D. B. Turner, Ph.D., Deputy Minister.
G. Clifford Carl, Ph.D., Director.
Charles J. Guiguet, M.A., Curator of Birds and Mammals.
Adam Szczawinski, Ph.D., Curator of Botany.
T. Christopher Brayshaw, Ph.D., Associate Curator of Botany (from December 1st).
Donald N. Abbott, B.A., Curator of Archaeology.
Peter L. Macnair, B.A., Curator of Ethnology (from January 1st).
Carolyn M. Case, B.A., Curator of History (from June 1st).
Erik Thorn, Chief of Displays.
Frank L. Beebe, Illustrator and Museum Technician.
Philip R. Ward, Conservator.
George H. E. Moore, Museum Adviser.
John H. Smyly, Technician.
Michael D. Miller, Assistant in Museum Technique.
Edgar M. Mullett, Shopman.
Thomas L. Putnam, Display Technician.
Lloyd Cook, Technician (from April 3rd).
John Waters, Technician (from October 23rd).
Alex James, Technician (from December 4th).
Margaret Crummy, B.A., Clerk-Stenographer.
Sheila Y. Newnham, Herbarium Technician.
Helen M. Burkholder, Clerk.
Claude G. Briggs, Attendant.
Gordon King, Relief Attendant.
Norman W. Milke, Relief Attendant (deceased September 5th).
John H. W. Sendey, Archaeological Technician.
Nancy Hayden, Student Assistant.
E. J. Noury, Student Assistant.
Veronica Harrison, Student Assistant.
Spring Harrison, Student Assistant.
Pattie McAfee, Student Assistant.
Henry Hunt, Chief Carver.
E. C. (Tony) Hunt, Assistant Carver.
Simon Charlie, Assistant Carver (to May 31st).
(a) To secure and preserve specimens and other objects which illustrate the
natural history and human history of the Province.
(b) To increase and diffuse knowledge in these fields by research, exhibits,
publications, and other means.
(Section 4, Provincial Museum Act, 1967, chapter 41, S.B.C 1967.)
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free. In 1967 hours were:
Week-days, 8.30 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Saturdays, 9.30 a.m. to 5 p.m.; and on Sunday
afternoons, 1 to 5 p.m. July and August: Week-days, 8.30 a.m. to 9 p.m.; Saturdays, 9.30 a.m. to 9 p.m.; Sundays, 1 to 5 p.m.
Report of the Director-
Field Work	
Display Preparation..
Curatorial Activities.
Thunderbird Park	
Out-of-Province Travel-
Extension Services	
Staff Changes	
New Building Construction.
Donations and Accessions.
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Article—"Notes on the Natural History of Cleland Island, British Columbia,
with Emphasis on the Breeding Bird Fauna," by R. Wayne Campbell and
David Stirling  25
  British Columbia Provincial Museum and Archives complex with Carillon Tower in
foreground, as it looked in November, 1967.
re      " ■■
Site of archaeological dig at Gabriola Island, August, 1967.
  Report of the Provincial Museum
For the Year 1967
The year 1967 was a particularly busy one for the Provincial Museum. Apart
from field work undertaken by members of all divisions, the major activity concerned
the planning and production of displays for the building under construction. The
Museum's scope of activity was also broadened and deepened by several additions
to staff, and attendance figures almost reached an all-time record. The details are
given in the following sections.
Natural History Division
Field work carried on by staff in this Division has been directed toward collecting material either for exhibits or for research. For example, Mr. C. J. Guiguet
spent several seasons in the field, first in the Lower Fraser Valley, accompanied by
Mr. M. D. Miller, to collect small mammals and birds, and then later in the Nanaimo
Lakes area on Vancouver Island and in the Fort St. John area in the northern part
of the Province to collect big game for mounting. While in the latter area he was
joined by Dr. A. F. Szczawinski, who collected local vegetation for use in a diorama
under construction. Also involved in this particular project were Conservation
Officer G. D. Gosling and W. G. Pratt and Senior Conservation Officer B. G. Paull,
whose combined help was greatly appreciated.
In the research category was field work carried on by Mr. Guiguet on several
islands in the Barkley Sound area near Bamfield. The objective here was to collect
significant samples of small mammals as part of a long-range project concerning
mammalian populations on coastal islands.
On the botanical side, extensive plant collections were made in various parts of
Saanich Peninsula by Mr. S. Harrison, under the direction of Dr. Szczawinski, as
the second phase in a survey of vegetation cover of this part of Vancouver Island.
The volunteer help of Miss M. C. Melburn in this project is gratefully acknowledged.
Human History Division
A wide variety of field work was carried on by staff members in this Division
in several parts of the Province. Of major importance was an excavation undertaken at a very large archaeological site on Gabriola Island facing False Narrows.
Here a crew under the direction of Mr. John Sendey spent four months, during
which a representative profile was completed and a series of burials was studied in
detail. The results promise to be most significant in interpreting the prehistory of
the Gulf Islands area. At the same time, the operation attracted a great deal of
public interest; more than 2,000 persons visited the site before the crew left at the
end of August.
Another productive venture was a boat trip up the coast as far as the head of
Bute Inlet through the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. R. I. Stewart, of Canoe Cove,
Sidney, B.C., who offered their services and accommodation aboard M.V. " Point
Hope" for this purpose. The several staff members who took part were able to
visit and record a number of archaeological and historical sites located in relatively
inaccessible areas.
The Provincial Museum wishes to acknowledge its gratitude to the following
volunteers, who gave significant assistance to these and other archaeological projects
during the year: Mr. and Mrs. Frank Fleming, of North Vancouver; Mr. Stanley
Waters, of Philadelphia; and Messrs. Alan Carl, John Hall, and David Sawbridge,
all of Victoria, who helped in the excavation at False Narrows. Mr. William O.
Payne, of Newport Beach, Calif., carried out a site survey for the Museum among
the islands off Sidney and also joined the coastal survey crew aboard the "Point
Hope." Mr. S. Whalens also assisted on the " Point Hope " survey, as did Mr. and
Mrs. Stewart's daughters, Mrs. Ann Neelley and Miss Merrie Stewart. Mrs. Nancy
Hayden has given considerable help with cataloguing artifacts in the Museum.
Thanks are also due to other Government departments which contributed
materially to the success of the False Narrows project. The Archaeological Sites
Advisory Board (Department of Provincial Secretary) provided the salary for one
regular crew member, Alan Hoover. The Surveys and Mapping Branch, Topographic Division of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, produced an excellent topographic map of the site to our specifications.
On several occasions Mr. P. Nacnair and occasionally other staff members
were able to witness natice dances and other ceremonies both locally and at Alert
Bay. Other trips were as follows: D. N. Abbott and P. Macnair to Friendly Cove
to investigate totem poles; P. R. Ward and John Smyly to Hazelton to inspect and
advise on conservation of totem poles; John Sendey and G. Moore to Alert Bay
and Fort Rupert to purchase Indian material; Miss C. M. Case to Southern British
Columbia and Williams Lake to purchase historical material; Messrs. Moore and
Ward to Alert Bay and Fort Rupert to establish contacts with both communities and
to reconnoitre island sites in Johnstone Strait; Messrs. Moore and Ward to the
Okanagan Valley to visit museums and historic sites; several staff members to
Comox to produce a short historical documentary film on board the replica of the
S.S. " Beaver " on her last trip before retirement.
While on a personal trip to Eastern Canada, Mr. Moore visited the new
Museum of Science and Technology at Toronto and the Peabody Museum at Yale.
The planning and production of new exhibits was carried on throughout the
year with no interruption, but occasionally slowed when key staff members were on
leave or away on other business. However, real progress has been made; many
display units are now ready for final installation, and a number of others are in
various stages of planning and construction.
Four dioramas, which are major exhibits in the Natural History Section, have
been assembled in their location on the exhibit floor. Although lighting fixtures,
glass, and other components have not been completely installed, the background
painting for the bighorn sheep group has been well started by Mr. Clarence Tillenius,
and work on all four is expected to proceed smoothly in the new year. In the meantime Mr. John Hermann-Blome, Vancouver taxidermist, has mounted and delivered
three bighorn sheep and four caribou; in preparation are three elk, four mule deer,
and a bull moose.
Various exhibit accessories have also been prepared, including mounted small
mammals and birds, artificial tree trunks, wild flowers, rocks, and working models
of several types. Most await construction of exhibit cases before they can be
In the human history field a number of large totems and other wood carvings
have been expertly repaired and restored by Mr. Smyly, ready for placing on display,
and outstanding examples of art have been selected by Mr. Bill Holm, an expert
in this field, for inclusion in a hall being designed by him.
Not directly related to the Museum programme were two other activities of the
Display Division—namely, involvement of technical staff in the training programme
sponsored by the Vancouver City College in February, and active participation in
various workshops held in connection with the annual meetings of the British Columbia Museums Association held in Victoria in September. For the latter, considerable
time and labour went into the construction of an animated map in conjunction with
a rear projection cabinet.
Natural History Division
In addition to routine inspection and care given to the bird and mammal collections, the entire bird skeleton collection was reorganized by Miss Veronica Harrison.
During her term of employment she also prepared and catalogued a significant part of
our large accumulation of bird and mammal material. Special attention was also
given to the stored insect collection and to the fish, amphibian, and reptile collections
preserved in liquid, neither of which had been checked for some time.
As a spare activity, Mr. E. Thorn has reorganized the collections of spiders,
millipedes, and centipedes and has submitted a number of the former to specialists
for study and identification.
During his travels in various parts of the Province, Mr. Moore has arranged for
further specimens to be collected to augment the Provincial collection.
Human History Division
A great deal of time and energy was spent on the Indian collection during the
year as a result of several major projects. The first was the selection, documentation,
and transportation of a large number of items which were loaned to the Vancouver
Art Gallery as our contribution to the very successful "Arts of the Raven " exhibit
on view from June 15th to September 24th.
Loans of Indian material were also made to exhibits at Expo 67 in Montreal, the
most important being a mask displayed in the International Fine Arts Exhibition.
Another flurry of activity was occasioned by the necessity to move our extensive
collection of Indian artifacts from a storage place in the Dogwood Building to temporary quarters in another location, where the material will remain until required for
display or until moved into permanent storage quarters.
With the appointment of Miss C. M. Case as Curator of History, a system of
accessioning and recording historical material was set up, and much time was spent
in organizing collections in this field and in acquiring further material. The number
of valuable historical items that have been turned over to the Museum as a result of
her activities has been most gratifying.
Miss Case has also devoted some time giving technical advice in connection
with the operation of Helmcken House and Craigflower Manor.
In connection with all the above activities, the services of Mr. P. R. Ward have
been in constant demand concerning conservation and handling of the various objects
concerned. This has involved cleaning, repairing, photographing, documenting, and
handling a great many objects, mostly examples of Indian art; checking environ-
mental conditions in display and storage areas;   and visiting other places in the
Province where his advice was required.
Messrs. Moore, Ward, and Smyly, together with Miss Case, collaborated to produce a plan (including a brief and a model) for a proposed reconstruction of the
Father Pandosi Mission near Kelowna at the request of the Okanagan Historical
Society; the early stages of the project were implemented in November.
While most of the Museum staff time has been devoted to routine matters and
to the display programme, a portion has been utilized in research. As already
reported, field collecting of research material was carried on in connection with the
long-term study of small-mammal distribution, with the plant survey of Saanich
Peninsula which was started last year, and with the survey of archaeological sites on
the Gulf Islands. Materials so collected have yet to be critically examined in detail.
Progress has also been made in the study of the flora of the Province, a joint undertaking of Dr. Szczawinski and Dr. T. M. C. Taylor, of the University of British
Other research projects under way include an analysis of archaeological material
from the Pedder Bay area by Mr. Abbott, a taxonomic study of local spiders by
Mr. Thorn, an investigation of wood preservation by Mr. Ward, a study of data
retrieval systems by Mr. Moore, and a study of plant preservation by dehydration by
Mr. F. L. Beebe and Mr. Miller.
Early in January a 60-foot pole carved by Messrs. Henry and Tony Hunt was
completed and shipped to Montreal for erection in the Indian Pavilion at Expo 67.
The original log was generously donated by MacMillan Bloedel Limited (Shawni-
gan Division). At the same time, a "welcome figure" designed and carved by
Simon Charlie, of the Cowichan Band, was also completed and sent to Montreal.
The log for this carving was donated by British Columbia Forest Products Limited.
Later Mr. and Mrs. Henry Hunt, Mr. Jonathon Hunt (Henry's father), Mr. Tony
Hunt, and Mr. Simon Charlie flew east to take part in the dedication ceremonies at
the Indian Pavilion.
In April and May Mr. Charlie designed and carved two 12-foot poles which
were presented by the Honourable W. K. Kiernan to the 3rd Field Squadron, R.C.E.,
for erection at the entrance to the camp at Vedder Crossing. Mr. Charlie also spent
a week in San Francisco demonstrating carving as guest of the Canadian Government
Travel Bureau.
The remaining time of the carvers was spent producing house posts and adzed
planks to be used in constructing a replica of a dance house in the new museum.
Logs for the planks were donated by MacMillan Bloedel Limited, and those for the
house posts by British Columbia Forest Products Limited.
During 1967 various staff members travelled outside of British Columbia, as
Abbott: Ann Arbor, Mich., to attend annual meetings of the Society for American Archaeology, returning by way of Toronto and Ottawa (May).
Abbott:  Bluff Creek, Calif., to investigate reports of Sasquatch.
Carl: Toronto, to attend joint meetings of the Canadian Museums Association
and American Association of Museums, returning via Montreal (May).
Guiguet: San Francisco, to attend annual meeting of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, returning by way of Denver, Colo.,
to study diorama presentation (March).
Macnair:  Seattle, to attend Northwest Anthropological Conference (Mairch).
Moore: Portland, Oreg., to attend a seminar as guest of the American Association of State and Local History (September).
Thorn: Toronto, to attend the joint meeting of the Canadian Museums Association and the American Association of Museums. He also visited the
National Museum of Canada, Expo 67, Museum of History and American
Museum of Natural History, New York (May).
Ward: Anchorage, Alaska, to attend the second conference on Southeast
Alaska Native Artifacts and Monuments, and the inaugural meeting of the
Alaska Historical Society at Anchorage, Alaska (November). (Mr.
Moore accompanied Mr. Ward as guest of the Alaska Government to
attend the same meetings as a consultant on organizational matters, and to
address the first annual meeting of the Alaska Historical Society.)
The chief activity under this heading was that of Mr. Moore, who was appointed
as Museum Adviser in October, 1966. In order to acquaint himself with the
museums of the Province and to learn of their needs and problems, Mr. Moore
travelled over much of British Columbia visiting as many institutions as possible and
conferring with all interested persons. In those cases where a personal call was not
possible, contact has been maintained by letter or by telephone.
The results so far have been most gratifying. In all cases he was able to offer
helpful advice or to put persons with common interests in touch with one another.
Often he acted as a catalyst between local groups requiring guidance in museum
Mr. Moore also took an active part in the training course offered by Vancouver
College by contributing to the teaching sessions in Vancouver and by arranging a
two-week training session in Victoria whereby 11 students received specialized
instruction at the Greater Victoria Art Gallery, the Maritime Museum of British
Columbia, and the Provincial Museum. In this connection the co-operation of local
residents who provided lodging and entertainment for the visitors was greatly appreciated.
In September Mr. Moore attended an intensive three-week seminar on museum
management sponsored by the American Association of State and Local History.
The meetings were held in Portland, Oreg.; Mr. Moore was the only Canadian to be
selected for the course.
Throughout the year various staff members have presented lectures and demonstrations on numerous occasions, especially during the September meetings of the
British Columbia Museums Association, hosted by the Maritime Museum of British
Columbia.   Two short television programmes were also given over Channel 8.
After an uninterrupted period of 12 years on the air, the weekly local radio
programme " Outdoors with the Experts," in which the Director took an active part,
was discontinued in May.
Mr. Abbott was appointed to the Advisory Committee to the 'Ksan project,
an ARDA-sponsored scheme to improve the economic situation of Indians around
the Bulkley and Upper Skeena Rivers.   He has paid one visit to Hazelton to obtain
background for the proposed reconstruction there and in connection with a craft
training programme which he has been asked to organize.
In October Mr. Abbott organized a meeting of several dozen scientists and
other persons at the University of British Columbia to view a film made by Mr.
Roger Patterson, of Yakima, Wash., and purporting to show a Sasquatch photographed near Bluff Creek, Calif.
The following publications have appeared in 1967:—
G. Clifford Carl.
On Powdered Wings.   " Beautiful British Columbia," Spring, 1967.
The Lone Sentinel.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 23, No. 9, pp. 101-102.
Arthur Lionel Meugens (1881-1967).    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 24,
No. 2, p. 21.
Between Tides on Southern Vancouver Island.   Naturalist's Guide to the
Victoria Region.   B.C. Nature Council, pp. 25-29.
Putting " Life " into Exhibits.    Museum Round-up.   British Columbia
Museums Association, No. 28, pp. 45-47.
Carolyn M. Case.
Cataloguing and Classifying.    Museum Round-up.    British Columbia
Museums Association, No. 28, pp. 27-32.
L. Colin Curtis.
The Mosquitoes of British Columbia.   Occasional Papers of the British
Columbia Provincial Museum No. 15, pp. 1-90.
George Moore.
Random Notes.   Museum Round-up.   British Columbia Museums Association, No. 25, pp. 15-17.
Twelve-day Workshop.   Museum Round-up.   British Columbia Museums
Association, No. 26, p. 3.
Museums and the Tourist Dollar.   Museum Round-up.   British Columbia Museums Association, No. 27, pp. 4-5.
Museum Management.    Vancouver City College,  Museum Workers'
Newsletter, November.
Robert F. Scagel.
Guide to Common Seaweeds of British Columbia.    British Columbia
Provincial Museum Handbook No. 27, pp. 1-330.
Adam F. Szczawinski.
Recommended References to the Flora of British Columbia.   Provincial
Museum 1967.
Erik Thorn.
Preliminary Distributional List of the Spiders of British Columbia.   Report of the Provincial Museum for 1966, pp. 23-39.
Philip R. Ward.
Conservation.   Museum Round-up.   British Columbia Museums Association, No. 28, pp. 48-51.
Some Notes on the Preservation of Totem Poles in British Columbia.
British Columbia Provincial Museum, manuscript report.   November.
In addition to the above, the following reprints were issued:    " The Birds of
British Columbia, (5) Gulls, Terns, Jaegers, and Skua," Handbook No. 13; "The
Birds of British Columbia,  (6)  Waterfowl," Handbook No.  15;   "Guide to
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Common Edible Plants of British Columbia," Handbook No. 20;   "The Freshwater Fishes of British Columbia," Handbook No. 5.
In the meantime a manuscript on the Alcids and related sea birds is being
prepared by Mr. C. J. Guiguet for possible publication in 1968.
Coupled with the need to increase the production of new displays and with
the expanding scope of the Museum, several persons were added to the staff in
Two notable additions were Miss Carolyn M. Case as Curator of History and
Dr. T. C. Brayshaw as Associate Curator of Botany. A graduate in history from
the University of British Columbia, Miss Case spent several years in the museum
field in England before coming to the present post; she is now in charge of the
acquisition, documentation, preservation, and interpretation of historical items for
the Provincial collection. Dr. Brayshaw is also a University of British Columbia
graduate with special training in plant ecology and related fields. He has had
some 10 years' experience in the employ of Canada Department of Forestry as a
research scientist at Ottawa and Chalk River before returning to British Columbia.
At various times during the year Mr. Lloyd Cook, Mr. John Waters, and Mr.
Alex James joined the display division as technicians, and for the summer months
student help was employed as follows: Mrs. Nancy Hayden, Mr. E. J. Noury
(archaeology), Miss Veronica Harrison (zoology), Mr. S. Harrison (botany), and
Miss P. McAfee (display).
Mr. Robert Nichols left the Museum staff early in the year, and his duties as
Museum field agent were taken over by Anthropological Technician John Sendey.
From time to time, as required, Mr. Gordon King and Mr. N. W. Milke acted
as relief attendants.
We were saddened by the loss of Mr. Milke, who died suddenly on September
5th just after a short turn of duty. He had been acting as occasional relief attendant since July, 1966.
At a ceremonial potlatch given at Alert Bay in late December, Anthropological
Assistant Peter Macnair was greatly honoured by being given the Kwakiutl name
" Muhleedi " by Chief Peter Smith, of Tumour Island, B.C.
In order to provide authority for the Provincial Museum to operate in the
full field of human history, minor amendments to the Museum Act were proposed
and approved at the 1967 Session of the Legislative Assembly. At the same time
the objects of the Museum were rephrased in simpler and clearer terms.
The following attendance figures are estimates based upon sample counts made
at irregular intervals:—
January  6,700                August     81,000
February  8,000                September     27,000
March  12,000                October       5,000
April  7,000                November       6,000
May  12,000                December       3,000
June  28,000                                                   	
July  78,000                        Total  273,700
Of the total attendance, 9,621 persons were members of groups classified as
Kindergartens  7
School classes  117
Summer play groups  11
Guides or Scouts  44
Church groups    4
Birthday parties  7
Others (education for democracy, clubs, tours, etc.)   34
Total   224
The estimated total attendance is one of the largest on record, being matched
only by the attendance in 1962, the year of the World's Fair in Seattle, Wash. The
1967 figure shows an increase of about 29 per cent over that of the previous year.
As has been the policy in recent years, the Museum's hours were extended
to 9 p.m. each evening except Sunday during the summer months.
The contract for the final phase of construction of the main building of the
Museum-Archives complex was awarded to Farmer Construction Limited, of
Victoria, in December, 1966; work commenced almost immediately and continued
without interruption throughout 1967. A rough schedule of progress is as follows:—
January: Floors being poured; service tunnel to power-house under construction; retaining-walls and stairs being constructed in sunken garden
(Oliver Construction Company).
February: Service driveway poured, steam pipes and duct-work being installed.
March:   Pouring of third floor completed;  south wall being erected.
April: South and north wall completed; junction boxes for power-line installed along Government Street.
May:   Insulation applied to south wall;  some stone facing in place.
June:  Plaster walls being installed in basement; lecture theatre floor poured.
July: External stonework completed except for vertical columns; tarring and
gravelling of roof almost finished; insulation of interior steelwork largely
August:  Partitions being installed on exhibit floors and walls being painted.
September:  Metal framing for windows being installed.
October:   Installation of marble work almost completed.
We pay tribute here to several citizens of British Columbia who have passed
on in 1967.
Mr. W. D. (Bill) Reith, Information Officer, Parks Branch, Department of
Recreation and Conservation, an outstanding nature photographer, writer, and
naturalist (January 5th).
Dr. Edgar C. Black, physiologist and faculty member of the University of
British Columbia School of Medicine, renowned for his work on physiology of
fatigue in fishes (March 11th).
Mr. Archie Nicholls, amateur naturalist and photographer of fungi, a longtime resident of British Columbia (July 17th in New Zealand).
Mr. Arthur Lionel Meugens, amateur oologist and photographer, co-founder
of the Victoria Natural History Society (July 27th).
Mr. Norman Milke, relief attendant, on the Museum staff since June, 1966
(September 5th).
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Various institutions, game biologists, foresters, and private individuals have
contributed a number of plant collections and individual plant specimens during
1967. Deserving special mention were Mrs. G. Mendel, whose collection represents
the Kitimat district, and Mr. Keith Illingworth, who contributed a collection of
British Columbia conifers. Space does not permit us to list each contributor individually, but we include all in a grateful vote of thanks.
Herbarium exchange was continued with the following institutions: National
Museum of Canada, Ottawa; Plant Research Institute, Department of Agriculture,
Ottawa; Laval University, Quebec; Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C; University of British Columbia, Vancouver; University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.;
University of Victoria, Victoria; Stockholm Museum, Stockholm, Sweden; University of Helsinki, Finland; University of Krakow, Poland; Queen's University, Kingston, Ont.; and others.
With the addition of 857 sheets of specimens during 1967, the total now stands
at 49,057. The project of remounting and uniformly labelling all herbarium specimens, started in 1965, was continued through 1967.
During the year a number of plant scientists from Canada and abroad visited
and worked in the herbarium.
„     .. Mammals
By gift—
R. J. Baines, Department of Highways, Victoria—one vertebra and one vertebral disk of whale.
Byron Davies, Westham Island—one jumping mouse and two field mice.
Greg Gardner, Victoria—one vertebra of harbour porpoise.
Jack Holland, Sidney—one red squirrel.
Clarence Hronek, Victoria—one western big-eared bat, one big brown bat.
Johnny Hunt, Victoria—one meadow mouse.
Joseph Kaye, Victoria—one whale rib.
Ian MacAskie, Biological Station, Nanaimo—partial skull of pike whale.
Larry McCafferty, Victoria—three Canidte teeth.
Mrs. C. B. Wallace, Victoria—one squirrel.
Miss Anne Warren, Victoria—skull of harbour porpoise.
Jim Wright, North Surrey—one cottontail rabbit.
By staff—420.
r>     •*■- Birds
By gift-
Mrs. G. C. Boyd, Lake Cowichan—one nest of chimney swift.
Miss B. Coburn, Victoria—one dozen quails' eggs and one fox sparrow.
Mrs. E. Davidson, Victoria—one fox sparrow and one red-breasted sapsucker.
Byron Davies, Westham Island—one immature Virginia rail, one pintail duck.
Miss Frances Druce, Victoria—three kildeer chicks.
Michael Ferguson, Victoria—one bushtit nest.
M. Haggerty, Victoria—one pine siskin.
Miss M. Hallett, Victoria—one orange-crowned warbler.
F. P. Hinwood-Smith, Cowichan Station—one red crossbill.
Miss E. Hopkins, Galiano Island—one house finch.
Mrs. A. L. Meugens, Burnaby—one collection of British Columbia birds' eggs.
Mrs. R. E. Murphy, Victoria—one sharp-shinned hawk.
Miss Leigh Porter, Victoria—one robin.
Mrs. P. Ramsell, Cumberland—one albino starling.
Norman Sear, Victoria—one pine siskin.
Bud Smith, Nanaimo—one albinistic blue grouse.
J. W. Smith, Victoria—one great blue heron.
J. Thomas, for Montessori School, Victoria—three sets of birds' eggs.
Mrs. C. B. Wallace, Victoria—one varied thrush.
F. E. Watchler, Victoria—one Java dove.
Miss Daisy White, Victoria—nine quails' eggs.
Miss J. M. Wilkinson, Victoria—one robin's egg.
Jim Wright, for Cloverdale School, Victoria—one rufous hummingbird.
By staff—47.
By purchase—
The Eric Tait Collection.—A collection consisting of 93 mammal study skins
and skulls, 10 mammal skulls, 133 bird study skins, 193 birds' nests with
eggs, and 121 sets of birds' eggs without nests, all from British Columbia.
__,     .„ Amphibians and Reptiles
By gift-
Edward Hovilkamp, Victoria—one northern alligator lizard.
Mrs. W. Medwedrich, Becher Bay—one painted turtle.
Miss D. White, Victoria—one snake skin and one northern alligator lizard.
J. Woolrich, Victoria—one eared turtle.
_     ... Fish
By gift-
Kurt Cehak, Race Rocks Light-station—one ribbon fish.
Jim Lees, Victoria—one pearl gourami fish.
W. A. McTaggart, Sidney—one black rockfish.
D. B. Quayle, Biological Station, Nanaimo—one flounder, mounted.
Frank Smith, Victoria—one dover sole.
„     .. Invertebrates
By gift-
Mrs. W. Aller, Victoria—one California prionus.
A. B. Ayling, Victoria—one jumping spider.
Mrs. Roberta Ballantyne, Port Renfrew—display of silkworm life history and
Mrs. E. Beckerley, Victoria—one black widow spider.
Arthur Broughton, Victoria—one black widow spider.
Stephen Buchanan, for Montessori School, Victoria—one nudibranch.
J. M. Cameron, Victoria—one cecropia moth.
Ian Clark, Victoria—larvae of hawk moth.
Peter Demchuk, Victoria—one sea pen.
Mark Gagne, Victoria—one tiger moth.
J. Galliford, Victoria—two spiders.
Ted Groves, Department of Mines, Victoria—collection of ice worms.
Mrs. N. Henderson, Nanaimo—specimens of caddis fly.
R. H. Holly, Victoria—one striped cockchafer.
K. C. Holt, Victoria—one crab spider.
HH 21
W. Hutchinson, Victoria—collection of shells.
L. Hyde, Victoria—one eyed hawk moth.
Bruce Hoanisse, Victoria—one shamrock orb-weaver.
D. S. Layton, Victoria—one wolf spider.
Calvin Lee, Victoria—one spiny wood-borer.
J. L. Malkin, Cobble Hill—two purple-hinged scallops.
C. Miller, Victoria—one California prionus.
W. E. Neilson, Victoria—ghost larvae.
M. Palamar, Victoria—one black widow spider.
Miss M. Parkin, Victoria—one black widow spider.
W. Guy Pearce, Victoria—one garden millipede.
Allan E. Pierce, Nanaimo—one trap-door spider.
Mrs. K. E. Perry, Victoria—one striped cockchafer.
Henry Petersen, Victoria—one cecropia moth.
Jim Roberts, Deep Cove—two abalone shells, collection of shells.
Blaney Scott, Victoria—one black widow spider.
Lyle Smith, Victoria—one spider.
Mrs. J. W. Strand, Victoria—one crab spider.
William Thomas, Victoria—two specimens of rock-borers.
Rex Thomson, Victoria—one nudibranch.
Miss Merle Thurier, Victoria—one orb-weaver spider.
Rick West, Victoria—one tarantula and one trap-door spider.
Miss D. White, Victoria—one mourning cloak butterfly.
Miss Dawn Yeomans, Victoria—one mourning cloak butterfly.
_     .. Palaeontology
By gift—
R. De Frane, Victoria—one fossilized bone.
Mrs. J. Hawes, Victoria-—one fossilized bone.
Ken Nelson, Carmanah Point Light-station, Victoria—one Miocene fossil.
Perry S. Ross, Duncan—collection of fossils.
Duane Salmon, Victoria—one specimen of lnoceramus.
By purchase—
The George H. Larnder Collection of British Columbia Insects.—November,
The Mabel Scurrah Collection of period costumes, 1912-62.    (Gift.)
H. W. Blenkinsop, Victoria.—(Gift.)    Iron horse bit inlaid with silver.
Mr. and Mrs. Sawers, Victoria.—(Gift.)   Hudson's Bay Company safe.
The Kenneth Reid Collection of lamps, lighting equipment, and catalogues representing the development of street-lighting in Victoria, B.C.    (Gift.)
By purchase—
Numerous classified lots of pioneer articles and other objects of historic interest,
including a Norwegian loom and accessories, optical materials and equipment, sealing equipment.
By gift-
Mr. and Mrs. P. Alexander, Oregon—photograph of early pioneers.
Don Andrews, Victoria—typewriter, oil stove, wire-stretcher, broad axe.
Mrs. A. R. Beadle, Victoria—pair of late Victorian chairs.
R. P. Brown, Victoria—collection of costumes.
A. Carruthers, Creston—copy of Centennial issue of Valley Advance.
J. A. Case, North Surrey—collection of domestic items.
Miss D. G. Cox, Victoria—domestic articles and items of lace and needlework.
Miss M. Crummy, Victoria—shawl.
Mrs. Ada Davies, Pitt Meadows—railway items.
Miss Alix Doull, Victoria—fans, hat-box, costume and accessories.
F. W. Ericson, Victoria—apple-corer.
Mrs. H. L. Fleming, Victoria—iron horse plug.
Don Gain, Victoria—suits and jacket.
R. A. Greene, Victoria—-illustrated catalogue.
Mr. and Mrs. G. Halvorsen, Victoria—domestic items and carpenters' tools.
Mrs. R. Helme, Lister—carding-combs, lamp, pocket watch, horse belt.
Mrs. M. Hodgkin, Sidney—early police items.
Mrs. S. T. Hogben, Langley—mangle.
L. Huscroft, Lister—agricultural and carpenters' tools.
C. F. Hutchinson, Victoria—carpenters' tools and army tunics.
E. Jones, Victoria—grindstone.
Mrs. H. D. Joy, Victoria—side chair, three period dresses.
G. King, Victoria—hay knife, zinc window.
C. Kingsfield, Victoria—pair of shoes.
Mrs. A. G. Lambrick, Victoria—Royal visit souvenirs (1939), miscellaneous
domestic items.
Mrs. J. Lapham, Victoria—wool-winder, leather luggage.
Mrs. R. Lawrence, Cowichan Bay—Paisley shawl.
Don Lewis, Victoria—Victoria Directory (1893), carpenters' tools.
W. C. Matthews, Victoria—crosscut saw.
Mrs. Melba Menzies, Vancouver—domestic items, costume and accessories,
sewing equipment.
Mrs. Lillian Metcalfe, Victoria—pair of butter paddles.
D. Miller, Victoria—axe head.
Mr. and Mrs. C. Moore, Victoria—doll.
Mr. and Mrs. C. R. Muirhead, Victoria—sewing-machine (1898).
Mr. and Mrs. G. M. Owen, Victoria—butter-making equipment, carpenters'
tools, household articles.
Russell Porter, Williams Lake—household articles, two lacquered spectacle
Mrs. M. A. Reynolds, Victoria—cider press.
Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Roelofsen, Victoria—early 20th-century gramophone and
A. G. Shold, Victoria—writing-box, sheep shears.
Mr. and Mrs. E. E. Smart, Victoria—carpenters' tools.
Mrs. F. H. Smyly, Victoria—embroidered nightdress.
W. Stavdal, Victoria—book, air-crew cadet cap.
Inspector G. Stevenson, Victoria—cape of seal and Russian sable.
Rev. W. Sweeney, Fort Fraser—two copies of the Carrier Prayer Book.
Mrs.  Tomlinson, Vancouver—sheet music, doll, costume and accessories,
Mr. and Mrs. Toulsen, Victoria—early green glass bottle.
Mr. and Mrs. C. Wales, Vancouver—sewing-machine.
A. Walker, Whonock—mangle, spectacles, luggage rack, miscellaneous tools.
J. Watson, Sechelt—early postcards.
Mrs. H. Weber, Victoria—ration books, souvenirs of World War II.
HH 23
Hilton Young, Creston—educational material.
Canadian Pacific Hotels, per E. C. Fitt, vice-president and general manager,
Montreal, Que.—one 100-horsepower Skinner uniflow steam engine
coupled to a 75-kilowatt 625-ampere Allis-Chalmers and Bullock generator, one of two units formerly in the power-house of the Empress Hotel.
By gift-
Mrs. E. Costain, Victoria—Salish basket.
Alec Glover, Nanaimo—Interior Salish beaded bag.
Mrs. R. Lawrence, Cowichan Bay—Coast Salish basketry trunk.
G. Mitchell, Deroche—Coast Salish composite toggling harpoon head, cedar-
bark canoe-bailer.
Arthur Peak, Haney—Kwakiutl stone slave-killer.
Mrs. D. M. Peers, Victoria—Athapaskan sample of beadwork.
Bill Reid, Vancouver—silversmith's hammer and anvil which belonged to
Charles Edenshaw.
Staff purchases (miscellaneous sources)—
Nootka—Thunderbird mask, three D-adzes, two whistles.
Haida—argillite panel, argillite plate.
Shuswap—three coiled baskets, three birch-bark baskets, two beaver pelts.
Thompson—one birch-bark basket, two coiled baskets.
Kootenay—eight beaded women's belts, model sturgeon nose canoe, two
women's parfleche cases, one woman's rawhide bag, two hondas.
Coast Salish—five tump-lines, coiled basket, two wooden spoons, wooden
ladle, salmon knife, dip-net, large collection of baskets, basket starts, raw
materials, basket-making tools, contemporary sxwaixwe mask, copper
Kwakiutl—large collection of ceremonial materials, tools and implements from
various sources, model totem pole attributed to Charlie James.
Thunderbird Park—model totem pole, silver pin, bee mask by Tony Hunt,
model totem pole by Henry Hunt.
Miscellaneous—five J. Webber engravings of Nootka Sound, carved walking-
stick, northern style.
By gift-
Arthur Barnes, Victoria—collection of artifacts.
Allan C. Brooks, Pender Island—collection of artifacts.
E. L. Brown, Edmonds, Wash.—ground slate fragment, antler wedge fragment.
Mrs. Craigie-Hood, Ganges—human skeleton.
B. Cramb, Port Alberni—box of fragments and child's skeleton.
Mrs. W. H. Cross, Sidney—adzed antler object.
Miss M. Fairhurst, Vancouver—bone bi-point.
G. Fiddick, Nanaimo—nephrite celt.
Mrs. Betty Gibson, Victoria—collection of artifacts.
Alec Gow, Vancouver—maul head.
Mrs. Nancy Hayden, Victoria—collection of artifacts.
Gerry Heddle, Gabriola Island—whalebone mat needle.
Mrs. Beth Hill, Saltspring Island—partial human skeleton.
Peter Hutchins, Victoria—human mandible.
Miss J. Johansen, Victoria—two perforated stone sinkers.
Miss M. Johnstone, Fort Rupert—stone hammer.
 HH 24
Mrs. O. M. Landsvik, Hernando Island—collection of artifacts.
W. C Matthews, Victoria—collection of artifacts.
D. H. Mitchell, Victoria—collection of artifacts.
G. H. Mitchell, Deroche—large collection of artifacts.
J. Mitchell, Victoria—human skull.
Mrs. Ann Neelley, Los Angeles—collection of artifacts.
L. Nelson, Victoria—human skeleton.
F. Neville, Vancouver—engraved antler object.
T. Ray, Burns Lake—human skull.
J. G. Saul, Victoria—obsidian point.
David Sawbridge, Victoria—collection of artifacts.
D. Sawers, Victoria—two perforated sinkers.
Peter Schmidt, Victoria—handle fragment of perforated stone club.
Aubrey Sessions, Victoria—nephrite celt.
Mrs. H. Stewart, Saltspring Island—two human skull fragments.
Hilary Stewart, Vancouver—collection of artifacts.
Mrs. R. Thompson, Wellington—ground slate knife.
Mrs. W. Williams, Zeballos—11 polychrome beads.
Bob Wilson, Fort Rupert—one stone hammer.
D. Witmer, Victoria—hammer-stone.
R. B. Worley, Victoria—stone hammer.
Proceeds from the Museum donation box during 1967 amounted to $175.34,
which was turned over to the Mungo Martin Scholarship Fund.
Stop wording asovt
didn't sBuieve
By R. Wayne Campbell and David Stirling,
Parks Branch, Department of Recreation
and Conservation, Victoria, B.C.
Seabird study in British Columbia is a somewhat neglected field. This neglect
can be attributed to various things.
The 7,000 miles of indented and irregular coast-line dotted with numerous islets
make complete exploration and cataloguing of seabird islands time-consuming. The
unpredictable and inhospitable littoral waters make landing on many islands both
difficult and dangerous and, therefore, the assessment of potential colonies is sometimes impossible. The lack of travel and recordings by serious amateur naturalists
and active banders along the coast is another major drawback in acquiring knowledge
of our seabirds. The most perplexing problem in seabird study, however, is the
habits of the seabirds themselves. Most true seabirds in British Columbia, the
Hydrobates (storm petrels) and Alcids (auklets and puffins), spend the better part
of their lives at sea, venturing to land only to carry on breeding activities. Students
of bird study must attempt to gather information on the ecological, distributional,
and behavioural habits of seabirds during these short terrestrial visits. This is undoubtedly a mammoth task and requires co-operation from both professional and
amateur naturalists.
During the summer of 1967 five visits were made to Cleland Island (July 24th,
August 4th, 14th, 25th, and 28th). We were interested in seabirds and had read
that several birds on Cleland Island needed present confirmation as nesting species.
We decided to carry out a preliminary biological survey of the island with emphasis
on bird banding and the study of the breeding seabird population. Observations of
animals frequenting and inhabiting the island are quite complete, but only the larger
and most noticeable plants were collected and included in our list.
Cleland Island, also called Bare Island, lies in Clayoquot Sound, off the west
central coast of Vancouver Island approximately 8 miles north-east of the Village of
Tofino. The map shows the outline of the island to be roughly in the form of a hand-
mirror, the short handle lying to the south of the much larger elliptical head. The
island is quite small, about three-eighths of a mile long by nearly one-quarter of a
mile wide.   Average height above sea-level is 34 feet.
The entire island consists of bare rock outcroppings, probably of volcanic
origin. The lower periphery is almost entirely rocky, vegetation becoming luxuriant
toward the crown of the island. An extensive grass-brush belt, perhaps 300 by 300
feet, laterally divides the top of the island. Wild rose, salmonberry, cow parsnip,
Douglas aster, and wild ryegrass are dominant plants here. Over most of the rest of
the island, vegetative growth is restricted to rock fissures containing soil. There are
no trees on the island, but driftwood in many places suggests that waves generated
from winter storms sweep over much of the island.
There are two small beaches composed of shell fragments on the island. The
beach on the east side offers best landing conditions.
 HH 26
Chlorophycophyta (Greens)
Sea lettuce, Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.
Sea staghorn, Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot.
HH 27
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_, .j. . Ph/eophycophyta (Browns)
Tar spot, Ralfsia pacifica Hollenberg.
Oyster thief, Colpomenia sinuosa (Roth) Derbes and Solier.
Sea girdle (tangle), Laminaria platymeris De La Pylaie.
Bull kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana (Mertens) Postels and Ruprecht.
Sea palm, Postelsia palmceformis Ruprecht.
Feather boa, Egregia menziesii (Turner) Areschoug.
Popping wrack, Fucus furcatus C. Agardh.
._,     ... Rhodophycophyta (Reds)
Tidepool coral, Corallina chilensis Decaisne.
Turkish towel, Gigartina exasperata Harvey and Bailey.
Iridescent seaweed, Iridophyous sp. Setchell and Gardner.
Sea sac, Halosaccion glandiforme (Gmelin) Ruprecht.
Polypodiaceae (Fern Family)
Leathery polypody, Polypodium scouleri Hook. & Grev.
Sword fern, Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) Presl.
Bracken fern, Pteridium acquilinum (L.) Kuhn.
Zosteraceae (Eelgrass Family)
Eelgrass, Zostera marina L.
False eelgrass, Phyllospadix scouleri Hooker.
Gramineae (Grass Family)
Wild ryegrass, Elymus mollis Trin. ex Spreng.
Cyperaceae (Sedge Family)
Sitka sedge, Carex sitchensis Prescott.
Liliaceae (Lily Family)
Wild lily-of-the-valley, Maianthemum canadense Desf.
Polygonaceae (Buckwheat Family)
Curly dock, Rumex crispus L.
Portulacaceae (Purslane Family)
Siberia miner's lettuce, Montia sibirica (L.) Howell.
Caryophyllaceae (Pink Family)
Seashore sandwort, Honkenya peploides (L.) Ehrh.
Chickweed, Stellaria calycantha (Ledeb.) Bong.
Cruciferae (Mustard Family)
Sea-rocket, Cakile edentula (Bigel.) Hook.
Saxifragaceae (Saxifrage Family)
Alumroot, Heuchera micrantha Dougl. ex Lindl.
Rosacea. (Rose Family)
Wild strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duchesne.
Silverweed, Potentilla pacifica Howell.
Spray flower, Potentilla villosa Pall, ex Pursh.
Wild rose, Rosa nutkana Presl.
Little wild rose, Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt.
Salmonberry, Rubus spectabilis Pursh.
Onagraceae (Evening Primrose Family)
Fireweed, Epilobium latifolium L.
Umbelliferae (Parsley Family)
Angelica, Angelica lucida L.
Conioselinum, Conioselinum pacificum (Wats.) Coult. & Rose.
Cow parsnip, Heracleum lanatum Michx.
Ericaceae (Heath Family)
Salal, Gaultheria shallon Pursh.
Labiatae (Mint Family)
Hedge Netde, Stachys cooleyoe Dougl.
Scrophulariaceae (Figwort Family)
Indian Paint-brush, Castilleja sp.
Yellow mimulus, Mimulus guttatus Fisch. ex DC.
Plantaginaceae (Plantain Family)
Common plantain, Plantago major L.
Seaside plantain, Plantago maritima L.
Rubiaceae (Madder Family)
Northern bedstraw, Galium trifidum L.
Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle Family)
Twinflower, Linnaa borealis L.
Compositae (Composite Family)
Yarrow, Achillea millefolium L.
Douglas aster, Aster subspicatus Nees.
Sow thistle, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill.
HH 29
Anthopleura xanthogrammica (Brandt)—Green Anemone
Quite common in rock crevices and sheltered tide pools below mean tide-level.
Arctonoe vittata (Grube)—Scale Worm
A small commensal worm was found within the mantle cavity of Diodora
Serpula vermicularis (Linnaeus)—Calcareous Tube Worm
Quite common on rocks about mid-tide and lower.
Balanus cariosus (Pallas)—Thatched Barnacle
Several large specimens, about 5 cm. long, were taken from their rocky bases
about the mean tide-line.
Balanus glandula Darwin—Acorn Barnacle
The upper intertidal rocks are covered with this " foot cutter."
Balanus nubilus Darwin—Giant Barnacle
Two large clusters containing several barnacles each were found in about
15 feet of water.
Mitella polymerus (Sowerby)—Goose Barnacle
Large clusters were common among the larger beds of sea mussels in the intertidal zone.
Pandalus danw Stimpson—Coon-striped Shrimp
Two specimens were taken near the base of a large boulder in about 25 feet of
Petrolisthes cinctipes (Randall)—Flat-topped Crab
A large specimen was secured from beneath a rock in the lower tide zone.
Pugettia producta (Randall)—Northern Kelp Crab
A few animals were seen in the small eelgrass-covered tide pools at low tides.
Cancer magister Dana—Commercial Crab
A small carapace of this species was collected in 15 feet of water near a
Cancer productus Randall—Rock Crab
A cast shell of this species was found, fully intact, on the largest beach on Cleland.
Hemigrapsus nudus (Dana)—Purple Shore Crab
Fairly common in sheltered tide pools around the island.
Hemigrapsus oregonensis (Dana)—Hairy Shore Crab
Common under rocks about the middle tide zone.
Katharina tunicata Wood—Leather Chiton
Very common intertidally, usually seeking shelter from sunlight and predators
in rock crevices during the day. This animal is a favourite food of the black oyster
Tonicella lineata Wood—Lined Chiton
Common under rocks and among sea palm holdfasts around the island's inter-
tidal zone.
Hinnites multirugosus (Gale)—Purple-hinged Rock Scallop
A small specimen, 3 inches long, was collected in 15 feet of water by Miss
D. Choquette. Pieces of this shell can be found in the upper beaches around the
Mytilus californianus Conrad—Sea Mussel
Large, dense beds skirt most rocky areas in the middle tide zone around the
island.   These beds offer excellent foraging grounds for long-billed shorebirds, gulls,
and crows.
Searlesia dira Reeve—Dire Whelk
Fairly common in tide pools and sheltered rock crevices in the upper intertidal
Nassarius fossatus Gould—Channeled Dog Whelk
No live specimens were found, but many unoccupied shells were seen on the
beaches around the island.
Amphissa columbiana Dall—Wrinkled Amphissa
Very common, often clustered together in small masses in rock crevices or tide
Thais emarginata Deshayes—Rock-dwelling Thais.
Uncommon.   Only two specimens were collected from a tide pool in the lower
intertidal zone.
Thais lamellosa Gmelin—Wrinkled Purple Snail
One live specimen extracted from a deep rock crevice in the lower intertidal
Diodora aspera Eschscholtz—Rough Keyhole Limpet
Uncommon, only two specimens collected, both from the lower mussel beds.
Acmaea digitalis Eschscholtz—Fingered Limpet
Very common in clusters in rock crevices high up the intertidal zone.
Acmaea mitra Eschscholtz—Whitecap Limpet
Quite common on rocks subtidally, where several large specimens were collected.
Haliotis kamtschatkana Jonas—Northern Abalone
Two small specimens, 3 inches long, were collected from the side of a kelp-
covered boulder in 15 feet of water.   Many fragments of abalone shells dotted the
island's beaches and occasionally an entire shell was found in the gull colony.
Tegula funebralis (A. Adams)—Black Top-shell
Abundant in tide pools and often clustered together in rock crevices throughout
the intertidal zone.
Littorina scutulata Gould—Checkered Littorine
Common in tide pools toward the upper intertidal zone.   Seemingly less abundant than L. sitkana.
Littorina sitkana Philippi—Sitka Littorine
Very common throughout the middle tide zone.
Crepidula adunca Sowerby—Hooked Slipper-shell
No live specimens were collected, but several shells were collected from the
island's beaches.
HH 31
Anisodoris nobilis (MacFarland)—Sea Lemon
Several small specimens were seen and photographed in tide pools in the lower
intertidal zone.
Vespericola (Triodopsis) columbiana (Henderson)—Hairy-shelled Snail
This terrestrial gastropod is easily identified by its small size, six body whorls,
and the numerous stiff hairs covering the external surface of the shell. It inhabits
the vegetative regions of the island and is often found under logs or deep in cracks
in driftwood. This animal is nocturnal in its habits asd is seldom seen on vegetation
during daylight hours. It is often found with slugs and Haplotrema vancouverense
during the day.
Haplotrema (Ancomena) vancouverense (Lea)—Vancouver Haplotreme
This snail is best identified by its large size, five body whorls, and the yellowish-
green periostracum. It is very similar to V. columbiana in its habits and habitats on
the island. Apparently this species is voracious and preys upon V. columbiana
(Grass, 1966).
Ariolimax columbianus (Gould)—Large Spotted Slug
This large native slug is common on the island. Its colour varies from a spotted
dull yellow to an olive brown. It is nocturnal and spends daylight hours in dark
places. Favourite estivating places are petrel burrows. Here, as many as 13 slugs,
both A. columbianus and D. reticulatum, were removed from a single burrow {see
Table 1). During the early evening the slugs crawl from their hiding spots to feed
on the nearby vegetation.
Deroceras reticulatum (Muller)—Netted Slug
This small yellow slug is very common and similar in habits to A. columbianus.
It is more numerous in petrel burrows and driftwood cracks than the former species
and is often found clustered together.   Apparently this species was introduced from
table i.—slugs removed from leach petrel burrows during
population estimations on august 28, 1967
Slug Ranges
per Quadrat
Total Slugs
per Quadrat
Total Burrows
per Quadrat
Average Slugs
per Burrow
III .... 	
0- 5
0- 6
0- 5
Dermasterias imbricata (Grube)—Leather Star
Two specimens, about 15 centimetres across, were collected from the underside
of large boulders in 15 feet of water.
Henricia leviuscula (Stimpson)—Blood Star
One specimen, 7 centimetres from tip to tip, was collected from small rock near
the mean tide-line.
Pisaster ochraceus (Brandt)—Purple Star
Very common on mussel beds around the lower tide zone.   Both colour phases
 HH 32
Strongylocentrotus drobachiensis (Miiller)—Green Sea Urchin
Quite common in sheltered Zostera-covered tide pools around the island.
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson)—Purple Sea Urchin
Uncommon in tide pools, but occasionally found half buried in a rock crevice.
Gavia immer (Brunnich)—Common Loon
Usually seen on trip to Cleland, occasionally in bays near Tofino.   Two sightings—two on July 24th and three on August 28th.
Gavia arctica (L.)—Arctic Loon
Five birds counted off outer islands on trip to Cleland August 28th.
Puffinus griseus (Gmelin)—Sooty Shearwater
A transient bird often seen in large flocks offshore " shearing " the water surface
for food.   On July 24th a flock of about 4,000 birds was seen on the water near
Cleland, slowly moving about, grounded by a low heavy mist.   On August 28th an
active flock of about 1,500 birds was seen moving northwards past Cleland.
Puffinus puffinus (Brunnich)—Common Shearwater
On July 24th a contrasting brown and white shearwater was seen in association
with sooty shearwaters near Cleland. The bird was smaller than the sooty shearwater, dark brown on the back, white below with a dark bill. Campbell had seen the
pink-footed shearwater P. crotopus near Langara Island, Q.C.I., in April, 1965, so
this sighting could not be mistaken for that species.
Oceanodroma furcata (Gmelin)—Fork-tailed Petrel
First recorded as a nesting species on Cleland in 1925 by S. J. Darcus (Drent
and Guiguet, 1961). Five years later, I. McT. Cowan visited the island and suspected nesting. C J. Guiguet (August 4, 1961) found tail and contour feathers of
this species and also suspected nesting.
The fork-tailed petrel as a nesting
species on Cleland has been confirmed. Two nests were found. Each
had a large young. No adult birds
were seen on the island, but on
August 14th the writers saw an adult
fork-tailed petrel just off Cleland.
One nestling was banded on August
28th (band number 31-105900).
Unlike the Leach's petrel burrow,
both fork-tailed petrel nests were
under drift logs at the edge of the
Leach's colony. No actual burrow
had been excavated, and no nesting
materials were visible.
A thorough check of the island
may reveal a few more fork-tailed
petrels' nests, but it is unlikely that
its present status as an uncommon
breeder will change appreciably.
Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Vieillot)—Leach's Petrel
This petrel was reported breeding on Cleland by Drent and Guiguet (1961).
Guiguet (1965) collected a fully incubated egg and a large downy young.
Fig. 3. Nestling fork-tailed petrel,
Cleland Island, 1967.
HH 33
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Leach's petrel is undoubtedly the most abundant breeding bird on Cleland
Island. At first glance the island seems devoid of petrels, but closer examination
of the extensive grassy areas of the island reveals hundreds of small holes, entrances
to petrel burrows. During daylight hours the adults are either far at sea feeding
or incubating in the protection and shelter of their burrows.
The main petrel colony is situated in a broad grassy area on the north-east
side of the island. The area, approximately 300 feet in length and 150 feet wide,
has associated vegetation of Aster subspicatus, Stachys cooleym, Elymus mollis,
Heuchera micrantha, and Heracleum lanatum, with scattered driftwood throughout.
 HH 34
Fig. 5. Typical breeding habitat of Leach's
petrel, Cleland Island, 1967.
Burrows are very numerous. Entrances average 3 inches in diameter
and Wi feet in length. Most burrows angle into the soft earth. Burrows are excavated wherever soils
permit easy digging, especially under
drift logs and plant roots. Nesting
materials are usually few, but occasionally grasses line the burrow
chamber. The eggs are white, and
one collected July 24th measured
1.15 by 0.93 inches. (Incubation
was not advanced.)
On July 24th, 12 burrows in the
main colony were checked. Five
burrows contained a single large
young, and the remaining seven contained a single well-advanced egg
with an incubating adult.
On our next visit, 11 burrows were checked; nine contained a single well-
advanced egg with an incubating parent. The remainder of the burrows had a single
large young with an adult. All adults
were banded, numbers 31-105864
through 31-105874.
On August 25th, three adults and
five nestlings were banded, and another 17 nestlings were banded on
August 28th (numbers 31-105874
through 31-105899). In total, 14
adults and 22 nestlings were banded.
An attempt to estimate the breeding population was made on August
28th by Campbell and Morrison.
We marked off six sample quadrats,
10 by 10 feet, randomly over the
main petrel colony. The following
data were recorded:—
Fig. 6. Leach's petrel and egg, Cleland Island,
Typical Plant Associations
Quadrat I: Grasses, Aster subspicatus, Stachys cooleya, driftwood.
Quadrat II: Rubus spectabilis, Rosa nutkana, Stachys cooleya;.
Quadrat III: Grasses, Elymus mollis, Sonchis asper, driftwood.
Quadrat IV:  Grasses, Stachys cooleytz, Heracleum lanatum, driftwood.
Quadrat V:  Heracleum lanatum, Rubus spectabilis, Epilobium latifolium.
Quadrat VI: Elymus mollis, Heracleum lanatum, grasses, Sonchus asper.
HH 35
Total Burrows
per Quadrat
Total Burrows
with Single
Total Slugs
in Total
Average Slugs
per Burrow
per Quadrat
From data recorded and by simple mathematics, we calculated the petrel
population in the main colony to be 4,635 pairs. Many more petrel burrows were
found in other small grassy areas, so the breeding population perhaps approaches
5,000 pairs.
Throughout the summer many dead adult petrels were found on the island.
Causes of their deaths remain unknown, but slugs are suspected of playing a part.
During the day, slugs seek cover and
coolness in petrel burrows, often
lining them so that penetration by
hand is impossible. Perhaps the
parent birds, anxious to change their
incubation duties, force themselves
through the slug-lined burrow. In
doing so the sticky slime from the
slugs mats the bird's feathers, rendering the bird incapable of extended
flight. The bird then probably
starves to death. We noticed no
evidence of these petrel carcasses
being used for food.
It should be noted that occasionally when extracting an excited adult
petrel from a burrow, a blood-red
substance is ejected from the tube
on the bird's bill. The spray is strong,
so that it is advisable to keep the
head of the bird away from the face.
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt)—Brandt's Cormorant
About 70 birds were seen roosting regularly on the lower rocks on the southeast side of the island. Just prior to dusk, cormorants arrive from adjacent islands
and feeding-grounds to spend the evening on Cleland. The evening roosting population is probably around 300 birds. By early morning most cormorants have left
to feed.
No nests or nesting attempts were found.
Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pallas—Pelagic Cormorant
Common but less abundant than P. penicillatus. About one pelagic for every
ten Brandt's recorded.   No nests were found.
Fig. 7. Leach's petrel chick taken from
burrow on Cleland Island, 1967.
Branta bernicla (L.)—Black Brant
Recorded on three visits, feeding and resting in the intertidal zone. Sightings:
July 24th, two; August 14th, seven;  and August 28th, six.
Anas platyrhynchos L.—Mallard
A female, presumably the same bird, was flushed from rain pools around the
island on July 24th, August 25th and 28th.
Anas acuta L.—Pintail
A male pintail was observed on August 28th flying southward, low over the
Anas carolinensis Gmelin—-Green-winged Teal
A female was flushed from an algae-covered rain pool near the centre of the
island on August 28th.
Histrionicus histrionicus (L.)—Harlequin
About six birds were usually seen swimming and feeding close to the outer
islands on trips to Cleland. On August 28th, 17 harlequins were counted on a trip
around Cleland.
Melanitta fusca (L.)—White-winged Scoter
A flock of 20 birds was recorded on July 24th off Cleland.
Melanitta perspicillata (L.)—Surf Scoter
A common sight in sheltered bays near the shore. On June 24th a flock of
30 birds flew low over the water past Cleland.
Oidemia nigra (L.)—Common Scoter
Three birds seen in association with white-winged scoters on July 24th.
Haliaetus leucocephalus (L.)—Bald Eagle
An adult eagle was seen circling high over the island on July 24th. No other
eagles were sighted.
Pandion haliaetus (L.)—Osprey
On July 24th two ospreys were seen in the air off Cleland. Later a nest, with
at least two large young, was found on Vargas Island.
Falco peregrinus Tunstall—Peregrine Falcon
One record only of a female flushed from a rocky outcropping on August 28th.
The bird flew to a nearby island and, surprisingly, gulls gave little notice.
Rallus limicola Vieillot—Virginia Rail
An unexpected pleasure was the two sightings of this rail on July 24th and
August 25th. The bird, presumably the same one, was flushed from the thick
grasses bordering a small algae-covered rain pool near the centre of the island.
Once flushed the bird would fly a short distance, perhaps 30 feet, and remain
inconspicuous in the protection of the tall grasses at the edge of the petrel colony.
Hcematopus bachmani Audubon—Black Oyster Catcher
A very common bird frequenting the rocky areas of the island, resting on the
upper parts and feeding extensively among the lower intertidal zone. Numbers
varied from 20 to about 100 each visit.
On July 24th a nest containing two eggs in advanced stages of incubation was
found in a rock crevice.   The shallow nest was lined with small shell fragments of
HH 37
sea mussels. Two other nests, both empty, were also found on the upper shell-
covered beaches. Two large young with black-tipped bills and traces of natal down
were found on July 24th.   None was banded.
Aphriza virgata (Gmelin)—Surfbird
A flock of seven surfbirds was seen on July 24th in association with ruddy and
black turnstones.
Guiguet (1961) mentions that this species was seen in numbers on August
4th. Surfbirds are transient along the outer coast, and numbers probably increase
as the summer progresses.
Arenaria interpres (L.)—Ruddy Turnstone
Ten birds were counted among surfbirds and black turnstones on July 24th.
Arenaria melanocephala (Vigors)—Black Turnstone
Approximately 50 birds frequented the lower parts of the island during the
summer, feeding on small animal life among the dense beds of mussels and barnacles.
During the nocturnal hours the birds frequented the higher rocky parts of the
island, no doubt seeking shelter from the brisk winds.
Actitis macularia (L.)—Spotted Sandpiper
This nervous " teeter " was startled on two occasions from the rocky edges
of rain pools—two on July 24th and one on August 14th.
Heteroscelus incanum (Gmelin)—Wandering Tattler
On our first visit to Cleland we recorded about 40 birds on the lower rocks
around the island, often associated with black turnstones and surfbirds. Wandering
tattlers, however, seemed more solitary in their habits than the turnstones or
surfbirds.   By August 25th the tattler population had decreased to about six birds.
Totanus melanoleucus (Gmelin)—Greater Yellowlegs
One record only of two birds on July 24th.
Erolia minutilla (Vieillot)—Least Sandpiper
On July 24th five birds were seen wading and feeding in shallow tide pools at
ebb tide. These birds were a regular sight among the tide wrack on the upper
beaches for the remainder of the summer, but they were never numerous.
Limnodromus griseus (Gmelin)—Dowitcher
Two records only—three on July 24th and seven on August 25th.
Ereunetes mauri Cabanis—Western Sandpiper
One record only of two birds with least sandpipers on July 24th.
Limosa fedoa (L.)—Marbled Godwit
This large reddish-brown shorebird was first seen on August 14th wading in
a shallow tide pool. On August 25th one was seen resting on the upper beach with
several least sandpipers.
Larus glaucescens Naumann—Glaucous-winged Gull
The most conspicuous bird on the island. The summer population is probably
around 2,000 birds, with a breeding population of perhaps three to five hundred
pairs. Nesting is confined to rocky areas around the lower parts of the island. On
July 24th a quick nest census was made along the southern side of the island:—
 HH 38
Nest Contents
0 eggs 	
egg, 1 young __
eggs, 1 young
egg, 2 young __
Number of
_ 8
._ 10
._ 15
._ 7
._ 5
._ 7
- 11
Total (101 eggs, 118 young).
■ .■    ■.    ■.'■■"■'-.■■„■.■■.;.■';■'
Fig. 8. Bare rock habitat used by breeding
and loafing gulls.
All young found were small, indicating a slightly later hatching period
than that of our mere southern gull
On July 24th 133 nestlings were
banded, and on August 2nd another 300 were banded. Band series
were as follows: 667-12168 through
667-12500, 697-51101 through 697-
51200, a total of 433.
During banding, nestlings sometimes become excited and cough up
partially digested food. Three foods
recorded were an 8-inch sea pen
(Leioptilus guerneyi), Pacific sand-
lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), and
fragments of small purple sea stars
(Pisaster ochraceus).
Larus occidentalis Audubon—Western Gull
On our first visit, three westerns were seen resting near the water's edge with
glaucous-winged gulls. On August 14th we observed a western gull on territory
with glaucous-winged gulls. On closer inspection the bird flew off and did not
return before our departure. Pearse (1946) suggests that a few pairs of western
gulls may breed with glaucous-winged gulls on the outer west coast and also that
hybridization may occur between the two.
Larus californicus Lawrence—California Gull
About 50 birds frequented the island and adjacent waters in late July, numbers
decreasing to about six birds by the end of August.
Larus delawarensis Ord—Ring-billed Gull
One bird seen on August 25th resting with California gulls on seaweed-covered
rocks close to Cleland.
Larus canus L.—Mew Gull (Short-billed)
Two sightings only—three on July 24th and two on August 28th.
HH 39
Larus Philadelphia (Ord)—Bonaparte Gull
A small flock of seven immature birds was seen on the water near the island
on July 24th.
Larus heermanni Cassin—Heermann Gull
Uncommon on Cleland but quite common on nearby rocky islets. On July
24th about 100 birds were estimated roosting on Plover Reef, off the north-east
corner of Cleland. Guiguet (1961) reports 50 to 60 birds roosting on the north
side of the island.
Xema sabini (Sabine)—Sabine Gull
One record of an adult bird flying low over the water near Cleland on
August 25th.
Uria aalge (Pontoppidan)—Common Murre
Very common in littoral waters along the coast, usually not venturing too
close to the island.   The population seemed to decrease as the summer passed.
Cepphus columba Pallas—Pigeon Guillemot
Very common. Guiguet (1961)
estimated 1,000 birds flying around
the island. This summer about 700
birds frequented the island, with a
breeding population of about 200
The pigeon guillemot seems to
have no preference as to nesting
location on Cleland. Nests were
found in rock crevices, under clumps
of fireweed, under drift logs, in
abandoned puffin burrows, and
among thick grasses. On July 24th
six nests were found — three contained one advanced egg each, the
remainder a single small young.
Three large young were banded
on August 14th (band numbers 524-
78908 through 524-78910).
Fig. 9. Young banded pigeon guillemot,
Cleland Island, 1967.
Brachyramphus marmoratum (Gmelin)—Marbled Murrelet
Very common in waters near Cleland and adjacent islands. On July 24th,
105 birds were counted by telescope from atop the island.
Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Pallas)—Cassin Auklet
No live birds were seen or active burrows found, but three freshly dead adults
were found—two on July 24th and one on August 14th.
We suspect this auklet may nest on the island; perhaps their burrows are
beneath the impenetrable rose bushes toward the top of the island. Guiguet (1961)
suspected their nesting here.
Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas)—Rhinoceros Auklet
On our first visit to the island we noticed immature rhinoceros auklets were
quite common along the outer shores and especially so near Cleland.   We suspected
 HH 40
that this species might nest on Cleland as Guiguet recorded its burrows there in
1961. After a thorough search of the island, we found a small (perhaps 75 feet
square) soft-soil area riddled with large burrows.   The entrances were about 6 inches
in diameter and the burrows themselves long and twisted. Some burrows paralleled the surface soils,
while others angled deep into the
soft earth before levelling off. Few
burrows were straight; many side
branches gave the small colony a
honeycomb effect. Walking over
colony was almost impossible, and
consequently only extreme caution
would prevent a foot from penetrating a burrow. We counted 47 burrows and checked four of these by
digging. We found four large young
and one adult bird. Nesting materials were few, but occasionally a
few grasses lined the end of a burrow.
Fig. 10. Rhinoceros auklet burrow. The colony is divided in two by
a large rocky outcropping. The main colony is situated near the eastern end of
Cleland and starts where vegetation meets bare rock. Several burrows were found
below the main colony beside the petrel nesting area. These burrows were checked,
but none was occupied. We have reason to suspect, however, that they were used
this year.
Unlike most rhinoceros auklet colonies in British Columbia (Drent and
Guiguet, 1961), this colony has a horizontal aspect; that is, on a relatively level
terrain. No steep wooded or brush-
covered cliffs are to be found, so
the birds must either scramble several hundred feet through thick
grasses and over bare rock to reach
water or scamper to higher parts of     wr" ||     Ji
the island before they can take wing.       * -._ M    .-.-. .•-.>?,.«
On August 25th three young
rhinoceros auklets were banded
(numbers 626-32834 through 626-
Drent and Guiguet (1961) list
Pine Island, off the northern tip of j.:. ^v^M_____f*?•'-'
Vancouver Island, as the southernmost rhinoceros auklet breeding
colony in British Columbia. The
discovery this summer of this small
but seemingly flourishing colony extends the known breeding range of Fig. 11. Young rhinoceros auklet, Cleland
Island, 1967.
this species another 160 miles southward along the outer coast of British Columbia.
South of the Canadian border there are colonies along the coast of Washington
Lunda cirrhata (Pallas)—Tufted Puffin
A common breeding bird on Cleland and active in daylight. On July 24th,
75 to 100 birds were estimated using the island for nesting purposes. Most burrows
were found toward the upper reaches of the island, usually located in the sides of
the steeper grassy rock outcroppings where quick flight to the water was possible.
Two burrows, about 6 feet in length, were dug out. Each contained a large
young. Both were banded (626-32831 and 626-32832). On August 25th an
immature puffin was captured on the bare rocks near the puffin burrows by night-
lighting and banded (626-32833).
Puffins are most abundant around 8 p.m., when roosting flights to the island
are made.
Puffins have been recorded on Cleland previously. Cowan (I. McT., MS.)
collected an adult on May 9, 1930, and Guiguet (1961) collected an adult on
August 4th.
Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin)—Rufous Hummingbird
At least 10 birds were seen around the vegetated areas of the island until
mid-August. From observations of aggressive action of these birds, we suspect
nesting on the island.
Corvus corax L.—Raven
Not recorded from the island, but two were seen on July 24th flying high past
Cleland toward Vargas Island.
Corvus caurinus Baird—Northwestern Crow
Six to ten birds frequent the island throughout the summer. On July 24th an
empty nest was found at the base of a rose bush near the top of the island. No
evidence of predation was noticed, although it seems likely that the seabird colony
could certainly support a small crow population.
Melospiza melodia (Wilson)—Song Sparrow
The only abundant songbird frequenting every conceivable niche on the island.
On July 24th we counted 36 birds. The population is probably closer to 50 birds.
No nest was found, but we suspect nesting.
Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner)—White-footed Mouse
It is interesting to note that no evidence was found of mice inhabitating the
the island. Traps were set on several occasions with negative results, and food
placed in strategic locations around the island was untouched.
Guiguet (1961) set out four dozen traps with negative results.
Orcinus orca (Cope)—Pacific Killer Whale
A large male and female were seen about one-quarter mile offshore July 24th.
Eumetopias jubata (Schreber)—Northern Sea-lion
Five were scared from Seal Rocks, a tiny rocky islet just north of Cleland.
Aneides ferreus Cope—Clouded Salamander
Quite common under driftwood and in rotten logs throughout the main Leach's
petrel colony and rhinoceros auklet colony. Specimens were sent to the Provincial
Museum, Victoria.
Cleland Island, though small, supports a large and flourishing population of
breeding seabirds. Most niches on the island are used by seven species. The breeding birds include fork-tailed petrel (few), Leach's petrel (5,000 pairs), black oyster
catcher (3-6), glaucous-winged gull (400 pairs), pigeon guillemot (200 pairs),
rhinoceros auklet (25 pairs), and tufted puffin (50 pairs). From behaviour and
evidence recorded, we suspect Cassin's auklet, rufous hummingbird, northwestern
crow, and song sparrow also breed on Cleland.
According to Drent and Guiguet (1961), both petrels needed confirmation as
breeding on Cleland in recent years. This has been done. The breeding rhinoceros
auklets are a new record for the island. This extends their known breeding range
from the Pine Island colony, off the northern tip of Vancouver Island, about 160
miles south along the coast of British Columbia. There is, however, a large colony
of breeding rhinoceros auklets on Destruction Island, off the coast of the State of
Four hundred and seventy-nine individuals of six species were banded on Cleland. Banding summary: Fork-tailed petrel, 1; Leach's petrel, 36; glaucous-
winged gull, 433; pigeon guillemot, 3; rhinoceros auklet, 3;  and tufted puffin, 3.
The island itself appears to be devoid of both reptiles and mammals. Perhaps
their absence helps to explain the abundant seabird populations on the island. Just
what effect, if any, the slugs have on the seabirds is difficult to determine. Future
studies might solve this interesting problem.
Comparing past and present records, it appears that the seabird colony on
Cleland Island is gradually increasing both in species and numbers. This is most
encouraging since many of our small and seemingly insignificant islands that provide
sites for colonies (for example, Passage Island near the entrance to Howe Sound)
are being lost to real estate.
The west coast of Vancouver Island, especially between the Villages of Ucluelet
and Tofino, is now a popular tourist attraction. Land here, except for Long Beach,
is being sold privately and is now hard to obtain. Tourists wanting land for summer
cottages are now seeking it on the larger islands north of Tofino. In time many of
our smaller islands and seabird colonies will be lost forever if naturalists and conservationists do not combine their time and efforts to have them set aside as bird
refuges.   Reserving Cleland Island would be a good start.
This paper has been made possible through the co-operation and assistance
of many people. We are indebted to Messrs. Ernie Bach, Tofino B.A. Station;
T. A. Seymour, Department of Fisheries; and E. R. Hagelin, Tofino Lifeboat Station,
for providing transportation to Cleland Island. Messrs. Errol Anderson, Barry
Edwards, and Mr. and Mrs. David Woolgar helped with banding birds. Mr. Ken
P. Morrison greatly assisted with petrel bandings and population censuses. Mr.
Robert J. Drake, Vancouver, identified terrestrial molluscs, and Mr. Ray Huckin,
Parks Branch, drew the maps. Dr. G. Clifford Carl has read this manuscript and
suggested changes and corrections.
American Ornithologists' Union, 1957.   Check-list of North American Birds.   Fifth
edition, Baltimore.
Carl, G. Clifford, 1966.   The Amphibians of British Columbia.   Handbook No. 2,
Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Carl, G. Clifford, 1963.   Guide to Marine Life of British Columbia.   Handbook
No. 21, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Cornwall, Ira E., 1955.    The Barnacles of British Columbia.   Handbook No. 7,
Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Cowan, I. McT., and Guiguet, C. J., 1965.   The Mammals of British Columbia.
Handbook No. 11, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Drent, R. H., and Guiguet, C. J., 1961.   A Catalogue of British Columbia Sea-bird
Colonies.   Occasional Papers No. 12, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Grass, A. L., 1966.   Some Land and Freshwater Mollusca from British Columbia,
Canada.   Hawaiian Shell News, March, 1966.
Griffith, Lela M., 1967.   The Intertidal Univalves of British Columbia.   Handbook
No. 26, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Guiguet, C J., 1961.   Unpublished Provincial Museum Field Notes on the Fauna
of Cleland Island.
Hitchcock, C; Cronquist, A.; Ownbey, M.; and Thompson, J., 1955-64.   Vascular
Plants of the Pacific Northwest.   Vols. 2-5, U. of Wash. Press, Seattle.
Morris, Percy H, 1966.   A Field Guide to Shells of the Pacific Coast and Hawaii,
Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.
Munro, J. A., and Cowan, I. McT., 1947.   A Review of the Bird Fauna of British
Columbia.   Special Publication No. 2, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Pearse, T., 1946.   Nesting of Western Gulls off the Coast of Vancouver Island,
British Columbia, and Possible Hybridization with Glaucous-winged Gull.
Murrelet 27, No. 3.
Quayle, D. B., 1960.   The Intertidal Bivalves of British Columbia.   Handbook No.
17, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Reed, Chester A., 1904.   North American Birds Eggs.   Doubleday, Page and Co.,
New York.
Scagel, Robert F., 1967.   Guide to Common Seaweeds of British Columbia.   Handbook No. 27, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.


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