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annual report of the DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION for the year ended March 31 1968 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1969

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 annual report
of the
DIRECTOR
OF CORRECTION
for the year ended March 31
1968
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
  Victoria, British Columbia, February 27, 1969.
To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C, O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Annual Report of the Director of
Correction for the year ended March 31, 1968.
LESLIE R. PETERSON,
A ttorney-General.
 Department of the Attorney-General,
Corrections Branch,
Vancouver, British Columbia,
November 1, 1968.
The Honourable L. R. Peterson, Q.C.,
A ttorney-General,
Parliament Buildings,
Victoria,
British Columbia.
Dear Sir:
I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Corrections Branch for the
12 months ended March 31,1968.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. ROCKSBOROUGH SMITH,
Director of Correction.
 DEPARTMENT OF THE
ATTORNEY-GENERAL
CORRECTIONS BRANCH
The Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C., Attorney-General.
Gilbert D. Kennedy, Q.C.
, Deputy Attorney-General.
SENIOR CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
S. Rocksborough Smith, Director of Correction and Chief Probation Officer.
M. A. Matheson, Assistant Director of Correction.
C. D. Davidson, Assistant Chief Probation Officer.
HEADQUARTERS
STAFF OFFICERS
F. St. J. Madeley,
Rev. W. D. G. Hollingworth,
Personnel and Staff Training Officer.
Senior Protestant Chaplain.
R. V. McAllister,
Rev. T. F. M. Corcoran,
Supervisor of Research.
Senior Catholic Chaplain.
R. G. E. Richmond,
S. A. Thorvaldson,
Senior Medical Officer.
Supervisor of Classification.
ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS
R. E. Fitchett, Personnel.
M. M. Berg, Catering and Services.
E. M. Pierce, Training.
K. M. Richardson, Probation.
GAOL SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
W. H. Mulligan,
V. H. Goad,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Director, New Haven.
E. W. Epp,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
W. Scott,
Warden, Kamloops, Regional Gaol.
S. A. L. Hamblin,
H. B. Bjarnason,
Warden, Vancouver Island Unit
Warden, Prince George Gaol.
and Sayward Forest Camps.
0. J. Walling,
Warden, Alouette River Unit.
G. J. Chapple,
Officer in Charge, Chilliwack
Forest Camps.
PROBATION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
J. M. Armstrong,
O. E. Hollands,
Supervisor, Vancouver Region.
Supervisor, Fraser Valley Region.
A. E. B. Jones,
J. Wiebe,
Supervisor, Vancouver Island Region.
Supervisor, Interior Region.
R. G. McKellar,
J. V. Sabourin,
Supervisor, Northern Region.
Supervisor, Parole and Special Services.
BRITISH COLUMBIA PAROLE BOARD
F. C. Boyes, Chairman.
M. G. Stade, Secretary.
Members:
A. Webster.
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 CONTENTS
Chapter I. Review of the year	
Chapter II. Staff and staff-training.
Page
11
17
1. Headquarters staff  17
2. Institutional staff—promotions and appointments  17
3. Recruitment and separations  17
4. Training—Gaol Service  19
5. Gaol Service specialized courses and conferences  19
6. Outside courses and conferences  20
Chapter III. Treatment of men.
21
General
1. Population  21
2. Capacity  21
3. Juvenile admissions  22
4. Security.  22
5. Discipline  22
6. Assaults on staff  25
7. Central classification  25
8. Research  27
Social Education
9. Recidivist young offender programme_
10. Haney Correctional Institution honour unit
11. Psychiatric and social casework services	
12. Lay counselling	
13. Group counselling	
14. Religious training	
15. Recreation	
16. Community participation.
Education
17. Academic courses	
27
27
27
28
28
29
29
29
30
18. Vocational training  31
19. Physical education  3 3
Prison industries and farm production
20. Prison industries  34
21. Farm production  35
 EE 8
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Specialized institutions
22. Alouette River Unit-
Forest camps
23. Organization	
24. Capacity and intake.
25. Achievement	
Chapter IV. Treatment of women.
General
1. Population.
2. Discipline	
3. Vocational and technical training.
4. Academic	
5. Physical education and sports	
6. Religious training	
7. Recreation	
8. Social casework	
9. Group and lay counselling	
10. Community participation	
11. Narcotic Drug Research Unit
Twin Maples Farm	
Chapter V. Health, hygiene, and safety
Excerpts from Senior Medical Officer's report..
Page
35
36
36
39
41
41
41
. 41
. 41
. 41
. 41
. 42
. 42
. 42
. 42
. 42
43
44
. 44
Chapter VI. Parole
General
1. Parole cases	
2. Day parole	
3. Parole for alcoholics
4. Half-way houses	
British Columbia Board of Parole-
Chapter VII. British Columbia Probation Service
General
1. Probation cases
48
48
48
48
49
49
51
  51
2. Pre-sentence reports  51
3. Case loads  51
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1967/68
Staff and staff-training
4. Probation staff—promotions, appointments, separations  „
EE 9
Page
._ 52
5. Probation Service general training courses  52
6. Probation Service Conference—10th Annual  53
7. Vancouver City College courses and corrections certificate  53
8. University educational assistance  53
Treatment of juvenile delinquency
9. Juveniles placed under probation supervision.
  54
10. Transfers to Adult Court___.   54
11. Family and Children's Court  54
12. Regional developments  54
13. New field office  57
14. Psychiatric services  57
15. Marpole hostel  57
16. Treatment for chronic alcoholics  58
17. Search and leadership training—Porteau Cove  59
Provincial probation offices.
Probation statistics	
60
61
Appendices
British Columbia Board of Parole statistics  64
Annual statistical tables  64
  ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
OF CORRECTION
Chapter I.   Review of the year
The total admissions to the gaols of the Province from the Courts for the fiscal
year 1967/68 numbered 14,414, a decrease of over 2,000 from last year. The decrease was as a result of the change in policy with regard to the laying of public
drunkenness charges which came into effect on January 1st. In spite of this decrease, the daily average population for the gaols was virtually unchanged and remained at 2,291, as compared to last year's figure of 2,294. This is explained by a
slight general increase in the length of sentences imposed. The increasing number of
prisoners 23 years of age and under, noted in my report last year, was again in
evidence. This young-adult group poses a tremendous challenge, for it is from this
group that the sophisticated recidivistic offender of tomorrow will emerge. At a
time when all authority is being questioned and the advocates of freedom-without-
any-responsibility are loud and clear in their affirmation that any form of restraint
or sanction is contrary to the democratic way of life, it is not fashionable to promote
standards and values whose achievement largely depend on the exercise of self-
discipline and control. None the less, I am pleased to be able to report in the following pages some notable advances in the treatment and training of the young-adult
offender. This has been made possible by the increasing skill and training of our
basic grade officers. The establishment of the permanent staff-training academy at
the Vancouver Island Unit with living-quarters attached has made it possible to plan
a programme of induction courses for all new staff following their appointment to the
Service. This six-week course combines both academic and practical in a nice
balance and is focussed on training for leadership. The officers on course live and
work together for the six-week period, and in their practical work are constantly
being faced with emergent situations which require immediate decisions. Courses
for more senior and specialist staff were also held throughout the year. Again the
emphasis is on the development of leadership qualities, for we feel that in the all-
important work of changing human behaviour, leadership is an essential.
Sir Alexander Paterson, the great reformer of the first half of the century,
wrote:—
"A Service where every contingency is governed by exact rule tends to attract
second rate men—and years of unquestioning obedience may reduce them to the
level of third rate. But our Service needs the best men, and once they have gained
experience and shown their metal, they should keep afresh by the continued exercise
of their own thought and discretion."
We subscribe to this philosophy of training.
The separation rate in the Security Officer ranks reached the all-time high of
184 this year. This is the basic entry grade in the Service and is subject to some
fluctuation in numbers. However, I view with some alarm a turnover of this magnitude. Apart from the question of salary, which is currently under review, much
more is required of the modern prison officer, who has daily to face some of the
most hostile, aggressive, and disturbed members of society—men (and this applies
equally to women) who have been defying all authority and order for the greater
part of their lives.   Unprovoked assaults on staff, although lower than last year,
11
 EE 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA
were still far too high.   The greatest incidence this year was in the young-adult
offender class, where the number of such incidents was tripled.
Oakalla Prison Farm had three major disturbances during the year, involving
the "waiting trial " and " appeal " prisoners. Details of these disturbances are reported at greater length in the pages which follow. Prompt and sensible action on
the part of the Warden and his staff resulted in no injury nor damage to prison
property. It was found possible to make adjustments to the routine in this wing to
alleviate some of the monotony and boredom of being locked up for such long
periods. However, the basic problem facing prisoners on remand in Oakalla, which
has been outlined in detail in previous Reports over the years, remains. It is most
heartening to learn that a site has been selected and that plans are being drawn for a
new Remand and Classification Centre to serve the Greater Vancouver and Lower
Mainland area; such a facility cannot come too soon.
Acts of self-injury continue to increase, though the number of successful suicides was reduced from six last year to three this year. All were prisoners at Oakalla, either waiting trial or under observation. The establishment of the 12 observation cells, reported last year, played a large part in reducing the successful suicides
to three, and the Warden and his staff are to be commended for their alertness and
the promptness of their action, which undoubtedly forestalled many further tragedies.
Acts of self-injury, whether due to despair, frustration, or self-immolation, appear to
be on the increase throughout the world and are particularly common in the prison
setting, where men and women are removed from circulation, stripped to a large
extent of all responsibility, have their creature comforts looked after, and, with considerable time to think, are driven, often for the first time in their lives, to take a
hard look at themselves. The Under-Secretary of State for the United Kingdom
Home Office investigating the rise in suicides among "waiting trial" prisoners in
British prisons, after noting that penal authorities all agree that there are no foolproof
The Honourable Leslie R. Peterson, Q.C., Attorney-General, tours Hutda Lake
Camp, Prince George, during official opening.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1967/68
EE 13
safeguards against the prisoner determined to take his own life, said, " The prevention of suicide in prison requires not only physical measures to deprive the potential
suicide of the means of killing himself, but also the creation of a climate of hope
and incentive and the early recognition and treatment of prisoners with depressive
or other mental illness." Once sentenced and in a prison programme which places
some demands and responsibility upon the individual, the tendency to self-injury
diminishes. To this end much thought and concern have been given to establishing
productive and purposeful programmes throughout the Provincial Service.
The incidence of escape from custody, although less than last year, still remains
high. Seventy per cent of the total escapees come from the young-adult group at the
Haney Correctional Institution and New Haven. While many of them are walkaways rather than escapes, none the less they create a problem for staff and are a
concern to the local community. The majority were quickly apprehended by institution staff, and all were charged in Magistrate's Court. This behaviour is yet a
further example of the immaturity and instability of many of the young adults who
are committed to correctional institutions.
The addition to Prince George Gaol, noted in last year's Report, was finally
completed in November, and the new forest camp at Hutda Lake in the spring.
These facilities added greatly to the available prison and camp accommodation in
the northern part of the Province and have made it possible to have all committals
north of Williams Lake, west to the coast, and east to the Alberta Border committed
to Prince George Regional Gaol, thus providing a welcome relief to Oakalla, where
many male prisoners from this area were formerly sent.
With the completion of new temporary quarters at Kamloops on the site of
the former Royal Canadian Navy ammunition depot, the oldest remaining gaol in
the Province—the old Kamloops Gaol, built in 1897—was finally demolished. The
new wooden structure can accommodate 80 prisoners. It is hoped that it will adequately provide for the needs of the Central Interior of the Province until such time
as a new prison can be constructed on the site. The present buildings can then be
readily converted to provide workshops, storage, and service facilities.
Work on the relocation of Gold Creek Camp on Alouette Lake continued. It
is planned that the new camp to be built at Boulder Bay, on the opposite side of the
lake, will undertake the development of an experimental programme for short-term
young-adult offenders serving definite-intermediate sentences. The camp will be
operated along the lines of Outward Bound training, stressing challenge and achievement, and will be organized to run courses of four months' duration. Those successfully completing a course will be recommended to the Provincial Board of Parole for
release under supervision to the community. This short, sharp-shock type of training
has been used to good effect in the United Kingdom for some years; to combine this
with the demanding programme of Outward Bound training, which was successfully
pioneered at Lakeview Camp in 1965, will provide an opportunity of channelling off
those of the young-adult offender group who it is felt would respond to a short intensive period of institutional treatment followed by release on parole. This would then
allow us to concentrate on those within the same age-group who require a prolonged
period of retraining at the Haney Correctional Institution or New Haven, with emphasis on academic and vocational education.
Experiments with a base-expectancy study have indicated that approximately
one-third of the present young-adult group have a high probability of success on
parole. Plans are under way to channel this group into the new camp presently
under construction at Boulder Bay with a possibility of further extending the programme to include one of the Chilliwack group of camps at a later date.
 EE 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The introduction of more varied programmes and the trend toward greater
individualization of training for the young-adult offender has demonstrated the inadequacy of the present definite-indeterminate type of sentence provided for under
section 151 of the Prisons and Reformatories Act. This sentence was introduced in
1949 at a time when New Haven was the sole institution in the Province providing
training for the 16 to 23 age-group. In the intervening years the average number
sentenced to this type of training has increased from 50 a year to over 500 a year,
and the number of institutions catering to this age-group has expanded from one to
five. As the time required to complete a course of treatment in each of these institutions varies with the institution and the degree of application of the individual
toward his training, it is obvious that considerable flexibility in the length of sentence is necessary if the maximum result is to be achieved. This same problem has
been overcome in other countries by the introduction of a completely indeterminate
sentence of two years. Here, to retain the sentence within Provincial jurisdiction,
an indeterminate sentence of two years less one day would be required. A sentence
of this length would provide sufficient flexibility to allow for either a short period of
training or an extended one, according to the needs of the particular individual, and
would still allow for a period of supervision on parole in the community. Such a
completely indeterminate sentence would have the additional benefit of placing the
whole sentence under the jurisdiction of the Provincial Parole Board rather than at
present, where the definite portion of the sentence comes under the National Board
and the indeterminate under the Provincial Board. It is to be hoped that enabling
legislation will be included in the Bill presently before the Parliament of Canada.
Increasing emphasis is being placed on the role of education in prisons and
correctional institutions aimed at expanding continuing courses of education at both
adult and grade-school level. All our institutions now include some programme of
education for those seeking the opportunity to upgrade their present level. Talks
with the Department of Education are presently under way to examine what can be
done to extend and amplify the current programmes so that young-adult training
institutions can achieve a full academic curriculum and each regional gaol a broader
selection of evening adult education classes.
The day parole programme, in co-operation with the National Parole Service,
whereby selected inmates work in the community by the day and return to the institution at night, continues to develop. Fifty-seven male and 27 female prisoners
participated for varying lengths of time during the year. Considering that many of
the inmates participating in the day parole programme were men and women with
substantial records who had never held jobs in the community for any length of time,
and were selected on the basis of certain failure were they to be released at the expiration of their sentence with no supervision, the results were most encouraging.
Forty-five per cent survived the day parole period itself and were still at large in
the community nine months later. An expansion of this programme to include
work release and supervised home leave is currently under consideration.
Mention is made later on in this Report of the difficulty of evaluating the results
of the application of the indeterminate sentence to chronic alcoholic offenders. The
amendment to the Summary Convictions Act providing for this type of sentence
was itself amended by the action of the Legislature at its last session. The object
of the new amendment was to remove the alcoholic offender from the law and deal
with him as a medical problem rather than a legal one. The City of Vancouver,
where the problem is greatest, has expressed the view that it must have an established evaluation and diagnostic centre to which chronic alcoholics can be brought
for assessment before the new amendment can be proclaimed. Plans for such a
detoxication centre are currently being prepared, and it is to be hoped that the
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1967/68
EE 15
financing of this facility will not cause unnecessary delay. In the meantime, and
during the hiatus, the Alouette River Unit is operating with a small nucleus of
male offenders who have been committed to gaol for a variety of offences and
who have an alcoholic problem.
An encouraging development is the establishment of half-way houses in various
communities throughout the Province. These facilities are organized and operated
by groups of citizens who have evidenced a high degree of dedication to their work.
It has been a pleasure to be associated with them. Of those working with alcoholics,
I would particularly note the Maple Ridge House in Haney, the Harry Elliott House
in Prince George, the Chatham House in Prince Rupert, and Fraser House, which is
presently being organized in Mission City. Notable among those working with the
young adults on parole are the Dick Bell-Irving Home in Vancouver and the St.
Leonard's House in Burnaby.
Probation service
Your attention is again drawn to the steadily increasing probation, parole, and
after-care case loads throughout the Province. The total case load increased by 600
last year for a grand total of 6,502 cases. The graph in the Appendix to this Report
shows the growth of probation as compared to the prison population and the total
population growth of the Province. A glance at this graph illustrates very plainly
the effect that the increased use of probation has had upon the prison population.
It is interesting to conjecture what would have happened had this expansion not
taken place.
In spite of a stepped-up recruiting programme which netted an increase of 13
officers over the course of the year, the struggle to retain trained field staff in the face
of strong competition from other public agencies was again very noticeable. As the
training received by our officers is highly regarded throughout Canada, our men are
very much in demand. A salary scale which places due recognition on professional
development, similar to that enjoyed by teachers, would, I feel, go a long way to
stabilizing the present situation so far as staff is concerned. With the growing demand for increased probation services in all the major communities of the Province,
it is imperative that we recruit, train, and be able to retain in our Service more
officers than at present. This is a matter for major concern in looking toward the
future.
I would bring to your notice a number of continuing projects which were noted
in my last year's report:—
(1) The search and leadership training programme was this year, for the first
time, based on a permanent camp loaned to the Branch by the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway. The site, at Porteau Cove on the shores of Howe
Sound, was most suitable for the programme of training. Huts, a dining-
room and kitchen, and necessary ancillary buildings were hastily erected
in time to receive 30 young probationers from across the Province on
July 1st. The youths, selected by their various Probation Officers on the
basis of their poor progress on probation, underwent an arduous and demanding six weeks' course. Details of the programme are included in the
section of this Report under the chapter on probation. The results to date,
though as yet too early to draw any definite conclusions, are none the less
encouraging. Of the 30 who completed the training eight months ago,
only one to date has made a reappearance in Court. When it is considered
that all 30 were showing behaviour problems at the time of their selection
for the course, the success so far is all the more gratifying.   It is hoped that
 EE 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
sufficient funds will be made available next fiscal year to be able to expand
this programme and operate it on a year-round basis.
(2) The parole unit at the Haney Correctional Institution was disbanded when
the decision was made to reclassify the counsellors attached to that institution and qualify them as Probation Officers. This change in organization
is to take place shortly, and the first two counsellors will enrol in the
Probation Officer orientation course in two months' time. The establishment of Probation Officers in a young-adult training institution should
assist greatly in preparing the young adult undergoing a training period
for re-entry into the community and improve the communication between
institutional and after-care workers.
(3) Voluntary cases, dealt with by Probation Officers without an initial Court
appearance, increased by over 100. This is significant and is an indication
of the public's acceptance of the Probation Officer as a specialist in behaviour problems. Unfortunately the amount of time a Probation Officer
can give to this informal type of referral is limited by his heavy Court
case load. The appointment of additional trained officers would undoubtedly lead to an increase in this voluntary work with a possible
diminution of cases appearing in Court.
(4) The number of interested citizens offering their services voluntarily as
probation sponsors is increasing, particularly in the more rural and scattered communities. Probation Officers are realizing that a keen volunteer
with a suitable personality, high motivation, and time to spare can be of
great assistance in this work in helping to provide the warmth and friendship so necessary in establishing positive relationships.
(5) With the growing number of municipalities ready to take on the responsibility of organizing a properly constituted Family and Children's Court
with adequate facilities for dealing with wives' and children's maintenance
orders, there has been a noticeable increase in the number of Family and
Children's Court Committees appointed. Reference is made in the following pages of this Report to the number of outstanding projects initiated by
these committees across the Province. Their initiative and enthusiasm does
them great credit.
(6) The Salvation Army's House of Concord, officially opened in the spring
of 1967, is offering a valuable resource for the Probation Service. Designed at present to house some 18 youths, it offers a warm and pleasant
home atmosphere in attractive rural surroundings. Plans to increase the
accommodation and provide some occupational training are presently
under consideration. Facilities such as this and the probation hostel at
Marpole, more fully reported on elsewhere in these pages, are essential
back-up resources for any Probation Service and are badly needed. It is
quite impossible for a Court to consider placing a young person on probation who either has no home or whose home is completely unsuitable unless a resource of this kind is available. The only alternative is committal
to an institution.
 Chapter II.   Staff and staff-training
Corrections Branch headquarters
1. Headquarters staff
Mr. O. J. Walling, who was responsible for both Gaol and Probation Service
training, left the headquarters staff on his promotion to Warden, Alouette River Unit.
Mr. St. John Madeley, who was previously Warden, Alouette River Unit, transferred
October 1, 1967, to headquarters to assume responsibility for the vastly expanded
staff-training programme now under way in the Probation Service. To date, no such
comparable appointment has been made for Gaol Service.
Mr. W. Lemmon retired in January, 1968, as Supervisor of Central Classification after a long career in corrections, both in British Columbia and previously in
Saskatchewan. He was replaced by Mr. A. Thorvaldson, a former Probation Officer
who had recently returned from completing his graduate work in psychology at the
University of British Columbia.
British Columbia Gaol Service
2. Institutional staff—promotions and appointments
Mr. E. W. Epp was appointed July, 1967, as Warden of the Haney Correctional
Institution. He replaced Mr. J. Braithwaite, who resigned June, 1967, to accept
an appointment with the Department of the Solicitor-General, Ottawa. As mentioned above, Mr. O. J. Walling was promoted to Warden, Alouette River Unit,
October, 1967. Other senior appointments included the promotion of Mr. J. MacLeod to Deputy Warden 1, Oakalla Prison Farm, and Mr. A. K. Brind-Sheridan as
Supervisor of Guidance and Counselling at the Haney Correctional Institution. Mr.
Brind-Sheridan, a former Probation Officer, was appointed to his present position
after completion of his Master of Social Work degree at the University of British
Columbia, where he had been for the past two years on leave of absence.
Other promotions through competition included 11 to Senior Correctional
Officer, 22 to Principal Officer, and 66 to Correctional Officer.
3. Recruitment and separations
The total authorized complement for the Gaol Service this year amounted to
1,137. The increase over last year was accounted for by the opening of the new gaol
at Kamloops, which, with its much larger capacity, required an expanded staff.
Other appointments were made necessary by the addition to the Prince George Gaol
to increase its capacity.
There were three senior officials who left the Service during the year, two of
them for positions in Ottawa and one in private social welfare work. Warden J.
Braithwaite, of Haney Correctional Institution, as mentioned earlier, left for a position in Ottawa; Deputy Warden 1, A. C. Montpellier, Oakalla Prison Farm, resigned for a position with the Federal Government; and Deputy Warden 1, N.
Baker, resigned from the Haney Correctional Institution to enter the private social
welfare field.
Seven deaths occurred in the Service during the year, five of them caused by
heart attacks. They were all experienced and valuable officers and as such represented a significant loss to the Service.
17
 EE 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
A total of 310 staff was appointed to the permanent ranks to replace 289 separations plus vacancies created by the expanded staffs at the Kamloops and Prince
George Regional Gaols. Our separation rate has now reached an all-time high of
25.4 per cent. This is compared to 24.1 per cent for last year, which was the previous all-time high. A closer examination of this critically high turnover rate reveals
that two-thirds of it is accounted for by the separations within the Security Officer
rank. As is shown by the following table, the separations by rank are concentrated
very much within the Security Officer classification, and that once staff reach the
higher salary levels of Correctional Officer, the turnover rate drops significantly.
Separation by Rank from Permanent Positions
Rank
Security Officer
Separations
. 184
.    33
Correctional Officer	
Principal Officer        6
Senior Correctional Officer        5
Deputy Wardens        2
Warden       2
Others  5 7
Percentage
of Total
63.6
11.4
2.0
1.6
0.7
0.7
20.0
Totals
289
100.0
A breakdown of separations by various institutions is shown in the following
table:—
Separation by Institution from Permanent Ranks
Establish
Separa
Percentage
of
Turnover
ment
tions
4S5
139
28.6
282
51
18.0
76
34
44.7
79
12
15.0
84
21
25.0
64
6
9.0
50
21
42.0
17
5
29.0
Oakalla Prison Farm complex..
Haney Correctional Institution
Prince George Regional Gaol—
Kamloops Regional Gaol	
Vancouver Island Unit	
Chilliwack Forest Camps	
Alouette River Unit	
New Haven  	
Totals	
1,137
289
25.4
Examination of this table reveals the largest number of separations occurring
at Oakalla Prison Farm, accounting for close to half of our total number of separations for the whole of the Gaol Service. This, of course, is due to the greater
opportunity for alternative employment available in the Lower Mainland region plus
the higher salaries encountered in this area. The same factor of higher salaries
available elsewhere is apparent with the Prince George Regional Gaol, which has
the highest percentage of turnover. Here in the mid-Province and northern area
the opportunities for employment at much higher salaries are abundant, and we
suffer by comparison.
The raw figure of total separations does not by any means portray the problems
in cost encountered by this separation rate. A turnover rate at this 25.4-per-cent
level, for example, means that our training academy cannot possibly turn out during
the course of the year sufficient trained personnel to replace those leaving the
Service. The result is that we are constantly wasting great sums of money in the
training of personnel, only to see them leave during their first years of service. This
continued training in turn means the employment of temporary staff to replace those
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1967/68 EE 19
on courses, our staff in the permanent ranks not being available for regular assignment as they are engaged in training. The result has been large numbers of inexperienced and untrained staff working with an increasingly difficult inmate
population.
4. Training—Gaol Service
(a) The academy training programme for Security Officers, which was previously given only at Oakalla Prison Farm, has now been established for the entire
Gaol Service. It is located at the staff quarters at the Vancouver Island Unit and
now allows staff from all areas of the Province to live in during the six-week duration
of the course. This six-week course replaces the previous basic and advanced training courses and is designed for staff from all institutions and camps. It is a highly
concentrated training course and presents a challenge to both mind and body. Its
two key objectives are (1) to determine if the officer has the required qualities of
personality and character for the supervision of inmates and (2) to develop these
qualities in order that he may effectively carry out his responsibilities.
The instruction is carried on by Senior Correctional Officer D. Chamberlain
as the officer in charge of the academy, who is assisted by two full-time instructors,
Principal Officer B. Rafuse and Correctional Officer J. Garrett, with specialist instructors from the Vancouver Island Unit, the Probation Service, and other institutions. The major subject areas covered by these instructors include leadership and
instructional methods, counselling and treatment methods, deviant behaviour, security, safety, inmate control and self-defence, and physical training, which includes
obstacle courses, swimming, and overnight expeditions on the mountains in the
nearby area. Three courses were completed this year, the first one starting September, 1967.   To date 79 officers have graduated from this training programme.
(_>) Advanced training is due to be phased out by the academy training programme, but until the backlog of staff requiring this training is wiped off, courses
will continue to be given. This year 10 courses of advanced training were completed
at the Haney Correctional Institution with 189 officers successfully completing this
level of training.
(c) Principal Officers' training continued, with the third Principal Officers'
leadership course being held at the Haney Correctional Institution. Thirteen
Principal Officers and one Principal Matron completed this stage of training during
the year.
The fifth annual sitting of the Principal Officers' qualifying examination was
held in March, 1968. One hundred and forty-one wrote the examination; 103
(73 per cent) qualified, which is the highest pass rate yet experienced. For the
first year of this examination in 1963, only 49.2 per cent qualified. This increase
in the pass rate no doubt reflects the greater emphasis put on staff-training by all
institutions.
(d) Field training continued to be given by each institution. The content is
established in general policy, but the method is left to each institution as to how
it will carry out this phase of instruction. The variation of approach ranges from
a short course at the Haney Correctional Institution to daily training sessions for
new staff at Westgate B of Oakalla Prison.
This year saw a greater emphasis being placed on field training at each institution due to the large and frequent turnover of Security Officers.
5. Gaol Service specialized courses and conferences
During the year a series of specialized courses and conferences were held at
various locations, which are detailed as follows.
 EE 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(a) Counselling.—At the Haney Correctional Institution 16-hour courses were
given on lay counselling, advanced counselling, and group discussion and leadership.
(b) Fire-fighting.—Staff from the Haney Correctional Institution attended the
course given at Riverview for fire-fighting and safety, and the British Columbia
Forest Service continued to provide training in forest fire-fighting to staff in all our
forest camps.
(c) Bursars' Conference.—A meeting of the bursars from all institutions was
held at the Marpole training centre from November 6th to 10th. Problems examined
included the preparation of estimates, expenditure control, ration scales, and personnel matters, such as appointments, separations, classifications, and salaries.
(d) Medical Officers' Conference.—Also in November a conference was held
of full- and part-time medical officers and medical consultants from all institutions.
This is the first conference of prison medical officers to be held. Drs. A. M. Marcus,
J. C. Thomas, and E. Lipinski gave most informative presentations on suicide,
psychiatric observations concerning certain categories of offenders and offences, and
use and abuse of drugs in a prison situation.
(e) Chaplains' Conference.—The annual chaplains' conference for all Protestant and Roman Catholic chaplains was held at the Marpole training centre from
January 23 to 25, 1968. Twenty chaplains were in attendance. The theme was
" The Community, the Inmate, and the Chaplain," and the programme was designed
to allow ample time for discussion of the questions raised, which included a study
of the " Hippie " movement, " Psychedelic Drugs," " Emotional Problems and How
to Deal with Them as Chaplains," " Emotional Traits of the Native Indian," and
" Sexuality in Prison."
6. Outside courses and conferences
A wide range of outside training experiences were drawn upon during the year
and included the following:—
(a) The Department of Education and Federal Department of Labour co-
sponsored courses on human relations, communication, and work study, which
were attended by staff from various institutions.
(b) First Aid.—Eleven staff from the Chilliwack Forest Camps attended the
St. John first-aid training programme at their own expense in order to upgrade their
certificates in first aid.
(c) The Northwest Conference on Alcoholism was held April, 1967, and nine
staff from the Alouette River Unit, which specializes in the treatment of alcoholics,
attended this conference. In addition, Warden F. St. John Madeley, of the Alouette
River Unit, was enrolled at the Rutgers University Summer School of Alcohol Studies
this year. Staff from the Alouette River Unit and the Oakalla Prison Farm drug-
treatment staff also attended the Alcohol and Drug Dependency Conference at the
University of British Columbia, November 9th and 10th.
(d) Canadian Corrections Association Biennial Conference, Halifax.—Representatives from all institutions and the Probation Service attended this conference
and many participated in the programme.
(e) Management training.—The Assistant Chief Probation Officer attended
the New Dimensions in Learning Management Institute this year.
 Chapter III.   Treatment of men
General
1. Population
The daily average number of male inmates in institutions did not change significantly during the year, being 2,291 as compared to 2,294 last year and 2,195 in
the previous year. On March 31, 1968, there were 2,264 male inmates registered
in institutions and camps throughout the Province. There was a total of 13,390
male admissions for all receiving institutions. The peak population for the year of
2,418 was reached in June, 1967.
2. Capacity
The new addition to the Prince George Regional Gaol was occupied November
30, 1967, changing the capacity of this gaol from 97 to 140. This addition gave
sorely needed space for shops, library, classrooms and indoor recreation, hospital
and isolation cells. The Hutda Lake Forest Camp, with a 60-inmate capacity, was
erected by the end of November. However, none of these new prefabricated buildings were completely finished inside, so the 30-inmate work party was accommodated
for the winter months in temporary buildings supplied by the British Columbia Forest
Service.
After over 70 years of occupancy, the old Kamloops Gaol on Columbia Street
was officially closed down in favour of a new site on what was formerly the Royal
Canadian Navy ammunition depot, just outside the city. The buildings on this site,
which had been used for housing naval personnel, staff administration, and workshops, were redesigned and renovated by the Department of Public Works to provide
accommodation and the necessary amenities for up to 90 prisoners. This was a
most welcome move, which resulted in greatly improved facilities and doubled the
capacity of the gaol.
During the early months of the year many difficulties were experienced at the
Haney Correctional Institution's Gold Creek Camp in Golden Ears Park. The
popularity of this park and its high usage by picnickers and week-end campers
created too many problems for the camp. The decision was therefore made in May,
1967, to relocate it from this site farther north, on the opposite side of the lake.
The trainees were transferred temporarily to Pine Ridge Camp and housed in tents
for the summer until such time as a new site could be cleared and prepared.
By the end of the year a start had been made on the new site and a temporary
trailer camp set up at Boulder Bay, adjacent to the narrows at the north end of
Alouette Lake, to house the 34 trainees who would be working on the preparation
of the site and the construction of the buildings.
A Juvenile Remand Unit was established this year in the hospital area of the
Haney Correctional Institution. This unit was created to receive juveniles raised
to Adult Court and awaiting trial or sentence as an alternative to housing them in
the West Wing of Oakalla, where they previously mixed with all types of criminal
offenders. The first admissions were received on April 13, 1967. For the first few
months the numbers received were relatively small, but they gradually increased
until the middle of February, when the unit had to be moved to larger quarters in
a cell block. This unit, with accommodation for 14 juveniles, has operated with
very few problems.
At the end of the year the total capacity for male inmates throughout the
Province was 2,671; of this number, 899, or approximately one-third, were in
camps or other minimum-security facilities.
21
 EE 22
3. Juvenile admissions
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The number of juveniles admitted to adult receiving institutions was 207, a
reduction of 15 from last year. The number 16 years of age and younger being
admitted to adult institutions still remains at a disturbing level.
Institution
Age
Total
14 Years
15 Years
16 Years
17 Years
4
14
1
1
55
5
5
2
2
92
15
6
4
1
165
21
11
Prince George Gaol  	
7
3
Totals   .         	
4
16         I         69
118
207
4. Security
The number of escapes dropped slightly, from 164 for last year to 156 this
year. The escapes from the Haney Correctional Institution and New Haven together amounted to 103, which is two-thirds of the total. The situation at the
Haney Correctional Institution became so extreme that concertina wire had to be
placed at the top of the inner perimeter fence to prevent inmates scaling both fences
in a matter of seconds. This installation toward the latter part of the year, plus
increased security on the work parties, was reflected in a drop in the Haney Correctional Institution escapes from last year's high of 87 to this year's 67. Unfortunately
this was offset by New Haven's escape total increasing from 20 to 36.
All other units remained within the same relative position as last year. In
some areas, such as Westgate at Oakalla, the unit has done remarkably well in containing a volatile, aggressive young population in a wooden frame building. The
vulnerability of this building was well illustrated again this year when an inmate
had, over a period of time, drilled a circle of holes in the wall, using a hobby bench
to camouflage his progress. When he was ready to escape, all the inmate had to do
was push the weakened plywood panel out, the only other material in his way being
the aluminum sheeting that serves as the outside wall of the unit. With very little
effort the sheeting gave way, and under cover of darkness the inmate managed to
escape.
The open minimum-security units, such as the Alouette River Unit and the
forest camps, throughout the Province also had remarkably low escape rates.
5. Discipline
The number of infractions against gaol rules and regulations rose again this
year, due mainly to the younger and more irresponsible young-adult offender population.
Institution Violations
Chilliwack Forest Camps  309
Oakalla Prison Farm  1,349
Prince George Regional Gaol  52
Alouette River Unit  65
Haney Correctional Institution  673
Vancouver Island Unit and Camps  155
Kamloops Regional Gaol and Camps  87
New Haven  173
Total
2,863
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1967/68 EE 23
At Oakalla the increase was from 1,026 for last year to this year's total of
1,349. The increase was centred mainly in the Westgate A unit, which had 660
offences, approximately one-half the Oakalla total. Of these infractions, 255 were
serious enough to warrant a period in isolation cells. The increasing training
demands placed on these young rebellious inmates is reflected by a higher level of
acting-out behaviour. However, only by demanding a higher level of performance
in training and in accepting responsibility can the staff bring them to the point where
they can cope with the demands and self-discipline required in society.
Westgate A Unit has a particular significance in the total young-offender
training programme. This unit, with a capacity of 138, acts as a back-up resource
for all other training institutions in dealing with the most disturbed and rebellious
group, thereby allowing the other facilities to concentrate on those young offenders
ready and able to progress. It is, however, by no means the end of the line for the
discipline case. He can progress through the various levels of the Westgate A
programme and thereby qualify himself for a transfer to the Haney Correctional
Institution or to a forest camp. Oakalla had three disturbances of major proportion this year, all involving West Wing inmates who were awaiting trial, appeal, or
transfer to the Penitentiary. The first was on May 16, 1967, when 116 West Wing
inmates refused to come back into the cell block after their yard exercise. They
were protesting the necessity of confinement in cells for over 20 hours each day
and wanted more time out of their cells. Additional staff were moved in and all
returned to their cells after a few hours.
The next disturbance was July 16, 1967, again in the West Wing, when this
time 147 inmates refused to come in from the exercise yard. The same complaints
were voiced, and after some discussion and extra staff posted outside the yard, all
moved back into their cells. In an attempt to alleviate this situation, provision was
made for evening exercise by hiring temporary staff. This appeared to work well,
and disciplinary problems were reduced. However, this was only feasible for the
summer months, and on January 14, 1968, 82 refused to return to their cells after
exercise. Again the situation was handled by bringing in extra staff, and no damage
was incurred. However, the overtime costs ran into thousands of dollars. The
Warden of Oakalla reported as follows:—•
" 1. Too many prisoners are being locked up for too long periods in inadequate
space. The West Wing has accommodation for 180, but it is chronically overcrowded with counts well in excess of 200.
" 2. Long periods are spent by inmates awaiting trials and appeals.
" 3. The wing houses inmates already sentenced to long penitentiary terms
who are awaiting often lengthy appeal periods and have very little to lose.
" 4. Security accommodation is inadequate, outmoded, and not in line with
modern conditions. Some of the men, and usually the most difficult, are kept in
this wing, either awaiting trial or appeal, for upwards of 12 months. I cannot
foresee any improvement of the situation until we have new facilities for prisoners
in this category."
During the year at the Haney Correctional Institution a new approach to
dealing with disciplinary problems was instituted, the result of a sharp increase in
insubordinate acts, assaults on staff, and self-inflicted injuries. This increase
appears to be due to a continued drop in the age of the Haney Correctional Institution
population, resulting in a more irresponsible and unpredictable trainee. The solution
to this problem was the establishment of an Adjustment Unit in one of the cell
blocks. This consisted of a three-phase programme in which trainees progressed
from the lowest phase to final release from the unit as their behaviour, attitude, and
adjustment to the demands of the programme improved.   Trainees were assigned
 EE 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
to this unit either by the classification unit or as a rsult of a decision of the Senior
Disciplinary Panel.
The establishment of this unit had a salutary effect on the behaviour of the
trainee population as a whole, as well as on those trainees assigned to the unit.
The most negative who had not responded to any previous treatment showed significant improvement in both attitude and behaviour.
Snowdon Forest camp also experienced a significant increase in disciplinary
infractions. There were 70 infractions of gaol rules and regulations, with 16 serious
enough to warrant a period in isolation cells. The increase was due mostly to the
larger number of young drug offenders in camp. As this camp is used for first
offenders, many of the young marijuana-users were transferred here from the
receiving gaols. The majority of infractions were caused by poor work habits and
violations of camp rules regarding cleanliness and personal hygiene. Also a number
of small cliques refused to work in the adverse weather conditions.
The increasing number of attempted suicides and self-inflicted injuries at
Oakalla and the Haney Correctional Institution has been a matter of great concern.
Last year's total of 149 such incidents rose to 208 this year. The number of
successful suicides, however, dropped from six to only three this year. Again,
all were at Oakalla, two in the West Wing and one in the South Wing observation
unit.
Oakalla
Prison
Farm
Haney
Correctional
Institution
Total
184
3
24
208
3
The establishment last year of a 12-cell observation section at Oakalla was an
important aid in reducing the number of suicides. Here 283 disturbed and suicidal
inmates were placed under close observation. However, with such a large number
of unstable inmates it is virtually impossible to prevent every attempt at suicide in
spite of constant searching of inmates and cells to remove anything that could be
used for self-injury.
The self-inflicted injuries at the Haney Correctional Institution reflect, in the
main, manipulative attempts by young inmates to avoid training responsibilities.
The same reaction is seen at Oakalla in the young-offender group at Westgate, and
to a lesser degree among the more depressed and disturbed cases in the Remand
Units and the hospital.
In order to discover more effective means of dealing with suicides and self-
injury at Oakalla Prison Farm, a survey was completed by the Research Section
on all suicides, and a sample of 391 self-injury cases, that occurred over a four-year
period. Some assistance and further insight into the problem was gained from a
conference held at Oakalla at which Dr. E. S. Schneidman, a visiting authority on
suicide control from Los Angeles, was present.
In an attempt to alleviate some of the build-up of stress in the Remand Units,
evening recreation was increased and prisoners were allowed outside in the exercise
yard or on the lower tiers of the unit, where tables and seats were set up for indoor
games. A new radio system was installed, with money from the Inmate Welfare
Fund, with individual speakers in each cell. This greatly reduced the noise level
and was an advance over the previous loudspeaker system. Along with this improvement of the facilities, senior staff have spent a great deal of time training
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1967/68
EE 25
Security Officers in counselling and a sound knowledge of depression and anxiety.
They have been made more alert to signs of stress reaching the breaking point.
The results of these changes were reflected in the reduction of some of the tension
and in the manner in which incidents were handled during the latter part of the
year.
6. Assaults on staff
The total number of assaults upon staff throughout the Service dropped from
a high last year of 69 to 45 this year.
Institution Assaults
Oakalla Prison Farm	
Prince George Regional Gaol	
Alouette River Unit	
Haney Correctional Institution
  201
  1
  1
  202
Vancouver Island Unit and Camps  3
Total
45
1 Fifty-four last year.
2 Six last year.
Oakalla had a notable decrease from 54 last year to 20 this year. The Warden
attributes this to staff training and alertness. The Haney Correctional Institution,
however, had an increase from six assaults last year to 20 this year, which is directly
attributable to the hostile young offender being trained at this institution. The
increasing severity of the assaults and the residual injuries suffered by staff is a
matter for concern. In one such case, permanent damage prevented the officer
from ever being able to return to duty.
The aggressive sociopath who is not mentally ill, within the meaning of the
Mental Hospitals Act, is especially dangerous. This type of prisoner will attack
without provocation or warning, using any type of weapon to hand. In one such
incident at Alouette River Unit, the inmate picked up a chair and attacked an officer;
in a forest camp, another used an axe. As a result of this latter incident, the inmate
was sentenced to a penitentiary term. It is felt that severe sentences for this type
of behaviour does have a deterrent affect on others.
7. Central classification
The number of inmates interviewed by Central Classification for placement in
institutions and forest camps totalled 3,242 this year, an increase of over 300 from
last year.   The distribution of this total is listed below:—
To Chilliwack Forest Camps      664
To Oakalla Prison Farm      896
To Haney Correctional Institution      568
To Vancouver Island Unit      152
To Snowdon Forest Camp      162
To Lakeview Forest Camp      123
To New Haven Borstal        79
To Alouette River Unit      598
Total
3,242
Alouette River Unit accounted for the large increase in classification placements
as this year was its first complete year of operation as a separate institution.   Prior
 EE 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
to this it had been operated as a satellite of Oakalla and received inmates directly,
rather from Central Classification.
There were 523 reclassifications following initial training placement, an increase of 81 over last year. These were mostly young offenders failing to adjust to
training, or those who had to be transferred from camps for medical reasons. The
greater integration of training facilities has increased the number of reclassifications.
It is now possible to move a young offender requiring a specialized programme during
part of his training to another institution for the programme and then return him at
its conclusion.   In this manner, maximum use is made of specialized facilities.
Probably the biggest problem facing classification is that of fitting the trainee
into the prescribed sentence where Courts sentence prisoners entirely on the basis
of making the punishment fit the crime instead of the criminal; it is often impossible
to classify the inmate to the institutional programme from which it is felt he will
obtain the most benefit as his sentence is either too short or too long. This is particularly evident in the case of young adults sentenced to definite-indeterminate sentences. The object of this type of sentence is to make it possible for Courts in
British Columbia to commit young adults who are in need of training to training
institutions for a sufficient period of time to have them benefit from the training, and
then release them to the community under supervision.
The indeterminate portion of up to two years less one day was included in the
sentence in order to increase its duration and still retain its execution within Provincial jurisdiction. This type of sentence has great flexibility and is ideal for training in that the youth who responds to his treatment programme can be released on
the order of the Board of Parole on its satisfactory completion. As programmes of
training vary in length and according to the lessons being taught, it is essential that
the youth have a sentence of sufficient length imposed upon him (both definite and
indeterminate). Experience has shown that a short definite sentence with a long
indeterminate portion is the most flexible and offers the greatest variety of alternative
treatment plans. If this pattern is followed, a youth can be released early on in his
sentence, on the completion of three months, if it is felt that he has benefited from
his stay and is fit for release on parole, or he can be kept for a lengthy period of up
to two years if this longer period is required to change his attitude and behaviour.
Release on British Columbia Parole is gauged not as in prison sentences, on the
expiration of sentence less time earned on good behaviour, but rather on satisfactory
achievement and on evidence of a positive change having taken place within the
prisoner. If these two requirements are not satisfied, there are no grounds for
recommending release to the Board of Parole.
Special mention should be made this year of the " soft drug " offender, the
marijuana, LSD, or amphetamine user. Prior to this year the number of such cases
was insignificant. This year a considerable increase was noted. In February, 1968,
there were 139 "soft drug" offenders distributed throughout our facilities, as
follows:—
Oakalla Prison Farm  55
Vancouver Island Unit  18
Snowdon Forest Camp  10
Lakeview Forest Camp  3
Haney Correctional Institution  43
New Haven  6
Chilliwack Forest Camps  4
Total  139
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1967/68
EE 27
Many of these drug-users were first offenders and as such were classified to
forest camps. The younger ones were held for the Haney Correctional Institution
and New Haven. Among the group were many with prior histories of delinquency.
Mixed in with them was the typical societal drop-out—inadequate, lacking in any
standards, with little control or training, and devoid of any determination or desire
to make anything of their lives. A study of their response to training is now being
planned for completion in the next fiscal year.
8. Research
The data-collection system on all probation and institutional cases was developed last year to the point where pre-selected information on individual offenders
was coded and put into the computer centre for later follow-up studies. We have
now, for this year, recidivism data completed on institutional discharges from April,
1, 1966, to September 30, 1967. The follow-up period on these cases extends to
March 31, 1968, giving a maximum follow-up of two years and a minimum of six
months. Following a further year's study, it is planned to include these figures in
this report.
Social education
9. Recidivist young offender programme
In the last two months of the previous fiscal year, a special training programme
was established in the Westgate A Unit of Oakalla for recidivistic young offenders.
The basic principle of this programme is a series of three stages, through which the
inmate must progress before he is to be considered for parole or transfer to another
institution. Specified achievements are set which must be met prior to advancement
from one stage to the next. Those inmates reclassified from other institutions to
Oakalla Prison Farm for disciplinary reasons or for escaping must advance to the
third stage and be transferred back to their original training unit in order to qualify
for parole consideration. This policy was instituted as a result of the number of
young offenders who, by escaping, attempted to manipulate their return to Oakalla
in the hope of obtaining an earlier parole.
Five hundred and thirteen were admitted to this programme during the year.
Of this total, 161 eventually progressed to the point where they were recommended
for transfer to the Haney Correctional Institution for a more advanced form of
training.
The influence of this programme on the young recidivist is still to be seen. One
indicator to date is that of all the inmates transferred to the Haney Correctional
Institution for further training, only one had to be returned for misbehaviour.
10. Haney Correctional Institution Honour Unit
With the transfer of the Remand Unit at Haney to a cell block, the area vacated
was established as an Honour Unit. Eight of the more mature and older trainees
were assigned to this unit, and they were informed that they would be responsible
for their own conduct and programme. It is interesting to note that for the first
two weeks they were a very confused group because staff were not at hand to offer
guidance and constant supervision. After a period of adjustment to this freedom,
they began to organize as a group in a positive manner, and it would appear that this
small experiment will be successful.
11. Psychiatric and social casework services
Greater demands are being placed on the limited psychiatric and casework
services available as the proportion of more seriously disturbed inmates increases.
 EE 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
These services are confined to Oakalla, the Haney Correctional Institution, and New
Haven. At Oakalla a psychiatrist visits weekly for consultation with the medical
staff and sees four to five referrals a week. At the Haney Correctional Institution
a part-time psychiatrist, working in close co-operation with eight counsellors, undertakes referrals and gives such treatment as his limited time will allow. New Haven
continues with one social casework worker on staff.
12. Lay counselling
At the Haney Correctional Institution, lay counsellors working under professional supervision continued their work, with over 370 cases this year. Consultation
and training continued to be provided to these staff, and many are proving to be
most adept at counselling.
All other institutions reported continuing progress in their lay-counselling programme. Of particular note are the developments at Oakalla. Here the East Wing,
which houses the hard-core recidivist, a large proportion of them drug addicts, reported that lay counselling by Correctional Officers has proven to be one of the most
important areas of their programme.
The Warden reports that counselling has resulted in the formation of a constructive relationship between staff and inmates, reducing the dependency of the
inmate on the peer group, which frequently tends to fix him into a criminal behaviour pattern. The Trailer Unit, which houses short-term inmates employed on the
Oakalla farm, commenced organized lay counselling this year. This unit also reports
a noticeable difference in staff-inmate relationships.
13. Group counselling
Group counselling as a correctional method has now developed to the point to
where close to 100 per cent of the sentenced inmate population take part in weekly
sessions. As in the past, Correctional Officers provide the leadership for these
groups. The group approach in counselling has continued to find new areas of
application. It is now used in pre-parole and pre-release training and has also been
found useful in introducing trainees to new programmes.
In conjunction with parole staff, the Haney Correctional Institution started a
marital group counselling programme. The purpose of this project was to try to
reduce the tension created by forced separation and help young couples prepare
realistically for the future. Over a period of five months, six trainees and their
wives met on a bi-weekly basis at the institution. This original group has now disbanded as five of the trainees are on parole, and a second group is in the process
of being formed. Although it is too early to evaluate this programme, enthusiastic
attendance in the first group and requests for extension of the programme suggest
that it is serving a useful purpose. To date there have been no breaches of trust or
discipline among those trainees involved in the programme.
Another experiment in group counselling was carried out at the Haney Correctional Institution where trainees from volunteer groups were involved in a full day
of group counselling. Unfortunately programmes of this nature place heavy demands on staff time, and for this reason it has not been possible to continue them.
The Vancouver Island Unit group has experimented with a three-hour group
session once a week on a voluntary basis. Staff here noted that some of the major
changes in behaviour in the young and emotionally immature inmates resulted from
this voluntary group experience. Oakalla also reports that there was a decided
improvement in the atmosphere in the East Wing population as a result of intensified
group counselling.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1967/68
EE 29
14. Religious training
The chaplains' staff was increased this year and now totals five full-time and
13 part-time community-based clergy. All institutions and camps continued to be
provided with services of worship, pastoral counselling, and religious instruction.
Again this year the chaplains report ever-increasing demands for their counselling
services, especially at the young-offender units with highly disturbed inmates. The
emotional and physical drain on our chaplains has been considerable, and it is
hoped that we can again increase their number next year to help relieve this situation.
Chaplains have continued to become more involved in the total programme of the
institutions they serve; for example, at Oakalla the chaplains have joined the weekly
senior administration meetings. The Warden reports that this has brought them
into closer touch with administrative and training problems and has further unified
the senior staff team.
Religious education sessions, held during the week, were introduced this year
by a number of institutions as an integral part of their daytime programme. Many
chaplains have assisted in staff-training by conducting discussion groups on the role
of the chaplain. In addition, the Rev. H. G. Walker, Protestant Chaplain for the
Vancouver Island Unit, provided the instruction on group dynamics for all academy
courses held during the year.
Chaplains also experimented in new approaches to worship in an attempt to
make the content more meaningful to men and women, many of whom are unfamiliar with the accepted forms and find them unreal and meaningless.
15. Recreation
All forms of hobby craft, with wood-carving and leather-tooling the most popular, were encouraged as part of the recreational programme. Several skilled Indian
carvers were able to pass on their skills to younger Indian inmates in the camps.
The younger trainees in young-offender institutions have little skill and no experience
in the constructive use of leisure time. Their immaturity is very apparent in their
lack of persistence and their inability to complete a project once started. Staff
involved in hobby programmes spend much of their time attempting to maintain
the level of interest until the trainee has reached the stage where he is experiencing
sufficient satisfaction from what he is doing to keep him going.
16. Community participation
We have again this year been supplied with invaluable supportive services from
community and government agencies active throughout the Province. Any list of
these would include the John Howard Society, the Salvation Army, the Provincial
Department of Social Welfare, Canada Manpower, Department of Indian Affairs,
and others. Perhaps the highlight of the year has been the volunteer worker programme at Oakalla and the Haney Correctional Institution. The M-2 " Man-to-
Man " sponsorship programme was initiated by Job Therapy Incorporated, under
the inspired leadership of Mr. Dick Simmons. This year two groups of 12 to 15
sponsors recruited from local churches visited every two weeks with 60 young
offenders in the Westgate A Unit of Oakalla. These are youths who did not have
visits from any relative or friend who could be a source of help upon release. Of
the 20 from this group who have since been paroled, five have had direct assistance
with employment or home placement from their M-2 sponsor.
University students have also participated as volunteer visitors to Oakalla,
coming in once a week to meet with inmates in various units. The value of all
these volunteers is of great significance as they provide a link to the outside world
 EE 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and at the same time give the inmates an opportunity to learn social responsibilities
as well as observing an example of maturity in people of their own age.
Inmates again this year made several significant contributions to the community. Crews from the Haney Correctional Institution and the Alouette River
Unit aided in flood relief and repair work in West Vancouver. Haney Correctional
Institution trainees helped build a new workshop for handicapped adults at Websters
Corners and assisted at the Y.M.C.A. summer camp on Alouette River. Over 1,500
pints of blood were given to the Red Cross, toys were repaired for distribution to
needy families at Christmas, and entertainment provided to elderly and bed-ridden
patients at various community hospitals.
The Blue Mountain Cadet Corps at the Haney Correctional Institution had
another very successful year and proved once again the value of trainees participating in a community-based venture. In two years' time this corps has advanced
from 42nd place in the Province to 15th place. Twenty-six trainees again attended
a two-week cadet-training camp in July at Albert Head as a part of their service
experience.
The Alcoholics Anonymous groups continued to function at all institutions
and utilized visitors from community AA. groups as resource persons. These community A.A. groups are most willing to assist and help inmates after discharge, as
well as during their time of incarceration. To help bridge the community gap, a
limited amount of visiting outside A.A. groups was initiated this year, and has so far
been successful and without incident. The A.A. programme, for many years traditional in prison, has now become so integrated into our correctional approach that
one Warden reported it as being one of the most beneficial programmes available
to inmates both in the institution and after release.
For the younger offender the Alcoholism Foundation and the Alcohol Research
and Education Council and a number of private citizens all donated time to establish
a programme in alcohol education at the Haney Correctional Institution.
Education
17. Academic courses
Extensive use continued to be made of the correspondence courses issued by
the Department of Education. At Oakalla Prison, 143 sentenced inmates were involved in correspondence courses plus an additional 29 in the Remand Units. The
Young Offenders' Unit at Westgate accounted for over 50 per cent of those taking
such courses. With the concentration of recidivistic young offenders in this unit,
their acute lack of education has become all too apparent. It is hoped that a teacher
may be supplied for this group next year.
The regional gaols at Prince George, Kamloops, and Vancouver Island have all
experienced significant advances this year in their educational programmes. With
the opening of the new addition to the Prince George Regional Gaol, excellent classroom and library facilities became available. Courses are now given in these classrooms every week-day afternoon for inmates selected by the classification panel.
A Correctional Officer supervises those on individual study courses and teaches
elementary subjects to the remainder. Kamloops Regional Gaol was also fortunate
in being supplied with classroom space in its new gaol. It has been able to arrange
for a teacher from the school district to come in two evenings per week. This teacher
also assisted the Correctional Officer in charge of the school in laying out courses
and providing individual assistance to inmates.  Vancouver Island Unit has been
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1967/68 EE 31
receiving the voluntary teaching assistance of two sisters from St. Ann's Academy.
They come to the institution three mornings each week to give instruction. This
unit also has three inmates studying university courses through tutorial help given
by a Correctional Officer and a professor from the University of Victoria.
New Haven continued to receive assistance from a local teacher who works
with elementary-level classes and remedial cases. All other trainees here have
compulsory correspondence course study every week-day evening.
The Academic Section at the Haney Correctional Institution has been particularly hard pressed this year due to the number of younger trainees received and their
need for further education as a prerequisite for vocational training. The average
level of their admissions is now Grade VIII. To add to the problem, many are
school drop-outs or behaviour problems in school, with learning difficulties related
to their immaturity and emotional disorders.
Classes continue at this institution in remedial education, industrial mathematics, and the accelerated Grade X course for those going into vocational training,
as well as the correspondence course programme for those taking more advanced
grades. The experiments reported last year in programmed learning for selected
trainees were continued. The number and size of the remedial classes had to be
increased to cope with the low academic achievement level of those being admitted
to the institution.
One hundred and seventy, or approximately one third of the total population of
the institution, were involved in some form of academic education. It is gratifying
to note that nearly double the number of courses commenced were successfully completed this year as compared to two years ago.
18. Vocational training
The Haney Correctional Institution is the only institution in the Provincial Gaol
Service with instructors accredited by the Department of Education and able to
duplicate courses taught in the vocational schools in the Province. Trainees successfully completing these courses are granted Department of Education certificates.
The majority of the inmates received, however, are neither motivated nor have
they sufficient ability or education to profit from vocational training. For these
inmates, staff have continued to concentrate on the development of character by
stressing a high standard of work and persistence. It is to the credit of our Correctional Officers and instructors that many in the various work placements have
learned sufficient skill to gain employment in the community. The kitchens, laundries, boiler-houses, and maintenance-shops in all gaols were able to train inmates
on the job, some to a level where they were able to hold down employment in the
community in that trade.
The Vocational Training Section at the Haney Correctional Institution has
continued to face the demanding challenge of teaching an increasingly younger
group, many in the 15- to 17-year age-group, with inadequate education backgrounds. This meant that trainees with a lower education had to be started at a
more basic, simpler level of instruction with much slower progress. The problem
raised by the lowering of the age-group and its affect on the system of training is
one that will require careful study during the coming year.
The range of vocational training offered at the Haney Correctional Institution
has continued to expand and now includes several secondary trades allied to those
taught in the shops; for example, the auto mechanics' course, which specializes in
 EE 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
preparing students for apprenticeships in the trade, also gives instruction in service-
station front-end work and auto wrecking. The machine, welding, carpentry, and
other shops are also geared to this same wide range of employment preparation.
The barber-shop, which probably places more of its graduates in the trade than any
other, continued to be a popular course of training. At New Haven the wood and
metalwork shops and the kitchen continued to offer instruction in these trades.
Two-thirds of the New Haven trainees are juveniles, many of them behavioural
problems at school and few with any significant work experience. None the less,
with the training received at the institution, coupled with the aggressive efforts made
on their behalf by the British Columbia Borstal Association on their release, many
New Haven graduates obtained employment in skilled trades, a number being accepted for apprenticeship training.
The Prince George Regional Gaol has been experimenting with sending selected inmates to the Prince George Vocational School by the day and having them
return to the institution at night. This scheme, commenced last year, is continuing
to bring satisfactory results. It is hoped that, with the Provincial vocational schools
planned for both Kamloops and the Colquitz area on Vancouver Island, we may
shortly be able to expand this scheme to include the Kamloops Regional Gaol and the
Vancouver Island Unit. Making use of on-going community resources is far preferable to attempting to duplicate them within the prison community. The risks taken in
this type of venture are minimal, particularly when compared with the returns. As
all our institutions offer some training of a pre-vocational nature, it is a natural
progression for the inmate showing any skill or ability to move out into the community to take advantage of the vocational training provided there.
A section of the machine-shop at Haney Correctional Institution.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1967/68
EE 33
19. Physical education
Prince George Regional Gaol was provided with a gymnasium in its new
addition. This has been put to good advantage in expanding the range of the physical education and team sport programme. Such a facility is invaluable in a region
where outdoor exercise in winter is drastically limited by the climatic conditions.
Vancouver Island has organized compulsory physical education periods and
team sports for the young parole-violator group. The gymnasium at this institution
is also used extensively by the staff-training academy. At Oakalla a compulsory
physical education and sports programme was in effect for all young offenders.
Community soccer, baseball, and basketball teams came into the institution to play
exhibition games with the unit teams. A wide range of inter-unit sports and track
and field events were held during the year, with a healthy competitive spirit noted
on all occasions. The East Wing soccer team entered the Vancouver Fifth Division
League this year and completed a successful season without incident.
New Haven continued its compulsory physical training programme and again
held a most successful sports day, to which parents and guests were invited. Visiting
teams from the community come into the institution to compete in soccer, basketball, volleyball, and floor hockey. Overnight camping has now been added as an
adjunct to the physical education programme.
At the Haney Correctional Institution the physical education programme has
been organized to allow for a proper balance between unit sports, individual challenge events, round-robin games, compulsory physical education, and competitive
games with community teams.
The Holiday Cup competition programme was held approximately every three
months and stimulated a great deal of enthusiasm among trainees. It provided a
wholesome break and a pleasant diversion for holiday periods at Easter and Christmas. All units take part in these tournaments, which include a number of major
and minor sports. A sportsmanship trophy is presented to the unit displaying the
highest degree of participation and sportsmanlike qualities.
Special events are held periodically throughout the year to provide diversity
to the programme; one of these, which is unique to the Haney Correctional Institution and is most popular, is the annual loggers' day programme.
Some changes of regular programme have been made on a trial basis in an
effort to involve more trainees in the programme on a competitive basis with both
institution and community teams. In the past all teams representing the institution
were all-star teams. This has been discontinued in order to give each unit an opportunity to represent the institution. All units with the exception of one have been
involved with community competition. The required physical education programme
has changed slightly so that those trainees who display a high degree of physical
fitness on the new intake testing are no longer required to take this programme.
Institution records over the years indicate that a high percentage of these trainees
take an active part in the physical recreation programme on a regular and voluntary
basis. Since doing well on the physical fitness test means exemption from the required physical education programme, trainees are inclined to give the test their
maximum effort. A remedial weights programme has been included to give those
trainees with low scores on the new intake test an opportunity to follow a regular
programme of body-building and stamina. In conjunction with this programme,
some trainees have been placed in a specialized remedial class geared to correct
individual needs.
 EE 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Prison industries and farm production
20. Prison industries
The major addition to prison industries this year was at Prince Georee when*
space in the new addition allowed for the installation of a shoe-shop and [he expan
sion of the tailor-shop.   The shoe-shop will start production next year    At ?he
TZZZuTmem tbdng in?Ued- ?6 tail0r"Sh"P WaS aWe' t^u "addt ona
5 700 nf ^7ment>to exPand its production to 8,100 articles of inmate clothing
5,700 of which were shipped to other institutions. cioming,
««v. A!-thC V,anC°UVer Isknd Unit' inmates> mos% Parole violators worked on the
production of cement and wood products within an outdoor S encl^
Approximately 4,000 cement blocks and 8,700 cement drain til weL manufa"
S i ? Wi"? T& US6d f°r fam buildin§s ** drai™ge at the vTncouver
2?£SsTV*? lWm Mapl6S Farm" °ver 6'000 cedar Sakes were produced
shakes Umbm F°reSt SerViC6' in additi°n to 141 s<^ of ceda'r roofing
The largest production shops are at Westgate B Unit at Oakalla Prison Th««
continued to produce inmate clothing, licence-plates, filing and£2^ cab nets hiS
way signs, and many other miscellaneous items for ise both in our Sfast
^ssss^r^The breakdown °f ^ *™^ «* * *«e
Prison Industry -. .
rm  .,        , Units
Tailor-shop        24064
Sheet-metal shop   60 920
Licence-Plate shop 1    ~    2,289,090
Kmttmg-mill (socks)   doz 3 896
Shoe-shop   9'762
Fibreglass-shop  '62n
Total
Market Value
$66,919.80
146,432.82
457,818.00
17,260.36
42,886.14
3,300.00
$734,617.12
SKfl_HI
VOL
Licence-plate shop at Oakalla Prison Farm.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1967/68
EE 35
The sheep-metal shop, as reported last year, presents a fire hazard due to the
volatiles required in the shop. Unfortunately it is located within the inmate living
section of Westgate. In spite of extreme precaution, small fires have taken place
in this area. As the building is of wooden construction, any major fire could quickly
spread to the living area, which houses upwards of 200 men, and could be disastrous.
It is imperative that this shop be moved. Discussions with the Department of Public
Works to date have not resulted in any action.
21. Farm production
All regional gaols expanded their farm programmes this year and were able to
produce a large amount of food. This has helped considerably in holding down
over-all costs. Greater attention was given this year to the co-ordination of the
various farms and the allocation of production schedules, so that those farms that
could best grow certain crops specialized in these crops shipping their surplus to
other institutions. The total farm production is detailed in the table below:—
Commodity
Oakalla
Prison
Farm
Vancouver
Island
Unit
Rayleigh
Camp
Prince
George
Gaol
Total
Beet   	
Pork 	
 tons
2.6
89.8
128.4
966.0
126.3
16.8
19.9
29.5
540.0
1,645.0
11,302.0
■14.5
200.8
57.3
33.9
109.7
Vegetables   	
Fowl	
_  tons
  lb.
416.0
1,506.0
Milk 	
Fruits
  tons
 lb.
126.3
1,645.0
21,239.0
32,541.0
Two canneries processed 6,688 gallons (cans).
Specialized institutions
22. Alouette River Unit
The significance of the proclamation in Vancouver of the Summary Convictions
Act Amendment Act, providing for an indeterminate sentence of from 1 to 12
months for chronic alcoholics was difficult to assess as the effects of the new sentence did not show up in admissions until May. Three hundred and thirty-seven
were sentenced to indeterminate sentences under the Act, and 287 received straight
definite sentences. However, by January of the year the police, acting on instructions from the Attorney-General, discontinued laying charges of public drunkenness,
and from then on the population of the unit dropped.
The capacity of the unit remained at 153, but the weekly population varied
between 153 and 96. The daily average population for the first 10 months ranged
between 145 and 153, but with the discontinuation of prosecutions in January the
average dropped to 103. Of the 624 classified to the unit during the year, only 38
had to be returned, 24 for medical reasons and 14 as unsuitable for the rehabilitation
programme.
More use was made by the unit of day parole this year. Twenty-five residents
were released to work in the community by the day, returning to the unit at night.
These men participated fully in community A.A. meetings.
A sanitation plant capable of handling double the capacity of the unit was
completed and handed over to the Department of Public Works on December 1st.
 EE 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Forest camps
23. Organization
The 10 minimum-security forest camps continued to operate throughout the
year, the only major change being at Gold Creek Camp in Golden Ears Park. This
camp was built 10 years ago with the objective of opening up the lower Garibaldi
Park area as a public recreational resource. During this 10-year period, crews from
the camp slashed the road right-of-way, cleared the south shore of Alouette Lake,
and constructed picnic and camping sites.
The area latterly became so popular as a public recreational resource that the
camp itself had to be vacated. Having served its original purpose, a new stage was
entered with its relocation at the upper end of Alouette Lake and Boulder Bay.
At the moment it is in temporary buildings and tents while the permanent camp is
being constructed. The objective for the new camp is to clear several hundred
acres of debris off upper Alouette Lake and to open up road access to this area.
Presently the camp can be reached only by boat.
Plans are under way to operate at Boulder Bay Camp an Outward Bound
course for selected young trainees drawn from the population now going to the
Haney Correctional Institution. Because of the experimental nature of these future
plans, the officer-in-Charge reports directly to the Warden.
The Hutda Lake Camp in the Prince George region is still under construction.
A small temporary camp has been operating at the building-site providing a labour
force for construction.
24. Capacity and intake
The capacity of camps was reduced slightly by the relocation referred to
above. The new Boulder Bay Camp in its temporary state has a capacity for 34,
compared to 65 for the former Gold Creek Camp.
Boulder Bay Camp on Alouette Lake, one of the recently established forest
camps for young offenders.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1967/68 EE 37
The rebuilding of the original camps in the Chilliwack Valley has continued
throughout the year, with no effect on their capacity. The number of admissions
to the forest camps during the year was as follows:—
Camp Admissions
Snowdon Forest Camp  177
Lakeview Forest Camp  168
Rayleigh Forest Camp  717
Clearwater Forest Camp  231
Chilliwack Forest Camps (four camps)   663
Gold Creek Camp (six months' intake)   69
Boulder Bay Forest Camp (three months' intake)   52
Pine Ridge Camp  371
Total   2,448
This total was an increase of 23 over last year's total. Rayleigh Camp again
had the largest number of admissions as it houses the short-term alcoholics for the
Interior region. The total for this camp was less than last year's 965, but only
because the increased capacity of the new Kamloops Regional Gaol allowed it to
accommodate those alcoholics with sentences of one month or less. The Interior
region has a particular problem with transient alcoholics. It is hoped that the new
legislation for dealing with chronic alcoholics will soon be extended to this area.
Snowdon Forest Camp on Vancouver Island continued to be kept for first
offenders with no previous institutional experience, a policy which has been well
confirmed by the high rehabilitation rate achieved by this camp. Many of the
marijuana offenders were classified to this camp. Most of them being quite young
and never having had to work to support themselves found it difficult to adjust to
the forest-camp schedule of hard manual labour under all weather conditions. It
is hoped that their experience with a rugged outdoor environment will be a maturing
one.
The Chilliwack Forest Camps this year received, over and above their normal
complement, 69 young offenders with indeterminate sentences. This was close to
double last year's figure of 37 such cases. These young-adult offenders attend
compulsory education classes in addition to a demanding work schedule in the
forest. Escapes from the forest camps dropped this year to 39 from last year's
figure of 52. This represents 1.10 per cent of the total number of prisoners
transferred to forest camps during the year and is an astonishingly low figure. The
escapes are detailed below:—
Camp Escapes
Snowdon Forest Camp	
Lakeview Forest Camp     3
Rayleigh Forest Camp  	
Clearwater Forest Camp     3
Chilliwack Forest Camps  21
Gold Creek Forest Camp     4
Boulder Bay Camp     2
Pine Ridge Forest Camp     6
Total  39
 Outward Bound Course at Centre Creek Camp (Chilliwack Camps Group).
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1967/68
EE 39
-"•">.-
Fire suppression training.   Haney Correctional Institution trainees exercise with
Forest Service personnel.
25. Achievement
Again this year the forest camps continued to make significant contributions
to the general economy of the Province.
The sawmills at Pine Ridge, Lakeview, Chilliwack, and Hutda Lake Camps
produced a total of 507,156 board-feet of lumber; 113,752 board-feet were supplied
to the British Columbia Forest Service, 8,656 board-feet to the Parks Branch, and
the remainder was used in camp construction and renovation. Shakes and thousands of survey stakes were also cut and delivered to the Forest Service.
The Pine Ridge sawmill cut salvage logs reclaimed by the debris-clearing crew
on Alouette Lake; the Lakeview mill, from lake salvage in the Say ward Forest;
the Chilliwack mill, from clearing a dangerous log jam in the Chilliwack River;
and Hutda Lake, from fire-hazard abatement work in the Prince George area.
Reforestation work was also carried on throughout the year. Tree nurseries
at Rayleigh, Snowdon, and Chilliwack were again expanded; seedlings were transplanted, lifted, packaged, and planted for reforesting logged and burned-over areas.
In addition, the transplant nurseries attached to the institutions at the Alouette
River Unit and the Haney Correctional Institution were in full operation all year.
Crews were also employed in the construction and maintenance of access roads
into previously inaccessible forest areas. As in the past, fire-suppression crews
were trained at each camp. This summer, crews were called out to fight 40 forest
fires. Inmates from Snowdon Camp were again used to man secondary lookout
towers. They were flown in by helicopter, each for a seven-day period. Crews
were supplied for work in Provincial parks in all regions of the Province. Projects
included park maintenance, construction of roads, camp-sites, boat-launching
ramps, beaches, and cutting firewood for public camp-sites.    Clearwater Camp,
 EE 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
in the Wells Gray Provincial Park, had all its men on park maintenance throughout
the year. For the first time, this year small inmate crews from this camp were
sent out on projects under the sole supervision of Parks personnel. These were
selected inmates and there were no adverse incidents reported.
Forest nursery maintenance (Chilliwack Forest Camps).
 Chapter IV.   Treatment of women
General
1. Population
The average daily population this year was 113, a slight increase of 12 over
that of 1966. This increase was evident mainly in the " waiting trial" group.
The remand and orientation unit, which houses up to a maximum of 30 women,
during the year accounted for many of the problems with which the staff had to cope.
The count of females on March 31, 1968, was 106. During the year there
were 1,228 admissions and a peak population of 142. As was noted last year, the
drop in the female population continued and appeared to be due mainly to the
increased use of probation and the opening of the Federal institution for narcotics
addicts at Matsqui, which has a unit for females. The core problem within the
sentenced female group is now the alcoholic and native Indian. Of the total admissions, 40 per cent were Indians; 67 per cent were sentenced for offences against
public order and peace, nearly all of these being for liquor violations; 48 per cent
had four or more previous admissions. Another significant feature is that almost
two-thirds of the total population were under 34 years of age.
2. Discipline
There were 124 offences against gaol rules and one assault against a staff
member. The Chief Matron reported that through group discussion and lay
counselling, some offences were handled without referral to formal hearings.
3. Vocational and technical training
Through the continual emphasis by staff on the inmate's needs when she
returns to the community, there has been increased interest encouraged in both
academic and vocational training. The secretarial, high-school, commercial, and
cosmetology courses were increasingly popular. The kitchen, laundry, sewing-room,
and maintenance departments continued to provide constructive work and training
for women not interested or not qualified to participate in vocational and technical
training.
4. Academic
An average of seven students attended classes for 275 days last year. Ten
academic courses were studied. Twenty-seven students wrote and passed tests in
both elementary- and secondary-school correspondence courses. Remedial English
was taken by all students.
5. Physical education and sports
Physical education and sports were again organized on a group basis with
competitions and tournaments between the groups. Softball games were successfully arranged throughout the season with teams from the community.
6. Religious training
As in past years, both Protestant and Roman Catholic chaplains held regular
Sunday services. Attendance at these services, as well as at the padres' hours and
the Legion of Mary evenings, is always voluntary, and yet all are well attended by
a large percentage of the population.
41
 EE 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
7. Recreation
Whenever summer weather permits, outdoor activity is stressed, whether it be
softball, swimming, sun bathing, or a barbecue.
A great deal of time and assistance were given by volunteers from the St.
Andrew's-Wesley United Church, the Elizabeth Fry Society, the University of
British Columbia, and other organizations. These organizations planned activities
both in and out of doors. Projects designed to help in the community were also
encouraged. The gymnasium was used fully for volleyball, badminton, and gymnasium sessions.   Handicrafts of all types were popular.
8. Social casework
The social worker from the Elizabeth Fry Society continued to carry a case
load of three to four women and saw them weekly. A social worker-therapist from
the Forensic Clinic also had a weekly interview with one inmate. On a selective
basis, inmates are now being referred to other agencies for casework services.
9. Group and lay counselling
Group counselling continued on a weekly basis. Lay counselling, introduced
for the first time this year, was undertaken by both Security and Correctional
Matrons. Many situations were resolved at an early stage through group discussion
before they reached proportions that would interfere with the over-all programme.
10. Community participation
Contact is maintained with the community through visiting-service organizations, participation in blood-donor clinics, family-group visits, and so on. This
year the women's choir participated in a Centennial programme, a play was produced for the Christmas party, and tours of the unit by interested groups were
conducted on several occasions.
11. Narcotic Drug Research Unit
Experience has shown that positive motivation of the female drug addict can
be encouraged by re-education on both a social and academic level. This year,
emphasis was placed on this goal. Of the 21 admissions to the unit, nine attended
school in classes from Grade V to X, with brush-up courses in some commercial
subjects. Informal courses also were attempted to arouse interest in such topics
as art, music, Canadian politics, basic English, fashion, and sewing.
During the year there were three incidents requiring disciplinary action.
Wherever possible, such incidents were used in group discussions as learning
experiences.
An informal course by the padres in religious history and trends is being
organized, and it is hoped to introduce visitors from various denominations as
speakers.
Sports and physical education continued to be popular in this unit.
Family visits through the year enabled women to maintain contact with their
children and encourage a feeling of responsibility for the welfare of those children
upon their release.
Here, as in the main women's unit, lay counselling is being used as well as
the group method. Weekly visits to The Woodlands School and the C. G. Brown
Pool are continuing. The members of the unit assisted the staff of Woodlands with
the patients' Christmas party.   An evening each week is spent with students from
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1967/68 EE 43
*£2%££7' useM in develop",g soc,aI skills and •—«■—«
Twin Maples Farm
The entire programme at the farm is planned to assist the resident in makine
a worfh-while place for herself in the community. This unit provides an eSS
opportunity to teach women basic homemaking skills as well I gardening and care
horn: ttheiffaSf *" ^ ** I*~ ** ^ be "* * — bS
attend r^* ^V Standing °f Grade V or less attend^ school.    Others
S5£ soVtf™ ?emSeiVeS, in,readlng' Writing' SPelHng' and malheSS
Uutdoor sports were encouraged when weather permitted, and indoor exercising
and dancing was part of the regular programme, along with hobbies and hS
Berth Protestant and Roman Catholic chaplains visited the farm regularlv
Resident participation in joint padres' hours was good.   The chora gmupZ «E
dents and matrons has been organized and added much to the ChriZ Ison
Much valuable assistance has been given by the social worker fromfteTcohoS
£ W^Sf both';0"1 ^ J°hn H°Ward SOdety b°th t0 residents -^^t
s believed that both lay ana group counselling have been helpful in eliminating
serious offences against rules and regulations.   There were five minor   S and
no escapes during the year.    Lay counselling has been on a veiTpersonal »
wtth one matron assisting a resident from the time of her admission "to her reSe
fn.it m produff a S12eable cr°P of hay for use at Oakalla.   Vegetables and
nuts were grown and frozen for winter use.   Fifteen hundred feet of drSn tile were
la!d to improve more land for planting next year.
The community is brought into the farm in the form of Alcoholics Anonvmn,,.
groups, local entertainers, and service organizations, all SlSmS^SZS
willingness to assist residents wherever possible. expressed
SE7m
Women's group learns the problems of caring for live stock at Twin Maple
les
 Chapter V.   Health, hygiene, and safety
A high level of medical services continued to be supplied throughout the Gaol
Service under the leadership of the Senior Medical Officer. Eleven part-time
medical officers, all of them community doctors, visited our various institutions on
a regular routine basis throughout the year. They were assisted by specialists and
out-patient clinics, a fully equipped 60-bed Gaol Service hospital at Oakalla, and
an 11-bed security ward under the medical supervision of the Vancouver General
Hospital. In terms of physical care, a most adequate service is provided, although
at an increasingly higher cost each year.
The severest problem faced by the medical staff is that of the highly disturbed
inmate. This is illustrated by an examination of the admissions to the central
hospital at Oakalla, which reveals that the largest category was 173 patients for
mental observation, the next largest being 99 cases for musculoskeletal complaints.
Further, at the Haney Correctional Institution, the main facility for young-adult
offenders, one-quarter of the treatments given at sick parades were anti-convulsion
treatments. Unfortunately our capacity to deal with this rapidly increasing state
of psychological pathology is restricted. Our psychiatric facilities are limited in
the small ward at the Oakalla hospital. Planning for new facilities as part of the
new Remand Centre complex is proceeding in discussions with the Departments of
Mental Health and Public Works.
Several significant points were reported by Wardens and officers in charge of
institutions. The Director of New Haven reported that as a group his lads are not
physically robust and have a variety of attention-seeking complaints. However,
as they move up the promotional ladder and gain self-confidence, their appearances
on weekly sick parades diminish. At the Haney Correctional Institution the hospital
officer reported an increase in the proportion of those less physically sound trainees
being admitted. It would appear that the trend among young offenders is toward
a more neglected physical state as well as an increase in the degree of emotional
instability.
In contrast, it is interesting to note that the older inmates at Alouette River
Unit were reported as having shown a steady improvement in fitness due to enforced
sobriety, regular and substantial meals, and hard work.
Apart from the greater number of physical and psychiatric ailments, the young-
offender group is also responsible for the highest accident rate. While it is true
that they have the most active physical education and sports programme, they also
have a disproportionate number of accidents in the handling of tools and equipment,
another reflection of their general lack of work sophistication and immaturity.   ,
Accident reports are submitted on all accidents, and boards of inquiry held
where necessary. Each institution and camp has its own safety committee, which
reviews accidents and makes recommendations to the Warden on safety matters.
The following excerpts taken from the Senior Medical Officer's report for the
year are pertinent:—
"At Oakalla Prison Farm there has been a lessening of emergency medical and
surgical conditions during the year, especially toward the end.
" It has been gratifying to record that the Observation Unit in the South Wing
has been extensively utilized for the protection of those prisoners considered suicidal; had it not been in operation, there would undoubtedly have been many more
44
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1967/68
EE 45
suicides, although there was one suicide in this unit itself. The number of suicides
by hanging was three, compared with six for the year before. There were three
natural deaths. Proportion of natural to unnatural deaths continues to be inverted,
and has been so since 1966. The reduction in the number of suicides was not so
much due to a decrease in suicidal ideas of prisoners, but mainly, I think, due to
the skill of the staff in detecting them and the use of the Observation Unit, though
at any moment this inference could be proven presumptuous. There has also been
a decrease in episodes of self-injury by slashing. Although the total population has
been lower, the increasing proportion of those awaiting trial and appeal to those
awaiting classification or training has resulted in increase of medical requirements
in the South and West Wings. The services of the staff and resources of the Vancouver General Hospital have been, as ever, invaluable, and continue to raise the
standards of the medical care of prisoners to a level which may well be unsurpassed
elsewhere, though we have still a long way to go.
" The general health of the prisoners has been satisfactory on the whole; the
state of heroin addicts on admission continues to show less severe use of that drug,
but they are using increasing amounts of methadone and barbiturates. Some have
been on authorized methadone dosage from the Narcotic Foundation of British
Columbia; therefore, withdrawal treatment at Oakalla, in which methadone is used,
has to be modified and prolonged for such individuals, especially for those who were
in the special group treated by the Narcotic Addiction Foundation with massive
methadone medication. The marijuana-users show no evidence of withdrawal
physically. Some of those who have been using the amphetamines have required
treatment for ' let down ' symptoms on withdrawal.
" We greatly appreciated the services of the nurse from Division of Venereal
Disease Control, who routinely obtained blood specimens from each prisoner on
admission, and we shall miss her assistance, though it is good to know that syphilis
is now so relatively rare that further examinations of that sort are no longer necessary
at Oakalla. Dr. M. L. Allan has continued to be responsible for tuberculosis control and treatment. The number of patients treated for tuberculosis in the prison
hospital has shown a persistent decrease over the years. The apparatus used for
routine miniture chest films is in need of replacement, and it is hoped that during
the next 12 months a newer machine will be installed. Dr. E. Lewison has again
contributed his eminent services in plastic surgery (rhinoplasty and otoplasty), and
he participated in a conference of surgical and social rehabilitation representatives
at the Montfiore Hospital and Medical Centre in New York on December 19, 1967.
This was a conference study of the results of a three-year project in the use of
plastic surgery on disfigured inmates in New York City gaols.
" Dr. A. M. Marcus has continued his estimable psychiatric sessions for half
a day a week, and he has seen some women inmates in his office at the Vancouver
General Hospital. His consultations have inevitably been to assume the nature of
assessments. Treatment of any psychiatric nature is not possible with the very
limited time at Dr. Marcus's disposal.
" We have lost the services of Dr. E. Lipinski as forensic psychiatrist. In the
short time he was with us, he accomplished a great deal and pointed the way to
more.
" Dr. J. C. Thomas has examined an increased number of those referred to
him by the Courts.
" The X-ray department has been as busy as ever under the most helpful
supervision of Dr. J. D. Stevenson.   The laboratory technician, Mrs. I. Leverett,
 EE 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
we welcomed early in the fall, and she is now trained to culture chromosomes,
thereby enabling me to carry out some research into the chromosome content of
inmates with certain physical and behaviour patterns. This has been made possible
by the kindness of Dr. Murray Barr and his colleague, Dr. F. R. Sergovich, who
are typing the chromosomes for us at the University of Western Ontario.
" Research into gastric contents by analysis has been carried out during the
year on volunteer subjects by Dr. P. Nunn and Dr. I. D. Holubitsky, of the Faculty
of Medicine, University of British Columbia. It is hoped that this research will
contribute much to the detection and treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers.
" The consulting surgeons and anaesthetists, Drs. D. G. Ulrich, R. B. G. Fox-
well, and J. Carroll, have remained as active members of the medical team. Dr.
W. Johnson has continued his dental services at Oakalla Prison Farm and Haney
Correctional Institution.
" Medical services for the women at Oakalla have been maintained with the
assistance of Dr. P. Gurjar and the visiting physician, Dr. H. K. Kennedy, from
the Division of Venereal Disease Control. We are glad to have Mrs. Mary Klingen-
smith as the first established registered nurse on the staff of the women's building.
" Twin Maples Farm has relieved the pressure of numbers in the women's
building at Oakalla and it a valuable area for training and treatment, worthy of
accommodating a larger number of women than at present, and of treating more
of the younger women who are at present retained at Oakalla.
" The narcotic-addiction treatment units for men and women offenders continue
to be helpful, as all small units are. These units, if utilized to the full, have high
potential for the therapy of any group, whether they be addicted or non-addicted.
The formation of a therapeutic group for 12 of the young offenders in Westgate A
is urgently needed.
" There has been continuous progress in the cooking and service of food at
Oakalla. The men's kitchen, structurally, has been greatly improved, and the
separate bakery under the hospital is a great asset. Total elimination of cockroaches
by the Pied Piper agency has been a very progressive event in the history of hygiene
at Oakalla.
" The changing function of Oakalla to that mainly of an ' awaiting trial' and
classification establishment renders the present buildings increasingly outmoded,
and an entirely new prison complex is urgently needed. The setting at present is
such that at any moment a chain reaction of grave and tragic events could be triggered, and it is difficult to express sufficient appreciation of the devoted service of
the senior staff in both the West and South Wings at Oakalla, who, by their wisdom
and practice day by day and hour by hour, perform what to many would seem an
impossible and intolerable task. Adjustments to the routine in these wings, such
as the serving of coffee in the exercise yard and evening exercise, have assisted
greatly.
" Medical services in all your establishments have been in the hands of my
competent colleagues. It is encouraging to observe progress in the treatment of
alcoholics at the Alouette River Unit, a social venture which prospers by its own
techniques, unassisted by psychiatry. The increasing availability of hostels and
half-way houses and the indeterminate sentence of 12 months have greatly added
to treatment resources. The classification of more disturbed offenders to open
institutions such as the camps has abundantly justified itself, and much credit is
due to the staff and methods of training in these units. I feel we could be even
more courageous and reduce the Oakalla population very considerably with more
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1967/68
EE 47
facilities of this nature. The numbers returned to Oakalla as medically unfit for
camp activities have been surprisingly few, and some form of camp employment
has been found for those so physically handicapped that in earlier years they would
have been rejected.
" It is greatly to the credit of the staff and curriculum at the Haney Correctional
Institution that so many of the more persistent younger offenders have completed
their courses of training there without resorting to a return to Oakalla. Contagion
from the more morbid behaviour at Oakalla could readily have travelled. A brief
epidemic of slashing was rapidly and skillfully controlled. The Remand Centre
at the Haney Correctional Institution for youths under the age of 18 has been of
great assistance.
" New Haven has encountered a general trend toward younger and more
neurotic offenders and has met the challenge with wise adaptability. Group counselling there remains the alma mater of this technique, which has now successfully
stood the test of several years of operation. I regard it as the most effective, most
creative, yet most inexpensive correctional medium so far achieved, if carried out
as at New Haven.
" From the viewpoint of the medical observer, this year has shown progress as,
for example, the staff training at university and technological levels and in training
courses within the institutions. The camp at Porteau Cove operated by your Probation Branch is worthy of world-wide recognition and example. The increasing
use of day paroles justifies the hope that the practice will be extended 100 per cent
each year.   Many hostels would be most advantageous.
" In conclusion, I wish to express my deep appreciation of your constant
support of medical services and of the faithful co-operation of those with whom
I work so closely, Warden Mulligan and his staff at Oakalla, and the staff at headquarters. Also, I am deeply indebted to all my medical colleagues and the staff
of all your establishments. Were it not for the loyal, patient, and vocational
services of these people, the annual medical report would paint a different picture.
I would especially like to record the leadership of Mr. Don England as hospital
administrator and Mrs. I. Passey as superintendent of nursing at Oakalla."
 Chapter VI.   Parole
General
1. Parole cases
There was a total of 228 cases released by the National Parole Board, 466 by
the British Columbia Parole Board, and 247 by the Chief Probation Officer under
the amendment in 1967 to the Summary Convictions Act. Additional to these full
parole cases, there were cases released on partial paroles for medical or other
reasons.
2. Day parole
Day parole was used more extensively this year, with 82 paroles compared to
46 for last year. The follow-up data on last year's day-parole cases shows that as
of March 31,1968, 58 per cent were recidivists. The follow-up period on the current
year's parolees is over a much shorter time and consequently shows a very low
recidivism rate of 27 per cent. The details on the day-parolee releases are given in
the following table:—
Total
Released,
Day Parole
Completed
Day Parole
Number of
Recidivists
Per Cent
Recidivists
1966/67
Oakalla Prison Farm (male)	
Oakalla Prison Farm (female)	
Alouette River Unit	
Prince George Gaol..
Chilliwack Forest Camps..
Vancouver Island Unit—
Totals.
1967/68
Oakalla Prison Farm (male)	
Oakalla Prison Farm (female)	
Alouette River Unit	
Prince George Gaol~
Chilliwack Forest Camps..
Vancouver Island Unit	
Totals..
25
11
7
3
25
11
7
3
16
9
2
64
82
28V-
46
27
58
21
21
27
26
22
22
4
4
1
1
7
6
82
80
22
25
30
36
14
27
With the greater use of day parole, attention has been given to the special needs
of these cases. At Vancouver Island Unit the top floor of the administration building was set aside for day-parolee accommodation in order to segregate them from
the main prison and allow them to assume greater responsibility for themselves.
This area has its own kitchen, laundry, sleeping, recreation, and ablution facilities.
Here the day parolee is responsible for his own maintenance and housekeeping.
With the exception of his curfew, he is expected to assume all the responsibilities
of an average citizen.
3. Parole for alcoholics
The amendment of the Summary Convictions Act allowing Courts to sentence
chronic alcoholics to an indeterminate period of 12 months, with prior release possible under an order of the Chief Probation Officer, came into effect March 31, 1967.
48
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1967/68 EE 49
During the current year 249 cases were released under supervision for the remainder
of their indeterminate sentence, 217 of which came from the Alouette River Unit.
A sample of 142 cases from the Alouette River Unit was studied to determine the
results achieved with them during their period of parole. The results were as
follows:—
Average Period
of Supervision
Parole Cases (Weeks)
Completed period of supervision with no new sentence
or revocation     64 23
Received new sentence or revocation during period of
supervision      57 12
Period of supervision to continue after March 31, 1968,
but no new sentence or revocation to that date     21 19
Total   142
The average stay under sentence at the Alouette River Unit for this sample was
10 weeks; average age, 45 years; and average number of previous gaol committals,
22. They are primarily the " revolving door " chronic alcoholics, which makes
the results achieved to date with these cases under supervision in the community
most encouraging. We will know in the next fiscal year how they survive after
their parole period is finished and the assisting supervision and control lifted.
4. Half-way houses
The Maple Ridge Half-way House Association again provided invaluable
support to the Haney Half-way House, which is used extensively by the Alouette
River Unit for its dischargees.
A new half-way house was established this year in Prince George. It has been
named the Harry Elliot Half-way House and has a capacity for 28 alcoholics. Another new one is the St. Leonard's House, established for young-adult releases in
the Vancouver area.
British Columbia Board of Parole
The Chairman of the British Columbia Board of Parole reports as follows on
parole for young offenders with indeterminate sentences:—
" During the year ended March 31, 1968, 470 trainees were released on parole
—466 on the regular order of parole and 4 under the condition of day parole. This
is an increase of about 14 per cent over last year. During the same period 146 had
their paroles revoked, a decrease of 8 per cent from last year's rate.
" Board membership has for the most part been retained at five. Mr. F. C.
Boyes, appointed Chairman on September 15, 1966, and a member since the
Board's inception in 1949, was granted leave of absence on December 28, 1967,
because of ill health. Mr. Oscar Orr was appointed Acting Chairman, and Mr.
E. G. B. Stevens was appointed a member for a two-month period commencing
January 1, 1968. Following this Dr. Gordon Kirkpatrick was appointed a member
on March 1, 1968. At the end of the year the membership of the British Columbia
Board of Parole consisted of the following: Mr. Oscar Orr (Acting Chairman),
Mr. Eric Kelly, Mrs. J. M. Norris, Mr. Arnold Webster, and Dr. Gordon Kirkpatrick.
 EE 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" The Board held 89 sittings and considered an average of nine cases at each.
In addition, Board members conducted interviews at the Chilliwack Forest Camps
and the Vancouver Island Unit on seven occasions.
" Twelve trainees applied for National parole during the definite portion of
their sentences. In nine cases the British Columbia Board of Parole supported their
applications and a National certificate of parole was granted with parole being continued under a British Columbia order of parole. Three applications were not supported. Liaison with the National Parole Board continues to be good, and we
acknowledge with thanks their co-operation with our parole programme.
" Of the 460 individuals receiving definite-indeterminate type sentences during
the period April 1, 1965, to March 31, 1966, 337 (73 per cent) were released on
British Columbia orders of parole, 111 (24 per cent) were discharged on completion
of their sentences, and 12 (3 per cent) were still in custody at the end of the year.
On the basis of consideration we find that 351 (76 per cent) were presented for
parole consideration, and of these only four (3 per cent) were refused parole. The
95 who were not presented had failed to measure up to institutional standards.
" The closing of the newly formed Forensic Clinic under Dr. Lipinski ended a
promising diagnostic resource and is deeply regretted. In this regard the Board
supports the extension of psychiatric services and believes that personnel and funds
should be made available for a larger and better forensic service.
" The following statistical statements for the fiscal year April 1, 1967, to March
31, 1968, are derived from our office records and form the basis of this annual
report.
" Statement No. 3 compares releases with revocations from each institution
and in total. The over-all success rate rose to 69 per cent. This cancelled out the 8-
per-cent drop in 1966/67 by returning to the 1965/66 level. The Chilliwack Forest
Camps lead with a 75-per-cent success rate, New Haven follows with 72 per cent,
and next the Haney Correctional Institution with 69 per cent, being followed by the
Vancouver Island Unit with 62 per cent and Oakalla Prison Farm with 61 per cent.
" Statement No. 4 is a comparison of revocations based on Court action with
those based on other parole violations. This comparison is helpful in evaluating
policy and practice in parole supervision. Under close supervision and assuming
that it is expedient to revoke a parole prior to further involvement with the law, the
majority of revocations should be based on violations other thar Court action.
" This year there were 466 released on a regular British Columbia order of
parole. The average age on release was 20.8 years, and the average training period
was 13.1 months. These figures have remained nearly constant over the years, the
Chilliwack Forest Camps having the shortest training period (10.2 months) and
Oakalla the longest (13.9 months).
" There were 146 paroles revoked. The average age of the revokees was 20.8
years, the same as for releases. The average training period was 12.8 months,
slightly less that for releases.
" Most revocations occur within the first four months, and the figures indicate
that parole officers are working with parolees a little longer than perviously before
recommending revocation."
 Chapter VII.   British Columbia Probation Service
General
1. Probation cases
A total of 3,493 new cases was placed on probation during the year. Of this
total, 3,070 were males and 423 were females. In respect to the males, 62.7 per cent
were under the age of 18, 23 per cent were between the ages of 18 and 24, and 14.3
per cent were 25 years of age or more. These figures indicate a slight increase over
the total for the previous year, as well as a small decrease in percentage under the
age of 18 and a concomitant small increase in the percentages of those 18 to 24 and
over 25 years of age respectively.
2. Pre-sentence reports
An increase in the number of pre-sentence reports prepared, in which some
disposition other than probation was made, can be reported for the current year.
The total number of reports prepared was 4,060, as compared to 3,724 for the previous year. Of this total, approxiamtely 44 per cent were prepared on juveniles
while 56 per cent were prepared on adults. It should be noted the preparation of
pre-sentence reports constitutes an important part of a Probation Officer's responsibilities, and that the number of pre-sentence reports prepared on offenders in which
some disposition other than probation was made by the Courts exceeded the number
of cases actually placed on probation by some 560 cases.
3. Case loads
As at March 31, 1968, the active probation case load was 2,854, of which
1,220 were adults and 1,634 were juveniles. This total case-load carry-over was
132 cases more than the previous year.
Parole cases at the end of the year numbered 448, of which 47 were being
supervised for the National Parole Service. The remaining 401 cases were cases
released under the authority of the British Columbia Board of Parole, or persons
who had been found to be chronic alcoholics by the Magistrates' Courts of the City
of Vancouver and after a period of institutional treatment were released for community supervision under the authority of an order of release granted by the Chief
Probation Officer. Also included in the 401 cases were a very small number who
had been found not guilty of an offence by reason of insanity, remanded in custody
pending the pleasure of the Lieutenant-Governor, and subsequently granted a conditional release under the authority of an Order in Council.
In addition to the 448 parole cases, 199 juveniles were being supervised. These
juveniles came from the training-schools, having been granted a provisional release
to enable them to again live in the community.
Another major increase in the case-load carry-over is exhibited in the increase
in maintenance-order supervision cases and voluntary cases. The maintenance-order
case load increased from 379 for the last fiscal year to 537 in this year, and the
voluntary cases similarly increased from 250 to 372.
In addition to the cases previously mentioned, another 155 trainees in institutions were helped to formulate satisfactory post-release plans. This planning
involves securing adequate living accommodation, constructive employment, and
counselling so that the offender, when released from custody, will want to live a law-
51
 EE 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
abiding life and will have the opportunity of carrying out his resolution under
favourable conditions.
The total case-load carry-over at the end of the year was 4,565, as compared
to 3,937 for the previous year. The average case load per field officer at the end
of the year was 53.7, which figure is almost identical with the previous year. It
should be noted, however, that while this is a good average figure, certain officers
were carrying in excess of 75 cases, and that additional staff are still required to
bring these case loads down to a more workable level.
Staff and staff-training
4. Probation staff—promotions, appointments, separations
(a) There were 30 new Probation Officers appointed during the year, and five
returned from educational leave of absence. This total number of appointments was
the result of an extensive recruiting campaign for university graduates from all British
Columbia universities, plus those in the Pacific Northwest of the United States that
might have Canadian students. In addition, recruiting took place outside British
Columbia. This effort gained two experienced Probation Officers from elsewhere
in Canada and three from England. We were also fortunate this year in being able
to add three Probation Officers who were promoted from the Gaol Service, having
completed their degrees while in the Service. Six interviewers were also appointed
this year.
(b) Separations.—Seventeen Probation Officers left the Service during the
year, 12 of whom were trained and experienced field Probation Officers, the other
five being Probation Officers in training. Of the 12 field Probation Officers, 10
left for positions with higher salaries and two for personal reasons. The separation
of these 12 trained and experienced Probation Officers represents the loss of a year's
recruitment and training effort, besides the disruption and curtailment of service to
Courts and probationers. The critical issue involved here is the salary of field staff,
which must be brought into line with recognized professional development, as is
done in the case of teachers.
(c) Promotions.—Mr. K. M. Richardson was appointed a Probation Officer
4 and assumed his duties as administrative assistant at headquarters. The growth
of the Service has made it impossible for the Assistant Chief Probation Officer to
handle all the administrative matters of Service-wide significance. This new position
was established to provide him with assistance. There were seven officers promoted
to the rank of Senior Probation Officer (Probation Officer 3) during the year.
5. Probation Service general training courses
(a) Degree training course.—Two 16-week training courses for university
graduates were held in 1967, one in May and one in October. A new emphasis
was given to Probation Officer training during the year as a result of a critical
examination of the current programme. During the second course, officers-in-
training were given a minimum of classroom instruction, sufficient to enable them
to function in a field office, and then placed in the field. The aim was to achieve
a closer integration of theory and practice with the emphasis more on the practical
day-to-day problems of case-handling. To further heighten this development, plans
were initiated at the end of the year to construct a number of small individual offices
at the training centre for student use so that the trainees could carry out their
interviews and prepare their assignments at the centre under the supervision of
their instructors, rather than in overcrowded, busy field probation offices, where the
supervision would be less intense and more haphazard.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1967/68
EE 53
(b) Non-degree training course.—Because of the difficulty experienced in
attracting a sufficient number of university graduates to fill vacancies in the probation staff, a new in-service training programme was put into effect to provide those
without degrees with sufficient background in the behavioural sciences to enable
them to carry out their duties as Probation Officers. The course was constructed
to provide an eight-month academic period at Vancouver City College, during which
students attended both day and night-school classes, followed by a field placement
for training in case-handling. Eight students were selected for the first course, five
of whom were competent experienced officers from the Gaol Service. It is anticipated that the course will be continued as long as recruitment of university-trained
people still fall short of our staff requirements. Academic courses included English,
Sociology, Crime Causation, Counselling Techniques, the Family in Society, Human
Growth and Development, and a course in social problems. This formal instruction
was supplemented by weekly seminars devoted mainly to the techniques involved in
case-handling. Graduates of this course will enter a slower promotional scheme
than students with university degrees, as they will be required to serve five years
as Probation Officer 1 before being eligible for promotion to Probation Officer 2.
6. Probation Service Conference—10th Annual
The 10th Annual Probation Service Conference was held October 24 to 26,
1967, at the Royal Towers Hotel in New Westminster. The theme for the discussions was a critical examination of the pre-sentence report with a view to evolving
a more flexible and useful format for use throughout the Service. As a result of
these deliberations, a new format is under consideration for introduction early in the
new year. Magistrates were invited to participate in the discussion, and their comments were of considerable value in developing a new format. Over 100 probation
staff attended the two-day conference.
7. Vancouver City College courses and corrections certificate
Two programmes have now been established with the Vancouver City College,
one for the training of non-degree Probation Officers, the other the three-year certificate course in corrections.
A total of 75 Probation Service and Gaol Service staff was involved in the three-
year night-school programme arranged with the Vancouver School Board and leading to a certificate in corrections. Of the original class of 25, 16 are now in the
third year and are expected to graduate at the conclusion of their classes. Twenty-
one were involved in the second year of this programme and a total of 38 in the
first year. Of this last total, eight were students from the Probation Officers' one-
year training course and two were partial students who had an interest in assisting
Probation Officers as volunteers. It is gratifying to report that there are more
applicants than vacancies for this programme.
8. University educational assistance
A total of six staff, five from the Probation Service and one from the Gaol
Service, was assisted with financial grants to return to university for graduate study
in social work.
Four Probation Officers returned to duty this spring after completing their
Master of Social Work degree, and one Probation Officer returned after completing
his graduate work for the Master of Arts degree in psychology.
A total of 11 staff was given financial assistance this year for undergraduate
courses.   As mentioned earlier, three officers from the Gaol Service benefited from
 EE 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
this financial assistance programme and joined the Probation Service with their
degrees completed.
Treatment of Juvenile Delinquency
9. Juveniles placed under probation supervision
There was a drop in the number of juvenile boys placed on probation during
the year—1,926 this year as compared to 2,040 for the previous year. Similarly
the number of girls under 18 years of age placed on probation dropped from 270
to 262. This drop in new juvenile probation cases during the year may be explained
by the interaction of several different factors. In October, 1967, as a result of the
decision of the Supreme Court of Canada in the case of Regina vs. David Lome
Smith, a general policy was initiated by the Attorney-General whereby juveniles
would not be charged with violations of Provincial Statutes or municipal by-laws,
and, instead of formal prosecutions, the police would make a greater use of warnings,
and such violators would be referred to the parents, to the Probation Service, or to
the Social Welfare Department. As this policy was only in force for a part of the
year under review, one cannot draw comprehensive conclusions.
Is will be noted the number of miscellaneous and voluntary cases increased
over the previous year, and this increase would tend to balance the decrease in
juveniles placed on probation. Our Service continues to provide a supervisory
service to an increased number of juveniles, more of whom are coming to our
attention on referral from police, parents, or school counsellors rather than by an
order from the Family and Children's Court.
10. Transfers to Adult Court
Again this year, it is gratifying to be able to report a decrease in the number
of transfers to Adult Court under the provisions of section 9 of the Juvenile Delinquents Act. For the year under review the number of such transfers totalled 137
for Courts outside of Vancouver, as compared to 151 for the previous year. It is
hoped this number will continue to drop in the year ahead, and that if and when the
Juvenile Delinquents Act is either amended or repealed, the new legislation will
either eliminate provisions for transfer entirely or will in some manner drastically
limit its use.
11. Family and Children's Court
Services rendered in respect to cases in the Family and Children's Court increased substantially during the year. The number of miscellaneous and voluntary
cases increased from 1,546 to 2,032. This increase combines greater activity in
respect to maintenance cases, as well as rendering supervision to juveniles without
the formality of a Court appearance and a probation order.
12. Regional developments
Region I comprises the Greater Vancouver area, exclusive of New Westminster, plus Squamish, the Sunshine Coast, and the Powell River-Westview area.
There are five field offices in this region. It is primarily an urban or semi-urban area
and has the largest population of all our probation regions.
Family and Children's Courts and Committees.—No new Family and Children's
Courts were established in this region during the year.
During the year the Family and Children's Court Committees were active.
The Richmond Committee played a part in the setting-up of a remand-receiving
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1967/68 EE 55
home for juveniles. In Powell River the Committee has joined forces with the
Powell River District Youths' Services Association and is anticipating a campaign to
establish two group-living homes. In Sechelt the Indian Youth Guidance Committee
works closely with the Probation Officer and gives supervision to residents of the
Sechelt Indian Reserve. It is anticipated a similar development will take place on
the Sliammon Reserve north of Powell River.
In West Vancouver, plans are being made for an anaugural meeting of a new
Court Committee, while in North Vancouver the Committee gave much consideration to the establishment of a proper remand home. The Burnaby Committee has
continued to be active, and in May, 1967, sponsored a meeting to discuss the need
for a Lower Mainland regional remand centre.
In North Vancouver, one of the Probation Officers initiated a group counselling
project with the help of a school principal. This group meets during school hours
in a room set aside by the principal.
The use of probation sponsors has been initiated in the region, and this activity
was given impetus by a dinner meeting held in New Westminster at which Judge
Leenhouts was the guest speaker.
The supervision of persons who were found to be chronic alcoholics has centred mainly in Region I. Cases under supervision rose during the summer and fall
to over 70, but in December, 1967, a policy was enunciated whereby such persons
would no longer be processed through Court. At March 31, 1968, the probation
interviewers in Vancouver were supervising 58 releasees from Alouette River Unit
and an additional 15 who had been placed on a suspended sentence by the Court.
Region II extends east from New Westminster through the Fraser Valley to
Chilliwack and then north to Lillooet. There are nine field probation offices, located
in the major centres within the region. This region has many correctional institutions, both Federal and Provincial, and their presence has increased the work of
field Probation Officers within the region. Because of good highways, many people
commute daily from their semi-rural homes to their employment in the urban centres.
Similarly there has been a shift from rural farms to the towns and urban areas on
the part of many of certain groups—that is, Mennonite farmers—and this has
entailed adjustment problems for their children.
The Probation Officers attached to the Alouette River Unit come under the
joint supervision of the Warden and the regional Probation Officer, inasmuch as
their primary function is to prepare the inmates after a relatively short period of
institutional training for conditional release.
Family and Children's Courts and Committees.—No new Courts were established during the year. In September, 1967, with the addition of a second Probation
Officer to the Surrey Family and Children's Court staff, intensified pre-Court marital
counselling became possible, and many unhappy family situations were resolved by
the efforts of this officer. In the New Westminster Family and Children's Court,
the Probation Officer has concentrated on casework with husbands, resulting in an
increase in consent maintenance orders.
The New Westminster Court Committee has been active during the year and
has obtained sponsorship for two group-living homes by two service clubs. The
Committee has also discussed a regional detention home with neighbouring municipalities. The Langley Committee has been involved in planning the establishment
of a local mental health council, while the Surrey Committee has been examining
youth activities and delinquency prevention.
The House of Concord, established by the Salvation Army and located near
Langley, has been a most helpful resource to the officers of the region, and one
 EE 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Probation Officer has been acting as a liaison person and supervising all probationers
who have been admitted to this home for teen-age boys.
Region III embraces the Okanagan and Kootenay areas of the Province, and
nine field offices are located within the region. Dam construction and accelerated
industrial and mining developments have had an effect on the probation work load
during the year.
Family and Children's Courts and Committees.—In January, 1968, a fully
complemented Court was established in Kamloops, and plans are under way for
similar Courts in both Penticton and Revelstoke. Discussions have also been initiated in the Cranbrook-Kimberley area. Greater attention has been given to the
family and maintenance side of the Courts, and efforts will be made to strengthen
enforcement procedures through the appointment of probation interviewers in the
larger Courts. The interviewer will concentrate on the enforcement of maintenance
orders.
Family Court Committees have been active in Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton,
and Revelstoke. The activities of these Committees have had an impact in terms
of more people becoming aware of the social problems and resource needs of their
respective communities.
Lay probation sponsors or volunteers have also been utilized by the officers
within this region. In Penticton a social action committee on the Indian reserve
was promoted by the local Probation Officer, and this group has taken over the
supervision of native probationers.
During the year the officer at Cranbrook, along with the public health nurse,
initiated a discussion group for parents of probationers in which the initial focus
was " Communication with Teen-agers." The officer at Nelson also initiated a
discussion group of probationers residing at the New Denver Youth Centre.
Region IV consists of the whole of Vancouver Island and the adjacent Gulf
Islands.   There are seven field offices within this region.
Family and Children's Courts and Committees.—As forecast last year, the staff
of the Greater Victoria Family Court moved from their inadequate accommodation
on Coal Harbour Road into new facilities adjacent to the detention home at 2020
Cameron Street. The new facilities provide excellent accommodation for the Court
and probation staff. The staff have given emphasis to maintenance cases, and close
liaison has been kept up with the various municipal welfare departments.
In Campbell River the Court Committee concentrated on providing day-care
centres, and in conjunction with the Family Services Society and the Department of
Social Welfare one centre providing care for 10 children was opened. In Courtenay
the Committee has campaigned for the construction of a group-living home, and
with the aid of the Rotary Club it is anticipated the planning will become a reality.
The Committee has also sparked other community projects. In Nanaimo the Committee appointed in the fall of 1967 has been promoting the development of a
combined remand-receiving home. The North Cowichan Committee has played
a part in the development of a generalized volunteer programme, co-sponsored an
institute on alcoholism, and has worked toward a foster home to be used as a remand
centre for transient children. In Victoria the Committee played an active part in
obtaining the new Court and office facilities. It is anticipated the Committee will
now turn to an evaluation of community needs and ways and means of obtaining
new resources.
During the year consultative help was given by the officer stationed at Courtenay to the Cormorant Island Youth Guidance Committee at Alert Bay. This group
has provided supervision to native children.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1967/68 EE 57
Group counselling has also been initiated by two staff members of the Greater
Victoria Family and Children's Court staff with three groups of juvenile probationers.
Lay sponsors for probationers have been utilized by many of the officers of the
region, especially in the Duncan-North Cowichan area.
Region V encompasses the northern portion of the Province. From 100 Mile
House in the south, the region extends northward. Prince Rupert forms the western
boundary, while Dawson Creek and Fort St. John are the most eastward points in
the region. Dam construction and pulp-mill development have gone ahead in the
eastern half of the region, but present planning indicates similar industrial development in the western half of the region.
There are seven field probation offices within the region, including a new office
at Terrace, which was opened in September, 1967. With the opening of this office,
improved services are available to the Courts of Terrace and Kitimat, and personal
supervision can be given to people residing in the Nass River area.
Family and Children's Courts and Committees.—There are no fully implemented Family and Children's Courts within the Region. However, the Probation
Officers have worked closely with the Judges of the Courts, and regular probation
services have been given. During the year a new Royal Canadian Mounted Police
detachment was opened at Houston, and services to the new Courts are provided by
the Smithers Probation Officer.
Family and Children's Court Committees have not been too active throughout
the region during the year. The Prince Rupert Committee lost an energetic and
valued member when Dr. Elliott left the city.
The officer at Terrace recruited and has been using probation sponsors in several Indian communities in the Nass River area. Similarly the officers at both Fort
St. John and Dawson Creek are utilizing probation sponsors at Chetwynd, Hudson
Hope, and Fort Nelson. It is anticipated that greater use will be made of such
sponsors during the coming year.
13. New field office
As noted previously, a new field office was opened at Terrace in September,
1967.
14. Psychiatric services
During the year the probation staff in the Greater Vancouver area utilized to
the fullest extent the psychiatric services available through the Forensic Clinic and
its Director, Dr. E. Lipinski. All staff regretted his resignation from this clinic at
the end of January, 1968.
Throughout the year the services of Dr. Bennet Wong have been utilized for
diagnosis and group psychiatric treatment of teen-agers.
15. Marpole Hostel
Marpole Hostel was reopened in June, 1967, when new house parents were
found. During the winter months seven lads were in residence. The hostel provides
a warm, homelike atmosphere for boys who are unable to make a satisfactory adjustment in their own homes or foster homes. Some of the resident boys attend the
ordinary public schools in the area, while others have been working. During the
summer and fall, on week-ends the residents assisted in the maintenance work at
Porteau Cove.
 EE 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
16. Treatment for chronic alcoholics
As forecast in last year's Report, the Vancouver Magistrates' Court made
abundant use of the amendment to the Summary Convictions Act in respect to
chronic alcoholics. In most cases the sentences imposed were the maximum allowed
under the amendment, but in some cases shorter periods were imposed by the Court.
The majority of persons so sentenced (all males) were transferred to Alouette River
Unit; however, some were retained at Oakalla Prison Farm as they required daily
medical attention.
During the period of institutional treatment, post-release plans were evolved
by the Probation Officers attached to the institution, and in other cases the probation
interviewers stationed in Vancouver and Haney were asked to assist in the planning.
The majority of this type of trainee have no firm community roots, and for almost
all such persons, planning involved finding a half-way house or hostel which would
give the person a permanent address following release on parole. The Probation
Service and the Corrections Branch are most grateful for the help given by the Maple
Ridge Half-way House, Miracle Valley, the Pilot, Central City Mission, and Harbour
Lights, as well as the other hostels.
When the inmate is considered by the institutional staff to be ready for release
on parole, and when an adequate post-release plan has been developed for the man,
a recommendation for release is forwarded to the Chief Probation Officer, who, in
turn, if he concurs with the evaluation and planning, issues an order of discharge
from detention, which includes specific conditions by which the releasee must abide.
These conditions include reporting to a designated person, not changing domicile
without the prior permission of the supervising officer, and abstaining from the use
of intoxicating beverages. Because of specific medical problems or conditions, a
very limited number of trainees were released without the requirement of regular
reporting.
During the year 249 persons were so released.
The legislation also made provision that where the releasee did not live up to
the conditions he acknowledged in the order of discharge from detention, on the
production of a certificate signed by the Chief Probation Officer outlining the specific
violations, the person could be apprehended, taken into Court, and recommitted to
custody for the unexpired portion of the original sentence. During the year 58
persons were so dealt with by the Court. These figures indicate that approximately
one in five, or 20 per cent, of those conditionally released violated the conditions of
their provisional release. However, it must be remembered that most of these
people had very extensive histories of intemperate use of alcohol, and some had
previously been admitted to Oakalla on 50 or 60 separate occasions on a charge of
being unlawfully intoxicated in a public place.
Supervision of these persons following their release from the institution was
mainly carried out by probation interviewers, stationed both in Vancouver and
Haney. The interviewers worked closely with Alcoholics Anonymous, the Alcoholism Foundation of Birtish Columbia, as well as the people in charge of the different
half-way houses or hostels.
Because of many factors, including the thinking that chronic alcoholics should
be regarded as a medical problem rather than a legal one, instructions were issued
to the police that no further charges were to be laid for being in a state of intoxication
in a public place. Persons would in future be taken into protective custody by the
police and held until they became sober, then released without appearing in Court.
This new policy came into force in January, 1968, and prosecutions of chronic
alcoholics ceased.    The Summary Convictions Act was further amended by the
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1967/68 EE 59
Legislature during the January-April session, but the new amendments did not come
into force during the fiscal year 1967/68.
17. Search and leadership training—Porteau Cove
The experience gained over the past years pinpointed the necessity of having a
permanent base camp for search and leadership training. Different sites were considered, and eventually, through the co-operation of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, a location at Porteau Cove, near Britannia Beach on Howe Sound, was selected
as having all the desirable attributes. Construction of three dormitory sleeping
buildings and a combined kitchen-dining hall started in April. Construction-grade
lumber and shakes cut by trainees of Provincial correctional institutions were trucked
to the camp-site, and, under the direction of a qualified carpenter, crews of trainees
from correctional institutions erected the camp.
For the 31 course participants who arrived at Porteau Cove late in June, a
new way of living opened up. The course trainees were specially selected probationers between 14 and 18 years of age. They were lads who had not responded
favourably to ordinary probation supervision and who, it was felt, needed the stimulation and challenge which search and leadership training could provide. This kind
of training, which follows Outward Bound principles and philosophy, seeks to develop a positive sense of personal worth combined with a vital awareness of one's
dependence on others, through the achievement of tasks and objectives in a setting
in which one is pitted against the primary forces and obstacles of nature.
The six weeks' training course might be considered as divided into two parts—
the first and longer part in which physical stamina and endurance are built up and
new skills are learned, and the second in which the skills and endurance are utilized
to overcome the challenge of a specific expedition objective—although in actual
practice the two are closely interwoven.
A typical day started between 5.30 and 6.30 a.m. with a good run, a dip in the
sea, then breakfast and camp clean-up. The day then began in earnest with classes
in first aid, life-saving, woodsmanship and survival techniques, mountain-climbing,
boat-handling, civil defence methods, and fire suppression. Community involvement was enhanced by the use of civilian instructors for the first aid and civil defence
courses, and in their turn the trainees rendered a community service by clearing
park land near Squamish. Physical stamina was developed on the rope and log
obstacle course, and at the same time the lads learned the necessity of co-operation
and consideration for others.   The full day ended with " lights out " at 10 p.m.
With muscles toughened and skills learned, the trainees moved on to the second
phase of the training—the expeditions. The total group was divided into three
smaller groups. One group hiked through dense bush and undergrowth from
Squamish to Jervis Inlet, while another group made the return trip. One of the
groups travelled by canoe from Earls Cove back to Porteau Cove through the
Sechelt Rapids, down Sechelt Inlet, then following a portage at Sechelt, down the
Strait of Georgia, and back to Porteau. Another group in the sailboat " Sea Explorer " travelled from Porteau to Deserted Bay on Jervis Inlet and return. This
group, because of lack of wind, were forced to row for almost 15 hours in order to
reach their destination by the appointed time. In addition, each lad completed a
36-hour solo survival expedition, during which time, with the barest of essentials,
he had to look after himself completely.
The course finished with the graduation exercises and demonstration programme
held at the camp on August 5th, at which time certificates were given out by the
Honourable Robert Bonner, Attorney-General. All but one of the trainees successfully passed the civil defence examination, and three only failed to pass the examina-
 EE 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
tion on fundamentals of first aid. The minimum standard in all other courses was
achieved by all trainees, except one who was unable to complete the course.
No summary of a course of this type would be complete without special mention of the staff, whose leadership and devotion to the ideal carried them through
long days of rigorous activity and separation from their own families.
The personal impact of the course is perhaps best expressed in the words of
one of the trainees, " This programme teaches you how to be a man and to be able
to take better care of yourself."
After completion of the course the trainees returned to their own homes, and
ordinary probation supervision was resumed.
Provincial probation offices
Headquarters :
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver 5.
Abbotsford:
Courthouse, Abbotsford.
Burnaby:
6355 Gilpin Street, Burnaby 2.
Campbell River:
110 Birch Street, Campbell River.
Chilliwack:
Room 75, Courthouse, 77 College Street,
Chilliwack.
Cloverdale:
5691—177b Street, Cloverdale.
Courtenay:
P.O. Box 1017, Courthouse, Courtenay.
Cranbrook:
Room 213, Courthouse,   102 South  11th
Avenue, Cranbrook.
Dawson Creek:
10300b Tenth Street, Dawson Creek.
Duncan:
271 Canada Avenue, Duncan.
Fort St. Iohn:
Courthouse, Fort St. Iohn.
Haney:
Room  4,   Mide  Block,   22336  Lougheed
Highway, Haney.
Kamloops:
118 Victoria Street, Kamloops.
Kelowna:
435 Bernard Avenue, Kelowna.
Lillooet:
Courthouse, Lillooet.
Marpole Probation Office:
8982 Hudson Street, Vancouver 14.
Marpole Hostel:
8982 Hudson Street, Vancouver 14.
Merritt:
Nicola Valley Medical and Dental Building, 2025 Granite Avenue, Merritt.
Nanaimo:
Courthouse, Nanaimo.
Nelson:
Courthouse, Nelson.
New Westminster:
100, 320 Columbia Street, New Westminster.
New Westminster Family and Children's
Court:
511 Royal Avenue, New Westminster.
North Vancouver:
1676 Lloyd Avenue, North Vancouver.
Penticton:
Courthouse, Penticton.
Port Alberni:
Public Safety Building, 1101 Sixth Avenue
North, Port Alberni.
Powell River :
4687 Ewing Place, Powell River.
Prince George:
Courthouse, Prince George.
Prince Rupert:
Courthouse, Prince Rupert.
Revelstoke:
307 First Street, Revelstoke.
Richmond:
105, 676 No. 3 Road, Richmond.
Smithers:
P.O. Box 2267, Smithers.
Surrey Family and Children's Court:
17671—56th Avenue, Cloverdale.
Terrace:
P.O. Box 1598, Terrace.
Trail:
203 Federal Building, 805 Spokane Street,
Trail.
Vancouver :
719, 193 East Hastings Street, Vancouver
4.
Vernon:
3402—30th Street, Vernon.
Victoria :
Room 104, Law Courts Building, Victoria.
Family and Children's Court, 2020 Cameron Street, Victoria.
Williams Lake:
Speers Building, 72 Second Avenue, P.O.
Box 697. Williams Lake.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1967/68 EE 61
Probation statistics, April 1, 1967, to March 31, 1968
New probation cases—
Males (married, 419; single, 2,651)—
Under 18 years  1,926
18 to 24 years, inclusive  709
25 to 39 years, inclusive  282
40 to 64 years, inclusive  147
65 years and over  6
     3,070
Females (married, 81; single, 342)—
Under 18 years  262
18 to 24 years, inclusive  104
25 to 39 years, inclusive  41
40 to 64 years, inclusive  16
65 years and over	
423
Total new probation cases     3,493
New parole cases (British Columbia Parole Board, 572;
Order in Council, 5;   National Parole, 68)—
Under 18 years  35
18 to 24 years, inclusive  402
25 to 39 years, inclusive  86
40 to 64 years, inclusive  116
65 years and over  6
Total (married, 95; single, 550)         645
New cases, provisional release from training-schools—
Boys       287
Girls         45
        332
New miscellaneous cases      2,032
Pre-sentence reports—
Juveniles  1,787
Adults  2,283
 4,070
Grand total  10,572
Transfers from Family and Children's Court to Ordinary Courts
1962/63  188 1965/66  210
1963/64  167 1966/67  151
1964/65  178 1967/68  137
 EE 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Comparison of Probation Service Activity
1967/68
1966/67
Increase (+)
or
Decrease (—)
Per Cent
New probation cases..
New parole cases.
New Provincial releases from training-school.
New miscellaneous cases	
Adult	
Juvenile..
Pre-sentence Reports
3,493
645
332
2,032
2,283
1,787
3,453
480
236
1,546
2,062
1,662
+40
+ 165
+96
+486
+221
+125
1
34
40
31
11
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1967/68
EE 63
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 APPENDICES
BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF PAROLE
Table No. 1.—Summary of Meetings Held and Cases Considered,
April 1, 1967, to March 31, 1968
Number of sittings held	
89
Decisions made—
New cases considered
Miscellaneous—
470
British Columbia-National paroles considered     12
Reviews      53
Special consideration      54
Revocations considered   201
Administrative decisions        7
Total decisions made
327
797
In co-operation with National Parole Service—
Applications for National parole supported by British Columbia Board of
Parole	
Disposition of cases—
Support withdrawn       2
Granted National parole        9
11
Total
11
Applications for National parole not supported by British Columbia Board
of Parole       1
Total new cases considered     12
Average number of cases dealt with per meeting
Released on parole during the fiscal year	
9
466
Table No. 2.—Progressive Summary of Meetings Held and Cases Considered,
1949 to 1967/68
Number of
Meetings
Decisions Made
New
Miscellaneous
Total
1949-
1950-
1951
1952..
1953-
1954-
1955_
1956.
1957-
1958..
1959..
1960..
1961-
1962..
1963..
1964 (January, February, and March)..
1964/65  	
1965/66	
1966/67	
1967/68	
Totals.
5
12
12
14
23
37
44
51
69
84
93
70
74
69
73
17
76
81
84
89
1,077
457
450
389
417
331
355
91
374
426
417
470
460
684
460
356
319
259
63
270
320
342
327
15
79
61
72
147
343
409
521
621
917
1,134
849
773
650
614
154
644
746
759
797
10,205
Average number of decisions per meeting, 9.5.
64
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1967/68
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Table No. 5.—Miscellaneous Statistical Information, Year Ended March 31, 1968
1965/66
1966/67
1967/68
Parolees
Total released on regular order of parole-
Average age (years)-
Average training period (months)	
Institutional comparison—
Vancouver Island Unit (months).
Chilliwack Forest Camps (months)..
Oakalla Prison Farm (months)	
New Haven (months)..
Haney Correctional Institution (months)..
Revokees
Total revocations	
Average age (years)	
Average training period (months)	
Average period on parole (months)	
Occurrence of revocation relative to period of parole-
During 1 to 4 months	
During 5 to 8 months..
During 9 months or over	
Day Parole
Released on the condition of day parole—
From Haney Correctional Institution	
From New Haven	
395
20.2
12.9
13.7
7.7
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411
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13.5
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20.4
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24%
7%
From Oakalla Prison Farm—
From Vancouver Island Unit_
Totals.-. _—
466
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10.2
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20.8
12.8
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23%
13%
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