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REPORT of the FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1967 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1967]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister F. S. McKinnon, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of the
FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1967
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1968
  Victoria, B.C., February, 1968.
To Mafor-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., CC, P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C., CD.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service
of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for the calendar year
1967.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
 The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the
Forest Service during the calendar year 1967.
F. S. McKINNON,
Deputy Minister of Forests.
 During the prolonged and severe 1967 forest fire season, air tankers and helicopters
played a major role, but the individual fire-fighter, working long hours under extremely
difficult conditions, was still the key man.
  CONTENTS
Page
1. Chief Forester's Report  11
2. Forest Inventory Division  14
Field Programme  14
Forest Classification and Sampling  14
Growth Studies  14
Loss-factor Studies  14
Operations  15
Special Field Projects  17
Office Programme  17
Forest Mapping  17
Area and Volume Summaries and Distribution of Information.  18
Development Planning  18
3. Forest Research Division  20
Cowichan Lake Experiment Station  20
Field Programme  20
Nursery Fertility Studies  20
Soil Classification  20
Thinning and Pruning  21
Planting  21
Prince Rupert Forest District  21
Prince George Forest District  21
Kamloops Forest District  21
Nelson Forest District  21
Data-processing and Statistical Analysis  21
Canada Land Inventory  22
4. Reforestation Division  23
Forest Nurseries  2 3
Improvements  24
Forest Tree Seed  25
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  26
Planting  26
Co-operation  27
Interdepartmental Forestry and Corrections Camp Programme- 27
5. Public Information and Education Division  29
News Releases and Special Articles  29
Photography  29
Motion-picture Production  30
Film Library  30
School Lecture Programme  31
Signs  31
Library  31
Exhibits  31
Advertising  3 2
 8 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
6. Forest Management Division  33
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  33
Lumber Prices  33
Log Prices  34
Stumpage Prices  34
Stumpage Adjustments  35
Peace River Flood Basin  35
Columbia Flood Basin  35
Close Utilization  36
Sustained-yield Programme  36
Public Sustained-yield Units  36
Pulp Harvesting Forests  36
Tree-farms  36
Tree-farm Licences  36
Silviculture  37
Scaling  37
7. Grazing Division  38
General Conditions  3 8
Range  38
Hay  39
Markets and Prices  39
Range Management  39
Range Surveys  40
Range Improvements    40
Peace River Pastures  41
Co-operation  42
Administration  42
Grazing Permits  43
Hay Permits  43
Grazing Fees  43
Control and Enforcement  44
8. Engineering Services Division  45
Engineering Surveys  45
Design  45
Forest Management Engineering  45
Road Construction and Maintenance  46
Buildings and Marine Services  47
Building Construction  48
Water Supply and Irrigation  48
Marine Activities  48
Mechanical Section  49
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1967 9
8. Engineering Services Division—Continued
Forest Service Maintenance Depot  49
Marine Work  49
Prefabrication and Carpentry Shop  50
Mechanical Work  50
Transport Pool and Warehousing  50
Depot Maintenance  50
Radio Section  51
9. Forest Protection Division  53
Weather  53
Fires  53
Occurrence and Causes  53
Cost of Fire-fighting  54
Damage.___  54
Protection Planning and Research  54
Fire Statistics  54
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  54
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks    54
Insect Survey and Control    55
Research Projects  55
Fire-suppression Crews  55
Aircraft  55
Roads and Trails  56
Slash and Snag Disposal  56
Vancouver Forest District    56
Prescribed Burns  57
Interior Forest Districts  57
Fire-law Enforcement  57
Forest Closures  57
10. Forest Service Training-school  _.__  59
Extra Courses and Functions  60
Acknowledgments  60
Construction  60
11. Accounting Division  61
Fiscal  61
Administration  62
12. Personnel Division  63
Communications and Training  63
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  63
Classification, Salaries, and Working Conditions  64
13. Personnel Directory, 1967  66
14. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of the
Forest Service  69
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1967
CHIEF FORESTER'S REPORT
Due to unsettled conditions in some sectors of the forest industry, there was
a minor drop in the 1967 timber scale billed in British Columbia. At the end of the
year, the scale totalled 1,572,598,592 cubic feet, compared to the 1966 scale of
1,602,437,448 cubic feet, a drop of 1.86 per cent.
On the other hand, a report from the British Columbia Bureau of Economics
and Statistics showed that unduplicated selling values of forest-industry shipments
in 1967 rose to $1,190,000,000, an increase of $30,000,000 over 1966 shipments
and $75,000,000 over those of 1965. Of the 1967 total, pulp and paper mills
accounted for $463,000,000, compared to $457,000,000 in 1966 and $430,000,000
in 1965.
However, there was a serious decline in the direct forest revenue, which decreased 15.6 per cent during the calendar year to $42,492,365. This decline mainly
reflected the drop in the total amount charged to logging operations. Another significant factor was the reduction of $837,789 in payments received under the Federal-Provincial Forestry Agreement, which was not renewed by the Federal Government when it expired on March 31st. The largest decrease occurred in timber-sale
stumpage, which contributes the bulk of the revenue and was off 18.5 per cent to
$34,732,239.
Log export, which has become a subject of contention in the United States
Pacific Northwest, continues to be a small proportion of British Columbia's total
annual cut, with 1967 exports amounting to approximately 2.2 per cent of the year's
timber scale. This was an increase of 0.7 per cent over the previous year and was
mainly the result of a 1966 stockpiling of logs beyond industry's requirements.
There was no significant change in the sustained-yield programme during
the year.
Reforestation, however, took a major step toward achievement of the Forest
Service objective of producing 75,000,000 seedlings annually by 1975. The significant development was the preparation of new nursery facilities, together with
improvements at existing establishments. A highlight of the reforestation programme
was the official opening of new nurseries at Koksilah on Vancouver Island and Red
Rock near Prince George.
By the end of the year a total of 241 acres was available for or in production,
while a further 243 acres were in various stages of preparation. This is the initial
step in the Service's plan to increase planting on a regular schedule. To sustain this
programme, approximately 17 tons of seed is in storage. Mechanical sowing of
seed-beds was introduced in the nurseries on an operational basis during the year.
Planting by all agencies totalled 17,805,800 trees on 48,579 acres, with the
Forest Service planting 32 per cent of the total. Contract planting of Crown lands
was instituted on a trial basis.
The co-operative Forestry and Corrections Camp Programme continues to play
a significant part in all aspects of reforestation.
A prolonged and severe fire season brought Forest Service suppression costs up
to approximately $7,000,000, a sum far in excess of the 10-year average of a little
over $2,500,000.   However, despite a total of 3,216 fires, the area burned was held
11
 12 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
down to 244,483 acres, compared to the 10-year average of 2,314 fires and 455,814
acres burned.
Due to the extreme and protracted hazard, nine forest closures were imposed,
while more than 20,000 hours were flown in the heaviest use of aircraft in the Province's history of fire suppression.
Although the number of acres on which snag-falling was completed totalled
97,580 acres, or close to the 1966 total of 99,497 acres, the area of slash-burning
was down about 8,000 acres to 75,989 acres in the Vancouver Forest District. The
prescribed burning programme in the Interior forest districts was down 10,000 acres
to a total of 15,500 acres, due to the severity of the fire season.
The balsam woolly aphid (Adelges picea?) survey to delineate the general limits
of infestation in South-western British Columbia was essentially completed in 1967.
No new outbreaks were found beyond the 1966 perimeter, although two positive
1966 samples had noticeably increased in size.
The variety of projects undertaken by the Engineering Services Division continued to increase during the year. The increase was notable for the investigation,
design, and construction of irrigation systems and other improvements necessary for
the enlargement of nursery facilities.
Modernization of the Forest Service water fleet continued with completion of
the 50-foot ranger vessel " Coast Ranger."
The forest road programme continued at about the same level of activity as
in 1966, with construction of 49.6 miles of new road, bringing the total completed
in the programme since 1950 to 1,007.1 miles.
Work proceeded on a further 14,560 acres in preparation of navigation channels
and other industrial and public use areas within the pondage of the W. A. C. Bennett
Dam.
The honorary curator of the Forest Service museum had a rewarding year with
the addition of some 30 donations, and completion of the film "A Change of Pace "
as a Centennial project.
For some years now, the Research Division programme has been mainly
directed to a wide variety of regeneration problems. The need for better seed and
a better knowledge of seed form the basis for a comprehensive programme with
Douglas-fir in which tree-breeding, the development of seed orchards from plus trees,
and provenance tests are important parts. During 1967 somewhat similar programmes were initiated to improve the quality of lodgepole pine and white and
Engelmann spruce. This work will be centred at the new Red Rock Nursery and
Research Centre.
Throughout the Interior, other studies are concerned with natural factors
affecting production of seed, seed dissemination, and favourable seed-beds. The use
of seed for direct seeding also is receiving considerable attention. Under the right
circumstances, acceptable regeneration can be achieved in this way.
In addition to regeneration research, the Division has a specialist engaged in
an analysis of various routine procedures associated with management activities,
with the objective of increasing efficiency through the use of computers.
Public sustained-yield unit inventories were continued by the Forest Inventory
Division during the year and, inclusive of 1966 field work, unit survey information
now is available for 65,000,000 acres. A further 20,000,000 acres are covered
by maintenance surveys.
Also continued were the growth and yield programme and loss-factor studies
to provide basic information for inventory compilation and allowable cut calcula-
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 13
tions. Regeneration plantability surveys were done in the Adams River area of
the Kamloops Forest District and in nine areas in the Nelson Forest District.
The Grazing Division report shows that the extreme summer weather conditions adversely affected forage production and animal weight gains on Crown range.
Water shortages, heat, and other factors related to the weather also complicated
both stock and range management. However, stock came off the range in fair
condition and, with the exception of recently seeded areas, there was no permanent
damage to the range. Hay production was generally adequate and cattle prices
averaged a little higher than in 1966.
The number of cattle on Crown range dropped slightly for the first time in
many years. Use of Crown range by horses increased slightly, but use by sheep
now is negligible. A regulation was passed under the Grazing Act providing for
an upward revision in grazing fee rates. An expanded range survey and improvement planning programme was undertaken.
Changes in senior personnel in the Forest Service during 1967 involved the
retirement of two division heads which resulted in appointment of an engineer in
charge of the Engineering Services Division, a new head of the Reforestation
Division, and a new forester in charge of the Forest Service Training-school.
The permanent Civil Service establishment of the Service remained at 884,
with no new positions added.
Graduation of 24 men from the basic course at the training-school brings to
419 the number who have graduated from basic and advanced courses since the
school went into operation in 1946. This includes 124 from basic courses and
295 from advanced courses. The 15th class of advanced trainees, consisting of
24 men, enrolled on September 20, 1967, and completed the first term of the
course on December 19th.
There were two important amendments to the Forest Act during the year.
One, an amendment to section 116, extended provisions requiring disposal of slash
to the whole of the Province. Previously they had applied only to the Coast districts. The Forest Service has discussed implementation of the section with industry
in the Interior and is moving slowly.
The other amendment was addition of subsection (18) to section 150 of the
Act. This addition made provision for the Minister to declare timber left on the
beaches forfeit to the Crown and to offer it for sale. Subsequently there was sale
of five beach-clearing licences on the Coast and one in the Interior.
Other amendments involved only minor changes in the Act and were mainly
of a housekeeping nature.
 14 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST INVENTORY DIVISION
Public sustained-yield unit inventories continued. Inclusive of 1966 field work,
unit survey information is now available for 65,000,000 acres. A further 20,000,-
000 acres are covered by maintenance surveys.
Our growth and yield programme and loss-factor studies, to provide the basic
information for inventory compilation and allowable cut calculations, were continued. Studies on applications of 70-mm. photography were continued. Regeneration plantability surveys were done in the Adams River area of the Kamloops Forest
District and in nine areas of the Nelson Forest District.
The continuous staff employed by the Division numbers 146, including 58 foresters, 11 technical personnel, 61 draughting and clerical staff, and 16 mechanical,
warehouse, launch crew, and operations personnel. To supplement the professional
and technical staff during the field season, 89 seasonal employees were engaged.
FIELD PROGRAMME
Forest Classification and Sampling
Forest inventories to unit survey standard were completed for 11 public sustained-yield units and one unregulated area in 1967. The area involved in each
unit is shown in Table B, which outlines the production of interim base maps for the
year.
Classification crews of the Division completed 9,527 air calls and 6,425 ground
examinations. Sampling crews established 2,098 multi-plot samples. In a co-operative arrangement with the Division, tree-farm licence crews established 163 samples.
Although these samples may not apply to stands in areas of current field work, they
can be used to supplement information in similar forest types in public sustained-yield
units.
Growth Studies
In the 1967 growth and yield programme, 95 permanent plots were established
in five Interior public sustained-yield units and distributed as follows: Nakusp, 13;
Spallumcheen, 36; Shuswap, 26; Barriere, 16; and Raft, 4. The types sampled
were 49 Douglas-fir, 13 larch, 5 cedar-hemlock, and 28 lodgepole pine. Conditions
sampled were: Ages ranging from 21 to 100 years, sites from good to poor with the
majority in the medium class, and elevations ranging from 1,600 to 4,400 feet.
During the year the growth section has produced 140 local and zonal volume-
over-age curves. These curves, or site-class yield tables in graphical form, supply
mean annual increment at any age.
Over 35 inquiries and miscellaneous requests for growth information were
processed during the year.
Loss-factor Studies
Decay studies were concentrated within the wet belt hemlock-cedar with a total
of 1,625 trees felled and measured to provide local cull factors. Twenty sample
plots were located in the Ross and Scotch Creek drainages of the Shuswap Public
Sustained-yield Unit, while another 40 were established in the North Thompson
Public Sustained-yield Unit within a 10-mile radius of the town of Blue River.
One-half of the samples in the North Thompson unit were double sampled in
connection with a 70-mm. helicopter photography project. Objectives include the
analysis of sampling errors of this method of sampling and the correlation of external
suspect characters, such as dead tops, with internal defect within the tree. Suspect
characters, such as dead tops, are easily identified on this large-scale photography.
.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA FOREST SERVICE
INVENTORY DIVISION
MAINTENANCgpUR^EYS
1958-196oi|«i
UNIT SURVEYS (1961+)
COMPLETED   ■■■      (1961-66 fieldwork)
23. Salmon Arm
24. Shuswap
25. Skeena
26. Smithers
27. Soo
28. Special Sale Area
29. Stum
30. Upper Kootenay
31. Westlake
32. Windermere
33. Yalakom
PROGRESS OF FOREST-COVER MAPPING
BASED ON MAINTENANCE SURVEYS AND UNIT SURVEli
OF AREAS UNDER PUBLIC MANAGEMENT
Ills'AT DECEMBER 31, 19<||1
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1967 15
A further 1,239 lodgepole pine trees were felled and measured in the Riske
Creek, Puntzi Lake, and Nimpo Lake areas of the Chilcotin Plateau. One purpose
of this work was to establish local cull factors for the mature lodgepole pine timber,
which comprises 67 per cent of the total wood volume in the Stum and Chilko Public
Sustained-yield Units. In conjunction with these decay measurements, 82 dominant
lodgepole pine trees were sectioned for stem analysis studies in order to correct the
present site curves used for this species by the Forest Inventory Division. The wood
sections were sanded and then photographed to provide a permanent record for other
studies, such as taper analysis and growth predictions.
Data on depletion losses through fire, insect attack, and forest-land alienations
is being gathered from various agencies in order to improve present predictions as
they affect the allowable cut.
Operations
In conducting the field programme, six land base camps were established
within the project areas. One of these, the Purden-Bowron, was located adjacent
to an Engineering Services Division construction camp, enabling Inventory Division
personnel to utilize the cookhouse and other facilities available. Some 70 prefabricated tent units were erected at the camp-sites, for cooking, dining, crew accommodation, washrooms, and equipment storage. The launch " Forest Surveyor " and
barge " L.C. 6 " again proved to be suitable for coast projects, operating throughout
much of the extensive coastline surrounding the Queen Charlotte Public Sustained-
yield Unit.
Three helicopters, obtained under contract, transported sampling crews to less
accessible areas and were used by forest classifiers for low-level observation flights
along predetermined flight plans, to supplement ground information. Excellent
flying conditions early in the season enabled most projects to make good initial
progress. This was fortunate because helicopters later were frequently diverted
to fire-control operations. A total of 840 hours was flown on all projects: 565
hours for forest classification, 175 hours for transporting sampling crews, and the
remainder for training, ferrying, and field-work inspections.
Four-wheel-drive vehicles were used extensively again for access on back
roads. In view of experience gained in 1966, when a mechanic was stationed
in the vicinity of three projects, two mechanics were assigned for the same purpose
this year: one to service and maintain mechanical units for several projects in the
North Thompson Valley, and the other in the Nakusp-Grand Forks area.
Satisfactory communications between Victoria headquarters, project bases,
launches, helicopters, and personnel on remote " fly " camps are essential for
effective operational control. This year the divisional network operated 84 A.C. or
battery-operated A.M. sets.
The distribution and handling of the diversity of equipment required on field
projects were improved by the recent addition to the main warehouse at Green
Timbers, particularly the ramp facilities for loading trucks at deck level. A truck-
mounted hydraulic lift greatly facilitated equipment handling and construction at
the project base camps.
During 1967 the Air Division of the Lands Service was provided with aerial
photography requirements for those public sustained-yield units without recent
photographic coverage, which are scheduled for inventory in 1968 and 1969. In
this regard, some 21,000 square miles were flown at a scale of 20 chains to 1 inch,
and approximately 800 square miles at 40 chains to 1 inch. Photographs are now
available for the Sechelt area of the Quadra, Niskonlith, Adams, and Kinbasket
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
17
Public Sustained-yield Units, the Kamloops Region Special Sale Area, and the
proposed Fort Nelson Public Sustained-yield Unit to be inventoried in 1968.
Photographs are also available for the following public sustained-yield units
scheduled for 1969:  Big Valley, Cottonwood, Ashnola, Similkameen, and Nootka.
Special Field Projects
Plantability studies were carried out on a number of burn areas in the Nelson
and Kamloops Forest Districts. In the Nelson district, nine burnt-over areas were
examined, covering approximately 24,577 acres. The areas studied include Salmo-
Creston Highway, Howe Creek, McRae Creek, Bear Creek, Gander Creek, Cedar
Creek, Silverton Creek, Summit Lake, and Frazer Creek. In the Kamloops district,
approximately 16,000 acres were examined in the Adams River area.
A project involving the exchange of 672 acres of Crown land for 672 acres
of private land was completed in the Campbell River area.
Studies in the use of fixed-base photography from helicopters continued. Two
new Linhof cameras were purchased and flights made to test them. Timber types
were photographed in the North Thompson area for a further study of sampling
standing timber. A total of 40 samples was photographed. In co-operation with
the Engineering Services Division, the Stellako River log drive was photographed,
as were several nurseries, various types of clearing in the Peace pondage area, and
several bridge-sites. Studies are continuing with the Forest Management and
Research Divisions on the use of 70-mm. photography for measuring logging
residue.
OFFICE PROGRAMME
Forest Mapping
Table A outlines the final forest-cover mapping, planimetry, and volume estimates completed during 1967, based on the 1966 field projects. Unit survey reports,
maps, and map-area and map-volume statements have been issued on all but the
partial inventory of the Kingcome Public Sustained-yield Unit.
Table A.—Production of Final Forest-cover Maps for 1966 Projects
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Number
of Maps
Scale
(Chains
to Inch)
Forest and Non-forest Area in Acres
Crown
Alienated
Total
Volume in
M Cu. Ft.
on Mature
Crown Area
Chilko (part)..
Monkman	
Quadra (Redonda) —
Skeena (Hazelton) —
Smithers (extension)..
Stum (extension)	
Totals 	
198
20
69
20
121
20
93
20
23
20
103
20
607
....
5,128,324
1.353,615
1,774,004
1,800,437
275,449
1,942,028
63,386
13,951
111,546
56,508
81,202
5,191,710
1,367,566
1,885,550
1,856,945
275,449
2,023,230
2,860,6951
2,375,1651
2,537,7832
5,232,3001
638,5641
1,414,4351
12,273,857
326,593    |  12,600,450    |  15,058,942
1 Volumes, 7.1"-f d.b.h. close-utilization standard less decay.
2 Volumes, 9.1"-f-d.b.h. close-utilization standard less decay.
*
H
*
■b
•k
The three stereograms opposite are (top) 70-mm. vertical pair of photographs taken at
a flying height of 556 feet and a scale of 1:2,160, or 2.7 chains per inch; (centre) horizontal
stereo pair showing in particular a clump of red cedar; and (bottom) portion of a 1:15,840,
or 20 chains per inch, standard inventory pair of photographs. In the top pair, note the
three species marked H, B, C, and the numbered trees. The black arrow indicates the direction of view to the horizontal 70-mm. pair (centre). The numbered trees on the top and
centre photographs indicate the same trees. In the bottom pair, the white rectangle encloses
the area photographed by the helicopter with a camera boom and two Linhof aero electric
70-mm. cameras. All three pairs can be viewed with a lens-stereoscope. (Note.—H denotes hemlock; C, cedar; B, balsam.)
 18
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table B indicates the extent of base maps prepared for the 1967 field projects.
These areas were base-mapped from 20-chain-to-l-inch air photos flown in 1966.
Forest-cover mapping of these projects is now in progress, and maps and reports
should be available by the fall of 1968.
Table B.—Production of Interim Base Maps for the 1967 Field Work
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Number
of Maps
Scale
(Chains
to Inch)
Total
Estimated
Acreage
22
12
18
20
33
23
54
37
132
19
36
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
343,590
Bowron	
Bowron Lake Unregulated Area   	
Edgewood     	
191,842
147,604
315,465
696,520
331,837
1,045,580
257,990
Queen Charlotte  —	
1,584,564
247,609
Raft      	
603,242
560,695
Totals  	
436
6,326,538
Area and Volume Summaries and Distribution of Information
In addition to the planimetry of 12,600,000 acres required for unit survey
reports, 68 inventory summaries were completed for Forest Service management
planning purposes. These requests accounted for a total area of 12,963,000 acres
and a net timber volume of 11,402,000 M cubic feet.
The sale and distribution of maps and other inventory information continued
at a high level. The material included 26,700 maps, 310 survey reports, 440
volume-over-age curves, and over 10,000 area and sample volume statements.
All of the 2,356 Provincial samples established during the 1967 field season
have been compiled on the basis of the 1962 standard cubic-foot volume tables. The
Provincial sample total, 1953 to 1967, inclusive, after deletion of some reject
samples, stands at 33,295, exclusive of permanent growth plots. Prints of any
compiled sample statement in cubic feet per acre are available at a nominal charge.
During 1967 continued full use was made of the services of the Data Processing
Division. It was the year in which third-generation computers (I.B.M. system/360,
Models 30 and 40) were installed; reprogramming is now being done and it is hoped
to process more data in less time in 1968.
Development Planning
Several isolated blocks of Crown land not currently under regulation were
studied for possible addition to a neighbouring sustained-yield unit. As a result, the
Simpson River drainage, on the Alberta border and isolated by Kootenay National
Park, was added to the Windermere Public Sustained-yield Unit, and unit standard
inventory is planned for it in 1968. No decision was made regarding the portion of
Upper Bobbie Burns Creek isolated by Tree-farm Licence No. 14, but, for it, too,
unit standard inventory is planned in 1968. Two areas isolated on the east side of
Bowron Lake Park (Upper Wolverine River, and most of the drainages of Betty
Wendle Creek and of Cariboo River) also have not been finalized, but they were
inventoried to a unit standard during the 1967 season in conjunction with the
Purden-Bowron project.
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
19
A field planning study was carried out in the Fort Nelson area preparatory to
inventory of the proposed Fort Nelson Public Sustained-yield Unit in the coming
season. Such study was desirable since never previously had the progressive forest
inventory reached the stage where a survey study at unit standards could be considered for an unregulated area.
 20 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST RESEARCH DIVISION
A detailed report on the research programme for 1967 will appear in the annual
Forest Research Review compiled at the end of the fiscal year.
COWICHAN LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
The Cowichan Lake Experiment Station is the centre of coastal tree improvement work. An arboretum and clone bank is being developed so that all Douglas-fir
breeding material will be conveniently located at one site. For some years, scions
from carefully selected plus trees have been grafted to rootstock planted out here.
There are now 608 registered clones represented in the clone bank. In addition,
seedlings are being grown from provenances representing the extreme southern range
of the species for outplanting in the arboretum.
A second series of intraspecific crosses of Douglas-fir, raised at Cowichan, were
planted out on eight test sites on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. A
total of 16,951 trees was planted, and the over-all survival was 91.5 per cent. Only
limited pollinations were possible in 1967 owing to the sparse production of male
and female strobili.
Seedlings from wind-pollinated cone collections made from plus trees in 1966
were grown at Cowichan Nursery. These will provide stock for the two proposed
seedling seed orchards at Koksilah and Campbell River.
Douglas-fir seedlings, representing 88 provenances, are being grown at Cowichan Lake in preparation for field trials in different climatic zones within the coastal
region. Observations and measurements of these seedlings in the nursery included
assessments of time of germination and hardening-off, as well as total height at the
end of the growing season. Three test sites, 25 to 30 acres each, were selected in
different climatic zones for the field trials.
FIELD PROGRAMME
Nursery Fertility Studies
Work to determine suitable fertilizer application rates for coastal conifer nurseries has continued. Similar studies at the new Red Rock Nursery in the Interior
were initiated with N, P, K experiments on white spruce. An investigation into the
possible value of micro-nutrients for Douglas-fir nursery stock was started at
Koksilah. In conjunction with the fertilizer work, study of the relationship between
plant internal nutrient concentration and growth is going on. Seasonal changes in
Douglas-fir frost hardiness have been followed, using electrolytic methods. Effect
of temperature and day-length on frost hardiness are being examined in newly
acquired growth chambers.
Soil Classification
A study of soil classification was undertaken as a pilot project to develop technique and criteria for mapping and interpretation of forested lands for Douglas-fir
growth on the east coast of Vancouver Island. The project was established in the
Sayward portion of the Quadra Public Sustained-yield Unit.
Geology, geomorphology, soils, and vegetation of an area of approximately 300
square miles were studied. As a result, a mapping scheme, suitable for grouping of
mapping units at several levels for different management purposes, has been put
forward. The system also includes the interpretation of mapping units for objectives
such as productivity, species suitability, regeneration probability, logging, and slash-
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 21
burning specifications, thinning and fertilizer recommendations, traflicability, and
erosion hazard.
Thinning and Pruning
A number of Douglas-fir thinning and pruning plots were remeasured and
a final analysis made of a red alder thinning plot.
Planting
A western hemlock planting experiment demonstrated the advantages of a
northerly aspect, shade, and a mineral-soil planting medium in obtaining increased
survival.
Prince Rupert Forest District
A number of planting and seeding projects established in 1967 were reexamined and a new project initiated to study the relative suitability of different
lodgepole pine planting stocks on various sites throughout the North-Central
Interior. Preliminary investigations were carried out concerning silvicultural facets
of a prescribed burning programme.
Prince George Forest District
Tree improvement research on two Interior species was initiated in 1967. In
a study of lodgepole pine, 114 provenances have been collected, ranging from
California to the Yukon, with 90 from British Columbia. Seedlings from these
sources will eventually be planted out throughout the Province in a study to establish seed transfer rules. The plantations will also serve as banks of breeding material
for a possible intraspecific hybridization crossing programme. A reconnaissance
of white spruce stands of the North-Central Interior was also made as a preliminary
step to a spruce breeding programme. Tree improvement work for the Interior
will be centred at the new Red Rock nursery, where office and laboratory facilities
are being constructed.
A number of direct-seeding and planting trials were established. Survival of
the planted stock, in spite of a hot dry summer, averaged better than 95 per cent.
Kamloops Forest District
Direct-seeding studies continue to be an important part of the research effort
in the Wet Belt of the district. Plantations were established to study the altitudinal
effect on a specific provenance of spruce. Spacing trials of Engelmann spruce and
western larch were also established.
Nelson Forest District
The district was without a research officer in 1966, and the new appointee
was required to spend a considerable period in becoming familiar with the forest
types of the area. The change in personnel resulted in the loss of certain data on
cone-crop periodicity in the good cone year of 1966. The negligible cone crop this
year reduced the productivity of two projects dependent on natural seed production.
A spruce plantation trial involving five planting dates was established.
A cost-benefit study has been planned to investigate rehabilitation methods
suitable to the decadent cedar-hemlock stands of the Interior Wet Belt.
Data Processing
The year has been spent improving the system of official scale computing and
organ'zing further jobs for the I.B.M. 1440 system to handle.
 22
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The scalers' tally sheet and order of recording scale data has been reorganized
to simplify office procedures, and, as a result, output per key-punch operator has
been increased 40 to 50 per cent. The Scale and Royalty Account form has been
reorganized to simplify mailing and distribution. As a result of improvements made
and up-grading of staff performance, further efficiency has been achieved.
New programmes have been developed to compare check scales and rescales,
adjust stumpage changes on Vancouver log market prices, and supply management
with additional reports.
CANADA LAND INVENTORY
The Research Division continues to be associated with several Provincial and
Federal organizations in the British Columbia programme of the Canada Land
Inventory. During the past year, soil surveys were conducted in the Chilcotin-
Williams Lake area, the Okanagan, the East Kootenay, and the North-Central
Interior. Temporary climatic stations have been established to provide supplementary information in areas not served by official records.
A start is being made toward analysing the accumulated data in terms of
alternate land use. The Forest Service is contributing economic studies of the
forest resource.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
23
REFORESTATION DIVISION
FOREST NURSERIES
The year 1967 was one of considerable expansion in nursery facilities toward
the objective of producing 75,000,000 trees annually by 1975. It is therefore most
fitting that the Centenary of Canadian Confederation should be marked by the
official opening of two major nurseries—Koksilah and Red Rock.
There are now eight nurseries, composed of 19 different fields. This complex,
when fully developed, will provide 372 acres suitable for seedling production and an
additional 84 acres suitable only for transplant production.
Production of planting stock at the East Kootenay Nursery, located on Perry
Creek, was discontinued as economically impractical.
Twelve different areas, totalling 1,460 acres, were examined as to nursery suitability. This work will continue until a further 250 acres suitable for nursery are
located.
In the existing nurseries, 7,729 seed-beds were sown, with a planned production
of 29,300,000 seedlings. A further 1,820 beds were sown in Interior nurseries during the fall. The 1966/67 winter months were favourable for the over-wintering of
1-year-old stock, and complete coverage with irrigation kept damage from late spring
frosts to a minimum in this class of stock.
The growing season was characterized by below average precipitation and above
average temperatures. Heavier than normal irrigation prevented these conditions
from having much adverse effect on growth, with the result that 2-year trees were, on
the average, close to normal size.
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A significant occasion in the reforestation programme was the official opening of
new nurseries at Koksilah on Vancouver Island and Red Rock near Prince George. Here,
at official opening of Red Rock Nursery, are Mr. F. S. McKinnon, Deputy Minister of
Forests, left, and the Honourable Ray Williston, Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources.
 24 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Germination in the newly sown seed-beds was, on the whole, close to the desired
level. Some seed-lots for which there was insufficient time to complete germination
tests were either overstocked or very sparse. It is hoped that drill seeding, a technique tried on a production basis in 1966, will tend to reduce uneven stocking. The
apparent success of this method prompted its fairly widespread use at four nurseries
during the year. Considerable modification of the original seeder developed at
Duncan much improved its performance, and modifications made to the sand-
spreader adapted it to drill seeding. As a result, the efficiency of the sowing operation has been much improved. Six more drill seeders were constructed by the Duncan staff.
Since drill seeding lends itself to lateral root pruning, equipment for this purpose
was developed and successfully used, and a number of these units are being produced at Duncan.
Control of weeds continues to be a major item of nursery costs. The availability
of sufficient developed acreage to permit a return to fallowing should materially help
in reducing such costs.
For the first time, a rather extensive soil fumigation project was carried out
under the guidance of the Forest Research Laboratory of the Federal Department of
Forestry and Rural Development. This was undertaken to control a suspected
disease-nematode situation at the Koksilah Nursery and to evaluate the effectiveness
of several different materials. Results have not yet been analysed, but casual observations indicate that a small measure of weed control was achieved.
The Green Timbers Nursery reported a fairly high incidence in the first-year
seed-beds of a root condition locally known as " ropey root." Losses in the two-
year stock are estimated at 7 per cent. Several causal agencies are suspected. It is
believed that continuous cropping has contributed to the severity of the condition,
and that fallowing of the affected areas will help to alleviate it. Fallowing requires
development of considerable new nursery area. Much work has been done to this
end.
The new nursery-site on the Chilliwack River began production when 580 seedbeds were sown in the spring. Twelve more acres are now ready for the sowing of
another 1,800 seed-beds. At the new Campbell River Nursery, 18 acres were
cleared and made ready for seed-beds. Development continued at the Red Rock
Nursery, where area was prepared for 2,500 seed-beds, half of which were seeded
in the fall. A further 20 acres were cleared and 40 acres windrowed in preparation
for burning. About 6 acres were cleared of brush on the new Langley Nursery site
adjacent to Highway No. 401 in preparation for the sowing of seed-beds. This will
assist in placing Green Timbers back on proper rotation.
By the end of 1967, 178 acres of nursery land were in actual production, 63
acres prepared for sowing or transplanting, a further 97 acres partially developed,
and 146 acres available for future development.
IMPROVEMENTS
At the Green Timbers Nursery, 1,780 feet of drain tile was laid in a new
area which was under fallow, and other drainage facilities were improved.
The service building at Koksilah was enlarged and, in connection with the
official opening in August, a large rustic sign, designed and made by the Parks
Branch, was erected at the entrance. At the Duncan Nursery, replacement of the
original wood-stave irrigation mains and the domestic water-line with plastic pipe
was completed in the fall. An irrigation system for the new Campbell River Nursery
is under construction.   In the Chilliwack Valley, a mile-long 4-inch plastic water
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1967 25
main was placed underground to bring irrigation water from Pierce Creek to the
new site. Aluminum distribution mains were installed to service the prepared area.
Two prefabricated buildings, declared surplus by the Inventory Division, were
moved from the East Kootenay Nursery site to Rayleigh and re-erected to provide
an office and an implement-shed. At Telkwa, the seedling cold-storage room was
remodelled and the irrigation system improved.
The Red Rock Nursery and Research Centre was also officially opened in
August. Another appropriate entrance sign was erected to mark the Centennial
and the Festival of Forestry. A combined research-reforestation administration
building was completed to the closed-in stage. Nursery personnel are continuing
with some of the inside work. The Engineering Services Division designed and
constructed an earthen dam on Vienna Creek and installed the pumphouse and
mains to service the eastern half of the nursery. A 7-foot fence was erected around
the major portion of the property, including the reservoir area.
FOREST TREE SEED
Cone crops throughout the Province were negligible in general. However,
a collectable crop of Interior spruce occurred in a localized area centred around
Babine Lake, and Prince Rupert Forest District crews collected 1,404 bushels of
spruce cones, together with 882 bushels of lodgepole pine. This crop, considered
to be a carry-over from the 1966 bud set, deteriorated to the east, where crews in
the Prince George Forest District managed only small and scattered collections of
spruce, lodgepole pine, and Douglas-fir. In the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts, cone crops were very poor, but a small collection of lodgepole pine was
made in the Kamloops District. Altogether, 2,622 bushels of cones were collected.
The prospects for a better crop in 1968 appear promising.
The extraction of the 1966 collections was completed in March. The Forest
Service collection of 35,798 bushels yielded 19,649 pounds of seed, and collections
by industry (14,238 bushels), which were extracted by private plants, yielded 7,952
pounds of seed. Seventy-two per cent of the seed acquired is Coast Douglas-fir.
The extraction of this volume of cones taxed the extraction plant to the limit of its
capacity and was of considerable value in pointing up areas in which further improvements could be made. Some of these were carried out later in 1967 and will
be continued next year. Extraction of the 1967 collections was under way at the
end of the year, but a full report on yields will not be available until later in 1968.
The seed yield from cones picked in 1966 from six Coast seed production
areas amounted to 1,004 pounds, or an average of 36 pounds of seed per acre.
Three areas produced no cones at all. The Interior spruce seed production areas
produced flower buds in 1966, but only two areas in the Prince Rupert Forest
District produced what may be regarded as light crops. In the Nelson Forest
District, the Nakusp Seed Production Area produced 100 pounds of Douglas-fir seed
from 4.5 acres.
Some progress was made in the seed-orchard programme. Normal maintenance was carried out in the clonal portion of the Campbell River Seed Orchard,
and the larger clones were fertilized during the spring in hopes of stimulating a cone
crop in 1968. Half " sib " seedlings (that is, seedlings from wind-pollinated plus
trees) for the balance of the orchard are being grown by the Research Division,
and it is expected that these will be available within two years. At the Koksilah
Seed Orchard, filling and levelling was carried out with the co-operation of the
Department of Highways.
 26 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Following extraction of the 1966 cone harvest, the seed laboratory carried out
a total of 906 germination tests, each requiring 2.7 man-hours. Considerable time
was also spent bringing the seed records up to date. In connection with regular
nursery production, the seed requirements for 8,070 seed-beds was weighed out,
treated, and shipped to the various nurseries. This seed, together with smaller
withdrawals for research tests and miscellaneous shipments, totalled 675 kgs.
(1,496 pounds). The inventory of seed on hand at the end of the year approximates 15,400 kgs. (17 tons), most of which is Coast Douglas-fir. The supply of
Coast Douglas-fir seed for the Northern Mainland and spruce for the Prince George
and Prince Rupert Forest Districts is seriously low.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
With the co-operation of the Forest Inventory Division, a number of " backlog "
areas in the Southern Interior were examined to determine the extent of natural
restocking and the condition of unstocked portions. Field crews covered nine areas
in the Nelson Forest District and found that, of the 24,517 acres surveyed, 6,148
acres (25 per cent) are not satisfactorily restocked and, further, that only 2,985
acres are considered to be plantable. These crews also examined some 16,000 acres
in the Adams River drainage in the Kamloops District, where 7,543 acres (47 per
cent) was mapped as not satisfactorily restocked, including 6,236 acres of plantable
ground. In all, 9,221 acres were classified as unplantable owing mainly to a dense
cover of brush.
On Vancouver Island, Reforestation Division crews examined 12,983 acres
which were slash-burned during the period 1965-67 and prepared planting prescriptions for 9,190 acres (71 per cent) of this total. On the Mainland portion of the
Vancouver Forest District, ranger and district crews carried out plantability assessments on a further 41,882 acres, of which an estimated 60 per cent was classified as
in plantable condition.   Most of this is not expected to restock naturally.
PLANTING
The lack of rainfall in the southern portion of the Province during the spring,
together with an extended period of high temperatures and negligible precipitation
during the summer, is expected to have a significant effect on the plantations
established in the spring. However, the relatively dry period in May did favour
access to the planting areas, so that most projects were completed in good time.
The effect of the summer drought was severe enough to cause cancellation of a
number of Southern Interior projects in the fall. The northern portions of the
Province enjoyed moderate weather during the year, and no abnormal effects in
survival are anticipated.
As a result of cancelled autumn projects, the total of trees planted in 1967 is
less than in the preceding year. Returns from all agencies total 17,805,800 trees
planted on 48,579 acres, of which the Forest Service planted 5,836,400 trees on
12,886 acres. Despite a shortage of trained supervisory personnel and a lack of
crew accommodation in some areas, the Forest Service programme on the Coast
was increased to some 4,000,000 trees planted on over 9,000 acres {see Table No.
22, Summary of Planting).
To examine the possibilities of contract planting and to gain experience in its
administration, the Forest Service entered into several trial contracts for the reforestation of Crown lands in the Vancouver Forest District. Two commercial
contracts, totalling 282,000 trees, were awarded. An additional three contracts were
awarded to industry for planting some 200,000 trees in areas where extra crew
accommodation was unavailable.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 27
Trials were also carried out during the summer to test the effectiveness of
enclosing seedling roots in a mixture of clay and peat moss as protection against
drought. Results were sufficiently encouraging to warrant further trials on a larger
scale designed to improve survival and extend the planting season.
In connection with planting projects completed on Crown lands this year, 2,625
survival sample plots were established.
CO-OPERATION
Co-operation with other divisions and the forest districts continued at a high
level in 1967. The Engineering Services Division, in particular, was most helpful
in supervising the development work at Campbell River, Red Rock, and Chilliwack
River Nurseries. It also provided the necessary transport, together with the Inventory Division, for moving equipment and supplies as requested. Reforestation Division snag-fallers felled 82,503 snags on 882 acres of Crown land in the Vancouver
Forest District and cleared another 94 acres in co-operation with industry. This
crew was transferred to the Vancouver District late in the year.
In preparation for an expanding planting programme over the next few years,
two-day training courses were held in all forest districts for planting-crew foremen.
Although the majority attending were Forest Service personnel, industry was well
represented. Three men from the Chilcotin Indian School attended the Prince
George class. Instruction was given to students at the Forest Service training-school
and at the University of British Columbia.
Co-operation with industry continues to play an important part in the operation
of the Division. Attendance to matters in connection with Tree-farm Forestry Committees, the Reforestation Board, and the Tree Improvement Board have proven
mutually beneficial and will become more important as reforestation technology
expands. Visits to the Mesachie Lake Experiment Station and the Duncan Nursery
complex were conducted on a number of occasions, highlighted by the Festival of
Forestry tour of Pacific Rim foresters in November.
Interdepartmental Forestry and Correction Camp Programme
Since its inception in 1957, the Interdepartmental Forestry and Correction
Camp Programme has continually expanded, and at present involves nine camps
and four institutions, which supply some 700 men for a wide variety of forestry
projects. In 1967 some projects were curtailed by low inmate populations, priority
of other work, and the high fire hazard during the summer. However, the fire season also provided an opportunity for both the inmate fire-fighting crews and those
manning secondary lookouts to gain some experience. As in the past, Forest Service personnel gave instructions to correctional officers in fire-fighting techniques and
equipment. The establishment and operation of forest nurseries continues to occupy
the major portion of this programme, and co-operative nurseries now produce some
9,000,000 trees annually for field planting.
In the Chilliwack River valley, inmate crews constructed 2.5 miles of trail,
cleared 1.5 miles of forest-development road right-of-way, and maintained many
miles of road by slashing and burning roadside brush. The sawmill at Mount Thurston Camp produced 134,000 f.b.m. of lumber from logs salvaged out of the log jam
in the Chilliwack River from right-of-way clearing, and from a nearby snag-falling
project.
At the new Chilliwack Nursery site, inmate crews helped clear and stump 25
acres. At other nursery-sites in the Chilliwack Valley, 1,200,000 trees were lifted
and shipped to the Tamihi headquarters, where culling and packaging was done by
outside crews.   During the year, inmates planted 70,000 trees on 105 acres in the
 28 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Tamihi Creek valley. In other work, crews brushed out the 12-acre spacing trial,
and in conjunction with acquiring fuel-wood for the camps an additional 30 acres
of heavy brush land was cleared. Pierce Creek Camp served as the control centre
for all fire-fighting crews in the valley, and during the year these crews attended four
fires and patrolled constantly during periods of extreme hazard.
In the Campbell River area, inmates assisted with development of the new
nursery. In connection with this project, 3,500 feet of fencing was erected on posts
salvaged from the clearing, and 7,700 feet of pipe-line right-of-way was cleared to
a 30-foot width. At the Snowdon Nursery, 1,308,000 seedlings were transplanted
in the spring and assistance was provided in lifting 496,000 trees.
A portable sawmill acquired early in the year was utilized in conjunction with
the clearing of the new nursery area, and 35,000 f.b.m. of rough lumber was sawn
from the second-growth logs. In the Mud Lake area, crews from Lakeview Camp
recovered 390 squares of split shakes, 55 cords of shake-bolts, and 67,000 plot stakes
from cedar snags during the year. Other crews maintained roadside ditches and
culverts during periods of wet weather and slashed and burned 24 miles of roadside
brush. Five minor fires were fought and extinguished by inmate crews, and four
secondary lookouts were maintained during the high-hazard period. Two spacing
trials were established in the 1948 plantation near Morton Lake in co-operation with
the Research Division, and a 2-acre camp-site was prepared for the Inventory Division survey crew.
The stand treatment project at Haney was discontinued in 1967 owing to
security difficulties, and these crews were diverted to the task of preparing a new
20-acre nursery-site. A total of 42,000 trees was shipped from the Haney Nursery
and 363,000 seedlings were transplanted. Trainees from the Haney Correctional
Institute also continued road-maintenance projects, took action on four small fires,
and improved the loading-out area for the Alouette Lake salvage project. The
sawmill produced 113,774 f.b.m. out of the 1,327 logs salvaged from the lake.
In the Alouette Nursery, residents of the Alouette River Unit enlarged the
productive area by 7 acres and installed tile drains in the new area. Adjacent to
this field, an office for the forestry supervisor was built. Maximum-security trainees
produced 120,000 cedar stakes for plot work.
In the Kamloops Forest District, inmate crews from Rayleigh and Clearwater
attended to eight forest fires in three ranger districts. Clearwater crews also cut
3,640 7-foot cedar posts for various projects, and a Rayleigh crew made up 50
4- by 4-foot wire-mesh cages for grazing studies. Because of expansion at the
Rayleigh Nursery and the requirements of the camp farm, inmate crews were unable
to cope with the weed problem in the nursery, and outside crews were employed
during the latter part of the season. Lifting and shipping during the year totalled
430,000 trees, and 410,000 seedlings were transplanted in the spring. At the present time there are some 5,000,000 seedlings of various ages in this nursery.
Priority of work on the construction of the Hutda Lake Camp in the Prince
George Forest District resulted in less work being achieved in the forestry programme. Nevertheless, work continued on a smaller scale on a wide variety of
projects. Inmates from the main gaol planted 34,000 trees in the " Spruce " fire
after slashing over 8 miles of right-of-way on the Willow River Road during the
winter. These crews then continued clearing, burning, and soil-preparation work
at the Red Rock Nursery. The Hutda Lake Camp managed to provide crews for
Toad right-of-way clean-up and decking of logs in that area, and for the erection
and initial operation of the portable sawmill. In addition, these crews cut 913 fence-
posts and cleared some 50 acres of snags in the Clear Lake area.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 29
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION DIVISION
The year 1967 will be remembered by the Public Information and Education
Division as a time of unusually heavy activity, a period of diverse projects. It provided a strong contrast to those years where the Annual Report traced a normal
activity pattern and brought a series of encounters and challenges that fully tested
the ability of the Division to be flexible in meeting new situations.
The fact that it was Canada's Centennial Year was reflected in the heavy
demand for historically oriented forestry material. Clubs and municipal bodies,
news media, and private citizens all sought special assistance, requiring time-
consuming research.
A summer almost completely devoid of rain brought the most dangerous and
protracted fire season in the history of the Province. This had to be met with a
public information campaign designed to maintain a high level of public awareness
to encourage the exercise of maximum caution in the woods.
The establishment of two new Forest Service nurseries at Red Rock, near
Prince George, and Koksilah, outside Duncan, provided interesting problems in
planning and carrying out formal opening ceremonies.
NEWS RELEASES AND SPECIAL ARTICLES
At the peak of the forest fire season, the Division was receiving up to 35 news
media requests for information each day. To assist the Division in meeting this
demand, the Forest Protection Division compiled fire reports twice a day, covering
the forest fire situation throughout the Province.
In addition to the verbal releases made in response to telephone inquiries from
newspapers, radio, and television, regular weekly fire reports were made and a total
of 24 special releases were written in connection with various closures and campfire-
permit suspensions.
Other releases throughout the year covered a wide variety of subjects involving
major activities of the Forest Service, including the Canadian Centennial openings
of the two new forest nurseries at Red Rock and Koksilah.
Requests from trade journals and newspapers issuing special editions on forestry activity were of a general nature, with a continuing interest being shown in the
development of the pulp and paper industry, although this was not as intense as that
shown during the previous year.
Apart from the verbal releases and weekly fire reports, there were over 60 written releases, features, and special articles prepared in the Division during the year.
PHOTOGRAPHY
During 1967 the demand for photographs continued on the expanding scale
established in 1966. The Photographic Section's ability to meet these demands
without additional funds is questionable. High silver values forced a 16-per-cent
price increase on all silver-bearing photo materials, this in addition to normal annual
price increases.   A total of 13,883 prints was produced.
Five hundred and forty-six negatives were added to the photo library, 96 less
than in 1966. As in previous years, proof prints of these were sent to the five forest
district headquarters. Prince George and Nelson Forest Districts are noted as the
major users of these through the year.
The 35-mm. slide collection had increased use. One hundred and fifty duplicates were made for Forest Service use in exhibits and lectures, and to fill outside
 30 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
requests.   A total of 550 original slides was taken, the bulk of these being for use by
the Forest Inventory and Research Divisions.
Special assignments included coverage of the manufacture of glulam beams and
their use in construction of the Bulkley River crossing of the Suskwa Forest Development Road; " Cat " and chain clearing, and use of hydraulic shears in clearing and
logging in the Findlay River section of the Peace River pondage; the Stellako River
log drive, and techniques used in Douglas-fir grafting. One project alone, the photographing of volume decay study samples, required 440 separate photographs. One
major assignment for the Engineering Services Division necessitated printing of a
total of 3,190 8 x 10 prints from 70-mm. fixed-base air photos taken of the Stellako
River log drive and Peace pondage clearing projects.
In the continuing Inventory Division 70-mm. fixed-base air photo programme,
1,897 stereo-positives were made, a big increase over the 322 made in 1966. For
the Research Division, 524 X-rays were processed, compared with 110 in 1966.
The Photographic Section supplied various news media with illustrative material on a world-wide basis. Requests from within the Province leaned heavily
toward historical subjects befitting the Centennial Year.
Motion-picture Production
A total of 11,100 feet of colour film was used, requiring considerable air and
road travel.
The Forest Service film " Forest Highways " was completed early in the year
and sounded during April. Due to lack of funds for purchase of library prints, full
distribution of this film was delayed. It is now being distributed on a world-wide
basis by the National Film Board.
As a Centennial project, the Division co-operated with the Forest Service
museum custodian and produced a 12-minute film "Change of Pace." The basis
of the film was old colour footage shot by Forest Service personnel during the 1930's
and early 1940's. Additional modern footage was shot during the spring. The film
was reduced on to sound striped 8-mm. for showing at the Festival of Logging
exhibit at the Pacific National Exhibition.
A new film, "Up in Smoke," was completed during the 1967 fire season and
sounding commenced in December. This subject was expected to be ready for
showing early in 1968.
In the spring, two short safety films were shot and edited for the Inventory
Division's use in its training programme. The subjects covered were safe crossing
of rivers on foot, and flotation qualities of several types of life-jackets. These are
silent clips, and the first two in a projected programme. During December a short
sequence was filmed to show how the self-inflating life-raft used on some Forest
Service vessels actually works. This is to be edited as a silent segment as soon as
staff time is available.
Film Library
The use of the film library showed a marked increase over the previous year.
One example was the 20-per-cent increase in the total audience over the previous
year. In some cases, as with the films " Forest Highways " and " Change of Pace,"
demand far exceeded the ability to supply.
The major demand remained in elementary and secondary schools, and in
training institutes.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 31
Films on permanent loan to British Columbia Houses in London and San
Francisco showed a definite increase in use. In 1967 their combined audience was
5,740, an increase of almost 100 per cent over the previous year.
See Table No. 31 in Appendix.
SCHOOL LECTURE PROGRAMME
The school lecture programme for 1967 saw an increase in the number of
students attending the lectures.
More than 17,649 attended the 112 lectures in the 100 schools visited in the
Vancouver and Kamloops Forest Districts.
There was a change in school lecturers as a result of the former lecturer leaving
to join another department.
See Table No. 32 in the Appendix.
SIGNS
A comprehensive evaluation of the entire sign programme was undertaken in
1967. The goal of this investigation is to determine the feasibility of continuing the
programme in view of rising production costs and lack of increase in the annual
allotment to meet them. Also included is a survey considering the continued usefulness of some of the signs that have been used over the years (design, etc.).
The highway sign-painting programme ("Keep B.C. Green—-Use Your Ashtray ") was continued for the 14th consecutive year. Colour and layout innovations
were again used to further promote public interest. One hundred and twenty signs
were painted. Highway construction, urban development, and centre-line changes
are making it increasingly difficult to maintain signs on the exits from populated
areas.
The maintenance and supervision of the Forest Service sign programme was
continued.
LIBRARY
Interlibrary loans, researched and completed by the staff, continue to grow in
number, reaching an all-time high of 265. This service requires a considerable
amount of research.
The library now has grown to the point that all available shelf space is being
utilized, necessitating the storage of some material in boxes. This factor is a definite
handicap to the efficient operation of the library.
The librarian visited the Nelson Forest District to assist in organizing the
material available to the foresters in that district.
The staff would like to express its appreciation to the library staffs of the Provincial Library, the University of Victoria, Canada Department of Forestry and
Rural Development, and Canada Department of Agriculture Experimental Farm,
Saanichton, for their continuing co-operation.
EXHIBITS
The Forest Service's interest in exhibitions was dominated by the extensive
Government commitment to the Pacific National Exhibition " Festival of Forestry,"
which was initiated to familiarize the general public with the importance of the
Province's forest resource A special advisory committee which guided " Festival "
was comprised of representatives from industry, education, and government. This
committee's main contribution was the co-sponsorship of the " Festival of Forestry "
 32 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
at the Pacific National Exhibition, an event which in 1967 attracted more than a
quarter-million visitors for the second consecutive year. This committee, on which
the Forest Service was represented, also supported a congress of 33 forestry students
from 16 Pacific Rim countries, a tree-planting programme in downtown Vancouver,
and a loggers' breakfast, also in Vancouver, which was attended by thousands.
The Forest Service undertook an ambitious scheme of constructing a typical
lookout tower and display complex in the exhibition's section of the Loggers' Show
at the Pacific National Exhibition. The display section had as its theme " Half a
Century of Progress."
A 30-foot lookout tower was constructed and manned during the three-week
period of the Pacific National Exhibition. The Forest Service entry proved a top
attraction, drawing good crowds each day. It was estimated that more than 40,000
persons visited the display complex, with 32,000 touring the lookout.
The Service was fortunate in obtaining the services of two ex-employees who
manned the tower during peak visiting periods.
In addition to the display panels, and the lookout, the film "Change of Pace"
was projected.
The Forest Service also participated in numerous teachers' conventions, fall
fairs, major exhibitions, and numerous miscellaneous gatherings.
The Service's permanent exhibit in the British Columbia Building, Vancouver,
was maintained, and during the year it was estimated that more than 100,000 visitors
toured the building in which the exhibit is housed.
ADVERTISING
The Forest Service's paid advertising programme was restricted to a standard
campaign of radio announcements over all radio stations in the Province, a series of
protection slides over the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's Provincial television
network, and a limited number of display advertisements which were authorized by
the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce.
Because of its adaptability, radio continues to be the communication media
most utilized by the Service for paid advertising. Fortunately the Province's radio
industry, which is made up of 34 radio stations, has been extremely generous in
supplementing the more than 3,000 announcements sponsored by the Forest Service.
The standard radio campaign was composed of one-minute taped announcements
which were scheduled for broadcast each Friday, Saturday, and Sunday during the
months of July and August. Special hazard flashes were prepared and made available to each station and, because of the extreme 1967 fire season, the Ranger staff
made full use of this special allotment.
In co-operation with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, a series of slides
was prepared and broadcast in prime viewing time during the months of July and
August. Unfortunately, television advertising is expensive, and the Forest Service's
restricted budget makes it impossible to take advantage of this medium for broadcasting protection messages. Again it was because of the excellent public service
attitude of the television industry that a good number of forest-protection announcements were televised during the summer.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 33
FOREST MANAGEMENT DIVISION
Total production for 1967 dropped 1.8 per cent from the record high set in
1966. A breakdown of the production figures by forest districts, however, shows
that while the scale was down in some districts, new records were set in others.
In the Interior of the Prince Rupert Forest District, the timber scale increased
21 per cent, and production in the Prince George Forest District rose approximately
7V_t per cent. At the same time, production in the Kamloops and Nelson Forest
Districts fell approximately 9 per cent and 22 per cent respectively. These variations
are attributed to the fact that the heavy fire season hit hardest in the southern
portion of the Province, and to the I.W.A. strike, which was confined almost
entirely to the Southern Interior.
Production of Douglas-fir fell off sharply, and the volumes of cedar and spruce
also showed a decline. On the other hand, lodgepole pine, hemlock, and balsam
continued the increase noted in 1966. The increase is largely attributed to pulp-
mill demands.
It is interesting to note that the scale from Crown-granted lands, timber licences,
leases, berths, etc., which carry relatively low fixed rates or no rates at all, rose by
nearly 15,000,000 cubic feet. At the same time, the scale from Crown lands under
timber sales, tree-farm licences, etc., which carry appraised rates, dropped
44,000,000 cubic feet.
In the spring of 1967, the logging industry was introduced to the new concept
of the timber sale harvesting licence. The principal objective of this form of licence
is to permit the operator to play a larger role in the management of the public
sustained-yield unit and at the same time provide him with as much flexibility as
possible. Basically, to obtain a timber sale harvesting licence, an operator must
be prepared to make available his total allowable annual cut in a unit. The licence,
which is advertised in the usual manner, with bidding protection, is for a 10-year
period and provides the licensee with the right to apply for cutting permits in
accordance with his allowable annual cut and with an approved development plan
prepared and submitted by him.
In the Kamloops Forest District, the " Mag " fire covered some 52,000 acres
and burned an estimated 45,000,000 cubic feet of Crown timber and 3,000,000
cubic feet of private timber. Of this volume, 27,000,000 cubic feet of salvage
timber were sold under timber sale licences. A further 11,000,000 cubic feet of
fire-damaged timber were also sold, covering most of the other fires which had
salvable volumes.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber Prices
The demand for lumber, which had fallen off in the last quarter of 1966, firmed
up early in 1967 and selling prices started to increase. By mid-year the selling
prices reported to the Forest Service by the mills in the Interior had recovered from
the late 1966 decline. The market remained firm throughout 1967, and selling
prices continued to increase, to establish new high levels by the end of the year.
Production during the last quarter was curtailed by the strike which closed
some of the mills in the Central and Southern Interior regions for periods up to
three months, carrying over into the new year at some plants in the Southern Interior.
The loss in lumber production resulting from this strike may possibly have contributed to the high selling prices that were being received at the end of the year.   It is
 34
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
unlikely, however, that that loss would have that much significance in the total
market, and, at the year's end, it was anticipated prices would stabilize for a time
at the present level.
1967 Uncorrected Quarterly Average Dressed-lumber Prices (Interior)
Jan.-Mar.
Apr.-
Tune
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.i
Species
Basis
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis
M B.M.
Average
Price
114,695
299,594
19,608
15,887
2,047
2,211
$63.38
62.27
63.14
60.45
106.45
66.17
176,682
366,550
20,338
26,888
5,249
8,546
$67.07
64.55
67.88
67.32
111.07
63.49
190,778
374,456
17,334
25,146
6,390
10,841
$71.65
67.49
69.71
71.63
107.08
68.07
45,324
195,289
3,619
7,104
$74.86
Spruce	
Cedar	
67.98
69.85
70.68
White pine—	
1 The figures for the fourth quarter reflect the effect of the strike in the Southern Interior.    No collections
were made from this area during this period.
Log Prices
The selling prices for logs in the Howe Sound market, which had fallen sharply
in the last quarter of 1966, recovered in the second quarter of 1967 and remained
high for the balance of the year.
1967 Quarterly Average Log Prices per M B.M. (Howe Sound Market)
No. 3 GRADE
Species
Jan.-Mar.
Apr-June
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.
Fir  	
Cedar	
$62.70
40.96
50.40
41.47
50.52
43.06
$64.08
44.34
55.28
39.45
53.49
45.28
$62.87
45.60
57.55
40.67
56.20
43.63
$64.08
44.55
58.87
Balsam ._
Spruce         	
White pine
41.87
57.60
43.36
ALL GRADES
Fir  _ 	
Cedar	
$74.39
47.67
52.14
51.72
61.68
48.86
$76.00
50.65
57.65
56.89
61.59
50.25
$78.52
50.70
59.39
58.32
64.46
49.12
$78.09
51.30
60.71
Balsam	
Spruce.—                                                                 ..   .....
59.15
63.99
48.43
Stumpage Prices
The average stumpage price bid for Crown timber was $3.21 per 100 cubic
feet. The timber included those licences that required operation to the close-
utilization standard, where the price is established by pro-rating the appraised
rate with a standard 55 cents rate for the close-utilization component. Also included
were those sales sold at " salvage value only " rates. This price was significantly
below the 1966 figure of $4.25 per 100 cubic feet. Average figures for the years
1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, and 1965 were $2.53, $3.01, $3.36, $4.09, and $4.20
respectively.
The weighted average stumpage price per 100 cubic feet bid for licences in
the Interior fell from $3.72 to $2.58. The comparable average price for licences
on the Coast fell from $6.76 to $6.03.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1967 35
The two factors which have the greatest influence on the appraisal of the value
of the timber are the estimated cost of conversion and the value of the products.
The sale value of the products must cover all conversion costs; that is, the cost of
extraction and processing, including stumpage, and a reasonable profit. Therefore,
it follows that, after provision has been made for anticipated costs and a reasonable
profit, the remaining portion of the sale value is the indicated or appraised stumpage
value. With this system of appraisal, a small change in selling price, or in the
estimated cost of conversion, has a substantial effect on the stumpage value.
This reduction in the bid prices during 1967 resulted from the low selling
prices for logs on the Coast and dressed lumber in the Interior that were applicable
for stumpage appraisals in the first half of the year. It also resulted from the effect
on operating costs of the cost inflation that occurred during 1966.
The average stumpage prices per 100 cubic feet for all species, including close
utilization and salvage wood, was $6.09 for the Coast, down from $6.76 in 1966;
and $3.10 for the Interior, down from $4.21 in 1966.
See Table No. 67 in the Appendix.
Stumpage Adjustment
The schedule system of stumpage adjustment, which provides for a change in
rate whenever the selling price changes by at least $5 from the selling price on
which the last effective rate was based, which has been offered as an option to the
older sliding-scale method of stumpage adjustment in November 1, 1966, was made
obligatory for use with all timber sale licences sold after March 1, 1967. The
sliding-scale system will be continued for the term of existing licences, along with
the option to convert to the schedule method.
During 1967 there were 2,148 downward adjustments—1,747 under the
sliding-scale method and 401 under the schedule method. These downward
adjustments occurred during the first half of the year. Subsequently there were
4,300 upward adjustments—2,131 under the sliding-scale method and 2,169
under the schedule method.
The stumpage pricing system is now very sensitive to fluctuations in selling
price and, with the provision for reassessment of operating costs every two years,
which is a part of the schedule method, stumpage rates payable and, consequently,
forest revenues are very vulnerable to changes in costs and prices.
PEACE RIVER FLOOD BASIN
During the year two salvage sales were issued in the Finlay River area of the
flood basin, involving approximately 40,000,000 cubic feet. Good logging conditions prevailed during the year, and production showed a very considerable increase
over previous years. The total volume scaled for 1967 was 26,552,000 cubic feet,
compared to the 14,890,000 cubic feet scaled in 1966.
COLUMBIA FLOOD BASIN
The Duncan Dam was completed and the lake-level raised during the year,
and there were no timber salvage operations conducted. British Columbia Hydro
and Power Authority commenced a driftwood-disposal programme.
Timber salvage operations within the proposed High Arrow flood basin were
completed for the most part in 1966, and only a relatively minor volume of clean-up
was recorded in 1967. A total of 72,137 cubic feet was scaled, compared to over
1,000,000 feet in 1966.    Clearing operations carried out under contracts let by
 36 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority progressed very well, and good burning results were obtained toward the end of the fire season.
In the Mica Dam flood area, the production figure of 6,047,246 cubic feet was
less than a third of the 1966 production. This drop was largely due to the fact that
the more accessible and higher-grade stands have already been logged.
CLOSE UTILIZATION
The close-utilization policy, introduced at the beginning of 1966, requires that
either the round log be delivered to a pulp-mill or the sawmill processing the log be
equipped with a barker and chipper so that the chips can be made available to a
pulp-mill. Thus close utilization is dependent upon the demand for supplies by
the pulp-mill industry. Plans for the establishment of pulp-mills in several areas
of the Province have been held up temporarily for various reasons. As a result,
close-utilization timber sales are almost entirely confined to the Prince George and
Kamloops Forest Districts. In the Prince George District, 56 sales were issued on
a close-utilization basis out of a total of 246 sales awarded during the year. In the
Kamloops District, 22 new close-utilization sales were awarded and 32 existing sales
were converted to close-utilization standards. In the Vancouver Forest District, 23
existing contracts were amended and five new ones were issued to close-utilization
standards.
Twelve tree-farm licences are now wholly or partly operating to close-utilization
standards.   This is double the number for 1966.
As previously mentioned, close utilization requires the installation of barkers
and chippers. This has been responsible in large part for the steady increase in the
number of barkers and chippers. There are now 197 mills with chippers, and 164
with barkers.
The reported production of chips in the Prince George District during the year
was approximately 500,000 bone-dry units. In the Kamloops District, production
was estimated at 485,000 units.
SUSTAINED-YIELD PROGRAMME
Public Sustained-yield Units
There were no major changes in public sustained-yield units during the year.
There were some minor changes in productive acreages and mature volumes, but
these resulted from completion of new inventories for some units.
Pulp Harvesting Forests
The number of pulp harvesting forests remained unchanged, at a total of 21.
Tree-farms
The number of certified tree-farms dropped by one during the year to 45.
Of this number, it is interesting to note that 34 are in the Vancouver Forest District
and that 11 of these are included within tree-farm licences. Although the number
of tree-farms decreased, the total estimated productive capacity rose 29 per cent.
This increase was due primarily to several tree-farm licences, which contain tree-
farms, being placed on a close-utilization basis and the allowable cuts being recalculated accordingly.
Tree-farm Licences
The amalgamation of Tree-farm Licences Nos. 28, 29, and 30 was completed
on November 23, 1967.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 37
Tree-farm Licence No. 11 was assigned to Boundary Sawmills Ltd. on May 23,
1967. Tree-farm Licence No. 17 was assigned to British Columbia Forest Products
Limited on July 31, 1967.
SILVICULTURE
The stand treatment programme again played an important role in the natural
regeneration of British Columbia's forests.
Stand treatment was practised by all forest districts, the principal objective
being to attain natural regeneration. The cutting methods employed involved strips,
groups, patches, or single seed trees.
All Interior forest districts were active in developing scarification programmes
for seed-bed preparation. In the Prince George Forest District 10,854 acres were
scarified, bringing the total acreage scarified to 80,362 acres. The average cost
per acre was reduced to $11.39 per acre. Some of the scarification was carried out
under contract to the Forest Service, and some was done under the conditions of
timber-sale contracts.
A site-rehabilitation project was established in a cedar-hemlock type in the
Blaeberry River watershed near Golden. A total of 455 acres was cleared before
the end of the year by machine. Areas unsuited to mechanical equipment were hand-
felled. Further clearing and burning will continue in 1968, with planting scheduled
for 1969.
SCALING
The number of weight-scaling stations in the Interior increased from 37 to 43.
The percentage of volume scaled by this method increased accordingly. The number of weigh-scales in each forest district was as follows:
Number of Per Cent of
Forest District Weigh-scales District Scale
Prince Rupert (Interior)      3 C1)
Prince George  19 36
Kamloops   16 36
Nelson      5 (i)
i Not compiled.
Eighty-one scaling licences were issued.
In the Coastal region, weight scaling for official purposes was confined to one
company.
 38 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
GRAZING DIVISION
General Conditions
The prolonged hot, dry weather which prevailed through most of the forage
production period had a profound effect on ranch and range operations. However,
there were some compensating factors which, together with considerable adjustment,
enabled the range live-stock industry to complete the year in reasonable condition.
Supervision of Crown range by the Forest Service suffered to some degree as a
result of field-staff preoccupation with the difficult fire situation.
Except in the Peace River area, the winter of 1966/67 was moderate, winter
feed supplies were adequate, and stock was in generally good condition on being
turned out on the range. Range forage production was adversely affected by the
weather, particularly at low elevations. Less than normal beef gains were general,
but stock was in reasonable condition when removed from most ranges. Hay production was variable, depending on the availability of irrigation, but was of
uniformly high quality.
Cattle prices averaged a little higher than the previous year. However, labour,
machinery, and material costs also continued to rise, and the industry in general
is definitely experiencing a cost/price squeeze. Many ranches continue to be
uneconomic due to overcapitalization, lack of size, unsuitable location with adverse
physical conditions, and lack of range. Suitable ranch labour was difficult to obtain.
This situation was accentuated in some areas where casual labour required for
haying and similar seasonal activities was engaged in fire-fighting.
For the first time in a considerable number of years, the number of cattle on
Crown range failed to increase, remaining at approximately the same level as the
previous year. Range sheep production again declined and remains an insignificant
factor in the use of Crown range.
Range
On virtually all range types, growth was considerably delayed by low early-
season temperatures throughout most of the range country. This was particularly
the case in the Peace River area, where the heavy snow pack was very late in
disappearing. The delay in spring growth, together with the following drought and
high temperatures, seriously reduced forage production on low-elevation ranges,
particularly on those in poor condition or on light soils. Some clip plots indicated
forage production at only 65 per cent of that for 1966. Moderately stocked ranges
in good condition, although overutilized this year, are not expected to suffer any
permanent ill effects. Forest and alpine ranges at higher elevations were not so
severely affected, and were less so in a northerly direction. For the second year in
succession, the severe drought drastically reduced forage production on the seeded
pastures in the Peace River area, particularly at Cecil Lake, where use had to be
directed to the undeveloped bush areas for a major part of the grazing season.
The lack of summer precipitation, following a relatively light snow pack on
many ranges, resulted in some normally reliable water sources becoming dry. This
created stock distribution problems which resulted in uneven utilization of the ranges
involved. Also, the water level in many swamps and ponds was so reduced that
they became hazardous mud-holes. Biting insects were particularly numerous in
some areas and made live-stock control difficult. Only one or two herds had to be
moved as a direct result of the fire situation. However, these and other results of
the hot, dry weather made the management of stock particularly difficult on many
ranges, and in some cases necessitated early removal. Conversely, on other range:
the mild, open fall made final round-up difficult.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 39
On the average, throughout the range area, losses due to toxic plants and
predatory animals appeared to be less than normal. However, there were several
local areas where particularly severe losses were suffered through plant poisoning.
Similarly, bears caused difficulties in several localities, notably the Vernon-Lumby
area and the Peace River pastures. Wolves were also a serious problem on the
latter. No disease problems necessitating radical changes in range use occurred,
but management was disrupted in some areas due to the need to treat animals for
various infections, notably infectious pinkeye. Some stock losses through suspected
theft were reported. Where rights-of-way remain unfenced, rail and highway accidents involving live stock continued to occur. Although the fencing programme
being carried out by the Department of Highways and grazing permittees is improving this situation, a great deal more fencing is required to solve this problem.
Hay
Hay production was above average where irrigation was practised and water
supplies were adequate. Also, many natural meadows, normally flooded during the
haying season, dried up sufficiently to permit harvesting for the first time in many
years. On the other hand, production on unirrigated hay land was below normal.
On balance, winter feed supplies are adequate in all but a few limited areas. Hay
quality is particularly high as a result of ideal harvesting conditions.
Markets and Prices
Cattle prices were variable during the year but averaged higher than in 1966.
The weighted average price received by cattlemen through the British Columbia
Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association was $22.01 per hundredweight,
compared to $20.74 in 1966, a rise of $1.27. Reliable average price figures for
sheep and lambs marketed from the range area are no longer available.
RANGE MANAGEMENT
A higher level of management is required than that now being practised on
most Crown ranges. Associated land uses are increasing in intensity, making
improved forage and stock management practices mandatory to avoid conflicts.
Further, the demand for range land for totally incompatible uses, such as residential
and industrial sites, is rising. The total area available for grazing is thus decreasing.
Most Crown ranges are stocked to capacity under present levels of management,
and the demand for use exceeds properly allowable limits in most areas. This situation, more than any other, is responsible for the lack of increased use this year.
The productive potential of a range is normally limited by uncontrollable factors such as soil quality and climate. However, even on range sites in their natural
condition, how much of the potential can be safely harvested on a sustained-yield
basis depends to a large degree on how and when the forage is utilized. Furthermore, manipulation of the plant cover by introducing superior species or by removing unproductive plants to more closely approach the forage-producing potential is
possible in many situations. In some cases, even the site factors may be altered by
such practices as fertilization and water-spreading—-a rough form of irrigation.
The extent to which range management and development practices can be
applied is, of course, limited by both economic feasibility and available technical
knowledge. However, there is no doubt that, at this time, there is sufficient knowledge available which, if applied, would considerably increase forage production and
utilization on an economic basis on most Crown ranges. Progress toward this goal
continues to be retarded by a shortage of staff for range management and develop-
 40 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ment planning and for carrying out a programme to develop the necessary knowledge on the part of range users. Also a deterrent is the lack of long-term land-use
planning, which results in range units being dismembered. Nevertheless, some
progress is being made, and there is a rapidly growing interest on the part of
grazing permittees.
During the year, range readiness and growth progress observations were extended to new areas and continued in others. On the basis of such studies, turnout
dates were adjusted on several ranges. A two-week delay in turnout date in the
southerly portion of the East Kootenay Valley was successfully implemented. This
undoubtedly will result in improved forage production and ultimately make possible
increased rates of stocking. Range inspections were made and management plans
developed for a number of ranges and discussed with permittees. An increased
number of joint field investigations with other agencies were carried out to determine
the effect on other land uses, particularly wildlife and coniferous regeneration.
Grazing use was modified where desirable. Numerous slide talks on range management themes were given at association meetings and other gatherings of range users.
Range Surveys
As a necessary prelude to intensified range management and improvement, a
considerably expanded range survey programme was undertaken in 1967. Field
work undertaken covered the West Pavilion Unit, Lillooet Stock Range; Coutlee
Plateau Unit, Nicola Stock Range; and Tatton, Dingwall, and McKinley Units, Lac
la Hache Stock Range. Field work was commenced but not completed on the Big
Creek and Inonoaklin Stock Ranges and the Coldwater-Iron Mountain Unit of
Nicola Stock Range. Maps and reports were in preparation during the latter part
of the year.
Range Improvements
During 1967, $89,104.57 was spent from the Range Improvement Fund.
Material to the value of $17,268.87 was on hand at the beginning of the year, and
material valued at $20,912.70 remained on hand and not assigned to projects at the
end of the year. Net assistance to the range improvement programme thus was
$85,460.74, the highest of any year to date. During the year, emphasis was placed
on field investigations and planning necessary for an intensified improvement
programme.
The following projects, chargeable wholly or in part to the Fund, were constructed or extensively rehabilitated: 24 cattle-guards, 40 drift fences, 1 holding-
ground, 1 mud-hole fence, 15 stock trails, 22 water developments, 1 weed control,
and numerous range seedings. In addition, a number of projects of a trial nature
were undertaken and are referred to later in this section.
Permittees also contributed extensively to most of the projects listed above,
mainly in the form of labour. In addition, the following projects were authorized
for construction entirely at. permittee expense: 3 breeding-pastures, 2 cattle-guards,
10 corrals, 20 drift fences, 4 special-purpose enclosures, 1 holding-ground, 1 pasture development, 8 stock trails, and 5 water developments.
The special trial projects, referred to above, included the use of fire in an effort
to control both sagebrush and bitter-brush. Trials were also carried out to determine
the practicability of controlling various species of brush and weeds by chemical
sprays, under range conditions. Much basic data is available on both the use of
fire and chemicals, but many practical problems remain to be solved in connection
with their effective and safe use under range conditions in this Province. Measures
to control beaver, which are causing flooding of many valuable meadows, were also
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 41
undertaken in two areas. These show initially promising results. Fertilizer application, on a practical scale, was undertaken on one site in the East Kootenay Valley.
Again initial results are promising, but the economic feasibility of this practice will
depend on the carry-over effect of the fertilizer to future years. Studies on improvements to various types of range structures, such as cattle-guards and fences, were
continued. In all of the above work there was close collaboration with other divisions of the Forest Service and outside agencies, notably the Fish and Wildlife
Branch.
The range seeding programme involved the use of 54,465 pounds of grass and
legume seed in 1967, compared to 52,080 pounds in 1966. The bulk of this seed,
41,565 pounds, was sown on denuded ground resulting from logging and other
industrial activity on Crown range. The remainder, 12,900 pounds, was aerially
seeded on 2,150 acres of useable Crown range which had been devastated by fire.
With the exception of the aerial seeding, most seeding was undertaken by cooperating permittees with seed, equipment, and supervision being supplied by the
Service. Owing to weather conditions, only a minor amount of seeding on depleted
grassland was undertaken using the Rangeland drill. Observations indicated that
the extreme drought conditions had a severely adverse effect on the dry range seed-
ings undertaken in 1966. Even if not destroyed, these earlier seedings will be seriously delayed in reaching full establishment.
Peace River Pastures
Seven developed or partially developed pastures were in operation in 1967.
Improved pasture, resulting from past clearing, breaking, and seeding, is confined
to 4,800 acres on three pastures. Two other pastures have extensive structural
improvements, such as fencing, trails, and water developments. The remaining two
have only a small amount of fencing designed to hold stock on parts of them.
No further improved pasture was developed during the year. However, 17
miles of new or replacement fencing and 27 miles of trail were built. One new
corral was constructed and another extended. Three new stock-watering dugouts
were established. Existing improvement structures received normal maintenance.
A total of $23,834.44 was spent on this work. In addition, an uneconomic farm
unit in the centre of the Groundbirch Pasture was purchased under the Agricultural
Rehabilitation and Development Act, with the Federal Government bearing half the
cost of $7,500. This will simplify the management of this pasture and increase its
value considerably.
As indicated earlier, extremely dry conditions greatly reduced forage production, particularly on the cultivated portion of the Cecil Lake Pasture, where stock
had to be confined to the bush areas for a substantial part of the grazing season.
On all other pastures, feed was more than adequate for the stock offered. For the
first time, stock was confined entirely to the cultivated portion of the Beatton-Doig
Pasture. Brush regeneration on the developed pastures continues to be a problem,
and plans were formulated for a control programme with the co-operation of the
Beaverlodge Research Station.
In 1967, 90 permittees grazed 2,129 cattle and 53 horses within pasture projects, compared to 78 permittees, 2,091 cattle, and 39 horses the previous year.
The small increase, which was very much less than anticipated, is the result of a
number of factors. Most permittees or potential permittees are conducting mixed-
farming enterprises involving relatively small herds of cattle which, more often than
not, are a minor part of their operations. They can get into and out of stock relatively easily.   Two successive years of extremely severe winters and dry summers
 42 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
have resulted in many of these operators going out of cattle temporarily owing to
winter feeding difficulties. Also, many grain crops were so unpromising that they
were grazed by stock which would otherwise have been in the pasture projects.
However, a return to normal conditions, together with the continuing decrease in
Crown range available outside of the pastures, undoubtedly will result in increased
demand for pasture use.
Pasture managers again were employed in three pastures. Permittees paid an
assessment, in addition to grazing fees, for the herding services supplied by the
Forest Service.
CO-OPERATION
There now are 66 range live-stock associations recognized under the provisions
of the Grazing Act. These organizations continue to be the best means of maintaining the necessary liaison between the Forest Service and range users. During
the year, a total of 206 association or sub-group meetings were attended by Forest
Officers to discuss range management and improvement problems. The boundaries
of several association areas were extended to include formerly unorganized range
units.
Close contact was maintained with the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers'
Association on subjects of industry-wide importance, notably in connection with
the revised scale of grazing fees and broad planning for the implementation of more
intensive range management and development. The association continues to actively
promote improved range practices by member associations. The British Columbia
Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association again supplied the live-stock price
figures necessary for the sliding scale of fees. This producer-owned marketing
agency sold approximately 43,200,000 pounds of beef animals from the range area
during the year. The Forest Service also enjoyed excellent co-operation from, and
working arrangements with, a considerable number of Provincial and Federal agencies in connection with a variety of range problems.
ADMINISTRATION
Although the use of Crown range for grazing purposes remained virtually static
in 1967, the administrative load increased. This was due to a continued intensification of associated and often conflicting uses of the same land, such as for watershed, timber production, wildlife, and general recreation purposes. During the year,
increased consultation and correspondence with the other responsible agencies and
the public were necessary to minimize resulting conflicts. Numerous outside influences, such as heavier traffic requiring the control of stock drift on to highways,
added to the complexity of administration.
Unplanned land settlement was an increasing problem. Throughout the main
range area there is little Crown land suitable for a form of agriculture not dependent
on the use of Crown range. However, there are many areas, such as natural meadows, which appear to prospective settlers to be suitable for development as the
nuclei for new ranching operations. Almost invariably, these areas are already fully
used by existing ranch operators for summer grazing and are usually only marginally suitable for cultivation and settlement owing to altitude, insufficient size, and
isolation. Alienation of such areas depletes the already inadequate range at the
expense of existing operators. Further, even if a new settler does manage to produce some winter feed and acquire stock, he cannot be accommodated on the reduced
Crown range, which is a vital necessity for the success of his operation. Land settlement under these circumstances can only lead to bitter frustration for the settler
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1967 43
and financial disaster for the ranching industry. A disproportionate amount of time
and effort was required during the year in gathering data to support recommendations against a large number of such land applications. A drastically revised approach to this problem is required.
The heavy fire season seriously interfered with range administration. The
Ranger staff, which normally carries out supervision of improvement projects, enforcement of grazing-permit conditions, and related field duties, was often unavailable for this work for prolonged periods in some areas. In a few instances, staff
initially assigned to special grazing duties had to be diverted to protection work.
The relatively late onset of winter conditions permitted an extended field season,
but compensated only in part.
Early in the year, the Grazing Regulations were revised to provide for a higher
scale of grazing fees. Although the industry in general appreciated that an upward
adjustment was required, considerable consultation and correspondence on the subject was necessary to fully explain the various factors involved. Increased range
surveys and preliminary planning for an enlarged improvement programme added
to the administrative load.
Grazing Permits
During 1967, 2,114 grazing permits were issued, authorizing the depasturing
of 188,126 cattle, 6,837 horses, and 6,272 sheep on Crown ranges. Both the number of permits issued and cattle covered show a slight decrease from 1966 figures.
The number of horses represents a 4-per-cent increase, and the number of sheep a
further sharp reduction from the previous year. (See Table No. 81 in the Appendix. )
Expressed as animal unit months, the equivalent of one mature cow on the
range for one month, total use authorized for all classes of stock amounted to
866,539 animal unit months, virtually the same as the previous year.
Hay Permits
The harvesting of hay from natural meadows on Crown range increased during
1967, the first such increase in a considerable number of years. This was due to
the extremely dry weather, causing reduced water levels on many meadows normally
flooded during the haying season. At the same time, some ranchers, depending on
unirrigated hay lands, were short of winter feed and took advantage of the opportunity to increase supplies. During the year, 212 permits were issued, authorizing
the harvesting of 2,208 tons of hay.
Grazing Fees
Except for developed pastures in the Peace River area, grazing fees per head
per month were 41 cents for cattle, 51 Vi cents for horses, and 10V4 cents for sheep.
These fees represent an increase of 24 cents for cattle, 30% cents for horses, and
6% cents for sheep. This large increase, more than double, resulted from the implementation of a new fee structure effective March 1st, and also reflected an appreciable improvement in market conditions in 1966.
Grazing fees are on a sliding scale, related to prices received by producers the
previous year. Under the old structure, a base fee of 5 cents for cattle was related
to a base market price of $5.12 per hundredweight for this class of stock. The fee
for sheep was on a separate scale, related to sheep prices. The fee for horses was
\XA times that for cattle. Under the new structure, a base fee of 10 cents for cattle
is related to a base market price of $5 per hundredweight. The separate scale for
sheep was abandoned owing to the lack of reliable market price information on this
L
 44
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
class of stock, and the fee for sheep is now one-quarter that for cattle, as calculated
annually.   The fee for horses remains 1 Va that for cattle.
A separate scale of fees is in effect for the fenced and reserved pastures in the
Peace River area. These fees are not on a sliding scale and remained at the rate
of 50 cents per head per month for cattle, 62V_t cents for horses, and 12Vi cents
for sheep for natural forage; and $1 per head per month for cattle, $1.25 for horses,
and 25 cents for sheep on cultivated pasture.
Control and Enforcement
Although most range users appreciate the need for regulations and grazing-
permit conditions designed to maintain the forage and associated resources of Crown
range, there is still an unfortunate number who fail to comply unless a close check
is maintained. To meet this situation, as many stock counts and range inspections
as possible were carried out during the year. Approximately the usual number of
infractions were discovered. In most cases a warning was sufficient to correct the
situation. However, it was necessary to take direct action to remove 82 cattle and
145 horses grazing in trespass.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 45
ENGINEERING SERVICES DIVISION
ENGINEERING SURVEYS
The drainage areas and their corresponding regulation units studied under
the development engineering programme are listed in Table No. 91 in the Appendix.
In many areas, logging and administrative road development has produced a
complex of roads, and studies of these road networks to evaluate road condition
and status to permit logical assignment of development priority formed a major
part of this year's studies. Some 2,800 miles of existing roads were evaluated
during the field season.
Engineering crews located 68 miles of forest road as a basis for the preparation
of designs and estimates. In addition, these crews carried out re-establishment of
some existing survey and reconnaissance lines to up-date them to present requirements, and undertook special site surveys for several bridges, forest-road junctions
with highways, and railroad crossings.
In addition to the regular programme, personnel carried out detailed survey
work to provide initial control and " as-built" plans for several of the new forest
nurseries. During critical phases of the fire season, they assisted the staff of the
Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts by locating fire access roads.
Continuing assistance was provided to the other divisions and districts in the
statusing, research, and acquisition of land and water areas for Departmental use.
This has included purchase and lease or permissions under the various Acts and
regulations governing this aspect of administration.
The use of air-photo interpretation for pre-field studies and for control of field
work is being given continuing emphasis in order to minimize field investigations
as much as practical.
DESIGN
Designs, drawings, and specifications were prepared for seven pressure-
creosoted timber bridges. These included two for the Chilcotin South Forest Road,
one for the Suskwa Forest Road, one for the Nicoamen River in Kamloops Forest
District, and three in the Prince George area. Designs were also completed for a
helicopter boom for fixed-airbase aerial photography, a lookout tower for display
at the Pacific National Exhibition, and an earth dam for water storage at the Red
Rock Forest Nursery.
FOREST MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
Site preparation work on navigation channels and shoreline access within the
area to be flooded by the W. A. C. Bennett Dam continued and was concentrated
in the Finlay River and Peace River reaches of the future lake. Some 14,560
acres were treated during the year, most of which were only accessible by river
or by aircraft. The Department's own crews worked over 9,020 acres, and 5,540
acres were prepared by contract. Keen competition brought low bids on most
contracts to below Departmental estimates. Favourable conditions in spring and
in fall permitted burning of 3,100 acres of tree-crusher slash and 3,575 acres of
windrowed non-merchantable material.
Other special assignments included the Stellako River log drive, organized and
carried out by Division personnel to assist in a study of multiple use of this river,
and a study of the Province-wide communications requirements of the Forest
Service, with special emphasis on the place of the radio network.   In addition, field
 46
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
studies and inspections connected with the administration of timber sales and their
access continued to increase in number and complexity.
Site preparation work on navigation channels and shoreline access within the area to be
flooded by the W. A. C. Bennett Dam continued during 1967. Photograph shows the main
channel looking north on the Finlay River.
The Division is making considerable use of the computer facilities provided
by the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Industry, and several
programmes prepared by Division staff are operational. Programmes in preparation or under revision include site preparation for the rehabilitation of forest land,
simulation of truck performance on forest roads, and design of forest roads.
ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
The Bench Creek Forest Road was completed as part of the programme of the
construction of 49.6 miles of road. This work, on seven projects, included the
erection of six bridges and the excavation and movement of 1,262,000 cubic yards
of common material and 119,000 cubic yards of solid rock. The exceptionally
dry weather experienced this summer assisted crews in the Prince George area to
complete 9 miles on the Bowron River Forest Road, but the work programme on
the Chilliwack River Forest Road, Vancouver Forest District, was retarded because
of the forest closure.
The largest permanent bridges ever designed by the Forest Service were erected
during the year. The longest, 306 feet in over-all length, with a deck elevation
85 feet above normal water level, was placed across the Chilcotin River on the
Chilcotin South Forest Road, south of Riske Creek. The bridge is made up of eight
approach spans 22 feet long and a centre span 130 feet long. Main piers for the
bridge are of reinforced concrete, 30 feet high, designed to avoid interference with
existing fish ladders and fish migration. A single-span bridge was erected across the
Bulkley River on the Suskwa River Forest Road, east of Hazelton. Girders for
this bridge are 151 feet long, the longest fabricated for the Forest Service to date.
The Lillooet River on the Harrison North Forest Road was crossed by a bridge
consisting of one 24-foot approach span and one 120-foot main span. The remaining bridges have spans of 90 feet or less.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
47
Some problems were encountered in transporting the longer girders to the
work areas. A girder for the Chilcotin River bridge was damaged as the supplier
was loading it on to a rail car in Vancouver, and two girders for the Bulkley River
The largest permanent bridges ever designed by the British Columbia Forest Service
were erected during the year. The longest, 306 feet in over-all length, was this one, placed
across the Chilcotm River on the Chilcotin South Forest Road south of Riske Creek.
bridge were damaged while being moved to the bridge-site.   Although all three
girders had to be replaced, completion of each bridge was delayed less than a month
and the damaged girders have been salvaged for use in other structures.
Structural maintenance was carried out on 870 miles of previously constructed
road. The resurfacing programme for placing crushed rock and gravel on selected
forest roads, commenced several years ago, was postponed due to other work of
higher priority.
BUILDING AND MARINE SERVICES
The work load in this area of Division activity showed a continuing increase
in both volume and dollar value. These increases reflected the accelerated programme of forest nursery expansion, the continuing design, acquisition, and maintenance of buildings, trailers, and marine craft, and the increasing costs of building
construction and materials.
Investigation of new products and processes continued as an essential adjunct
to selecting and ordering materials for Forest Service use. In conjunction with
this, material and fabrication inspections were carried out on seven major bridges,
six buildings, and a camera boom to be used on helicopters.
 48 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A number of books and papers dealing with technical subjects were added to
the Division library.
Building Construction
The year's primary programme included contracts for new administration and
residential buildings for Ranger headquarters at Mica, a combination administrative
and laboratory building at the Red Rock Nursery, renovations at the Forest Service
training-school to supply additional facilities, a 50-per-cent increase in the capacity
of the seed extraction plant at the Duncan Nursery, and continuation of the renovation and maintenance programme at the Forest Service Maintenance Depot.
Drawings and documents were completed for a new Ranger administrative and residential complex at Fauquier. The new stations at Mica and Fauquier will replace
those at Arrowhead and Edgewood, which will be flooded by the lake which will
form behind the High Arrow Dam.
Services to other divisions and the forest districts included consultation and
preparation of preliminary designs and estimates for proposed developments and
building projects, preparation of technical data, designs and ordering of materials for
use by forest district crews in the erection of residences and other miscellaneous
buildings.
Tenders were called for the administration buildings at Gold River, but, on the
basis of the bids received, it was decided to review the proposals and to defer the
project. In all, 79 contracts covering major and minor contracts were awarded
during the year.
Water Supply and Irrigation
Two major projects are under way at the Campbell River and Red Rock
Nurseries. The water supply and irrigation systems for these two nurseries were
designed by a firm of consulting engineers so as to be capable of providing water
when the nurseries reach their maximum production. Several smaller systems for
the supply of domestic water to a number of establishments and five small irrigation
systems were designed and installations completed. The earth-fill dam required to
create the irrigation reservoir for the Red Rock Nursery was constructed.
Marine Activities
The programme of up-dating the water fleet to provide more economical, efficient, and comfortable units is continuing. Two flat-bottom craft, 26 feet and 30
feet, were constructed to commercially available design which incorporates the provision of a shelter cabin for service where the operation areas include large windswept lakes. One northern lake and five coastal Ranger stations have been equipped
with fast trailer-borne, deep-vee, sea-going runabout hulls powered with twin outboard engines. The first summer's operation of this type of craft indicates they can
replace slower medium-sized displacement launches, which are becoming more
costly to own and operate and require marine wharfage facilities.
The new Ranger vessel " Coast Ranger," designed for service in exposed northern coastal waters, has completed sea trials and will be assigned in the new year.
To ensure that crews are familiar with the emergency raft equipment on seagoing vessels, the self-inflating life-rafts have been demonstrated to the crews on the
occasion of the annual refit.
In line with continuing evaluation of vessel performance, marine stability
experts were consulted about the M.V. "Forest Surveyor" and, on their recommendation, additional ballast was placed in the vessel prior to a summer's work in
Queen Charlotte Islands waters.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1967 49
A study is continuing on the possible merits of air-cushion vehicles as a means
of marine travel for sheltered coastal water, major lakes, and rivers.
Mechanical Section
The interest in two-wheel-drive pick-up trucks, evident in 1966, has continued,
and this type of unit, optionally fitted with low-profile canopies and electric winches,
is replacing the more expensive station-wagon and panel types, and, in some instances, four-wheel-drive units. The change in ownership has resulted in a general
increase of 20 units. In detail, four-wheel-drive units have decreased by six, V2- to
%-ton pick-up trucks have increased by 32, total passenger- and panel-type units
have decreased by nine, and the number of heavy trucks has increased by four units.
The number of trail motor-cycles has increased by nine units to 119, and
ownership of snow toboggans has increased from 20 to 34 units. This latter increase
indicates continuing development of their application to winter field work.
Chain saws, particularly those in the light-weight category, were in great
demand during the height of the fire season, with 68 being purchased primarily for
immediate use on fire-lines. This emergency situation was also reflected in purchasing of 97 fire-pumps, mainly for the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts.
Changes in types of heavy equipment, resulting in a net increase of two tractors, included the purchase of five new tractors, of which three were farm type for
use by the Reforestation Division, and two were track-type units in the 270-horse-
power range for forest road construction. In addition, three new graders were
purchased, two of which were for the Engineering Division and one for the Kamloops
Forest District, and an 18-yard elevating-type scraper was purchased for road
construction on the Chilcotin South Forest Road.
Improvements in fabrication of fire-retardant mixers continued with the incorporation of a new type of high-shear impeller in two new mixer units. The new
impeller proved very effective, but required an engine of 175 to 200 horsepower to
deliver the power for quick efficient mixing. The construction of these two units
brings the total of the various types of mixers in operation to 15 units.
Evaluation of new types of equipment continued with inspection of several
types of light-weight " go anywhere " type vehicles which are equipped with tracks
or low-pressure tires. Increasing interest in the use of such units resulted in purchasing two for field-use studies. The recently developed tractor-mounted hydraulic
tree shear was used for site preparation in conjunction with the current programme
on the Finlay River area of the flood-area of the W. A. C. Bennett Dam. It proved
very successful in the conditions on that site.
A mechanical course for the basic class at the Forest Service training-school
was again handled by Victoria and district mechanical personnel.
FOREST SERVICE MAINTENANCE DEPOT
The establishment of a common trades structure for the craftsmen within the
Forest Service Maintenance Depot was finalized early in 1967. This action has
ensured a flexibility of the work force with a continued improvement in efficiency
and economy of production. The major portion of extensions and improvements to
the various shops and facilities was finalized, thus completing much of the planned
programme of over-all change.
Marine Work
New construction again highlighted the year's work with completion of the
50-foot " Coast Ranger."   In addition, two smaller 30-foot craft of a new design,
 50 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
known as " Texas " dories, were constructed and delivered to the northern part of
the Province. Continuing overhaul of marine craft included extensive refits on
several vessels for a total of 50 overhauls. In addition, repair work was completed
on a further 57 units, including small boats, barges, and boat trailers.
Prefabrication and Carpentry Shop
The major portion of the year's programme concentrated on the rebuilding,
repair, or reconditioning of 23 Porta-buildings and trailers. A number of items,
such as crates, engine boxes, and signs, were produced, totalling 625 pieces. Other
projects completed included five lookout buildings, six sets of lookout furniture,
16 truck pick-up boxes and backboards, and assistance with the erection of the
display fire lookout tower at the Pacific National Exhibition.
Mechanical Work
The engine repair-shop work load continued at a high level, with a total of
567 pumps, light plants, outboards, marine engines, and chain saws being overhauled, crated, and shipped. In addition, 223 new units were tested and shipped
to the forest districts. The machine-shop produced a great variety of specialized
items, including hand-winches, brackets, fire-pump accessories, fire-hose couplings,
nozzles, relief valves, and other assemblies, clamps, and miscellaneous items required for the repair of boats and launches. At times the emergency demands on
servicing and shipping facilities, caused by the extreme fire season, disrupted the
normal programme. For example, about 60 miles of fire-hose were fitted with
couplings and forwarded to the forest districts.
The heavy-equipment shop provided regular maintenance for five truck tractors
and 17 trailer units, and periodic maintenance for two compressor-equipped tractors,
two graders, and a front-end loader. Also overhauled were 35 vehicles, eight
electric power plants, two scrapers, and two grid rollers. Major fabrication included
the building of components and their installation in a light-plant trailer, outfitting
two fuel-service trucks, and making up three fuel-tank trailers. In addition, a
variety of specialized heavy-duty welding, manufacture of specialized bridge hardware, and other similar work was completed.
Transport Pool and Warehousing
The transport pool continued to operate three diesel-powered 30-ton tractor-
trailer trucks and two 5-ton gasoline units. Transportation services were provided
to 23 projects and various forest districts. The total distance travelled was 150,000
miles on 325 assignments, including the hauling of 2,772 tons of materials and
delivery of 43 towed units.
The warehouse activities handled a normal work load, shipping and receiving
994 shipments. To achieve an increase in ease of handling and warehousing efficiencies, storage of stock was reviewed and adjusted as required.
Depot Maintenance
The planned renovation and maintenance programme was carried out in conjunction with regular production. The major portion of this was completed by
contract and included the extension to the prefabrication building, which will house
the new machine-shop, the extension to the warehouse, and replacement of the
main float. Depot personnel carried out general overhaul of depot equipment and
facilities, including reconstruction of the centre ways in No. 1 building.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 51
RADIO SECTION
Two hundred and nine radio transmitting units of all types were purchased
during 1967, compared with 150 during the previous year. Sixty-two obsolete
sets were retired, leaving a net increase for the year of 147 units. Virtually all
equipment purchased was very high frequency (V.H.F.), 83 per cent of this being
portable or mobile. One single sideband transmitter (S.S.B.) was added to the
small total of S.S.B. sets now in use.
The Department of Transport continued to issue warnings to all radio networks
concerning the imminent abondonment of medium frequency (A.M.) transmission,
with the request that networks change gradually to single sideband (S.S.B.) now,
rather than be forced into the new mode by regulations. While no large-scale
effort has been made to date to implement the change to S.S.B., plans have been
laid for conversion of at least three forest district headquarters stations to 500-watt
single sideband operation, implementation to take place when the Forest Service
is advised by the Department of Transport that this power is approved. General
policy throughout 1967 has been to hold the line with regard to any kind of communication expansion, purchases being confined entirely to equipment for improved
communication in the field.
The Vancouver Forest District headquarters station was rebuilt and modernized before the fire season, with much improved results. The district continued to
pioneer the use of portable F.M. repeaters for providing fire-line to Ranger station
communication. Where used, these were entirely successful, largely because the
repeaters were on separate channels and therefore not subject to interference from
other district circuits. A portable repeater was established on the 5,000-foot level
between Squamish and Pemberton and provided good mobile communication over
this route, which is probably the worst source of fire incidence in the forest district.
Tests were carried out with a view to improving ship-to-shore communications by
the use of F.M. on board to replace the standard A.M. installation. The lack of
static pick-up from the vessel's machinery permitted use of the radio while the ship
was under way and provided excellent communication when A.M. was completely
inoperative.
No major projects were carried out in the Prince Rupert Forest District. Single
sideband remote receiving facilities at district headquarters were extended to include
all necessary channels preparatory to the expected conversion to 500 watts S.S.B.
operation. During the severe fire season, communication on several simultaneous
fires adjacent to each other was confused by F.M. portable sets having too long a
range. To combat the condition of cross-talk between two or more fires, general
radio service band portables were used in quantity for the first time, their shorter
range confining signals to the fire on which they were being used.
In the Prince George Forest District, a repeater was installed on Pink Mountain, providing the connecting link between Nel X repeater at Fort Nelson and Wabi
Hill repeater at Chetwynd. Fort Nelson now has F.M. contact with Fort St. John
and Prince George during the fire season, the repeater being taken down during the
winter. The A.M. unit at Fort Nelson was removed and replaced by a remote-
controlled combination A.M.-S.S.B. set. Results were frequently unsatisfactory on
A.M., indicating the need for more power over the long distances involved. Plans
were made during the year for the conversion of the headquarters station to 500
watts S.S.B., 200 watts A.M.
Kamloops communications remain unchanged and gave fairly good service
during a bad fire season. The need is still obvious for a completely replanned repeater system as the physical proximity of all the repeaters caused the usual overlap
 52
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
problem to mobiles. This was aggravated by the continuing existence of over 50
vehicles still equipped with 1- and 2-watt portables in place of standard 15- to 30-
watt mobile transmitters.
The plan to fill in radio coverage in the Kaslo-Revelstoke area of the Nelson
Forest District by repeaters at Buchanan, Sproat, and Arrowhead did not materialize. Extensive tests were made at these locations, the results being somewhat less
than satisfactory but adequate to show that further propagation surveys are justified.
A new repeater was installed at Whatshan for the purpose of giving F.M. communication to Edgewood and mobiles in the Edgewood area. It was hoped that some
coverage would be extended to Nakusp and New Denver, but, while results to
Edgewood were excellent, radio coverage to the Slocan Valley was not obtained.
The trunk repeater system installed in 1967 was adjusted throughout the summer to
correct circuit and power deficiencies which showed up after a period of use.
A.M. communication from forest road camps to Victoria was reduced and, to
a great extent, replaced by F.M. common-carrier radio-telephones and mobile radiotelephones on a temporary lease basis.
During the summer, Victoria technicians carried out a survey of the Squamish-
Pemberton area, overhauled the Nelson repeater system, installed the Wabi Hill-
Pink Mountain repeaters, and established new repeaters at Whatshan and at Skog
Mountain for the F.M. through circuit from Victoria to the Mile 73 camp on the
Parsnip River. Laboratory projects included further development on battery repeaters and different types of remote-control systems.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
53
FOREST PROTECTION DIVISION
WEATHER
The 1967 fire season, which followed a cool spring, started with heavy precipitation along the Coast and in the Southern Interior. This picture soon changed
as the absence of normal June rains throughout the Province ushered in the extended drought conditions that marked the most hazardous fire season in recent
years. Although these dry conditions were eased to near normal in the northern
half of the Province in June, the hot, dry weather continued in the southern portions
until early October.
In view of the extended build-up and high-hazard conditions, travel restrictions and industrial closures were implemented in various areas of the Province.
The arrival of heavy rains in October broke the drought, allowing the fire
season to be terminated officially on October 13, 1967.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
This past summer being one of the driest and hottest for such an extended
period resulted in a serious increase in the number of fires experienced. The total
of 3,216 fires recorded was well above the 10-year average of 2,314. Lightning
was again the principal cause, accounting for 29.8 per cent of the fires. This is in
marked contrast to the 1966 season, when only 19 per cent of fires were started by
lightning.   The 10-year average is 35.8 per cent.
See Tables Nos. 104, 105, and 109 in the Appendix.
This scene is typical of those in which more than 3,000 forest fires were caught and
extinguished during the 1967 fire season before they could explode into conflagrations.
 54 report of lands, forests, and water resources
Cost of Fire-fighting
Average fire-suppression cost to the Forest Service was $4,233 per cost fire,
compared with $886 the previous year. Total suppression cost for the year was
$8,745,800, of which $6,934,500 was accounted for by the Forest Service and
$1,811,300 by other agencies. This is an increase of $5,585,400 over the 10-year
average.
See Tables Nos. 102, 109, and 111 in the Appendix.
Damage
The 244,483 acres of forest cover burned represented approximately 54 per
cent of the 10-year average of 455,814 acres. The damage to forest cover was
$4,751,900, compared with the 10-year average of $3,715,500. The increase in
the damage is due to many of the more serious fires in logging slash spreading into
the adjacent merchantable timber.
See Tables Nos. 108 and 110 in the Appendix.
PROTECTION PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Statistics
A major objective of coding forest fires back to 1950, for electronic data-processing applications, was completed in 1967. These data, on a three-card-per-fire
basis, after processing in Data Processing Division, will be available for fire research studies and statistical analyses.
The severe 1967 fire season greatly increased the volume of annual maintenance of the Provincial Fire Atlas and fire summary book. The fire atlas was widely
utilized during the year, and has proved its worth as a useful reference medium
in its present overlay form.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
One crew, consisting of two forestry students, did the combined work of
visibility mapping and lookout photography during the 1967 season.
Field examination of 42 possible lookout points was completed. These points
were scattered throughout the Province and brought up to date all outstanding requests for individual points to be mapped. In addition, a start was made in detection planning for the Stewart-Cassiar Road system.
The programme of taking panoramic photos for all new lookout-sites and the
up-dating of old photos was continued, with 19 lookouts being completed.
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks
The spring field test was undertaken at Ashcroft, where weather conditions
were more suitable in determining acceptable tolerances on the 100-gram fuel-
moisture sticks.
Of the 1,018 sets shipped this year, 60 per cent went to industry and the remainder went to the Canada Department of Forestry and Rural Development and
to the Forest Service.
The co-operation of the Federal forestry department's wood products laboratory at the University of British Columbia in making the kiln and facilities available
for this project is gratefully acknowledged.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
55
Insect Survey and Control
The balsam woolly aphid (Adelges picea) survey to delineate the general
limits of infestation in South-western British Columbia was essentially completed
in 1967. Sampling crews thoroughly covered the general area, ranging well beyond
the established perimeter of infestation. No new outbreaks were found beyond this
1966 perimeter, although two positive 1966 samples had noticeably increased in
size.
Additional sampling was done in balsam stands in the Southern Okanagan as
a precautionary measure when Adelges picete was identified on ornamental balsams,
one infestation being located in Oliver and one in Penticton. No infestation was
found in the native stands.
Co-operation of the Director of the Forest Research Laboratory in Victoria
(Canada Department of Forestry and Rural Development) is acknowledged in
allotment of laboratory and office space and in the supplying of technical assistance
and advice.
Research Projects
The severe fire season seriously restricted activities in the field of fire-control
research.
The lookout-window-tinting programme initiated in 1964 has now been completed and has been well received. The sferics programme has been held in abeyance pending solution to calibration problems which were encountered in the field
trials. A drip torch of improved design was produced in quantity and, with a few
minor modifications, has been well received. A durable pocket-size fuel-moisture-
stick balance has been designed and produced in test quantities, but the results of
the field testing have not yet been compiled.
The Federal Department of Forestry and Rural Development continued its
co-operative danger index investigations, and it is anticipated there will soon be an
accurate measure of fire-hazard conditions throughout the Province.
Equipment evaluation continued, and the increasing complexities of forest fire
control indicate that this field will require an increasing amount of time in the future.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Fourteen fire-suppression crews of 7 to 12 men each were employed in the
three southern forest districts. In addition, two- or three-man crews were employed
in about 30 Ranger districts throughout the Province.
The crews in all areas were put to good use in fire-control efforts, particularly
during the extended drought period with its attendant high fire load and forest-
closure problems.
See Table No. 115 in the Appendix.
AIRCRAFT
This was the heaviest year for the use of aircraft in the history of the Forest
Service, with over 20,000 hours of air time being logged. Forty-two contract aircraft were available during the peak hazard period. In addition, over 30 aircraft
were chartered for various periods.
The use of air tankers, particularly those using the long-term fire retardants,
was of tremendous assistance to the field staff. The combination of air-tanker initial
attack and helicopter transport on remote fires assisted a hard-working field staff
to compile a remarkable record of initial attack successes this season.
The use of small patrol aircraft also proved its worth in this serious fire season.
A well-integrated detection system of lookouts and aircraft is rapidly developing
 56
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
throughout the Province and is contributing to a marked decrease in the number
of fires reaching a difficult size before being discovered.
See Tables Nos. 113 and 114 in the Appendix.
ROADS AND TRAILS
Due to the heavy fire season, the programme of road and trail construction
and maintenance was seriously curtailed, particularly in the Kamloops and Nelson
Forest Districts. Prince Rupert Forest District conducted reconstruction work on
the Perow and Tintagel plantations, improving access for both protection and management. Further reconstruction was carried out on the Telzato Mountain and
Sunset Lake roads. In the Prince George Forest District, new construction was
carried out on the boundary road, giving access to the southern portion of Dawson
Creek Ranger District by a shorter route within the Province. West of the mountains the McLeod-Tselcok Road was connected from McLeod Lake to the German-
sen Road.
See Table No. 116 in the Appendix.
SLASH AND SNAG DISPOSAL
Vancouver Forest District
The long hazard build-up in 1967, extending from May through September,
resulted in unusual slash-burning conditions over the Vancouver Forest District.
The west coast and the northern section had excellent burning weather during July
and August, and many operators took advantage of this to clean up their slash areas
with good results. Only two escapes occurred, but the damage was slight when
compared with the total acreage prepared for planting. During this period the
Forest Service successfully burned 270 acres of old slash in the Mackenzie Sound
area.
Severe drought conditions persisted over the east coast of Vancouver Island
from Victoria to Campbell River, the Sunshine Coast south of Lund, and the Squa-
mish, Pemberton, and Fraser Valley areas throughout the summer until the first rains
fell on September 1st. Drying conditions then returned and, with a forecast of more
rain by September 8th, many operators in this general area commenced burning
with good results, except on the northerly exposures. Heavy rains fell on September 8th, 9th, and 10th, ending further burning on the west coast of Vancouver
Island and the northern areas.
By September 12th conditions again appeared favourable and many areas in
the southern districts were ignited. By September 15th drought conditions again
reached serious levels and many of the burns escaped control. On September 16th
the District Forester curtailed further burning in this area, and from then until September 29th both industry and the Forest Service were involved in fire suppression.
The escapes covered 20,679 acres, including fringe areas, and caused an estimated total damage of $846,024 (see Table No. 121). Suppression costs were
$70,770 to the Forest Service and $636,238 to industry. Factors contributing to
these escapes are being given careful study with the view to decreasing this loss in
future.
The total of 94,136 acres logged in 1967 was down slightly from the 100,000
acres logged the previous year, due to closures imposed during the extreme hazard
of the late summer months. The need to discontinue burning in mid-September
because of the extreme drought has resulted in a very large acreage of unburned
slash being carried over to 1968.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
57
PRESCRIBED BURNS
Interior Forest Districts
Although the provisions of section 116 of the Forest Act were amended to
cover the entire Province in 1967, some time was required to set up operating procedures. Also, it was considered advisable to proceed slowly as many operators
were inexperienced in burning and our staff could not provide adequate supervision.
The net result was that no " Instructions to Burn " were issued in 1967 under the
Act. However, a considerable number of companies were instructed under the
burning clauses in their timber-sale contracts. Many of these areas had to be extended to 1968, particularly in the Kamloops Forest District, owing to lack of suitable burning weather caused by the prolonged drought of the past summer.
Following is a summary of acres burned by both industry and the Forest Service
in the Interior in 1967:—
Forest District
Forest
Service
Industry
Total
Acres
1,832
3,916
2(13
Acres       |      Acres
3,847                5,679
2,867        1       6,783
,.8fi.        .        3.(177.
         |                  I         	
Totals     _	
5,951
9.583         1       15.53-.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
Because of the extremely serious fire season, a sharp increase was experienced
in prosecutions under Part XI of the Forest Act. A total of 77 informations was
laid, of which 43, or 56 per cent, were for contravening a forest closure. The
10-year average for prosecutions numbered 44.
FOREST CLOSURES
Due to the extreme hazard, it was found necessary to impose six travel and
recreational closures, one general closure, and one restricted industrial closure in
the Vancouver, Prince George, Kamloops, and Nelson Forest Districts. It was
also deemed advisable to suspend campfire permits in Vancouver, Kamloops, and
Nelson districts during the height of the hazardous period. Details of closures
follow:—
Forest Closures, 1967
Area
Forest
District
Type of Closure
Effective
Date
Termination Date
Areas 1, 2, 3,4, 6, and portion of 5	
Zones 1, 2, 7, and 9 _	
Zones 3, 4, 5, and 6	
Nelson. _	
Vancouver	
Vancouver. 	
Vancouver 	
Nelson	
Kamloops	
Vancouver	
Kamloops	
Prince George-
Recreational	
General „
Restricted industrial	
Restricted industrial	
Recreational	
Recreational ,	
Recreational 	
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
3
17
17
17
18
22
22
30
31
Sept. 11
Sept.    1
Aug. 21
Sept.    1
Sept. 11
South-eastern portion of Kamloops Forest
Sept.    9
Sept.    1
Between   Fraser    and   North    Thompson
Sept.   9
East of Rocky Mountain divide to Alberta
border  and  south  of the Halfway  and
Recreational 	
Sept. 10
 58 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Suspension of Campfire Permits
Effective Termination
Forest District                                                                                         Date Date
Vancouver   July 14 July 21
Vancouver  Aug.   4 Sept.   1
Kamloops   Aug.   4 Aug.   7
Nelson  Aug.   4 Sept. 11
Kamloops  Aug. 17 Sept. 11
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 59
FOREST SERVICE TRAINING-SCHOOL
The sixth class of basic trainees (Basic Course No. 6), consisting of 24 men,
enrolled January 9, 1967, and graduated three months later, on April 7th. The total
number of graduates from the basic course is now 124.
The 15th class of advanced trainees, consisting of 24 men, enrolled on September 20, 1967. They completed the first term on December 19th, and will
commence the second and final term on January 8, 1968. The total number of
graduates from the advanced course is 295.
Subjects covered during the year were as follows:—
Basic Course No. 6, Spring, 1967 (January 9th to April 7th)
Subject Days Allotted
Forest Management Policies and Procedures  7
Forest Protection Policies and Procedures  4
Pre-suppression   8
Silviculture   3
Photogrammetry  3
Mathematics   2Vi
Fire Suppression  12 Vi
Surveying   5Vi
Measurements   7
Mechanical Equipment Maintenance and Operation  10
Opening, closing       VS.
Total days   63
Physical Training:  Three-quarters of an hour per day.
Advanced Course No. 15, Fall, 1967 (September 20th to December 19th)
Subject Days Allotted
Forest Protection Policies and Procedures  8 lA
Botany   5
Ranger District Organization  6
Dendrology   2
Entomology   3 VS.
Pathology  4
Mathematics   3
Silviculture   4
Research Division   3
Reforestation Division _.. IVz
Public Speaking   4VS:
Surveying  6
Business English  3¥2
Wood Technology  2VS.
Grazing  3 VS.
Slash Trip  1
Opening, spares  1VS.
Total days  64
Physical Training:  Three-quarters of an hour per day.
 60
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
EXTRA COURSES AND FUNCTIONS
The following extra courses and functions were held at the school:—
Course for the Vancouver Forest District Lookoutmen.—The school provided
room, board, facilities, and instruction for this course. Fifteen men took the
course, which was held during the period of April 24 to 27, 1967.
Course for Fieldmen of the Forest Inventory Division.—The school provided
room, board, facilities, and minor assistance with instruction for this course. Two-
and-one-half-day sessions for three different groups were held. A total of 75 men
attended the sessions during the period May 4 to 13, 1967, inclusive.
During the summer the school assisted with instruction at fire-control courses
held at Kelowna, Prince George, and Terrace.
A one-day fire-control course was held at Victoria for the Engineering Services
Division.
Interviews and selection of the students for Advanced Class No. 15 were
completed by July 6, 1967.
Two instructors attended a two-day introductory course on the fire simulator
at the Forest Technology School, Hinton, Alta.
The annual examination for Technical Forest Officer 2 was prepared and
marked.
The reading course on the Forest Act was amended to date, and 350 copies
were distributed to the districts and divisions, along with 200 copies of the
mathematics reading course.
Remainder of the time was taken up with preparation of courses, administration, and maintenance.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to speakers and lecturers and for equipment provided by the following agencies: Rover Motor Company, Vancouver; Wajax
Equipment Limited, Vancouver; F. J. Harper, St. John Ambulance; Inspector
W. R. Morrison, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Cloverdale; R. Grant, Queen
Elizabeth High School; A. Jackson, Department of Transport, Vancouver; J.
Murphy, Okanagan Helicopters; Air Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch,
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources; Forest Research Laboratory,
Department of Forestry and Rural Development; Fire Marshal's Office, Vancouver;
University of British Columbia; Balloon Transport Limited, Vancouver; as well
as lecturers from other divisions and districts of the Forest Service.
CONSTRUCTION
The parking-lots adjacent to the utility building and the dormitory building
were completed.
Two outdoor volleyball courts were equipped and are now in use.
Alterations to the electrical circuits in the administration building were completed to the specifications of the Electrical Energy Inspection Act.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 61
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
FISCAL
Due to a combination of unfavourable circumstances, the financial return to
the Forest Service declined sharply in the calendar year 1967. Principal contributing factors were the severe fire season, the prolonged work stoppage in the
Interior, termination of the Federal-Provincial Forestry Agreement, and generally
lower stumpage prices on the Coast. The latter resulted from concessions granted
with respect to zone selling prices on the Coast in late 1966, the slump in the Coast
log market at that time, and the increasing number of licensees taking advantage
of the $5 stumpage adjustment formula introduced as an alternative to the sliding-
scale formula. At the year's end the market outlook for forest products was being
reported as encouraging, but the Interior strike, estimated to be costing nearly
$400,000 per month in direct revenue, was not settled and no termination date was
predicted.
The total of amounts charged to logging operations during 1967 fell by 18.3
per cent to $40,040,843 (see Table No. 142 in the Appendix), although the total
volume of timber cut decreased by only 1.8 per cent. The only forest district
registering an increase in charges was the Prince George Forest District, with 10.3
per cent, the Vancouver Forest District being down 24.5 per cent; Nelson Forest
District, 22.4 per cent; Kamloops Forest District, 19.6 per cent; and Prince Rupert
Forest District, 18.9 per cent. The gain in the Prince George District reflected an
increase of 8.1 per cent in timber scaled during the year, while the losses in the
other districts could be attributed to the Interior strike and the factors affecting
stumpage mentioned in the opening paragraph.
Forest revenue (see Table 141 in the Appendix) decreased by 15.6 per cent
to $42,492,365. This decline mainly reflected the drop in the total of amounts
charged to logging operations, but another significant factor was the reduction of
$837,789 in payments received under the Federal-Provincial Forestry Agreement.
The Agreement expired on March 31st, and was not renewed by the Federal
Government.
Timber-sale stumpage, which contributes the bulk of the revenue, was off 18.5
per cent to $34,732,239. Timber-sale rentals and fees declined by 7.0 per cent,
timber-berth rentals and fees by 6.5 per cent, and timber-lease rentals and fees by
28.7 per cent. The latter two were largely due to elimination of substantial acreage
of logged-off areas, as provided by Statute. Timber-licence rentals and fees recorded
an increase of 6.9 per cent, resulting from advance payments received from some
licence-holders. Timber-sale cruising and advertising held fairly steady at 2.9 per
cent. Timber royalties again rose substantially, by 13.9 per cent to $3,509,720, as
the volume of timber cut from non-stumpage-bearing tenures continued to increase.
Forest protection tax collections of $579,928 were relatively unchanged, showing a slight gain of 1.7 per cent, and miscellaneous revenue climbed by 60.7 per
cent to $394,389, mainly due to the payment of some large timber-sale bidding fees.
Grazing permits and fees showed the largest increase, a rise of 102.4 per cent to
$310,719, as the result of a new rate structure. This will provide additional funds
to undertake extensive range improvements in the 1968/69 fiscal year.
Weight-scaling cost recovery, at $396,894, was up 86.9 per cent, reflecting the
increased adoption of this form of scaling by the industry. However, Federal Forestry Agreement payments, under which the Federal Government had contributed
$1,804,461 annually, amounted to only $542,147 because of the non-renewal of the
Agreement.    Provincial funds in the equivalent amount were made available by
 62 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Treasury Board to permit continuance of the affected programmes without interruption, and it is anticipated this situation will continue.
Financial tables, on a fiscal-year basis, for the period ended March 31, 1967,
may be found in the Appendix (see Tables 143, 144, and 145), and detailed expenditure information appears in the Public Accounts, published annually by the
Department of Finance.
ADMINISTRATION
Activity in all phases of divisional work was at a high level during the year.
There were no major changes in organization or staff, but some problems were
encountered from staff turnover, by resignation or transfer, and the time loss involved
in obtaining replacements.
The effects of the most costly fire season on record, combined with a continuing
growth in normal accounting, resulted in a heavy work load for both headquarters
and district expenditure sections. On the whole, payments were made within a
reasonable period, but accounting for fire costs had not been completed at the
year's end.
In the area of timber-sale accounting, it was necessary to institute new procedures to administer the new " continuous deposit" provided by clause 2.05 of
Regulation 99/67 under the Forest Act as an alternative to the 10-per-cent security
deposit required on timber sales. Much more frequent and direct contact is required
between district offices and the Accounting Division to ensure that deposits held are
in the proper amount. In addition, fluctuations in market prices and the increasing
popularity of the recently introduced " $5 stumpage adjustment formula " required
numerous adjustments in both district and headquarters offices. As noted, this contributed to the decline in revenue, but on a rising market a corresponding increase
will be quickly evident.
In the field of revenue collection, the condition of the accounts receivable was
the best on record. By the end of the year, the accounts in each of the five districts
were substantially current, although the prolonged strike in the Interior was making
it difficult to maintain this situation.
Toward the latter part of the year, the general " tightening " of available funds
required more intense expenditure control, and several planned projects had to be
deferred.   Indications were that this situation might persist for some time.
Only moderate progress was made in the continuing survey of office methods,
due to concentration on other matters and the preoccupation with fire-season problems. It was hoped this work could be resumed early in the new year. Regular
monthly meetings of the headquarters Forms Co-ordinating Committee were held,
and a catalogue to include all forms in use was initiated. It will be kept in the
Property Room, and a copy will be made available to each district office and the
Forest Service Training-school as soon as practicable.
To the normal administration of beachcombing and log salvage was added
beach-clearing. Legislation was passed at the 1967 Session of the Legislature providing for forfeiture of marked logs on beaches and foreshore. This resulted in the
sale of five licences on the Coast and one on an Interior lake. Late delivery of equipment for a floating chipping plant has delayed an operation which could show the
effect of " on site " chipping on beach-clearing on the Coast.
Log export also received adidtional attention from the Division during the year.
The record volume of logs approved for export under Part X of the Forest Act due
to excessively large log stocks in 1966 carried over into 1967 for an even greater
increase. Log stocks subsequently levelled off, but pressure for export approval
continues. The principles of Part X, requiring manufacture within the Province,
are being adhered to as strictly as conditions permit.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
63
PERSONNEL DIVISION
Changes in senior personnel in the Forest Service during 1967 involved the
retirement of two division heads, which resulted in the appointment of an engineer
in charge of Engineering Services Division, a new head of the Reforestation Division,
and a new forester in charge of the Forest Service training-school. A substantial
salary increase was approved for technical forest officers and forest assistants resulting from a review conducted in 1966, and the adjustment was made retroactive to
October, 1966.
In the matter of employee relations, the Chief Forester and Personnel Officer
met several times with a committee of the Society of Technical Foresters and the
British Columbia Government Employees' Association to discuss various matters of
employee welfare, and the Chief Personnel Officer of the Civil Service Commission
and the Forest Service Personnel Officer met with the committee of Coast Scalers'
Association to discuss an anomaly in the salary for Scaler 1. A general salary
increase for all employees became effective April 1st.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
Although there was no meeting with the District Foresters in Victoria, each
District Forester and his assistant visited headquarters for a week to discuss problems with various divisions. Ranger meetings were held in the Vancouver and
Nelson Forest Districts, and local zone meetings were held in the other three forest
districts. The district supervising draughtsmen met in Victoria with the Management Division draughting staff to discuss mutual problems.
The Personnel Officer and Assistant Personnel Officer took part in several
vocation-day programmes at secondary schools in the Victoria area and the Lower
Mainland, and other forest officers took part in similar programmes in other areas
throughout the Province. The Department was again represented on the annual
programme of instructive interviews for graduating secondary-school students sponsored by the Victoria Chamber of Commerce and Canada Manpower Centre.
Forest Inventory and Engineering Services Divisions held their annual pre-season
instructional programmes for summer field staff, as well as pre-season meetings for
professional staff. Four employees were selected for Class XII of the Public
Administration Course under the Executive Development Training Plan and included two foresters and two engineers.
Four employees, one engineer and three foresters, graduated from Class IX
and received Diplomas in Public Administration. Class IV of the correspondence
course in Basic Public Administration commenced in the fall, and the Forest Service
was represented by three employees, one each from Victoria, Vancouver, and
Prince George. Three employees of the Forest Service graduated in the spring
from Class 3 of this course. A number of field staff qualified for industrial first-aid
tickets, and the St. John Ambulance course, sponsored by the Civil Defence Organization, was well attended by the staff in Victoria. Informal training continued for
junior foresters and junior engineers, as well as field training for the Ranger staff.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment of the Forest Service remained at
884 with no new positions added. During the year, 121 persons received Civil Service appointments and 136 left the Service. Eleven Forest Service 25-year certificates and badges were earned.   Fourteen employees were guests of the Provincial
 64
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Executive Council at a luncheon where they were awarded certificates for 25 years'
continuous government service. There were 12 retirements and 44 transfers of
permanent staff. Eleven graduate foresters and five engineers left the Service, while
11 graduate foresters and two engineers were hired.
Turnover of Civil Service appointed staff, including full-time casual staff, was
10.8 per cent, down from 12.4 per cent in 1966. The Prince Rupert Forest District
again suffered the greatest disruption at 19.8 per cent, followed by the Vancouver
Forest District at 16.7 per cent and the Prince George Forest District at 14.0 per
cent. The Kamloops Forest District was 10.1 per cent; Victoria headquarters, 9.5
per cent; and the Vancouver Scaling Office, 7.0 per cent. The Nelson Forest District was again lowest at 6.3 per cent, which was an increase over 4.5 per cent
in 1966.
Professional staff turnover, at 5.9 per cent, was a big improvement over the
9.1-per-cent turnover in 1966, and a big improvement was noticed in the technical
staff at 3.2 per cent, as compared with 6.4 per cent in 1966. Highest turnover was
again in the clerical staff, with figures of from 46.1 per cent for the Prince Rupert
District down to 14.0 per cent for Victoria headquarters.
In the matter of discipline, one employee was released for cause. There were
six disciplinary suspensions for minor infractions of rules and safety regulations. No
annual merit increases were withheld.
There were 953 written applications for employment received and processed
by the Personnel Office, in addition to those handled by the district offices and divisional staffs. Promotional examinations were held by the Civil Service Commission
for draughtsmen and mapping assistants to the advantage of a number of employees.
Oral examinations were held at panel interviews to fill 31 positions. The Personnel
Officer and the Assistant Personnel Officer participated in the filling of 145 other
positions. Two hundred and ninety-six candidates sat for the annual spring examination for Technical Forest Officer 1, with 60 qualifying for 28 vacancies. After all
vacancies were filled, a comparatively small list of eligible candidates remained to
be referred to any subsequent vacancies. At the same time, 111 employees sat for
the annual examination for Technical Forest Officer 2, with 32 qualifying.
CLASSIFICATION, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Classification reviews were requested for 120 positions. At the end of the
year, 82 had been approved, eight rejected, and the rest were still under review. An
organizational study and classification review of the data-processing system for computing log volumes and billing for Coast scaling was completed, and the new organization appears to be working satisfactorily. The Forest Service Maintenance Depot
was also subjected to an organizational study and classification review, which resulted in a more efficient utilization of staff and space. A number of reclassifications
resulted from both these studies. The review of the forest agrologist series and the
mechanical supervisor series commenced late in 1967, but neither was completed
by the end of the year.
Seven employees were registered as professional foresters and three as professional engineers. Working conditions were in general unchanged, but the Civil
Service Commission instituted minor changes in their regulations concerning both
leave and overtime. Constant effort is being made for improvement of working
conditions where possible.
Although there was a total of 560 accidents to employees of the Forest Service
in 1967, 283 of these were suffered by fire-fighters and 10 by temporary tree-planters
and cone-collectors.   This leaves a total of 267 for the regular staff, of which 76
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
65
were time loss, and 191 required medical aid only. A new system of accident-
frequency statistics was commenced which separated the fire-suppression group and
the tree-planters and cone-collectors from the regular staff, providing a means of
assessing the efforts in the accident-prevention programme. These records showed
an improvement in the time-loss frequency for the regular staff, which dropped from
22.1 time-loss accidents per million man-hours worked in 1966 to 14.6 time-loss
accidents in 1967. The time-loss accidents for the regular staff were 28.5 per cent
of the total accidents, as compared to 42.6 per cent in 1966. The Prince Rupert
Forest District won the bronze award of merit, and the Prince George Forest District
won a silver award and a second bronze award. The Forest Inventory Division also
won a silver award, while the Nelson Forest District won a gold award. The achievement of the Forest Inventory Division and the Nelson District were recognized by
each receiving the Prime Minister's safety trophy. There were no fatal accidents
during 1967.
 66 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1967
(As of December 31st)
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
F. S. McKinnon -------- Deputy Minister of Forests
L. F. Swannell ------ Chief Forester
J. S. Stokes -------     Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations
I. T. Cameron ------- Assistant Chief Forester i/c Services
Staff Division Heads:
Cooper, C. Forest Counsel
Hicks, W. V.        -------        -        Departmental Comptroller
Park, S. E.  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -   Director, Public Information
McKeever, A. E. -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -    Personnel Officer
Operations Branch Division Heads:
Phillips, W. C.     - - - - - -        -       Forester i/c Protection Division
Hughes, W. G.     - - - - - -        -   Forester i/c Management Division
Pendray, W. C.     - - - - - -        -        -       Director, Grazing Division
Lehrle, L. W. W. - - - - - Forester i/c Forest Service Training-school
Services Branch Division Heads:
Young, W. E. L. -        -        -        -        -        -     Forester i/c Forest Inventory Division
Robinson, E. W. Forester i/c Reforestation Division
Spilsbury, R. H. -        -        -        -        -        -        -        Forester i/c Research Division
Hemphill, P. I. J.        -        -        -        -        Engineer i/c Engineering Services Division
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver Forest District
H. B. Forse  ------------ District Forester
J. A. K. Reid Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Lorentsen, L. H. (Chilliwack); McArthur, E. J. (Hope); Wilson, R. S. (Harrison Lake);
Nelson, I. N. (Mission); Mudge, M. H. (Port Moody); Neighbor, M. N. (Squamish);
Chamberlin, L. C. (Sechelt); Northrup, K. A. (Pender Harbour); Hollinshead, S. B.
(Powell River); Doerksen, V. I. (Lund); Stefanac, G. (Thurston Bay East); Archer, W. C.
(Sayward); Campbell, R. A. (Echo Bay); Moss, R. D. (Port McNeill); Teindl, A. I. (Port
Hardy); Brooks, T. (Campbell River); Hannah, M. (Courtenay); Norbirg, H. (Parksville);
Howard, W. G. (Nanaimo); Sykes, S. I. (Duncan); Antonelli, M. W. (Langford); Thomas,
R. W. (Lake Cowichan); Haley, K. (Alberni); Doerksen, H. G. (Tofino); Gill, D. E.
(Pemberton); de Hart, D. E. (Gold River); Hawkey, G. F. (Chatham Channel).
Prince George Forest District
N. A. McRae -.-.. District Forester
Young, W. --.        Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Graham, J. G. (McBride); Little, I. H. (Valemount); McRae, M. A. (Prince George East);
Meents, T. G. (Prince George North); Brash, W. E. (Fort St. James); York, G. H. (Quesnel); Barbour, H. T. (Dawson Creek); Amonson, D. A. (Aleza Lake); Osborne, H. (Van-
derhoof); Espenant, L. G. (Fort St. John); Griffiths, P. F. (Fort Fraser); Gibbs, T. R.
(Summit Lake); Doerksen, D. B. (Fort Nelson); Magee,, G. E. (Prince George); Wallin,
D. F. (Hixon); Hewitt, E. W. (Quesnel); Rohn, K. (Quesnel); McQueen, L. (Chetwynd);
Magee, K. W. (MacKenzie).
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
67
Kamloops Forest District
A. H. Dixon -
Boulton, L. B. B.
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Hopkins, H. V. (Lumby); Ivens, J. H. (Birch Island); Winner, D. J. (Barriere); Cameron,
A. G. (Kamloops South); Craig, V. D. (Chase); Jackson, R. C. (Salmon Arm); Jones,
G. G. (Sicamous); Berard, R. K. M. (Lillooet); Kuly, A. (Vernon); McDaniel, R. W.
(Penticton); Baker, F. M. (Princeton); Petty, A. P. (Clinton); Ward, J. G. (Williams
Lake); Donnelly, R. W. (Alexis Creek); Hewlett, H. C. (Kelowna); Noble, J. O. (Ashcroft); Pearce, F. (Merritt); Lynn, J. F. (Blue River); Loomer, I. M. (Enderby); Schmidt,
J. T. (100 Mile North); Weinard, J. P. (Kamloops North); Wanderer, J. (Horsefly);
Monteith, M. E. (100 Mile South);  Perry, W. R. (Tatla Lake).
Prince Rupert Forest District
H. M. Pogue
W. F. Tuttle
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Quast, H. W. (Ocean Falls); Anderson, W. R. (Queen Charlotte City); Gilgan, N. P.
(Prince Rupert); Gorley, O. J. (Terrace); Reiter. D. (Kitwanga); Harvie, T. (Hazelton);
Pement, A. R. (Smithers); Simmons, C. F. (Telkwa); Dodd, G. F. (Houston); Mould, J.
(Pendleton Bay); Mastin, T. (Burns Lake); Weinard, R. H. (Bella Coola); Jones, W. H.
(Southbank); Waldron, W. C. (Lower Post); Jaeger, J. F. (Topley); Hawkins, R. M.
(Kitimat).
Nelson Forest District
J. R. Johnston     - -       -
Isenor, M. G.     -
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Taft, L. G. (Invermere); Humphrey, J. L. (Fernie); Anderson, S. E. (Golden); Gierl,
J. B. (Cranbrook East); Ross, A. I. (Creston); Atlin, G. B. (Kaslo); Benwell, G. L.
(Lardeau); Robinson, R. E. (Nelson); Jupp, C. C. (New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Nakusp);
Wood, H. R. (Castlegar); Reid, E. W. (Grand Forks); Uphill, W. T. (Kettle Valley);
Cartwright, G. M. (Canal Flats); Benwell, W. G. (Mica); Trenaman, R. G. (Edgewood);
Russell, P. F. (Elko); Webster, G. R. (Spillimacheen); Hamann, L. O. (Cranbrook West);
Thompson, H. B. (Beaverdell);  Bellmond, C. N. (Salmo);  Hamilton, H. D. (Revelstoke).
    REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1967 71
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
THE REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
t*^-e Research Division d
No. Page
11. Tabulation of Research Projects Active in 1967     74
12. Research Publications, 1967     75
Reforestation Division
22. Summary of Planting, 1958-67     76
Public Information and Education Division
31. Motion-picture Library, 1958-67     77
32. Summary of Coverage by School Lecturers, 1958-67     78
33. Forest Service Library, 1958-67     79
Forest Management Division
47. Summary of Basic Data for Tree-farm Licences (Private Sustained-yield
Units)     79
48. Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-farms (Private Sustained-yield
Units over Crown-granted Lands)     79
49. Summary of Basic Data for Farm Wood-lot Licences (Private Sustained-
yield Units)     8 0
50. Summary of Basic Data for Public Sustained-yield Units     80
51. Value Added by Manufacture and Estimated Net Value of Logging,
1958-67     81
52. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.), 1958-67     82
53. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during Years 1966
and 1967:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet     83
54. Species Cut, All Products, 1967:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet _____    84
55. Total Scale, All Products, 1967 (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts): (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet     85
56. Timber Scaled in British Columbia during 1967 (by Months and Forest
Districts)     86
57. Number of Acres Operating under Approved Annual Allowable Cuts,
1958-67     87
58. Total Scale of All Products from Areas Operated under Approved Annual
Allowable Cuts, 1958-67  88
59. Logging Inspections, 1967  89
60. Trespasses, 1967  90
61. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1967  91
62. Timber-sale Record, 1967  91
63. Competition for Timber Sales Awarded, 1967  92
64. Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1967  93
 72 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table
No. Page
65. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Timber Sales during 1967, per C C.F. Log Scale     94
66. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Timber Scaled on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits during 1967    95
67. Timber Cut and Billed from Timber Sales, 1967  96
68. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1967  97
69. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1967  98
70. Shipments of Poles and Other Minor Products, 1967  98
71. Summary of Export of Minor Products for Province, 1967  99
72. Timber Marks Issued, 1958-67  99
Grazing Division
81. Grazing Permits Issued, 1967     99
Engineering Services Division
91. Forest Road Programme, 1967  100
92. Forest Service Mechanical Equipment, 1967  101
Forest Protection Division
102. Reported Approximate  Expenditure  in Forest Protection  by  Other
Agencies, 1967  102
103. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1967  102
104. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1967  102
105. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last 10 Years  103
106. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1967  104
107. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1967  105
108. Damage to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1967—Parts I and II__ 105
109. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1967 107
110. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last 10 Years  107
111. Fires Classified by Forest District and Cost per Fire of Fire-fighting, 1967 108
112. Prosecutions, 1967  109
113. Contract Hying, 1967  110
114. Non-contract Flying, 1967  110
115. Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities, 1967  111
116. Construction of Protection Roads and Trails, 1967  111
117. Summary of Snag-falling, 1967, Vancouver Forest District  111
118. Summary of Logging Slash Reported in 1967, Vancouver Forest District 112
119. Acreage Analysis of Slash Disposal Required, 1967, Vancouver Forest
District  112
120. Analysis of Progress in Slash Disposal, 1967, Vancouver Forest District 112
121. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1967, Vancouver Forest
District  113
Forest Service Training-school
131. Training-school Enrolment and Graduations  113
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1967
73
Table
No.
141.
Accounting Division
Forest Revenue, 1963-67	
Page
  113
142. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1967  114
143. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1966/67  115
144. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1966/67	
145. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1966/67—.
146. Scaling Fund	
147. Grazing Range Improvement Fund	
148. Peace River Power Timber Salvage	
Personnel Division
151. Distribution of Personnel, 1967	
116
116
116
117
117
118
 74 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
CD TABULATION OF RESEARCH PROIECTS ACTIVE IN 1967
Experimental
Project No.
Title
Region
62-66
204-5
283
343
388
418
429
474
476
477
479
492
497
499
502
513
517
538
549
554
570
571
580
581
589
590
591
599
603
606
607
612
613
616
618
625
626
630
632
633
635
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
646
648
649
650
651
652
653
655
656
657
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
Douglas-fir Thinning Experiments	
Thinning and Pruning in Douglas-fir..
Douglas-fir Thinning Experiments	
Red Alder Thinning-
Commercial Thinning in Hemlock	
Thinning Experiments in Douglas-fir„
Mixed Species Spacing Trial...
Inbreeding Experiments with Douglas-fir..
Pollination Techniques for Douglas-fir	
A Study of Phenotypes in Douglas-fir„
Plus-trees Selection for Douglas-fir Seed Orchards..
Douglas-fir Thinning Experiment	
Thinning Studies in Engelmann Spruce	
Thinning and Pruning on a Farm Wood-lot	
Plantation Trials  	
Intra- and Interspecific Crosses within the Genus Pseudotsuga..
Thinning Studies in Ponderosa Pine.
Seed Dissemination and the Influence of Weather Conditions-
Spacing Trials..
Thinning Experiments in Douglas-fir..
Sitka Spruce Spacing Study-
Trials of Tree Species and Initial Spacing on the West Coast of Vancouver
Island   	
Site Preparation to Induce Restocking of Lodgepole Pine Sites in the West
Kettle	
Cooperative Planting Study of 2+0 Douglas-fir Culls  _	
A Study of Douglas-fir Planting Stock on High Site Lands Subject to Dense
Plant Cover  	
Compatibility of Grass and Tree Seeding      	
Regeneration Study in Cut-over Lodgepole Pine Stands	
Problem Analysis:   Approach to Provenance Experimentation in Coastal Douglas-fir     	
Study of Some Hand-planting Methods in White Spruce-
Direct Seeding of Douglas-fir and Engelmann Spruce	
Ponderosa Pine Spacing Trials._
A Preliminary Investigation of the Cowichan Lake Nursery-
Western Hemlock Spacing Study...
Study of Regeneration Problems in Decadent Hemlock-Cedar Stands	
Cone Crop Periodicity in Spruce, Nelson Forest District	
The Survival and Initial Growth of Various Types  of Douglas-fir Planting
Stock  	
Engelmann Spruce Planting Trials..
Lodgepole Pine Cleaning Study-
Exploratory Direct Seeding Trials in the Wet Belt Type of the Southern Interior
Western Hemlock Planting Trials  	
Direct Seeding on a Scarified Area-
Seed Dispersal and Natural Regeneration in the Columbia Forest Zone-
Seeding Trials .
Regeneration and Reforestation Practice  	
Requirements of Douglas-fir Seedlings for P, K and Mg  	
Dry Matter Production and Growth Periodicity in Four Western Species..
Nursery Experiment with Different Nitrogen Sources  	
Nutrient Analysis in Plantation Trees..
Effects of Altitudinal and Latitudinal Displacement of White and Engelmann
Spruce Provenances  _  	
Grafting in Douglas-fir.
White Spruce Stock Comparison Study-
Direct Seeding on a Control Burn	
Seed Dispersal Study-
Measurement of 2+0 Douglas-fir Dormancy-
Seed Dispersal Study-
Determination of Fertilizer Amendments for White Spruce at Red Rock Nursery
Nursery Test of Desirability of Micro-nutrient Amendments for Douglas-fir
Seedlings...
A Study of Variation in Pinus contorta with Particular Reference to British
Columbia  	
The Rehabilitation of Decadent Stands	
Species-spacing Trials in the Montane Forest Region..
Engelmann Spruce Spacing Trials _
Altitudinal Adaptability of a Low Elevation Engelmann Spruce Provenance-
Co-operative Planting Trials of Interior Spruce  	
Western Hemlock Establishment Trial    	
Aerial Seeding (1967) in the Kamloops Forest District-
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Thurlow Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Prince Rupert.
Kamloops.
Prince Rupert.
Prince Rupert.
Nelson.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Prince Rupert.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
British Columbia.
Nelson.
Prince George.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
75
(12)
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS,  1967
Arlidge, J. W. C. (1967): The Durability of Scarified Seedbeds for Spruce Regeneration.   B.C.
Forest Service, Research Note No. 42.
Clark, M. B. (1967):   Survival of Plantations in the Southern Interior of British Columbia.
B.C. Forest Service, Forest Topic No. 6.
Heaman, J. C. (1967):  A Review of the Plus Tree Selection Programme for Douglas-fir in
Coastal British Columbia.   B.C. Forest Service, Research Note No. 44.
Hetherington, J. C. (1967): A Quadrat for use in Sampling the Yield of Understorey Vegetation
in Forest Stands.  Commonwealth Forestry Review 46 (1): 4-5.
Hetherington, J. C. (1967): A Simple Device for the Measurement of the Crown Diameter of
Standing Trees.   Commonwealth Forestry Review 46 (1): 5.
Orr-Ewing, A. L. (1967):  A Progeny Test of Douglas-fir to Demonstrate the Importance of
Selection in Forest Practice.   B.C. Forest Service, Research Note No. 43.
Schmidt, R. L.  (1967):   B.C. Forest Service Initiates Douglas-fir Provenance Study.    B.C.
Lumberman, Vol. 51(3) :72-74.
 76
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
FOREST SERVICE LIBRARY, 1958-67
79
Classification
Items Catalogued and Indexed
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
u _■__
2<=_
48
177
159
133
230
1,139
43
142
165
130
302
1,502
39
123
200
115
274
999
31
92
135
134
375
878
29
113
140
151
378
911
23
191
110
151
370
1,165
30
146
92
151
380
1,263
41
158
73
151
419
1,371
31
207
60
151
422
1,476
28
152
84
159
436
1,482
34
Government reports and bulletins   	
Other bulletins and reports
150
121
141
Serials	
References indexed. 	
358
1,213
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR TREE-FARM LICENCES (PRIVATE
(47) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Forest District
Number
of
Tree-farm
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Cut (M
Cu. Ft.)
Crown
Private
Total
Vancouver     — _	
Prince Rupert  	
171
61
2
7
6
2,443,952
3,384,405
461,625
695,454
1,270,829
1,202,270
178,660
1,599
1,848
47,342
3,646,222
3,563,065
463,224
697,302
1,318,171
6,588,983
10,745,300
521,617
775,509
3,335,936
371,0502
83,117
10,600
Kamloops	
Nelson _	
13,565
38,700
36
8,256,265
1,431,719
9,687,984
21,967,345
517,032
i Two tree-farm licences located in both districts.
2 Includes allowable cut of that part of Tree-farm Licence No. 39 in Prince Rupert Forest District.
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS (PRIVATE
(48) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS OVER CROWN-GRANTED LANDS)
Within Tree-farm Licences
District
Number
of
Tree-farms
within
Tree-farm
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Mature
Immature
N.S.R.
and
N.C.C.
Total
Total
Area
(Acres)
Mature
Volume
(MCu.
Ft.
Estimated
Productive
Canacity
(MCu.
Ft.)
Vancouver	
Prince George-
Nelson	
Totals ..
11
1
2
89,748 | 189,366
123 |  1,091
1,207 j  3,114
28,382
40
364
307,496
1,254
4,685
345,023 | 734,113
1,280 | 331
4,925 I   3,763
91,078 i 193,571
28,786
313,435   351,228   738,207
31,031
37
187
31,255
Not Included within Tree-farm Licences
Vancouver	
Nelson  	
22
9
1
|  129,206
126,264
1
274,832
141,593
32,353
10,653
436,391
278,510
465,512
472,297
1,137,071
177,646
36,245
4,053
(584,502)
Totals	
31
[ 255,470
1
416,425
43,006
714,901
937,809
1,314,717
40,298
(584,502)
Grand totals-
45
1 346,548
1
1
609,996
71,792
1,028,336
1,289,037
2,052,924
71,553
(584,502)
Figures in parentheses are Christmas trees.
 80
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
W (PRIVATE SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
District
Number
of Farm
Wood-lot
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Total Mature Volume
(MCu. Ft.)
Allowable
Annual
Cut (M
Cu. Ft.)
Crown
Private
Total
Crown
Private
Total
Vancouver 	
14
6
15
4
7
1,983
1,923
3,425
1,378
1,795
1
277 |    2,260
415 |    2,338
193       3,618
146       1,524
987       2,782
3,157
4,053
3.840
1,700
2,962
3,666
2,508
6,327
1,239
1.379
145
133
105
18
309
3,811
2,641
6,432
1,257
1,688
79.6
41.2
112.3
Kamloops 	
28.0
39.6
Totals	
46
10,504
2,018
17 5.7.   I   15.71.
15.119  I     710
15,829
300.7
.*>.    SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR PUBLIC SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS
Forest District
Number
of
Units
Productive Area (Acres)
Mature
Immature
Total
Productive
(Includes
N.S.R. and
N.C.C.)
Total Area
(Including
Non-forest)
(Acres)
Mature
Volume to
Close-
utilization
Standards
(M Cu. Ft.)
Annual
Commitment
(MCu.
Ft.)
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert (Coast)	
Prince Rupert (Interior) —
Prince George 	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals 	
6
4
7
22
23
14
3,300,492
3,352,888
5,753,818
13,616,692
9,094,732
2,573,148
1,365,564
261,968
3,156,445
12,337,055
11,013,252
4,803,369
5,126,826
3,864,333
9,249,502
27,571,331
21.424,598
8,491,306
10,174,780
11,699,421
14,058,660
39,226,987
28,472,697
14,124,656
26,741,1331
23,253,1961
24,951,1512
41,123,1562
24,897,8722
10,157,5972
148,837
41,247
51,489
212,445
127,319
67,338
76
37,691,770 I 32,937,653
75,727,896
117,757,201
151,124,105
648,675
i Volume 9.1" + d.b.h. to close utilization.
2 Volume 7.1" + d.b.h. to close utilization.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
81
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83
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING THE YEARS 1966 AND 1967 IN F.B.M.
(53A) (All products converted to f.b.m.)
Forest District
10-year
Average,
1958-67
1966
1967
Increase
Decrease
Net
Decrease
Vancouver  —
Prince Rupert (C).—
Totals, Coast -	
Prince Rupert (I.)—
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson. _
Totals, Interior-
Grand totals	
3,960,436,461
559,208,723
4,668,599,676
790,161,720
4,653,042,390
747,114,468
4,519,645,184 | 5,458,761,396 | 5,400,156,858
343,904,236
1,022,874,020
1,253,042,565
733,282,070
427,750,251
1,265,723,608
1,349,400,220
939,828,243
544,193,121
1,368,965,440
1,222,232,110
731,900,911
3,353,102,891  | 3,982,702,322 | 3,867,291,582
7,872,748,075 I 9,441,463,718
9,267,448,440
15,557,286
43,047,252 j
58,604,538
58,604,538
116,442,870
	
103,241,832
127,168,110
207,927,332
219,684,702 | 335,095,442 | 115,410,740
174,015,278
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING THE YEARS 1966 AND 1967 IN CUBIC FEET
(S3B)
(Conversion factors: Coast—6 f.b.m._=l cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.)
(All products converted to cubic feet.)
Forest District
10-year
Average,
1958-67
1966
1967
Increase
Decrease
Net
Decrease
660,072,743
93,201,454
778,099,946
131,693,620
775,507,065
124,519,078
2,592,881
7,174,542
Prince Rupert (C.) .
Totals, Coast
753,274,197
909,793,566
900,026,143
9,767,423
9,767,423
Prince Rupert (I.)	
59,809,432
177,891,134
217,920,446
127,527,317
74,391,348
220,125,845
234,678,299
163,448,390
94,642,282
238,080,946
212,562,106
127,287,115
20,250,934
17,955,101
22,116,193
36,161,275
—
Totals, Interior	
583,148,329
692,643,882
672,572,449
38,206,035
58,277,468
20,071,433
1,336,422,526
1,602,437,448
1,572,598,592
29,838,856
 84                   REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(54A)        SPECIES CUT, ALL PRODUCTS, 1967, CONVERTED TO F.B.M.
Forest District
Fir
Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert (C.)
Totals, Coast-
Prince Rupert (I.)
Prince George	
Kamloops	
1,124,437,644
27,680,988
919,754,730
124,000,656
78,196,308
159,749,754
230,106
242,004
1,684,505,352
333,837,804
740,902,092
82,047,246
25,351,296
1,152,118,632|1,043,755,386
237,946,062|          472,110
2,018,343,156|   822,949,338]     25,351,296
20,1541     42,150,662
108,350,343        2,746,982
611,929,456|     41,772,014
138,225,578      88,341,695
146,969,160
904,241,999
296,540,213
238.319.100
100,778,445
294,179,511
125,511,207
36.006.770
160,819,301
157,872
24,206,258
91,436,747
76,084,7991                   75
55,846,806]          191,435
50,698,095|       7,931,297
52,197,3271     17,874,927
Totals, Interior
Grand totals
858,525,531    175,011,353
l,586,070,472j   556,475,933
276,620,178|   234,827,027]     25,997,734
2,010,644,163
1,218,766,739
1,824,016,534
556,948,043
2,294,963,334
1,057,776,365
51,349,030
Forest District
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
Vancouver. _	
Prince Rupert (C.)
Totals, Coast-
Prince Rupert (I.)
30,288
54,137,604
8,044,974
62,250
10,441,734
14,822,700
7,010,262
4,653,042,390
4,671,066
747,114,468
30,288|     58,808,670
8,107,224
25,264,434|       7,010,262|5,400,156,858
356
851
307,056
90,792
1,615,060
280,974
17,062,262
3,159,700
1,498,726
2,176,467
544,193,121
1,368,965,440
Kamloops.	
Nelson „   .
45,972,084
9,035,556
	
14,557,700
58,005,770
1,222,232,110
731,900,911
Totals, Interior
Grand totals	
55,007,996|                 851
72,563,470|       2,293,882
23,897,155|                       |3,867,?.91,582
55,038,284
58,809,521
72,563,470|     10,401,106
1
49,161,589
7,010,262 9,267,448,440
SPECIES CUT, ALL PRODUCTS, 1967, IN CUBIC FEET
(54B)             (Conversion factors: Coast—6 _.b.m.=l cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.-=l cu. ft.)
Forest District
Fir
Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
187,406,274
4,613,498
153,292,455
20,666,776
13,032,718
26,624,959
38,351
40,334
280,750,892
55,639,634
123,483,682
13,674,541
4,225,216
Prince Rupert (C.)
Totals, Coast-
Prince Rupert (I.)
Prince George
192,019,772|   173,959,231
39,657,677 j             78,685
336,390,526]   137,158,223|       4,225,216
3,505
18,843,538
106,422,514
24,039,231
7,330,550
477,736
7,264,698
15,363,773
25,559,854]     17,526,686
157,259,478      51,161,654
51,572,2111     21,828,036
41,446,800|       6,262,047
27,968,574
27,456
4,209,784
15,902,043
13,232,1391                   13
9,712,488             33,293
8,817,060        1,379,356
9,077,796]       3,108,683
Totals, Interior
Grand totals	
149,308,788|     30,436,757
275,838,343|     96,778,423
48,107,857|     40,839,483|       4,521,345
341,328,560
204,395,988
315,496,020
96,857,108
384,498,383
177,997,706
8,746,561
Forest District
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert (C.)
5,048
9,022,934
778,511
1,340,829
1,740,289
2,470,450
1,168,377
775,507,065
10,375
124,519,078
Prince Rupert (I.)
_,u-*o|       -.w-n-i-'
fO                    148
	
53,401
-.,-.-.,,_.   |               _,_UU,_,,|      ._.,.__.,_-._.
2.967.350            94.642.282
15,790
280,880
48,865
549,513
260,648
378,516
	
238,080,946
7,995,145
1,571,401
2,531,774
10,087,960
212,562,106
Nelson	
Totals, Interior
Grand totals	
127,287,115
9,566,6081                 148
12,619,734|          398,936
4,156,027
672,572,449
  	
9,571,656|       9,801,593
12,619,734
1,750,140
8,366,766
1,168,377|1,572,598,592
1
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1967
85
(S5A)
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN 1967 IN F.B.M.
(SEGREGATED BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
987,624,510
91,851,768
291,354,960
129,746,574
34,123,050
657,306
1,008,275,802
111,143,754
4,678,482
7,854,143
48,822,301
3,969,564
14,298,002
52,144,760
1,125,598,891
192,818,829
295,324,524
46,516,134
42,728,430
176,262,708
76,851,480
197,208
265,606,311
1,142,686
1,215,606,114
5,045,372
49,004,778
96,635
790,144,151
47,903
355,308,042
2,141,738
3,903,038,834
268,098,414
5,045,372
Tree-farm licences
Beachcomb, trespass....
622,562,622
42,459,900
212,975,424
226,906,980
214,437,913
78,016,339
178,179,580
1,369,108,212
42,459,900
212,975,424
Miscellaneous	
2,285,166
12,554,910
21,354,195
31,873,544      16,861,139
6,598,298
91,527,252
Sub-totals, Crown
lands	
3,423,917,082
707,948,622
501,595,627
1,307,350,976
945,764,272 606,576,585
7,493,153,164
18,345,750
1,061,212,764
57,703,284
21,012,030
70,851,480
15,273,432
90,564
4,126,512
6,478,620
13,196,718
4,890,749
4,279,846
462,708
522,646
6,085,127
50,264,137
32,634,430
50,004,587
25,956,420
36,409,966
131,462,435
1,211,312
17,188,049
56,143,316
15,513,253
35,268,396
76,635,519
1,128,958,672
Crown grants—■
To 1887 	
1887-1906 -	
1906-1914.	
1914 to date	
179,457
15,374,735
22,152,553
144,631,635
100,873,731
323 195 719
Totals 	
4.653.042.3901747.114.468
544,193,121
1,368,965,440
1,222,232,110
731,900,911
9,267,448,440
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN 1967 IN CUBIC FEET
(55B)        (SEGREGATED BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
(Conversion factors: Coast—6 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
164,604,085
15,308,628
18,523,959
813,649
1,365,938
8,490,835
690,359
2,486,609
9,068,654
187,794,240
32,868,117
48,559,160
49,249,519
21,624,429
5,687,175
109,551
168,045,967
7,752,689
7,121,405
29,377,118
12,808,580
34,297
46,192,402
198,728
211,409,759
877,456
8,522,570
16,806
137,416,374
8,331
61,792,703
367,713
44,683,069
669,540,274
877,456
103,760,437
7,076,650
35,495,904
37,817,830
37,293,550
13,568,059
30,987,753
231,950,199
7,076,650
35,495,904
380,861
2,092,485
3,713,773
5,543,225|       2,932,372
1,147,530
15,810,246
Sub-totals, Crown
lands	
570,652,847
117,991,437
87,234,022
227,365,387
164,480,743
105,491,580
1,273,216,016
3,057,625
176,868,794
9,617,214
3,502,005
11,808,580
2,545,572
15,094
687,752
1,079,770
2,199,453
850,565
31,210
2,673,867
3,852,618
744,321
80,471
90,895
1,058,283
8,741,589
5,675,553
8,696,450
4,514,160
6,332,168
22,863,032
210,663
2,989,226
9,764,055
2,697,957
6,133,634
13,084,299
Crown grants—■
To 1887 	
188,650,035
1887-1906	
24,705,286
1906-1914	
17,344,050
1914 to date  	
55,598,906
Totals 	
775,507,065
124,519,078
94,642,282
238,080,946
212,562,106
127,287,115
1,572,598,592
 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 88
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
LOSGING INSPECTIONS, 1967
89
Type of Tenure Operated
Number of Inspections Made
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Leases, Licences, Crown
Grants,
and Other
Tenures
Total
Timber
Sales
Other
Tenures
Total
Vancouver _	
898
678
1,328
1,524
690
1,240
517
2,058
2,136
1,480
2,138
1,195
3,386
3,660
2,170
2,588
2,607
6,432
4,366
1,670
2,959
1,027
1,080
2,763
1,659
5,547
3,634
Prince George 	
Kamloops.	
7,512
7,129
3,329
Totals, 1967  	
5,118
7,431
12,549
17,663
9,488
27,151
Totals, 1966  	
5,566
6,174
11,740
18,593
9,576
28,169
Totals, 1965. 	
6,231
6,514
12,745
17,869
6,365
24,234
Totals, 1964	
6,557
6,560
13,117
17,789
13,311
31,100
Totals, 1963 	
6,926
7,168
14,094
18,021
7,189
25,210
Totals, 1962 	
7,079
6,645
13,724
18,602
6,353
24,955
Totals, 1961- 	
7,088
6,463
13,551
18,330
6,242
24,572
Totals, 1960	
7,249
5,120
12,369
(!)
C1)
26,151
Totals, 1959 	
6,273
4,898
11,171
(i)
C1)
26,912
Totals, 1958	
5,936
4,341
10,277
(!)
C1)
23,802
Ten-year average, 1958-67
6,402
6,131
12,534
26,226
i No breakdown made prior to 1961.
 90
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES,  1967
91
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MC.F.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords)
Car Stakes,
Ties, Posts,
Shakes,
Etc.
(No.)
259
142
216
189
42
27,148
39,838
109,376
112,150
21,813
84,977
83,306
216,953
121,271
43,300
1,735
7,522
112,650
27,950
360,500
5,482,000
144,400
26,600
50,100
Kamloops... 	
Nelson.   _
2,960
135
100
130,000
Totals, 1967        -	
848
310,325
549,807
6,014,850
12,352
319,450
Totals, 1966  	
998
361,021
679,486
3,674,100
25,675
837,244
Totals, 1965    	
1,357
496,254
951,995
2,650,400
7,616
987,100
Totals, 1964 , -	
1,709
661,821
1,107,428
2,944,004
25,154
478,520
Totals, 1963 _	
1,862
716,699
1,165,976
3,887,525
32,519
656,680
Totals, 1962	
1,871
615,500
921,710
18,508,084
19,340
564,865
Totals, 1961   _	
1,892
720,144
1,027,243
7,687,920
14,798
1,419,285
Totals, 1960         	
2,122
767,351
1,142,479
8,807,614
29,050
1,419,179
Totals, 1959 .:,.
2,317
681,550
877,370
7,387,960
27,753
1,151,275
Totals, 1958         	
1,922
609,563
890,285
8,772,888
24,316
1,181,149
Ten-year average, 1958-67	
1,690
594,023
931,378
7,033,534
21,857
901,475
(62)
TIMBER-SALE RECORD,  1967
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales     j
Existing
Total
Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest
Protection
Tax (Acres)
Total
Security
Deposit
Vancouver  	
239
76
218
193
50
455
254
353
323
134
1,120
681
902
1,312
489
490,285
310.622
480,379
286.606
$5,727,992.72
1,445,066.80
Prince George  	
Kamloops _ _
508,789              441,861
815,933      1         776,927
529.081      1        503.036
2,377,488.15
3,279,570.73
2.025.963.98
Totals 	
776
373
1,519      j      4,504
2,654,710
2,488,809
$14,856,082.38
1,149
	
	
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(69) EXPORT OF LOGS (IN F.B.M.), 1967
Species
Grade
No. 1
Grade
No. 2
Grade
No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir  	
23,555
4,949,387
3,119,331
2,791,841
518,436
9,865,202
17,361,667
9,383,080
2,762,218
24,809,725
35,810,776
50,127,097
3,304,209
39,624,314
	
56,291,774
62,302,018
20,951,566
-     	
20,951,566
Yftllowpine   	
Lodgepole pine 	
Cypress 	
1,964
380,873
12,427,730
1,964
72,638
791,927
379,565
272,360
2,896,421
1,023,633
725,871
16,116,078
21,269
21,269
2,675,054
4,078,252
Totals, 1967 	
12,128,244
41,320,799
128,995,437
20,972,835
	
203,417,3151
Totals, 1966	
9,751,031
27,322,739
88,001,394
15,452,806
1,478,441
142,006,411
Totals, 1965  	
3,355,224
10,766,201
35,846,770
8,625,979
14,650
58,608,824
Totals, 1964	
3,748,377
14,590,533
30,789,610
3,740,863
84,834
52,954,217
Totals, 1963 , ~	
3,468,986
16,149,811
62,790,210
10,274,991
107,529
92,791,527
Totals, 1962	
3,773,734
11,215,447
46,151,663
13,143,092
696,436
74,980,372
Totals, 1961. 	
9,216,534
28,611,982
48,009,763
12,202,800
3,311,119
101,352,198
Totals, I960...	
1,391,803
5,351,398
20,872,330
11,805,419
890,260
40,311,210
Totals, 1959	
486,685
2,601,653
19,608,208
3,999,901
1,839,030
28,535,477
Totals, 1958 	
734,991
3,727,452
16,164,689
3,715,124
3,762,411
28,104,667
Ten-year average, 1958-67.
4,805,561
16,165,802
49,723,007
10,393,381
1,218,471
82,306,222
i Of this total, 68,513,476 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands  carrying the export privilege;
134,903,839 f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas.
(70)
SHIPMENTS OF POLES AND OTHER MINOR PRODUCTS,  1967
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where Marketed
Canada
United
States
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles	
Jin. ft.
Piling 	
Stakes and sticks..
Fence-posts	
Cedar shakes	
..lin. ft.
..pieces
._ cords
Christmas trees     ,,
Prince Rupert—
Cedar poles  lin. ft.
Cedar shakes..... squares
Prince George—
Cedar poles 	
Fence-posts  	
Cedar shakes	
Kamloops—
Cedar poles  	
Poles and piling	
Posts	
Christmas trees 	
Nelson—■
Poles and piling 	
Corral rails	
..lin. ft.
.. cords
.pieces
..lin. ft.
Orchard props.
Fence-posts	
Shake bolts	
. cords
Palings and pickets-
Christmas trees	
Total value, 1967..
Total value, 1966..
7,035,287
2,905,162
300
4,251
17,018,579
20,374
3,230,430
617
32,330
19,198
4
261,325
7,105
5
344,250
1,861,138
116,146
447,350
3,301
307
40
1,362,850
$3,386,486.13
1,752,047.44
90.00
1,275.30
1,531,672.11
50,935.00
1,476,258.00
8,021.00
30,000.00
5,700.00
100.00
122,822.00
2,131.00
225.00
240,975.00
1,015,991.00
3,484.00
13,421.00
115,535.00
7,368.00
640.00
953,995.00
| $10,719,171.98
$10,305,508.71
305,809
125,364
130
1,079,855
617
29,110
19,198
4
164,325
7,105
5
51,637
950,495
106,046
28,400
3,105
26
40
140,500
3,629,724
64,585
300
4,121
17,018,579
20,374
2,122,175
3,200
97,000
292,612
910,643
10,100
418,950
196
281
1,222,350
3,099,754
2,715,213
28,400
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
99
(71)
SUMMARY OF EXPORT OF MINOR PRODUCTS FOR
PROVINCE, 1967
Product
Percentage of
Total Value
Poles-
Piling..
. lin. ft.
Other poles and piling-
Corral rails	
Orchard props 	
Stakes and sticks	
Cedar shakes 	
Christmas trees	
Fence-posts _	
Fence-posts 	
Shake bolts  —
Palings and pickets..
Cedar shakes	
Cedar shakes	
Total-value..
.pieces
.cords
10,599,372
$5,015,566.13
46.7905
2,905,162
1,752,047.44
16.3448
1,868,243
1,018,122.00
9.4981
116,146
3,484.00
.0325
447,350
13,421.00
.1252
300
90.00
.0008
17,018,579
1,531,672.11
14.2898
1,727,474
1,245,905.00
11.6231
23,449
6,975.30
.0650
3,306
115,760.00
1.0799
307
7,368.00
.0687
40
640.00
.0059
4
100.00
.0009
617
8,021.00
.0748
510,719,171.98
(72)
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED,  1958-67
10-year
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
Average,
1958-67
Old Crown grants	
215
299
315
268
300
313
356
328
341
277
301
Crown grants, 1887-
1906.	
93
103
115
121
150
125
148
150
130
147
128
Crown grants, 1906-
1914 	
93
125
123
121
164
161
164
172
144
163
143
Section 58, Forest Act
362
524
517
470
589
608
672
649
679
680
575
Stumpage reservations
89
108
116
117
109
141
149
133
63
61
109
1
3
9
13
7
8
3
6
5
Timber berths	
7
9
4
4
12
12
9
14
10
4
9
Indian reserves	
9
21
15
8
20
18
27
24
27
11
18
Section 24, Forest Act
20
214
23
1,900
1,926
2,136
2,141
1,991
2,183
2,281
1,614
1,126
1,149
1,844
Special marks and
rights-of-way 	
80
85
113
91
90
97
121
153
117
95
104
7
1
1
5
5
3
12
4
4
.
2
4
1
1
Totals	
2,855
3,201
3,456
3,349
3,441
3,671
3,934
3,248
2,676
2,812
3,264
Transfers and changes
598
669
794
691
809
725
802
740
908
S93
733
(81)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED,  1967
Forest District
Number
of Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses          Sheep
1,248
463
397
6
146,602
23,417
17,927
180
4,231
1,119
1,477
10
4,591
886
795
Totals, 1967
2,114
188,126
6,837
6,272
Totals, 1966	
2,244
189,286
6,572
8,970
Totals, 1965—	
2,218
188,339
6,677
12,509
Totals, 1964  _	
2,104
173,677
6,231
22,478
Totals, 1963	
1,951
158,840
5,860
25,366
Totals, 1962  _ _	
1,924
146,830
5,007
23,370
Totals, 1961  -
1,825
132,749
4,985
21,309
Totals, 1960  —   	
1,726
127,148
4,504
19,460
Totals, 1959	
1,683
124,425
4,377
20,604
Totals, 1958
1,571
122,489
4,169
20,927
 100 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(91) FOREST ROAD PROGRAMME, 1967
Project
Regulation Unit
Reconnaissance
Location
Construction
Vancouver Forest District
Chilliwack River F.R — .              .. .
Dewdney P.S.Y.U. ..   _     ._
Miles
8.6
3.5
1.9
2.0
6.0
Miles
Miles
9.0
Lillooet River F.R.                .    .
Soo P.S.Y.U.	
7.5
16.8
3.7
Homathko River F.R	
Quadra P.S.Y.U	
Kingcome P.S.Y.U _.
Quadra P.S.Y.U 	
Kingcome P.S.Y.U.
Camp Point-Kelsey Bay1 	
	
Dewdney P.S.Y.U —
Dewdney P.S.Y.U	
Quadra P.S.Y.U— 	
Harrison North F.R.
Soo P.S.Y.U	
10.0
0.3
Prince Rupert Forest District
Skeena P.S.Y.U	
Skeena P.S.Y.U	
8.0
36.0
27.0
10.0
18.0
58.0
42.0
20.0
Skeena P.S.Y.U 	
Smithers P.S.Y.U	
Skeena P.S.Y.U	
Prince George Forest District
Bowron P.S.Y.U.
_,
9.0
Westlake P.H.F.	
Nechako P.S.Y.U.   .
Finlay P.S.Y.U	
Kamloops Forest District
Chilcotin South F.R _	
Stum P.S.Y.U  	
North Thompson P.S.Y.U....
North Thompson P.S.Y.U. _
North Thompson P.S.Y.U.—
Nicola P.S.Y.U.
11.9
0.8
2.0
0.5
11.5
14.8
Bone Creek F.R—  	
4.0
Finn Creek F.R   -
Okanagan P.S.Y.U 	
Spallumcheen P.S.Y.U	
Edgewood P.S.Y.U _
Kettle P.S.Y.U.
Area study1.    	
Nelson Forest District
Bench Creek F.R	
8.5
Beaverdell-State Creek F.R	
11.3
11.7
24.0
14.0
Yahk Triangle1	
Cranbrook P.S.Y.U	
Edgewood P.S.Y.U.
Lardeau P.S.Y.U 	
Kettle P.S.Y.U.	
2.6
Cranbrook P.S.Y.U.
298
5,443
67.3
2,483.8
49.6
957.5
5,741
2,551.1
1,007.1
1 Areas studied under the development engineering programme.
F.R.=Forest road. P.S.Y.U.=Public sustained-yield unit.
P.H.F.=_PuIp harvesting forest.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
101
(92)
FOREST SERVICE MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT,  1967
Type
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1967
Removed
from
Service
New
Purchases
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1968
Sedans __   	
Station wagons and sedan deliveries-
Panel deliveries _	
Four-wheel-drive passenger types 	
Four-wheel-drive pick-ups and panel deliveries..
5,000-10,000 G.V.W. pickups, Vi an 1 ton	
14,000-24,000 G.V.W. trucks, 2, 3, and 4 tons...
24,000^10,000 G.V.W. heavy-duty trucks	
Fire-fighting tank trucks    	
Total vehicles 	
Trail motor-cycles _   	
Tractors—tracked...  	
Snow and muskeg tractors (personnel carriers)..
Snow toboggans—various types  	
Graders    	
Scrapers—self-propelled.	
Scrapers—not self-propelled 	
Shovels—power 	
Loaders—self-propelled 	
Outboard motors...   	
Fire-pumps—various... _	
Fire-pumps—portable tanker	
Bean fire-fighting units—high pressure._
Borate mixer pumps -_	
Pumps—water supply   	
Chain saws    	
Lighting plants _—	
Lawn-mowers—power-
Speeders—railway-
Trailers—low and high bed-
Trailers—dwelling and bunkhouse..
Trailers—miscellaneous	
Air compressors	
Range-land drill..
Rock drills—gas-powered...
Mechanical wheelbarrows _
Welders	
Cement mixers	
Augers—power planting	
Snow-ploughs—walking	
Rollers—compaction, towed..
Rollers—self-propelled...	
Fork-lift trucks 	
54
93
74
132
303
216
53
935
110
46
9
20
20
1
2
3
5
434
764
137
34
13
86
523
109
35
10
9
177
322
15
1
15
7
3
1
3
3
2
7
18
9
19
75
33
4
2
1
9
13
3
13
75
65
168
189
21
36
1
46
2
3
11
5
2
20
3
1
31
97
10
2
19
68
26
9
32
56
88
68
126
303
248
57
9
1
956
119
48
10
34
20
2
2
3
5
444
825
147
33
15
104
545
107
58
10
9
180
352
15
1
7
6
15
7
1
1
3
3
2
 102
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
REPORTED APPROXIMATE EXPENDITURE IN FOREST PROTECTION
(102) BY OTHER AGENCIES,1  1967
Forest District
Expenditures
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
$314,509
122,675
21,890
18,780
75,055
$809,670
86,411
46,469
22,400
129,094
i
$873,426    j
39,803    ]
75,673
134,113
688,382    ]
$257,478
31,900
33,450
21,200
53,059
$2,255,083
280,789
177,482
Kamloops     	
196,493
945,590
Totals  	
$552,909
$1,094,044
$1,811,397
$397,087
$3,855,437
Ten-year average, 1958-67
$367,957
$612,858
$603,712
$344,165
$1,928,692
Principally forest industry.
(103)
FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS,  1967
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver  	
1
3
1
7
22
3
24
17
27
35
61
132
54
97
63
83
209
54
125
23
136
264
223
152
52
116
383
493
88
10
55
119
65
1
16
2
496
206
455
1,150
909
15.4
6.4
14.1
Kamloops   ..
Nelson — -
35.8
28.3
Totals 	
5
73
309
506
771
1,196
337
19
3,216
100.0
0.1
2.3
9.6
15.7
24.0
37.2
10.5
0.6
100.0
Ten-year average,
1958-67	
32
86
323
342
719
616
171
25
2,314
1.4
3.7
13.9
14.8
31.1
26.6
7.4
1.1
100.0
(104)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES,  1967
J
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3
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Vancouver 	
27
71
50
123
26
8
103
9
56
23
496
15.4
41
32
9
27
22
6
18
18
30
3
206
64
Prince George 	
182
52
4
45
30
27
13
37
2
56
7
455
14.1
Kamloops 	
388
85
88
188
34
104
24
62
15
152
10
1,150
35.8
Nelson  	
320
48
304
81
16
1
30
28
16
54
11
909
28.3
Totals       	
958
288
455
464
128
138
93
248
42
348
54
3,216
100 0
29.8
8.9
14.1
14.4
3.9
4.3
3.0
7.8
1.3
10.8
1.7
100.0
Ten-year average,
1958-67	
829
236
152
285
94
130
47
175
40
269
57
2,314
	
Per cent 	
35.8
10.2
6.6
12.3
4.1
5.6
2.0
7.6
1.7
11.6
2.5
100.0
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
103
(105)   NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE LAST 10 YEARS
Causes
1958
1959 1 1960
!
1961
1962
1
1963 ] 1964
1965 | 1966
1967 I Total
1
1,150
296
162
478
120
131
18
246
53
310
94
184
172
88
211
75
190
30
204
34
253
33
1,166
241
245
257
82
87
36
137
54
271
59
1,426
269
154
336
86
179
36
194
49
290
83
615
'182
41
162
60
62
35
109
25
183
62
1,144
221
65
220
82
95
24
141
62
250
41
277
144
51
129
66
79
11
81
45
178
59
1,000
315
89
310
89
193
89
223
24
309
44
374
230
170
281
156
149
101
164
14
292
36
958
288
455
464
128
138
93
248
42
348
54
8,294
2,358
1,520
Smokers   	
Brush-burning (not railway or right-
2,848
944
1,303
Road, power-, telephone-, and pipe-
473
Industrial operations (logging, etc.)
1,747
402
Miscellaneous known causes 	
2,684
565
Totals	
3,058
1,062
1,474
536
2,635
1,478
3,102
1,536
2,345
1,120
2,685
1,967
3,216
23,138
 104
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
(107) DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS,  19671
105
Forest District
Forest
Products
Cut, Legs,
Lumber,
Etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of
Total
Vancouver  	
$182,429
11,765
3,008
79,568
23,948
$32,450
2,350
825
61.350
8,880
$118,517
18,035
43,585
227,532
$24,382
7,274
950
69,922
10,431
$357,778
39,424
4,783
254,425
270,791
38.6
4.3
0.5
Kamloops 	
Nelson 	
27.4
29.2
Totals	
$300,718
$105,855
$407,669
$112,959
$927,201
100.0
32.4
11.4
44.0
12.2
100.0
	
Ten-year average, 1958-67
$128,077
$45,487
$216,724
$35,955
$426,243
	
30.0
10.8
50.8
8.4
100.0
i Does not include intentional slash-burns (for this item see Table 121.)
(108)
DAMAGE TO FOREST COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES,
1967—PART Ii
Merchantable Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
Net
Stumpage
Loss
Net Area
Killed
Present
Value
Vancouver	
Acres
7,143
3,726
3,895
39,628
13,072
M Cu. Ft.
55,697
1,860
M Cu. Ft.
47,481
792
$
533,908
127,535
50,727
1,044,524
673,537
Acres
6,979
1,698
12,124
19,463
27,315
$
344,396
75,479
8.085
4.119
151,250
Kamloops	
80,725             50,013
24,188              7,731
495,081
967,015
Totals 	
67,464
170,555      |    110,136
2,430,2312    |      67,579      | 2,033,2212
27.6
100.0      |          64.6
51.1                27.6                 42.7
Ten-year average, 1958-67
68,602
110,533              41,707
1,770,956            70,197      | 1,581,310
15.1
100.0       I           37.8
47.6      1          15.4
42.5
i IDoes not include intentional slash-burns (for this item see Table 121.)
2 This dollar value of losses in merchantable and immature timber represents only stumpage loss to the
Crown.   Actual payroll loss to the Province is 10 times these figures.
 106
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(113)
CONTRACT FLYING,  1967
Fixed-wing Aircraft
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Cessna 185, Beaver	
785
Smithers  _	
Prince George and Dawson Creek 	
Kelowna and Williams Lake   _.
Nelson   	
1,254
781
2,002
Nelson	
Cessna   	
35'8
Total	
5,180
Helicopters
Forest District
Base
Type of Helicopter
Hours Flown
Hillers 12E and 12J
500
Prince Rupert
Prince George 	
Smithers —   	
745
Hiller 12E	
1,290
Bell G3B and G3B1 	
783
Hiller 12E and Bell G3B _	
278
Total	
3,596
Air Tankers
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
C anso 	
63
182
Prince George	
Prince George „
Canso.   	
Canso and Avengers	
63
243
172
Total
723
(114)
NON-CONTRACT FLYING,  1967
Fixed-wing Aircraft
Forest District
Reconnaissance
Transportation of
Men and Supplies
Water Bombing
Total
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Vancouver 	
in
25
844
1,070
601
$6,157
1,575
34,708
31,911
39,503
4
370
366
200
13
$188
25,480
30,980
14,730
195
307
70
151
1,625
899
$267,983
11,200
60,410
350,393
208,871
422
465
1,361
. 2,895
1,513
$274,328
38,255
126,098
Kamloops	
397,034
248,569
Totals
2,651
$113,854
953
$71,573
3,052
$898,857
6,656
$1,084,284
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert.
Prince George.
Kamloops	
Nelson..	
Totals _
120
36
21
73
261
Helicopters
$16,200
4,150
2,903
7,923
1,397  1,569
303
283
944
1,414
$32,573 J 4,513
I
$41,220
39,285
114,584
206,115
183,496
$584,700
48 | $7,065
_ | 	
6 | 638
54 | $7,703
423
367
965
1,487
1,586
4,828
$57,420
50,500
117,487
214,038
185,531
$624,976
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
111
(115)
ANALYSIS OF SUPPRESSION-CREW FIRE-FIGHTING
ACTIVITIES, 1967
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
Size of Fire When Attacked
V* Acre
or Less
Over Vi
Acre to
1 Acre
Over 1
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
Spot (up to Vi acre) 	
Over V. acre and up to 1 acre	
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres 	
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres 	
Over 50 acres.. 	
296
115
74
47
4
283
53
22
10
7
53
25
1
5
5
19
14
1
7
17
4
1
5
4
Totals 	
536
368
86
43
25
14
(116)
CONSTRUCTION OF PROTECTION ROADS AND TRAILS,  1967
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
11
299
Miles
64
538
Miles
20
134
Miles
95
971
310
602
154
1,066
4
36
2
6
2
2
8
44
Totals, trail construction and maintenance 	
40
8
*
52
(117)
SUMMARY OF SNAG-FALLING,  1967, VANCOUVER
FOREST DISTRICT
Total area logged, 1967	
Logged in small exempted operations1	
Assessed for non-compliance, less 66 acres subsequently felled-
Acres
.__ 94,136
58
24
82
Balance logged acres snagged, 1967  94,054
Snags felled, 1967, by Forest Service Protection Division     1,867
Snags felled, 1967, by Forest Service Reforestation Division     1,659
     3,526
Total area snagged, 1967
97,580
i Exemption granted under subsection (3) of section 116 of the Forest Act.
 112 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SUMMARY OF LOGGING SLASH REPORTED IN 1967, VANCOUVER
(US) FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total area logged, 1967  94,136
Area covered by full hazard reports  66,482
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash disposal    9,449
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from slash and snag disposal) 1  58
• ■ 75,989
Slash created and not reported in 1967  18,147
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3) of section 116 of the Forest Act.
ACREAGE ANALYSIS OF SLASH DISPOSAL REQUIRED,  1967,
(119) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres of Slash
Prior to Total
Type of Disposal 1967 19671 Acres
Broadcast burning  31,107 29,774 60,881
Spot burning     2,879 2,722 5,601
Totals  33,986 32,496 66,482
1967 reports not recommending slash disposal     9,449
1967 slash on very small operations exempted without special examination         58
    9,507
Total area of slash dealt with, 1967  75,989
1 Does not include the estimated 18,147 acres (see Table 118) created too late to be dealt with in 1967.
ANALYSIS OF PROGRESS IN SLASH DISPOSAL, 1967,
(120) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total disposal required (see Table No. 119)    66,482
Acres of Slash
Prior to Total
Type of Disposal 1967 1967 Acres
Spring broadcast burning        600 186 786
Spring spot burning         53 21 74
Fall broadcast burning  38,773 20,154 58,927
Fall spot burning     1,339 1,172 2,511
Total burning completed    40,765 21,533 62,298
Burning by accidental fires    5,074
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc        163
Total  67,535
Balance reported slash not yet abated    	
Slash created, 1967, acres assessed  18
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1967  18,147
Total area of slash carried over to 1968 for disposition  18,165
Actual area burned in spring spot burning, 14 acres.
Actual area burned in fall spot burning, 623 acres.
The above figures do not include 1966 slash-burn reports received too late for inclusion in
1966 Annual Report, 2,052 acres.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967 113
SUMMARY OF SLASH-BURN DAMAGE AND COSTS,  1967,
(121) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total acres of forest cover in slash fires, 1967  20,679
Net damage to forest cover	
Net damage to cut products	
Net damage to equipment and property-
Total damage.
$558,545.80
174,801.00
112,678.00
$846,024.80
(131)
TRAINING-SCHOOL ENROLMENT AND GRADUATIONS
Enrolment, 1967
Basic course  _
     24
Advanced course	
    24
Basic course 	
Graduates, 1967
     24
Advanced course	
  Nil
Basic course. __ ____    __ _
Total Graduates since 1946
  124
Advanced course	
  295
Grand total.	
  419
(141)
FOREST REVENUE,  1963-67
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1963
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1964
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
'1965
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1966
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1967
Timber-licence  rentals  and
$357,175.79
17,361.70
63,629.77
502,317.68
30,199,623.94
386,735.44
2,499,842.31
152,200.70
523,598.00
173,192.07
$362,707.84
15,639.09
68,446.06
510,469.54
37,221,058.19
487,503.76
2,610,292.87
139,313.50
522,672.70
210,330.47
$720,919.31
15,024.33
86,230.58
765,651.17
42,031,437.70
325,847.00
2,629,476.11
151,079.95
559,007.55
273,738.16
$771,170.84
14,368.52
106,852.12
948,568.96
42,643,936.30
223,236.17
3,079,058.68
■153,507.63
570,202.65
245,350.02
212,275.98
1,379,936.16
$825,100.86
Timber-berth rentals and fees
Timber-lease rentals and fees
Timber-sale rentals and fees..
13,436.63
76,121.31
881,812.16
34,732,239.51
Timber-sale cruising and advertising 	
229,857.61
3,509,720.06
Grazing permits and fees
Forest protection tax  _.
310,718.84
579,928.17
394,388.82
396,894.14
542,146.97
Totals	
$34,875,677.40
$42,148,434.02
$47,558,411.86
$50,348,464.03
$42,492,365.08
 114
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 116 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(144) FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1966/67
Timber-licence rentals and fees  $658,404.29
Timber-berth rentals and fees  14,377.02
Timber-lease rentals and fees  76,466.69
Timber-sale rentals and fees  924,546.04
Timber-sale stumpage  39,932,312.11
Timber-sale cruising and advertising  234,829.49
Timber royalties  3,394.958.33
Grazing permits and fees  157,089.60
Forest protection tax  582,756.32
Miscellaneous  290,201.23
Weight scaling  358,789.16
Federal Forestry Agreement  1,889,537.14
Total    $48,514,267.42
(145) FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1966/67
General administration, protection, and management of forests  $13,481,948
Reforestation and forest nurseries  1,007,138
Forest research  84,305
Public information and education  60,914
Forest Service training-school    159,990
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association  17,500
Engineering services and forest-development roads  4,114,000
Fire suppression  858,600
Forest surveys    972,609
Silviculture  1,191,697
Grazing Range Improvement Fund1  81,714
Peace River community pastures  10,000
Forestry and Correction Camp Programme  13,000
Total    $22,053,415
i Statement provided elsewhere.
(146) SCALING FUND
Deficit, April 1, 1966        $48,840.74
Collections, fiscal year 1966/67      2,062,566.69
$2,013,725.95
Expenditures, fiscal year 1966/67    2,111,120.95
Deficit, March 31, 1967       $97,395.00
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1967     1,597,477.43
$1,500,082.43
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1967     1,637,651.00
Deficit, December 31, 1967 .       $137,568.57
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1967
117
(147)
GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Surplus, April 1, 1966	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act).
Expenditures, fiscal year 1966/67_.
Surplus, March 31, 1967	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act).
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1967..
Surplus, December 31, 1967	
$12,450.69
71,370.34
$83,821.03
81,714.00
$2,107.03
78,544.80
$80,651.83
59,957.34
$20,694.49
(148)
PEACE RIVER POWER TIMBER SALVAGE
Expenditures, fiscal year 1966/67.
  $2,064,210.19
Recovered from British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority     2,036,574.67
Balance        $27,635.52
 118 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(151) DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1967
Personnel
Vancouver1
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victorias
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant Chief
2
13
3
96
15
73
87
6
5
92
6
31
18
34
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2
28
2
10
2
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2
3
100
4
36
5
1
5
35
8
51
2
2
2
15
6
1
1
125
3
3
30
1
5
2
5
36
1
51
3
1
2
2
12
2
2
115
2
4
25
3
	
32
2
3
4
6
2
3
99
27
5
35
5
14
2
1
36
31
97
69
1
10
13
24
61
4
6
2
3
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters
10
162
Agrologists and Agrologists-in-training. 	
Engineers ... __ _ _    	
10
28
16
556
22
Scalers, Official , _-
Scalers, Official, temporary _ 	
Comptroller, Accountant, and Audit Assistants	
Engineering, Mechanical and Radio	
Public Information Officers 	
77
161
6
37
2
1
Reforestation, Research, and Survey Assistants	
39
1
54
326
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Maintenance Depot      ,.	
6
115
27
217
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators 	
Foremen 	
Miscellaneous3  — -
34
28
99
520
218
269
293
204
545
2,049
Seasonally Employed
8
38
7
57
1
5
11
1
21
2
16
-----
1
1
1
6
9
32
3
20
35
6
3
~ 6
6
32
4
63
3
"ii
2
5
41
7
45
90
5
5
38
3
1
1
1,252
18
42
112
55
59
31
Patrolmen _  	
Lookoutmen. _  	
1
164
24
202
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc   	
1,378
33
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineering Aides
42
121
Foremen    -        —
73
122
127
49
114
122
236
1,543
2,191
647
267
383
415
440
2,088
4,240
i Includes Vancouver Scaling Office and Forest Service Maintenance Depot.
2 Includes all divisional field staff except research personnel assigned to districts.
3 Includes Stockmen, Cooks, Flunkeys, Timekeepers, Utility Men, Key-punch and Data Processing Operators,
Photographers, and Construction Accountants.
* Includes Bridgemen, Powdermen, Carpenters, Launch Crew, Mechanics, Watchmen, Labourers, and Rock
Drillers.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1968
2,230-168-1140
  

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