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REPORT OF THE Department of Recreation and Conservation containing the reports of the GENERAL ADMINISTRATION,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1967

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Hon. W. K. Kiernan, Minister D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister
REPORT OF THE
Department of Recreation
and Conservation
containing the reports of the
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION, FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH,
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH, BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU, PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF
NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGY, PHOTOGRAPHIC
BRANCH, AND COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
Year Ended December 31
1966
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1967
  Victoria, B.C., January 27, 1967.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., MC, CD.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department
of Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1966.
W. K. KLERNAN,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 Victoria, B.C., January 27, 1967.
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1966.
D. B. TURNER,
Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 Page
CONTENTS
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation  7
General Administration  13
Fish and Wildlife Branch  17
Provincial Parks Branch  3 5
British Columbia Government Travel Bureau  51
Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology  61
Photographic Branch  69
Commercial Fisheries Branch  77
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 Report of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation, 1966
D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister and Commissioner of Fisheries
INTRODUCTION
For fear that a historical event of importance may be overlooked, let it be
recorded here that the Department of Recreation and Conservation is presently
completing its 10th year of existence. It was on March 28, 1957, that the Department was created by Act of Legislature. The Honourable E. C. Westwood assumed
the portfolio, and for the next seven years, under his direction, the Department
spent its formative period. He was succeeded on December 4, 1963, by the
Honourable W. K. Kiernan.
This decennial birthday of the Department, it must be admitted, is somewhat
overshadowed by the activities and celebrations marking British Columbia's Centennial in the year 1966 and Canada's Centennial in 1967. Nevertheless, the Department's decennium is of intense interest and inspiration, particularly to those of us
who have been associated with the Department of Recreation and Conservation
since its inception.
The philosophy and the theory behind the creation of the Department were
that, in a Provincial or State Government, the elements of outdoor recreation and
conservation should be combined into a single department which, with strong and
essential liaison with other resource departments, could best serve the needs and
desires of all citizens to make use of and enjoy the resources of the land in which
we live. The conservationist's concern, it should be noted, is not alone with the
basic values of a single resource, but with the values of all resources considered in
relation one to the other. The aim of the Department of Recreation and Conservation, therefore, goes beyond the duties to protect, maintain, and fortify the environmental complex, to the major goal of actually improving the planet earth wherever
possible. It is believed that the Department of Recreation and Conservation is
making steady and definite progress to this end.
The Department is made up of six branches.    A few of their individual
accomplishments during the year 1966 are noted below.   Other highlights in this
10th year of operation can be read in the following pages in the reports of the
branch directors.
Fish and Wildlife Branch
The new Kootenay hatchery, situated near Cranbrook, went into operation in
the spring of 1966.
Combined in highly attractive manner with the prime function of producing
fish for stocking are the displays and information for the people of British Columbia
and our visitors. Hatcheries have great appeal to people, and, in addition to
producing trout for the entire Kootenay area, the hatchery drew 23,000 visitors
during its first three months of operation.
A second major fisheries event is the construction of an 11,000-foot kokanee
(land-locked salmon) fish-spawning channel on Meadow Creek, a tributary of the
Duncan River, which in turn empties into the north end of Kootenay Lake. Work
is scheduled for completion well in advance of the spawning run in September, 1967.
These two undertakings are examples of activities and accomplishments in the
fish and wildlife field.   To these should be added other significant advances—a new
 T 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Wildlife Act, anew Firearms Act, a uniform licence-year established, and 180 acres
at Duck Lake near Creston purchased to complete this famous waterfowl unit.
Provincial Parks Branch
Public use of Provincial parks reached capacity. Our historic parks, Barkerville and Fort Steele, showed particularly noticeable attendance increases, up 15
and 100 per cent respectively.
Ski-ing facilities at Mount Seymour and Manning Parks were considerably
improved.
Ten new wells to further the programme of good water in all Provincial parks
were brought in during 1966, the paving of roads in parks was advanced, and the
popular " stop of interest" signs programme saw 40 new signs go up.
British Columbia Government Travel Bureau
The business of tourism is of prime and fast-increasing importance in the
economic picture of British Columbia. The year 1966 saw over 7,000,000 tourist
"visits," worth $227,000,000 to the Province (1965 figures respectively read
5,000,000 tourists enriching British Columbia's surging tourist industry by over
$200,000,000). Better than an 11-per-cent increase, therefore, is the remarkable
advance in tourism in our Centennial Year.
Provincial Museum
Planning and production of exhibits and galleries proceeded apace during 1966
in preparation for the opening of the beautiful Provincial Centennial Museum in
Victoria. Staff additions and intensive field work complemented this carefully
planned programme.
The carving of totem poles was also a feature of Museum activities during 1966.
A replica of a large Haida pole and a 65-foot pole for Expo 67 were but two of the
special works of Indian wood-carving art completed or under way to mark the joint
British Columbia-Canada Centennial Years of 1966 and 1967.
Commercial Fisheries Branch
The Commercial Fisheries Branch devoted much attention to our shellfish
industry and the harvesting of aquatic plants (kelp).   No effort was spared, in the
new oyster regulations produced, to harmonize the important interests of producer,
processor, and the Provincial Government.
Photographic Branch
The production of colour stills was at a high level in 1966 in the Photographic
Branch, with some 2,500 stills added to the files. Emphasis was on picture stories
for the Departmental magazine " Beautiful British Columbia."
Motion-picture production results in the completion of three new tourist films—
" Barkerville or Bust," " East 1—West 1," and " Breath of Spring."
Direct screenings and television exposure of our films in the United States,
United Kingdom, Canada, and many other countries showed a marked increase.
Some 250 release prints of our films were purchased for distribution through the
Canadian Travel Film Libraries.
As a final and special comment for this year's Annual Report, a word should
be said about the success of the Department's two magazine publications, which are
distributed now all over the world. On a comparable basis with all Canadian
magazines, " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine and the " Wildlife Review "
are outranked respectively in subscriptions and single sales only by a few Canadian
national magazines. " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine reached 89,000 subscriptions and 40,000 single sales in 1966, while "Wildlife Review" circulation
totalled 42,000. These are phenomenal growth figures to record, and they attest
to the high quality of these two extremely popular magazines.
 HIGHLIGHTS OF 1966
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
PERSONNEL SECTION
A total of 98 requisitions to the Civil Service Commission was processed for
the purpose of obtaining new and replacement positions; examinations were conducted to determine potential candidates interested in becoming Conservation Officers; two employees attended the Executive Development Course and three attended
the Basic Administration Course; and four employees were awarded their 25-year
continuous-service certificates.
PUBLIC INFORMATION
The Public Information Officers' Committee submitted a proposal that a
Departmental Section of Information and Education be formed.
1966.
FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
HATCHERY FACILITIES INCREASED
The Kootenay Trout Hatchery near Wardner was officially opened June 21,
KOOTENAY LAKE FISHERY STUDIES
Construction of a kokanee-spawning channel on Meadow Creek commenced,
and studies of effects of Duncan Dam on the Kootenay Lake fishery continued.
CANADA LAND INVENTORY FOR WILDLIFE
The Canada land inventory has been expanded to cover the whole Province.
GAME REGULATIONS
Cougar, wolf, and coyote were given status of game animals. Tag licences
introduced on black bear, and separate seasons introduced on whitetailed and mule
deer.
KOOTENAY SHEEP STUDY
Research into bighorn sheep mortality continued, and intensified with investigation of the disease, populations, and winter range ecology.
ANGLING LICENCES CHANGED
To provide more useful management information, the steelhead punch-card
licences were separated from the general angling licences of both resident and nonresidents.
A short-term (three-day) non-resident angler's licence was also introduced.
9
 T 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
RECREATIONAL AREA
Manning Park Lightning Lake Recreational Area was officially opened. The
area will provide excellent fishing, boating, and swimming for summer visitors.
MARINE PARKS
Purchase of two very desirable sites—Pirates Cove on De Courcy Island and
Smugglers Cove on Sechelt Peninsula—increased the number of marine parks from
8 to 10. A generous donation from the British Columbia Council of Yacht Clubs
assisted in these acquisitions.
WELL-DRILLING
Fourteen wells drilled during 1966, as part of a major undertaking during the
past three years, brings us very close to having potable water in all developed parks.
PARK USE
Park use varied greatly throughout the Province, but showed an over-all increase of more than 200,000 visits to put the total over 5,000,000.
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU
RECORD TOURIST SEASON
Continuing the well-established pattern, the dollar value of the tourist industry
established a record for the Province.
PUBLIC INFORMATION
Written material about British Columbia reached more people than any previous
year.
ACCOMMODATION SECTION
New British Columbia "Approved Tourist Accommodation " signs were distributed to more than 2,000 establishments. A complete coverage of every tourist
establishment was effected during the year.
CONVENTION SECTION
It is estimated that $9,500,000 was spent in the Province during the year as
a result of conventions.
COUNSELLING SECTION
It was the busiest year ever. At the end of November, 175,624 inquiries had
been received and answered, 37,806 more than for the same period of the previous
year.
"BEAUTIFUL BRITISH COLUMBIA" MAGAZINE
Average circulation per issue climbed from 145,000 to 155,000 in 1966. Subscriptions increased from 58,000 to 80,000.
MATCHING GRANTS
The cost-sharing basis was changed so that the Department assumed 60 per
cent of the costs and the regional organizations assumed the balance.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966 T 11
BRITISH COLUMBIA HOUSE, SAN FRANCISCO
Representatives were exposed to approximately 2,236,000 people at various
shows and exhibitions; many more people saw films about British Columbia.
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
CORNERSTONE-LAYING
The cornerstone of the new Museum-Archives complex was " well and truly "
laid by Her Royal Highness the Queen Mother on March 19, 1966.
EXHIBIT PREPARATION
Specimens and materials were collected and prepared for four large dioramas
being constructed for display in the new building.
ATTENDANCE
Attendance figures (210,000) were up 22 per cent as compared with 1964,
the highest on record, except for 1962.
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH
STILL PHOTOGRAPHY
Assignments for " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine constituted the major
part of the stills photography. Centennial activities, however, created many special
assignments.
PRODUCTION
More than 2,000 colour prints and negatives were added to the Photographic
Branch files during the year.
MOTION PICTURES
The motion pictures " East 1—West 1 " and " Breath of Spring " were completed during 1966, and a new short version of "Barkerville or Bust" entitled
" Echoes of Gold " was ready for evaluation.
TELEVISION SCREENINGS
Television screenings in the United States of our motion pictures showed a
further increase over past years. Practically all telecasts are now done in colour,
adding a further dimension to our exposure.
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
RECORD LANDINGS
Based on anticipated landings at the time of writing, the 1966 wholesale value
of fish production in British Columbia was expected to exceed $115,000,000.
 T 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
OYSTER PERMITS
A permit system regulating the taking of wild oysters from vacant Crown
foreshore was begun in 1966.
AQUATIC-PLANT LICENCES
To foster the development of an aquatic-plant processing industry in British
Columbia, the Branch initiated a licensing system whereby prospective companies
could obtain long-term leases of suitable kelp and other aquatic-weed producing
areas.
 GENERAL
ADMINISTRATION
  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 15
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
General Administration consists of the Deputy Minister's Office, the attached
Public Information Officer, and the Accounts and Personnel Office.
The staff of General Administration works closely with all branches in such
Departmental matters as putting policy into effect, office and work facilities, personnel, and finance. Currently there is liaison with the Department of Public Works
for the purpose of planning and organizing office and work facilities of new office
accommodation.
The Personnel Section of General Administration processed 98 requisitions to
the Civil Service Commission for the purpose of obtaining new and replacement
positions for all branches of the Department. There was an increase of 92 per cent
over the previous year on the number of requisitions that were processed. The
Personnel Officer sat in on many interviewing panels for the selection of these
candidates.
During the month of March, examinations were conducted at Nanaimo, New
Westminster, Prince George, Kamloops, and Creston for the purpose of seeking
potential candidates interested in becoming Conservation Officers with the Fish and
Wildlife Branch. There were more than 200 applications received, and from these
115 were selected to write this examination.
This Department had two people selected to participate in the three-year Executive Development Course. Three employees in this Department were selected for
the one-year Basic Public Administration Course.
The staff of General Administration assisted the Provincial Parks Branch in
conducting an in-service training course for its field staff during the month of
February. These in-service training courses have proved most beneficial in training
fieldmen on new techniques and revised policy procedures, thus aiding them to
carry out their work more efficiently.
Regular meetings are held with employees of the Parks Branch and Fish and
Wildlife Branch for the purpose of reviewing personnel accidents and seeking
methods of improving safety.
Four employees of this Department, three in the Fish and Wildlife Branch
and one in the Parks Branch, were awarded their 25-year continuous-service
certificates in December.
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
Public relations and public information and education activities continued to
be exercised at all levels of the Department during 1966.
The Public Information Officers' Committee, composed of specialist public
information officers or other representatives from each branch of the Department,
met from time to time to co-ordinate their activities and to make proposals for what
they felt would be improvements in Departmental public relations. Early in the
year they submitted to branch heads a proposal which endorsed the conclusions of
the Deputy Minister in 1963, as expressed in the Departmental 10-year plan, that
a " Departmental Section of Information and Education " be formed. However,
it was the consensus of the branch heads that the proposal at this time is premature
and would not be an improvement over current procedures, which they find
satisfactory.
A growing appreciation in the Department of the principles and practices of
public relations was noted during the year. Departmental personnel were giving
more attention to the public relations aspects of their operations as integral elements
of the job at hand.
  FISH and WILDLIFE
BRANCH
 Modern architecture and attractive displays are uniquely combined with fish-culture
facilities at the new Kootenay Hatchery.
Mule deer on summer range in the Okanagan.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 19
FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
James Hatter, Director
ADMINISTRATION
1966 was a significant year for the Fish and Wildlife Branch. The following
events took place which directly increased the Branch's ability to look after the fish
and wildlife resource:—
(1) A new Wildlife A ct:
(2) Anew Firearms Act:
(3) Kootenay Hatchery opened:
(4) Two more administrative regions were established, with headquarters at
Prince George and Penticton:
(5) A uniform licence-year was established:
(6) Property was purchased near Gerrard to further protect the spawning-
ground of the large rainbow of Kootenay Lake:
(7) 180.2 acres was purchased at Duck Lake to complete this section of the
waterfowl unit.
Two new Acts, establishment of the regional administrative offices, and modifications to the licensing system, all give opportunity to improve the levels of fish and
wildlife management. The emphasis under the new Wildlife Act is flexibility to meet
the varying conditions faced by the wildlife resource throughout the Province.
Similarly, the establishment of regional headquarters enables local conditions to
modify the Branch programme to meet the specific needs of each sector of the
Province. Property purchases this year were made possible for the first time under
the terms of the new Wildlife Act.
" Wildlife Review " magazine continued to expand its circulation. At last
count it had a distribution in excess of 45,000.
Regional Protection Officer W. A. H. Gill and Conservation Officers A. J. Butler and J. M. Hicks retired during the year. The retirement of individuals with long
service always make a considerable gap in the Branch, and they will be sorely
missed.
The Fish and Wildlife Branch wishes to thank other Provincial and Federal
departments for their valued assistance and co-operation. We are especially grateful
to the contribution received from the British Columbia Wildlife Federation; the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police gave much assistance on many occasions, and this
is gratefully recorded; and the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority continued to provide valuable assistance with such projects as the kokanee spawning
channel near the Duncan Dam site.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
In 1966 wildlife management activities were intensified in several areas. Population counts, game checks, and harvest estimating methods were expanded to meet
the growing need for more precise management information. Habitat inventory and
related studies were continued actively during the year. Research activities, particularly relating to bighorn sheep, were increased.
A relatively poor hunting season in 1965, caused by unfavourable weather
conditions, resulted in much public concern for the welfare of wildlife populations,
and created the need for increased level of public relations work by wildlife management staff. Public concern for wildlife management policies effected more conservative game seasons in several areas of the Province in 1966.
 T 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The resident hunter population in the Province showed a modest increase of
2,826 in 1966, maintaining the upward trend illustrated in Table 1.
Table 1.—Hunting Licences
1961
1
1962                 1963
1964
1965
Residents 	
Non-residents   	
115,796
3,840
122,859      |      124,245
4,377      |          5,224
131,595
5,263
134,023
5,661
Game Regulations and Seasons, 1966
Classified game counts indicated improved winter survival and recruitment
to game populations in 1966 following losses in some areas of the Province during
the 1964/65 winter. Where possible, seasons were designed to allow public use of
increased game production.
Game regulations for the 1966 season contained several innovations. White-
tailed and mule deer were separated in the game regulations and given separate
seasons in some regions. This measure was designed to allow more specific management of the two species. The moose season in the Mica Reservoir area of
Game Management Area 11 was extended to allow public use of this population
before it is partially displaced by the reservoir. A three-quarter curl regulation
was imposed on Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep in Game Management Area 11 as
a means to allow limited hunting opportunity despite the recent die-off of this
species. An experimental archery season on deer was initiated on part of Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland in 1966. Antlerless seasons on deer and elk
were reduced in certain areas of the Province in 1966, in deference to public
demands.
The Provincially published synopsis of Migratory Birds Regulations was discontinued in 1966, its place having been taken by a Federal Government synopsis.
GAME HARVESTS
Game harvests provide some appreciation of the magnitude of the Provincial
wildlife resource, and although harvest figures for the 1966 season will not be
available until early in 1967, Table 2, based on hunter sample estimates, illustrates
the size of the Provincial game harvest for the past five years.
Table 2.—Hunter Sample Estimates,
1961-65
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
413,600
377,200
57,100
15,200
3,500   i
67,000
360,500
460,500
64,700
16,675
2,300
69,500
245,470
368,570
54,940
16,510
3,950
71,520
1,625
522,064
383,961
48,884
17,853
3,230
78,435
1,567
295
465
621,150
474,670
39,223
Moose        —
15,190
1,800
56,877
1,967
i
242
Caribou   	
523
Game checks held throughout the Province during the 1966 season indicated
a higher than normal level of success on most big-game species in most areas of
the Province. It is expected, therefore, that the Provincial moose kill will reach
record proportions in 1966, and that caribou, goat, and sheep harvests in the north
will attain a high level.   Deer success in most areas of the Province appears normal
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 21
or above normal, and the 1966 harvests should reach a high average in most regions.
Hunter success on birds is expected to be higher in 1966 than normal.
The Cache Creek game check provides the best measure of harvest trends in
the absence of hunter sample data, the 1966 results of which are included in
Table 3.
Table 3.—Cache Creek Game Check, 1962-66
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
3,690
4,833
158
142
39
44
122
8,424
6,188
23,291
3,656
5,418
96
156
26
70
169
7,283
3,215
22,779
3,765
5,446
116
200
35
48
136
6,864
4,065
21,533
2,241
5,908
146
213
13
54
137
6,908
5,928
20,808
3,008
Moose 	
7,250
138
414
Elk 	
22
74
197
7,021
Grouse  _ _	
6,495
23,216
Hunter Sample
British Columbia residents who hunted in the 1965/66 season were sampled
by mail questionnaires in 1966. A total of 67,297 big-game harvest questionnaires
was mailed to hunters who purchased 247,793 tag licences. The number of questionnaires returned was 28,940, or 44.5 per cent of those mailed. The number of
bird-hunters questioned was 29,934, of whom 8,524 or 28.5 per cent replied.
The data provided by hunters were analysed, then organized into the 1965
Game Harvest Questionnaire Analysis compiled by Mr. R. P. Finegan and published by the Fish and Wildlife Branch.
Table 4 contains regional estimates derived from the questionnaire analysis.
Table 4.—Estimated Game Harvests by British Columbia
Resident Hunters in 1965
Area Hunted
Caribou
Deer
Elk
Moose
Goat
Sheep
Grouse
Ducks
Vancouver Island (G.M.A. 1) —
283
11
508
177
772
279
120
29
21,220
19,986
10,316
3,832
59,771
19,331
12,547
2,388
4,350
i,65J
15,860
7,480
2,103
2,036
1,205
50
27
2
673
24
105
4
163
11
8,896
1,686
13
2
34
4
13,127
3,402
17,306
8,184
4,931
2,814
2,494
527
354
91
615
329
817
336
969
510
213
107
1,320
518
222
146
329
37
4
346
133
447
70
11,559
93,093
15,816
118,268
16,424
202,405
7,398
89,747
2,160
13,649
7,718
83,850
2,787
20,138
6,776
73,347
Lower Mainland (G.M.A. 2 and 3) —
Hunters1  	
14,619
199,592
Interior (G.M.A. 6 to 9, 13 to 19) —
Huntersi                            	
11,640
125,269
2,890
31,184
1,354
12,778
2,636
21,847
1,189
10,157
Northern British Columbia (G.M.A.
20)—
Peace River (G.M.A. 21) —
Huntersi     	
Kootenay (G.M.A. 10,11, and 12)—
Upper Coast (G.M.A. 4 and 5) —
Huntersi _. _	
Harvest _	
Province—
Huntersi    	
1,682
523
93,524
56,877
10,961
1,800
33,680
15,190
4,013
1,967
1,107
242
63,862
621,150
38,205
474,670
i Many hunters hunt in more than one area.   The Provincial totals are corrected for this.
 T 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Regional Activities
Regional staff are deployed throughout the Province to explore regional wildlife
resource capabilities and to design management programmes suited to the resource.
Activities include the collection and interpretation of management data, inventory
of wildlife populations and habitat, and liaison with public and government agencies
in situations where wildlife resources are involved. Some regional activities are
reported as follows.
Northern Region
A staff vacancy for a regional wildlife biologist at Prince George was filled in
October, 1966, when Mr. Kenneth Sumanik was employed for this position. An
expanded programme of game population inventory is being undertaken in northern
British Columbia.
Cariboo Region
Comprehensive studies of waterfowl populations and habitat were undertaken
in the Cariboo region in co-operation with the Canadian Wildlife Service. Two
California sheep trapping operations were conducted at Riske Creek in 1966, the
first yielding two rams, seven ewes, and one lamb, which were sent to Idaho for the
purpose of reintroducing this species on ranges from which it has been exterminated
in the past. In the second trapping, two rams, five ewes, and four lambs were released on the Dewdrop range on the north side of Kamloops Lake.
Kamloops Region
An experimental burning project was initiated in Wells Gray Park in cooperation with the Forest Service and Parks Branch authorities. The feasibility of
controlled burning as a means of managing big-game habitat is being tested by this
project. Deer-tagging operations were conducted again in 1966 in the Kamloops
region, and an expanded programme of waterfowl population studies conducted in
co-operation with the Canadian Wildlife Service.
Okanagan-Boundary Region
The status and distribution of deer populations in the Okanagan and Similka-
meen areas came under intensive study during 1966. Biological research on the
Vaseux Lake California bighorn population was continued during the year, and a
programme of big-game habitat inventory was initiated.
Vancouver Island Region
The position of a regional wildlife biologist on Vancouver Island was vacated
in 1965 by Mr. D. A. McCaughran, and in March of 1966 Mr. D. A. Blood was
employed in this position. Activities included further research of Peak's falcons on
the Queen Charlotte Islands, coastal waterfowl habitat inventory, and an expanded
programme of game counts and hunter check operations on Vancouver Island.
Lower Mainland
An inventory of coastal big-game resources was commenced in 1966, revealing
much new information on big-game populations in this region of the Province.
A research project on released pheasants was conducted, revealing poor survival of
released birds. Wetlands development studies were conducted with assistance from
Ducks Unlimited. These studies are prerequisite to plans for the development of
coastal wetlands for waterfowl management.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966 T 23
Kootenay Region
Regional staff co-operated with the Research Section in studies of bighorn
sheep, including trapping operations, periodic classified counts, and assisting in
range studies. Waterfowl habitat and population studies were conducted in cooperation with the Canadian Wildlife Service. An expanded programme of population counts was conducted to provide more sensitive measures of annual survival
and production of big-game populations. Land-use conflicts commanded much attention, and an expanded programme of public relations involved staff participation.
Mr. Otto Horvath was employed in 1966 as a wildlife biologist, based at
Creston, where he is engaged in waterfowl management work in the Duck Lake
Waterfowl Management Area. This programme is being conducted in co-operation
with the Canadian Wildlife Service, preparatory to the development of the area for
waterfowl management purposes.
Research
General
Wildlife research during 1966 has been concentrated on problems arising from
widespread and excessive mortalities of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep in the East
Kootenay. This research includes certain aspects of the disease syndrome, population studies, and the establishment of detailed ecological studies on a number of
big-game winter ranges.
Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep
A study of the bacterial and parasitological agents involved in the bighorn
sheep die-off was continued. The spread of the disease syndrome to all of the
important low-altitude sheep winter ranges in the Rocky Mountain Trench provided
more material for study.
Detailed observations of the winter distribution, movements, and ecological
requirements of sheep will also result from this study. The effects of climate, plant
succession, and wildlife and domestic live stock on ranges are components of the
Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep research.
Parasite and Disease Studies of Captive Bighorn Sheep
Two ailing Rocky Mountain bighorn ewes were captured last winter and have
been kept in captivity for clinical studies relating to the disease syndrome affecting
sheep in the East Kootenay. Blood and faecal samples collected at intervals are
being used to study the parasite loads involved. One of the two ewes produced
a healthy lamb in June, which has provided useful information on growth and
parasite levels.
Deer-food Production in Certain Serai Stages of the Coast Forest
A study designed to measure the effect of forest succession upon deer-food
production is nearing completion. Changes in plant species composition, preferential used by deer of specific serai stages, seasonal food habits, chemical composition
of deer foods, and estimates of annual productivity are included.
Edaphic and Climatic Factors Limiting California Bighorn Sheep
Range Productivity
Studies previously carried out on the Ashnola bighorn sheep ranges were
extended, with emphasis being placed upon the assessment of soil and climatic
characteristics limiting productivity.   Fertilizer and reseeding trials are included in
 T 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
the study to determine the degrees of limitation imposed by soil factors. Large permanent enclosures have been constructed to provide information upon community
productivity without the influence of heavy grazing by domestic stock.
The Reproductive Biology of Female Blacktailed Deer
This research programme entails a long-term study of cellular changes in certain
parts of the reproductive system of deer. In addition to descriptions of these
changes, this study will provide a more detailed insight into many aspects of reproduction which are of importance in wildlife management.
Age Determination of Hunter-killed Deer
Methods currently used to age deer are limited by inaccuracies resulting from
differences in tooth eruption and the necessarily subjective appraisal of tooth wear.
Determination of age by sectioning and staining teeth to show annular growth rings
was found to be a practical and accurate method.
The Ecology and Distribution of Land Snails Implicated in the
Lungworm Infections of Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep
This project is designed to provide more definitive information concerning the
distribution, abundance, and ecology of terrestrial snails, thought to be the intermediate hosts of Protostrongyline lungworms. Labroatory experiments designed
to measure the effects of temperature and humidity on snail and lungworm larval
activity will be combined with work in the field.
The Effects of Weather, Serai Succession, and Exploitation upon
Deer Populations
A large body of deer harvest data, collected over a number of years, is being
intensively studied. Changes in numbers harvested, hunter success, sex ratios, age-
class distribution, and growth parameters will be established and related to the effects
of weather, serai succession, and exploitation.
The Parasites and Diseases of Wildlife
The identification of diseases and parasites affecting wildlife and their pathological effects has been continued. Specimens collected by Fish and Wildlife
Branch staff, as well as those sent in by members of the public, have contributed to
this field investigation.
Publications and Reports
Bandy, P. J. 1966. Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep Mortality in British Columbia. (Presented to N.W. Section, Wildlife Society, March 25 and 26, 1966.)
Fish and Wildlife Branch (mimeo).
Bandy, P. J. 1966. Bighorn Sheep Die-off in British Columbia: A Complex of
Environmental Factors. (Presented to 1966 annual meeting of the Canadian
Society of Wildlife and Fishery Biologists, Ottawa, 1966.) Fish and Wildlife
Branch (mimeo).
Bandy, P. J. 1966. A Conceptual Approach to ARDA and Its Implications in
British Columbia. (Presented to the third annual meeting of the Fish and
Wildlife Branch, Penticton, 1966.)   Fish and Wildlife Branch (mimeo).
Gates, B. R. 1966. Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep Disease Study: A Summary
of Field Research. (Presented to the third annual meeting of the Fish and
Wildlife Branch, Penticton, 1966.)   Fish and Wildlife Branch (mimeo).
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 25
Fur Management
The composition of the 1965/66 Provincial wild fur yield is shown in the
accompanying table. Some 3,200 registered trap-line holders and some 600 private-
property trappers produced the harvest. Beaver continued to provide the bulk of
the yield (52.3 per cent) in terms of value. Lynx, muskrat, and mink together
comprised 26.9 per cent of the total wild-fur values produced.
Fur management for the year included the setting of fur-harvesting seasons,
some revision of the status of fur-bearing animals under the Wildlife Act, and promotion of the wild-fur product locally and abroad. Samples of British Columbia
beaver products were displayed at Victoria and Vancouver tourist centres, and a
selection of British Columbia wild fur formed a part of the Canadian Department of
Trade and Commerce exhibit at the Frankfurt Fur Fair.
Composition of the 1965/66 British Columbia Wild Fur Yield
Species
Species
Yield
Percentage
of Total
Fur Yield
Average
Value
Total
Value
Percentage
of Total
Value
Beaver	
Lynx	
Muskrat	
Mink	
Marten—
Squirrel	
Otter	
Weasel	
Fisher.	
Wolf.	
Bobcat	
Wolverine-
Coyote...
Fox, red..
Fox, cross-
Fox, silver-
Raccoon.	
Totals..
28,751
2,705
37,300
5,936
5,271
63,103
1,094
11,807
868
94
394
250
420
289
63
15
548
18.2
1.7
23.5
3.7
3.3
39.9
0.7
7.5
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
I      100.0
I	
$16.17
37.81
1.90
10.84
10.36
.59
33.22
1.51
13.59
26.03
21.11
29.92
10.07
13.04
11.18
22.14
3.38
$464,903.67
102,276.05
70,870.00
64,346.24
54,607.50
37,230.77
36,342.68
17,828.57
11,796.12
2,446.82
8,317.34
7,480.00
4,229.40
3,768.56
704.34
332.10
1,852.24
| $889,332.40
52.3
11.6
8.0
7.3
6.2
4.3
4.2
2.0
1.5
)       1.0
f
0.8
0.3
1
I-      0.3
J        0.2
100.0
Land Use—Canada Land Inventory
The classification of land as to its capability to support ungulates was continued
on an expanded scale as part of the ARDA Canada land inventory programme.
From pilot projects in the Prince George and East Kootenay areas, the study has
developed into an extensive wildlife land inventory scheduled to cover most of the
Province by 1970. At present five persons, under the supervision of Mr. D. Blower,
are employed full time on the project. At the end of this year approximately 60,000
square miles have been classified in the East Kootenay, Prince George, Burns Lake,
and Peace River regions. For these areas a total of approximately 300 base maps
(1:50,000 maps) and 10 map reports have been completed. Publishing of the
first 1:250,000 map, covering the Fernie map-sheet area, is expected shortly. The
inventory areas planned for next year are the Vancouver Island and Chilcotin
regions, a total of approximately 38,000 square miles.
Habitat Management
Several areas of wildlife habitat were surveyed in 1966, and with the cooperation of the Lands Branch were placed under reserve. Situations of conflict
between wildlife needs and other forms of land use occurred frequently during the
 T 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
year, and members of the wildlife management staff frequently co-operated with
other departments of Government in resolving such conflicts.
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
The popularity of sport fishing in the non-tidal waters of British Columbia
continues to increase, as evidenced by angling licence sales during 1966. The institution of a new system of licensing during the past year makes exact comparisons of
licence sales with previous years impossible. However, total angling licence sales
in the first seven months of 1966 exceeded total 1965 sales by almost 17,000.
New features of the Provincial angler's licence system introduced in 1966
include:—
(a) A short-term (three-day) angling licence for non-residents:
(b) Resident steelhead angler's licence for a fee of 25 cents:
(c) Non-resident steelhead angler's licence for a fee of $5:
(d) Non-resident alien licences were increased from $7 to $10.
Fisheries management activities during the year continued to be directly mainly
toward the protection and maintenance of the aquatic habitat, hatchery fish production for the maintenance of angling in hundreds of small lakes in the Province, and
research into the requirements of sport fish in lakes and streams.
Management Activities
Sheridan Lake, near 100 Mile House, was treated with a fish toxicant in 1961
to remove the existing population of coarse fish and trout. Testing of the lake with
live fish since that time has shown that detoxification proceeded very slowly but was
complete by the fall of 1965. Early in 1966, 1,615,000 young trout were introduced to Sheridan Lake. These fish grew rapidly and by September were 8 inches
in length.  The lake will open to angling early in 1967.
Salmon Lake, south of Westwold, has for many years supported an excellent
rainbow-trout fishery but has suffered occasional partial winter kill. The main
branch of the Salmon River previously joined the outlet of Salmon Lake a few
hundred yards downstream of the lake and thus did not actually flow into the lake.
To alleviate winter-kill problems and improve access of fish to spawning-grounds in
the upper Salmon River, a 1,500-foot channel was constructed in May, 1966, to
divert the river through the lake. Stream-control works and fish-trapping facilities
will be added in 1967 to faciliate a spawn-taking operation.
A new concrete fish ladder was constructed at the Smithson-Alphonse Dam
on Mission Creek near Kelowna. The original ladder was severely damaged during
periods of high water over the past few years. The structure is vital to the successful
migration of rainbow trout and kokanee from Okanagan Lake to their spawning-
grounds in the upper reaches of Mission Creek.
Studies of angler success and steelhead migration patterns were continued on
the Big Qualicum River, Vancouver Island, in co-operation with the Canada Department of Fisheries. Results during 1965 indicate that approximately 20 per cent of
the steelhead in the river were taken by anglers, and that catch success approximated
0.04 fish per angler-hour and 0.2 fish per angler.
To improve sport fishing in the relatively unproductive waters of Alouette Lake,
a twofold management programme has been undertaken. Neomysis, a fresh-water
shrimp native to other waters of the area, is to be introduced to the lake in an
attempt to establish a food source for sport fish. As stream spawning faculties are
extremely limited, a lake-spawning fish may be more successful than the native trout,
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966 T 27
and therefore introduction of lake trout will commence in 1967. If favourable
results are obtained, introductions to Alouette Lake will continue until a self-
supporting population of this species is established.
A preliminary survey of the fishery potential of the Pemberton district, north
of Vancouver, was undertaken during the year. It was found that in this area,
which has only recently become easily accessible to sportsmen in the Lower
Mainland, five lakes and two major river systems will provide most of the angling
opportunity.
Interest in the establishment of private and commercial fish-farms continued to
increase during the year. Some 126 private fish-ponds and 31 commercial fish-
farms are now licensed for operation in the Province.
Eastern brook trout have been successfully introduced to a number of small
marginal lakes in the Cariboo District and are providing excellent year-round fishing
for family groups. In most cases, fish grow to 1 pound in weight within 12 months
of planting and provide excellent fly fishing during the open-water period. During
the winter months, catch success remains high for the rapidly growing numbers of
ice fishermen.
During the autumn of 1966, large numbers of Mysis relicta (opossum shrimp)
were again transferred from Kootenay Lake to several Interior lakes in an effort to
establish these organisms in the lakes and subsequently evaluate their effect on the
growth and production of sport fish. Although it appears that the establishment of
mysid populations in certain lakes could increase sport-fish production considerably
careful evaluation and study of their requirements and their effects on sport fish are
necessary before further introductions are considered.
Habitat Protection
Pollution Control
All members of the field staff directed much of their effort to prevention of
fish-habitat destruction by logging, mining, agriculture, and various industrial operations throughout the Province. Emphasis was placed on advising and informing
other resource users and other government agencies of the various adverse effects
on fish populations of unwise use of the aquatic environment.
A pamphlet entitled " Prevent Logging Damage to Streams" was prepared and
distributed to each logging operator in the Province. This booklet describes the
ecological and legal consequences of stream siltation and debris pollution. Legislation to protect fish and game from the harmful effects of petroleum-product spillage
during pipe-line transport has been drafted for inclusion by the Department of Commercial Transport in the Pipe-lines Act. A tentative agreement has been reached
with the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources on disposal methods
for salt-brine wastes from producing gas and oil wells. Generally, wells in fully
developed fields will be required to use deep-well disposal of wastes, while wells in
incompletely explored fields will be allowed to dispose of wastes in streams unless
harm to a fish population can be shown.
An 80-page booklet entitled "A Field Manual of Habitat Protection" has been
distributed to all fisheries field staff and Conservation Officers to aid in the investigation and correction of many of the pollution and obstruction problems which
they encounter. This booklet provides guidelines for dealing with fishery problems
associated with logging, mining, chemical spraying, culverts, irrigation dams, gravel
removal, and other activities.
 T 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Major mining developments which required special investigation to avert
damage to fisheries were Western Mines at Buttle Lake, Noranda Mining Company
at Babine Lake, and Brenda Mines at Pennask Lake. Several other companies in
various stages of exploration were provided with information on requirements for
fisheries protection. Pollutions affecting fish or their habitat occur each year from
a variety of unforeseen sources. Among these unforeseen pollutions reported this
year were discharges of plating wastes (Sandhill Creek, Vancouver Island), chemical
sprays (Mission Creek, Okanagan), coal-mining wastes (Michel Creek, Kootenay),
and silt (Coquihalla River, Lower Mainland).
Numerous applications for use of other resources were reviewed by the staff;
these included water-licence, timber-sale, placer-mining, and chemical-spray applications. Approximately 40 applications to the Pollution-control Board for discharge
of domestic and industrial wastes were also reviewed for possible adverse effects on
sport fish.
Problems Associated with Stream Obstructions
Duncan Dam
During 1966 the investigation of fishery problems associated with the Duncan
Dam in the Kootenay area, supported by funds provided by the British Columbia
Hydro and Power Authority was concentrated on acquiring a maximum of field
information on physical and biological features of the lake and river system before
the dam becomes operational in 1967. This background of descriptive information
on the sport fishery, the fish populations upon which it depends, and the environment
of these populations will be invaluable in detecting and understanding any changes
brought about by the physical presence of the dam and by the manipulation of water
flows at the dam. Because of the short time available before completion of the dam,
it was necessary to concentrate on the acquisition of field data, much of which must
yet be analysed and reported on.
The condition of the sport fishery in Kootenay Lake has been monitored on a
weekly basis throughout the year in a continuing programme of creel census. Sport-
fish catches have also been sampled to provide data on growth rates and age structure of the populations. Although data tabulations have not been completed for
comparison with previous years, in general it may be stated that sport fishing for
both trout and kokanee was extremely intensive and successful during 1966.
Throughout the year monthly observations of vertical temperature distribution
were made at stations in all sub-basins of Kootenay Lake. These data provide
important environmental information in themselves and also enable inferences to
be made regarding the distribution of currents and water masses within the lake.
Concurrent with these observations, water transparency was measured and zoo-
plankton was sampled so that the varying abundance of this principal food of young
fish could be determined. To supplement the monthly observations, two detailed
synoptic surveys of these properties were conducted to provide additional information on winter and summer conditions in Kootenay Lake. In addition to these
routine limnological observations and collections, a fundamental study of the abundance and distribution of the macrozooplankters is in its concluding phase. A study
of the changes in the diet and growth rates of sport fish in recent years is also nearing
completion. Support has also been given to research (nearing completion) on the
primary productivity of Kootenay Lake waters.
In addition to the continuing investigations of Kootenay Lake itself, extensive
programmes of enumeration and study were conducted on the trout and kokanee
populations as they ascended and spawned in the Lardeau River system.   A total of
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966 T 29
650 large Kootenay Lake rainbow spawned in the upper reaches of the Lardeau
River at Gerrard. Studies were made of the spawning behaviour of these fish in
the event that additional spawning area should be required for this unique trout
population. The contribution of young kokanee to Kootenay Lake from the Lardeau
River system (progeny of the 1,080,000 spawners in 1965) was estimated to be
15,000,000 fry—an over-all survival of 24 per cent from the 62.2 million eggs deposited in the gravel. In the fall of 1966, adult kokanee entering the Lardeau River
system were again enumerated and found to total 1,260,000. This compared favourably with the 1,080,000 of the previous year, but it was considerably less than the
4,530,000 spawners of 1964.
To offset the loss of spawning area for kokanee above Duncan Dam, construction was begun on 10,000 feet of spawning-channel in Meadow Creek, tributary to
Duncan River. To be completed in time for the 1967 kokanee run, this channel
will accommodate some 300,000 spawners. The design characteristics of this channel
were based on observations of egg survival, velocities, depths, gradients, and gravel
composition on natural kokanee spawning-sites in the Meadow Creek-Lardeau River
system. The channel incorporates several new features designed to reduce the
requirements for annual maintenance and to ensure continued high production.
To support the various phases of the Kootenay Lake programme, a small well-
equipped laboratory was completed at the old hatchery-site in Nelson, and the main
hatchery building was converted into a workshop and equipment-storage and
maintenance centre.
Miscellaneous
Much less complex problems of obstructed fish passage were caused by road
culverts at John Brown Creek, Kispiox River (northern district), and Somenos
Creek (Vancouver Island), and by river-bed channelling at Cowichan River and
Idsardi Creek (Vancouver Island).
At Mission Creek, near Kelowna, a fishway over a low irrigation dam was
constructed by the Branch. Partial removal of a large log jam in Chilliwack River
was permitted. An observer from this Branch was on site during a log-driving
operation on Stellako River near Fort Fraser.
Trout Hatcheries
The Fish and Wildlife Branch administers the lake stocking programme in
British Columbia and operates three year-round hatcheries, and various supporting
egg-collecting operations, which supply trout for this programme. The permanent
hatcheries are located in Abbotsford, Summerland, and Wardner (East Kootenay
District); the egg-collecting sites are in the Okanagan-Kamloops and East Kootenay
regions.   Hatcheries are run by a 12-man staff and a superintendent at Victoria.
Species raised and planted in 1966 were cutthroat, eastern brook trout,
kokanee, and rainbow. The 1966 programme was considerably more extensive than
the one of the preceding year, and it is anticipated this upward trend will continue
in 1967.
New Hatchery Facilities
Production Stations.—The hatchery at Wardner opened on June 21st. Staffed
by four people, Kootenay Hatchery will be used to culture the four species of fish
mentioned above. Property (187 acres) was purchased in 1960, and preliminary
construction was started in late 1963.
At Fraser Valley Hatchery in Abbotsford, preliminary hydrological work preparatory to expansion of the present limited rearing facilities was undertaken late in
 T 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the year. Water is now provided by springs, and this source, together with wells,
must be fully assessed before the hatchery rearing facilities can be increased. This
property, purchased in 1964, consists of about 32 acres.
In anticipation of future expansion, land adjoining Summerland Hatchery was
purchased in 1961, and when fully developed, production at this hatchery can be
increased about 400 per cent. However, prior to construction of additional rearing-
ponds, the water source and supply must be assured. The amount of water available is adequate for the current production potential, but expansion of future production depends on increasing the water supply presently shared with the Municipality of West Summerland. Tentative negotiations were carried on with the municipality, and it appears probable that arrangements can be completed in 1967 to draw
the whole spring supply on a long-term basis.
Egg-collecting Stations.—The rainbow trout egg supply was again inadequate
in 1966, and collection facilities were increased during the latter half of the year.
New fences were added to existing facilities at Pennask and Beaver Lakes. At Salmon Lake (Westwold) a fence and trap were built on the main inlet stream to provide an entirely new egg-collection station in 1967.
The perennial source of kokanee eggs, Meadow Creek at the north end of
Kootenay Lake, will be closed in 1967, and eggs will be collected instead from the
spawning run in Eagle River (Shuswap area). The necessary fence and traps will
be built in July.
Dugan Lake, near 150 Mile House, was investigated for possible future use as
an egg-collecting site. This very productive lake has a large eastern brook trout
population, which apparently could support both a fishery and an egg collection.
Equipment
The two 1,000-gallon fish transport tanks mentioned in the preceding Annual
Report were delivered in early 1966, and two 500-gallon units were ordered later in
the year. It is planned to order two more of the latter in 1967, thus replacing all
the old transporting units. The new units are equipped with aerating systems which
release pure oxygen through perforated tubing on the bottom of the tanks. The
trucks used to haul these tanks are all new and were purchased in 1965 and 1966.
Egg Collecting (All Species)
Rainbow trout eggs were collected at the following lakes: Beaver (near Kelowna), Niskonlith (near Chase), Pennask west of Peachland), Premier (Cranbrook
region), and Stump Lake (south of Kamloops). Of a total collection of slightly
over 7,000,000 eggs, most were taken from Beaver and Pennask Lakes traps. As
mentioned earlier, the egg supply was inadequate, and preparations have been made
to increase the collection in 1967. Because of an anticipated low spawning population, no attempt will be made to collect eggs at Stump Lake in the coming year.
However, as detailed under " Egg-collecting Stations," fairly extensive additions have
been made to the egg-collecting facilities.
Cutthroat eggs were collected as usual at Kiakho Lake (Cranbrook), although
the full quota of 400,000 was not realized because of a partial failure of the spawning run.
The kokanee egg collection at Meadow Creek was down somewhat from the
preceding year, but the 4,200,000 eggs collected were sufficient to meet requirements. Kokanee eggs in the past have been exchanged for cutthroat, eastern brook,
and rainbow trout eggs, but this year about 1,500,000 were hatched in Kootenay
Hatchery. These will be introduced in Green Lake (70 Mile House) next May,
marking the first time for many years that kokanee have been planted.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 31
The eastern brook trout eggs have been imported from Oregon for several years
in exchange for kokanee eggs. In 1966, however, the 2,000,000 eggs required for
the stocking programme were obtained from Ontario in exchange for kokanee eggs
that were collected here in British Columbia by Ontario fisheries-management staff.
These kokanee are being introduced into the Great Lakes in an attempt to improve
a fishery ruined by lamprey infestation.
Liberations and Production
Despite fairly heavy losses in the rainbow stock in July as a result of (1) a flood
at Loon Creek Hatchery and (2) gill disease at Kootenay Hatchery, total production was about 40 per cent over 1965 (24,000 pounds). Similarly, distributions
(all species) were up from 3,900,000 to 6,780,000, and the number of lakes stocked
increased from 265 to 320, still less, however, than the 1964 total of 330 lakes.
Aside from about 1,000,000 eastern brook trout, almost all of the liberations were
rainbow trout in 1966.   About 1,000,000 of the rainbow were planted by aircraft
into 99 lakes (68 in 1965).
Research
Dr. Edgar Black, of the University of British Columbia Medical Faculty, has
carried on physiological studies for many years at Summerland Hatchery during the
summer months, and this work was continued in 1966. In March, 1966, one of
the papers which resulted from his work, " Further Studies on Live Transportation
of Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)," by Edgar C. Black, N. W. Green, and R. R.
Morgan, was submitted to the Canadian Fish Culturist for publication. He will continue his research in 1967.
Personnel Training
The second hatchery-staff school was held at Summerland in July.   The course
lasted nine days and dealt with subjects ranging from fish diseases to lake limnology.
Instructors included Branch personnel, two faculty members from the University of
British Columbia, and a specialist in fish diseases from the Federal fish laboratory
in Seattle.
Public Relations
Our trout hatcheries have always drawn thousands of visitors every year and,
in consideration of this, generous display facilities were built into the new Kootenay
Hatchery. The displays, naturally of a fish theme, have proven tremendously successful, and during July and August about 17,000 people visited the hatchery. The
other two hatcheries do not have any special tourist accommodation but are situated
near main tourist routes, and thousands of people, including many organized school
and community groups, came to see the fish-production process. When these two
hatcheries are enlarged, adequate public display facilities will be provided. In 1966
over 30,000 people visited hatcheries.
General
Although more trout were planted in 1966 than in any of the last 10 years,
these were still inadequate for the lake stocking programme. This shortage was due
largely to the egg supply, and work that has been done in the last two years to improve the egg-collecting facilities is expected to materially increase the supply in
1967.
Apart from this weakness in the fish-culture programme, limited rearing facilities have also restricted production. The new Kootenay Hatchery has partially
alleviated this particular problem, but a final solution will not be realized until facilities at the other two hatcheries are radically increased. Planning in regard to this
is under way.
 T 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fisheries Research
A diversified programme of research on problems pertinent to sport-fishery
management was continued in 1966 and included studies on the basic biology of
trout, on the effects of man-induced changes in their environment, and on the effectiveness of hatchery stocking techniques in sport-fish production.
Reproductive Biology of Kootenay Lake Rainbow Trout
An intensive study on the reproductive behaviour of rainbow trout was conducted at Gerrard, at the outlet of Trout Lake, during May and June, 1966. The
study had the following objectives:—
(1) To estimate the size of the spawning run and relate it to daily counts of
spawning fish made from the river bank:
(2) To describe in more detail the spawning requirements of the trout:
(3) To describe the distribution of spawners at different periods of the run
and during different conditions of river flow:
(4) To describe and analyse the spawning behaviour of the fish.
During 1966 about 650 fish were on the spawning area. The maximum daily
count was 249 fish. Fish arriving early in the run stayed in the area an estimated
28 days, while those arriving late in the run remained about 6 to 8 days.
Preliminary evaluation of results suggests that while fish spawn over a 4,600-
to 5,000-square-yard area, some regions of the spawning-grounds are much more
heavily used than others. Redigging of redds occurred in some areas. As the river-
level rose, spawner distribution expanded into areas not previously utilized. Redd-
digging sounds were monitored on a hydrophone, and it was found that redd-
digging activity occurred throughout 24 hours of the day, with peaks of activity once
in the afternoon and once during the night. Females dug several nests and deposited
several pockets of eggs (four or five observed in one case).
A movie showing spawning behaviour was made. Detailed statistical analysis
of behaviour is under way.
Migratory Behaviour of Juvenile Kootenay Lake Rainbow Trout
The migratory behaviour of young rainbow trout emerging from the Gerrard
spawning area was studied in July and August. Evidence for movement of some
young trout into Trout Lake was obtained by operation of two-way traps in the outlet, by direct observation, and by seining at a number of sites in the lake. Experiments conducted in artificial stream channels indicated that water temperature may
be an important factor regulating direction of movement, as had been suggested
previously.
Distribution of Juvenile Steelhead and Cutthroat Trout in Coastal Streams
A study has been made of the species composition of fish in 65 streams on
Vancouver Island and the Lower Coastal Mainland of British Columbia. Fish
have been sampled in 1 to 10 stations in each stream, and data on stream volume,
pH, and conductivity were obtained.
The pH characteristics of streams with populations of steelhead and cutthroat
living separately and of streams with the species mixed were similar during summer
periods. Slight differences in pH during the winter period were probably not
significant.
Species composition (steelhead and cutthroat) bore no apparent relationship
to stream conductivity (an index of total dissolved solid content of the water).
Streams running through farm land in their lower reaches tended to have high total
dissolved solids in these areas.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966 T 33
Principal differences in species composition were related to stream size and
profile. Main stems of large streams, with few exceptions, supported young steelhead. Very small streams, with drainage areas of only 1 or 2 square miles, usually
supported cutthroat. Among streams with drainage areas of 3 to 25 square miles,
steelhead were usually found in those which ran steeply down into a large river or
the sea. Cutthroat were found in systems which dropped steeply and then ran
through wide areas of meadow land or slough.
In those cases where both species occurred together, steelhead were usually
dominant in the lower main stem of the stream, while cutthroat were most numerous in the upper reaches and small tributaries.
The results indicate that differences in distribution of these young fish may be
controlled in large part by parental choice of spawning areas. The data are insufficient to show if or how water chemistry might affect such habits.
Headwater Stream-Reservoir Studies
Factors controlling movement and growth of trout population living above and
below waterfalls are being investigated. This project, initially focused on Bjerkness
Creek near Kaslo, was broadened to include other streams on Kootenay and Arrow
Lakes when the creek became unsuitable largely due to logging in the drainage
basin. Although results had not been fully analysed, it appears that very few young
trout (1965 and 1966 year classes) have survived in Bjerkness Creek this year
compared to numbers produced there last year or to 1966 production in nearby
creeks which were not subjected to headwater damage. The seasonal pattern and
extent of downstream movement of juveniles is being studied by regular fyke-net
sampling on several streams. The study should indicate the importance to lake
sport-fish production of headwater trout populations in streams tributary to impoundments such as the Arrow Lakes, where alterations in water level seriously
reduce spawning areas below falls.
An experimental plot has been set up on Duncan Lake to study the effect of
several different clearing treatments on bottom fauna production after flooding.
Primary Production Studies in Kootenay Lake
Field studies (supported in part by the Division) on primary production in
relation to turbidity and nutrient enrichment in Kootenay Lake are nearing completion. Effects of water from various regions of the lake and of specific nutrient
additions on growth of single algal species and of mixed lake cultures have been
examined by incubation experiments conducted monthly from spring to late autumn.
Analysis of results is under way.
Shrimp (Mysis relicta) Utilization by Kootenay Lake Fishes
Analysis of feeding habits of kokanee taken from 1963 to 1965 indicate that
these fish, particularly West Arm populations, feed heavily upon the recently introduced mysid. Although shrimp were eaten during all months of the year, they were
especially important in the winter diet. Changes in kokanee growth rate, possibly
associated with mysid utilization, are being examined further.
Kokanee-spawning Channel Requirements
Information on artificial spawning-channels was assembled from the literature,
from discussions with other fisheries agencies, and from field surveys. In conjunction with British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority engineers and the Kootenay
Lake Research Station, a set of recommendations on the spawning requirements of
3
 T 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
kokanee was drawn up to be incorporated in the Meadow Creek artificial spawning-
channel.
Hatchery Evaluation Programme
The programme was designed to evaluate effectiveness of planting hatchery-
reared young rainbow trout of native stock. Three size classes of young will be
tested in three different situations—lakes with no fish present, lakes with rainbow
trout only, and lakes with rainbow trout plus a competitive fish species.
The 13 lakes chosen for evaluation were surveyed to determine their physical
and biological characteristics. The plankton populations were greatly reduced in
June but appeared to have returned to normal in August in three of the lakes that
were treated with rotenone in the autumn of 1965 to remove previous fish populations. Experimental introductions of fry were made in all lakes during August,
and the second size group was planted in October. In several cases these fry were
appreciably smaller than those which had spent the intervening time in the lake.
Meetings
The meeting of the Canadian Committee on Freshwater Fisheries Research
was attended in Ottawa in January of 1966, and at the same time a paper on hatchery
evaluation and survival of domestic rainbow trout was presented to the national
meeting of the Canadian Society of Wildlife and Fisheries Biologists.
Lectures and laboratory exercises were given at the hatchery school held at
Summerland in August.
A paper was presented at the International Biological Programme symposium
on the biological basis of fresh-water fish production held in Reading, England, in
September.
The film on spawning behaviour of rainbow trout was shown at several sportsmen's meetings throughout the Province.
Publications
Cope, F. G. 1966. Prevent Logging Damage to Streams. Fish and Wildlife
Branch, Management Report No. 52, 8 pp.
Geen, G. H.; Northcote, T. G.; Hartman, G. F.; and Lindsey, C. C. 1966. Life
Histories of Two Species of Catostomid Fishes in Sixteenmile Lake, British
Columbia, with particular reference to inlet stream spawning. J. Fish. Res.
Bd. Canada, 23(11).   In press.
Hartman, G. F. 1966. Some Effects of Temperature on the Behaviour of Under-
yearling Coho and Steelhead. Fish and Wildlife Branch, Management Report
No. 51, 15 pp.
Northcote, T. G., and Lorz, H. W. 1966. Seasonal and Diet Changes in Food of
Adult Kokanee (Concorhynchus nerka) in Nicola Lake, British Columbia.
J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 23(8) :1259-1263.
Smith, S. B.; Halsey, T. G.; and Stringer, G. E. 1966. The Evaluation of a
Hatchery Stocking Formula and the Comparative Survival of Wild and Domestic Rainbow Trout Stocks in Lakes. Canadian Society of Wildlife and
Fishery Biologists, Occasional Papers No. 2.
Teraguchi, M., and Northcote, T. G. 1966. Vertical Distribution and Migration
of Chaoborus flavicans Larvas in Corbett Lake, British Columbia. Limnology
and Oceanography, 11 (2): 164-176.
Withler, I. L. 1966. Variability in Life History Characteristics of Steelhead Trout
(Salmo gairdneri) along the Pacific Coast of North America. J. Fish. Res.
Bd. Canada, 23(3):365-393.
 PROVINCIAL
PARKS
BRANCH
 The Lightning Lakes Recreational Area in Manning Park was officially opened
on September 3, 1966, by the Honourable W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Recreation and
Conservation.
Drilling for water at Montague Harbour Marine Park.   Nearly 40 wells have been drilled
in Provincial parks in the last three years.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 37
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
H. G. McWilliams, Director
The highlight of the year was the official opening of Manning Park Lightning
Lake Recreational Area, which will provide excellent fishing, boating, and swimming
for summer visitors.
Purchase of two very desirable sites—Pirates Cove on De Courcy Island and
Smugglers Cove on Sechelt Peninsula—increased the number of marine parks from
8 to 10. A generous donation from the British Columbia Council of Yacht Clubs
assisted in these acquisitions.
Fourteen wells drilled during 1966, as part of a major undertaking during the
past three years, bring us very close to having potable water in all developed parks.
Park use varied greatly throughout the Province, but showed an over-all
increase of more than 200,000 visits to put the total over 5,000,000.
MANAGEMENT
Total park use increased only 6 per cent during 1966, but uneven distribution
of the increase complicated management and maintenance. In some regions, notably
those centred on Cultus Lake, Manning, and Mount Seymour Parks, use declined
for the first time in many years, while in the nearby region centred on Alouette Lake
it increased more than 40 per cent.
Total visits in the Shuswap region dropped 4 per cent, while camping in the
same area increased from 192,000 to 198,500. In the Vancouver Island region, day
use declined slightly from 742,192 to 739,105 visits, while camper nights increased
by more than 18,000. Similar reductions in day use and increases in overnight
camping occurred in Manning, Garibaldi, Lakelse, and Shuswap regions.
In addition to this noticeable trend toward increased camping activity in most
regions, total park visits increased more than 30 per cent in Wasa and Kokanee
regions, in the Kootenays, and in the Crooked River region north of Prince George.
Visits to Barkerville Historic Park increased more than 40 per cent to 174,004,
and those to Fort Steele were more than quadrupled.
These changing patterns subjected many parks to severe overuse and strained
maintenance staffs and facilities. Extensive reconstruction was carried out at Lac
la Hache Park, and a start was made on the conversion to flush-toilets at Wasa
Lake Park.
Management personnel continued to co-operate with R.C.M.P. detachments
throughout the Province. Radio-equipped night patrols were increased, and additional auxiliary police officers were again employed to reduce disorderly behaviour
in parks and camp-sites.
The Division processed a large volume of applications for park use permits,
and more than 400 permits of all kinds were issued or renewed.
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
During 1966 the public demand for information and education material was
greater than ever. The Public Information and Education Office attempted to keep
pace with demands by disseminating information through the press, radio, television,
illustrated talks, special courses, a variety of Parks Branch and other publications,
and by replying to a heavy flow of correspondence.
 T 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Close liaison was maintained with several service clubs and youth organizations.
Special co-operation was requested by and granted to the Alpine Garden Club of
British Columbia, which was given a guided tour of Provincial parks near Victoria
and later an illustrated talk in Vancouver.
Several Girl Guide and Boy Scout groups were given illustrated talks and short
courses on subjects pertaining to woodcraft, nature study, conservation, hiking, etc.
During August the Public Information Officer spent a day at the Girl Guide Provincial camp "Tsoona," when 100 Girl Guides from all parts of Canada were
attending their annual " Heritage Camp."
The Boy Scouts, in addition to being helped with outdoor recreation and conservation activities, were given assistance with the organization and operation of a
one-day public relations and communications workshop early in December, which
was attended by about 100 adults of the Boy Scout, Girl Guide, and other organizations devoted to working with youngsters.
The Canadian Forestry Association and F.A.E. (Films for Adult Education)
were assisted with their programmes of adult education, designed to increase public
awareness of outdoor recreation and conservation potential of British Columbia.
One new publication, "British Columbia Marine Parks," was prepared for
printing and will be issued in map-folder form early in 1967. Two other maps,
" Provincial Parks on Vancouver Island " and " Fraser Canyon-Okanagan Parks,"
and the " stop of interest" plaque pamphlet " Let's Stop, Look and Learn," and other
minor publications were revised.
A large number of black-and-white photographs were supplied to various
publications and organizations in Canada and the United States, including the
British Columbia Department of Education Elementary Correspondence Section
and the National-Provincial Parks Association of Canada. Colour and black-and-
white photographs and colour transparencies were also supplied to other branches
and departments in addition to the extensive use made of them for displays and
interpretative work within the Parks Branch.
During the late summer several parks, including three marine parks, were
visited for the purpose of taking and recording information for future use.
Throughout the year, 30 illustrated talks were given, using three sets of colour
transparencies showing parks and their contents, natural history, and hiking. The
average frequency of requests for lectures was a little above two per month, but
individually the monthly demand varied from one to five requests. Most of the
lectures were given in the vicinity of Victoria, a few in Vancouver, and a few
farther afield.
INTERPRETATION AND RESEARCH
In 1966, park naturalists experienced increases in public use of all interpretation programmes that were greater than any previous year. Every phase of every
programme in every park accumulated participation figures that were typically much
greater than those of previous years. Some increases were well over 100 per cent.
Walks, talks, and nature houses served 103,500 people; nature trails and outdoor
exhibits were used by an estimated 70,000; and parks offering mainly natural visual
attractions, such as MacMillan and Petroglyph Parks, received an estimated 65,000
people. Although numbers are not reliable indicators of our success in interpretation, they do indicate that about 240,000 people were associated with interpretation
programmes.
Through the summer, park naturalists conducted interpretation programmes in
nine parks. Nature houses in Manning, Miracle Beach, and Shuswap Lake Parks
offered a total of 65 exhibits.   Of these, 16 were new, having been made the pre-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 39
vious winter in the interpretation shop. Attendances at each of two nature houses
exceeded the previous record total of 28,000. Miracle Beach nature house set a
new high mark of 32,000, or about 400 visitors per day.
Regular walks in nine parks (721 walks, 10,000 participants) showed people
a wide assortment of natural features, from nesting gulls to scorpions, and from
boa constrictors to giant forest trees.
Regular evening talks, often around a campfire (307 talks to 18,000 people),
were given in nine parks. Two programmes were new, those in Miracle Beach and
Mitlenatch Island Parks. A new permanent amphitheatre was constructed in Shuswap Lake Park. Talks in other parks were in informal and often makeshift settings, except in Manning Park, where slide shows in an amphitheatre were a daily
feature.
Nine nature trails operated in seven parks. These offered numerous small
signs describing trailside features, using approved texts from a collection now numbering 365 different messages. A new nature trail was built and used in Mitlenatch
Island Nature Park. In Manning Park, Mule Deer Nature Trail was constructed,
complete with a bridge across the Similkameen River, and will be in operation in
1967. Also to be open next year, in Spahats Creek Park, is a short nature trail
through beautiful old timber. This trail was located and inventoried this year.
In Manning Park the popular highway-side red rhododendron stand was made more
accessible with a parking area and an outdoor display from which a loop trail leads
through the stand.
Inventory of natural features in parks is essential for interpretation. In selected
parks this work continues whenever possible, consisting mainly of listing species
present and noting their abundance. Nine parks are involved, ranging ecologically
from alpine areas to bunchgrass slopes, a marine island and an alkaline pond in
grassland.
Interpretation programmes can be no better than the people involved. Our
interpretation success to date is the result of highly qualified and enthusiastic staff
being attracted to this work.
PARK SYSTEM PLANNING
The major field-work project assumed this year was the continuation of a
detailed examination of recreational resources in the north-western portion of this
Province—a programme initiated last year. Because of the immense area involved,
our approach to this project was to use aircraft last year to obtain an initial extensive impression of the region. This work was followed up in 1966 by detailed land
examinations, particularly in the vicinity of Atlin and Teslin Lakes, as well as
further aerial reconnaissance in the areas of Jennings, Dease, Cry, and Kinaskan
Lakes. Additional field reconnaissance was carried out in the Squamish and Che-
akamus Valleys, where there is a critical need for parks and other outdoor recreation outlets, and where continued attempts are being made to acquire suitable land
for this purpose. Field work was also undertaken near Cape Scott and Ahousat
on Vancouver Island's west coast. Further examinations were made of two rather
unique features—the Nass River lava flow and an alpine fossil bed east of Wasa
Lake.
Eight new Class A parks, containing 1,175 acres, and two new Class C parks,
containing 225 acres, were created during 1966. An important addition to the
parks system was the 367-acre Nairn Falls Park near Pemberton, which will help
to alleviate the need for public recreational facilities on the new Squamish-Pem-
berton Highway.   An agreement was negotiated which will lead to acquisition of
 T 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the second portion of a major park at Rathtrevor Beach near Parksville. Negotiations are now complete and properties are being purchased at Smugglers Cove,
where there will be a 400-acre park with a sheltered boat harbour on the exposed
western coast of Sechelt Peninsula, and at Porpoise Bay on Sechelt Inlet, where a
160-acre park will provide public boat access to these sheltered waters. As a result
of successful negotiations, an attractive 60-acre parcel of land at Pirates Cove on
De Courcy Island was purchased for marine park purposes. Member yacht clubs
of the Council of British Columbia Yacht Clubs contributed toward the purchase
of this property. With the creation of the Regional District of the Capital of British
Columbia, administration of land purchased for park purposes at Island View Beach
was turned over to this newly formed body. In co-operation with this Board, the
Parks Branch acquired an important seashore property at Metchosin Lagoon.
The boundaries of four Class A parks were extended by a total of 666 acres.
Three Class C parks were enlarged to include an additional 40 acres of land. Four
acres were deleted from two Class A parks and 63 acres were deleted from one
Class C park.
With the co-operation and assistance of other Government departments, it was
possible to have 64 areas containing 5,882 acres reserved for public recreational
use. In the same period, 10 reserved areas containing 5,332 acres were cancelled.
To date approximately 2,238 sites containing a total of 341,544 acres have been
reserved to meet future recreational-site requirements of the people of this Province.
The people of British Columbia are indebted to the following for their
donations of land for park purposes involving 901 acres:—
Mr. Henry Dosch, an addition to Bright Angel Park near Duncan.
Mr. John Helliwell, a very attractive property on Hornby Island.
H.R.H. Princess Margaret, Portland Island for a marine park.
The British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, a recreational area
fronting on Buttle Lake.
PARK-USE PLANNING
The development plans office continued, as in 1965, to place major emphasis
on improvement and expansion of existing facilities in many parks. During the last
decade the demand for recreational facilities in Provincial parks has been insistent
and widespread. Rapid expansion with very limited funds has resulted in numerous
incomplete park developments. The aim, therefore, has been the improvement and
refurbishing of existing developments.
In many parks this has meant simply the implementation of pre-existing master
plans, but in others new patterns of traffic flow and public use have necessitated
changes in the plans. The decisions for such revamping and redesigning have usually resulted from joint field studies by planning staff and district park officers.
Typical details involve extra camp-sites, perhaps a change-house, a boat-launching
site, a fence, landscaping, or an extension to a parking-lot. Parks subject to this
type of planning in 1966 included Elk Falls (Quinsam Camp-site), Goldstream, Ellison, Roberts Creek, Princess Louisa, Beaumont, Champion Lakes, and many others.
Development of new sites was undertaken where pressures were greatest.
Lower Mainland people are now flocking on week-ends into the scenic Squamish-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 41
Pemberton area over the recently paved road. The only public camp-site is at Alice
Lake Park, but it cannot accommodate many of these would-be campers. To meet
this need, plans were drawn up and construction is under way on a camp-site at
Nairn Falls Park. Another park being developed to include camping is at Paul
Lake near Kamloops. The existing small development on this popular fishing lake
has been completely inadequate for many years. Because there is an insufficient
number of swimming areas in the vicinity of Victoria, a day-use area was planned
and development initiated at Matheson Lake Park.
Of the large parks, Manning again came in for a major share of planning. Its
two new attractions—a ski area and an artificial lake—are significantly increasing
its popularity. Plans were made for a toboggan run and an upward extension of
the recently created ski slopes in Gibson Pass. The extension accommodates a
pomalift placed in tandem with the double rope tow. Parking-lots and a warming-
shelter are now part of the facilities. Picnic-grounds were planned for Lightning
Lake, and a trail survey was made as far as Buckhorn Camp. A map showing
winter activities was prepared for display in front of Pine Woods Lodge.
In Bowron Lake Park, locations for primitive camp-sites were chosen on the
northern portion of the lake quadrangle. Portage-improvement work has since been
carried out by a youth crew. Action was initiated with Management Division toward
new boating regulations on the navigable waterways.
Planning for Mount Robson Park has been particularly concerned with the
new highway being built through the park. By close liaison with the Department of
Highways, a number of excellent view points have been constructed, and damage to
park values was kept to a minimum.
In Strathcona Park, highway-construction damage was also minimized by close
liaison with the British Columbia Forest Service as well as the Department of
Highways.
Staff have continued to gain background information for the master planning
of Garibaldi Park. The Black Tusk Microwave Road was reconnoitred as a possible
access route to the Black Tusk Meadows. Other areas reconnoitred were Naden
Pass, Billygoat Creek valley, Wedge Pass, Brohm Ridge, and Alice Ridge. This
work was undertaken to find a suitable route for a " Garibaldi Trail," which it is
hoped will traverse the park from Diamond Head to Wedge Creek. A special study
was made of the use pattern and the serious problem of erosion caused by human
use of Black Tusk Meadows.
In 1966 the Varsity Outdoor Club built, on a voluntary basis, a trail to
Cheakamus Lake in Garibaldi Park. The route was checked by a planner and an
engineer. The work is under the surveillance of the district supervisor at Alice
Lake Park.
Also, in co-operation with hikers of the Victoria district, a hiking-trail was laid
out in Goldstream Park and a major section constructed through the leadership of
the Victoria Outdoor Club. Similarly, a part of a continuing trail system in Strathcona Park was laid out and roughed in by the Vancouver Island Ramblers.
For the first time since 1944, planners made a reconnaissance of Tweedsmuir
Park. Although the park contains a third of the total area of the Provincial park
system, recreational use of this huge wilderness has been fight because of inaccessibility. The immediate purpose of the reconnaissance was to select areas of the
highest recreational and scenic value so that they could be recommended for " nature
conservancy area" status. A more long-range purpose was to gather information
for an over-all plan.  The reconnaissance was mainly by air.   Eight lengthy flights
 T 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
were made over the park, with landings on many of the lakes. Detailed studies were
carried out on Sigutlat Lake and Tesla Lake.
The main item in Mount Seymour Park was a start on the new lodge, which
has been an essential part of the park plans for many years. Little Twin Ski Hill
also became a fact during the year. The clearing considerably expanded the useable
ski area on the lower ridge of the mountain. The hill is serviced by an electrically
driven double rope tow.
Planning staff participated in the Federal-Provincial Park Conference, the in-
service school, and in meetings with the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board
in connection with regional park plans for the Fraser Valley.
Mapping kept a small crew in the field from May until November. Areas
mapped included park land on Hornby Island, at Green Lake, Kawkawa Lake,
Charlie Lake, and Cody Caves near Ainsworth. Mapping was also carried out in
Manning Park, Fort Steele Historic Park, and in Mount Robson Park.
Extension work included technical advice and assistance to local organizations
in connection with recreational developments on Quamichan Lake and in Bright
Angel Park near Duncan, Centennial Park near Victoria, and Beaver Creek Park
near Port Alberni. On the Sechelt Peninsula, direction was given to a volunteer
group building a canoe portage trail across the recreational reserve linking Ruby
Lake and Sakinaw Lake.
HISTORIC PARKS AND SITES
Barkerville Historic Park
Attendance figures continued to climb this year. Approximately 174,000
visitor-days were recorded. Registration in the museum's visitors' book totalled
59,589.
Funds made available through the Provincial Secretary's Department were expended toward projects approved by the Barkerville Restoration Advisory Committee. In the restoration area, reconstruction was begun on the Wesleyan Methodist
Church and on the 1869 facade of the Masonic Lodge. Interior finishing was undertaken in the Government Assay Office Building and in the Post Office-Telegraph
Office Building. Exhibits were completed in the Bowron House, Dr. Watts' sitting-
room, J. P. Taylor Drugstore, Barkerville Hotel, miner's cabin, and Trapper
Dan's cabin.
The final phase of the permanent water system has been completed, providing
adequate fire protection and domestic service for present and future needs.
A number of placer leases and Crown-granted mineral claims within and adjacent to the park were purchased to protect the park from possible mining activity.
General revenue from the Theatre Royal, concessions, and staff-operated
activities exceeded $75,000.
Fort Steele Historic Park
More than 56,000 people visited the small museum, established only last year,
within the original North West Mounted Police Building of 1887.
Restoration, reconstruction, and repairs continue within the composite village
toward the anticipated official opening of the project next year. The 3 3-foot-diameter
Perry Creek water-wheel was moved to the park from its original location and restored. The Roosville Custom House was moved to the park from its original site
and restored.   Restoration was undertaken in Fort Steele Cemetery.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 43
The North West Mounted Police Orderly Room-Jail Building of 1887 was
reconstructed. The Telegraph-Telephone Office of the 1890's was reconstructed.
A dentist's office was constructed, and work began on the construction of a period
bandstand.
Displays were initiated in the Fort Steele Trading Company General Store,
the shoe-store, the Windsor Hotel's lobby, dining-room, and bar, the Prospector
newspaper office, and a wagon-shed.
Phase two of the new museum building—namely, completion of the main floor
—was completed by the contractor. This will permit the installation next year of
interpretive displays, provide modern public washroom facilities, and furnish office
and work space for administrative personnel. A start was made in Victoria toward
the construction of 12 display-cases and various displays and panels to be utilized
in the new museum next year.
More than 100 individuals made generous donations of period pieces, material,
and equipment to the project.
A start was made toward the installation of a new well and pump-house.
Columbia Village
Planning continued toward a regional museum and outdoor village complex
near Revelstoke. A large number of items relative to the proposed theme of the
project have been collected from the flood basin south of Revelstoke and stored for
future use.
" Stop of Interest " Plaques
In conjunction with the British Columbia Centennial Committee, texts were
written for 40 " stop of interest " plaques, which were widely distributed throughout
the Province. This brings the total number of this type of marker in the Province
to 91.
Dewdney Trail Roadside Markers
Fifty roadside markers were made for this programme, and 25 of these were
placed between Hope and Fort Steele adjacent to the Southern Trans-Canada Highway, near the route of the original Dewdney Trail.
ENGINEERING
Vancouver Island Region
In the Port Alberni area, a new road was constructed to China Creek Park on
the east shore of Alberni Inlet. Near Victoria, a road was built to Matheson Lake
Park and a picnic-site established on the shore of Matheson Lake. Deep wells
were drilled and hand-pumps installed at Rebecca Spit Marine Park, in the picnic-
site of Goldstream Park, and at Tent Island Marine Park. Sidney Spit Marine Park
on Sidney Island and Pirates Cove Marine Park on De Courcy Island were improved. Park facilities were installed at Morton Lake with the use of Correctional
Branch inmate labour.
Garibaldi Region
Construction of a camp-site was begun at Nairn Falls Park on Green River
near Squamish. An access road was built to the commencement of the Black Tusk
Meadows Trail in the northern portion of Garibaldi Park. In Alice Lake Park, the
camp-site roads were gravelled and electricity was supplied to the service area.
 T 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Alouette Region
At Alouette Lake the main road from the picnic-site to the camp-site (2.3
miles) was paved. Davis Lake Park through road was improved by Correctional
Branch inmate labour.
Cultus Lake Region
Sanitary facilities were improved in Cultus Lake Park, and Correctional Branch
inmate labour was employed on miscellaneous maintenance tasks.
Mount Seymour Region
A water system and a service building were installed at Plumper Cove Marine
Park on Keats Island, and a water system was installed at Saltery Bay Park, south
of Powell River. Minor improvement work was carried out at Princess Louisa
Inlet Marine Park in Princess Louisa Inlet, off Jervis Inlet. In Mount Seymour
Park, 1 mile of road was reconstructed and 2 miles of road were paved to three-
lane width. Also in Mount Seymour Park, a new cafeteria building was erected,
a sewage-plant heating system was installed, ski hills were improved, the headquarters building was given a new foundation, and the water system was extended
to the service area.
Manning Region
In Manning Park, in the Gibson Pass area, land was cleared for the installation of a pomalift and a unit for generating electricity was installed. In the concession area of Manning Park a new staff building was constructed, two new sewage-
disposal fields were created, and numerous improvements were made to Pine Woods
Lodge. Also in Manning Park, flush-toilets were installed to replace pit toilets in
Muledeer Camp-site. Minor improvements were made to existing facilities in
Kawkawa Lake, Silver Lake, Stemwinder, Bromley, and Emory Creek Parks.
Shuswap Region
A permanent nature house was built in Shuswap Lake Park to replace the tent
structure previously used, and an amphitheatre was made to facilitate the delivery
of illustrated evening nature talks. A large entrance sign, carved from red cedar
and featuring a squirrel typical of the area, was placed at Monck Park. Monte
Lake Park campground was reconstructed, and in the same park a deep well was
drilled and a hand-pump fitted. In Paul Lake Park, Correctional Branch inmate
labour was employed to begin constructing a campground.
Okanagan Region
Christie Memorial Park was landscaped and an irrigation system installed.
Ellison Park water system was completed, and sanitation improved by changing the
pit toilets to flush-toilets. Existing facilities in Hayes Point and Okanagan Parks
were improved.
Cariboo Region
Roads in Lac la Hache Park were reconstructed or regravelled as required.
Deep wells were drilled and hand-pumps installed in Loon Lake, Marble Canyon,
and Canim Beach Parks.
Wells Gray Region
In Wells Gray Park, minor road improvements were made, the camp-site at
Bear Creek was completed, and work began on supplying the service area with
water.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966 T 45
Bowron Lake Region
Road and internal trail system improvement was carried out in Bowron Lake
Park.
Lakelse Lake Region
Work began on establishing a new campground in Lakelse Lake Park to
replace that which was destroyed by a mudslide several years ago. At Seeley Lake
Park a deep well was drilled and fitted with a hand-pump. Various facilities in
several other parks were reconstructed and improved.
Bear Lake Region
Work continued on the water systems in Beaumont and Ten Mile Lake Parks.
Minor improvements were made to facilities in Kiskatinaw, Crooked River, and
Whiskers Point Parks.
Mount Robson Region
Kinney Lake access road and Berg Lake trail were improved in Mount Robson
Park, and a water system was installed in the administration building.
Wasa Region
Camp-site establishment work continued in Moyie Lake Park, and reconstruction work was carried out in various other parks. Pit toilets were replaced by
flush-toilets in Wasa Lake Park. A large carved entrance sign was placed at Wasa
Lake Park. A deep well was drilled at Morrissey Picnic-site. The gravel-crushing
operation, to supply material for Moyie Lake and Jimsmith Lake Parks, continued.
Kokanee Region
The campground in Kokanee Creek Park was reconstructed, and the second
stage of Champion Lakes Park water system was completed. Deep wells were
drilled and hand-pumps installed at Lockhart Beach, Erie Creek, and Rosebery
Parks. Gravel was crushed to supply material for paving in Champion Lakes
Park.   Miscellaneous work was done at Beaver Creek and Cody Caves Park.
Youth Crew Programme
As during the previous 14 years, youth crews were employed during 1966.
This year, crews worked in Alice Lake, Garibaldi, Nairn Falls, Manning, Moyie
Lake, Mount Robson, Bowron Lake, Ten Mile Lake, and Champion Lakes Parks.
The 140 boys employed in the youth crew programme were engaged in trail work,
water-system installation, and general maintenance work.
Parks Branch-Attorney-General Programme
For several years the Attorney-General's Department has assisted the Parks
Branch by permitting the Branch to employ inmate charges of the Corrections
Branch on various parks improvement projects. This year they were employed
as follows:—
On Vancouver Island they were building a campground at Morton Lake. In
Miracle Beach and Elk Falls Parks they cut firewood and performed maintenance
tasks.
On the Mainland they cut firewood and did maintenance work in Cultus Lake
and Wells Gray Parks and southern Garibaldi Park. Other work performed by
the inmates was landscaping, road improvement, and camp-site construction.
 T 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Langford Workshop
Workshop production continued to be the manufacturing of tables, fireplaces,
signs, etc., with an increase in the manufacture of lifeboats, marker buoys, and
other plastic products.
Design and Contract Preparation
Tenders were called and contracts awarded for the construction of Mount
Seymour Park cafeteria and a nature house in Shuswap Lake Park.
Designs were prepared for toilet-change houses for Rathtrevor Beach and
Christie Memorial Parks.
Eighteen well-drilling contracts were awarded, and design and specifications
for nine water systems were sent to the field for development.
Specifications and design were prepared for a sewage-treatment plant in Mount
Seymour Park.
Contracts for two paving projects and numerous other minor works were
prepared during the year. General survey work was carried on throughout the
Province as required.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966 T 47
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 T 48
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 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 196b T 49
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1959        1960 1961 1962        1963        1964        1965        1966
YEAR
  BRITISH COLUMBIA
GOVERNMENT
TRAVEL
BUREAU
 New goals for Canada's travel industry were discussed at the Federal-Provincial Tourist
Conference in Ottawa. Left to right: Dr. D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister, Department
of Recreation and Conservation, British Columbia; the Honourable Robert H. Winters,
Federal Minister of Trade and Commerce; and the Honourable W. S. K. Jones, Minister of
Trade and Industry, Nova Scotia.
Display booths of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan at the Toronto Sport Show.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 53
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU
R. L. Colby, Director
Value of Tourism to British Columbia
Since 1961
1961  $115,000,000
1962     145,000,000
1963-
1964.
1965.
1966-
or
: See explanation in text.
150,485,480
183,936,000
201,133,300
*267,203,500
*227,850,000
British Columbia's tourist-visits increased in 1966 by 11.8 per cent for car
travel and approximately 30 per cent by public carriers compared with 1965.
Tourist traffic from outside the Province produced an estimated revenue of
$210,542,800. This amount is made up as follows: 2,307,617 Americans arriving by automobile across the British Columbia-United States Border produced
$92,304,700; 598,081 Americans arriving by automobile across the Alberta Border
accounted for $23,923,200; and Americans arriving via public carrier across the
49th parallel totalled 420,900, producing $16,836,000. American travellers,
therefore, made a total of 3,326,598 visits and produced an estimated revenue of
$133,063,900. Canadian visits by automobile totalled 1,936,973 and contributed
$77,478,900, making the total out-of-Province visits 5,263,571 with a revenue of
$210,542,800.
In addition, a survey conducted by the Bureau during the summer months of
1966 indicated that citizens of British Columbia contributed a far larger share
toward the Province's tourist revenue than had been previously estimated. As
a result, it can be safely assumed that they made 1,888,685 visits within the Province
and spent $56,660,700. This brings the total estimated tourist revenue to
$267,203,500.
Under the old formula, used before last summer's survey to estimate the
revenue produced by British Columbians travelling in their own Province, the grand
total would have been $227,850,000, which is still a very sizeable increase over
1965.
PROMOTION
During 1966 the following promotions were planned and participated in by
Travel Bureau staff:—
Chicago: Boat, Travel and Outdoor Show.
Toronto: Canadian Sportsman Show.
Seattle: Pacific Northwest Travel Show.
Edmonton: Northwest Travel Fair.
Calgary: Sportsman Show.
Seattle: Ski Fair.
Total attendance at these shows was more than 1,000,000 persons.    Many
personal contacts were made in all cities mentioned.
 T 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
There were calls on auto clubs, travel agents, and other organizations.
Bureau personnel participated in television shows, radio interviews, and press interviews to further the promotion of the Province. Bureau members also planned,
organized, and executed a promotion in connection with the 36th World Travel
Congress of the American Society of Travel Agents in Seattle. Elaborate details
were arranged in the promotion of British Columbia at this important meeting,
where the Bureau also staffed a British Columbia booth at the A.S.T.A. Trade Fair.
The British Columbia Government Travel Bureau spearheaded this important promotion, and many representatives of the travel industry of British Columbia
participated.
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
A departure from former practice, all stories sent out in 1966 were specially
prepared for editors' special needs. The 107 so written won 100 per cent acceptance
and proved to be well worth the work involved. They were sent to Alaska, United
States, Canada, Ireland, Czechoslovakia, Australia, Switzerland, and elsewhere.
The Information Officer co-operated with editors, staff writers, and free-lance
writers in the preparation of staff-written stories. Copy was checked for publishing
houses, automobile associations, and other organizations producing booklets, brochures, and folders. Considerable work was done for the Canadian Government
Travel Bureau in this regard. Extensive research was undertaken for numerous
sources, including the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Ottawa and Montreal;
Radio KARI, Bellingham, Wash.; and Radio CKRD, Red Deer, Alta. Research
was done for the Financial Post, Toronto, and numerous other publications in
Canada, and for Canadian Government Travel Bureau Centennial book.
A new rock-hound folder was written, as was a new fall-winter-spring folder
to be published in 1967. The Information Officer attended Centennial Committee
meetings in Vancouver and Victoria regarding production of the Centennial Book.
" Beautiful British Columbia " magazine was proofread, and material written for
it.   Press releases were prepared.
The Information Officer made a familiarization tour via Kelsey Bay-Prince
Rupert ferry and thence across Highway No. 16. Other trips were made with
several foreign writers, including Mr. Harry Forgeron, New York Times; Mrs.
I. C. Kuhn, King Features columnist, New York; Mr. Tskeshi Kawai, Tokyo; Mrs.
Ilse Janecke-Tubbesing, travel editor, Mannheimer Morgen, Germany; Mr. Vincent
Mulchrone, Daily Mail, England; Mrs. Ilse Leitenberger, Die Presse, Vienna; Mrs.
Guerrero-Nakpil, Philippines; Mr. Bernard Henry, Belgium; and Mr. Russ Leada-
brand, Independent Star News, Pasadena, Calif. A day trip was made with internationally noted wildlife writer and photographer Mr. Karl Maslowski, Ohio.
The Information Officer was pleased to accept an invitation of Cooper Bros.
Films, Montana, to attend a premiere showing in Seattle. A tour of " Queen of
Prince Rupert" was made at Deas. He also judged the short stories of the Canadian Authors' Association (Victoria Branch) and presented prizes at its annual
banquet. He attended the Departmental booth at the Pacific National Exhibition
for two days, and was present at the formal luncheon sponsored by the British
Columbia Centennial Committee to launch the new book "British Columbia:
Challenge in Abundance."
A folder for British Columbia House, London, England, was revised. Work
was also done on revision of other Bureau folders.
Eight issues of the British Columbia Government News were prepared and
published.   One issue was given to the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966 T 55
Resources, while other issues emphasized the work of the Parks Branch, Department
of Mines and Petroleum Resources, and Department of Health Services and Hospital
Insurance. Two special financial issues were prepared for the Department of
Finance. This publication was also used to announce new maps of the Topographic
Branch, and new booklets prepared by the Department of Industrial Development,
Trade, and Commerce. A page was devoted to promoting the Centennial Committee book. Generous use was made of space celebrating British Columbia's
Centennial Year. The mailing list of the British Columbia Government News has
shown very significant increase in the past two or three years.
The year proved beyond doubt that the image of British Columbia continues
to travel farther. Interest in the Province as a recreational area, a place to retire
in, or as a site to establish new business is considerable. Hence, correspondence
has increased many times in the past few years, a condition that has been favourably
met with the addition of stenographic help.
ACCOMMODATION AND CONVENTION SECTION
Accommodation Section
While attending travel shows in the various cities throughout the United States
and Canada, the Accommodation and Convention Section was able to contact press
representatives, television and some radio personnel who assisted the Bureau in
the promotion of our Province.
An important activity during 1966 coverage of tourist-accommodation facilities
in the Province was the design and distribution of the British Columbia "Approved
Tourist Accommodation " sign. Well over 2,000 of these signs are now displayed
by tourist establishments throughout our Province. A complete coverage of every
tourist establishment was effected during the 1966 period. This was done by
accommodation counsellors, who inspected tourist accommodation and discussed
operational problems, and in some cases advised the operator of more efficient
methods of operation. As a result of this accurate coverage, our statistical and
tourist-establishment information has been greatly improved.
Convention Section
In liaison with Mr. Speaker's office of the Provincial Secretary's Department,
the Section arranged a tour of portions of British Columbia for members of the
Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. Delegates to this important meeting
visited British Columbia from every country in the Commonwealth. Elaborate plans
involving entertainment, transportation, and accommodation were set up for this
party.
In liaison with the British Columbia Government Ferry Authority, the Bureau
participated in the Los Angeles spring goodwill tour. On this five-day event in
Southern California, more than 10,000 people in different groups were spoken to.
In addition, many television and radio engagements covered a wide portion of the
travel public of Southern California. Numerous convention organizers were contacted in 1966 in an endeavour to promote British Columbia as a convention
Province.
To assist Chambers of Commerce in promoting their own conventions, the 1966
convention list was compiled. The 1966 conventions that visited British Columbia
spent an estimated $9,500,000. The number of conventions being held in British
Columbia is definitely increasing. This phase of the travel industry is making
a large contribution to the earnings of the travel industry.
 T 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
COUNSELLING SECTION
Extraordinary mail inquiry increases from January onward made 1966 the
busiest year ever for this segment of the British Columbia Government Travel
Bureau. At the end of November, 175,624 inquiries had been received and
answered, 37,806 more than the previous year.
The total of teacher-student inquiries was 11,170. Settlement inquiries totalling 727 were answered. In this latter respect, the Travel Bureau acknowledges the
assistance and co-operation of other departments. In the former case, the Travel
Bureau went to considerable lengths to process the requests, all of which were
from potential visitors. The February insert in " Sunset" magazine resulted in 35
to 40 inquiries a day.
Publications produced were Ferry Information Sheet, Calendar of Events
(Spring and Summer), Calender of Events (Fall and Winter), and Ski B.C. This
section co-operated with private firms and organizations in the production of non-
Government folders and brochures. Calendars of events were prepared and research work done for " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine and the Canadian
Government Travel Bureau.
Travel-counselling staff made a familiarization trip to Kelsey Bay. The senior
travel counsellor attended the Air Canada Travel Fair, Toronto, and opening of
the new Cleveland, Ohio, office of the Canadian Government Travel Bureau. This
same staff member assisted in familiarization tours of several visiting journalists,
photographers from Eastern Canada, United States, Europe, and Japan.
Notable among inquiries of 1966 was the increased interest in canoeing,
assumed to have resulted from American and Canadian television showings of
Bowron Lakes Provincial Park.
Two staff members resigned during 1966, one to take a position with the
Federal Government. Otherwise, due to the addition of permanent- and temporary-
staff members, all inquiries were serviced promptly. Most important, this extra
help enabled the Counselling Section to avoid the backlog of inquiries awaiting
attention that had been the case in 1965.
LITERATURE
Unprecedented requests for literature during the year were enough to create
what sometimes almost amounted to crises. Stocks of folders and booklets were
depleted rapidly.
To keep pace with the demand, 500,000 copies of the Accommodation Directory were printed and distributed. The popularity of this book continues unabated,
thus proving its worth.
Road maps totalling 750,000 were printed, a figure that will be increased to
1,000,000 next year. This forthcoming edition of the road map will include the
whole Province and north to Whitehorse and Dawson City in the Yukon and
Fairbanks, Alaska. The current edition excludes detailed coverage of the territory
north of the 56th parallel.
The general folder was reprinted. Plans have been made to up-date and
modify other Bureau booklets.
In response to innumerable requests, a rock-hound folder was produced for
the first time.   This folder proved its worth immediately.
The Bureau continued to co-operate with Boards of Trade, Chambers of
Commerce, and the whole accommodation industry by distribution of regional and
individual folders.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966 T 57
"BEAUTIFUL BRITISH COLUMBIA" MAGAZINE
Reception of this popular publication continues to grow. Average circulation
per issue climbed from 145,000 to 155,000 during 1966. Subscriptions rose to
80,000 from 58,000.
Improved format, still-better-quality photographs, and new-look text have
contributed to the further success of the full-colour quarterly that is presently
shipped to most countries of the world.
" Beautiful British Columbia " magazine has established itself as a worth-while
promotional medium.
TOURIST INFORMATION CENTRES
All Mainland information centres established traffic records during 1966. This
was particularly true at the Vancouver office, with a total of 45,280 in-person or
telephone inquiries. This compares with a total of 33,206 for 1965. Every month
showed an increase over the previous year, with May and August increases in
excess of 60 per cent. Abbotsford centre recorded 57,798 visitors; Cache Creek,
6,646; Douglas, 57,304; Osoyoos, 19,381; Sicamous, 23,200; and Banff, 10,091
inquiries.
Spot studies of the type of traffic at the various centres, conducted during the
summer months, indicated that as high as 52 per cent of parties travelled in trailers,
campers, or similar vehicles, and that an average of 22 per cent used that type of
vehicle.
PROMOTION
A great deal of time was spent by the Vancouver Public Information Officer
assisting and advising travel agents, transportation officials, writers, broadcasters,
and others who had planned tours or other activities in this Province. Visitors to
the Vancouver office included newspaper and magazine writers from the Orient
and government officials from other Provinces and foreign countries. A number
of television stations sent crews into the area, and interest in British Columbia as
subject-matter for Centennial film productions was very high. Auspicious occasions
bringing influential visitors to British Columbia were the inaugural flight of Air
Canada direct from London, the visit of Agents-General in London for Alberta,
British Columbia, Victoria State (Australia),.and the former Lord Mayor of London, Sir Denys Lowson. The Public Information Officer accompanied several
visiting writers and broadcasters on tours.
FIELD WORK
A considerable increase in direct foreign travel to Vancouver led to closer
co-operation with immigration officials at the Vancouver International Airport,
where the decor of the reception area is now distinctly British Columbian. Contact
work was resumed in the Eastern Washington area. A very warm reception given
the Public Information Officer during a spring tour of this area resulted in renewed
interest in British Columbia.
PUBLICITY
Increased interest in Government publications was noted, particularly among
visiting businessmen. Every effort was made to make sure these dual-purpose
visitors were given the required information quickly at the Vancouver centre.
There was also a high level of interest in British Columbia Centennial materials,
with many requests to mail Centennial publications to foreign countries.
 T 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
LIAISON
Extensive work was done on the Tourist Counsellors' Manual, reference book
for the annual course conducted by the Vancouver Information Officer at the
British Columbia Vocational Institute. A draft copy was used for the 1966 course,
and its acceptance by students and, later, by teachers and other interested parties
led to a complete finalization by revision.
This book covers British Columbia history, geography, and contains a wealth
of material valuable to the tourist counsellor. At the end of the year it was ready
for final printing, and it will be the basis of future tourist counsellor courses. It
will also be part of a tourist counselling kit to be used for instruction purposes in
any area of British Columbia where this type of course is required. The Department of Highways showed keen interest in the activities of the Travel Bureau during
the year, and made every effort to provide adequate accommodation for information
offices wherever required.
Staffs at all information centres are to be commended for their excellent
handling of the heavy traffic during the summer months. Letters continue to praise
our travel counsellors for their courtesy and knowledge of British Columbia.
MATCHING GRANTS
As formerly, the Matching Grants Plan continued to play a significant role
in the development and promotion of the tourist industry in the Province.
The 1965 allotment of $175,000 remained the same for 1966. However, in
1966 the Department increased its obligations to approved tourist promotions. The
cost-sharing basis, which had been shared equally between the Department and
regional organizations, was changed so that the Department assumed 60 per cent
of the costs and the regional organizations assumed the balance of 40 per cent.
FIELD WORK AND LIAISON
The Bureau was represented at a number of important meetings and conventions. Included were the annual meeting of the Pacific Northwest Travel Association at Butte, Mont., and several meetings of the Travel Editor Tour Committee,
Vancouver.
Representatives attended the annual meetings of the Sicamous Chamber of
Commerce, Cariboo Tourist Association, and the Alberta Tourist Association.
Travel bureau directors from the Western Provinces met to discuss mutual problems
and exchange new ideas.
Hospitality conferences were organized in conjunction with the Department
of Education in Prince Rupert, Terrace, Smithers, Prince George, Quesnel, and
Williams Lake. Additional seminars were held in Nelson and Vernon in conjunction with the Canadian Tourist Association.
The Bureau was regularly represented on the Advisory Council to the Food
Trade and Accommodation Industry.
Meetings of the Provincial Tourist Advisory Council were held in March and
November in Victoria and Vernon respectively.
The Bureau joined with Western Airlines, Air Canada, and Scandinavian
Airlines in hosting several groups of travel agents visiting British Columbia for the
first time.
Meetings and conventions of the Pacific Northwest Ski Association, Alaska
Travel Promotion Association, and the Canadian Tourist Association were attended, in addition to the Federal-Provincial conference in Otawa.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966 T 59
The Bureau also participated in a bus tour of American Automobile Association branch managers who crossed British Columbia under the auspices of the
Canadian Government Travel Bureau en route to Expo 67.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HOUSE, SAN FRANCISCO
The work in 1966 showed a tremendous increase over previous years. This
reflects the increasing interests of potential tourists. Travel agents, transportation
companies, clubs, travel groups, church travel groups, lodges, and many other
sources add to the growing requests.
British Columbia House was pleased with the opportunity to render greater
service to the British Columbia Ferries and the tourists who desire to travel to
Prince Rupert, Central British Columbia, and Alaska by making reservations in
San Francisco through the British Columbia Ferries office in Victoria.
During 1966, British Columbia House placed booths in the following shows,
where our representatives were exposed to approximately 2l/i million people:—
Attendance at the Cow Palace Sport and Boat Show in San
Francisco    390,000
The Boat and Sportsmen Show (Shrine Auditorium in Los
Angeles)    275,000
Southern California Exhibition in San Diego  395,000
Los Angeles County Fair (Pomona)  1,125,000
Portland Boat and Sportsmen Show  175,000
Total   2,236,000
In the future it should be considered and discussed that when any of the
branches of the Government of British Columbia plan to enter any of the California
exhibitions in the interest of the development of tourism, British Columbia House
should be included so that, through a joint effort, a complete coverage of the entire
Province will be carried out to allow a follow-up in the areas where the shows are
held. This will reduce operating costs, eliminate duplication, and render a service
to every part of the Province.
Our Tourist Representative gives Southern and Central California excellent
service by alternating every other month in his work. He checks supplies of literature, holds staff meetings giving up-to-date information on British Columbia, and
sends orders to British Columbia House to replenish stock. British Columbia House
ships four mailings a year to the 3,000 agencies throughout the United States. When
new and important literature is received, a supplementary mailing is sent out to
California and special travel offices.
Automobile clubs are given special attention. They are kept informed and
draw supplies of literature from British Columbia House in San Francisco.
Newspaper sports and travel writers use the services of British Columbia House
to double-check information they intend to use in articles regarding trips made to
British Columbia.
Wholesalers and tour group promoters are given regular attention to help them
develop tours.
At all fairs and sportsmen's shows, films such as " Tight Lines," " Big Game
Camera Holiday," " Vancouver Island," and " Vancouver Honeymoon " are shown.
In addition, requests for films to be shown at rod and gun clubs, travel groups, lodge
groups, schools, and many other groups are handled.
 T 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
In Southern California our Tourist Representative has contacts with senior
citizen associations, automobile clubs, travel groups, industrial travel clubs, and
retired citizen communities, where he arranges travel shows. There are more than
750,000 people in the senior citizen groups. Our tourist representative also
arranges series of film showings with travel groups, where monthly meetings are held.
In California there are listed 1,019 travel agencies. The total number of travel
agencies of value to us in California is 800. The total number in Los Angeles is
243, and in San Francisco 160. In California there are 27 listed wholesale travel
agents, who are practically all sub-offices of national agencies, whom we contact in
Chicago, Kansas, and other mid-west cities. There are four wholesale travel
agencies in San Francisco and 23 in Los Angeles.
Our Tourist Representative estimates the number of viewers of " Big Game
Holiday," " Vancouver Island," " Red Goat," and " Tight Lines " at little theatres
in exhibition shows at five fairs to be 30,000. The number of viewers seeing the
same films at the British Columbia booth at the fairs is 1,500,000, and the viewers
at senior citizen travel clubs' shows and meetings, 12,000. The estimated viewers
of the films lent from British Columbia House to clubs, meetings, and bus transportation companies in the Midwest, the South, and Pacific Coast States is 38,000.
The viewers of the Rogers Pass film lent to Greyhound in Tampa, Florida, was
5,000. The estimated viewers of the films requested by mail and phone to rod and
gun clubs, lodges, church groups, and travel clubs are 8,500.
With only one print of each film in our library during most of the year, we
were handicapped by delays. However, we are now receiving films that will prevent
this.
The Commissioner contacts agencies, transportation companies, newspaper
writers in Oregon, Northern California, the Midwest, the southern and south-eastern
States. Our Tourist Representative carries out the same work in Central and
Southern California.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
 H.R.H. the Queen Mother at ceremonies during the laying of the cornerstone of the
Museum-Archives complex, March 19, 1966. With her are the Honourable W N Chant
Minister of Public Works; the Honourable W. A. C. Bennett, Premier; and Lieutenant-
Governor the Honourable George R. Pearkes.
Coastal diorama in preparation under the direction of Mr. F. L. Beebe, Museum technician.
 	
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966 T 63
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
G. Clifford Carl, Director
The year 1966 has been highlighted by many events marking the Centennial
of the union of the Crown Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. It
has also been a memorable one for the Museum, marked by periods of progress and
optimism alternating with times of delay and frustration, mostly in connection with
the building construction now underway. These events, coupled with the more or
less routine activities connected with the operation of a museum, have resulted in a
busy year.
FIELD WORK
Most work in the field in 1966 was concerned with gathering material required
for exhibits planned or in preparation for the new building. Besides a number of
local trips for birds and plants needed for displays, two sessions were spent in the
Okanagan Valley, where study was concentrated on the locale selected for a diorama
being prepared to show the life of the Dry Interior. The work consisted of making
a cast of rock formations, gathering plant material, collecting birds and mammals,
and taking photographs and tape recordings. Assisting Museum staff members
were Mr. Karl Spreitz, of the Photographic Branch; Mrs. Grace M. Bell, of
Victoria (making sound recordings); and Miss Enid Lemon, also of Victoria
(photography).
In the early fall, Mr. C. J. Guiguet, Curator of Zoology; Mr. M. D. Miller,
assistant in museum technique; and Mr. John Hermann-Blome, taxidermist, spent
several days on Vancouver Island collecting a bull and two cow elk. These animals
are to be mounted for display in a coastal forest habitat group planned for completion in 1969.
As part of a three-year botanical project, student-assistant Spring Harrison
carried on an intensive programme of plant-collecting in Saanich Peninsula under
the direction of Dr. A. F. Szczawinski, Curator of Botany. As the vegetative covering of this part of British Columbia is changing so rapidly, we feel it imperative to
have a botanical inventory made at this time for future reference.
In early June Mr. Frank Beebe, illustrator and museum technician, spent
several days with Fish and Wildlife Branch personnel in the Queen Charlotte Islands
assessing the current population of peregrine falcons in that area, particularly in
the vicinity of Langara Island.
In the human-history field, a number of trips were made to various parts of
the Province to collect historic items and Indian artifacts. Areas visited included
the East Kootenay District, and then Lillooet, Lytton, Shuswap, Fort Rupert, and
Port Hardy.
In June Mr. D. M. Abbott, Curator of Anthropology, and Mr. P. L. Macnair,
assistant in anthropology, attended the elaborate celebrations put on by the Kwakiutl
people in connection with the official opening of a new dance house constructed at
Alert Bay. Mr. Henry Hunt and Mr. Tony Hunt, carvers, took part in some of
the ceremonies. On several occasions during the winter months Mr. Abbott and
Mr. Macnair attended spirit dances and other ceremonies put on by local natives.
During the spring term, Museum staff members assisted a team of university
students to carry out a " dig " at Cadboro Bay. The site proved most productive;
a series of artifacts and stratigraphy showing successive cultural phases was revealed by the co-operative study. The materials gathered will eventually be added
to the collections of the Provincial Museum.
 T 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES
In addition to the usual routine activities connected with the care of collections,
the identification of submitted specimens, and dealing with the public in general,
other chores were thrust upon some staff members as a result of several moves.
Early in the year it was necessary to shift our display studio and workshop
from the old Mc and Mc Building, 1450 Government, where we settled in mid-1965,
to other quarters provided for us at 845 Yates Street in Victoria. The new building
provides a greater amount of floor space with the additional advantage of being
completely within our control as far as access is concerned. Its central location
with some inside parking is also a valuable asset. The move caused some delay in
our programme of display planning and construction, and interfered with the work
of restoring totem poles and other large carvings.
Later still, more work and storage space was unexpectedly made available to
us on the top floor of the former warehouse of the British Columbia Liquor Control
Board at Wharf and Fort Streets. This area is now being used as a sorting centre
for the extensive anthropological collection, a place where objects can be safely
laid out for inspection, cleaning, and eventual selection for display.
A minor move involved the taxidermy shop and an archaeological office at
609 Superior Street; switching locations improved working conditions in each area
and enabled the Curator of Archaeology to organize his collections to better
advantage.
THUNDERBIRD PARK
Carving of a replica of a 40-foot Haida pole, Weeping Woman of Tanu, which
was commenced in 1965, was not completed until midsummer because of a number
of other commitments. Work on this pole was also slowed while Mr. Tony Hunt
spent several weeks repairing a number of canoes and totems being readied for
display.
In late summer a contract was received to carve a 60-foot pole and a " welcome
figure " for the Indians of Canada Pavilion in Expo 67 in Montreal. Logs for this
purpose were generously donated by MacMillan Bloedel Limited and by British
Columbia Forest Products, and a third carver, Mr. Simon Charlie, of Duncan, was
engaged to assist in the project.
A number of poles which were temporarily stored at Thunderbird Park were
moved to the Yates Street quarters for cleaning and repairs.
EXTENSION
As usual, various staff members presented illustrated lectures, took part in
radio and television programmes, gave technical instruction, and were active in
other types of educational activities as the opportunities arose. In February the
Director presented a series of illustrated conservation lectures in California and
Arizona under the combined auspices of the Canadian Audubon Society and the
National Audubon Society.
A major step in providing extension services to other museums was taken with
the appointment of a Museum Adviser to our staff. In this capacity, Mr. George
Moore has already compiled an up-to-date list of all museums of the Province and
has contacted each institution by letter, by phone, or by personal call. Plans to
provide various types of helpful services are being formulated.
As part of a conference held in British Columbia by members of the Canadian
Botanical Association, Dr. Szczawinski conducted a group of confreres on field
trips to several areas on Vancouver Island to study and photograph vegetation cover
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 65
typical of this coast. Dr. Szczawinski is also a member of the advisory board of
the association.
On another occasion Dr. Szczawinski acted as guide and interpreter for a Polish
team of television men making publicity films of British Columbia for worldwide use.
From time to time during the year the Museum has received publicity through
a series of spot announcements from radio station CFAX as a free public service;
we express here our gratitude for this generous contribution.
NEW BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
The erection of steel for the new buildings proceeded through the early months
of the year and was completed well on schedule. The formal laying of the
foundation-stone, located at the south entrance to the main building, took place on
March 19th with Her Majesty the Queen Mother taking the leading part. The
ceremony was witnessed by several hundred invited guests plus the general public.
Despite poor weather, a large crowd had gathered. The affair was well covered by
television, radio, and other news services.
For most of the ensuing months, construction slowed almost to a standstill
while the Department of Public Works architects and engineers revised plans in
order to reduce the total cost of the project. Following approval of the proposed
changes, work progressed on the retaining-walls, underground passageways, and
other sub-surface structures while revised plans concerning the exterior of the
curatorial tower and other details were being completed.
The contract for the final phase of construction of the main building was let to
Farmer Construction Limited, of Victoria, in early December and work commenced
almost immediately.
DISPLAY PREPARATION
A great deal of time and effort was spent on planning exhibits and on constructing some of them. This has involved drawing up an over-all floor plan for
displays in both the Natural History Section and the Human History Section and in
determining which sections are to be completed first.
Four large dioramas had already been selected for completion in the first phase
of exhibit preparation, and work on these habitat groups progressed favourably.
The artists engaged to produce these dioramas—namely, Mr. Frank Beebe, of the
Museum staff; Mr. Clarence Tillenius, of Winnipeg, Man.; and Mr. Hugh Mona-
han, of North Vancouver—have individually completed miniature replicas of each
project, and details as to composition have all been worked out. Mr. John
Hermann-Blome, who is undertaking to prepare the mounted specimens to be used
in the dioramas, has completed a cougar, two deer, and several smaller mammals;
three bighorn sheep, a moose, and three elk are in various stages of preparation.
To make best use of exhibit space to be provided in the new building, a series
of special display-cases has been designed by Mr. E. Thorn, Display Chief, and pilot
cases of three different sizes have been constructed. With these as models, a number
of displays have been produced, ready to be installed in cases as soon as they are
manufactured. The first group of exhibits in this category is destined for a gallery
to be devoted to life in the Dry Belt of British Columbia, which will include a large
diorama featuring the bighorn sheep already mentioned.
An introductory gallery has also been planned to contain displays related to
the geological history of the Province and some of its physical features.   A consid-
 T 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
erable amount of help in this project is being given by the Department of Mines and
Petroleum Resources, for which we are most grateful, and other authorities have
been consulted when required.
A variety of accessories for these displays have also been produced. These
include numerous mounts of birds and small mammals, casts and models of various
reptiles and amphibians, Indian houses in miniature, and several groups of plants,
tree trunks, wild flowers, and miscellaneous bits of vegetation.
Early in the year the display programme was interrupted for some days during
a move to more spacious quarters, as already noted. For a short period, also, the
services of the staff were devoted to installing exhibits in the replica of S.S. " Beaver,"
constructed as part of British Columbia's Centennial celebration programme.
RESEARCH
Intensive collecting of display material precluded further work during 1966 in
the study of small-mammal distribution. Various field activities also made inroads
on time devoted to botanical research, but in spite of this, some progress was made
on the study of the flora of the Province being made by Dr. Szczawinski in collaboration with Dr. T. M. C. Taylor, of the Department of Botany, University of
British Columbia.
Archaeological research was also carried on, but to a rather limited extent,
during the year.
OUT-OF-PROVINCE TRAVEL
In May, Mr. Macnair was accepted as a candidate to attend a training session
at Winnipeg sponsored by the Canadian Museums Association. Such attendance
provides credits toward a diploma of competence in museology to be granted to
successful candidates by the association.
Later the Director attended the annual meeting of the Canadian Museums
Association, which was held in Winnipeg following the training period.
In June Mr. Thorn attended the annual meeting of the American Museums
Association in Chicago, where he conferred with officials in the exhibit field and
with technicians in the local museums. En route home he visited the Milwaukee
Museum to study its latest display methods.
PUBLICATIONS
The following publications have appeared in 1966:—
G. Clifford Carl.
Guide to Marine Life of British Columbia.   British Columbia Provincial
Museum Handbook No. 21, pp. 1-135 (reissue).
George Austin Hardy, 1888-1966.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 22, No. 9,
pp. 102-103.
George Austin Hardy.   Journal of the Entomological Society of British
Columbia, Vol. 63, December, pp. 43-44.
C. J. Guiguet.
Let's Collect a Specimen for Exhibit. Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 23, No. 4,
pp. 44-47.
A. F. Szczawinski.
The Case of the Poisoning Mushroom.  Wildlife Review, Vol. 3, No. 10,
pp. 12-13.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 67
A. F. Szczawinski.
A World of Mushrooms.    Beautiful British Columbia, Vol. 8, No. 2,
pp. 26-29.
Weeds for Lunch.  Wildlife Review, Vol. IV, No. 1, pp. 14-15.
Food for Survival.  Wildlife Review, Vol. IV, No. 2, pp. 18-19.
T. M. C. Taylor.
The Lily Family (Liliaceae) of British Columbia.   British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 25, pp. 1-109.
Thetis Park Nature Sanctuary Association.
Natural History of Thetis Lake Area near Victoria, British Columbia.
Report of the Provincial Museum for 1965, pp. 21-54.
Erik Thorn.
Designing Exhibits for Small Museums.    Museum Round-up, No. 24,
October, pp. 42-43.
Two publications in addition to the above have been edited and submitted for
publication early in 1967. These are " Intertidal Univales of British Columbia," by
Lela M. Griffith, and " Mosquitoes of British Columbia," by L. C. Curtis. Other
manuscripts in the fields of biology and anthropology are in preparation.
Handbooks No. 2, "Amphibians of British Columbia," and No. 21, " Guide to
Marine Life," were reprinted in response to a continuing demand.
STAFF CHANGES
Two significant appointments to our permanent staff were made in 1966. In
September Mr. George Moore was engaged as Museum Adviser, a post which will
provide a number of services to the museums of British Columbia. Some of these
are enumerated in another section of this Report.
Later in the year Mr. Philip R. Ward, formerly of the British Museum, joined
out staff as Conservator. Mr. Ward's responsibilities will include the cleaning,
repairing, restoring, and preserving of museum material already in collections, as
well as of objects as they are acquired.
Mr. Ed Mullett and Mr. Tom Putnam have been engaged as technicians in
the display laboratory, and Mrs. Beverly Sawchuk, Mr. John Sendey, Miss Linda
Gusthart, and Mr. Spring Harrison were taken on for varying periods as student
assistants. In September Mr. Simon Charlie joined the carving staff at Thunder-
bird Park, as noted elsewhere.
From time to time, as required, Mr. Gordon King, Mr. R. Pumfrey, and Mr.
N. W. Milke acted as relief attendants.
One staff member retired on December 31st. After more than 20 years' service as a technical assistant, Miss Betty C. Newton left for reasons of health. During
her long tenure Miss Newton carried out many different assignments, not only in the
technical and artistic field, but also as instructor, docent, and general office worker
as required. Special projects included the construction of certain plant and insect
models presently on display, the colour scheme in the bird gallery, illustrations for
"The Heather Family (Ericaceae) of British Columbia" (Handbook No. 19), and
the arrangement of several displays in the invertebrate division. For some time also
Miss Newton was in charge of a group of junior naturalists who used to meet in the
Museum under the auspices of the Victoria Natural History Society. Fellow staff
members join in wishing her well.
 T 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ATTENDANCE
The following attendance figures for 1966 are estimates based upon sample
counts made at irregular intervals:—
January     4,100 August     62,000
February  11,000 September     30,000
March     7,900 October     10,700
April     8,500 November       7,100
May  10,000 December       2,000
June  16,000 	
July  43,300 Total  212,600
According to these figures, the number of visitors in 1966 shows an increase of
22 per cent over the attendance for the previous year, a gratifying rise.
As has been the policy for several years, the Museum's hours were extended to
9 p.m. each evening except Sunday during the summer months. Many visitors took
advantage of this extra service, especially when flag-raising ceremonies or other
events took place on the grounds in front of the Legislative Buildings.
OBITUARIES
We pay tribute here to several persons who have passed on during 1966.
Mrs. Ellen Neel, renowned artist and totem-carver.    (February 3rd.)
Dr. Peter Kelly, a Haida from Skidegate, prominent in Canadian Indian affairs
and active in the ministry; receiver of the Coronation Medal in 1954.   (March 2nd.)
Mr. George A. Hardy, former botanist and entomologist of the Museum staff
and a well-loved all-round naturalist.   (March 27th.)
Mr. Theo H. Scheffer, a former member of the old United States Biological
Survey (now the Fish and Wildlife Service), author of many scientific papers in
natural history, aged 99.   (May 17th.)
Major Anthony (Tony) P. McLaughlin, British Columbia land surveyor and
volunter plant collector for the Provincial Museum.   (May 23rd.)
Dr. George J. Spencer, entomologist, professor emeritus at the University of
British Columbia, and inspirer of students in biology.   (July 24th.)
Mr. Thomas R. Ashlee, amateur botanist and active plant collector. (September 11th.)
Dr. John Hocking, of Kelowna, vice-president of the British Columbia Nature
Council and ardent conservationist.   (October 16th.)
Mr. Ted Greig, of Royston, outstanding grower of rhododendrons and an
enthusiastic plant collector.   (December 1st.)
 PHOTOGRAPHIC
BRANCH
 A view of Azouzetta Lake from the John Hart-Peace River Highway.   More people
films about British Columbia in 1966 than ever before.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 71
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH
F. W. E. Round, Director
From the start, 1966 has been a year of action and productivity for the Photographic Branch. New methods have been explored and accepted or rejected according to their merit. New and better equipment has been purchased, greatly increasing the versatility and efficiency of the Branch.
As in past years, extra photographers were hired during the summer shooting
season, resulting in some excellent prints and negatives being filed in the albums.
Due partly to the excellent results obtained, an extra photographer has been hired
on a temporary basis and is working directly out of Vancouver.
Staff photographers concentrated on picture stories for " Beautiful British
Columbia " magazine. In addition, many special assignments were completed for
other Government departments for promotion and recording purposes. Some of
these were the Credit Union Convention, Civil Defence Classes, Press Gallery,
Good Roads Association, Simon Fraser University, and the Canadian Tourist Association. Many Centennial projects were covered, including the visit of the Queen
Mother, the Centennial Ball at Government House, and the celebrations in November at Langley and New Westminster attended by the Lord Mayor of London.
Activities of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association were attended,
both in Vancouver and Victoria. The 25-year awards presentations were also covered in both cities. A large amount of work was accomplished for the Department
of Finance, and sequences were shot for the Department of Highways. Photography was also carried out for the Provincial Secretary, Department of Public Works,
and the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce.
As lectures enhanced by the projection of 35-mm. slides become increasingly
popular, more and more requests are received for this medium, and the slide file is
steadily building up to a workable level. Plans for 1967 include the taking of
slides throughout most of the Province to enable the Branch to expand this service.
By air, land, and sea, our men have covered the length and breadth of British
Columbia recording on film, the Province's scenery, sports, recreation facilities,
historical events, and important achievements. Records show that more than
70,000 miles were travelled in search of this material.
MOTION PICTURES
The motion picture " East 1—West 1 " portrays the Trans-Canada Highway
from Banff, Alta., to Vancouver Island, showing the scenic attractions along the
way. The film has been well received, and 145 prints of this production are in
circulation in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
Recently completed, a new film titled " Breath of Spring " has just been released by the Branch. This is a nature-study film which shows birds, animals, and
flowers awakening after the winter months. Some 20 prints are on order for immediate distribution, and initial showings indicate that this will be a very popular film.
The Barkerville Park production "Barkerville or Bust," released last year,
will now also be released in a short version entitled " Echoes of Gold." This film
will include highlights from the original film, plus some footage shot especially for
this new approach.
Sequences for a new ferry film are in stock ready for editing. Footage is also
on hand for a new ski-ing film, and further coverage will be obtained as the season
reaches its peak.
 T 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Requests for the film " Valley of the Swans " continue to increase in frequency.
This outstanding production is certainly the most popular film this Branch has
produced.
Another of our very popular films is " Vancouver Island," which shows historical, geographical, and recreational aspects of this important part of British Columbia. Currently being prepared with narration in Japanese, Dutch, German, and
French, this film will result in good public relations for some years to come.
MOTION-PICTURE DISTRIBUTION
Non-theatrical screenings of British Columbia Government motion-picture
films show a steady increase in the United States, Great Britain, and other countries
through the distribution facilities of the Canadian Government travel-film libraries.
Screenings totalled more than 30,000 with an audience in excess of 2,000,000.
During the year, in answer to requests, the Branch ordered more than 400
prints of our 16-mm. colour-sound productions. These have been forwarded to
various distribution centres in Canada, the United States, and abroad.
To facilitate the distribution of our films on the Mainland, the Photographic
Branch film library has been relocated in Vancouver with the Audio-Visual Branch
of the Department of Education at 1722 West Broadway. Approximately 90 per
cent of our viewing audience in the Province is located on the Mainland, and for
this reason moving the library to Vancouver was warranted. The Audio-Visual
Branch is geared to handle films most efficiently and is expert in the care and servicing of the rather delicate material.
TELEVISION
Television screenings of our films in the United States increased over the 1965
figure, proving conclusively that our American friends are looking for us to provide
them with a vacation area in a natural setting. With growing popularity of colour
television, our films should enjoy a much greater exposure, especially in the United
States, where potential visitors will see colour previews of our Province in their own
homes.
DARKROOM PRODUCTION
While darkroom production figures only equalled those of 1965, there was one
important difference. Formerly there were many prints returned as unusable for
one reason or another, but during 1966 not one single print has been returned.
Numerous letters are on file expressing appreciation for the excellent service and
print quality. Almost 7,000 prints were processed through the darkroom in answer
to the requests from writers and to fill orders for other branches of government.
A total of 3,192 negatives was produced in the darkroom, and the Branch
studio handled 93 portrait sittings.
GENERAL
Letters directed from the Branch increased by 560 over the 1965 figure, indicating an awareness to our service. There were 41 showings in the Branch theatre
to August, at which time the theatre was discontinued to make room for two offices
needed for our expanding programme. The Branch projectionist handled 23 special evening showings at important functions sponsored by the Government during
the year.
Further duties in the general operations of the Branch were the dispatching of
motion-picture films, the total of which was 2,044 showings for an audience total
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 73
of 171,460 persons, up to the end of August. At that time the library was closed
for a complete overhaul of the Branch films, and a number of outdated and worn
films were withdrawn. All acceptable prints were then transferred to the Vancouver
library and renumbered to meet the coding system of the Audio-Visual Branch.
This transfer operation was completed by our staff.
Approximately 3,000 new colour negatives and prints were numbered, captioned, and filed during the year, and 3,219 colour negatives were selected from
the files in answer to requests for colour material for brochures, displays, and other
promotional ideas. It is interesting to note that a good percentage of these were
for use outside of Canada.
 T 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 75
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  COMMERCIAL
FISHERIES
BRANCH
 Picking eulachon net, Lower Fraser River.
Shucking oysters, Sooke.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 79
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
R. G. McMynn, Director
GENERAL
During 1966 the Commercial Fisheries Branch implemented regulations which
committed the Branch to considerable activity in the oyster and aquatic-plant industries. Due to the public health aspects involved with the harvesting of wild oysters,
as well as growing public concern over the alleged commercial over-harvesting of
oysters from certain readily accessible areas, Regulations Concerning the Taking of
Oysters from Vacant Crown Foreshore were enacted. These regulations resulted
from recommendations made by an interdepartmental committee (Department of
Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, Department of Recreation and Conservation,
and Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance) and supported by the
oyster industry. In essence the regulations control where oysters may or may not
be harvested.
Several companies expressing interest in the establishment of an aquatic-plant
industry in British Columbia were assisted in their long-term plans by the enactment
of regulations which provide for long-term leases of desirable aquatic-plant areas.
These leases provide for an assured supply of plants to the commercial aquatic-plant
harvester but, at the same time, do not restrict the use of those areas for other
activities.
Significant advances were made in 1966 in the important field of improving
liaison and communication between the many Federal and Provincial agencies whose
activities interact with commercial fishery interests.
Wholesale Value of Fish and
Fish Products
1961	
Number of Licensed Boats
  $77,886,000
1962     94,673,000
1963     76,000,000
1964     92,117,000
1965     84,666,000
Number of Licensed Fishermen
1959  14,463
1960  14,191
1961  15,660
1962 1  15,060
1963  15,370
1960.
196L.
1962_
  8,623
  8,856
  9,143
1963  9,745
1964 ,  9,343
Value of Gear
1961  $8,946,000
1962     9,946,000
1963  10,09 6,000
1964  10,711,000
1965  11,281,000
The canned-salmon pack for 1966 was 1,816,503 cases, 903,707 more than
the 1965 pack of 912,796 cases. This was the best pack since 1962, and could
possibly prove to be the largest since 1958 when the final revision of pack figures is
made. This year's total includes 23,057 cases of sockeye, 65 cases of chinook, 857
cases of coho, 8,334 cases of pinks, and 966 cases of chums packed from salmon
imported from the United States.
The value of all fish and fish products reached $115,000,000 on the wholesale
market, considerably more than the previous record of $98,000,000 set in 1958.
 T 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Salmon catches were well distributed by species and gear along the coast, and
although no poundage records were broken, they have been above average for most
species. The sockeye pack was the second best pack for this species since 1956, only
exceeded by the pack of 1,074,305 cases in 1958. Fraser River sockeye averaged
about three-quarters of a pound more than normal, running 6.9 pounds per fish at
the peak of that run. The pink-salmon fishery in the north was exceptional and,
except for 1962, was the largest even-year fishery since 1930. Chum-salmon landings improved considerably over 1965's abnormally low year, but landings were still
far below average.   Chinook-salmon landing total was far ahead of 1965.
BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY
Twenty-three salmon canneries were licensed to operate in the Province by this
Branch. The locations were as follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena River
and Prince Rupert, 7; Central Area, 3; Vancouver Island, 2; Fraser River and
Lower Mainland, 10. This year saw two new canneries in operation—one at
Port Hardy on Vancouver Island, the other at Shearwater near Bella Bella on the
Mainland.
Comparative Pack by Species (48-pound Cases)
Sockeye	
Chinook	
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho    27371V
Pink	
Chum	
1965
245,794
1966
407,067
18,886
14,548
843
2,478
21,188
21,143
273,219
260,276
287,662
950,555
65,206
160,436
HERRING FISHERY
In 1966, during most of November, herring-fishermen were on strike, finally
returning to work December 6th. Although the fishermen had demanded $20.48 a
ton, they finally voted to accept $17.40, the same rate as last year. The fishermen,
however, won an unpaid annual two-week holiday, extended health benefits, and a
new system of weighing herring.
Last available reports for 1966 show herring-meal production of 16,036 tons
and herring-oil production of 2,284,009 imperial gallons.
DOGFISH SUBSIDY
In order to help control the dogfish population, the Federal Government once
again sponsored a marketing assistance programme, starting in late autumn of 1966.
The Department of Fisheries is paying fish companies 11 cents per pound on the
production of up to 225,000 pounds of skinned dogfish flaps. This production represents approximately 1,100 tons of whole dogfish.
The hope is that this programme will encourage new markets, which could
possibly develop into an operation eventually sustaining a dogfish fishery without
Government assistance.
During November, despite inclement weather in the Strait of Georgia, four
companies in Vancouver and Victoria produced a total of 47,000 pounds of skinned
dogfish flaps, equivalent to 235 tons of round dogfish. The fish was delivered by
trawlers and long-liners as round fish or unskinned flaps.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966 T 81
HALIBUT FISHERY
The International Pacific Halibut Commission was set up under treaty between
Canada and the United States for the protection and rehabilitation of the halibut
fishery. For the purpose of regulations, the Pacfic Coast is divided into a number
of areas.  The 1966 regulatory areas were as follows:—
Area 1—South of Willapa Bay.
Area 2—Willapa Bay to Cape Spencer.
Area 3a—Cape Spencer to Shumagin Islands.
Area 3b—Shumagin Islands to Atka Island, not including Bering Sea.
Area 3c—West of Atka Island, not including Bering Sea.
Area 4a—The edge between Unimak Pass and the Pribilof Islands in
Bering Sea.
Area 4b—Fox Islands in the Bering Sea.
Area 4c—South of a line between Cape Sarichef and Cape Naravin.
Area 4d—West of 175° W. and the north-eastern flats in Bering Sea.
Area 4e—South-eastern flats in Bering Sea.
Halibuting opened in the Bering Sea on March 25th and off the British Columbia Coast on May 9th.   The season started with good landings bringing near-
record prices.
Landings by Canadian fishermen at British Columbia and United States ports
totalled 31,461,000 pounds, valued at $11,299,000 (as of October 29, 1966).
Halibut-fishing in British Columbia coastal waters closed August 25th.
PACIFIC OYSTER BREEDING, 1966
Pendrell Sound
Despite favourable temperatures, breeding of the Pacific oyster in Pendrell
Sound in 1966 was only moderately successful. Three separate spawnings were
evident near the head of the sound during the period of study. The first brood of
straight-hinged larva? appeared during the second week in July, when temperatures
ranged from 19° C. to 22.5° C. (average, 21.2° C.); counts of up to 53 per gallon
were made on July 13th. However, by August 1st, when setting began, there were
no more than 1.5 larva? per gallon. Setting was virtually over by August 5th; strings
put out after this date caught very few spat despite the fact that at least two more
spawnings occurred in the area during the last week of July. On August 3rd counts
of 33-123 straight-hinged larva? per gallon were made, but by August 9th there
were only 8 per gallon in this stage; umboned forms from these broods never rose
above 1 per gallon. Yet temperatures at the 3-foot level remained above 20° C.
during this period.
Commercial floating strings counted on August 13 th yielded average counts of
between 6 and 154 spat per shell with a mean of about 60 per shell. As setting was
over by this time, this figure may be regarded as final.
The two companies operating in the sound put out considerable amounts of
shore cultch, most of it too late for a catch; however, some of the earlier shells gave
final counts of 13 per shell.
Ladysmith Harbour
Spawning was good, particularly during the first week in August, and on August
10th very large numbers of umboned larva? were taken in plankton tows.   However,
 T 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
over the weekend of August 13th and 14th bad weather caused a drastic reduction
in temperature and a consequent drop in the number of larva?. Large numbers of
straight-hinged Pacific larva? again appeared on August 22nd, but by September 9th
the water was virtually devoid of oyster larva?. Commercial floating cultch from the
centre of the harbour gave final counts of 15 per shell.
CUSTOM CANNERIES
Three canneries designed to custom-can sport-caught salmon operated during
1965. They were located at Brentwood, Nanaimo, and Quadra Island. Production
to the end of November, 1966, was 110,759 cans, compared to a total pack in 1965
of 35,000 cans.
REVIEW OF FISHERIES PRODUCTION, 1965
The total marketed value of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1965 amounted
to $84,700,000, which was $7,400,000 less than in 1964. The main reason for this
decrease in value was a canned-salmon pack of only 913,957 cases, nearly 350,000
cases lower than in 1964. Helping to offset this to some extent was a herring production of over 220,000 tons with a record market level of over $11,700,000; as
well as this, the wholesale value of British Columbia halibut at $10,191,000 was
more than $2,000,000 above 1964.
As marketed, the principal species were salmon, with a value of $52,071,000;
herring, with a value of $11,752,000; and halibut, with a value of $10,191,000.
The landed value of the 1965 halibut catch was $8,699,000, as compared to
$6,270,000 in 1964.
In 1965 the marketed value of shellfish amounted to $2,744,000. The value
of the clam production was $296,000; oyster production, $708,000; crab production, $1,144,000; and shrimp production, $596,000.
GEAR AND EQUIPMENT
The 1965 inventory of fishing-gear included 10,007 salmon gillnets, 524 salmon purse-seines, 10 salmon drag-seines, 127 herring gillnets, 124 herring purse-
seines, and 27 herring trawl-nets, with a total value of $7,526,000. Wire, cotton,
and nylon trolling-lines were valued at $533,000.
SALMON-CANNERY OPERATIONS
The Commercial Fisheries Branch licensed 22 salmon canneries to operate in
1965, one more than in 1964. The operating canneries in 1965 were located as
follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena River, 7; Central Area, 2; Vancouver Island, 1; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 11.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia, according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by canners licensed to operate in 1965, amounted
to 913,957 cases, 341,361 cases less than the 1964 pack and the smallest since
1960. With a value of $35,060,000, the 1965 pack was worth $8,616,000 less
than the previous year's figure.
Sockeye Salmon
The 1965 sockeye pack was 245,798 cases. The wholesale value of sockeye
production decreased to $12,800,000, compared to $18,115,000 in 1964. Sockeye
comprised 35 per cent of the value of the total canned pack.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 83
Pink Salmon
The pink pack of 287,925 cases was valued at $9,047,000. The wholesale
value for all pink-salmon products was less than half the $18,550,000 level of 1963
and lower, too, than 1964's $12,553,000.
Coho Salmon
The wholesale value of all coho products established a new high at $19,792,-
000, compared to last year's record of $16,376,000. The canned pack totalled
295,284 cases, valued at $11,700,000 or 59 per cent of the product value.
Chum Salmon
The chum pack of 65,216 cases was the lowest since 1931. Total production
of chum salmon was the lowest of any year on record. Owing to a coast-wide
scarcity, the value of chums sank to $2,300,000 from the previous year's total of
$7,200,000.   The 1964 pack was 232,722 cases.
Chinook Salmon
The west coast of Vancouver Island was the coast's premier fishing area in
1965, with trollers landing 5,500,000 pounds more salmon than in the previous
year. Chinook-salmon landings by trollers off the west coast of Vancouver Island
totalled 4,300,000 pounds, a substantial increase from 1964 landings of 3,700,000
pounds. The canned pack of 18,891 cases in 1965 was worth $510,661, compared
to a pack of 9,127 cases worth $224,146 in 1964.
Steelhead
The 1965 steelhead-trout pack amounted to 843 cases, 419 less than the 1964
pack of 1,262 cases. Although steelhead are not salmon, some are canned each
year, principally those caught incidental to fishing other species.
OTHER CANNERIES
Shellfish Canneries.—In 1965, 10 shellfish canneries were licensed to operate
in British Columbia and produced the following pack: Clams, 16,816 48-pound
cases plus 209 5-pound cases; crabs, 9,826 48-pound cases plus 60 5-pound cases;
abalone, 16 cases; shrimp, 387 5-pound cases plus 14,29114 pounds (pack not
specified); oysters, 160 cases.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—Two of the three tuna-fish canneries licensed to operate
in 1965 produced a pack of 77,827 cases of canned tuna.
Specialty Products.—Sundry processing plants produced the following: Canned
smoked oysters, 329 cases; oyster stew, 2,674 cases; fish spreads, 27,862 cases;
herring canned in tomato sauce, 311 cases; creamed salmon with peas, 16,513 cases
of 12/15-ounce cans; smoked salmon, 213 cases (various weights); boneless white
spring salmon, 24 10-pound cases; lingcod fish cakes, 40,000 pounds; smoked
steelhead, 112 cases.
FISH-CURING
Fifteen smoke-houses processed the following: Herring (kippers, 49,425
pounds; bloaters, 8,389 pounds); cod, 534,099 pounds; salmon, 428,422 pounds;
eels, 4,500 pounds; mackerel, 4,000 pounds; shad, 600 pounds; eulachons, 200
pounds; smelts, 172 pounds; flounders, 13 pounds;  and sturgeon, 5 pounds.    ■
 T 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Dry-salted Herring
In 1965, 36 green tons of herring worth $1,080 were salted; of these, 28 tons,
worth $840, were packed.
Pickled Herring
Three plants put up the following: 22 50-pound barrels, 44 25-pound barrels,
1,200 14-ounce containers, 50 cases of 6/6-pound cans, 1,832 cases of 12/32-
ounce jars, 4,111 cases of 12/16-ounce jars, 3,274 cases of 12/12-ounce jars, and
43 25-pound kits.
Frozen Herring Bait
Three firms reported a total production of 204,205 pounds of frozen herring
bait in 1965.   Returns for this year are not complete as all bait firms did not report.
Mild-cured Salmon
Five plants were licensed to operate in 1965 and produced 541 tierces with a
total weight of 6,087 hundredweight. In 1964 four plants operated and produced
610 tierces, with a total weight of 5,020 hundredweight.
SALMON ROE
Nine firms reported the following production for 1965: 7,500 cartons of
24/3-ounce and 24/%-ounce glass jars plus 17,500 pounds used for salmon-roe
caviar; 1,782 25-pound cases plus 80,470 pounds of salted salmon roe; 110,000
pounds processed for sport-fishing bait; and 81,842 pounds processed but no specific use given.   In addition, 4,500 pounds of salmon milt were processed.
HALIBUT
The average price for all sizes of halibut for the 1965 season was 34 cents a
pound, compared with 25 cents in 1964. This was the highest price paid since
1962, when fishermen received close to 32 cents per pound. Total halibut landings
in British Columbia ports of 25,783,000 pounds were slightly higher than those in
1964, when 25,124,000 pounds were landed. In addition, 7,190,000 pounds were
landed in Alaska and Washington ports. Wholesale value of halibut was $10,-
191,000.
FISH OIL AND MEAL
The winter herring season began December 1st, after protracted negotiations
when fishermen agreed upon a price of $17.40 per ton compared with $14.48 in
1964.   Landings for the year amounted to 222,031 tons, worth $6,232,000.
There were 10 herring-reduction plants licensed to operate in 1965, and these
plants produced a total of 41,509 tons of meal and 43,442,000 pounds of oil.
Total value of all herring products was $11,752,000.
Fish-liver Reduction (Cod, Dogfish, Halibut).—Three plants were licensed in
1965; two of them operated, processing 78,748 pounds of fish livers and producing 291,626 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A. In 1964 two plants processed
312,736 pounds of fish livers and produced 1,278,802 million U.S.P. units of
Vitamin A.
Fish-offal Reduction.—During the 1965 season nine plants were licensed to
operate and produced 694.25 tons of meal and 59,772 gallons of oil. In 1964
eight plants produced 1,292 tons of meal and 279,452 gallons of oil.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
STATISTICAL TABLES
T 85
Table I.—Licences Issued and Revenue Collected, 1962 to 1966, Inclusive
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
Licence
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
21
9
6
20
21
8
2
9
3
1
448
$4,200
24
......
13
5
19
38
13
4
9
3
1
2
447
......
$4,800
21
1
9
4
20
45
14
3
8
3
1
1
403
1
3
$4,200
100
900
400
2,000
45
14
3
8
3
100
100
10,075
100
60
22
12
5
21
54
9
3
9
3
1
404
5
$4,400
23
9
4
19
59   '
11
3
9
3
1
1
400
1
10
3
26
19
$4,600.00
..     .
900
600
2,000
21
8
2
9
3
100
11,200
1,300
500
1,900
38
13
4
9
3
100
200
11,175
1,200
500
2,100
54
9
3
9
3
100
900.00
400.00
1,900.00
59.00
Shellfish cannery	
Tuna-fish cannery	
Fish-offal reduction	
11.00
3.00
9.00
3.00
Whale reduction _..
100.00
100.00
10,100
10,000.00
100.00
72
363.70
75.00
Aquatic-plant harvesting
Oyster-picking permits	
,
260.00
	
	
190.00
Totals	
548
$19,043
578
$20,042
537
$18,108
551
$18,625 | 601
1            1
$19,073.70
Table II.—Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia,
1961 to 1965, Inclusive
1961
1962
1963
1964
1955
$57,314,000
8,207,000
7,099,000
1,511,000
551,000
487,000
480,000
552,000
147,000
324,000
122,000
1,092,000
$69,763,000
8,492,000
9,312,000
1,415,000
544,000
405,000
608,000
584,000
173,000
448,000
58,000
2,876,000
$48,960,000
11,695,000
7,993,000
1,573,000
492,000
705,000
781,000
643,000
162,000
340,000
57,000
2,599,00
$63,103,000
11,561,000
8,056,000
1,751,000
549,000
1,160,000
647,000
662,000
273,000
190,000
55,000
4,110,000
$52,071,000
Herring  — 	
Halibut 	
11,752,000
10,191,000
1,740,000
Lingcod	
723,000
1,800,000
708,000
Sole                                    	
661,000
321,000
Clams....      _	
296,000
15,000
4,197,000
Totals	
$77,886,000
$94,673,000
$76,000,000
$92,117,000
$84,475,000
Table III.—Statement Showing the Quantity of Herring Products
Produced in British Columbia, 1960 to 1966, Inclusive
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Meal
Oil
1960/61	
Cases
9,074
19,102
892
Tons
206.35
562.3
210.64
28.00
Tons
31,203
40,746
41,299
53,271
46,071
41,509
Gal.
2,966,547
1961/62	
4,751,082
40,243,000 lb.
50,037,000 lb.
1962/63_	
1963/64	
1964/65 	
1965/66 	
 —
43,442,000 lb.
 T 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Statement Showing the Quantity of Meal, Oil, and Vitamin A
Produced from Sources Other than Herring, 1959 to 1966, Inclusive
Season
From Whales
Oil from
Fish Livers
From Other Sources
Meal
Oil
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
1959/60      	
Tons
4,058
2,661
3,060
3,398
2,931
Gal.
940,455
Units i
3,474,267
2,258,748
3,228,748
575,337
938,135
1,272,815
291,626
Tons
1,140
2,099
1,157
1,704
1,464
1,292
694
Gal.
110,977
1960/61	
62,983
1961/62	
127,580
1962/63	
1963/64	
639,060
707,596
663,200
591,703
167,349
403,309
279,452
1964/65  .
1965/66
59,772
i Million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A.
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st annually.
Table V.—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1961 to 1965, Inclusive,
Showing Areas where Canned
(48-pound cases.)
These tables supplied by courtesy of the Canadian Department of Fisheries in Vancouver.
1961
Area
Species
District Nos.
1 and 3
District
No. 2
Total
239,667
1,735
2,678
1,471
5871/2
12,5271/2
153,994
286,5441/2
28,994
158,538
412
l,022i/2
6021/2
391
398,205
2,147
3,700!4
2,073V2
978V4
12,5271/2
74,85714
374,7451/2
66,391
228,851V4
Pink.                                    --   - 	
661,290
95,385
Totals                        -	
728,1981/2
676,960
l,405,158!/2
1962
198,001
1,2171/2
1,145V2
1,6981/2
5201/2
12,097
120,038
508,8781/2
70,304
99,7151/2
904
1,190
1,019
2941/2
297,7161/2
2,1211/2
Pink spring        —.  	
2,335i/2
2,717!/2
815
12,097
55,600
679,783
64,179
175,638
Pink	
1,188,661%
134,483
Totals	
913,9001/2
902,685
1,816,5851/2
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1966
T 87
Table V.—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1961 to 1965, Inclusive,
Showing Areas where Canned—Continued
1963
Area
Species
Districts Nos.
1 and 3
District
No. 2
Total
125,48014
1,866
1,362
2,811
330
11,329
89,252
542,700!4
62,90514
32,8941/2
912
1,078
1,971
441V4
5414
56,847
214,752
56,28414
158,375
2,778
Pink spring._     	
2,440
4,782
77114
11,38314
Coho                                	
146,099
Pink...                                                  	
757,45214
119,190
Totals
838,036
365,235
1,203,27114
1964
Sockeye	
Red spring	
Pink spring	
White spring..
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho	
Pink	
Chum..
Totals..
200,203
1,823
95314
1,906
438
36,259
90,665
140,47514
76,990
549,713
143,15514
777
2,07614
1,59114
824
77,80814
323,631
155,73114
343,35814
2,600
3,030
3,49714
1,262
36,259
168,47314
464,10614
232,72114
705,59514 I   1,255,30814
 I
1965
Area
Species
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
Total
165,09514
4,682
1,56714
5,998
33714
19,522
172,74814
121,543
17.161
80,702
1,718
3,00314
1,92214
506
1,778
101,235
166,382
48.05414
245,79714
Red spring    	
Pink spring      -   	
6,400
4,571
7,92014
21,300
Coho  	
273,98314
Pink
287,925
65,21514
Totals
snx fi55      I      4(15muA
913 95614
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1967
1,460-167-1401
 

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