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REPORT of the FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1966 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1967

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister F. S. McKinnon, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of the
FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1966
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1967
  Victoria, B.C., February, 1967.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C., CD.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service
of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for the calendar year
1966.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
 The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1966.
F. S. McKINNON,
Deputy Minister of Forests.
 . ■"' - - -
  CONTENTS
1. Chief Forester's Report.
2. Forest Inventory Division.
Field Programme	
Forest Classification and Sampling-
Growth Studies	
Loss-factor Studies	
Special Field Projects-
Operations	
Office Programme.
Forest Mapping..
Area and Volume Summaries and Distribution of Information.
Development Planning 	
3. Forest Research Division	
Cowichan Lake Experiment Station.
Field Programme	
Seedling Seed Orchards..
Douglas-fir Provenances.
Planting-stock Tests	
Nursery Fertility Studies.
Soil Classification	
Clearing and Thinning	
Prince Rupert Forest District-
Prince George Forest District
Kamloops Forest District	
Data-processing and Statistical Analysis.
Canada Land Inventory	
4. Reforestation Division	
Forest Nurseries..
Forest Tree Seed..
Reconnaissance and Survey Work-
Planting	
Permanent Improvements	
Co-operation	
Interdepartmental Forestry and Corrections Camp Programme.
7
Pace
- 11
. 14
. 14
. 14
. 14
. 14
. 15
. 15
- 16
. 16
. 17
. 17
. 19
. 19
. 19
. 19
. 19
. 19
. 20
. 20
. 20
. 20
. 20
. 21
. 21
. 21
. 23
. 23
. 24
- 25
- 26
. 27
. 27
. 28
 5 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Page
5. Public Information and Education Division  31
News Releases and Special Articles  31
Radio and Television  32
Photography  32
Motion-picture Production  3 3
Film Library  33
School Lecture Programme  3 3
Signs  33
Library  33
Exhibits  34
6. Forest Management Division  35
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  35
Lumber Prices  35
Log Prices  35
Stumpage Prices  36
Stumpage Adjustments  3 7
Peace River Flood Basin  37
Columbia Flood Basin  3 7
Bark Beetles  39
Close Utilization  39
Timber Sales  39
Tree-farm Licences  39
General  39
Sustained-yield Programme  39
Public Sustained-yield Units  39
Pulp Harvesting Forests  40
Tree-farm Licences  40
Silviculture  40
Scaling  40
Coast  40
Interior  41
7. Grazing Division  42
General Conditions  42
Range  42
Hay  43
Markets and Prices  43
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966
7. Grazing Division—Continued
Range Management	
Range Improvements-
Peace River Pastures...
Co-operation-
Administration..
Grazing Permits.
Hay Permits	
Grazing Fees	
Control and Enforcement..
8. Engineering Services Division	
Engineering Section	
9
Page
. 43
. 44
. 44
. 45
. 46
. 46
. 46
. 46
_ 46
. 48
. 48
Development Engineering and Location  48
Road Construction and Maintenance  48
General Engineering  49
Buildings and Marine Services  49
Building Construction  49
Mobile Accommodation.
Marine Activities	
Mechanical Section	
Forest Service Maintenance Depot.
Marine Work	
49
51
51
52
52
Prefabrication and Carpentry  52
Mechanical Work.
Depot Maintenance-
Radio Section	
9. Forest Protection Division.
Weather	
Fires	
Occurrence and Causes .
52
52
53
56
56
56
56
Cost of Fire-fighting  56
Damage    56
 10
9.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Page
Forest Protection Division—Continued
Protection Planning and Research  56
Fire Statistics  5 6
Visibility Mapping  56
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks  57
Insect Survey and Control  57
Research Projects..
Fire-suppression Crews-
Aircraft	
Roads and Trails.
Snag-falling	
Slash Disposal	
Vancouver Forest District..
Interior Forest Districts	
Fire-law Enforcement	
Forest Closures	
10. Forest Service Training-school.
Extra Courses and Functions-
Acknowledgments	
58
59
59
59
59
59
59
61
61
61
62
63
63
Construction  63
11. Accounting Division-
Fiscal	
Administration-
_ 64
- 64
... 65
12. Personnel Division-
Communications and Training	
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover
66
66
67
Classification, Salaries, and Working Conditions  68
13. Personnel Directory, 1966  69
14. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of the
Forest Service  71
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966
CHIEF FORESTER'S REPORT
Developments during 1966 were cause for general satisfaction with the progress of forest-management policy. Not only did diversification of the forest industry
stand up under mixed market conditions to allow a new record to be set in forest-
production value, but the total area of productive forest land under sustained yield
had been increased to nearly 85,000,000 acres by the end of the year, and there
was growing acceptance of the British Columbia Forest Service's year-old close-
utilization policy.
Production value rose to $1,037,000,000, to set an all-time record for British
Columbia despite a slump in the lumber market during the fourth quarter. A major
factor in this over-all stability in the forest economy was the expansion of the pulp
and paper industry.
While all three major divisions of the industry showed increases, the pulp,
paper, and allied industries accounted for more than 55 per cent of the $49,000,000
rise over the previous record set in 1965. The figures were: Logging, $400,000,000,
an increase of $10,000,000 over 1965; wood industries, $347,000,000, an increase
of $12,000,000; and pulp, paper, and allied industries, $290,000,000, an increase
of $27,000,000.
The timber scale for the year was 1,602,437,488 cubic feet, compared to
1,533,112,794 cubic feet in 1965, an increase of AV2 per cent, and the highest scale
ever recorded in the history of the Province. Of the 1966 total, 68 per cent or
1,091,795,803 cubic feet came from forests operated under sustained-yield management.
The number of public sustained-yield units at the end of the year totalled 76,
covering 75,536,237 acres of productive forest land, an increase of approximately
6V2 million acres over 1965. At the same time there was a large increase in
privately operated sustained-yield acreage which brought the over-all total for all
types of sustained-yield units to nearly 85,000,000 productive acres. More than
half of the increase under private sustained-yield operations was accounted for by
the award of Tree-farm Licence No. 41, which contains over 473,000 productive
acres.
Another large area brought into the sustained-yield programme was the Vancouver Public Sustained-yield Unit, covering the previously unregulated area in the
Lower Fraser Valley, extending west to Howe Sound. The total area of this unit is
516,980 acres, with an annual commitment of 8,425,000 cubic feet of timber.
Fourteen additional public sustained-yield units were gazetted as pulp harvesting forests, bringing the total to 21 at the end of the year.
Forest revenue reached a new high of $50,348,464, an increase of 5.8 per cent
over 1965. However, more than half this increase was due to the inclusion of some
items formerly shown as " offsets " to expenditures. Timber-sale stumpage, the
major source of revenue, rose by 1.4 per cent to $42,643,936, while timber-sale
rentals and fees increased by a substantial 23.8 per cent.
A contributing factor in the record forest production for the year was the
relatively quiet fire season enjoyed throughout the Province. The total of 1,967 fires
recorded was well below the 10-year average of 2,117.   Lightning was again the
11
 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS. FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
principal cause, accounting for 19 per cent of the total. This was in sharp contrast
to the 1965 fire season, when lightning caused 37 per cent of the fires, slightly
higher than the 10-year average of 36 per cent.
Average fire-suppression cost to the Forest Service was $886 per cost fire,
compared to $2,041 the previous year. The Forest Service accounted for $700,400
of the entire year's suppression cost of $1,028,100, which was less than half the
10-year average.
The 54,788 acres of forest cover burned were only 12 per cent of the 10-year
average of 438,000 acres, while the damage to forest cover was $757,000, compared to the 10-year average of $3,252,637.
The hemlock needle miner outbreak in north-west Vancouver Island continues
to be surveyed as a joint field project of the industry and the Canada Department of
Forestry and Rural Development, with the British Columbia Forest Service continuing on a cost-sharing basis. Because of a marked decline in population levels
through natural causes, chemical treatment was not undertaken.
The continuing balsam woolly aphid survey was expanded and extended in
1966. This is basically a joint Federal-Provincial programme in which the Federal
Forestry Department concentrates on research aspects and technical guidance, while
British Columbia conducts the operational survey functions.
There were no major changes during the year involving senior personnel, but,
in the interest of economy and improved administration, the Working Plans Division
at headquarters was absorbed by the Inventory and Management Divisions.
Intensive inventory of public sustained-yield units continued during the year,
and, inclusive of 1965 field work, unit survey information now is available for
50,000,000 acres. Growth, loss-factor, and volume studies were continued, providing basic compilation information for inventory and allowable-cut calculations.
There were important gains in reforestation during the year. Forest Service
crews made a record collection of 35,000 bushels of cones, which will provide a good
foundation for the increasing planting programme. Nursery facilities were expanded
in all locations, resulting in a net increase in productive area despite retirement of
some inferior fields. Perhaps the most important development was the acquisition,
near Prince George, of the Red Rock Nursery site, which eventually will be the
largest producer in the Province.
Over 19,000,000 trees were planted by all agencies during the year, and planting of Crown lands was the most extensive since 1954.
The growth of the Forest Service work load placed increased demands on the
Engineering Services Division for housing, mechanical, marine, and communications
services.
A total of 39 miles of new all-weather road was completed, with an additional
12 miles finished except for gravel surface and drainage structures. Despite unfavourable construction weather in the summer, work was completed on the Gold River,
Kispiox River, and Parsnip River projects. Road-location survey crews flagged
70.7 miles of line for construction of low-order protection roads and established
59.3 miles of centre line for future haul roads. Map location and design were completed for another 20.7 miles on the Chilcotin South Forest Road.
In the Portage Mountain Dam flood area, work was continued on a further
14,830 acres in the development of navigation channnels and landings.
A new programme of the Research Division deals with systems analysis with a
view to computerizing various Forest Service procedures. The first task consisted
of redesigning the system of official scale computing, calculation of charges, printing
of accounts, and maintenance of statistical records in the Vancouver scaling office.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966
13
The Grazing Division reports the ranching industry enjoyed a reasonably successful year. Both range forage and hay production were generally good. The
price of cattle rose appreciably during the year, but the benefit of this was offset
to a considerable degree by higher costs in wages, machinery, and material. Although the number of cattle on Crown range was again higher, the rate of increase
was considerably less than during the previous five years as the ranges are becoming
full. Range sheep production continued to drop, and use of Crown range by sheep
now is insignificant.
Several amendments to the Forest Act repealed a number of sections and set up
new procedures for other matters.
The definition of timber was extended to include standing timber. The right of
entry for members of the Forest Service was added to the jurisdiction of the Service.
Designation of pulpwood harvesting areas now can be made only east of the Cascade
Mountains. The provision respecting half rental rates was repealed, as were provisions respecting hand-loggers' licences and resin licences, together with the sections
relating to them. The marking sections were revised, and one section was repealed.
Licences now can be issued to purchasers and occupiers to cut timber on Crown
land.
The Lieutenant-Governor in Council now can make regulations with respect to
nursery stock and quarantine areas and with respect to the destruction of infected
plant nursery stock. Provision was made for the prorating of royalty where more
than one rate of royalty applies to timber. The section establishing the Forest
Development Fund was repealed.
A regulation was passed under the Grazing Act providing for rates on natural
range and improved pastures in the Peace River area.
 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST INVENTORY DIVISION
Intensive inventry of public sustained-yield units continued during the year.
Inclusive of 1965 field work, unit survey information is now available for 50,000,000
acres.   A further 21,000,000 acres are covered by maintenance surveys.
Growth, loss-factor, and volume studies were continued, providing basic compilation information for inventory and for allowable cut calculations. Application
of 70-mm. photography to sampling logging-residue volumes and detection of balsam
woolly aphid information was studied. Regeneration plantability surveys were made
in several large burns, and one regeneration survey was carried out on the Coast.
The continuous staff employed by the Division numbered 146, including 61
foresters, 16 technical personnel, 35 draughting and clerical staff, and 16 mechanical,
warehouse, launch crew, and operations personnel. To supplement the professional
and technical staff during the field season, 77 seasonal employees were engaged.
Financial assistance for the inventory programme was provided again under the
Federal-Provincial Forestry Agreement.
FIELD PROGRAMME
Forest Classification and Sampling
Forest inventories to unit survey standard were completed for six public
sustained-yield units in 1966. Some 13,280,000 acres were classified and sampled.
The area involved in each unit is shown in Table B, which outlines the production
of interim base maps for the year.
Classification crews of the Division completed 14,349 air calls and 6,677 ground
examinations. Sampling crews established 1,817 multi-plot samples. In a cooperative arrangement with the Division, tree-farm licensee crews established an
additional 863 samples. Although these samples may not apply to stands in areas
of current field work, they can be used to supplement information on similar forest
types in public sustained-yield units.
Growth Studies
In the 1966 growth and yield programme, 103 permanent plots were established
in three Interior public sustained-yield units. These plots were distributed as follows:
Nehalliston, 79; Salmon Arm, 14; and Niskonlith, 10. The types sampled were:
52 Douglas-fir, 29 larch, and 22 lodgepole pine. Conditions sampled were: Ages
ranging from 21 to 120 years; sites from good to poor, with the majority in the
medium and poor class; and elevations ranging from 1,600 to 4,100 feet.
During the year the Growth Section has produced 140 sets of local and zonal
volume-over-age curves. These curves, or site-class yield tables in graphic form,
supply mean annual increment at any age.
The calculation of allowable annual cuts for public sustained-yield units is now
a function of the Growth Section. In 1966 allowable cuts were calculated for 27
approved units and six proposed units.
Over 30 inquiries and miscellaneous requests for growth information were
processed during the year.
Loss-factor Studies
Loss-factor crews felled and measured 2,508 trees in one Coast and three
Interior public sustained-yield units.   In the Coastal unit, 976 tree measurements
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966
15
were made on 40 sample plots located in the south-western half of the Dewdney
Public Sustained-yield Unit, while the Interior units produced 564 trees from 12
sample plots in the Raft Public Sustained-yield Unit, 426 trees from eight sample
plots in the Hazelton Public Sustained-yield Unit, and 542 trees from the 10 sample
plots in the Bell-Irving Public Sustained-yield Unit.
Six of the samples on the Coast were double sampled in connection with the
study of 70-mm. helicopter photography. Experiments were carried out with black-
and-white, coloured, and infra-red films in an attempt to arrive at a decadence
classification similar to the residual-suspect classification used for standing samples.
The samples in the Raft Public Sustained-yield Unit are the start of a field
study into cull factors for the Hemlock-Cedar Wet Belt.
Through continuing co-operative work by tree-farm licensees, measurements
were submitted for 762 trees from 12 samples.
Butt-taper Tables for Coastal Tree Species and Zonal Net Volume (Loss)
Factors were published in Forest Survey Notes 7 and 8.
Special Field Projects
Plantability studies were carried out in several large burns in the Prince George
and Prince Rupert Forest Districts. In the Prince George District's " Grove " and
"Straw" burns, 8,769 and 8,964 acres respectively were examined. In the Prince
Rupert District, 5,600, 5,171, 803, and 7,524 acres were examined in the "John,"
"Van," "Pope" and "Tintagel" burns respectively.
A regeneration study to determine the restocking condition of cut-over areas in
Timber Licences 1136 and 1137 of the Vancouver Forest District showed the entire
area to be restocked satisfactorily.   A total of 1,113 acres was examined.
Studies in the use of 70-mm. fixed-base photography for forest sampling continued. Six hemlock-balsam-yellow cedar samples were photographed with three
different films—Tri-X panchromatic, Ektachrome ER colour reversal, and Ekta-
chrome infra-red colour reversal films. Individual trees were studied on each film
to determine the possibility of photo detection of decay in the trees. Results are
encouraging and warrant further study.
Co-operative studies are being carried out jointly with the Management and
Research Divisions in the development of ground and 70-mm. fixed-base photo
sampling methods for logging-residue volumes.   Preliminary results are encouraging.
A co-operative study is being carried out with the Federal Department of Forestry in the use of this type of photography on colour and infra-red colour films for
the detection of balsam woolly aphid infestation. No results are available at the
present time.
Two Linhof aero-electric 70-mm. cameras were tested. Results were excellent,
but some additions are required to make them completely suitable for this work.
Operations
Prefabricated base camps were established for five forest inventory projects in
the Interior and one on the Coast. The launch " Forest Surveyor," in conjunction
with barge " LC 6," was used as a floating base for field crews and helicopter operations for much of the Redonda portion of the Quadra Public Sustained-yield Unit.
All project headquarters, launches, sub-bases, and helicopters were provided with
effective communication through the Division's radio network. Division mechanics
continued regular inspections and maintenance of mechanical units assigned to field
 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
projects. Owing to the concentration of vehicles at three projects in the Chilcotin
and the adverse operating conditions encountered, a mechanic was assigned to the
area full time to ensure adequate servicing.
River boats were used extensively on the Monkman project, an area of very
limited access, to traverse the lengthy waterways of the McGregor River and lower
Herrick Creek. Inflatable boats proved useful on some tributaries of the McGregor,
and on the upper Dean and Klinaklini Rivers on the Chilko project. Several outboard cabin cruisers operated on the waters about the Redonda project and on
Chilko and Taseko Lakes in the Chilcotin.
Helicopters again enabled forest classifiers to tape-record information during
low-level flights and to make ground checks in less accessible forest stands. Helicopters also transported sampling crews into remote areas. Three machines were
obtained under contract—two Bell 47 G-5's for the more mountainous terrain, and
a Bell 47 G-2 for areas of moderate topography in the Chilko projects. Over 1,100
hours were flown on these contracts, and an additional 70 hours expended on local
charters or district machines, as required. Some 800 hours were utilized on
forest classification—240 on sampling, and the balance for ferry, training, and
supervisory inspections. Frequent unseasonable rainstorms and persistent cloud
conditions in the mountainous areas of the Hazelton project hampered flying operations considerably.
Wherever feasible, float-equipped aircraft transported crews to remote lakes,
principally in the Chilcotin and Hazelton projects. Seventy-five hours were flown
on this duty.
Planning liaison was continued with the Air Division of the Lands Service to
provide photography for future forest inventory projects. Complete photo coverage
at a scale of 20 chains to 1 inch was obtained for 1967 projects, as follows: Queen
Charlotte, Purden, Bowron, Edgewood, Granby, Nakusp, Slocan, and North
Thompson Public Sustained-yield Units, the Sayward portion of the Quadra Public
Sustained-yield Unit, and the Kamloops Region Special Sale Area. Additional
coverage included parts of the Rivers Inlet Public Sustained-yield Unit and the
Sechelt area of the Quadra Public Sustained-yield Unit, which are scheduled for
field work in 1968. This photography covered an area of 15,925 square miles.
On special request, as an aid to forest classification, the Air Division flew 364 line
miles of 40-chains-to-1-inch photography over areas of recent forest activity near
Hazelton.
OFFICE PROGRAMME
Forest Mapping
Table A outlines the final forest-cover mapping, planimetry, and volume estimates completed during 1966, based on the 1965 field projects. Unit survey reports,
maps, and map-area and map-volume statements have been issued on all but the
partial inventories of the Chilko and Skeena Public Sustained-yield Units. On
completion, in 1967, of compilation and mapping for the Chilko and Skeena, unit
survey reports will be issued for the entire units.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
Table A.—Production of Final Forest-cover Maps for 1965 Projects
17
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Number
of Maps
Scale
(Chains
to Inch)
Forest and Non-forest Area in Acres
Crown
Alienated
Total
Volume in
M Cu. Ft.
on Mature
Crown Area
Chilko (part)	
Hecate (north half) —
Narcosli (extension)..
Nehalliston 	
Ootsa	
Parsnip-
Skeena (part)	
Upper Kootenay .
Yalakom 	
Totals .
61
43
47
23
132
77
12
66
86
547
20
40
20
20
20
20
20,40
20
20
1,125,247
2,039,978
904,275
395,196
2,65-8,653
1,475,932
322,252
1,361,177
1,838,356
10,668
131,755
12,185
20,031
93,360
3,396
12,981
52,411
79,682
1,135,915
2,171,733
916,460
415,227
2,752,013
1,479,328
335,233
1,413,588
1,918,038
I
C1)
4,855,0552
975,1623
370,3723
4,220,1303
2,297,2933
C1)
1,281,1433
1,743,1573
12,121,066
416,469
12,537,535    |
I
i Not yet calculated.
2 Volumes, 9.1"+d.b.h. close-utilization standard less decay.
3 Volumes, 7.1"+d.b.h. close-utilization standard less decay.
Table B indicates the extent of base maps prepared for the 1966 field projects.
These areas were base-mapped from 20-chains-to-l-inch air photos flown in 1965.
Forest-cover mapping of these projects is now in progress, and maps and reports
should be available by the fall of 1967.
Table B.—Production of Interim Base Maps for the 1966 Field Work
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Number
of Maps
Scale
(Chains
to Inch)
Total
Estimated
Acreage
Chilko (part)                 ..                 ...                      	
198                         20
38                         20
69             1            20
5,249,539
649,287
1,359,548
121
93
23
103
20
20
20
20
1,851,184
1,825,140
267,607
2,077,421
Totals                            ...                .                   	
645                                          | 13,279,726
1                            1
Area and Volume Summaries and Distribution of Information
In addition to the planimetry of 12,537,000 acres required for unit survey
reports, 62 inventory summaries were completed for Forest Service management
planning purposes and 120 were completed for the Lands Service which involved
applications to lease or to purchase. These requests accounted for a total area of
95,000,000 acres and a net timber volume of 54,000,000,000 cubic feet.
The sale and distribution of maps and other information continued at a high
level. The material included 19,700 maps, 220 survey reports, 660 volume-overage curves, and over 2,000 sample volume statements.
All of the 2,680 Provincial samples established during the 1966 field season
have been compiled on the basis of the 1962 standard cubic foot volume tables. The
Provincial sample total, 1953 to 1966, inclusive, after deletion of some reject
samples, stands at 31,034, exclusive of permanent growth plots. Prints of any
compiled sample statement in cubic feet per acre are available at a nominal charge.
Although there have been no changes in equipment during 1966, centralization
and improved control in the Data Processing Division have resulted in better service to Forest Inventory. All samples established since 1953 are now recorded on
magnetic tape, thus allowing disposal of several million punched cards.
 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Development Planning
Since amalgamation of the two divisions of Working Plans and Forest Surveys
and Inventory on May 3rd, formal approval has been given for one public sustained-
yield unit, one pulpwood harvesting area, and eight pulp harvesting forests. Concurrently, development planning study has progressed on 13 proposed public sustained-yield units and on one special sale area in the unregulated area of Northern
British Columbia.
In more detail, Ministerial approval was given for establishing the Vancouver
Public Sustained-yield Unit from what formerly was the Vancouver Region. Pulp-
wood Harvesting Area No. 5 agreement was signed, formally granting to Cariboo
Pulp and Paper Company Limited an option to purchase pulpwood from the Cottonwood, Narcosli, and Quesnel Lake Public Sustained-yield Units.
The 13 proposed public sustained-yield units and the special sale area which
cover the remaining unregulated northern part of the Province are Alsek, Boundary,
Dease, Fontas, Fort Nelson, Kechika, Klappan, Kotcho, Liard, Sikanni, Stikine,
Taku, and Wapiti, and the Dawson Creek Special Sale Area.
 138"
134"
134°
132°
130°
116°
112°
110°
50°
PUBLIC SUSTAINED YIELD UNITS (P.S.Y.U.'s)
p.h.a.    ?:mm ■
|   Ins
de Pulpwood Harvesting A
fcas | J
NO
.  1
9.
Big Valley
40.
Naver
67.
Stuart Lake
15.
Carp
41.
Nechako
71.
Westlake
20.
Crooked River
49.
Parsnip
73.
Willow River
1.
Adams
42.
Nehalliston
55.
Raft
5.
Barriere
43.
Nicola
59.
Salmon Arm
6.
Barton Hill
44.
Niskonlith
60.
Shuswap
11.
Botanie
46.
North Thompson
66.
Spallumcheen
23.
Eagle
NO.
3
12.
Bowron
36.
Mo n km an
57.
Robson
34.
Longworth
51.
Purden
4.
Babine
37.
Morice
64.
Smithers
13.
Burns Lake
NO
5
17.
Cottonwood
39.
Narcosli
54.
Quesnel Lake
NO
6
8.
Big Bar
68.
Stum
75.
Yalakom
32.
Lac la Hache
72.
Williams Lake
NO
7
50.
Peace
69.
Takla
P.S.Y.U.'s   |
nnnn    Outside Pulpwood Harvesting
Areas
2.
Arrowhead
26.
Finlay
52.
Quadra
3.
Ashnola
27.
Granby
53.
Queen Charlotte
7.
Bell- Irving
28.
Hecate
56.
Rivers Inlet
10.
Blueberry
29.
Kettle
58.
Salmo
14.
Canoe
30.
.Kin basket
61.
Similkameen
16.
Chilko
31.
Kingcome
62.
Skeena
18.
Cranbrook
33.
Lardeau
63.
Slocan
19.
Creston
35.
Moberly
65.
Soo
21.
Dean
38.
Nakusp
70.
Upper Kootenay
22.
Dewdney
45.
Nootka
76.
Vancouver
24.
Edgewood
47.
Okanagan
74.
Wlnde rm ere
25.
Fernie
48.
Ootsa
OTHER PUBLIC UNITS
S.S.A.   -   Special Sale Area (O-I-C 2811/62)   11111111
K.R.  - Kamloops Region Special Sale Area (O-I-C 1826/66)
TREE FARM LICENCES
DIXON ENTRANCE
BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
HONOURABLE R. G. WILLISTON, MINISTER
Scale
40   30   20    10
120
STATUS OF SUSTAINED-YIELD FORESTRY PROGRAMME
AS AT DECEMBER 31, 1966
58°
54°
21. MacMillan. Bloedel   Industries Ltd.
22. British Columbia Forest Products
Limited
23. Celgar Limited
24. Rayonier Canada (B.  C.) Limited
25. Rayonier Canada (B.  C.) Limited
26. The Corporation of the District of
Mission
27. British Columbia Forest Products
Limited
28. Shelley Development Limited
29. Eagle Lake Sawmills Limited
30. Sinclair Spruce Lumber Company Ltd.
32. Vernon Box & Pine Lumber Co.   Ltd.
33. Shuswap Timbers Ltd.
35. B.  C.  Interior Sawmills Ltd.
36. F.   &R.   Logging Co.  Ltd.
37. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.
38. Empire Mills Limited
39. MacMillan,  Bloedel  Limited
40. Skeena Kraft Limited
41. Eurocan Pulp and Paper Co, Ltd.
52°
CHARLOTTE
SOUND
Coped
132°
128°
126°
124°
122°
120°
116°
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966
19
FOREST RESEARCH DIVISION
A detailed report on the research programme for 1966 will appear in the
annual Forest Research Review, compiled at the end of the fiscal year.
COWICHAN LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
For the second year in a row, heavy snowfall resulted in considerable damage
to the clone banks. Many of the 1965 grafts were torn off the rootstock by the
weight of snow. Overgrowth of the older grafted stock continues to be a problem,
but a promising treatment has been developed, consisting of removing strips of bark
from each side of the union. Callus growth follows, resulting in a better union of
rootstock and scion. An unusually late frost on May 26th over most of Vancouver
Island severely damaged the strobili of a number of controlled crosses at Gordon
River.
The first series of intraspecific crosses of Douglas-fir was planted in four areas
on Vancouver Island. The number of l-j-0 seedlings in the nursery increased from
8,500 to 20,000. The majority of these seedlings are from intraspecific crosses and
inbred lines, the remainder being from various provenances and from rootstock of
known parentage. This was the first year in which some of the older clones of
selected plus trees produced both male and female strobili in sufficient numbers for
pollinations to be made.
No cruising for plus trees was carried out in 1966, as, for the time being, a
sufficient number has been selected throughout the range of Douglas-fir on the Coast.
Work was concentrated on the propagation of trees already registered, in the Experiment Station clone bank. The register contains 615 individual trees, 445 of which
are selected plus trees. The remaining 170 are specimen trees retained for research
purposes and include a number of veterans and trees from outside British Columbia.
Some 536 clones are now represented in Forest Service clone banks.
The research nursery and clone bank areas have been enlarged. The transplant
area has been doubled in size, and all stumps have been piled and burned on the
40-acre block cleared last year. The nursery and clone bank are now linked by a
quarter-mile of new road.
FIELD PROGRAMME
Seedling Seed Orchards
The past year was notable for an exceptionally good seed crop. Advantage
was taken of the Coastal Douglas-fir cone crop to collect wind-pollinated seed from
the plus trees located at higher elevations on Vancouver Island and the Mainland.
Pacific Logging Company Limited, Western Forest Industries Limited, and Tahsis
Company Limited co-operated. The seed will be used to establish seedling orchards.
Seeds from 36 trees on Vancouver Island and 54 trees on the Mainland were
collected.
Douglas-fir Provenance
In 1962 a Douglas-fir provenance study was planned but has had to be postponed until this year's seed crop made implementation possible. A total of 90 collections was obtained between southern Oregon and Kemano in the north, representing a comprehensive range of climate.
Planting-stock Tests
Second-year survival exceeds 86 per cent in two experiments testing Douglas-
fir planting stock. Valley-bottom sites have not yet " brushed in " sufficiently to
affect plantations, and while the larger stocks are growing significantly faster, there
 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
are no differences in survival between large and small grades, between seedlings and
transplants, or between mattock and shovel planting. These early results emphasize
the overriding importance of care in handling and planting the stock.
In Forest Service test plots of Douglas-fir seedlings in 21/i-inch plastic bullets,
survival fell during the second year from 16.6 to 9.3 per cent.
Nursery Fertility Studies
At Koksilah nursery, fertilizer response of Douglas-fir seedlings to pre-sowing
application of up to 60 pounds per acre of phosphorus (as superphosphate) was
confirmed by increased growth of 2+0 stock. A factorial experiment in which
nitrogen was applied to Douglas-fir seed-beds at the rate of 40 and 80 pounds per
acre in April or June suggested that time of application was as important as the
40-pound-per-acre difference in application rate. Several different sources of nitrogen failed to cause any difference in 1+0 Douglas-fir seedling size but did affect
seedling density. The optimum levels of nitrogen in the tissues of Douglas-fir and
Sitka spruce seedlings of different ages have been determined, using sand culture in
the greenhouse.
Soil Classification
In the Sayward Forest, 100 square miles have been studied in an investigation
of the soil and its relationship to the growth of Douglas-fir plantations.
Cleaning and Thinning
In the same area, a small experimental cleaning programme, commenced in
1959, was continued, and sample plots were thinned for the third time. The scope
of the experiment was enlarged to include 10 more thinning prescriptions. The present levels of growing stock range from 400 to 1,200 trees per acre.
Prince Rupert Forest District
The research headquarters was changed from Prince Rupert to Smithers.
Two blocks of 40 white and Engelmann spruce provenances were planted—
one near Quick and the second near Verdun Mountain—as part of a Province-wide
spruce provenance study.
A start was made on implementing proposals put forward in a problem analysis
published as Research Note 40. " Silvics and Silviculture of Lodgepole Pine in the
North-Central Interior of British Columbia." This included direct seeding studies
at Taltapin Lake and Verdun Mountain, also establishment of traps to study seed
dissemination of pine at the latter site.   Weather stations were set up at both areas.
Further study has been given to the classification of lodgepole pine site types
in order to provide information for the Burns Lake-Smithers region. Plots were
established to provide vegetation and mensurational data.
Prince George Forest District
A long-term study on the influence of time on the effectiveness of scarified
seed-beds will be completed with the publication of Research Note 42, " The Durability of Scarified Seedbeds for Spruce Regeneration."
The main effort has been to complete a problem analysis of the spruce and pine
forest types of the region. This entailed a comprehensive field reconnaissance, having due regard to the pronounced changes in forest practice incurred by the establishment of four large pulp companies in the region.
A replication of the spruce provenance study was established on the Aleza
Lake Forest Reserve.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966
21
Exploratory direct-seeding studies continue to provide valuable information.
The latest comprised the seeding of lodgepole pine on snow after a controlled slash
burn.
Kamloops Forest District
The second year of direct seeding mixed species in the Wet Belt produced much
better results than the first year's seeding. Significant differences in germination
and survival were obtained for seed treatment and seed-bed preparation. The
favourable results may be attributed more to climate than to any other factor.
A substantial amount of delayed germination was obtained from the first year's
white pine seeding.
DATA PROCESSING AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
A major effort consisted of redesigning the system of official scale computing,
calculation of charges, printing of accounts, and maintenance of statistical records
in the Vancouver scaling office. The change was necessary because of an administrative decision to utilize an I.B.M. 1440 data-processing system to do this work
instead of utilizing Friden desk calculators and I.B.M. unit record equipment.
Within the over-all systems design, 45 programmes were designed and written, 15
disk files were designed and organized, the staff of the scaling office were retrained
in their duties, and the flow of files in the Vancouver office was altered to accommodate the new system.
In May, 1966, systems design and retraining had progressed to the stage that
the computing of accounts could be changed from the one system to the other, and
this was done. Since the change, work has been concentrated on preparing programmes for producing statistics for annual reports. In addition, changes have
been made to improve the efficiency of the system. It can now be said that the
I.B.M. 1440 data-processing system is fully operational. However, changes are
still being made to increase its efficiency.
All research data are now processed through the computer facilities of the
Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce. Several temporary
and five general programmes were written. The three most frequently used programmes were the multiple regression analysis, analysis of variance, and simple
descriptive statistics.
Implementation of management policies related to sale of timber, which are
conducive to closer utilization, has stimulated a need for reliable methods of estimating residue volumes following logging. Conventional sample plots prove to be
unduly expensive in this low-value material. Alternative methods are being investigated in co-operation with the Federal Forest Products Laboratory and divisions of
the Forest Service.
CANADA LAND INVENTORY
The Research Division is actively associated with several Provincial and Federal organizations in the British Columbia programme of the Canada Land Inventory. During the past year a survey and report on the special sale area, Prince
George, has been completed and a survey conducted in the southern part of the
Rocky Mountain Trench and the Princeton-Tulameen map-sheets. Climatic studies
have been conducted in these areas. Many temporary or seasonal weather stations
have been established to supplement official Department of Transport stations in
areas of high elevation and remote access.
The objective of the programme is to provide basic data for better land-use
decisions. The Forest Service is concerned, since a sustained-yield policy can only
be effective if there is a stable land resource dedicated to this purpose.
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966 23
REFORESTATION DIVISION
FOREST NURSERIES
Although weather conditions are one of the major factors with which the
nurseryman has to be concerned, there are ways in which he can, to a certain extent,
control the effect of the weather on his crop. By the proper use of irrigation and
drainage, he can overcome the effect of drought, heavy precipitation, and frost.
In recent years more attention has been given to these factors and good results have
been achieved.
A favourable growing season was reported from all nurseries in 1966, and this
has been reflected in the quality of the planting stock produced. At the Coast
nurseries heavy snowfall in midwinter provided cover for seedlings during the coldest
part of the year, and losses from frost heaving were minimal. However, late spring
frosts were prevalent, and some damage was reported. The spring and early summer
months were generally cloudy and cool with slightly more than normal rainfall.
These conditions made heavy watering of nursery stock unnecessary. Fall frosts
were not severe but did occur early enough so that irrigation was needed to protect
the stock.   Some damage was sustained where water was not applied soon enough.
Major developments took place in both Coast and Interior nursery programmes
during the year. Development work was carried out on the new sites which were
acquired, while expansion was carried out at all other nurseries. Preliminary tests
indicate that satisfactory germination and growth of all species at Rayleigh can be
expected, and this prompted an increase in production at this nursery in 1966. In
the Chilliwack Valley, a new nursery development was undertaken toward the consolidation of present facilities, and, by the end of the year, clearing by inmates was
almost complete on sufficient area for the sowing of 600 beds next spring. The first
stock was produced at Alouette Nursery, where Alouette Unit crews completed
development of the initial area and are now preparing an additional 8 acres. At the
nearby Haney Nursery, development of an additional 2 acres is under way. The
entire area at the Snowdon transplant nursery near Campbell River is now ready for
use in the coming season, and a start was made toward the building of a dam to
improve the water supply. In addition to the initial development of these nursery
areas, the operation of them and the production of planting stock are carried out
by inmate crews.
Perhaps the most important development of the year was the final acquisition
of the Red Rock Nursery site near Prince George. As soon as snow left the area,
sufficient land was cleared and prepared for 222 seed-beds and 700,000 transplants.
A further 516 seed-beds were sown in the fall, and more land has been prepared for
next year. The only serious problem encountered at the new nursery was an attack
of white grub (Phyllophaga), which did considerable damage to all classes of stock.
Measures were taken to eliminate this pest from future crops. Germination and
growth in Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine were good, but spruce was initially much
slower in developing. It did improve later in the season so that seedlings of a fair
size were produced. It was expected that in a light well-drained soil such as that at
Red Rock, some nutrient deficiencies would develop. In August a chlorotic condition did develop in the transplanted stock, but a foliar application of nitrogen
fertilizer appeared to correct this condition almost immediately. All planting stock
was lifted from Aleza Lake Nursery, and with the removal of usable material and
equipment, final closure was almost complete.
 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
In the major Coast nurseries, a considerable increase in usable area was
attained. At Koksilah, 3 acres of productive area were added by hauling topsoil
and grading, and the 10 acres leased from the Koksilah Indian Band was levelled,
cultivated, and fenced in preparation for seed-beds next spring. Hauling of topsoil
and peat soil has likewise increased the Duncan Nursery area by 1 acre, and at
Green Timbers a new area was cleared for an additional 100 seed-beds.
In all, some 35 acres of new land were prepared for nursery production, but
this was partly offset by eliminating certain fields where productive capacity has
proven inferior.
A record number of 5,989 seed-beds was sown this past season (fall, 1965, to
spring, 1966) with a planned production of over 27,000,000 seedlings. Germination of the spring-sown Douglas-fir was fairly good, but, in some cases, spruce and
hemlock were below expectations. Fall-sown beds in the Coast nurseries were
generally poor, whereas, in the Interior, germination of fall-sown beds continues to
be much better, especially with spruce. Fall, 1966, sowing of 1,023 beds in Interior
nurseries was completed, but on the Coast sowing schedules were delayed because of
inclement weather. In some cases, seed was not available until extraction from
1966 cone collections was finished.
Planting stock shipped during the year amounted to a new record of 19,070,700
trees. It is to be noted that, of this total, 3,636,700 were transplanted trees. It is
expected that the production of transplant stock will continue to increase, not only
because of the increase in production of Interior species, but also because of the
enlarged capacity of the co-operative transplant nurseries and the need to salvage as
much stock as possible to meet current demands for planting.
Weeding continues to be a major item in nursery production costs. In the past
few years greater emphasis has been placed on weed control, the results of which
should become apparent in the near future. Fumigation trials at the Duncan and
Koksilah Nurseries, although undertaken primarily to investigate the effect of this
treatment on diseases, have shown extra benefit in a small measure of weed control.
Since diseases, and perhaps nematodes as well, have been responsible for appreciable
seedling losses in the past, this type of pest control would be all the more desirable
if the added benefit of weed control could help offset the cost.
Trials in drill sowing were continued during 1966 at Duncan. In the Koksilah
Nursery, some loss of planting stock was caused by Botrytis, a fungus which thrives
in dense patches of vegetation where dead material and humid conditions are conducive to its development. It is thought that drill sowing, once perfected, may also
serve to reduce these losses as well as permit further mechanization of nursery
production.
FOREST TREE SEED
The largest collection of seed in the history of British Columbia forestry was
made in 1966. The combined total of collections by industry and government approximates 50,000* bushels of cones. Of the 35,000 bushels collected under Forest
Service supervision, the following distribution is noted: Vancouver Forest District,
74 per cent; Prince Rupert Forest District, 11 per cent; Kamloops Forest District,
12 per cent; Nelson Forest District, 3 per cent.
In conjunction with the Kamloops and Vancouver Forest Districts' collections,
inmate crews accounted for over 10,000 bushels. Collectable crops were not as
general as in 1959, since late frosts, insects, and rusts severely decimated what earlier
appeared to be a " bumper " crop.   Nevertheless, the occurrence of a seed crop was
* All figures subject to correction when extraction is complete.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966 25
fortuitous in that seed inventories for the Vancouver and Prince Rupert Forest Districts were critically low. Because of these natural losses, considerable time was
spent by field staff in locating collectable crops in which seed values were at a desirable level. In some areas where the quantity and quality of the seed were below
standard, collections from the best available crops were made in order to have something to sow in the nurseries. In the Prince George Forest District, the entire crop
of both spruce and Douglas-fir seed was lost to insects, frost, and disease. These
agencies also caused crop failures in portions of two other forest districts where
there is a high demand for planting stock. As a result, there are still important
gaps in the seed inventory which must be filled at the first opportunity.
Although extraction of the seed collected is not yet complete, it is expected
that the yield will average about the same as that from the 1959 crop, although there
will be more variation in yields between provenances. It is estimated that 12 tons
of seed will be extracted from the Forest Service collections.
Modifications to the extraction plant, commenced in the fall of 1965 and completed in 1966, increased its capacity to a maximum of 300 bushels per day. Because
kiln time is dependent on the dryness of the cones before they enter the kiln, the
total capacity of the plant is presently limited only by the facilities (space and time)
for outside cone storage. Tests are now under way to determine what effect the
period of outside storage has on seed viability. In the fall of 1966 a number of
storage areas around Duncan were utilized as cones arrived almost daily from different parts of the Province.
In anticipation of the work load associated with a good seed year, germination
tests and records of seed on hand were brought up to date during the summer. Some
1,200 pounds of seed were removed from storage, tested, treated, and shipped to
various nurseries for scheduled sowings. This left a balance of almost 8 tons of
seed in storage, to which will be added the proceeds from the 1966 collections.
The present storage building will then be filled to capacity.
Based on the information at hand regarding special collections, yields from
seed production areas in the Vancouver Forest District varied from nil to over 80
bushels of cones per acre. Interior seed production areas continue to produce a
wide variety of results, but spruce plots have not yet proven their worth. Experimentation is continuing in the inducement of flower buds on spruce, and some encouragement was gained during the year. The application of calcium nitrate fertilizer at the time of vegetative bud break appears to bear some promise in this
respect.
Snow breakage continues to hamper progress at the Campbell River Seed
Orchard, and the major effort during the years was in consolidating survivors, re-
grafting, and planting gaps with fresh rootstock. To avoid further snow damage, all
first- and second-year grafts were staked. At the Koksilah Nursery the proposed
seed-orchard area was cleaned up and levelled, and rootstock was established in
the clone-bank area. A total of 851 grafts was made both here and at Campbell
River. In co-operation with Research Division, cones were collected from a considerable number of plus trees toward the establishment of the seedling orchard at
Koksilah. It is anticipated that the orchard at Campbell River will eventually be
transformed to a seedling orchard as well.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
Owing to the abundant cone crop, the time ordinarily expended on regeneration surveys was devoted to locating areas in which filled seed existed in collectable
quantities.   Even so, considerable examination work on logged and (or) burned
 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
areas was completed. Reforestation and Vancouver Forest District crews examined and assesed for planting purposes some 20,000 acres on the Mainland and a
further 4,000 acres on Vancouver Island. These areas had been broadcast-burned
in the late fall of 1965 and in 1966. Although these areas are not yet fully classified, it was noted that the 1966 burning was not as successful from the standpoint
of plantability. An estimated 35,000 acres of slash-burned areas have yet to be
examined in the Vancouver Forest District.
In the Interior, a Forest Inventory crew carried out regeneration surveys and
planting assessments within two forest districts. Of the 19,098 acres examined in
the Prince Rupert Forest District, 7,682 acres (40 per cent) were found to be not
satisfactorily restocked and plantable. However, the majority of this area is presently inaccessible. Although this district appears to have vast areas in old burns
and cut-over, a large-scale planting programme is not feasible until access and (or)
site preparation work is increased. In the Prince George Forest District, 17,733
acres of the "Straw" (1958) and "Grove" (1961) burns were examined. Of
this total, 6,392 acres (36 per cent) are unlikely to restock and will require planting.
These sites are reasonably accessible, and brush cover has not become heavy enough
to preclude planting. This survey provides the district with enough acreage for
three years of planting. Although much of the " Grove " burn has restocked naturally, it is thought that there are still some areas requiring survey work.
The report of the 1964-65 surveys carried out in the East Kootenay by the
Inventory Division was released in 1966. It indicates that natural restocking during the past 10 years has decreased the acreage of not satisfactorily restocked land
in the yellow pine-Douglas-fir type by almost 30 per cent, with the decrease in some
areas as high as 64 per cent. There has been an increase in the amount of bare
ground in several isolated areas. The associated survey of 53,397 acres of burned-
over spruce-balsam sites also found that only 9,660 acres (18 per cent) were not
restocked. It is interesting to note that two of the 1960 burns (" Gold " and " Pud "
fires) have been almost completely restocked by natural seeding.
PLANTING
In the spring, localized flooding throughout the Province reflected the rapid
melting and run-off of the heavy winter snow pack. As a result, spring planting was
able to start as scheduled, except for a few high-elevation and (or) remote project
areas. The anticipated labour shortage which was expected to hamper project
operations in some areas did not materialize, and planting was therefore completed
with a minimum of delay. Cool, moist conditions continued during the summer,
favouring the survival and initial growth of these plantings. The extension of
favourable weather into late fall enabled Forest Service crews to complete a full
autumn planting programme in all forest districts.
Planting by all agencies during the year totalled a new record of 19,070,700
trees on 46,935 acres. Of this total, the Forest Service planted 6,109,400 trees (32
per cent) on 12,887 acres, which is the largest programme on Crown land since
1954. In the Interior, planting by all agencies also set a new record of almost
3,000,000 trees, with the Forest Service continuing to carry the major portion of this
programme {see attached Summary of Planting).
On Forest Service projects the number of trees planted per acre was considerably increased over that of 1965. Where this increase coincided with an increase
in the number of trees planted per man-day, a noticeable reduction in planting cost
per acre was achieved. However, the over-all result was that planting costs were
slightly higher than in 1965.   This increase in density together with a general im-
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
27
provement in planting quality and project operation resulted from discussions at the
District Reforestation Officers' meeting held in March. In the early fall, a three-day
planting school was held for crew foremen and supervisors from the Vancouver
District. The increased interest and activity in slash disposal have contributed
appreciably to the extent and success of the Interior planting programme, which
might otherwise have been handicapped by the lack of readily plantable areas.
The developement of nursery and cold-storage facilities at Rayleigh and the nursery
at Red Rock has greatly improved the flexibility of planting operations and has
partially eliminated the necessity of transporting seedlings over great distances at
inconvenient times. Projects carried out by inmate crews substantially augmented
the Forest Service programme especially in the Prince George Forest District.
On the Coast, an increasing number of smaller projects are being carried out in
isolated areas. Considerable difficulty in the matters of transportation, accommodation, and supply were nevertheless overcome, and the Ranger staff was able to complete the largest programme yet undertaken by the Vancouver Forest District.
PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS
Fortunately the improvements and alterations to the operational section of the
seed plant at Duncan were completed in time for extraction to commence not long
after the first shipment of cones arrived from the field. Subsequent remodelling of
the old warehouse into a new seed laboratory and office enabled the staff of the seed
centre to vacate the old offices, where further alterations to the plant facilities were
begun. Improvement work in the older of the two existing cold-storage units, which
was commenced in the fall of 1965, progressed slowly owing to the priority given
the extraction plant, but was resumed actively late in the year. When completed
the two adjoining units will be identical and inside handling of stock by fork-lift
tractor will be possible. The water reservoir at Duncan was enlarged and a heavier
pump installed as required by the need for full-scale irrigation to prevent frost
damage. At the Koksilah fields, underground water mains were installed in the
10-acre field leased from the local Indian band. Five thousand feet of drain tile was
placed in the fields at Snowdon Nursery, and the pondage area for the proposed
dam was cleared.
Alterations to the water-storage system for purposes of frost-damage control
were also carried out at Green Timbers Nursery. Recent retiling of all fields has
substantially improved drainage, so that a new culvert had to be installed under the
main entrance from the Fraser Valley Highway. Minor modifications were made in
the cold-storage building to facilitate the handling of planting stock.
Cold-storage units at the Chilliwack and Rayleigh Nurseries were completed
early in the year in preparation for increased production at these sites. At the
Red Rock Nursery, where the main effort was in getting the land into production,
the only improvement of note was the establishment of an 8-foot-high fence
around the 53 acres of initial development. Of this, approximately 14 acres are
now under cultivation and clearing and grubbing are under way on the next area
to be placed under production.
CO-OPERATION
Extensive co-operation with other Government agencies and industry continued
during 1966. A large amount of highway trucking in connection with the cone-
collection programme and the transfer of nursery equipment and material was
successfully carried out with the co-operation of both the Forest Inventory and
 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Engineering Services Divisions. In the East Kootenay, Grazing and Reforestation
Division's crews, in conjunction with the Nelson Forest District, continued improvement thinning in the Rampart demonstration area. During the winter 148 acres
were treated, bringing the area now thinned to 1,063 acres. Reforestation Division
snag-fallers felled an estimated 85,600 snags on 1,735 acres for the Vancouver
Forest District and cleared another 133 acres in co-operation with industry.
In the spring, tangible evidence of a cone crop stimulated a co-operative effort
between the Reforestation Division and foresters of the major companies in locating
and assessing collectable crops. A refresher course in crop assessment, collection,
and handling of cones was held at Duncan for Government and company foresters
and supervisors. Co-ordination of anticipated collections and frequent checking on
seed development continued during the summer. The result of this integrated effort
was that all agencies obtained a good supply of seed from most of the desired provenances at reasonable cost.
Routine co-operation with industry in the matter of planting-stock production
and distribution continued both on the Coast and in the Interior. Division foresters
met with company foresters on the ground to examine past performance and discuss
planting problems, and active participation in a wide variety of co-operative projects
through Tree-farm Forestry Committees continues to be of mutual benefit.
Close liaison with Research Division is a prerequisite to success in the plus-tree
and seed-orchard programmes, and through the efforts of both Divisions considerable progress was made, especially with regard to the collection of seed from
registered plus trees. Heavy demands were placed on the soils laboratory by the
development of nursery lands. In this endeavour the co-operation of various
Federal agencies in advice and research was most appreciated.
Interdepartmental Forestry and Corrections Camp Programme
This programme proceeded on a normal basis during 1966, with no major
changes or expansion. In the Vancouver Forest District, heavy snows and smaller
crews resulted in a number of scheduled projects being left uncompleted, but elsewhere work went on as planned. Owing to favourable weather during the fire season,
there was little need for the trained suppression crews, and these men were utilized
in the expansion of nursery facilities. This facet of the programme is steadily increasing and now represents a substantial part of the total effort.
Training of security officers was continued. A special three-day fire-suppression
course was given at the Forest Service Training-school, and nine officers from all
districts attended. During the summer, instruction on the development of tree seed
and cone collecting methods was given to 22 officers. These courses were followed
by written tests, the results of which indicated a high degree of interest among the
officers.
Undoubtedly the highlight of the 1966 programme was the success of the cone
harvest. Owing to the keen interest of the officers and the enthusiasm of the inmates,
the quotas set for crews in the Vancouver Forest District were easily exceeded.
Throughout the Province a total of 10,261 bushels of cones was collected under this
co-operative programme. This represents approximately one-third of all collections
made by Government agencies and is a significant contribution to the expanding
reforestation programme.
Work crews in the Chilliwack Valley, in co-operation with the Chilliwack Centennial Committee, constructed 3V2. miles of trail from Greendrop Lake to Lindeman
Lake. Other trails were given routine maintenance. Work on the right-of-way
slashing for the forest-development road to Chilliwack Lake was completed, and the
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966 29
clearing along 3 miles of existing road was widened by 20 feet. Other slashing
projects included two gravel-pit sites and routine maintenance along the development
road. The Mount Thurston sawmill produced 160,000 f.b.m. of lumber from salvage
material. Through an agreement with the Federal Department of Fisheries and the
Provincial Fisheries Branch, a large log jam in the Chilliwack River is being broken
up for salvage-log material and fuel-wood.
Chilliwack River nurseries shipped a total of 972,300 trees during the year and
508 seed-beds were sown. Nursery activities are carried out over an eight-month
period and constitute some 30 per cent of the Chilliwack Valley programme. To
facilitate shipping of trees, a cold-storage unit was constructed at the Forest Service
headquarters at Tamihi. Clearing commenced on the new nursery-site at Larsen's
Bench, and 8 acres are expected to be in production next year. Inmate crews also
planted 103,000 trees on 187 acres during the year. The collection of 3,870 bushels
of cones was almost double the expected production, and the success of this project
can be attributed to the interest and morale of both officers and men, and to the
excellent weather conditions which prevailed.
The clearing of brush from 78 acres in preparation for planting provided
camp fuel, and established plantations were cleaned up as required. Inmate fire-
suppression crews were controlled from the Pierce Creek Camp, which served as
a fire headquarters. Owing to a relatively cool summer, no suppression activities
were required.
In the Sayward Forest, the Lakeview Camp was occupied by older inmates,
and crews were allocated full time for forestry projects. Both the Lakeview and
Snowdon Camps were organized for fire-suppression duties, and action was taken
on six fires during the year. Development of Snowdon Nursery is now complete and
11 acres are available for seedling production. Inmate crews are presently clearing
a pondage area toward the construction of an adequate dam to serve the nursery.
During the year 697,000 seedlings were transplanted and 500,900 trees were shipped
to planting projects. Pruning of the 1939 plantation near John Hart Lake continued,
and cone collections by crews from Sayward camps totalled 2,929 bushels. Road
crews slashed brush along some 20 miles of roads in the area, and during the period
of heavy fall rains patrolled some 80 miles of roads, cleaning culverts and ditches.
Lakeview crews assisted materially in the development of the Sayward Ranger
Station site.
At Haney Correctional Institution the basic programme for the young trainees
is stand treatment and nursery work. A Forest Service officer has been appointed
to oversee this programme, and construction of an office is being carried out by a
crew from the Institute vocational training school. At the Haney Nursery, 584,000
seedlings were transplanted and a total of 302,800 trees was lifted and shipped for
out-planting. Limited expansion of suitable area is under way. Cleaning and pruning of 85 acres in young stands were completed, and crews from the Pine Ridge and
Gold Creek Camps collected 1,444 bushels of cones. As in other areas, morale and
interest were high among officers and men. Fire-suppression crews in these camps
were not called out, although training was continued. Progress of road projects was
slow due to the lack of equipment. Salvage of driftwood from Alouette Lake provided the Haney sawmill with 135,000 f.b.m. of sawlogs, and several hundred
cords of camp fuel-wood were cut from material unsuitable for the mill. A secondhand tugboat was obtained to replace the condemned pilchard boat which has been
used to tow the booms of salvage wood to the loading-out area.
Inmates from the Alouette River Unit have completed development of the
6-acre Alouette Nursery.   During the spring 770,000 seedlings were lined out, of
 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
which 215,000 were lifted and shipped in the fall. Preparation of another 8 acres
of nursery area is nearing completion.
In the Prince George Forest District a sawmill and a 24-man work camp were
established at Hutda Lake with the co-operation of the Prince George Vocational
School. Crews from this camp planted 29,900 trees and assisted in the preparation
of a nearby area for slash-burning. Elsewhere, crews from the Prince George Gaol
slashed and burned an area at the Red Rock Nursery for initial seed-beds and
planted some 183,500 trees on two projects. These men were burning roadside
slash on the Willow River Development Road at the time of report.
Owing to the distances involved, the programme in the Kamloops Forest District
is limited to operation of the Rayleigh Nursery and a rehabilitation project at Heffiey
Lake. During the year, 825 seed-beds were establised in the nursery and 200,000
seedlings were transplanted. Trees shipped from this nursery over the past two
years have been of good quality, and Rayleigh is now considered a permanent part
of the nursery programme. Inmates assisted in the conversion of a munitions bunker
to a tree-storage building capable of holding 1 million trees. The Rayleigh fire-
suppression crew took action on three fires during the year. With the co-operation
of Clearwater Timber Products, men from the Clearwater Camp collected 579
bushels of spruce cones. Directional signs and fence-posts are also produced by the
two camps in this district.
The performance of crews operating under this co-operative programme and
the results being achieved reflect both the interest of all concerned and the effort put
into the training of the supervising officers. It was expected that a work force of
some 700 men would be available in 1967 for the wide variety of forest and park
projects.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966 31
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION DIVISION
The year 1966 clearly established a discernible trend in media use. Up to
fairly recent times, the success of an organization such as the Public Information
and Education Division could be measured in terms of column-inches published by
the press. This simple gauge no longer exists. While the press continues to be of
permanent importance, today's more sophisticated public must be reached by a
variety of other media as well. Of rising importance, particularly in the field of
forest education, has been the use of exhibits. Special projects are also being used
to maintain and inform.
A steadily increasing interest in Forest Service publications was recorded.
Letters requesting information and assistance also increased.
Publications consume a considerable portion of the Division's funds. During
the year a large number of the older Forest Service pamphlets and reports for general public distribution were revised.
Several new scientific and technical publications also were produced during
the year. An interesting project was the production of a Forest Service training-
school brochure. Being British Columbia's Centennial Year, 1966 provided the
Division with unusual projects.
To help commemorate the centenary, the Forest Service, in co-operation with
the Department of Education, arranged to plant one 2-year-old tree seedling in each
public school in the Province. A total of 2,000 seedlings was distributed. In addition the Division had printed 500,000 copies of a special Centennial booklet, a copy
of which was issued to each student at the planting ceremonies.
Divisional personnel participated in two special tours which were the direct
result of Centennial celebrations in the Province.
The annual meeting of Deputy Ministers and Chief Foresters was held in British
Columbia from September 12th to 16th. This distinguished group was conducted
on a special five-day tour of Vancouver Island.
Representatives of the Division assisted in hosting the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association, when more than 275 delegates from around the world visited
this Province on a nation-wide tour.
In co-operation with the Federal Department of Forestry and the Protection
Division, this Division initiated a comprehensive information campaign to acquaint
the general public with the threat of the balsam woolly aphid and the ban on the
transport of all balsam-trees. Paid advertising was restricted to four appropriate
display advertisements, which were prepared and placed in 13 daily newspapers and
45 weekly newspapers.
NEWS RELEASES AND SPECIAL ARTICLES
News releases during the year covered a broad range of Forest Service activity,
including Management, Inventory, Research, Reforestation, Engineering, and Forest
Protection.
News media and trade magazine interest in pulp and paper industrial expansion
remained high during the year, and a considerable number of progress stories were
written on the subject. Particularly broad coverage was given to developments in
British Columbia in a special supplement of the Financial Post examining the economic state of the industry in Canada.
Special Centennial editions of trade magazines and other publications created
a strong demand for general articles tracing the history of forestry in the Province
up to the present.
 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The decline in the lumber market was followed by requests for articles on the
general condition of the forest industry, while other requests were of a routine nature,
such as those for reviews of the close-utilization policy.
A considerable amount of time was spent in research for and writing of speeches
on Forest Service planning, policy, and administration.
RADIO AND TELEVISION
The current trend toward the public service approach by radio and television
outlets has resulted in more than normal demands being made upon Government
agencies providing information in the resource field. During the past year, Forest
Service representatives were called upon to provide information and services to 31
radio stations and six television stations.
Our limited paid advertising campaign and the co-operation in the production
of major feature programmes were handled by the Victoria office. District field
personnel, however, were repeatedly called upon to assist most stations in providing
coverage in local areas.
With the assistance of a former Technical Forest Officer from the Vancouver
District, a " Keep B.C. Green " jingle was prepared and recorded on tape and distributed to each radio station in the Province. The tape contained four 1-minute
announcements, each of which was broadcast on a regular schedule. More than
3,000 announcements were aired. In addition, numerous special 15-second hazard
flashes were made available and broadcast when required.
Paid television advertising was restricted again to a series of 20-second flashes
being televised over the C.B.C. Provincial network. A set of six slides carrying a
forest-protection message was provided to each television outlet in the Province.
PHOTOGRAPHY
In 1966 another record number of prints were made, 14,299—2,000 more
than 1965's all-time record.
The number of large-format negatives taken by the staff increased, as also did
the ratio of colour to black-and-white. Added to the photograph library were 456
black-and-white and 194 colour negatives. There was increased use of proof prints
supplied to divisions and districts.
A record number of duplicates was supplied and special slides taken, a total
of 705 colour slides being made.
The Division continues to supply illustrative material to the Province's news
media and receive similar requests from many other sources throughout the western
hemisphere.
Special assignments included co-operation with the State of Alaska, when photo
coverage was given while a large cedar was cut on Vancouver Island, transported
to tidewater, and finally taken in tow to Sitka for carving into a Centennial war
canoe.
A series of photographs was taken for Province-wide distribution illustrating
the effects of the balsam woolly aphid.
Colour photo panels were made up for wall display in several offices; exhibit
photographs, both black-and-white and colour, were made for several divisional
displays and exhibits.
An increased number of stereo-positives from 70-mm. fixed-base air photos
were made for the Inventory Division, and a decrease in the number of X-rays processed was noted for the Research Division. Engineering Services Division continues to take a large number of report photographs.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966 33
Motion-picture Production
Over 6,000 feet of 16-mm. colour film was used during the year, requiring
10,000 miles of road travel and over 40 hours of air time. The major amount of
film was shot to complete the Division's film on forest road access, now mainly completed and to be sounded early in 1967. Work was started on a new film dealing
with aircraft use by the Forest Service in fire prevention; this film is scheduled for
completion in 1967.
In addition to " Man on the Mountain Top," an official Canadian entry in the
Madrid Festival of Forestry Films, two other Forest Service films were specially
requested by the Canadian delegates to the World Forestry Conference for their use
while in Madrid.
Film Library
One hundred thousand six hundred and twenty-eight children viewed films
from this library, a 20-per-cent increase over last year.
As a result of more service clubs, industrial associations, and higher educational institutions making use of the library, the adult audience has also increased.
Major demands on the film library were made by the elementary and secondary
schools to supplement their expanded courses, which are detailing more aspects of
forestry and conservation. Out-of-Province requests for Forest Service produced
films increased, especially from other Provincial forestry agencies and schools.
The Forest Service productions on loan to the British Columbia Houses in
London and San Francisco have maintained their popularity.
Difficulty was again experienced in trying to find suitable forestry subjects for
the library. Of the 29 previewed during the past year, only four were found to be
suitable.
See Table No. 31 in the Appendix.
SCHOOL LECTURE PROGRAMME
The school lecture programme for 1966 saw a marked increase in the number
of schools visited and lectures given.
Altogether 118 schools were visited in the Vancouver, Kamloops, Nelson, and
Prince Rupert Forest Districts.
In addition to the schools visited, more than 50 lectures were presented to
other organizations.
See Table No. 32 in the Appendix.
SIGNS
The highway sign-painting programme, utilizing the " Keep B.C. Green—Use
Your Ashtray " theme, was carried out for the 13th consecutive year. In a successful effort to further promote public interest in the programme, a number of colour
and layout innovations were tried.
Thirty new signs were painted and 100 established signs repainted, for a total
of 130.
The maintenance and supervision of the Forest Service sign programme was
continued.
LIBRARY
The Forest Service library continues to grow, both in terms of material acquisitions and in use and service to the public. An interesting facet has been a noticeable increase in requests from outside library source and from industry through the
interlibrary plan.
 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The librarian visited the district library at Prince George and found the material
in good order.
A talk on the function and use that should be made of the library was delivered
by the librarian to the 1966 advance class at the Forest Service training-school.
Interlibrary loans, researched and completed by the staff, rose to 218, which
entailed borrowing from many libraries both in Canada and the United States.
See Table No. 33 in the Appendix.
EXHIBITS
Centennial celebrations created a heavy demand on this Division's facilities for
participating in exhibitions and conventions. As a result, our entries were limited
to 12 major events deemed most beneficial to the Service's over-all information
programme.
The Division was active in the special Centennial Forestry Festival sponsored
by the Pacific National Exhibition. A Forest Service exhibit consisting of a series
of panels depicting various phases of forestry was entered. In addition, a temporary
50-foot lookout tower was erected. It was estimated that more than half a million
individuals visited the Forestry Festival complex.
The Service's permanent display in the British Columbia Building, Vancouver,
was maintained.
One new exhibit was constructed, and this, together with other portable displays, was entered in four teachers' conventions, six major exhibitions, and numerous miscellaneous gatherings.
In addition, a great deal of material in the way of photographs and publications was supplied to organizations sponsoring exhibitions in which the Forest Service was unable to take part.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
35
FOREST MANAGEMENT DIVISION
The year opened on an optimistic note and market prices rose during the first
few months. However, in anticipation of a strike that never materialized, production and stockpiling of logs increased. This was accompanied by a softening in the
market for lumber due to tight money throughout North America and a resultant
drop in new housing starts. While the industry experienced rough waters for a while,
it managed to weather the storm, and the year finally closed on an optimistic note.
In spite of the setback in the market during the year, over-all production
once again set a new record. While 1965 was considered to have been a good year
with regard to market and weather, and production rose 1.2 per cent over the previous year, the 1966 cut rose 4.5 per cent over the 1965 figure. All forest districts,
except Kamloops Forest District, recorded an increase, with a total scale for all
products from all lands of 1,602,437,448 cubic feet.
On the Coast the increase in production was evenly spread over all species.
In the Interior, however, the 18,000,000-cubic-foot increase was divided entirely
between lodgepole pine and balsam. The former showed a 10-per-cent increase,
while the later recorded a 33-per-cent jump. The increase in pine and balsam
production is attributed to the rising demands of existing and new pulp-mills in the
Interior.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber Prices
The selling prices for dressed lumber reported to the Forest Service by the
mills in the Interior were generally higher than those reported in 1965. Prices
started to rise early in the new year, peaked off in June, then declined slightly,
reacting to the softening in the demand for lumber that resulted from a drop in
housing starts on the North American market brought on by tight money.
Notwithstanding the poor market, however, selling prices were still relatively
high and holding in the last quarter.
The outlook at year-end was for a strengthening in demand during 1967 that
would maintain the present level of prices.
1966 Uncorrected Quarterly Average Dressed-lumber Prices (Interior)
Jan.-Mar.
Apr.-June
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.
Species
Basis
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis
MB.M.
Average
Price
137,525
279,412
19,176
1,698
3,365
$66.11
62.95
61.42
100.02
63.12
137,552
346,600
18,410
5,809
5,364
$71.94
69.27
64.87
106.48
71.49
143,489
291,155
15,652
5,520
7,134
$67.09
63.15
66.70
105.44
64.42
112,609
270,738
15,887
4,092
3,788
$61.78
59.61
57.87
Spruce - - 	
98.23
Yellow pine	
59.91
Log Prices
Although there had been indications toward the end of 1965 that the market
demand for logs was falling off, the selling prices in that market did hold until midyear.    However, as already reported, the stockpiling of logs in anticipation of a
 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
strike that did not occur, coupled with the softening in the demand for lumber,
resulted in a significant drop in the prices paid for all species except fir.
The severe cut-back in production resulting from the depressed market should
serve to bring the market back into balance. Although prices were relatively
depressed at year-end, the outlook for 1967 was for much improved conditions.
7966 Quarterly Average Log Prices per M B.M. (Howe Sound Market)
no. :
GRADE
Species
Jan.-Mar.
Apr.-June
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.
Fir	
$67.04
47.74
56.52
48.70
53.58
45.15
$67.51
47.01
56.52
44.06
53.15
43.57
$67.14
45.54
56.84
41.30
53.68
43.34
$63.61
39.86
50.44
44.66
Spruce       	
50.26
42.62
ALL GRADES
Fir 	
Cedar	
Hemlock..
Balsam	
Spruce	
White pine .
$82.79
52.22
58.31
57.74
62.33
50.15
$81.41
52.88
58.46
56.66
65.09
49.35
$82.12
50.33
58.50
56.20
63.86
48.91
$79.55
46.65
51.98
50.90
59.78
48.35
Stumpage Prices
The average stumpage bid for Crown timber, including those sales which were
sold at "salvage value only " rates, was $4.25 per 100 cubic feet. The comparative
average figures for the years 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, and 1965 were $2.53, $3.01,
$3.36, $4.09, and $4.20 respectively.
For sales in the Interior the weighted average stumpage price per 100 cubic
feet was $3.72, up slightly from $3.49 in 1965, with the increase largely the result
of the high fir stumpage prices that developed in the first six months of the year.
The weighted average stumpage price per 100 cubic feet on the Coast fell to
$6.76 from $8.24 in 1965. This reduction must be attributed largely to the drop in
cedar stumpage rates that resulted from the decline in the value of cedar logs on the
market. The average stumpage price for cedar in the Vancouver Forest District fell
from $6.61 to $3.76 per 100 cubic feet, and for the Prince Rupert Forest District
(Coast) from $7.41 to $2.42 per 100 cubic feet.
It is also significant that, effective January 1, 1966, the selling prices used for
stumpage appraisal of species into Prince Rupert, Ocean Falls, Tahsis, and Port
Alice were at the applicable Howe Sound log-market price less $9 per thousand
board-feet, $9.60 per thousand board-feet, $9 per thousand board-feet, and $12
per thousand board-feet respectively. Previously it had been policy to apply the
Howe Sound price directly into those centres. The introduction of these market
differentials for appraisals during 1966 was one of the factors contributing to the
drop in the average stumpage prices bid for the Coast.
The average stumpage price for all species, excluding salvage value only, was
$6.76 for the Coast, down from $8.25 in 1965, and $4.21 for the Interior, up from
$3.81 in 1965.
See Table No. 67 in the Appendix.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966 37
Stumpage Adjustments
The stumpage rates payable for each species on a timber sale or cutting permit
have been subject to adjustment under a sliding-scale formula each time that the
average price of logs or lumber changes by at least 15 per cent from the selling price
on which the last effective rates were based.
There were 4,202 such adjustments during 1966, of which 1,942 were on the
Coast and 2,260 in the Interior. As a result of the general decline in market prices
and the introduction of market-price differentials, all but one of the adjustments on
the Coast served to reduce the stumpage rate payable. However, primarily as a
result of the selling-price surge in the spring, of the 2,260 adjustments made in the
Interior, 2,165 served to increase the rates payable.
As a part of the stumpage pricing procedure for close-utilization sales where
the upset stumpage rate is developed by prorating an appraised rate for the sawlog
component with an arbitrary 55 cents per hundred cubic feet rate for the close-
utilization component, there was provision for stumpage adjustment whenever the
selling price changed by at least $5 from the selling price on which the last effective
rates were based. Effective from October, this new method of adjustment, which is
more sensitive to changes in the market than the sliding scale and provides for a
reassessment of operating costs every two years, is offered on all sawlog timber sales
as an alternative to the sliding scale. On November 1st the new system was offered
to licensees of existing timber sales to give them the opportunity of taking advantage
of the more sensitive adjustment system at a time when selling prices were falling
and costs increasing.
There were 39 downward adjustments as a result of the operation of the new
procedure.
The stockpiling of logs, followed by a softening of the lumber market, had a
noticeable effect on the volume of logs exported from the Province. While the
volume from exportable lands remained constant, the total scale jumped from
58,608,824 board-feet in 1965 to 142,006,411 board-feet in 1966.
PEACE RIVER FLOOD BASIN
As reported previously, all merchantable timber in the flood basin, with the
exception of that in the most northerly and most inaccessible portion, has been sold
under timber-sale contract. Logging operations progressed during the year, and the
total volume scaled for 1966 was 14,890,000 cubic feet.
COLUMBIA FLOOD BASIN
Logging operations in the Mica Dam flood area experienced a very good year
with a total scale of 22,399,000 cubic feet. This was IV2 times the entire cut from
this area to the end of 1965. The total cut at the end of 1966 was 38,341,160
cubic feet. >
The total scale from the Duncan Dam flood area was 2,393,180 cubic feet by
December 31, 1966. Because construction of the dam is roughly a year ahead of
schedule and access to the flood area is difficult, it is doubtful whether much more
timber can be removed.
In the High Arrow flood basin the total scale to December 31, 1966, was
1,097,482 cubic feet. In this flood basin, complete clearing operations now are
being carried out under contracts let by British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, and in some areas this has necessitated the cancellation of timber-sale contracts.
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
39
BARK BEETLES
The spruce and Douglas-fir bark beetle infestations that were posing threats to
the sustained-yield programmes in the Prince George spruce types and the Dry Belt
fir stands have abated, and populations are considered to be normal again.
CLOSE UTILIZATION
On January 1, 1966, the new close-utilization policy, which was designed to
gradually achieve more complete utilization of the forest resource, came into effect.
Timber Sales
By the end of 1966 eight licensees in the Kamloops Forest District held a total
of 56 close-utilization timber sales with nine additional areas under application. In
the Prince George Forest District 13 licensees held a total of 27 close-utilization
timber sales with 64 additional areas under application. In the Vancouver Forest
District there was one close utilization timber sale at year's end with four additional
areas under application. In the Nelson and Prince Rupert Forest Districts there
were no close-utilization timber sales awarded, but a number of applications are on
hand in both districts.
Tree-farm Licences
During the year the annual allowable cuts for six tree-farm licences were revised
on a close-utilization basis. Of the six, two are in the Kamloops Forest District, one
in the Prince George District, and the other three in the Vancouver Forest District.
In addition, four other tree-farm licences located in the Prince Rupert and Vancouver
Forest Districts took out close-utilization permits either for experimental studies or
to gain experience in logging to close-utilization standards.
General
During the year, arrangements were made for co-operative close-utilization
logging studies with three companies—two on the Coast and one in the Interior.
The logging on two of these areas, one each for Coast and Interior, had been completed before the end of the year but not the analyses.
The stockpiling of logs followed by a softening of the market, as mentioned
earlier on this report, undoubtedly affected the expansion of close-utilization operations. However, with improved market prospects for the new year it was expected
that the conversion to a close-utilization basis would pick up. The slow-up in close-
utilization operations is reflected in the increase in the number of barkers and drippers installed by sawmills. In 1965 there were 161 chippers and 144 barkers, an
increase of 64 and 62 respectively from 1964. During 1966, only 22 chippers and
nine barkers were added.
SUSTAINED-YIELD PROGRAMME
Public Sustained-yield Units
The only major boundary change during 1966 occurred in the Prince George
District, where Block 1 of the Bowron unit was incorporated into the Purden, reducing the Bowron unit to the area formerly occupied by Block 2.
One additional area was brought into the sustained-yield programme. This
was the Vancouver Public Sustained-yield Unit covering the previously unregulated
area in the Lower Fraser Valley and extending west to Howe Sound, and including
 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
the Chehalis, Stave, and Pitt Lakes area. The unit has an area of 516,980 acres
with an annual commitment of 8,425,000 cubic feet. As a result of this addition,
there are presently 76 public sustained-yield units in the Province.
Pulp Harvesting Forests
Fourteen additional public sustained-yield units were gazetted as pulp harvesting
forests, bringing the total of 21 at the end of the year.
Tree-farm Licences
The contract for Tree-farm Licence No. 41 was signed on December 15, 1966,
granting to Eurocan Pulp and Paper Company Limited the privilege of managing
on a sustained-yield basis 473,077 acres of Crown productive acreage for a period
of 21 years.
The amalgamation of Tree-farm Licences Nos. 30, 31, and 34 was completed
on August 8, 1966. Negotiations are now under way to amalgamate Tree-farm
Licences Nos. 28, 29, and 30.
The extension to Tree-farm Licence No. 19 was completed on February
14, 1966.
The amalgamation of Tree-farm Licences Nos. 4 and 36 was completed on
December 30, 1966.
The advent of close utilization has necessitated changes in allowable cuts. Six
tree-farm licences now are being managed to close-utilization standards.
SILVICULTURE
The silviculture programme again played an important role in natural regeneration of our forests.
Stand treatment was practised by all forest districts. Stands were generally
treated to attain natural regeneration. The cutting methods most frequently employed were strips, groups, patches, or single seed trees.
All Interior forest districts were active in developing scarification programmes.
In the Prince George Forest District 19,515 acres were scarified, bringing the total
acreage scarified to 69,508 acres. Unfortunately, increased machine hire rates
raised the average cost to $13.16 per acre.
Although scarification normally is carried out to facilitate natural regeneration,
it also is being used now to prepare brushed-in high-site lands for planting.
The results of foliar applications of Polyamidostreptin to control white pine
blister rust have failed to maintain their early promise, and the programme has been
discontinued.
The Forest Management Note series was reprinted, and a further note published, " The Results of Stand Treatment Following Seed-tree Marking in Dry Belt
Fir Types."
SCALING
Coast
Scaling of Coast timber continued under the direction of the Superintendent of
Scaling at Vancouver.
Fifty-nine new scaling licences were issued.
During the year the scale computing and billing procedures were taken to the
I.B.M. 1440 processing unit established in the Vancouver office.
Weight scaling for scale returns to the Department continued at one operation.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966 41
Interior
Scaling of Interior timber continued for the most part in accordance with normal
licensed-sealer procedures, but with a marked increase in the initiation of weight-
scaling stations. At the end of the year the extent of weight-scaling operations in
each forest district was as follows:— Number of
Weight-scaling Per Cent of
Forest District Stations District Scale
Prince Rupert (Interior)      2 (x)
Prince George  17 26
Kamloops   __ 14 18
Nelson     4 25
1 Not compiled.
One hundred and two new scaling licences were issued.
 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
GRAZING DIVISION
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The ranching industry enjoyed a reasonably successful year in 1966. Both
range forage and hay production were generally good. Except in the Peace River
area, the winter of 1965/66 was not severe and feed supplies were generally adequate. On the average, stock came through the winter in good condition and did
well during the subsequent grazing season.
The price of cattle rose appreciably during the year. However, the industry
continues to suffer economic difficulties. Wages, machinery, and material costs
continue to rise. Many ranches are over-capitalized or are too small to form
economic units. Ranching has also penetrated into many areas where physical conditions such as low-quality soil, adverse climate, and lack of range make financial
success an impossibility.
Although the number of cattle on Crown range was again higher, the rate of
increase was considerably less than during the previous five years. With ranges
becoming full, this situation was inevitable. Range-sheep production again dropped
drastically, and use of Crown range by sheep is now insignificant.
Range
A lack of moisture and low temperatures greatly delayed and reduced spring
forage growth throughout the range area. In the most southerly portions, subsequent rains were not sufficient to permit full recovery on low-elevation grassland
ranges and forage production was less than normal. As is to be expected, this was
particularly the case on ranges in poor condition. Summer rainfall was progressively
greater in a northerly direction, and spring ranges in these areas made satisfactory
growth later in the season.
In the south, forested summer ranges at higher elevations were ready for use
at about the normal time, but growth on this type of range was tardy in the north.
However, throughout the range area summer range production was finally at or
above normal with but few exceptions. One such exception was the newly developed
pastures in the Peace River area. Here, weeks of cold, wind, and drought severely
impeded establishment and production on the newly seeded areas. Drastic reductions had to be made in the planned utilization of these pastures. Later recovery
was encouraging, but another season will be required to determine whether they
suffered permanent damage.
Extremely mild conditions persisted until late in the fall and, on the whole,
stock came off the range in excellent condition. Any exceptions appeared to be the
result of poor management or depleted range. As a result of the open fall, stock
were difficult to remove from the range, and in some remote areas strays were still
missing at the end of November.
On the average, losses due to poisonous weeds and predatory animals on Crown
range appeared to be less than normal. Railroad and highway accidents involving
live stock continue to cause concern. The progressive fencing programme being
carried out by grazing permittees with Department of Highways assistance is definitely improving the situation in many areas, but a great deal more fencing is required. Forest Service officers participated in discussions between the Department
of Highways and range users regarding this problem. No disease problems necessitating radical changes in range-use patterns occurred.   However, experience with
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
43
infectious pinkeye on a pasture development project in the Peace River area clearly
indicated that particular diligence is required on improved pastures where grazing
is more concentrated.
Hay
Hay quality suffered to some extent due to summer rains, particularly in the
north. However, quantity appeared to be above average, which, together with the
late onset of cold weather, resulted in adequate feed supplies for the winter of
1966/67.
Markets and Prices
Cattle prices gained appreciably during the year, reaching the highest level
since 1962. The weighted average price received by cattlemen through the British
Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association was $20.74 per hundredweight, compared to $17.30 in 1965, a rise of $3.44. This favourable situation
appeared to be the result of strengthening Canadian demand rather than the export
of beef to the United States, such as has been the case in the past. Prices for sheep
and lambs were also up slightly over 1965 levels.
RANGE MANAGEMENT
The Crown ranges are difficult to manage due to relatively low per acre productivity, rough topography, density of timber, competing land uses, and other factors.
Further, some ranges are in a depleted condition as a result of abuse in the past
when the limitations of natural range were not fully appreciated. A great deal of
skill and effort is required to obtain maximum live-stock production without damage
to the resource and with due regard to associated land uses. Considerable progress
has been made in eliminating destructive grazing practices, but much more remains
to be done even in this purely protective aspect of management. What is needed
in addition is the application of more refined techniques which will result in the
most efficient use and development of the resource. It is encouraging to report that
leaders in the industry are becoming aware of this, and discussions on the subject
were held with a committee of the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association
during the year. It is obvious, however, that an intensive educational programme
is required to convince a large majority of range users of the need for improved
management and to teach them the necessary techniques.
Range inspections were stepped up during the year, and permittees were encouraged to accompany the inspecting officers wherever possible. The resulting
on-the-ground consultations were a major factor in developing range-management
consciousness. However, the amount of this work required is beyond the capacity
of existing staff, and a large percentage of permittees are either unwilling or unable
to participate.
On the basis of range-readiness studies, turnout dates were adjusted on several
ranges. Plans were made for and permittees warned of a two-week delay in turnout
date in the southerly portion of the East Kootenay Valley to be enforced in 1967.
This long overdue step is now considered feasible as a result of improved winter feed
production. Restrictions in stock numbers could not fully compensate for the premature grazing and, in any event, constitute very inefficient range use.
The press of administrative and enforcement duties again prevented a detailed
range survey programme. A new approach to building and maintaining a range
inventory was studied and is to commence on a trial basis in 1967.
 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Range Improvements
During 1966, $80,953.10 was spent from the Range Improvement Fund.
Material to the value of $10,351.34 was on hand at the beginning of the year, and
material valued at $17,268.87 remained on hand and not assigned to projects at
the end of the year. Net assistance to the range-improvement programme from the
Fund was thus $74,035.57, slightly less than the previous year. The abnormally
large inventory of materials at the end of the year was due to the stockpiling of a
supply of steel rails for future cattle-guard construction and the non-completion of
a number of projects for which materials had been purchased.
The following projects, chargeable wholly or in part to the Fund, were constructed or extensively rehabilitated: 22 cattle-guards, 43 drift fences, 1 holding-
ground, 1 meadow improvement, 1 mud-hole fence, 3 pasture developments, 35
stock trails, 21 water developments, 1 weed control, 1 yellow pine thinning, and
numerous range seedings.
Permittees also contributed extensively to most of the projects listed above,
mainly in the form of labour. In addition, the following projects were authorized
for construction entirely at permittee expense: 3 breeding-pastures, 6 cattle-guards,
2 corrals, 43 drift fences, 1 holding-ground, 3 horse pastures, 8 stock trails, and 2
water developments.   This represents a slight increase over the previous year.
The range-seeding programme was slightly increased in 1966, a total of
52,080 pounds of grass and legume seed being used, compared to 49,655 pounds
in 1965. As usual, the bulk of this seed was sown on ground denuded by logging
and other industrial activity on Crown range. Most of the actual seeding was
undertaken by co-operating permittees, with seed, equipment, and supervision being
supplied by the Forest Service. The seeding of depleted grassland using the range-
land drill was continued, with efforts being concentrated in the East Kootenay Valley.
A total of 1,925 acres was drilled, an appreciable increase over the 1,166 acres
treated in 1965. Establishment of dry range seedings is extremely slow, and it is
still too early to assess the results of either the 1965 or 1966 work. However, numerous seedings show sufficient promise to warrant a continuation of this programme.
Observations were made during the year to determine the results of previous
field trials of special practices such as brush spraying, thinning overstocked forest
stands, and fertilization. Several additional fertilizer and spraying trials were set
out. These practices are costly and techniques need to be considerably refined
before they can be applied generally.
Trial fencing was installed in an area of heavy winter snowfall to test the
effectiveness of various designs under these conditions. In a study directed toward
reducing fencing costs, a so-called " suspension " fence was completed during the
year. This fence is comprised of four strands of barbed wire attached to posts at
intervals of up to 100 feet, with twisted wire stays installed at 10-foot intervals.
Costs are definitely lower, and initial observations indicate that this type of construction should be effective in level terrain where icing conditions are not a problem.
Although the present steel-rail cattle-guard deck design is proving very effective,
used rails of suitable weight are becoming progressively more expensive and difficult
to obtain. As a possible substitute, a commercially fabricated deck was imported
from the United States and installed early in the grazing season. Initial observations
are encouraging.
Peace River Pastures
Six developed pastures were in operation during 1966. Three of these contain
a total of 4,800 acres of improved pasture resulting from past clearing, breaking,
and seeding.   Light use was made of a seventh area reserved for pasture purposes
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966 45
but not yet developed. As mentioned earlier, severe drought seriously delayed the
establishment and development of the improved pasture in the Cecil Lake and
Beatton-Doig units, and stock had to be held off the newly seeded areas. This
created a management problem and, owing to the limited natural forage available,
greatly reduced the number of stock which could be accepted. The 600 acres of
already established improved pasture in the Groundbirch unit did not suffer from
drought, produced heavily, and were fully utilized.
Experience has shown that improved pasture requires considerably different
management techniques than native range. For this reason, together with the
critical condition of the newly seeded areas and large investment involved, a pasture
manager was employed for the duration of the grazing season on each of Cecil Lake
and Beatton-Doig units. These men carried out routine maintenance of pasture
facilities and managed the stock while in the pastures. By a prior agreement, the
permittees paid an assessment of 50 cents per head per month, in addition to grazing
fees, for the herding services supplied by the Forest Service. This arrangement
appeared to be satisfactory to both the permittees and the Forest Service and will
be continued on the highly developed units.
Brush regeneration on the developed pastures is causing some concern. This
problem requires further study to find effective and economic techniques for its
control. Hunting within the intensively used pasture units has caused difficulties.
To overcome this, " no hunting " regulations were applied within four pastures
during the period when grazing and hunting would conflict. In general, the restriction of the hunting period to the post-grazing season met with the approval of the
informed sportsmen, and co-operation between the stockmen and hunters was
exceptionally good.
During the year, routine maintenance was carried out on 68 miles of fence,
38 miles of trail, and 3 corrals. New construction included 12 miles of fence, 22
miles of trail, 3 corrals, and 2 stock-watering dugouts. A total of $13,367.31 was
spent on this work.
In 1966, 78 permittees grazed 2,091 cattle and 39 horses within pasture
projects, compared to 59 permittees, 1,919 cattle, and 28 horses the previous year.
The prospect of a much larger increase did not materialize due to a late winter and
spring sell-off occasioned by depletion of winter feet supplies on many farms and
the ensuing drought. However, this is a very temporary situation, and it is anticipated that a rapid increase in demand will occur in the immediate future. This will
be accentuated by the fact that, as a result of land alienation, the pasture projects
are rapidly becoming the only sizeable areas of Crown land remaining for grazing
purposes.
CO-OPERATION
Range live-stock associations continue to be the most valuable medium in
maintaining the necessary liaison between the Forest Service and range users. One
new association was approved during the year under the Grazing Act and regulations.
Preliminary discussions were held with several other groups, and it is anticipated
requests for approval will follow. The boundaries of several existing association
areas were also amended. In all, Forest Officers attended 176 association meetings
during the year. Wherever practical, illustrated talks on range management were
presented at these meetings.
Several matters of industry-wide importance were discussed with the British
Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association. The Forest Service is again indebted
to the British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association for supplying the live-stock price figures necessary for the sliding scale of grazing fees.   The
 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Canada Research Stations at Kamloops and Beaverlodge continued to provide
information helpful in dealing with problems related to natural range and pasture
projects. As usual, grazing officers participated in a variety of events and meetings
associated with the ranching industry. A considerable number of co-operative field
inspections were made and discussions held with several other Government agencies,
notably the Fish and Wildlife Branch, in an effort to resolve conflicts arising from
multiple land use.
ADMINISTRATION
The administration of Crown range continues to become more complex. Fully
stocked ranges, which are now the rule, require intensive management and supervision to ensure that the resource is not damaged. Strong competition for range
use necessitates refinement of allocation practices. The increasing pressure of
associated land uses demands closer attention to ensure a minimum of conflict with
such other uses. Unplanned land settlement, increased highway traffic, and other
similar factors further complicate range administration.
To meet this situation, it has become necessary for the Ranger staff to handle
progressively more of the field work. To enable this staff to operate most effectively,
a field training programme was emphasized during the year. An expanded course
in range management and administration was also given the current advanced class
at the Forest Service training-school. Numerous discussions were held with Lands
Branch personnel with a view to minimizing the impact of land alienation. Several
particularly important range areas were delineated wherein special attention will
be given to this problem.
Grazing Permits
During 1966, 2,244 grazing permits were issued authorizing the depasturing
of 189,286 cattle, 6,572 horses, and 8,970 sheep on Crown ranges. The number of
permits issued and cattle covered is up slightly over 1965. The number of horses
represents a slight decrease, and the number of sheep a sharp reduction from the
previous year.
See Table No. 81 in the Appendix.
Hay Permits
The harvesting of hay from natural meadows on Crown range continues to
decline. This is to be expected as the larger and more productive meadows come
under private control for development, more cultivated hay is produced, and the
remaining meadows are needed for summer grazing. In 1966 a total of 137 hay-
cutting permits was issued authorizing the harvesting of 1,427 tons of hay.
The year marked the end of an era on the Creston Flats where, for the first
time since the commencement of range administration, no hay was cut on Crown
range. Here, hay-cutting had dwindled from a high of approximately 2,500 tons
annually for the above-noted reasons.
Grazing Fees
Except for developed pastures in the Peace River area, grazing fees per head
per month were 17 cents for cattle, 21J/4 cents for horses, and 5V2 cents for sheep.
These fees represent a rise of 1 cent for cattle, 1 Va cents for horses, and one-quarter
cent for sheep over those charged in 1965. As fees are related to prices received by
producers the previous year, the above changes reflect the slight improvement in
market conditions in 1965.
 	
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966 47
For some years a higher scale of fees has been in effect for the fenced and
reserved pastures in the Peace River area. With the coming into production of high-
quality cultivated pasture in some of these units in 1966, a new fee for this type of
forage was instituted. In 1966 the fee per head per month for natural forage was
50 cents for cattle, 62Vi cents for horses, and 12Vi cents for sheep. On cultivated
pasture the fee per head per month was $1 for cattle, $1.25 for horses, and 25 cents
for sheep.   These special fees are not on a sliding scale.
Control and Enforcement
In the interest of the live-stock industry itself as well as the associated resources,
it is essential that authorized seasons of use, numbers of stock, and other necessary
conditions of use be rigidly enforced. The extensive nature of the Crown range
together with an intermingled complex land-ownership pattern make this extremely
difficult. More intensive regulation is required than is practical with existing staff.
To meet this situation as far as possible, numerous stock counts and range inspections were carried out during the year. Considerably more than the average number
of stock grazing in trespass were removed from the range.
 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ENGINEERING SERVICES DIVISION
ENGINEERING SECTION
Development engineering, route reconnaissance, road location, and field investigations connected with Part III of the Forest Act, timber-sale administration, and
district projects continued to form an increasing work load. This increase, both in
volume and complexity of work, necessitated assigning an additional senior field
engineer to each forest district during the field season.
Construction of forest-development roads under the Federal-Provincial Agreement continued during the year. In addition, road maintenance, completion of the
special access road from Upper Campbell Lake to the Gold River townsite, and
continuing site preparation of navigation channels and approaches to the perimeter
of the future lake in the area to be flooded by the Portage Mountain Dam formed a
significant part of the field operations.
Development Engineering and Location
Development engineering studies were concentrated in the Prince Rupert, Kamloops, and Nelson Forest Districts. The drainages or areas covered and the corresponding regulation units are listed in Table No. 91 in the Appendix. Other
specialized studies included assistance to district staffs on engineering aspects of
timber-sale administration and on the problems of joint use of beach areas along
Owikeno Lake required both as log dumps for forest harvest and as fish-spawning
areas.
Road-location survey crews flagged 70.7 miles of line for construction of
low-order protection roads and established 59.3 miles of centre line, complete with
plans and profiles for future haul roads. Map location and design were completed
for another 20.7 miles on the Chilcotin South Forest Road.
The use of air-photo interpretive techniques resulted in a saving in both engineering talents and field time and materially assisted in scheduling field personnel to
obtain site data as required. Priority was given to engineering for projects where
early construction appeared probable.
Road Construction and Maintenance
During the year, construction work was undertaken on nine projects, requiring
the movement of 1,430,000 cubic yards of common excavation and 119,000 cubic
yards of solid rock and the erection of 13 bridges. Although the weather during
the summer months was generally unfavourable for construction, work on the Gold
River, Kispiox River, and Parsnip River projects was completed, and good progress
was made on the South Chilcotin project. Construction was completed on 39 miles
of new road. An additional 12 miles of roadway were completed except for gravel
surface and drainage structures.
The work on the Parsnip River Forest Road extended the loop so that industrial
forest traffic could by-pass the townsite en route to the industrial area. This extension was necessitated by the increasing traffic resulting from industrial and urban
development in the vicinity of Morfee Lake. In addition, construction commenced
on 8.5 miles of the Bench Creek Road under a contract awarded in August.
The continuing resurfacing programme resulted in crushed rock being placed
on several roads as part of the maintenance programme on 888 miles of road.
See Table No. 91 in the Appendix.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
49
General Engineering
Designs, drawings, and specifications were prepared for seven bridges of the
pressure-creosoted glue-laminated timber type. One of these bridges, designed for
a crossing of the Bulkley River on the Suskwa Forest Road, incorporates the longest
single span used by the Forest Service to date. Each of the I-beam girders for this
bridge will be 151 feet long, have a depth of 7 feet 2 inches, and a weight of 25
tons. Specialized investigations included site and materials studies for two possible
earth dams for forest nursery irrigation reservoirs and soil and foundation investigations on several forest roads and bridge-sites.
Site preparation work continued on a further 14,830 acres of navigation channels and shoreline access within the area to be flooded by the Portage Mountain
Dam. This included treatment of 5,679 acres by the Le Tourneau tree-crushers,
3,773 acres by the Department's own crews, and 5,378 acres by contract. In addition, some 1,900 acres of the 5,820 acres treated during 1965 were broadcast-
burned.
BUILDING AND MARINE SERVICES
During the year the Building and Marine Services Section of the Engineering
Services Division was reorganized and provided with additional staff to meet the
increasing work load associated with the design, acquisition, and maintenance of
buildings, trailers, and marine craft.
As a result of the continuing high level of activity in the construction industry,
some difficulties and delays were experienced in obtaining both labour and materials
for work in outlying centres.
In addition to the investigation of new products and preparation of specifications
for materials, fabrication inspections were carried out on structural members for 14
bridges and five buildings.
The Divisional technical library was augmented with the addition of 165 books
and papers.
Building Construction
The major projects for the year included a new utility building and office
renovations at the Forest Service training-school, a new laboratory and office building at the Duncan nursery, additions to existing buildings at the Forest Service
Maintenance Depot, and a warehouse at Kamloops. The first two projects mentioned were nearing completion, and the last two were just under way.
A number of administration and storage buildings for Ranger stations were in
various stages of completion, in addition to residential accommodation for Ranger
personnel. One residence was bought at Gold River to facilitate an early opening
of the new West Coast Ranger District.
Eighty-three contracts for prime and sub-contract work were awarded and 48
other miscellaneous jobs were handled, as well as a continuing load of assessment
and consultation services.
Mobile Accommodation
Three 20-man bunk-house complexes were purchased for Engineering Division
camps, and 10 existing smaller portable buildings were mounted on wheels for
greater mobility.
Four portable buildings and four large house trailers were designed and built
by contract for Engineering Division camps and Ranger staff accommodation.
One truck-borne camper coach was purchased for northern fire patrol work.
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966
51
Marine Activities
To provide accommodation for Engineering Division crews working along the
Parsnip and Finlay Rivers, a complete 20-man floating camp was designed, built,
and delivered to Finlay Forks prior to spring high water. This camp consisted of
a 20-man sectional bunk-house and a cookhouse-diner-office complex mounted on
two sectional barges, each 56 by 30 feet.
In consultation with the Maintenance Depot, engines were purchased for re-
powering two diesel launches and one gasoline launch.
Radar and echo sounders were purchased for three coastal vessels, and additional inflatable life-rafts were provided in the interests of personnel safety.
A number of small craft, including five wood river boats, three inflatable boats,
two aluminum boats, and three deep-vee fibreglass boats were acquired for Ranger
and Engineering Division work.
MECHANICAL SECTION
The 1966 season was notable for a number of increases in various mechanical
categories. It is significant that the number of pick-up trucks, both two- and four-
wheel drive, increased by 29 units, whereas the over-all number of passenger cars
decreased by 10. Increased interest is shown in a two-wheel-drive pick-up truck
with V-8 engine, automatic transmission, limited-slip differential, and fitted with an
aluminum canopy top of cab height. In addition, an electric winch of 6,000 pounds
capacity can be provided. This combination of features in a half-ton truck is helping
to reduce the number of demands for four-wheel-drive.
A demand for trail motor-cycles continues, and the fleet total was increased
by 17.
Another significant and relatively new trend is the apparent success of various
types of snow toboggans. Fifteen more units were purchased this year and are
reported to be a valuable aid in the performance of winter cruising and silviculture
duties.
Power lawn-mowers were added to the list of Mechanical Section responsibilities, and another 29 units were purchased. They will eventually be numbered and
added to the equipment total.
Chain saws continue to be in demand, particularly as present models become
lighter, more powerful, and faster cutting. A total of 117 saws was purchased during
the year.
In the heavy-equipment category, Vancouver Forest District acquired a tandem-
drive grader, Prince Rupert Forest District acquired a four-wheel-drive four-wheel-
steer grader, and Engineering Division replaced a 3-cubic-yard loader with a 4-cubic-
yard unit. In addition, six large tractor units—two in the 3 8 5-horsepower range,
two in the 235-horsepower range, and two in the 150-160-horsepower range—were
purchased for work being undertaken by the Forest Service in the Portage Mountain
Dam flood area. These units were supplied with a variety of equipment, including
hydraulic angling blades, brush rakes, stump splitters, logging winches, etc. The
two largest machines were used with a ball-and-chain arrangement for tree-felling,
and all units had specially reinforced canopies and carried extreme service reinforcement additions to radiators, engine guards, blade ends, corners, and undersides.
Some changes in key mechanical personnel resulted in the loss of a superintendent in each of three districts for a period, but, because of the presence of an
assistant in each case, work proceeded without the disruption experienced under
similar circumstances in the past.
 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Three superintendents attended the three-day mechanical maintenance course
at the University of Seattle in March.
FOREST SERVICE MAINTENANCE DEPOT
Reorganization within the Forest Service Maintenance Depot in 1965 resulted
in consolidation of work forces, and improvements in efficiency and economy of
production were evident in 1966. Work on renovating and extending carpentry,
mechanical, and warehousing facilities to provide more flexible and efficient work
space was commenced late in the year.
Marine Work
The marine ways were occupied 65 times, with 38 complete launch refits and
25 minor refits being carried out. The major projects included the complete rebuilding and re-engining of the " Forest Pioneer," re-engining of three other craft, and
a start on rebuilding and re-engining the former Department of Highways Barnston
Island tug. New construction was highlighted by the launching of the 50-foot Ranger
vessel M.V. "Coast Ranger," which was scheduled to be in service in 1967. Small-
boat construction saw completion of five river boats for distribution to various parts
of the Province. Other work accomplished included repair of 37 river boats, barges,
and small boats, and the preparation for shipment of 12 new small craft.
Prefabrication and Carpentry
Although the Porta-building and trailer overhaul programme was slowed as
other work took priority, 18 Porta-buildings and trailers were rebuilt, modified, or
reconditioned during the year. Four truck decks were built and installed on vehicles,
and 13 backboards and inner boxes were manufactured for pick-up trucks. Other
items produced in quantity included 125 scaling-boards, 20 signs, 10 outboard test
tanks, and 93 pieces of office furniture. Twenty-four desk study units were manufactured and installed at the Forest Service training-school. Added to this work
load were the normal requirements of maintenance of depot facilities, and the repair and reconditioning of equipment boxes and packing-cases.
Mechanical Work
The regular work load in the small-engine repair-shop increased to a new high
with a total of 581 pumps, light plants, outboard engines, and chain saws being
overhauled, crated, and shipped. In addition, 206 new units were tested and shipped
to the forest districts. The machine-shop also produced and assembled items from
castings which included 2,600 pump and valve fittings, 12 log-scale computors, 48
thermometer shields, 6 fire-finders, 4 sets of lightning-arrestors, 150 hose wrenches,
and 924 miscellaneous items such as brackets, handrail fittings, and trailer hitches.
The heavy-equipment shop continued the maintenance and servicing of transport equipment and construction machinery. During the year, 42 vehicles, 2
graders, 2 crawler tractors, and 10 diesel-powered generating sets were overhauled.
Other work included the fabrication of 2 light-plant trailers, a utility trailer, and
a 1,000-gallon fuel tanker, and the assembly of components and accessories on new
and reconditioned machinery.
Depot Maintenance
In conjunction with regular production, a programme of planned renovation
and maintenance projects was completed throughout the depot.   The majority of
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966 53
these projects was completed by contract and included the renewing of the shingle
roofs on three main buildings and repairing of the bonded roof on Building No. 1.
The east dyke was repaired by addition of rock fill, the riprap was relocated on the
shore of launch-storage basin, and a docking-ramp was cleared for the planned
hard-surface slipway. Numerous other jobs were completed by depot personnel,
including rebuilding of floats, marine ways, clearing drain tiles, renewing winch
cables, and general overhaul of plant equipment and machinery. New equipment
was purchased and installed, including a replacement lathe for the machine-shop
and an industrial-type incinerator for the proper disposal of waste products.
RADIO SECTION
One hundred and fifty radio transmitting units of all types were purchased
during the year, compared to 247 during 1965. Of these, 121 were very high
frequency (F.M.), 22 were medium frequency (A.M.) sets, and seven were single
sideband (S.S.B.). The high proportion of F.M. equipment in the total of new sets
is consistent with Department of Transport policy and with the increasing use by
the Forest Service of F.M. mobiles and portables. These two types made up
approximately 70 per cent of the F.M. units purchased.
With an eye to regulations which will eliminate the use of A.M. transmission
in a few years, six single sideband fixed stations were put into operation during the
year in three forest districts and at Victoria. Results to date have been inconclusive,
the improved reliability of S.S.B. being of a degree which scarcely warrants the much
higher equipment cost. As the radio system had expanded faster than maintenance
could be provided, the trend during the year was toward equipment rental on a
seasonal basis, with maintenance included in rental costs. A.M. transmission was
extremely poor at times, but on the whole was not as erratic as had been expected
considering atmospheric conditions. A.M. contact between Victoria and the
Engineering Services projects was maintained, and a reliable F.M. circuit was established between Victoria and Mile 73 on the Parsnip River Road by means of P.G.E.
microwave and Forest Service repeaters.
In the Vancouver Forest District, communication between Hope and Boston
Bar was consolidated, and a new remote installation at Powell River brought the
Ranger station into the F.M. network for the first time. At Campbell River, the
F.M. equipment was remote-controlled at Elk Falls Lookout, extending mobile and
lookout coverage to the north and west. No single-repeater method of connecting
Squamish and Pemberton by F.M. was found, a repeater at London Mountain having
proved inadequate to cover the distances involved.
Prince Rupert Forest District improvements included a power-line to Kitwanga
repeater, and two new repeaters near Smithers and Bella Coola designed to increase
radio coverage in the areas concerned. Previous outages in the locally generated
power at Kitwanga and the impossibility of providing adequate maintenance over
such an extended repeater system had made F.M. point-to-point communication
unreliable. With the Kitwanga power situation corrected and a technician stationed
at Smithers, considerable improvement was experienced during the year, although
some problems remain to be solved.
In the Nelson Forest District the entire F.M. repeater system was revised to
provide trunk communication from Kettle Valley to Golden. Mobiles now can use
the repeater chain to increase their range, one pair of frequencies being common to
all mobiles in the Nelson area. Some conflict in the use of adjacent channels by the
Forest Service and the Department of Highways occurred during the trunk changeover, and, although a temporary solution to this mutual interference was found, the
 Skog Mountain V.H.F.-F.M. repeater, supplying radio coverage to the
Peace River pondage area.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
55
permanent solution has yet to be determined. At Grand Forks and Kettle Valley,
remote-control projects to increase local mobile coverage were nearing completion.
The change to trunk operation in the Kamloops Forest District was completed
during the year, and although mobile coverage has been greatly increased, the
proximity of the various repeaters causes two or more to be turned on at the same
time by mobiles in certain locations. The resulting interference to the received
signal is a problem still to be overcome.
Plans for a repeater chain to connect Fort St. John with Fort Nelson were
abandoned as it was considered impractical to attempt to provide maintenance over
such an extended distance. Instead, with power available at Nel-X Lookout, a
repeater was installed which provides 100 miles of road coverage to mobiles operating in the Fort Nelson area. In place of the repeater chain, Telex was leased to
provide administrative communication to Fort Nelson. Single sideband units were
placed at Fort Nelson and Fort St. James, but reliability proved to be only slightly
greater than with the original A.M. transmission.
In Victoria priority was given to the design of an improved battery-operated
repeater of low enough power consumption to operate continuously from a Thermo
generator. This was completed, and the Thermo generator, a failure in 1965, may
now be considered a practical means of supplying power to sites which are accessible
only by helicopter. Other projects included the trunk repeater change-over at
Nelson, remote-control system design, and proving new commercial equipment.
" Sferics " tests were continued throughout the summer, but data collected had not
been collated.
 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST PROTECTION DIVISION
WEATHER
The 1966 fire season encountered relatively little in the way of significant fire
danger. Apart from a few weeks early in July when the Prince Rupert Forest
District suffered a severe danger, and from late July to early August when the
Southern Interior of the Province had a build-up, there was no prolonged fire
situation.
Lightning activity was not reduced to any extent but, for the most part, was
accompanied by adequate rainfall, which prevented a serious fire problem.
Early in October, cool moist weather over most of the Province made it possible to terminate the close fire season officially on the 10th of the month.
In the Vancouver Forest District, potentially serious fire conditions were restricted to short periods in early May and mid-August. However, the short periods
did not necessitate any forest closures to prohibit travel in the woods.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
As indicated by the weather situation, this past summer produced less than
the average number of fires. The total of 1,967 fires recorded was below the 10-year
average of 2,117. Lightning was again the principal cause, accounting for 19 per
cent of the fires. This was in sharp contrast to the 1965 season, when lightning
accounted for 37 per cent of the fires.   The 10-year average is 36 per cent.
See Tables Nos. 103, 104, and 105 in the Appendix.
Cost of Fire-fighting
Average fire-suppression cost to the Forest Service was $886 per cost fire,
compared with $2,041 the previous year. Total suppression cost for the year was
$1,028,100, of which $700,400 was accounted for by the Forest Service and
$327,700 by other agencies.   This is $1,287,600 less than the 10-year average.
See Tables Nos. 102, 109, and 111 in the Appendix.
Damage
The 54,788 acres of forest-cover burned represented only 12 per cent of the
10-year average of 438,000 acres. The damage to forest-cover was $757,000,
compared with the 10-year average of $3,252,637.
See Tables Nos. 107, 108, and 110 in the Appendix.
PROTECTION PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Statistics
Coding of forest fire data on a three-card-per-fire basis was continued during
1966, in line with the objective of recording all fires back to 1950.
The 1,967 fires occurring in 1966 have been plotted in the Provincial Fire
Atlas, and statistical fire summary data are continued to be recorded in ledger form.
Visibility Mapping
Visibility mapping and lookout photography requirements were down to the
point that no work was undertaken in 1966.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966
57
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks
Following spring testing for acceptable field tolerances, 964 sets of the 100-
gram fuel-moisture sticks were distributed to the forest industry, the Canada Department of Forestry, and the forest districts. The requirements represented an 8Viper-cent increase over 1965.
Co-operation of the Federal Forestry Department's forest products laboratory
at the University of British Columbia in making the kiln and facilities available for
production of the moisture sticks is again acknowledged.
Insect Survey and Control
Survey of the hemlock needle miner (Epinotia sp.) outbreak in the Holberg-
Buck Creek region of North-west Vancouver Island continued as a joint field project
of industry and the Canada Department of Forestry, with British Columbia Forest
Service participation on a cost-sharing basis. Ground and air surveys were carried
out, and preparations made for possible chemical treatment of the infested stands.
However, because of a natural marked decline of population levels, no chemical
treatment was undertaken.
KEY  MAP OF
BALSAM WOOLLY APHID   SURVEY
1965-1966
 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The continuing balsam woolly aphid (Adelges picece) survey was expanded and
extended in 1966 (see map, page 57). The main survey group included 30 persons,
with an additional eight delegated to an intensive survey research project under
Federal Forestry Department direction. The purpose of the general survey was
threefold: to establish the general perimeter of the infestation on the Lower Mainland and Eastern Vancouver Island, to conduct a more intensive survey within this
perimeter to locate and map specific infested areas, and to do some spot sampling
for possible spot infestations beyond the perimeter and in the Interior of the Province. Ground sampling was supplemented by helicopter air reconnaissance. Low-
level stereoscopic photography was employed on an experimental basis, using Ekta-
chrome infra-red and Ektachrome aero colour film, to assess this procedure as a
means of detection of crown attack by the aphid.
This was basically a joint Federal-Provincial programme, with the Canada
Department of Forestry concentrating on research aspects and technical guidance,
and British Columbia conducting the operational survey functions. Co-operation
of the Director of the Forest Research Laboratory at Victoria is acknowledged in
allotting laboratory facilities and office space for headquarters and for staff assistance
and co-operation.
Order in Council No. 460, approved on February 16, 1966, prohibited sale or
movement of balsam nursery stock within the Province, and made provision for
compensation to commercial-plant nurserymen and dealers who elected to release
their stock to the Forest Service. Approximately $23,500 in compensation was paid
in 1966.
Research Projects
The lookout window-tinting, introduced as a test programme in 1964 and 1965,
became fully operational in 1966. Most of the lookouts now are equipped with
tinted windows.   It is anticipated the programme will be completed in 1967.
The " sferics " programme was continued, with two radio detection sets used
to determine the possibility of tracing major lightning-storm systems across the
Cariboo plateau.   Analysis of the data collected is still under way.
The increased emphasis being placed on slash-burning has resulted in increased
attention being paid to burning equipment. An inexpensive drip-torch was produced
in quantity and proved fairly satisfactory, but is being remodelled with a more
durable container. A vehicle-mounted torch is being developed for perimeter burning. The use of remote fire-starting devices was tried with fair success, and various
systems were to be tried in the 1967 fire season. A fertilizer-base long-term fire
retardant was developed for perimeter control, but a field test was not possible
because of delays in the construction of a suitable transport system.
Equipment evaluation continued, with particular emphasis on rations, hose-
handling systems, and weather instrumentation.
After checking with the many individuals who make use of the Fire Prevention
Regulations, with a view to up-dating and modernization, the revised format was
published.   The equipment rental rates also were published in a revised form.
Considerable research was done to eliminate paper-work requirements in such
matters as final fire reporting, weather recording, and property inventories.
Liaison with the increased Federal fire research organization was continued,
and some of the results of this are evident in fire-danger meter research and the
slash-burning programmes.
The co-operation of the supervisory staff of the British Columbia Penitentiary
is acknowledged for the production of high-quality fabrication of specialized equipment, such as the back-pack hose-carrier.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
59
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Fifteen fire-suppression crews of 6 to 12 men each were employed in the three
southern forest districts. In addition, 37 crews of two to four men each were
employed as immediate fire-attack forces at various Ranger headquarters throughout
the Province. Twenty-six of these crews were employed in the northern areas, and
five were employed in areas involving the Columbia River clearing projects. One
suppression crew in the Vancouver Forest District was disbanded and the crewmen
were assigned to various Ranger districts. The savings in overhead make it possible
to increase the number of man-days, and more efficient use of the young men was
evident.
During low-hazard periods the crews were employed on numerous projects and
many assisted in the collection of the heavy cone crop. Generally, the calibre of the
crewmen was good, although it was more difficult to locate good crewmen in the
northern areas where other employment was more attractive. The husband-and-
wife foreman-cook combination continues to be the most satisfactory arrangement
of the suppression crews and will be continued wherever possible.
For an analysis of suppression-crew fire-fighting activities see Table No. 115 in
the Appendix.
AIRCRAFT
Extensive use of aircraft continued during 1966. A total of 40 contract
machines was available for the peak hazard period.
The use of helicopters and air tankers continues to exercise a marked influence
in the early control of fires, resulting in a lower acreage burn than could otherwise
be expected.
Detection has been greatly extended through the use of light patrol aircraft, and
a spirit of co-operation with the lookoutmen has developed to strengthen all detection
facilities.
For statistical information on the use of contract and non-contract aircraft,
see Tables Nos. 113 and 114 in the Appendix.
ROADS AND TRAILS
The programme of road and trail construction and maintenance continued in
a normal manner. As roads and trails are essential to economic fire suppression,
the programme will be continued as funds permit.
See Table No. 116 in the Appendix.
SNAG-FALLING
In the Vancouver Forest District, snags on 3,695 acres were felled. Contract
crews completed 2,262 acres, and the regular Forest Service crew completed 1,433
acres.
SLASH DISPOSAL
Vancouver Forest District
Variable weather conditions in the Vancouver Forest District produced varied
results on the 55,358 acres of logging slash burned by the logging operators. This
acreage was 30 per cent down from the area burned in 1965 but was well above the
10-year average.
 tuttiitykteik,
. JL.
Aircraft play an important part in early suppression of forest-fire outreaks.   Here a Canso
flies low as it demonstrates its fire-extinguishing capabilities.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
61
Some serious escapes occurred in the 1965 slash burns. In 1966 the Forest
Service put more emphasis in the directions for burning, and this together with an
educational programme, reduced the damage due to escaping burns to a negligible
amount.
Because of the weather situation in the late summer and fall, a rather large
carry-over of unburned slash has had to be left for the next burning period in certain
areas.
Interior Forest Districts
Prescribed Burns on Slash, 19661
Forest District
Industry
Forest
Service
Total
Acres
1,804
756
2,218
8,435
Acres
556
3,574
2,041
6,135
Acres
2,360
4,330
4,259
Nelson    - — 	
14,570
Totals 	
13,213
12,306
25,519
1 This was the first year where a concerted effort was made toward eliminating slash created by the logging
industry in the Interior.
Several burns were planted with nursery stock, and others will be planted in
1967. At this stage it is not always practical to have seedlings available in the correct
species and provenance for the individual sites.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
Although 1966 was a somewhat lighter fire season than the 10-year average,
prosecutions under Part XI of the Forest Act increased by one. A total of 31
informations was laid, of which 13, or 42 per cent, were for burning without a permit.
The 31 represented 75 per cent of the 10-year average.
FOREST CLOSURES
There were no forest closures imposed this season under section 122 of the
Forest Act.
 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST SERVICE TRAINING-SCHOOL
The 14th class of advanced trainees (Advanced Course No. 14), consisting of
20 men, graduated on December 16, 1966. Graduates from the advanced course
now total 295.   Graduates from the basic course now total 100.
Subjects covered during the year were as follows:—
Advanced Course No. 14, Spring 1966 (January 6th to April 1st)
Subject Days Allotted
Forest Protection Policies and Procedures  %Vi
Botany  5
Ranger District Organization  6
Dendrology _:  2
Entomology   IVi
Pathology   4
Mathematics   2Vi
Silviculture   9lA
Public Speaking  4
Surveying   6
Business English  3
Wood Technology  2 V2
Inventory Division  1
Engineering Services Division  2V2
Opening, closing, spares  2
Total days 1  62
Physical Training:   Three-quarters of an hour per day.
Advanced Course No. 14, Fall Final, 1966 (September 19th to December 16th)
Subject Days Allotted
Forest Management Policies and Procedures  9Vi
Pre-suppression   4
Scaling (Coast)   14
Scaling (Interior)   1V2
Public Speaking   4
Fire Suppression   3
Vancouver Island Trip  4
Sales and Appraisals  5
Navigation   2
Measurements   5J/2
Grazing  3Vi
Photos  2
Public Information and Education  1
Personnel and Safety  IVi
Opening, closing, spares  1V2
Total days  63
Physical Training:   Three-quarters of an hour per day.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966 63
EXTRA COURSES AND FUNCTIONS
The following extra courses and functions were held at the school:—
Meeting of Forest Service District Administrative Officers and Chief Clerks.—
The school provided room, board, and facilities. A maximum of 16 people was
involved.   April 13 and 14, 1966.
Meeting of Forest Service Management Division.—The school provided room,
board, and facilities. A maximum of 30 people was involved. April 19 to 21,
inclusive.
Course for the Vancouver Forest District Lookoutmen.—The school provided
room, board, facilities, and instruction for this course. Twelve men attended.
April 26 to 29, 1966, inclusive.
Course for Fieldmen of the Forest Service Inventory and Working Plans Division.—The school provided board, facilities, and minor assistance with instruction
for this course. Rooms were supplied to as many as possible. Two-day sessions
for three different groups were held, involving a total of 30 men. May 4 to 13,
1966, inclusive.
Fire-suppression Course for the Corrections Branch, Department of the
Attorney-General.—The school provided board, facilities, and instruction for this
course. Ten men from the Corrections Branch and three men from the Forest
Service took the course.   March 28 to 31, 1966, inclusive.
The remainder of the time was taken up with preparation of courses, administration, selection of students, and maintenance.
The annual examination for Technical Forest Officer 2 was prepared and
marked.
The reading course on the Forest Act was amended to date. Approximately
300 copies each of the Forest Act and mathematics reading courses have been distributed to date.
The staff assisted with instruction at various courses, institutions, and meetings.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to speakers and lecturers, and for equipment provided by the following agencies: Air Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch,
Department of Lands, Forest, and Water Resources; British Columbia Forest
Products Limited; Mr. D. S. Watts, MacMillan Bloedel Limited; Staff Sergeant
W. R. Morrison and members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police detachment
at Cloverdale; Surrey Municipality; and the Forest Entomology and Pathology
Laboratory of the Canada Department of Forestry. Appreciation is also expressed
to lecturers from the Forest Service.
CONSTRUCTION
Renovations to the administration building were completed, including the
enlargement of several offices.
The main classroom was enlarged, and changes now provide space for duplicating and production of course material.
Study units were installed in each of 24 rooms.
A utility building was constructed to provide storage, workshop, and recreational facilities.
 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
FISCAL
The decline in the demand for lumber products during the latter part of 1966
was reflected in the over-all financial return to the Forest Service. Although revenues
were at a record high, over half the increase was due to the inclusion of some items
formerly shown as "offsets " to expenditures. This change resulted from the adoption by the Department of Finance of a gross budget format, which is explained in
more detail below. Actual revenue from forest operations declined sharply in September, compared to the same month in 1965, as the Coast lumber industry felt the
full effects of unfavourable market conditions. This situation continued to the end
of the year, and no improvement was anticipated before the spring of 1967.
The total of amounts charged to logging operations declined by 1.8 per cent to
$49,022,110 (see Table No. 142 in the Appendix), despite the establishment of a
new record in the volume of timber cut. The whole of the decrease resulted from
operations in the Vancouver Forest District, which recorded a drop of 7.2 per cent
from 1965. The other four districts all recorded increases, Prince Rupert leading
with 6.9 per cent, followed by Prince George with 6.1 per cent, Nelson with 2.7
per cent, and Kamloops 1.6 per cent.
Forest revenue reached a new high of $50,348,464, an increase of 5.8 per cent
(see Table No. 141 in the Appendix). However, this total included $212,275 in
recovery of weight-scaling costs and $1,379,936 in payments received from Ottawa
under the Federal-Provincial Forestry Agreement. As indicated above, these items,
comprising over half the increase, were not previously accounted for as revenue.
Timber-sale stumpage, the major source of revenue, rose by 1.4 per cent to
$42,643,936, while timber-sale rentals and fees increased by a substantial 23.8 per
cent. The latter increase was mainly due to the repeal, effective April 1, 1966, of
section 22 of the Forest Act. Timber-licence and timber-lease rentals and fees were
not affected by the repeal, but both increased by 6.9 and 23.9 per cent respectively.
These increases were probably due to payments of arrears as well as current charges
on certain leases and licences. Timber-berth rentals and fees declined 4.4 per cent
as rates remained unchanged and elimination of cut-over areas continued. Timber-
sale cruising and advertising continued to decrease, this year by 31.5 per cent,
as the number of timber sales awarded declined to 1,126 as against 1,146 in
1965. Timber royalties, the second-ranking revenue item, gained considerably at
$3,079,058, a rise of 17.0 per cent from the previous year. This reflected a substantial increase in the cut from lands under timber licences and timber leases,
possibly indicating some segments of the industry were concentrating their operations
on these areas to reduce costs during the current period of difficult financing.
Forest-protection tax collections showed a slight increase of 2.0 per cent to
$570,202, and miscellaneous revenue declined by 10.4 per cent to $245,350, the
latter being primarily due to a reduction in the amount of bidding fees collected.
Grazing fees remained relatively unchanged, increasing by 1.6 per cent to $153,507.
Financial tables on a fiscal-year basis for the period ended March 31, 1966,
also appear in the Appendix (see Tables Nos. 143, 144, and 145), and details of
expenditure can be found in the Public Accounts, published by the Department of
Finance.
The Federal-Provincial Forestry Agreement, under which $1,804,461 is claimable by the Province from Canada, expires March 31, 1967, and official notification
was received in October that the Federal Government did not intend to renew it. It
is believed Provincial funds will be made available to carry on the projects affected.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
65
ADMINISTRATION
As indicated in the financial tables in the Appendix, the accounting volume
dealt with by the Division remained at a high level. In addition, it was necessary to
develop new routines and adjust some current procedures to accommodate changes
in policy introduced by the Department of Finance, the Superannuation Commission,
and the Civil Service Commission, as well as other divisions of the Forest Service.
The latter mainly affected the timber-sale section of the Headquarters Accounts
office, which began to feel the effects of a change made in 1965 in the regulation
governing the sale of Crown timber. The elimination, approved under this change,
of cut-over areas exceeding 160 acres from licences under timber sale required alterations in all pertinent records and recalculation of fixed charges, etc. In addition, a
considerable volume of stumpage adjustments under the sliding-scale formula had
to be dealt with by this section as a result of fluctuations in market prices of forest
products.   District offices were similarly affected by the necessity for such changes.
The integration of contributions under the Canada Pension Plan with those
required by the Provincial Civil Service Superannuation Act put added pressure on
all pay sections in the Service. The necessity of assimilating the requirements of
the plan into already complicated data-processing pay procedures under a tight
close-off schedule, and the many requests for interpretation of the changes by personnel affected, placed a heavy burden on pay clerks.
The survey of office methods begun by the Departmental Comptroller and Chief
Accountant in 1964 was continued, and the Chief Forester approved their recommendation for the appointment of a committee to co-ordinate the use of forms in
the Service as a whole.
On April 13th and 14th senior divisional officers met with district office
Administrative Officers and Chief Clerks at the Forest Service training-school to
discuss all phases of collection policy, accounting problems and procedures, and
related matters of general administration. Visits were also received from the Chief
Forester, the Forest Counsel, and the Personnel Officer, the latter conducting a half-
day's session on personnel procedures. Future meetings will be held at intervals
of not more than three years.
■
3
!
 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
PERSONNEL DIVISION
There were no major changes involving senior personnel in the Forest Service
during 1966, although there was some reorganization of divisions at Victoria headquarters in the interest of economy and improved administration. The Working
Plans Division was incorporated into the Inventory Division early in the year and
was later separated, with the greater portion transferred to Forest Management Division and named the Planning Section. As a result, the responsibility for the calculation of allowable cuts and for analyzing all unregulated areas for possible sustained-
yield units was retained by the Inventory Division. All other functions associated
with the administration and planning phases of public sustained-yield units and tree-
farm licences are now under the Management Division. Tree-farms and farm wood-
lots are also the responsibility of this Division. The Engineering Services Division
was transferred from the Operations Branch to the Services Branch. A general
review was undertaken of the salaries of Technical Forest Officers and Forest Assistants, but at the close of the year the recommendations had not yet been approved.
Curtailment in capital expenditure resulted in no further action to date on the building to house the headquarters of the new Cariboo Forest District.
In the matter of employee relations, there were two complaints from the B.C.
Government Employees' Association, one of which was resolved at the Departmental
level. The other was still under discussion at the year's end. A general salary
increase involving all employees went into effect April 1st.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
The biannual District Foresters' meeting was held in Victoria in January, providing for discussion of common problems throughout the Service, as well as any
others peculiar to a specific headquarters division. Full-scale Ranger meetings
were held at Prince Rupert, Prince George, and Kamloops, and Ranger Zone meetings were held in Nelson and Vancouver Forest Districts. The Forest Nursery
Superintendents met to discuss common problems, as did the Regional Research
Officers and the District Reforestation Officers. The Administrative Officers and
Chief Clerks from all districts met at the Forest Service training-school with the
Departmental Comptroller, Chief Accountant, and Personnel Officer. District
Management Foresters and District Protection Officers both held meetings in Victoria with their counterparts at headquarters.
The Personnel Officer and Assistant Personnel Officer took part in several
vocation-day programmes at high schools in the Victoria area, and other Forest
Officers took part in similar programmes in other areas throughout the Province.
The Department was represented again on the annual programme of instructive
interviews for graduating secondary-school students sponsored by the Victoria
Chamber of Commerce and the then National Employment Service. Forest Inventory and Engineering Services Divisions held their usual pre-field season instruction
programmes for summer field staffs, as well as pre-season meetings of professional
staff. Four employees were selected for Class 11 of the Public Administration
Course under the Executive Development Training Plan, and three employees—one
forester, one engineer, and the Assistant Radio Superintendent—graduated from
Class 8 and received their Diplomas in Public Administration. Class 3 of the correspondence course in Basic Public Administration commenced in the fall, and the
Forest Service was represented by two employees from Vancouver and one from
Prince George.   Three employees from the Forest Service graduated in the spring
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966 67
from Class 2 of this course. Field staff continued to take industrial first-aid courses,
and several employees in Victoria took advantage of the St. John Amulance courses
in first aid sponsored by the Civil Defence Organization. Informal training continued for junior foresters and junior engineers.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment of the Forest Service was increased
from 881 to 884, an increase of three positions of Technical Forest Officer 3, which
resulted in the establishment of new Ranger Districts at Gold River in the Vancouver
Forest District, Kitimat in the Prince Rupert Forest District, and Tatla Lake in the
Kamloops Forest District.
During the year 160 persons obtained Civil Service appointments and 140 left
the Service. Four Forest Service 25-year certificates and badges were earned.
Eight employees were guests of the Provincial Government at a luncheon where they
were awarded certificates for 25 years' continuous government service. There were
13 retirements and 81 transfers of permanent staff. Sixteen graduate foresters and
one engineer left the Service, while eight graduate foresters and one engineer were
hired.
Turnover of Civil Service appointed staff, including full-time casual staff, was
12.4 per cent, exactly the same as in 1965. The greatest disruption was suffered in
the Prince Rupert Forest District at 19.0 per cent, closely followed by Prince George
at 16.7 per cent. Kamloops was next at 13.0 per cent, followed by Victoria headquarters at 12.4 per cent, Vancouver District at 11.4 per cent, and the Vancouver
Scaling Office at 10.7 per cent. Nelson Forest District was again the lowest at 4.5
per cent.
Professional-staff turnover rose from 6.7 per cent in 1965 to 9.1 per cent in
1966. Technical-staff turnover dropped from 6.8 to 6.4 per cent, but technical staff
employed on a temporary continuous basis on authority delegated by the Civil Service Commission had a turnover of 41.3 per cent, with Vancouver and Prince George
Forest Districts suffering the greatest disruption with 82.6 and 67.9 per cent respectively. The office staff once more suffered the largest turnover, with Prince Rupert
and Prince George Forest Districts again being hardest hit with a turnover of 38.4
and 30.4 per cent respectively. Kamloops and Vancouver Forest Districts were
close behind with 25.7 and 22.2 per cent respectively. More than half of those
leaving were reported to have left for better salaries.
In the matter of discipline, one employee was released by Order in Council.
One other employee was suspended with intent to dismiss, but the suspension was
later lifted and the employee continued on staff. There were 13 disciplinary suspensions for minor infractions of rules and safety regulations. No annual statutory
increases were withheld.
There were more than 800 written applications for employment processed by
the Personnel Office, in addition to those handled by the district offices and divisional
staffs. Promotional examinations were held by the Civil Service Commission for
draughtsmen and mapping assistants, to the advantage of a number of employees.
Oral examinations were held at panel interviews to fill 35 positions. The Personnel
Officer and Assistant Personnel Officer participated in the filling of 135 other positions. Three hundred and seventy-eight candidates sat for the annual spring examination for Technical Forest Officer 1, and 150 qualified for 65 vacancies. After all
vacancies were filled, a substantial list of eligible candidates remained to be referred
to any subsequent vacancies.
 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
CLASSIFICATION, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Classification reviews were requested for 77 positions. At the end of the year
58 had been approved, 13 rejected, and 6 were still under review. The establishment of a 1440 data-processing system to handle log computing and billing for
Coast scaling was established during the year, and a review of the new organization,
including some proposed reclassifications, is still awaiting action from the Classification Section of the Civil Service Commission. A new organization, including some
revision of plant at the Forest Service Maintenance Depot, is also the subject of a
review expected to take place early in 1967. A review was expected of the salaries
of Forest Agrologists and Mechanical Supervisors, but these had not yet taken place
at the end of the year. A review of the radio staff resulted in the establishment of
a new grade of Radio Technician 3 to cover the highly specialized research and
development work carried out by some of the headquarters radio staff at Victoria.
Twelve employees were registered as professional foresters and two as professional engineers. Working conditions remain somewhat the same as in previous
years with no major changes, but a constant effort is being made to improve these
conditions where possible.
There was some improvement in the accident-prevention record, with a total
of 326 accidents, of which 139 were time loss, as compared to 382 accidents in
1965, of which 169 were time loss. Of the 139 time-loss accidents, 12 were charged
to fire suppression and 13 to temporary tree-planters and cone-collectors. This
makes a total of 114 time-loss accidents for regular staff, a significant increase over
the total of 87 for the same group in 1965. The one fatal accident involved a summer employee, who was drowned in the Peace River while swimming unaccompanied. A near miss occurred when a helicopter struck an unmarked cable and two
employees were injured sufficiently seriously to cause their absence of 29 days in
one case and 31 in the other.
There was some improvement in the time-loss accident frequency per million
man-hours, which was 25.9, as compared to 31.1 in 1965. The time-loss accidents
were 42.6 per cent of the total accidents, as compared to 44.3 per cent in 1965.
On the brighter side, it should be noted that both Prince George and Nelson Districts
each won a bronze award of merit for going the required amount of time for their
staff without having an accident involving a time loss of more than three days.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
69
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1966
(As of December 31st)
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
F. S. McKinnon --------       Deputy Minister of Forests
L. F. Swannell - - Chief  Forester
J. S. Stokes -       - Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations
I. T. Cameron -------        Assistant Chief Forester i/c Services
Staff Division Heads:
Cooper, C.   ---- Forest   Counsel
Hicks, W. V.        --------        Departmental Comptroller
Park, S. E. Director, Public Information
McKeever, A. E.      Personnel Officer
Operations Branch Division Heads:
Phillips, W. C. -------        Forester i/c Protection Division
Hughes, W. G. -------    Forester i/c Management Division
Pendray, W. C. -        -        Director, Grazing Division
Robinson, E. W. Forester i/c Forest Service Training-school
Services Branch Division Heads:
Young, W. E. L. -        -        -        -        -    Forester i/c Forest Inventory Division
Silburn,   G. -------    Forester i/c Reforestation Division
Spilsbury, R. H.   -        -        -        -        -       -        - Forester i/c Research Division
Greggor, R. D.     -        -        -        -        -        Forester i/c Engineering Services Division
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver Forest District
H.  B.  Forse
J. A. K. Reid
District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Lorentsen, L. H. (Chilliwack); McArthur, E. J. (Hope); Wilson, R. S. (Harrison Lake)
Nelson, J. N. (Mission); Mudge, M. H. (Port Moody); Neighbor, M. N. (Squamish)
Chamberlin, L. C. (Sechelt); Northrup, K. A. (Pender Harbour); Hollinshead, S. B
(Powell River); Hannah, M. (Lund); G. Stefanac (Thurston Bay East); Archer, W. C.
(Sayward); vacant (Echo Bay); Moss, R. D. (Port McNeill); Teindl, A. J. (Port Hardy);
Brooks, T. (Campbell River); Antonelli, M. W. (Courtenay); Norbirg, H. (Parksville
Howard, W. G. (Nanaimo); Sykes, S. J. (Duncan); Bertram, G. D. (Ganges); Jones, R. W.
(Langford); Thomas, R. W. (Lake Cowichan); Haley, K. (Alberni); Doerksen, H. G.
(Torino); Gill, D. E. (Pemberton); de Hart, D. E. (Gold River); Doerksen, V. J. (Chatham
Channel).
Prince George Forest District
N. A. McRae
Young, W.
District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Ward, J. G. (McBride); vacant (Valemount); McRae, M. A. (Prince George East);
Meents, T. G. (Prince George North); Brash, W. E. (Fort St. James); York, G. H.
(Quesnel); Barbour, H. T. (Dawson Creek); Amonson, D. A. (Aleza Lake); Graham, G. W.
(Vanderhoof); Espenant, L. G. (Fort St. John); Griffiths, P. F. (Fort Fraser); Gibbs, T. R.
(Summit Lake); Doerksen, D. B. (Fort Nelson); Magee, G. E. (Prince George); Wallin, D. F.
(Hixon); Hewitt, E. W. (Quesnel); Rohn, K. (Quesnel); McQueen, L. (Chetwynd);
Magee, K. W. (Hudson Hope).
 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Kamloops Forest District
A. H. Dlxon - -- District Forester
Boulton, L. B. B.        -        -        - Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Hopkins, H. V. (Lumby); Ivens, J. H. (Birch Island); Wittner, D. J. (Barriere); Cameron, A. G. (Kamloops South); Craig, V. D. (Chase); vacant (Salmon Arm); Jones, G. G.
(Sicamous); Berard, R. K. M. (Lillooet); Kuly, A. (Vernon); Scott, E. L. (Penticton);
Baker, F. M. (Princeton); Petty, A. P. (Clinton); Paquette, O. (Williams Lake); Donnelly, R. W. (Alexis Creek); Hewlett, H. C. (Kelowna); Noble, J. O. (Ashcroft); Pearce, F.
(Merritt); Lynn, J. F. (Blue River); vacant (Enderby); Schmidt, J. T. (100 Mile North);
Weinard, J. P. (Kamloops North); Wanderer, J. (Horsefly); Monteith, M. E. (100 Mile
South); Perry, W. R. (Tatla Lake).
Prince Rupert Forest District
H.   M.  Pogue       -.- District Forester
Lehrle, L. W. Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Quast, H. W. (Ocean Falls);  Anderson, W. R. (Queen Charlotte City);   Hamilton, H. D.
(Prince Rupert);  Gorley, O. J. (Terrace);  Reiter, D. (Kitwanga);  Harvie, T. (Hazelton);
Pement, A. R. (Smithers);  Simmons, C. F. (Telkwa);  Dodd, G. F. (Houston);  Mould, J.
(Pendleton Bay);  Mastin, T. (Burns Lake); Weinard, R. H. (Bella Coola);  Jones, W. H.
(Southbank);   Waldron, W. C. (Lower Post),;   Jaeger, J. F. (Topley);   Hawkins, R. M.
(Kitimat).
Nelson Forest District
J. R. Johnston ...- District Forester
Isenor, M. G.     -       - -       -       Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Taft, L. G. (Invermere); Humphrey, J. L. (Fernie); Anderson, S. E. (Golden); Gierl, J. B.
(Cranbrook East); Ross, A. I. (Creston); Allin, G. B. (Kaslo); Benwell, G. L. (Lardeau);
Robinson, R. E. (Nelson); Jupp, C. C. (New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Nakusp); Wood, H. R.
(Castlegar); Reid, E. W. (Grand Forks); Uphill, W. T. (Kettle Valley); Cartwright,, G. M.
(Canal Flats); Benwell, W. G. (Arrowhead); Loomer, I. M. (Edgewood); Russell, P. F.
(Elko); Webster, G. R. (Spillimacheen); Hamann, L.O. (Cranbrook West) ; Thompson, H. B.
(Beaverdell);  Bellmond, C. N. (Salmo);  Jackson, R. C. (Revelstoke).
   REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966 73
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
THE REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
TABLE Research Division
No. Page
11. Tabulation of Research Projects Active in 1966  76
12. Research Publications, 1966  77
Reforestation Division
22. Summary of Planting, 1957-66  78
Public Information and Education Division
31. Motion-picture Library, 1957-66  79
32. Summary of Coverage by School Lecturers, 1957-66  80
33. Forest Service Library, 1957-66 , _  81
Forest Management Division
47. Summary of Basic Data for Tree-farm Licences (Private Sustained-yield
Units )  8 2
48. Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-farms (Private Sustained-yield
Units)  83
49. Summary of Basic Data for Farm Wood-lot Licences (Private Sustained-
yield Units)  8 3
50. Summary of Basic Data for Public Sustained-yield Units  83
51. Value Added by Manufacture, 1957-66  84
52. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.), 1957-66 .„  85
53. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during Years 1965
and 1966:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  86
54. Species Cut, All Products, 1966:  (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet.  87
55. Total Scale, All Products, 1966 (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts):  (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  88
56. Timber Scaled in British Columbia during 1966 (by Months and Forest
Districts)  8 9
57. Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty and
Stumpage, 1957-66, in Thousands of Cubic Feet  90
58. Number of Acres Operating under Approved Annual Allowable Cuts,
1957-66  91
59. Total Scale of All Products from Areas Operated under Approved Annual
Allowable Cuts, 1957-66  92
60. Logging Inspections, 1966  93
61. Trespasses, 1966 - . 1  94
62. Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
Land Act, 1966 ■  95
 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table
No. pAGE
63. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1966  95
64. Timber-sale Record, 1966  95
65. Competition for Timber Sales Awarded, 1966  96
66. Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1966  97
67. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Timber Sales during 1966, per C CF. Log Scale  98
68. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Saw-timber on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits Issued in 1966_ 99
69. Timber Cut and Scaled from Timber Sales, 1966  100
70. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1966  101
71. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1966  102
72. Shipments of Poles and Other Minor Products, 1966  102
73. Summary of Export of Minor Products for Province, 1966  103
74. Timber Marks Issued, 1957-66  103
Grazing Division
81. Grazing Permits Issued, 1966  103
Engineering Services Division
91. Forest Road Programme, 1966  104
92. Forest Service Mechanical Equipment, 1966  105
Forest Protection Division
102. Reported  Approximate  Expenditure  in  Forest  Protection  by  Other
Agencies, 1966  105
103. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1966  106
104. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1966  106
105. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last 10 Years  106
106. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1966  107
107. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1966 .  108
108. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1966—Parts I and II
 108,109
109. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1966 110
110. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last 10 Years  110
111. Fires Classified by Forest District and Cost per Fire of Fire-fighting, 1966 111
112. Prosecutions, 1966  112
113. Contract Flying, 1966 „  113
114. Non-contract Flying, 1966  113
115. Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities, 1966  114
116. Construction of Protection Roads and Trails, 1966 _ .  114
117. Summary of Snag-falling, 1966, Vancouver Forest District  114
118. Summary of Logging Slash Reported in 1966, Vancouver Forest District 115
119. Acreage Analysis of Slash Disposal Required, 1966, Vancouver Forest
District  115
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
75
120. Analysis of Progress in Slash Disposal, 1966, Vancouver Forest District 115
121. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1966, Vancouver Forest
District  116
Training-school
131. Enrolment at Advanced Course, 1946-66  116
132. Enrolment at Basic Course, 1962-66  117
Accounting Division
i
141. Forest Revenue,  1962-66  117
142. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1966  118
143. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1965/66.___ 119
144. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1965/66  120
145. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1965/66  120
146. Scaling Fund ;  120
147. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  121
148. Peace River Power Timber Salvage  121
Personnel Division
151. Distribution of Personnel, 1966	
122
 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(W TABULATION OF RESEARCH PROJECTS ACTIVE IN 1966
Experimental
Project No.
Title
Region
474
476
478
479
480
482
485
502
513
528
541
549
554
570
571
580
581
585
589
590
591
594
599
602
603
606
607
613
614
616
618
619
623
625
629
630
632
633
635
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
655
Inbreeding Experiments with Douglas-fir  	
Pollination Techniques for Douglas-fir	
Phenotypic Selections in Open-grown Douglas-fir	
Plus-trees Selection for Douglas-fir Seed Orchards.	
A Co-operative Seed Provenance Study of Douglas-fir..
Climate and the Altitudinal Distribution of Conifers	
Classification of Lodgepole Pine Sites	
Plantation Trials  	
Intra- and Interspecific Crosses within the Genus Pseudotsuga..
Influence of Time on the Effectiveness of Scarified Seed-beds....
Natural Nurseries  	
Spacing Trials...
Thinning Experiments in Douglas-fir..
Sitka Spruce Spacing Study-
Trials of Tree Species and Initial Spacing on the West Coast of Vancouver Island
Site Preparation to Induce Restocking of Lodgepole Pine Sites in the West Kettle
Co-operative Planting Study of 2+0 Douglas-fir culls—
Plantation Studies.
A Study of Douglas-fir Planting Stock on High Site Lands Subject to Dense Plant
Cover	
Compatibility of Grass and Tree Seeding..
Regeneration Study in Cut-over Lodgepole Pine Stands	
Brush Control, Coastal British Columbia— -_ - — - -	
Problem  Analysis:     Approach   to   Provenance   Experimentation   in   Coastal
Douglas-fir      -	
Lodgepole Pine Problem Analysis .
Study of Some Hand-planting Methods in White Spruce-
Direct Seeding of Douglas-fir and Engelmann Spruce	
Ponderosa Pine Spacing Trials.   —
Western Hemlock Spacing Study..
The Use of the Herbicide Tordon to Control Bracken	
Study of Regeneration Problems in Decadent Hemlock-Cedar Stands..
Cone Crop Periodicity in Spruce, Nelson Forest District— —
Douglas-fir/Engelmann Spruce Planting Study, 1963„
The Growth Behaviour of Interior Spruce in the Nursery _	
The Survival and Initial Growth of Various Types of Douglas-fir Planting Stock .
Classification of Soil Capability for Forestry 	
Lodgepole Pine Cleaning Study-
Exploratory Direct Seeding Trials in the Wet Belt Type of the Southern Interior .
Western Hemlock Planting Trials   — 	
Direct Seeding on a Scarified Area.
Seed Dispersal and Natural Regeneration in the Columbia Forest Zone-
Seeding Trials      	
Regeneration and Reforestation Practice.
Requirements of Douglas-fir Seedlings for P, K and Mg   — 	
Dry Matter Production and Growth Periodicity in Four Western Species...	
Nursery Experiment with Different Nitrogen Sources  	
Nutrient Analysis in Plantation Trees  -   —■
Bullet Planting with Douglas-fir, Preliminary Trial, 1965  - -
Variation in Nutrient Concentration within and between Trees, and Estimation
of Nutrient Uptake
Field Test of 40 Provenances of White and Engelmann Spruce	
Investigation of Factors Influencing Pollen Production in Douglas-fir:
of Growth Regulators upon Reproductive Bud Initiation 	
Grafting in Douglas-fir  _ — 	
White Spruce Stock Comparison Study	
Direct Seeding on a Control Burn _   	
Seed Dispersal Study..
1, Effect
Measurement of 2+0 Douglas-fir Dormancy  	
Determination of Fertilizer Amendments for White Spruce  at  Red Rock
Nursery    	
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Prince Rupert.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Prince Rupert.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Kamloops.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Prince Rupert.
Kamloops.
Prince Rupert.
Prince Rupert.
Nelson.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Prince Rupert.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
77
(12)
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS,  1966
Armit, D. (1966): Silvics and Silviculture of Lodgepole Pine in the North-Central Interior of
British Columbia.   B.C. Forest Service Research Note 40.
Fraser, A. R., and Kovats, M. (1966): Stereoscopic Models of Multivariate Statistical Data.
Biometrics 22:2:358-367.
Illingworth, K., and Clark, M. B. (1966): Planting Trials with Ponderosa Pine in British Columbia.   B.C. Forest Service Research Note 41.
Orr-Ewing, A. L. (1966): Inter- and Intraspecific Crosses in Douglas-fir. Silva; Genetica
15:4:112-126.
Roche, L. (1966): Variation in Lodgepole Pine with Reference to Provenances Planted in Great
Britain and Ireland.   Journal of Forestry 39:1:30-39.
Sprout, P. N.; Lacate, D. S.; and Arlidge, J. W. C. (1966): Forest Land Classification Survey
and Interpretations for Management of a Portion of the Niskonlith Provincial Forest, Kamloops, B.C.   B.C. Forest Service Technical Publication T60.
van den Driessche, R., and Wareing, P. F. (1966): Dry Matter Production and Photosynthesis
in Pine Seedlings.   Annals of Botany 30:120:673-682.
 (1966): Nutrient Supply, Dry Matter Production and Nutrient Uptake of Forest Tree Seedlings.   Annals of Botany 30:120:657-672.
Papers
10th Meeting, Committee on Forest Tree Breeding in Canada, Vancouver, 1966
Heaman, J. C.: Selection, Propagation and Seed Orchard Establishment Phases of the Douglas-
fir Breeding Programmes of the B.C. Forest Service.
Orr-Ewing, A. L.:  Breeding Pseudotsuga in Coastal British Columbia.
Roche, L.: Spruce Provenance Research in British Columbia.
Western Society of Soil Science, 1966, Seattle, Wash.
Keser, N., and Rowles, C. A.:  Soil-Tree Relationships.
 78
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
FOREST SERVICE LIBRARY,  1957-66
81
Classification
Items Catalogued and Indexed
rt a T
£<2
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
45
266
109
155
214
1,417
48
177
159
133
230
1,139
43
142
165
130
302
1,502
39
123
200
115
274
999
31
92
135
134
375
878
29
113
140
151
378
911
23
191
110
151
370
1,165
30
146
92
151
380
1,263
41
158
73
151
419
1,371
31
207
60
151
422
1,476
36
Government reports and bulle-
162
Other bulletins and reports
124
142
336
References indexed	
1,212
 82
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
83
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS
(48) (PRIVATE SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Tree-farms within Tree-farm Licences
Number
of
Tree-farms
within
Tree-farm
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Mature
Volume
(MCu.
Ft.)
Estimated
Productive
Capacity
(MCu.
Ft.)
District
Mature
Immature
N.S.R.
and
N.C.C.
Total
Vancouver.	
Prince George	
11
1
2
89,027
123
815
177,921
702
3,977
30,208
429
330
1                    1
297,156 |     335,218  |     398,473
1,254 j         1,280 [           331
5,122 |         5,951 |         5,881 '
21,392
37
1150
Totals	
14
89,965
182,600
30,967
303.532 1     342.449 1     404.685
21,579
Not Included within Tree-farm Licences
Vancouver	
23
9
139,792
91,408
1
251,645 |
182,158
1
42,205
4,944
433,642
278,510
461,545
472.297
1,132,497 1       30,094
194.545 1         4.052
Totals 	
Grand totals...
| (1,685,724) |(1,158,200)
32
231,200
433,803 |
47,149
712,152
933,842 ] 1,327,042 [       34,146
[(1,685,724)1(1,158,200)
46
321,165
616,403 |
1
78,116
1,015,684
■
1,276,291  | 1,731,727 |       55,725
1                    1
Figures in parentheses are Christmas trees.
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
W (PRIVATE SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
District
Number
of Farm
Wood-lot
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Total Mature Volume
(M Cu. Ft.)
Allowable
Annual
Cut (M
Cu. Ft.)
Crown
Private
Total
Crown
Private    Total
Vancouver „   .
15
6
15
5
6
2,105
1,923
3,425
1,614
1,697
277
475
193
146
777
2,382
2,398
3,618
1,760
2,474
3,293
4,188
3,840
1,960
2,599
4,242
2,508
6,327
1,525
il,331
145    1    4,387
133    |    2,641
105    |    6,432
18    j    1,543
280    |    1,611
89.6
41.2
Prince George	
112.3
Kamloops.     	
Nelson 	
36.0
34.7
Totals 	
47
10,764
15,880
15,933
681     |   16,614
313.8
(SO)  SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR PUBLIC SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS
Forest District
Number of
Units
Productive Area (Acres)
Mature
Total
Productive
(Including
N.S.R. and
N.C.C.)
Total Area
(Including
Non-forest)
(Acres)
Mature
Volume to
Close-
utilization
Standards
(M Cu. Ft.)
Annual
Commitment
(M
Cu. Ft.)
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert (Coast)	
Prince Rupert (Interior)..
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson .	
Totals.
6
4
7
22
23
14
76
3,300,492
3,352,888
5,488,489
13,603,506
7,290,896
2,593,981
35,630,252
1,365,564
261,968
3,075,851
12,312,454
5,126,826
3,864,333
9,127,113
27,561,027
10,465,762 | 21,364,769
4,792,863 I    8,492,169
10,187,028
11,699,421
14,076,337
39,228,995
28,529,898
14,071,376
32,274,472     75,536,237
117,793,055
I
26,736,4481 | 151,476
23,253,1961
23,001,0102
41,639,5762
20,910,2512
10,323,8312
145,864,312
42,268
51,467
214,543
127,735
67,335
654,824
1 Volume 9.1"4-d.b.h. to close utilization.
2 Volume 7.1"+d.b.h. to close utilization.
 84
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING THE YEARS 1965 AND 1966 IN F.B.M.
(Conversion factors: Coast—6 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.)
(53A) (All products converted to f.b.m.)
Forest District
10-year
Average,
1957-66
1965
1966
Increase
Decrease
Net
Increase
3,816,797,385
517,647,025
4,489,965,270
659,941,062
4,668,599,676
790,161,720
178,634,406
130,220,658
Prince Rupert (C.) 	
...
..
Totals, Coast  ...
4,334,444,410
5,149,906,332
5,458,761,396
308,855,064
308,855,064
309,234,857
950,550,779
1,214,817,655
703,133,606
402,968,493
1,210,468,621
1,358,088,653
908,545,897
427,750,251
1,265,723,608
1,349,400,220
939,828,243
24,781,758
55,254,987
8,688,433
31,282,346
Totals, Interior	
3,177,736,897
3,880,071,664
3,982,702,322
111,319,091
8,688,433
102,630,658
7,512,181,307
9,029,977,996
9,441,463,718
411,485,722
	
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING THE YEARS 1965 AND  1966 IN CUBIC FEET
(Conversion factors:  Coast—6 f.b.m. =il cu. ft.;  Interior—5.75 f.b.m.='l cu. ft.)
(53B) (All products converted to cubic feet.)
Forest District
10-year
Average,
1957-66
1965
1966
Increase
Decrease
Net
Increase
636,132,897
86,274,504
748,327,545
109,990,177
778,099,946
131,693,620
29,772,401
21,703,443
	
Prince Rupert (C.)	
722,407,401
858,317,722
909,793,566
51,475,844
51,475,844
	
53,779,975
165,313,179
211,272,636
122,284,105
70,081,477
210,516,282
236,189,331
158,007,982
74,391,348
220,125,845
234,678,299
163,448,390
4,309,871
9,609,563
	
Kamloops	
1,511,032
	
5,440,408
Totals, Interior.	
552,649,895
674,795,072
692,643,882
19,359,842
1,511,032
17,848,810
1,275,057,296
1,533,112,794
1,602,437,448
69,324,654
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
87
(S4A)        SPECIES CUT, ALL PRODUCTS, 1966, CONVERTED TO F.B.M.
Forest District
Fir
Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
1,257,787,032
30,363,642
909,481,878
128,635,380
70.966.518
510.912
1,613,391,348
338,777,010
699,582,714
75,019,026
25,260,924
Prince Rupert (C.)
196,693,908]            74,418
Totals, Coast—
1,288,150,67411,038,117,258
267,660,426]          585,330
1,952,168,358|   774,601,740]     25,260,924
Prince Rupert (I.)
Prince George   	
6,883'|     35,195,566
125',016,667[       4,991,851
713,417,594|     54,289,068
143,043,290|   110,181,937
121,239,032]     90,480,448
826,680,714|   263,814,266
312,639,293|   122,871,675
349,243,972      39,835,621
105,602,08S|     68,945,467|            44,125
296,257|     40,3'80,738j          288,840
32,852,217|     47,065,941|       9,488,132
107,975,110]     77,016,828]     22,128,214
Totals, Interior
981,484,434]   204,658,422
l,609,8O3,011|   517,002,010
246,725,669]   233,408,974]     31,949,311
Grand totals
2,269,635,10811,242,775,680
1
1,877,463,437|   517,587,340
[
2,198,894,027jl,008,010,714
1
57,210,235
Forest District
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
58,632
56,657,112
6,579,432
77,952
5,069,148
16,074,846
23,254,026
4,668,599,676
Prince Rupert (C.)
4,445,538
790,161,720
Totals, Coast-
58,632
61,102,650
6,657,384
21,143,994
23,254,026|5,458,761,396
|
40,359
156,693
542,852
50,175
6,196,286
4,097,582
315,612
427,750,251
...1 ...    ...
1,265,723,608
46,757,580
8,457,042
9,160,256
81,394,729
	
1,349,400,220
939,828,243
Nelson 	
	
.....      _
501,325
55,214,622
90,554,985
790,079
11,110,805
3,982,702,322
	
	
Grand totals.	
55,273,254
61,102,650
90,554,985
7,447,463
32,254,799
23,254,026 9,441,463,718
(54B)
SPECIES CUT, ALL PRODUCTS,  1966, IN CUBIC FEET
(Conversion factors: Coast—6 f.b.m.=:l cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.-=l cu. ft.)
Forest District
Fir
Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert (C.)
209,631,172
5,060,607
151,580,313
21,439,230
11,827,753
32,782,318
85,152
12,403
268,898,558
56,462,835
116,597,119
12,503,171
4,210,154
Totals, Coast...
214,691,779]   173,019,543
44,610,0711           97,555
325,361,393|   129,100,290|       4,210,154
Prince Rupert (I.)_
Prince George	
Kamloops. 	
1,197
21,742,029
124,072,625
24,877,094
6,120,968
868,148
9,441,577
19,162,076
21,085,049
143,770,559
54,372,051
60,738,082
15,735,730
45,880,742
21,368,987
6,927,934
18,365,5801     11,990,516|              7,674
51,523]       7,022,737|             50,233
5,713,429|       8,185,381|       1,650,110
18,778,280|      13,394,231]       3,848,385
Totals, Interior
170,692,945|     35,592,769
279,965,741]     89,913,393
42,908,812]     40,592,865|       5,556,402
Grand totals	
385,384,724|   208,612,312
1
324,575,812]     90,010,948
1
368,270,205]   169,693,155|       9,766,556
I                       1
Forest District
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
9,772
9,442,852
740,923
1,096,572
12,992
844,858
2,679,141
3,875,671
778,099,946
Prince Rupert (C.)
	
	
131,693,620
Totals, Coast..
9,772
10,183,775
1,109,564
3,523,999
3,875,671|   909,793,566
	
Prince Rupert (I.)
       ']	
7,019
27,251
94,409
8,726
1,077,615
712,623
74,391,348
220,125,845
234,678,299
163,448,390
.    .1	
	
	
Kamloops	
8,131,753
1,470,790
1,593,088
14,155,605
54,889
87,187
Nelson	
.     .     .     .....
Totals, Interior
9,602,543]
15,748,693
137,405
1,932,314
     „|   692,643,882
Grand totals
9,612,315
10,183,775
15,748,693
1,246,969
5,456,313
3,875,671 il ,602,437,448
1
 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN 1966 IN F.B.M.
<S5A)        (SEGREGATED BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Timber licences .—
Timber berths	
Timber leases	
Pulp leases  	
Pulp licences  _.
Farm wood-lots	
Timber sales  	
Pulp timber sales	
Tree-farm licences	
Beachcomb, trespass....
No mark visible	
Miscellaneous	
Sub-totals, Crown
lands	
Federal lands	
Crown grants—
To 1887  _	
1887-1906	
1906-1914	
1914 to date	
Totals 	
1,075,247,232
86,693,526
186,083,508
79,572,684
19,862,010
29,844
1,126,352,418
108,319,884
I I I
15,897,962|     13,252,479| 26,272,613]1,238,990,170
35,354,838
37,447,020
587,897,376
41,086,050
193,302,882
2,539,896
320,543,982
242,148,528
12,374,718
1,709,567
287,957,481
112,141,595
52,869,899
457,861 125,051
1,028,230,956    910,073,355
31,791,8771 	
80,852,860|  87,099,977
 1   	
6,184,303
27,841,425
24,336,432
3,398,667,426
756,188,970 407,992,946
36,659,309
113,252
506,006,658
248,894,155
8,791,946
176,222,734
186,083,508
114,927,522
57,309,030
2,435,575
4,179,164,850
31,791,877
1,359,034,491
41,086,050
193,302,882
82,068,720
1,185,072,941)1,087,757,193 826,737,933 7,662,417,409
18,922,776
1,098,604,470
48,536,262
13,205,622
90,663,120
13,859,664     2,193,907
78
6,586,602
4,529,484
8,996,922
163,754
4,330,670
13,068,974
2,367,0571 34,924,672
I
330,895] 51,018,761
663,6941 23,806,794
6,825,146| 48,722,499
70,463,875| 103,170,301
1,525,774
12,676,255
51,601,224
9,522,776
37,764,281
4,668,599,676 790,161,720]427,750,251
I
1,265,723,60811,349,400,220[939,828,243
I
73,793,850
1,162,630,459
131,358,330
87,136,197
324,127,473
9,441,463,718
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN 1966 IN CUBIC FEET
(SEGREGATED BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
(55B) (Conversion factors:  Coast—16 f.b.m. = 1 cu. ft.; Interior-H5.75 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.)
Land Status
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Timber licences—	
Timber berths j,—
Timber leases .._'..v—
Pulp leases —'.—
Pulp licences	
Farm wood-lots 	
Timber sales	
Pulp timber sales	
Tree-farm licences	
Beachcomb, trespass—
No mark visible	
Miscellaneous	
Sub-totals, Crown
lands	
Federal lands	
Crown grants—
To 1887.  _	
1887-1906  —
1906-1914  —
1914 to date 	
Totals _	
179,207,872
14,448,921
31,013,918
13,262,114
3,310,335
4,974
187,725,403
18,053,314
5,892,473
6,241,170
53,423,997
297,316
50,079,562
97,982,896   40,358,088
6,847,675
32,217,147
423,316     2,062,453
19,502,886
566,444,571
3,153,796
183,100,745
8,089,377
2,200,937
15,110,520|
1,075,531
126,031,495
70,955,295
2,309,944
13
1,097,767
754,914
1,499,487
381,549
28,479
753,160
2,272,865
778,099,946 131,693,620] 74,391,348
I
2,764,863
79,628
178,822,775
5,529,022
14,061,367
4,841,987
206,099,642
411,662
2,304,779
9,194,765
4,569,150
6,375,532
21,748
158,273,627
19,696
88,001,158
15,147,822
43,285,940
4,232,423|    1,529,034
206,899,978
30,019,218
31,013,918
19,154,587
9,551,505
423,362
716,326,522
5,529,022
230,338,999
6,847,675
32,217,147
14,164,744
I
189,175,164|143,780,510 1,302,486,677
6,073,856]       265,352
57,547 8,872,8281 2,204,566
115,425 4,140,312] 8,974,126
1,186,982| 8,473,478| 1,656,135
12,254,587| 17,942,661| 6,567,701
220,125,8451   234,678,299]163,448,390 1,602,437,448
12,596,159
194,235,699
22,445,486
15,025,606
55,647,821
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966
89
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VOLUME OF WOOD REMOVED UNDER RELOGGING AT REDUCED ROYALTY
(S7) AND STUMPAGE,  1957-66, IN THOUSANDS OF CUBIC FEET
(1957-63—Vancouver Forest District only.   1964-66—Vancouver and Prince Rupert Forest Districts.)
Salvage Wood Salvage Wood
Year (MCu. Ft.) Year (MCu. Ft.)
1957  3,663 1962  2,580
1958  1,427 1963  3,217
1959  1,257 1964  5,224
1960  1,976 1965  6,987
1961  1,813 1966  6,135
Ten-year average, 1957-66: 3,428 M cu. ft.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
LOGGING INSPECTIONS, 1966
93
Type of Tenure Operated
Number of Inspections Made
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Leases, Licences, Crown
Grants,
and Other
Tenures
Total
Timber
Sales
Other
Tenures
Total
1,057
728
1,431
1,704
646
1,559
460
2,119
1,453
583
2,616
1,188
3,550
3,157
1,229
3,414
2,710
6,425
3,509
2,535
3,378
518
971
2,856
1,853
6,792
3,228
7,396
6,365
4,388
Totals, 1966	
5,566
6,174
11,740
18,593
9,576
28,169
Totals, 1965	
6,231
6,514
12,745
17,869
6,365
24,234
Totals, 1964	
6,557
6,560
13,117
17,789
13,311
31,100
Totals, 1963	
6,926
7,168
14,094
18,021
7,189
25,210
Totals, 1962 	
7,079
6,645
13,724
18,602
6,353
24,955
Totals, 1961	
7,088
6,463
13,551
18,330
6,242
24,572
Totals, 1960_ ~
7,249
5,120
12,369
(!)
(!)
26,151
Totals, 1959	
6,273
4,898
11,171
(!)
(!)
26,912
Totals, 1958	
5,936
4,341
10,277
(!)
C1)
23,802
Totals, 1957	
7,503
5,940
13,443
(!)
(!)
25,253
Ten-year average, 1957-66
6,641
5,982
12,623
	
26,036
i No breakdown made prior to 1961.
 94
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95
AREAS EXAMINED BY THE FOREST SERVICE FOR MISCELLANEOUS
(62) PURPOSES OF THE LAND ACT, 1966
Forest District
Applications for
Foreshore Leases
Applications to
Purchase
Miscellaneous
Totals
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Vancouver	
11
10
156
69
~ 3
~92
5
1
46
5
16
14
202
166
Totals	
21
225
3
92
6
51
30
368
(63)
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES, 1966
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MC.F.)
Pit-
props,
Poles,
and Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cord-
wood
(Cords)
Car Stakes.
Ties, Posts,
Shakes,
Etc.
(No.)
Vancouver	
366
173
209
187
63
46,816
54,326
89,593
73,958
96,328
142,155
88,302
197,074
83,582
168,373
59,000
73,000
162,100
1,545,000
1,835,000
4,297
16,992
3,046
1,340
235,044
461,700
15,000
Kamloops —-
125,500
Totals, 1966	
998
361,021
679,486
3,674,100 |   25,675
837,244
Totals, 1965	
1,357
496,254
951,995
2,650,400 |     7,616
987,100
Totals, 1964 -	
1,709
661,821
1,107,428
2,944,004 |    25,154
478,520
Totals, 1963	
1,862
716,699
1,165,976
3,887,525 |    32,519
656,680
Totals, 1962	
1,871
615,500
921,710
18,508,084 |    19,340
564,865
Totals, 1961      	
1,892
720,144
1,027,243
7,687,920 |    14,798
1,419,285
Totals, 1960   	
2,122
767,351
1,142,479
8,807,614 |    29,050
1,419,179
Totals, 1959	
2,317
681,550
877,370
7,387,960 |    27,753
1,151,275
Totals, 1958 	
1,922
609,563
890,285
8,772,888 |   24,316
1,181,149
Totals, 1957 	
2,582
781,748
1,171,283
16,099,489 |    39,254
1,244,342
Ten-year average, 1957-66	
1,863
641,165
993,525
8,041,998 f   24,547
993,964
(64)
TIMBER-SALE RECORD, 1966
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total
Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest-
protection
Tax (Acres)
Total
10-per-cent
Deposit
Vancouver	
293
135
158
175
65
560
232
299
350
186
1,336
859
1,037
1,442
573
526,460
361,500
603,741
897.771
503,716
333,461
531,233
859.423
$5,883,482.15
1,617,136.18
Prince George	
2,648,611.85
3,559,848.09
Nelson	
563,204              529,403
2,044,907.23
Totals... -	
826
300
1,627
5,247
2,952,676
2,757,236
$15,753,985.50
1,126
	
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ri
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5
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VpmTtrtCSrtQONCOt-
vovovovovovpvpmmm
Cfl      Cfl      CO      tfi
rtrtrtrtrtctinrtrtrt
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966
101
W
O
g
1—1
>
O
Oh
W
a
P
o
GO
3
hJ
O
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3
Q
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Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
es cs
l
(N
p-
S
oo   m   cs
Ov
c>
CO     P*    rt
■n
eS
rt   vp   ov
Tf
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CS     CO    CS
m
1
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1
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c>
OV
vp   OA   Tt
Os
p-
vp   CJ\   ©
©
a
1
TH
s
3
o
Z
Q
3
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
co co vp cs m
Tt  CO  Tf  ©  rH
rH co Ov-rt m
i
rt
1
m   ©   P-
rt    Ov    rt
©   Tt   cN
rt
vq
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CO
f- tr **t
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o\  q h
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CN
co"
co"
co" Tt   co"
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5
r/i
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CO CN Ov cN OO
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P-      VP     Tf
Tf
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p-
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m
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CS
3
Tf
Tf
mmm
m
»n
tn   tn   tn
m
SB
M
mated
t-hour
aily
acity,
B.F.
VO  rH
VO  rt
CJ\ O
CN CS
CS
g
©COrt
co   ©   0v
vp   ©   m
p-
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m
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co   Tf   On
8
tr-
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3
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tj-
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6
5
m   vo   oo
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m
SO
vp    vp   CO
vp   in   m
m
3
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CO
3
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1    1
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m
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8 la
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OV          CN  Tf  rt
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m p- cn vo Ov
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9,20
1,84
6,33
6,33
3,00
CN
5
vp   e
O    CO
cs
CO
CO    C
OV
Estim
Eight-
Dai
Capai
MB
■S
SO
oo   c
oo" c
O    CS
jv  co"
©
oC
Tt
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CN    v
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5 JC   *£
vp   vp
$1 $
vp  vp   m   i
ON    ON
ON    Ov    Ov
1-1  "  "~*   rt h
Cfl               tfi              tfi               tfi              tfi              &        gC
t
a
2 3
c3  *rt  *rt
rtrt   ra   ca   rt   i  bo
5
c
o   o
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0    0    0    0    O    <u   ra
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88
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Z
 102 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(71) EXPORT OF LOGS (IN F.B.M.),  1966
Species
Grade
No. 1
Grade
No. 2
Grade
No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir     	
83,712
4,457,903
3,359,209
743,471
6,371,381
12,493,088
5,904,760
44,256
1,168,236
597,547
1,073,901
14,318,198
20,551,255
39,016,302
17,282
6,869
199,078
814,956
435,745
1,918,366
Cedar
25,154,351
36,602,630
1,104,499
46,840,517
15,445,570
15,881,315
2,480
729,932
127,120
9,591,307
548
3,963
174,404
11,493,438
7,236
7,236
13,296
3,323,311
3,934,154
Totals, 1966	
9,751,031
27,322,739
88,001,394
15,452,806
1,478,441
142,006,4111
Totals, 1965	
3,355,224
10,766,201
35,846,770
8,625,979
14,650
58,608,824
Totals, 1964    '	
3,748,377
14,590,533
30,789,610
3,740,863
84,834
52,954,217
Totals, 1963 	
3,468,986
16,149,811
62,790,210
10,274,991
107,529
92,791,527
Totals, 1962 - 	
3,773,734
11,215,447
46,151,663
13,143,092
696,436
74,980,372
Totals, 1961  	
9,216,534
28,611,982
48,009,763
12,202,800
3,311,119
10,352,198
Totals, 1960.	
1,391,803
5,351,398
20,872,330
11,805,419
890,260
40,311,210
Totals, 1959 	
486,685
2,601,653
19,608,208
3,999,901
1,839,030
28,535,477
Totals, 1958	
734,991
3,727,452
16,164,689
3,715,124
3,762,411
1 28,104,667
Totals, 1957-  	
524,180
3,987,443
22,016,291
5,625,910
3,421,354
35,575,178
Ten-year average, 1957-66...
3,645,155
12,432,466
39,025,093
8,858,688
1,560,606
65,522,008
i Of this total, 44,092,921 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege;
97,913,490 f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas.
(72)
SHIPMENTS OF POLES AND OTHER MINOR PRODUCTS,  1966
•duct
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
Forest District and Pre
Canada
United
States
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles       	
 lin. ft.
5,500,442
1,701,771
22,986,180
18,464
2,722
4,593,537
3,265
1,755
375,385
58,455
17
285,466
2,510,516
69,232
50,000
992
1,215,538
324,720
$3,187,030.50
404,482
4,090,895
1,005,065
Piling.	
921,635.90
1,915,515.00
46,160.00
816.60
1,745,544.06
3,036.45
1,105.65
120,123.20
14,613.75
680.00
171,279.60
1,256,322.00
2,077.00
1,500.00
34,720.00
850,877.00
32,472.00
"108,247
5,400
1,255,545
22,980,780
18,464
2,722
2,756,122
3,265
337,979
Prince Rupert—•
Cedar poles  -
Prince George—
Cedar poles  	
Piling.	
Kamloops—■
Cedar poles 	
lin. ft.
lin. ft.
lin. ft.
1,837,415
1,755
149,905
46,935
14
11,511
1,265,915
69,232
225,480
11,520
3
273,955
1,244,601
50,000
357
1,033,207
324,720
Posts  	
Christmas trees	
cords
 pieces
Nelson—
Poles and piling	
Corral rails 	
lin. ft.
Fence-posts	
Christmas trees 	
Shake blanks -  	
cords
.—.pieces
635
182,331
	
$10,305,508.71
$8,862,926.97
	
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
103
(73)
SUMMARY OF EXPORT OF MINOR PRODUCTS FOR
PROVINCE, 1966
Product
Quantity
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
Poles   !   lin. ft.
Piling             „
10,472,629
1,703,526
2,568,971
69,232
50,000
22,986,180
324,720
1,519,468
2,722
1,009
$5,055,734.21
922,741.55
1,270,935.75
2,077.00
1,500.00
1,915,515.00
32,472.00
1,068,316.60
816.60
35,400.00
49.0586
8.9539
12.3325
Corral rails            —                                        .    „
0.0201
0.0146
Cedar shakes  pieces
Shake blanks   _    „
18.5873
0.3151
10.3665
0.0079
Fence-posts                                                                                rords
0.3435
	
$10,305,508.71
100.0000
(74)
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED, 1957-66
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
10-year
Average,
1957-66
Old Crown grants	
Crown grants, 1887-
1906 _ 	
Crown grants, 1906-
1914                 	
320
108
97
460
59
1
7
23
2,239
74
1
215
93
93
362
89
7
9
1,900
80
7
	
299
103
125
524
108
9
21
1,926
85
1
315
115
123
517
116
1
4
15
2,136
113
1
268
121
121
470
117
3
4
8
2,141
91
5
300
150
164
589
109
9
12
20
1,991
90
5
2
313
125
161
608
141
13
12
18
2,183
97
356
148
164
672
149
7
9
27
2,281
121
328
150
172
649
133
8
14
24
1,614
153
3
341
130
144
679
63
3
10
27
20
1,126
117
12
4
306
124
136
Section 58, Forest Act..
Stumpage reservations
Pre-emptions	
Timber berths 	
Indian reserves 	
Section 24, Forest Act.
553
108
5
9
19
2
1,954
102
3
1
Special marks and
rights-of-way	
Pulp leases	
Pulp licences  	
Totals....-	
3,389
2,855
3,201
3,456
3,349
3,441
3,671
3,934
3,248
2,676
3,322
Transfers and changes
615
598
669
794
691
809
725
802
740
908
735
(81)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED, 1966
•
Forest District
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,280
484
434
6
147,048
22,540
19,468
230
3,788
1,139
1,615
30
7,754
Nelson 	
1,051
165
1966                                   	
2,244
189,286
6,572
8,970
1965                              	
Totals,
2,218
188,339
6,677
12,509
1964 	
2,104
173,677
6,231
22,478
1963  	
Totals,
1,951
158,840
5,860
25,366
Totals,
1962 	
1,924
146,830
5,007
23,370
1961                 -	
1,825
132,749
4,985
21,309
I960                                  	
1,726
127,148
4,504
19,460
1959                 	
1,683
124,425
4,377
20,604
1958 	
Totals,
1,571
122,489
4,169
20,927
1957                                   	
1,640
128,978
3,886
20,693
 104 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(91) FOREST ROAD PROGRAMME, 1966
Project
Regulation Unit
Reconnaissance
Location
Construction
Vancouver Forest District
Quadra P.S.Y.U...	
Miles
15
4
15
60
~54
7
10
20
33
21
12
~38
27
67
80
53
3
11
30
22
Miles
9.6
Miles
Kingcome P.S.Y.U	
Nootka P.S.Y.U	
Soo P.S.Y.U	
Skeena P.S.Y.U	
Gold River—          	
1          0.6
2.3
17.4
Prince Rupert Forest District
Hecate P.S.Y.U	
Hecate P.S.Y.U 	
Skeena P.S.Y.U	
_...._
4.9
Ootsa P.S.Y.U	
Skeena P.S.Y.U. 	
13.2
Prince George Forest District
Moberly P.S.Y.U	
Parsnip P.S.Y.U.
9.1
17.2
7.5
11.9
8.5
20.7
11.8
3.0
Longworth P.S.Y.U	
Purden P.S.Y.U -	
Parsnip West F R.
Finlay P.S.Y.U	
7.5
Kamloops Forest District
Barton Hills P.S.Y.U 	
Barton Hills P.S.Y.U _	
Stum P.S.Y.U	
Chilcotin South F.R.
9.2
Similkameen P.S.Y.U _	
Okanagan P.S.Y.U.	
Big Bar P.S.Y.U	
Yalakom P.S.Y.U	
Botanie P.S.Y.U	
Okanagan P.S.Y.U _ _
Okanagan P.S.Y.U 	
Galena F.R   	
3.5
7.0
3.8
10.7
3.8
0.5
4.0
2.0
Title White-Rig Meadow F.R.
North Thompson P.S.Y.U	
Okanagan P.S.Y.U "	
Barton Hills P.S.Y.U	
Sugar Lake F.R	
Spallumcheen P.S.Y.U	
Fernie P.S.Y.U	
Upper Kootenay P.S.Y.U	
Cranbrook P.S.Y.U..   ..
Nelson Forest District
Creston P.S.Y.U	
Lardeau  	
Edgewood ...
Upper Kootenay P.S.Y.U	
Upper Kootenay P.S.Y.U	
White River
Totals, 1966 programme  	
Previous works    	
582
4,861
150.7
2,333.1
39.0
918.5
Totals, forest road programme, 1950-66
5,443
2,483.8
957.5
F.R.=Forest road.
P.S.Y.U.=Public sustained-yield unit.
 (92)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966
FOREST SERVICE MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, 1966
105
Type
Total
Units,
Jan.1,
1966
Removed
from
Service
New
Purchases
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1967
Sedans  	
Station wagons and sedan deliveries -	
Panel deliveries   _ 	
Four-wheel-drive passenger types_	
Four-wheel-drive pick-ups and panel deliveries...
5,000-10,000 G.V.W. pick-ups, J4 and 1 ton.....
14,000-24,000 G.V.W. trucks; 2, 3, and 4 tons ..
24,000-40,000 G.V.W. heavy-duty trucks	
Fire-fighting tank trucks	
Total vehicles _	
Trail motor-cycles _	
Tractors    	
Snow and muskeg tractors (peronnel-carriers)..
Snow toboggans—various types	
Graders 	
Scrapers—self-propelled —	
Scrapers—not self-propelled —
Shovels—power   ...   	
Loaders—self-propelled 	
Outboard motors 	
Fire-pumps—various   	
Fire-pumps—portable tanker -	
Bean fire-fighting units—high pressure 	
Borate mixer pumps  _ 	
Pumps—Water supply 	
Chain saws  	
Lighting-plants 	
Lawn-mowers—power- 	
Speeders—railway 	
Trailers—low and high bed 	
Trailers—dwelling and bunk-house 	
Trailers—miscellaneous	
Air compressors _. —	
Range-land drill .... 	
Rock drills—gas-powered  	
Crushing plant   	
Mechanical wheelbarrows 	
Welders   	
Cement mixers _ 	
Augers—power, planting  	
Snowploughs—walking  	
Rollers—compaction..	
Fork-lift trucks 	
51
106
75
131
284
196
55
5
2
905
93
39
9
5
20
4
2
3
5
416
760
125
34
13
77
434
109
12
13
8
168
289
15
1
8
1
20
12
7
3
1
2
23
16
25
45
28
7
3
5
10
15
26
64
48
5
6
149
179
1
30
43
1
29
5
6
3
19
12
15
2
1
48
47
13
9
118
5
29
1
9
39
1
12
54
93
74
132
303
216
53
935
110
46
9
20
20
4
2
3
5
434
764
137
34
13
86
523
109
35
10
9
177
322
15
1
15
7
3
1
6
2
REPORTED APPROXIMATE EXPENDITURE IN FOREST PROTECTION
(102) BY OTHER AGENCIES, 1 1966
Expenditures
Forest District
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
Vancouver	
$109,661
210,622
2,565
2,600
44,515
$455,018
104,345
59,830
22,600
105,141
$114,200
120,887
22,452
35,865
34,318
$144,803
28,692
17,760
16,800
24,047
$823,682
464,546
102,607
Kamloops    _
Nelson —	
77,865
208,021
Totals	
$369,963
$746,934
$327,722
$232,102
$1,676,721
Ten-year-average, 1957-66	
$334,438
$534,276
$436,676
$322,615
$1,628,005
i Principally forest industry.
 106 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(103) FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS, 1966
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver   —
Prince Rupert	
1
3
119
1
13
23
14
18
19
84
42
91
160
58
58
25
51
123
22
74
89
62
109
108
128
27
22
121
167
43
4
11
■83
69
1
-
14
402
210
258
639
458
20.4
10.7
13.1
32.5
23.3
Totals    	
24
87
435
279
442
465
210
25
1,967
100.0
Per cent 	
1.2
4.4
22.1
14.2
22.5
23.6
10.7
1.3
100.0   1
Ten-year average,
1957-66	
33
91
315
311
666
516
155
30
2,117
1.6
4.3
14.8
14.7
31.5
24.4
7.3
1.4
100.0
.
(104)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES, 1966
Forest District
.3
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3
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cj cd
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cd
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21
41
61
124
127
57
37
30
66
40
9
11
10
23
117
97
12
18
98
56
36
21
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19
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21
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26
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2
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31
23
80
55
11
2
7
4
12
402
210
258
639
458
20.4
10.8
13.1
32.5
23.2
Totals ...         	
374
230
170
281
156
149
101
164
14
292
36
1,967
100.0
19.1
11.7
8.7
14.3
7.9
7.6
5.1
8.3
0.7
14.8
1.8
100.0
	
Ten-year average,
1957-66	
764
224
115
257
88
121
43
161
38
251
55
2,117
	
Per cent	
36.1
10.6
5.4
12.1
4.2
5.7
2.0
7.6
1.8
11.9
2.6
100.0
	
(105)    NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE LAST 10 YEARS
Causes
1957 I  1958
I
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963     1964
1965    1966
Total
Lightning..
Recreational (campers, etc.)
Railroads operating	
Smokers
Brush-burning (not railway or right-
of-way clearing)	
Range-burning_
Road, power-; telephone-, and pipeline construction 	
Industrial operations (logging, etc.) —
Incendiary_
Miscellaneous known causes .
Unknown causes  _	
Totals -
307 i 1,150
170 I   296
85      162
182      478
65
48
46
107
22
172
45
1,249
120
131
18
246
53
310
94
184
172
88
211
75
190
30
204
34
253
33
1,166
241
245
257
82
87
36
137
54
271
59
1,426
269
154
336
86
179
36
194
49
290
83
615
182
41
162
60
62
35
109
25
183
62
1,144
221
65
220
82
95
24
141
62
250
41
3,058
1,474
2,635
3,102
1,536   2,345
277
144
51
129
66
79
11
81
45
178
59
1,120
1,000
315
89
310
89
193
89
223
24
309
44
374
230
170
281
156
149
101
164
14
292
36
2,685 |1,967
7,643
2,240
1,150
2,566
881
1,213
426
1,606
382
2,508
556
21,171
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
107
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 108 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(107) DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS, 19661
Forest District
Forest
Products Cut,
Logs,
Lumber,
Etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert _
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
$17,344
39,429
120
15,000
181
$6,300
2,500
3,450
8,500
$18,270
47,631
400
$15
1,870
1,032
2,310
$41,929
89,560
5,840
24,532
2,491
Totals.
$72,074
$20,750
$66,301
Percent —	
Ten-year average, 1957-66-
Per cent	
43.9 |
12.6
40.3
$101,454
$35,351 |  $184,252
3.2 1
100.0
$25,487 [  $346,544 |
29.3
10.2
53.2
7.3
100.0
25.5
54.5
3.6
14.9
1.5
$5,227 |       $164,352 |      100.0
i Does not include intentional slash-burns (for this item see Table No. 121).
(108)
DAMAGE TO FOREST-COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES,
1966—PART li
Merchantable Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
Net
Stumpage
Loss
Net Area
Killed
Present
Value
Vancouver 	
Acres
55
333
2,229
578
310
M Cu. Ft.
126
801
1,105
871
603
M Cu. Ft.
15
592
306
6
534
$
9,152
3,928
19,981
11,535
2,927
Acres
67
686
21,958
1,714
690
$
2,324
17,082
620,202
26,467
11,705
Kamloops  	
3,505
3,506
1,453
47,5232
25,115
677,7802
6.4
100.0
41.4
6.3
45.8
89.5
Ten-year average, 1957-66
62,037
93,606
30,733
1,530,645
63,862
1,381,964
14.2
100.0
32.8
47.0
14.6
42.3
1 Does not include intentional slash burns (for this item see Table No. 121).
2 The dollar value of losses in merchantable and immature timber represents only stumpage loss to the
Crown. Actual payroll loss to the Province is 10 times these figures.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1966
109
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113
(113)
CONTRACT FLYING, 1966
Fixed-wing Aircraft
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Vancouver 	
Smithers and various	
335
Super Cub and various	
Otter, Cessna, Super Cub, Beaver-
Beaver, Cessna, Super Cub	
Beaver, Apache	
1,220
1,176
Kamloops	
Nelson   	
Kamloops, Kelowna, and Williams Lake-
Nelson 	
1,443
479
Total	
4,653
Helicopters
Forest District
Base
Type of Helicopter
Hours Flown
Vancouver	
Vancouver and Campbell River 	
Smithers 	
Prince George and Fort St. John  _
Kamloops , 	
Nelson and Cranbrook	
Hiller	
Hiller	
Hiller..	
Bell G3B               	
316
409
1,075
527
Bell, Hiller 	
511
Total	
2,838
Air Tankers
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Prince George	
Smithers...    	
Prince George    	
Kamloops and Kelowna	
Cranbrook	
8
258
Prince George	
Kamloops 	
Nelson	
Canso	
Avenger, Cessna  —
Avenger, Cessna	
115
403
205
Total	
989
(114)
NON-CONTRACT FLYING, 1966
Fixed-wing Aircraft
Forest District
Reconnaissance
Transportation of
Men and Supplies
Water Bombing
Total
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
15
82
149
7
32
$735
2,050
8,868
222
1,437
7
134
23
13
114
88
$46,040
36,832
15
203
371
30
45
$735
$1,900
9,537
1,559
812
49,990
55,237
1,781
2,249
Totals	
285
$13,312
177
$13,808
202
$82,872
664
$109,992
Helicopters
Vancouver	
4
2
$477
195
85
35
—--
	
	
4
35
$477
Prince George   	
$11,197
	
11,392
3,913
3,913
Totals 	
6
$672
120
$15,110
	
126
$15,782
 114
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ANALYSIS OF SUPPRESSION-CREW FIRE-FIGHTING
(H5) ACTIVITIES, 1966
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
Size of Fire When Attacked
Vi Acre
or Less
Over!4
Acre to
1 Acre
Overl
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
200
46
49
13
1
198
34
12
1
10
2
1
29
1
5
12
Over Vi acre and up to 1 acre	
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres 	
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres 	
Over 50 acres     	
1
1
1
1
Totals	
309
244
13
30
18
4
(116)
CONSTRUCTION OF PROTECTION ROADS AND TRAILS,  1966
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
18
1,254
Miles
47
628
Miles
38
133
Miles
103
2,015
1,272
675
171
2,118
4
180
2
109
58
1
64
290
184
111
59
354
(H7)     SUMMARY OF SNAG-FALLING, 1966, VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
  100,067
Total area logged, 1966	
Logged in small exempted operations1	
Assessed for non-compliance, less 21 acres subsequently felled.
Balance logged acres snagged, 1966	
Snags felled, 1966, by Forest Service Protection Division	
Snags felled, 1966, by Forest Service Reforestation Division..
4,724
297
4,318
133
5,021
95,046
4,451
Total area snagged, 1966
99,497
i Exemption granted under subsection (3) of section 116 of the Forest Act.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
115
(118)
SUMMARY OF LOGGING SLASH REPORTED IN 1966,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total area logged, 1966	
Area covered by full hazard reports
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash disposal.
  71,603
     7,579
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from slash and snag
disposal) i     4,724
Acres
100,067
Slash created and not reported in 1966 .
83,906
16,161
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3) of section 116 of the Forest Act.
ACREAGE ANALYSIS OF SLASH DISPOSAL REQUIRED, 1966,
(119) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1966          19661 Total Acres
Broadcast burning  33,572           33,355 66,927
Spot burning     2,058             2,618 4,676
Totals  j  35,630 35,973 71,603
1966 reports not recommending slash disposal  7,579
1966 slash on very small operations exempted without special examination   4,724
  12,303
Total area of slash dealt with, 1966  83,906
1 Does not include the estimated 16,161 acres (see Table No. 118) created too late to be dealt with in 1966.
ANALYSIS OF PROGRESS IN SLASH DISPOSAL, 1966,
(120) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total disposal required {see Table No. 119)     71,603
Aprpo r\f *CT fich
Type of Disposal                                         Prior to 1966 1966 Total Acres
Spring broadcast burning          185 55 240
Spring spot burning         114 10 124
Fall broadcast burning   34,160 27,458 61,618
Fall spot burning      2,944 1,432 4,376
Total burning completed   37,403 28,955 66,358
Burning by accidental fires        188
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc.        647
Total  .    67,193
Balance reported slash not yet abated  . . 3  4,410
Slash created, 1966, acres assessed  371
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1966 1  16,161
Total area of slash carried over to 1967 for disposition  20,942
Actual area burned in spring spot burning, 27 acres.
Actual area burned in fall spot burning, 638 acres.
The above figures do not include 1965 slash-burn reports received too late for inclusion in
1965 Annual Report, 2,574 acres.
 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SUMMARY OF SLASH-BURN DAMAGE AND COSTS,  1966,
(121) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total acres of forest-cover in slash fires, 1966	
795
Net damage to forest-cover
Net damage to cut products
Net damage to equipment and property
Total damage 	
$52,674.52
255.00
Nil
$52,929.52
(131)
ENROLMENT AT ADVANCED COURSE, FOREST SERVICE
TRAINING-SCHOOL, 1946-66
Forest District
Forest
Assistants,
Cruisers,
Etc.
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Graduates
Prince Rupert	
2
1
1
—
-
3
3
3
3
4
5
3
4
4
4
5
3
4
4
Attendance, 1966	
4        |        ....        |        __
16
I        20
20
Attendance, 1965	
_
—
—
—
—
	
Attendance, 1964	
5
—
—
15
—
20
20
Attendance, 1963	
5
—
—
15
....
20
—
Attendance, 1962	
3
—
17
....
20
20
Attendance, 1961
3
—
—
17
....
20
"  ""
Attendance, 1960_	
4
—
—
17
—
21
21
Attendance, 1959	
4
—
—
17
—
21
—
Attendance, 1959	
—
....
21
—
21
21
Attc-ndanc-fi, 195R
—
—
21
_
21
Attendance, 1957
4
—
—
26
—
30
30
Attendance, 1956	
4
_
—
26
—
30
	
3
—
18
—
21
21
Attendance, 1955	
3
—
—
18
—
21
—
Attendance, 1954	
—
—
20
—
20
20
Attendance, 1953	
—
—
—
21
—
21
—
Attendance, 1953	
—
—
—
20
—
20
20
Attendance, 1952	
—
—
20
—
20
—
Attendance, 1951	
3
3
15
—
21
21
Attendance, 1950	
—
3
3
15
—
21
21
Atfnrtnnc-c-, 1Q4Q
_
3
2
16
—
21
Attendance, 1948	
—
4
2
12
2
20
20
Attisnrlnnc-p, 1Q47
—
8
—
12
	
20
20
Attendance, 1946	
—
2
9
9
	
20
20
Total graduates to December
31, 1966  	
1                    1
—
-    1    ...
1
295
Note.—From 1949/50 until 1962 the course was of nine months' duration, spread over Wi years.    From
1946 to 1949, and commencing with Class 13, 1963, a six-month course is involved, spread over one year.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE  1966
117
ENROLMENT AT BASIC COURSE, FOREST SERVICE
(132)
TRAINING-SCHOOL, 1962-66
Attendance, 1966
Attendance, 1965
Attendance, 1964
Attendance, 1963
Attendance, 1962
Total
. Nil
. 40
. 20
. 20
_ 20
Graduates
Nil
40
20
20
20
Total graduates to December 31, 1966
Grand total of graduates, both courses .
100
395
(141)
FOREST REVENUE, 1962-66
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1962
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1963
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1964
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1965
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1966
Timber-licence   rentals   and
$352,418.29
19,795.95
73,139.35
500,208.12
26,315,940.41
346,627.67
2,433,175.10
137,118.26
550,949.16
161,447.52
$357,175.79
17,361.70
63,629.77
502,317.68
30,199,623.94
386,735.44
2,499,842.31
152,200.70
523,598.00
173,192.07
$362,707.84
15,639.09
68,446.06
510,469.54
37,221,058.19
487,503.76
2,610,292.87
139,313.50
522,672.70
210,330.47
$720,919.31
15,024.33
86,230.58
765,651.17
42,031,437.70
325,847.00
2,629,476.11
151,079.95
559,007.55
273,738.16
$771,170.84
Timber-berth rentals and fees
Timber-lease rentals and fees
Timber-sale rentals and fees..
14,368.52
106,852.12
948,568.96
42,643,936.30
Timber-sale cruising and advertising 	
Timber royalties	
Grazing permits and fees	
223,236.17
3,079,058.68
153,507.63
570,202.65
245,350.02
212,275.98
1,379,936.16
Totals	
$30,890,819.83
$34,875,677.40
$42,148,434.02
$47,558,411.86
$50,348,464.03
 118           DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
	
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119
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 120 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(144) FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1965/66
Timber-licence rentals and fees  $847,929.43
Timber-berth rentals and fees   14,992.19
Timber-lease rentals and fees   104,407.88
Timber-sale rentals and fees  888,653.62
Timber-sale stumpage  44,895,133.96
Timber-sale cruising and advertising  290,506.40
Timber royalties  2,892,250.68
Grazing permits and fees   142,740.69
Forest-protection tax   570,827.94
Miscellaneous   215,443.39
Total     $50,862,886.18
(145) FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1965/66
General administration, protection, and management of forests  $11,952,531
Reforestation and forest nurseries  756,096
Forest research  247,085
Public information and education  114,861
Forest Service training-school   128,472
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association  17,500
Engineering services and forest-development roads  5,034,132
Fire suppression  2,697,163
Forest surveys  1,299,281
Silviculture  1,601,614
Grazing Range Improvement Fund1  77,864
Peace River community pastures  9,668
Total  $23,936,267
i Statement provided elsewhere.
(146) SCALING FUND
Deficit, April 1, 1965       $208,517.02
Collections, fiscal year 1965/66      2,003,583.98
$1,795,066.96
Expenditures, fiscal year 1965/66      1,843,907.70
Deficit, March 31, 1966       $48,840.74
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1966     1,535,870.78
$1,487,030.04
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1966     1,536,681.90
Deficit, December 31, 1966       $49,651.86
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1966
121
(147)
GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Surplus, April 1, 1965	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act)
Expenditures, fiscal year 1965/66 .
Surplus, March 31, 1966
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act) ..
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1966
Surplus, December 31, 1966	
$7,828.55
82,485.70
$90,314.25
77,863.56
$12,450.69
71,370.34
$83,821.03
52,566.77
$31,254.26
(148)
PEACE RIVER POWER TIMBER SALVAGE
Expenditures, fiscal year 1965/66	
Recovered from British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority .
Balance 	
$897,534.76
897,524.76
$10.00
 122 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(151) DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1966
Personnel
Vancouver!
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Vic-
toria2
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant Chief
Foresters 	
Division Foresters   	
Directors of Grazing and Public Information ..
Forest Counsel and Personnel Officers	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters.
Foresters	
Agrologists and Agrologists-in-training..
Engineers-
Forest Protection Officers-
Technical Forest Officers ...
Superintendent of Scaling and Assistants_
Scalers, Official..
Scalers, Official, temporary	
Comptroller, Accountant, Audit Assistants, and Administrative Officers	
Engineering, Mechanical and Radio .
Public Information Officers	
Public Information Assistants	
Reforestation, Research, and Survey Assistants..
Nursery Superintendents _
Draughtsmen and Mapping Assistants 	
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers	
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Maintenance Depot
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians-
Launch Crewmen	
Forest Assistants  	
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators .
Foremen   	
Miscellaneous3  .	
Totals, continuous personnel..
Seasonally Employed
Technical Forest Officers  	
Patrolmen 	
Lookoutmen  	
Dispatchers, Radio Operators, and Clerks..
Fire-suppression Crewmen-
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc.- _
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators	
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineering Aides
Forest Assistants	
Foremen 	
Miscellaneous*..
Totals, seasonal personnel-
Totals, all personnel	
2
13
3
99
15
69
86
1
16
5
99
6
23
18
33
6
7
7
508
38
6
48
3
6
5
12
126
2
81
2
4
34
35
5
1
2
198
1
23
2
21
2
12
2
3
95
3
33
2
14
5
1
130
3
22
1
5
2
10
2
2
110
3
1
2
4
7
2
3
104
29
4
35
5
35
54
2
5
33
53
3
4
25
31
2
8
14
2
1
42
1
34
98
63
1
9
11
32
121
4
7
2
3
10
162
9
29
15
550
26
70
148
10
47
2
1
42
1
57
324
6
99
27
215
29
40
137
260    |    279
202    |     625    | 2,072
12
1
31
3
20
30
10
32
4
61
2
12
2
5
41
8
54
10
5
....-
1
74
23
1,138
23
67
97
54
67
45
7
165
23
204
1,181
42
67
117
63
181
58    1    120    |    116
206
1,469    | 2,095
634    |    256    I    380    |    395
408    I 2,094
4,167
1 Includes Vancouver Scaling and Forest Service Maintenance Depot.
2 Includes all divisional field staff except research personnel assigned to districts.
s Includes Stockmen, Cooks, Flunkeys, Timekeepers, Utility Men, Key-punch and Data Processing Operators, Photographers, and Construction Accountants.
4 Includes Bridgemen, Powdermen, Carpenters, Launch Crew, Mechanics, Watchmen, Labourers, and Rock
Drillers.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1967
2,260-267-1957
      

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