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Annual Report of the Director of Correction for the YEAR ENDED MARCH 31 1965 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1966]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
Annual Report
of the
Director of Correction
for the
YEAR ENDED MARCH 31
1965
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1966
  Victoria, B.C., January 27, 1966.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Annual Report of the Director
of Correction for the year ended March 31, 1965.
ROBERT W. BONNER,
A ttorney-General.
 Department of the Attorney-General, Corrections Branch,
Vancouver, B.C., November 1, 1965.
The Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Corrections
Branch for the 12 months ended March 31, 1965.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. ROCKSBOROUGH SMITH,
Director of Correction.
 DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
CORRECTIONS BRANCH
The Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C.
Attorney-General
Gilbert D. Kennedy, Q.C.
Deputy Attorney-General
SENIOR CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
S. ROCKSBOROUGH SMITH
Director of Correction and Chief Probation Officer
M. A. Matheson
Assistant Director of Correction
C. D. Davidson
Assistant Chief Probation Officer
HEADQUARTERS STAFF OFFICERS
O. J. Walling Rev. W. D. G. Hollingworth
Personnel and Staff Training Officer Senior Protestant Chaplain
R. V. McAllister Rev. T. F. M. Corcoran
Supervisor of Research Senior Catholic Chaplain
R. G. E. Richmond W. Lemmon
Senior Medical Officer Supervisor of Classification
Mrs. M. M. Berg R. E. Fitchett
Dietician Administrative Officer
GAOL SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
W. H. Mulligan V. H. Goad
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm Director, New Haven
J. Braithwaite W. Scott
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution Warden, Kamloops Provincial Gaol
H. B. Bjarnason S. A. L. Hamblin
Warden, Prince George Gaol Officer in Charge, Vancouver Island Unit
G. Chapple J. Proudfoot
Officer in Charge, Say ward Forest Camps Officer in Charge, Chilliwack Forest Camps
PROBATION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
A. A. Byman F. St. John Madeley
Supervisor, Vancouver Region Supervisor, Fraser Valley Region
A. E. Jones J. Wiebe
Supervisor, Vancouver Island Region Supervisor, Interior Region
BRITISH COLUMBIA PAROLE BOARD
O. L. Erickson M. G. Stade
Chairman Secretary
Members:
F. C. Boyes H. Keetch E. Kelly O. Orr
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 CONTENTS
Sec. Page
I. Review of the Year     9
. II. British Columbia Gaol Service  ._._  12
1. Staff. .._ _____     12
Promotions -____, , . .._ 12
Recruitment  12
In-service Training ■._._.  12
Specialized Courses .,•_ .....: ..... 12
Staff Conferences   13
2. Treatment of Men.___ .  13
Population .... _  13
Buildings.--  15
General ______________ ...—■- __  16
Classification  16
Research  17
Religion  18
Social Training  19
Counselling  21
Education  21
Work  22
Alouette River Unit  23
3. Forest Camps    25
Chilliwack Forest Camps  25
Haney Correctional Institution Camps  26
Kamloops Gaol Camps  26
Sayward Forest Camps  27
4. Treatment of Women  27
General  27
Religion  28
Education and Social Training  28
Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit  31
5. Health and Hygiene  31
Senior Medical Officer's Report  31
7
 W 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sec. Page
IH. British Columbia Probation Service  37
1. General .  3 7
2. Staff.  37
3. Treatment of Juvenile Delinquency.  38
4. New Developments  39
5. Experimental Programmes  39
6. Critical Issues  40
7. Parole Supervision  41
8. Provincial Probation Offices    41
Appendices—
Excerpts from the Annual Report of the British Columbia Board of Parole 42
Annual Statistical Tables  51
Graph Showing Comparative Expansion of Probation and Institutional
Services in Relation to Population Growth  69
 Annual Report of the Director of Correction
REVIEW OF THE YEAR
The year under review was one mainly of consolidation with few administrative
changes. The turnover of staff increased from 8.1 to 10.7 per cent. The annual
drain of trained staff is costly and time-consuming in that under present arrangements it takes up to two years to fully train a prison officer on the job. Efforts are
being made to attract career men to the Gaol Service, but the competition for men
with ability, particularly with the salaries presently being offered by industry, makes
it difficult to retain them. The need for a small permanent training academy to
train new recruits to the Service more speedily and thoroughly continues to be
one of our most urgent requirements. The modern prison officer, if he is to fulfil
his role effecting change in behaviour in those committed to his care, must be a
man of ability capable of being trained to a high degree of skill and efficiency. This
cannot be achieved without a year-round training facility staffed with a nucleus of
permanent qualified instructors.
For the first time in five years the daily average gaol population for the Province
showed a decrease of 9 per cent. This was offset by an increase in the number
placed on probation. It is hoped that with the expansion of the Probation Service
this trend will continue. The reduction in the population of Oakalla Prison Farm,
noted in last year's Report, was further effected this year by the opening of a new
unit for the treatment of alcoholics at Haney. In spite of this, Oakalla Prison
continues to present a problem. In May a disturbance occurred amongst the 200
ment awaiting trial in the institution's West Wing and considerable damage resulted.
Adequate facilities for housing this type of prisoner during the period awaiting trial
do not exist at present. As they are as yet unsentenced, these prisoners are not
required to work, and they remain in their cells the greater part of each day with
little to do. As many of them are likely to receive long penitentiary sentences, they
represent a high security risk and require constant and close surveillance, particularly in an old and dilapidated prison like Oakalla with no modern security safeguards. This, added to the prisoner's natural anxiety over his future, contributes
to his sense of frustration and feeling of unrest. Outbursts of violence resulting
in either self-inflicted wounds or assaults on staff are frequent in this wing and
point up the need for a separate modern institution for " waiting trial" prisoners
in the Lower Mainland with proper facilities for visits, interviews with lawyers, and
a place where material can be made available for a prisoner to prepare his case
for trial. These conveniences, along with adequate space for exercise and recreation
in the fresh air, are considered essential in any unit set aside for men awaiting their
trial.
The number of escapes increased appreciably this year. They were chiefly
young-adult offenders from forest camps where there is no security. The increase
reflects both the general instability of this class of prisoner and the larger number
being placed in minimum-security facilities: some 700 men, one-third of the total
gaol population, are now being housed in such establishments. The trend toward
training camps, particularly for young-adult offenders, is a healthy positive step in
the right direction. It has been said that " one cannot train men for freedom in a
state of captivity."   While this may be debatable, there is no doubt that the gain
9
 W 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
in self-control and sense of personal responsibility required to keep a man in a
camp when he could escape at any time far outweighs, in terms of the ultimate
protection to society, the slight risk taken.
It should perhaps be pointed out that open facilities to be successful require
a well-trained staff, with officers on their toes at all times, alert and sensitive to
detect the changing mood of a prisoner, ready to step in and channel the frustration
or depression of the moment into some positive outlet. Contrary to popular opinion,
the majority of escapes are not planned, but are rather the result of the inability of
the individuals concerned to control their unstable emotions.
It was not found possible to implement the major portion of the gaol-construction programme outlined in my Annual Report of last year. The gaol at Prince
George operated to full capacity all year and continued to transfer its overflow to
Oakalla Prison Farm. There is an urgent need for additional accommodation in
this rapidly expanding area of the Province. Kamloops Gaol, a relic of the 19th
century, is quite unsuitable to house prisoners any longer and should be abandoned.
A start is yet to be made on the proposed new Vancouver Island facility to replace
the gaol at Colquitz. The security of this old institution on Wilkinson Road has
caused considerable concern. However, with an efficient and well-trained staff it
has continued to operate to near capacity throughout the year most effectively. The
situation at the women's unit at Oakalla remains unchanged. An extension of the
Twin Maples Farm is badly needed to relieve the overcrowding at the main women's
unit. The maintenance at Oakalla Prison Farm continues to present an insoluble
problem. Its age and its high use combine to defeat the maintenance staff in their
attempts to keep up with the dilapidations. The only solution would appear to be
its gradual replacement by the provision of alternative accommodation in small
diversified units throughout the Lower Mainland. The present Admissions and
Discharge Section, described in previous Reports, is quite incapable of handling the
40,000 movements which occur annually in and out of this gaol. It is particularly
unsuitable for the housing of young prisoners transferred from the Family and
Children's Courts. The possibility of accommodating these youthful transfers
elsewhere is presently under examination.
On the more positive side, the first residence of the Alouette River Unit was
completed during the year under review, and 50 hard-core alcoholics were transferred from the old gaol at Oakalla to this modern well-appointed open facility for
the treatment of alcoholics. Plans for the construction of two additional residences
are under way. An extension was added to the Westgate Unit at Oakalla, which
increased the accommodation of this training unit to allow for an additional 60
men.   This has helped to relieve some of the overcrowding in this unit.
Attention is drawn to the continued development of the counselling programme, the increasing diversification of facilities for the young-adult offender, and
the use being made of Provincial parole. Education, both academic and vocational,
continued to be stressed throughout the Service, and inmates are encouraged to
take the fullest advantage of these improved facilities.
The Probation Service continues its planned development with increasing use
being made of probation by all Courts in the Province. Particular attention is
drawn to the gradual implementation of the provisions of the Family and Children's
Court legislation. The establishment of Family and Children's Court Committees
has frequently resulted in many communities examining their local resources and
stimulating citizen action to fill some of the obvious gaps. Many Probation Officers
are receiving referrals direct from families who come to the Court with their problems, and are able to find a solution to them without an appearance in Court.   Pre-
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65 W 11
ventive work of this kind, although quite time-consuming for the Probation Officer,
is providing a very real and worth-while service.
The recruitment of Probation Officers has been greatly stepped up on a nationwide basis, and the results, although not spectacular, are promising. This year 18
carefully screened recruits underwent the 15-week orientation course and were
subsequently placed in the field.
I regret to report that an increasing number of juveniles were transferred to
Adult Court this year. A number of experimental programmes have been initiated
and others are presently under examination in an attempt to deal with these cases
in the community rather than have them committed to adult institutions. Brief
descriptions of some of these programmes are given in the following pages.
 W 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
BRITISH COLUMBIA GAOL SERVICE
STAFF
Promotions
1. Oakalla Prison Farm.—Mr. E. E. Noel was promoted to Assistant Deputy
Warden at Oakalla Prison Farm. He was replaced as Officer in Charge, Sayward
Forest Camps, by Mr. G. Chappie from Oakalla Prison Farm.
2. Supervisory Staff.—Three officers were promoted to the rank of Senior
Correctional Officer and 16 to the rank of Principal Officer.
3. Correctional Officers.—Ninety-three officers qualified and were promoted
to Correctional Officer rank.
Recruitment
4. Separations.—There were 102 separations from the permanent ranks of
the Gaol Service, an increase of 33 over last year. For a Service total of 941 permanent staff, this represented a turnover rate of 10.8 per cent as compared to 8.1
per cent last year.
5. Appointments.—To fill these vacancies, provide staff for the Alouette River
Unit, and effect the expansion of other facilities, 175 officers were appointed to
permanent positions within the Service.
6. Temporary Staff.—Temporary Security Officer positions were reduced considerably at Oakalla Prison Farm by incorporating the majority of them into the
permanent staff. However, there remain a considerable number of these positions
at other facilities. Temporary appointments are most unsatisfactory, particularly
in times of full employment. Temporary officers usually leave once they have an
offer of permanent employment elsewhere. Hopefully, this situation will be rectified
in the forthcoming year by incorporating all-year-round temporary positions into
our permanent establishments.
In-service Training
7. Principal Officers' Qualifying Examination.—Of the 129 who wrote this
examination, 87 candidates qualified. The examination, which continued to be
placed at a high level, revealed several gaps in the training of candidates for the
Principal Officer position. As a result, the advanced training course was revised to
correct these inadequacies, and tutorial classes have been established in some institutions for the preparation of candidates prior to writing the examination.
8. In-service Courses.—One hundred and thirty-four officers completed basic
training at Oakalla Prison Farm. At the Vancouver Island Unit and Prince George
Gaol, 57 officers completed advanced training, which was given at the Haney Correctional Institution. Field training was conducted at all institutions. Security
Officers must complete their basic, field, and advanced training prior to promotion
to Correction Officer. This ensures that Correctional Officers are fully trained prior
to the assumption of increased responsibilities.
Specialized Courses
9. Group Counselling.—Thirty officers of Chilliwack Forest Camps participated in a 16-hour course in group counselling. This course included training in
both the dynamics of group counselling as well as the specifics of the role of a group
leader.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65 W 13
10. Search and Leadership Training.—A five-day course was held at New
Haven for four selected staff from Lakeview Forest Camp. This course was focused
on the principles of the Borstal system and their application to the Lakeview training
programme.
11. Forestry Training.—Thirteen forest-camp officers attended a three-day
course at the British Columbia Forest Service Ranger School conducted by Forest
Service instructors. Content, included organization of the Forest Service, fire-fighting, and silviculture. All officers were successful in the examination at the completion of the course.
12. Specialist Courses.—Staff from various facilities of the Gaol Service participated in numerous specialized courses throughout the year to keep up to date
with current trends in corrections. These included university extension courses in
the social services, principles of supervision, industrial first-aid training, vocational
counselling, and recreational leadership.
Staff Conferences
13. Chaplains' Conference.—Sixteen full- and part-time Gaol Service chaplains of all faiths met in a two-day conference for the first time to examine the
problem of " Breaking the Communication Barrier to Religion." The conference,
which was opened by the Deputy Attorney-General, focused on a critical evaluation
and assessment of the chaplain's role in the prison. It was felt to be most
productive.
14. Academy Training.—Progress was made toward the setting-up of a training academy for the Gaol Service. Twenty-one senior staff from Oakalla Prison
Farm met together for a two-day living-in institute to discuss objectives of training
and needs. As a result of this institute, a four-month course for 30 newly recruited
officers was devised, incorporating the present week-long basic, advanced, and field
training courses and stressing training on the job, role playing, and the stimulation
of actual experiences in a gaol. This course, it is hoped, will pave the way for a
year-round training academy for the whole Gaol Service similar to the Forest Service
and police training academy when funds are made available. Such an academy is
badly needed to provide adequate training and experience for newly appointed
officers to the Service as well as refresher courses to up-date staff who have not had
the opportunity of receiving extended training.
TREATMENT OF MEN
Population
1. Total.—For the first time since the fiscal year 1959/60, a decrease occurred
in the average daily population of male prisons. Last year's average daily population was 2,295, compared to 2,088 this year, a decrease of 9 per cent. On March
31, 1965, there were 2,268 male inmates on the register, compared to 2,216 for
March 31, 1964.
2. Oakalla Prison Farm.—The average daily population of this prison has
again been reduced. This reduction is due not only to the over-all decrease in the
prison population, but also to the opening during the year of the Alouette River Unit
for alcoholics and the continued use of both temporary and permanent facilities
established last year.
3. "Remand" Prisoners, Oakalla.—As was described in the Annual Report
for the past two years, the " waiting trial" and " remand " populations remain a
 W 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
chronic problem. The hazards in this section of the gaol of an over-capacity and
mixed population of young offenders, habitual criminals, and sex deviates, along
with men awaiting transfer to the Penitentiary for lengthy periods of imprisonment,
represent a continuously dangerous situation. The imprisoning of men in an old
deteriorating cell block for 20 hours or more each day resulted in inevitable
explosive action on the part of these inmates on May 9, 1964. The consequence
of this disturbance was over $70,000 damage to the cell block in broken windows,
smashed plumbing fixtures, and equipment burned in fires or damaged by water.
In order to combat this situation, housing space in the Westgate Unit made
available by the addition of an annex to this unit was pressed immediately into
service, most of it dormitory rather than cell accommodaion. The South Wing,
with a capacity of 62, was changed from a Classification Unit to a maximum-
security cell block. This then allowed the transfer of the most difficult " remand "
prisoners from the West to the South Wing. The Classification Unit was placed in
that half of the East Wing whose population had been transferred to the housing
space released in Westgate.
As the situation now stands, both the South and West Wings are used as
" remand " units, which has allowed increased space and greater security for this
population. In turn, however, it has created a problem for the Classification Unit,
which must house young and old awaiting classification and transfer in the same
cell block with drug addicts, deviates, and some of the most hostile and intractable
sentenced prisoners in the gaol. While all possible steps are taken to keep these
groups separated, complete isolation of one from the other is impossible due to the
very physical structure of this cell block.
4. Old Gaol Annex, Oakalla.—Owing to the construction of the Alouette River
Unit at Haney and the continued use of trailer accommodation at Oakalla, this
annex was vacated finally of all inmates on August 3, 1964. It has continued, however, to be used as a dining-room and recreation area for the overflow population
housed in the trailers located nearby.
5. Admissions Area, Oakalla.—The procedures of documentation, fingerprinting, receipt and issue of money and effects, bathing, and clothes change for both
receptions and discharges at Oakalla are carried out in an extremely cramped and
deteriorated basement area. This year the average number of prisoner movements
per day through this area was 127, which grossly overtaxed the facilities.
Some prisoners continue to arrive in a verminous state, many suffer from
alcoholic or narcotic withdrawal, and all are cramped together in " holding tanks "
to await admission processing—young and old alike. The Senior Medical Officer
again reports that " the admitting area remains insanitary, outmoded, and overcrowded. Under such conditions it is almost impossible to ensure that all inmates
entering the main building are free of vermin and that their clothing is adequately
disinfected."
Now that the excessive West Wing population has been reduced by the use of
the South Wing for " remand " prisoners and the old gaol annex vacated of inmates,
the Admissions area ranks as the greatest concern in terms of the physical plant of
this prison.
6. Juvenile Admissions, Oakalla.—An alarming total of 214 male juveniles
was admitted to Oakalla Prison Farm during the year. While the majority were in
the 17-year-old group, 77 were 16-year-olds, 23 were 15-year-olds, and one 14
years old. The greatest percentage of them was eventually classified to other institutions, but many put in months waiting trial in the West Wing plus a week or more
in the Classification Unit.   To have these 14-, 15-, and 16-year-old juveniles sub-
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1964/65 W 15
jected to the " holding tank " experience upon admission and a 20-hour daily lockup
in a cell block containing adult prisoners, some of whom are addicts, alcoholics,
homosexuals, and habitual criminals, until their case is concluded in the Courts,
followed by a holding period in the East Wing Classification Unit, is a situation
causing the gravest concern. Many of these youths arrive at the Haney Correctional
Institution and at New Haven with distorted ideas and values as a result of their
association in the "remand" unit with older recidivistic prisoners whose only
thought is to " beat the rap." All of this makes the demanding job of training these
young offenders that much more difficult.
The lack of adequate facilities at Oakalla Prison Farm makes it impossible to
segregate this juvenile group. To achieve this end would require a complete and
separate juvenile " remand " unit and classification unit.
7. Prince George Gaol.—With accommodation for 97, this prison continued
at an over-capacity level with an average daily population of 107. During the year
1,316 prisoners were admitted, an increase of 92 over the total admissions for last
year.   The overflow was transferred, as in previous years, to Oakalla Prison Farm.
The planned expansion of this institution and the addition of a satellite forestry
camp will provide a welcome relief to this rapidly expanding territory.
8. Kamloops Gaol and Forest Camps.—The capacity of the Kamloops Gaol
was increased by 12 with the return of that portion of the prison used by the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police as a lockup pending the completion of the Kamloops
City Hall.
The Rayleigh Camp completed its first full year of operation, and by admitting
some 1,281 inmates was able to reduce the number of prisoners sent from the
Interior to Oakalla Prison Farm.
9. Vancouver Island Unit.—This prison provided relief to Oakalla Prison
Farm by increasing its capacity during the year to 100. In addition, it received
prisoners from the Greater Victoria City Courts while the Victoria City Gaol was
being rebuilt. It now also acts as a holding base and transfer centre for the two
forest camps located in the Sayward Forest District on Vancouver Island.
Buildings
10. Oakalla Prison Farm.—As reported last year, two inmates housed in the
top cell tier of the West Wing were able to cut a hole in the ceiling of their cell and
make good their escape from the unit via the roof. Since that time the roofs of the
main security blocks have been reinforced with a 4-inch layer of concrete to provide
increased security.
The locking system in all units is old and subject to continual breakdown. This
has resulted in many cells being individually padlocked. Padlocking presents a
hazard in the event of a fire, due to the time required to unlock individual cells.
The main kitchen of this institution is currently being renovated to provide a
streamlined and functional operation. Also, the roof of the Westgate Unit is in the
process of being replaced and will soon be completed.
The buildings and equipment of this prison are rapidly deteriorating. The
Warden reports that preventive maintenance can no longer be carried out as the
maintenance staff are fully occupied at attempting to deal with emergency work.
While it is hoped this prison will be replaced in the near future, its present state of
repair in the face of its high use makes it imperative that extensive maintenance work
be completed to ensure a reasonable level of safety and security.
11. Alouette River Unit.—The first dormitory of the Alouette River Unit for
alcoholics was opened in July and has proven to be an excellent facility. An addi-
 W 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
tional two dormitories are currently under construction. This unit represents a
significant advance in our programme for the rehabilitation of alcoholics, and has
allowed the closure of the old gaol annex at Oakalla.
12. Kamloops Gaol.—This prison, a wooden structure built in 1897, remains
as a deteriorating relic of the last century. It is impossible to conduct an effective
rehabilitative programme in this cramped unit. Its wooden construction, covered
with innumerable coats of paint added over the years, makes it a dangerous fire
hazard, and its crumbling foundations are an indication of its age and complete
unsuitability for housing human beings. Alternative accommodation will have to be
found for this gaol within the year.
General
13. Discipline.—A major infraction against discipline occurred May 9, 1964,
when inmates in the West Wing of Oakalla Prison Farm damaged and destroyed
toilets, washbasins, beds, and windows and started several fires with their bedding
and clothing. As a result of this incident, 32 inmates were charged in Magistrate's
Court with damage to public property and 29 received additional sentences of up
to 18 months.
The number of assaults against officers continued to increase and reached a
total of 31 for this year. A particularly severe assault occurred on Christmas Day
in the Oakalla hospital during an attempted escape. The officer in question was
struck on the head from behind and repeatedly assaulted while lying unconscious
on the floor. This attack resulted in severe concussion and brain damage. Two
inmates were charged with this assault and received lengthy penitentiary terms.
14. Security.—The number of escapes from closed and open facilities is given
below compared with the number of prisoners held in custody during the year:—
/-.,....,.. *.,..:.:..:  Number Number
Closed laCUltieS  Received Escaped
Oakalla Prison Farm  10,879 8
Haney Correctional Institution        613 40
Kamloops Gaol     1,951 1
Prince George Gaol     1,316 1
Vancouver Island Unit        621 2
Open facilities—
Haney Correctional Institution Camps  568 5
Chilliwack Forest Camps  962 18
Kamloops Gaol Camps  1,762 4
Sayward Forest Camps  300 5
New Haven  62 21
Alouette River Unit  338 1
Total  106
This 106 total is above last year's total of 85 and the year previous of 86.
The increases centre in our young-offender facilities and are indicative of the
instability of the present-day youths committed for training. It will be noted that
Oakalla Prison Farm experienced a significant decrease from 25 to 8.
Classification
15. Central Classification.—The Central Classification Committee continued
to interview and classify all admissions into the Central Classification Unit, which
was moved from the South to the East Wing of Oakalla Prison Farm.   A total of
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65 W 17
3,258 classifications was made to the various institutions and units in the Lower
Mainland.
The Vancouver Island Unit has continued to receive prisoners from Central
Classification, and in addition it now receives all prisoners for transfer to the Say-
ward Forest Camps. This allows them to be held at this unit rather than at
Oakalla while awaiting a vacancy at the camp. A member of the Central Classification Committee visits the Vancouver Island Unit monthly to review all prisoners
sentenced direct to the unit from Vancouver Island Courts. As a result of this
classification interview, an inmate may remain at Vancouver Island Unit, be
transferred to one of the forest camps on the Island, or to any of the Lower Mainland specialized institutions.
The procedure started last year of classifying a small group of young-adult
recidivist offenders with definite-indeterminate sentences to the Pierce Creek Camp
in the Chilliwack Valley has continued. This group is characterized in general by
limited education and little motivation for further learning. Members of the Parole
Board visited the camp on a regular schedule to hear the applications of cases considered ready for release from this camp under the supervision of a parole officer.
The experiment of classifying young recidivist offenders to the Lakeview Forest
Camp to undergo a type of outward-bound training has also continued with encouraging results.
Research
17. Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit.—Twenty-three addicts were admitted
during the year to this small treatment unit on the grounds of Oakalla Prison Farm.
Seventeen inmates completed their period of treatment and were discharged to the
community. Seven had to be returned to the East Wing of Oakalla Prison Farm
due to their unsatisfactory progress.
The programme of this unit is based on psychiatric interviews, group and
individual counselling, and work. Up until September of this year the work was
mainly ground and building upkeep and manufacturing small woodwork products.
While this work had therapeutic value, it lacked the reality of the outside world in
terms of pressure for production. Commencing in September, the group was
assigned to the new bake-shop at Oakalla Prison Farm with the task of producing
all the required bread and buns for Oakalla and the Alouette River Unit. This
entailed working under " reality " production conditions, in which they must produce over a thousand loaves of bread daily and four thousand buns weekly. Their
response to this production requirement was quite satisfactory and is a credit to the
staff and the inmates of the unit.
18. Alcoholic Population.—The parameters of the alcoholic population were
presented last year. This year, with the opening of the Alouette River Unit,
detailed data were collected on individual alcoholics and their reaction to the treatment programme. It is hoped to be able to present a full report on the findings in
the forthcoming year.
19. Evaluation of Lakeview Training Programme.—A detailed follow-up of
the 51 inmates who completed the training programme of this camp and were subsequently discharged revealed that only 19 have returned to prison in British Columbia. When it is considered that this group is composed in the main of hard-core
recidivistic young offenders, these results are most encouraging.
20. Electro-encephalograph Study.—In an attempt to explore new avenues of
correctional technique, arrangements were made in the last month of the year to have
a small number of young problem inmates subjected to an E.E.G. examination at
St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver.   To date, although the sample is small, a high pro-
 W 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
portion has been markedly abnormal, suggesting brain damage or tracings equivalent to epilepsy. The present level of exploration has not progressed to a point
where definite findings can be presented. However, this research will continue its
attempt to assess organic cerebral phenomena in abnormal behaviour and seek
means for its control.
21. Survey of Juveniles Admitted to the Haney Correctional Institution.—A
random sample of 30 juveniles admitted to the Haney Correctional Institution during the year was selected for study in an attempt to learn more about the characteristics of juveniles sentenced to adult institutions. The general conclusions of this
limited study were as follows:—
(1) The offences committed were heavily concentrated in the category of
" offence against property without violence."
(2) The offences in the large majority of cases were committed in the company
of one or more offenders.
(3) The vast majority had delinquent ties in their peer relationships.
(4) The majority had experienced stress in their family relationships.
(5) The majority came from families with below average incomes.
(6) While the vast majority enjoyed good physical health, a significant number exhibited a moderate or marked degree of personality disturbance.
(7) The vast majority had a history of prior probation, and a significant
majority had a history of prior confinement in a juvenile institution. It
would seem that the group taken as a whole failed to respond to existing
juvenile correctional resources.
(8) The vast majority experienced difficulties in school either of a learning or
of a behavioural nature. The grade level achieved in school was, in the
majority of cases, below the level of their ability.
22. Follow-up Study of Haney Correctional Institution Dischargees.—A follow-up study was completed on 3,556 trainees from the Haney Correctional Institution who were discharged during the period September, 1957, to March, 1963. As of
March 31, 1964, 48 per cent of them had been returned to institutions in British
Columbia. Although this is a limited study in terms of depth, it does provide an
indication of the relative success of this correctional programme and a starting point
against which future programmes can be measured.
Religion
23. Religion.—The chaplains' service has continued to grow and expand since
the appointment of the first two salaried chaplains in 1952. The number of full-
and part-time chaplains now stands at 16. Full-time chaplains are appointed to the
larger institutions in the Gaol Service, while local ministers and parish priests serve
as part-time chaplains to the smaller institutions and camps. All are brought
together under the supervision of two senior chaplains (Protestant and Roman
Catholic) attached to the Corrections Branch headquarters staff.
The chaplain's role in a prison is a difficult one. As a member of the staff he
wears the same mantle of authority as any other staff member, yet as a priest or
minister he enjoys a very special relationship with his flock. To preserve this
balance, and to minister to both staff and inmates alike, calls for great wisdom, skill,
and experience.
The religious programme varies from institution to institution, depending to
a great extent on the particular strengths and emphasis of the individual chaplain.
All, however, hold regular services of worship, periods of instruction in the faith,
and participate in various forms of counselling.   Use is frequently made of visual
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1964/65 W 19
aids, and in some cases church volunteer groups and organizations are brought in
from the local community to assist.
Unfortunately, the chaplain, unlike his parochial counterpart in the larger
community outside the prison, has few aids to assist him in his ministry—many of
our establishments lack even a suitable place for worship—and he is working with
men and women the majority of whom are unaware of even the rudiments of their
professed faith. We are proud of our chaplains in the Gaol Service and the work
they accomplish under difficult circumstances.
24. Chapels.—A room known as " The Sanctuary " at the Haney Correctional
Institution was furnished completely by the work of trainees, and was dedicated by
the Anglican Bishop of New Westminster and the Vicar-General of the Roman
Catholic Archdiocese of Vancouver, assisted by the two senior chaplains.
At Rayleigh Camp a chapel was dedicated by the Bishop of the Anglican
Diocese of Cariboo. Gifts of furnishings were made by several churches in
Kamloops.
At the Alouette River Unit a chapel was also dedicated during the year. The
furnishings were a gift from the Diocese of New Westminster.
The most pressing need is for a chapel at the Haney Correctional Institution.
The Warden in his report states:
" If the religious programme is to receive the status it deserves, we must construct a suitable chapel. We are currently working with the largest single group
of youthful offenders in any institution in Canada. It would seem, then, to be
imperative that this group of offenders, above all others, be provided with a proper
chapel where they can share in a suitable spiritual programme."
The spirit of co-operation between Protestant and Roman Catholic faiths,
evident in the community, is at work also in several of our institutions. Joint
Protestant and Roman Catholic services were held at the Haney Correctional Institution and at New Haven on several occasions of national remembrance during the
year. Trainees, together with two chaplains of the Haney Correctional Institution,
attended the rally for Christian unity at the Agrodome.
25. Two Holy Week missions were conducted for both Protestants and Roman
Catholics at the Haney Correctional Institution with visiting missioners. The impact
of these missions was noticeable on both staff and trainees alike.
Family services continued to be held on special occasions both at New Haven
and at the Haney Correctional Institution. This type of service is much appreciated
by the trainees and their families.
Social Training
26. Group Counselling.—Group counselling was first tried on a limited scale
with a group at the Prince George Gaol in 1960. The next year saw pilot groups
initiated at New Haven on an intensive basis. Since then it has grown each year
to the point where it is now standard practice in all institutions and forest camps
and has even spread to probation. The encouraging aspect is that it has not been
highly skilled therapists who have implemented this programme throughout the
Service, but conscientious, experienced Correctional Officers.
It is interesting to note that although group counselling is compulsory once a
week in all our facilities, nearly all have one or more voluntary groups to carry on
with additional meetings. The interest that inmates develop in their groups is
illustrated by a survey of inmate opinion undertaken at one of our institutions.
Seventy-five per cent of the population of the institution indicated that they had
derived benefit from group counselling.
 W 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
An important feature related to the success of the group counselling programme is the attention paid to the training of staff and the regular evaluation of
progress in what has come to be known as " post-mortem " discussions. The value
of the training and supervision became apparent in the East Wing of Oakalla Prison
Farm, where drug addicts are exposed to group counselling. The staff of the wing
were discouraged from the start by the hostile and resistive attitude displayed by
the addicts. The support of their supervisors, however, kept them going, and the
group underwent a distinct change in attitude and now show an encouraging amount
of interest.
At the Haney Correctional Institution, group counselling has progressed very
favourably. Through the use of sociograms, group leaders are able to record the
progress of their groups far more accurately and the group counselling supervisor
is able to assist and analyse group interaction. The programme at this institution
has attracted observers from other correctional systems at both the Provincial and
Federal levels.
Group counselling is assisting in the integration of Indians into our culture.
At Prince George Gaol a voluntary native Indian discussion group has been formed,
which once a month has a member of the Indian Agency attend at the meeting.
This group, along with the Indian group at the Haney Correctional Institution, is
the only exclusively Indian group participating in counselling. They have served
a valuable purpose, not only in the ventilation of feeling and removing misinterpretations, but also in having Indians join together in an attempt to solve rather
than ignore their problems. Hopefully, these techniques will carry over in some
degree upon their return to the community.
At Oakalla Prison Farm the groups were in a constant state of flux due to
the rapid turnover in population, 86 per cent being short-term offenders. The
groups tended to be at a discussion rather than counselling level due to insufficient
time to develop group cohesion. This was overcome in part by having the members
of each group engage in physical training and recreational activities together, as
well as being housed on the same tier. This group interaction helped to develop
a closer feeling within the groups and lead to more fruitful counselling sessions in
a shorter time period.
27. Recreation.—A diversified programme of sports, hobbies, and interest
groups continued throughout the year.
At Oakalla Prison Farm the hobby programme experienced considerable
development. Through these hobbies many inmates developed new interests, uncovered hidden skills, experienced personal satisfaction through creative activity,
and improved their work habits by learning to carry through a project to its conclusion. That this development is not without frustration is illustrated by the
following extract from the Warden of Oakalla's report:—
" It is unfortunate, but a fact, that of those inmates in Oakalla Prison Farm
who most need this aspect of programme, many have proven to be unable to
handle the personal responsibility that is an intricate part of any hobby programme.
Because of their lack of capacity to concentrate on any one thing for more than a
fleeting moment, or to see things through to completion, and their inability to foresee the inevitable consequences of their present behaviour, a number of the younger,
more disturbed inmates have consequently misused the hobby materials to their
own physical detriment and also to the progressive abbreviation of this programme.
In their inane desire to escape from reality, these inmates have tried " sniffing "
contact cement, lacquers, lacquer thinners, acetone, and gasoline, and they have
also tried drinking concoctions containing lacquer thinners, acetone, and shellac.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65 W 21
This type of behaviour has meant that the provision of the above materials, that
had previously been available to the inmates for hobbies, have had to be curtailed
and that stringent restrictions have had to be placed on the availability and use of
certain other materials."
The gymnasium at Oakalla Prison Farm was utilized extensively, and the
space formerly occupied by the hospital was turned into an excellent recreation
space for the wing. The use of this security space for recreation has allowed the
wing to avoid excessively long periods of lockup for its maximum-security prisoners.
This type of physically active programme continues to be an excellent outlet for the
release of excess energy, particularly for the young hostile offender. They are also
able to learn valuable lessons in the handling of responsibility through organizing
and operating their own leagues, drawing up the rules, arranging schedules, umpiring
games, and settling any disputes that come up during the course of the game.
The Haney Correctional Institution continued its extensive arts and crafts programme and its club activities, both of which are popular, particularly with the
younger inmate. The Art Club put on a two-day art show in Haney, which
attracted considerable attention. The hobby display in the Pacific National Exhibition again won first prize, and the Native Fellowship Group has started on the
construction of an Indian village on the institutional grounds. The objective of
these activities is to develop in the trainees a sense of community service and socially
acceptable forms of their spare-time activity.
The physical education programme at Haney is aimed at
(1) developing a healthy body and instilling sound principles of sportsmanship;
(2) through staff participation, developing closer staff-trainee relationships;
(3) remedying any physical abnormalities or defects through special remedial
training classes.
Counselling
28. Alcoholics Anonymous.—Alcoholics Anonymous groups continued to
operate in all institutions and camps under staff direction. Representatives of the
Alcoholics Anonymous organization have also been most helpful in the planning
and implementation of the Alouette River Unit rehabilitation programme for
alcoholics.
29. Lay Counselling.—Correctional Officers have been used for several years
now as lay counsellors. Each officer has a small case load of inmates which he sees
on a regular basis in addition to his normal duties. The idea is to assign each inmate
to an officer with whom he can discuss his problems on a regular basis. The officer
helps the inmate make realistic plans for his release, guides him in making his own
decisions, and develops his ability to solve his own problems.
These lay counsellors receive special training and frequently work in their own
free time. They are particularly successful with the 15- and 16-year-old adolescents,
who are often aimless, immature, and lacking in the necessary motivation to complete either vocational or academic courses. The lay counsellor gives the adolescent
who has difficulty relating to staff and older fellow inmates a sense of belonging to
at least one person. Frequently with this individual attention comes the beginning
of maturity.
Education
30. Academic Training.—With a younger age-group at the Haney Correctional
Institution, the need for increased education became apparent. Many of the trainees
had insufficient education to allow them to enroll in vocational training classes.   To
 W 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
remedy this, the full-time academic programme at the institution was increased by
55 per cent. The accelerated teaching programme which takes students up to
Grade X level in six months had a waiting list of trainees, and 76 per cent of the
total population of the institution was enrolled in correspondence courses. This,
along with the remedial class for slow learners, gives some indication of the emphasis
being placed on continued education for young-adult offenders at this institution.
At both Prince George Gaol and the Vancouver Island Unit, compulsory
education classes have been initiated for illiterate and semi-illiterates. The inmates
enrolled carry on their normal work assignments during the morning and attend
school classes during the afternoon.
At New Haven the completion rate for correspondence courses showed a
remarkable increase, due mainly to the additional emphasis placed upon this part
of the programme by the institution staff.
31. Vocational Training.—The vocational training section at the Haney Correctional Institution has this year, in spite of the difficulties encountered with a
younger, less mature population, shown an increase in the number of trainees successfully completing their courses.
Both the academic and the vocational training sections at the Haney Correctional Institution perform invaluable services in training young offenders to fit into
industry. With the younger age-group, many of whom are school drop-outs, the
importance of trade training is emphasized, as it is of the utmost importance that
they learn a trade or skill while at the institution if they are not to express themselves in socially unacceptable ways on their return to the community on discharge.
There is a great need for further funds to replace worn-out machinery and
up-date outmoded equipment in these trade shops if they are to continue the excellence of their training. Efforts to qualify for Federal vocational training grants to
assist this programme have so far failed.
Industrial arts training continued at New Haven and Oakalla Prison Farm for
young offenders. Also, this year, inmates assigned to the boiler-houses at the Haney
Correctional Institution and Oakalla Prison Farm have continued to combine work
and study. Two inmates at Oakalla Prison Farm passed the examinations for their
fourth-class steam engineering certificates.
Work
32. General.—Farming, maintenance, and general labour projects continued
throughout the year. The farm at the Vancouver Island Unit now supplies all meat,
vegetable, and egg requirements for the institution and the two Sayward Forest
Camps and ships surplus farm products to other institutions on the Mainland. The
new farm at the Rayleigh Camp also has a significant food-production rate. These
two, along with other established farms, help considerably, not only in reducing
costs, but also in providing a diversified work programme at the institutions they
serve.
33. Production.—The following table provides a breakdown of the year's
production from the Oakalla shops. Internal consumption is defined as items produced for and used by the Department of the Attorney-General, while external
production indicates items produced for other Government agencies:—
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65
W 23
Shop
Number of
Items Produced
Value of
Internal
Consumption
Value of
External
Consumption
Tailor	
Sheet metal  	
Sock (pairs)	
Licence-plate (singles).
Shoe, new (pairs)	
Shoe, repairs (pairs)	
Totals	
7,168
15,876
37,356
1,842,313
3,917
6,592*
$20,720
19,669
17,419
$30,041
60,677
47,048
$165,533
$30,041
The Sheet Metal Shop's production dropped to less than a quarter of the
previous year due to the resignation of the shop foreman and the inability to obtain
a suitable replacement. The other shops have been able to keep their production
up in spite of a drop in the calibre of inmates assigned to the shops. With the
continued opening of new forest camps, the calibre of men left at Oakalla Prison
Farm steadily diminishes. However, the training value of productive work is most
important for these men as it gives them a recognizable and worth-while role which
can increase their own sense of importance and self-esteem as well as develop their
work habits. It does, however, place an extra burden on the shop staff, who must
meet production quotas and quality standards. To overcome this lack of skill and
stability in the work force, the shop foremen have broken down the required jobs
into simplified segments. This, along with continued training, counselling, and
constant supervision, has kept production up to the required level.
34. Reforestation.—The Haney Correctional Institution continued its work on
the Blue Mountain reforestation project, sending out an average of 110 trainees per
day, which was stepped up to 225 per day for the three summer months. These
crews completed 250 acres of stand-improvement treatment. This consisted of
slashing and burning underbrush, constructing fire-breaks, and pruning and thinning
trees. The tree nursery transplanted 60,000 trees this year and planted 150,000
seedlings.
Alouette River Unit
The following report from the Alouette River Unit is presented in detail to
give a greater explanation of the purpose and programme of this unit:—
" The Alouette River Unit of Oakalla Prison Farm was opened on July 27,
1964, on the site of the Allco Infirmary at Haney. One new modern building was
initially erected, in which 51 residents are housed in three dormitories, with a
spacious lounge, washrooms, and laundry-room. Those of the old buildings which
were still in reasonable condition have been cleaned, painted, and decorated by the
residents for use as kitchen, mess halls, chapels, gymnasium, and administrative
offices. A further two new units similar to the first are under construction, and
when completed in the summer of 1965 will enable the unit strength to reach 153.
"During the second half of March, 1965, completion of the new buildings
has been anticipated by the reception of a further 51 residents who are temporarily
housed in two of the old buildings. These residents are receiving identical treatment
with those housed in the new building.
" The unit is intended as a rehabilitation unit for men with alcoholic problems.
Selection of suitable residents is presently made by Oakalla Prison Farm Classification and is limited to inmates undergoing a minimum sentence of 30 days whose
primary problem appears to be alcoholism (though offences range from assault to
theft besides intoxication and vagrancy).
 W 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Selection is necessarily limited to men who require only minimum security.
A former committal to Alouette River Unit is a passport to return to Alouette River
Unit, unless his previous report definitely indicates that the man is unsuitable for
this programme.
" The Alouette River Unit programme follows the following pattern:—
"(1) Diagnosis. — By study of files, individual interviews, lay counselling,
group counselling, and general observation, the resident's problems are
diagnosed and he is given every opportunity and encouragement to analyse his own problems.
"(2) Treatment.—In general, treatment is based upon the provision of an
environment and programme in which each man can become motivated
to tackle his own problems according to his particular needs. The following aspects are particularly emphasized:—
"(a) Inculcation of Self-respect.—Residents are not known as Inmates; they are addressed as 'Mister .' Personal and unit
cleanliness is insisted upon. These quickly become norms. Many
positions of responsibility are open and used to restore self-confidence.
A set of khaki clothes is issued for social functions. Selected visitors are
encouraged and meet residents in a pleasant open setting, where the
residents are treated on a basis of equality.
"(_)) Work Habits.—Residents work a 6-day week, 8 hours a day,
for which they receive 50 cents a day. These hours are maintained as
rigidly as possible, though certain rehabilitative socialization periods
have to be fitted into these times due to availability of outside instructors.
The hard-working programme is also largely responsible for improvement of health and development of appetite, besides producing good
work habits.
"(c) Socialization Programme. — After working-hours, two 55-
minute periods between supper and evening cocoa are devoted to group
counselling, A.A. meetings, outside speakers and feature films to widen
interests, compulsory and voluntary recreation, rehabilitation meetings,
hobbies and sports. In addition, during working-hours, compulsory
padres' discussion groups help to stimulate spiritual thought; weekly
visits by the Alcoholism Foundation concentrate upon the clinical aspects
of alcoholism; a monthly visit by a member of the National Employment
Service Special Services Division keeps residents informed of current
employment trends. Church services are held on Sunday mornings,
while Sunday afternoons are devoted to private visitors and visiting
groups. On Sunday evenings the main A.A. meeting of the week is held,
when up to half a dozen outside speakers attend. Occasionally a large
A.A. open meeting is held with upwards of 30 visitors.
"(_.) Rehabilitation Courses.—The rehabilitative courses offered,
such as first aid, Science Research Associates reading laboratory, art
class, and those envisaged for the near future (photography, fishing, carpentry, theatre group, etc.), are motivatory, interest-stimulating, rather
than complete retraining courses which would be impractical for short
sentences. Referrals are made and information given regarding the
possibilities of continuing instruction after discharge in directions where
the resident shows enthusiasm and ability.
"(3) Final Prognosis and After-care.—Each resident is observed in his work,
temperament, interpersonal relationships, attitudes, habits, and motiva-
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65 W 25
tion.   He is encouraged to make his own plans, and referrals are made
as necessary.   At the same time, the community is stimulated to provide
after-care facilities, and at least one half-way house is in the offing to
cater to those men who appear to be well motivated and have a reasonable chance of settling into normal society.
"A study of residents reconvicted by February 28, 1965, showed that 48 per
cent have not been reconvicted in British Columbia and a further 10 per cent showed
a decrease in sentence frequency.   Further, it was found that of residents discharged
during the unit's first three months of operation, allowing a minimum of four months
for reconviction, 45 per cent had not been reconvicted in British Columbia.
"In summary, the initial objectives of the unit programme are to make the
resident aware of his alcohol problem; to improve his health, mental attitudes, and
habits; to provide a positive environment; to produce good work and socialization
programmes; to produce diagnostic and prognostic reports; to involve community
in both after-care and in-care; and, in general, to assist the resident to gain his
self-respect.   All these objectives are being met.
" The emphasis of the programme is in helping residents to help themselves in
attitudes, development, planning, and in their recognition and use of their own and
other resources."
FOREST CAMPS
1. Interdepartmental Co-ordinating Committee.—This Committee, composed
of senior officials from both the Forest Service and Corrections Branch, continued
to meet twice yearly under the co-chairmanship of the Assistant Chief Forester and
the Director of Correction. At these meetings general policy and plans were established for the co-ordinated direction of forestry projects to be carried out by inmate
work crews across the Province. The district committees, along with the forest
operations officers from both the Forest Service and Corrections Branch, provided
the necessary detailed direction.
We have continued this year to provide a work force of over 500 inmates
engaged in forestry projects at various points throughout the Province. Each camp
has provided as well a trained fire-suppression crew ready at all times to answer any
call for assistance.
Chilliwack Forest Camps
2. Administration.—The four Chilliwack Forest Camps, with a capacity of
240 inmates, were kept at or near this level throughout the year.
These camps, under the direction of an officer-in-charge, are operated as an
autonomous facility, in contrast to all the other forest camps which function as
satellite units of a base institution. Consequently, a small headquarters staff had to
be established to handle those functions normally performed at a base institution—
inmates' records, the ordering and distribution of supplies, and the maintenance of
equipment. As no provision was made for headquarters personnel, staff had to be
drawn from the normal camps' establishment. This has had a noticeable effect on
the level of supervision and work output in the individual camps, which, if not remedied, could be critical. Four additional staff, one for each camp, will be required in
the coming fiscal year.
3. Construction.—The Tamihi Creek Camp is being replaced by a new camp
adjacent to Ford Mountain, farther up the Chilliwack Valley. This camp is being
constructed by inmate labour under staff supervision utilizing lumber from the
sawmill stationed at Mount Thurston Camp.
 W 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
4. Forestry Work.—Three tree nurseries were put into operation to provide
stock for reforestation work in the valley. Logging and sawmill operations have
continued to utilize salvage logs, the lumber being used for the redecking of bridges,
seed-bed construction, and camp maintenance. Other projects have included trail-
building, road work, tree-planting, and fire-hazard abatement.
5. Young-offender Training. — Pierce Creek Camp had a small number of
selected young offenders with indeterminate sentences included as part of its total
complement. This group has been subjected to a specialized work and education
programme aimed at developing work habits and engendering responsibility. As
the group included many youths with little motivation and ability, problems of a
disciplinary nature arose, culminating in the burning of the camp barn. The leaders
were picked out and returned to Oakalla Prison Farm, and since then good progress
has been made, particularly in the educational programme. A classroom constructed by the men themselves in the basement of a bunk-house provides a study
centre where the group can gather in the evenings under the supervision of an officer
who tutors them in their correspondence courses. It is interesting to note than 80
per cent of this group successfully completed their parole period on release.
6. Social Training.—Group and lay counselling, along with hobbies and sports,
were in operation throughout the four camps.
Haney Correctional Institution Camps
7. Gold Creek Camp.—This camp, situated in a Provincial park, acts as a
pre-release camp for those trainees from the Haney Correctional Institution who
have been approved for release by the British Columbia Parole Board. Here they
spend their last month prior to discharge, engaged in park maintenance while training
for re-entry into the community.
The pre-release training is focused on finalizing their plans for the future and
a series of community-oriented lectures and field trips.
8. Pine Ridge Camp.—This camp, which is adjacent to the Haney Correctional
Institution, is used as an honour-living unit for the institution. Forty of the trainees
living here go back and forth to the institution daily by foot, where they continue
their educational programme. The remainder are engaged in the institution's logging
and sawmill operation or in camp culinary or maintenance work.
In the late spring, crews from this camp and the Gold Creek Camp were called
out to assist Kent Municipality in sandbagging a breach in the Harrison River dyke.
Kamloops Gaol Camps
9. Rayleigh Camp.—A start was made at farming the 300 acres of grassland
surrounding this camp. Some 40 acres of ground were broken and an irrigation
system installed, and plans are under way to establish a small beef herd in the forthcoming year. The first crop was sufficient to produce a surplus of 25 tons of potatoes, which was shipped to institutions at the Coast.
The camp provided a work party for the Forest Service in the Heffley Lake
area. Journeying daily by bus from the camp to the project, the men worked on
clearing and burning slash in preparation for replanting the area next year.
10. Clearwater Camp.—Clearwater Camp was engaged most of this year in
clearing the right-of-way for the electric-power line into the Wells Gray Park. Other
projects carried out included such park improvements as parking-lots, boat ramps,
camping-sites, and trails, in addition to routine park maintenance. Some gravelling,
ditching, fencing, and cutting of bridge timbers was undertaken for the Department
of Highways.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65 W 27
Sayward Forest Camps
11. Snowdon Camp.—The men at Snowdon were fully employed all year in
the completion of forestry projects. A 12-acre tree-nursery site was developed near
the camp, road right-of-way was slashed, debris burned, and several tree-planting
assignments completed.
Camp and picnic sites were constructed at Morton Lake for the Parks Branch,
as well as improvements in the access road to the lake. The popularity of this area
and its high use by summer campers has made it necessary to withdraw inmate work
parties till the winter months to avoid excessive contact with the public.
12. Lakeview Camp.—The training of young inmates in search and rescue and
forest fire-fighting continued throughout the year in liaison with the R.C.A.F. search
and rescue centre at Comox and the British Columbia Forest Service.
Completed work projects included the building of helicopter-landing spots in
remote areas, building trails, and clearing road right-of-way.
For the first time this year, inmates who have successfully completed their basic
training were sent out alone to man forest-fire lookout points. They were left on
their own with a tent, radio, and food supplies and turned in a creditable performance.
TREATMENT OF WOMEN
General
1. Population.—The total number of admissions during the year reached 1,238,
which represents a rise of 95 over the figure for the previous year. This rise was
not, however, reflected in the average daily population, which remained at 134 inmates. The daily count varied from a peak of 167 inmates to a low of 101. This
wide variation in an institution with accommodation for a maximum of 135 presented many problems. At peak periods, living-quarters were overcrowded, staff
supervision was inadequate, and programme had to be curtailed.
Native Indian women again this year made up 50 per cent of the population
intake. It was felt that these women could be treated more successfully in their
own communities on a long-term basis.
Approximately half of the daily population were convicted of offences resulting
from the misuse of alcohol, and a further third were drug addicts.
The emotionally and mentally disturbed woman inmate continued to present
the greatest problem. Almost one-third fall into this category and were seen by
visiting psychiatrists. The majority of these cases required skilful clinical treatment
and prolonged after-care to be successful; 18 had to be transferred to the Provincial
Mental Hospital for treatment.
Women who were pregnant on committal continued to be another group presenting special difficulties. They generally displayed personal inadequacies in looking after themselves and their expected babies. This group numbered approximately
eight at any one time.   They obtained comprehensive care.
The compulsory tests given by the public health clinic indicated a marked
increase in venereal diseases, 18 per cent of the yearly population requiring treatment. This put an added strain on staff and resources. It is felt that a Venereal
Disease Control unit at the gaol would allow for the more intensive educational programme needed to combat this growing social problem.
2. Discipline.—The Chief Matron reports that discipline has been increasingly
difficult during the year.   The main reason for this was the rise in the number of
 W 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
grossly disturbed inmates committed to the Women's Unit. The figure of 56 infractions was over three times that for the previous year and is a reflection of the very
real sense of pressure under which both staff and inmates have had to work.
3. Security.—Safe custody has continued to be stressed and in spite of overcrowded conditions there were no escapes from the main unit or Twin Maples Farm
and only two from the Women's Drug Research Unit. Prior to the escapes an open-
door policy had been maintained at this unit as part of the over-all training in responsibility. At present all doors are being kept locked unless a staff member is
present. It is hoped to be able to return the responsibility to the group when they
are again ready for it.
A new departure during the year was the formation of a Safety Committee
comprised of both inmates and staff. The Committee, which met twice a month,
received and discussed suggestions from all departments and passed on those it
considered would contribute to better safety to the department responsible. There
has been a considerable amount of interest shown in this Committee by both staff
and inmates.
4. Facilities and Population Pressure.—The Chief Matron reports that all the
facilities are now revealing the wear and tear of the overcrowding they have been
subjected to in the past few years. Nevertheless, the quality of the programme
remains high, and visitors are impressed with the facilities available for training.
The greatest hazard to the quality of this programme is the present inadequacy
of the orientation-hospital-remand section situated in the centre of the main building.
The operation of this section interferes with the movement of inmates proceeding
to and from their training assignments, and the resulting confusion is fast reaching
a point of complete unmanageability. The need for an adequately staffed separate
Admitting and Remand Centre is acute.
5. Classification.—An informal method of classification continues to be used,
aimed at making the best possible choice for the individual within the programme
facilities.
Many of the problems encountered by the new inmate adjusting to her placement in a group are resolved by talking them through in the group with the matron
responsible for the group present. This helps to create a good relationship and
develops a greater acceptance of a difficult inmate by the group. As a result, requests
for transfers are less frequent than one would expect with such a high proportion of
disturbed inmates. With the overcrowded condition which prevailed during the
greater part of the year, it was frequently impossible to segregate those who were
the centre of friction, and there were many periods of high tension. The Chief
Matron and her staff are to be commended for the high level of training maintained
under difficult conditions.
Religion
6. Chaplains' Services.—Both chaplains continued to conduct services each
Sunday throughout the year at the Women's Unit. In addition, use was made of
recordings, films and filmstrips, counselling sessions, and the padre's hour to help
familiarize the women with Christian teaching and practice. Volunteers from a
number of church organizations visited inmates and assisted in various ways.
Education and Social Training
7. Education.—Students attending classroom courses have done particularly
well during the past year. The most popular courses were those of a commercial
nature. One student made a Grade A+ in record-keeping, and another qualified
for an Underwood proficiency certificate in typing.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65 W 29
Members of the Elizabeth Fry Society and of the Salvation Army have been
most helpful in assisting girls to obtain employment where they can use their newfound skills.
8. Social Training.—Continuous pressure was applied to motivate the inmate
population to adopt more acceptable standards of conduct. In addition to the daily
impact of staff instruction and guidance, contacts with volunteer groups from outside
the institution were found to be most helpful in fostering the social graces. Inmate
groups learned how to entertain visiting groups on short notice. To illustrate the
kind of social training which is taking place, one of the inmate groups again this
year presented a fashion show with members acting as models. This time the show
was modelled on a television performance complete with commercials and was
attended by a C.B.C. television entertainer who sang some selections. The show
represented the culmination of a six-month modelling course initiated by volunteer
workers.
The Business Women's Group and the U.B.C. Students' Group aroused considerable enthusiasm and had inmates participating in a number of joint activities
during the year.   The Chief Matron reports:—
" The Business Women's Group has been very generous with donations to our
clothing supply for released inmates. Their monthly meetings with a group were
of an informal and social nature. They built their programme around social events
of the year — St. Valentine's and St. Patrick's Day, etc. — and involved the St.
Andrews-Wesley Young People's Club in their social gathering.
" The U.B.C. Students' Group was particularly effective in socializing with the
young addict group. Because they are of the same age-group, the young addicts
felt that the students had the same interests in sports and music.
"A major social event was held in October when the Elizabeth Fry Society
invited 80 guests to attend a bazaar held at the Women's Unit. The society held
its monthly meeting, then the inmate choir sang a medley of several songs and the
Lord's Prayer. The guests were then dispersed in groups of 10, and each group
was escorted by two inmates on a tour of the women's institution. The inmates had
many varieties of handicrafts and home baking displayed for sale in their various
units."
Preparation for a project such as the last one mentioned proved an excellent
way of bringing together and demonstrating the importance of all facets of the programme as it included housekeeping, home baking, handicraft, and grooming.
9. Group Counselling.—During the year, emphasis was placed on group counselling. The outline presented in Dr. Fenton's book, " What Will Be Your Life,"
was followed. Formal discussions around certain topics were held, with a staff
member moderating the discussion and another acting as observer. The Chief
Matron describes the reaction of one of the groups thus:—
" For the first few formal sessions the group showed extreme hostility toward
the programme. . . . Later, although no one would openly admit that the formal
sessions were accomplishing anything concrete, the talks became more open and
most of the addicts participated freely. They professed boredom, hostility, and complete disinterest, but talked nevertheless. . . . However, most of the inmates
continued to have great difficulty in relating problems within the group to their roles
in society."
On several occasions, informal discussions on a voluntary basis were requested
by inmates, and it was felt that more might have been possible if the continuity of
the formal meetings had not had to be broken by mealtimes. In spite of the disturbed personalities of many of these inmates and the initial difficulties that had to
 W 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
be ironed out, the staff leaders remained very enthusiastic about these voluntary
groups and felt the members were showing signs of growth in character and behaviour. It is felt that as the staff become more comfortable in their roles as counsellors and are able to be more flexible in their approach to alterations in group
composition, this part of the programme will grow. Plans are afoot for forming
volunteer counselling groups directed toward parole in the near future.
10. Recreation.—The recreation programme continued along its accustomed
lines with inter-unit competition in softball and badminton. Twelve feature films
were enjoyed on statutory holidays, while educational films and filmstrips were shown
during winter evenings. Two officers and a volunteer spent many hours instructing
the inmates in carpentry and upholstery to the point where one group was able to
make furniture for its dayroom.
11. Occupational Programme in the Institution.—A constant and gradual improvement has been made in the work programme, and it is now possible to absorb
the total population, with the exception of those who are very ill, in one of the various
occupation or vocational departments. Inmates selected for vocationl training are
encouraged to set high standards for themselves, and vocational classes are no longer
considered a " soft touch." A much more serious approach has developed amongst
those women undergoing this type of training.
12. Twin Maples Farm.—The location and programme of this satellite unit
for women was mentioned in considerable detail in last year's Annual Report. The
aims and ideals described have remained unchanged. A daily average of 20 women
has been housed on this 275-acre estate, and it has continued its trend toward self-
operation. As the farm is a minimum-security establishment, the girls sent there are
selected as good security risks, many of whom are first offenders or those who could
be influenced in the wrong direction by older inmates. A large percentage are
Native Indian women with drinking problems.
The farm building itself is in need of considerable repair and should be replaced. Fencing and drainage of the farm property continue. During the past year,
girls have been trained in cookery and in the planning and preparation of meals;
others have learned to bake or to sew, and yet others to do the laundry for the group.
In this practical way, homemaking skills have been fostered which, it is hoped, will
carry over when they are released. An hour is given each evening to schooling.
Many girls are eager to learn but had never had the opportunity before.
Social training stressing personal responsibility has been the keynote of the
Twin Maples programme. In June, 1964, formal group counselling was started,
involving a wide variety of topics from art appreciation to racial discrimination.
Individual counselling continues. When and as the need arises, every effort is being
made to allow the girls to talk things out.
Contact with outside groups has been another valuable aid to social training.
The Ruskin Baptist Church group met at Twin Maples once a month, and friendships were developed with the ladies from this group, many of which have continued
after release. Alcoholics Anonymous meetings were held every week, and several
of the girls have joined the group. One girl has returned since her release as a
speaker at one of these meetings.
The Chief Matron in her report notes:—
" The greatest problem in trying to provide a meaningful programme is one
over which we do not have any control, and that is that the girls are, for the most
part, doing very short terms. We feel that Twin Maples, with its lack of obvious
custody, the programme employed, the outside contacts, the opportunities for a
nearly normal home-life situation, and the good relationship between the staff and
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65 W 31
the girls, is the best type of penal institution possible for the rehabilitation of the
inmates."
Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit
13. The work toward the rehabilitation of drug addicts has continued throughout the year along the lines described in more detail in previous Annual Reports.
During this year, doors have had to be locked and the open-door policy temporarily abandoned following an escape from the unit. Periodically, a person is
selected for the unit whose motive is not rehabilitation but an easy way to spend her
sentence. Usually such individuals either do not become involved in the dynamics
of the group programme or break the rules and have to be removed. In this case
the individual concerned took the easy way out and ran away, causing the whole
unit to suffer restriction of privileges.
The members of the group continued to carry out volunteer work at The Woodlands School with a group of spastic patients. Known to the patients as the " Blue
Ladies," they supervise the children during a recreational period in the swimming-
pool. On one afternoon a week the group themselves have gone to the pool to take
swimming instruction so that they would become more competent in their services
to The Woodlands School.
This year, for the first time, the unit entertained a male group of medical students who visited every other month. These evenings usually began with a game of
volleyball and were followed by a light supper.
The emphasis of the unit's programme remained the group approach, forcing
responsibility onto the inmate for her actions and minimizing the amount of staff
manipulation. It has been found that, where group counselling has been used, the
group has been able to control its members' actions to a greater extent, and much of
the inmates' distrust of authority has in time disappeared. However, the unit has
remained conscious of the real gap that exists between institutional and community
living, and considerable discussion has taken place around possible ways of bridging
this gulf.
HEALTH AND HYGIENE
Senior Medical Officer's Report
Your medical services have shown increasing activity throughout the year,
mainly in the way of increased movement of prisoners with an increased number of
those passing through the various units, and the opening of a security ward at the
Vancouver General Hospital in the Fairmont Pavilion. A large number of outpatients attending the out-patient department at Vancouver General Hospital have
been processed, and the beds at our Ward F.P. 1 are now filled to capacity. The
administrative work associated with this has become considerable, and it is greatly
to the credit of all concerned that a steady flow of out-patients has been maintained,
resulting, of course, in a steady flow of in-patients. The total situation in this regard
is most satisfactory, and the combined medical operation of a general hospital facility
with that of the medical resources of a correctional agency using many of our technical facilities with a central prison hospital we find is a most encouraging and indeed
stimulating arrangement.
We have retained some specialist services at the central prison hospital at
Oakalla, which are utilized when transportation to an outside agency is inadvisable.
Oakalla Prison Farm
This has continued to be the centre for medical services, providing medical
requirements for a largely transient population with classification involvement,
 W 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
examinations of all transferred to other units, and the treatment of referred cases
from other establishments, as well as catering to the needs of those in Oakalla itself.
As the number of transient prisoners increases, there is more medical administration
and clinical work necessary to ensure that, as far as is possible, those to be transferred are medically fit for the various programmes, including, of course, dentally.
The precipitation of the more disturbed offenders in Oakalla raises increasingly
grave problems, many of a medical nature. It is quite evident that existing resources
of training and treatment at Oakalla are strained to the utmost. The group of recidivists at Oakalla, mainly younger ones, demands and merits a great deal of
attention. The personality damage in so many cases has been so great that unless
intense effort is made, they will remain a menace to society and themselves, and
increasingly so for most of their lives. It is apparent that penal tradition and
organization, whatever skilful modifications are attempted, have no impact at all
on this major problem and are therefore uneconomical, both financially and in
human effort. It would seem that the more productive approach would be that of
the therapeutic community with small groups under the care and treatment of highly
skilled personnel, perhaps over a period of many years.
There has been a marked increase of pathological behaviour within the gaol.
This has taken the form of 5 suicides and 57 attempted suicides, of which 27 were
slashing, 17 were attempted hangings, 10 were by swallowing metal (spoons, etc.),
2 swallowing toxic substances, and 1 attempted drowning. It is always difficult to
assess the number of feigned attempts, but that these incidents occur at all is a
warning signal and are described by psychiatrists as " cries for help." To some
extent this state of turbulence, depression, and despair is a reflection of that in the
general community, but this situation has far exceeded in gravity and in relativity
the rising incidence of such episodes and states of mind in the community as a whole.
Up to last summer there had only been three suicides in Oakalla in 12 years. Ninety-
three were committed to the Provincial Mental Hospital by Order in Council. The
necessity for prescribing tranquillizing and sedative drugs has been heavy, and for
a time it was necessary to dispense them liberally, but with the utmost co-operation
of the administration we are trying to lessen the dependency on drugs as a chemical
crutch. No amount of precautionary measures can take the place of personnel,
skilled and comfortable in the practice of inter-personal relationships. With the
present change-over of staff, it is feared that such a resource is largely inaccessible
and that morbidity with fatalities will recur far in excess of our previous averages.
The general physical health of Oakalla inmates has shown no great change.
Some statistics appear in this report, and it will be seen that the number of
deaths from organic diseases has shown an increase in the area of cardiovascular
conditions amongst the more elderly inmates. The number of patients treated for
active tuberculosis has been minimal. At times the TB. Ward has been empty, and
it is very rare to have more than two patients receiving treatment for active tuberculosis in the prison hospital, whereas 10 years ago it was not uncommon to have
eight amongst a smaller prison population. Dr. E. Lewison has once more given
of his most valuable services in the way of plastic surgery, mainly rhinoplasties. We
have worked in close collaboration with the Provincial Venereal Disease Control
agency, and the incidence of venereal disease amongst the inmates on admission has
shown a proportionate rise compared to that of the outside population. Both the
X-ray and the laboratory technicians have been kept fully employed providing an
essential diagnostic service. As regards nursing staff, during the year there was no
provision of a relief nurse in the case of sickness, and two nights a week there has
been no registered or psychiatric nurse available for the night shift.   This is not a
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1964/65 W 33
safe procedure in spite of the most welcome and competent services of male officers
especially trained in prison medical work.
The emptying of the old gaol building was extremely welcome medically.
Oakalla buildings are impregnated with cockroaches, especially in the Main Gaol
and Westgate Unit, although fumigation is carried out at intervals. The admitting
area remains insanitary, outmoded, and overcrowded. Under such conditions it is
almost impossible to ensure that all inmates entering the main building are free of
vermin and that their clothing is adequately disinfected, however, the staff has
achieved a great deal in this direction in spite of many difficulties. Alterations to
the kitchen, with the addition of the bakery in the hospital basement, have improved
food services greatly. The quality of the food has been satisfactory and wastage has
been reduced. There have been many more complaints since the rationing system
was introduced, but on investigation it is clear that dietary requirements are fully
met as regards scientific assessment. In the course of time it is hoped that what
appear to be minor problems will be resolved. Some of the farm buildings are becoming increasingly dilapidated, and that concerned with the pig-food preparation
apparatus is derelict with further attraction to rats.
Annually I mention the disciplinary isolation unit. This unit, in the light of
progressive correctional philosophy, is becoming more and more of an anachronism,
and a dangerous one, and requires the closest supervision, both executive and
medical. The basement of the cow-barn, constructed in the form of a bunker which
is reminiscent of an air-raid shelter of the last war, contains some dark cells closed
by iron curtains in which observation is impossible, the only aperture being a small
one for the passage of food. There is no sanitation in these cells, and when they
contain aggressive and violent inmates it is not unusual for the staff, when opening
the cell door, to receive on their persons the contents of a bucket of excrement. Any
inmate of these cells can become critically or fatally ill without the staff being
aware. Cement is the only floor covering in the cells at the present time, but it is
planned to install wooden pallets in some of them. It is fully appreciated that a
disciplinary unit is an essential condition which may exist for many years ahead,
but all cells should be fully lit and fully observable, with adequate sanitation.
Women's Gaol
The resources of this section have been tested almost beyond endurance. Overcrowding, with a serious proportion of highly disturbed and mentally ill inmates, has
threatened the welfare of all occupants, including staff. There is no provision of
any adequacy for the mentally and physically sick woman inmate, there is no establishment for a registered or psychiatric nurse as such, and no area for them to nurse
or treat if there were any. There is no infirmary, only rooms in the unit's admitting
section which accommodate sick inmates.
We have appreciated the additional medical services of a part-time physician
who conducts the two sick parades a week. The staff has been faced with almost
insuperable problems, and it is not only the inmates who suffer from lack of facilities,
but the tension and fatigue amongst the staff have been evident also. These women
merit high commendation. As in the case of the Main Gaol, Riverview Hospital is
not the answer to the problem of the psychopathic prisoner; a psychiatric ward,
or group, is essential for the women inmates at Oakalla. Both Dr. Marcus and
Dr. Mellor have given valuable psychiatric advice, but under present conditions
we are unable to fulfil their directions as regards the treatment of a psychiatric
patient.
We have again greatly appreciated the services of Dr. I. Perlman and his nurse
from the Venereal Disease Control.   We always receive the greatest co-operation
 W 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
from the health services. Dr. Gurjar has conducted some cosmetic plastic surgery
in the way of tattoo removals. Miss Maybee has, I think, to face some of the
greatest administrative problems which can confront a prison official in which
medical requirements are paramount. Relief of pressure to a helpful extent has been
made possible by increasing the population of Twin Maples Farm. To visit there
is always a refreshing experience and largely utilized by the Indian women.
An excellent therapeutic atmosphere is achieved, greatly to the credit of the staff
involved. It is urged medically that there should be special and segregated facilities
for the young female offender. There are no facilities to enable the young female
offender to profit by definite-indefinite sentences as in the case of the young male
offenders. This, with appropriate accommodation for such training, would be of
very great help to the rehabilitation of the juvenile female delinquent.
Alouette River Unit
In the temporary absence of a part-time physician to this unit, I have been
attending on a regular basis, and those requiring more urgent attention have been
sent to the central hospital at Oakalla, to be seen there. The general improvement
in health of the alcoholics seen out there has been very considerable, and it is
most encouraging to see inmates, some quite elderly, who in the old gaol at Oakalla
were entirely vegetative, degraded, almost parasitical, working within their physical
limitations and taking physical training. The rise in morale of these inmates is
remarkable. The new buildings in this unit must inevitably contribute toward
this, being so aptly designed and so well equipped, and must inevitably raise the
standards of living. The staff there is faced with a variety of alcoholic problems,
ranging from the " rubby " to the professional person. Also, in the case of so
many short sentences so much has to be attempted in a very short space of time.
The unit has been open now a year, and the wealth of programme already initiated
and in progress is greatly to the credit of all those concerned, and the opening of
a post-release hostel supported by the general community for a small number of
residents is an achievement which speaks most hopefully for the evolution of this
type of correctional venture.
Haney Correctional Institution
I have continued my visits to this establishment on a regular basis, seeing
referrals, doing some minor surgery, and keeping in touch with the satellite units.
As ever, there has been a high standard of medical care. Dr. A. Trudel has
provided, as always, his clinical expertise and acumen, assisted by a most competent
and skilled group of medical staff. The average age of the trainee at this institution
is lower than was anticipated when it was planned, nor was it predicated that so
many with so marked behaviour disorders would be sent there. It is greatly to the
credit of the Warden and his staff that the great majority of those disturbed adolescents are retained in his programme and so successfully assisted. We have been
fortunate to retain the psychiatric consultative guidance of Dr. Peter Middleton.
The dental department continues to perform a singularly rehabilitative function by
making and supplying a large number of dentures. In every correctional establishment, dentures and glasses should be supplied at public expense to those who are
indigent and whose health and activity are affected by deprivation of such facilities.
The sewage system has caused some anxiety and at one time became a public
nuisance, but it is hoped that the sewage lagoon now in use will resolve and dissolve
the problem. The addition to the kitchen at Gold Creek Camp and the new ablution
building there have greatly improved the general standards of hygiene.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65 W 35
Chilliwack Camps
My visits to these camps have once more given much assurance medically that
all is well in that aspect. Dr. DeMontigny attends weekly. We have appreciated
the willingness with which older men, including those with quite limited physical
capabilities, have been accepted and cared for. Any requiring special medical attention are returned to the central prison hospital for further assessment. The number
of these is presently few. Occasionally men who are on some control medication
for epilepsy or diabetes, for example, are sent to these camps and work productively.
The camp catering for the young offender with definite and indefinite sentences has
shown how these can be successfully exposed to the freedom of a minimal-security
unit with few exceptions. The hygiene is showing steady improvement with the
rebuilding of the central areas in the older camps. The new camp at Ford Mountain
will substitute for the oldest camp of all, which has reached the end of its life span.
Vancouver Island Unit
It has been interesting to observe the mutations of this establishment from that
of a mental hospital, originally a Provincial gaol and now reverted, not regressed,
to this latter function. Dr. D. M. L. Shorting acts as part-time physician and
confronts the many problems presented by any gaol accommodating prisoners both
awaiting trial and convicted, including those withdrawing from narcotic drugs and
alcohol. There are no transportation facilities for out-patients to be taken to a
general hospital, so every inmate requiring specialist attention is transferred to the
central prison medical unit at Oakalla. Health requirements at this gaol are adequately met. The general impression gained was that of a valuable correctional
resource of stability and orderliness assisting perhaps particularly those who are
experienced offenders and react unfavourably to the more impersonal environment
of a larger institution.
Snowdon and Lakeview Camps
The medical arrangements for these camps are in every way satisfactory.
With your Assistant Director, I met the group of doctors headed by Dr. N. B. Hall,
and I was impressed by the understanding these physicians have of the medical
needs of a correctional unit. The outward-bound type of programme at Lakeview
is full of potential, and it will be absorbingly interesting to observe its impact on
the more aggressive and hostile type of young offender. I was especially interested
in the accounts given by the camp director of release of hostility, for example, in
the course of dangerous situations arising during such challenges as mountain-
climbing. Care is taken medically during classification at Oakalla Prison Farm that
all trainees selected are in good physical condition.
Research
Dr. Kenneth Evelyn and Dr. T. W. Davis and their team have conducted a
further years' research in standards of normal kidney function. We always welcome Dr. Evelyn and his colleagues, and we feel privileged to have been allowed
to participate in research which is of such benefit to medical science. We are beginning to learn more about the neurological states of certain of the more aggressive
and gravely disturbed offender by investigations which are being carried out under
the leadership of Dr. W. C. Gibson, and Dr. Pat McGeer, with the assistance of
Dr. A. Marcus. I currently propose to do studies of chromosome formation in
the case of those offenders in this group as well as those of a controlled group of
prison inmates taken at random.    We greatly appreciate the co-operation of
 W 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Dr. James Miller, who has arranged for the training of our laboratory technician
in the preparation of chromosome studies.
In conclusion, we wish to express our appreciation medically of the continued
support and understanding of yourself and your assistant of what a prison medical
service should represent. Medical needs in prisons change almost as rapidly as
those of the general community, and, as has been shown, in the year under review
increasing efforts and competence of law enforcement accentuate the tension and
despair of those socially rejected, thereby placing severe sociological and psychiatric
responsibilities on your agency. I am also grateful to the Wardens and their staffs
and to my colleagues, Dr. C. A. Ryan and Dr. W. N. Kemp, for their unfailing
assistance, on which we are so dependent and without which we would suffer many
more casualties, both physical and mental. We would like to place on record our
appreciation of the services of Dr. Arthur Robertshaw, who resigned recently from
his work as part-time physician owing to the increasing demands of his own practice.
Dr. Robertshaw has worked with us for 10 years and has especially understood
the particular and peculiar requirements of medical service in a penal institution.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1964/65 W 37
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROBATION SERVICE
GENERAL
1. Probation Cases.—A total of 2,581 cases was placed on probation during
the year under review. This total is an increase of 324 cases over the previous year.
Approximately one-third of the total case load were adults; the remaining two-thirds
were children under the age of 18 years.
2. Pre-sentence Reports.—The appended statistics show an increase in the
number of pre-sentence reports prepared for the Courts of the Province in cases
where some disposition other than probation was made by the Court. Compared
to the number of new probation cases, the ratio was not as high as the previous year,
yet it should be noted the Courts are continuing to request background information
on convicted offenders as such information is of great assistance to the Court in
considering sentence.
3. Case Loads.—As at March 31, 1965, there were 2,265 individuals under
probation supervision. In addition to this number, 283 individuals were being
supervised in the community either on National or Provincial parole or on provisional release from juvenile training-schools. Another 140 persons were being given
a service initiated by a maintenance order having been made against this, while a
further 145 were being given a strictly voluntary service at their own request. To
complete the picture, an additional 319 young adults in training institutions were
assisted with pre-release planning during the course of the year. This grand total of
3,152 cases was handled by 55 field Probation Officers, creating an average case
load for each officer of 57.3 plus 48 pre-sentence reports per year.
In the Report for the previous year, attention was drawn to the extremely high
case loads being carried by certain officers. While in specific locations case loads
still remain far too high for effective services to be given to individual offenders, the
over-all picture is satisfactory.
STAFF
4. Movement.—During the year 19 Probation Officers were appointed to the
staff, while 10 officers were separated. The high recruitment standards set by the
Service necessitated screening some 161 applicants in order to select the 19 officers
actually appointed. Many of those appointed were either graduates of the University of British Columbia or University of Victoria. Two of the officers who resigned
left to continue further academic studies.
During the year under review, four officers were promoted to Senior Probation
Officers. These officers were placed in charge of field offices having three or more
staff attached to them.
5. Training.—During the year, two in-service training courses were conducted,
one following the spring university graduation and the second following the fall
graduation. Ten officers were trained in the spring course and eight in the fall
course. These two training courses were again conducted at New Haven. Instruction was provided by experienced Probation Officers working under the direction
of the Personnel and Staff Training Officer for the Corrections Branch.
These courses have proved most effective in turning out officers well qualified
to assume their duties in the field. The trainees gain knowledge and insight quickly,
which might otherwise have taken them several years to acquire on a strictly on-the-
job type of training.
 W 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
An advanced training course was not carried out this year as the more senior
Probation Officers in the field had already qualified and the newer entrants to the
Service had not had sufficient experience to gain maximum benefit from the course.
For those officers interested in the technique of group conselling, a special two-week
course was held at Acadia Camp at the Univerity of British Columbia. The regional
supervisors and two officers from each region attended this living-in course and
gained practical experience in the methods and practice of group counselling as
applied to probation.
The Qualicum Beach Inn on Vancouver Island was the location for the seventh
annual staff meeting for the Probation Service. The meeting concentrated on action
programmes which would provide additional resources for the Probation Officer and
help to make probation more effective. The deliberations of this meeting produced
ideas for programmes which it is hoped will be tried in the near future.
During the winter the Probation Service assisted in the field-work training of
students attending the School of Social Work at the University of British Columbia.
Under the supervision of Mr. Frank Dingman, of the school, six first-year social-
work students underwent their field-work placement as student Probation Officers
at the Burnaby Court, using an office at New Haven as their headquarters.
TREATMENT OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
6. Juveniles Placed under Probation Supervision.—The total number of juveniles placed under probation during the year showed a substantial increase over the
previous year—1,752 compared to 1,528. As in the previous year, this figure is
approximately two-thirds of the total number placed on probation.
7. Committals to Training-schools.—A total of 485 boys was committed to
Brannan Lake School and 132 girls were committed to Willingdon School during
the year. It should be noted that 60 boys and 35 girls were committed from Courts
with no probation services.
8. Transfers to Adult Courts.—During the year 178 cases known to Probation
Officers were transferred to the Adult Courts for trial. This number is an increase
of 11 over last year. While this figure represents a total for the Province, nevertheless it is made up of individual cases from communities throughout the Province.
Transfers of this kind point up the inadequacy of community services in providing
for the needs of young people.
9. Family and Children's Court Act.—During the year under review there was
a substantial increase in the number of " voluntary " cases handled by Probation
Officers. These are listed in the attached statistical appendix under the heading
" Miscellaneous." A large portion of this increase was made up of family counselling cases in which Probation Officers entered the picture on a counselling basis
prior to Court action. In some instances Court action was averted by the Probation
Officer being able to assist the family in finding a solution to their problem.
10. Family Court Committees.—During the year under review a number of
Family and Children's Court Committees were appointed. Probation Officers have
continued to act as consultative personnel to these Committees and have made
special studies of particular problems on request. In spite of the provision in the
Family and Children's Court Act for the setting-up of such Court Committees, the
majority of municipalities in the Province have not as yet seen fit to appoint such
Committees.
11. Appointment of Volunteer Probation Officers.—Judges of the Family and
Children's Court have continued to appoint volunteer Probation Officers in areas
not receiving adequate services from regular Probation Officers.   The greater use
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1964/65 W 39
of volunteers is seen as an expression of community involvement and concern over
delinquency. This is a promising sign, for delinquency must be combated at the
community level.
NEW DEVELOPMENTS
12. Regional Development.—No further regional development took place during the year. The four regional supervisors met quarterly with the Director of
Correction to discuss developments within each region and formulate plans for the
future.
13. Field Offices.—A new field office was opened at Campbell River and additional officers were assigned to the field offices at Prince George, Kamloops, Kelowna,
Chilliwack, Victoria, and Vancouver.
14. Victoria Family and Children's Court.—During the year the facilities of the
Court were moved from the basement of the city welfare office on Cook Street to
renovated quarters in the former detention home on Coldharbour Road. This move
gave the staff of the Court a welcome relief from the almost intolerable, overcrowded
conditions in the former building, but it should be noted the present facilities will
not handle the increasing volume of traffic in the Court. As at March 31, 1965,
the probation staff of the Court comprised one Senior Probation Officer and three
Probation Officers. Because of the increasing traffic through the Court and the
desire to handle more cases on an informal basis in the hope that Court action may
be avoided, it is apparent the probation staff of the Court will have to be increased
in the immediate future.
15. Psychiatric Services.—Arrangements were made during the year for Dr.
B. Wong to set aside three hours per week for cases referred by Probation Officers
in the Greater Vancouver area. Dr. Wong has used this time for individual assessments of probationers, for giving Probation Officers advice as to the best method
of supervision in individual cases, and to conduct a group counselling session of
probationers in which some five to eight probationers have been involved on a regular
weekly basis.
Probation Officers have continued to use other existing sources for psychiatric
diagnosis and treatment.
16. Probation and the Court.—A close liaison has been maintained generally
with all Courts throughout the Province with the aim of suggesting more imaginative
conditions of probation.
EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMMES
17. Group Counselling.—Throughout the year, group counselling was carried
out on a test basis by three Probation Officers. Our experience to date would indicate that probationers can be supervised effectively on a group basis. However, as
a prerequisite is the formation of a small homogeneous group, its use is to some extent
limited.
18. Successful Family Study.—During the past year, the Corrections Branch
carried out a successful family research project. The families of some 20 successful
probationers were interviewed at length to try to find from them some insights into
the kind of people they are, the life they lead, and the way they reacted to their sons'
delinquency. It was hoped that the information gained would point out useful
avenues for more intensive investigation and also provide some guide-lines for Probation Officers undertaking family counselling.
A sample of successful cases was taken from among first offenders between the
ages of 13 and 15 who had been placed on probation in 1960 and since that time
had been living at home and had not been in further trouble.
 W 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Initial results indicated that the successful family was a tightly knit one with
strong neighbourhood ties. Analysis of the data is not as yet complete. It is hoped
that further findings will be revealed as the analysis of the material continues.
19. Search and Leadership Training Programme.—The Search and Leadership
Training Course took place over a six-week period during June and August, 1964,
and involved 14 probationers aged 13 to 18 along with two co-ordinators. Based
on the experience with adult offenders at Lakeview Camp and the principles of the
outward-bound movement, the programme was designed to make considerable demands on the participators. It was hoped to give the youths a final and realistic
chance to become aware of their problems and to begin to work them through, the
alternative being committal to a training institution.
The content of the course was divided into two sections—preliminary training
in the community for two weeks, followed by a month's camp on Vancouver Island.
The initial period was one of physical conditioning and training in wood lore and
survival methods in the woods. This was followed by a series of practical tests in
the form of expeditions in wild, rough bush country. The last of these expeditions
took place in the Black Tusk area of Garibaldi Park and lasted for five days. As
far as possible, the youths organized this expedition themselves and were accompanied by the co-ordinators as a safety precaution only. On the final afternoon,
parents were invited to a demonstration programme at which proficiency certificates
were awarded for swimming, first aid, and successful completion of the course itself.
Of the 14 probationers who began the course, four of the larger, more aggressive
youths had to be removed as they were exerting a detrimental influence on the rest.
However, there were no attempts to abscond or requests to leave, which in itself is
an indication of the appeal of this type of programme to youths of this kind. A
marked improvement in behaviour and attitude could be seen in some of those completing the course. It is intended to conduct a follow-up study on all the youths
who completed the course a year after the course finished in order to see if these
improvements were of a lasting nature in the wider community.
The successful completion of the Search and Leadership Training Programme
was in large part due to the leadership and ability of the two co-ordinators and to
the many voluntary organizations in the community who gave instruction during the
initial stage and made the course possible. The final comment on the programme
is best expressed in the words of one of the youths:—
" This programme teaches you to face up to things, teaches you how to be a
better man, maybe not everybody, but I think to myself it taught me how to be a
better man ... it taught you to take things as they come, whether they are good
or bad, which you don't get in an institution."
20. Family Interviewing.—Family-centred interviewing has been carried on by
selected Probation Officers during the year. Arrangements were made for these
Officers to attend a special three-day institute on this technique of treatment.
CRITICAL ISSUES
21. Inadequate Resources for Juveniles.—The appended statistical report indicates that 178 juveniles known to our Service were transferred to the ordinary Courts
for trial. This large number dramatically points up that our present resources for
treatment of juveniles is inadequate.
It is hoped that during the coming year a pilot probation hostel will be
established. While such a pilot hostel will not meet the total need for this type of
resource, it will give staff the opportunity for training in the operation of such a
facility and hopefully will demonstrate its effectiveness.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65
W 41
Plans were made for an experimental week-end training programme for juveniles, but as yet these plans have not been finalized. Other experimental programmes
as resources for juveniles have been suggested and plans are moving forward.
PAROLE SUPERVISION
22. Staff.—During the year five officers have been assigned to parole duties
involving the preparation of release plans and supervision following release of those
young-adult offenders paroled by the British Columbia Board of Parole. There was
a substantial increase in the number released on Provincial parole. Besides the five
officers working exclusively on parole duties, Probation Officers in field offices have
have continued to give parole supervision to parolees residing in their areas.
PROVINCIAL PROBATION OFFICES
Headquarters:
205, 1075 Melville Street, Vancouver 5,
B.C.
Vancouver Probation Office:
719, 193 East Hastings Street, Vancouver
4, B.C.
Abbotsford:
P.O. Box 444, Courthouse, Abbotsford,
B.C.
Burnaby:
7272 Kingsway, Burnaby 1, B.C.
Campbell River:
Box 749, Public Health Building, Birch
Street, Campbell River, B.C.
Chilliwack:
Room 75, Courthouse, 77 College Street,
Chilliwack, B.C.
Courtenay:
Box 1017, Courthouse, Courtenay, B.C.
Cranbrook:
P.O.  Box  699,  Courthouse,  Cranbrook,
B.C.
Dawson Creek:
10300b Tenth Street, Dawson Creek, B.C.
Duncan:
P.O. Box 641, Duncan, B.C.
Haney:
Room 4,  Mide Block, 22336 Lougheed
Highway, Haney, B.C.
Kamloops:
Room 211, 523 Columbia Street, Kamloops, B.C.
Kelowna:
435 Bernard Avenue, Kelowna, B.C.
Nanaimo:
Courthouse, Nanaimo, B.C.
Nelson:
Room 2, Courthouse, Nelson, B.C.
New Westminster:
618, 713 Columbia Street, New Westminster, B.C.
North Vancouver:
1676 Lloyd Avenue, North Vancouver,
B.C.
Penticton:
Room 4, 284 Main Street, Penticton, B.C.
Port Alberni:
Room 216, 400 Argyle Street, Port Alberni, B.C.
Powell River:
4687 Ewing Place, Powell River, B.C.
Prince George:
Courthouse, Prince George, B.C.
Prince Rupert:
Courthouse, Prince Rupert, B.C.
Richmond:
105, 676 No. 3 Road, Richmond, B.C.
Trail:
815 Victoria Street, Trail, B.C.
Vernon:
Courthouse, Vernon, B.C.
Victoria:
Room 104, Law Courts Building, Victoria,
B.C.
Family and Children's Court, 1527 Cold-
harbour Road, Victoria, B.C.
Williams Lake:
P.O. Box 697, Speers Building, 72 Second
Avenue, Williams Lake, B.C.
 W 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDICES
EXCERPTS FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE
BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF PAROLE
A review of the activities of the British Columbia Parole Board during the
year ended March 31, 1965, and other relevant material are again presented for
constructive analysis and to assist in evaluating the use of parole in our programme
of correction.
To form the basis for such analysis and evaluation, the following statistical
statements have been prepared from the records of the British Columbia Board of
Parole:—
(1) Summary of Meetings Held and Cases Dealt With, 1964/65.
(2) Progressive Summary of Meetings Held and Cases Considered, 1949-65.
(3) Comparative Statement of Releases on Parole and Revocations.
(4) Comparison of Releases and Revocations on the Basis of Times Paroled.
(5) Comparisons on the Basis of Previous Involvement with the Law.
(6) Analysis of Revocations for the Years 1962, 1963, and 1964/65.
(7) Miscellaneous Statistical Information.
The Board consists of five members and a secretary. The membership remained
constant throughout the year. Mr. H. Keetch was appointed to the position of
Vice-Chairman in February, 1964. His regular visits to the office have contributed
to the effective administration of the work of the Board.
Throughout the year the British Columbia Board of Parole has worked as a
member of a team in the larger field of correction. Notable progress in all areas
of the correctional field is evident, and we gratefully acknowledge the direction and
co-operation of Mr. S. Rocksborough Smith, Director of Correction; Dr. M.
Matheson, Deputy Director of Correction; and their staff. We have appreciated
the close co-operation of Warden W. H. Mulligan, Oakalla Prison Farm; Warden
J. Braithwaite, Haney Correctional Institution; the Borstal Association under the
direction of Mr. J. A. Willox; and the parole officers.
During the year the Board held 76 meetings, released 355 trainees on parole,
and revoked 109 paroles. Chilliwack Forest Camps, under the leadership of Mr.
J. Proudfoot, have developed a programme for the group with definite-indeterminate
type sentences, and, as indicated in Statement No. 3, the Board granted 25 paroles
to camp trainees.   We welcome this addition to our programme.
Institutional programmes and community resources appear to have moved
forward significantly in their respective areas of rehabilitation. The increased use
of parole in British Columbia during the past year is particularly encouraging in
that while more paroles were granted, at the same time the success rate rose by six
per cent. In selecting those suitable for parole, the Board is aware that the extent
to which parole can be used is limited by the availability of treatment and training
within our institutions and also by the extent to which parole officers can call on the
understanding and resources of the community to support parole, and because of
the increased use of probation it is fair to assume that we have been dealing with
an even more difficult clientele than previously. These factors would seem to support the conclusion that there has been an over-all improvement in the effectiveness
of parole in our rehabilitation programme.
Decisions of the Board must encompass the thinking of parents, community
acceptance, the parole officer's opinion of release planning, attitude changes reflected
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65 W 43
in the trainee's institutional activities, and the individual assessments of the Board
members. It is necessary to cut through bias and over-emphasis in any one area and
distill the common factors necessary to a purposeful parole decision. To facilitate
this process, minor changes in policy and procedure have been made during the
year.
At regular meetings the complete agenda was handled in three stages. First,
cases were discussed by the Board in camera, then followed discussions with the
staff, and finally the trainees were interviewed and decisions made. This has now
been changed so that, following the in camera session, cases are dealt with on an
individual basis, interviews held, and decisions made on each before proceeding to
the next. Family night meetings with near relatives and friends of trainees under
parole consideration have been discontinued in favour of a letter which is being
sent to them explaining the opportunities and responsibilities contingent with parole
and requesting an acknowledgment. The Parole Decision Summary, for the use
of the Board members, has undergone continued, albeit, minor revisions, keeping
before the Board trends of thought in the correctional process.
The activities of the Board are reflected in Statistical Statements Nos. 1 and 2.
The 76 meetings held this year is an increase of three over 1963, but remains close
to the average of six meetings per month.   The following comparison of new and
review cases considered with the number paroled is worthy of comment:—
1962:  New and review cases, 419; paroled, 324 or 77 per cent.
1963:  New and review cases, 428; paroled, 298 or 70 per cent.
1964/65: New and review cases, 428; paroled, 355 or 83 per cent.
In 1963 the decline of 7 per cent in the number paroled was credited to higher
standards of parole selection and was a legitimate deduction because success and
failure rates were the same for both 1962 and 1963. However, this year the
increase of 13 per cent in the number paroled cannot be viewed in the same manner
because success and failure rates have also improved by 6 per cent, (see revocations
percentage, Statement No. 3). This increase does not allow for the assumption that
lower standards of parole selection were used, but rather the increase in both the
number paroled and the improved success rate can legitimately be credited to the
over-all effectiveness of the correctional processes involved.
Parole in co-operation with the National Parole Board was sought in 19 cases
this year and only in four cases last year. While the reasons for the difference are
not clear, we are encouraged that this facility is now better understood and more
often used. We are grateful to the National Parole Service for its co-operation in
providing this opportunity for the parole of worthy cases who have longer than
usual definite portions in their definite-indeterminate type sentences.
The comparisons in Statement No. 3 show a decrease in the percentage of
revocations in all areas, New Haven now having a success rate of 87 per cent;
Chilliwack Forest Camps, 80 per cent; Haney Correctional Institution, 70 per cent;
and Oakalla Prison Farm, 44 per cent. While the general picture here is encouraging, the concern expressed in our last report for the programme at Oakalla Prison
Farm continues. Recently a new programme has been initiated at Westgate for
those with definite-indeterminate type sentences who have not been found eligible
for any of the other training programmes, and it is hoped that our next report will
indicate substantial gains in this programme area. The Board would welcome a
highly specialized programme for this group, who are often physically handicapped
or have major psychiatric problems.
Statements Nos. 4 and 5 view releases and revocations first in relation to times
paroled then in relation to involvement with the law. The usual increase in revocations of from 10 to 15 per cent for each additional parole or sentence, as the case
 W 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
may be, prevails with one exception. This year only 33 per cent of the number
released on their third parole were revoked, as compared with 86 per cent last year.
The few cases involved would not allow this figure to indicate a trend, but rather
should be averaged out with last year's very high percentage.
On the basis of involvement with the law, Statement No. 5 shows Oakalla
Prison Farm with a predominance of repeaters. In gradually improving order follow the Chilliwack Forest Camps, Haney Correctional Institution, and New Haven.
The variation in the records of those classified to the latter three institutions is small,
but the figures should be given corresponding significance when evaluating programme results.
Miscellaneous information given in Statement No. 7 shows the average age
of parolees to be nearly constant at 20.3 years. The average length of the training
period has been increased by 18 days to 12.4 months. This continues the trend
toward a longer training period, which commenced in 1959 at eight months. Re-
vokees, on an average, are a little older and have had a little longer training period.
Revocations occurred after 3.7 months on parole, which is 1.2 months less than last
year and suggests closer supervision.
This year the increased training period coincides with an improved success
rate, but as the time spent in training beyond a period of nine months in past years
has provided no evidence of an increase in the success rate, it is more likely that
individual attention in institutional programmes and parole supervision have contributed most to the improvement.
The number of revocations based on Court action rather than other parole
violations remains high (see Statement No. 6). It has been hoped that with the
increase in the number of Probation Officers, parole supervision would have improved. The figures indicate that, on an average, parolees did receive closer supervision than last year but not more than previous years.
A more specific study of the effectiveness of supervision is made in Statement
No. 7. Here an effective rate of supervision has been based on the assumption that
75 per cent of all revocations should occur prior to Court action. This year, sponsors of the British Columbia Borstal Association, under the direction of Mr. J. A.
Willox, its executive director, achieved a perfect score. Local parole officers come
next with a 44-per-cent effective rating. Field Probation Officers achieved a 40-percent rating, while supervision by correspondence was 29 per cent effective. This
evaluation of supervision is affected by factors other than supervision but is a comparative and fair estimate. It would seem to indicate that the techniques used by
the Borstal Association are worthy of further study and possible application.
Lower Educational Level.—A few observations relative to parole would seem
appropriate at this point. First, some emphasis is added to the success achieved
this year when we learn from the records at the Haney Correctional Institution that
the average trainee's educational level has dropped from Grade VIII to Grade VI.
Alcohol.—From the many reports placed before the Board, it seems apparent
that the great majority of crimes are committed while the trainee was under the
influence of alcohol. Though we realize this is usually a secondary reason for committing the crime, it does play a large part in promoting delinquent activity by providing an excuse for not acting in a responsible manner. An adequate answer to
this problem cannot be given by this Board, but it is fell that more thought should
be given to ways and means of promoting a sense of responsibility in this area.
Native Indians.—The Native Indian, in many cases, poses the dilemma of a
trainee who is amenable to the institutional programme, but on release must of
necessity return to an unacceptable and deprived home environment because he
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65 W 45
cannot cope with an urban community setting. On his return home, the parolee,
too often, joins with his friends in the week-end revelries, resulting in his being
reconvicted on any of numerous charges of assault, dangerous driving, and associated delinquencies. Here again no ready solution is available, but the need for
half-way houses is emphasized so that an alternative to returning to the reserve
exists. From a longer-range point of view, a very positive effort must be made to
have Indian communities organized in a manner that would ensure that healthy,
constructive association and guidance are available to all Indians within the framework of their own people.
Sentencing.—Again a good parole system is to a large degree dependent on
adequate sentencing. Earlier in this report we indicated that a period of nine
months provides for maximum use of our training facilities in the case of an average
trainee and a period of one year provides an equally effective parole period, making
a sentence of nine months definite and one year indeterminate an average effective
sentence. Sentences with lesser definite periods render the training process more
difficult by detracting from the emphasis on training and focusing the minds of both
trainees and staff on the possibility of parole at the end of the definite sentence.
Statement No. 1.—Summary of Meetings Held and Cases Dealt With,
April 1, 1964, to March 31, 1965
Number of meetings held    76
Cases dealt with—
New cases considered  374
Miscellaneous—
Revocations considered  130
Reviews     54
Special consideration     67
National parole     19
  270
Total cases dealt with  644
In co-operation with the National Parole Service—
Cases supported for National parole     7
Cases not supported for National parole.  11
Cases recommended for deportation release     1
Total considered for National parole     19
Average number of cases dealt with per meeting    8.5
Released on parole during year  355
 W 46                                                BRITISH COLUMBIA
Statement No. 2.—Progressive Summary of Meetings Held and Cases
Considered, 1949 to 1964/65
Year
Number of
Meetings
Cases Considered
New
Miscellaneous
Total
lino
5
12
12
14
23
37
44
51
69
84
93
70
74
69
73
17
76
457
450
389
417
331
355
91
374
460
684
460
356
319
259
63
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15
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1054
343
1015
409
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521
1057
621
195R
917
1010
19«.
1,134
849
lOfil
773
10fi">.
650
1063
614
154
1964/65 	
Totals
644
823
	
8,003
Average number of decisions per meeting, 9.7.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65
W 47
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 W 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Statement No. 7.—Miscellaneous Statistical Information, Year Ended
March 31, 1965
1962
1963
1964/65
Total paroled-
Average age of parolees (years)	
Average length of training period (months)	
Institutional comparison—
For Chilliwack Forest Camps (months)..
For Oakalla Prison Farm (months)	
For New Haven (months)-
For Haney Correctional Institution (months)-
Total revocations	
Average age of revokees (years)	
Average length of training period for revokees (months)-.
Average period on parole before revocation (months)	
Occurrence of revocation relative to period on parole—
During 1 to 4 months	
During 5 to 8 months..
During 9 months-
324
120
20.5
11.7
298
~U.8
12.7
12.1
11.6
111
20.5
13.3
4.9
55%
30%
15%
355
20.3
12.4
7.8
11.3
12.1
13.0
109
20.7
13.1
3.7
75%
19%
6%
Day Parole
One only was approved for release on day parole from New Haven.
Revokees in Relation to Times Revoked
1962
1963
1964/65
108   (33%)
8     (3%)
4     (1%)
93   (31%)
16     (5%)
2     (1%)
96   (27%)
13     (4%)
Nil
Tntalu
120   (37%)
111   (37%)
109  (31%)
Percentages show relation to total paroled.
Revokees in Relation to Time Paroled
Revoked on first parole	
Revoked on second parole-
Revoked on third parole	
Revoked on fourth parole-
Totals	
98 (30%)
15 (5%)
6 (2%)
1
120   (37%)
86 (29%)
19 (6%)
6 (2%)
Nil
111   (37%)
89 (25%)
17 (5%)
3 (1%)
Nil
109   (31%)
Percentages show relation to total paroled.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65
W 51
STATISTICAL TABLES
PROVINCIAL PROBATION SERVICE STATISTICS
Year
New
Probation
Cases
New
Follow-up
Cases
Presentence
Reports
Total
Cases
Miscellaneous
1947/4.
63
105
276
591
831
1,431
1,593
1,745
1,491
1,701
2,257
2,581'
24
50
36
33
151
395
489
448
491
408
414
1          566
49
84
262
472
892
1,602
1,896
2,255
1,989
2,115
2,467
2,630
136
239
574
1,096
1,874
3,428
3,978
4,448
3,971
4,224
5,138
5,777
1045/46
1948/40
1OS1/**
74
1954/55
238
10S7/5R
80
1950/Sn
95
106.1/61
93
1061/67.
94
106./fi.
81
106./K4
365
1964/6*1
!          858
New Probation Cases
Year
Under
20 Years
20-25
Years
Over
25 Years
Probationers
Married       Single
Total
1951/52..
1954/55..
1957/58-
1959/60-
1960/61-
1961/62..
1962/63..
1963/64-
1964/65_.
496
710
1,193
1,302
1,371
1,152
1,323
1,833
2,057
49
65
124
131
178
158
174
188
259
46
56
114
160
196
181
204
236
265
40
58
120
168
194
177
219
245
311
551
773
1,311
1,425
1,551
1,314
1,482
2,012
2,270
591
831
1,431
1,593
1,745
1,491
1,701
2,257
2,5«1
New Follow-up Cases
Year
Under
20 Years
20-25
Years
Over
25 Years
Probationers
Married       Single
Total
1951/52..
1954/55..
1957/58-
1959/60..
1960/61-
1961/62-
1962/63-
1963/64-
1964/65-
22
107
234
267
247
310
245
267
351
11
41
159
206
195
167
150
129
187
3
2
16
6
14
13
18
28
3
8
14
26
17
22
35
15
41
30
143
381
463
431
269
373
399
525
33
151
385
489
448
491
408
414
566
Transfers from Family and Children's Court to Magistrate's Court
Year Total Year Total
1962/63..
1963/64..
188
167
1964/65  178
 W 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65
8. Ages on Admission
W 59
Oakalla Prison Farm
Male
Female
Kamloops
Gaol
Prince
George
Gaol
Vancouver
Island
Unit
Total
18 years and under..
19-23 years. 	
24-34 years	
3.^-45 years	
46 years and over-
Totals	
528
941
1,975
2,594
4,726
4
345
444
272
173
13
184
409
966
368
12
70
430
597
199
24
183
144
140
163
10,764
1,238
1,940
1,308
654
581
1,723
3,402
4,569
5,629
15,90.
 W 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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W 63
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 W 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
16. Offences for Which Prisoners were Committed During the Year
Oakalla Prison
Farm
Main
Gaol
Women':
Gaol
Vancouver
Island
Units
Kamloops
Gaol
Prince
George
Gaol
Total
(a) Crimes against the Person
Abduction-
Abortion—
Assault, common-
Assault, felonious.
Attempted suicide-
Bodily harm-.
Shooting with intent-
Manslaughter	
Murder	
Carnal knowledge	
Rape and assault with intent to rape-
Criminal negligence	
Attempted murder.	
Seduction  	
Indecent assault-
Totals....
(b) Crimes against Property
Arson and incendiarism-
Breaking and entering	
Robbery.—	
Forgery.	
Fraud	
False pretences.
Conspiracy..
Possessing housebreaking instruments..
Uttering _
Taking auto without owner's consent-
Receiving stolen goods	
Trespass-
Mischief (damage property)..
Theft over $50	
Theft under $50	
Theft by conversion	
Theft from mail	
Attempted theft .
Totals	
(c) Crimes against Public Morals and Decency
Bigamy-
Indecent exposure-
Gross indecency	
Incest  	
Inmates and frequenters of houses of ill fame-
Keeper of a bawdy house-
Contributing to juvenile delinquency-
Perjury.  	
Prostitution	
Buggery-
Indecent assault.
Totals...
1
1
160
188
5
10
5
4
IS
6
8
14
1
43
461
(4%)
8
519
169
102
76
241
22
13
19
6
171
20
21
374
553
2,314
(22%)
3
24
9
5
62
3
113
(1%)
15
36
17
26
14
4
1
1
3
10
17
(1%)
3
12
13
10
6
18
1
5
7
~~2
3
Tt
49
146
(12%)
81
89
(7%)
13
(4%)
SI
(4%)
59
(4%)
59
1
3
14
26
9
11'
18
16
1
35
8
47
74
65
19
7
23
28
18
1
33
14
6
38
74
57
(18%)
294
(15%)
326
(25%)
10
7
(2%)
13
(1%)
9
(1%)
3
2
208
232
7
33
10
5
20
7
111
33
4
56
631
(4%)
11
663
203
123
120
322
50
18
45
8
243
37
35
487
768
1
3
3,137
(20%)
6
24
13
7
4
3
80
4
81
7
2
231
(2%)
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1964/65 W 65
16. Offences for Which Prisoners Were Committed during the Year—Continued
Oakalla Prison
Farm
Main
Gaol
Women';
Gaol
Vancouver
Island
Units
Kamloops
Gaol
Prince
George
Gaol
Total
(d) Crimes against Public Order and Peace
Breaches of Government Liquor Act	
Breaches of Excise Act.	
Breaches of Narcotic and Drug Act-.
Breaches of by-laws (not B.C.L.A.)-
Breaches of Motor-vehicle Act	
Possessing offensive weapon	
Breaches of recognizance	
Escaping-
Failing to stop at scene of accident-
Impaired driving-
Obstructing an officer ,	
Selling or giving liquor to Indians (not B.C.L.A.)..
Unlawful shooting .
Vagrancy-
Causing disturbance-
Driving while intoxicated..
Totals-
(e) Other Offences Not Included Above
Other offenders	
5,732
5
140
48
367
71
10
8
IS
536
62
1
343
159
73
783
~7t
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13
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34
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26
3
25
2
1,123
3
6
57
162
12
27
41
4
1
28
3
2
80
11
45
40
8,491
S
218
57
489
78
25
8
20
824
92
6
443
276
73
7,570
(70%)
973
(79%)
233
(74%)
1,431
(74%)
898
(69%)
11,105
(71%)
306
(3%)
13
(1%)
5
(2%)
121
(6%)
16
(I*)
461
(3%)
Grand totals..
10,764
1,238
315
1,940
1,308
15,565
 W 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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W 67
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W 69
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1966
560-166.832
  

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