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BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCIAL MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY and ANTHROPOLOGY REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1965 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1966]

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Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
  To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C, C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1965.
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Office of the Minister of Recreation and Conservation,
March, 1966.
 Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology,
Victoria, B.C., March, 1966.
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The undersigned respectfully submits herewith a report covering the
activities of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the
calendar year 1965.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
The Honourable William Kenneth Kiernan, Minister.
D. B. Turner, Ph.D., Deputy Minister.
G. Clifford Carl, Ph.D., Director.
Charles J. Guiguet, M.A., Curator of Birds and Mammals.
Wilson Duff, M.A., Curator of Anthropology (to luly 31st).
Adam F. Szczawinski, Ph.D., Curator of Botany.
Donald N. Abbott, B.A., Acting Curator of Anthropology (from September 1st).
Erik Thorn, Chief of Displays (from October 1st).
Frank L. Beebe, Illustrator and Museum Technician.
Iohn H. Smyly, Technician (from May 31st).
Michael D. Miller, Student Assistant (from lune 15th).
Robert H. Nichols, Field Agent (from September 1st).
Peter L. Macnair, B.A., Assistant in Anthropology (from November 29th).
John H. W. Sendey, Student Assistant (from October 1st).
Margaret Crummy, B.A., Clerk-Stenographer.
Betty C Newton, Assistant in Museum Technique.
Sheila Y. Newnham, Clerk.
Helen M. Burkholder, Clerk.
Claude G. Briggs, Attendant.
Gordon King, Relief Attendant.
Henry Hunt, Chief Caryer.
E. C. (Tony) Hunt, Assistant Carver.
(a) To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the
(b) To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the
(c) To obtain information respecting the natural sciences, relating particularly
to the natural history of the Province, and to increase and diffuse knowledge regarding the same.
(Section 4, Provincial Museum Act, chapter 311, R.S.B.C. 1960.)
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free, on week-days, 8.30 a.m. to
5 p.m.; Saturdays, 9.30 a.m. to 5 p.m.; and on Sunday afternoons, 1 to 5 p.m.
Report of the Director-
Field Work	
Curatorial Activities,
Thunderbird Park.	
Staff Changes	
.     9
.    9
. 10
. 11
. 11
. 11
. 12
Extension  12
Planning and Construction Programme.  12
Display Programme  13
Attendance .  14
Obituaries  14
Donations and Accessions  15
Article—" Natural History of Thetis Lake Area near Victoria, British Columbia," by Thetis Park Nature Sanctuary Association  21
 ...eel and concrete skeleton of new museum complex reached this stage at the end of 1965.
Jr. /'
Model by F. L. Beebe of a proposed coastal diorama for the new museum building.
 ■   . ■ '■ ■■:■-. .■   ■. ,'..■.;.'■-?;.i.'VTV?,*'
For the Year 1965
Regular routines of museum operation were carried on throughout 1965 in the
usual way, but pervading all was a new outlook as a result of the programme of
planning and construction which dominated our activities.
A number of visits to various parts of the Province were made this year mostly
to collect specimens and information in connection with new exhibits being prepared
for the new building. The first of these was in May when several staff members
spent a number of days in the Okanagan Valley in company with Mr. Clarence Tillenius, a noted artist-illustrator who has been engaged to create dioramas for the
new museum building. The main purpose of the visit was to select a locale for a
habitat group featuring the wildlife of the dry Interior and to make field sketches,
preliminary collections, and a photographic record of a specific area. Mrs. Grace
Bell, of Victoria, also assisted by making a taped record of typical natural sounds.
Mr. Karl Spreitz, of the Photographic Branch, was responsible for photography.
In late May, Mr. C. J. Guiguet and Mr. F. L. Beebe collaborated with officials
of the Fish and Game Branch in making a survey of the peregrine falcon population
in the Queen Charlotte Islands, necessitated by increasing requests for permits to
take birds for use in falconry.
In lune, Mr. Wilson Duff visited Prince Rupert, Hazelton, Kitwanga, and other
centres in this general area in connection with his various anthropological interests.
In mid-July Mr. Guiguet, Mr. Tillenius, and Mr. John Hermann-Blome, taxidermist, visited the Chilcotin country to collect specimens of bighorn sheep to be
mounted for display in a habitat group being planned.
During part of August, Mr. Guiguet continued a long-term trapping programme
designed to study the distribution of small mammals on coastal islands. Folger,
Edward, King, and Seppings Islands were surveyed as well as a portion of Bamfield
In the latter part of August, Dr. Szczawinski worked in the Peace River district
making a representative collection of plants in the neighbourhood of Hudson Hope
as part of an over-all programme being carried on in the Province. The British
Columbia Hydro and Power Authority were most helpful in providing accommodation, transportation, and other services.
At other times, Dr. Szczawinski made a number of short field visits to various
parts of Vancouver Island, assisting various botanists in collecting research material.
In mid-September, Mr. Guiguet, Mr. Hermann-Blome, and wildlife artist Mr.
Hugh Monahan, travelled to Tuya Lake, north-west of Dease Lake, to collect
caribou and to make on-the-spot photographs, colour notes, and plant collections
for a diorama featuring the wildlife of this portion of the Province.
In early November, Mr. Guiguet spent several days in the Columbia Valley
north of Golden in an attempt to secure a moose suitable for display, but unfavourable weather conditions precluded success. Later, in December, he was able to
collect a suitable animal north of Fort St. James with the aid of Mr. Tillenius and
Conservation Officer Gordon Gosling, who were in the area gathering material for
a habitat group.
Also during the summer months a considerable amount of field work was carried on by the Archaeological Sites Advisory Board, mainly at Montague Harbour
on Galiano Island, where an extensive " dig " was made. Although the Museum was
not directly involved, Mr. Duff and Mr. Abbott assisted in several ways and paid
several visits to the site during the season.
Thanks to a sum of money released by special warrant and administered by
the Provincial Secretary's Department, we were able to begin purchasing historical
material for both the Provincial Museum and Provincial Archives. For this purpose
Mr. R. H. Nichols was appointed field agent. His itinerary this season passed
through the East Kootenay area, Shuswap, Lytton, and parts of Vancouver Island.
Several lots of valuable Indian material were obtained as well as series of old photographs and miscellaneous pioneer items.
The following publications have appeared in 1965:—
G. Clifford Carl.
Pelicans in British Columbia. Wildlife Review, Vol. 3, No. 7, pp. 12, 13.
The Amphibians of British Columbia.   British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 2, pp. 1-63 (reissue).
Wilson Duff.
Thoughts on the Nootka Canoe.   Report of the Provincial Museum for
1964, pp. 24-31.
The Indian History of British Columbia. Vol. 1, The Impact of the White
Man.  Anthropology in British Columbia, Memoir No. 5 (1964),
pp. 1-117.
R. Y. Edwards.
Birds Seen in Active Pass, British Columbia.   Report of the Provincial
Museum for 1964, pp. 19-23.
J. Bristol Foster.
The Evolution of the Mammals of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British
Columbia.   Occasional Papers of the British Columbia Provincial
Museum, No. 14, pp. 1-130 (December).
C. J. Guiguet (with I. McT. Cowan).
The Mammals of British Columbia.    British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 11 (third edition, revised), pp. 1-414.
Josephine F. L. Hart.
Life History and Larval Development of Cryptolithodes typicus Brandt
(Decapoda, Anomura) from British Columbia.   Crustaceana, Vol.
8, Pt. 3, pp. 255-276.
A. F. Szczawinski.
Insectivorous Vascular Plants of British Columbia.   Victoria Naturalist,
Vol. 22, No. 3, pp 25-27.
Asclepias speciosa Torr. Milkweed, Silkweed.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol.
22, No. 4, p. 37.
Several other publications are in various stages of preparation.   Among them
are Handbook No. 25, "The Lily Family (Liliacea.) of British Columbia," by Dr.
T. M. C. Taylor, and Volume 2 of the " Indian History of British Columbia," by
Wilson Duff, scheduled for appearance in 1966.
 -       ■■ i;   .   .   .     ;
At the 1965 annual meeting of the American Association for Conservation
Information, the British Columbia Department of Recreation and Conservation
entry of the Handbook Series was awarded second place for outstanding publications in the international field.
During the course of the year, several moves were made involving both curators
and collections. Through the Department of Public Works, additional space was
made available in the old " Mc and Mc Building," 1450 Government Street. Here,
two offices, a display laboratory, a workshop, and storage areas were created to take
care of our immediate needs. Totem poles, canoes, furniture, and other historical
and biological materials were moved in and restoration work was commenced on
those destined for display.
A second shift involved moving the illustration studio and preparation room
from quarters occupied since the early 1930's to a reconditioned dwelling at 609
Superior Street. Included in the transfer were skeletons and unrelated boxes of
several whales, fish specimens, fossils, shells, and publications. Some historical
collections, and archaeological materials, including human remains, were also moved
into storage areas in this newly occupied building.
In May, Dr. A. F. Szczawinski, Curator of Botany, attended the founding meeting of the Canadian Botanical Association in Ottawa and was elected Regional
Director of the Association for a two-year term. Dr. Szczawinski has also been
active in making preliminary arrangements for the world congress of botanists to
be held in Tokyo in 1966.
Further collecting Was carried on by Mr. Guiguet in the Barkley Sound area as
reported elsewhere as part of a long-range study of the distribution and evolutionary
history of the small mammals of British Columbia, particularly insular forms.
A major research project in the field of botany was launched by Dr. A. F.
Szczawinski and Dr. T. M. C. Taylor (former head of the Department of Botany,
University of British Columbia), who are collaborating on a study leading to a
publication on the flora of British Columbia.
Work on the archaeological material collected at the Pedder Bay site in 1964
has been carried on by Mr. Abbott and will eventually lead to a publication on this
important midden.
Throughout the year the Museum has continued to loan research material to
other institutions or specialists and has carried on an active exchange of plant specimens with herbaria in Canada, the United States, and Europe.
The carving programme in Thunderbird Park has been carried on by Henry
Hunt and Eugene (Tony) Hunt as usual with but a few interruptions occasioned by
sickness. Except for a few accessories which are to be added later, the two poles
destined for erection on the campus of the University of Victoria were completed
and delivered in June. These are a copy of a 50-foot Nass River pole obtained from
the City of Prince Rupert and a replica of a 55-foot pole acquired from Kitwancool
in 1962.
Work was then started on a replica of the 40-foot Haida pole, known as the
Weeping Women of Tanu, and this reached about the half-way mark by the end of
the year.
Besides these larger projects the carvers were called upon to produce several
smaller poles, some for the Museum collection and some for official gifts. Among
the latter was an Indian-style box by Tony Hunt used at an international conference
of travel agents at Hong Kong.
Several poles and canoes were moved from the Indian house to the new workshop at 1450 Government Street, where they were cleaned, repaired, and stored.
The Museum staff suffered a serious loss when Mr. Wilson Duff left to accept
a teaching post at the University of British Columbia. During his 15 years of service, Mr. Duff accomplished a great deal in furthering the Museum's interest in the
filed of anthropology. He was instrumental in bringing the late Chief Mungo Martin
to Victoria in 1952 and directed the carving programme in Thunderbird Park. He
founded the Museum's publication series in anthropology and directed the Province's
archaeological programme since 1960, when it was initiated under a new Act. For
two years he was president of the British Columbia Museum's Association and is
currently a member of the Indian Advisory Committee. His experience in all phases
of the museum field was of great help in the initial planning stages of the new building.   His fellow staff members wish him well in his new post.
Following Mr. Duff's departure, Mr. Don Abbott was made Acting Curator
of Anthropology.
In September, Mr. Erik Thorn joined our staff as Chief of the Display Division.
His varied experience in designing and installing exhibits in museums, both in
Europe and in Canada, will be invaluable in directing the preparation of a display
programme for the new building.
Other recent appointees are: Mr. John Smyly as technician; Mr. Michael
Miller as student-taxidermist; Mr. Robert H. Nichols as field agent and Mr. John
Sendey as assistant (both in co-operation with the Provincial Archives); and Mr.
Peter Macnair as assistant in anthropology.
On a part-time basis, early in the year Mr. R. York Edwards, Park Interpretation Officer of the Provincial Parks Branch, was loaned to us to help organize the
display programme in its formative stages. His assistance at this critical time was
greatly appreciated.
Throughout the year, staff members gave a number of illustrated talks to
various groups and a few presentations of a more formal type were presented to
learned societies. Museum personnel also took part in several sessions of career
counselling arranged by local service clubs through the National Employment
In early spring the Director presented a series of wildlife and conservation lectures in various centres across Canada, east as far as Quebec City, under the combined auspices of the Canadian Audubon Society, the National Audubon Society,
and local conservation groups.
When the decision was made in 1964 to construct a museum-archives building
to commemorate the 1967 Centennal it was realized that timing was of utmost importance in order to meet the deadline. Public Works officials charged with the
planning programme therefore drew up a work schedule which has been successfully
followed to date with only minor changes.
The site chosen for the new structure is immediately north of the present Douglas Building, an area which has been used as a parking-lot for some years. This
location has the advantage of being in close proximity to other Government buildings and convenient for use by the general public.
Early in the planning it was obvious that a single building could not be designed
to provide the varied facilities and services required; a complex of three interconnected structures was therefore decided upon.
The largest is a four-floored rectangular building to house two large exhibit
halls, a lecture theatre, classrooms, administration offices, lounges, and other public
facilities. Workshops and storage areas will occupy most of the basement level.
The second structure is a tower designed to accommodate the scientific staff.
It will contain offices, laboratories, storerooms, preparation rooms, and illustration
studio. The design will permit the installation of mezzanine floors when additional
space is required.
The third building is a low two-storied structure to house the archives and
related services. It will contain the reference library, the microfilm bureau, a repog-
raphy service, and facilities for displaying and storing maps, pictures, documents,
and other two-dimensional material of historic value.
To harmonize with their surroundings and particularly to show a kinship with
the Legislative Buildings, the new structures will be faced with stone from the same
quarries and will repeat certain design elements which characterize the older buildings. The landscaping will feature courtyards at various levels in which will be
located pieces of sculpture by British Columbia artists.
To make the best use of the limited time available, planning has been done in
stages and contracts for each phase have been let. Excavation started on May 6
with a ground-breaking ceremony during which Honourable W. A. C. Bennett,
Premier, set off the first blast. Other phases of construction were: July, first steel
contract let; August, construction of foundations commenced; October, substructure of lecture theatre completed; November, first steel erected; December, final
working drawings almost completed.
In addition to the activities already outlined in connection with collecting of
display materials, considerable time was devoted to planning the exhibit halls, particularly in the natural history division, and some progress has been made.
The major undertaking in this division is the planning, construction, and installation of a series of dioramas or habitat groups, which, together with accessory
exhibits, will give an over-all picture of the natural history of the Province when
completed. The first phase, planned for installation in 1967, involves four large
dioramas, as follows:—
Coastal Region.—Featuring blacktail deer and cougar in oak-arbutus habitat
in fall overlooking the Gulf Islands.
Dry Interior.—Featuring bighorn sheep in spring above Vaseux Lake, Okanagan Valley.
Sub-alpine Plateau.—Featuring caribou in summer in the Tuya Lake area.
Northern Interior.—Featuring moose in black spruce habitat in winter near
Pink Mountain.
Mr. Frank L. Beebe of the Museum staff is undertaking the direction and
installation of the first-named diorama, Mr. Clarence Tillenius and Mr. Hugh Mona-
han, both noted wildlife artists with considerable museum experience, have been
engaged to direct and install the remaining three planned at this time.   Mr. John
 FF 14
Hermann-Blome has been invited to do the taxidermy of the large mammals, and
Mr. A. J. Braun will prepare some of the birds and other accessory mounts.
In all cases, field-sketches, colour-notes, and photographs have been obtained
during on-the-spot visits, and a scale model has been constructed of one.
A scale model of both exhibit floors has also been prepared and a general floor
plan has been agreed upon. Work is proceeding on the layout details for the human
history division.
In May we obtained space in the old "Mc and Mc Building," 1450 Government Street, where a display studio, workshop, and storage space were prepared.
Here, totem poles, canoes, and other objects from scattered sources were gathered
together and restoration work was commenced. By the end of the year many had
been repaired and readied for display.
The following attendance figures for 1965 are estimates based upon sample
counts at irregular intervals:—
August  71,500
September   19,000
October  3,900
November  2,800
December  1,500
January     4,900
February     6,900
March     6,600
April  10,000
May  13,000
June  15,300
July  36,600 Total  190,000
Compared with the total estimated attendance of 161,700 for the previous year,
the number of visitors this year has shown an increase of about 18 per cent, the
highest on record except for the year 1962, when tourism was phenomenally boosted
by the World's Fair in Seattle.
Again this year the Museum remained open until 9 p.m. each evening, except
Sunday, during the summer months, as an extra service to visitors to the city.
As a point of interest, a tally was made of the number of children compared
with the number of adult visitors on a typical day in late summer. The proportion
was roughly 10 to 13, which was surprisingly high and pointed up the need of planning exhibits to cater to juniors as well as seniors.
We regretfully record here the passing of several persons who have been associated in some way with the Provincial Museum or with its interests.
Dr. John R. Dymond, distinguished ichthyologist, scholar, and teacher, an
authority on the fishes of Canada and former Director of the Royal Ontario Museum
(January 31st.)
Dr. Albert O. Hayes, structural geologist and teacher, past president of the
Victoria Natural History Society.    (February 1st.)
Rev. A. C. Mackie, an amateur naturalist who became an authority on the
Pacific rattlesnake in British Columbia.   (February 3rd.)
Mr. Phillip M. Monckton, land surveyor, amateur naturalist and nature photographer, past president of the Victoria Natural History Society.   (October 4th.)
Mr. Arthur E. Pickford, former land surveyor and amateur anthropologist, a
member of the Museum staff from 1944 to 1948, during which time he completed
material on British Columbia Indians as a basis for the " Heritage Series " published
by the Department of Education.   (November 24th.)
A number of plant collections were received from various institutions, game
biologists, foresters, and private individuals. Space does not permit us to list each
one of them individually, but we include all of them in a grateful vote of thanks.
Herbarium exchange was continued with the following institutions: National
Museum of Canada, Ottawa; Science Service, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa;
Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C.; University of British Columbia, Vancouver; University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.; University of Victoria, Victoria;
Stockholm Museum, Stockholm, Sweden; University of Helsinki, Finland; University of Krakow, Poland; and others.
With the addition of 3,051 sheets of specimens during 1965, the total now
stands at 46,691. This year a project was started to remount and uniformly label
all herbarium specimens in an effort to bring the herbarium up to internationally
accepted standards.
During the year a number of plant scientists from Canada and abroad visited
and worked in the herbarium.
By gift-
Steven Clark, Victoria, molar of domestic cow.
Allan Colquhoun, Duncan, immature white-footed mouse.
Ted Eby, Victoria, blacktail deer.
Paul Erickson, Victoria, hind part of skull of domestic cat.
Brian R. Gates, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Vancouver, one opossum, one
raccoon, one pack rat.
Clarence Hronek, Victoria, one rat.
Mrs. C. Kelsey, Victoria, part of deer skull.
J. P. E. Klaverwyden, Victoria, one mounted head of moose.
A. H. Marrion, Victoria, one vole.
Craig Morrison, Victoria, tooth of domestic horse.
Mrs. T. W. S. Parsons, Victoria, one tanned and trimmed wolverine skin.
Alastair Slydell, Victoria, one little brown bat.
J. B. H. Stevens, Port Washington, two white-footed mice.
Rhys Williams, Victoria, jaw of blacktail deer and tooth of horse.
By staff—111.
By gift-
Mrs. M. Adams, Port Washington, one hawk.
Miss Mabel D. Allen, Texada Island, one western tanager.
Mr. Beattie, Victoria, one bushtit's nest with six eggs.
Mrs. Eleanore Davidson, Victoria, one golden-crowned kinglet.
A. R. Davidson, Victoria, one Virginia rail, one Swainson thrush.
Bryan Davies, Victoria, one saw-whet owl.
Department of Public Works, one American rough-leg hawk.
Miss Charronne Douglas, Victoria, one Wilson snipe.
John Fox, Duncan, one adult whistling swan, one juvenile whistling swan.
Ralph Fryer, Victoria, one golden plover.
B. R. Gates, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Vancouver, one red-tailed hawk, one
snipe, three Clark's crows, one shrike, one song sparrow, one pheasant
chick, one sharp-shinned hawk.
Clarence S. Goode, Victoria, one house wren's nest with six eggs.
Miss Joan Hannay, Victoria, one yellow-bellied sapsucker.
Mrs. W. N. Hayden, Victoria, three crows.
W. J. Hawker, Victoria, one owl.
Roy Helset, Hemp Creek, one avocet.
Ray Hill, Victoria, one grouse.
M. W. Holdom, White Rock, one Hutton vireo.
Dr. G. F. Houston, Victoria, one Swainson thrush.
Will D. Jenkins, Tatlin Lake, one Audubon warbler.
J. P. E. Klaverwyden, Victoria, one linnet, three purple finches.
Jack Lenfesty, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Victoria, 11 grebes.
Don Lynch, Victoria, one robin.
John McConnachie, North Saanich, one song sparrow.
R. G. McMynn, Commercial Fisheries, one rufous hummingbird.
P. M. Monckton, Victoria, one cedar waxwing, one fulmar.
Mrs. P. M. Monckton, Victoria, one Audubon warbler.
Monterey School, Victoria, one great horned owl.
Mrs. Orme-Cott, Sidney, one golden-crowned kinglet, one orange-crowned
J. Osman, Courtenay, one albinistic widgeon.
John Palmer, Sooke, one Swainson thrush.
Michael Rynoski, Victoria, one bird's nest.
David Scholes, Victoria, one Bewick wren's nest with four eggs.
F. Sherman, Victoria, one pine siskin.
Third Officer D. E. Smith, Weathership "St. Catharines," one fulmar.
H. W. S. Soulsby, Victoria, one fox sparrow.
S.P.C.A., Victoria, one whistling swan.
Mrs. G. B. H. Stevens, Port Washington, one rufous hummingbird.
Fred Sutton, Cordova Bay, one mallard egg.
Conservation Officer Taylor, Campbell River, one trumpeter swan.
Mrs. Thiele, Victoria, one ruby-throated hummingbird.
Mrs. W. Wainman, Ocean Park, one golden-crowned kinglet.
Mrs. H. D. Wallis, Victoria, one Cooper hawk.
Mrs. E. M. Watson, Victoria, one golden-crowned sparrow.
Mrs. Mary Winstone, Victoria, one saw-whet owl.
Michael Winstone, Victoria, one barn swallow.
A. Wood-Robertson, Victoria, one mounted barn owl.
Mrs. P. M. Young, Victoria, one hawk.
By staff—66.
By purchase—11.
„     .„ Amphibians and Reptiles
By gift—
Patsy Adolphe, Victoria, one toad.
Donna Brown, Victoria, three frogs.
Dave Duris, Prince George, one toad, alligator lizards.
D. R. Foster, Victoria, one painted turtle.
Kim Martin, Victoria, one tree frog with extra hind leg.
Curtis Moyls, Penticton, one western skink.
G. V. Renwald, Victoria, one lizard.
By gift-
George T. Cooper, Legal Surveys, one surf smelt.
R. L. Eriksen, Victoria, one pipefish.
Robert Partington, Victoria, one fanged viper fish.
_     ... Invertebrates
By gift-
Don Aide, Victoria, two black widow spiders.
Miss Susan Alexander, Victoria, one California prionus.
A. Campbell, Victoria, one wasps' nest made of clay.
George A. Clark, Victoria, one California silk moth.
Leslie Dale, Victoria, one stink bug.
Michael Davies, Victoria, one California silk moth.
Mrs. E. Don, Victoria, larva of swallowtail butterfly.
Mrs. Dreyer, Victoria, one underwing moth.
Gladys Eaden, Victoria, larva of swallowtail butterfly.
G. C. Emerson, North Surrey, collection of bivalves and univalve molluscs from
blue clay.
Mrs. L. E. Gardner, Chrome Island Light Station, Bowser, dried shell of box
Gonzales Meteorological Station, Victoria, one black witch moth.
Al Grass, Burnaby, six specimens of snails.
James Gray, Victoria, one alfalfa butterfly.
Bill Ilott, Victoria, one California prionus.
A. G. Leason, Victoria, fresh-water clams.
Mrs. B. McKibben, Victoria, one spiny wood borer.
A. G. McTaggart, Goldstream, six black widow spiders.
W. Montpetit, Port Alberni, one shamrock orb weaver.
Mrs. J. Muir, Langford, one black widow spider.
W. H. Pope, Department of Agriculture, specimens of copepods.
H. J. Russell, Victoria, two spiders.
Les G. Saunders, Victoria, collection of pinned wood borers and other insects.
R. Stewart, Victoria, one polyphemus moth.
Ralph Street, Victoria, fresh-water snails, salt-water clam.
J. E. Underhill, Parks Branch, one scorpion.
James S. White, Salem, Oreg., one plastic-mounted specimen of shore crab, kelp
crab, goose barnacle, peanut worm and snail.
Norman Willey, Victoria, one wasps' nest.
_     .„ Paleontology
By gift-
Charles Croft, Victoria, fossil ammonite.
Robert D. B. Jones, Victoria, piece of sandstone with fossil molluscs, one fragment of fossil wood.
Hugh McCrorie, Sequim, Wash., three concretions.
Garry Pronger, Victoria, one fossil.
The Canon Edward P. Laycock Collection.—(Gift.)    Tsimshian and Athapascan
material.   Canon Edward P. Laycock, Dorset, England.
The R. H. Nichols Collection.—(Purchase.)    Kootenay Indian material.    R. H.
Nichols, Victoria.
The John Sendey Collection.— (Purchase.)    Northwest Coast Indian material.
John Sendey, Victoria.
The John Sendey Colletcion.— (Gift.)    Archaeological specimens from Cadboro
Bay, Musqueam, and Yale.
The Mildred Valley Thornton Collection.— (Purchase.)     British Columbia and
Plains Indian material.   Mrs. Mildred Valley Thornton, Vancouver.
By gift—
R. C. Anderson, Sidney, human skull, abrasive stone.
Archaeological Sites Advisory Board, archaeological specimens from excavations
carried out at Montague Harbour and from surface collections elsewhere
on Galiano Island.
V. Belknap, Victoria, two Thompson leister spears.
L. T. Bellhouse, Galiano Island, two chipped basalt leaf-shaped points.
F. E. M. Bildstein, Kaslo, stone pestle.
British Columbia Forest Products, Victoria, human skeleton.
D. B. F. Bullen, Victoria, model Haida canoe.
Mrs. E. H. Burgess, Victoria, oblong stone.
Cecil Clark, Victoria, Stalo and Thompson basketry.
Mrs. K. Castley, Lake Cowichan, collection of Coast Salish basketry.
George Corkle, Victoria, stone hand-maul fragment, six projectile points.
Mrs. W. H. Cross, Sidney, stone object.
Mrs. M. K. Cunningham, Ganges, human skeleton.
Mrs. J. M. Curtis, Victoria, argillite totem-pole.
G. Ross Davidson, Victoria, dugout canoe.
C. P. Deykin, Victoria, model Nootka sealing canoe.
Wilson Duff, Vancouver, model Nootka sealing canoe.
Mrs. E. Geldart, Victoria, ground slate point.
L. Glowaski, Victoria, human skeleton, hand-maul.
Mrs. N. Hayden, Victoria, archaeological specimens from Cadboro Bay.
H. Jones, Sooke, smoked dog salmon.
Mr. and Mrs. N. C. Lawford, Victoria, fringed bead shirt, two glass-bead
E. McWhirter, Milnes Landing, two chipped basalt projectile points, one
nephrite celt, antler wedge fragment.
Miss M. Madill, Victoria, stone maul head.
S. Moore, South Pender Island, human skull.
Mrs. E. Morgan, Victoria, two human skeletons.
A. Muir, Nanaimo, chipped basalt projectile point.
Mrs. T. W. S. Parsons, Victoria, leather cushion, basket, basketry cradle,
Tsimshian horn spoon.
R. Pauwels, Victoria, toggling harpoon valve.
A. G. Potter, Victoria, hand-maul.
T. M. Ramsay, Halfmoon Bay, two woven cloth rugs from Kyuquot.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Alexis Creek, partial human skeleton.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Duncan, partial human skull.
Wendell B. Shaw, Santa Monica, Calif., Cree beaded vest, Cree hymn book.
A. L. Stevens, Victoria, stone hand-maul fragment.
D. Sutherland, Nanaimo, six archaeological specimens and burial fragments.
Miss Kathy Sykes, Mission, chipped projectile point.
A. N. Taylor, Victoria, two pairs of snowshoes.
Robert Thomas, Victoria, parts of human skeletons.
R. Thompson, Victoria, antler haft fragment.
Charles Utas, Sidney, ground slate projectile point.
34th Victoria Brownie Pack, one pair of decorated moccasins.
Mrs. E. G. Webster, West Vancouver, stone hammer fragment.
By purchase—
Mrs. Agnes Dick and Mrs. Cecelia Joe, Nootka freight canoe.
S. Didrickson, Sidney, Tsimshian Shaman's outfit.
H. Jones, Sooke, two wolf headdresses.
Mrs. Agnes Sawyer, spirit dancer's costume, dentalium necklace.
By the staff—
Model totem-pole carved in Thunderbird Park by Eugene (Tony) Hunt.
Archaeological specimens from sites near Victoria.
By exchange—
Mrs. Grace M. Bell, Victoria, collection of tape recordings (duplicate copies)
of nature sounds made in Okanagan Valley in 1965.
By gift-
Frank Buffam, Ucluelet, rock formation with work of cirratulid worm.
Jack Elias, Victoria, piece of grey limestone.
Howard Jones, Victoria, one limestone boulder perforated with burrows of
Eric D. Sismey, Penticton, " The Boke of Saint Albans," by Dame Juliana
Berners, 1486, 1901 edition; "Birds of the Isle of Man," by P. G. Ralfe;
" British Birds' Nests," by R. Kearton; collection of negatives of British
Columbia subjects.
Proceeds from the Museum donation box during 1965 amounted to $259.72,
which were turned over to the Mungo Martin Scholarship Fund.
By Thetis Park Nature Sanctuary Association
Introduction  21
Geology  23
Ecology  26
Algae, Lichens, Fungi, Mosses, and Ferns 34-39
Herbaceous Plants  39
Woody Plants  44
Miscellaneous Invertebrates  46
Butterflies  46
Fishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles  49
Birds  49
Mammals  51
Bibliography  53
In 1790, while on the other side of the world the tumbrils rolled to the Place
de la Revolution, Spanish sailors of Manuel Quimper were the first civilized persons
to view from their tiny deck the green hills cradling Thetis Lake. However, for a
further half-century only the Indian from his great communal houses on the seacoast
hunted deer, bear, and elk on Skirt Mountain and Seymour Hill, or carried up from
the mud flats of Esquimalt Harbour the immense quantities of clams, whose shells
form the middens visible today near the southern end of Thetis Lake.
Meanwhile, on the west coast of Vancouver's Island, rapacious maritime fur-
traders had effected almost total destruction of the sea-otter, while Nor' Westers
Mackenzie and Fraser had overcome mountains and torrents to reach the sea overland from Canada. In 1821 the Parliament of Great Britain extended the privilege
of exclusive trade in the region west of the Rockies to the Hudson's Bay Company,
now merged with the North West Company. Hence, to protect their interests north
of the mouth of the Columbia, the company in 1842 instructed James Douglas to
establish a trading-post at a suitable site near the southern end of Vancouver's
Island. Here he found " a perfect Eden in the midst of the dreary wilderness of the
northwest coast," and the next year Fort Victoria, locally known as Fort Camosun,
enclosed 100 yards square within a stockade with bastions at the angles. Almost
immediately farms were cleared and buildings constructed wherever, as at Craig-
flower, good arable land could be found.
Though no record remains, we may be sure that venturesome young men from
the fort or from James Douglas's farm at Craigflower paddled up the peaceful Selkirk Water and ascended Craigflower Creek to Prior Lake and Thetis Lake. Their
route we trace in part today along the Craigflower Trail in the nature sanctuary.
Others no doubt followed the old Indian trail north-west from the head of Esquimalt
Harbour, then utilized the open ridges to emerge at the top of Seymour Hill, and
savour, as we do a century and a quarter later, the idyllic prospect of Thetis Lake,
rock-girt and placid below.
All Vancouver Island was granted in 1849 by Royal charter to the Hudson's
Bay Company, upon the condition that it form a colony of British subjects. However, by 1853 there were no more than 300 persons in Victoria, all of whom were
in some capacity servants of the company. The first real settler, Capt. Colquhoun
Grant, finding all arable land owned by the company, was forced to build 20 miles
distant, at Sooke. There he introduced the beautiful and invasive broom, which
now covers much of Southern Vancouver Island, including the drier slopes of Thetis
Lake Park.
After walking across the continent, John Greig left the service of the company
and in 1854 purchased land at the head of Esquimalt Harbour and extending into
the southern portion of the present Thetis Lake Park. Here he set up a lime-burning
operation, of which traces still remain, and grazed cattle in the valley of Craigflower
Creek. Members of his family subsequently gained title to more land in this area,
and planted some of the old pear-trees we see today along the "Blue" Trail. His
great-granddaughter is today a member of the Thetis Park Nature Sanctuary
Now began the invasion by thousands of gold-seekers who crowded through
Victoria on their way first to the Fraser bars and the Cariboo, then to Leechtown via
the Empress Mountain Trail, and finally to the Klondike. Thomas Harris, a butcher
by trade, purchased grazing areas enclosing the western portion of Thetis Park, and
became the first Mayor of Victoria in 1862. One of the earliest city ordinances
directed that " no person shall ride or drive through the public streets at a pace
exceeding eight miles per hour." In those days a score of Bactrian camels swayed
along the muddy road between Victoria and Esquimalt. Water from wells and
springs, such as Springridge, was sold from water carts at as much as 25 cents a
bucket. The growth in population forced the development, beginning in 1873, of a
waterworks system from Elk and Beaver Lakes, and in 1885 Thetis Lake was joined
to the system as a reserve water supply. The remains of the surge reservoir built on
the south slope of Seymour Hill at that time is now known as Bladderwort Pond.
By 1915 this water source was replaced by the Sooke Lake system, although the City
of Victoria retained the 1,400 acres at Thetis Lake as a watershed. Since 1932 the
lake area has been open to the public for swimming and recreation.
The great expansion of residential areas adjacent to Victoria has emphasized
the tremendous value of the Thetis watershed as a "green belt" of exceptional
beauty. During depression days, cordwood was cut in the northern and eastern
areas, and " relief " labour used to develop fire roads and trails. A few years later the
northern " panhandle " suffered destructive logging, and an area on the then Thetis
Lake Road was set aside for a pistol range. Rerouting of the Trans-Canada Highway quite recently divided the main portion from the southern extremity of the park.
In order to arouse public resistance to alienation of any further areas of the
park, Thetis Park Nature Sanctuary Association was formed in 1957 and formally
organized two years later under the Societies Act. Its chief purpose is " to protect,
preserve, and perpetuate the native flora and fauna of the Thetis Lake Park." Implicit in its work is the preservation intact of the beautiful nature sanctuary in its
unspoiled primitive state, a climax forest and ecological area resulting from many
hundreds of years of natural evolution.
Strenuous efforts by the society to avoid routing of a power-line through the
eastern part of the park were unavailing. In 1960 the city sold more than 100 acres
as a right-of-way, but the campaign aroused public resistance to any further encroach-
ment. Under the terms of an agreement with the City Council, the society is authorized "to provide facilities for access, observation, and study." This area of 400
acres is apparently the first nature sanctuary in Canada.
This article lists many groups of plants and animals present in the sanctuary,
but it is incomplete with respect to such groups as grasses, insects, and invertebrates,
either by reason of limitation of space here or because they need further investigation. There is ample scope for students to fill the gaps for future use. Plants are
represented by 119 families, including 9 in algae, 11 lichens, 30 fungi, 4 mosses and
ferns, 47 families of herbaceous plants, and 18 families of woody plants. Two large
groups of animals identified are butterflies, with 37 species, and birds, with 85
species definitely occurring in the sanctuary.
Any success this report may achieve will result from the earnest endeavour of
many collaborators. The Thetis Park Nature Sanctuary Association is very indebted
to many members who have contributed directly to this record. The helpful support
of Dr. L. J. Clark, who wrote most of this introduction, and of Dr. G. C. Carl, who
not only contributed notes on fishes, amphibians, and reptiles, but guided the report
through the editorial stages, is much appreciated, as is the interest and the help of
Dr. Edwin M. Hagmeier, who prepared the section on ecology in collaboration with
student associates, particularly A. J. Crawford, R. A. Keller, Gail Moyer Mitchell,
J. R. Marshall, Florence Hall, Barbara Hodgson, Susan Mitchell, and F. Boas.
Also the assistance of A. H. Marrion, who contributed the entire section on
geology, is much appreciated. The publication committee wishes to thank also all
those who compiled lists of the flora and fauna in the park, especially Prof. C. W.
Lowe for the algae and micro-fauna; Miss M. C. Melburn for lichens, ferns and fern-
allies, and flowering plants; Frank Boas, Dr. W. B. Scholfield, and Miss M. C.
Melburn for mosses and liverworts; the late George A. Hardy for butterflies; A. R.
Davidson and others for birds; and Charles J. Guiguet for mammals. Also acknowledgment is made of our indebtedness to Dr. Mason E. Hale, Dr. J. W. Groves, Dr.
Howard Crum, and others for identifying lichens, fungi, and mosses respectively.
Blocks 6B and 6C.—(See map of sanctuary, Fig. 1, for these block designations.) On the north side of the Trans-Canada Highway, road construction has
revealed the numerous large cracks in the greatly fractured ancient lava beds. This
fragmentation has permitted weathering and mineral changes to occur to a depth of
5 to 8 feet below the upper surface. The original darkish-green colour of the rock
has changed to deep brown. The volcanic materials, deposited to a great depth
over most of Vancouver Island about 350 million years ago, were later folded, fractured, and altered in many ways.
Above the rock base is a thin layer of till (a mixture of clay, sand, and pebbles). The lower part of the hills and the valley-floors are more or less covered with
this material, left by ice during the glacial period.
Block 5B.—The park-entrance roadway leads to a boss of rock, somewhat flat
on top, which formed a dam across the south end of the lake. Its presence indicates
an area of rock resistant to erosion by the ice, whose grinding power produced the
north-south grooves and the general smoothness of the surface. Erratics were left
hereabout; these are transported boulders of granite, sandstone, conglomerate, and
gneiss carried from more northern areas. To the west is a gully, about 20 feet deep,
cut through till and rock by a stream that formerly drained the lake before the earth
dam was built.
 FF 24
i white (Seymour hill)       1-4 Miles
2 orange Craigflower or) o? Miles
3 YELLOW(5ALYPSO TRAIL)     0-9 Miles
5 BLUE (FIELD TRAIL) 1-2 Miles
Block 4B. — Grooves and scratches exposed on the lake-shore indicate the
north-south movement of the ice as its great mass rode over this rock.
Block 5B.—Ascending the trail on Seymour Hill one has to scramble over much
loose brown-weathered scree or rock fragments derived from the exposed rock outcrop above. Many large trees find a foothold in this material, and the underlying
rock cracks. The root growth of an old Douglas fir, and that of an arbutus nearby,
demonstrates one of nature's methods of breaking up rock formations. Here may
be seen large pieces of stone which have been levered upwards by root growth. The
trail near the top of the hill (Block 4B) is near the contact of the volcanics and a
later rock formation called the Wark Gneiss, which, as a molten magma, welled up
beneath the former formation, fracturing and deforming it and causing mineral
changes. As this intrusion slowly cooled, it developed crystals of medium to coarse
grain, of darkish-green colour and somewhat gneissic structure. Reaching the top
of the trail one sees the rounded hills all about. A noticeable feature of the rock
surface here is the numerous fine cracks which permitted water and temperature
changes to cause a flaking action. The flakes weather into fine sandy material, which
collects in the larger cracks and becomes a basis for soil.
Blocks 4B and 5B.—A difference in the rock break-up pattern takes place on
the higher peak (at 485 feet elevation), where the greatly fractured volcanics are
rapidly dividing into small block-like pieces. So rotten is the rock that a chunk
struck by a hammer readily breaks into fragments. This remnant of the old volcanic
rock (Vancouver Volcanics) surface can be traced down the south-east slope of the
hill to the highways. Future exploration in the park may reveal more of this rock,
or perhaps some included limestone.
The general topography of the area is due to several causes. A line joining
the tops of the Sooke Hills indicates that a high plateau surface existed in pre-
Pliocene times, about 13 million years ago. It was gradually eroded and dissected
by valleys. Locally the downward wearing-away was carried farther, leaving a
subdued area with some resistant masses, such as Seymour Hill and Mill Hill, rising
above the surrounding lowlands. Streams and especially ice deepened the valley-
floors, most of which have the north-to-south trend. The Wark Gneiss has had its
thick covering blanket removed and has become exposed.
Blocks 4A, 5B, and IB.—In several places rock conditions permitted the moving ice to scour out basins which are now occupied by swamps and lakes: Thetis
Lake, with surface 163 feet above sea-level; the small Bladderwort Lake (6B) is
higher, and had its depth increased by two cement walls; Prior Lake receives stream
water from Thetis Lake and McKenzie Lake and the nearby swamps, and then drains
through Craigflower Creek into Mill Hill Bay, an arm of Esquimalt Harbour.
Mention has been made of erratics at the park entrance; others may be found
along the east shore of the lower Thetis Lake and the area north and east along the
fire trail. At the top of Seymour Trail are two large boulders, indicating ice movement over the hills and their deposition here. Tremendous pressure was exerted
downwards by thousands of feet of ice over the base rocks and the abrading materials-
held by the ice. Under the great weight of ice, the land sank about 500 feet below
its present level. In many areas nearby, well-preserved sea shells may be found in
the silty material below swamps, and some may exist in the park.
Structural weaknesses were produced in the Wark Gneiss when the molten
magma cooled into solid rock, causing horizontal and vertical joints or cracks to
form. Moving ice seized upon the squarish blocks and quarried them out. This
rapid method of excavating produced the step-like effect up the hill on the east side
of the lake, and the high wall dipping into the water on the west side of the lake.
When the ice disappeared about 12,000 years ago, the land began to rise again,
with the result that wave and current action often removed till from the hillsides to
lower areas. The rock basins have become fresh-water lakes and swamps. Rock-
weathering and stream erosion are now lowering and reshaping this most interesting
piece of landscape.
For further reading, see Clapp, 1917; Holland, 1964; Haig-Brown, 1961; and
Mather, 1964, in the Bibliography at end of this report.
Three plant formations, each with a distinct flora and fauna, and controlled
mainly by temperature, occur on Vancouver Island. The altitudinally lowest is the
Coast Forest, of hemlock, cedar, and Douglas fir (Rowe, 1959). The Coast Forest
formation is divided into three associations—a hemlock-cedar association in regions
with over 70 inches of rainfall per year, a Douglas fir association, and an oak-arbutus
association where rainfall is less than 40 inches annually. The Douglas fir association occurs on the eastern side of Vancouver Island between 500 and 1,500 feet, and
the oak-arbutus association on the eastern side, from sea-level to about 500 feet,
between Sooke and Courtenay. The latter also extends south to California between
the Coast and Cascade Mountains (Krajina, 1965; Shelford, 1963).
Thetis Park lies ecologically and climatically intermediate between the oak-
arbutus and Douglas fir associations of the Coast Forest formation. Climatic data
collected on the eastern slope of Seymour Hill in the sanctuary during the fall and
winter of 1962/63 extrapolate to give the following annual climatic estimates for
the region: Mean monthly temperature, 46° F.; total annual rainfall, 44 inches.
Equivalent data for the oak-arbutus association in Victoria are: Mean monthly
temperature, 50° F.; total annual rainfall, 27 inches (Victoria weather office, 1962
and 1963).
The distribution of vegetation within the sanctuary appears to be controlled
mainly by fire history and the soil-moisture requirements and tolerance to shade of
individual species. Douglas fir, oak, and arbutus are species incapable of effective
regeneration in the absence of fire. Because it takes about 700 years for Douglas
fir to be replaced by the shade-tolerant hemlock and cedar, the eastern half of the
Coast Forest on the Island is dominated by the Douglas fir association in wetter parts,
the oak-arbutus association in drier (Schmidt, 1957; Silen, 1958).
Oaks generally occur in regions where summer rainfall is less than 10 inches,
and where soils are loamy and well drained, either because they overlie bedrock or
outwash sand or gravel. Arbutus, though drought-loving, tends to occur on slightly
wetter sites. Both species are intolerant of shading, oak more so than arbutus
(Silen, op. cit.; Tarrant, 1958).
Most tree species other than the preceding are relatively mesic (intermediate)
in moisture requirements, though cedar, grand fir, the maples, yew, willow, alder,
and Cottonwood do best on wetter (hydric) sites, and lodgepole pine occurs on both
dry (xeric) and hydric sites. Cedar, hemlock, and yew are very tolerant to shading
by other trees, grand fir and the maples are moderately tolerant, Douglas fir is moderately intolerant, and the remaining species are very intolerant (Schmidt, op. cit.;
Krajina, op. cit.). In the absence of fires, it is probable that with time the vegetation of the region would be made up of shade-tolerant species, and mesic sites would
be vegetated by such mesic and shade-tolerant species as hemlock and cedar. Such
a permanent self-perpetuating community is termed a " climax " community, but,
because of fires, is absent from the area.
FF 27
100 200
Because certain species of plants have similar environmental requirements, they
tend to occur together in assemblages termed " communities." A dozen or so distinct communities have been found within the sanctuary. The most important of
these are mapped on Fig. 2 and are shown along a transect through the area on
Fig. 3. The chief environmental factors affecting the distribution of communities
in the sanctuary are soil moisture, exposure, and history.
The major assemblages of plants in the sanctuary, as they range from conditions of low to high soil-moisture conditions, are as follows: Bare rock, grass-lichen-
moss, grass-lichen-shrub, oak-grass, fir-oak, fir-salal, cedar-swordfern, willow-skunk
cabbage, sedge meadow, reed swamp, floating aquatic, and submerged aquatic. In
the account following, and in Figs. 2 and 3 where their distribution is shown, the
first four assemblages are grouped for simplification as variants or " facies " of the
oak-grass community, and the last four as pond-edge communities. As well, permanent clearings and clearings returning to a forested condition termed " secondary
stages " are identified, giving the following classification: (1) Oak-grass community,
(2) fir-oak community, (3) fir-salal community, (4) cedar-swordfern community,
(5) pond-edge community, and (6) secondary stages.
Considerable interdigitation and intergradation of these communities. occur.
Within the fir-salal community for example, hummocks support outliers of the drier
fir-oak community, and depressions of areas of seepage support outliers of the wetter
cedar-swordfern community. Communities have been separated by lines, but in
reality they are often separated by intermediate zones of sometimes considerable
Oak-Grass Community
The oak-grass community occurs on the very driest sites in the park, chiefly on
the rocky top and sides of Mount Seymour and Round Hill, and on other outcrops
scattered throughout the area, especially those with a south-westerly exposure. In
general appearance the community varies from bare rock outcrop to a grassy sward
covered chiefly with oaks, and in wetter sites with some addition of arbutus and
Douglas fir. The community may almost always be recognized by its open grassy
park-like aspect and by the presence of oak, where the soil is deep enough, as the
most important tree.
Considerable variation occurs within this community. The very driest facies
have no vegetation other than lichens covering the exposed rock substrate. Where
small amounts of soil have accumulated on the rock, the lichens are replaced by
fruticose mosses (Andraza, Grimmia, Rhacomitrium, Polytrichum, and Selaginella).
In pockets with more soil still, the ground vegetation is made up of grasses (hair
and chess grass), a distinctive herbaceous spring flora (monkey flower, satin flower,
whitlow-grass, saxifrage, shooting-star, stonecrop, easter lily, meconella, blue-eyed
mary, camas, spring gold), or ferns (Polypodium, Pityrogramma).
A distinctive variety of shrubs also occurs (bearberry, ocean spray and broom).
Where the soil is deeper still (in crevices and in basins), oaks occur, those in the
drier locations being small, in wetter locations larger, and with progressively more
arbutus and Douglas fir. These in the drier sites are often covered by lichens (Usnea
and Parmelia).
The soils of this community are always shallow, or where deeper are underlain
by sand or gravel, being, as a result, very dry, and are dark brown or black in colour,
the dominant soil-forming process being accumulation of humus with little leaching.
They are, as a result, very near to a chernozem or prairie soil type.
FF 29
r ■j.r*.vr""
w^" ■
HI      -
(Photo by E. M. Hagmeier.)
Fig. 4. Oak-grass community;   oak and arbutus in foreground, with grassy understory.
Location, near summit of Seymour Hill.
(Photo by E. M. Hagmeier.)
Fig. 5. Fir-oak community; canopy of Douglas fir, oak, and arbutus; understory of ferns
and moss or grass.   Location, near south end of lower Thetis Lake.
 FF 30
Fir-Oak Community
The fir-oak community occurs in sites in which the soil is somewhat deeper and
wetter than in the oak-grass community. It is, within the sanctuary, restricted to
the slope of Seymour and Round Hills, below the preceding community, though
traces of it are found at the edges of oak-grass communities on rock knolls elsewhere
in the park.
This community is transitional between the oak-grass community found on
drier sites and the fir-salal community found on wetter ones. It may be recognized
by possessing the same understory as the wetter facies of the oak-grass community
(often of fruticose mosses and spring-flowering herbs) and a forest-cover of
moderate-growth Douglas fir mixed with varying proportions of good-growth arbutus
and oak.
Several facies of this community may be found. Drier sites possess a higher
proportion of oak and arbutus, and the understory is covered with mosses and polypody, while wetter sites have a higher proportion of fir and the addition of a larger
number of low shrubs (ocean spray, honeysuckle).
The soils under this community, while deeper and wetter than those of the
community preceding, are still relatively shallow and dry. The subsoil layer is often
reddish-brown and compacted into concretions.
Fir-Salal Community
The fir-salal community occurs through most of the park area in regions with
soils that are neither overly dry or overly wet. This community in other parts of the
drier sub-zone of the Coast Forest is considered to be a fire sub-climax.
This community constitutes the typical forest community in the park east of
Seymour and Round Hills. It is easily recognized as a community of good-growth
fir, with an understory predominantly of salal of from 2 to 6 feet in height.
Soils are as in the fir-oak community, though deeper, and with some tendency
to the formation of a thin ashy-coloured (podzol) layer in the topsoil.
(Photo by E. M. Hagmeier.)
Fig. 6. Fir-salal community.   Location, east of Highland Road just north of pistol range.
 ..,:,-.. .,■,,,,,
y?'.*- •«■■*»!»■■ WtrT--
FF 31
(Photo by E. M. Hagmeier.)
Fig.  7.
Cedar-sword fern community;  the canopy of almost pure cedar.   Location, southwest of Prior Lake.
Cedar-Swordfern Community
The cedar-swordfern community occurs anywhere in the park where lateral
seepage of soil water occurs within 3 or 4 feet of the surface so that the surface is
damp the year round: at the base of steep slopes, in low damp areas in both the fir-
oak and the fir-salal communities, along the courses of streams, around ponds, and
on wet gently sloping areas. The trees present are chiefly cedar, with varying
amounts of maple, hemlock, Douglas fir, grand fir, cottonwood, and, where open
spaces occur in the forest canopy, dogwood. The community is easily recognized by
the presence of excellent-growth cedar or grand fir in an understory dominated by
clumps of swordfern. Herbs may be present or absent, depending on the thickness
of the forest canopy; the moss Eurhynchium grows commonly on fallen logs and
tree trunks.
Because of the high water-table and the regular deposition of soil by flooding or
by run-off, the soils are often rich black and mucky. This community produces the
best stands of timber and the best agricultural land in the area.
Pond-edge Communities
Because lakes are continually filling with silt and lowering their outlets, they
eventually become ponds and finally dry land. The sequence of lake to dry land
involves a series of changes in plant communities that are termed " primary succession," of which the following five stages are found in the park sanctuary.
Willow-Skunk Cabbage Community (Fig. 8)
This stage, lying in sites wetter than the cedar-swordfern and generally wet
on the surface all year long, is dominated by willows, alder, skunk cabbage, and
 FF 32
(Photo by Cecil Clark.)
Fig. 8. Willow-skunk cabbage community;   alder also present.
western dogwood. Examples are found around the now drained lowlands surrounding Prior Lake, on the edges of the seasonal pond in the middle of the sanctuary, and
at the junctions of the outlet of Prior Lake and Craigflower Creek.
Sedge Meadow Community (Fig. 9)
Found in sites wetter than the preceding and at the edge of still water, this
community is dominated by sedges, hardhack, and a variety of wet-land herbs. An
impoverished example is found on the edges of the central pond.
Reed-Swamp Community (Fig. 10)
Found in shallow water flooded most of the year, and termed by many a
"marsh," the dominant species are bullrushes and cat-tails. Most of the vegetation
of the central marsh is made up of this community.
Floating Aquatic Community (Fig. 9)
Found in water deeper than the preceding, this community is dominated by
water lilies and water shield and bladderwort. Restricted examples may be seen
around the edge of Prior Lake.
Submerged Aquatic Community (Fig. 9)
Made up of rooted submerged pondweeds, this community extends to a depth
of about 15 to 20 feet around the edges of lakes and ponds; in Prior Lake, because
apparently of the heavy load of sediment and reduced light transmission of the water,
the depth of this zone is no more than about 6 feet.
■  '
FF 33
(Photo by E. M. Hagmeier.)
Fig. 9. Zonation of communities at edge of Prior Lake. From foreground to background, submerged-aquatic community (tips of pond weeds), floating-aquatic community
(water lilies), sedge-meadow community, and alder-skunk cabbage community.
(Photo by E. M. Hagmeier.)
Fig. 10. Reed-swamp community surrounded by sedge-meadow. Location, temporary pond
in central part of sanctuary.
 FF 34
Prior Lake, a glacial basin in the north-western corner of the sanctuary, originally encompassed the area of the pond-edge community mapped on Fig. 2. Damming of the inlet in 1932/33 resulted in the lowering of its water level and resultant
colonizing of the exposed shoreline by the present willow-skunk cabbage community.
The lake presently is of about 7,500 square yards in area, and has a concentrically
shaped bottom with a maximum depth of about 17 feet. Light penetrates to a depth
of almost exactly 6 feet in winter (by Secchi disk), and this is about the depth to
which rooted vegetation occurs. Those parts of the lake deeper than this (as
sampled by dredging) are covered with copious amounts of semi-decomposed vegetation inhabited by a very few tubifex worms and caddisfly larva.. The water of the
lake is slightly acid, with a pH of about 6.5. The acidic nature of the lake and its
low light penetration, together with the presence of tubifex, suggest that Prior Lake
is a relatively infertile body of water. Since, however, it acts as a settling-basin for
outflow from Thetis Lake, food (as determined by plankton tows) is sufficiently
abundant to maintain a moderate crustacean and fish fauna on a year-round basis.
Trout occur in the pond, running to 10 inches in size; they are, however, quite dark
and relatively thin. Stomach contents of fish collected during the winter showed a
high proportion of tubifex.   Catfish and sunfish also occur in the lake.
Euglena deses Ehr.
Euglena viridis Ehr.(?).
Trachelomonas hispida (Pert.) Stein.
Trachelomonas teres Maskell.
Ceratium hirundinella Schrank.
Glenodinium pulvisculus Stein.
Pesidinium willii (Huit.) Kaas.
Botryococcus brounii Kiitz.
Ophiocytium cochleare A. Br.
Tribonema (sp. ?).
Ccelosphterium kutzingianum Nag.
Chroococcus limnoticus Lemm.
Chroococcus limnoticus subsalis Lemm.
Chroococcus turgidius (Kiitz.) Nag.
Glceocapsa cropidinum (Raben.) Nag.
Anabcena circinalis (Kiitz.) Raben.
Anabana incequalis (Kiitz.) B. & F.
Arthrospira jenneri Sitz.
Glceothichia echinulata (J. Smith) Richter.
Lyngbya limnotica Lemm.
Oscillateria curviceps Agh.
Stigonema mammillosum (Lyngb.) Agh.
Spirulina major Kiitz.
Spirulina princeps W. W. & G. S. W.
Cyclotella antiqua W. Smith.
Melosira crenulata (Ehr.) Kiitz.
Melosira variana Ehr.
Stephanodiscus niagare Ehr.
Cymatopleura solea Breb.
Cymbella lanceolata Ehr.
Cymbella cuspidata Kutz.
Cymbella cymbiformis Kiitz.
Diploneis ovalis Hilse.
Epithemia turgida Ehr.
Epithemia zebra Ehr.
Eunotia diodon Ehr.
Fragillaria capucina Desm.
Fragillaria crotonensis Kitton.
Gomphonema acuminatum Ehr.
Gomphonema acuminatum coronata Kitton.
Meridion circulare (Grev.) Agh.
Navicula dicephala W. Sm.
Neidium affine Ehr.
Neidium productum W. Sm.
Rhopalodia gibba (Ehr.) O. Mull.
Stauroneis phcenicenteron Ehr.
Surirella biseriata Breb.
Surirella robusta Ehr.
Synedra pulchella Kiitz.
Tabellaria fenestrata Kiitz.
Tabellaria flocuculosa Kiitz.
Chlorophyce/e (Excluding Desmidiac_le)
Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda) Ralfs.
Bumillaria pumila W. W. & G. S. W.
FF 35
Chcetophora incrassata (Huds.) Haz.
Cladophora holsatica Kiitz.
Coleochcete (fragments).
Dactylococcopsis acicularis Lemm.
Dictyosphcerium pulchellum Wood
Eudorina elegans Ehr.
Gonium pectorale Mull.
Mougeotia viridis (Kiitz.) Wittr.
(Edogonium (fragments).
Oocystis lacustris Chod.
Pandora morum (Mull.) Bory
Pediastrum areneosum Racib.
Pediastrum boryanum (Turp.) Menegh.
Pediastrum duplex Meyen.
Pediastrum tetras (Ehr.) Ralfs.
Pediastrum tetras tetraodon (Corda.) Hangs.
Perionella planctonica G. M. Smith.
Rhabdonema lineare Schm. & Lamb.
Scenedesmus bijuga (Turp.) Laghm.
Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Breb.
Selenastrum acuminatum G. M. Smith.
Selenastrum gracile Reinsch.
Sorastrum americanum (Bohlin) Schmidle.
Spirogyra sp.
Ulothrix sp.
Arthrodesmus octocornis Ehr.
Closterium acerosum (Schrank) Ehr.
Closterium dianat Ehr.
Closterium lunula (Mull.) Nitzsch.
Closterium moniliferum Ehr.
Closterium venus (Kiitz.) Breb.
Cosmarium amcenum Breb.
Cosmarium binum Nordst.
Cosmarium botrytis Menegh.
Cosmarium cucumis Corday.
Cosmarium botrytis tumidum Wolle.
Cosmarium dentatum Wolle.
Cosmarium despressum (Nag.) Lund.
Cosmarium furcatospermum W. W. & G. S.
Cosmarium moniliferum Ralfs.
Cosmarium portianum Archer.
Cosmarium quadratum Ralfs.
Cosmarium reniforme (Ralfs) Archer.
Cosmarium reniforme var. compressum.
Cosmarium subcumcumis Schmidle.
Cosmarium subdrepressum W. W. & G. S. W.
Cosmarium turpini Breb.
Cosmarium turpini var. duplominus.
Cosmocladium  hitchcockii  (Wolle)   G.  M.
Desmidium aptogonum Breb.
Staurastrum arctiscon (Ehr.) Lund.
Staurastrum arctiscon var. glabrum.
Staurastrum brevispinum Breb.
Staurastrum ophirua Lund.
Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen.
Staurastrum paradoxum var. longipes Nordst.
Staurastrum polymorphum Breb.
Staurastrum sebaldii Reinsch.
Staurastrum sebaldii var. ornatum Nordst.
Staurastrum setigerum Cleve.
Staurastrum striolatum.
Staurastrum vestitum Ralfs.
Xanthidium antilopaum minneapolense
Xanthidium cristatum Breb.
For further reading, see Needham, 1962, and Smith, 1950, in Bibliography.
Sphcerophorus globosus (Huds.) Wainio.
Grapids scripta (L.) Ach.
Thelotrema lepadinum Ach.
Sticta anthraspis Ach.
Sticta fuliginosa (Dicks) Ach.
Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.
Lobaria scrobiculata (Scop.) D. C.
Nephroma Icevigatum Ach.
Nephroma resupinatum (L.) Ach.
Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd.
Peltigera canina (L.) Willd.
Peltigera polydactyla (Neck.) Hoffm.
Cladonia bellidiflora (Ach.) Schaer.
Cladonia chlorophcea (Flk.) Spreng.
Cladonia coccifera (L.) Willd.
Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad.
Cladonia gracilis (L.) Willd.
Cladonia gracilis var. dilata (Hoffm.) Vain.
Cladonia macilenta Hoffm.
Cladonia mitis Sandst.
Cladonia scabriuscula (Del.) Leight.
Cladonia subsquamosa (Nyl.) Wainio.
Cladonia uncialis (L.) Web.
Stereocaulon subalbicans Lamb.
Stereocaulon tomentosum Fries.
Pertusaria sp.
Pertusaria amara (Ach.) Nyl.
Lecanora spp.
Ochrolechia pallescens (L.) Mass.
Ochrolechia tartarea (L.) Mass.
Ochrolechia upsaliensis (L.) Mass.
 FF 36
Cetraria glauca (L.) Ach.
Cetraria herrei Imshaug.
Nephromopsis ciliaris (Ach.) Hue.
Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh.) Ach.
Parmelia enteromorpha Ach.
Parmelia physodes (L.) Ach.
Parmelia saxatilis (L.) Ach.
Parmelia subaurifera Gyel.
Parmelia vittata (Ach.) Rohl.
A lectoria nadvornikiana.
Alectoria sarmentosa Ach.
Alectoria tortuosa.
Cornicularia tenuissima (L.) Zahlbr.
Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.
Ramalina spp.
Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Schaer.
Usnea comosa (Ach.) Rohl.
Usnea dasypoga (Ach.) Rohl.
Xanthoria polycarpa (Hoffm.) Oliv.
For further reading, see Howard, 1950, in the Bibliography.
Ceratiomyxa sp.
Lycogola epidendron (L.) Fries.
Physarum sp.
Stemonites splendens.
Tubifera casparyi (Rost.) Macbr.
Aleuria aurantia (Pers.) Fuckel.
Otidea smithii Kanouse.
Peziza sylvestris (Boud.) Sacc.
Pithya vulgaris Fuckel.
Pseudoplectania fulgens (Pers.) Fuckel.
Sarcosphtera coronaria (lacq.) Schrcet.
Helvetia crispa (Scop.) Fr.
Helvetia lacunosa (Afz.) Fr.
Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.
Verpa conica (Mull.) Swartz.
Strictis radiata (L.) Pers.
Chlorosplenium aruginascens (Nyl.)  Karst.
Helotium citrinum (Hedw.) Fr.
Helotium virgultorum (Vahl.) Fr.
Trichoglossum hirsutum Pers.
Coccomyces dentatus (Schw. ex Fr.) Sacc.
Coccomyces quadratus (Schm. & Kze.) Karst.
Rhytisma punctatum Pers. ex Fr.
Diatrype sp.
Tilachlidium brachiatum (Batch.) Petch.
Xylaria hypoxylon (L. ex Fr.) Grev.
Mycosphcerella maculiformis (Pers. ex Fr.)
Erysiphe sp.
Puccinia crandallii Pam. & Hume.
Puccinia heterodermus Syd.
Puccinia jonesii Peck.
Pucciniastrum goody era (Tranz.) Arth. II.
Calocera cornea (Fr.) Loudon.
Calocera viscosa (Fr.) Fr.
Tremella mesenterica Fr.
Phlogiotis helvelloides (Fr.) Martin.
Protohydnum gelatinosum Schrad. ex Fr.
Aleurodiscus amorphus (Pers.) Reb.
Aleurodiscus candidus (Schw.) Burt.
Corticium petrophilum Bourd. & Galz.
Peniophora aurantiaca (Bres.) H. & L.
Peniophora incarnata (Fr.) Karst.
Stereum hirsutum (Willd. ex Fr.) S. F. Gray.
Stereum ostrea (Blume & Nees ex Fr.)
Stereum purpureum (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr.
Thelephora palmata Scop. ex. Fr.
Clavaria abietina Pers.
Clavaria formosa Pers.
Clavaria cinerea Fr.
Clavaria stricta Fr.
Clavariadelphus pistillaris Donk.
Clavicorona taxophila (Thom.) Doty.
FF 37
Cantharellus subalbidus Smith & Morse.
Auriscalpium vulgare S. F. Gray.
Hydnum repandum L. ex Fr.
Odontia aspera Bourd. & Galz.
Phellodon atratus Harrison.
Phlebia mellea Overh.
Phlebia merismoides Fr.
Phlebia radiata Fr.
Merulius confluens Schw.
Merulius corium Fr.
Merulius niveus Fr.
Merulius tremellosus Schrad. ex. Fr.
Cryptoporus volvatus Peck.
Dtedalea confragosa Bolt ex. Fr.
Fomes pini (Thore ex Fr.) Karst.
Fames pinicola (Fr.) Cke.
Fomes subroseus (Weir) Overh.
Ganoderma applanation (Pers.) Pat.
Ganoderma oregonensis Murr.
Lenziles scepiaria Wulf. ex Fr.
Polyporus abietinus Dicks ex. Fr.
Polyporus elegans Bull, ex Fr.
Polyporus fragilis Fr.
Polyporus guttulatus Peck.
Polyporus hirsutus Wulf. ex Fr.
Polyporus melanopus Fr.
Polyporus pargamenus Fr.
Polyporus perennis L. ex Fr.
Polyporus picipes Fr.
Polyporus schweinitzii Fr.
Polyporus tephroleucus Fr.
Polyporus versicolor L. ex. Fr.
Porta ferrea (Pers.) Bourd. & Galz.
Porta subacida (Peck) Sacc.
Poria versipora (Pers.) Romell.
Boletinus amabilis(l) (Peck) Snell.
Boletinus lakei (Murr.) Sing.
Amanita pantherina (DC. ex Fr.) Seer.
Armillaria mellea Fr.
Clitocybe aurantiaca (Fr.) Studer.
Clitocybe flaccida (Fr.) Kummer.
Clitocybe gigantea Fr.
Clitocybe multiceps Peck.
Colly bia acervata Fr.
Collybia albipilata Pk.
Collybia confluens Fr.
Cystoderma amianthina (Scop, ex Fr.) Fayod.
Cystoderma fallax Smith & Singer.
Cystoderma granulosum (Batch, ex Fr.)
Hygrophorus conicus Fr.
Hygrophorus nitidus Berk. & Curt.
Laccaria laccata var. amethystina.
Laccaria laccata (Scop.) Berk & Br.
Laccaria ochropurpurea (Berk.) Peck.
Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) S. F. Gray.
Lactarius subdulcis Fr.
Lepiota cterulescens Peck.
Lepiota cristata (A. & S.) Fr.
Leucopaxillus albissimus (Pk.) Sing.
Leucopaxillus amarus (Alb. & Schw.) Kiih-
Marasmius bellipes Morg.
Marasmius candidus Fr.
Marasmius copelandi Peck.
Marasmius felix Morg.
Mycena adonis (Fr.) S. F. Gray.
Mycena amabillissima (Peck) Sacc.
Mycena ha-matopa Fr.
Mycena galericulata (Fr.) S. F. Gray.
Mycena pura (Fr.) Quel.
Omphalina cyathella Fauvre & Sweers.
Omphalina luteicolor Murr.
Panus stypticus Bull, ex Fr.
Paxillus involutus Fr.
Pleurotus sapidus Kalchbr.
Russula fcetens Fr.
Tricholoma atrosquamosum (Chev.) Sacc.
Tricholoma personatum (Fr. ex Fr.) Quel.
Xeromphalina campanella  (Fr.)   Kiihner &
Xeromphalina fulvipes (Murr.) Smith.
AGARICACE/E (Pink-spored)
Entoloma cyaneum Peck.
Leptonia lampropoda Fr.
Nolanea fuscogrisella Peck.
Pluteus cervinus (Schaeff. & Seer.) Fr.
Agaricace* (Purple-spored)
or (Purple-brown)
Agaricus luemorrhoidius (Schulz.) Fr.
Agaricus placomyces Peck.
Agaricus silvaticus Schaeff.
Ntematoloma capnoides (Fr.) Karst.
Niematoloma fasciculare (Huds. ex Fr.)
Psathyrella candolleana (Fr.) Smith.
Stropharia ambigua (Peck) Zeller.
Stropharia stercoraria Fr.
Agaricace/e (Rusty-brown Spored)
Cortinarius (of many unidentified species).
Cortinarius cinnamomeus Fr.
Crepidotus fulvotomenlosum Peck.
Crepidotus versutus Peck.
Galerina hypnorum (Fr.) Singer.
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Fr.) Quel.
Inocybe lilacina (Boud.) Kauffm.
Pholiota aurivella (Batsch. ex Fr.) Kummer.
 FF 38
AGARICACE/E (Black-spored)
Coprinus comatus (Miill. ex Fr.) S. F.
Coprinus micaceus (Bull, ex Fr.) Fr.
Gomphidius glutinosus (Schaeff.) Fr.
Gomphidius subroseus Kauffm.
Astrceus hygrometricus (Pers.) Morg.
Geastrum coronatum Pers.
Geastrum triplex lungh.
Gray. Scleroderma aurantium Pers.
Crucibulum levis (DC.) Kambly & Lee.
Nidularia pulvinata (Schw.) Fr.
Lycoperdon perlatum Pers.
Fungi Imperfecti
Diplidia maculata Cke. & Hark.
Tubercularia vulgaris Tode.
Mycosphcerella maculiformis (Pers. ex Fr.)
For further reading, see Groves, 1962; Lange, 1963; and Smith, 1963; in the
Bibliography at end of this report.
Amphidium sp.
Anacolia menziesii (Turn.) Paris.
Andretea rupestris Hedw.
Antitrichia californica Sull.
Antitrichia curtipendula (Hedw.) Brid.
Atrichum undulatum var. hausknechtii (lur.
and Milde) Frye.
Aulacomnium androgynum (Hedw.)
Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw.) Schwaegr.
Barbula sp.
Bartramia pomiformis Hedw.
Brachythecium sp.
Bryum sp.
Camptothecium megeptilum Sull.
Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid.
Claopodium bolanderi Best.
Claopodium crispifolium (Hook.) R. & C.
Claopodium whippleanum (Sull.) R. & C.
Dendroalsia abietina (Hook.) E. G. Brit.
Dicranoweisia cirrhata (Hedw.) Lindb.
Dicranum fuscescens Turn.
Dicranum scoparium Hedw.
Dicranum strictum Schleich.
Drepanocladus uncinatus (Hedw.) Warnst.
Encalypta sp.
Eurhynchium   oreganum    (Sull.)    laeb.   &
Euryhynchium stokesii Turn.
Fontinalis sp.
Funaria hygrometrica Hedw.
Grimmia torquata Hornsch.
Grimmia trichophylla Grev.
Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) P. Beauv.
Homalothecium lutescens (Hedw.) Robinson.
Homalothecium megaptilum  (Sull.)   Robinson.
Homalothecium nuttallii (Wils.) Grout.
Homalothecium pinnatifidum Sull. & Lesq.
Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B. S. G.
Hypnum circinale Hook.
Hypnum subimponens Lesq.
Isothecium brewerianum (Lesq.) Macoun.
Isothecium stoloniferum (Hook.) Brid.
Leucolepis menziesii (Hook.) Steere.
Mnium glabrescens Kindb.
Mnium insigne Mitt.
Mnium spinulosum B. & S.
Mnium venustum Mitt.
Neckera douglasii Hook.
Neckera menziesii Hook.
Orthotrichum lyellii Hook. & Tayl.
Orthotrichum speciosum Nees.
Physcomitrium megalocarpum Kindb.
Plagiothecium denticulatum (Hedw.) B. S. G.
Plagiothecium piliferum (Sw.) B. S. G.
Pogonatum sp.
Poll Ha sp.
Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw.
Polytrichum piliferum Hedw.
Porothamnium bigelovii (Sull.) Fleisch,
Pseudobraunia calif ornica (Lesq.) Broth.
Pterogonium gracile (Hedw.) B. S. G.
Rhacomitrium canescens Brid.
Rhacomitrium heterostichum  (Hedw.) Brid.
Rhacomitrium lanuginosum  (Hedw.) Brid.
Rhytidiadelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warnst.
Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus (Hedw.) Warnst.
Scleropodium sp.
Timmia austriaca Hedw.
Tortella tortuosa (Hedw.) Limpr.
Tortula sp.
Tripterocladium brewerianum (Lesq.) Fl.
Zygodon viridissimus (Dicks.) Brid.
FF 39
Frullania sp. Porella navicularis (Lehm. & Lindb.) Lindb.
Gymnomitrion obtusum (Lindb.) Pearson. Porella platyphylla (L.) Lindb.
Lepidozia sp. Scapania bolanderi Aust.
For further reading, see Conard, 1944, and Grout, 1947, in the Bibliography
at end of this report.
Ferns and Fern-allies
Equisetace/e (Horsetail Family)
Equisetum arvense L.   Common horsetail.
Equisetum hiemale L.   Scouring-rush.
Ophioglossace/e (Adder's Tongue Family)
Botrychium   virginianum   (L.).   Sw.   Rattlesnake fern.
Polypodiace/e (Fern Family)
Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth.   Lady fern.
Cystopteris   fragilis    (L.)    Bernh.     Fragile
Dryopteris austriaca (lacq.) Woynar.   Spiny
For further reading, see Taylor, 1963,
Pityrogramma triangularis (Kaulf.) Maxon.
Golden-back fern.
Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) Presl. Western swordfern.
Polystichum munitum f. imbricans (D. C.
Eaton) Clute.    Sun form of swordfern.
Polypodium vulgare L.   Licorice fern.
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn.   Bracken.
Woodsia oregana D. C. Eaton. Oregon
Selaginellace/E (Spike-moss Family)
Selaginella wallacei Hieron. Wallace's selagi-
in Bibliography at the end of this report.
Herbaceous Plants
Typhace/e (Cat-tail Family)
Typha latifolia L. Broad-leaved.   Cat-tail.
Sparganiace/e (Bur-reed Family)
Sparganium simplex Huds. Simple-stemmed
Najadace/E (Pondweed Family)
Potamogeton amplifolius Tuck. Large-leaved
Potamogeton   gramineus   L.     Grass-leaved
Gramine/e (Grass Family)
Agrostis palustris Huds. Creeping bent-grass.
Agrostis tenuis Sibth.   Colonial bent-grass.
A ira prcecox L.   Little hair-grass.
Alopecurus geniculatus L.   Water foxtail.
Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Sweet vernal
Bromus mollis L.   Soft chess.
Bromus racemosus L. Smooth-flowered soft
Bromus rigidus Roth.   Ripgut grass.
Bromus tectorum L.   Downy chess.
Bromus vulgaris (Hook.) Shear. Narrow-
flowered brome-grass.
Cynosurus echinatus L. Bristly dog's-tail
Dactylis glomerata L.   Orchard-grass.
Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene. Saltgrass or
alkali grass.
Elymus glaucus Buck. Western rye-grass or
blue wild rye.
Glyceria borealis (Nash) Batch. Northern
Holcus lanatus L.   Velvet grass.
Lolium perenne L.   Perennial ryegrass.
Phalaris arundinacea L.    Reed canary-grass.
Phleum pratense L.   Timothy-grass.
Poa bulbosa L. Bulbous bluegrass or meadow-grass.
Cyperace/E (Sedge Family)
Carex arcta Booth.  Northern clustered sedge.
Carex aurea Nutt.   Golden-fruited sedge.
Carex flava L.   Yellow carex.
Carex illota Bail.   Small-headed sedge.
Carex inops Bail.   Long-stoloned sedge.
Carex kelloggii Booth.   Kellogg's sedge.
Carex obnupta Bail.   Slough sedge.
Carex phwocephala Piper.   Hare sedge.
Carex rostrata Stokes.   Beaked sedge.
Eleochceris palustris (L.) R. & S.    Creeping
Scirpus acutus Muhl.   Viscid bulrush.
Scirpus paludosus A. Nels.   Marsh bulrush.
Iuncace/e (Rush Family)
Juncus bolanderi Engelm.   Bolander's rush.
Juncus bufonius L.   Toad rush.
Juncus effusus L.   Common rush.
Juncus ensifotitis Wiks. Three-stamened rush.
Juncus occidentalis (Cov.)  Wieg.    Western
Luzula  multiflora   (Retz)   Lejeune.    Wood
 FF 40
Arace/e (Arum Family)
Lysichitum americanum Hult. & St. lohn.
Yellow skunk-cabbage.
Lemnace/e (Duckweed Family)
Lemna minor L.   Lesser duckweek.
Liliace/e (Lily Family)
Allium acuminatum Hook.   Hooker's onion.
Brodicea coronaria (Salisb.) Engler. Harvest
Triteleia hyacinthina (Lindl.) Greene. Fool's
Camassia leichtlinii (Baker) S. Wats. Great
Camassia quamash (Pursh.) Greene. Common camas.
Disporum hookeri (Torrey) Britt. Hooker's
fairy bell.
Erythronium oregonum Applegate. White
easter lily.
Fritillaria lanceolata Pursh.   Chocolate lily.
Lilium columbianum Hanson. Columbia lily.
Maianthemum dilatatum (Wood) Nels. &
McB.   False lily-of-the-valley.
Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. False Solomon's seal.
Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf. Star-flowered
Solomon's seal.
Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. Twisted-
Trillium ovatum Pursh.  Western trillium.
Zygadenus venenosus S. Wats.  Death camas.
Iridace/E (Iris Family)
Sisyrinchium douglasii A. Dietr. Satin flower.
Sisyrinchium sarmentosum Suksd.  Blue-eyed
Orchidace/e (Orchid Family)
Calypso  bulbosa   (L.)   Oakes.    Calypso  or
fairy slipper.
Corallorhiza maculata Raf.    Spotted coral-
Corallorhiza   mertensiana   Bong.     Merten's
Corallorhiza striata Lindl. Striped coral-root.
Goodyera  oblongifolia  Raf.    Green-leaved
rattlesnake orchid.
Habenaria unalascensis  (Spreng.)   S. Wats.
Spender-spire orchid.
Habenaria unalascensis var. elata  (lepson)
Correll.  Wood rein-orchid.
Listera cordata  (L.)   R.  Br.    Heart-leaved
Spiranthes  romanzoffiana  Cham.     Hooded
ladies' tresses.
Urtica dioica var. lyallii (Wats.) C. L. Hitchc.
Western stinging nettle.
Polygonace/e (Buckwheat Family)
Polygonum amphibium. L. Water smart-
Polygonum convolvulus L.   Bindweed.
Polygonum lapathifolium L.    Willow weed.
Polygonum persicaria L.    Spotted knotweed.
Polygonum spergularcziforme Meisn. ex
Small.    Fall knotweed.
Rumex acetosella L.   Sheep sorrel.
Rumex crispus L.   Curly-leaved dock.
Rumex obtusifolius L.   Broad-leaved dock.
Rumex occidentalis Wats.   Western dock.
Calandrinia ciliata var. menziesii (Hook.)
Macbr.    Red maids.
Montia dichotoma (Nutt.) Howell. Dwarf
Montia howellii Wats.   Howell's montia.
Montia linearis (Dougl.) Greene. Narrow-
leaved montia.
Montia parvifolia (Moc.) Green. Small-
leaved montia.
Montia perfoliata (Donn.) Howell. Miner's
Montia perfoliata glauca (Nutt.) Ferris.
Glaucous montia.
Montia siberica (L.) Howell. Western spring
Caryophyllace/e (Pink Family)
Arenaria macrophylla Hook. Large-leaved
Arenaria serpyllifolia L. Thyme-leaved
Cerastium arvense L.   Field chickweed.
Cerastium semidecandrum L. Little mouse-
eared chickweed.
Cerastium vulgatum L. Mouse-eared chick-
Dianthus armeria L.   Deptford pink.
Sagina occidentalis Wats. Western pearl-
Sagina procumbens L. Procumbent pearl-
Scleranthus annuus L. Knawel or German
Silene antirrhina L.   Sleepy catchfly.
Silene gallica L.   Small-flowered catchfly.
Spergula arvensis L.   Corn spurry.
Stellaria crispa C. & S.   Crisped chickweed.
Stellaria media (L.) Cyrill. Common chick-
Nymphace.e (Water Lily Family)
Brasenia schreberi Gmel.   Water shield.
Nuphar polysepalum Engelm.   Western yellow pond lily.
Ceratophyllace/e (Hornworth Family)
Ceratophyllum demersum L.   Hornworth.
FF 41
The nature sanctuary at Seymour Hill, from the west
side of Lower Thetis Lake.
A typical spring aspect on Seymour Hill.
Ranunculace.e (Buttercup Family)
Actea rubra (Ait.) Willd. Western bane-
Anemone lyallii Britt.   Lyall's anemone.
Aquilegia formosa Fisch.   Columbine.
Delphinium menziesii DC. Menzies' larkspur.
Ranunculus flammula L. Creeping spear-
Ranunculus occidentalis Nutt. Western buttercup.
Ranunculus orthorhynchus var. platyphyllus
Gray.   Western swamp buttercup.
Ranunculus repens L.   Creeping buttercup.
Ranunculus uncinatus D. Don. Small-flowered buttercup.
Berberidace/e (Barberry Family)
Achlys triphylla (Smith) DC.    Vanilla-leaf.
Papaverace/e (Poppy Family)
Meconella oregana Nutt.   White meconella.
Fumariace/e (Fumitory Family)
Dicentra formosa (Andr.) Walpers. Western bleeding-heart.
Crucifer/e (Mustard Family)
Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh.   Tower mustard.
Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Schur.   Wall-cress.
Athysanus pusillus (Hook.) Greene sand-
Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.    Yellow rocket.
Brassica juncea (L.) Coss.    Indian mustard.
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. Shepherd's purse.
Cardamine oliogosperma Nutt. Western bitter cress.
Cardamine pennsylvanica Muhl. Pennsylvania bitter cress.
Cardamine pulcherrima var. tenella (Pursh.)
C. L. Hitchc.   Toothwort.
Draba verna L.  Vernal whitlow-grass.
Erysimum cheiranthoides L. Wormseed mustard.
Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br.   Field cress.
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Schinz.
&Thell.  Watercress.
Rorippa islandica (Oeds.) Barbas. March
Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) Br. Teesdalia or
shepherd's cress.
Thysanocarpus curvipes Hook. Lace-pod or
Crassulace/e (Stonecrop Family)
Sedum spathulifolium Hook.    Broad-leaved
 FF 42
Saxifragace/E (Saxifrage Family)
Heuchera micrantha var. diversifolia (Rydb.)
R. B. & L.  Small-flowered alum-root.
Lithophragma parviflora (Hook) Nutt.
Small-flowered fringe-cup.
Saxifraga ccespitosa L. Tufted saxifrage.
Saxifraga integrifolia Hook. Early or western saxifrage.
Tellima grandiflora (Pursh.) Dougl. Tall
Tiarella trifoliata L. Three-leaved coolworth
or foam flower.
Rosacea (Rose Family)
Alchemilla occidentalis Nutt.   Lady's mantle.
Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duchesne. Coast
Fragaria vesca var. bracteata (Heller) Davis.
Western wood strawberry.
Geum macrophyllum Willd. Large-leaved
Potentilla anserina L.   Silver-weed.
Potendlla palustris (L.) Scop. Marsh or
purple cinquefoil.
Sanguisorba occidentalis Nutt. Annual bur-
Leguminos.e (Pea Family)
Lathyrus latifolius L.   Perennial pea.
Lathyrus nevadensis Wats.    Purple Nevada
Lotus   micranthus   Benth.     Small-flowered
lotus or bird-foot lotus.
Lupinus bicolor Lindl.   Bicoloured lupine.
Medicago arabica (L.) Huds.   Spotted medic.
Trifolium depauperatum Desv.    Low clover
or poverty clover.
Trifolium hybridum L.   Alsike clover.
Trifolium microcephalum Pursh.   Saucer or
woolly clover.
Trifolium microdon H. & A.  Cup or thimble
Trifolium oliganthum Steud.   Few-flowered
Trifolium pratense L.   Red clover.
Trifolium procumbens L.   Low hop clover.
Trifolium repens L.  White clover.
Trifolium tridentatum Lindl.    Lance clover
or sand clover.
Vicia american Muhl.  American vetch.
Vicia hirsuta (L.) Koch.   Hairy vetch.
Vicia sativa L. var. sativa.   Spring vetch or
common vetch.
Vicia sativa var. angustifolia  (L.)   Wahlb.
Smaller common vetch.
Vicia  tetrosperma   (L.)   Moench.    Slender
vetch or four-seeded vetch.
Geraniace/e (Geranium Family)
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her.   Stork's bill.
Geranium bicknellii Britt.   Geranium.
Geranium  dissectum  L.    Cut-leaved  geranium.
Geranium molle L.   Dove's-foot geranium.
Geranium pusillum  Burm.    Small-flowered
Hypericace_e (St. John's-wort Family)
Hypericum anagalloides C. & S. Bog St.
Violace/e (Violet Family)
Viola   adunca   Smith.     Hooked   violet   or
western long-spurred violet.
Viola glabella Nutt. Yellow woodland violet.
Viola howellii Gray.   Howell's violet.
Viola palustris L.   Marsh violet.
Viola sempervirens Greene. Evergreen violet.
Onagrace.e (Evening Primrose Family)
Boisduvalia densiflora (Lindl.) Wats. Densely-
flowered boisduvalia.
Boisduvalia stricta (Gray) Greene. Stiff
Circcea alpina L.   Enchanter's nightshade.
Glarkia amcena (Lehm.) Nels. & Macbr.
Wild clarkia or summer's darling.
Epilobium paniculatum Nutt. ex T. & G.
Tall annual willow-herb.
Epilobium watsonii Barbey. Western willow-
Umbellifer/e (Parsley Family)
Daucus pusillus Michx.  Cow parsnip.
Lomatium dissectum (Nutt.) Math. & Const.
Chocolate-tips or lace-leaved leptotaenia.
Lomatium nudicaule (Pursh.) Coult. & Rose.
Indian consumption plant.
Lomatium utriculatum (Nutt.) Coult. &
Rose.   Spring gold.
CEnanthe sarmentosa Presl.  Water parsley.
Osmorhiza chilensis H. & A.   Sweet cicely.
Sanicula crassicaulis Pcepp. ex DC. Western
Sanicula bipinnatifida Dougl. Purple snake-
Sanicula graveolens Poepp. ex DC. Sierra
Ericace/e (Heath Family)
Chimaphila umbellata  (L.)  Bart.   Western
prince's pine or pipsissewa.
Monotropa uniflora L.   Indian pipe.
Pterospora andromeda Nutt.   Pinedrops.
Pyrola aphylla Smith.   Leafless wintergreen.
Pyrola asarifolia Michx.   Large wintergreen.
Pyrola secunda L.  One-sided wintergreen.
Primulace/e (Primrose Family)
Dodecatheon hendersonii Gray. Broad-
leaved shooting-star.
Lysimachia thyrsiflora L.  Tufted loosestrife.
Trientalis latifolia Hook. Broad-leaved star-
FF 43
Gentianace_e (Gentian Family)
Centaurium muhlenbergii (Griseb.) Wight
ex Piper.   Muhlenberg's centaury.
Apocynace_e (Dogbane Family)
Apocynum androsxmifolium L. Spreading
Collomia grandiflora Dougl. ex Lindl. Buff
Collomia heterophylla Hook. Varied-leaved
Linanthus bicolor (Nutt.) Greene. Bicol-
oured linanthus.
Microsteris gracilis (Hook.) Greene. Slender
Navarretia intertexta (Benth.) Hook. Needle-
leaved navarretia.
Navarretia squarrosa (Esch.) H. & A. Skunk
Hydrophyllace/e (Waterleaf Family)
Nemophila   parviflora    Dougl.    ex    Benth.
Small-flowered nemophila or grove-lover.
Nemophila  pedunculata  Dougl.   ex   Benth.
Spreading nemophila.
Myosotis   discolor   Pers.    Yellow-and-blue
Myosotis laxa Lehm.   Water forget-me-not.
Plagiobothrys scouleri  (H.   &  A.)   lohnst.
Scouler's plagiobothrys.
Labiat_e (Mint Family)
Lycopus uniflorus Michx.   Bugleweed.
Mentha arvensis L.   Field mint.
Prunella vulgaris L.   Heal-all.
Satureja  douglassii   (Benth.)   Briq.    Yerba
Stachys mexicana Benth.   Hedge nettle.
Scrophulariace/e (Figwort Family)
Castilleja angustifolia (Nutt.) G. Don. Indian paintbrush.
Collinsia grandiflora Lindl. Blue-eyed Mary
or large-flowered collinsia.
Mimulus atsinoides Dougl. ex Benth. Little
Mimulus guttatus DC. Common monkey-
Mimulus moschatus Dougl. Musk. Monkey-
Orthocarpus attenuatus Gray. Narrow-
leaved orthocarpus.
Orthocarpus pusillus Benth. Dwarf orthocarpus.
Parentucellia viscosa (L.) Car. Yellow
Veronica americana Schwein. ex Benth.
Brookline or American speedwell.
Veronica arvensis L.   Corn speedwell.
Veronica peregrina L. Neckweed or purslane speedwell.
Veronica sculellata L.   Marsh speedwell.
Veronica serpyllifolia L. Thyme-leaved
Orobanchace/e (Broom-Rape Family)
Orobanche uniflora var. purpurea (Heller)
Achey.   One-flowered cancer-root.
Lentibulariace/e (Bladderwort Family)
Utricularia vulgaris L. Common bladder-
Plantaginace_e (Plantain Family)
Plantago lanceolata L. Narrow-leaved plantain.
Plantago major L. Common or broad-
leaved plantain.
Rubiace/e (Madder Family)
Galium aparine L.   Cleavers.
Galium trifidum L. var. pacificum Wieg.
Small bedstraw.
Galium triflorum Michx. Sweet-scented bed-
Valerianace_e (Valerian Family)
Plectritis congesta (Lindl.) DC.    Sea blush.
CampanulacE/E (Harebell Family)
Campanula rotundifolia L. America harebell.
Campanula scouleri Hook, ex A. DC. Scouler's campanula.
Composite (Sunflower Family)
Achillea millefolium L.   Yarrow.
Adenocaulon bicolor Hook. Silver-green
Agoseris glauca (Pursh) Raf.   Pale agoseris.
Agoseris heterophylla (Nutt.) Greene.
Varied-leaved agoseris.
Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) B. & H. Pearly
Antennaria neglecta Greene. Howell's everlasting.
Aster subspicatus Nees.   Douglas' aster.
Balsamorhiza deltoidea Nutt. Northwest
Bellis perennis L.   Perennial daisy.
Bidens cernua L.   Stick-tight.
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Ox-eyed
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.   Canada thistle.
Cirsium edule Nutt.   Edible thistle.
 FF 44
Easter lily (Erythronium ore-
gonum, syn. E. grandiftorum),
abundant throughout the sanctuary on forest sites.
Cirsium vulgare (Savi.)  Airy-Shaw.    Common thistle.
Crepis capillaris (L.) Wallr. Smooth hawks-
Eriophyltum lanatum (Pursh.) Forbes.  Common woolly sunflower.
Gnaphalium palustre Nutt.    Lowland cudweed.
Gnaphalium purpureum  L.    Purplish cudweed.
Grindelia integrifolia DC.   Gumweed.
Hieracium albiflorum Hook.   Hawkweed.
Hypochceris glabra L.   Smooth cat's-ears.
Hypochceris radicata L.   Hairy cat's-ears.
Lactuca muralis (L.) Fresen.   Wall lettuce.
Madia sativa Mol. Sagg.   Chilean tarweed.
Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter.
Microseris    bigelovii    (Gray)    Schultz-Bip.
Coast hawkbit.
Petasites frigidus  (L.)   Fries var. palmatus
(Ait.) Cronq.   Coltsfoot.
Senecio vulgaris L.   Common groundsel.
Solidago canadensis L.   Narrow goldenrod.
Sonchus arvensis L.   Annual sow-thistle.
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill.   Spiny sow-thistle.
Sonchus oleraceus L.   Common sow-thistle.
Taraxacum officinale Weber.   Dandelion.
Douglas fir and Easter lily.
Woody Plants
Pinace/e (Pine Family)
Abies grandis (Dougl.) Lindl.   Grand fir.
Juniperus communis L.   Common juniper.
Pinus contorta Dougl.   Shore pine.
Thuja plicata Donn.   Western red cedar.
Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Western
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Douglas fir.
Taxace/e (Yew Family)
Taxus brevifolia Nutt.   Pacific yew.
Salicace.e (Willow Family)
Salix hookeriana Barr.   Hooker willow.
Salix lasiandra Benth.   Pacific willow.
Salix rigida var. mackenziana (Hook.) Cronq.
Mackenzie willow.
Salix scouleriana Barr.   Scouler willow.
Populus tremuloides Michx. Trembling aspen.
Populus trichocarpa T. & G. Black cotton-
Myricace/e (Sweet Gale Family)
Myrica gale L.   Sweet gale.
Betulace/e (Birch Family)
Alnus rubra Bong.   Red alder.
FF 45
Fagace/e (Beech Family)
Quercus garryana Dougl.   Garry oak.
Sapindace/e (Soapberry Family)
AZsculus hippocastanum L.    Horse-chestnut.
Berberidace/e (Barberry Family)
Mahonia  aquifolium   (Pursh.)   Nutt.    Tall
Mahonia nervosa  (Pursh.)   Nutt.    Oregon
Ribes bracteosum Dougl.   Stink currant.
Ribes divaricatum Dougl.   Wild gooseberry.
Ribes sanguineum Pursh.    Red-flower currant.
Philadelphus lewisii Pursh.   Mock orange.
Rosace/e (Rose Family)
Amelanchier florida Lindl.    Serviceberry.
Crataegus douglasii Lindl.    Black hawthorn.
Crataegus oxyacantha L.    English hawthorn.
Holodiscus discolor (Pursh.) Maxim. Ocean-
Osmaronia cerasiformis (Torr. & Gray)
Greene.   Indian-plum or bird-cherry.
Physocarpus capitatus (Pursh) Ktze. Nine-
Prunus emarginata (Dougl.) Walpers. Bitter
Pyrus fusca Raf.   Pacific crabapple.
Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt.   Dwarf rose.
Rosa nutkana Presl.   Common wild rose.
Rubus leucodermis Dougl.   Blackcap.
Rubus parviflorus Nutt.  Thimbleberry.
Rubus spectabilis Pursh.   Salmonberry.
Rubus thyrsanthus Focke. Himalayan blackberry.
Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schl. Trailing blackberry.
Spircea douglassi Hook.   Hardhack.
Sorbus aucuparia L. European mountain-
ash or rowan tree.
Celastrace/e (Staff-tree Family)
Pachystima myrsinites (Pursh.) Raf. False-
Leguminos/e (Pea Family)
Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link.   Scotch broom.
Acerace_e (Maple Family)
Acer glabrum var. douglasii (Hook.) Dipp.
Douglas maple.
Acer macrophyllum Pursh. Broadleaf maple.
Rhamnace_e (Buckthorn Family)
Rhamus purshiana DC.  Cascara.
Eleagnace/e (Oleaster Family)
Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. Buffalo-
berry or soopolallie.
Cornace/e (Dogwood Family)
Cornus nuttallii Audub. ex T. & G.  Western
flowering dogwood.
Cornus stolonifera var. occidentalis (T. & G.)
C. L. Hitchc.   Western dogwood.
Ericace/e (Heath Family)
Arbutus menziesii Pursh. Arbutus or ma-
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Kinni-
Gaultheria shallon Pursh.   Salal.
Vaccinium parvifolium Smith. Red huckleberry.
Vaccinium ovatum Pursh. Evergreen huckleberry.
Caprifoliace/e (Honeysuckle Family)
Linncea borealis L. Twinflower.
Lonicera ciliosa (Pursh.) DC. Orange honeysuckle.
Lonicera hispidula (Lindl.) Dougl. Purple
Lonicera involucrata (Richards.) Banks.
Black twinberry.
Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake. Snow-
berry or waxberry.
Symphoricarpos mollis var. hesperius (G. N.
tones) Cronq.   Creeping snowberry.
Sambucus racemosa var. arborescens (T. &
G.) Gray.   Pacific red-berry elder.
The initial plant survey was carried out in 1957/58 by Dr. L. J. Clark, Mrs.
A. E. Blakeney (nee Anne Gorham, botanist at Victoria College), and M. C. Melburn. The plant survey has been continued each year by M. C. Melburn with
assistance from members of the association. The nomenclature of the vascular plants
is, in most cases, based on that of Hitchcock et al. in " Vascular Plants of the Pacific
For further reading, see Garman, 1963; Henry, 1915; Hitchcock et al,
1955-64; Lyons, 1954; Szczawinski, 1959, 1962; and Taylor, 1966, in the
Bibliography at the end of this report.
 FF 46
The microscopic life named here is but a small part of what could be found
if a survey was made over a period of time. This list is the result of but a few visits
to the lake.
Actinophrys sol.
Amoeba spp.
Difflugia (four or more species).
Lachrymaria lor (see Lowe, 1963).
Water Fleas
Alono guttata Sars.
Bosmina longispina Leydig.
Chydorus sphtzricus (O. F. Miiller).
Daphnia longispina (O. F. Miiller).
Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Lieven).
Pleuroxus uncinatus Baird.
Simocephalus vetulus (O. F. Miiller).
Canthocamplus sp.
Cyclops albidus lurine.
Cyclops bicuspidatus Claus.
Cyclops prasinus Fischer.
Diaptomus bakeri Marsh.
Epischura nevadensis Lilljeborg.
Eurycercus sp.
Hydra (green).
Macrobutus sp.
and Needham, 1962, in
For further reading, see Boyer, 1927; Lowe, 1963;
Bibliography at the end of this report.
Anyone taking a walk through the district is not likely to see all the butterflies
listed here in any one visit. They need to be waited and searched for, at the right
time of the season, depending on the species.
Most butterflies visit the wild-flower blooms; therefore, a patient search around
these is often rewarded by the sight of one or more. Some butterflies are great
wanderers and may cover miles of territory in a single day; others are very local
and will be found only near their favourite food plants.
The summit of a rock or open space is a good place to watch, as they are often
carried up by the thermal currents of air. Still others are abundant one year and
almost absent in another.   In every case they are creatures of bright sunshine.
A knowledge of the flora give a lead as to what to expect in the butterfly line.
To this end the food plants are mentioned in the following annotated list of 37
It is hoped that by conservation and protection of the flora there will always
be butterflies to delight future generations of human beings.
For a guide to identification, see Alexander B. Klots, 1958, in Bibliography.
FF 47
Papilio zelicaon Luc. Mountain swallowtail.
April to August. Umbellifera. species
such as Daucus (carrot), Lomatium nudi-
caule (Indian consumption plant), Hera-
cleum lanatum (cow parsnip), etc. The
caterpillar is green, ringed with black on
each segment.
Papilio rutulus Luc. Western swallowtail.
April to June. Salix (willows), Populus
(aspen), Prunus (cherry), etc. The caterpillar has a couple of large eye-like spots
on front segment (sometimes called nigger-
Papilio eurymedon Luc. Black and white
swallowtail. April to June. Alnus (alder),
Holodiscus discolor (ocean-spray), and
other shrubs. The caterpillar is similar
to rutulus, but the eye-spots are more
Anthocharis sara flora Wright. Western
orange-tip. April to June. Crucifer species, Arabis glabra (tower mustard). The
caterpillar is green, resembling the midribs
of the leaves. The chrysalis looks like a
thorn or sharp twig due to a long point on
the head end.
Colias occidentalis Scud. Western sulphur.
May to luly. Leguminosae (pea family).
The caterpillar is greenish and matches the
colour of the food plant.
Neophasia menapia F. & F. Pine white.
July to September. On coniferous trees.
The caterpillar is dark green with three
white stripes, rendering it very inconspicuous among the needles.
Pieris rapte L. Cabbage white. April to
June and July to September. Crucifera;
(cabbage family).
Ceenonympha inornata insulana McD. Vancouver ringlet. May to October. Gram-
ineae (grass family). The caterpillar is
greenish or brownish.
CEnis nevadensis F. & F. Great arctic. May
to July. Graminea. (grass family). The
caterpillar is brownish, striped with a
lighter colour.   A strong flier.
Speyeria bremneri Edw. Bremner's silver-
spot. July to August. Viola spp. The
caterpillar is black with grey lines, and
covered with branched spines.
Boloria epithore Edw. Western meadow
fritillary. May to June. Viola spp.
(violets). The caterpillar has branched
spines on a more or less dark background.
The meadow fritillary is a weak flier.
Euphydryas taylori Edw. Taylor's checker-
spot. April to May. Plantago (plantain),
Camassia (camas), Plectritis (sea blush).
The caterpillar is dark grey with a series
of branched spines covering the body.
A characteristic butterfly of the area.
Phyciodes campestris Behr. Meadow crescent-spot.   May to July.  Aster spp.
Polygonia satyrus Edw. Angle-wings. July
to September and after hiberation, March
to June. Urtica (nettle). The caterpillar
has a broad white band along the back.
Polygonia oreas silenus Edw. Silenus angle-
wings. Flight period as in satyrus. Ribes
Nymphalis californica Bdv. Californian
tortoise-shell. Flight as in the preceding
species. Ceanothus (wild lilac) typically.
The caterpillar is velvet black, having
branched spines, the bases of which are
yellow. Migrant only; it does not breed
Nymphalis milberti Godt. Milbert's tortoise-
shell. June to September and after hibernation, April and May. It feeds on Urtica
(nettle). The caterpillar is dark grey
above, greenish-yellow beneath.
Nymphalis antiopa L. Mourning cloak. In
the fall and again after hibernation in the
spring. Salix (willows), Populus (aspen
and cottonwood). The caterpillar is
blackish with a row of red spots along the
back.    One of our commonest butterflies.
Vanessa atalanta L. Red admiral. July to
September, and sometimes after hibernation. Urtica (nettle). A handsome butterfly, of wide distribution. The caterpillar's colour is variable, greenish-grey or
Vanessa cardui L. Painted lady. June to
November. Circium (thistles). The caterpillar is variable, grey-green to blackish.
It is cosmopolitan in distribution.
Vanessa carye Hbn. West coast lady. July
to August, and occasionally in the spring
after hibernation. Malva (mallow), Urtica
(nettle). The caterpillar is blackish with
orange blotches.
Basilarchia. lorquini burrisonii Mayn. White
admiral. June to August. Salix (willow),
Populus, (poplar), Prunus, (cherry),
.IJolodiscus (ocean-spray), and others.
The caterpillar is well camouflaged by
humps and a patchy colouring of grey and
Strymon melinus atrofasciata McD. Common hair-streak. April to May and again
in July to August. Rubus (blackberry).
Hops, beans, etc., where it feeds in the
pods. The caterpillar is slug-shaped.
Purplish-white to green, it is very variable
in colour.
Strymon sylvinus Bdv. Bronze hair-streak.
July to September. Salix (willow), dogbane, pearly everlasting, etc. The caterpillar is slug-shaped.
 FF 48
Broadleaf stonecrop (Sedum spathulifolium), common on
volcanic rock in association with Garry oak.
&<% J
Northwest balsamroot (Balsamorhiza deltoidea), an
attractive plant of well-drained sites.
Mitoura nelsoni Bdv. Nelson's hair-streak.
April to lune. Thuja plicata (red cedar).
The slug-shaped caterpillar is variegated-
Incisalia iroides Bdv. Salal butterfly. March
to June. Arctostaphylos (bearberry),
Gaultheria (salal), arbutus. The slug-like
caterpillar is velvety green.
Incisalia mossi Hy. Edw. Moss elfin. March
to June. Sedum spathulifolium (stonecrop). The slug-shaped caterpillar varies
in colour from greenish to vinaceous.
Incisalia eryphon Bdv. Marbled elfin. April
to June. Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine).
The caterpillar is slug-like, and green.
Lyccena helloides Bdv. Purple copper. May
to September. Polygonum (knotgrass)
species. The caterpillar is slug-shaped
and green, a common butterfly.
Everes amyntula Bdv. Western tailed blue.
April to June. Lupines and vetches. The
caterpillar is slug-shaped and variably
grey-greenish with obscure dark markings.
One of our commonest blues.
Glaucopsyche lygdamus Columbia Skin. Columbia blue. April to June. Lupines and
vetches. The slug-like caterpillars are
coffee-coloured with oblique whitish
dashes.    Usually abundant.
Lyccenopsis pseudargiolus echo Edw. Echo
blue. April to June. Holodiscus discolor
(ocean-spray). The slug-like caterpillar is
pale greenish with creamy markings. One
of our most abundant blues.
Thorybes pylades Scud. Northern cloudy-
wing. May to June. Trifolium species.
Common in oak glades and on hillsides.
Pyrgus ruralis Bdv. Two-banded skipper.
April to June. Potentilla spp. (cinquefoil).
The caterpillars of this group are large-
headed with roughish bodies. This butterfly frequents dusty roads.
Erynnis propertius Scud. & Burg. April to
May. Quercus garryana (Garry oak). The
caterpillar is grey-green, with a large
blackish head.
Hesperia comma manitoba Scud. July to
September. Graminea. (grasses). The
caterpillar is grey-green to putty colour,
and feeds within a tent of grasses spun
Ochlodes sylvanoides Bdv. Woodland skipper. June to September. Grasses, aster,
thistle, etc. The caterpillar is similar in
habits to manitoba.
FF 49
Salmo gairdneri Richardson.   Rainbow trout.
Ictalurus nebulosus (LeSueur).    Brown catfish.
Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus),
Taricha granulosa granulosa Skilton. Pacific
Coast newt.
Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird. Long-
toed salamander (possibility).
Plethodon vehiculum (Cooper). Western
red-backed salamander.
Hyla regilla Baird and Girard. Pacific tree-
Rana aurora aurora Baird and Girard.
legged frog.
Gerrhonotus cceruleus principis (Baird and
Girard).   Northern alligator lizard.
Thamnophis elegans nigrescens lohnson.
Coast garter snake.
Thamnophis ordinoides (Baird and Girard).
Puget Sound garter snake.
Thamnophis sirtalis trilineata Cope.   Striped
garter snake.
Descriptive references in the Bibliography are Carl, 1959, 1960, and 1966.
Common loon (Gavia immer). To be seen
on the lake adjacent to the sanctuary in the
winter months. It possibly nests here as it
was present in Iune_pr luly.
Horned grebe (Podiceps auritus). A winter
visitor only.
Pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps).
There is little doubt nests could be found
in Prior and Thetis Lakes.
Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax
auritus).  A winter visitor.
Great blue heron (Ardea herodias). Resident. There are two or three heronries
close to Thetis, and possibly inside its
Canada goose (Branta canadensis). Pairs of
these birds nest in many of the lakes in
this region, including Thetis.
Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). An abundant
resident, nesting in most of the local lakes,
including Thetis.
American widgeon (Baldpate) (Mareca amer-
icana).   Winter resident.
Ring-necked duck (Aythya collaris). A few
of these ducks can be found in both lakes
during the winter months.
Greater scaup (Aythya marila). Winter
visitor in good numbers.
Common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula).
Winter visitor in fair numbers.
Bufflehead (Bucephala albepla). Most of
these wintering ducks arrive from their
northern nesting-grounds during September and October and remain here until
some time in April.
Hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus).
Winter visitor, although a few pairs have
been found during the summer months
and young families have been seen toward
the end of lune.
Common merganser (Mergus merganser).
Winter visitor to Thetis Lake; breeding on
most sizeable rivers on the Island.
Sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus).
Fairly common resident.
Cooper hawk (Accipiter cooperii). Fairly
common resident.
Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). Fairly
common resident. It is hoped their small
numbers will increase.
Rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus). A rare
visitor.   One record.
Golden eagle (Aquila chryseetos). An uncommon visitor to Vancouver Island.
Bald eagle (Halicetus leucocephalus). Seen
fairly often over the park. At least five
nesting-sites are known within 20 miles of
Osprey (Pandion halicetus). One nesting-
site known close to Thetis Lake.
Pigeon hawk (Falco columbarius). A winter
visitor in fair numbers.
Blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus). Resident in the sanctuary.
Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). Resident
in the sanctuary. Neither of these grouse
is in its former numbers.
California quail (Lophortyx californicus).
A fairly common introduced bird.
Mountain quail (Oreorlyx pictus). Introduced and uncommon in the park..
 FF 50
Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).
A fairly common introduced bird.
American coot (Fulica americana). A winter visitor which has been known to nest
in the Victoria district.
Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens).
Our resident gull, and abundant.
Mew or short-billed gull (Larus canus).
A common winter resident from August to
Herring gull (Larus argentatus). A winter
visitor in fair numbers.
Band-tailed pigeon (Columba fasciata). A
migrant and occasional winter visitor.
Breeds in the park.
Screech owl (Otus asio). A resident nocturnal owl.    More often heard than seen.
Common nighthawk (Chordeiles minor).
A migrant, generally first seen early in
June. Not seen in former numbers, but
probably nests in the park.
Rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus ruftts).
To be looked for on the flowering maples
and the red-flowering currant, the males in
March and females in April.
Belted kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon). A
fairly common resident, nesting in most
suitable habitats.
Red-shafted flicker (Colaptes cafer). Abundant resident.
Pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus).
Resident in fair numbers throughout the
coniferous woods.
Hairy woodpecker (Dendrocopos villosus).
Resident in fair numbers.
Downy woodpecker (Dendrocopos pubes-
cens).   Resident in good numbers.
Northern 3-toed woodpecker (Picoides tri-
dactylus). Observed in the sanctuary by
four competent observers in 1959, but this
species is rarely seen in the Victoria area.
Traill flycatcher (Empidonax trailii). Summer resident, mostly nesting in open spaces
near water. Arrives about the middle of
Western flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis).
Our most abundant flycatcher, arriving
early in April and breeding throughout the
Olive-sided flycatcher (Nuttallornis borealis).
Summer resident. Arrives early in May
and breeds in wooded areas. Fairly common to the park.
Violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalas-
sina). Summer resident from the first
week in March to early September. Our
most abundant swallow.
Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). A summer
resident, arriving toward the middle of
April and the last swallow to return south.
Purple martin (Progne subis). A summer
resident, arriving early in April. Not common, but they do nest in the Highland District, so possibly also in Thetis Park.
Steller jay (Cyanocitta stelleri). A resident
and often seen in Thetis, but whether they
nest there has still to be proved.
Raven (Corvus corax). A resident, often
nesting in coniferous trees.
Northwestern crow (Corvus caurinus). An
abundant resident bird.
Chestnut-backed chickadee {Parus rufescens).
Resident in good numbers and nesting
wherever a suitable hole can be found in
the trees.
Common bush-tit (Psaltriparus minimus).
A small grey tit. It builds a hanging nest
about 8 inches long and 2 inches in diameter, often from a branch of spirea.
Red-breasted nuthatch (Sitta canadensis).
Resident in good numbers.
Brown Creeper (Certhia familiaris). Resident in good numbers in the park, with a
nest generally built under the loose bark of
a dead balsam or alder tree.
House wren (Troglodytes tedon). A migrant
and summer resident, arriving toward the
beginning of May. Fairly common in the
Winter wren (Troglodytes troglodytes). A
common resident.
Bewick wren (Thryomanes bewickii). A resident found in fair numbers except in the
deeper woods.
American robin (Tardus migratorius). A resident and a migrant in large numbers.
Varied thrush (lxoreus neevius). Winter
resident. Unpredictable in its numbers
and dates of arrival.
Hermit thrush (Hylocichla guttata). A winter visitor, sometimes arriving at the end
of August.   Rather uncommon.
Swainson thrush (Hylocichla ustulata). Summer resident in good numbers.
Golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa).
A winter resident, and a migrant, in good
numbers but is rare in the summer, as only
a few stay to nest here.
Ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula).
A common winter resident, but, as far as
is known, does not nest in the region.
Cedar waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum). A
resident, but erratic in its appearance.
Nests over the area, generally in August
or September.
European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Their
numbers have rapidly increased since first
appearing in 1957. They nest in holes
wherever possible, displacing our native
Solitary vireo (Vireo solitarius). Summer
resident, arriving early in April. While
never numerous, the two vireos are fairly
well distributed over the park.
FF 51
Warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus). Summer resident, generally first seen early in May.
More often heard than seen.
Orange-crowned or lutescent warbler (Vermi-
vora celata). Summer resident, arriving
early in April; possibly the commonest of
the warblers.
Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Summer resident, arriving about a month later
than the orange-crowned, and in good
Audubon warbler (Dendroica auduboni).
Summer resident, nesting in open country
on bushes as do the two foregoing species.
Townsend warbler (Dendroica townsendi).
Summer resident, arriving early in April.
This warbler nests in coniferous trees and
prefers a forested area.
MacGillivray warbler (Oporornis tolmiei).
A late arrival in fair numbers, and nests
sparsely throughout the park.
Wilson warbler (black-cap) (Wilsonia pu-
silla). Arrives about the beginning of
May, and nests on the ground in bushy
Brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). A
parasitic migrant, occasionally now found
in winter. Rare prior to 1955, but has
increased noticeably since.
Western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana). A
summer visitor, arriving around the middle of May. Not common, but usually
nests in the kind of habitat this park provides.
Purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus). Resident and fairly common in the park and
undoubtedly nesting there.
Pine siskin (Spinus pinus). A resident and
a migrant. Fluctuates in numbers. Sometimes seen in large flocks in winter, and
probably nests in the park.
American goldfinch (Spinus tristis). A summer resident, occasionally found in winter.
Generally first seen the third week in
Red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra). A bird
of irregular habits, but in most years found
in the park in fair numbers.
Rufous-sided towhee (Pipilo erythrophlhal-
mus). Resident in good numbers. Generally nests in the open areas near the
park entrance.
Oregon junco (Junco oreganus). Resident
in good numbers. Nests in the park
wherever suitable habitat occurs, generally
on the ground.
Chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina).
Summer resident, arriving about the middle of April. Formerly abundant, now
seen less frequently.
White crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leuco-
phrys). Summer resident, arriving at the
end of March. Also winters in small
flocks throughout the district.
Fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca). Winter resident in fair numbers.
Song sparrow (Melospiza melodia). A common resident bird. In the park it frequents
the more open areas.
Some of the birds which should be found in the sanctuary as they occur in
territory adjacent are bluebird, lesser scaup, killdeer, pygmy owl, red-breasted sap-
sucker, myrtle warbler, evening grosbeak, house sparrow, green-winged teal, sparrow
hawk, snipe, black swift, wood peewee, yellow-throated warbler, Savannah sparrow,
wood duck, Virginia rail, spotted sandpiper, Vaux swift, red-winged blackbird,
golden-crowned sparrow.
For a field guide, see Peterson, 1961, in the Bibliography.
All of the species here listed have not necessarily been recorded within the
actual boundaries of Thetis Park Nature Sanctuary. However, the close proximity
of the areas in which they were taken or observed leaves little doubt that these species
have occurred, and, in varying degree, still do occur there.
Sorex    vagrans    vancouverensis    Merriam.
Wandering shrew.
Corynorhinus townsendi (Cooper).  Western
big-eared bat.
Eptesicus fuscus bernardinus Rhoads.    Big
brown bat.
Eptesicus fuscus pallidas Young. Pallid
brown bat.   (In migration.)
Lasiurus cinereus (Beauvois).   Hoary bat.
Myotis californicus caurinus Miller. California myotis.
Myotis evotis pacificus Dalquest. Long-eared
Myotis lucifugus alascensis Miller. Little
brown myotis.
 FF 52
Skunk-cabbage or yellow
arum (Lysichitum americanum),
of marsh and stream habitats.
A stream habitat at Craigflower Creek on the eastern
boundary of the sanctuary.
tetramerus   (Rhoads).
osoyoo sensis    (Lord).
angustus    Hall.
Microtus   townsendi
Townsend vole.
Ondatra    zibethica
Peromyscus    maniculatus
White-footed mouse.
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus lanuginosus (Back
man).   Red squirrel.
Like all faunal lists, the above is not necessarily complete. The river otter, the
cougar, and the Vancouver Island water shrew are potentials in the park, as are the
Old World rats and mice and additional species of bats.
For a guide to identification of these animals, see Cowan and Guiguet, 1965,
in the Bibliography that follows.
Mustela vison evagor Hall.   Mink.
Procyon   lotor  vancouverensis  Nelson
Goldman.   Raccoon.
Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson).   Black-tail deer.
Boyer, Charles Sumner.
1927.   Synopsis of North American Diatomaceae.   In Proc. Acad. Nat. Science,
Part I in Vol. 78 (Suppl.): 3-228.
Carl, G. Clifford; Clemens, W. A.; and Lindsey, C. C.
1959. The Fresh-water Fishes of British Columbia. B.C. Provincial Museum
Handbook No. 5, pp. 192.
1960. The Reptiles of British Columbia. B.C. Provincial Museum Handbook
No. 3, pp. 65.
1966.   The Amphibians of British Columbia.   B.C. Provincial Museum Handbook No. 2, pp. 63.
Clapp, C. H.
1917.   Sooke-Duncan Map Areas.   Memoir 96, Can. Dept. of Mines, Ottawa,
pp. 455.
Conard, H. S.
1944.   How to Know the Mosses.  Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa.
Cowan, Ian McTaggart, and Guiguet, Chas. J.
1965.   The Mammals of British Columbia.    B.C. Provincial Museum Handbook No. 11, 3rd ed., pp. 414.
Garman, Eric H.
1963. Pocket Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of British Columbia. B.C. Forest Service Publication B. 28, 3rd rev., pp. 137.
Grout, A. J.
1947.   Mosses with a Hand-lens, 4th ed.   The author, Newfane, Vt., pp. 344.
Groves, J. Walton.
1962. Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms of Canada. Can. Dept. of Agric,
Ottawa, Publ. 1112, pp. 298.
Haig-Brown, Roderick.
1961. The Living Land.   Macmillan Co. of Canada, pp. 269.
Henry, Joseph Kaye.
1915.    Flora of Southern British Columbia and Vancouver Island.    Gage,
Toronto, pp. 365.
Hitchcock, Chas. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; and Ownbey, Marion.
1955-64.   Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest.   Univ. Wash. Press, Seattle, vols. 4.
Holland, Stuart S.
1964. Landforms of British Columbia: A Physiographic Outline. B.C. Dept.
of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Bull. 48, Victoria, pp. 138.
Howard, Grace E.
1950.    Lichens of the State of Washington.    Univ. Wash.  Press,  Seattle,
pp. 191
Klots, Alexander B.
1958.   A Field Guide to the Butterflies of North America.    (Peterson Field
Guide Series.)   Houghton Mifflin, Boston, Mass., pp. 349.
Krajina, V. J.
1965. Biogeoclimatic Zones and Classification of British Columbia. In
Ecology of Western North America. Publ. Dept. Botany, Univ. B.C.,
1:1—17, map.
Lange, Morten, and Hora, F. Bayard.
1963. Collins Guide to Mushrooms and Toadstools. Collins, London, Eng.,
pp. 257.
Lowe, C. W.
1963. Swan-necked Protozoan.  Victoria Naturalist, v. 19, p. 119.
Lyons, C. P.
1954.   Trees, Shrubs, and Flowers to Know in British Columbia.   J. M. Dent
& Sons Ltd., Toronto, pp. 194.
Mather, Kirtley F.
1964. The Earth Beneath Us.   Random House, N.Y., pp. 319.
Needham, G. G., and Needham, P. R.
1962. Guide to the Study of Fresh-water Biology.   Holden-Day, San Francisco, 5th ed., pp. 107.
Peterson, Roger Tory.
1961. Field Guide to Western Birds, 2nd ed.    Houghton Mifflin, Boston,
Mass., pp. 366.
Rowe, J. S.
1959.   Forest Regions of Canada.   Northern Affairs and National Resources,
Ottawa, Forestry Branch, Bull. 123, pp. 71 and map.
Schmidt, R. L.
1957. The Silvics and Plant Geography of the Genus Abies in the Coastal
Forests of British Columbia.    B.C. Forest Service, Bull. T. 46, pp. 31.
Shelford, V. E.
1963. The Ecology of North America.   Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana, pp. 610.
Silen, R. R.
1958. Silvicultural Characteristics of Oregon White Oak.   Pacific Northwest
Forest Exper. Sta., Silvical Series 10, pp. 13.
Smith, Alexander H.
1963.  The Mushroom Hunter's Field Guide.   Univ. Mich. Press, Ann Arbor,
Mich., pp. 264.
Smith, Gilbert M.
1950.   Fresh-water Algae of the United States, 2nd ed.   McGraw-Hill, N.Y.,
pp. 719.
Szczawinski, Adam F.
1959. The Orchids of British Columbia.   B.C. Provincial Museum Handbook
No. 16, pp. 124.
1962. The Heather Family (Ericacea.) of British Columbia.   B.C. Provincial
Museum Handbook No. 19, pp. 205.
Tarrant, R.F.
1958.   Silvical Characteristics of Pacific Madrone.   Pacific Northwest Forest
and Range Exper. Sta., Portland, Oreg., Silv. Ser. 6, pp. 10.
Taylor, T. M. C.
1963. The Ferns and Fern-allies of British Columbia.   B.C. Provincial Museum Handbook No. 12, pp. 172.
1966.  The Lily Family (Liliacea.) of British Columbia.   B.C. Provincial Museum Handbook No. 25, pp. 109.
Victoria City Weather Office.
1962-63.    Annual Meteorological Weather Summaries.    Gonzales Observatory, Victoria B.,C, mimeo.
  Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.


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