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REPORT of the WATER RESOURCES SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1965 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1966

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Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister A. F. Paget, Deputy Minister of Water Resources
of the
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
Kalamalka Lake, Okanagan Valley
  Victoria, B.C., January 31, 1966.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C, C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources for the year ended December 31, 1965.
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
 Victoria, B.C., January 31, 1966.
The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
for the 12 months ended December 31, 1965.
Deputy Minister of Water Resources.
Organization of the British Columbia Water Resources Service
The Water Resources Service	
Lower Fraser Valley Dyke Reconstruction.
Water Rights Branch—
Water Rights Branch	
Organization Chart of the Water Rights Branch-
Water Licensing Division	
District Engineers Division	
Improvement Districts Division	
Power and Major Licences Division.
Water Investigations Branch—
Water Investigations Branch.___	
Organization Chart of the Water Investigations Branch-
Water Supply and Investigations Division	
Hydrology Division	
Ground-water Division	
Basin Planning and Power Division	
ARDA Division	
Records Compilation and Reports Section-
Draughting Office	
Pollution-control Board-
Office of the Inspector of Dykes	
Southern Okanagan Lands Project-
Personnel Office	
Accounting Division.
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 Report of the Water Resources Service
A. F. Paget, P.Eng., Deputy Minister of Water Resources
Paralleling the expanding economy of the Province, the Water Resources Service has experienced steady growth in both work load and responsibility during the
year. Applications for water use continue to increase, and the total number of
improvement districts formed under the Water Act has been constantly climbing.
With the availability of funds through Federal-Provincial agreement, a number of
water-utilization projects were completed or were reviewed under the direction of
the engineering divisions. Two agencies previously associated with other Government departments were placed within the jurisdiction of the Water Resources Service.
The Water Rights Branch, under the direction of the Comptroller of Water
Rights, completed a very active year. The total number of water licences issued
was equal that for 1964, and revenue from water rentals and recording fees for the
second time exceeded $2,000,000. These returns were from 20,449 active licences,
an increase of 1,213 over 1964. Licences for power and storage are the principal
revenue sources, and lacking new developments in 1965 there was no appreciable
increase. In due course, the annual revenue from this source will increase substantially with the culmination of development on the Peace River and the Columbia
River. Improvement districts and water-users' communities continue to spring up
throughout the Province, there being 317 functioning districts and 72 communities
in existence at the close of the year. Through changes in legislation at the last session, certain of the districts, particularly those incorporated to provide hospital or
fire-protection services, may be transferred to the Department of Municipal Affairs
in the course of time.
With increasing interest by local authorities in participating financially with the
Government of Canada and the Government of the Province of British Columbia in
water-use and water-control projects, the Water Investigations Branch, directed by
the Chief Engineer, has been actively engaged in a large number of project proposals. Through assistance under the Canada Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act (ARDA) and the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act, some
44 projects totalling over $26,000,000 have been completed or are in various stages
of investigation. In addition to these programmes, the Branch dealt with 29 other
water projects, of which several required complete engineering services through to
and including construction.
Following its inception in 1956, the Pollution-control Board functioned under
the ffigis of the Department of Municipal Affairs. In 1965 the Board was transferred to the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, and the Deputy
Minister assumed the chairmanship. Also transferred to the Department was the
Office of the Inspector of Dykes, an agency which for the last nine years has been
with the Department of Agriculture.
Senior staff changes included the appointment of Mr. H. D. DeBeck as Comptroller of Water Rights from his position as Deputy Comptroller, and the appointment of Mr. A. K. Sutherland, Water Rights Branch solicitor, to replace Mr.
DeBeck. A new position of Assistant Deputy Minister was filled by Mr. G. E.
The spring run-off from the Fraser River basin was moderate, and in consequence the pressures which developed against the Lower Fraser Valley dykes as a
result of the high river-levels in 1964 were not repeated. These structures are in
need of improvement, and arrangements are in hand which will permit reconstruction, with the Government of Canada participating on a financial basis through the
Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act. The cost, estimated in the final report
of the Fraser River Board to be in the order of $5,000,000, is now likely to be
exceeded by a fairly substantial amount. Changing conditions since the compilation
of that report and the need to consider associated drainage problems are the chief
Efforts throughout the year have been directed toward the encouragement of
local participation with the Federal and the Provincial Governments in dyke reconstruction. To this end, provision was made at the 1964 Session for the repeal of a
large number of Statutes dating back to 1878, and the amendment of others to
permit the adoption of dyking and drainage responsibilities by local authorities in
those areas where the Province has carried the administrative load for a considerable
number of years. The dyked lands currently under Provincial direction through the
Inspector of Dykes represent some of the largest and perhaps most vulnerable of
the areas so protected.
Elsewhere in the Lower Fraser Valley, engineering studies of small dyked
areas with specific problems are under way. However, until such time as the summation of the individual dyking district programmes reaches a mutually accepted
minimum, no agreement can be entered into with the Government of Canada to
permit Federal aid in financing such reconstruction. Two submissions, one with
respect to emergency dyke repairs in the Municipality of Kent and the second concerning improvement to the Harrison Lake dyke, have been accepted in principle by
the Government of Canada, but Federal participation must await the amassing of
costs to the prescribed minimum.
The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which administers the control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water Act.
The main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:—
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all water at any time in
any stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in right
of the Province. The common-law principle of riparian water right has been
(2) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Earlier licences
have priority over licences issued later.
(3) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the water-licence rentals, and observance of the regulations of the
Water Act.
(4) A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land, mine, or
undertaking, and it will pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof.
(5) If it is necessary that a water licensee construct works on another person's land,
he can expropriate the land reasonably required if an amicable agreement cannot be reached. If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee may
acquire a permit to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to generally supervise and
assist the administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under
the Water Act for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, dyking, street-lighting, providing financial aid to hospitals, fire protection, and several other purposes. An improvement district
is a self-governing public corporate body administered by elected Trustees. The undertakings of an improvement district can be financed by Provincially guaranteed debenture
The administration of the Water Act is carried out by the Comptroller of Water
Rights and his staff, who are located at a headquarters office in Victoria and district
offices at Victoria, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, Prince George, and Mission City.
Water is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on economic
development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand by the utilizers
of other resources. Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this
Province is associated with the use of British Columbia water. A large number of communities have been incorporated into improvement districts under the Water Act to operate community projects and provide essential amenities.
EE 13
H. D. DeBeck, P.Eng., Comptroller of Water Rights
The first responsibility of the Water Rights Branch is the administration of
the Water Act, which governs all use of water in British Columbia through a licensing
system. The Water Act also provides for the incorporation of improvement districts,
which are also under the jurisdiction of the Comptroller of Water Rights. In addition to its purely administrative functions, the Water Rights Branch carries out a
great number of engineering studies on water matters. Although most of these
studies involve local problems, and are limited in scope, a number of major engineering studies were carried out in 1965, including feasibility studies of waterworks
and irrigation projects and in some cases final design and supervision of construction.
The division of responsibilities between the Water Rights Branch and the Water
Investigations Branch, which carries out water investigations of a greater scope, is
somewhat flexible, and a close liaison has been maintained between these two
branches of the Water Resources Service. There is a sharing of some head office
facilities, such as filing, and the district offices of the Water Rights Branch, because
of their location, provide office facilities and staff assistance to the Investigations
Branch, which in return provides specialist engineering advice to the Water Rights
Branch.      '
A further increase in the work load due to water licensing was experienced in
1965, due to the high level of economic activity throughout the Province. Applications for new licences were up from 1964, although slightly less than for the record
year of 1963, but applications for amendment of licences increased by 26 per cent
over the previous maximum. The combined total of all applications set a new
record, up 20 per cent from 1964.   As a result of this, although production of the
Comptroller of Water Rights
(H. D. DeBeck)
Deputy Comptroller ot Water Rights and Solicitor
(A. K. Sutherland)
Improvement Districts
(A. K. Sutherland, Solicitor
, and Deputy Comptroller)
(P. J. Leslie, Engineer)
District Engineers
(M. L. Zirul) '
District Engineers
Victoria—C Errington
Kamloops—P. G. Odynsky
Kelowna—R. 3. Talbot
Mission City—E. G. Harrison
Nelson—R. A. Pollard
Prince George—J. C Purnell
Power and Major
Licences Division
(J. T. Rothwell)
(D. B. Tanner)
Water Licensing Division
(D. E. Smuin)
Chief Clerk
(A. G. Sargent)
Chief Draughtsman
(M. Chandler)
Licensing Division was slightly higher than the previous record of 1964, the backlog of applications pending also showed an increase.
The District Engineers Division has been heavily involved in the increased
volume of licensing work and has also undertaken an increased volume of engineering work not directly connected with licensing. As a result, staff resources have
been severely strained and it has not been possible to reduce the backlog of work
which has persisted for several years.
Work associated with improvement districts continued at a high level both in
the engineering and administrative fields. In spite of an increase in the staff of the
engineering section, it has still been necessary to defer new assignments.
With the Portage Mountain project on the Peace River and all three Columbia
Treaty projects under active construction, the Power and Major Licences Division
has been extremely busy with work associated with the approval of plans for these
projects in accordance with the terms of the water licences. In addition, this Division has provided the technical services required in connection with the Deputy
Minister's position on the Columbia River Treaty Permanent Engineering Board
and the Canada-British Columbia Liaison Committee, and other special assignments.
The Division makes extensive use of the computer for power-licence rentals, statistical studies of water-licence information, and various engineering studies.
A large number of staff changes were experienced during the year, affecting
all levels of responsibility within the Branch. The Comptroller of Water Rights,
Mr. Gordon J. A. Kidd, resigned to take a senior position with the British Columbia
Hydro and Power Authority, and was succeeded as Comptroller by Mr. H. D.
DeBeck, who had been Deputy Comptroller. Mr. A. K. Sutherland became Deputy
Comptroller while retaining his former responsibilities as Departmental Solicitor.
Mr. C. K. Harman resigned as District Engineer at Prince George to take a position
with the consulting engineers on the Arrow Lakes Dam, and was succeeded at Prince
George by Mr. J. C. Purnell, who had been Assistant District Engineer at Nelson.
Altogether there were four resignations from the engineering staff, and five clerks
were lost due to resignations or transfers to other departments.
The activities of 1965 are recorded in greater detail in the reports of the various
divisions, which follow.
D. E. Smuin, Chief of Division
The Water Licensing Division is the instrument through which the Comptroller
of Water Rights fulfils his statutory responsibilities with regard to the issue of new
water licences and the amendment of existing water licences as set out in the Water
Act. This involves the maintenance of a complex system of records which consists
of files, maps, and various indexes. The number of new applications received in
1965 was 1,277, up from the 1964 total of 1,119 but still not as high as the record
1,335 established in 1963.
The need for the protection afforded by a water licence is well known in the
rural areas of the Province where the individual is responsible for his own water
supply. In many instances, water licences become more valuable than the lands
the water is used upon. For example, large industrial developments, such as pulp-
mills, are often dependent upon obtaining water licences in order to successfully
finance their programmes.
New applications are often on the same stream as existing licences, and this
may result in conflicts which can only be settled after extensive investigation by both
clerical and district office staffs. Each new application has to be considered in
respect to the amount of water available, the effect on prior rights, the suitability
and security of the proposed works, and the intention of the applicant to use the
water beneficially.
The year 1965 has seen a continuation of the increased activity in water
licensing matters experienced in 1964, and there is no indication that there will be
any relief in 1966. It is interesting to note that although licence production was
sustained at 1,449, the number of outstanding applications increased from 1,383 to
1,449. Other statistics are included in the reports of the two sections of the Licensing Division—the General Office, under the supervision of the Chief Clerk, and the
Administrative Draughting Office, under the supervision of the Chief Draughtsman.
General Office
The General Office of the Water Rights Branch is divided into the Applications, Amendment, and Ground-water Sections.
The Applications Section processes all new applications for water licences,
approvals, and permits over Crown land. In the course of this processing, it is
necessary to maintain indexes by name, licence number, file number, and water district, and to make use of records of the Accounting Division by account number
and the Draughting Room records by stream and legal description. All applications
must be considered in relation to existing water licences, or to previous applications
on the same stream. Every person whose rights or lands may be affected by a new
application must be notified before the application is adjudicated. If objections to
an application are received by the Comptroller, they are thoroughly investigated.
In some instances, determinations on applications are made by the Comptroller only
after formal hearings have been held to hear all pertinent arguments.
The applications for permits to cross or occupy Crown lands for the construction and maintenance of works, or the flooding of lands owned by the Crown, must
be investigated and determination made as to whether the Crown land affected is
available. This requires searches in the records of the Lands Service, Forest Service,
and Parks Branch and any other Government department with an interest in the
The Applications Section also processes applications for approvals for nonrecurrent use of water and for changes to be made in and about a stream.
The Amendment Section processes applications for amendments to existing
licences by apportionment, changes of works, transfers of appurtenancy, and sundry
When the land to which a licence is appurtenant is subdivided, the rights and
obligations imposed under the licence may be apportioned among the new owners
in proportion to the interest held by each owner.
If a licensee wishes to transfer the rights held under a licence to another or to
an additional parcel of land, he may apply for a transfer of appurtenancy, which the
Comptroller may grant jn whole or in part. However, the diversion of an additional
quantity of water cannot be authorized under any amendment to a licence.
Amendment by change of works authorizes the construction of additional or
other works than those previously authorized, such as the relocation of a point of
diversion or pipe-line.   Sundry amendments pertain to matters such as the author-
ization of additional time for the completion of works or for changes of purpose,
corrections of errors, etc.
Other functions of the General Office are the duties involved with the processing of abandonment and cancellation of licences, in whole or in part, for various
reasons, such as failure to establish or continue beneficial use of water or nonpayment of rentals. While licences can be abandoned voluntarily by the licensee,
the cancellation of licences entails searches at the Land Registry Office, Surveyor of
Taxes, and any other records available to establish the ownership of the property
concerned. Notices must then be sent to each person and a waiting period of 60
days allowed for payment of rentals or for filing objection to the proposed cancellation. If many persons' rights are affected, notice may be published once a week for
four consecutive weeks in a local newspaper. The protections afforded by law to
all who may be entitled to any interest in a water licence make the amendment or
cancellation of licences a difficult and time-consuming operation.
Records are also maintained by the Amendment Section with regard to water-
users' communities incorporated under the Water Act. These communities are
composed of groups of six or more licensees who have joined together for the purpose of constructing and maintaining a joint water system or storage dam, financed
by levying assessments on the members. At the end of 1965 the number of such
communities in existence in the Province was 72.
The Ground-water Section has completed studies of the information on licensing procedures received from various other Provinces, and from some of the western
States of the United States. Recommendations for the licensing of ground-water in
British Columbia have been drawn up and are being considered.
Surveys of the existing ground-water records in various areas of British Columbia have been made in an attempt to determine whether the use of ground-water
in any area can be considered critical. No decision has as yet been reached on the
necessity of licensing ground-water in any particular area.
The year 1965 saw a steady increase in the over-all work load of the General
Office. The combined total of applications for water licences, right-of-way permits,
apportionments, transfers of appurtenancy, changes of works, and approvals reached
an all-time high of 1,950. This total surpassed the 1964 total by approximately 40
per cent and the previous record year of 1963 by 8 per cent.
August was a particularly busy and difficult time for the office staff as three
clerks resigned and an all-time high of 201 applications was recorded.
The filing system, taken over from the Lands Department in 1964, has been
the subject of much work. Over 5,000 files were microfilmed by the Central Microfilm Bureau in order to dispose of many obsolete files and to make space for the
ever-increasing number of files being created. All remaining active files have been
placed in metal filing-cabinets, and a start has been made in indexing these. Separate
space has been allocated to a rapidly expanding file system for the ARDA projects.
The Xerox duplicating-machine is proving its worth as the number of copies
made in 1965 was 83,100, compared to 71,193 in 1964.
A concerted effort was made to reduce the number of water licences in arrears
of rental; of 564 in arrears at January 1, 1965, 414 have been paid up or the
licences cancelled.
The principal activities of the General Office in the 12 months' period ended
December 31, 1965, are shown in the following table, together with the same data
for the five preceding years:—
EE 17
Applications for—
Conditional licences issued	
Administrative Draughting Office
The Administrative Draughting Office staff is composed of a Chief Draughtsman, a Supervising Draughtsman, eight draughtsmen, and a clerk. The main
functions of this office are checking the legal status of water applications, maintaining stream registers and plan indexes, compiling, maintaining, and revising water
rights maps, preparing plats for water licences, clearing land applications for the
Lands Branch, checking petitions and preparing legal descriptions and plans for
improvement districts, and attending to requests for maps and various information
from our district offices, other departments of Government, and the public.
Applications for water licences and amendments to licences received by the
Licensing Division are cleared through the Draughting Office, and a complete check
is made of the legal status of every application received. No licence can be issued,
no change of appurtenancy or works, no extension of time, apportionment, or right-
of-way for any licence can be made without first checking or clearing through the
Draughting Office to ensure that no individual's vested water rights or property rights
are violated. In most cases this work entails a search of the records of other departments of Government, such as Lands Branch, Land Registry Office, Surveyor of
Taxes, Department of Highways, and Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources. Upon completion of this work, all applications are entered on the water
rights maps and in the stream registers, which together form a record of all pertinent
data regarding water licences and applications.
The Draughting Office also prepares the plats which are attached to every
water licence issued. These plats consist of a plan of the licensee's property and
show in detail all works, such as the intake point, pipe-lines, pumps, power-house,
and buildings where water is to be used.
Another function of the Draughting Office is the scrutiny of applications to the
Lands Branch with respect to Crown lands in order to establish whether the rights
of water licensees would be affected.
A major function of this office is the checking of petitions pertaining to improvement districts. This involves searches of the records of the Land Registry Office
and Surveyor of Taxes to obtain correct property descriptions. When a petition to
incorporate an improvement district has been checked and found correct, a plan
 EE 18
showing all lands within the boundaries of the proposed district is drawn up and a
legal description defining the boundaries of the district is prepared. This work
accounts for about 25 per cent of the time of the Draughting Office. During 1965,
11 new improvement districts were incorporated and the boundaries of 46 districts
were amended.
The table and the plates which follow illustrate the work which the Draughting
Office has handled during the last three years:—
New water applications cleared and plotted on maps	
Final and conditional licence plats compiled and traced .
New water rights maps compiled and traced _
Water rights maps revised .
New improvement districts described and plans prepared.
Improvement districts descriptions and plans amended	
Reference maps renewed.
Change of ownership, apportionments, cancellations, etc.-
Land clearances (purchases, Crown grants, leases, etc.)....
Land clearances (cancellations)	
Right-of-way over Crown land	
EE 19
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 EE 20
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Plate 2.
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Plate 3.
M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The function of the District Engineer is to assist the Comptroller of Water
Rights in the administration of the Water Act within the water districts for which he
is responsible. District offices, each in the charge of a District Engineer, are located
at Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, Mission City, Prince George, and Victoria. The
District Engineers are empowered under section 37 of the Water Act to exercise
administrative authority related to the use of water under water licences issued under
the Water Act. In addition, they have the responsibility for public safety with
respect to impounded water and for the prevention or correction of pollution of
water sources by sawdust, timber, tailings, gravel, refuse, and similar substances.
Of prime importance is the investigating and reporting by the District Engineers
to the Comptroller on all applications for water licences on streams within the
water districts administered by them, and investigating and recommending on all
applications for amendment of existing water licences. Changes in the method of
application of irrigation water, refinement in use of water, and subdivision of land
result in a steady flow of requests for amendment of existing water licences, and the
effect of such changes on other rights must be carefully reviewed.
As well as assisting the Comptroller in the ordinary administration of water
licences, which, in past years, was the main function of the district offices, a large
part of the effort of the District Engineers and their staffs is now directed toward
carrying out engineering investigations and preparing reports on proposed water-
supply projects and works for flood protection and prevention of stream-bank
erosion. Work has also been done in supplying data required for the Pollution-
control Board, in carrying out miscellaneous investigations and supplying information for the Water Resources Investigation Branch, and supervising projects under
construction for the Improvement Districts Engineering Division of the Water Rights
Branch. The scope of the engineering work performed by the engineers of the
district offices is becoming greatly enlarged, and the engineers are constantly
challenged to meet the demands for their services.
The District Engineers have continued their programme of inspections of existing storage dams to ensure that proper maintenance is carried out and that any
hazard to public safety is brought to the licensees' attention and corrected.
The Chief of the Division visited all district offices during the year, and field
trips were made with the District Engineers at Kamloops, Kelowna, and Nelson.
Field trips were also made and consultations held with engineers of the Department
of Highways and Parks Branch of the Department of Recreation and Conservation
on water problems.
The separate reports of the District Engineers of the six district offices follow.
Kamloops District Office
P. G. Odynsky, P.Eng., District Engineer
The District Engineer at Kamloops is responsible for regulating the use of
water under licences in the Ashcroft, Cariboo, Kamloops, and Nicola Water Districts, and assists the Comptroller in administration of the Water Act within this
area. Although not at the geographical centre of the region administered by the
district office, Kamloops is centrally located within the so-called Dry Belt of the
Province, where water demand is greatest.
EE 23
Winter snowpacks at the lower levels within the Kamloops and Cariboo Water
Districts were heavier than normal, resulting in high snow-melt run-off in all local
streams in the early season. Flow in some streams in the vicinity of Williams Lake
exceeded the previous maximums established in the 1948 flood year and caused
extensive damage to roads and property.
Although summer temperatures were the hottest experienced since 1961, reaching 100° F. in many areas in July and early August, water shortages and conflicts
over its use were not frequent, since early summer flows in most streams were sustained by moisture resulting from a good snowpack during the preceding winter,
and rainfall provided relief when shortages were threatened during August.
Summary of Year's Work
Water applications on hand, November 1, 1964	
Water applications received-
Water applications cancelled or abandoned-
Water application reports forwarded..
Water applications on hand October 31, 1965.
Final-licence survey reports forwarded     56
Final-licence surveys run-
Change of works surveys run-
Miscellaneous surveys run.
L.R.O. searches made for Victoria office	
L.R.O. plans ordered and sent to Victoria office-
Apportionment of licences reports forwarded	
Change of works reports forwarded..
Transfer of appurtenancy reports forwarded..
Extension of time recommendations forwarded     20
Dam inspections made     65
Conditional licences added to the files  291
Final licences added to the file     75
Engineering Investigations and Studies
1. Revision of feasibility report on proposed domestic water supply for communities of Heffley Creek and Aspen Park near Mount Raleigh.
2. Preliminary design and cost estimate for an earth-fill dam on Smith Lake
for Darfield Irrigation District, North Thompson area.
3. Up-dating of probable cost of works required to divert water from Mc-
Gillivray Creek to Heffley Lake, for the Heffley Creek Irrigation District.
4. Ross Creek, near Anglemont, flooding and erosion report and estimate of
cost of protective works.
5. Revision of cost estimate for necessary rehabilitation of Goldbridge Waterworks District water system.
6. Investigation and report on use of water from Campbell Creek at Barnhart
Vale, Two Mile and Stoyoma Creeks at Boston Bar, Coldwater River at Merritt,
Dickey Creek and Spray Creek at Lillooet, Gordon Creek at Salmon Arm, Carabine
(Copper) Creek near Savona, and Hiuihill Creek near Adams River.
7. Investigation and report on miscellaneous flooding and erosion complaints
involving Canoe Creek and Mouttell Creek at Salmon Arm, Nicola River at Merritt,
Williams Lake at Village of Williams Lake, and surface run-off from the airport at
Williams Lake.
8. Investigations were made with respect to water supply for the following
subdivision developments: Thompson Park near Tod Hill Irrigation District, Riverside (Reynolds) Subdivision at Lillooet, Sutton Subdivision at Williams Lake and
Mount Ida Subdivision at Salmon Arm.
9. Investigated complaints of pollution of domestic water supplies on Two Mile
Creek and Stoyoma Creek at Boston Bar.
10. A number of complaints of water shortage or of excessive use or unauthorized use of water were investigated and appropriate action taken.
11. Surveillance of construction of new dams on Clinton Creek at Clinton, on
Bleeker Lake and Beaton Lake near Kamloops, construction of a drop-structure to
correct erosion in the spillway of an earth-fill dam on Charcoal Creek near Chase,
and breaching of a rock-fill dam on Spanish Lake near Likely.
12. Assisted Water Investigation staff in determination of storage capacity of
Barnes Lake and Willard Lake near Ashcroft and Campbell Lake and Scuitto Lake
near Barnhart Vale.
Kelowna District Office
R. J. Talbot, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Princeton, Fairview, Grand Forks, Vernon, and Revelstoke Water Districts fall under the jurisdiction of the Kelowna District office. These districts
comprise the Kettle, Similkameen, and Okanagan drainage basins, the Shuswap
River drainage basin above Sicamous, and part of the Columbia River drainage
from its confluence with the Canoe River downstream to Arrow Lake.
During the past year 35 per cent fewer new water applications were investigated
than during 1964, because of concentration on licence amendments, which were
up 300 per cent from 1964. The Kelowna office also had a large number of engineering feasibility studies to carry out, supervision of the installation of Canyon
Waterworks District's water-distribution system, and many requests for engineering
A bitterly cold December, 1964, and January, 1965, restricted outside work.
The weather warmed in April, and snow-melt run-off into the Okanagan Lake
commenced on the 22nd of April. Rainfall record for Kelowna of 11.27 inches
for the period November 1, 1964, to October 31, 1965, was a bit below the 30-year
average annual rainfall of 12.41 inches.
Water supply was ample for irrigation requirements because of sustained
freshet flow, full storage reservoirs, and an above normal rainfall during the month
of August. A dry July resulted in irrigation systems being used to capacity with a
noticeable draw-down of most storage reservoirs. A dry September and October
called for a late October irrigation to condition orchards prior to the winter season.
Forty-five storage dams were inspected during the year, with a total of 70
inspections. While some inspections were routine, remedial work was suggested
on others, followed by a second inspection to ensure that required work was carried
out satisfactorily.
The Kelowna office staff assisted the Water Resources Investigation Branch
and also the Water Resources Branch of the Department of Mines and Technical
Surveys, Canada, in setting up study projects in connection with International
Hydrologic Decade studies.
A summary of the activity of the office in connection with water licence applications for the years 1959 to 1965, inclusive, is shown in the following table:—
EE 25
Reports on
Cancelled or
Disposed of
1959  ._.	
1960   .                                 .                            .
1961                            --
Summary of Year's Work
Applications outstanding November 1, 1964     78
New applications received  185
Applications inspected and reported on  148
Applications cancelled or abandoned     13
Applications on hand October 31, 1965  102
Licence amendments reported on-
New water licences issued in 1965—
Conditional licences	
Final licences	
Final-licence and miscellaneous surveys-
Meetings attended	
Complaints investigated	
Engineering Investigations and Studies
1. A study was completed to determine the economic feasibility of replacing
Wood Lake Irrigation District's irrigation distribution system with buried pipe.
The rehabilitated system would serve 870 acres by gravity from Oyama Creek and
cost about $382,000.
2. Construction drawings and contract documents were prepared for the proposed replacement for the Smithson Alphonse-Mission Creek dam. The licensees,
however, finally chose to avoid the expense of immediate replacement by repairing
the erosion damage occurring behind the dam by placement of 800 yards of broken
concrete riprap.
3. The Kelowna office supervised the installation of the Canyon Waterworks
District's new domestic water-supply system. The system included a 200-foot-deep
well and pump, a reservoir, 3>Vi miles of 4-inch asbestos-cement pipe, and half a
mile of 2-inch plastic pipe.
4. Stream-channel improvement feasibility studies were prepared for Vernon
Creek (the 3 miles west of Vernon) for adjacent property-owners and for Kelowna
Creek (the 2 miles east of Kelowna) for the City of Kelowna.
5. A study to determine the economic feasibility of rebuilding the irrigation
distribution system of the Ellison Irrigation District was carried out and report
6. A preliminary report on a proposed domestic water-supply system for an
area along Lakeshore Road, south of Okanagan Mission, was prepared.
7. A listing of the present water-users was compiled and a review of the
works of the Grand Forks Irrigation District was carried out at the request of the
8. Miscellaneous small-design projects included an 8-foot-high earth-fill dam
at the headwaters of Glanzier Creek for Stepney Waterworks District and preparation of construction drawings of drainage-works for Mission and Fascieux sloughs
at Kelowna.
Mission City District Office
E. G. Harrison, P.Eng., District Engineer
The. Mission City District Office is responsible for the Vancouver and New
Westminster Water Districts. The two water districts extend from the coast eastward to Manning Park and from the International Boundary northward past Ocean
Falls, covering the most densely populated and heavily industrialized part of the
British Columbia Mainland.
The relatively large population and the high rate of development have resulted
in an ever-increasing number of large-scale industrial, agricultural, residential, and
recreational estates. The demand for large supplies of suitable water to service
these has been a major concern of the Mission District Office. A long series of
investigations and meetings with senior municipal, business, legal, and engineering
officials has been directed toward reviewing applications for licences for large
quantities of water for these important developments.
A number of meetings and investigations were held with municipal officers,
consulting engineers, lawyers, and private parties regarding problems concerning
licensing, water use, erosion, irrigation, pollution, and flooding. Several meetings
concerned the organization and operation of existing and proposed improvement
districts and public utilities.
A report was compiled dealing with the engineering and economics of a proposed water system for the Silverdale area near Mission City. The District Engineer
was called as an expert witness in a lawsuit over a long-standing drainage dispute
which remains unsettled. The abnormally dry summer resulted in many complaints
of water shortage and misuse during the latter part of the summer season. A
complaint concerning the alleged lowering of Alta Lake received considerable
Greater " water-consciousness " on the part of the public has resulted in a
substantial increase in applications and in the necessity for more detailed processing. More streams were gauged this year than in previous years, and several dams
and other works were inspected. A survey party has been kept fully engaged on
a year-round basis.
Summary of Year's Work
Applications on hand at beginning of period  75
Applications received  158
Applications investigated and reported upon  112
Applications refused, cancelled, or abandoned  12
Applications on hand at end of period  109
Final-licence reports submitted  104
Miscellaneous field surveys  15
Pollution  6
Flooding   16
Miscellaneous   3 8
Meetings with municipalities and organized areas  25
Number of streams measured  32
Conditional licences added to files  126
EE 27
Nelson District Office
R. A. Pollard, P.Eng., District Engineer
Water districts under the jurisdiction of the Nelson District Office are Nelson,
Kaslo, Cranbrook, Fernie, and Golden, all in the south-eastern part of the Province.
Staff during 1965 consisted of a District Engineer, two assistant engineers, a
field survey party chief, a stenographer, and two student field survey assistants
during the summer.
Average snowpack at higher levels of the watershed in the Kootenays and
a normal spring run-off resulted in no serious floods of natural origin being
Sufficient rain fell during the summer to reduce the irrigation demand and to
charge small streams in low watersheds. As a result, there were virtually no disputes
resulting from water shortage.
During 1965, 154 new conditional licences and 96 new final licences were
added to the office files, making a total of 7,569. Of these, approximately 4,770
are now active.
The number of new applications for water licences received in 1965 remained
about the same as in 1961 through 1963. In 1964 there was an upsurge in applications due to the subdivision and sale of the old Doukhobor lands at Ootishenia.
The number of new applications inspected and reported on in 1965 is down
substantially from 1964 because the staff was an engineer short for three months,
and because more time has been devoted to reporting on licence amendments.
On the other hand, the number of final-licence survey reports and licence amendments reported on is up from 1964.
In 1965 the new distribution system for domestic water, fire protection, and
limited irrigation of the Fort Steele restoration project was completed, tested, and
put in service. This system comprises essentially 11,000 feet of asbestos-cement
pipe-lines, 4, 6, and 8 inches in diameter, laid at a cost of $45,700. This work was
designed and supervised by the engineers of this office. A low-capacity dug well and
small concrete reservoir acquired by the Restoration Foundation from a private
owner are temporarily being used as the source of water and storage.
Summary of Year's Work
Applications on hand at beginning of year	
New applications received	
Applications inspected and reported on	
Applications cancelled or abandoned	
Applications on hand at end of year.
Final-licence surveys reported and licence-amendment reports.
Reports on application for approval	
Pollution investigations	
Flooding and erosion investigations	
Water-use investigations _
Meetings with improvement districts and water-users' communities
Miscellaneous non-routine meetings and investigations	
Routine calls and problems	
Outgoing letters and memoranda	
Sampling snow courses	
Orders issued	
Dam inspections	
Engineering Investigations and Studies
1. Report prepared on domestic water-supply possibilities for proposed Goat
Mountain Waterworks District and Alice Siding near Creston.
2. Flooding and erosion studies were carried out for Bugaboo Creek near
Spillimacheen, Kicking Horse River at Golden, Slocan River and Brodie Creek at
Slocan Park, Little Bull Creek near Wardner, Smith Creek at Cranbrook, and
Sitkum Creek near Nelson.
3. Supervised pumping tests of Beaver Falls Improvement District's drilled
well and Fort Steele Restoration Foundation's dug well.
4. Investigated complaints of pollution of Blueberry Creek by sediment from
highway construction; of Columbia River by Castlegar sewage; of Moberly Creek
near Golden by oil; of Hanna and Murphy Creeks near Rossland, Wilds Creek near
Wynndel, Greenwood Creek at Harrop, and Macken Creek at Thrums by debris
and sediment from logging; of Sheep Creek near Salmo and Keen Creek near Kaslo
by mine tailings; and of domestic streams affected by brush-spraying on power-lines.
5. Carried out a study and prepared a report on the water-supply potential of
Arrow Creek near Creston.
6. Prepared an appraisal of value of Cutillo Waterworks near Trail for Public
Utilities Commission.
7. Conducted an arbitration with respect to the expropriation of an easement
for pipe-line.
8. Designed division tanks for Mallandaine Springs at Creston, Wilson Creek
at Nelson, Nelly Creek at Appledale, and Lizard Creek at Wynndel.
9. Investigated and reported on beneficial use of water for irrigation under
Final Licence 3808 on Wilson Creek near Nelson.
10. Accompanied Comptroller on hearing of appeals against two improvement
districts by individuals demanding water service.
11. Investigated effect on spawning of sport fish by diversions of water from
Lasca and Duhamel Creeks near Nelson and unauthorized dam on Schroeder Creek
near Kaslo.
12. Reported on probable effect of proposed logging within watersheds of
Sandy, Smelter, Duhamel, Sitkum, Redfish, Kokanee, and Laird Creeks near Nelson,
Duck Creek near Wynndel, Topping, Murphy, and Hanna Creeks near Rossland,
Arrow Creek near Creston, and Salter Creek near Invermere.
13. Designed and supervised construction of water-supply system for Fort
Steele and infiltration gallery for Duhamel Creek Waterworks District.
Prince George District Office
J. C. Purnell, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Prince George District Engineer is responsible for the Prince George,
Quesnel, Peace River, Liard, Fort Fraser, Hazelton, and Prince Rupert Water Districts. This area comprises approximately two-thirds of the land area of British
Columbia including the Queen Charlotte Islands and includes the Skeena River
drainage, the Peace River and Liard River drainages within the Province, and the
Fraser River drainage upstream from McLeese Lake just north of Williams Lake.
Although the density of water licences is not great, the amount of travelling required
in the administration of water use under them and in the investigation of new
applications is considerable.
With precipitation only slightly below normal during the summer period for
most of the districts, there were very few water shortages experienced.   The major
shortage occurred in the Prince Rupert area, where Celgar Limited reported that
water supply available during the summer period was deficient for the requirements
of its Port Edward pulp-mill. There were several areas in the Peace River, Quesnel,
Fort Fraser, and Hazelton Water Districts which suffered flood damage as a result
of very rapid snow-melt run-off during the early part of the season.
The demand for water for mining purpose has increased due to the increased
activity in mining development in the Fort Fraser, Hazelton, and Prince Rupert
Water Districts. Inspection of applications for water licences for this purpose has
required a great number of man-hours since most of the areas are generally accessible only by boat, aeroplane, or very poor roads.
There has been very little increase in the amendments to existing licences.
However, it is expected there will be a rapid change in this direction in the near
future because of the rate of population increase.
The number of water licence applications received decreased slightly from last
year; however, it is anticipated the Prince George District Office can expect a steady
increase in water licence applications as new residents become more aware of the
protection available under the Water Act.
There is considerable interest in the ground-water potential in the area immediately surrounding Prince George, and this office handles a great number of inquiries
in this field.
Summary of Year's Work
Applications on hand at beginning of year  59
New applications received  135
Applications inspected and reported on  101
Applications cancelled or abandoned  31
Applications on hand at end of year  62
Conditional licences added to files  117
Final licences added to files  3
Active licence files  1,043
Cancelled or abandoned licence files  510
Final-licence surveys completed  60
Engineering Investigations and Studies
1. The District Office co-operated with ARDA engineers in a ground-water
test-drilling programme in the Pineview area, south of Prince George.
2. Investigated and reported on complaints of erosion and flooding on Dawson
Creek near Dawson Creek, Quesnel River and Dragon Lake Creek near Quesnel,
the Nautley River at the outlet of Fraser Lake, and Eaglet Lake and Hay Creek
flooding at Giscome.
3. Investigated erosion on the Bulkley River near Houston and flooding of the
Kispiox River north of Hazelton.
4. Attended meetings of the New Hazelton, Airport Hill, Hudson Hope, and
Fort Nelson Improvement Districts and the South Hazelton, Charella Gardens, South
Fort George, Starlane, Fort Fraser, and New Hazelton Waterworks Districts.
5. Investigated and reported on mudslide on Pacific Great Eastern Railway
tracks near Weldwood plywood plant near Quesnel.
6. Inspected the following dams:—
(a) Tibbies dam on Puntataenkut Lake near Quesnel.
(b) Upper Fraser Spruce Mills dam near Penny.
(c) New Hazelton Improvement District dam designed by this office.
7. Inspected and surveyed proposed route in connection with Fort Nelson
Improvement District sewer and water extension.
Victoria District Office
C. Errington, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Victoria District Office administers water rights matters over Vancouver
Island, the Gulf Islands, and adjacent islands. It comprises the Alberni, Nanaimo,
and Victoria Water Districts. The staff consists of one District Engineer and one
engineering technician, the office work being handled by the General Office.
During the past summer throughout the district the precipitation was extremely
low for June and July; for instance, Campbell River had a total of 0.63 inch against
an average of 3.51 inches for the two months. Fortunately for the irrigationists
and many domestic users the situation was saved by an extremely wet August. We,
therefore, did not have the usual water-shortage problems, which normally are at
a maximum in August and September.
During the year five special reports were made and many smaller problems were
investigated. Meetings regarding improvement districts were attended, and disputes
involving licensees either were disposed of or settled.
Summary of Year's Work
Applications on hand at beginning of period     38
New applications received  151
Applications inspected and reported on  137
Applications refused, abandoned, and cancelled     25
Applications on hand at end of period     27
Engineering Investigations and Studies
1. Investigated Cowichan River flooding near Duncan in conjunction with the
Indian Department, Municipality of North Cowichan, and City of Duncan.
2. Reviewed Stocking Lake project with Village of Ladysmith and Water
Investigations Branch.
3. Reviewed water situation on Westwood Lake near Nanaimo. Small applications accepted, although source formerly noted as fully recorded.
4. Inspected St. Mary Lake flooding on Saltspring Island and discussed proposed control.
5. Investigated flooding of Kitty Coleman Creek in conjunction with Highways
Department engineers.
A. K. Sutherland, Solicitor
The number of improvement districts in operation has been increasing steadily
for many years, as illustrated in Plate 4, and there is now a total of 317 districts in
existence. During the year the following new districts were incorporated: East
Raspberry Improvement District, Langford Lake Improvement District, Lions Bay
Improvement District, Lower Nicola Waterworks District, Lower Nipit Improvement
District, Ootishenia Improvement District, Piers Island Improvement District, Ray-
leigh Waterworks District, Ridgewood Improvement District, Shuswap River Fire
Protection District, Sointula Waterworks District, Vaucroft Improvement District,
and West Lantzville Waterworks District. The following districts were dissolved:
Connaught Heights Waterworks District, Merritt Central Irrigation District, North
Saanich Fire Protection District, and Okanagan Mission Waterworks District.
The object (or objects) for which a district is incorporated is set out in its
Letters Patent. Upon petition of the Trustees, action may be taken to have such
Letters Patent amended to include extra objects, and many districts which were
originally incorporated for one purpose now have several. The activities for which
the existing districts are responsible include irrigation system—ownership and operation; domestic waterworks—ownership and operation; dyking-works; drainage-
works; land-improvement works; fire protection—provision and (or) operation;
street-lighting—provision and (or) operation; garbage—collection and (or) disposal; sewerage-works—ownership and operation; parks and playgrounds—provision and (or) operation; cemetery—operation; community hall—provision and
(or) operation; electric power—generation and (or) distribution; mosquito control
—financial aid toward; hospital—provision and operation, or provision of financial
aid toward building and (or) operation of a hospital; ambulance service—ownership and (or) operation.
Improvement districts incorporated for hospital purposes are distinctively
named, with the words " Hospital Improvement District No. " contained within
the corporate name. There are 36 such districts now in existence. Two of these
have the responsibility for the provision and the operation of hospital facilities, but
the remainder are responsible only for providing financial aid toward the constructing, equipping, or operating of a hospital in the vicinity.
All improvement districts are empowered by the Water Act to raise revenue
by the levying of a tax or taxes upon one or more of a number of bases, and to raise
money by the imposition of tolls and charges. They are also empowered to issue
debentures to obtain funds for capital purposes (this is the usual method in use).
In many cases, improvement district debentures and the interest thereon are guaranteed by the Province pursuant to the Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act.
At the present time there is $14,306,900 of such guaranteed debentures outstanding,
of which $177,600 was guaranteed during 1965.
During the year, capital works projects to a total value of $590,513 were
completed by improvement districts, financed as follows:—
Winter Works Incentive payments  $55,137
Municipal Development and Loan Board debentures  357,776
District debentures, guaranteed by the Province  177,600
Section 62 of the Water Act enables districts to obtain current operating funds
as advances from the Province (for certain purposes only) and to utilize the services
of the local Provincial Assessor and Collector to collect these advances from the
land-owners in the areas and to repay the Province. The purposes for which this
procedure may be used are fire protection, street-lighting, hospital purposes, and
ambulance services, providing it is supplied by a fire protection or hospital district.
If a larger amount is required for capital purposes, and collection and repayment by
the Provincial Collector in the same year would result in too heavy a tax burden
for that year, an advance of the required amount may be obtained from the Province,
with collection and repayment carried out over a number of years. During 1965
the following advances and collections were made under this section of the Act:—
(a) Assessed and collected for repayment of amounts advanced for the current year  $1,223,640
(b) Amounts advanced in 1965 by the Province repayable in
future years        162,356
(c) Assessed and collected for amounts advanced with repayment over a number of years        246,119
(d) Total long-term advances outstanding as at December
31, 1965     1,499,645
 EE 32                                     WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 19S0 1965
Plate 4.
Improvement Districts Engineering Section
The Improvement Districts Engineering Section handles the technical and engineering work associated with improvement districts incorporated under the Water
Act of British Columbia. Its assignments are mainly with respect to domestic water
supply, irrigation, and sewerage.
The Section's principal functions consist of investigating and reporting on the
engineering and economic feasibility of a project, and checking the technical and
financial aspects of proposals submitted by districts. Other duties include assistance
to districts in operating existing engineering works and the dispensation of technical
advice. In some instances a complete engineering service has been provided for a
particular project from the initial investigation stage through to preparation of the
design drawings, contract documents and specifications, and finally supervision of
installation of the works.
The following is a list of assignments completed during the past year:—
Review of Water Supply and Sewerage Proposals
West Sechelt Waterworks District. — Following protracted negotiations, the
West Sechelt Waterworks District was successful in reaching an agreement with
Sechelt Waterworks Limited for a bulk supply of water. Approval was recently
given to the plans and specifications for the distribution system, and it is expected
that installation of the works will be under way by 1966.
Blue River Waterworks District.—Proposals for the installation of a domestic
water-supply system were submitted by the Blue River Waterworks District. A gravity supply from the White River utilizing the existing C.N.R. pipe-line is envisaged.
Nechako Improvement District.—The results of pumping tests conducted on
wells sunk near the Nechako River showed that available ground-water supplies
would be sufficient to serve the Nechako Improvement District, which is located
immediately north of Prince George. Subsequently, final plans and specifications
for the pumping scheme were approved, and works are currently under construction.
Diamond Improvement District.—Following discussions with the Trustees of
Diamond Improvement District and the district's consulting engineer, the final plans
and specifications for a water-supply system, amended slightly from those originally
proposed, were approved. Water in bulk will be purchased from the Village of
Ladysmith.  The system is at present being installed.
North Saltspring Waterworks District.—Plans for a 100,000-gallon reinforced-
concrete storage tank to replace the North Saltspring Waterworks District's old
wood-stave tank at Ganges were approved, as also were extensions to the distribution system.
Fort Nelson Improvement District.—Alternative proposals for an extension to
the sewer system were reviewed.
Valleyview Irrigation District.—Approval was given to the Valleyview Irrigation District to extend its sewer system to serve those areas known as the Central and
Eastern basins.   Proposals for a water-system extension were also reviewed.
Sandwick Waterworks District.—Extensions to the waterworks system recently
installed by the Sandwick Waterworks District were approved.
Olalla Improvement District.—A report on a proposed water-supply scheme
for Olalla Improvement District was reviewed.
Starlane Waterworks District.—Proposals for enlarging the district's existing
system and augmenting the ground-water supply were reviewed.
West Rutland. — The Rutland Waterworks District submitted a feasibility
report on extending the existing works to serve a large part of West Rutland. The
scheme was not considered economically feasible at this time.
Curteis Point.—The Deep Cove Waterworks District presented proposals to
extend the existing system to serve the Curteis Point area of North Saanich. The
scheme was approved and the works have now been installed.
Block B 2, B.C. Fruitlands.—Several alternative reports were submitted regarding the supply of domestic water to the Block B 2 area of the B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District. Approval in principle was given to a proposal which included the
construction of an intake and pumping-station on the North Thompson River.
Dean Park Estates.—Approval was granted to a proposed scheme to supply a
domestic subdivision known as Dean Park Estates in the Sidney Waterworks District, North Saanich.
Beaver Falls Waterworks District.—After several years of planning and some
major setbacks, the Beaver Falls Waterworks District was finally successful in
obtaining approval of its domestic water-supply scheme. The works have now been
Lands End Road.—Plans were approved for the extension of the Deep Cove
Waterworks District system to serve the Lands End Road area in North Saanich.
This extension, currently being installed, completes the original water-supply proposals outlined in the Water Rights Report on North Saanich Water Supply, published in September, 1961.
Sorrento Waterworks District.—Plans for the installation of a domestic water-
supply system to serve the Sorrento Waterworks District are in abeyance pending a
demonstration of economic feasibility. Bids from contractors have, to date, been
substantially in excess of previously estimated costs.
South Hazelton Waterworks District.—A domestic water-supply scheme for
South Hazelton was approved, and the works are now installed.
Lower Nicola Waterworks District.—The district submitted a preliminary
feasibility report on a proposed waterworks system. Further progress is, however,
currently hampered by a local strike at the Craigmont mine, resulting in a temporary
exodus of some residents.
Brocklehurst Intake, B.C. Fruitlands.—Plans for proposed modifications to the
Brocklehurst intake of the B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District were submitted for
approval. The consulting engineer was requested to give further consideration to
certain design aspects of the proposal.
Fort Nelson Improvement District.—The district obtained approval for, and
installed, sewer and water extensions to serve part of the Hospital Hill area. Further
extensions to serve the new Courthouse Building are under current consideration.
Fort Fraser Waterworks District.—Plans were approved for extensions to the
recently installed water system serving Fort Fraser.
Miscellaneous Extensions and Subdivisions.—Numerous plans for extensions
to existing water systems and new proposals for subdivisions were reviewed in connection with water licence applications and normal improvement district expansion.
Investigations for Reports
Black Creek Area.—Existing sources of water supply in the Black Creek area
south of Campbell River are unsatisfactory, and a field survey was made to investigate the possibilities of installing a domestic water system using either a pumped or
gravity supply from the Oyster River.   Preparation of a report is currently in hand.
Comox Valley Water Supply.—-A detailed investigation is being made to determine the technical feasibility and economic implications of setting up a Greater
Water Board to supply the organized areas within the Comox Valley. The findings
of this investigation will be incorporated in a report which will supersede an earlier
and now out-of-date report. Preliminary field surveys have been carried out and
office studies are well advanced.
Long Beach Water Supply.—The Long Beach area on the west coast of Vancouver Island, although receiving annual precipitation of around 120 inches, has
problems regarding the provision of acceptable domestic water supplies. Currently,
investigations are being carried out to determine the economic feasibility of providing suitable water-supply facilities.
Reports Prepared
Gillies Bay Improvement District.—A report was prepared on a domestic
water-supply system for the Gillies Bay Improvement District. The relative merits
of modifying the existing pumping system to provide additional capacity or installing
a direct gravity supply main from Cranby Lake were discussed, and the latter scheme
recommended. Final plans for the system, which incorporated the recommendations made in the report, were subsequently approved, and work on the contract
started in September.
Scotty Creek Irrigation District.—The existing system serving the Scotty Creek
Irrigation District is approaching the end of its useful service life. A design for a
rehabilitated system capable of supplying water under adequate pressures for efficient sprinkler operation throughout the district was outlined in a report. The
district has decided to proceed with the system rehabilitation, and an application for
ARDA assistance in financing the works has been granted approval.
Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District.—A report was prepared for
the Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District in which both the adequacy
and the physical condition of the existing water-supply system were discussed and
various alternative sources of supply outlined. It was shown that although the
present source has sufficient yield to meet the district's needs and is also the most
economical of those considered, the distribution facilities are inadequate and the
storage structures unsafe. The recommendation for major rehabilitation of the
works has been accepted by the district, and an application for ARDA assistance is
currently being submitted.
North Cedar Waterworks District.—Large areas of partially developed residential property petitioned for inclusion in the North Cedar Waterworks District.
At the request of the district, the Water Rights Branch investigated the feasibility of
supplying these outside areas. The resulting report considered the scheme uneconomic unless supported by substantial capital contributions from major subdividers
requiring water supply.
Bella Coola Waterworks District.—The district obtains a bulk water supply
through diversion and supply works owned by the Bella Coola Indian Reserve.
Being under pressure from the Indian reserve to pay a substantially increased annual
fee for this service, the district requested the Water Rights Branch to investigate
alternative methods of bulk water supply. In response, a report was prepared which
indicated the probable costs of developing an independent source of supply.
Hillcrest Waterworks District. — The district requested the Water Rights
Branch to investigate the supply potential of the existing system and advise on proposed extensions to serve additional subdivisions. A comprehensive report was
prepared which outlined the current limitations of the existing sources of supply and
suggested economic and practical methods by which the water-supply requirements
of potential consumers could be met.
Grandview Waterworks District.—The existing system serving the Grandview
Waterworks District is in urgent need of rehabilitation, and the Trustees requested
advice on how this could be achieved. A full report containing a proposed redesign
of the system was prepared, and the proposal was subsequently recommended for
assistance under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act.
Design and Engineering Services
Fort Nelson Improvement District.—Water and sewer extensions serving the
Hospital Hill area in the Fort Nelson Improvement District were commissioned early
in the year, but operating problems and several failures of the booster pumps were
subsequently experienced. An inspection was made of the works, and meetings
were held with the Trustees of the district and the contractors. Remedial measures
were discussed and the difficulties successfully resolved.
Lantzville Water Supply.—An appraisal of the depreciated value of the domestic water-supply system serving the Lantzville area was made in response to a
request from the residents of Lantzville, who were considering forming an improvement district with the object of purchasing the system.
Mill Bay Waterworks District.—An inspection of the Mill Bay Waterworks
District's system and a study of operating costs and water use were made to assist
the district's Trustees in setting equitable water rates.
South Pender Harbour Waterworks District.—A study was made of the present
water consumption in the South Pender Harbour Waterworks District, which indicated that future demands will dictate the need for development of additional
seasonal storage. Detailed field surveys will be necessary to determine whether or
not Haslam Lake can be economically raised to provide this storage.
Canyon Waterworks District.—The contract for the rehabilitation of the
Canyon waterworks system was let in April, 1965, and the system was completed
by September of that year. The project was financed under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act. Design and supervision of the work was carried
out by Water Rights Branch personnel.
Throughout the year, personnel from the Section travelled extensively in the
Province, holding meetings with district Trustees, organization committees, municipalities, and other groups actively concerned with problems of development.
Members of the Section also served on the Advisory Technical Committee for the
Pollution-control Board and participated in a conference on irrigation requirements.
The Power and Major Licences Division is responsible for engineering and
administrative duties in connection with the use of water for power generation and
for other substantial uses. The various duties performed by the Division include:—
(a) Reporting upon the suitability of all power licence applications, and
undertaking any further investigations that may be required.
(b) Administration of the Water Act in so far as it applies to the use of water
for power purposes, including the calculation and billing of annual rentals
and fees.
(c) Investigation and research necessary to guide the development of Government policy with respect to the utilization of the hydro-electric power
potential of the Province.
(d) Carrying out an engineering review of plans for major licence applications
for industrial and mining purposes.
(e) Compilation of statistics concerning the use of water for all purposes as
a guide to future water-resource planning.
Major Licensing Administration
All water licence applications for power purposes are scrutinized by an engineer of the Division for feasibility and to determine the rentals payable. Where the
amount of power to be developed is fairly substantial, further investigation may be
made by the Division, including, where necessary, the hiring of specialist consultants.
In the case of major licence applications, special attention is paid to public
safety. This may require carrying out specific studies or obtaining expert advice on
such matters as the stability of dams and the necessary measures for dealing with
floods. In the case of power licences, the optimization of site potential is reviewed
in terms of the economic integration of the proposed hydro development into Provincial loads and resources.
Other aspects, commonly taken into consideration as being in the public interest, are the extent to which reservoirs should be cleared of timber, the general
effects on fish and wildlife, and the use of reservoir areas for recreation.
Existing Licences
The duties of the Division staff with respect to existing power licences consist
of the calculation and billing of annual rentals and fees; the compilation of annual
generation figures for use in calculating rentals and preparing statistical records;
administration in connection with special clauses in licences, including carrying out
the necessary studies and investigations; and interpretation of the Water Act with
respect to use of water for power purposes, including any general matters pertaining
In certain major storage licences, notably those applying to the Columbia River
and Peace River power projects, the powers of the Comptroller have been set forth
explicitly in special clauses in the licences. These special clauses cover such matters
as approval of plans for dams and other structures, the clearing of reservoirs, public
access to reservoirs, the release of water from reservoirs, and the protection of fish
and wildlife. Thus an important function of the Power and Major Licences Division
is the implementation of the studies and administrative work that are necessary to
enable the Comptroller to exercise his responsibilities with respect to major water-
resource projects such as these.
During 1965, work proceeded on the approval of plans for the Peace River and
Columbia River. With major developments of this nature, approval of plans is a
process which is expected to continue throughout the period of construction for
each project.
Because of the highly specialized nature of major dam construction, it is often
necessary for the Comptroller to obtain advice from specialist consultants of internationally recognized stature during the review of plans for major dams. For the
Portage Mountain Dam, the Department's general consultant is Mr. D. J. Bleifuss,
of Atherton, California, who is actively involved in major dam projects on four
continents. Dr. H. Q. Golder, of Toronto, Ont., has been retained as specialist
consultant on soil and foundation problems for this project. Mr. Bleifuss is also
acting consultant for the Duncan Lake Dam, while the consultant for the Arrow
Lakes and Mica Creek Dams is Mr. F. B. Slichter, of Burke, Virginia. Mr. Slichter
was formerly Chief Civil Engineer of the U.S. Corps of Engineers, and brings from
his career with the corps a wide experience with dams and other hydraulic structures.
 EE 38
The Power and Major Licences Division is responsible for the background
work necessary in making the services of the specialist consultants effective in providing the advice necessary to the Comptroller in the approval of plans. During
the course of this work in 1965, meetings were held with these consultants, and with
engineers of the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority and their consultants.
During 1965, visits were made to the Portage Mountain, Arrow, and Duncan sites
with Mr. Bleifuss and Dr. Golder in attendance.
Other Major Licences
The Division is also responsible for the review of plans and other details in
connection with major licence applications. A number of major licence applications
are being processed by the Branch at present, principally for use in pulp and paper
plants and in mining operations.
Diana Lake Dam under construction.
Power-policy Planning
An important duty of the Division is to assist in the over-all planning of power
development in the Province. Studies are made of all potential major developments
to determine how they might best fit into a Province-wide hydro-electric system.
This is a continuing task, as fresh scientific and engineering developments constantly
improve the feasibility of different projects and thus entail periodic reassessment of
the situation.
Specific fields of study in connection with power-policy planning include the
compilation of historical electric generating records and the preparation therefrom
of forecasts of future load growth; studies of international power-system developments, such as the Columbia River; investigation of other public benefits obtainable
at hydro-electric developments; and preparation of an inventory of available undeveloped power resources.
Undeveloped Water Power in British Columbia
In 1954 the Water Rights Branch published a booklet entitled "Water Powers
of British Columbia." Studies subsequent to that date have shown the available
potential to be several times greater than was then anticipated. Because of this, a
review has been made to up-date the information previously published and to make
a more realistic estimate of the Province's undeveloped hydro-electric power resources. In the past, calculations of power potential have been unduly conservative,
and it is therefore intended to correct this situation, taking into account modern
techniques in the development of major sites and the transmission of power over
long distances.
For some years the Water Resources Branch of the Department of Northern
Affairs and National Resources, Government of Canada, and the Water Rights
Branch of the Government of British Columbia have been engaged in the compilation of an index of known undeveloped hydro-electric power sites in British Columbia, which is itself part of a study covering the whole of Canada. The assembly
of data is now more or less complete, and a summary, showing the totals for different areas of the Province, was included in the 1965 Annual Review of Water
Powers of British Columbia, published by the Water Resources Service in July,
1965. The next stage of the study consists of determining the contributions which
individual sites can be expected to make when operated in an integrated system. It
is believed that this method of calculating potential output will increase the total
from known sites by perhaps as much as 50 per cent on the present figure of
23,930,000 kilowatts. It must be remembered, however, that many sites have not
yet been investigated at all, and it is possible that the ultimate total may be several
times that amount.
Developed Hydro Power
The following paragraphs summarize the development of hydro-electric power
in British Columbia during the past two years. For further details, reference should
be made to previous Annual Reports or to the Annual Reviews of Water Powers of
British Columbia.
Generation and Load Growth up to December 31,1964
During 1964 the total amount of energy generated by hydro-electric plants in
British Columbia was 15,560,000 megawatt-hours. This represents an increase of
9.31 per cent over the corresponding value for the previous year.
Total energy production in 1964 from all sources amounted to 17,080,000
megawatt-hours.   Over 91 per cent of all energy was produced by hydro power.
The total energy consumption 10 years earlier, in 1954, was 6,954,000
megawatt-hours, so that over the last 10 years the load has grown at an average rate
of 9.4 per cent compounded annually. Generation by private industry accounts for
about half of the total, most of which is produced by the two major industrial users,
Aluminum Company of Canada at Kitimat and Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Company at Trail and Kimberley, who account for 26 and 20 per cent respectively
of the Provincial total. It is inevitable, therefore, that the characteristics of these
two industrial loads are reflected very heavily in the Provincial total.
Plate 5 shows the hydro-electric development in British Columbia to date, and
the following table shows the hydro and thermal generating totals for the past 12
years. Plate 6 shows the breakdown of generating statistics amongst the major
Electrical Generation
n Mwh.
Total in
Hydro 1
Thermal 2
(Per Cent)
5,585,814    1       535,892
6,384,762   1       568,780
7,859,933    :       628,080
9.315.129    '        740.058
793.8      i
1,687.3     i
704,077   i
1961     .   	
12,371,019        1,050,087
13,571,637    j    1,208,716
14.262.400    1     1.362.841
1 From Water Rights Branch records.
- From Bureau of Economics and Statistics.
3 Estimate.
Interim Estimate of Generation during 1965
An advance estimate of the total electric generation in British Columbia during
1965 is 18,350,000,000 kilowatt-hours, which represents an increase of 7.4 per
cent of the total for 1964. The total load, however, rose by around 11 per cent, and
the balance was filled by imports of power from the United States. This was necessary due to a lower than average run-off in many watersheds, which resulted in the
total hydro-power generation being lower than in 1964.
Further details are shown below.
Generation in 1,000 Mwh.
Per Cent
Increase or
558                 1,990
8,233                9,015                  +9.5
7,883                8,262                  +4.8
964                  1,070                  +11.0
8,847                9,332                  +5.5
Hydro  _. 	
15,558                15,287
1,522                 3,060       i
17.080                18.347
1 Subject to revision.
Hydro-electric Power Projects under Construction
Additional Installations at Existing Plants
There were no additional units installed at any of the major hydro-electrio
plants during 1965, but it is expected that the fourth and final 90-megawatt unit,
at Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company's Waneta plant, will commence
operation in 1966.
Peace River Development
Apart from planned additions to existing plants, the next major hydro-power
installation to be completed in British Columbia will be the Portage Mountain Dam
on the Peace River, which is scheduled for first power production late in 1968.
The diversion-works for Portage Mountain Dam were completed in time to
withstand the 1964 summer freshet, which was the highest ever recorded. Fill-
placing operations were started in August, 1964, employing a 15,000-foot-long
conveyor system, which is the world's largest, and was built at a cost of $10,000,000.
A total of 22,250,000 cubic yards of embankment material has been placed
so far, and of this total, 17,850,000 yards were placed during the 1965 season.
Embankment placement is under the contract for the main dam, let in 1963 at a
price of $73,600,000. To date the contractors' earnings from this contract have
been $42,900,000, of which $4,300,000 is for extra work orders and $600,000 for
escalation of labour costs.
Other contracts let in 1965 totalled $98,300,000, the bulk of this, $77,000,000,
being for the underground power-house contract, which was let to the Northern,
Stewart, Morrison-Knudson, Perini, and Jones consortium. The remaining $21,300,-
000 was for a variety of contracts, including conductors, generators, a microwave
system, reservoir clearing, and construction of a 200-mile section of transmission-
line.   These contracts are all progressing satisfactorily.
Columbia River Development
Arrow Lakes Dam.—Preliminary activities on the project were in progress in
late 1964. These consisted of construction of a pipe-line to the Celgar pulp-mill,
land acquisition, and railroad relocation. Early in 1965 the contract for the main
dam was awarded to Foundation Dravo Limited at a price of $55,000,000.
The official opening of the project was held at the dam-site on May 20, 1965,
with the Premier, the Honourable W. A. C. Bennett, officiating. In August, 1964,
the Comptroller of Water Rights issued clearing specifications covering Arrow
Lakes reservoir. Subsequently British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority announced that these specifications would be exceeded, and that all clearing would be
completed prior to flooding.
A total of $63,600,000 worth of contracts has been let to date. These contracts include construction of the cofferdam, clearing portions of the reservoir, the
fabrication of gates for the low-level ports, the manufacture of lock equipment, and
the supply of logging-trucks and a log-handling crane. Major construction has
commenced and is proceeding on schedule toward a completion date of April 1,
Duncan Lake Dam.—Detailed reservoir clearing requirements were issued by
the Comptroller of Water Rights in August, 1964. It has since been announced by
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority that the specified clearing will be
completed prior to flooding.
Premier W. A. C. Bennett officially opened the Duncan Lake Dam construction project on May 19, 1965. The main contract, for slightly under $16,000,000,
was let to Mannix, Standard-General, and Emil Anderson Limited on October 6,
1964. Subsequently another $1,800,000 worth of contracts has been let, these
being for the manufacture of control and spillway gates and for reservoir clearing.
The project is proceeding ahead of schedule and is due to be completed by April 1,
Mica Creek Dam.—This dam, towering 800 feet above bedrock, will be the
highest in British Columbia and the third highest of its type in the world. A contract for the diversion tunnels was let to Perini, Northern, Stewart, Morrison-
Knudson, and Mannix consortium for $21,100,000, and construction is now in
progress and proceeding as scheduled. Most of the other contracts awarded, for
dormitories, service roads, commercial area, and houses, cover the establishment of
a permanent construction town 6 miles downstream from the dam-site. To date
$25,200,000 worth of contracts has been awarded. The project is required to be
in operation by April 1, 1973.
Use of Electronic Computing Equipment
The system power-study programme for use on the I.B.M. 1620 computer was
completed successfully during 1965, and the assembly of basic data was commenced;
shortly after, however, it was announced that a switch-over was being made to an
improved model of the 1620, making it desirable to modify the programme. This
has now been done, and it is expected that comprehensive power studies will be
commenced in the near future.
Water Licence Statistics
The compilation of water licence statistics is now virtually complete. Details
of new licences and changes of status are being kept up to date, and listings of all
licences issued are prepared from time to time. A revised statistical analysis was
carried out during 1965, and the results are recorded below.
Statistical Analysis of Licensed Water Use as of April, 1965
Domestic purpose g.p.d. 10,197,000
Incidental use g.p.d. 3,157,000
Irrigation purpose ac.-ft. 769,100
Area irrigated ac. 310,000
Industrial purpose1  g.p.d. 179,274,000
Industrial purpose1  c.f.s. 1,577
Pulp and saw mill c.f.s. 215
Fish or log ponds g.p.d. 4,500
Land-improvement purpose g.p.d. 103,000
Mining purpose1  c.f.s. 891
Mining purpose1 g.p.d. 29,000
Hydraulic c.f.s. 21
Processing ore  g.p.d. 500,000
Crown land occupied—■
Dam or power plant ac. 155
Right-of-way  ac. 3,343
Flooding ac. 178,028
Other purpose  ac. 29
Power purpose c.f.s. 216,513
Storage purpose ac.-ft. 89,945,000
Miscellaneous purpose g.p.d. 116,000
Mineral trading purpose  g.p.d. 1,160,000
Waterworks purpose g.p.d. 214,262,000
Waterworks purpose c.f.s. 342
i Breakdown into sub-purposes incomplete.
EE 43
note: :
The peak loads of individual   power  plants    rarely
occur at  the  same  time . The   Total of Plant Peak  L'.a>-".
thus  exceeds   the highest simultaneous output   of
3C hydro plants, though  the   yearly   cha,
shown   in  the  6raph  should be similar in  size  and
1000 5;
doo Y~
1320     B25       1930      1335       1340      1345       1350       1955       I9i0     1965     1370       1375
Plate 5.
 EE 44
annual  production of  hydro-electric energy
by  major   producers
1000   $
500   £
400   §
300   J
200   5
»20     1925      1330     1935
1340     1945      1350     1955
I960     1965     1370     1975
ALCAN Aluminum   Company of   Canada.
BCE British Columbia Electric   Company ~i
.... . ... ,    _   ,       . _ _ f Shown    solid until  amo/p-an,
OCrC British  Columbia   fb0er Commission.} a
CM45 Consolidated Mining 4 Smelting Company j Hlest hootenoy fh*er 4 Light  Company.
BCHPA British Columbia   Hydro . Power Authority - Shown dotted  prior   to ama/aamai
installed   generating   capacities
of   major    producers
then  dotted.
then   solid.
i'   >
/    /
j f,J
— ALCf
•' ^s
/  r
1 r
I9Z0     »Z5      B30     1935       1940     1945      1930      1955      I960     1965     1970      1975
Plate 6.
The Water Investigations Branch was formed in late 1962 as a consequence of the
creation of an independent British Columbia Water Resources Service which took effect
on April 1, 1962. The Hydraulic Investigations Division of the Water Rights Branch
was transferred to the Water Investigations Branch, and it formed the nucleus of the
new Branch.
The functions of the Water Investigations Branch, which is headed by the Chief
Engineer, are to deal with technical matters pertaining to the water resources of the
Province, which matters are not directly connected with the administration of the Water
Act. These functions, carried out by various divisions of the Water Investigations Branch,
are briefly summarized below.
(1) Water Supply and Investigations Division:
(a) Irrigation and domestic water-supply investigations to assist and advise the
Department and general public in the development and maintenance of
water-supply projects.
(_>) Flooding, drainage, and stream-erosion investigations to give engineering
advice and assistance in solving water-damage problems.
(2) Hydrology Division:
(a) Snow surveys and snow-melt run-off forecasting to guide judicious utilization of water supply.
(6) Hydrologic studies of the Province to compile and evaluate basic hydro-
meteorological data in such a form as to make them readily adaptable.
(3) Ground Water Division: Collection of existing ground-water data and investigation and evaluation of ground-water potential to encourage and guide the
future use and conservation of this source of water supply.
(4) Basin Planning and Power Division:
(a) Development of plans for water conservation on regional basis with an
immediate aim to indicate possibilities of augmenting the existing water
(6) Investigation and inventory of undeveloped hydro-electric power potential
of the Province.
(5) ARDA Projects Division: Processing of water-project proposals made under
the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act and investigation of project proposals.
The above functions are carried out in co-operation with a number of other Governmental agencies with an aim to enable the British Columbia Water Resources Service
to foster better use of water resource, which is one of the principal physical foundations
of the economic development of the Province.
EE 47
V. Raudsepp, P.Eng., Chief Engineer
The Water Investigations Branch, which was created in December, 1962, deals
with technical matters related to the water resources of the Province, where such
matters are not directly connected with the administration of the Water Act. At the
year-end, the staff consisted of 39 permanent and 28 temporary positions, among
which were 24 civil engineers, 3 geological engineers, and 1 hydro-meteorologist.
Four permanent and three temporary engineering positions were vacant.
The principal functions of the Water Investigations Branch are carried out by
five divisions, as follows:—
(1) Water Supply and Investigations Division.
(2) Hydrology Division.
(3) Ground-water Division.
(4) Basin Planning and Power Division.
(5) ARDA Division.
These divisions are supported by a Draughting Office and a Records Compilation and Reports Section. Both these sections also perform certain services for the
Water Rights Branch of the British Columbia Water Resources Service.
An account of the work carried out by the Water Investigations Branch is
given in some detail on the following pages. A few general observations are made
Availability of Federal-Provincial assistance for the financing of rural water
projects under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act (ARDA) and
for other major water-development and damage-prevention projects under the
Canada-British Columbia Joint Development Act and Canada Water Conservation
Assistance Act has brought forward a large number of project proposals, of which
many have been approved and are under various stages of execution.   The Water
Chief Engineer
(V. Raudsepp)
Assistant Chief Engineer
(T. A. J. Leach)
ARDA Projects
(W. K. A. Dobson)
(J. D. C. Fuller)
Water Supply and
Investigations Division
(R. G. Harris)
(J. H. Doughty-Davies)
(A. R. D. Robertson)
(D. J. Pennington)
(B. E. Marr)
Ground-water Division
(E. Livingston)
Hydrology Division
(H. I. Hunter)
Chief Draughtsman
(B. Varcoe)
Basin Planning and
Power Division
(J. D. Watts)
Records Compilation and
Reports Section
(A. Z. Stencel)
Investigations Branch has been generally responsible for the processing of these
proposals and for implementing the approved projects by providing engineering
services or by inspection of project execution. Under the ARDA assistance programme, a total of 25 projects with an approved total cost of $12,739,000 are
presently or shortly will be executed. Some 15 project proposals with an estimated
total cost of $8,000,000 are under investigation. The Canada Water Conservation
Assistance Act programme involves two projects with a total cost of $2,841,000,
which may receive final approval in the near future, two proposals with a total cost
of $2,600,000 under active consideration, and several project proposals still in
preliminary stages of formulation.
This upsurge of water projects construction activities coupled with continuing
inability to fill vacant positions has strained every division of the Water Investigations Branch in their endeavours to satisfactorily cope with new assignments and has
substantially reduced our capability to focus attention on water-resources planning
and research problems.
Among notable projects is a study of the proposed Shuswap River-Okanagan
Lake water-supply canal, directed by Mr. T. A. J. Leach, Assistant Chief Engineer,
involving a comprehensive water-management plan for the Okanagan region. The
Water Supply and Investigations Division, under Mr. R. G. Harris, is giving considerable help in the execution of the ARDA water projects programme and, in
addition, has again a variety of river-improvement and water-supply inventory
projects under study. Mr. R. Sorokoski, hydraulic engineer, resigned, and his
position is still vacant.
The work of the Hydrology Division, headed by Mr. H. I. Hunter, has been
mainly directed toward improving the snow-melt run-off forecasting procedures and
the rearrangement of the run-off data into more useful form. The vacancy created
by the resignation of Mr. J. C. W. Leong, hydraulic engineer, is still unfilled.
The Ground-water Division, under Mr. E. Livingston, continued collection of
existing ground-water data by undertaking water-well inventories. The groundwater observation network was expanded, and geological reconnaissance and exploration by rotary drilling was carried out in water-short areas.
In the Basin Planning and Power Division, work was resumed on the Similkameen Basin hydrologic and water-conservation studies. Potential water-power
studies are being pursued on Stikine-Iskut Rivers. The Liard River power-potential review was reactivated.   One engineering position is vacant.
The ARDA Division, under Mr. W. K. A. Dobson, is processing claims for
ARDA assistance and is investigating, designing, and directing construction of a
number of water projects under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development
Act assistance programme. This is in co-operation with the British Columbia
Department of Agriculture, which is generally administering the ARDA activities.
Mr. J. D. C. Fuller, construction engineer, is in charge of the largest project—
Vernon Irrigation District Rehabilitation with an approved cost of $6,600,000.
One hydraulic engineer and one technician are stationed at Oliver in order to
facilitate execution of ARDA projects in the Southern Okanagan Valley.
Senior members of the Water Investigations Branch have participated in a
number of committees and boards dealing with water matters, such as the Hydrology
Sub-committee of the National Research Council, the National and Provincial
Committees for the International Hydrologic Decade, several committees in connection with ARDA activities, the Interdepartmental Advisory Committee for the
Pollution Conference, and the Provincial Pollution-control Board.
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The functions of the Water Supply and Investigations Division can be divided
into two main engineering sections—(a) irrigation and domestic water-supply
projects and (b) flood and erosion-control and drainage projects.
During the past year, investigations were continued or initiated on 13 water-
supply projects and 16 flood and erosion-control projects. Of these, construction
was carried out on five, involving the preparation of final design, including contract
Field surveys for both the obtaining of engineering data and the layout of
design were carried out by technical staff attached to the Division.
The main projects dealt with in 1965 are summarized below.
Irrigation and Domestic Water-supply Projects
Black Mountain Irrigation District
Following a request from the Trustees, studies on irrigation-system replacements were completed in 1964. The proposed replacements allowed maximum use
from existing system components, but limited pressurization to areas where topography provided adequate operating pressures. Domestic supply was not included.
At a meeting held with the Trustees in January, 1965, to discuss the system replacements, the Trustees requested that further studies be carried out to consider the
feasibility of a fully pressurized system to provide both irrigation and domestic
supply to all farm areas within the district and to be financed under the ARDA
These studies were completed in August, 1965, and under the proposed new
system 4,548 acres of irrigable land and 530 domestic connections would be served.
The existing low-level ditch from Mission Creek would supply a combined settling-
pond and balancing-reservoir constructed at Gopher Flats, which in turn would
supply some 52 miles of distribution pipe-lines. The total capital cost of the
proposed system is estimated to be $2,633,500. An alternate winter domestic
water supply from wells would increase the capital cost to $2,711,530.
Doukhobor Lands Water Supply
General.—In recent years the subdivided holdings of the former Christian
Community of Universal Brotherhood Limited, in the Grand Forks and Kootenay
areas, have been offered for sale, and many of the lots have now been purchased.
Individual houses are being constructed on these lots, and water for domestic and
irrigation use has become an immediate consideration. Accordingly, in 1962, the
British Columbia Water Resources Service was requested to carry out water-supply
investigations in these areas. During 1965 these investigations were continued and
extended on Doukhobor lands in the West Kootenay.
Champion Creek Area, South of Kinnaird.—Feasibility studies to supply water
for irrigation and domestic use to a 275-acre area of the Champion Creek community or alternatively to a smaller area of 80 acres, were completed in early 1965.
These proposals are similar to those described in a report prepared by the Water
Rights Branch in 1956.
Ootishenia Improvement District, near Castlegar.—Feasibility studies for supplying water to the Ootishenia area were completed in early 1965 and presented to
the organizing committee for this area. Later in the year the alternative proposals
were re-examined to appraise the possibility of receiving ARDA assistance. Because
of the high cost of developing an irrigation supply, the most attractive proposal
 EE 50
would provide water supply for domestic use to the rural area and to the residential
subdivisions from an exploratory well drilled near the golf course above the
Ootishenia bench.
It is estimated that this well could supply up to 450 domestic connections,
which would allow for considerable expansion of the area, now incorporated as the
Ootishenia Improvement District.
Raspberry Irrigation District, near Castlegar.—The Raspberry Irrigation District was incorporated in November, 1964. The area, which lies on the west side
of Norns (Pass) Creek, is comprised of the subdivided Doukhobor lands, now
known as New Raspberry, plus adjacent privately owned properties.
Subsequent to receiving the feasibility report, prepared by the Water Investigations Branch in 1964, the Trustees engaged a consulting engineer to develop a
proposal for joint works with the Robson Irrigation District and, alternatively, proposals for an independent water supply similar to that recommended in the Branch
The new system would provide service to 87 domestic connections in the new
Raspberry subdivision plus 23 farm domestic outlets and irrigation for 50 acres of
farm land in the north Raspberry section.
Shoreacres Area, near South Slocan.—The community of Shoreacres has recently been subdivided, and most of the lots have now been sold. Feasibility studies
for supplying water to this area are being carried out, and the following proposals
are being considered: (a) A gravity supply from Rover Creek, which necessitates
an underwater crossing of the Kootenay River; (b) a pumping supply from the
Slocan River; and (c) a supply from drilled wells in the Shoreacres area. These
studies will be completed in 1966.
ARDA Project No. 10013, construction of 40,000-U.S.-gallon reinforced-concrete
reservoir in Kaleden Irrigation District.
Kaleden Irrigation District
Incorporated as an improvement district in 1922, the Kaleden Irrigation District comprises some 540 acres of orchard land and about 130 homes. Water
supply for both domestic and irrigation use is presently being taken from Shatford
and Shingle Creeks through an 11 Vi -mile-long system of ditches, flumes, and natural
watercourses, augmented from storage reservoirs on Brent, Farleigh, Aeneas, and
Marron Lakes.
In 1964, following ARDA approval, a final design of a new system based on
pumping from Skaha Lake was commenced in preparation for a construction programme in 1965. The pumping-station, totalling 750 horsepower, will deliver a
peak flow of about 4,000 U.S. gallons per minute under a total dynamic head of
565 feet.    The total capital cost is estimated to be about $300,000.
The distribution system has now been completed, with the pumping plant and
intake works due for completion in early 1966.
Okanagan Lake-Shuswap River Canal Research Project
This ARDA research project was initiated early in 1965 to determine the feasibility of providing supplementary water for irrigation, domestic, waterworks, and
industrial purposes within the Okanagan watershed and the adjoining area to the
north through which a proposed water-supply canal from the Shuswap River at
Enderby to Okanagan Lake would pass.
In the original concept, a low diversion dam at Enderby would divert water
into a gravity canal some 18 miles long, terminating at the north end of Okanagan
Since this would require a maximum cut of 30 to 35 feet in the divide area
immediately north of Armstrong, consideration is now being given to an alternate
proposal which would provide for a low-lift pumping-station at Enderby, thereby
eliminating the need for a diversion dam and for heavy channel excavation required
under the gravity proposal.
In the years when the natural inflow to the Okanagan watershed is above
average, little or no supplementary water would be required, and in fact could be
detrimental to flood-control operations on Okanagan Lake. Under these conditions,
flows in the canal would be limited to the requirements between Enderby and the
north end of Okanagan Lake and possibly a portion of the Salmon River watershed.
Any-water that is diverted will have to be stored within the Shuswap watershed,
possibly at Mabel Lake, and released as necessary to supply the canal requirements
at Enderby. Under such an operation, the summer flows in the Shuswap River
below Enderby will not be reduced over those presently occurring.
Most of the field work is now completed with respect to this project, although
some sub-surface exploration may be required in connection with the canal location.
Osoyoos Irrigation District
In 1964 the Osoyoos Irrigation District, now irrigating 242 acres, requested
ARDA assistance in rebuilding its pumping and distribution system. In June, 1965,
a preliminary design and cost estimates were prepared to determine the feasibility
of this proposal. Consideration was also given to amalgamation of the district with
the adjoining East Osoyoos Irrigation District and providing a single pumping
scheme to serve both districts. The East Osoyoos Irrigation District, now irrigating
180 acres, is also in need of major system renewals.
As the costs per acre for construction and operation of the combined system
were considerably more favourable than those for the two separate systems, the two
districts agreed to amalgamate and apply for ARDA assistance for the joint system.
The proposed system, estimated to cost $135,000, received ARDA approval in
October, 1965.
A final design should be completed early in 1966, with construction to be
completed before the beginning of the 1967 irrigation season.
Oyama Irrigation District
A preliminary design was prepared in 1964, and, following approval for
ARDA assistance in March, 1965, the final design was commenced in April, with
construction starting the latter part of June. With the exception of the well-diilling,
which was done under contract, the district has undertaken all phases of construction.
Water will be pumped from two wells near the shore of Wood Lake to a reservoir directly above. A booster pump will increase pressures in the upper laterals.
About 320 acres on the west side of Wood Lake and about 80 acres on the causeway
between Wood and Kalamalka Lakes will be supplied with irrigation and domestic
water. In addition, a fruit-packing house on the causeway will be supplied with
water for fire-protection purposes.
The main pumping-station, totalling 200 horsepower, will pump from a 16-inch
well, 150 feet deep. This well was tested at about 1,000 U.S. gallons per minute
per foot of draw-down, and is expected to deliver a peak flow of about 2,500 U.S.
gallons per minute. A small submersible pump will be installed in the second well,
which will supply domestic water during the winter period and supplement the
irrigation supply during the summer period.
The main pumping system, serving lands on the west side of the lakes, should
be completed by February, 1966, and the packing-house extension should be completed before the 1966 irrigation season.
South-east Kelowna Irrigation District
The South-east Kelowna Irrigation District is presently serving about 190 connections with domestic water from a gravity intake on Canyon Creek, a tributary of
Mission Creek, and a small pond fed by June Springs. The inadequacy of these
supplies has prevented expansion of the domestic water system to serve new lands
in the southern and western parts of the district.
Investigations of alternate sources of supply and extensions to the system were
begun in 1963, and a feasibility report was completed in February, 1965.
Several possible sources of supply were investigated. The Ground-water
Division of the Water Investigations Branch carried out a drilling programme within
the district in 1964; however, the test-holes indicated an inadequate supply of
ground-water. Okanagan Lake and Hydraulic Creek were not considered economically feasible. The remaining alternative, Mission Creek, was then considered, and
several sites below its confluence with Canyon Creek were investigated. As Mission
Creek carries heavy silt loads during the freshet periods, it was proposed to install
a filtration gallery at the pump-house, using, if possible, undisturbed stream-deposited
gravels along the creek bank. From the results of test-pits dug at several locations,
augmented by seismic tests carried out by the Ground-water Division, a suitable
site was found 6,000 feet downstream from canyon Creek.
The proposed new system will initially serve about 300 connections, at an
estimated cost of $209,000, and under full development will serve about 440 connections at a total cost of $390,000.
EE 53
Water-storage Reservoir Inventory
A programme of mapping major water-storage reservoirs in the Southern
Interior of the Province was commenced in 1964. This information will assist in
the administration of water rights and will enable water-supply augmentation studies
to be carried out in water deficient areas.
Maps are being prepared from air photographs and field surveys. Generally,
this work is being carried out at the end of the irrigation season, during the period
of minimum water level, to obtain maximum mapping from both photographs and
field surveys. Echo-sounding equipment is being used to obtain sub-surface
Of approximately 115 existing reservoirs in the Okanagan Basin, about 60
reservoirs require mapping under this programme. Of these, survey data are available on about 20. Surveys have also been carried out on eight reservoirs in the
Kamloops and Princeton areas.   This programme is to be continued in 1966.
Westbank Irrigation District
The district receives water by gravity from Powers Creek and Lambly Creek
watersheds, with an intake on Power Creek, some 6,000 feet upstream from the
district boundary.   Present storage capacity, which has proved adequate for present
ARDA Project No. 10033, 34-inch-diameter diversion pipe-line,
Westbank Irrigation District.
requirements, has been developed on Mat (Horseshoe), Dobbin, West, Paynter,
Jackpine and Lambly (Bear) Lakes. Total acreage presently being irrigated is
about 844 acres.
Since 1958 the district has carried out partial rehabilitation of the distribution
system by financing renewals from the district's Renewal Reserve Fund.   However,
in 1964, faced with immediate and costly replacement of the remaining portions of
the distribution and storage works, the district applied for ARDA assistance. This
project covers the replacement of the intake and the replacement of the diversion
flume with pipe. The engineering design was prepared during the summer of 1965,
and construction was carried out by the district following the irrigation season.
The intake, which also acts as a balancing-reservoir, contains a screening-box
with separate screening arrangements for freshet and storage periods. This structure
involved the placing of 500 cubic yards of concrete and the excavation of 5,000
cubic yards of earth. The pipe-line consists of 7,000 feet of 34-inch-diameter steel
pipe, lined and coated to AWWA specifications, with a 5-foot cover for winter use.
The estimated cost of this project is about $150,000.
Flooding, Drainage, and Erosion Projects
Bowker Creek Discharge
During the winter of 1964/65, discharge measurements of Bowker Creek were
carried out in an effort to assist the Municipality of Saanich in arriving at flood flows.
However, no storms of major significance occurred during this time, and the programme is being continued.
Granby River Improvements
Following a request by local land-owners situated along the Granby River
for assistance in combating land erosion, four small construction projects received
financial assistance in the amount of 75 per cent of the actual cost of construction,
the balance to be met by the land-owners.
Three of the schemes involved blocking off side channels to allow a more
economic operation of the farm unit, and in one case direct protection of an eroding
main channel bank was undertaken. To reduce costs, readily available local material
was used in the design, the main structure employed being a rough cribbing of logs
filled with river gravel.
Nicola-Coldwater Rivers Flooding and Erosion
Following a complaint from the Town of Merritt and previous complaints from
riparian land-owners, an investigation of flooding and erosion in the Nicola Valley
from Nicola Lake to Spences Bridge and along the Coldwater River through Merritt
is being undertaken. Field investigation was mainly limited this year to assessing
the problem and interviewing local people. It was also possible to obtain a low-
level air-photograph flight of the valley and some underwater survey details at Nicola
This very preliminary data will be used to delineate the problem and to determine the feasibility of further engineering investigation.
Nicomekl and Serpentine Basins Drainage Study
The project area is situated in the District Municipality of Surrey, and presently
within the Surrey, Mud Bay, and Colebrook Dyking Districts, some 15 miles from
the City of Vancouver. The low lands drained by the Nicomekl and Serpentine
Rivers represent an area of some 12,000 acres. At the present time, dykes protect
these lands from flooding by rivers and by the sea tides. Internal drainage is by
gravity through floodgates during periods of low tide and when the flood level of
the river has subsided.
From time to time, heavy fall and winter storms cause flooding in certain areas,
and it has been suggested that improved drainage combined with supplementary
irrigation would allow more extensive agriculture on these lands. The Prairie Farm
Rehabilitation Administration carried out a preliminary study in 1960, and suggested several alternate methods of drainage and flood control. It is now intended
to carry out further engineering studies in order to assess the engineering feasibility
and capital and annual costs of flood prevention, drainage improvements, and irrigation supply. These studies are being carried out under the ARDA research
Field surveys, consisting of river and dyke profiles and sections, were carried
out in the summer of 1965. Further hydraulic and hydrometric data are still being
collected, and four automatic water-level recorders have been installed on the
Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers. A limited drilling programme has also been
carried out to consider the possibilities of ground-water as a supplementary supply
for irrigation.
It is estimated that the study will be completed by mid-1966.
Cowichan River Flooding and Erosion
During 1965 a field survey of the Lower Cowichan and Koksilah River valleys
was carried out to provide data for use in the design of flood- and erosion-control
works for this area. A limited amount of data was also obtained at the Cowichan
Lake outlet to explore the possibility of alleviating flood conditions in the lower
valley by upstream storage. Office computations based on this and previously available data are now under way.
Okanagan Flood-control Works
In 1963 an investigation was commenced to determine the existing condition
of the Okanagan flood-control channel and structures which were constructed in
1952-58 jointly by Federal and Provincial Governments. From field survey data,
structure plans, channel profiles, and cross-sections were drawn. These studies
were completed in April, 1965.
Several modifications and improvements in the flood-control works were considered necessary. Extensive bank and channel-bottom protection is required to
stabilize the channel at high or design maximum flows. Modification or lowering
of the water-supply intake culverts is necessary in order to supply irrigation water
to the lands adjacent to the river channel when water flows are below 500 cubic
feet per second. Some dredging of the channel and entrance to Osoyoos Lake is
also recommended. Replacing portions of the boundary fencing and gates and
minor repairs to some of the vertical drop structures are also considered desirable.
Pemberton Valley Dyking District
A request was received from the district for assistance under ARDA for
improvement of drainage and river protection in Area 2, which lies between Green
River and Miller Creek. Further improvements to this area would allow improved
drainage and agricultural production, development of One Mile Lake as a recreational area, and reclamation of farm lands. It has been suggested that about 2,000
acres could be improved.
Limited field surveys were carried out in 1965, which indicated the need for
additional surveys in 1966.
 EE 56
Similkameen River Flooding and Erosion
Following the field survey work carried out in 1964, some preliminary design
and estimates of costs have been prepared for river improvement works for three
areas along the Similkameen River, as follows:—
Cost Estimates
Flood and
The high cost of protection against river-bank erosion would appear to preclude
an over-all erosion-control scheme for any area, although local protection schemes
may be justified. In the case of flood and erosion control, benefit-cost studies
are now under way to establish the feasibility of further detailed engineering
Improvements to the Similkameen River at Princeton
Construction of river improvement works at the junction of the Similkameen
and Tulameen Rivers was undertaken during November and December of 1964 to
alleviate a flooding problem in the Village of Princeton. Some further construction
was carried out during the current year. This involved extending the previous
riprap bank protection and the placing of additional gabions along the sewer and
water pipe-line crossings to give protection against possible scouring action of the
Squamish River Flooding and Erosion
Early in 1965 a report entitled " Erosion and Flood Control in the Lower
Squamish Valley " was completed, presenting a preliminary proposal for channel
stabilization, erosion, and flood-control works in the Lower Squamish Valley, from
the Cheakamus River junction south to Howe Sound and including the lower Mam-
quam River. The total cost of the proposed works is now estimated at $2,000,000
with a favourable benefit-cost ratio of 1:83.
The proposed works would protect the east side of the Lower Squamish Valley
from erosion and flooding. This area is subject to major floods, with depths of up
to 5 feet, on an average of once in 16 years and minor local flooding at least once in
seven years. The area subject to flooding includes the major portion of the former
Village of Squamish, some 1,000 acres of land south of the Mamquam River,
and 1,050 acres of land, including the community of Brackendale, north of the
Mamquam River.
In October of 1965 the Government of the Province of British Columbia
recommended to the Federal Government that the proposals contained in the preliminary report be given approval for development under the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act.
The area involved lies within the boundaries of the District of Squamish,
formed in December, 1964.
Miscellaneous Flooding and Erosion Problems
In connection with proposals to control flooding and erosion by several streams
within the District Municipalities of North and West Vancouver under the Canada
Water Conservation Assistance Act, the scheme prepared by the Greater Vancouver
Sewerage and Drainage District for Capilano River bank protection was reviewed.
A brief office study of bank erosion by the Quesnel River at Quesnel was made,
and a field trip is planned for the near future.
Continuing interest in flood control of the Coquitlam River is maintained, and
a short field trip was made to the area during the year.
Two other rivers which have been the subject of office studies this year are the
Nechako at Vanderhoof, where a local erosion problem exists, and the Slocan River,
where the problem of flooding and erosion is more general and further investigation
will be required at a future date.
H. I. Hunter, Meteorologist, Chief of Division
Snow-course Network
The British Columbia snow-course network continued to expand in 1965. This
past summer 14 new courses were established and two abandoned, which means
153 active courses will be operational during the coming sampling season. The new
additions include three on Kettle River's Trapping Creek basin for an International
Hydrologic Decade project, three on Okanagan's Esperon-Terrace Creek basin for
an International Hydrologic Decade Project, three on the Columbia River basin for
use in forecasting water supply for the Columbia River Treaty projects, one on
Mount Kobau near the site of the proposed Queen Elizabeth II Observatory in the
Southern Okanagan region, one near the summit of the Salmo-Creston Highway,
one on the Isintok Lake watershed west of Summerland, one near the Skins Lake
spillway on the Alcan Reservoir watershed, and one on Vancouver Island near the
Sno-Bird Ski Club area just west of Ladysmith. All courses were established at the
request of co-operating agencies which will assume responsibility for the gathering
of the snow-survey data. The two discontinued courses were the Nechako and New
Glacier sampling-sites.
Last winter 28 snow courses were visited to provide snow surveyors with at-site
snow-sampling instruction, and as part of the normal summer maintenance work 30
existing courses were cleaned and brushed.
Water-supply Forecasting
The installation of up-dated electronic equipment in the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce has resulted in a revamping of our forecast programme to suit this equipment. In the past year a programme has been
written for listing snow-survey data, and work is now progressing on procedures for
listing stream-flow information for application to our forecast methods. Development of both new and revised seasonal run-off volume forecast procedures is part
of the Hydrology Division's continuing programme. The computer has enabled us
to improve the quality of our work and permitted the development and testing of
procedures that could not have been attempted prior to its use.
Hydro-meteorological Data Compilation
Rearrangement of data on past stream stages and discharges for both Pacific
and Arctic drainages is nearing completion, and a series of maps covering the
Province, showing gauging-station locations, is now being prepared. The historical
stream-flow data, published by the Federal Department of Northern Affairs and
National Resources, has now been rearranged by gauging-stations, which should
result in time-saving and more efficient use of existing data.
The 1965 preliminary snow-survey data were tabulated in the six issues of the
British Columbia Snow Survey Bulletin with publication dates of February 1st,
March 1st, April 1st, May 1st, May 15th, and June 1st. The complete historical
summary (1935-65) of British Columbia snow-survey measurements has been
compiled under one cover and a limited number of copies are now available.
Hydrologic Study Basin
A small drainage basin approximately 4 square miles in area, facing westward
toward the Okanagan Lake, approximately 8 miles south of Vernon, was selected
for hydrologic studies. This project has been accepted as an International Hydro-
logic Decade project. It is intended to study the hydrologic cycle in this area, which
receives 15 to 25 inches annual precipitation and produces no visible surface run-off.
In addition, it is anticipated that the results of these studies and observations will
provide quantitative indices which can be used as factors for forecasting snow-melt
run-off volume in the Okanagan region.
A field reconnaissance was made in co-operation with the Ground-water
Division of the Water Investigations Branch. Hydro-meteorological observation
station sites have been selected and instruments have been ordered. Ground-water
observation wells have been installed.
Minor Hydrologic Studies
In co-operation with Water Resources Service engineers and outside agencies,
minor studies were completed relative to water-supply problems, proposals for
hydro-meteorological network expansion, and peak-flow determination. Committee
work included representation on provincial, national, and international groups,
which resulted in work assignments applicable to the field of hydrology.
1965 Snow-melt Run-off
As indicated by the mountain snowpack last spring, spring and summer volume
run-off was close to average on all but the Lower Coast and Vancouver Island watersheds. There run-off was below average. Monthly distribution was such that
Interior rivers recorded above average flows in April and August, below average in
May, and close to average in June and July. Maximum stages on major rivers were
comparable to those that usually occur.
E. Livingston, P.Eng., Chief of Division
Water-well Inventory
The collection of data on existing water wells and ground-water use continues.
The existing informal arrangement for exchange of data with well-drilling contractors
in the Province has been extended to several contractors in the central and northern
parts of the Province. Additional water-well maps have been started or completed
in the following areas:—
(1) Sahtlam District, completed.
(2) Nine new sheets covering parts of Yale, Kamloops, and Similkameen Land
Districts have been completed.
EE 59
(3) Three new sheets were made in the Quesnel area.
(4) Several sheets covering part of the east side of Vancouver Island were
(5) Air-photo flight-line indices for air photos in the files of the Water Resources Service were prepared to facilitate the use of existing air photographs.
The inventory of existing wells has been continued in the following populated
areas of the Province:—
(1) Osoyoos to Princeton.
(2) Princeton to Merritt to Kamloops.
(3) Kamloops to Cache Creek to Prince George.
(4) Prince George to Dawson Creek.
(5) Most of the settled part of the Peace River Block.
All the old records obtained from the Geological Survey of Canada have been
compiled and plotted on maps.
Observation Wells
One observation well in our Lower Fraser Valley network which had been
covered with debris in a land-clearing project was rehabilitated. Ten new wells were
added to our network in the Okanagan Valley area. One of these replaced a former
well which did not work. One was installed as part of a basin study project discussed below.   Two new observation wells were installed near Prince George.
The existing observation-well network covers the following areas:—
Lower Fraser Valley
Kamloops area	
North Okanagan	
Kelowna area	
Prince George area _.
.___ 20
.___ 4
.___ 15
.___ 12
..__ 4
Hydrologic Study Basin
In co-operation with the Hydrology Division, a basin study has been started as
a project under the International Hydrologic Decade programme. The basin is an
area of about 4 square miles facing westward toward Okanagan Lake approximately
8 miles south of Vernon, some 6 miles north of Okanagan Centre. Reconnaissance
geologic mapping of surficial deposits was completed, arrangements have been
made with land-owners for installation of equipment, and one soil-moisture station
and three observation wells have been installed up to the present time.
Ground-water Test Drilling
In addition to drilling of test water wells, which has been done in the past, two
contracts involving the drilling of rotary test-holes for information were carried out.
Nechako Improvement District
This project, north of the City of Prince George, which was started in 1964,
was completed in 1965 with the drilling of a third test well. The well, which was
463 feet deep, was unsuccessful.
Black Mountain Irrigation District
A test well at the north end of the Black Mountain Irrigation District, east of
the City of Kelowna, which had been started in 1964, was completed and test
pumped. This flowing artesian well, with a static pressure of about 18 feet of water,
was purchased by the Black Mountain Irrigation District for a possible extension
of a domestic system.
Port Clements, Queen Charlotte Islands
In co-operation with MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River Company Limited,
the Ground-water Division supervised the drilling of a test well at Port Clements in
connection with the enlargement of the Port Clements townsite. The test well had
a limited capacity but is sufficient for immediate requirements.
Village of Masset
A test well was drilled at the Village of Masset, where domestic water supply
has long been a problem. The test well, which was purchased by the village, has
a high capacity, at least 300 gallons per minute, but the water quality is poor
because of dissolved iron.
Lower Fraser Valley Deep Drilling
Six rotary test-holes, for a total of 3,597 feet, were drilled in the Nicomekl-
Serpentine lowland of the Lower Fraser Valley. These holes were drilled to investigate the possibility of using ground-water for irrigation in connection with a drainage
scheme being investigated under the ARDA programme. The drilling encountered
a possible aquifer in one hole. The project was terminated because of severe drilling problems. The holes varied in depth from 307 to 841 feet. The shallowest,
located near Johnston Road (152nd Street) and 48th Avenue, reached bedrock at
243 feet. A 680-foot hole near 50th Avenue and 160th Street encountered glacial
deposits at 491 feet.   The other holes were entirely in silt and silt with stones.
North Okanagan Deep Drilling
As part of our continuing study of geology related to ground-water in the
Okanagan Valley, four deep rotary test-holes were drilled for a total of 3,935 feet.
These were located at Kelowna, Rutland, Winfield, and at the north end of Okanagan Lake. This project was terminated after severe drilling problems were
encountered in the hole at the north end of Okanagan Lake. Possible aquifers were
found at 10 to 95 feet and below 970 feet at Kelowna, from 40 to 385, feet at
Rutland, 1.16 to 230 feet at Winfield, and 25 to 55 feet at the north end of Okanagan
Lake.   The information will be valuable in future studies.
Glenmore Valley
Two rotary test-holes were drilled in Glenmore Valley north of Kelowna to
investigate a possible aquifer in that area. Gravel, which is probably an aquifer,
was found in both holes at a depth of less than 150 feet, immediately above bedrock.
This may be a useful source of domestic water in the future.
A rotary test-hole was drilled near Parkinson Lake at Hulcar, west of Enderby,
to investigate the possibility of using ground-water for irrigation in that area. Over
100 feet of sand and gravel was found under about 20 feet of silt. Conditions are
probably favourable for high-capacity wells.
Ground-water Research Project at Prince George under ARDA Programme
Under supervision of the Ground-water Division, work started on this project
in March and continued to the end of the year. The aim of the project is to locate
potential ground-water supplies for agricultural use in an area between Prince
George and Redrock. Existing geologic data, well records, and air photos were
reviewed in the spring and field work started in May. Geologic mapping of Pleistocene and Tertiary deposits continued until August, when a drilling programme was
started. This consisted of drilling seven holes for a total of 3,964 feet in the Pine-
view and Beaverly areas. At the year-end, data from field work were being compiled.   This project will continue in 1966.
Miscellaneous Investigations
In addition to the above, the following projects were also carried out:—
A possible dam-site at Stocking Lake near Ladysmith was examined.
Some geologic mapping was carried out on Malcolm Island in an effort to
determine the feasibility of using a ground-water source for a domestic water system
for the village of Sojntula.
Oyama Irrigation District was given assistance and advice in the drilling and
construction of a large well for the new irrigation-domestic system under construction.
Pumping tests were carried out to obtain data on aquifer characteristics on a
well near Cache Creek, at the Forest Service nursery at Whalley, and on two large
water-supply wells near White Rock.
At year-end, data were being compiled on ground-water conditions near the
City of Abbotsford, which is planning to drill a new well.
A problem of ground-water contamination with petroleum products at Lower
Nicola was investigated.
A visit was made to the drilling operations carried out by the Research Council
of Saskatchewan to get information on field procedures used by the Council in
exploratory rotary drilling.
Mapping of Pleistocene deposits of the Okanagan Valley continued.
This Division of the Water Investigations Branch has two main functions: (1)
development of plans for water management on a regional or watershed basis, with
an immediate aim to indicate the feasibility of improving the dependability of surface-water supplies in areas where readily available water supplies have been exhausted, and (2) continuation of inventory of undeveloped water-power potential
of the Province.
The following work has been done during the current year.
Similkameen Basin Water Supply Studies
Due to shortage of staff, this study was suspended in September, 1964, but was
resumed in March this year.
Two major potential sites for future water storage (Missezula Lake and Wolfe
Creek lake chain) have been surveyed to provide ground control for contour
mapping. Several additional sites have been selected and will be surveyed in the
coming year.
Hydro-meteorological data were studied in great detail and methods were
evolved to translate the various types of data (for example, precipitation and snow
course) into a meaningful whole.   A preliminary isohyetal map has been prepared
for the 3,000 square miles of river basin in Canada. A map showing mean annual
run-off which may be expected from sub-areas within the basin has also been prepared. These and much other information pertinent to any study of water-storage
potential have now been compiled and completed.
In connection with Nickel Plate Lake storage-dam water-licence problems,
measurements were made during the freshet season of inflow to and outflow from
this newly constructed reservoir near Hedley. These measurements were combined
with knowledge of local hydrology to produce an estimate of safe water yield for
licensing purposes.
Nicola River Basin Water-supply Studies
Initial steps were taken to commence water-supply augmentation studies in
the Nicola River basin. This investigation will be of considerable magnitude and
will, firstly, involve hydrologic studies of the watershed.
Miscellaneous Water-supply Problems
Two assignments were attended to: (1) a brief investigation was made of
Mallard Lake near Tofino, Vancouver Island, as a potential source of water supply
for a proposed marine research station for the University of British Columbia, and
(2) Village of Oliver domestic water-supply intake improvements are presently
under study.
Stikine River Hydro Power
A preliminary report on the hydro-power potential of the Stikine River was
completed. It indicates an anticipated capacity of some 1,100,000 kilowatts of
continuous power, derived from a series of four dams located in the Grand Canyon
of the Stikine upstream from the settlement of Telegraph Creek. The key structure
in the proposed scheme of development is a dam which would provide some 4,700,-
000 acre-feet of active storage at the head of the Grand Canyon to effectively regulate the natural river flows. Field investigations during the summer were largely
directed to examination of the feasibility of the tentatively selected site for this dam
and of alternative arrangements to provide the regulatory storage required.
The field investigations were conducted in conjunction with International Power
and Engineering Consultants Limited, consulting engineers to British Columbia
Hydro and Power Authority. The tentatively selected site for the main storage dam
did not exhibit satisfactory geological conditions for a major structure, and consequently efforts were directed to locating alternative sites. Three dam-sites were
selected, which in combination may provide similar power potential and storage
capacity to the dam-site which was rejected.
Ground control survey and air photography of the Upper Stikine River valley,
between the mouth of the Klappan River and McBride River, were carried out
by personnel of the Surveys and Mapping Branch, Lands Service, to extend the
existing large-scale mapping to cover the newly selected dam-sites and reservoir
areas.   Production of these maps is proceeding.
Other modifications to the preliminary scheme of Stikine River power development have also become necessary due to geological conditions. It must be anticipated that considerable further exploratory work will be necessary to verify all
proposed developments and to refine the estimates of the cost of construction. A
geological survey of the banks of the canyon will also be necessary to determine
their stability when the reservoirs are filled.
Iskut River Hydro Power
Using a helicopter, a field inspection of possible dam-sites was carried out during the summer in co-operation with personnel of International Power and Engineering Consultants Limited, consulting engineers to British Columbia Hydro and
Power Authority.
Ground control survey and air photography of the Iskut River valley were
carried out by personnel of the Surveys and Mapping Branch, Lands Service, and
production of large-scale mapping of the upper part of the valley is proceeding.
The number of potential dam-sites is very limited, long reaches of the river
being heavily braided, with poor foundation conditions and unsuitable for dam
construction. The most promising power-site is located immediately downstream
from the mouth of Forrest Kerr Creek, where the river flows through a narrow
gorge in an andesite formation. Due to the rapid fall of the river, a comparatively
low dam located near the head of the gorge can be used in conjunction with a power
tunnel to develop a substantial hydraulic head. Because of the limited storage
capacity available at this site, it will be necessary to develop an upstream storage
reservoir to regulate the natural flows for effective power production.
Further hydrologic studies and investigation of the feasibility of possible dam-
sites will be necessary to determine the power potential of the river and the economic
attractiveness of its development.
Liard River Hydro Power
A reconnaissance investigation of the hydro-power potential of the Liard River
was undertaken by the Branch in 1960. An outline of the development then
envisaged was contained in the Annual Report for that year.
A more detailed study has been commenced to up-date this previous work and
to revise proposed developments in the light of the improved stream-flow data
available, in view of changes which have occurred in hydro-power engineering practice, and the need to prevent excessive rerouting of the Alaska Highway in the
project area.
It is presently visualized that storage dams will be located in the Kechika River
valley and possibly also in the Toad and Coal River valleys, with the principal
power-generating plant located at a series of dams on the main stem of the Liard
Hydrologic studies and the revision of existing mapping by the addition of
contours to higher elevations are proceeding.
Cottonwood River Hydro Power, Near Cassiar
A preliminary evaluation of the hydro-power potential at the Cottonwood River
near Cassiar, based on a short period of discharge measurements, started in May,
1964, indicates a potential of some 5,000 to 6,000 kilowatts which might be developed. About two-thirds of this potential exists at Dam-site 1, on the Cottonwood
River, some 18 miles south-west of Cassiar, where 300 feet of head could be developed. The remaining one-third would be through regulation at Site 3 or 3a, some
8 miles downstream from Site 1, where there is 150 feet of head.
This evaluation was undertaken in response to a request from the Cassiar
Asbestos Corporation. While sufficient mapping was available to outline the sites
and storage areas, no foundation exploration has been carried out at the dam-sites.
 EE 64
W. K. A. Dobson, P.Eng., Chief of Division
This Division was formed in 1963 for the purpose of investigating and preparing water-project submissions under the Federal-Provincial Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act (ARDA) assistance programme, and for the supervision
of the construction of certain approved water projects. The over-all administration
of the ARDA programme is under the jurisdiction of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture. An interdepartmental co-operative arrangement has charged
the British Columbia Water Resources Service with responsibility for ARDA water-
projects implementation. The number of water projects for which assistance has
been requested under this programme has increased, as shown in the table below:—
Projects approved by ARDA authorities—
Under first agreement    ._	
Projects under review but no proposal to ARDA authorities	
While the number of applications has increased steadily, the number receiving
ARDA approval has increased from 3 in 1963 to 7 in 1964, and then to 23 in 1965,
and of these, 18 are in various stages of construction. The engineering requirements
for these projects have been far beyond the capacity of the engineering staff of the
ARDA Division and have resulted in this service being distributed among the
engineering staff of the Water Investigations Branch and the Water Rights Branch
with others being done by consulting engineers, the P.F.R.A. or local engineers,
either in private practice or employed by the irrigation district requesting aid on the
particular projects.
The breakdown of these engineering services for the various projects either
approved or under consideration is as shown below:—
_or Completed
Water Investigations Branch, ARDA Division
Water Supply and Investigations Division	
Water Rights Branch	
Consulting engineers _ _ _.
Irrigation districts' engineers.
Under the ARDA assistance programme, the Federal Government and the
Provincial Government finance two-thirds of the approved or actual cost of water
projects, whichever is less. The soil and water projects which were under construction or completed during 1965 were:—
(1) Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District—ARDA Project No.
10010.—Approved cost, $2,000,000. This project, which will be carried
out over a period of five years, involves the complete redesign and reconstruction of the works of the former Southern Okanagan Lands Project,
converting it from a gravity system to one which will supply all the lands
within its boundaries with water under pressure necessary for sprinkler
irrigation. This project has been divided into nine units, which will be
constructed progressively. Unit No. 5, comprising about 500 acres just
south and west of Oliver, was the first unit to be built. This was designed
and constructed in time for the 1965 irrigation season, and is a pumped
system from the main canal. Unit No. 9, just north of the Canada-United
States Border, comprises about 800 acres and is under construction in
1965 to be ready for service in the 1966 irrigation season. Units Nos. 7
and 8 are also being designed. The design and supervision of this project
are being carried out by the Water Investigations Branch with consulting
engineers' services for pump-house design and electrical controls. The
work has been carried out by the irrigation district forces.
(2) Kaleden Irrigation District—ARDA Project No. 10013.—Approved cost,
$285,000. This project has had all the new distribution system installed
during 1965; the reservoir has been completed and work has commenced
on the pump-house and intake structure. It is anticipated that this system
will be in service for the 1966 irrigation season. Design and supervision
have been done by the Water Investigations Branch. The electrical design
for the pump-house was done by consulting engineers. The installation
of the distribution pipe-lines and fittings was done by local day labour,
provided by the irrigation district. The reservoir and pump-house construction was contracted.
(3) Canyon Waterworks District—ARDA Project No. 10022.—Approved
cost, $60,000. This project is a pumping system from a well, a completely new distribution system for farm water supply, and a storage
reservoir which was completed, tested, and put into service this year. Design and supervision were provided by the Water Rights Branch. Work
was done by contract.
(4) Summerland Municipality Irrigation System—ARDA Project No. 10029.
—Approved cost, $225,000. This project consists of the reconstruction
of a number of storage dams and the rehabilitation of part of the distribution system. No. 4 dam was reconstructed in 1965 and part of the distribution system was renewed. Design and supervision were provided by
consulting engineers; the work was done by the municipality's own forces.
(5) Westbank Irrigation District—ARDA Project No. 10033.—Approved
cost, $195,000. This project involves the reconstruction of the district's
intake structure and diversion weir and the replacement of some 7,000
feet of flume with large-diameter steel pipe. This work was carried out
by the irrigation district's own forces. The design and supervision were
provided by the Water Investigations Branch.
(6) Delta Municipality Irrigation and Drainage—ARDA Project No. 29002.
—Approved cost, $264,000. This is a drainage scheme which is being
designed and supervised by consulting engineers.
(7) Boundary Line Irrigation District—ARDA Project No. 10035.—Approved cost, $20,000. This project involved the renewal of the pumping
equipment and intake structure and the renewal of the distribution system.
Design and supervision were provided by the Water Investigations Branch.
The pumping equipment was installed under contract; the pipe-laying was
done by the irrigation district's own forces.
(8) Penticton City Irrigation System—ARDA Project No. 10024.—Approved
cost, $1,303,000. This project will involve the construction of a major
storage dam in the Penticton Creek watershed and the reconstruction of
the Ellis Creek and Penticton Creek irrigation distribution systems. This
is a joint project with the City of Penticton domestic water-supply system,
which will pay the whole cost of its share of these works. Design and
supervision of this project are being carried out by the P.F.R.A. The
work will be done by contract.
(9) South-east Kelowna Irrigation District—ARDA Projects Nos. 10021 and
29003.—Approved costs: No. 10021, $60,000; No. 29003, $219,000.
Both these projects involve the renewal of the district's distribution system. ARDA Project No. 10021 was completed in 1965; the other is a
project which will extend over three to four years. The work has been
done with district forces under supervision of the Water Investigations
(10) Osoyoos Irrigation District—ARDA Project No. 29012.—Approved cost,
$135,000. This project will serve the two present existing irigation districts of Osoyoos and East Osoyoos with a joint system pumping from
Osoyoos Lake. Complete rehabilitation of the distribution-works of these
two districts is planned and the design and supervision of this project is
being carried out by the Water Investigations Branch. The work will be
done with district forces for the pipe-laying, and the pump-house will be
constructed by contract.
(11) Meadow Valley Irrigation District-—ARDA Project No. 10025.—Approved cost, $45,000. This project involved the reconstruction of the
storage dam on Darke Lake, the construction of diversion-works from
Lapsley and Finlay Creeks into Darke Lake, and a small diversion structure from Munroe Creek also into Darke Lake. This work was completed
in 1965. The design and supervision were provided by a consulting
engineer, and the work was carried out under contract.
(12) Oyama Irrigation District—ARDA Projects Nos. 10028 and 29001.—
Approved total cost, $162,000. These projects involved the redesign of
the Oyama Irrigation District's distribution system to provide water from
wells instead of from Wood and Kalamalka Lakes. It also provides farm
domestic water through the same system. The design and supervision
were provided by the Water Investigations Branch. The work was carried out by district forces, and the pump-house design and controls were
carried out by consulting engineers.
(13) Vernon Irrigation District, Aberdeen Lake Dam—ARDA Project No.
10030.—Approved cost, $90,000. This involved the renewal of the culvert under the dam, reconstruction of two concrete spillway structures,
and the raising of the dam fill by 3 feet. The design and supervision were
provided by the Vernon Irrigation District's own engineer. Work was
done by contract.
EE 67
In addition to these projects, there were four research projects approved by the
ARDA authorities, the cost of which will be equally shared by the Provincial and
Federal Governments.   These projects are:—
(1) Vernon Irrigation District Engineering and Economic Study—ARDA
Project No. 10021.—Approved cost, $70,000. To make an engineering
and economic study of the Vernon Irrigation District. The engineering
phase of this study was carried out by the Water Investigations Branch.
(2) Prince George Area Ground-water Study—ARDA Project No. 10014.—
Approved cost, $98,000. This study is being carried out by the Water
Investigations Branch. Field investigations and test drilling have been
(3) Nicomekl-Serpentine Rivers Drainage Study—ARDA Project No. 10032.
—Approved cost, $50,000. This study is being carried out by the Water
Investigations Branch. Field surveys of the existing drainage conditions
and ground-water investigations for irrigation water supply have been
carried out.
(4) Okanagan Lake-Shuswap River Canal Study—ARDA Project No. 10031.
—Approved cost, $50,000. Field parties from the Water Investigations
Branch carried out survey work in this area during the summer of 1965.
In addition to these 4 ARDA research projects listed above and the 13 ARDA
water projects under active construction, final-design studies are being made on
several other approved projects, as follows:—
(1) The largest of these, and the largest ARDA project approved to date in
British Columbia, is the Vernon Irrigation District rehabilitation programme, ARDA Project No. 29004, with an approved cost of $6,600,000.
This proposal will provide the Vernon Irrigation District with an enclosed
pipe system suitable for both irrigation and rural domestic water supply.
This programme will extend over a period of five years, and it is anticipated
that it will be completed by 1970.
(2) Naramata Irrigation District.—A partial rehabilitation and increased storage programme has been approved under ARDA Project No. 10034 at an
approved cost of $102,000. Design is being carried out by the Water
Investigations Branch.
(3) Black Sage Irrigation District.—Distribution renewal has been approved
under ARDA Project No. 29009 for an approved cost of $40,200 and is
under study by the Water Investigations Branch.
(4) Scotty Creek Irrigation District.—Distribution-system renewal has been
approved under ARDA Project No. 29011 for an approved cost of
$120,000. Design and supervision will be provided by the Water
Investigations Branch.
(5) Darfield Irrigation District.—Storage-works reconstruction has been approved under ARDA Project No. 29006 at an approved cost of $12,000.
The design and supervision of this project will be provided by the Water
Rights Branch.
(6) Wood Lake Irrigation District.—System renewal has been approved under
ARDA Project No. 29008 at an approved cost of $441,000. A new
gravity system will be designed by the Water Rights Branch.
(7) Grandview Waterworks District.—Farm domestic distribution system is
in need of major renewals at an estimated cost of $93,000. This proposal
was studied by the Water Rights Branch.
The following project has been submitted to ARDA authorities for approval:
Sion Improvement District, which is a combined irrigation and rural domestic water-
supply system to be pumped from wells for a community near Grand Forks and is
estimated to cost about $465,000. This project was investigated by the Water
Investigations Branch.
ARDA water-projects proposals still under preliminary study are as follows:—
(1) Glenmore Irrigation District system rehabilitation — estimated  cost,
(2) Keremeos Irrigation District system rehabilitation — estimated  cost,
(3) Okanagan Falls Irrigation District system rehabilitation—estimated cost,
$10,000 to $20,000.
(4) Black Mountain Irrigation District system rehabilitation—estimated cost,
(5) Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District system rehabilitation—
estimated cost, $1,000,000.
(6) Lower Similkameen River erosion control.
(7) Pemberton Valley Dyking District drainage improvements.
(8) Kent Municipality drainage improvements.
(9) Westbank Irrigation District rehabilitation, second proposal.
(10) Ellison Irrigation District rehabilitation, second proposal.
(11) B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District rehabilitation.
(12) Grand Forks Irrigation District rehabilitation.
(13) Peachland Irrigation District rehabilitation.
(14) Raspberry Irrigation District rehabilitation.
(15) Shuswap River-Mabel Lake area flood control.
The functions performed by this Section during the past year included the
following: The assembly and maintenance of engineering reports, collection and
compilation of technical and cost records, the undertaking of computations required
in engineering studies, and general office duties for the Branch.
The year under review saw almost 90 new engineering reports assembled and
registered in the Reports Library, bringing the total of available reports to over
1,300. The Reports Library serves as an extension to the Water Resources Service
filing system. Therefore, a number of reports retained in the library have not been
prepared for publication.
The increase in the number of reports received and registered during 10-year
periods is illustrated in the following table:—
Period (Years) Number of Reports    Percentage of Total
Totals   1,303 100.0
In addition to the new reports, this year again over 200 reproductions of older
reports have been prepared and distributed, and requests for over 100 copies of
various other publications filled.
EE 69
As in previous years, the American Society of Civil Engineers initiated programme for more efficient retrieval of engineering information was continued, and
many inquiries regarding its use were received.
Of the total of 1,303 reports in the library, 788 reports have been prepared by
Water Resources Service staff. The following table shows the number of such
reports and the general fields which they cover:—
Technical Reports in Library Prepared by Water Resources Service Staff as of
December 31,1965
Period (Years)
232                   303                   137
i                        1
19       '1          33
During the year 1965, draughting for the Water Investigations Branch was
done in the main Water Investigations Draughting Room and the ARDA Draughting Room. The working force for these two rooms is 10, three draughtsmen having
been added to the staff and one having retired during the year.
The work load for the draughting section became increasingly heavy as the
year progressed. Some projects were continuations of work started in 1964, and
some projects will occupy the draughtsmen well into 1966 and possibly longer. The
draughtsmen of both offices worked on a total of 34 engineering projects and 6 miscellaneous projects during this year. Of the engineering projects, 15 were under
ARDA auspices.
During this year particular emphasis has been on construction work. This has
given the draughtsmen experience in the fields of mechanical, structural, and architectural draughting in addition to the normal topographical draughting. Up until
lately, topographical draughting has been virtually the only type of draughting practised in this section. The addition of the extra fields of draughting has much
enhanced the experience and worth of the draughtsmen so employed.
A total of 153 finished sheets was turned in for filing. Most of these were the
drawings which were attached to reports filed by the engineers of this Branch during
1965. Many construction drawings have also been completed, but have not been
filed. These drawings probably will not be filed until such time as the " as constructed " drawings are available and after, at least in some cases, having been
revised several times.
The Pollution-control Board, which deals with matters pertaining to water pollution,
was initially formed in 1956 and placed, at that time, under the administration of the
Minister of Municipal Affairs. Technical assistance to conduct the Board's business was
provided by the Department of Health through the staff of the Division of Public Health
Engineering. The functions of the Pollution-control Board were transferred on April 1,
1965, to the Water Resources Service, where administration of the Board is carried on
under the Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, with the Deputy Minister of
Water Resources acting as Chairman of the Board.
The functions of the Pollution-control Board are to deal with all matters as prescribed by the Act, technical and lay, pertaining to the discharge of domestic or industrial
wastes into any of the water resources of the Province, in areas designated by Order in
Council as coming under the Board's jurisdiction. The powers and duties of the Board,
carried out under the Executive Engineer, are:—
(a) To determine what qualities and properties of water shall constitute a polluted
(_>) To prescribe standards regarding the quality and character of the effluent which
may be discharged.
(c)  To conduct tests and surveys to determine the extent of pollution.
(..) To examine into all existing or proposed means for the disposal of sewage or
other waste materials.
(e) To notify all persons who discharge effluent into the said waters when the
effluent fails to meet the prescribed standards.
(/)  To order any person to increase the degree of treatment of the effluent.
(g) To appoint technical committees.
To carry into effect the intent of the Pollution-control Act, the Board issues permits
to applicants who comply with the regulations and who satisfy the Board that the wastes
to be discharged will not be detrimental to health, sanitation, or the public interest.
C. J. Keenan, P.Eng., Executive Engineer
The administrative responsibility for the Pollution-control Board was transferred from the Health Branch to the Water Resources Service on April 1, 1965.
This was achieved by transferring the Director of the Division of Public Health
Engineering to the Water Resources Service in the capacity of Executive Engineer
to the Board.
In accordance with the Pollution-control Act, the Health Branch provided the
Pollution-control Board with three engineers, two of whom have had postgraduate
training in the fields of public health and sanitary engineering. In conjunction with
the work of these engineers, who are fully employed under the direction of the
Executive Engineer, inspectors of the Health Branch conduct routine field inspections. Furthermore, all samples taken for pollution-control purposes are analysed
in the public health laboratories by Health Department staff.
Pulp-mill construction near Kamloops.
To carry into effect the intent of the Pollution-control Act, the Board issues
permits to applicants who comply with the regulations and who can satisfy the Board
that the wastes to be discharged will not be detrimental to health, sanitation, or the
public interest. Any objections to the issuance of a permit are investigated, and
in some cases public hearings are held before a final decision is taken on the application. During 1965 the number of applications continued to climb. From an
average of 10 per year prior to 1962, the annual number of permits issued subsequently has been 19 in 1963, 28 in 1964, and 39 in 1965, giving a total of 148
permits issued to date. With a continuation of the favourable economic conditions
in the Province, it is anticipated that this rate of growth will persist. Not only has
the number of applications increased, but many now pertain to complex operations
such as kraft pulp-mills, and these require much more extensive review. To meet
the increasing pressure placed on the Board's technical staff, it became necessary
to obtain the services of a consultant experienced in treatment of pulp-mill waste
effluents to report upon the influence on water quality of one of the proposed mills.
From the Board's formation in 1956 until 1961, the extent of its jurisdiction
was the Lower Fraser Valley downstream from Hope, including all of the Greater
Vancouver and Boundary Bay areas. In 1961 the territorial area under the authority of the Board was extended to include all of the Columbia River drainage basin
which lies within the Province of British Columbia. Again, effective January 1,
1963, the jurisdiction of the Board as authorized by Order in Council was enlarged
to include the entire Fraser River basin and most of the populated area of the east
coast of Vancouver Island. The effect of these extensions on the work load is well
reflected in the number of permits issued annually by the Board.
In 1963 a continuing water-sampling programme was set up to evaluate the
current status of the water quality in the Fraser and Thompson Rivers. The purpose
of this survey is to develop background information for monitoring these river systems in view of the present industrial development and pulp-mill growth in the
respective watersheds.
During 1965 Board staff also participated in a hydrographic survey of the
tidal waters along the southerly waterfront of Greater Victoria. This tidal study
was undertaken to assist in the determination of the most suitable location for
sewer outfalls so that development of the natural recreational resources of the area
would not be inhibited. Much of the physical work was undertaken by the Canadian
Hydrographic Services, the Air Division of the Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
Department, the Pacific Naval Laboratories, and the Fisheries Research Board of
W. R. Meighen, P.Eng., Inspector of Dykes
Legislation enacted during the 1965 Session transferred the Office of the
Inspector of Dykes from the Department of Agriculture to a new affiliation with the
Water Resources Service. The Office of the Inspector of Dykes is situated in New
Westminster, and the staff consists of an Inspector of Dykes, an Assistant Inspector
of Dykes, a senior clerk, and a clerk-stenographer.
In accordance with the provisions of the Dykes Maintenance Act, the Inspector
of Dykes has responsibilities with respect to all dyking works located in the Province,
including municipalities and locally organized districts, and under that Act, also,
has some authority over the local administrators to ensure that dykes under their
jurisdiction are adequately maintained.
A number of the larger dyking districts in the Fraser Valley west of Chilliwack
—namely, Coquitlam, Maple Ridge, Pitt Meadows No. 2, Matsqui, Sumas, Dewd-
ney, West Nicomen, and South Westminster—have been constituted under the
Drainage, Dyking, and Development Act. The Inspector of Dykes administers
these districts either in his capacity as set out in that Act or as Commissioner, an
appointment pertaining to three of the districts by virtue of legislation special to
each. In addition, the Inspector of Dykes functions as receiver for the two smaller
districts of East Nicomen and North Nicomen, which were constituted under and
are governed by the Water Act. The Inspector of Dykes acts as sole administrator
for the 10 dyking districts noted, and in this capacity is responsible for the general
management and for the operation and maintenance of the works of each district.
The year just past was uneventful in all of the dyking districts. The spring
run-off was not large on any of the streams, and no major peak developed to threaten
any of the dykes. Just prior to high water, the Municipality of Kent effected necessary repairs to that part of the Harrison Mills dyke which failed during the 1964
spring freshet. With this exception, the work on the dykes in all of the districts
could be classified as routine maintenance.
In all districts where bank erosion is threatening dykes, bank-protection projects
were carried out. The Provincial and Federal Governments provide financial
assistance to local districts and municipalities for river-bank stabilization of this
order, sharing the cost on the basis of 37Vi per cent by each Government. Most of
the districts now endeavour to carry out bank-protection work as an annual programme, to protect those sections where dykes are being threatened or are liable
to be threatened in a relatively short period of time, possibly within four to five years.
The total amount estimated to be required for bank protection in the current fiscal
year and provided for was $237,500.
L. A. Pinske, Project Supervisor
In 1920 the Southern Okanagan Lands Project (S.O.L.P.) was instituted when
the Province, under the Soldiers' Land Act, acquired large tracts of land in the Okanagan Valley between Vaseux Lake and the International Boundary. An extensive
irrigation system was developed, and the Crown-owned land was gradually sold,
initially to veterans but latterly to anyone interested in agricultural development.
Virtually all of the valley-floor is now privately owned, with the exception of land
adjacent to the Okanagan flood-control channel. Elsewhere in the area, there
remain a few lots of varying size and quality yet to be sold, as well as several extensive blocks of land on the upper benches on either side of the river, which are largely
under grazing lease. Until recently such land was sold upon request, but with the
grape-growing industry developing there has been renewed interest in these properties and demand has increased substantially. It is now the general policy of this
Department, therefore, to dispose of the remaining unleased land from time to time
by public auction. In addition, there are numerous fractions of lots resulting from
the completion, in 1958, of the Okanagan flood-control channel, a structure which
cuts through the valley-bottom, isolating old river ox-bows and severing original
parcels of land. These properties were acquired to permit construction of the channel, but many are no longer required now that the project is functioning. Their
disposal must be by public sale, with one-half of the proceeds ultimately being transferred to the Federal Government under the conditions of a Federal-Provincial
Agreement of 1960 furthering the terms of the Okanagan River Flood Control Act
of 1949.
The irrigation system administered by this Department through the Southern
Okanagan Lands Project is being rehabilitated, with financing under the Agricultural
Rehabilitation and Development Act. Until such time as the system has been completely modified, the Southern Okanagan Lands Project will continue to administer
the land and provide the irrigation services under the Soldiers' Land Act. Upon
completion, control of the irrigation system will pass to the Southern Okanagan
Lands Irrigation District, an improvement district formed under the Water Act in
Following the usual practice, irrigation water was released into the main canal
from the diversion-works on the Okanagan River on April 20th and service was
continued through until October 1st. Between November 15 and November 25th,
a second release into the canal permitted late irrigation and the filling of domestic
cisterns by water-users.
During the year regular maintenance and repairs were carried out over the
entire system, including the replacing of deteriorated timber and the spot sealing of
the main canal. Some 216 feet of the large syphon which crosses the valley at Oliver
was lined with waterproof plywood to reduce leakage where staves have been crushed
under excessive pressures in the past.
Ditch-riding services were provided for the adjoining East Osoyoos, Osoyoos,
and Black Sage Irrigation Districts. This service has been continuous for several
years in accordance with specific Orders in Council.
Of some concern to lower bench orchardists in the Osoyoos region was the
development of seepage below the main canal. This may have been caused in part
by irrigation of a portion of the west bench, an area recently sold for grape-growing
 EE 82
under the Department's land-disposal policy. Three orchards were affected, and
plans are being developed to apply corrective measures to ensure against tree loss
in 1966.
Irrigation-water collections
Land sales	
Sundries (topsoil, gravel, sand, maps, etc., payment from
irrigation districts)   40,987.22
J. H. Palmer, Personnel Officer
The Civil Service establishment of the Department was increased by four positions this year. A position as Assistant Deputy Minister of Water Resources was
added to the General Administration Section and was filled by Mr. G. E. Simmons.
Two positions as Engineer 3 were added to the staff of the Water Rights Branch,
one for the district office in Prince George and one for the Improvement Districts
Division. A position as Engineering Assistant 1 was added to the staff of the district office in Nelson, thus providing a permanent position for a member of the temporary staff. One position filled by the Department's librarian was transferred from
the Water Rights Branch to the General Administration Section. At the same time
there was a reduction of three positions in the Southern Okanagan Lands Project, a
non-Civil Service establishment.
The Office of the Inspector of Dykes, headed by Mr. W. R. Meighen as Inspector of Dykes, and consisting of a staff of four persons with headquarters in New
Westminster, was transferred from the Department of Agriculture to the administration of this Department. The Deputy Minister of Water Resources was appointed
Chairman of the Pollution-control Board, and the staff of that Board, headed by
Mr. C. J. Keenan, Executive Engineer, was transferred from the Department of
Health Services and Hospital Insurance to this Department.
There was an increase in the number of personnel actions occurring during
1965 over 1964, as indicated in the following table, from which it will be noted that
the number of terminations was more than three times the number in the previous
year. Particular difficulty was experienced in recruiting engineers and technicians,
and at the end of the year several vacancies existed in these classifications.
The following table summarizes personnel activities for the year 1965 as compared to 1964:—
1965 1964
Recruitments for continuous staff  22 18
Reclassifications   20 16
Promotions   4 7
Internal transfers   2 3
Transfers to other departments  5 3
Terminations for continuous staff  17 5
Retirements   3 1
Short-term casual appointments and terminations  25 18
Transfers from other departments  6
Extension of service granted  1 1
The principal promotions implemented during the year concerned Mr. H. D.
DeBeck, who was promoted to Comptroller of Water Rights, and Mr. A. K. Sutherland, who was promoted to Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights. Mr. J. C. Purnell
was promoted and transferred from Nelson to be District Engineer in Prince George,
and Mr. J. D. C. Fuller was promoted to Engineer 5 in charge of construction projects in the ARDA Division.
Mr. W. J. Kelly and Mr. C. E. B. Clarke, Ditch Riders, Southern Okanagan
Lands Project, retired after each completing 18 years' service. Mr. S. W. Chaffey,
Draughtsman 4, Water Investigations Branch, retired after service which commenced
in 1947.
 EE 86
Mr. J. T. Gulliver completed the second year of study under the Executive
Development Training Plan. Mr. R. W. Aldred enrolled for and Mr. J. W. P. Martin completed the one-year correspondence course in Basic Public Administration.
The Department earned two bronze safety awards, which were presented to
the Deputy Minister by the Honourable the Premier prior to the close of the year.
EE 89
M. B. Maclean, B.Com., Departmental Comptroller
Water Rights Branch revenue again, as in past years, showed a steady increase.
This increase was almost entirely due to additional hydro-power generation.   The
source of revenue by purpose was as follows:—
Domestic, incidental use, and fees	
Funds held on application
Comparison of Water Rentals and Recording Fees Revenue for
10-year Period 1956-65, Inclusive
Ten-year average, $1,669,560.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.


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