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REPORT OF THE Department of Recreation and Conservation containing the reports of the FISH AND GAME BRANCH,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1964

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Hon. W. K. Kiernan, Minister D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister
REPORT OF THE
Department of Recreation
and Conservation
containing the reports of the
FISH AND GAME BRANCH, PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH,
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU,
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND
ANTHROPOLOGY, PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH, AND
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
Year Ended December 31
1963
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1964
  Victoria, B.C., January 23, 1964.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department
of Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1963.
W. K. KIERNAN,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 Victoria, B.C., January 23, 1964.
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1963.
D. B. TURNER,
Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 CONTENTS
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation-
Fish and Game Branch	
Provincial Parks Branch	
British Columbia Government Travel Bureau_
Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology.
Photographic Branch __
Commercial Fisheries Branch	
Page
. 7
. 13
. 29
. 41
. 51
. 59
. 63
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 Report of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation, 1963
D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister and Commissioner of Fisheries
INTRODUCTION
During the calendar year of 1963, many gains, of much variety, and many
objectives, both large and small, were attained by the Department of Recreation
and Conservation as a whole and by its branches individually. The ends of conservation and recreation were pursued vigorously and continuously, and contribution,
it is believed, was made toward further enhancing British Columbia's already fine
reputation as a splendid part of the world in which to live and in which to visit.
From the many noteworthy events and activities of the Department during the
year 1963, a few can be singled out from the branch reports for special mention.
The Fish and Game Branch annual report notes the pleasing fact that fatal
hunter accidents dropped from a total of nine in 1962 to five this year. This fact is
all the more gratifying because hunter licence sales for 1963 set an all-time high of
129,000 resident and 5,100 non-resident, the former representing a slight increase
and the latter a fine 14-per-cent rise in numbers.
A survey of the fur resources' current use and potential was conducted by the
Fish and Game Branch and Indian Affairs Branch of the Department of Citizenship
and Immigration. It indicated the fur industry could be completely revitalized and
made much more profitable to the economy than it is currently.
The first stages of construction of the Kootenay hatchery, near Cranbrook,
were completed and the second stage engaged.
In the main, game stocks throughout the Province were increased over 1962
and ratio of hunter success was up slightly.
From the Parks Branch annual report stands out the record that more than
4,000,000 visitor-days were registered in British Columbia's 6,388,021 acres of
park land.
Nine Class A parks were established, increasing park lands by 494 acres.
Barkerville visitors increase to 128,000 visitor-days, with 45,100 registered
at the museum.
In the Travel Bureau annual report, the record is noted that more than
4,000,000 tourists contributed slightly over $150,000,000 to the Provincial
economy.
In 1962 a preliminary or trial travel-market research study was carried out,
the visitor study being limited to road and ferry tourist traffic at some Lower Mainland points. In 1963 the study was enlarged to cover most entry points for visitors
to British Columbia. The report of this important fact-finding tourist or travel
research study will be off the press in January, 1964, and will prove to be a valuable
dollar-earning and expenditure-planning guide to all segments of the fast-growing
travel industry in British Columbia.
Goodwill tours to California and the Prairie Provinces were highlights of
Government travel publicity in 1963. On these productive tours were Provincial,
municipal, and district representatives of all levels of government and of all sections
of the travel industry.
7
 U 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Beautiful British Columbia " magazine subscriptions exceeded 37,000 by December 31st, a huge gain from the 26,000 subscriptions the year-end previously.
Circulation averaged 78,000 copies per issue.
The Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology was host to the
first annual meeting of the Canadian Museum Association on the Pacific Coast.
The Provincial plant collection was consolidated and the exhibits modernized.
The Photographic Branch in 1963 completed a new motion picture entitled
" Trade Fair," produced for the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and
Commerce. Two other motion pictures were begun in 1963—one on migratory
birds of British Columbia and the other dealing with Vancouver Island.
Approximately 3,000 colour pictures were added for use in the "Beautiful
British Columbia" magazine and for other publicity purposes.
The Commercial Fisheries Branch report shows that 38 licences were issued to
plants producing sea-food products, more than double the numbers that have been
issued annually for the past five years.
Mr. R. G. McMynn joined the staff of the Commercial Fisheries Branch as a
Research Officer. He was transferred from his position of Chief Fisheries Biologist
of the Fish and Game Branch. Mr. McMynn is undertaking a special assignment,
recommended by the 1962 Special Committee on Fisheries, Legislative Assembly of
British Columbia, to study jurisdictional and administrative management of commercial fisheries in British Columbia as this relates to the Province's interest and
obligations in such matters.
On December 4, 1963, the Honourable E. C. Westwood was succeeded by the
Honourable W. K. Kiernan as Minister of Recreation and Conservation. Essentially, therefore, the operations and accomplishments of the Department in the
calendar year 1963 were carried out under the direction of the Honourable E. C.
Westwood.
The Department of Recreation and Conservation was created by Act of Legislature dated March 28, 1957, and the Honourable E. C. Westwood guided its destiny
since that time. He quickly won the complete staff to his devoted support, and
throughout his tenure of office all personnel, whether at headquarters or in the field,
built up a remarkably fine attachment to the Minister, not alone in the business of
the Department, but also in mutual friendship and regard.
The officers and staff members of all branches join me in thanking the Honourable E. C. Westwood for his intense interest in the Department of Recreation and
Conservation and for his close personal interest in all of us who worked for and
with him through nearly seven years of productive work in recreation and conservation in British Columbia. We feel that he has made outstanding contributions to
the Province and to its people.
 The Honourable Earle C. Westwood, Minister of Recreation and
Conservation, 1957-63.
  HIGHLIGHTS OF 1963
FISH AND GAME BRANCH
FATAL HUNTING ACCIDENTS DECREASED
Fatal hunter accidents dropped from a total of nine in 1962 to five this year.
RECORD LICENCE SALES
Hunter licence sales for 1963 set an all-time high of 129,000 resident and
5,100 non-resident.
FUR RESOURCE SURVEY
A survey was conducted of the fur resource, current and potential.
KOOTENAY HATCHERY
The first stages of construction of the Kootenay hatchery, near Cranbrook, were
completed.  The second stage was begun.
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
PARK USE INCREASE
Park-use figures indicated more than 4 million visitor-days were registered in
British Columbia parks.
BARKERVILLE
Barkerville visits increased to 128,000 visitor-days, with 45,100 registered at
the museum.
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU
RECORD YEAR FOR VISITORS
Estimated value of the tourist industry topped $150,000,000.    During the
year more than 3,762,000 visitors came to British Columbia.
"BEAUTIFUL BRITISH COLUMBIA" MAGAZINE
Subscriptions to "Beautiful British Columbia" increased to  37,000, with
average sales reaching the 80,000 mark.
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
MUSEUM ASSOCIATION MEETS IN VICTORIA
The Museum was host to the first annual meeting of the Canadian Museums'
Association on the Pacific Coast.
HERBARIUM EXPANDS
The Provincial plant collection was consolidated and the exhibits modernized.
11
 U 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH
COLOUR PICTURES
Three thousand colour prints were added for use in "Beautiful British Columbia " magazine.
TELEVISION SHOWINGS
Television showings for 1963 total 80.
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
LICENCE SALES INCREASED
This year 38 licences were issued to plants producing specialty sea-food products, more than double the average issued annually for the past five years.
RESEARCH OFFICER
Mr. R. G. McMynn joined the staff of the Commercial Fisheries Branch as a
Research Officer. He has undertaken a special assignment to study jurisdictional
and administrative management of the commercial fisheries as this relates to the
Province's interest and obligations in such matters.
 FISH and
GAME
BRANCH
 Studies of the effects of pesticides on sport fish are under study
at the Fish and Game Laboratory, Victoria.
■
'" ¥
California bighorn sheep were trapped for transport to Idaho.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1963
U 15
FISH AND GAME BRANCH
James Hatter, Director
ADMINISTRATION
Hunting Licence Sales, 1959 to 1963, Inclusive
1959
1960.
196L
1962_.
1963_.
Resident
Hunters
Non-resident
Hunters
113,599
3,185
118,608
3,876
120,640
3,937
126,330
4,504
129,000
5,100
The year 1963 continued the trend toward greater use of our sport fish and
game resources and provided good returns to an estimated 349,000 people who
pursued hunting and fishing in British Columbia in 1963.
For the staff in general, 1963 was a lively year with satisfying progress in fish
and game management despite the many minor problems that arise in the administration of a variable resource of which the public at large is the direct user. Effective administration and progress demands the highest possible level of performance
by all members of the agency staff, and in this respect it has been encouraging to
witness a more closely united and co-ordinated organization than we have ever had
before. This positive attitude on behalf of our Conservation Officers and technical
staff has resulted from the delegation of increased authority to supervisory staff, as
well as a basic satisfaction from the very nature of conservation work.
Several major transfers and promotions were made during the year. Mr. W. A.
McKay, formerly the Conservation Officer at Grand Forks, was transferred to headquarters and promoted to Fur Management Biologist. Mr. McKay's training and
experience are well suited to organizing the fur resources programme of the Branch.
The management of fur has not kept pace with its importance in the wildlife
economy of the Province, but henceforth it will receive more attention as a significant contributor to the welfare of British Columbia.
Mr. George A. Ferguson, formerly senior clerk in the Kamloops divisional
office, was transferred to headquarters to assume the role of Public Information
Assistant. In this position, Mr. Ferguson will assist in the important job of answering the many hunting and fishing inquiries received, general public relations, and
preparation of display material, as well as being responsible for the monthly staff
bulletin. A public information and education section, comprising three people, now
exists at headquarters and performs a valuable and vital function for our Branch.
Two positions of Senior Conservation Officer were created—one at Penticton
and the other at Dawson Creek. These intermediate supervisory positions were
awarded by competition to Conservation Officer H. Tyler and Conservation Officer
B. G. Paull respectively.
A licence-reinstatement committee of three was established by the Director to
review applications for licence renewals by those persons responsible for hunting
accidents. The committee is a lay body, comprising three knowledgable and experienced hunters—Messrs. G. Ed Meade, H. P. Estlin, and G. F. Dunn. It meets once
a year to consider and to advise the Director on the serious matter of licence reinstatement to those persons having caused non-fatal and fatal injuries while hunting.
 U 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Promotion of hunter safety has, we trust, had some beneficial effect. Fatal
accidents, at the time of writing, show a 50-per-cent decrease over 1962, but, on the
other hand, non-fatal accidents increased considerably. A comparison of current
statistics for accidents involved in hunting is tabulated as follows:—
Firearms accidents—
Fatal	
Serious	
Not serious	
Other accidents (hunting or angling)-
Fatal	
Serious	
Not serious	
1962
1963
9
5
2
3
3
17
6
4
1
    1
Totals   21
30
The in-service training-school was again operated at Green Timbers, and a
new course of instruction was presented to 30 members of the Conservation Officer
staff. This training programme is demonstrating its good effect and is received
enthusiastically by the majority of participants.
Two replacement patrol vessels were launched in November. Both are of 28-
foot sea-skiff design and will operate from Sidney and Prince Rupert.
The magazine " Wildlife Review " shows a steady increase in popularity, and
at the year's end, circulation was about 60,000.
Once again, sincere thanks are expressed for the co-operation and assistance
received from other branches of the Department and from other departments and
individuals within the Provincial Government. Thanks are conveyed also to the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police for their continued assistance during 1963. To
the many other people, too numerous to mention, who have also contributed to a
a successful year in the Fish and Game Branch, sincere appreciation is extended.
GAME MANAGEMENT
General
The number of resident and non-resident hunters continues to increase. The
estimated sale of 1963 hunting licences is 129,000 residents and 5,100 non-residents.
This represents only a slight increase in resident hunters over last year, but a
14-per-cent increase in non-residents.
Game-harvest Data
The magnitude of the annual harvest is a reflection of the size of the game
populations, current regulations, and the number of hunters, modified by weather
conditions and access. An estimate of the harvest of the major game species is
obtained by a random postal survey of hunters who fill in a questionnaire stating
their success.
Game-harvest Estimates from the Hunter Sample Questionnaire
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
432,100
554,800
70,000
11,500
3,100
59,700
390,200
365,000
50,700
12,200
2,300
61,400
390,000
344,000
46,600
11,300
2,300
58,600
377,200
413,600
57,100
15,200
3,500
67,000
460,500
Grouse.	
360,500
64,700
Moose..          	
T?11r
16,675
2,300
T">pp.r
69 500
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1963 U 17
Estimate of Harvest Derived from Hunter Sample Questionnaires
Deer harvest by area— 1961
Vancouver Island  20,077
Mainland Coast.  6,559
Central Interior  24,892
Peace River  2,575
Kootenay  8,829
Boundary  3,993
Totals.
67,025
Moose harvest by area—
South of Quesnel and north of Thompson River 5,328
North of Quesnel, except Peace River  6,596
Kootenay  582
Peace River  2,373
South of Thompson River  374
1962
25,579
6,848
23,450
4,527
6,359
2,726
69,489
4,171
8,078
618
3,378
430
Totals.
15,254 16,675
Comparative figures are not available for 1963 because the analysis of returns
will not be available until March, 1964.
Many road checks are held to obtain information of value in the management
of game. The Cache Creek station provides the best data on the harvest coming
from the north central part of the Province.
Cache Creek Check-station Data, 1958 to 1963
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
2,345
3,064
113
45
3
43
82
8,985
19,351
14,763
2,732
2,645
225
60
5
23
65
7,563
7,853
14,938
3,295
2,919
140
106
9
50
121
6,890
5,701
17,902
4,800
4,175
121
104
12
56
112
7,942
12,000
20,757
3,690
4,833
158
142
39
44
122
8,424
6,188
23,291
3,656
Moose 	
5,418
96
Caribou	
Elk..     ...
156
26
70
169
Watprfnwl
7,283
3,215
22,779
Game Populations, Inventories, and Assessments
Game inventories are carried out yearly to determine trends in numbers and
reproductive success of various game populations. Such assessments are carried out
in many areas in late winter and early spring to determine the winter survival of
young animals.
Moose.—In the south central part of the Province, over 3,000 moose were
classified during post-season and early-spring counts. Calf production was consistently poorer than in the previous year, especially in the lightly hunted areas.
 U 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Composition of Herds in Various Areas of the Province, 1962 and 1963
G.M.A. 20, west section..
G.M.A. 20, east section-
Peace River	
Chilcotin, G.M.A. 16	
North Cariboo, G.M.A. 19-
South Cariboo, G.M.A. 14...
1962
Adult
Calf
Per Cent
Per Cent
76
24
74
26
68
32
78
22
78
22
72
28
1963
Calf
Per Cent
84
78
80
85
83
81
Per Cent
16
22
20
15
17
19
I
The high hunter success recorded by moose-hunters checked at the Cache
Creek station during 1963 indicates that moose populations are in no danger. The
1963 harvest facts analysed to date, although not complete, reveal a substantial
increase in the moose harvest.
Deer.—The deer harvest continued to increase in most areas in 1963. Populations of deer have benefited from moderate winter temperatures and snow conditions of the past seven winters. Field surveys show that excellent survival of fawns
was the rule throughout the Province. Age ratio counts (yearlings to adults) from
the Kootenays indicate the yearling contribution to herds of more than 30 per cent
in both mule and whitetail deer, based on a sample of over 3,000 animals. On
Vancouver Island over 1,400 deer were aged during the spring months. The percentage of yearlings varied from 21 to 42 per cent, with an average of 37 per cent.
In the Peace River, 29 per cent of 1,200 deer observed were yearlings.
Information from the Cache Creek station and road checks in the Kootenays
and Vancouver Island indicate that this year's harvest will probably exceed that
of 1962.
Caribou.—The harvest of caribou is increasing as they attract more hunters
due to their increase in numbers and distribution. An analysis of the postal survey
indicates that licensed hunters took about 750 caribou during 1962. Trappers and
Indians probably take a similar number.
Other Big Game.—Over 1,000 Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were aged on
the East Kootenay ranges during the winter and spring of 1963; of these, 29 per
cent were yearlings and over 15 per cent were rams.
Elk populations in the Kootenays increased during the past 12 months. During post-season and spring assessment counts, over 3,000 elk were observed, 28
per cent of which were yearlings. In view of the low harvest of 1962, due to mild
weather and the excellent carry-over of calves, the antlerless elk season was lengthened in the Kootenays (G.M.A. 11). While complete data will not be available
until the hunter sample is analysed, road-check information indicates the elk harvest
was substantially increased this fall.
Game Birds.—Grouse populations in the Interior of the Province have suffered
a decline since 1958. This decline is the result of natural causes. Harvests are
down owing to the scarcity of birds and the reluctance of hunters to seek grouse
when other types of hunting are more rewarding. However, blue and ruffed grouse
populations on Vancouver Island were above average in 1963.
Chukar partridge stocks in the Thompson Valley show no improvement over
last season, but those in the South Okanagan have maintained their numbers.
Pheasant populations on the Mainland coastal areas suffered a decline. Those
on Vancouver Island increased slightly, and the Central Interior populations
changed little.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963
U 19
Surveys
Surveys are essential in this era of rapid and constant expansion of human
activity, to provide facts on game populations and game habitat for better management.
A survey was conducted in the south-west section of the Cassiar, near Telegraph Creek, during July and August of 1963. A large influx of hunters is expected
into this area upon completion of the Stewart-Cassiar Road, a project well under
way. Key areas were sampled throughout this 6,500 square miles of game range,
and basic information regarding the distribution and abundance of Stone sheep,
mountain goat, caribou, moose, grizzly and black bear, wolves, and fur-bearers was
recorded. Classified counts were made whenever possible to determine the age
compositions of these virtually unhunted populations.
A range survey is under way in the Kootenays to determine the carrying
capacity and vegetative changes occurring on ranges used by game and domestic
stock.
Surveys of the Columbia River valley were made to determine the probable
effects of proposed dams and water impoundments upon wildlife stocks in the area.
Research Projects
Basic research into the ecology of game animals is being continued by the
research biologist and the University of British Columbia. This is necessary to
give the field personnel the methods and knowledge to improve management of our
game species.
The initial phases of the blacktail deer study on Vancouver Island have been
completed, and the findings are being analysed currently. The reproductive cycle
of this deer population is being jointly investigated by the Fish and Game Branch
and the University of British Columbia. The purpose of these studies is to permit
better integration of deer and forest management.
An ecological study of the Ashnola herd of California bighorn sheep is also
being continued in co-operation with the University of British Columbia. Particular attention is being paid to the relationship between animal use, both domestic
and wild, of various kinds of grasses.
A long-term study of caribou ecology was started in Tweedsmuir Park. This
is a particularly suitable area in which to study caribou as the animals are relatively
restricted.
A pilot project to determine the concentration of pesticides in pheasants on
the Delta region of the Mainland Coast is in progress. This project is designed to
determine whether the pheasants are fit for human consumption and to determine if
toxic residues are sufficiently high to affect the reproductive capacity of the birds.
Transfer of Game Animals
A transfer of 19 California bighorn sheep was made from near Riske Creek
to suitable ranges in the southern part of Idaho.   A semi-portable trap was built at
Riske Creek, and the animals were driven into it by the use of helicopters and
ground parties.   All animals captured were assigned to Idaho, but an even sharing
of the sheep has been agreed upon so that the Fish and Game Branch can restock
certain ranges in British Columbia and transfer other animals to areas having open
seasons.
Fur Resource
A survey of the fur resource's current use and potential use was conducted
jointly by the Fish and Game Branch and the Indian Affairs Branch of the Depart-
 U 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ment of Citizenship and Immigration. Findings indicate that the production of
furs could be greatly increased, but owing to poor financial return per unit effort,
few people engage in trapping on an efficient and businesslike manner. As a result,
the quality of pelts is poor and prices are depressed, and these factors further reduce
incentive to trap. Seasons have been modified to encourage trappers to take fur
when it is prime and commands the best prices. Revitalization of the fur industry
will be a slow process, depending largely on an educational programme designed to
improve the quality of the raw produce and increase the demand for British
Columbia pelts on world markets.
Adjustments were made to the open seasons on fur-bearing animals so that
the time of harvest corresponds to the periods when pelts are prime. This has
resulted in a curtailing of spring beaver-trapping in most areas and an extension of
fall beaver seasons.   The open season on fine fur was delayed until mink are prime.
Predator Control
The control of predators was continued at the same level of intensity in those
areas of the Province where their activities bring them into competition with man.
Coyote- and wolf-control baiting programmes were maintained in the stock-raising
areas of the Province. Many bear complaints were dealt with on a specific basis,
the emphasis being on the elimination of the individual animal or animals doing
damage rather than general population control. It is apparent that the Branch's
predator experts can keep economic losses from wolves, coyotes, and bears at a low
level without depleting these animals in true wilderness regions.
Cougar populations appear to be increasing throughout the Province. The
effect of this species on game populations is not great, but they can be a problem
in rural communities. Cougar-hunting specialists stationed throughout the Province
deal with these situations. An increasing number of sportsmen are hunting this
fine game animal, especially in the better game-producing areas of the Province.
Every opportunity is taken to promote the cougar and timber wolf as animals
worthy of recognition as unique trophies. It is encouraging to note increasing
interest in the northern timber wolf on the part of non-resident hunters. It is
hoped that this species will eventually reach trophy status and take its place among
British Columbia's rarer big-game species.
Obituary
On February 13, 1963, Mr. Fay Hartman, Regional Game Biologist at Prince
George, lost his life in an aeroplane accident while engaged in a caribou survey in
the Wolverine Range near Manson Creek. Mr. Hartman was born in Fraser Lake
and received his education at Terrace, the University of British Columbia, and
obtained his master's degree at the University of Michigan. Mr. Hartman's background gave him a rare insight into the problems of the North, its people and its
game, which enabled him to do an outstanding job during the few short years he
was with the Fish and Game Branch.
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Stream Surveys
The stream survey programme instituted last year has already begun to produce
valuable data. The programme was designed to obtain information from problem
streams so that action could be taken relative to fishing regulations, pollution control,
hydro-electric projects, and other immediate management problems. The streams
surveyed to date by stream survey crew in 1962/63 are as follows:—
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963
U 21
Vancouver Island:   Trent, Tsolum, Millstone, Cowichan, San Juan.
Lower Mainland:  Coquihalla, Cheakamus, Skagit, Anderson, Gold, Nor-
rish, Chehalis.
Cariboo: Atnarko.
Northern:  Morice, Kispiox, Kitwanga.
Kootenay Lake Study
The Kootenay Lake sport fishery has continued to improve, with a still greater
increase in the catch of fish over 14 inches in length. Superior fishing existed this
year in the West Arm of Kootenay Lake for rainbow trout, where catches of fish
from 2 to 10 pounds in weight were common.
Rainbow trout spawner from Kootenay Lake tagged with a vinyl dart tag
at Gerrard, near the Lardeau River.
The spawning population of Kootenay Lake rainbow trout at Gerrard was
enumerated again this year. Size and duration of the run indicated it was superior
to that of 1962, suggesting that the total trout population in Kootenay Lake is still
increasing, even in the face of a highly intensified sport fishery.
Increased growth of fish in Kootenay Lake might be due in part to the success
of the introduction of a deep-water crustacean, Mysis relicta, which was introduced
to the lake in 1950 from Waterton Lake. These organisms are present in abundance,
and now form an important part of trout and kokanee diet. Kokanee in particular
exhibited a startling increase in size this year, with an average size of 15 inches in
length from West Arm spawning-streams.   One individual weighed over 7 pounds.
The creel-census programme for Kootenay Lake will be carried on for some
time and continues to provide important management information.
It is anticipated that the lake rehabilitation programme will be shelved temporarily until the lakes treated in the past are adequately stocked and until better
techniques are worked out for treating lake systems.
 U 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Green Lake Study
Results of a year-round limnological study on Green Lake have now been
analysed. In essence, the lake is not particularly saline (800-1,100 p.p.m.) and
supports large populations of lake chub and suckers (two species), as well as some
rainbow trout. The first evidence of chinook-salmon survival following stocking in
February, 1962, was obtained in early October, 1963, when 22 young salmon,
ranging between 8 and 10 inches in length, were taken by netting. All fish appeared
to be almost 2 years old and were in excellent condition.
Cowichan River Study
An intensive creel census and biological survey programme on the Cowichan
River started in May. The programme is designed to yield information which will
be of value in managing coastal streams on the Mainland as well as on Vancouver
Island.
Province-wide CReel-census Programme
Conservation Officers throughout the Province are now engaged in an intensive
creel-census programme on problem lakes or streams. Most officers have one or
two bodies of water to cover, for which a well-planned programme is in effect. Large
numbers of scale samples are collected, counts are made of resident and non-resident
fishermen, and the number of fish caught are recorded, together with the length of
time taken to catch them and the type of gear used. This information will be of
value in drawing up stocking requirements, fishing regulations, and other management measures to improve these fisheries.
Hydro-electric and Water-storage Studies
Two major hydro-electric development proposals necessitated separate surveys
for fish inventory and to provide background for fish-protective recommendations.
In the Peace River dam reservoir area, a two-man survey crew collected fish, conducted stream-flow and spawning-ground studies, and appraised reservoir forest-
cover to predict future sport and commercial fishing potential in the Peace River
reservoir area. A report will be prepared outlining fisheries protection and development recommendations.
Field studies relating to the Columbia River development were concluded in
October. Present use of Duncan and Lardeau Rivers as trout-spawning areas was
intensively studied. Fish collections and spawning-stream surveys were concluded
in the Duncan Lake, Mica Creek, and High Arrow Dam reservoir areas. A final
report with findings and recommendations is being prepared.
Minor water-storage projects on Cranberry Creek to supply electricity to Revelstoke and at Cranby Lake on Texada Island for mining use were investigated.
Reservoir clearing to preserve existing sport fisheries will be undertaken at both sites.
A postgraduate student has begun a biological study of the effects of water-
storage and lake-level fluctuations resulting from hydro-electric reservoir development on fish and fish-food organisms in lakes on Vancouver Island.
Pollution Control
Approximately 150 potential pollution situations were brought to the attention
of the Fisheries Management Division during the year. Many different types of
pollutions were studied, reflecting the increase in British Columbia of many secondary industries. New chemical pollutants have required more detailed studies in
order to arrive at suitable fish and game protective measures.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963 U 23
Placer-mining activity continues at a steady rate, as does " portal" type mining, which appears to be increasing, particularly on Vancouver Island and in the
Central Interior. Petroleum explorations have spread throughout the entire northern
area of the Province north of Prince George, and logging activity has increased in
remote areas west of Williams Lake and in the Peace River area. Water-pollution
problems attended many of these industrial activities, and in many instances unique
pollution-abatement techniques are required because of peculiar climatic or topographic factors.
Pulp-mills have been proposed for several localities on major river systems and
are of particular concern to fisheries agencies. Pulp-mill effluents are complex in
their components and are particularly difficult to render non-toxic. This type of
pollution problem will be encountered more frequently in the future as secondary
industry expands in British Columbia.
The Department of Agriculture has begun an investigation of pesticide use in
British Columbia and of measures to control uses. The Health Branch, British
Columbia Forest Service, and the Fish and Game Branch are co-operating agencies.
The first step will be to recommend legislation to reduce unwise use of pesticide
materials.
As in other years, co-operation has been excellent with other Government
departments in solving pollution problems, particularly with those departments
responsible for administration of our primary resources. The understanding and
co-operation shown by individuals and companies in adopting extensive fishery
protection measures reflects the growing awareness of the public of the need for an
extensive pollution-control programme.
Victoria Fisheries Laboratory
A small, but well-equipped, fisheries laboratory has been established in Victoria to handle a variety of problems. It will be used primarily to process material
collected in lake and stream surveys, reservoir studies, and the like. The unit is
also equipped to handle bio-assay studies of toxic materials in connection with
pollution-control work and to carry out other water analyses.
Net Fishing in Non-tidal Waters
Net fishing in certain specific non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under licence from the Minister of Recreation and Conservation. Fishing is
confined almost exclusively to residents living within a short distance of the lakes
in question. The following table gives the principal catch figures for this type of
fishing:—
 U 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Catch of Fish Taken under Commercial Licences from Non-tidal Waters, 1962/63
Name of System
Kind of Licence
Number
of Fish
Taken
Approxi-
Commercial
Home Use
Sturgeon
Weight
(Lb.)
19 (17)
9(3)
2(1)
4(3)
6
1
3T2)
26(5)
1
1
1
50
300
5,722
2,574
4
3,263
488
390
250
150
1,200
1,658
4,655
320
Okanagan Lake  	
_____
1,668
1
2,194
217
TaHa T.alffi
1
1,000
1 Did not fish.
Numbers in parentheses beside the number of licences issued indicate the number of licence-holders who
failed to file a return.
Species
Kokanee
Lake 	
Whitefish
Ling	
Sturgeon
Suckers _
Jackfish __
Others ....
Catches by Species
Number of Fish
_    7,706
_    1,861
_    2,752
74
4
332
74
188
Totals
_ 12,991
Weight (Lb.)
2,873
2,964
5,106
220
320
764
74
877
13,198
The non-tidal commercial net-fishing regulations and licence-fee structure
were completely revised this year. Seasons, catch-limits, and gear restrictions were
changed to increase the efficiency of the fishery and to protect lakes from overfishing. Those wishing to net fish for sale must now be in possession of a Commercial Class A licence, which costs $50. Those netting fish for home consumption purposes require a Domestic Class B licence costing $5. A Coarse Fish Class
C licence to net coarse fish for mink-food or other similar purpose costs $5, while
a Domestic Set-line Class D licence is free to the holder of a resident angler's licence.
Formerly a $1 fee covered all types of net fishing.
Hatcheries
The hatchery programme for 1963 varied little from the one of the preceding
year. Production, number of lakes stocked, and research were at virtually the
same level. An increased number of native rainbow eggs was collected. Construction on the Kootenay hatchery began in October.
Liberations (Surface and Aerial)*
As predicted in 1962, no appreciable increase was made in the number of
lakes stocked, and 425 (415) lakes, mainly across the lower third of the Province,
* Figures in parentheses are those for 1962.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1963 U 25
were stocked with fish varying in size from fry to yearlings. Aerial stockings are
included in this total, and 170 (165) lakes were stocked this way. Species liberated
were rainbow, Eastern brook, Yellowstone cutthroat, and chinook salmon. Over
three-quarters of a million rainbow eggs were planted.
Production
Production for 1962 and 1963 was the same, and 45,000 pounds were produced in the hatcheries at Summerland, Nelson, Loon Creek, and Cultus Lake.
A large increase in trout production will be realized when the new hatchery near
Wardner (Kootenay District) is completed in late 1964 or early 1965.
Egg Collections
The Pennask Lake inlet trap was used in 1963, and about 3,400,000 rainbow
eggs were collected. About 1,000,000 were also collected at Beaver Lake near
Kelowna, and slightly over 500,000 were taken from Stump Lake spawners. These
three stations will again be operated in 1964. All these eggs were taken directly to
Summerland hatchery.
About 300,000 Yellowstone cutthroat eggs were collected in the Kiakho Lake
outlet stream.
Over 5,000,000 kokanee eggs were collected at Meadow Creek (Lardeau)
and Mission Creek (Kelowna). These were traded to Washington, Oregon, and
California for rainbow eggs, steelhead eggs and fish, and Eastern brook trout eggs.
Hatchery Research
One programme organized in 1960 was continued through 1963. This programme included (a) a study of strain survival which involved native rainbow, fall-
spawning and spring-spawning rainbow, and (b) a study of survival of different
sizes of a particular stock; sizes varied from fry to 50 per pound.
The Gerrard-Niskonlith programme, which was started in 1961, was carried
on in 1963 and will be terminated in 1964. About 65,000 rainbow eggs were taken
from 13 females.
New Construction
Construction of the Kootenay hatchery near Wardner got under way in October. The water system, including an intake dam, will be completed in early 1964.
Contracts for the remainder of the construction will be placed in the spring of 1964.
Engineering
Kootenay Hatchery
The new Kootenay hatchery, now under construction, will be highly automated, particularly with regard to automatic fish-feeding. The Branch engineering
staff designed, built, and tested a prototype model of a pneumatic trout-food conveying unit in Victoria. A test was carried out under operating conditions at
Summerland hatchery. Final design of the units is now nearing completion, and
they will be installed during construction of the Kootenay hatchery. It is expected
that labour costs will be cut and growth rates of trout increased by use of this
equipment, which eventually will become standard at all trout hatcheries.
Stump Lake Artificial Stream
Artificial circulation of water on the beach of the north end of Stump Lake
was accomplished by use of a 10-horsepower motor and 16-inch propellor.   Spawn-
 U 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ing rainbow trout were attracted into a trap through which a stream of water was
directed. High winds throughout the whole operation together with a low population of fish resulted in only limited success. The artificial facility was necessary
because of the lack of a natural stream.
Coarse-fish Barriers
Surveys were completed, plans drawn, and a road bulldozed to the Davis Lake
barrier site by the Parks Branch. (Rehabilitation of the lake and barrier construction have been deferred until further testing of fish toxicants has been completed.)
A coarse-fish barrier has been completed on the outlet of McLeese Lake in cooperation with Dunromin Ranch at Soda Creek. This structure serves the dual
purpose of coarse-fish barrier and irrigation control-works and diversion dam.
Completion of the McLeese Lake project illustrates the advantages of a high degree
of co-operation between the Fish and Game Branch and the cattle company involved
in the use of water.
Buildings
A concrete-block storage building for Prince George divisional requirements
was designed and built by contract. The shed provides 570 square feet of vehicular
and boat storage and 280 square feet of workshop area. Design has been completed
for storage buildings for other regions. Specifications were completed and a contract
let for fencing, ditching, and landscaping for the Fort Nelson Conservation Officer's
residence.
Lardeau River Spawning-channel
Engineering research is well under way as a preliminary to designing of an
artificial spawning-channel on the Lardeau River, tributary to Kootenay Lake. The
Lardeau-Duncan river system supports a huge run of kokanee salmon and provides
the only known spawning area for large Kootenay Lake rainbow trout. Effects of
construction of the Duncan hydro-storage dam, while not fully predictable yet, could
seriously reduce the spawning potential for these two species of fish, necessitating
construction of facilities to ensure maintenance of the Kootenay Lake fishery.
Basic Research
Spawning Migration of Suckers
In May the inlet stream to Sixteen Mile (Baker) Lake, near Quesnel, was
checked for return of suckers marked during the study on their life history and
spawning migration started in 1956. Although only about 10 per cent of the total
spawning population was examined, at least one sucker was found with marks, indicating that it had entered the stream as a spawner in 1956 and on several subsequent
years. This fish was at least 13 years old, showing the long period over which
suckers may be reproductively active.
Spawning Migration of Kokanee
An intensive period of research was conducted on Nicola Lake in August to
clarify several features of migration of kokanee into spawning-streams. The marked
correlation between entry of large numbers of spawners early in the evening on days
with strong onshore movement and entry into the spawning-stream each evening
was built up, using replicate series of deep monofilament nylon nets and recording
echo sounders.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1963 U 27
Artificial Autumnal Aeration to Prevent Over-winter Trout Mortality
No winter kill of trout occurred in Corbett Lake following the artificial aeration
experiment described in the 1962 Annual Report. Although the quantity of oxygen
in Corbett Lake at the end of the winter was far higher than had ever been recorded
previously, this cannot be attributed solely to effects of artificial circulation in the
autumn of 1962. The 1962/63 winter was particularly favourable to over-winter
survival of trout in lakes of the Merritt area, and, indeed, few, if any, winter kills
were reported in untreated lakes of this region. Consequently, the aeration experiment was repeated in October, using the same equipment as previously. Within 15
hours after the compressor had started, the oxygenated layer of water had been
deepened by 10 feet and by mid-November, after several days of intermittent pumping, the lake was well oxygenated from top to bottom. Trout survival will be
checked repeatedly over the winter in Corbett Lake, as well as several untreated
lakes nearby.
Comparative Over-winter Survival of Rainbow and Eastern Brook Trout
There have been suggestions that Eastern brook trout may show much higher
over-winter survival than rainbow trout in lakes subject to severe oxygen depletion.
Consequently, a series of lakes subject to winter kill were stocked with equal numbers of both species to test this possibility. None of the lakes selected was subject
to winter kill of either species during the 1962/63 winter. The experiment has been
repeated, and trout survival will be checked early in the spring of 1964.
Effect of Toxaphene Treatment on Paul Lake Plankton and Bottom Fauna
An extensive series of plankton and bottom fauna samples were taken again
from Paul Lake, one year after it had been treated with toxaphene. These samples
will be compared with a similar series taken immediately prior to treatment in 1962
to examine in detail changes in all species. Preliminary observations indicate that
fresh-water shrimp populations have not been as seriously affected as was anticipated. Abundance of chironomid (midge) larvae appears to be appreciably lower
than before treatment.
Vertical Migration of Chaoborus (Phantom Midge) Larva;
Chaoborus larvas, an important food supply for trout, undergo a marked vertical migration in Corbett Lake from de-oxygenated mid-water layers (20 to 30
feet) in the daytime to surface layers at night. Timing of this migration has been
determined precisely, using a high-frequency echo sounder and Clarke-Bumpus
plankton sampler. Its relations to sub-surface light intensity and temperature conditions are being studied both in the lake and onshore in long plastic cylinders,
where illumination and temperature may be manipulated experimentally.
Bottom Fauna in Chara Shoals
Although the importance of the dense mat formed by the aquatic alga Chara
as a habitat for animals utilized as food by trout has long been recognized, little
attention has been given to the exact distribution of these animals in the mat.
Furthermore, no reliable quantitative methods have been developed to sample
animals living in Chara. Answers to both these problems are being obtained in a
study conducted at Corbett Lake and other productive Interior lakes with extensive
Chara shoals.
 U 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Salmonid Competition in Coastal Streams
During 1963 work was completed on behaviour and ecology of juvenile trout
and coho in a large experimental stream at Puntledge Park hatchery. Results of
these studies indicate that competition for space between trout and coho is most
acute in spring and early summer when the fish are still very young. By their first
winter the fish become less aggressive and changes occur in their behaviour which
tend to reduce the severity of interaction. The study has shown the many ways in
which the detailed behaviour of each species is so nicely adapted to different areas
in a stream—that of trout to rapid current, that of coho to more slowly moving
water. Changes in certain environmental features of streams, such as discharge,
can profoundly alter both the behaviour and distribution of juvenile trout and coho.
Steelhead
Research has been continued on the characteristics of summer and winter
steelhead populations. Investigations to date have revealed that some physiological
attributes of the two varieties of steelhead are in part at least genetically controlled,
and may be detected as early as in the first year of life of the fish. In co-operation
with the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources of Canada (Water
Resources Branch), gauging-stations have been established on the San Juan River
system to assess the effect of stream discharge on migratory behaviour of steel-
heads. Information on these fish is of great importance in management of stream
sport fisheries.
Evaluation of Hatchery Plantings
A four-year programme to assess the relative merits of planting various sizes
and strains of hatchery trout has resulted in completion of field work. Over 2,000
samples have been obtained, and preliminary analyses have provided valuable
information concerning the general programme of artificial trout propagation. Final
analyses will be completed in the fall of 1964. It is anticipated that substantial
economies in hatchery costs will result from more efficient planting of hatchery fish.
Publications
Hartman, G. F., 1962. Use of gill net rollers in fishery investigations. Trans. Am.
Fish. Soc, 91 (2):  224-225.
Hartman, G. F., 1963. Observations on behavior of juvenile brown trout in a
stream aquarium during winter and spring. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 20 (3):
769-787.
Gee, J. H, and Northcote, T. G., 1963. Comparative ecology of two sympatric
species of dace (Rkinichthys) in the Fraser system, British Columbia. J. Fish.
Res. Bd. Canada, 20 (1):  105-118.
Northcote, T. G., and Wilkie, D. W., 1963. Underwater census of stream fish
populations.   Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 92 (2):   146-151.
Northcote, T. G., and Larkin, P. A., 1963. Western Canada chapter in " Limnology in North America."    Univ. of Wise. Press.    Pp. 451-485.
Lindsey, C. C, and Northcote, T. G, 1963. Life history of redside shiners,
Richardsonius balteatus, with particular reference to movements in and out of
Sixteenmile Lake streams.    J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 20 (4):   1001-1030.
 PROVINCIAL
PARKS
BRANCH
 During a" nature vvalk""* x* '    *
Hikers'sheIterb>^crSi
Park during 1963,
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1963 U 31
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
H. G. McWilliams, Director
Number
Year of Parks Acres
1958   132 8,418,880
1959  147 8,421,142
1960  163 8,423,406
1961   186 6,356,176
1962  202 6,376,580
1963   215 6,388,021
Public appreciation of Provincial parks continues to grow, and more than
4,000,000 visits were recorded in our parks during 1963. This is a 100-per-cent
increase over 1957, the year this Department was formed.
Acquisition of park lands has always been of major importance to the Branch,
and six purchases this year will provide future use of highly desirable recreational
areas. Three small sites were also donated to the Crown by public-spirited citizens.
This brings the total number of parks to 215, covering some 6,388,021 acres.
A co-operative programme with the Department of Highways saw the installation of 13 roadside rest stops. This programme will continue until adequate facilities
are provided for picnicking stops along our highways.
Ever-increasing pressure for more recreational access and facilities in all parts
of the Province is a problem of great concern to the Parks Branch.
YOUTH CREWS
For the 15th consecutive year, through the youth crew programme, boys
between 16 and 18 years of age were offered outdoor summer employment. From
over 600 applicants, 150 were chosen to form 12 crews. One crew worked in each
of the following parks: Alice Lake, Newcastle Island, Long Beach, and Garibaldi.
Moyie Lake Park and Ten Mile Lake Park each had two crews, and four crews were
allotted to Manning Park.
PLANNING DIVISION
Land Acquisition and Park Inventory
A significant step was taken this year in establishment of Birkenhead Lake
Park. A valuable addition was also made to Wells Gray Park. The 9,000-acre
Birkenhead property, located north of Pemberton, contains all but a small portion
of the entire lake and has long been considered to have park value. The 1,230-acre
Wells Gray addition, west of Mahood Lake, includes excellent sand beach frontage
on Canim Lake and a spectacular canyon.
Purchase of park land involved 179 acres, including Cowichan River frontage,
Bridal Falls area, a site on the south end of Gabriola Island, two lots in Forbidden
Plateau, Shawnigan Lake frontage, Ballingall Islands, and an addition to Rolley
Lake Park. A 117-acre parcel of sea frontage was acquired north of Rathtrevor
Beach, in exchange for timber in the westerly portion of Wells Gray Park. An
exchange of lands consolidated the boundaries of Mouat Park.
 U 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A report was prepared recommending an addition to Cultus Lake Park.
Several land exchanges were initiated and are being processed by the Lands Service.
The shoreline coding system was revised; the new site report form was used effectively and an acquisition ledger was initiated. The Lake of the Hanging Glacier,
Elk River, White River, the west coast trail, and Bamfield were examined for recreational values. An inventory of park values was carried out in the south-east corner
of Strathcona Park.   Compilation and analysis of park attendance figures continued.
In summary, nine new Class A park were established, increasing Provincial
park lands by 494 acres. These included Saltery Bay, Cottonwood House, Beaumont Marine, Kledo Creek, Otter Lake, Davis Lake, Spectacle Lake, Rock Creek,
and Ballingall Islands. A total of 1,261 acres was added to the following existing
parks: Wells Gray, Newcastle Island, James Johnstone, Dry Gulch, and Rolley
Lake. Birkenhead Lake, containing 9,000 acres, was created a Class B park.
Five new Class C parks were established, representing a total of 262 acres, and
included Nazko, Buck Lake, Gun Lake, Mollice Lake, and Ferry Island. Class A
parks now number 137 and cover 2,312,523 acres; Class B, 8, covering 4,046,369
acres; and Class C, 70, covering 29,129 acres.
Assistance from other Government departments enabled the reservation of 168
new sites for public recreational use, involving approximately 24,500 acres. This
brings the total area reserved for recreational purposes to approximately 312,100
acres and included some 2,000 individual sites.
The Province is indebted to the following for donations of park land
involving 15.5 acres:—
Mrs. K. L. Ridley, an addition to James Johnstone Park.
Mr. and Mrs. A. V. Olsen, a park-site at Rock Creek.
Mr. John G. Archibald (deceased), a natural area near Sicamous.
Development Plans Office
The normally large amount of work connected with planning, as it relates to
parks, increases annually in volume and variety. This is, of course, an indication
of the tremendous interest in outdoor recreation and demand for recreational opportunities by the public. Pressure for leisure-time outlets evidences itself directly
in requests for more camp and picnic sites, boat-launching ramps, lakeside access
points, beaches, etc. It has been, and continues to be, the policy of the Department
to offer whatever technical aid is appropriate to agencies engaged in alleviating
outdoor recreational pressures. No one agency, no one group, can by itself stem
the demand for additional recreational facilities. It is only through a co-operative
approach by all interested parties, on a Province-wide basis, that any progress can
be made.
During the past year, planning work embraced a complex multitude of demands, ranging from preliminary studies pertinent to a town park plan for Fort St.
John to site plans for forest-industry camp-sites and development plans for a Girl
Guide camp at Rosedale. This facet of planning, which is commonly referred to as
" park and recreation extension planning," has become an important service to the
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1963 U 33
communities of our Province. Other projects in this field were carried out for
the towns of Squamish, Osoyoos, Qualicum Beach, Pemberton, and Coquitlam.
A number of meetings were also held with several planning groups in the Lower
Mainland area to acquaint them with our policies and progress and to become more
familiar with the serious conditions that exist in this heavily populated region.
In the realm of master planning, we have been successful in completing a plan
for the Golden Ears section of Garibaldi Park and have put forward a plan for
Bowron Lakes Park. Similar plans are being prepared for Mount Seymour and
Kokanee Glacier Parks. The Garibaldi master plan report, prepared several years
ago, was recently made public and appears to have gained ready acceptance by
interested groups.
Changes in conditions, pertaining to plans previously prepared, resulted in
revision of plans for Chilliwack River Camp-site, Davis Lake proposed park, Otter
Lake Picnic-site, Texas Creek Camp and Picnic Site, Rebecca Spit proposed park,
Quinsam Camp-site, and Savona Park.
New Provincial park planning work resulted in site-development plans for
Sproat Lake Camp-site, Lakelse Lake Camp-site, Saltery Bay Picnic-site, Alouette
Lake group camp, Gold Creek Boat-launching Site, Alouette Lake Camp-site Beach,
Lake Windermere proposed park, and Long Harbour.
Additional planning work carried out serves to emphasize the varied nature
of this specialist field. A field study was made of the Cypress Bowl winter sport
potential, and the findings reported on. Several trips were made to the Diamond
Head and Black Tusk areas of Garibaldi Park to study public use and assess proposals for expansion of facilities. A telecommunication right-of-way through several Vancouver Island parks was laid out, and trees individually marked to limit
damage. New fireplaces were designed, along with another style of entrance shelter,
a smoke-house, and various signs.
All planning work is predicated on accurate topographical maps. The work
of preparing these maps goes on regardless of the season. The following maps were
produced during the past year: Sproat Lake Camp-site, Alouette Lake (south
shore), Antlers Beach Camp-site, Sikanni Chief Camp-site, Kledo Creek Campsite, Hyland River Camp-site, Saltspring Island Ferry Terminal, Barkerville Administration Area, Alouette Lake (horse trails), Goldstream Park (trail), Manning
Park (amphitheatre-site).
Interpretation and Research
Park naturalists conducted daily interpretation programmes through the summer in four parks—Manning, Miracle Beach, Shuswap Lake, and Goldstream.
Using nature houses, nature trails, and guided walks, this staff made over 125,000
contacts with park-users.
Nature houses in Manning, Miracle Beach, and Shuswap Lake Parks served
56,800 people, most of these in July and August. Trial periods of operation in
June and September revealed that there can be sufficient use in these months to
justify keeping the houses open.
For the first time, sample counts were taken of use given to the six nature
trails. Estimates, from carefully gathered figures, indicated use by 66,100 persons.
One trail is especially heavily used. On some days, Beaver Pond Nature Trail in
Manning Park receives a person a minute.
Guided walks are being given increasing emphasis in our programme. Walks
in Miracle Beach and Goldstream Parks were conducted daily, and long walks were
3
 U 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
offered several times a week in Manning Park. A total of 4,700 people was led on
these walks.
A biologist spent much of the summer on Mitlenatch Island Nature Park. His
two main tasks were to study glaucous-winged gull behaviour and assess present
holiday use of the island. Present human use is surprisingly heavy, considering
the park's location, and a small-scale interpretation programme is clearly justified.
Another biologist spent the summer in the vicinity of Alouette Lake in Garibaldi Park assessing that region's potential for interpretation. Similar, but much
briefer, surveys were made of a small range-land lake near Lac la Hache Park, and
in Mount Robson, Little Qualicum Falls, and Elk Falls Parks.
The wildlife research programme in Wells Gray Park was discontinued by
parks personnel. The project was begun in 1950, and because of scientific work
accomplished there, Wells Gray Park is probably the best known in international
wildlife research circles of all our large parks.
Historic Sites Section
Barkerville, Richfield, and Cottonwood House Historic Parks
The Provincial Secretary's Department once again provided funds for programmes as defined by the Barkerville Restoration Advisory Committee.
Approximately 128,000 visitor-days were spent at Barkerville, with an actual
registration in the museum of 45,100 individuals.
In the restoration area, the House Hotel and the J. P. Taylor Drugstore were
constructed, and the Barkerville Hotel and Trapper Dan's Cabin had foundations
replaced. A hewn-log cabin was built in the outdoor museum area. As part of
the interpretive programme, the Cornish pump and wheel was operated in conjunction with a demonstration placer-gold clean-up. Also constructed and operated
was a gold-panning layout where visitors panned for gold at actual cost.
A fence was placed around the historic section of the cemetery by the Barkerville Volunteer Fire Brigade. Restoration continued on grave headboards and
authentic individual grave fences, the latter being prefabricated by the Vancouver
Kiwanis Club. Cemetery parking facilities were expanded, and surveys were made
for further extension.
Housing requirements for approximately 35 employees necessitated repairs and
renovations to old buildings inside and outside the restoration area and the use of
five living-trailers.
A refreshment trailer and a souvenir trailer were set up adjacent to the main
parking-lot to ease increasing demands for these particular services.
Richfield Courthouse was renovated with furnishings from the old Victoria
Courthouse. Twice-daily appearances during the summer months by an actor representing Judge Matthew Baillie Begbie were well received by Courthouse visitors.
A bridge was replaced on the road, and a heavy bulkhead was constructed near the
Courthouse to prevent further erosion and damage from increasing visitor use.
Minor alterations and additions were made at the museum, and a seasonal
programme of interpretive films was successfully inaugurated.
Second phase of the permanent water system was completed with the construction of an intake collection system and installation of a 200,000-gallon wood-stave
reservoir.
Building and property acquisitions were continued toward essential control of
all lands and roads within Barkerville and Richfield Historic Parks.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963 U 35
Beside roof repairs and some new construction, a start was made toward
replacing foundations at Cottonwood House Historic Park.
" Stop of Interest " Sites
With funds provided by the Provincial Secretary's Department, " Stop of
Interest" plaques were placed at sites developed by the Department of Highways
near Azouzetta Lake and Pouce Coupe—namely, " Pine Pass—2,868 ft." and
" Pouce Coupe Prairie."
Fort Steele Historic Park
Fort Steele continues to receive a surprising number of visitors in spite of the
relatively little that has been done there to date. Funds are available through the
Provincial Secretary in accordance with broad policy defined by the Fort Steele
Foundation.
A small picnic-site with pit toilets was constructed as a temporary measure
until proper development can proceed according to plans.
As a start toward development of a restoration area depicting a typical portion
of Fort Steele about the turn of the century, foundations were replaced on the
following buildings: Galbraith's Ferry Office, Fort Steele Trading Company (Gal-
braith's) Store and Warehouse, Government Building, Windsor Hotel, Kershaw's
Store and adjacent dwelling. Board walks were replaced adjacent to the Windsor
Hotel and the Government Building.
Preliminary plans were unveiled by the Fort Steele Foundation showing that
the following buildings would be moved into the restoration area: United Church,
Anglican Church, Catholic Church, Masonic Hall, Schoolhouse, R.N.W.M.P. Barracks, R.N.W.M.P. Caretaker's House, Water Tower.
Roadside Rest Areas
This year saw a start on a continuing co-operative programme with the Department of Highways toward developing a number of roadside rest areas throughout
the Province. Thirty-five picnic tables, nine garbage gobblers, and three toilet
units were installed at 13 separate small developments adjacent to main highways.
Facilities and planning were provided by the Parks Branch; construction equipment,
labour, and maintenance men were provided by the Department of Highways.
Public Information and Education
Demand for outdoor recreation and conservation literature increased substantially during the year. To meet the demand, several publications were revised and
expanded, literature from other recreation and conservation organizations was added
to stock, and new publications were produced.
A booklet, " Things to Do Outdoors," produced by Interpretation Section, has
proved particularly popular. A new map, " Provincial Parks on Vancouver Island,"
is also being enthusiastically received.
Through press, radio, television, talks, articles, and displays there was a continuing dissemination of information concerning Parks Branch activities and facilities
provided for public use.
Thirty talks, accompanied by slides, movies, or practical demonstrations, were
given to schools, service clubs, and youth groups. Fifteen of these talks, to Girl
Guides and Boy Scouts, were of a special nature, dealing with conservation and
woodcraft.
One week during July was spent working in co-operation with the Community
Programmes Planning Branch of the Department of Education, which offered a
camping and recreation course to community leaders.
 U 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Liaison assistance was given the Sno Bird Ski Club when its lodge on Green
Mountain was officially opened by the Honourable E. C. Westwood. Similar
assistance was given Columbia Cellulose Company when a representative of that
company presented the Honourable E. C. Westwood with the title deed for Prud-
homme Lake Park property.
Several British Columbia Safety Council meetings and a safety conference were
attended, and the Public Information Section continued to assist in the over-all
safety programme of the Branch.
ENGINEERING DIVISION
This year showed a slowdown in construction of basic park facilities, such as
camp-sites, and picnic-sites. The only new camp-ground to be established was at
Sproat Lake Park, where 41 camp-sites were constructed. A new picnic-site and
boat-launching area was constructed at Saltery Bay.
Allowing for certain deletions of camp-sites and picnic-sites, the total Provincial facilities now stand at 3,664 camp-sites and 2,161 picnic-sites, for a total of
5,825 tables, or a net increase of 14 tables over 1962.
Parks Branch-Attorney-General's Programme
Developments and maintenance were considerably assisted by manpower supplied by rehabilitation camps of the Corrections Branch in Alouette Lake, Mount
Seymour Park, Cultus Lake, and Wells Gray Park.
Projects Undertaken in 1963 by Parks
1. Alaska Highway:  Primitive camp-site at Kledo Creek.
2. Alice Lake:   Pavement of entrance road and general improvements.
3. Alouette Lake: Bridge across Gold Creek; well drilled and camp-site water
system started; landscaping programme of existing facilities continued.
4. Bear Lake:   Water system installed in camp-ground and picnic-grounds.
5. Bowen Island: Special project for Canadian National Institute for the
Blind; main items included construction of a sea wall, picnic shelter, camp-sites,
a water system, and general landscaping to entire area.
6. Beaumont Marine Park (South Pender Island): Six mooring-buoys, three
camp-sites, and four picnic-sites;  well and hand-pump.
7. Beaumont Park (Fraser Lake):   Reinforced boat-launching ramp.
8. Barkerville: Stage II of water system to townsite; installed electrical snow-
melting system for museum roof.
9. Cultus Lake:  Two wood-styrofoam floats.
10. Garibaldi: Diamond Head road improvements and parking-lot for 60 cars
at base camp; construction of 6V4 miles of new trail from Rubble Creek to Taylor
Cabin; one wilderness shelter.
11. Jimsmith Lake: Chlorinated, lake intake, water system installed to campground and picnic-site.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1963 U 37
12. Kokanee Creek:  Permanent trailer islands installed in service area.
13. Kokanee Glacier Road:   Reconstruction to various sections.
14. King George VI: Cattle-guards installed at entrances and pertinent areas
fenced.
15. Lakelse Lake:  Minor repairs to existing facilities.
16. Manning Park: Kitchen extension and remodelling of Pine Woods Lodge;
parking-lots and service roads in Pine Woods area paved; warming-shelter for
skating area; 24-unit motel recarpeted; major maintenance and renovation programme undertaken for all structures; new septic disposal system for public toilets;
continued work on recreational reservoir; sewage pumping system installed in staff
building; exterior lighting system to skating-rink and motel access roads; painting
exterior of Pine Woods Lodge.
17. Montague Harbour: Reconstruction of main entrance road and other
facilities destroyed by winter storms.
18. Mount Seymour: Toilet and first-aid building; water and sewage and
temporary power station; parking-lot and foundation site for proposed cafeteria
building;  twin-tow reconstruction—conversion from wood to steel towers.
19. Newcastle Island: Mooring-buoys changed from wood to plastic; construction of new ferry terminus at Nanaimo; new water crossing from Nanaimo to
Newcastle Island.
20. Okanagan Lake:  New boat-launching parking-lot.
21. Okanagan Falls:  Expansion of domestic and irrigation system.
22. Oliver Lake:  Parking area paved.
23. SalteryBay:   Nine-unit picnic-site; boat-launching ramp and parking-lot.
24. Shuswap Lake:  Swimmers' float.
25. Sproat Lake:  Forty-one-unit camp-site.
26. Skihist:   New water system intake installed.
27. Vernon (Okanagan Lake):  Two boat-launching ramps.
28. Wells Gray: Continued work on Helmcken Falls Road; established new
service area; Clearwater Lake Camp-site completed.
29. Wickaninnish (Long Beach) :  New service area.
Design and Preparation of Contracts
Contracts were prepared and issued for kitchen expansion at Pine Woods
Lodge and the toilet and first-aid building at Mount Seymour Park.
Design work was carried on for the dam and the Lightning Lakes reservoir,
and the cafeteria building at Mount Seymour.
Extensive investigation was carried on for the electrical services at Mount
Seymour Park, and a complete revision of the present electrical services in Manning
Park.
Mapping and Surveys
Over and above normal engineering supervision on all works, the following
specific projects were undertaken:—
1. Road access surveys: China Creek Park reserve, south shore of Buttle
Lake, Davis Lake by-pass, Pitt Lake access, Gold Creek extension.
2. Mapping projects carried out at Blenkin Memorial Park, John Dean Park,
Loveland Lake, McCreight Lake, Mohun Lake, Morton Lake, Mount Seymour
Park, Nicolum, Quinsam Park, Roberts Lake, Spectacle Lake Park; total, 703
acres.
3. Bridge crossing surveys: Nicolum River, Gold Creek, and Similkameen
River.
4
 U 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Draughting
Draughting consisted of 78 engineering and architectural drawings and 140
topographical map-sheets.
Waterworks Engineering
Water-supply studies were carried on at Windermere Lake proposed park,
Okanagan Lake, Cultus Lake, and Haynes Point.
Langford Workshop Production (Main Items Only)
Entrance portals  4 Special picnic tables  16
Incinerators  9 Type A Signs  14
Marine buoys  8 Fireplaces   73
Garbage gobblers  39 Number posts  76
Standard signs  223 Toilet-seat sections  42
Picnic tables  153 Miscellaneous signs  83
Park benches  11
Summary of Facilities
Public buildings  42 Camp-sites   3,664
Miscellaneous structures 146 Picnic tables  2,161
Boat ramps  31 Pit toilets  1,189
" Stops of interest" signs 49 Fireplaces  3,993
Water systems  72 Garbage cans  4,742
The maintenance of the above facilities was carried on by a staff varying from
50 in the winter to approximately 170 in the high-use season of July and August.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963
U 39
4,200
TJ
tn £
1948   49     50     51      52     53     54     55     56    57     58     59     60     61      62     63
ANNUAL   ATTENDANCE
PROVINCIAL        PARKS
Chart No. 2.
 U 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
NATURE    HOUSE    ATTENDANCE.
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YEAR
Chart No. 3.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT
TRAVEL
BUREAU
 Travel Bureau display at the American Society of Travel Agents Convention
in Mexico City.
An extensive visitor survey was conducted by the Travel Bureau during summer of 1963.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963
U 43
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU
R. L. Colby, Director
Value of Tourism in the Past Five Years
1959    $100,000,000
1960     100,400,000
1961     115,000,000
19 62     145,000,000
1963     150,485,480
In 1963 a total of 3,762,172 people constituted the greatest yearly number
of visitors to British Columbia so far. The estimated value of the industry is
$150,485,480.
Automobiles entering the Province brought 1,482,894 United States visitors
and 980,106 Canadian visitors. Canadian and American visitors to British Columbia via other means of transportation totalled 584,172. It is estimated that a total
of 615,000 British Columbians travelled in the Province.
The figures, based on information to the end of September, have been extended
to include an estimate of total traffic to the end of December.
PROMOTION
Conceivably, British Columbia gained more publicity in 1963 than during any
other year in history. Local, national, and international displays were manned,
and staff members were again guests on radio and television. The net result was
a surprisingly favourable influx of tourists and an increase of an estimated $5,485,-
480 over the previous $145,000,000 record set last year by a combination of
accelerated promotion and the Seattle World Fair.
ACCOMMODATION
Rapid construction of tourist establishments throughout the Province made
heavy demands on inspectors from early spring to late autumn. Field personnel
travelled many thousands of miles in an endeavour to inspect and grade this building
activity. The situation, made more time-consuming than ordinarily by the numbers
of new establishments, resulted in completion of fewer classifications than in 1962.
The number of miles travelled, however, showed considerable increase.
CONVENTIONS SECTION
Toronto, Chicago, Montreal, Ottawa, Saskatoon, Regina, Moose Jaw, Melville,
Calgary, and Edmonton were some of the centres visited by the Conventions Representative during 1963. These contacts were complemented by publication of a
new convention brochure titled " British Columbia, the Memorable Land for
Conventions."
A national advertising programme brought British Columbia to the attention
of convention executives.    Direct mailing was also used.
Due to the efforts of this comparatively new section of the Travel Bureau,
definite convention bookings have been made in the Province.
 U 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
GOODWILL TOURS
Tourist promotional goodwill tours to California and to the Canadian Prairies
were conducted, with approximately 130 British Columbians participating.
The California tour comprised two groups—one to Los Angeles and one to
San Francisco—each travelling by motor-coach, and made numerous public appearances both at service clubs and through the news media. The tour to the Prairies
visited Calgary, Edmonton, Lethbridge, Winnipeg, Brandon, Regina, Saskatoon,
Moose Jaw, and Swift Current, and it has been established many visitors decided to
come to British Columbia as a result of these efforts.
ADVERTISING
Through a substantial advertising campaign, the image of British Columbia
was conveyed to millions in North America. Considerable advertising space was
taken in leading American and Canadian magazines and newspapers, including
Sunset, Westways, Motorland, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Calgary
Herald, Edmonton Journal, Winnipeg dailies, Regina Leader Post, Brandon Sun,
Moose Jaw Herald, Saskatoon Star Phoenix, and Swift Current Sun.
Results of this are reflected in the influx of tourists during 1963.
LITERATURE
Ending October, 1,102,875 pieces of literature were sent out. Inquiries came
from all over the world. Following a long-standing pattern, the Accommodation
Directory was popular with inquirers.
Several revisions to travel brochures were made during the year; others
appeared in completely new format.    Such revisions entailed total rewriting.
PUBLICITY
In all, 362 stories and articles were prepared to the end of October. These
were used in Canada and the United States. Two articles, written for the Canadian
Government Travel Bureau, were distributed throughout North America and Great
Britain.
Talks were given to travel-industry groups, and television and radio appearances arranged for.
Valuable contacts were made with international editors and travel writers.
An extensive tour was also arranged and conducted for travel counsellors from
Canadian Government Travel Bureau offices in the United States and from automobile clubs in California. Several special issues of the British Columbia Government News were prepared, including one issue devoted entirely to tourism. Copy
and facts were checked for numerous publishing houses and periodicals in Canada
and the United States.
"BEAUTIFUL BRITISH COLUMBIA" MAGAZINE
This popular colour quarterly averages some 76,000 copies per issue, of which
some 37,000 are by subscription.    Distribution is to 75 countries.
The magazine won second place in an international contest sponsored by the
American Association for Conservation Information.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963 U 45
TOURIST INFORMATION CENTRES
Tourist Information Centres, on both a permanent and temporary basis, are
a service patronized by many thousands of visitors.
In the Vancouver office, approximately 34,000 inquiries were received over
the counter and by telephone from October, 1962, to October, 1963. Between
January 1st and October 31st, more than 3,500 mail inquiries were received. Of
these, 600 required detailed replies.
At White Rock, 17,424 visitor cars were served. Of these, 15,374 were from
the United States, 798 from other Canadian Provinces, 202 from 34 foreign countries, and 1,050 from British Columbia.
Staff members at the Flood information trailer contended with record traffic
volume utilizing the Trans-Canada Highway. Some 40 per cent of traffic using
this centre was west-bound. About 50 per cent of the east-bound traffic on Highway No. 1 was destined for Rogers Pass.
Cache Creek Checking-station was again used as a summer information centre.
Nearly 10,000 cars were served at Sicamous in 103 days of operation. They
brought 32,664 people, who planned to spend 80,275 days in British Columbia.
Alberta motorists accounted for 43 per cent of total calls, followed by California,
Saskatchewan, Ontario, Washington, Manitoba, and Oregon respectively. Promotion of alternative routes and special sights or activities by staff members increased British Columbia mileage by an estimated average of 56 miles per car.
National park visitors made heavy use of the Banff Information Centre. Due
to its unique location, Banff is important to the over-all aspect of tourist promotion
in British Columbia.
REGIONAL MATCHING GRANTS PLAN
Once again a budget of $150,000 was passed as being available to the eight
Provincial regions. Under this plan the Province undertakes to match, on a dollar-
for-dollar basis, all approved projects inaugurated by regional tourist organizations
to stimulate the tourist industry in British Columbia.
This year's appropriation, though not entirely absorbed, was responsible for
increased regional activity.
FffiLD WORK AND LIAISON
Members of the staff had one of their busiest years. The Director in particular
was subjected to an especially tight year-round schedule of visits and appearances at
meetings. This included attending the American Society of Travel Agents Convention in Mexico, where valuable contacts were made.
The Director also attended meetings at the Provincial and Federal level in
Montreal and Ottawa.
SETTLEMENT
The British Columbia Government Travel Bureau is grateful for the assistance
of various departments in processing 450 settlement inquiries received to the end
of October. Inquiries came from many parts of the world from people interested
in making British Columbia a place of business or residence.
While the Bureau does not share direct connections with immigration, it
makes every effort to assist prospective citizens by directing their requests to the
proper departments.
Each settlement inquiry was supplied a kit of literature consisting of 10 or more
pieces.
 U 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
BRITISH COLUMBIA HOUSE, SAN FRANCISCO
The year 1963 showed a marked increase in the fields of tourism and recreation activity by British Columbia House in the Pacific Coast States and the Midwest, Southern, and South-western States of the United States.
It is estimated California produces approximately 25 per cent of the United
States tourist traffic going to British Columbia. It is also estimated by travel
agencies in the Mid-west and the Southern States that the requests for information
on British Columbia have shown a marked increase in the last three years, as shown
in the following figures provided by travel executives, who explained that tourist
inquiries for the Pacific Northwest, including British Columbia, in 1961 over 1960
was from 5 to IV2 per cent greater; in 1962 over 1961 it gained from 10 to 15
per cent; and in 1963 over 1962 a greater gain from 20 to 22 per cent.
The reason given, apart from the desire to see the scenic beauty of British
Columbia, was to escape the extreme heat and humidity of the South-east and
Central United States. The population of the area in which these figures apply is
approximately 20,000,000.
British Columbia House is working with air fines, bus lines, and railways to
develop package tours to British Columbia and Alaska. We are at present working
to establish an economy tour to British Columbia and extending it by using the
Pacific Great Eastern Railway to Prince George, the Canadian National Railway to
Prince Rupert, with a lay-over at Lakelse, then by Alaska State Ferries to Skagway
and the Yukon, returning over the Alaska Highway to Dawson Creek, Prince
George, and return to Vancouver en route to point of origin.
During 1963 increased interest developed in hunting and fishing in British
Columbia. Yachting inquiries resulted in several parties arriving in British Columbia where charter trips were arranged. Regular contacts are maintained with
groups which holiday via camper trucks, and through their association their numbers going to British Columbia have increased. The office is also in touch with
trailer groups who plan their trips a year or more in advance. Information was
sent to Victoria on square dance annual conventions.
The films provided by the British Columbia House film library have been
widely distributed, not only in California, but in the Mid-west and the Eastern
States. Films have been shown at 182 organizations to reported audiences of
approximately 68,000 people. This includes showings at fairs where films have
been loaned. In addition, the Commissioner has addressed 72 luncheon and
evening meetings.
Our Tourist Representative reports the following figures where he attended
the annual fairs:—
Gate Literature
Attendance Distribution
Boat and Sportsman Show, Cow Palace, San
Francisco  345,315 50,000
Boat and Sportsman Show, Shrine Hall, Los
Angeles  191,600 50,000
Del Mar Fair, San Diego  338,144 50,000
Sacramento Fall Fair, Sacramento  914,311 35,000
Pomona Los Angeles Fair  950,054 50,000
Totals  2,739,424        235,000
In addition, British Columbia House has mailed out, in response to coupons
and letters from individuals, office inquiries, travel agents, and automobile clubs, in
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963
U 47
excess of 6,000 packages of literature. In the literature sent to travel agents and
automobile clubs, sufficient was included for redistribution to their clients. A mailing list to 955 organizations in the travel industry of the Mid-west, South, and
South-west United States has been compiled.
The Tourist Representative has now covered a large percentage of organizations interested in travel in California.    He made approximately 700 calls.
The Tourist Representative has made several contacts resulting in promotional
work, such as at gatherings where sportsman groups meet to plan hunting and
fishing trips. A group of archers has been persuaded to hunt in British Columbia,
and help was provided in their planning. Articles on British Columbia have been
prepared.    Sports editors and other outlets of a similar nature have been visited.
The automobile clubs, formerly only a service organization to their own members, are now full-fledged travel bureaux catering to every type of travel anywhere
in the world. As a result, the services of British Columbia House are used a great
deal to assist them with information on British Columbia.
The number of callers at British Columbia House in San Francisco has shown
a large increase over last year, to an approximate average of more than 1,500 per
month.   Window displays in British Columbia House were changed monthly.
During the year, in response to requests from British Columbia residents,
assistance has been given with information on the opera, ball games, sightseeing,
travel, etc., in California. The office is used by British Columbia travellers as their
mailing address and for general information.
GENERAL
Between January and September, 89,471 mail inquiries were received. Telephone inquiries totalled 748; those at the counter, 1,965. Letters requiring individual attention amounted to 21,804, and those arriving via coupons and lists from
the Canadian Government Travel Bureau totalled 57,010.
Correspondence requiring research comprised 3,128 letters. Letters from
children totalled 7,029.
Interdepartmental telephone calls and other calls separate from tourist inquiries
averaged 250 per month.
RESEARCH
During the summer of 1963 the Bureau carried on an extensive travel research
programme, investigating the flow of visitor traffic into the Province from both
Canadian and American sources.
This study was the second stage in the Bureau's research programme; the first,
or pilot study, was made in 1962. A report was published on the results of the 1963
study, and copies are available from the Travel Bureau.
 U 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
INQUIRIES- B.C. GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU
1961-62-63
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 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963 U 49
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ORIGIN OF VISITORS
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
1963
Based On a research programme carried out by
the Travel Bureau during the summer of 1963.
Chart No. 5.
  PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
 Hoary marmot exhibit in the Provincial Museum, Victoria.
Part of the mushroom exhibit in the Provincial Museum, Victoria.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963
U 53
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
G. Clifford Carl, Director
As measured by numbers of activities and by attendance, 1963 was not
unusual. Staff members spent several short periods doing field work in various
parts of the Province, and the number of visitors to the Museum was less than
expected.
The year's highlight was the annual meeting of the Canadian Museums Association (May 22nd to 24th), which was held on the Pacific Coast for the first time in
the history of the organization. The Provincial Museum and the Vancouver Art
Gallery were co-hosts to delegates from centres as far east as Halifax. The Victoria
meetings were held in the Legislative Buildings, and visits were made to Helmcken
House, the Art Gallery of Greater Victoria, and to the Maritime Museum of British
Columbia. The Honourable Earle C. Westwood, Minister of Recreation and Conservation, and Mr. L. J. Wallace, Deputy Provincial Secretary, spoke on behalf of
the Government of British Columbia; Dr. A. E. Parr, senior scientist at the American Museum of Natural History (New York), and Mrs. Parr were guests of the
association. A banquet was provided by the Province of British Columbia, and the
delegates were entertained at tea at Government House by Major-General the
Honourable George R. Pearkes and Mrs. Pearkes.
FIELD WORK
The major field work in 1963 was a preliminary survey of archaeological sites
in Provincial parks and park reserves, a project carried out in co-operation with the
Archaeological Sites Advisory Board of the Department of the Provincial Secretary
and the Parks Branch of the Department of Recreation and Conservation. By boat
and by car, Mr. Donald Abbott and Mr. John Sendey visited and examined numerous sites, mostly in Coastal areas. A detailed report of their findings is being
prepared.
On two occasions during the year, Mr. C. J. Guiguet assisted biologists of the
Fish and Game Branch in big-game surveys, first in North-western British Columbia,
and second in the Big Bend area of the Columbia River valley.
In July Drs. Carl and Szczawinski were joined by Dr. T. M. C. Taylor, of the
University of British Columbia, on a short visit to the Peace River system to plan
a possible future survey in that area. Transportation down the Parsnip River by
boat and return to Prince George by air, both provided by the Water Rights Branch,
was greatly appreciated.
Dr. Szczawinski spent parts of two days collecting plant material in the Gold
River area, west coast of Vancouver Island, through the courtesy of Mr. Stan Shar-
cott, Federal Fisheries Officer in that district. He also made limited collections in
the Peace River area and at Kamloops.
In July Dr. Carl made a quick trip to Long Beach, Vancouver Island, to collect
a skull of a stranded Minke whale, and later visited the whaling-station at Coal
Harbour for photographic purposes.
PUBLICATIONS
The following publications have appeared in 1963:—
Donald N. Abbott—
" Preliminary Report on the Beach Grove Site."   Manuscript on file.
 U 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
G. Clifford Carl—
"Ira Edmund CornwaU (1875-1962)."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 19,
No. 8, pp. 111-112.
" Guide to Marine Life of British Columbia."   British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 21, pp. 1-135.
" A Coastal Record of the Gopher Snake (Pituophis)."   Canadian Field-
Naturalist, Vol. 77, No. 3, p. 178.
Wilson Duff—
" Stone Clubs from the Skeena River Area."   Report of the Provincial
Museum for 1962, pp. 27-38.
" Planning for the Centennial."   Museum Round-up, No. 12, pp. 25-27.
" Thunderbird Park."    B.C. Government Travel Bureau, pp. 1-32.
Adam F. Szczawinski—
" Mounting Herbarium Specimens with the Use of Plastic."   Museum
Round-up, No. 12, pp. 27-28.
Kees Vermeer—
" The Breeding Ecology of the Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glauces-
cens)  on Mandarte Island,  B.C."    British Columbia Provincial
Museum Occasional Paper No. 13, pp. 1-104.
T. M. C. Taylor—
" The Ferns and Fern-allies of British Columbia." British Columbia
Provincial Museum Handbook No. 12 (second edition, revised),
pp.1-172.
Several other manuscripts are in various stages of completion. These include
the first of a series of handbooks on the Indians of British Columbia by Wilson
Duff, a handbook to mushrooms of the Province by A. F. Szczawinski and Robert
Bandoni, a handbook to the thrushes, chickadees, kinglets, and waxwings by
C. J. Guiguet, and a guide to marine fishes by G. C. Carl. Several publications,
including the " Guide to Common Edible Plants " produced in 1962, are out of
print and are now on the waiting list.
CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES
As part of a contract with a local pest-control service, the entire Museum
wing and the separate laboratory and storage rooms were fumigated and certain
areas were given regular periodic inspection. No recent signs of insect activity
have appeared.
The plant collection has been greatly augmented by the addition of freshly
collected specimens and by remounting large series of duplicate specimens from
the Newcombe collection obtained in 1961. A large number of exchange specimens have also been received, some from Scandinavia. The total number of
sheets in the herbarium now stands at 40,289.
Early in the year the anthropological materials in the basement storeroom
were inspected, cleaned, and rearranged, and a new index file to archaeological
specimens was set up.
In the vertebrate division, a considerable number of skeletons of birds and
mammals were prepared, and all stored material was inspected and found in good
condition.
DISPLAYS
The major change connected with display consisted of a completely new
presentation of the botanical exhibits incorporating a plan conceived and carried
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963
U 55
out by Mr. Jean Andre, of Victoria, B.C. The modern colour scheme, combined
with a simple arrangement of objects and new labels, greatly enhances the displays
in this division of the Museum.
Two new habitat cases were added to the living-animal section, and several
display cases of anthropological materials were completely revamped.
RESEARCH
Due to other commitments, little progress was made in long-term research
projects; no island collecting was carried on in connection with the study of small
mammals and no new material was collected pertaining to the social organization
of the Tsimshian.
Several series of glaucous-winged gulls were collected and sent to the University
of Washington at Seattle, where an investigation is making an exhaustive study of
plumage changes in this species.
One of a series of research projects carried on by volunteer assistant Dr.
J. F. L. Hart was completed, and the report is in press. This programme of studies
is supported by a National Science Foundation grant administered by the Provincial
Museum.
ATTENDANCE
The following attendance figures for 1963 are estimates based upon sample
counts at irregular intervals:—
January      1,500
February      2,000
March      3,900
April      5,000
May     6,000
June  14,000
July   20,000
August
._ 18,000
September   6,000
October   2,000
November  1,800
December  2,111
Total  82,311
Compared with the total estimated attendance of 270,000 for the previous
year, an all-time record, the number of visitors in 1963 is very much lower. It is
about 15 per cent higher than that recorded in 1959, when about 70,000 persons
visited the Museum.
As an extra service to visitors during the summer season, the Museum hours
were again extended to 9 p.m. each evening, except Sunday. Many persons availed
themselves of this extra opportunity, particularly on evenings when flag-lowering
ceremonies were presented in front of the Legislative Buildings.
EXTENSION
Many illustrated talks and demonstrations have been given by staff members
both locally and in other parts of the Province, as has been done in previous years.
In February the Director gave a series of wildlife lectures in Arizona and Texas
under the combined auspices of the Canadian Audubon Society, the National
Audubon Society, and local conservation groups.
The Director has continued to contribute regularly to the weekly radio panel
" Outdoors with the Experts," sponsored by radio station CJVI and now in its
ninth year. Other staff members have appeared from time to time on television
programmes featuring the work of the Museum.
 U 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA .
THUNDERBIRD PARK
The totem-pole carving programme continued through the year with a staff
of two Kwakiutl carvers, Henry Hunt and Eugene (Tony) Hunt. The major project
was the carving on contract of a 65-foot Kwakiutl pole to be presented to the City
of Buenos Aires by the Canadian Ambassador to Argentina and a group of Canadian businessmen. This pole was completed and shipped off in October. In June
the City of Prince Rupert offered the Museum three old totem-poles—two Haida
and one Nass River Tsimshian—which had been copied and declared surplus.
Through the co-operation of the Royal Canadian Navy, these were brought to
Victoria and stored in the Indian house in Thunderbird Park. In October a start
was made on a copy of the 50-foot Nass River pole.
In addition to the large poles, the carvers produced a number of smaller
carvings, to be used as gifts by Government departments. Some of these small
sculptures by Henry Hunt have been retained for the Museum collection, as
examples of his present art style. The 21-foot Kitwancool Frog pole, carved last
year, was loaned to the Canadian Government Exhibition Commission for use in
a trade fair in Philadelphia in November. Until that time it was displayed in front
of the office of the Travel Bureau. Components of the old Thunderbird Park arch
were given to H.M.C.S. " Naden " on indefinite loan, and now decorate the entrance
to the wardroom. Landscaping work in Thunderbird Park was continued with the
planting of cedar-trees and native shrubs in March.
STAFF ACTIVITIES
In April Mr. Wilson Duff presented a paper on " Sea Levels and Archaeology
on the North-west Coast" at the Northwest Anthropological Conference in Portland, and in October he attended a conference on museums and anthropological
research at the National Museum in Ottawa. As Chairman of the Archaeological
Sites Advisory Board, he represented British Columbia at the Conference on the
Development of Canada's Historical Resources, in Saint John, N.B., and as a
member of the Indian Advisory Committee he attended two meetings of that group
in Victoria and Kamloops.
For six weeks commencing June 17th, Mr. Duff attended the Summer Institute in Anthropology, held at the Arizona State Museum in Tucson, Ariz. The
instructional course designed for professional museum workers in anthropology
was sponsored by the American Association of Museums, financed by a grant from
the National Science Foundation. Mr. Duff was especially honoured by being the
only Canadian enrolled for the course.
Members of the staff participated in the annual seminar of the British Columbia
Museums Association in Kelowna in September.
Mr. Donald Abbott, Assistant in Anthropology, left September 1st with eight
months' leave of absence in order to attend Washington State College at Pullman,
Wash., where he will be working toward a master's degree in anthropology.
Also in September, Mr. Frank Beebe was granted two months' leave in order
to undertake a falcon-training programme sponsored by the Federal Wildlife Service
with a view to controlling birds on aircraft runways.
Mr. John Sendey was employed as a student assistant for two months in the
spring, and again in the fall.
BUILDING ALTERATIONS
As a temporary solution to the space problem existing in the herbarium, the
Public Works Department walled off a portion of the exhibit space on the main floor
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1963 U 57
adjacent to the botanical office, creating a room in which most of the storage cases
could be moved. The plant collection is now in its new location, and congestion in
the office and study has been greatly relieved.
In April the stained-glass windows on the south wall of the Museum wing
were removed, repaired, and reinstalled.
OBITUARIES
We record here, with regret, the passing of two persons who, over the years,
have rendered many services to the Museum and to the Province as a whole.
Mrs. Mungo Martin, wife of the late Chief Mungo Martin, a weaver of Chilkat
blankets, and a fine lady greatly revered by all (September 15th).
Mr. Andrew Misheal, a valued friend of the Museum, and a useful source of
information concerning local groups of natives (September 22nd).
  PHOTOGRAPHIC
BRANCH
  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963
U 61
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH
R. L. Colby, Chief
The year 1963 proved to be a busy one for the Photographic Branch.
Although all photographers were kept busy in the field with assignments for
" Beautiful British Columbia " magazine, a full schedule of studio and darkroom
assignments was carried out, as well as undertakings for other departments of the
Government.
A few of the jobs completed for " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine
were the Peace River dam project, summer ski-ing at Invermere, harness racing
at Ladner, and Swiftsure Race at Victoria. In Vancouver, Theatre Under the
Stars, Children's Zoo in Stanley Park, Cleveland Dam, Vancouver School of Fine
Arts, University of British Columbia, Enchanted Forest, and Kitsilano Show Boat
were all covered for picture stories. A trip was made to Queen Charlotte Islands
for material for a story on logging, Indians, the towns of Queen Charlotte Islands,
and for general scenics. The Simon Fraser Days Celebrations at Prince George
and a sightseeing trip on the Peace River by boat from Hudson Hope to Finlay
Forks were covered for a possible story. The vineyards at Kelowna were photographed for a story, and general scenics were taken on all trips for use in the
magazine and for the albums.
Stories were covered on Osborne Pottery Works in Saanich, Craigflower
School, the Frostbite Regatta, and totem-pole carving in Thunderbird Park. Girls
from a cycling club in Haney were photographed during their visit to Victoria, Port
Alberni, and on their return home via ferry to Horseshoe Bay.
Aerial photographs were obtained in black-and-white and colour of 30 towns
and cities of British Columbia for use in the albums. All pictures in the albums,
used for general publicity, are also at the disposal of magazines, newspapers, writers,
and for all other Government departments.
The new motion-picture films being made entailed several trips to Creston for
the migratory-bird film footage and on Vancouver Island for motion-picture footage
and still photographs.
The Legislature opening was photographed in colour and black-and-white.
The same coverage was extended to Cabinet members. A trip was made to photograph Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip during their stop-over at Vancouver
International Airport. The launching of the new Government ferry " Princess of
Nanaimo " and the opening of Green Mountain ski resort were also part of
January's assignments.
Later in the year, aerial pictures of the Fraser Valley were taken for the
Fraser Valley flood-control board. A selection of slides was prepared for the
goodwill tour to California, and pre-tour group photographs, for publicity in connection with the tour, were taken, also progress shots of the totem-pole being carved
in Thunderbird Park for the City of Buenos Aires. In the office of the Honourable
Earle C. Westwood, the presentation of the deed for Prudhomme Park, near
Terrace, was photographed. The American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators' Convention in the Empress Hotel was covered at the request of Mr.
George Lindsay, Motor-vehicle Branch. Group pictures of all graduating classes
of civil defence courses were taken. South American travel agents, travelling under
the sponsorship of the Canadian Pacific Railway, were photographed on the B.C.
Government ferry en route to Victoria. A presentation made to the group bv
Dr. D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation, was reco-ded.
 U 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Assignments for Hospital Insurance Service included opening of the Royal
Jubilee Hospital's new wing, and exterior and interior shots of the building.
The inaugural run of the Government ferry " Queen of the Islands " and
National Editorial Association members and their dinner in the Crystal Ballroom
of the Empress Hotel were photographed. Colour slides were prepared for the
Department of Agriculture.
Pictures were taken at Scott Plastics for display purposes and group pictures
at the plant and headquarters of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association Convention for the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce.
The presentations by Premier W. A. C. Bennett to the safety award winners
were also recorded.
There were 13 special shows projected outside the Branch theatre by our
staff projectionist throughout the year.
MOTION PICTURES
A new motion picture entitled " Trade Fair " was completed for the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce. This film is now being
shown throughout the world to promote the next British Columbia International
Trade Fair.
Two motion pictures have been undertaken this year. One on migratory birds
of British Columbia is being photographed at the bird sanctuary at Duck Lake,
near Creston.   The other is on Vancouver Island.
DARKROOM PRODUCTION
Considering the time devoted to field trips for " Beautiful British Columbia "
magazine, darkroom production surpassed that of last year, with 3,408 negatives,
and 14,464 prints produced. Of these prints, 4,338 were sent out to writers,
magazines, newspapers, etc., Government departments receiving the remainder.
COLOUR PRODUCTION
During the year approximately 3,000 colour pictures were added for use in the
magazine, the albums, and for the general use of writers, magazines, Government
advertising agencies, and other publicity media. Black-and-white photographs, as
well as colour negatives, were requested by many countries other than Canada
and Great Britain.
GENERAL
Maintenance of films in the film library, from which 2,875 showings were
directed with an audience total of 176,403, and the selection of the pictures produced in the darkroom to fulfil requests comprised a great part of the general work.
Television showings for 1963 show a total of 80. Reports of the Canadian
Government Travel Bureau film libraries in the United States record a total of
13,774 private showings, with audience total of 647,310, while telecasts of British
Columbia films reached over 200. It should be pointed out that these records are
incomplete at this time. Also handled in the general office were 97 showings of
films in the Branch theatre, and 109 portraits were taken in the studio.
The Branch film " Tight Lines " was shown to a large group of world-wide
fishermen at Kona, Island of Hawaii, during the annual billfish tournament held
there.
 COMMERCIAL
FISHERIES
BRANCH
 Fish cannery at Steveston.
A part of the fleet which helps make British Columbia's fishery
one of the largest of the primary industries.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1963 U 65
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
J. Kemp, Supervisor
Total Marketed Value of Fish
1958   $98,200,000
1959     66,400,000
1960     52,300,000
1961     77,900,000
1962     94,700,000
Number of Licensed Fishermen
1958  14,266
1959  14,463
1960  14,191
1961  15,660
1962  15,060
Number of Licensed Boats
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962.
Value of Gear
8,177
8,478
8,623
8,856
9,143
1958  $8,185,000
1959  7,701,000
1960  8,545,000
1961  8,946,000
1962  9,946,000
The canned-salmon pack for 1963 was 1,200,906 cases, 615,679 fewer than
the 1962 pack of 1,816,585 cases. The year saw a three-week tie-up in the
British Columbia fishing industry, from July 13th to August 3rd, resulting in a
serious loss to the industry. Pink salmon again helped to bring the total pack up
to its yearly average. The sockeye pack was down by 140,317 cases, due mainly
to the strike, which occurred at the height of the sockeye runs, the pinks down by
431,574 cases, followed by cohoes down 29,946 cases, chums down by 16,174
cases, bluebacks down by 736 cases, and steelheads down by 45 cases, for a total
of 615,679 cases fewer than the 1962 pack. Springs, with an increase of 1,766
cases over the previous year, were the only species to show improvement.
The canned-salmon pack for 1963 comprised the following species (48-
pound cases): Sockeyes, 157,747; springs, 9,940; steelheads, 770; bluebacks,
11,361; cohoes, 145,692; pinks, 757,087; chums, 118,309.
BRITISH COLUMBIA CANNING INDUSTRY
Twenty-four salmon canneries were licensed to operate in the Province by
this Branch. The locations were as follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena
River, 7; Central Area, 3; Vancouver Island, 2; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 11. This year three more salmon canneries were licensed than in 1962.
Two more canneries were in operation in the Central Area—the rebuilt plant at
Namu and a new operation at Bella Bella. An additional cannery operated this
year on the Fraser River—namely Glen Rose, near New Westminster.
Sockeye Salmon
The sockeye catch was low this year, due to the three-week fishermen's strike
at the height of the season.
Sockeye spawning runs were 10 days earlier than normal. Although the
escapement was extremely heavy to the Chilko and Stellako Rivers, nearly 900,000
fish died without spawning.    The sockeye mortality on the Stellako River was
 U 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
believed to result from a disease called columnaris, but on the Chilko River the
majority of the fish died without any apparent indication of the disease. This
represents a serious loss to the fishing industry and will be felt for many years
to come.
The total pack of sockeyes was only 157,747 cases, as compared to 1962's
pack of 297,717.
Pink Salmon
For a second year, pink salmon dominated the salmon fishery with a total
pack of 757,087 cases.
In spite of lower prices and more emphasis on sales promotion, resulting in
increased sales of this species, it does not seem likely the 1962 pack will be completely sold until early in 1964.
The experimental spawning-beds created in Robertson Creek have proven
successful, and a new pink-salmon run has been introduced to Stamp River on
Vancouver Island as a result. This work has demonstrated two things: new
spawning areas can be created where none previously existed, and survival of fry
from eggs deposited in these artificial environments is substantially increased over
those spawned from natural spawning-beds.
Coho Salmon
The coho pack for 1963 was 145,602 cases, 29,946 cases fewer than the 1962
pack of 175,638 cases. Salmon trailers took an excellent catch of cohoes off the
Queen Charlotte Islands and the west coast of Vancouver Island and sold it in
Seattle at premium prices during this year's fishermen's strike. This, of course,
resulted in fewer of these fish available for canning, which helped to lower the
pack figures.
Chum Salmon
The chum pack was down from 134,483 cases in 1962 to 118,309 cases,
and down from the last six years' average of 134,276 cases by 15,967 cases.
Spring Salmon
The spring-salmon pack was the only one to register a gain in 1963. It
amounted to 9,940 cases, compared to 7,174 cases in 1962. As a strike in the
industry seemed inevitable, by June this year an intense fishing for spring salmon
began. The Department of Fisheries, fearing for the future of the stock, drastically
reduced the weekly fishing hours in the Fraser area. However, August saw the
best spring-salmon fishery in many years, with a catch double that for the same
month in 1962.
HALIBUT
The International Pacific Halibut Commission was set up under treaty between
Canada and the United States for the protection and rehabilitation of the halibut
fishery. For the purpose of regulation, the Pacific Coast is divided into a number
of areas.   The 1963 regulatory areas were as follows:—
Area 1—South of Willapa Bay.
Area 2—Willapa Bay to Cape Spencer.
Area 3a—Cape Spencer to Shumagin Islands.
Area 3b South—Shumagin Islands to Cape Wrangell, Attu Island, not
including Bering Sea.
Area 3b North—Bering Sea, exclusive of Area 3b, North Triangle.
Area 3b North Triangle—In Bering Sea.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1963 U 67
Estimated halibut landings at Canadian ports for 1963 are 25,300,000
pounds, worth $5,566,000. This was a drop in value of over $2,000,000 from
the previous year. Helping to lower the value of the landings was a drop in price
from 31.7 cents per pound in 1962 to 22 cents per pound in 1963. For the first
time, Canadian fishermen topped their counterparts in the United States by landing
51.6 per cent of the total halibut catch. Also, for the first time, Area 2 was closed
by regulation on November 30th. This was the result of poor fishing that made it
impossible to catch the quota for this area within the prescribed time-limits.
HERRING
This year, after two weeks of negotiation, agreement was reached on new
herring prices and no strike was called. The new contract gave fishermen $1 a
ton increase over 1962. They were paid $12.40 a ton for reduction herring,
instead of last year's $11.40 a ton.
Last available reports for 1963 show herring-meal production of 26,698
tons and herring-oil production of 4,040,593 imperial gallons.
WHALING
The whaling season ended on September 30th this year. The catch declined
by 135, from 713 in 1962 to 578 in 1963. Helping to mitigate this lower catch
somewhat was the fact that the species of whale caught this year was better in
terms of productivity. It is thought one of the principal reasons for the lower
catch was the increased activity of the Japanese and Russian whaling fleets. Although market conditions have improved, British Columbia's whaling industry is
at present a losing operation.
PACIFIC OYSTER BREEDING
The summer of 1963 was not exceptionally favourable for Pacific oyster
breeding from the point of view of water, temperatures. In Ladysmith Harbour
a brief period existed during which water temperatures were adequate. In Pendrell
Sound relatively high temperatures (to 72° F.) occurred in mid-June, but they
dropped significantly during most of July and rose again in early August.
In Ladysmith Harbour there was a moderate spawning in mid-July, but no
setting resulted. There was little further breeding activity, and there was no significant spatting.
In Pendrell Sound small spawnings occurred as early as June 20th, but no
spatting resulted. On July 20th a major spawning took place, and by July 29th
samples contained an average of 75 larvae per gallon. A commercial spatfall was
forecast for not less than 50 spat per shell, with spatting to begin August 3rd.
First significant setting occurred on August 4th, and continued until near the end
of August as a result of further considerable spawning in the first week of August.
On August 6th, shell cultch exposed for three hours caught up to 80 spat per shell.
Test shell string cultch, exposed at various stations through the upper and
middle sound, collected a spatfall so heavy it was virtually impossible to count, as
each shell contained not less than 1,000 spat per shell.
Two companies exposed about 75,000 shell strings, and it is anticipated most
of this will be exported.
 U 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REVIEW OF FISHERIES PRODUCTION, 1962
The total marketed value of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1962
amounted to $94,700,000, an increase of $16,800,000 over 1961. This was the
second highest yield in the history of British Columbia's fishing industry, and only
surpassed in 1958, when the marketed value reached $98,500,000.
The principal species as marketed were salmon, with a value of $69,800,000;
halibut, with a value of $9,312,000; and herring, with a marketed value of
$8,500,000.
The landed value of the 1962 halibut catch was $7,773,000, as compared to
$5,316,000 in 1961.
In 1962 the marketed value of shellfish amounted to $2,471,000. The value
of the clam production was $448,000; oyster production, $608,000; crab production, $945,000; shrimp and prawn production, $470,000.
VESSELS AND BOATS
The number and value of boats used in catching and landing fish in British
Columbia for 1962 included 1,210 boats in the 10-ton-and-over class and 7,933
boats in the under-10-ton group, which totalled 9,143 boats, valued at $57,911,-
000.   There were 287 more boats operating in Coastal waters than in 1961.
Gear and Equipment
The 1962 inventory of fishing-gear included 9,887 gill-nets, 507 salmon
seine-nets, and 107 herring seine-nets, valued at $6,547,000. Wire, cotton, and
nylon trolling-lines were valued at $468,000.
Number of Fishermen Licensed
Fifteen thousand and sixty commercial fishermen were licensed in British
Columbia in 1962, compared with 15,660 licensed in 1961. The number of men
employed on fish-packing and collector boats totalled 1,377.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY
The Commercial Fisheries Branch licensed 21 salmon canneries to operate
in 1962, two less than in 1961. The operating canneries in 1962 were located as
follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena River, 7; Central Area, 1; Vancouver
Island, 2; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 10.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia, according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by canners, licensed to operate in 1962 amounted
to 1,816,585 cases, well above the last 10-year average. The year 1958 still holds
the record for the marketed value of canned salmon, but with a total of $55,800,-
000, 1962 was only $3,000,000 under this figure.
Sockeye Salmon
The sockeye pack for 1962 was 297,716 cases, with a value of $15,343,866.
This was a 17-per-cent decline in value over the 1961 pack of 398,205 cases,
worth $18,468,340. Higher unit prices helped to increase the market dollar value
of this smaller pack to some extent. The sockeye catch was small because of near
failure of the Adams River run to the Fraser.
 department of recreation and conservation, 1963        u 69
Pink Salmon
The records refer to 1962 as the "year of the pinks." The canneries produced 1,188,661 cases of pinks, 65 per cent of the total pack, worth $30,337,000.
This broke the previous record of $22,000,000, established in 1930.
Coho and Blueback Salmon
Here again the pack was smaller, nearly 20 per cent less than the previous
year. Higher sales of fresh and frozen coho helped offset the loss in this fishery.
The coho (blueback) pack for 1962 was 187,735 cases, worth $6,886,213.
Chum Salmon
Chum landings were high, partly because several runs came in with the pinks,
where the fishing effort was at its height. The chum pack was 134,483 cases,
39,098 more than last year. This pack was worth $3,024,801, considerably
higher than the 1961 total of $2,050,252.
Spring Salmon
The catch of springs was low in 1961, and 1962 showed no improvement.
This year 7,175 cases were packed, worth $185,734, a drop of 746 cases and
$16,329.
Steelhead
The 1962 steelhead pack amounted to 815 cases, 164 fewer than the 1961
pack of 979 cases. Steelhead are not salmon, but some are canned each year,
principally those caught incidental to fishing other species.
OTHER CANNERIES
Herring Canneries.—One plant was licensed to operate and produced 892
cases, worth $4,805.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—Two tuna-fish canneries were licensed to operate in
1961 and produced 63,9131-2 cases.
Shellfish Canneries.—In 1962, eight shellfish canneries were licensed to
operate in British Columbia and produced a pack as follows: Clams, 14,306 cases;
crabs, 3,735 cases; abalone, 7 cases.
Specialty Products.—Three plants produced the following: Smoked-oyster
chowder, 171 gallons; canned-herring snacks, 892 cases; oyster cocktail in 6-
ounce jars, 75 gallons; oyster stew, 24/10-ounce cases, 8,241; fish spreads,
51,743 24/2V-.-ounce cases;   smoked canned oysters, 15,069 24/4-ounce cases.
FISH-CURING
Eleven smoke-houses processed the following: Herring (kippers, 80,644
pounds) (bloaters, 14,970 pounds); cod, 396,521 pounds; salmon, 296,530
pounds; mackerel, 1,800 pounds; black cod, 197,003 pounds; eels, 9,000 pounds;
haddies, 5,000 pounds; eulachons, 1,035 pounds.
Dry-salted Herring
One plant operated in 1962 and salted 4,137 hundredweight of herring,
worth $21,867.
 U 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Mild-cured Salmon
Four of the six plants licensed to mild-cure salmon in 1962 operated and
produced 462Vi tierces. This operation is comparable with the production of
four plants which operated in 1961 to produce a pack of 362 tierces.
HALIBUT
This year, for the first time, halibut displaced herring as the second most
valuable British Columbia fishery.
Large landings, plus the best prices on record, gave a marketed value of
$9,312,000, thus exceeding 1961's total by $2,213,000.
British Columbia fishermen landed 24.53 million pounds of halibut in Canadian ports and a further 10 million pounds in United States ports, compared to
24.9 million and 4.6 million respectively in 1961.
A Canadian fisherman made the largest single season halibut catch of 850,000
pounds for a single vessel in the past 40 years.
This season the various areas were open for the following times: Area 1,
122 days; Area 2, 122 days; Area 3a, 94 days; Area 3b North, 201 days; Area
3b South, 164 days.
The year saw 1,050 men on 557 vessels engaged in halibut-fishing.
FISH OIL AND MEAL
Herring landings were down slightly in 1962 at 222,600 tons. Total value
of all products was $8,500,000, slightly higher than 1961. Again this fishery had
to depend mainly on its oil and meal production.
In 1962, 10 herring plants were licensed to operate. These plants produced
a total of 41,299 tons of meal and 40,243 pounds of oil.
Fish-liver Reduction (Cod, Dogfish, Halibut).—Three plants were licensed
to operate in 1962, processing 173,099 pounds of fish livers and producing
575,337 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A. In 1961 three plants processed
1,555,395 pounds of fish livers and produced 3,228,748 million U.S.P. units of
Vitamin A.
Fish-offal Reduction.—During the 1962 season nine plants were licensed and
eight operated to produce 1,704 tons of meal and 167,349 gallons of oil. This
production is compared with 1961, in which eight plants produced 1,157 tons of
meal and 127,580 gallons of oil.
Whale Reduction.—Whaling was resumed in British Columbia waters in 1962.
Seven hundred and thirteen whales were killed, yielding 62,850 hundredweight of
meat, 639,060 gallons of oil, 2,661 tons of meal, and 1,118 tons of liquid solubles.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1963
STATISTICAL TABLES
U 71
Table I.—Licences Issued and Revenue Collected,
1959 to 1963, Inclusive
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
Licence
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Salmon cannery	
24
10
6
17
18
9
3
9
3
1
2
457
$4,800
23
1
8
5
18
20
8
2
7
3
425
$4,600
100
800
500
1,800
20
8
2
7
3
:   23
2
6
5
18
19
9
3
8
3
434
$4,600
200
600
500
1,800
19
9
3
8
3
10,850
21
9
6
20
21
8
2
9
3
1
448
$4,200
900
600
2,000
21
8
2
9
3
100
24
13
5
19
38
13
4
9
3
1
2
447
$4,800
Herring reduction	
1,000
600
1,700
18
9
3
9
3
100
200
11,425
1,300
500
1,900
Fish-processing-        	
38
13
4
9
3
100
200
10,625
11,200
11,175
Totals	
559
$19,867
520
$18,465 | 530    | $18,592
1             1
548
$19,043
578
$20,042
Table II.—Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia,
1958 to 1962, Inclusive
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
Salmon...
Herring.
Halibut _
Crabs and shrimps..
Ling-cod	
Grey cod	
Oysters	
Soles	
Black cod	
Clams	
Livers and viscera..
Miscellaneous1-—...
$75,800,000
8,990,000
6,690,000
1,264,000
564,000
752,000
321,000
780,000
181,000
259,000
151,000
2,472,000
$45,
8.
6.
1,
140,000
843,000
236,000
,376,000
510,000
630,000
471,000
552,000
147,000
310,000
271,000
891,000
$35,963,000
3,450,000
6,534,000
1,729,000
593,000
647,000
406,000
795,000
253,000
535,000
126,000
1,228,000
$57,314,000
8,207,000
7,099,000
1,511,000
551,000
487,000
480,000
552,000
147,000
324,000
122,000
1,092,000
$69,763,000
8,492,000
9,312,000
1,415,000
544,000
405,000
608,000
584,000
173,000
448,000
58,000
2,876,000
$98,224,000
$66,377,000
$52,259,000
$77,886,000
$94,673,000
1 Includes mink-feed and fish products, meal and oil, for which no breakdown into species was available.
Source:  Canadian Department of Fisheries.
Table III.—Statement Showing the Quantity of Herring Products
Produced in British Columbia, 1957 to 1963, Inclusive
Season.
Canned
Dry-salted
Meal
Oil
1957/58	
Cases
18,349
10,351
9,074
19,102
892
Tons
2,645.00
Tons
13,643
43,527
32,559
31,203
40,746
41,299
Gal.
1,746,227
4,545,474
4,249,801
2,966,547
1958/59     -	
1959/60  .
1960/61.   ___ _
1961/62.....    -  -
4,751,082
1962/63                         	
206.35
40,243 lb.
 U 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Statement Showing the Quantity of Meal, Oil, and Vitamin A
Produced from Sources Other than Herring, 1956 to 1963, Inclusive
Season
From Whales
Meal
Oil
Oil from
Fish Livers
From Other Sources
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
1956/57-
1957/58 .
1958/59-
1959/60.
1960/61-
1961/62.
1962/63-
Tons
2,182
3,446
4,226
4,058
Gal.
526,584
952,702
908,482
940,455
2,661
639,060
Units*
2,355,410
3,292,552
1,821,994
3,474,267
2,258,748
3,228,748
575,337
Tons
1,925
1,570
2,318
1,140
2,099
1,157
1,704
Gal.
187,787
170,433
272,223
110,977
62,983
127,580
167,349
i Million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A.
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st annually.
Table V.—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1958 to 1962, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned
(48-pound cases.)
These tables supplied by courtesy of the Canadian Department of Fisheries in Vancouver.
1958
Species
Area
District
No. 1
Skeena
River
Central Area
and Queen
Charlottes
Total
Sockeye	
Red spring	
Jack spring —
Pink spring —
White spring._
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho	
Pink	
Chum-
Totals-
820,3601/2
1,400%
2,911
2,373%
456
11,1031/2
74,059
98,052
103,6681/2
l,114,384!/2
154,556%
1,108
265 </_
810
578
522
99,388
111
701%
290%
227
25,7891/2
257,3011/2
53,939
20,575%
96,448
73,029
494,870
290,770%
1,074,305
2,619!/2
265 V_
4,422i/i
3,242
1,205
11,103%
120,424
451,801%
230,6361/2
1,900,025
1959
Sockeye	
Red spring	
Pink spring—
White spring .
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho	
Pink.	
Chum-
Totals..
189,297
2,4171/2
4,925
4,832
418
10,114
150,756
338,947
75,7091/2
777,416
46,827
824%
811
527
329
32,215
82,005
36,136
199,674%
20,046%
66%
598%
228%
119%
20,020
37,644
21,283
100,006%
256,170%
3,308%
6,334%
5,587%
866%
10,114
202,991
458,596
133,128%
1,077,097
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1963
U 73
Table V.—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1958 to 1962, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned—Continued
1960
Area
Species
Districts Nos.
land 3
District
No. 2
Total
172,505
1,113%
1,436
1,151%
339%
23,345
41,194%
52,689%
47,081
54,339
458%
1,056
700
164%
26,965
166,874%
39,737%
226,844
1,572
2,492
White spring    „ —  	
Steelhead  	
1,851%
504
23,345
Coho                          	
68,159%
Pink ..   —             	
219,564
86,818%
Totals 	
340,855%
290,295
631,150%
1961
Sockeye	
Red spring —
Pink spring —
White spring _
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho	
Pink	
Chum_
Totals..
239,667
1,735
2,678
1,471
587%
12,527%
153,994
286,544%
28,994
728,198%
158,538
412
1,022%
602%
391
74,857%
374,745%
66,391
676,960
398,205
2,147
3,700%
2,073%
978%
12,527%
228,851%
661,290
95,385
1,405,158%
1962
Sockeye	
Red spring—
Pink spring __
White spring..
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho	
Pink	
Chum..
Totals-
198,001
1,217%
1,145%
1,698%
520%
12,097
120,038
508.878V4
70,304
99,715%
904
1,190
1,019
294%
55,600
679,783
64,179
913,900!/2  |      902,685
297,716%
2,121%
2,335%
2,717%
815
12,097
175,638
1,188,6611/2
134,483
1,816,585%
 Chart No. 6.
 Chart No. 7.
 Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1964
1,435-164-3084

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