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Department of Agriculture FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 1963 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1964]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
FIFTY-EIGHTH
ANNUAL REPORT
1963
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1964
  To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1963.
FRANK RICHTER,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C.
  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF, 1963
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable Frank Richter
Minister's Secretary:
Miss M. Jewell
Deputy Minister:
A. H. Turner, B.Comm.,
M.S.
A dministrative:
N. L. Camsusa, Administrative Assistant, Victoria.
J. S. Wells, Accountant, Victoria.
B. K. Oxendale, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria.
Markets and Statistics:
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria.
K. Elgaard, B.A., Economist, Victoria.
R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., Agriculturist, Kelowna.
Horticulture:
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria.
J. A. Smith, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna.
D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver.
I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford.
W. D. Christie, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Greenhouse and Nursery Crops), Vancouver.
E. M. King, B.S.A., M.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Kelowna.
A. E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria.
E. B. MacDonald, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston.
W. F. Morton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna.
M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon.
W. S. Peters, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Kelowna.
J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton.
J. C. Taylor, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Abbotsford.
G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, New Westminster.
M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., M.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton.
A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland.
J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Vancouver.
Apiary:
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Courthouse, Vernon.
Plant Pathology:
W. R. Foster, B.Sc., M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria.
J. A. Moisey, B.A., M.Sc, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Kelowna.
Entomology:
C. L. Neilson, B.S.A., M.Sc., Provincial Entomologist, Victoria.
J. C. Arrand, B.S.A., M.Sc, Assistant Entomologist, Vernon.
Live Stock:
A. Kidd, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector,
Victoria.
R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., Assistant Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria.
 CC 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Live Stock—Continued
J. C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Vancouver.
J. A. Mace, Superintendent, Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Victoria.
T. Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria.
T. R. B. Barr, B.Sc, B.Sc(Vet.), M.R.C.V.S., M.V.Sc, Ph.D., Veterinary Inspector and
Animal Pathologist, Vancouver.
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Kamloops.
J. B. Clapp, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Vernon.
F. C. Clark, B.S.A., M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster.
C. C. Cunningham, B.S.A., D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops.
J. R. Hannam, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Chilliwack.
H. Johnson, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Abbotsford.
E. V. Langford, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist,
Vancouver.
P. G. Lawrence, Inspector, Vancouver.
Mrs. A. B. Mah, B.Sc, Bacteriologist, Vancouver.
W. C. Newby, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Abbotsford.
R. Pigeon, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake.
K. H. Thompson, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Prince George.
J. G. Walker, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Abbotsford.
Miss E. A. Whiteside, B.Sc, Bacteriologist, Vancouver.
Dairy:
K. G. Savage, B.S.A., M.Sc, Dairy Commissioner, Victoria.
R. N. Hitchman, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver.
N. H. Ingledew, B.S.A., M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson.
G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna.
P. Regehr, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria.
C. Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver.
Poultry:
W. H. Pope, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria.
R. C. Bentley, Resident Supervisor, Random Sample Poultry Test Station, Abbotsford.
H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Abbotsford.
D. M. Hamilton, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Nanaimo.
N. J. Supeene, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Abbotsford.
C. W. Wood, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Abbotsford.
Field Crops:
N. F. Putnam, B.Sc, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
H. Crockard, Potato Specialist, Vancouver.
E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant in Field Crops, New Westminster.
J. H. Neufeld, B.S.A., Soil Analyst, Victoria.
Farmers' Institutes:
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent, Victoria. «
Soil Survey:
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Senior Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
C. H. Brownlee, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
J. Cotic, B.Sc, Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
A. B. Dawson, B.A., B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
M. G. Driehuyzen, B.S.A., Extension Soil Surveyor, Cloverdale.
M. K. John, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
V. E. Osborne, B.S.A., M.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
G. G. Runka, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
 	
m
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 7
Agricultural Development and Extension:
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Director, Victoria.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria.
G. L. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops.
S. G. Preston, B.S.A., M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George.
A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek.
J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook.
H. Barber, Accountant, Land Clearing Division, Victoria.
G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, Extension Agriculturist Engineer, Victoria.
J. F. Carmichael, B.Sc, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks.
C. F. Cornwall, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake.
G. Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack.
A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George.
P. E. Ewert, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Mission.
R. C. Fry, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek.
Miss C. L. Groves, B.Sc(H.Ec), Home Economist, Victoria.
J. E. Hall, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Abbotsford.
F. E. Harper, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Fort St. John.
J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm.
K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan.
K. E. May, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Vernon.
Miss Lorna Michael, B.Sc,(H.Ec), Home Economist, Kamloops.
G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cloverdale.
J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers.
S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria.
J. E. Piercy, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George.
J. C. Ryder, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vernon.
E. M. Soder, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops.
T. A. Windt, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Abbotsford.
J. V. Zacharias, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay.
Dyking Commissioner and Inspector of Dykes:
W. R. Meighen, B.Sc, New Westminster.
Deputy Dyking Commissioner:
W. S. Jackson, B.A.Sc, New Westminster.
Institutional Farms:
W. B. Richardson, B.S.A., Superintendent, Essondale.
D. F. Caldow, Farm Foreman, Essondale.
P. Cummins, Farm Foreman, Colquitz.
L. King, Farm Foreman, Tranquille.
Milk Board:
E. C. Carr, Chairman, Vancouver.
W. J. Anderson, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D., Member, Vancouver.
J. D. Honeyman, Member, Ladner.
G. T. Bell, Chief Clerk, Vancouver.
G. Crothers, Inspector, Kelowna.
E. D. Daum, Accountant, Vancouver.
A. S. Dixon, Inspector, Nanaimo.
K. W. Lee, Inspector, Vancouver.
J. W. McIntosh, Inspector, Vancouver.
  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Reports—
Deputy Minister-
Agricultural Development and Extension Branch.
Apiary Branch	
Dairy Branch	
Dyking and Drainage Districts	
Entomology Branch	
Farmers' Institutes Branch	
Field Crops Branch	
Horticultural Branch	
Institutional Farms	
Live Stock Branch	
Markets and Statistics Branch.
Plant Pathology Branch	
Poultry Branch	
Soil Survey Branch	
endices—
No.
1.
No.
2.
No.
3.
No.
4.
No.
5.
No.
6.
No.
7.
No.
8.
No.
9.
No.
10.
No.
11.
No.
12.
No.
13.
No.
14.
No.
15.
No.
16.
No.
17.
Calfhood Vaccinations	
Dairy-farm Inspections	
Artificial-insemination Services, 1962	
Cattle and Hide Shipments	
Dairy-cattle Breed Averages, 1962	
Animal Pathology Specimen Examinations
Production of Grass and Legume Seeds	
Page
.   11
. 13
_ 23
. 25
. 29
. 29
. 31
. 32
_ 35
_ 48
_ 52
_ 66
_ 69
_ 70
_ 75
  80
  80
  81
  81
  82
  82
  82
Small-fruit, Grape, and Filbert Production, 1962-63  83
Tree-fruit Production, 1962-63  83
Small-fruit Acreage, 1962  83
Acreage and Production of Vegetables, 1962-63  84
Egg Production  84
Weighted Egg Prices to Producers  85
Poultry-meat Production  8 5
Average Producer Prices for Live Poultry  86
Distribution of Vaccines  86
Publications Printed in 1963  87
  Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable Frank Richter,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour herewith to present the Fifty-eighth Annual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31, 1963.
As in past years, the Report comprises a brief summary of agricultural conditions in the Province in addition to a review of activities of all branches and divisions
of the Department during the year. Detailed information is on file and is available
for reference purposes.
Although weather conditions were not altogether favourable during the growing season, most major crops, with the exception of grain in the Peace River
District, made satisfactory yields. The grain crop was reduced by about one-third
below the long-term average by severe drought. Production of forage crops was
also hampered in the Peace River and Central British Columbia to the extent that
a programme of assistance to live-stock growers in these areas in the securing of
sufficient stocks for winter feeding was instituted by the Government in co-operation with the Federal Government and the railway companies.
Elsewhere on the agricultural scene, production was well maintained and even
increased in some instances, notably in apples and eggs, the latter reaching an all-
time record. Farm prices remained generally steady, although a definite softening
occurred in cattle prices during the year.
On balance, production and price declines in some sectors were largely offset
by increases in others, resulting in a total farm cash income only fractionally below
the record high figure achieved in 1962. Preliminary estimates place the total
income realized from the sale of farm products at $150,146,000, down $1,500,000
from that of the preceding year.
In co-operation with the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Administration (A.R.D.A.), several projects for the betterment of agricultural operations in various parts of the Province were drawn up during 1963. A number were
approved for development, including five proposed community pastures, three soil-
and water-conservation measures involving both drainage and irrigation, and one
research project.
One project submitted earlier was still awaiting approval, and five others were
submitted in December to the Federal Minister of Agriculture, making a total of 15
in all recommended by the Province. The total estimated cost of these projects as
submitted to date is about $1,200,000.
Among the highlights of the Department's activities was the organization during
the latter months of the year of an exploratory markets mission to Latin America
and the Caribbean. The field work in appraising market prospects for British
Columbia farm products was carried out under direction of the Markets Commissioner. In all, 11 countries were visited. Results indicated that a growing demand
exists in this area for such products, which could be developed with proper planning and promotion.
11
 CC 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Unfortunately, during the year a Research Officer engaged to advise on
A.R.D.A. projects, assume leadership in the farm-management services, and conduct economic analyses generally remained with the Department only a few months
before returning to an improved position with his previous employer. By the end
of the year, plans had been laid to make a replacement appointment, which, it is
hoped, will strengthen this aspect of the Department's work.
The Department has continued to make use of television as a medium to convey
useful and informative material to viewers in the Peace River and Okanagan-
Kamloops areas. In the latter, more attention has been paid to developing programme material of a general agricultural nature.
LEGISLATION
Eight Acts respecting agriculture were amended this year, the amendments
for the most part being of a technical nature. Of some interest, however, was a
change in the definition of the word " dealer," and provision for the use of identification brands on breeding cattle in the Stock Brands Act Amendment Act, 1963, and
provision in the Milk Industry Act Amendment Act, 1963, for the establishment
of a milk-shippers' protection fund aimed at eliminating losses incurred through
bankruptcy of receivers or from unsatisfied claims.
APPOINTMENTS
H. Riehl, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, April 1st.
K. Elgaard, B.A., Research Officer, May 6th.
F. E. Harper, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, May 6th.
W. S. Peters, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, May 13th.
J. Cotic, B.Sc, Soil Surveyor, June 1st.
J. Neufeld, B.S.A., Soil Analyst, July 22nd.
Miss C. L. Groves, B.H.E., Home Economist, August 1st.
K. W. Lee, Milk Board Inspector, September 1st.
Miss E. A. Whiteside, B.Sc, Bacteriologist, November 18th.
A. H. TURNER,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC  13
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXTENSION BRANCH
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., P.Ac, Director
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
The expanding extension programmes of recent years continued in 1963, with
increasing emphasis on farm management and the development of economic units.
Improved extension methods and techniques are being used to help rural people
in their attempts to solve the many problems facing them in this rapidly changing
world.
Increasing use is being made of specialists in developing effective programmes,
and this applies to specialists in the British Columbia Department of Agriculture,
Canada Department of Agriculture, the University of British Columbia, etc. This
co-operative approach to extension is most encouraging.
LOWER MAINLAND AND VANCOUVER ISLAND
There was increased production in some commodities and a reduction in others.
Milk production was down 5 per cent in the Fraser Valley for 1963 as compared
with 1962, while production on Vancouver Island remained about the same.
Beef production continues to expand and has doubled on Vancouver Island
in 10 years, with marked increases in the Fraser Valley during the past three years.
Beef production continues to supplement dairy production. In many districts of
this region there is ample evidence of activity in the rejuvenation of idle acreage
and some marginal areas.
Accurate records are kept by our Extension staff on office callers and farm
visits, and in this area (offices at Courtenay, Duncan, Cloverdale, Mission, Abbotsford, and Chilliwack) there were 8,380 office callers and the staff made 2,809 farm
visits.   The majority of office calls are for 4-H activities, with horticulture second.
PEACE RIVER, CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA, AND CARIBOO
A number of staff changes were made in this area. Mr. R. C. Fry was transferred to Dawson Creek from Quesnel to assist with land-clearing and to take charge
of radio and television programmes in the Peace River district. He is developing
these very satisfactorily. Mr. John Piercy was transferred from Fort St. John to
Prince George. The programmes in the Quesnel district are being supervised from
Prince George and Williams Lake offices.
SOUTHERN INTERIOR AND KOOTENAY REGION
Emphasis was placed on extension activities in many areas of agricultural production in this region, including dairy, beef, field crops, forage crops, silage, and a
heavy 4-H programme. An interesting new development in the Kamloops-North
Okanagan area was the interest taken in grain-corn production by a commercial
company in co-operation with our Extension staff.   This has distinct possibilities.
REGIONAL CONFERENCES
Staff members attended conferences at Prince George in April and December,
with specialists and senior officials from Victoria present.
 CC 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SHORT COURSES
Staff members attended short courses at Kamloops and the University of British Columbia on beef production, sheep production, soils, etc.
LIVE STOCK
The 1963 story of the economics of beef-cattle production was one of up and
down, and finally terminating in a price skid in the last three months of the year.
In the United States it was just a case of too many cattle combined with higher
average weights, resulting in increased supplies and lower prices. This picture, of
course, was reflected in Canada as well. The cattle market began to deteriorate in
late 1962 and continued to do so until March, 1963. In this period there was a
drop of $6 per hundredweight; however, by September there was a recovery of $5
but a loss again of nearly $5 by the year-end. Fortunately for British Columbia,
with an economy of feeder-cattle production, the market for replacement cattle to
the feed-lots stayed strong and above the slaughter market from January through
September and early October. The spread was about $2. A number of British
Columbia cattlemen took advantage of this spread, but unfortunately the number
not doing so was in excess, and finally they took a substantial cut in prices as well
as a loss of pasture and feed. Those people close to the market in British Columbia
feel that there has been a hold-back of cattle by the ranchers waiting out the market,
consequently holding back calves to raise them into feeder yearlings and finally as
fat cattle. There is some evidence that during the good grass years many of these
yearling steers of good conformation could go for slaughter to make either of the
two top grades and very desirable carcasses for the trade. There is a move on the
part of the buyers for the slaughter trade to discourage the movement of grass-
finished yearlings direct into these channels on the grounds that these cattle would
not grade. The economics, however, are not always favourable for such a movement
because of a premium paid for feeders.
Some live-stock people are guessing that cattle populations here in British
Columbia, as elsewhere, are building up to an unprecedented high. Many heifer
calves of the better kinds are moving at a slight premium into herds as breeders, and
many older cows which should have moved to packers are still in ranch hands,
where they will calve in the spring.
Cattle finishing in British Columbia on the basis of feed-lot finishing is still not
making any progress. A few attempt it each year but soon become discouraged.
Even in the Prairie Provinces where grain supplies are abundant and always cheaper,
the margin of profit is often narrow. Grass finishing of beef cattle is British Columbia's only alternative, but more research on the subject is required to find new
techniques in finishing yearlings on grass to a brandable grade. Under present
" know-how " about one-third of yearling steers of good type and conformation
will finish on good pasture alone, while the other two-thirds require 50 days in the
feed-lot. Research could help here since grass is a natural and cheap product of
British Columbia.
The British Columbia Livestock Co-operative Association is operating auction
sales of commercial cattle at Kamloops, Williams Lake, Quesnel, Okanagan Falls,
and Merritt. A new sale under the auspices of the Alberta community sales organization has been organized for the East Kootenay at Cranbrook, and this year held
three sales with some success. There was a slight decline in the number of cattle
handled by the sales in 1963, which follows in line with the hold-back predicted as
a result of falling prices.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
R.O.P. FOR BEEF CATTLE AND PROGENY TESTING
CC  15
Six purebred herds of the three major beef breeds participated in the
Provincial-Federal R.O.P. programme for beef cattle. One hundred and thirty-
five head of calves completed the test; another 60 head completed the test to weaning but were sold or culled as calves before the end of the feed test. While some
breeders have not been in agreement with the system of programme, lack of scale
facilities have prevented others from participating. There has been on the whole a
general impatience exhibited for fast results in order to facilitate sales. An R.O.P.
committee to direct and set policy and to straighten out misunderstandings has been
a dire need. Some of the herds on test are just now beginning to establish the
identity of families of good producing cattle within their herds. The herd of commercial cattle on test was sold and is no longer on test. It was felt by the new owner
to be too time-consuming. The Tranquille Farm has kept up testing and has made
a substantial improvement so far through better management. Fertility has been
improved to the point where a 95-per-cent pregnancy is possible. It has been possible to cull out poor-producing cows and to save only top replacements. Through
artificial insemination it has been possible to identify replacements to both sire and
dam for the major part of the herd. The use of the artificial insemination service
from five sires at the Milner unit in 1962 and three sires for late fall breeding to
produce late summer and early fall calves as a trial produced progeny with the highest average daily gain and superior conformation in all the data collected to date.
A progeny feeding test of 58 calves testing out five sires at the Milner unit is
being undertaken at the Tranquille Farm in 1964. If carefully done, this test should
provide final and very useful information.
SHEEP INDUSTRY
Lamb prices have been higher during 1963 than for several years. There were
fewer feed-lot lambs on the market during the spring of this year and less dressed
lamb imported in the early months of 1963. Because of improved prices, the statistics bear out that 45,000 United States fat lambs were imported into Canada between
February 1 and August 1, 1963. This is a market which more Canadian sheep
should have captured.   Some drop in price was evidenced by the year's end.
Pastures, both on the farms and at the higher levels, showed marked improvement over 1962. The month of July was cool and wet, but temperatures were much
higher than that of a year ago, when a blanket of snow covered all the alpine levels
just as the sheep reached the high country. The " B.C. Alpine Lamb " slogan was
again very popular in 1963 with the retail outlets, so much so that some outlets took
advantage of its popularity by advertising outside lamb under its umbrella. Grizzly
bear predations on bands were not at all serious in 1963, certainly not as in 1962.
Only one band had a little difficulty, which led to the destruction of three bears.
Wanton destruction of grizzlies, however, is not the answer to the problem and is
not in the interests of better land use since there is room for both sheep and bear.
Some research might be applied to design a method by which bear could be driven
back into the more rugged areas where there is just as much natural feed for them
as on the more accessible grassed areas.
 CC  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
(G. L. Calver, P.Eng., Senior Agricultural Engineer)
The staff of the Division was basically unaltered during the year, and the policy
as followed by the Division was similar to that in 1962.
Power and Machinery
Projects
1. Committee to Study Fruit Handling Equipment.—This group reported on
the fruit damage in their 1962 committee report based on assessment work, and
commenced assessment of wiper-polisher units in the 1963 harvesting season.
2. Hay-drying.—-The Division co-operated with the Canada Department of
Agriculture, the University of British Columbia, and the British Columbia Hydro
and Power Authority on the assesment of a variety of hay-drying operations to
establish basic recommendations for farmers wishing to carry out hay-drying.
3. Tomato-sprayer Trials.—Assessment of the drop-boom sprayer utilized for
potato-spraying showed that this unit, with minor modifications to adjust it to row
spacing used for tomatoes, indicates that it is successful for spraying this crop also.
4. Strawberry-spraying.—Minor assistance was provided in the preparation
of sprayer units to be used in strawberry-spraying work.
Power and Machinery—General
One Tractor Maintenance Short Course was given in the Fraser Valley.
Publications include the Committee to Study Fruit Handling Equipment Activities Report and a publication dealing with pumps and conveyors for liquid-
manure handling.
The extension work included four farm machinery field-days, seven meetings
at which information on farm machinery was presented, and individual farm visits
and consultation information to 22 individuals.
Soil and Water
Projects
1. Irrigation Study.—A combined survey study of irrigation systems utilized
in forage-crop production in the North Okanagan indicates farmer interest in system
expansion, and a definite need for system improvement if the best systems are to
be provided.
2. Tile-covering.—A pump has been installed in the tile-covering project to
permit assessment of the various tile coverings utilized.
3. Drainage Coefficients.—The physical plant is installed for this project, and
some assessment should be possible during the coming winter.
In addition, some 46-mm. plastic tiles have been installed to compare its discharge with that of 4-inch tile.
Drainage
Drainage systems have been designed for 30 farms, totalling 1,234 acres.
Other extension work includes presentation of information on drainage at
seven meetings, advisory service to 28 farmers, and the preparation of a plan for tile
junction boxes.
Irrigation
Advisory assistance has been provided to 52 farmers regarding irrigation and
water supply.   Seven meetings were attended to present information on irrigation-
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC  17
system design and the effective use of irrigation systems, and a bulletin, " Minimum
Specifications for Design, Installation and Performance of Irrigation Systems," has
been revised for local conditions and printed for distribution.
Soil Conservation
Reports have been prepared on four flooding and erosion-control problems,
including Black Creek, Deadman River, Slocan River, and Squamish River.
Consultation assistance has been provided in 15 cases where domestic water
is to be developed.
Following experimental work supported by the Department into improved
filtering procedures for water in dugouts, the publication " Dugouts in Domestic
Water Development" has been revised, incorporating a simplified filter system.
Farm Structures
Plan Service
In co-operation with the Canadian Farm Building Plan Service group, preliminary plans for the revised swine housing and equipment catalogue were reviewed.
Final write-ups were prepared for a number of the plans in the fruit and vegetable
storage catalogue, which has been forwarded to the printers and should be available
in 1964. The revised dairy-cattle housing and equipment catalogues and plans have
been distributed throughout the Province, and are available on request.
New Departmental plans prepared during the year include Pumphouse Plan
for Farm Drainage, Foundations for Upright Silos, Hay Drying Duct System, and
Damper Control for Vegetable Storage.
Plans distributed during 1963 include 528 Provincial plans and 3,943 Canadian
farm building plans, for a total of 4,471 plans.
Building Standards
Active participation on the Canadian Farm Building Standards Committee,
a sub-committee of the Associate Committee on the National Building Code, has
included the preparation of material on sanitation as it affects structures. The first
draft of this publication has been released for public criticism.
General
A publication on free stalls for loose housing has been adapted from a Washington State publication and is available for distribution in the Province.
Consultation service has been provided covering 40 queries on farm building
and building layout.
Land Clearing and Development
From 1946 to March 31, 1963, work in the amount of $4,711,427.50 has
been carried out for farmers on 8,448 accounts. The accounts receivable book
balance at that date was $1,157,121.62.
Work completed to the above date included 120,217 acres cleared, 40,447
acres broken, 1,280 acres drained, 116 dugouts for domestic water, and other minor
work consisting of road construction, fence-lines, and land-levelling.
Up to December 31st of the 1963 operating year, 13,343 acres were cleared
and 11,491 acres broken. The expenditure during the year to the time stated was
approximately $534,269.39.
The finalized figures for the fiscal year 1962/63 show 14,367 acres cleared
and 8,147 acres broken.
 CC  li
BRITISH COLUMBIA
During 1963 private contractors were utilized to carry out all work. Re-
tendering was carried out in the following areas: Nanaimo, Courtenay, Abbotsford,
Williams Lake, Princeton, Merritt, Quesnel, Prince George, Smithers, and North
and South Peace River areas.
In all other areas existing contractors were reapproved when equipment inspection showed it to be satisfactory. Approval was granted to 80 contractors, who
operated 104 crawler tractors, 7 scrapers, 12 mould-board plough breakers, 15 disk
breakers, 26 backhoes, 21 draglines, 3 grade-alls, 3 wheel-type trenchers, 3 well-
drilling rigs, 1 rock-picker, and 1 rotary mower.
The equipment of all contractors was reviewed at least once during the season.
Summary of Land Clearing and Development
1946 to Mar. 31, 1963
(Approximate
Acres)
1962/63 Fiscal Year
Clearing
Breaking
Cleared
Broken
Number
of
Acres
Average
Cost per
Acre
Number
of
Acres
Average
Cost per
Acre
Peace River North       	
25,701
23,596
11,479
3,027
6,647
3,238
500
5,176
3,830
9,546
8,481
5,705
7,307
1.045
14,648
15,386
7,314
2,333
2,917
1,024
200
3,264
745
500
C1)
(■)
(1)
116
5,201    }    $16.00
5.096            22.0(1
3,148
3,386
314
333
417
124
264
145
$10.00
9.00
479
227
647
238
33.00
38.00
20.00
35.00
8.00
9.00
8.00
12.00
376
330
496
481
105
507
45
139
34.00
32.00
55.00
48.00
70.00
105.00
75.00
95.00
7.00
12.00
C1)
(!)
(!)
16
C1)
12 00
4,939    |        (1)
Totals   	
120.717     1    48.447
14 367     1
8,147
1 Under " Broken " indicates that the methods used in clearing do not require the utilization of heavy breaking equipment for the clearing also, in effect, breaks the land.
The amount of work requested during the past operating season exceeded
anticipated demands, and although an overrun of applications was approved, it is
possible that not quite the total amount of funds made available will be expended.
4-H CLUB DIVISION
(S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., Supervisor)
Enrolments
The first deta led analysis of club work in the Province was completed in 1963.
The significant findings of this study revealed the following:—
Member Data
Number of clubs enrolled	
Number of boys   1,478
Number of girls   1,487
219
Total members  2,965
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1963
CC  19
Percentage of total over 15 years of age	
Average age of B.C. 4-H member	
Average tenure of membership	
Percentage of members re-enrolled	
Percentage of members that live on farms	
Percentage of members from rural non-farms
Percentage of members from surburban area _
  28.3
13.6 years
2.6 years
  66.5
  71
  21
Leadership data
Number of 4-H leaders 	
Number of assistant leaders
248
218
Total adult leaders _.
Total junior leaders
466
195
Project Data
P-eject
Clubs
Members
Per Cent
of Total
Products
Beef	
Community..
Dairy.
Garden and Potato
Goat	
Grain    ..  	
Home Arts  	
Honeybee   	
Poultry
Rabbits 	
Sheep    	
Swine     -    .
Tractor   ._	
47
21
53
13
3
3
43
5
7
3
12
5
4
621
338
822
170
39
28
571
53
68
32
131
55
37
21.1
11.0
27.2
6.0
1.4
1.0
19.2
1.8
2.3
1.3
4.5
1.8
1.3
700 steers.
In respective projects.
1,034, 6 months to 3 years.
225 plots.
50, 1 to 3 years.
84 acres.
618 projects.
72 hives.
2,050 birds.
53 does and litters.
223, 1 to 3 years.
55 hogs.
37 units.
In addition to the foregoing project work, it should be noted from the Leadership Data that 195 junior leadership projects were undertaken by the members.
These particular projects provide effective experience in learning leadership techniques.
Club Activities
It was most encouraging to note the widening scope of 4-H activities organized
at the local club level. Many of these happenings will be reported in detail by
District Agriculturists. The section showing the greatest increase, however, involved
district rallies. Twelve of these were staged in the Province and provided many new
experiences in judging, identification, demonstrations, educational displays, and dress
revue competitions. The benefits of bringing large numbers of 4-H members
together for participation in wholesome competition is obvious. It adds a great
deal of enthusiasm to the entire programme. It also serves the useful purpose of
selecting district contestants for Provincial Competitions held at the Pacific National
Exhibition.
Camping was reported on the increase by several districts. Visits to agricultural
plants and other industries seem to occupy the interest of many clubs.
Public speaking is growing in popularity, with several districts reporting finalists now ready for the Provincial competition.
 CC 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial Club Week
The New Denver School dormitory facilities were again used for Provincial
Club Week. A second year's experience made the task much easier. This is the
most challenging undertaking of the entire year and requires a great deal of meticulous planning in advance.
Eighty-four delegates participated in the week-long programme, which presented the following topics: Advertising, Career Explorations, Application of
Science, Community Service, The Image of 4-H, and a first-hand report on the
situation in Korea.
Each member was required to satisfy staff examiners of his project knowledge,
general knowledge, and leadership abilities. Ample opportunity for both the serious
and recreational interests of the delegates is provided by Club Week.
At the conclusion of the week, the following delegates were chosen to represent
British Columbia at the 1963 National Club Conference in Toronto and Ottawa:—
1. National delegates: Cheryl Moyer, Brentwood (Goat Project); Elizabeth
Brooke, Pitt Meadows (Dairy Project); Nancy Miller, Sidney (Home Arts Project);
Ralph McQueen, Dawson Creek (Beef Project); William Alendal, Sardis (Dairy
Project); Alva Tudor. Barriere (Sheep Project); Mary Lord, Sidney (Home Arts
Project); Frances Schmidt, Abbotsford (Home Arts Project); Jane Elderkin, Sardis
(Home Arts Project); Wendy Baker, Victoria (Dairy Project); Wendy Fether-
stonhaugh, Comox (Sheep Project); Jack Closkey, Port Kells (Dairy Project);
Wendy Price, Cloverdale (Swine Project); Raymond Reimer, Sidney (Dairy Project).
2. 1964 delegate to National 4-H Club Conference in Washington, D.C:
Gwen Long, McBride (Beef Project).
3. 1963 recipient of Canadian National Exhibition Scholarship of $600: John
Stanlake, Saanichton (Dairy Project).
4. British Columbia Fairs 50th anniversary scholarship of $300: Donna Hepburn, Chilliwack (Home Arts Project).
5. It was most gratifying to learn of the recent announcement by the Canadian
Council on 4-H Clubs that the interprovincial exchange programme initiated in 1963
would be continued in 1964. Those delegates chosen at Provincial Club Week in
anticipation of this announcement are as follows: Jean Blair, Langley, to visit New
Brunswick; Jim Burbee, Dawson Creek, to visit Saskatchewan; Brian Baehr,
Cloverdale, to visit Manitoba; Sharie Malisauskas, Port Kells, to visit Ontario;
Leslie Cochran, Sardis, to visit Prince Edward Island; Karen Oland, Courtenay, to
visit Quebec; Linda Vonarx, Courtenay, to visit Nova Scotia; Linnet Lannon,
Sidney, to visit Newfoundland; Albert Hull, Langford, to visit Alberta. Each delegate will visit the host Province for approximately a two-week period. During
this time the delegate will live with selected farm families and visit outstanding
points of interest within the host Province.
1963 Interprovincial Exchange
In the 1962 Report the names of the British Columbia delegates to other Provinces are listed. This exchange, which embraced 90 4-H members throughout
Canada, was termed an outstanding success. Nine members visited British Columbia, July 9th to 23rd, and gained many favourable impressions of our Province.
Their first five days were spent on a trip to New Denver to participate in Provincial Club Week. En route there they were hosted by the Vernon Chamber of
Commerce.   Following two days at New Denver, they were escorted to their respec-
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 21
tive farm homes.   The host families were pre-selected by the District Agriculturists,
resulting in a very successful visit by the guest 4-H member.
All participants, whether a British Columbia member visiting another Province
or a guest in this Province, reported an enlightening experience.
Other Exchange Visits
Increased activity in this phase was noted during the year. Chosen to attend
the State 4-H camp held at Pullman were Judi Reasbeck and Barbara Frost from
South Peace River and David Bjornson and Irene Smith from North Peace River.
Ten members from the Dawson Creek and Fort St. John districts participated
in Provincial Club Week programmes at Vermilion and Fairview, Alta.
Thirty-five 4-H members from the Armstrong district visited the Lethbridge
area of Alberta for a week's duration and will, in return, host a bus-load of Alber-
tans in 1964.
Two 4-H members in the East Kootenay received aid to attend Montana State
4-H camp.
Two 4-H members from the Creston district exchanged farm homes with two
Idaho 4-H members.
Twenty-eight American 4-H members from Grays Harbour, Wash., spent a
three-day week-end as the guests of the Saanich 4-H group.
Ten 4-H members from Eastern Washington visited the Bridesville-Keremeos
district on a return-in-1964 basis.
In addition, there were several in-Province exchanges.
All of the above experience contributes much to widening the knowledge and
experience of the participating member. Doubtless it presents new opportunities
that would otherwise be denied many members.
Leadership Development
Ten regional Leaders' Workshops were held in the Province during February
and March. Locations were as follows: Fort St. John, Vanderhoof, Armstrong,
Cranbrook, Osoyoos, Kamloops, Salmon Arm, Langley, Abbotsford, and Nanaimo.
The workshops have been well received by the leaders, and their response is
gratifying. We have found this to be an effective method of helping them with
their problems of leadership as well as learning much about programme effect at the
general membership level.
During the year, several " junior leader-senior member " conferences were held.
These were organized by the District Agriculturists, with the 4-H Division supplying
the programme. It was found that much of what we had taught the leaders in February had not reached the club member by May. Introducing our ideas at the intermediate level has proved to be an improved method of getting the message through
to all levels of club work.
Early in the year a special plaque was presented to Mr. T. P. Wilson, of
Vinsulla, upon the conclusion of 29 years of 4-H leadership. This practice will be
continued for the benefit of several other leaders who have given so much to the
development of young Canadians.
Summer Students
Over the past several years we have found it necessary to hire five summer
students. These are selected from among senior Agriculture students at the
University.
 CC 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Their activities were primarily directed toward (1) project inspection, (2)
4-H visits to leaders, (3) 4-H rallies and field-days, and (4) special activities.
Material Preparation
Due to the diversity of projects being undertaken by members throughout the
Province, there exists the continuing problem of supplying suitable study material.
Beef and dairy manuals are presently under preparation by field staff. A new senior
live-stock record-book was developed by the Supervisor. In addition, drafts were
prepared on " How to Build an Educational Display " and on " Landscaping for
Senior Members." Earlier in the year a new publication on demonstrations was
completed and went into general distribution.
Four editions of the 4-H Newsletter were edited and assembled during the year.
A mailing list of approximately 700 persons received copies of this publication.
Approximately 310 separate items are maintained for general distribution in
support of the programme. These are chiefly bulletins, forms, and awards, which
must be kept in adequate supply.
Home Arts Section
During the year a second Home Economist was employed to meet the demands
of this rapidly growing phase of 4-H Club work. A new office was subsequently
opened at Kamloops to provide more effective leadership to the Home Arts programme in the central and northern areas of the Province.
Both Extension Home Economists report a very busy season. Their most
demanding activities were those associated with Home Arts Achievement Days, at
which an evaluation of each 4-H member's project work is required.
Project evaluation: 34 achievement days attended, 425 members completed
projects, 475 projects evaluated, 403 junior proficiency badges awarded, 30 members
examined for senior status, and 52 senior skill certificates awarded.
Achievement days are held in all parts of the Province and require extensive
travelling, frequently of nearly a month's duration.
As a result of hiring a second Home Economist, it became possible to proceed
with special training in Home Arts projects for the benefit of the leaders. This was
initiated in 1963 with outstanding success. Many of the most aggravating problems
of the Home Arts leaders were thus alleviated. Training clinics were held at the
following centres, with a fine turnout of leaders: Fort St. John, Prince George,
Telkwa, Cranbrook, Vernon, Barriere, and Parksville.
In addition to the group approach used in the above areas, a personal visit was
made to each Home Arts leader in the Fraser Valley. Close contact was also maintained with new clubs at Keremeos and at Parksville and Alberni.
Both Home Economists were required to participate in the 12 4-H rallies held
in the Province. They were also essential to the successful programming of 4-H
events at the Pacific National Exhibition.
During the year three new record-books were developed in addition to major
revisions of existing project material.
Engagements to sneak at Women's Institute conventions, 4-H parents' nights,
University of British Columbia undergraduates, etc., were frequently accepted.
Programme Material Output of Division
Number of new stencils prepared        352
Number of rerun stencils         73
Number of orders received from district offices        243
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 23
Number of awards sent out     4,736
Agricultural Projects pieces 11,717
Home Arts Projects  pieces    7,725
Supplementary to projects pieces    2,243
Special activities pieces    2,959
Note.—" Pieces " refers to a booklet consisting of several pages.
APIARY BRANCH
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist
During the summer of 1963 a total of 24,300 colonies of bees produced a
colony average of 75 pounds of surplus honey. This resulted in a total crop of
1,839,415 pounds. Colonies throughout the southern half of the Province averaged
only 50 pounds, resulting in a much lower total crop than expected. The trend
toward fewer beekeepers operating more colonies efficiently is continuing and is to be
desired. A world shortage of honey and increased export markets for Canadian
honey in retail packs is encouraging increased production.
BEE DISEASES
Adequate inspection together with intelligent use of antibiotics and drugs have
reduced the incidence of American foul brood (bacillus larva;) in live colonies to its
lowest point in many years. European foul brood was not a serious problem in the
British Columbia Peace River area. Outbreaks of this disease were severe in the
Lower Mainland area, but were quickly brought under control by the use of terra-
mycin (TM25).
A disease of adult bees showing symptoms of paralysis has been observed in
Vancouver, Queensborough, and Victoria areas. Samples were collected and submitted for microscopic analyses. Nosema disease was in evidence in the humid
regions of the Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island, with normal outbreaks throughout the remainder of the Province.
Number of beekeepers     2,010
Number of colonies  24,300
Number of colonies inspected (does not include revisits)     7,005
American foul brood (colonies affected and burned)  89
Percentage of colonies affected         1.3
POLLINATION
Apiary, Entomology, Horticultural, and Field Crop Branches continued to cooperate on extension work in pollination of blueberries, tree fruits, small fruits, and
legumes.
In the Peace River area, 90 bumblebee domiciles were set out. Of these, 37
per cent were occupied. The accepted domiciles were moved to close proximity of
alfalfa-seed fields for pollination purposes.
Forty-five colonies of honeybees were used to pollinate a 30-acre block of
tetraploid alsike clover at Mile 24 on the Alaska Highway. In spite of extremely dry
conditions, 200 pounds of clean seed per acre were harvested.
 CC 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Twelve soil cores containing larvae of the alkali bee (Nomia melanderi) were
obtained from Oregon and introduced into the Ashcroft area. This trial project was
entirely successful. Two acres of foundation Vernal alfalfa are already seeded for
next year's work, and 5 acres are to be seeded next spring. Thirty cartons of the leaf-
cutter bee (Megachile rotundata) are now held at Vernon, and work will be carried
out to determine the value of this pollinator under British Columbia conditions.
Work is to continue on these projects.
In the Lower Mainland area an average of 4,698 pounds of blueberries per
acre was harvested from plantations where honeybees were used. This compares
with 2,604 pounds per acre where no honeybees were used. Analysis of pollen
trapped at hive entrances showed 96 per cent blueberry, 2 per cent dandelion, and
2 per cent unidentified.
On red clover fields in the Ladner area, colonies of honeybees were interspersed
through the fields. Seed yields averaged 600 pounds per acre. In world seed competition, first and second prizes were awarded to seed harvested from these fields.
A total of 775 colonies was hired for pollination work at a cost of $5,037.50,
an average of $6.50 per colony.
PACKAGE BEES
Fifty packages of bees were shaken from colonies in the Fraser Valley near
Haney and installed in the Fort St. John area. An average of 150 pounds of honey
was gathered by these colonies. This work has shown that the production of package
bees in British Columbia is feasible. Beekeepers in the Fraser Valley area have now
formed a package-bee co-operative to guarantee continued supply and quality.
WINTERING
Increased interest is being shown in over-wintering of colonies in British Columbia. Shaking packages and making division from these colonies are the main reasons
for this.
PUBLICATIONS
Three issues of " Bee Wise " were written. Four newsletters were also written
and distributed. Mimeographs on all phases of beekeeping were prepared and distributed.
EXTENSION
Emphasis is being placed on extension work. This has resulted in a reduction
of regulatory problems.
Short courses on beekeeping were held at Langley, Penticton, Fort St. John,
and Quesnel, and an exhibit on honey production and blueberry pollination was set
up at the Pacific National Exhibition in co-operation with the blueberry co-operative.
Our 16-mm. film, " Diseases and Pests of the Honeybee in British Columbia,"
will be completed this coming year. Many 35-mm. slides on all phases of beekeeping were prepared and filed.
Attended by members of our staff were 27 field-days, including two international and one internrovincial, the latter at Beaverlodge, Alta., and 40 meetings of
various groups, including the Canadian Beekeepers Council and the Canadian Association of Apiculturists.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 25
DAIRY BRANCH
Kenneth G. Savage, B.S.A., M.Sc, Dairy Commissioner
PRODUCTION
1962
Milk  lb. 904,885,000
Manufactured products—
Butter (creamery)  „ 7,215,000
Cheese (Cheddar)  „ 979,000
Cheese (cottage)  „ 6,471,000
Ice-cream gal. 4,796,000
Evaporated milk lb. 52,023,696
Milk powder „ 9,298,159
UTILIZATION
1962
Used in manufacture lb. 347,312,000
Used in fluid form—
Fluid sales „ 487,494,000
Farm-home consumed „ 37,219,000
Fed to live stock „ 32,860,000
1963 (Estimated)
881,000,000
5,021,586
990,627
6,600,000
5,076,000
56,962,212
2,465,952
1963 (Estimated)
312,020,000
506,480,000
30,000,000
32,500,000
UTILIZATION OF MILK AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
PRODUCTION, 1962
Canada British Columbia
Creamery butter  43 15
Cheese     8 2
Concentrated milk     5 14
Fluid sales  30 52
Ice-cream      4 9
Used on farms and other purposes  10 8
MARKETING
Consumption figures for nearly all classes of dairy products showed essentially
the same trend in 1963 as in 1962. Fluid sales of milk and cream have not kept
pace with population increases or with accepted indices of increased standards of
living. Butter consumption has again increased per capita, with the significant price
reduction instituted in 1962 having a full year's effect on consumption patterns.
Milk Board action to peg the differential between manufacturing-milk prices
and fluid-milk prices served to reduce production, particularly in the first half of
1963. The resultant increase in fluid utilization with attendant price increases to the
producer brought milk production by year's end to approximately that of 1962.
The average farm value for all sales of milk in 1963 in British Columbia is
estimated to exceed $4.40 per hundredweight, as compared to $3.47 for Canada
as a whole.
DAIRY PLANTS
There were 68 dairy-plant licences issued in 1963. During the licence-year
(April 1, 1963, to April 1, 1964) one dairy plant ceased operation. Of the total
number of dairy plants operating as of December 31, 1963 (67), 53 are pasteurizing
milk, 22 are making ice-cream, 14 are making cottage cheese, 11 are making butter,
 CC 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
5 are making cheese other than cottage, 1 is making evaporated milk, and 1 is
making powdered milk, several of the aforementioned plants being multi- or dual-
product operations.
Licences
Dairy-plant licences issued in 1963 numbered 68, and dairy-plant personnel
Comprised the following:— Permanent Temporary
Milk-tester  64 8
Milk-receiver  12 27
Tank-milk receiver  79 12
Cream-grader  12 6
Butter-maker  6 8
Cheese-maker  1 10
Ice-cream maker  2 7
Pasteurizer operator, Class 1  41 12
Pasteurizer operator, Class 2  36 12
Dairy-product analyst  8 2
Manufacturers of oleomargarine numbered 4, and there were 24 wholesalers.
Permits Issued 1963
Reconstitution of milk       2
Tank-truck     30
Farm holding-tank  335
MILK-GRADING
The research which was started in 1962 into milk-grading continued throughout 1963. Changes in regulations were introduced, effective February, 1963, and
were based on the Milk Grading Committee's recommendations which led to
changes in frequency of sampling, period of suspension, etc. The net result was a
very significant improvement in the quality of raw milk entering the fluid market,
although the test used to grade the milk remaned the same (Resazurin). Bacterial
counts were made on a milk sample from each producer each month, and the results
were supplied to him to guide him in proper production procedures in preparation
for the anticipated changes in grading regulations in 1964.
Because of the changes in methods of suspension for shipment of poor-quality
milk and because the frequency of sampling was changed, 1963 milk-grading results
cannot be directly compared with previous years.
Milk-grading results from February to December, 1963, were as follows:
Number of samples, 26,686; number of samples below standard, 1,987; number
of producers suspended, 441. These figures should be considered in the light of the
three previous years' average, when over 2,700 producers were suspended annually,
with over 12,000 samples grading below standard each year.
DAIRY SHORT COURSE
Interest in the annual dairy short course remained high in 1963, with 14
students completing the correspondence and residence portions of the course.
DAIRY BRANCH LABORATORY
In 1962, through a grant to the University of British Columbia, a milk-grading
research laboratory was established on the University campus. Throughout most of
1962 and all of 1963, this laboratory conducted research work on milk samples
 	
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 27
submitted from each milk-producer in the Province at least once monthly. This
research has led to establishment of new milk-grading regulations which should be
promulgated in the near future, and which envision the continued use of a central
government laboratory to analyse samples of producers' milk for the majority of
the dairy plants in the Province on a fee basis.
In October, 1963, the responsibility for sampling, bacterial analysis, reporting,
and determination of compliance with regulatory standards on samples of pasteurized milk and cream from all dairy plants in British Columbia was transferred from
the Department of Health to the Dairy Branch, Department of Agriculture.
Plans have been drawn and tenders let for an early start on construction of
expanded Dairy Branch laboratory facilities at Cassiar Street, Vancouver, which
will replace present inadequate rented facilities at the University of British Columbia,
and which will allow for the proper future operation of the greatly expanded Dairy
Branch laboratory.
Summary of analyses performed in 1963 at the University of British Columbia
Dairy Branch laboratory is as follows:—
Number of
Analysis Samples
Phosphatase  903
Coliform count  1,806
Standard plate count  975
Resazurin  3,415
Loop plate count  7,983
PERSONNEL
In April, 1963, Mr. Herbert Riehl was appointed as Dairy Inspector to fill the
vacancy existing in the Prince George area. Mr. Riehl, in addition to his regular
Dairy Branch duties, is also responsible for all dairy-farm inspection in this area,
which includes Quesnel, Prince George, Vanderhoof, McBride, Smithers, Kitimat,
Dawson Creek, and Fort St. John.
LEGISLATION
In January, 1963, the regulations under the Milk Industry Act were extensively
amended. Among the more significant amendments were: (a) Changes in milk
grading; (b) compulsory licensing of dairy-plant personnel engaged in the receiving,
testing, grading, processing, and manufacture of dairy products; (c) new standards
of time and temperature required for pasteurization of dairy products; (d) amalgamation of regulatory authority in the Department of Agriculture; and (e) revision
of requirements relative to dairy-farm and dairy-plant premises.
Amendments to the Milk Industry Act were assented to in 1963 relative to the
Dairy Producers Protection Fund, advertising fund, and Milk Board matters. Additional amendments are proposed for the 1964 legislative session to deal with the
final transfer of responsibilities from Health to Agriculture, and regulations related
to these amendments and other matters are to be promulgated shortly.
DAIRY BRANCH OPERATION
Over the past two years the role of the Dairy Branch and the duties of its staff
have changed greatly. The area responsibilities of the Dairy Inspectors have remained much the same; however, the duties within the area have been enlarged and
changed. Each Inspector has a responsibility for the total control of the dairy
industry within his area.   Additional duties in this comprehensive control which
 CC 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
have been added to his role in 1963 are: (a) Sampling of fluid-milk producers
monthly; (b) authority to inspect raw-milk and fluid-milk dairy-farms; (c) examination and licensing of dairy-plant personnel; and (d) sampling of pasteurized milk
and cream from all dairy plants and raw-milk producer-vendors monthly. The
imposition of these added responsibilities adds appreciably to the work load of
Dairy Branch staff; however, the service which can now be offered (from producer
to processor to consumer), because of its comprehensive nature, is so much more
meaningful that intelligent co-operative programmes can be evolved, to the betterment of the industry as a whole.
SUMMARY OF DAIRY BRANCH SERVICES,  1963
Number of inspections and visits—
Dairy plants  720
Dairy-farms  1,040
Butterfat tests—
Producer  1,271
Finished product  290
Laboratory analyses—
U.B.C. central laboratory  15,082
Area laboratories  5,471
Examinations—Dairy-plant personnnel  85
Oleomargarine—
Labelling checks  92
Composition checks  43
Farm holding-tanks—
Certified   335
Miscellaneous checks   86
Grading (sensory)—
Milk  2,626
Cream  90
Other dairy products  146
Milk and cream samples collected—
Raw-milk producer-vendors  72
Fluid-milk producers  7,983
Pasteurized products  903
Meetings attended  .  85
SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
The 1963 total farm cash value of all milk produced in British Columbia
exceeded $40,000,000, and a moderate increase is envisioned in 1964. Milk production decreased in 1963 by about 2 per cent, but with production holding firm in
the last quarter of 1963 and with the expansion of Milk Board control (with added
stability) to the Kootenay and Central British Columbia areas effective January 1,
1964, milk production is expected to increase slightly in 1964 to about 900,000,000
pounds. The majority of this increase will likely go into fluid sales, with no significant increases in the production of manufactured dairy products.
It is likely that the trend toward reduction of the number of smaller dairy plants
and dairy-farms which has taken place over the past few years (with a temporary
hiatus being reached in 1963) will continue in 1964. The need for maximizing the
economies of large-scale production with increased use of labour-saving equipment
 —
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 29
and machinery both on the farm and in the dairy plant must be recognized to
eliminate intolerable pressures of the cost-price squeeze.
The quality of milk and milk products as they enter the processing cycle and
as they are offered to the consumer continued to improve in 1963, and with comprehensive inspectional and instructional programmes being developed within the Dairy
Branch, quality should continue to improve in the future.
The full impact of the programmes implemented in 1963 and those which are
envisioned for 1964 after regulatory and administrative changes, coupled with
maximum use of expanded laboratory facilities, and a gradual development of
" total concept" planning lends credence to the belief that the future of the dairy
industry in British Columbia should be viewed with optimism.
DYKING AND DRAINAGE DISTRICTS
W. R. Meighen, P.Eng., Inspector of Dykes and Dyking Commissioner
In so far as the Province's 40-odd dyking districts were concerned, very normal
weather prevailed during the past year. No extreme storm or run-off conditions
occurred to cause major flooding in any district. Peak flows in streams remained
well below record or even average levels and presented no flood threat. Peak reading on the Mission gauge during the Fraser River freshet was 16.17 feet, which
was well below average and the lowest peak reading since 1944. Peak readings on
other streams were similarly low.
All districts therefore enjoyed a relatively quiet and uneventful year. They
carried out adequate maintenance to their works and made improvements to these
works where possible. Several districts made good use of the Federal-Provincial
Winter Works Incentive Programme to make improvements in their drainage
systems.
The several districts which have annually been combating river erosion on a
cost-sharing basis with the Provincial and Federal Governments continued these
projects in the past year. The total estimated amount to be spent on 11 projects was
$220,000 in 1963.
ENTOMOLOGY BRANCH
C. L. Neilson, M.Sc, Provincial Entomologist
There were no major insect outbreaks during 1963. There was increased
evidence of resistance to insecticides by mites on tree fruits, pear psylla, carrot rust
fly, and cabbage maggot. The problem of pesticide residues received an increasing
amount of attention and investigation.
FIELD-CROP, FORAGE, AND VEGETABLE INSECTS
There was an increase in grasshopper populations in the Princeton-Kamloops
areas. Hydrocarbons failed to control turnip maggot in several areas, especially in
the Courtenay area, where some crops were not marketable, and no control is available for 1964. Chemical control of the clover weevil on white Dutch clover near
Creston proved very effective, with yields averaging 600 pounds per acre. Cutworm
populations were normal, as was tuber flea beetle.   It appears that initial attempts to
 CC 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
establish the bees Nomia melanderi and Megachile rotundata from Oregon to Ashcroft as a means of increasing alfalfa-seed production have been successful.
ORCHARD INSECTS
The major part of the summer work in the Interior was devoted to the Federal-
Provincial project "Application of Integrated Spraying in British Columbia Orchards." In summary, this project, while useful in many ways, was not able to
accomplish its basic purpose of reducing the required number of sprays in a given
orchard. It will not be continued until answers to some of the more basic entomological data become available, and these can only be made available by extensive research. San Jose scale investigations have led to new information re its
life-history and control methods. Continued publicity by Apiary-Entomology-
Horticulture has resulted in increased use of honeybees for fruit-tree pollination and
increased production.
SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS
Grape phylloxera was not found during 1963 after our attempts to eradicate an
introduced infestation during 1961/62. The bush weevil Nemocestes incompetus
severely damaged 1 acre of Puyallup raspberries at Abbotsford, and the black vine
weevil B. sulcatus killed 3-year-old blueberry bushes on peat soil at Pitt meadows.
The leaf roller Dasystoma salicellum caused considerable damage to blueberries on
Lulu Island and Pitt meadows. Cyclamen mite, root weevil, aphids, and mites were
normal on strawberries.
LIVE-STOCK INSECTS
Warble fly continues to be one of the major pests of cattle. Increased use of
systemic insecticides took place, but producers are still not giving the problem the
attention it needs. Populations seem to be increasing in Coastal areas, particularly
in dairy animals, where little control has been done during the last few years. Lice
also continue as a major pest.
Mosquito problems were not as numerous this year as in many years. Run-off
in the major river systems caused little flooding, hence fewer mosquitoes. A survey
of breeding areas was conducted during June-August in the Chilliwack municipality.
OTHER INSECTS
Requests for identification and control of insects were numerous, with over 550
being made at Victoria. Household and back-yard gardener problems are frequent.
Fleas about the home seemed unusually abundant in 1963, judging from inquiries.
Further tests were conducted jointly with Forest Biology (Vernon) on control of
Douglas fir needle midges at Invermere and Edgewater.
PESTICIDE PROBLEMS
Considerable time, over and above that normally needed, has been spent in
respect to pesticide residue problems. This has involved participation on one
National and two Provincial committees. It has also involved a survey of pesticides
used in the dairy industry, and from this a programme of education for the dairy
industry, dairymen, and our own staff.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 31
FARMERS' INSTITUTES
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent
Seventeen of the 133 Farmers' Institutes in the Province failed to file annual
returns for the year 1962. The 116 active Institutes showed a total membership of
4,689. Purchase of commodities on behalf of members continues to increase, the
total value being $1,593,757.
DISTRICT INSTITUTES
District Institutes held annual meetings during the year, as follows:—
District
Place
Date
'A"-
*B'
*C
<D
'E'
'F'
«G
«H
'I"
'J"
Terrace	
Vanderhoof	
New Westminster	
Nelson    ..
Grindrod    .,
June 24 and 25.
District
*—Central British Columbia	
June 20 and 21.
District
'—Lower Fraser Valley     	
March 29.
District
—East Kootenay _ 	
Cranbrook ..    	
May 30.
June 27.
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
The 46th annual meeting of the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes was
held in Victoria on December 3rd, 4th, and 5th, at which time 50 resolutions submitted by the District Institutes were considered. Thirty-five were approved, eight
withdrawn, and seven defeated. A brief dealing with such matters as land-clearing,
tractor-maintenance courses, weed-spraying, farm loans, rural electrification, road
maintenance, game laws, surveying of Crown lands, Provincial medicare scheme,
licence fees for farm vehicles, use of purple gasoline in farm vehicles, school taxes,
soil-testing, crop insurance, and liability insurance was presented to the Provincial
Cabinet for their consideration.
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS
During the year 1 Class A exhibition, 8 Class B exhibitions, 11 Class C exhibitions, and 40 fall fairs recognized by the Department were held throughout the
Province. In November of this year the Lower Fraser Valley Exhibition, having
complied with the Federal Exhibition Grants Regulations and on recommendation
of the Provincial Department, was granted Class A status.
POUND DISTRICTS
Pound districts constituted in unorganized territory during the year were as
follows: Siphon Creek, February 19th; Salmo-Ymir Road, March 25th; Hupel-
Kingfisher, April 11th; Deer Park, June 21st; Spillimacheen, October 8th; and
Umbach Creek, December 6th.
The boundaries of the Beaver Creek Pound District, Rolla Pound District, and
Red Bluff Pound District were extended.
 CC 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
MISCELLANEOUS
Fence-viewers were appointed for the unorganized territory in the Rossland-
Trail, Salmon Arm, and Grand Forks-Greenwood Electoral Districts. An amendment to the Line Fences Act permits the Minister of Agriculture to appoint fence-
viewers in place of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, and ensures that owners
of adjoining lands shall each pay half the costs of making and repairing the fence
which marks the boundary between them. Seven Grasshopper-control Committees
received advances for the purpose of exterminating and controlling grasshoppers in
their respective areas, and 108 licences to sell poisons used exclusively in agriculture
were issued.
FIELD CROPS BRANCH
Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner
CROP PRODUCTION
Cereals
Although there was an increase in acreage seeded to wheat, oats, and barley
in the Peace River District this year, yields per acre were below average, so that
total grain production was down. The increase in seeded acreage resulted from the
development of new areas as well as the diversion of some forage-seed crop acreage
to cereal production. An open fall with prolonged good harvest weather enabled
farmers to take off a good-quality crop in this area. Flax acreage was down
sharply, and yields were light. The Central Interior, North Okanagan, and Creston
districts harvested normal yields of grain. There was a good oat crop in the Fraser
Valley. Again this past year there has been a heavy movement of grain from the
Peace River to be used as feed in the southern parts of the Province, and prices
remained firm.
Hay and Pasture
A late spring delayed forage-crop growth in most areas of the Province this
year. However, above-average summer rainfall brought pasture crops on, particularly at the Coast, and provided adequate forage throughout the growing season.
Above-average hay crops were reported in most areas, but inclement weather at
the Coast and in the Okanagan did hinder curing of top-quality feed. Two areas—
one in the South Peace River and one in the Central Interior around Burns Lake—
experienced a very dry season, and the live-stock producers are going into the
winter with inadequate supplies of winter forage.
Seed Production
During the past two seasons there has been considerable acreage of forage-crop
seeds in the Peace River ploughed up and converted to grain production. In addition, the dry spring in the area reduced seed yields, so that total volume of seed has
declined in the past two years, although 1963 production exceeded that of 1962.
In the Central Interior most of the timothy-alsike fields were cut for hay, and little
seed was produced in that district. Seed prices, however, have increased. The
double-cut clover-seed crop in the Fraser Valley was better than average this year.
The small acreage of turnip and sugar-beet seeds grown in the area also yielded well.
The following table lists the acreage of crops inspected in British Columbia as
supplied by the Plant Products Division, Canada Department of Agriculture:—
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 33
Crop Acres Crop Acres
Wheat  650 Barley  1,100
Oats  367 Rax         68
Estimated yields of commercial forage-crop seeds for 1963, together with the
final production figures for 1962, are shown in Appendix No. 7.
The annual seed fair was held on February 20th this year at Fort St. John.
Potatoes
Commercial potato acreage remained about the same, at 10,700 acres, this
year. Average yields and general quality in the main growing areas were good.
Although not general, some difficulty was experienced on several farms in the Fraser
Valley this year with a hollow heart condition in the Netted Gem variety. This
variety still remains the most popular commercial potato on the market. Prices
this year have remained firmer than a year ago.
Acreage in certified seed potatoes declined slightly this year.
The main areas of seed production with acres inspected in 1963 are as follows
(1962 acreages in parentheses): Pemberton, 144 (261); Vancouver Island, 284
(337); Lower Mainland, 140 (115); Okanagan, 112 (142); Cariboo, 200 (200);
Central British Columbia, 26 (26); Boundary District, 300 (93); Kootenays, 236
(332).
As a service to the seed-growing potato industry, we again supervised the
planting of seed-potato samples in the greenhouses at the University of British
Columbia and the Experimental Farm, Saanichton, this fall. Disease readings are
now completed on 47 samples.
Field Peas
Acreage in field peas is down this year, particularly in the Creston area. The
yields have remained about average.
BRITISH COLUMBIA CROP IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION
No samples of seed were distributed to farmers in 1963 for commercial testing.
However, foundation seed of La Salle red clover, New Zealand white clover, Rambler alfalfa, Beaver alfalfa, Vernal alfalfa, and Hercules orchardgrass was distributed to seed-growers for production. A non-licensed variety of fall wheat from
Washington State, designated Gaines, was also imported for trial.
DEMONSTRATIONS AND TRIALS
Demonstration trial plots, including cereal varieties, forage crops, potatoes,
weedicides, soil fertility, fertilizers, and potato vine killing, have again been established in many areas of the Province this year. Many of these trials continue over
several years to assess results. Where possible these are continued in co-operation
with the Research Branch of the Canada Department of Agriculture and the University of British Columbia.
A soils extension programme started last year was continued, and in addition
to the Soils Club at Duncan, 10 new clubs were formed in the Okanagan.
SOIL AND FORAGE ANALYSES
The laboratory work has continued to increase again this year, and we have
now completed renovation of our laboratory with improved facilities and space, and
plan major changes in our testing procedures during the coming year. The following
table indicates work of the laboratory this year:—
 CC 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Materials Tested
Determinations of Analysis
Number of Samples
Soils....
Water..
Feeds and forage.
Nitrates, phosphorus, potash, calcium, and pH
pH and conductivity  	
Crude protein, moisture, pH (on silage only)...
4,296
300
256
AGRICULTURAL LIME
For the 12-month period ended December 31, 1963, 43,261 tons were distributed under the Federal-Provincial Lime Subsidy Policy.
The following is a five-year summary of movement of agricultural lime and
subvention paid:—
Fiscal Year
Total Number of
Applications
Approved
Total Amount
of Subsidy
Recommended
Total Tonnage
Used
1958/59	
1959/60     _	
1960/61-.  	
1,288
1,326
1,328
1,436
1,275
$107,749.24
118,989.76
117,110.26
129,212.85
110,321.60
36,529.09
41,298.81
39,835.68
1961/62. .                     .    ...	
43,505.20
1962/63                               	
37,118.24
FERTILIZER AND AGRICULTURAL POISONS BOARD
The Board did not hold a meeting this year, and the following mixes continue as
approved recommendations: 2-15-15, 4-10-10, 6-8-6 (organic), 6-30-15,
8-10-6, 10-20-10, 10-30-10, and 13-16-10. '
WEED CONTROL
During the past season two Weed Inspectors were employed for the summer
season in the Peace River District, and one temporary Inspector supervised roadside
spraying work in the Pemberton Valley for two weeks in June.
We have continued to test and demonstrate the use of newer herbicides for weed
control in waste areas, as well as in agricultural crops. There continues to be an
increased acceptance of chemical heribicides for weed control in all farm operations,
and particularly on fruit and horticultural crops. The weed-control chart for the
Province is under revision this year to incorporate most recent recommendations.
The Western Section of the National Weed Committee held its annual meeting
in Vancouver this fall.
The Department of Highways has continued its spray programme on roadside
weeds, with about the same mileage included this year as last. Other agencies, such
as the railways and hydro-power organizations, have also increased the use of
herbicides to control vegetation along roadways and power-line rights-of-way.
TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR
There was a good entry of red clover seed samples from growers in the Fraser
Valley this year exhibited at the Toronto Royal Winter Fair, and all samples placed
well in the class. Mr. Beharrel's sample placed first and Mr. Huff's second, and
these two samples went on to win the world championship and world reserve
championship in the forage-seed section.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 35
GRAIN SCREENINGS
During the year 16 permits for removal of screenings were issued to elevators
and merchants.   In addition, 44 feeders' permits were issued.
Nine processing plants are licensed to devitalize screenings. In all cases the
grinding and steam pressure as prescribed have given excellent devitalization of
weed seeds. Most of the refuse screenings used in British Columbia are now being
devitalized and pelleted. In spite of a heavy movement of grain through the Pacific
terminals with a heavy cleanout of screenings, demand and price have remained
high.
HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist
The number of farms having horticultural enterprises continues to decrease but
the work of the Horticultural Branch increases annually. Farm units are larger, and
their managers wish to take advantage of the technological developments available
to them more than ever before. District Horticulturists in this field appreciate
the opportunities they have had to associate with and learn from those engaged
in local, national, and occasionally international research. It is apparent that there
will be an even greater need to provide opportunities to study and understand the
technology of the future if we are to retain our present crops in a healthy competitive
position and develop new ones. This report gives a brief summary of crops and
projects the Horticultural Branch has been working with during the past year.
The yields and returns from horticultural crops have generally been favourable
to the grower. Early in the year there was concern because of unfavourable weather.
Frosts killed buds on stone fruits; the spring and early summer was unusually cool
and wet, but warm clear days followed and brought crops to optimum maturity.
Harvest conditions were ideal and labour needs were met.
In spite of the favourable year, growers are finding that the margin of profit per
acre is decreasing, and this is forcing some small units to increase in size or sell to
others prepared to handle larger operations. The following brief summary by
regions gives the general picture as seen by horticulturists throughout the Province.
On Vancouver Island, greenhouse operators close to Victoria are being forced
by urban development to locate farther out in Saanich, and some are considering
moving to the Mainland, where they would be closer to the markets for their produce.
Small-fruit land is in strong demand, and the price per acre reflects the health of the
industry. Vegetable-growers are increasing their production north of the Malahat.
The Gulf Islands and favourable areas west of Victoria are expected to plant larger
acreages of small fruits and vegetables.
The Lower Mainland has increased production of horticultural crops. Fruit-
processors are unable to get sufficient raw product, and there is a marked trend to
vertical integration. Four of the largest processors now have large farming operations under their direct control. So far the increase in integrated operations has not
resulted in a subsequent cut-back of contracted acreage, but has only been used to
supply the increasing demand for raw material required by expanding operations.
Processors have stated that they have difficulty locating growers willing and able to
operate larger acreages of crops. Raspberry and strawberry farms are getting larger,,
with more than a dozen growers cropping at least 25 acres each. An assured source
of harvest labour or greater mechanization will facilitate rapid expansion in many
crops.
In the Okanagan Valley most districts engaged in the production of horticultural
crops appear prosperous.    All report a fairly steady turnover of orchards.    One
 CC 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
district reports an increase in orchard prices of 10 per cent, and this is the trend
throughout the tree-fruit area. A number of successful growers are adding to then-
holdings, using improved credit facilities. Farm units are getting larger, although
two large orchards have been subdivided during the year—Bankheard Orchards at
Kelowna and Kaleden Orchards near Penticton. The Agricultural Rehabilitation
and Development Act is expected to open up new land which newcomers would like
to develop in grapes because orchardists show very little interest in changing to this
crop at present.
There is a gradual erosion of orchard land near the towns for residential areas,
light industry, and recreational purposes. This does not mean that the tree-fruit
production will decline. Unless winter losses take place, it will increase. The 1963
apple and pear crop demonstrated the capacity of the area to come back with record
and near-record production. Many young apple, pear, and cherry trees have not yet
produced, and many more trees which started to bear this year will increase production in the next decade to unprecedented levels.
In Creston Valley the decline in orchard acreage continues, but the yields per
acre are expected to increase and maintain production. Potato and seed-pea acreage
could expand on the flats, but a more intensive cropping programme, such as is
required for horticultural crops, is not expected to develop in the immediate future.
SMALL FRUITS
All of the principal small-fruit crops increased in total production in the
Province in 1963. Favourable growing conditions gave maximum yields on all
crops except strawberries. The most marked increase was in cranberries. Significant increases were also recorded in blueberries, loganberries, and raspberries. With
a favourable winter, these crops are expected to increase in volume in 1964 as new
plants mature and cultural practices improve. Appendix No. 8 shows the final production estimate for 1962 and an estimate of 1963. Appendix No. 10 is a summary
of the most recent small-fruit acreage survey.
Strawberries
Production did not increase in this crop as it did in other small fruits. Strawberry plantings throughout the Province suffered some frost damage in January. The
extent of the damage varied with the variety and the age of the planting; Northwest
suffered more injury than the Siletz and British Sovereign varieties. Older plantings, particularly those grown in the hill system, produced only a fraction of their
potential crop.
Spring growth on plantings was normal, with full bloom occurring at the Coast
during the third week of May. The high temperatures through May greatly accelerated the ripening period, with the result that picking started some two weeks earlier
than 1962.
Because school students were not generally available, an acute labour shortage
existed for the first week of harvest, especially on the Lower Mainland. An extensive publicity campaign conducted by the Farm Labour Service, in co-operation with
the officials of the National Employment Service, alleviated the situation. No particular harvest problems were encountered for the remainder of the season.
Strawberry planting not protected by the recommended spray programme
developed fruit rot, and losses in the order of 25 per cent were reported near
Abbotsford.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 37
Raspberries
Raspberry plantings on the Lower Mainland made succulent growth in 1962
and were still actively growing in October when the area was hit by typhoon winds.
The wind damaged the leaves and prevented the normal maturing process from
taking place. Low temperatures in January further aggravated the condition, with
the result that the majority of plantings inn the Abbotsford area had 25 per cent of
their top buds impaired. Crop prospects looked discouraging, but the cool moist
weather in June and July permitted the weakened canes to mature a maximum crop.
Furthermore, first crop plantings produced the highest yields on record. The 1963
raspberry crop at 5,813 tons was 40 per cent higher than 1962 crop and the highest
for the area since 1957.
A survey on the Coast, completed in January, 1963, indicated a total of 1,455
acres, grown almost exclusively in the Fraser Valley. The Willamette is now the
leading variety, followed by Newburgh.
Loganberries
The loganberry crop was up 41 per cent over 1962 and 61 per cent over the
10-year average. On the other hand, acreage is lower than at any time in the past
10 years. The demand for this crop continues to exceed the supply largely because
of sales to the wine industry.
Blueberries
The total blueberry production for 1963 was approximately 49 per cent greater
than in 1962. This remarkable increase may be attributed to new plantings, ideal
weather conditions for the development of the crop, and a fine, dry fall that
permitted a complete harvest. With the co-operation of the Apiculture Branch,
numerous blueberry-growers made use of bees for the purpose of pollinating the
blueberries. Although accurate records are not available to date, it is felt that the
presence of strong hives of bees increases the set of this crop.
Cranberries
The cranberry industry produced a record crop of 801,000 pounds, 322 per
cent greater than the production of 1962. Weather conditions throughout the full
year appeared ideally suited to this crop. Also the increase was assisted by many
acres of young plants coming into production. Other cultural factors which have
contributed to the success of the cranberry industry are better frost control, early
detection and control of insect pests, improved comprehension of fertility requirements, and reduced mechanical injury to plants.
Grapes
Horticulturists in all parts of the Province are receiving a large number of
inquiries regarding the establishment of vineyards. In the Okanagan, the main area
of production, rapid expansion is hampered by a shortage of suitable land.
The Branch has encouraged the propagation of grape plants locally to avoid
the introduction of pests and diseases new to the Province, but the supply falls far
short of the demand.
The winter of 1962/63 caused injury in many plantings. In some heavier
soils the vines did not become sufficiently dormant and were killed to the ground;
in others, killing was complete. In these areas some growers felt that too much
water was to blame. In some sections, top-killing and delayed foliation occurred
on gravelly knolls.  The crop was reduced by as much as 50 per cent in some vine-
 CC 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
yards. Considering the high percentage of 1- and 2-year-old vines in the area and
the lack of snow cover, it is remarkable that more plants were not killed.
The cool summer was followed by warm weather in September, and this was
enough to provide adequate sugar in most varieties.
Research and demonstration work by horticulturists in the Okanagan include
a number of long-term projects. Extensive fertilizer trials are in their third year,
but no definite trend has been established. A grape-pruning trial to determine the
optimum number of buds per vine is under way at Westbank. A trial to test herbicides for under-trellis weed control is showing promise with Simazin. The following
grape varieties are now recommended for limited commercial trial: Schyler, Buffalo,
Seibel 13053, S9549, S9110, Bath, and New York Muscat (formerly NY1297).
Trial plantings have been made during the past year at Lytton, Lillooet, Spences
Bridge, Abbotsford, Langley, Coquitlam, Saltspring Island, and Victoria.
SMALL-FRUIT PROJECTS
Nematode Laboratory
As a result of a training programme at Saanichton Experimental Farm, there
has been set up a field laboratory to assist growers in determining whether nematodes are present in crop soils and the level of infestation. Since the programme
started in March, 1963, 216 separate analyses have been carried out. Thirty-five
per cent of the samples were determined to contain populations of harmful nematodes in sufficient quantities to require treatment. It has been shown that it is not
feasible to crop lands carrying a high population of specific nematodes. The service
provided has enabled many growers to treat their sites before planting, thus removing nematode injury as a limiting factor in successful production.
Strawberry Certification
The strawberry certification programme continues to run into difficulties.
British Sovereign plants produced under the programme by two of the larger
operators have proven unsatisfactory when transplanted. The cause of the losses
on transplanting has not been fully determined. Tests are currently under way to
assess the virus content of the plants in the propagating fields.
Three propagators have been refused certification on fields being grown for
1964 plant sales due to unfavourable growth of the stock. There is expected to be
a shortage of suitable plants of some varieties for planting in 1964.
Investigations regarding the propagation of plants on the Gulf Islands, Pemberton Valley, and the North Okanagan are under way. It is hoped that these sites
will provide the essential isolation with a relative freedom from frost injury because
of moderate climate or snow cover.
Raspberry Certification
The raspberry certification programme was inaugurated in 1961, and the first
plants available under the scheme were available to growers in the spring of 1963.
There were 100,000 Newburgh and 45,000 other varieties sold in 1963, and it is
expected that there will be 41,000 plants for 1964.
The variety which is handicapped by known virus diseases is Newburgh. The
other varieties are believed to be free from virus disease, hence there is not the
strong incentive for fruit-growers to pay the additional costs necessary to purchase
certified plants of varieties other than Newburgh.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 39
Strawberry-plant Storage Trial
Injury to over-wintering strawberry runners has been a major problem to
strawberry-growers for many years. One possible method of eliminating this hazard
is to lift the plants in the fall and carry them through the winter in artificial cold
storage. The success of this technique is influenced by factors such as plant dormancy, storage temperature, containers used, size of plants, and digging conditions
through October to December. Very little information was available on strawberry-
plant storage, and virtually nothing was known regarding the British Sovereign
variety.
A co-operative project to investigate fall storage was instigated by the Horticultural Branch. Co-operators in the project are personnel from the Agassiz
Experimental Farm and the Research Station, Canada Department of Agriculture,
at the University of British Columbia.
Corn as a Winter Protection Crop for Strawberries
For the past several years the Horticultural Branch has been recommending
the seeding of a narrow strip of oats between strawberry rows to assist in providing
winter protection. The oats must be seeded in August in order to allow sufficient
time for growth. This practice is not compatible with the recommended usage of
Simazine herbicide because the chemical, unless carefully shielded, inhibits growth
on the oats.
Corn is tolerant to Simazine, so a trial was carried out to determine whether it
could act as a substitute for oats. The corn made good growth under favourable
conditions and had reached a height of 10 inches at the end of October. A light
frost early in November killed the corn as expected, but it was not anticipated that
the corn tissue would break down completely. By December there was no trace of
the corn plants, and this crop is therefore unsatisfactory for this purpose when used
in this manner.
TREE FRUITS
An air of optimism continues to prevail throughout the fruit-growing areas of
the Interior. Although the orchard industry has several knotty problems ahead, the
price of orchards remains high, and there is a strong demand for land to develop
for either orchards or vineyards.
The marketing agency, B.C. Tree Fruits Limited, reports that the volume of
apples handled by it was 8,683,859 bushels. This includes both fresh and processed
fruit. When the estimated local sales are added to this figure, the total production
will be near the previous record, and even greater production is foreseen.
Record-breaking production of both Bartletts and Anjous was attained in 1963,
and even larger crops are expected in coming years.
The peach and apricot crop was reduced as a result of bud damage during the
cold periods of the winter.
Early in the season, concern was felt over the possibility of marketing the large
cherry crop which was in view. Heavy June rains greatly reduced the tonnage and
caused marketing troubles because of the brown rot disease, which occurred for the
first time since 1948.
The industry has built a controlled-atmosphere storage plant at Kelowna for
126,000 boxes of apples, and it plans to erect additional plants. The grower-owned
processing organization plans to erect a cold storage which will have an effect on
the plans of the packing-houses for expansion.
 CC 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The industry is continuing to adopt modern methods of handling fruit. Immersion dumpers in packing-houses have increased, and bulk bins for the handling of
pears and apples are now usual. Their use for the handling of peaches and cherries
is being tested, and the results are favourable.   See Appendix No. 9 for estimates of
crop production.
Sweet Cherries
What could have been the largest cherry crop since the late 1940's was spoiled
by a 33-hour rain which fell at the end of June.    At Summerland the loss in the
Bings was estimated to be over 90 per cent and in the Lamberts over 50 per cent.
The Van variety had 15 per cent splitting and the Sam virtually nil.   In addition to
the loss from splitting, there was a further loss of tonnage since many trees were not
worth picking over to extract the good fruit.   Many orchards were affected with
brown rot for the first time in 15 years.    In the Creston Valley the crop was also
disappointing.
Sour Cherries
The set on sour cherries was very heavy; consequently fruit size was small.
The trees suffered from poor leaf size, leaf hopper damage, mildew, and rust mite.
Due to the cool summer, harvesting was not completed until August.
Apricots
This was the smallest crop since 1956. The sudden drop in temperature
occurring January 9th was responsible for 95 per cent fruit-bud loss on the Moorpark
and Perfection varieties with somewhat less severe losses on the Tilton and Blenheims. Much of the surviving bloom appeared to be weak. Fruidets were continually sloughing during June and July. There is little doubt that many apricot-
trees were in a weakened condition as a result of several years of heavy cropping
which probably aggravated the heavy bud kill in January.
Peaches
Low temperatures in January also thinned this crop, especially in the colder
locations. From the end of June the threat of brown rot was apparent, and a number
of growers applied Captan or sulphur sprays as a precaution against this disease.
Cannery peaches which were dipped in Botran for thizopus were also given Captan
as a precaution against brown rot.
Early in the harvesting season the weather was unsetded. Redhavens developed
some softening during the ripening period. However, by late August the weather
had stabilized, and the Vee crop was harvested without difficulty. In contrast to
former years, the later Vee peaches were of finer quality than earlier pickings.
Contrary to earlier fears, brown rot did not become a serious factor.
The crop ran considerably under estimate. Roadside sales were up sharply
and reduced packing-house shipments to some extent; however, many trees did not
produce the tonnage expected.
Italian Prunes
The crop was even lighter than in 1961. Many trees were in poor shape, with
severe leaf-roll starting early in the season. In most cases, mites were not to blame.
It was felt that the trees were suffering rfom the effects of the January freeze.
Pears
Following the light crops of 1961 and 1962, pear-trees blossomed heavily.
Weather during the bloom period was warm, bees were active, and the resulting set
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 41
was good. Sizing of Bartletts was slow under the heavy load. A heavy crop of
medium to smaller sizes was the result. This record crop was in excellent condition
and moved to market rapidly.
The Anjou trees also set heavily, but, being five weeks later than Bartlett, came
in for better weather. The result was a heavy crop of large-size Anjous. There was
litde or no Anjou pit.   Estimates were exceeded by 50 to 100 per cent in some cases.
Apples
Weather at blossom time was ideal for pollination, and chemical thinning sprays
were widely used. In the follow-up hand thinning, growers left more fruit than
usual, and up until mid-August friut in many blocks was border line for size. However, excellent growing weather and slow colouring, which resulted in delayed
harvesting, combined to produce an estimated 20-per-cent increase in size. The
crop turned out to be the second largest ever produced in British Columbia. Slow
colouring of Mcintosh resulted in a small volume of early movement and a rush
at the end of September that could not be handled by the packing-houses. An acute
shortage of bins and storage developed, with much fruit remaining outside the
packing-houses in warm weather. This situation continued until late in the harvest
season. Some process fruit held for Sun-Rype Ltd. was dumped to make harvesting
containers available for late varieties. Much of the additional crop came from young
trees bearing their first substantial crop, but old trees were more heavily loaded than
growers realized. There was not pre-harvest drop. The probability of even larger
crops in the next few years presents the industry with the problem of constructing
additional handling and storage facilities.
The Mcintosh crop was estimated at 60,000,000 pounds, up 20 per cent over
the 1962 crop. The percentage of Cee grade and culls was higher than normal
because of lack of colour and hail damage. Tailoring of the less desirable sizes and
grades has provided a large amount of fruit for processing.
The estimate of the Spartan crop was 3,500,000 pounds, or double the 1962
crop. This variety continues to produce exceptionally high percentages of the Extra
Fancy grade even on the older trees. The Spartan crop should double in two or
three years.
The Red Delicious crop is up 40 per cent over 1962. Colour was slow to
develop, and in some blocks never did reach a satisfactory level. There was very
little water core. The Golden Delicious crop finished nicely this season and was up
40 per cent over 1962.
THE FRUIT GROWERS' 1963 CHESTERFIELD CHAUTAUQUA
For more than 50 years, District Horticulturists and associated specialists have
been carrying a Chatauqua to the fruit-growers in the Southern Interior of the
Province during the winter. Arrangements were made to try a similar series on
television because most people in the tree-fruit area have television sets or access to
this media. A series of five consecutive morning programmes lasting 90 minutes
each was prepared on entomology, pathology, pomology, weather, and a final day
of questions and answers. Grower response to the programmes was extremely
favourable, and the Branch was encouraged to present a hew series in 1964.
INTEGRATED SPRAYING DEMONSTRATIONS
The most extensive demonstration programme in the tree-fruit areas was the
integrated spray project, a joint project between the British Columbia Department
 CC 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of Agriculture and the Research Station at Summerland. Plant pathologists, entomologists, chemists, and horticulturists participated. The plots were located at
Oliver, Keremeos, Summerland, Kelowna, and Vernon. The objective of the
demonstration was to determine if and where changes in cultural practices and
economics could be made in orchard spray programmes. Weekly observations were
made by the personnel involved. At the end of the season the project confirmed
the feeling of District Horticulturists that the present basis of recommendations for
insect and disease control was generally sound. It brought the extension and
research staffs much closer together, and they are aware of the complexity of pest
problems facing the growers.
NOON-HOUR ORCHARD DEMONSTRATIONS
Two noon meetings of approximately 1 hour each were tried at Summerland to
show fruit-growers how to identify mites. Hand-lenses and low-power microscopes
were available for grower use in seeing these pests at first hand. This type of
extension is easy to organize and takes little of the grower's time. One subject is
dealt with, and meetings can be called on short notice when the need is apparent.
Greater use will have to be made of this type of meeting so that producers can
identify their own problems earlier because District Horticulturists cannot visit every
orchard and identify insects or diseases.
LOWER MAINLAND VEGETABLE CROPS
The extremes of weather during the year caused mixed reactions. Spring crops
of lettuce, cabbage, and bunching crops were late. In midsummer the canning-corn
crop looked as though it would never mature, but by late August was developing
rapidly. Harvest conditions were ideal, and in spite of a decline in acreage the total
production was greater than that of 1962.
The Lower Mainland is striving for high yields and top quality to maintain its
competitive position. To do this accelerated research programmes have been and
will be necessary. Pea-growers have provided a grant to the University of British
Columbia, and a joint project is under way with Agassiz Experimental Farm officials.
The Horticultural Branch brought together bean growers, processors, and research
personnel to review the needs of the industry and to develop a course of action
which will increase the yield per acre.
The Branch survey of vegetable acreage indicates an increase in acreage of
pole beans, bush beans, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts, and a decrease in peas, corn,
cauliflower, and potatoes.
Cole crops produced well this year, but horticulturists are concerned about the
future of the vegetables in this group because of the strains of root maggots which
developed resistant to the pesticides available for control. A similar situation exists
in carrots with the carrot rust fly. Research is under way on those problems, and
the results are extremely critical to this area.
A large vegetable-processor closed in Vancouver last winter, but others took
over most, but not all, of its pea and bean acreage. There are a number of growers
looking for alternate crops to peas and potatoes at present, and the Horticultural
Branch personnel have addressed meetings on this subject.
An important outlet for vegetables and other produce on the Lower Mainland
is the more than 300 roadside stands. The growers provide produce, and the stand
operators require increased services from this Branch because they are faced with
the same problems as growers selling through normal channels of trade. Appendix
No. 11 is a report of vegetable acreage and production in the Province.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1963
CC 43
INTERIOR VEGETABLE CROPS
Vegetable acreage is again on the increase in the Okanagan Valley, especially
the acreage of asparagus, beans, corn, peppers, spinach, and late potatoes. A similar
trend was noted in the Kootenay District, with dried peas and potatoes accounting
for most of the increase.
An extensive demonstration programme on field tomatoes has received a great
deal of attention from personnel of the Horticultural Branch. The project expenses
are also shared by the Research Station at Summerland, the Interior Vegetable
Marketing Board, and a local processor. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the benefits of good cultural practices. A summer student worked under the
supervision of the Branch to ensure that the project received the attention needed to
aid the field-tomato industry.
The tomato work is intended to continue for a number of years, but the first
year has had some immediate results:—
(1) Early seeding and early planting in the field did not produce an earlier
crop of tomatoes than the recommended dates, which are four to six weeks
later for the above operations.
(2) The recommended disease-control programme gave a substantial reduction
in damage to fruit and leaves from alternaria blight and anthracnose
particularly.
(3) The varieties Fireball, Early Red Chief, and Summerdawn each gave
higher yields per acre when recommended practices were used as compared with the grower's own programme.
Now that the recommendations are confirmed in field trials, growers will be
given the immediate benefits of the project to date in their 1964 production programme.
A programme of selection which began in 1959 to improve the type of sweet
Spanish onions has now reached the stage of commercial application. Seed was
distributed to several growers in the Okanagan to produce transplants for the 1964
crop. A grower on Saltspring Island has also received seed from the Branch to see
if the plants can be grown in a favoured climate within the Province rather than
importing them from outside of Canada. Eventually it is expected that the programme will be self-sustaining.
Several years ago a late cabbage of high quality was noted in the Terrace and
Houston districts. Samples were supplied to wholesalers, and they feel that it is
superior to the imported cabbage; now all of the available supplies are under contract. The Branch assisted in having application made for certification of the variety
under the name Houston Evergreen.
The Branch is promoting the development of a larger Interior asparagus industry in co-operation with the Interior Vegetable Marketing Agency. Acreage is now
approaching 500 acres, and further plantings will be made in 1964. A new strain,
Mary Washington 711, was grown in the Kelowna district and will be distributed to
growers for trial in 1964.
NURSERIES
The demand for both tree-fruit and ornamental nursery stock continues to be
good. There is a trend in the nursery business to greater separation of the functions
of wholesaling, growing, and retailing, and in the past year two important growers
have moved wholesale-growing operations out of the Vancouver area to Pitt Meadows and Aldergrove. A continuing stable market for ornamental stock should
encourage this trend.
 CC 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The nursery business in British Columbia continued to expand, and local
production is steadily taking over much of the demand formerly filled by imported
stock.
Tree-fruits Nursery Stock
Severe winter injury to budded apples and cherries during the 1962/63 winter
reduced the crop of tree-fruit nursery stock. There was severe root damage to
apple nursery stock in the Kelowna area grown on sandy soil and very little damage
on the heavier soils. The situation was reversed with cherries, as although there
was a considerable amount of damage on the light soils, the trees on heavy soils
were almost completely killed.
The number of fruit-trees of the various kinds produced during the past year
was 129,390 apples, 41,415 pears, 21,426 cherries, 4,700 plums and prunes, 8,000
peaches, and 550 apricots.
Hardy Framework Trees
Production of Antonovka has dropped off very sharply as a result of a few
unfavourable reports regarding winter injury to trees of this variety. Also, nurserymen do not like Antonovka as it makes straggly, uneven growth in the nursery.
There is a fairly heavy production of the variety Red Astrachan, also of Ottawa 292,
as hardy framework trees.
Apple Rootstocks
The apple MM 104 has replaced EMU as the most popular of the clonal root-
stocks. Supply of MMIII has been short, and this has limited production of this
stock.
There is a great deal of interest in EM26, but no commercial quantities are as
yet available.   There will be a sharp increase in EM26 for the coming year.
Where budded rootstocks on sandy soil were severely damaged last winter by
cold weather, MM104 was outstandingly the best rootstock, showing much less
injury than other clonal roots.
Ornamental Nursery Stock
Roses.—There was a heavy loss of rose buds over the past winter, and this has
reduced the over-all crop by about 15 per cent. The remainder of the crop has
grown well. Although there is a good demand for roses, competition from low-
priced imports prevents expansion of local production.
Coniferous Evergreens.—There is some overproduction of evergreens in small
sizes, but there is a good demand for landscape and specimen material. Root-rot
continues to be an increasingly serious factor in Lawson's cypress varieties.
Broad-leaved Evergreens.—In past years it has been difficult to grow broad-
leaved evergreens, of which rhododendrons are the most important, and compete
successfully with imports. This situation has changed, and it is now practical to
produce most broad-leaved evergreens locally and to compete very successfully with
European and American plants.
There has been a very sharp increase in the quantities propagated in this
category, and continuing expansion over the next few years is assured.
Deciduous Shrubs.—Local supplies are adequate for the demand. There are
no particular problems and no demand for any increase in production.
Tree-fruit Nursery Stock Certification and Colour Coding.—The colour coding
of nursery stock was carried out on a larger scale this year. Five nurseries in the
Okanagan were certified, and of 129,390 apples produced by these growers, 99,707
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 45
were colour-coded.   All cherry stock of the varieties Van, Bing, and Lambert,
totalling 9,051 plants was also coded.
There is one additional application for certification in the Okanagan for 1964
and three applications from the Fraser Valley.
There have been a few complaints regarding budwood, but on the whole this
programme has worked out very well, with a striking decrease in the number of
mixtures showing up in the nurseries. There were no mixtures found in cherries or
apricots in 1963.
GREENHOUSES
The greenhouse industry on the Lower Mainland is continuing to expand, with
the largest percentage of the new glass area being used for vegetables and chrysanthemums. The Surrey and White Rock areas are now being favoured over Haney
for new construction. Greenhouses are continuing to move out of Vancouver and
Burnaby. Most of the houses now being built are of improved type of construction,
with 20- and 24-inch glass being used in place of the 16-inch, which was formerly
standard, and with aluminum framing also being commonly used.
Marketing
The bulk of greenhouse cut flowers was handled by consignment wholesale
houses until 1963, when a small group of growers organized a co-operative which
operates a Dutch auction market. This market has tended to attract lower-quality
flowers, and to date average prices attained have been lower than consignment
prices. Participating growers feel that this difference is offset by the much lower
cost of marketing, quick settlement of grower accounts, and the absence of dumping.
Greenhouse Demonstration Projects
Tomato Varieties.—The variety Vantage, which was distributed last year under
the number V-595, was grown this year on a trial basis in five greenhouses in the
Surrey and Haney areas. Performance has been generally satisfactory, yields are
slightly lower than for Dominant, but fruit quality is good, and the variety has
remained free of leaf mould. The results of these trials have established Vantage
as a commercial variety in this area. A number of other varieties are out under test
throughout the Province.
Tomato Rootstocks.—Seed of the two Fl hybrid tomato rootstocks, KN and
KVF were obtained from England. These rootstocks were used for grafting the
varieties Vantage and Dominant. No significant difference was noted between
behaviour of the grated plants on the two rootstocks. No attempt was made to test
the Verticilium wilt resistance of the KVF rootstock. Plants on both rootstocks
grew well, and cropping during the main part of the season was not noticeably different from that on ungrafted plants. Toward the end of the season, fruits on the
top trusses of the grafted plants maintained much better size and quality than plants
on their own root. Horticulturists plan more extensive trials during the coming
season.
Cucumber Rootstock.—The main purpose in grafting cucumbers is to achieve
resistance to fusarium root-rot, which has become prevalent during the past few
years. Difficulty was encountered with grafting, and further trials are necessary to
determine the best method of handling grafted plants. In all locations, plants on
both the fig-leafed gourd and the helmet squash showed resistance to fusarium, but
grated plants were slow coming into crop and did not yield as well as cucumbers on
their own roots.
 CC 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The small amount of gourd seed available and the poor percentage of successful
grafts made it impossible to obtain good comparison between the two rootstock
varieties. Larger amounts of the gourd seed and the helmet squash are available
and will be used again next year.
Soil Fumigants.—In 1962 the nematode-infested soil was fumigated, using a
one-third methyl bromide and two-thirds chloropicrin mixture injected in the same
way as the normal chloropicrin greenhouse soil treatment, and covered with plastic.
Observations during the 1963 season show that control with the methyl bromide
mixture was much better, presumably due to deeper penetration of the gas. There
was some nematode infection in the cucumber crop grown on this soil, but this did
not occur until late in the season.
The Use of Systemic Insecticides.—The object of this trial was to determine
whether or not systemic insecticides, which have been used successfully in the
culture of pot chrysanthemums, could be applied before flowering to achieve protection during the flowering period. The treatments were: 10 per cent granular
Disyston, broadcast when the plants were 1 foot high, and Meto-systox emulsion,
applied as a spray at the same stage, at rates of 1 pint and 2 pints per 100 gallons.
A second spray was applied one month later in October.
It was concluded that it would not be possible to use either of the systemic
insecticides tested in such a manner as to achieve protection from mites and aphids
into the blooming period. Resistance to malathion and diazinon has shown very
strongly in aphid infestations this year. It is to be expected that this resistance will
increase during the coming season, but the greenhouse specialist will continue work
in this field.
Greenhouse Soil Permeability and Watering
Based on observations made in 1962, further soil-modification techniques were
tried. This project is now carried out in co-operation with personnel of the Saanich-
ton Experimental Farm.
The greenhouse was divided into three treatments—straw walling, soils modified
to the equivalent of a John Innes soil mix (that is, 7 parts loam, 3 parts peat, and
2 parts fine sand), and a check.
The standard variety Tuckqueen was grown for the test. The increase in yield
from the John Innes mix over the check was significant, but further work is planned
on these soils.
A trickle irrigation system and direct sub-irrigation methods when compared
with the standard hand watering gave littie difference. The cost of installing the
trickle or the sub-irrigation equipment is considerable, but there is a great saving in
labour.   No recommendations can be made on this first year's trial.
Blotchy Ripening of Tomatoes
The blotchy ripening condition, which has been severe for the last few years
on Vancouver Island, has definitely been connected with a weakness in the variety
Tuckqueen. This year the variety Vantage was grown in several ranges where
Tuckqueen was also grown, and while Tuckqueen blotched severely, Vantage did not.
Deep Steaming of Greenhouse Soils on Vancouver Island
It was known that deeper steaming would be beneficial in controlling pests and
disease on greenhouse soils. A co-operative trial was set up by the Horticultural
Branch and the Saanichton Experimental Farm in a problem greenhouse to demonstrate the method to growers.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 47
This trial consisted of burying 4-inch concrete drain tiles 20 inches deep in
runs 16 inches apart. Headers joined the runs of tiles, and live steam was introduced
into the headers. The soil surface was covered with 2-mil plastic. Half the greenhouse was steamed at once, and the soil was brought up to the temparture of 210° F.
in about 6 hours. It was difficult to bring up the temperature around the perimeter
of the greenhouse, and some modification of the apparatus was made.
The soil was sterilized to a much greater depth than had been possible previously
when the grid system was used. The time required to carry out the operation was
not substantially reduced, so there was no saving in fuel. Labour, however, was
almost eliminated since the grid system required two men to move soil during the
whole steaming period, whereas the buried-tile method only required a few minutes
of labour to lay the plastic sheets on the surface and move steam leads.
Examination of the plants during the growing season showed them to have
less trouble from wilt and from nematode infestation than those in the conventionally steamed houses. Although this method of steaming is expensive to
install, the results were good and the saving in labour would offset the cost of
installation.
MUSHROOM PRODUCTION
The mushroom industry has shown a slight increase over 1962 production.
This year's crop is expected to reach 2.26 million pounds, a 5.7-per-cent increase.
This increase may be attributed to expansion of area by established growers and
a few new producers.
Last year the mushroom industry was in the midst of an amalgamation programme, but the plan did not materialize, and there are now three separate grower
groups controlling the markets.
HOLLY
The holly industry is increasing in size and volume. There are now 128 acres
grown commercially, with 92 acres on Vancouver Island and the remainder on the
Lower Mainland. New plantings under 10 years of age made up 73 acres, and an
increase in production will require new market outlets. There are many problems
in the production and handling of this crop which are receiving a share of the time
of District Horticulturists concerned.
HORTICULTURAL EXTENSION PROGRAMMES
Demonstrations of fruit-tree pruning, grafting, and fire blight control measures
were given by District Horticulturists when they were requested.
Winter short courses and summer field-days were held for small-fruit, tree-
fruit, and vegetable growers. Night-school courses were organized on such topics
as " Science in Agriculture " and " Farm Financing and Legal Matters."
There were 24 issues of the Horticultural Newsletter, together with regular
crop estimates. The Horticultural Branch grower notes were issued by District
Horticulturists on a regular basis during the growing season when the need was
anticipated.
Newspapers and television and radio stations have been co-operative. The
personnel of the C.B.C. at Vancouver have been helpful in presenting timely programmes and bulletins.
INSPECTION AND REGULATORY PROGRAMMES
Under the Plant Protection Act, inspections have been carried out as usual
on a number of crops, including pears for fire blight, cherries for little cherry,
 CC 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
grapes for phylloxera, tree fruits for unsatisfactory codling moth control, tree-fruit
nursery stock for freedom from pests and diseases, also strawberry and raspberry
stocks.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL FARM LABOUR SERVICE FOR
BRITISH COLUMBIA
(A. C. Carter, Director)
The Federal-Provincial Farm Labour committee approved of a plan to allow
the local office manager of the National Employment Service in a region to supervise the seasonal farm-labour officers operating in his area. The new arrangement
provided more immediate contact with the seasonal offices and better co-ordination
of farm-labour activities.
Seasonal field offices were operated at Victoria, Osoyoos, Oliver, Keremeos,
West Summerland, Rutland, Winfield, Oyama, and Creston in the past year.
Casual labour was sufficient to meet the local requirements, except for a brief
period in June during strawberry-picking and in isolated instances during the
apple harvest.
The general contribution of time and space made by radio, television, and
newspapers to publicize labour opportunities was a valuable contribution to the
producers of this Province.
INSTITUTIONAL FARMS
W. B. Richardson, B.S.A., Superintendet
The institutional farms are associated with hospital operations of the Mental
Health Services at Essondale and Tranquille. The functioning of these farms is
affected to a marked degree by the integrated activity and programmes of the associated institutions. During the past year we have had excellent co-operation with
the Mental Health Services staff concerned, as we have had with the Department
of Public Works personnel, on whom we depend to a large degree for the maintenance of our physical plant and facilities.
On April 1, 1963, the activities of our Department were terminated at Colquitz,
when the farm and inventories concerned were turned over to the Corrections
Branch, Department of the Attorney-General.
In general, we have increased where possible our co-operation with other
agencies, such as the University of British Columbia, Livestock Division and
Research Branch of the Canada Department of Agriculture, and other branches
of our own Department of Agriculture, in carrying out practical applications of
programmes and research principles which are of mutual interest and, in turn, a
benefit to agriculture in British Columbia.
The following summaries will indicate in more detail the operation at Colony
and Tranquille Farms during the past year.
COLONY FARM
The weather picture for 1963 was close to normal, with more than the average
rainfall received during the summer months of July and August. A record rainfall
was recorded for the month of December.
The physical area of the farm was reduced somewhat, when the barns and
associated fields previously used in the Home for the Aged sector at Essondale
were turned over to the Department of Public Works.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 49
General maintenance this year included renewal of the main power-line and
bullpens. Major repairs were made to the piggery pens and troughs, along with
the installation of a steam-line to the piggery. The steam will be used for cooking
feed and for general cleaning.
Milk production in the dairy herd was maintained at a high level, as indicated
by the six honour-list records made during the year. These represent the highest
records made in Canada in the various age-groups for the year concerned. The
entire herd averaged 134 to 130 per cent B.C.A. for 247 completed records.
Two bulls were sold to the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre
at Milner; several others went to private breeders. A number of female calves
were sold to 4-H Club members for their projects, and a group of male calves went
to the University of British Columbia for use in work on feeding steers of the
dairy breeds.
Colony Cyclone Vale Sir Vrouka 6th, who was used very heavily in the Colony
here, was designated as a superior-type sire, having 101 daughters 61 per cent
good plus or better. He has also been a satisfactory production sire, with 57
tested daughters having a B.C.A. of 119 and 113 per cent. The herd participated
in the British Columbia Holstein Association exhibit at the Class A fairs at Calgary
and Edmonton, and at the National Holstein Shows at Saskatoon and Regina.
The herd was also represented in the association exhibit to the Pacific International
at Portland. Our usual exhibit was made at the Pacific National Exhibition, and
again won the premier breeder and exhibitor awards.
The sale of breeding stock from the swine herd was again very active locally,
and a good number of animals were also exported to the United States. Contributions were made to the Annual British Columbia Swine Breeders' Sale. This same
group held its annual field-day at Colony Farm in June. During the past few years
a project on cross-breeding has been carried out in the Farm swine herd with the
co-operation of the Livestock Division of the Canada Department of Agriculture.
The information gathered from this project was published in bulletin form recently
by our Department. Another project on copper metabolism is being carried out
by the Mental Health Services, using 8 sows from the herd.
Record of Performance testing has also been initiated in the swine herd, but
it will take some time before sufficient information is gathered to make it useful.
Results of the use of the Polled Dorset ram OSU 815, imported from the
Oklahoma State University, are now becoming evident in the sheep flock. Lambs
from this sire won the Greenway Trophy at the Pacific National Exhibition in
competition with all other breeds. Considerable interest is evident in Polled
Dorsets, judging from our sales in British Columbia. Several rams were also
exported to Alberta and Washington, U.S.A. Two polled ewes were purchased
at the Oklahoma Polled Dorset Sale, to increase the blood for the polled characteristic in our flock. Record-keeping for weaning and fleece weights has also been
initiated.
The Research Branch of the Canada Department of Agriculture has, for the
second year, maintained test-plots at Colony Farm, which provided space for it
to do practical work on carrot rust fly and potato leaf roll.
TRANQUILLE FARM
This year additional pens were provided in the beef yards which allow for
feeding trials. Because of mutual interests of Mental Health Services, Public
Works, and Agriculture, arrangements were made with the Game Branch to have
the entire institution area, including the farm, declared a restricted area for hunting.
 CC 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Similar interests of the departments concerned were also effective in cleaning out
the squatter shacks located along Tranquille Creek up to the domestic-water intake.
There has been a marked increase in the patient population in The Tranquille
School this past year, which makes for more efficient use of farm produce, also
making it easier to schedule the farm operations.
During the year a formal agreement was drawn up between the Government
of Canada and the Government of British Columbia concerning the use of cattle,
land, and facilities located at Tranquille Farm and the Research Station, Kamloops,
for their mutual advantage in carrying out work benefiting the beef-cattle industry.
In an attempt to measure possible genetic difference in the beef herd resulting
from several years of selection, a total of 30 selected steers was put on a high-energy
non-roughage feeding trial. Twenty of these steers were fed at the University of
British Columbia and the remainder at Tranquille. The information on rate of
gain and carcass evaluation resulting from this project will be passed on to the Live
Stock Branch for assessment.
The beef herd has been bred artificially the past two years, and results seem to
indicate that this method of breeding, once with frozen semen, along with the use
of catch bulls can give quite satisfactory results.
In co-operation with the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre and
the Livestock Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, 6 sire groups of 10
steers each, the result of artificial breeding to sires at the centre, have been put on
feed to determine their rate of gain. This information will be valuable in assessing
the breeding worth of the sires represented.
Participation in Record of Performance has been instituted in the swine herd.
Sales of swine breeding stock have been quite brisk, and it is pleasing to note the
numbers of the more outstanding swine-breeders in the Province who have made
good use of the breeding stock obtained in Tranquille.
Hay crops at Tranquille were estimated to be approximately 1,250 tons last
year. A considerable quantity of the alfalfa hay is moved to Colony Farm for
dairy-cattle feeding.
The following figures represent production on the farms during the fiscal year
1962/63:—
Produce to Institutions
Milk and cream gal.
Meat (beef and pork) lb.
Potatoes „
Other vegetables and fruit „
Canned Vegetables and fruit cans3
Colony Farm*
Tranquille Farm2
282,334
51,732
255,146
122,086
1,236,895
207,924
136,290
5,500
1 The above products plus outside sales of breeding stock and miscellaneous items represent a total produce
value of $443,878.
2 The above products plus outside sales of breeding stock and miscellaneous items represent a total produce
value of $135,547.
3 Six gallons each.
Institutions receiving farm produce from Colony and Tranquille Farms include
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale; Woodlands School; Burnaby Health Centre;
Correctional Institution, Haney; Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz; Tranquille
School; Provincial Gaol, Kamloops; Provincial Home, Kamloops; Oakalla Prison
Farm; and Forestry Camp, Clearwater.
 Greenway Trophy winners, Pacific National Exhibition, 1963—bsst four lambs of any breed.
Sired by OSU, polled ram owned by Colony Farm.
'■
Senior get of sire by Colony Cyclone Vale Sir Vrouka 6th,
first prize, Pacific National Exhibition, 1963.
 CC 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Colony Korndyke Sir Mildred,
first prize aged bull, senior and grand champion, Pacific National Exhibition, 1963;
reserve grand champion, Pacific International, Portland, 1963.
LIVE STOCK BRANCH
A. Kidd, V.S., D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Live Stock Commissioner and
Chief Veterinary Inspector
VETERINARY DIVISION
(Dr. A. Kidd)
Acts
Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act
British Columbia was not declared a certified brucellosis-free area during 1963
as the Health of Animals Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, did not
complete the initial tests of cattle in the Cariboo-Central British Columbia-Peace
River portion of the Province. Due to retests required to maintain other parts of
the Province as certified (brucellosis-free) and accredited (tuberculosis-free) areas,
Veterinary Inspectors of the Health of Animals Branch were not at liberty to
complete the initial brucellosis tests in that portion of the Province that remains.
Progress was made and will continue until the entire Province is a certified brucellosis-free area.
During the 12-month period ended June 30th, there were 65,971 calves inoculated with brucella vaccine.    Payments to veterinary practitioners for services
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.  1963
CC 53
rendered during the calfhood vaccination year were $70,110. Total payments
since the inception of free calfhood vaccinations on May 1, 1956, now amount to
$437,514. The total of calfhood vaccinations under the Federal-Provincial Brucellosis Control Programme is listed in Appendix No. 1.
Veterinary Inspectors of this Department vaccinated 876 calves on 104
premises and blood-tested 52 cattle on 5 premises.
Vibriosis continues to be a sporadic problem in beef-cattle herds. No new
cases of vibriosis were diagnosed in sheep; the two affected ranches uncovered last
year remain as the only known cases so far.
Laboratory results positively diagnosed equine encephalomyelitis as the cause
of death in one horse near Marysvilie in the East Kootenay. It is expected this
disease will be much more widespread during 1964, and horsemen will be advised
to use protective vaccination.
The Pulmonary Emphysema Committee had two meetings during the year.
The bovine pulmonary emphysema project, for the second year, was again carried
out on Tranquille Meadows and headed by a Veterinary Inspector of this Department. The results of this year's findings indicate that the cause may be due to
fungi or fungi spores and (or) toxins, with the sedge Car ex ro strata being of particular significance. A larger objective of eventually screening the fungi to find whether
mycotoxicosis is the cause of pulmonary emphysema of cattle is required. It is felt
any future experimentation, directed at finding the active principle causing the
disease syndrone, must be carried out by the Research Branch of the Canada
Department of Agriculture as no university or Provincial laboratory has the facilities
or staff to carry out the work. Every effort toward setting up the 1964 project
accordingly is being made.
Infectious bovine rhino-tracheitis (I.B.R. or red nose) was found to be the
cause of a serious situation in five herds of cattle in the Francois Lake area. The
investigations revealed that the disease was likely brought in through cattle purchased in March at a live-stock auction yard.
Veterinary Inspectors carried out routine inspections for foot-rot on 15,670
sheep at 16 sheep-ranches before grazing permits were issued allowing sheep on
Crown lands.   One flock was quarantined until the foot-rot was cleaned up.
Veterinary Inspectors reported on many cases of malnutrition, parasitism,
weed poisoning, and sporadic disease conditions such as foot-rot, pink eye, blackleg, malignant oedema, enteritis, pneumonia, and hemorrhagic septicaemia.
Fur-farm Act
A total of 422 fur-farm licences was issued and $5,335 collected. The number
of breeding males and females were: Mink, 132,066; chinchilla, 9,256; nutria,
240; fox, 30; and marten, 29.   Inspectors made a total of 87 fur-farm visits.
The one distemper quarantine remaining in effect at the year-end of 1962 was
lifted. Distemper was found to be present on seven fur-farms, and each premises
was posted with a public notice.   No cases of virus enteritis were diagnosed.
Inspectors attended the Mink Breeders' Short Course and the Sixteenth Annual
Live Mink Show.
Four mink-ranchers were charged under section 5 of the Fur-farm Act for
operating without a fur-farm licence. All four pleaded guilty and were fined $10
and assessed costs in each case.
 CC 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Meat Inspection Act
lows:
Establishments under Meat Inspection Service during the year were as fol-
Establish-
ment No.
Establishment and Location
Class
Federal
Grading
Service
1
2
4
5
7
9
10
11
Clappison Packers Ltd., Haney  	
Seed & Pitts Ltd., Pitt Meadows  	
Star Meat Co. Ltd., Abbotsford _ —
Kohler's European Sausage Ltd., Aldergrove-
Cambie Stock Farms Ltd., Richmond	
Borsato Meat Ltd., Langley	
Delta Cold Storage, Ladner  —
Van Isle Meat Packers Ltd., Victorial	
A
B
B
A
A
A
B
B
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
1 Van Isle Meat Packers Ltd. licensed April 1st.
Total carcasses inspected after slaughter and condemnations were  as fol
lows :-
Species
Carcasses
Marked
"B.C.
Passed "
Carcasses
Condemned
Total
Percentage
Condemned
Portions
Condemned
Cattle
Calves -
Sheep —
Lambs -
Swine -..
Goats -
9,563
15,6251/2
650V2
1,460
10,409
86
67
3733/4
31/2
1
19
1
9,630
15,899
654
1,461
10,428
87
0.69
2.35
0.54
0.07
0.18
1.15
2.203
288
153
176
2,999
28
Causes of carcass condemnations were sa follows:—
Cause
Cattle
Calves
Sheep
Lambs
Swine
Goats
314
12
9
2
5
4
3
•
1
%
11
:::
1
3
1
2
1
-
4
171/2
42
151
5
19
17
38
55
2
12
81/4
1
1
1
z
31/2
z
!
1
rt^
2
2
1
71/2
2
3
1/2
1
Emaciation and mucoid - —-	
Immaturity     -   — _ -
1
Mammitis.   -.- —    -
Metritis   	
Nephritis -  	
Pericarditis   	
I
Pneumonia and pleurisy  	
Septicaemia and pyaemia ... -  __
....
Tuberculosis..— - - - 	
-
Dead on arrival - 	
Abscess—   	
....
--
Totals                            	
67
37334
31/2
1
19
1
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 55
Inspection of carcasses slaughtered by farmers and presented, with head and
pluck attached, to Meat Inspectors at licensed abbatoirs amounted to the following:—
Species
Carcasses
Marked
"B.C.
Passed "
Carcasses
Condemned
Total
Percentage
Condemned
Portions
Condemned
Cattle  - 	
139
131
3
1,544
7,694
127
193
1
....
139
131
3
1,544
7,694
128
193
0.868
4
170
948
Rabbits.—    	
(One goat carcass condemned because of emaciation. All carcasses inspected
at Cambie Stock Farms Ltd. and Van Isle Meat Packers Ltd.)
During the early part of 1963 it was decided that full-time Departmental Meat
Inspectors would be placed in the eight abattoirs licensed under the Meat Inspection
Act. As a result, a Meat Inspectors' Training Course was held, and in due course
eight men were employed to provide full Provincial meat inspection service, which
commenced on April 1 st in the seven abattoirs located in the Lower Fraser Valley
and the one on Vancouver Island. The Veterinary Inspector from the Prince
George office was moved to Cloverdale and another to Abbotsford to assist the
Veterinary Inspector already located there. These three Veterinary Inspectors
supervise the eight Meat Inspectors located in each licensed abattoir. In providing
this supervision, 1,505 visits were made to licensed abattoirs and 73 to farmers'
premises in the two meat inspection areas—the Coquitlam Meat Inspection Area,
established on February 15th, and the Greater Victoria Metropolitan Meat Inspection Area, on April 1st.
With the commencement of this service, plant operators were required to pay
this Department an inspection fee at the rate of $1 per unit and 50 cents additional
per unit for overtime.
Meat inspection fees collected from April 1st to December 31st were as follows:—
Plant kill—
Fee   $13,317.50
Overtime  73.39
Farm kill—
Fee        2,158.86
Overtime  78.89
Total   $15,628.64
This unit cost is based on one unit being the equivalent of 1 cow, 4 calves,
4 sheep or lambs, 4 pigs, 4 goats, or 50 rabbits.
This service is provided in abattoirs that are constructed to the requ:rements
of the Meat Inspection Act, where the volume of the operations is not sufficient to
warrant inspection by the Health of Animals Branch, Canada Department of
Agriculture.
Milk Industry Act
The decrease in the number of approved dairy-farms continues, and the volume
of milk produced is being maintained.   Considerable dairy-farm construction and
 CC 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
reconstruction is taking place to accommodate increased production. The number
of farm holding-tanks, pipe-line milkers, and milk-transfer systems installed amounts
to hundreds of each during the year. In addition to regular dairy-farm inspections,
Dairy Farm Inspectors also made 1,222 visits to advise on farm construction, 593
visits to issue farm holding-tank permits and to advise on installation, and 37 visits
to collect milk samples for quality tests by the Dairy Branch.
Veterinary Inspectors examined 202 cows on 14 dairy-farms for clinical cases
of mastitis and found 124. Of these cases, treatment was recommended for 109
cows and 15 were eliminated as incurable.
One person charged under section 5 of the Milk Industry Act for illegal sale
of milk pleaded guilty and was fined $15 and assessed costs.
The Dairy Inspector established in the Prince George office during April has
been designated to carry out dairy-farm inspections for the Central British Columbia
district.
Appendix No. 2 contains the totals of dairy-farm inspections carried out, by
districts, by Veterinary Inspectors and Dairy Farm Inspectors.
General
Under the Veterinary Service District Policy, the four districts serviced by
veterinary practitioners at the year's end were Dawson Creek, Fort St. lohn,
Smithers, and Williams Lake. Each practitioner received the maximum grant.
The Fort St. John Veterinary Service District commenced on May 15th, and the
agreement at Prince George expired on July 15th and was not renewed.
Dairy Farm Inspectors, as Deputy Brand Inspectors, carried out duties at
live-stock public sale yards, farms, and slaughter-houses. Under the Stock Brands
Act, they made 427 visits; under the Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act, 259
visits; and under the Horned Cattle Purchases Act, 260 visits.
Great interest has been shown all year on the matter of pesticide residues in
food for human consumption. The Honourable the Minister of Agriculture established two committees—one the Committee on the Sale and Distribution of Poisons,
Drugs and Medicines in Agriculture, and the other the Safe Use of Chemicals in
Agriculture Committee. The first named is an Advisory Committee on the Minister's participation in the Pharmacy Act, and the second is also an Advisory Committee of Departmental officials to advise on programming to prevent the misuse of
pesticides. At the request of the Safe Use of Chemicals in Agriculture Committee,
the Dairy Farms Inspectors, using a form headed " Spot Survey of Insecticides Used
by Milk Producers," returned 334 properly filled-in forms which provided very
useful information for analysis purposes.
Practically all staff members, in varying degrees, have participated in civil
defence activities.
LIVE STOCK DIVISION
(R.L.Wilkinson, B.S. A.)
Acts
Animals Act
During 1963, 16 bull districts, 13 bull-control areas, and 3 stallion-control areas
remained operative throughout the Province under provisions of the Animals Act
and regulations thereto.
The regulations re artificial insemination were amended by rescinding Division
3 and rewriting it to provide the Live Stock Commissioner with authority for refusal,
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 57
suspension, or revocation of both artificial insemination centre and technicians'
licences. This degree of authority was necessary to ensure that specific minimum
requirements related to quality control would be met.
A total of 25 artificial insemination centres, including 2 semen-producing
centres and 60 technicians, was licensed during 1963. Five of the latter were newly
qualified licensees following examinations in theory and practice conducted by the
Board of Examiners.
Appendix No. 3 contains a fist of licensed artificial insemination centres and
the number of first services carried out by each during the 1962 calendar year.
Because of the 60-90-day non-return basis of reporting services and conception
rates, it is not possible to report total annual services until after March 31st the
following year. It is anticipated, however, that the number of first services reported
by centres in 1963 will be up slightly over those reported for 1962.
Beef Grading Act
Through legal consultation early in 1963 it became evident there was no power
within the above-mentioned Act to authorize the making of a prohibition by regulation. It was therefore necessary to rescind section 7.05 of the regulation, which
in effect stated that all beef sold in the Greater Vancouver area must be graded.
It is expected this action will have no effect on the grading of beef in British Columbia since present trends in supermarket meat-merchandising policies tend to
increase the demand for graded beef rather than decrease it. A section of the Beef
Grading Act which, in general, states that all beef sold in British Columbia must be
graded has proven to be unrealistic. An amendment has been submitted for legislative consideration early in 1964.
Sheep Protection Act
Claims for compensation from the Dog Tax Fund for loss of goats, sheep, and
poultry to the actions of unknown dogs continue at a level consistent with those of
the previous two years, as shown by the following table:—
Goats
Sheep
Poultry
Year
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
1961 _ 	
1962	
2
1
1
$42.50
15.00
20.00
197
227
221
$3,767.00
4,194.00
4,640.00
685    1     $574.21
1,417    |    1,472.00
1963	
725     1        674.36
Policies
Artificial Insemination Assistance Policy
Assistance was provided to the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre
in support of its young sire evaluation programme to the amount of $5,797.44.
A further amount of $1,427.74 was paid to the centre for technical services to and
training new technicians for other semen-distribution centres located within the
Province.
Frozen-semen cabinets were placed with artificial insemination centres at
Vanderhoof, Kamloops, Fulford Harbour, Nakusp, and Courtenay at a total cost
of $2,550.77 to the Department through the Frozen Semen Cabinet Purchase Assistance Policy which was implemented in 1962.
 CC 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Live Stock Inspector maintained a regular check of frozen-semen ampules
at the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre, Milner, as required by the
Canadian Joint Dairy Breeds Committee for purebred cattle, Brantford, Ont.
Cattle Placement Policy
Dairy Cattle.—In 1963, under this policy, 22 head of Holstein cattle, including
8 registered and 13 grade heifer calves and a grade cow, were selected by the Live
Stock Inspector from Fraser Valley Dairy Herd Improvement Association herds
and shipments arranged to Westbank and Sandspit in the Queen Charlottes.
During the 14-year period since inauguration of this programme, a total of 825
head of dairy cattle has been selected from Fraser Valley D.H.I. A. herds by the Live
Stock Inspector and shipments arranged, in response to requests from District Agriculturists and dairy-farmers throughout the Province for aid in locating same.
In the last two or three years, possibly due to the " freezing " of milk quotas by
the Milk Board, the number of requests to locate dairy stock has dropped markedly,
particularly in the Okanagan, from which area the bulk of this type of inquiry has
been received.
Beef Cattle.—Two registered Hereford yearling bulls were selected by the Live
Stock Inspector from Fraser Valley beef-breeders and shipment arranged to the
Courtenay area on Vancouver Island.
Purebred Sires Purchase Assistance Policy for Farmers' Institutes
The purchase of only 5 bulls under this policy during 1963 indicates a sharp
decline from total purchases of 17 and 23 made in 1962 and 1961 respectively.
The 5 Hereford bulls were purchased at a cost of $2,050 and 1 Yorkshire boar
for $45.
Live Stock Improvement Policy
Under this policy 1 boar and 1 ram were transported into the Peace River
Block.
Federal-Provincial Sheep Transportation Assistance Policy
This policy was used more extensively during 1963 than it has since its beginning in 1961 as four shipments totalling 1,279 qualifying ewes were handled. These
qualifying white-face western range ewes were imported in almost equal numbers
from Alberta and Saskatchewan.
Live Stock Exhibition Board Policy
This policy was prepared and offered for the first time in 1963. It was designed to provide a standard measure of assistance to live-stock breeders of the
Province who wished to exhibit at large international shows—namely, the Royal
Agricultural Winter Fair at Toronto and the International Livestock Exposition at
Portland. A great deal of the Assistant Live Stock Commissioner's and the Live
Stock Inspector's time was utilized in designing the policy, arranging for it to
function, co-ordinating the selection of satisfactory breed exhibits, co-ordinating
transportation arrangements, and, finally, assembling all accounts and arranging
for their payment. The effort made by exhibition board members and breeders
alike was, however, reflected in the excellent achievement of the British Columbia
exhibits at both the Royal and the Portland International, some of the highlights
of which are as follows:—
At the Portland International:—
Holsteins.—First place junior heifer calf, B. Giacomazzi; first 4-year-old
cow and reserve grand champion, W. C. Blair;   first and second
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 59
progeny of dam, W. C. Blah; second aged bull and reserve grand
champion, Colony Farm; second junior get of sire, B. Giacomazzi;
second best three females, Colony Farm; second senior get of sire,
W. C. Blair; second junior get of sire, Colony Farm; second state
herd, from B.C. exhibit.
Ayrshires.—First aged bull and senior and grand champion, Ryder Lake
Farm; first senior heifer calf, Charles Dawson; first junior get of
sire, Charles Dawson; first 3-year-old cow, J. A. Balme; first aged
cow and senior grand champion, Ryder Lake Farm; first state herd,
from B.C. exhibit.
Jerseys.—First junior yearling bull, S. Spetifore & Sons; first 2-year-old
bull, S. Spetifore & Sons; second 2-year-old bull, W. H. Savage;
first aged bull and senior grand champion, Bellavista Farm; first
junior yearling heifer, W. H. Savage; first senior yearling heifer and
junior champion, S. Spetifore & Sons; first 2-year-old cow, S. Spetifore & Sons; first 4-year-old cow, W. H. Savage; second 4-year-old
cow, S. Spetifore & Sons; first senior get of sire, S. Spetifore & Sons;
first state herd, from B.C. exhibit.
Suffolks.—First yearling ewe and grand champion, Pat Reid.
Shropshires.—Second in every class and reserve grand champion ram,
Percy Olley.
Cheviots.—Second yearling ram and reserve grand champion, Pat Reid;
second ram lamb, Pat Reid; second pen of ram lambs, Pat Reid;
second yearling ewe, Pat Reid; second ewe lamb, Percy Olley;
second pen of ewe lambs, Percy Olley.
Sheep Market Classes.—First pen of Cheviot market lambs, Fred Keiner;
second pen of Cheviot market lambs, Percy Olley;   first Cheviot
market lamb, Fred Keiner; second carcass class, Percy Olley.
At the Royal:—
Guernseys.—First and second 4-year-old heifer in milk and senior and
grand champion female, Murray Davie; second 2-year-old heifer
not in milk, Murray Davie; third 2-year-old heifer in milk, R. J.
Livingstone; first breeder's herd, Murray Davie; first senior get of
sire, Murray Davie; first and second national 3-year-old futurity,
Murray Davie. Mr. Davie's winnings also included six of the seven
Guernsey trophies offered.
Ayrshires.—First junior bull calf, W. H. Savage; third cow 3 years and
under 5 dry, W. H. Savage; second junior get of sire, Charles
Dawson.
Herefords.—First senior heifer calf, H. N. Boultbee; first spring yearling
heifer and junior champion, H. N. Boultbee; second get of sire, H.
N. Boultbee; third breeder's herd, H. N. Boultbee; third summer
yearling bull, H. N. Boultbee; third senior bull calf, H. N. Boultbee;
third senior yearling heifer, Bryan M. Porter.
The cost of applying the exhibition board policy to the various live-stock exhibits sent to Portland was as follows:—■ Head Cost
Holsteins      19 $381.00
Jerseys     29 610.00
Ayrshires       12 234.00
Sheep      66 428.50
Totals   126 $1,653.50
L
 CC 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
And to those sent to the Royal:—
Guernseys 	
Ayrshires	
Herefords 	
Swine      16
Head
Cost
18
$662.00
8
242.00
18
562.00
16
274.00
Totals      60 $1,740.00
Provincial share of freight        801.16
Total   $2,541.16
General
The Live Stock Inspector attended all meetings of the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Advisory Committee in his capacity as secretary. He also acted
on all B.C.A.I. Sire Selection Committees and as secretary of the Live Stock Exhibition Board.
The Assistant Live Stock Commissioner attended all meetings of the Artificial
Insemination Advisory Committee, Board of Examiners, Sheep Steering Committee, and one meeting of the Beef Cattle Advisory Committee. He also acted as
chairman of the Live Stock Exhibition Board, Swine Record of Performance Committee, and the newly appointed Beef Cattle Record of Performance Committee.
Other responsibilities of this kind included being a member of the Programme
Planning Committee of the Stockmen's Conference, Sheepmen's Short Course,
Swine Breeders' Short Course, and the University of British Columbia Farm Field-
day.
The Live Stock Inspector attended all annual meetings of the dairy breed
associations and the Swine Breeders' Association to speak on pertinent subject-
matter. He also addressed meetings of Fraser Valley dairymen at Cloverdale, of the
Arabian Horse Association at New Westminster, and of horsemen at the University
of British Columbia Conference.
The Live Stock Branch, assisted by personnel of the Extension Branch, sponsored sheep field-days throughout the Province at Duncan, Abbotsford, Kamloops,
and McBride.    All events were well attended.
The second Annual Bred Gilt Sale, sponsored by the British Columbia swine
breeders and supported by the Department, was an outstanding success. Both the
Live Stock Inspector and one of the Veterinary Inspectors acted on the Selection
Committee. Seventeen head of registered pigs were sold, including 14 gilts and
3 young boars. Gilts of four breeds were offered—Lacombe, Berkshire, Yorkshire,
and Landrace. It was readily apparent that buyers were not interested in bred
Berkshire gilts. Only two of this breed were consigned to the sale, and one was not
sold. In 1962 the 14 Yorkshire gilts offered were sold for an average of $110.50.
In 1963 the 7 Yorkshire gilts offered sold for an average of $137.43, $27 more per
gilt than in 1962. Landrace gilts in 1963 sold for an average of $113.25, which
was $28.25 higher per gilt than the average price of $85 received for Landrace gilts
sold in the 1962 sale.
Both the Live Stock Inspector and the Assistant Live Stock Commissioner acted
on a panel of speakers on the subject of " Beef Production " at meetings held at
Ladner and Chilliwack. The latter addressed a series of nine meetings in the Central
Interior and Peace River area on the subject of " Beef Herd Management," a series
of four meetings on Vancouver Island on the subject of " Winter Feeding Dairy
Cattle," and a meeting in Pemberton on beef production. All of the aforementioned
programmes were arranged by personnel of the Extension Branch.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 61
The Assistant Live Stock Commissioner was appointed to the Community
Pastures Project Committee established under the Federal-Provincial Agricultural
Rehabilitation and Development Act, and in this capacity participated in the committee activities associated with the development of community pastures in the Peace
River area and attended a three-day A.R.D.A. workshop in Ottawa.
Publications
A report on hog crossbreeding trials conducted at Colony Farm from 1960 to
1963 was published for benefit of swine-producers. The Live Stock Inspector has
been collecting data for a further bulletin on swine production. The Branch has a
fairly extensive list of mimeographed circulars available for distribution, but consideration is being given to presenting more of the material in bulletin form.
Live-stock Demonstrations
Close liaison is being maintained with the Superintendent of Institutional Farms
and his staff at Tranquille Farm, where for a number of years the beef herd has been
used as a pilot demonstration for a commercial performance testing programme.
Valuable data were obtained from a project completed in April of 1963 in which
30 of the performance recorded steer calves were fed to slaughter weight on a high-
energy low-roughage ration. Twenty of the calves were fed at the University of
British Columbia in the Beef Cattle Research Laboratory and 10 at Tranquille
Farm. A more extensive project designed to progeny-test a group of steer calves
sired by Hereford bulls at stud in the British Columbia Artificial Insemination
Centre got under way in December of 1963 when 60 calves were started on feed.
The Canada Department of Agriculture, the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, and the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre are working cooperatively in this project, which was arranged by the staff of this Branch.
A commercial sheep performance project, which is partly investigational and
partly demonstrational in nature, has been under way with six sheep-producers of
the McBride-Dunster area. The Live Stock Branch is co-operating with the Extension Branch in this regard.
During 1963 the staff of this Branch assisted with arrangements for and participated in live-to-carcass demonstrations for beef at the Provincial Winter Fair at
Kamloops, for sheep at three of the four field-days, and for swine at the Swine
Breeders' Short Course.
BRANDS DIVISION
(Thomas Moore)
Inspection Service
Brand inspection was carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at
70 shipping points and by Brand Inspectors and Deputy Brand Inspectors at 27
points.
Brand Inspection
A total of 148,314 head of cattle was inspected, a decrease of 5,337 from
1962. Horses inspected numbered 9,629, an increase of 1,081. There were 12,173
hides inspected, a decrease of 3,091. Kamloops-Nicola area had 54,934 cattle inspected, an increase of 96 head. Cariboo cattle inspections totalled 26,733, a
decrease of 6,628.    (See Appendix No. 4.)
 CC 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Exports to United States
Total cattle exported from British Columbia to the United States from January 1st to December 31st numbered 15,910, of which 13,462 head moved from
Interior points. This is 14,224 less than in 1962, and comprised 390 bulls, 1,206
cows, 7,517 steers, 713 heifers, and 3,636 calves. (Figures by courtesy of the
Health of Animals Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Vancouver.)
Flood, Fernie, and Golden Check Points
Shipments of stock, hides, and dressed beef are checked through these points
by the Department of Commercial Transport members, who are Deputy Brand
Inspectors.   Shipments checked are as follows: —
Flood 1962 1963
Cattle   14,686 18,918
Horses   1,855 2,723
Hides  6,349 4,254
Dressed beef (quarters)   596 494
Number of trucks checked  1,868 2,467
Fernie—
Cattle   12,543 8,110
Horses   433 155
Hides   160                 	
Number of trucks checked  628 502
Golden (January to November, 1963) —
Cattle   1,792 3,715
Horses   52 265
Hides      271
Number of trucks checked  80 188
Brand Book Supplement No. 3
The annual supplement, No. 3, to the Brand Book, showing all brands issued
in 1963, will be compiled in 1964 and will be available later in the year.
Amendments
Amendments were made to the Stock Brands Act, Beef Cattle Producers'
Assistance Act and the Horned Cattle Purchases Act. Regulations were passed by
Order in Council to the Stock Brands Act authorizing the use of an identification
brand by permit, and the Schedule of Fees was amended.
Convictions under the Criminal Code
Nine convictions for theft of cattle were obtained by the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police during the year.
Convictions under the Stock Brands Act
Eleven prosecutions were made under the above Act by the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police and our Brand Inspectors.    Eleven convictions were obtained.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 63
DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT SERVICES
(J. A. Mace)
Operation
Twenty-six D.H.I.A. routes continue in operation. Semi-annual reports from
supervisors show 544 herds and 19,158 cows on test as at June 30, 1963. Herd
size continues to increase and now averages 35.2, an increase of 0.7 over the previous year.    In 1953 the average herd on test contained 24.6 cows.
Production
Average production for 1962 was 10,701 pounds of milk and 430 pounds of
butterfat with an average test of 4.02 per cent. Completed milking periods numbered 17,290.
The effectiveness of our D.H.I.A. programme has been demonstrated previously by increases in both production and net returns to members. One phase
in relation to the latter has been the increase in the number of cows in members'
herds which have produced a minimum of a ton of fat so far in their lifetimes.
In 1940 such cows numbered 417 and represented 5 per cent of the total cows
on test; in 1962, while the number of tested cows had more than doubled, " ton of
fat" cows increased four times to 2,557 and represented 13.2 per cent of total
cows.   This represents substantial savings in the cost of raising herd replacements.
The percentage of Holstein cattle in the Province continues to increase. In
1962, 68.4 per cent of D.H.I.A. tested cows were Holstein. The three other main
dairy breeds continue to show corresponding decreases.
Average production for the various breeds is shown as Appendix No. 5.
Five thousand five hundred calves were identified as to parentage and birth
date through our D.O.T. calf tags. Approximately 80 per cent of these were sired
artificially.
Subsidy
Subsidy payments for the fiscal year April 1, 1962, to March 31, 1963,
amounted to $58,565.
Reports
H.I.C. Stencil No. 90 was prepared, listing 928 cows with over 3,000 pounds
of butterfat to their credit as at June 30, 1962. A total of 2,557 cows had produced
a minimum of 2,000 pounds at this time.
Semi-annual reports on sires in artificial insemination centres continue to be
sent out.
General
Inclusion of herds in the Vanderhoof area has brought the Central British
Columbia route up to strength. There are 20 herds on test, involving 23 days'
work in handling 617 cows.
The demand for additional testing continues strong; however, the two private
owner-sampler testers have expanded their operations and are providing a worthwhile service to approximately 160 herds and 3,000 cows. D.H.I.A. supervisors
have an additional 750 cows on owner-sampler.
Artificial Insemination
The percentage of identified A.I. animals on test continues to increase. In
1960, only 20 per cent of the total completed milking periods were made by such
 CC 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
animals; in 1961 this increased to 26.3 per cent and in 1962 to 30.2 per cent.
This has come about mainly because of our compulsory calf-tagging policy, and
could be further increased if a larger percentage of A.I. calves born in herds not
on D.H.I.A. were identified by tag.
Any testing programme can only be effective for she-proving purposes when
the animals under test are identified.
Young Sire Programme
It is generally recognized that increases in the productive ability of dairy
cattle can be most readily obtained through the use of artificial insemination.
However, it has been shown that this is only true when a planned approach to
sire use is undertaken by the centres. This approach must be based on a young-
sire programme such as recommended by the British Columbia Advisory Committee on Artificial Insemination. A continuing effort must be made to get the
centres to adopt one effective young-sire programme which would cover all breeds
if the producer is to benefit from artificial insemination to the extent that can be
expected.
R.O.P.-D.H.I.A.
Sixteen herds are being tested on the combined service when D.H.I.A. supervisors act as R.O.P. inspectors in herds containing both purebred and grade cattle.
Only five herds are on R.O.P. and D.H.I.A. separately; all of these have more
than the 10 grade-cow minimum. The continued close co-operation between the
Federal and Provincial testing services is most gratifying.
Provincial-Federal meetings held in Ottawa last summer have resulted in
increases in this co-operative effort, and it is expected that further benefits will
develop. D.H.I.A. records from British Columbia, Ontario, Saskatchewan, and
Manitoba are now being incorporated in the official R.O.P. sire appraisal reports,
and it is anticipated that owner-sampler records will be used later on in preliminary
reports on sires in artificial insemination centres.
Several problems exist at this time which will have to be solved before these
latter records can be made available for sire proof purposes. Two of the main
ones are some form of compensation to the owner-sampler testers for the extra work
involved in preparing record reports and the provision of minimum supervision to
see that such reports are properly prepared and accurate.
Breed-class Averages
It is proposed to introduce a set of breed-class average figures for crossbred
dairy cattle in British Columbia. The figures will be based on the results of work
done by Mr. G. Okumu, a graduate student at the University of British Columbia,
from D.H.I.A. record material in British Columbia pertaining to the five-year
period 1958-61.
Field Work
The Superintendent and two Inspectors carried out the total field work, as
follows:—
Supervisor contacts  176
D.H.I.A. officials' contacts     53
Member visits  189
Certificates of production brought up to date  336
Other calls   139
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 65
Meetings ■—    44
Talks     22
Herds check-tested     55
A short course was held at the University of British Columbia from December
2nd to December 14th, which five students attended, and four passed all examinations!
In this connection it is hoped that provision will be made in the new laboratory
building at Abbotsford for adequate facilities to conduct our short course there.
ANIMAL PATHOLOGY LABORATORY
(Dr. J. C. Bankier, B.V.Sc.)
Disease problems pose a constant threat to efficient live-stock and poultry production, especially in those areas of British Columbia where intensive methods have
been adopted. New problems have occurred, and no doubt will continue to arise;
therefore, the need for veterinary advice, together with field investigation supported
by laboratory diagnostic facilities, is increasing in importance.
The laboratory staff has participated in a field project concerning prevention
and control in poultry of Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, P.P.L.O. infection,
and avian encephalomyelitis. This project is being conducted by co-operation of
numerous poultry-farmers, the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, and
Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, Toronto, Ont., and will not be completed until the fall of 1964, Related to this project, a survey is being made of all
hatchery supply flocks in British Columbia for evidence of " field " exposure to the
diseases referred to and evaluation of vaccination practices.
We have co-operated with the Division of Laboratories, British Columbia
Department of Health and Welfare, in a survey relating to the incidence of Salmonella?, especially with respect to the evidence of same in specimens received in our
laboratory.
Numerous field visits were made in connection with projects and disease problems encountered in specimens submitted for diagnosis. Personal interviews in the
laboratory with farmers or then representatives concerning disease problems numbered 1,231. The number of live-stock and poultry owners who received assistance
from the laboratory on the basis of specimens submitted totalled 816. The total
number of specimens examined was 19,622.   (See Appendix No. 6.)
Some problems of significance encountered in specimen submissions were:—
Species Disease
Canary Pseudotuberculosis.
Cat Lungworm, myelogenous leukemia.
Cattle Coli-bacillosis, clostridiosis, lungworm, mastitis, pasteurellosis,
rhinotracheitis, salmonellosis, white muscle disease.
Chicken Aspergillosis, chronic respiratory disease, encephalomalacia, encephalomyelitis, erysipelas, infectious bronchitis, Newcastle
disease, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis, tuberculosis, vibrionic
hepatitis.
Chinchilla .„_ Enteritis, giardosis, pasteurellosis.
Dog Hookworm, nocardiosis.
Goat Lungworm.
Mink Clostridiosis, distemper, phasmacytosis, pseudomonas, salmonellosis, steatitis, tuberculosis.
Monkey Salmonellosis.
Rabbit Pasteurellosis, vibrionic enteritis.
 CC 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sheep Parasitism.
Swine Mange, salmonellosis.
Turkey Air sacculitis,  aspergillosis, entero-hepatitis, erysipelas, Newcastle disease, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis.
A detailed tabulation of findings in specimens examined is available upon
request.
MARKETS AND STATISTICS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner
SYNOPSIS
Decreases in both production and price levels in several sectors this year were
offset to a degree by increases in others, resulting in a continuation of relatively
buoyant conditions throughout the industry. Preliminary estimates place the total
cash income from the sale of farm products very near the all-time record established
in 1962.
The index of farm prices dropped 5 points during the year however, reflecting
a softer tone in returns from live stock and some fruits and vegetables. The annual
high of 286.3 (1935-39 = 100) reached in July was off 6.2 points from the level
established 12 months earlier. Despite this, increases in business investment and
consumer spending in the latter half of the year contributed a stabilizing effect on
the market generally, so that those declines which did occur were for the most part
of a minor nature.
FEEDS
A bumper Canadian grain crop produced a sharp rise in domestic supplies of
feed grains in the latter half of the year. As a result, prices tended to decline
shortly after harvesting ended in October. Feed wheat dropped $2 per ton, oats
$3, and barley $5, while prepared feeds declined as much as $7.
As usual, hay and fodder supplies were sufficient in most areas to maintain
steady prices. Shortages created by drought conditions in the Peace River District
were overcome by imports from other areas with financial assistance provided by
the Government.
LIVE STOCK
Price declines in beef highlighted the live-stock market picture in 1963.
A softer tone had already developed early in the year, and this continued until
midsummer, when prices firmed upward briefly by $5. A sharp decline in cattle
exports to the United States, from 30,134 head in 1962 to just under 16,000 this
year, resulted in a build-up of domestic market supplies to the point where prices
dropped again by about $5. About 6,300 cattle and calves from British Columbia
moved through Alberta auctions.
Total cattle numbers rose by 6 per cent during the year to a total of 458,000.
This was brought about by increases in the beef population, offsetting a decline
in numbers of dairy cattle, and indicating a steady upswing in numbers of beef
cattle held back on farms. Much of this hold-back consists of heifers and steers
which under ordinary conditions would have been marketed as feeders.
The lamb market remained strong throughout the year at levels above those
realized both in 1962 and the five-year 1958-62 average. Net live sales amounted
to 32,500 head during the year, leaving the basic sheep flock at 45,000, down 1,000
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 67
head from the year-end 1962 total.   An increase of 3,000 in lamb numbers brought
the total sheep and lamb population figure up to 58,000 however.
Hog prices, which had been relatively high in the first half of the year, fell off
by about $3 in the autumn, but were still well above the averages established during
the preceding five years.
At mid-year the Provincial hog population was estimated at only 37,000 head,
the lowest level in over 40 years.
For the second consecutive year a slight rise was recorded in the numbers of
horses on farms, after a steady downward trend since the war years. The increase
is attributed to the growing popularity of light horses rather than the heavy draught
breeds.
POULTRY AND EGGS
Poultry-meat production exceeded 45,000,000 pounds in 1963, an all-time
record. Prices held up well throughout the year for all classes, with the exception
of broiler chicken, which fell off 4 cents a pound by December. Output of turkeys
again declined, this year by 15 per cent from 1962 levels.
Placement of broiler chicks rose almost 13 per cent to 10,508,000 during
the year.
Total poultry numbers on farms were placed at more than 6,250,000 at midyear, the highest figure on record. Of this number, 5,770,000 comprised hens
and chickens.
New records were also established in commercial eggs as production rose
nearly 5 per cent to a total of 45,420,000 dozen for the year. Coupled with this
was a significant increase in prices, the weighted average for the 12-month period
being 33.8 cents per dozen, as compared with 30.9 cents in the preceding year.
DAIRY PRODUCTS
The downward trend in milk production continued this year, off 2 per cent
at an estimated 881,000,000 pounds as the Province's dairy-cow population declined by 1,000 head to a total of 90,000.
Fluid sales increased to more than 506,000,000 pounds, an increase of approximately 4 per cent over the 1962 total. The average farm value for all milk
has been placed at $4.45 per hundredweight for the year.
Output of creamery butter fell off sharply to only 5,000,000 pounds, but cottage cheese production again rose by 3 per cent to a total of 6,682,000 pounds for
the year. Cheddar cheese manufacture remained relatively unchanged at slightly
less than 1,000,000 pounds, while ice-cream increased fractionally to 4,654,000
gallons.
FRUIT
A 9,000,000-box apple crop provided the principal market feature in the fruit
industry this year. This was the heaviest crop since 1946, when the total yield
reached 10,000,000 boxes.
By the year-end, sales to the fresh market totalled 3,300,000 boxes, a gain
of 16 per cent over the 1962 crop sales figure. Of this amount, 1,559,800 boxes
were sold in Western Canada, 240,000 to Eastern Canada, 858,000 to the United
States, and 453,000 to the United Kingdom. Close to 200,000 boxes were
exported to other offshore markets.
Prices were slightly below those realized during the same period in 1962,
although the United Kingdom and other offshore markets were firm.
 CC 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Pear production increased almost 50 per cent in 1963, but all other tree fruits,
with the exception of crab-apples, registered declines. Apricots were down sharply
to only 259,000 crates, less than one-third of the 1962 crop.
The first of several controlled-atmosphere storage plants to be erected in the
Okanagan Valley was put in operation this year at Kelowna.
Production of small fruits, including grapes, was up 25 per cent over 1962.
The strawberry crop was only slightly heavier, but yields of raspberries, loganberries,
blueberries, and grapes were well above those of the preceding year. Prices held
close to or slightly above 1962 levels as demand continued firm, particularly for
loganberries and grapes.
Loganberries were again shipped to the United Kingdom, and along with grapes
were again in strong demand for wine-making purposes.
VEGETABLES
Total acreages in vegetable crops remained virtually unchanged this year, gains
in seme being offset by decreases in others. Production was up about 10 per cent,
due primarily to increased yields of cabbage, onions, and turnips.
Onion prices were up $ 12 per ton, but fresh tomatoes were down slightly as late
maturity forced offerings on to the market later than usual.
Growers of tomatoes for processing were offered two options this year: contracting the entire crop at prices ranging from $41.50 to $46 per ton, depending upon
the percentages of No. 1 grade shipped, or $30 per ton for shipments containing 60
per cent or more No. l's, with culls excluded, where the grower shipped to both fresh
and processing markets. Under this second option, shipments containing less than
60 per cent No. l's were worth only $20 per ton.
FIELD CROPS
Drought conditions and a decrease in harvested acreage in the Peace River
District combined to produce a sharp drop in grain yields this year. Total production amounted to only 7,398,000 bushels as compared with the 1962 total of over
11,000,000 bushels. The average wheat yield was estimated at only 19.1 bushels
per acre, or about two-thirds of normal.
Forage-crop seed production was up 55 per cent at almost 5,000,000 pounds,
but still well below the levels attained prior to 1962. Most of this year's increase
was contributed by sharply higher harvests of creeping red fescue and sweet clover
seed.   Prices were generally higher than those of the previous year.
Potato acreage was down about 5 per cent, but the yield of late varieties was
up as a result of favourable growing conditions during the latter part of the crop
season. Prices were steady throughout the fall season at $4 to $6 per ton over
1962, in spite of heavy imports from Alberta.
MISCELLANEOUS
Wool production this year reached a total of 364,000 pounds from shearings
of 47,300 head, a decline of 6 per cent from 1962. Prices held steadily at 31 cents
per pound before addition of deficiency payments.
Some 24,000 colonies produced an average of 75 pounds of honey each to bring
this year's total yield to 1,800,000 pounds. Producer prices indicated a firmer trend
as demand continued upward during the year.
Strong bidding for ranch mink again featured the raw-fur auctions in Vancouver, total sales being in excess of $1,000,000.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 69
PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Provincial Plant Pathologist
Plant diseases were of minor importance to the economy of agriculture in
British Columbia in 1963. The following diseases caused moderate damage: (1)
Early blight and mosaic of tomatoes, (2) red stele root-rot and virus in strawberries, (3) fire blight of pears, and (4) little cherry.
DISEASES
Field Crops and Vegetables
Bacterial Ring-rot of Potatoes.—British Columbia continues to have much less
ring-rot than the rest of Canada. Five growers' potatoes are under detention—four
in the Fraser Valley and one at Creston.
Bacterial Wilt of Alfalfa.—The growing of the resistant variety Vernal has
reduced the incidence from severe to slight. A new resistant variety, Beaver, is
recommended in districts where the winter weather is too severe for Vernal.
Early blight of tomatoes continues to be the major problem in the Northern
Okanagan.   Sprays have been only partially successful.
Leaf mould of tomatoes caused less damage in greenhouses than usual. The
variety Vantage V595 was resistant and appears to be suitable for the trade. Vantage V595 is also resistant to a disease called blotchy ripening.
Mosaic and Streak of Tomatoes.—These virus diseases are widespread in
greenhouses at the Coast and in fields in the Okanagan. A demonstration in a
greenhouse near Victoria proved that these diseases can be eradicated by adhering
to the following control measures: (1) Sanitation, including thoroughly clean'ng the
inside of the greenhouse with a solution of formaldehyde and washing hands with
soap and water before handling plants; (2) sterilizing the soil with steam; (3)
treating the seed by the hot-water method; and (4) planting only healthy plants.
Onion smut is widespread in the Kelowna area. Recommended seed treatments adequately control this disease.
Tree Fruits
Apple Scab.—Incidence of scab was slight in the Interior. The application of
an eradicant fungicide after an infection period gave economical control.
Brown rot of stone fruits was severe in the Kootenays. There was a sudden
increase in the Okanagan which caused slight to moderate losses in cherry shipments.   In the past, brown rot has not been a problem in the Okanagan.
Coryneum blight of stone fruits caused slight to moderate damage. Ferbam,
Ziram, and Maneb were found to injure the wood and buds in current year's growth.
To prevent twig infection, a fixed copper fungicide applied in September after
harvest is now recommended instead of Ferbam, Ziram, or Maneb.
Fire Blight of Pears.—The incidence has continued to increase in some districts
in the Okanagan during the last three years.
Collar-rot of fruit-trees continues to be a problem in a number of young
orchards in the Okanagan.   Apple, peach, and cherry trees are most affected.
Perennial Canker of Apple.—Interplanting of young trees among old "cankered " trees has resulted in severe infections. Young trees do not become resistant
until after they have been planted for three to four years.
 CC 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Trellis Rust of Pears and Junipers.—An eradication programme started in
April in the Chilliwack area appears to have been remarkably successful. In September, only one lesion was found on one leaf on three different pear-trees within
200 yards of the original infestation. This programme will be continued during
April and September, 1964. The eradication programme of the first outbreak jn
North America, in Victoria and district, cont;nues. The outbreak is much more
widespread and established than is the one at Chilliwack and is still far from being
eradicated, although there has been a further reduction in the amount of disease.
Preliminary tests on the effectiveness of Acti-Dione on the rust on junipers are
promising. Junipers in the affected area will be sprayed with Acti-Dione BR
next April.
SMALL FRUITS
Virus in Strawberries.—A sudden increase in the incidence of virus diseases
was responsible for a shortage of certified strawberry plants. Certified strawberry
plants should be grown in areas where they can be isolated, or a sufficient distance
from commercial strawberry plants so as not to become infected.
ORNAMENTALS
Collar-rot of Lawson's Cypress.—This disease continues to be serious at the
Coast, particularly where there is poor drainage.
Verticillium Wilt of Chrysanthemums.—The incidence was higher than usual.
REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH, 1963
W. H. Pope, P.Ag., Poultry Commissioner
Approximately 65 per cent of British Columbia's poultry industry is located in
the Municipalities of Surrey, Langley, Matsqui, and Sumas; a further 15 per cent
is on Southern Vancouver Island; and the rema'n'ng 20 per cent is concentrated
around the centres of population throughout the Province. The farm flock of 200
to 300 birds has largely disappeared and has been replaced by flocks just large
enough to supply the farm family's requirements and by the specialized commercial producer.
The farm value of the poultry products produced has shown a steady growth,
as is indicated in Table I.   It is exceeded only by those of Ontario and Quebec.
Table I.—Income in Kind and Farm Value
of Poultry Products
1
Cash Income
Income in Kind
Total Farm
Value
Eggs
Poultry
Meat
Total
Eggs
Poultry
Meat
Total
1959
1960
1961
$12,983,000
13.573,000
14,882,000
15,329,000
16,868,000
1
J $11,749,000
1    11,776.000
|    11,019,000
1    12.221,000
\    12,990,000
1
$24,732,000
25,349.000
25,901,000
27.540.000
29,858,000
$742,000
653,000
581,000
575,000
560.000
1                     1
1 $376,000    '$1,118,000
|    319,000    |     972,000
|    240.000    |      821.000
325,000    [     900,000
1    790.000     !      850.000
$25,856,000
26,326,000
26,727.000
1962 .
28,443,000
1963     —	
30,708,000
1
i 1959 to 1962, Dominion Bureau of Statistics;   1963, British Columb'a Department of Agriculture estimate.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 71
The three major factors involved in the sharp rise in the farm value for commercial eggs in 1963 were (a) some increase in flock size, (b) increased production
per bird, and (c) an increase in the weighted average price received.
Table II shows the approximate weighted average prices for major poultry
products for the past five years and compares the 1963 price with the average for
the period given.
Table II.— Weighted Average Producer Price
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1963 as
Percentage of
5-year Average
Eggs      	
Chicken	
Fowl	
32.1
22.2
12.8
24.0
31.4
21.4
13.9
31.1
32.1
17.9
12.7
26.1
30.9
23.0
11.0
26.0
33.8
21.9
12.7
25.4
105.4
102.8
99.2
Turkey.    .
95.8
COMMERCIAL EGGS
Commercial egg production in 1963 established new levels and exceeded the
1962 production by about 4 per cent. Peak production occurred during the second
week in December, when over 6,000,000 eggs were handled by registered grading-
stations. Total production during 1963 was approximately 45,300,000 dozen, as
compared to 43,400,000 dozen in 1962.
There has been some activity in integrated farm development, with several farm
groups being involved in the manufacture of feed, the production of chicks, the
growing of started pullets, and the production of commercial and hatching eggs.
Other large producers have entered the marketing field, while still others have added
facilities for the manufacture of their feed requirements. It is probable that this form
of integration will continue as the major producers attempt to gain control of more
of the factors that are involved in their businesses. (For production and prices see
Appendices Nos. 12 and 13.)
POULTRY MEAT
Out of a total of 39,000,000 pounds of poultry meat processed in registered
plants in 1963, 25,500,000 pounds, or 65 per cent, were fryers and light roasters.
Steady prices at fairly high levels during 1962 and the first nine months of 1963
contributed to a build-up of broiler production to levels above domestic requirements. Sharp cut-backs in broiler-chick placements during October and November
resulted in surplus supplies of hatching eggs. The marketing of these eggs through
regular commercial channels caused severe losses to the producer.
Turkey production continued its long-term downward trend, with the total
output 15 per cent below the 1962 level. (For production and prices of poultry
meat see Appendices Nos. 14 and 15.)
FLOCK APPROVAL
The annual routine pullorum testing of all poultry breeding flocks continues to
be one of the major programmes of this Branch. Thirty-four out of the 247,828
birds tested reacted positively to the rapid field test. All positive reactors to the
field test were submitted to the Provincial Pathology Laboratory for bacterial
examination, with negative pullorum findings. Table III is presented to show the
volume and trend of this work during the past four years.
 CC 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—Poultry-testing Comparisons
I960
Chickens Tested
Number of premises   __
Number of birds tested  —	
Egg-production type	
Meat-production type  	
Retest   	
Reactors 	
Commercial layers 	
Turkeys Tested
Number of premises  	
Number of birds tested    	
125
305,468
108,020
115,062
74,273
284
7,829
13
12,267
1961
1962
148
298,841
119,005
141,141
37,676
340
679
7
8,281
128
228,816
90,736
135,353
2,371
152
204
7
9,584
1963
127
247,828
98,411
148,237
341
1,146
5
3,349
1 All negative on bacterial examination.
DISEASE
Respiratory diseases and the leucosis complex continued to be the most
important causes of loss of production and mortality in commercial flocks. While
effective vaccines for the control of the major respiratory diseases were readily
available, many producers have been reluctant to use them routinely because of
complicating side effects. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the vaccines
and other control measures, this Department, in co-operation with the Connaught
Medical Research Laboratories of the University of Toronto, supported a voluntary
demonstration project involving approximately 200,000 chickens on 32 separate
farms. This project, initiated in April, 1963, will continue until the end of September, 1964.
Approximately one-half of the birds and farms involved in the programme are
being used as controls with which the treated group can be compared. All vaccines
and other required medication are being supplied and administered to the treated
group by the supporting organizations free of charge. The value of the recommended programme will be assessed on the basis of the economic, serological, management, and production records of both groups at its conclusion.
As an extension of this programme and to provide the required background
information, the immune status of all breeding flocks to infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, epidemic tremors, and the level of P.P.L.O infection has been determined. This study has clearly indicated the urgent need for routine control measures
in breeding flocks in order that the chicks produced may have a uniform level of
parental immunity and freedom from inherent disease-producing organisms.
Vaccine for the control of epidemic tremors was made available in Canada for
the first time during 1963. Distribution of this vaccine is under the control of the
Department.
The sale of vaccine for avian diseases was up sharply in 1963, as is indicated
by Appendix No. 16.
The need for extended diagnostic facilities and services continues to be one of
the industry's major concerns.
FARM-MANAGEMENT STUDY
Commercial Eggs
The study of farm-management methods and the relationship between management methods and cost of production has become an important and rewarding part
of this Branch's general extension programme.    Using rate of lay as a guide, the
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 73
farms participating in this programme show an advantage of approximately 12 per
cent over the Provincial average. It is unfortunate that more emphasis cannot be
placed on this valuable programme due to the lack of trained staff.
Broilers
In co-operation with the British Columbia Broiler Association, cost of broiler
production records have been obtained on 70 commercial market flocks involving
approximately 500,000 birds. The information thus obtained is used by the Broiler
Association for statistical purposes and by this Branch to improve management
practices.
A more detailed study of 17 broiler-farms was supervised by this Branch, and
the following economic factors were determined:—
Broiler-farm Study
1. Size of farm:  10 acres (average), 1 to 40 acres (range).
2. Building capacity:  6,000 (average), 1,000 to 140,000 (range).
3. Feed cost:  $89 to $102 per ton.
4. Financing: Only 1 out of 17 pays cash for feed; the other 16 pay feed bills
from proceeds.
5. Production statistics (average): Age to market, 63 days; weight, 3.63
pounds; per cent livability, 97.6; feed conversion, 2.48 pounds; grade, 6.71 per
cent B's, 1.25 per cent rejects.
6. Cost statistics, per pound of meat produced in cents—
Cents
Feed  11.80
Chick  3.95
Vaccine  .08
Litter  .14
Brooding  .35
Electricity,  .65
Cartage  .15
Total ..._  17.25 rt
1 Labour, depreciation, interest on investment, taxes, and other fixed costs are not included in this figure.
Broiler Hatching Eggs
The production of hatching eggs for broiler-chick production is a small but
important part of the poultry industry. Approximately 150,000 birds are used for
this purpose. At the request of and in co-operation with the Broiler Hatching Egg
Producers' Association, a survey of the cost of producing broiler hatching eggs was
conducted. The following average figures were arrived at from information given
by eight producers:—
Broiler Breeder Survey, June, 1963
Per cent mortality  17.7
Age when marketed months 15.4
Hatching eggs per bird  111
Commercial eggs per bird  15
 CC 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Income—
Hatching eggs  $6.62
Commercial eggs  .31
Fowl  1.24
Other  .05
Total income  $8.22
Expenses—
Rearing  $2.27
Laying-house     4.27
Miscellaneous       .68
Total expenses     7.223
Income less expenses  $1.00
1 Labour, depreciation, interest on investment, taxes, and other fixed costs are not included in this figure.
CONSOLIDATION OF OFFICES
Early in the year, approval was given to the transfer of the three Mainland
inspectors and one clerk-stenographer to the office of the Random Sample Test
Station in Abbotsford. The purpose of this move is to develop a service centre in
the area of the greatest concentration of poultry and to provide the qualified personnel with facilities necessary to carry out practical research and demonstration
projects.
When the new laboratory and additional office space is available for use, it is
the intention of this Branch to establish a training programme for commercial
poultry servicemen in order that they may supplement the work of our present staff.
BRITISH COLUMBIA RANDOM SAMPLE POULTRY TEST
The Random Sample Test Station has continued to perform the functions for
which it was designed; that is, to compare the inherent productive capacity of the
various breeds and strains of poultry exposed for sale in this Province. Reports of
the results of this work have been distributed to all entrants involved and to all
interested persons in British Columbia. Copies of these reports have also been
sent, on request, to almost all countries in which poultry is a significant part of
agriculture.
Minor changes in the interior arrangements of the buildings have made it possible to include the testing of 40 new experimental strains of Leghorns, developed
by the Canada Department of Agriculture, and to initiate experimental projects
designed to answer some of the producers' production problems, and further work
of a similar nature is presently in progress.
In co-operation with the Department of Poultry Science, University of British
Columbia, an I.B.M. programme for processing the data has been evolved. While
this change has had little effect on the labour required to record the raw data, it has
substantially reduced the time necessary to tabulate and prepare the information
for presentation.
BONDING AND LICENSING OF EGG-GRADING STATIONS
Regulations under the Poultry and Poultry Products Act, chapter 291 of the
Revised Statutes of British Columbia, 1960, approved by Order in Council No. 1177
on May 14, 1963, were implemented, and 49 registered egg-grading stations that
purchase ungraded eggs from producers have been licensed.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
BRITISH COLUMBIA POULTRY CONFERENCE
CC 75
The annual British Columbia Poultry Conference, initiated by this Department
in 1956 and which was continued until 1960, was reinstituted by industry groups.
Developed on an educational and promotional theme, the two-day conference was
held on October 23 and 24, 1963, at the Cloverdale Fair Grounds. Approximately
250 persons registered for the sessions.
MEETINGS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Staff members attended the regular meetings of the following organizations:
British Columbia Poultry Industries' Council, British Columbia Egg Producers' Association, British Columbia Broiler Growers' Association, British Columbia Rabbit
Breeders' Association, British Columbia Produce Association, British Columbia
Baby Chick Association, British Columbia Broiler Hatching Egg Producers, Pacific
National Exhibition, Lower Vancouver Island Poultry Producers' Association, and
others related to the poultry industry.
In October discussions were held with officials of the Production Service,
Canada Department of Agriculture, as an initial step in the re-establishment of
poultry breeding as part of the British Columbia poultry industry. These discussions
indicated the need of joint participation by government and industry in order to
overcome the advantage presently held by the large industrialized poultry-breeding
organizations. Further discussions are planned to develop a co-ordinated programme.
THE SOIL SURVEY BRANCH
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Chief
In 1963, field surveys in the Okanagan Valley consisted of the Lakeview
Irrigation District extension proposal, the City of Penticton irrigation system, and the
Kaleden Irrigation District. In the Lower Fraser Valley, a survey of Matsqui
Municipality was completed, and a start was made on Langley Municipality. The
pioneer soil survey of the Thompson River valley was held back by other activities;
however, a part of this survey, the Eagle River valley, was mapped between Sicamous
and Three Valley Lake, and field work was extended in the Thompson Valley downstream to Monte Creek. Development of a soil-classification procedure for forestry
was continued, and soil-capability classification for the A.R.D.A. programme
started.
An interim report on the Ashcroft-Savona area in the Thompson Valley was
completed. A meeting of the Soils Advisory Committee, several meetings of subcommittees, and a Soil Science Workshop were held and reported. A meeting of
the Reclamation Committee in the Okanagan Valley took place in July, and was
reported in Brief 42 in September. The report " Soil Survey of the Kettle River
Valley " was revised and sent to press. Two members of the staff were engaged
in soils extension work. The forms of phosphorus in certain British Columbia soils
were investigated.
LAKEVIEW IRRIGATION DISTRICT EXTENSION PROPOSAL
The survey was undertaken in May as part of a general investigation to determine the feasibility of the proposed extension for development. A total of 2,235
acres was classified, of which 1,300 were found to be arable.   The soils are derived
 CC 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
chiefly from coarse-textured glacial outwash and in part from fine-textured glacio-
lacustrine deposits. Sub-groups of Brown, Dark Brown, Dark Gray, Gray Wooded,
Gleysolic, and Regosolic soils were found. The irrigation-water requirements and a
classification of the soils according to suitability for irrigation were reported in
Reclamation Committee Brief 42. A soil map and report describing the soils in
detail are in progress.
PENTICTON IRRIGATION SYSTEM AND KALEDEN IRRIGATION
DISTRICT
Soil surveys of the Penticton and Kaleden areas were undertaken in June and
July. In the area of the Penticton irrigation system, 3,084 acres were mapped, of
which 2,492 were classed as arable. In the Kaleden Irrigation District, of 863
acres classified, 643 are arable.
The bench soils of the Penticton area are derived from glaciolacustrine silts and
sandy and gravelly outwash. At lower elevations the coarse- to fine-textured fans of
Ellis and Penticton Creeks are occupied chiefly by the City of Penticton, and most
of the remainder is subdivided.
In the Kaleden Irrigation District the higher ground is occupied chiefly by kame
terraces and kettled outwash, from which sandy and gravelly soils are derived. A
few acres of soils developed from fans. Glaciolacustrine silts are unimportant.
In both Penticton and Kaleden areas the Brown soils are most extensive; minor areas
are occupied by Dark Brown, Regosolic, and Gleysolic soils. Agricultural production in both areas is confined almost entirely to tree fruits.
The recommended water requirements of the soils for sprinkler irrigation and
their classification according to suitability for irrigation were reported in Reclamation
Committee Brief 42. Soil maps and an interim report describing the soils in detail
will be completed early in 1964.
MATSQUI AND LANGLEY MUNICIPALITIES
The soil survey of Matsqui Municipality began in 1962. It was completed with
detailed classification of about 20,000 acres in 1963. Detailed work in Langley
Municipality involved classification of about 25,000 acres in 1963. This work will
be continued in 1964, and when completed the entire area on the south side of the
Fraser River from Rosedale, east of Chilliwack, to the Strait of Georgia will have
been classified in detail.
The uplands soils in the eastern part of the mapped area are derived from a
shallow layer of loess which overlies glacial outwash, glacio-marine deposits, and
glacial till. In the western section, loess is absent or unimportant and the upland
soils developed entirely from the deposits of glacial origin.
The soils were assigned chiefly to the Acid Brown Wooded and Concretionary
Brown groups. There are minor areas of Minimal Podzol, Gleyed Acid Brown
Wooded, Gleyed Ortstein Podzol, Rego Humic Gleysol, and Muck groups of soils.
A report and soil map of Matsqui Municipality, including Sumas Mountain, will be
prepared during the winter of 1963/64.
EAGLE RIVER VALLEY
When undertaking regional surveys, it is essential to include minor areas, such
as the bottoms of tributary valleys, because these areas are too small for separate
reports suitable for publication. Thus the Eagle Valley was included in the Thompson Valley survey.   This was a survey of the valley-bottom from Sicamous to Three
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1963
CC 77
Valley Lake, including the north end of Wap Creek valley. About 20,550 acres
were classified on a scale of 2 inches to a mile.
The valley filling materials are supplied by tributaries, which have carved steep
channels in the valley sides. Much coarse material has been brought down at the
time of the freshets, to form large stony and gravelly deposits at entry points. Such
deposits form dams which slow the Eagle River, causing it to meander and deposit
its load of fine material, also supplied by the tributaries, between the dams thus
formed.
The Eagle Valley is one of the more humid parts of the Interior, where Podzols
can develop. These soils contain magnetic-iron concretions at the higher elevations.
Other soils found in the area are Gray Wooded types on the higher deposits of the
Eagle River that have fine texture; Regosols occur on the more recent ones. The
Gray Wooded soils on alluvial terraces between Sicamous and Malakwa are being
cleared for farming.
THE THOMPSON VALLEY SURVEY
This survey, subject to priorities, has been progressing since 1961. Concurrently, at the request of this Department, a survey of surficial deposits by the Geological Survey of Canada is also progressing.
About 6,600 acres were classified north of Celista, in the vicinity of Hilna and
Onyx Creeks. An additional 7,650 acres were surveyed on the north side of the
Thompson River between Chase and Monte Creek. The soil survey of the Thompson River valley, eventually to include the entire drainage basin, now extends from
Armstrong to Monte Creek.
FOREST-LAND CLASSIFICATION
Three weeks were spent on forest-land classification by two soil surveyors in
co-operation with representatives of the Canada and Provincial forestry departments.
The project area is located about 10 miles north-east of Chase at 4,500 feet elevation.
At this elevation, drainage is the factor which governs soil-profile development.
The soils were Podzolic and Gleysolic, and were mapped at three levels of detail.
This was done to determine how much useful information for forest management
would be available at each mapping scale. A report and maps will be prepared in the
winter of 1963/64.
SOIL-CAPABILITY CLASSIFICATION
Soil-capability classification is one of several interpretive groupings that can be
made from soil-survey information. In this classification the mineral soils are
grouped in seven classes according to their suitability for agriculture. The soils of
the first three classes can support sustained production of all climatically suitable
crops. The fourth class is marginal for this purpose, and the fifth and sixth classes
are suitable only for permanent pasture. There is a seventh class for soil and land
types unsuitable for permanent pasture or for cultivated agriculture.
Lower Fraser Valley
During the 1963 field season all areas in the Lower Fraser Valley which have
been reclassified were examined and given a soil-capability classification. This
amounts to about 250,000 acres. Similar classification of remaining areas will be
undertaken along with soil surveys still to be undertaken.
 CC 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Okanagan Valley
In 1963, soil-capability classification was applied to the area between Kelowna
and the 49th parallel, which amounts to about 200,000 acres. The North Okanagan
will receive similar attention early in 1964.
During the winter of 1963/64, preparations will be made to extend soil-
capability classification to all other areas classified by this Branch in the past. It is
hoped that 1964 field work will complete the project.
SOIL CONSERVATION
Soil-testing for abnormalities in samples submitted by Okanagan farmers, district officials, and others was continued. Some 830 soil samples were examined for
alkali. Twelve per cent contained black and 21 per cent white alkali in concentrations harmful to plants. Twenty-five samples of water intended for irrigation were
tested; 16 per cent of the samples were too alkaline for the purpose.
About 60 farm visits were made in the Okanagan Valley in connection with
land-drainage problems. Plans were prepared for 8,436 feet of drainage-works,
which were installed by December 1st. Investigations prior to developing plans for
an additional 3,200 feet of drains are in progress.
In the Lower Fraser Valley, 33 farms, having a combined area of 1,294 acres,
were surveyed for drainage requirements. Drainage systems designed for the surveyed area total about 424,785 feet of buried tile and 56,805 feet of open ditches.
Observations as to the depth and fluctuations of the water-table were made at
12 locations in order to determine the effectiveness of sub-surface drains. Hydraulic
conductivity measurements were made in conjunction with water-table studies to
evaluate the drainage requirements of different soils.
Crop yield data from the Ladner drainage plots were obtained through cooperation with the Agricultural Development and Extension Branch, Field Crops
Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, and the University of British Columbia.
The results show that yields increase with effective drainage. Oat and potato yields
on land drained at 80, 40, and 20 feet tile spacings averaged 34.3 and 60.9 per cent
higher than on undrained land. In some cases the increased production after
drainage can pay the cost of drainage in one year if high-value crops are grown.
An inventory of existing drainage systems was completed in Delta Municipality.
This survey shows that less than 25 per cent of the municipality has properly functioning drains.
A record was started of the location and time of installation of future drainage
systems. Methods of controlling ditch-bank erosion were studied, as were sedimentation in drains and the locating and clearing of obstructions. The effectiveness
of sub-surface irrigation was also studied.
In the Okanagan Valley the demand for advisory assistance in regard to farm
irrigation continued at a high level. About 60 farm visits were devoted to checking
sprinkler irrigation systems, application rates, irrigation intervals, and other soil-
water relationships. Co-operation was continued with the Canada Research Station,
Summerland, with officials of irrigation districts and the Agricultural Development
and Extension Branch, the emphasis being on the scheduling of water applications in
the Oliver-Osyoyoos area and more general work in the North Okanagan.
Advisory assistance was given to the Department of Public Works, the South
Okanagan Health Unit, the Land Inspection Division, and the Water Rights Branch.
Lectures were given to farm groups, soils clubs, and irrigation district officials.   This
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 79
Branch participated in a study of the Lillooet-Lytton-Spences Bridge region as to its
suitability for the commercial production of grapes.
LABORATORY
Laboratory analyses in 1963 included samples collected in Matsqui and Langley
Municipalities of the Lower Fraser Valley in connection with the soil surveys.
Analyses were made for soil surveys of samples collected in the Eagle River valley,
Chase to Pritchard, Celista, and in the Penticton, Kaleden, and Lakeview Irrigation
Districts.
The fertility status of some British Columbia soils was investigated to the
extent of about 7,000 chemical determinations, the primary emphasis being on the
behaviour of soil phosphorus. Chemical properties of soils, their interaction with
phosphorus and its availability to plants, were studied with the help of an electronic
computing-machine at the University of British Columbia.
The distribution of inorganic phosphorus and the forms in which it occurs was
found to differ with the soil group. In the Regosolic and Gleysolic soils of the Fraser
River flood-plains, phosphorus occurs chiefly as calcium phosphate, though this form
is rare under acid soil conditions elsewhere. In contrast to alkaline soils of the
Interior, the calcium phosphate in the acid flood-plain soils of the Lower Fraser
Valley is an important source of phosphorus to many crops. This, in part, may
explain discrepancies in plant response to additions of lime and phosphorus in that
area.
The slightly acid to neutral soils of the Interior and the acid upland soils of the
Lower Fraser Valley and Peace River District contain high amounts of phosphorus
in the form of aluminum and iron phosphates. It was found that the fractions available to plants, where such forms occur, require detection by the use of mild acid
fluoride in order to get meaningful correlation.
The nutrient status of soils was found to vary so much within small geographic
areas that economical fertilizer applications are not practicable unless soil analyses
geared to the soil groups is undertaken.
The relationship between various soil analysis procedures, forms of phosphorus,
plant uptake of phosporus, related crop yield, and other chemical and physical
properties of soils were studied. Various procedures were found to be useful when
related to soil groups. Any single method when applied without discrimination
results in the improper use of fertilizers.
It was found that the Bray Px method, with modifications, could be adopted to
various soils in this Province when related to the appropriate soil groups. Some of
the criteria for comparison of the soil groups with one another were established.
 CC 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDICES
APPENDIX No. 1
Calfhood Vaccinations under Federal-Provincial Brucellosis Control
Period
Total
Vaccinations
July 15
July 1,
July 1,
July 1,
July 1,
July 1,
July 1,
July 1,
July 1,
July 1,
July 1,
July 1,
July 1,
, 1950, to June 30, 1951     — 18,929
1951, to June 30, 1952 _   -  _    24,178
1952, to June 30, 1953       — -  29,605
1953, to June 30, 1954        34,105
1954, to June 30, 1955 ____     _  36,815
1955, to June 30, 1956       - 36,412
1956, to June 30, 1957  _   _        39,230
1957, to June 30, 1958       47,087
1958, to June 30, 1959 __     __ 58,896
1959, to June 30, 1960 _   _ 59,945
1960, to June 30, 1961           65,450
1961, to June 30, 1962          67,706
1962, to June 30, 1963  _   _  65,971
Totals
584,329
Total calves vaccinated under the Provincial policy during the period from July 31, 1941, to July 14, 1950,
was 83,730 head.
APPENDIX No. 2
Dairy-farm Inspections under Milk Industry Act
District
Number of
Dairy-farm
Inspections
Number of Dairy-farms
Issued Notice of Cancellation by Inspectors
Number of Approved
Dairy-farms
Raw
Fluid
Raw
Fluid
100
110
608
345
198
2,397
574
4
17
2
1
4
1
1
2
2
6
8
4
3
9
82
7
2
2
5
2
1
4
--
26
36
West Kootenay  _ 	
27
125
62
Central British Columbia 	
Fraser Valley  —	
Vancouver Island  	
North Bend
129
1,851
225
2                         3
Sandspit — —. .— -—
_        i
1
Totals. _                                     	
4,355
11          ]         121
44                   2.458
Three hundred and ninety-five additional notices of cancellation were mailed out in the three Milk Board
areas where the dairy-farmer notified the Board of cessation of operations.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 81
APPENDIX No. 3
List of Artificial Insemination Centres and Reported First Services in 1962
First
Name of Centre                                    Services
Alberni Farmers' Institute       172
Armstrong  Sub-unit,  British  Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre     4,555
British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre 45,084
Bulkley Valley Cattle Breeders' Association— 311
Chilliwack Artificial Insemination Centre  15,467
City Dairy Farms Ltd. —  	
Comox Valley Artificial Insemination Club	
Cowichan Agricultural Society and Farmers'
Institute   _
Creston Valley Frozen Artificial Insemination Club     - 	
Dawson Creek and District Dairy Producers'
Association      - 	
Giscome Farms _ _ _	
181
706
3,382
609
219
125
Name of Centre
Guthrie, John A.
First
Services
         43
Kamloops Artificial Insemination Centre — 343
Kelowna District Artificial Insemination Association  _       - -   725
McBride Livestock Improvement Association.—   96
Nechako Valley Dairymen's Association   423
Nelson and District Artificial Insemination Centre 204
Newbrand, Emil  _ „     25
North Peace Artificial Insemination Service  192
Prince George Artificial Insemination Centre -... 216
Quesnel Artificial Insemination Association Centre   -     196
Rubis, J., Jr. _.   _ - -  107
Saanich Artificial Insemination Club —  602
Saltspring Island Artificial Insemination Club  116
Urquhart, James A. __ -     47
APPENDIX No. 4
Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1963
District Cattle  Hides
Cariboo—
Quesnel         _     3,099
Williams Lake, Alexis Creek _ _ 18,666
Clinton, Lac la Hache, 100 Mile
House, Graham Siding, Bridge
Lake, Lone Butte      4,218
Lillooet, Pavilion, Bralorne, Pemberton   _       730
Bella Coola             20
Kamloops, Nicola, etc-
Kamloops, Chase 	
Merritt  -	
Okanagan—
Vernon, Lumby, Falkland
Kelowna
Penticton, Summerland
Oliver, Osoyoos  	
346
269
29
26,733
30,035
12,917
Ashcroft, Lytton, etc.    10,206
Salmon Arm       1,776
644
855
254
595
791
54,934   2,495
7,932
Armstrong, Enderby, Sicamous     4,073
532
319
3,456    2,850
735
1,379
70
274
17,575   4,045
District Cattle   Hides
Similkameen—
Princeton, Keremeos, Copper Mountain          8,543
Grand Forks, Greenwood     2,501
South-eastern British Columbia—
Rossland, Crescent Valley 	
Nelson, Creston, etc 	
Cranbrook, Fernie, etc.
Invermere, Golden 	
Central British Columbia—-
Prince George, Vanderhoof .
Smithers, Giscome, etc	
Burns Lake 	
Peace River—
Fort St. John  __     5,151
Dawson Creek _J  13,967
Atlin,  Fort Nelson,  Cassiar,  Chetwynd, Hudson Hope          36
183
302
11,044      485
283
2,022
7,426
1,285
515
679
481
80
11,016    1,755
2,981
2,719
2,158
133
232
52
7,858      417
234
2,098
19,154   2,332
Totals Compared
District
1963
1962
1961
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
26,733
54,934
28,619
11,016
27,012
644
2,495
4,530
1,755
2,749
33,361
54,838
31,852
10,465
23,135
896
1,919
6,677
1,802
3,970
23,860
50,176
27,029
8,945
16,341
776
2,084
Okanagan and Similkameen _ _ 	
5,698
2,166
4,469
Totals  	
148,314
12,173
153,651
15,264
126,351
15,193
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 5
Breed Averages for 1962
Percentage of
Fat
Breed
Total D.H.I.
Per Cent
Pounds
1961   1    1962
1
1961   1    1962
1
1961   |    1962
I
1961   I    1962
1
3.0
11.5
64.3
12.8
8.4
2.7
10.0
68.4
11.4
7.5
9,507
8,737
11,805
7,840
10,011
9,325
8,673
11,646
7,720
9,794
4.03
4.81
3.77
5.20
4.33
4.04
4.80
3.78
5.19
4.33
383
420
445
408
434
377
Guernsey 	
416
440
Jersey - 	
Unclassified (crossbreds, etc.)	
401
424
1961 figures shown for comparison.
APPENDIX No. 6
Animal Pathology Specimen Examinations
Disease Specimens
Serology
Total
4,050
963
394
11
17
29
407
59
913
5,980
5,011
23
1,753
12
10,030
Turkeys - -	
Cattle                            	
5,974
417
11
17
29
2,160
59
925
Totals     -,               	
6,843
12,779
19,622
APPENDIX No. 7
Production of Grass and Legume Seeds, 1962-63
Alfalfa _	
Red clover, single	
Red clover, double	
Alsike clover	
Sweet clover. 	
White Dutch clover-
Timothy	
Timothy-alsike	
Brome— 	
Bluegrass, Kentucky-
Crested wheat	
Creeping red fescue _
Meadow fescue— -
Orchardgrass	
Redtop   	
Chewing's fescue	
Birdsfoot trefoil	
Ryegrass, perennial....
Ryegrass, annual	
Production
(Final),
1962 (Lb.)
50,000
100,000
60,000
1,500,000
250,000
26,000
65,000
50,000
100,000
16,000
30,000
900,000
15,000
6,000
13,000
Estimated
Production,
1963 (Lb.)
110,000
300,000
158,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
20,000
105,000
65,000
145,000
5,000
50,000
1,900,000
1,800
1,500
19,000
10,000
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 83
APPENDIX No. 8
Production of Small Fruits, Grapes, and Filberts for 1962 and Estimate for 1963
1962 Production (Lb.)
1963 Estimate
of Total
Production
(Lb.)
Fresh Sales
Processed Sales
Total
Production
1,501,000
640,000
103,000
53,000
27,000
19,000
17,000
896,000
1,223,000
267,000
8,883,000
8,059,000
919,000
234,000
4,000
37,000
2,000
1,013,000
190,000
2,198,000
10,384,000
8,699,000
1,022,000
287,000
31,000
56,000
19,000
1,909,000
190,000
3,421,000
267,000
10,597,000
Raspberries- -
Loganberries                                   . .
Blackberries
11,999,000
1,440,000
527,000
36,000
31,000
15,000
Blueberries- — _	
2,853,000
801,000
4,141,000
Nuts   - 	
346,000
Totals            	
4,746,000
21,539,000
26,285,000
32,786,000
APPENDIX No. 9
Production of Tree-fruit Crops in British Columbia for 1962 and Estimate for 1963
1962 Production (Lb.)
Fresh Sales
Processed Sales
Total
Production
1963 Estimate
of Total
Production
(Lb.)
Apples	
Crab-apples-
Pears	
Plums 	
Prunes	
Cherries-
Peaches—
Apricots..
211,676,000
1,521,000
24,721,000
317,000
9,949,000
8,298,000
18,330.000
8,981,000
60,599,000
692,000
5,410,000
59,000
4,378,000
1,282.000
12,844,000
6,504.000
Totals..
283,793,000      I      91,768,000
272.275,000
2,213,000
30,131,000
376,000
14,327,000
9,580,000
31,174.000
15,485,000
376,017,000
7,434,000
44,224,000
368,000
12,229,000
6,665,000
23,167,000
5,246,000
375,561,000
470.350,000
APPENDIX No. 10
Total Acreage of Small Fruits for the Coastal Areas in British Columbia for 1962
Vancouver
Island
Lower
Mainland
Total
283.05
13.84
5.20
24.05
194.58
4.43
0.50
1,365.89
1,441.09
938.94
162.50
28.75
4.50
1.75
0.25
1.25
0.25
1,648.94
1,454.93
944.14
162.50
52.80
199.08"
6.18
Red currants    	
0.75
1 25
0 25
Others—  	
1.71
1 71
Totals	
527.36
3,945.17
4,472.53
 CC 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 11
Acreage and Production of Selected Vegetable Crops in British Columbia for 1962
and Production Estimate for 1963
Kind of Vegetable
1962
Acreages
1962
Production
(Lb.)
(Lb.)
1963 Estimate
of Production
Asparagus..
Beans	
Beets	
Broccoli  	
Brussels sprouts	
Cabbage  	
Carrots 	
Cauliflower  	
Celery  	
Corn   	
Cucumber, field 	
Cucumber, hothouse-
Lettuce, field	
Mushrooms	
Onions	
Peas -   _..
Potatoes, early-
Potatoes, late....
Spinach-
Tomatoes, field 	
Tomatoes, hothouse-
Turnips 	
Other vegetables	
Totals-	
459
1,502
143
214
71
474
512
573
169
4,109
364
500
690
8,636
1,722
6,753
132
821
224
890
28,958
902,000
8,957,000
2,675,000
1,406,000
363,000
7,653,000
11,141,000
5,973,000
3,819,000
31,278,000
3,586,000
1,753,000
7,847,000
2,139.000
16,227,000
23,195,000
19,559,000
114.465,000
1,054,000
14,471,000
3,174,000
5,059,000
7,107,000
766,000
8,735,000
2,646,000
1,340,000
385,000
10,131,000
11,344,000
5,689,000
3,317,000
32,445,000
3,541,000
1,851,000
7,624,000
2,261,000
25,424,000
22,073,000
16,852,000
135,151,000
1,304,000
15,062,000
3,090,000
8,054,000
10,395,000
293,803,000
329,470,000
APPENDIX No. 12
Egg Production (Number of Cases1 through Registered Stations)
Month
A.E.L.
A.L.
A.M.
A.S.
A.P.W.
Estimated
Totals,
1963
Totals,
1962
January—
February-
March	
April	
May~
June.
July_
vUgUSt-
September..
October	
November-
December—
Totals-
2,924
2,207
2,234
2,574
3,213
2,423
3,006
2,347
2,328
3,047
2,622
2,872
45,000
35,215
| 36,436
36,665
47,018
36,986
44,562
35,472
| 33,990
| 43,973
| 35,501
I 37,740
31,797 1468,558
16,748
11,933
11,154
11,364
16,213
13,685
16,738
14,325
14,687
19,167
15,272
14,348
175-534"
2,635
1,665
1,813
2,235
3,391
2,921
3,883
3,677
4,074
4,437
3,023
2,601
I
155 |
87 I
127 I
193 |
306 |
224
328 I
401
324
328 |
228 |
192 I
2,728
2,035
2,084
2,214
3,534
3,585
4,341
3,310
3,053
3,246
2,340
2,595
36,355 |    2,893 I 35,065
669
427
462
502
793
628
762
686
472
600
525
606
7,132
4,679
3,441
3,417
3,491
4,961
4,150
5,056
4,346
4,303
4,991
3,778
3,870
75,538
57,010
57,727
59,238
79,429
64,602
78,676
64,564
63,231
79,789
63,289
64,824
73,018
56,832
57,201
56,607
75,476
61,478
76,226
| 61,165
| 60,014
I 75,031
! 59,637
I 61,686
50,483 1807,917   744,371
i Thirty dozen per case.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963
CC 85
APPENDIX No. 13
British Columbia Weighted Egg Prices to Producers
(Average paying price weighted by grade.)
Month
1963
1961
Canada, 1963
January	
February	
March	
April —
May	
June	
July	
.-■ ugust	
September-
October	
November..
December...
Yearly average
t
t
29.8
30.9
31.1
28.5
34.7
29.3
36.2
31.4
34.0
28.8
32.8
26.0
32.8
26.5
34.1
32.2
35.4
34.4
36.4
32.9
35.6
34.8
33.2
33.8
33.8
30.9
t
32.0
29.5
30.8
28.5
29.0
29.7
33.9
34.6
33.1
34.2
36.6
32.5
32.1
t
27.1
33.1
35.5
35.5
30.2
29.8
33.2
34.4
41.8
41.3
34.1
31.1
33.6
APPENDIX No. 14
Poultry in Pounds through Registered Stations in British Columbia
Month
Chicken
Fowl
Turkey
Duck
Geese
Monthly
Totals, 1963
Five-year
Averages
1958-«2
January... -
February	
March —
April	
1,260,695
1,439,409
1,860,748
1,936,546
2,721,180
2,135,597
2,700,875
2,337,457
1,936,312
2,455,326
2,401,347
1,914,615
99,837
310,592
312,364
354,168
513,957
428,330
596,315
389,025
447,109
587,638
529,775
332,998
655,482
98,678
60,965
294,525
155,291
434,352
487,458
979,934
805,304
1,653,474
646,183
863,880
256,756
10,896
12,118
14,360
26,356
30,387
33,722
28,853
37,918
45,832
29,870
19,465
12,355
291
2,285,125
1,859,575
2,246,195
2,599,599
3,416,784
3,028,666
3,818,370
3,735,269
3,226,643
4,742,561
3,607,175
3,130,958
2,113,794
1,806,930
1,900,677
2,281,369
2,938,703
June	
July	
August	
September
October	
November	
December -
2,750,181
2,935,227
3,426,312
3,490,162
3,902,668
3,572,853
3,162,530
Yearly
totals—
25,100,107
4,902,108
7,135,526
546,533
12,646
37,696,920
34,277,406
 CC 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 15
1963 Average Monthly Producer Price for Live Poultry (Vancouver)
Month
Chicken
Under
4 Lb.
4-5
Lb.
5-61/2
Lb.
6'/2 Lb.
and
Over
Under
5 Lb.
5-6
Lb.
Over
6 Lb.
Young Turkey
Under
10 Lb.
10-20
Lb.
Over
20 Lb.
January	
February -
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September.
October	
November
December.
221/2
221/2
221/2
221/2
22V2
221/2
22Vi
221/2
22
201/2
20
18
25
23
23
23
23
23
22Vi
22!/2
22
201/4
20
18
26
27
27
27
27
26
26
25
24
25
24
23
26
27
27
27
27
27
27
26
26
26
26
26
12
11
11
11
11
12
12
14
14
14
12
13
15
16
17
17
16
16
16
17
17
17
16
16
28
28
29
28
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
28
27
27
27
28
28
27
27
27
27
27
29
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
24
24
24
24
25
APPENDIX No. 16
Amount and Kind of Vaccine Distributed (in Doses)
Type of Vaccine
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
Newcastle disease   	
8,747,150
1,851,450
8,829,800
1,816,600
13,751,400
3,184,900
10,674,636
2,442,436
13,084,000
4,866,000
35,000
	
Totals     	
10,598,600
10,646,400
16,936,300
13,117,072
17,985,000
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1963 CC 87
APPENDIX No. 17
Publications Printed in 1963
Reports
Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, 1962.
The Climate of British Columbia, 1962.
Annual Report of the Milk Board, 1962.
Agricultural Statistics Report, 1961.
Report of Hog Crossbreeding Trials Conducted at Colony Farm, Essondale,
B.C., 1960-63.
Bulletins and Charts
Diseases of Pole Beans.
Ticks and Man.
Observations on Raspberry Varieties as Grown in the Fraser Valley.
Supplementary Recommendations for Holly Culture.
Brooding Baby Chicks.
The Use of Drugs and Antibiotics in Controlling Bee Diseases.
Vegetable Varieties Recommended for Planting in the Southern Interior of
British Columbia.
Practical Duck Raising.
Pumps and Conveyors for Fluid Manure.
Poultry Feeds and Feeding in Central and Northern British Columbia.
Women's Work in Fair Exhibits.
Swine Diseases in British Columbia, Symptoms, Control, and Treatment.
The Fur Farming Industry in British Columbia.
The Home Vegetable Garden.
Insect and Disease Control for the Home Gardener.
Mineral Deficiencies and Other Disorders of Fruit Trees.
Livestock Pests.
Minimum Requirements for the Design, Installation, and Performance of
Sprinkler Irrigation Equipment.
Mechanical Feeding of Silage.
Tulip Bulb Culture in British Columbia.
Dugouts in Domestic Water Development.
Chemical Weed Control around the Home.
Stony Pit of Pears.
Small Fruit Growing in the Okanagan and Kootenays.
Red Raspberry Growing with Particular Application to the Fraser Valley.
Procedure for the Construction of an Earth Fill Dam.
Tree Fruit Spray Calendar, Interior Districts, 1963.
Forage Crop Recommendations for South-eastern British Columbia, 1963.
Forage Crop Recommendations, Boundary-Okanagan-Kamloops-South Cariboo, 1963.
Fertilizer Recommendations for South-eastern British Columbia, 1963.
Fertilizer Recommendations for Boundary-North Okanagan-South Okanagan-
Kamloops-South Cariboo, 1963.
Spray Calendar for Coniferous Evergreens and Roses.
Fertilizer Recommendations, Peace River, 1963.
Chemical Weed Control, 1961-63 (reprint).
Miscellaneous
List of Publications.
Who's Who in B.C. Agriculture.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1964
960-364 -4806
 

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