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Annual Report of the Director of Correction for the YEAR ENDED MARCH 31 1962 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1963

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
Annual Report
of the
Director of Correction
for the
YEAR ENDED MARCH 31
1962
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1963
 I
 Victoria, B.C., January 24, 1963.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
VC, P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Annual Report of the Director
of Correction for the year ended March 31, 1962.
ROBERT W. BONNER,
A ttorney-General.
 Department of the Attorney-General, Corrections Branch,
Vancouver, B.C., November 1, 1962.
The Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Corrections
Branch for the 12 months ended March 31, 1962.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. ROCKSBOROUGH SMITH,
Director of Correction.
 DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
CORRECTIONS BRANCH
The Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C.
A ttorney-General
Gilbert D. Kennedy, Q.C.
Deputy Attorney-General
SENIOR CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
S. ROCKSBOROUGH SMITH
Director of Correction and Provincial Probation Officer
M. A. Matheson
Assistant Director of Correction
CD. Davidson
Chief Assistant Probation Officer
HEADQUARTERS STAFF OFFICERS
O. J. Walling Rev. W. D. G. Hollingsworth
Personnel and Staff Training Officer Senior Protestant Chaplain
R. V. McAllister Rev. T. F. M. Corcoran
Psychologist Senior Catholic Chaplain
R. G. E. Richmond
Senior Medical Officer
GAOL SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
H. G. Christie G. Warnock
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm Director, New Haven Borstal
J. B. Braithwaite W. Scott
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution Warden, Kamloops Provincial Gaol
W. Mulligan
Warden, Prince George Provincial Gaol
  CONTENTS
Chap. Page
I. Review of the Year  13
Population Trends  13
Probation  13
Institutions  13
Parole  13
Total Population  13
The Building Programme  13
Forestry Camps  13
Hospital  13
Developments in Methods of Treatment  13
Group Counselling  13
Decentralization of Treatment Services  14
Forestry Projects  15
Community Service  15
Retirement of Mr. E. G. B. Stevens  16
Gaol Rules and Regulations  16
Plans for the Future  16
II. Staff  20
Headquarters Staff  20
Institutional Staff  20
Probation Staff  20
Recruitment  20
In-service Training  21
Orientation Training  21
Basic Training  21
Field Training  21
Advanced Training  21
Specialized Courses  21
Instructional Technique  21
Forestry  21
Civil Defence  21
University Extension Courses  21
First-aid Training  22
Safety Course  22
Staff Conferences  22
Institute on Group Counselling  22
Institute on Management  22
Monthly Seminars  22
Group Counselling Training  22
Weekly Staff Meetings  22
Observation at New Haven  23
Group Leaders Supervisors Training.  23
Staff-training Grant  23
Personnel Functions  23
Oakalla Prison Farm  23
Salaries  23
Performance Evaluation Form  23
 Chap. Page
III. Treatment of Men  24
General  24
The Effects of Overcrowding  24
Discipline  24
Security  25
Central Classification  25
Research  25
Religion  25
Chaplains  25
Protestant Worship  26
Roman Catholic Worship  27
Non-institutional Worship  27
Social Training  27
The New Haven Experiment with Group Counselling  27
Development in Other Institutions  27
Recreation Programme  27
Counselling  28
Education  28
Academic Training  28
Vocational Training  29
Library  29
Work  29
Production  29
Pre-release  30
Pre-release Camps  30
IV. Forestry Camps  31
Interdepartmental Co-ordinating Committee  31
Committee Activity  31
Chilliwack Forest Camps   31
Gold Creek Camp  31
Pre-release Camp  31
Clearwater Camp  31
V. Treatment of Women  33
General  33
Population  33
Discipline  33
Security  33
Classification Process  3 3
Psychological Testing  3 3
Religion  33
Protestant Worship  3 3
Roman Catholic Worship  34
Non-institutional Worship  3 4
Social Training  34
Group Discussion  3 4
Recreation Programme  34
Research  34
Narcotic Addiction Treatment Unit  34
 Chap. Page
VI. Health and Hygiene  35
Senior Medical Officer's Report  35
Warden's Report, Prince George Provincial Gaol  38
Warden's Report, Kamloops Provincial Gaol  38
VII. Parole Supervision and After-care  39
General  39
Staff  39
British Columbia Borstal Association  39
After-care Associations  39
British Columbia Parole Board  39
Released on Parole  39
Revocations  39
Day Parole  39
Family Meetings  39
National Parole Board  40
Family Counselling  40
VIII. Probation Service  41
General  41
Probation Cases ..  41
Pre-sentence Reports  41
Case Loads  41
Field Offices  41
New Developments  41
Family Court  41
Probation Service Field Officers  42
Provincial Probation Service Statistics  42
New Probation Cases  43
New Follow-up Cases  43
Statistical Appendix  44
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  CHAPTER I
REVIEW OF THE YEAR
POPULATION TRENDS
1. Probation.—During the year, 1,491 new cases were placed on probation
and 1,989 pre-sentence reports were prepared by Probation Officers. As of March
31, 1962, there were 1,358 individuals on probation, creating an average case load
of 40 for the Service.
2. Institutions.—For this fiscal year the number of inmates in all institutions
rose from last year's daily average population of 1,907 to 2,035, an increase of 6.7
per cent. This increase continued throughout the year, and as of March 31, 1962,
there were 2,337 inmates on the register.
3. The overcrowding of the smaller gaols resulted in 271 inmates from Kamloops Provincial Gaol and 81 from Prince George Provincial Gaol being transferred
to Oakalla Prison Farm, which also remained in a continual overcrowded condition.
4. Parole.—A continued growth occurred in the number of cases released on
parole. The British Columbia Parole Board released 516 inmates under parole
supervision, an increase of 43 cases (9.6 per cent) over last year. Spread over five
Parole Officers, this amounted to an average case load of 50 for the year, with the
British Columbia Borstal Association assuming supervision of 25 trainees from
New Haven.
5. Total Population.—The total population under probation supervision, in
institutions or under parole supervision, totalled 3,967 on March 31, 1962.
THE BUILDING PROGRAMME
6. Forestry Camps.—The need for additional accommodation remained acute.
A fourth camp-site was selected in the Chilliwack Valley, and construction started
during the latter part of the year. This camp represents a departure from the usual
style of separate huts for small groups. British Columbia Forest Service architects
co-operated in the design of three 20-man dormitories, each in an H-shape.
Sleeping accommodation is at both ends, with communal lavatory and recreational
facilities in the centre. The construction of these camps will be entirely by inmate
labour, with all lumber coming from the logging and sawmill project operated by
inmates at Camp 2.
7. Hospital.—Construction has progressed on the conversion of the former
Young Offenders' Unit into a Gaol Service hospital. This is a most significant
development in that we will have a modern well-equipped general hospital to replace
the overcrowded and poor quarters in the tower of Oakalla Prison Farm. It is
intended that this hospital, under the direction of the Senior Medical Officer, will
serve all institutions within the Service both as a treatment centre for chronic
ailments and for minor surgery.
DEVELOPMENTS IN METHODS OF TREATMENT
8. Group Counselling.—In a year in which the number of receptions of convicted prisoners has continued to increase and the population of institutions swelled
to capacity, individualized treatment is bound to suffer. The mere volume of work
and the need for frequent transfers to relieve overcrowding impedes classification
and the planning of a treatment programme suited to the needs of the individual
offender.    To meet this situation, explorations were made into the use of group
13
 EE 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
counselling as a rehabilitative technique.   Through the use of groups it was hoped
that the impact of a fixed number of staff could be multiplied.
9. While the details of this new technique are given elsewhere, it is interesting
to note here several evaluative comments:—
Senior Medical Officer, Headquarters Staff: " Group counselling, more specifically, as practised at New Haven—which is an almost ideal setting for group
research—gives every promise of breaking down that almost insuperable barrier to
successful rehabilitation, the prison subculture, and renders the stimuli operative in
change of behaviour intrinsic rather that extrinsic. The potentiality of this type
and quality of operation is seemingly unbounded."
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution: " This programme is still relatively
new, and while it is premature to make specific claims, it is interesting to note that
despite the fact that the group counselling reduced the number of hours worked by
the trainees, we were nevertheless able to maintain the same work output. Moreover, the group counselling programme and the increased focus on the unit team
approach has greatly reduced the incidence of negative behaviour on the part of
the trainees."
Senior Officer, Gold Creek Camp: " It has been noted that as a direct result of
the group counselling programme there has been a sharp increase in the demand for
individual counselling. As a result, we have reorganized the afternoon shift and
expanded their duties, including regular lay counselling."
Social Worker, New Haven: " All our staff admit that through participation
in group counselling sessions they have gained a greater understanding of the kinds
of situations which cause anxiety and frustration in the life of a trainee, either inside
or outside the institution. This experience has enhanced the value of their personal
counselling. Through the discussion of their attitudes toward authority, sense of
responsibility, and basic philosophy of life, the general atmosphere amongst trainees
is quite positive and relaxed. Fights and arguments in the living area are at a
minimum, and hard feelings do not persist for very long. Furthermore, the number
of previous offences being admitted to the Courts is most impressive."
Principal Officer, Narcotic Addiction Unit (Male): " Group counselling was
intensified to provide five scheduled sessions weekly for the year. It is felt that
this therapy has mobilized the group and developed initiative which loosened the
delinquent group solidarity. This is reflected in the fact that 50 per cent fewer
inmates (four as compared to eight) were removed from the unit this year for
difficulties of adjustment to the unit's demands."
10. Decentralization of Treatment Services.—In the past the general trend in
the development of correctional services was to rely on highly trained treatment
specialists who were introduced into institutions to perform a counselling service.
The general guard staff were not trained nor even regarded as being capable of
performing a significant treatment function. However, with the introduction of
staff-training and selective recruiting, our guard calibre has improved beyond expectations. To take advantage of this, in the past few years greater leadership, training,
and counselling responsibilities have been placed on our guard strength. They
respond well to lay counselling, excel in leadership responsibilities in forestry camps,
and have developed a surprising capacity for group counselling, which has shown
many signs of success to date.
To make effective use of this level of staff development, it was necessary to
create greater opportunities for staff to develop relationships with inmates so that
through their example, leadership, and counselling they would have an even greater
impact in terms of changing inmate behaviour.   That this could be done was proven
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 15
by our experience in camps and small institutions. However, the increasing size
of Oakalla Prison Farm and the already large Haney Correctional Institution created
a situation, due to the sheer pressure of numbers, where staff could not really hope
to know their inmates.
In an attempt to overcome this situation, Oakalla Prison Farm was reorganized
on a decentralized basis. Instead of a dual hierarchy of treatment and custodial
staff, these were amalgamated into a single organization. Former custodial staff
now assumed direct treatment responsibilities, and treatment staff, custodial responsibilities. Further to this, the total institution was divided into three semi-
autonomous operating units—Westgate, Main Gaol, and Women's Gaol. Each
unit has its own separate and complete administrative hierarchy and staff.
The most striking result of this changed organization occurred in the East
Wing and Annex. Traditionally the East Wing has housed drug addicts and the
more recidivistic type of inmate, with the Annex taking older alcoholics. With
the placement of treatment responsibilities on staff of these units, there has been
an encouraging response both on the part of staff as well as inmates. The old
alcoholics are especially appreciative of the counselling and activity programmes
organized in their unit.
The Haney Correctional Institution has continued to develop its organization
on a unit basis, with each unit having the same staff continuously. This closer
relationship between the staff and the inmates has produced beneficial results in
terms of inmate behaviour and application and effort to their training programme.
It is hoped this development can be intensified by the division of the large 50-man
dormitories into two to give each officer a smaller group.
11. Forestry Projects.—In co-operation with the British Columbia Forest
Service, the Haney Correctional Institution has embarked on a long-range programme of reforestation and tree-farming. The area to be developed includes the
immediate institutional property and Crown lands to the north and east of its
boundaries.
Th;s project has an economic advantage in that it will provide a future commercial forest yield from this potentially productive land area. However, a significant current advantage is that it provides a challenging work programme for inmates
outside of the security fence. Work within the fence was rapidly being completed,
which meant employment for approximately 90 general-labour trainees would have
to be found elsewhere. The forestry work has proved to be a most suitable alternative. It allows trainees to be divided into work crews, each with its own officer,
who go out to work in the forest for the entire day, taking their lunch with them.
The working relationship that has developed between these officers and their crews
is most encouraging. The morale of both is high, and both can appreciate the
value of the forestry work they perform and from this derive a rewarding sense of
satisfaction.
12. Community Service.—A new and interesting development has occurred
in trainees providing a community service. These services have made a positive
effect upon the trainees who participated in them as they learned not only to help
themselves, but also to help others. One group raised funds and donated much of
their leisure time to building a recreation shelter for a Y.M.C.A. camp. Another
" adopted " numerous underprivileged children through the Save the Children Fund.
Trainees at the Pre-release Camp have volunteered not only their leisure time, but
also their money in organizing and conducting visits and community trips for lonely
World War I veterans permanently hospitalized at Shaughnessy Military Hospital.
Apart from the tremendous pleasure given to the veterans, some of whom had not
 EE 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
been out of the hospital grounds in many years, those outings have had a great
therapeutic value for the trainees, who see examples of men who have overcome
great handicaps. As one trainee so aptly put it: "I thought I was a hard-luck
boy until I walked through Ward 3b."
13. Retirement of Mr. E. G. B. Stevens.—On his retirement from public
service at the end of January, Mr. E. G. B. Stevens brought to a conclusion his long
and distinguished career in the Corrections Branch, in which he served both as
Director of Correction and Provincial Probation Officer. Joining the Attorney-
General's Department in 1938, Mr. Stevens served on the staff of the first New
Haven. Following its closure in 1941 and the passing of the Provincial Probation
Act, he was appointed Provincial Probation Officer, a position he held up to the
time of his retirement in 1962. In 1951 he was named as Inspector of Gaols, a
position which was later changed to Director of Correction. For the last 10 years
of his service he served both as Director of Correction and Provincial Probation
Officer. Mr. Stevens' influence in shaping corrections was largely responsible for
the growth and development of the Provincial service over the past 25 years.
14. Gaol Rules and Regulations.—A complete revision and expansion was
undertaken during the year of the Gaol Rules and Regulations. This revision
updated the regulations to the point where they now provide directions on the
administration of the institutions. All printed copies were bound and numbered
serially in order to allow an individual issue to each member of the Service.
PLANS FOR THE FUTURE
15. Accommodation.—The need for increased physical accommodation in
which to house prisoners has been a cause for considerable concern throughout
the year. There has been little relief from the steady pressure of numbers all year.
Those institutions receiving committals direct from the Courts have taken the brunt
of this pressure. Oakalla Prison Farm, which houses 50 per cent or more of the
gaol population of the Province, has had at times to place two men in as many as
166 cells designed for one occupant, and the evidence to date points to an increase
rather than a decrease in the number of committals that can be anticipated in the
next six months. Because of this situation, we have to continue using accommodation at Oakalla which we had hoped to be able to demolish this year.
16. The old wooden building referred to as Annex A, which was condemned
as far back as 1912, is still being used for the older short-term prisoner; in fact,
we have had to increase its accommodation capacity to meet the increased flow
of this type of prisoner. We can no longer justify the use of this old wooden
building with its lack of even the most elementary facilities for the housing of
prisoners.
17. The problem of congestion within the gaols has made classification most
difficult. Transfers have frequently had to be made on the basis of available accommodation rather than on placing a prisoner in a unit where it is considered he will
obtain the most suitable training. It has also had its effect on the training programme, and there have been instances where the programme has had to be
cancelled in order to release staff to supervise prisoners in overflow areas. I should
add that this situation has not been allowed to affect either New Haven or the
Haney Correctional Institution, as the population of both these institutions is
controllable.
18. The provision in estimates for next year for two additional forest camps
will help in meeting the anticipated annual increase in population.    It will not,
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1961/62 EE 17
however, ease to any extent the present overcrowding at Oakalla and Prince George
Gaols. To effect any appreciable relief in these two areas, it will be necessary to
provide accommodation for an additional 500 men.
19. Plans are being formulated to provide this accommodation in a number
of small diversified units and facilities away from the Lower Mainland area. Recent
surveys undertaken by the Branch indicate that a not inconsiderable portion of
our gaol population comes from outside this area, and a percentage of those convicted by Courts within the area comes from the Interior of the Province or Vancouver Island. It is felt far wiser to provide regional institutions for these prisoners
in major population centres outside the Lower Mainland than to increase the
facilities at Oakalla Prison Farm or provide another large Lower Mainland institution. There are distinct advantages to stemming the flow of prisoners into this
already overcrowded area by providing small regional facilities on Vancouver
Island, the Central Interior, and in the North. The modern concept of the gaol
as a correctional centre, with the accent on rehabilitation, makes the geographical
location in relation to the community which it serves important. It is important
that the gaol be accepted as a part of the local community as is the hospital, and
that it receive citizen interest and co-operation in developing its programme of
retraining.
20. The gaol at Kamloops, the oldest in the Province and able to house less
than 50 men, is now completely unsuited for its purpose, situated, as it is, in the
heart of Kamloops and with an ever-diminishing amount of work available for its
inmates. Some thought is being given to a site for a 150-man regional gaol on
a large piece of property not far removed from the town with excellent communication and plentiful work. Over a period of time a number of camps could be operated as satellites from such an institution in areas which the Forest Service is
interested in developing.
21. In the North, Prince George Gaol accommodates slightly less than 100
inmates. This gaol, constructed in 1955, has never been completed. Additional
accommodation to bring the gaol population up to 150 prisoners and the provision
of one forest camp for 60 men would help stem the flow of prisoners from Williams
Lake north who presently find their way to Oakalla. The Forest Service has already
indicated its interest in developing areas in this region if we have men available
for forestry work.
22. We have also given consideration to the establishment of a camp in the
Sayward Forest, north of Campbell River on Vancouver Island. Some 40,000
acres of land in this forest have been replanted by the Forest Service, all of which
require considerable maintenance and attention. It would seem desirable to
establish a regional gaol not too far removed from Greater Victoria, in the largest
population centre on the Island, to look after the 500 to 600 men who are annually
admitted to Oakalla on conviction from Vancouver Island, as well as the number
detained at Oakalla on remand awaiting trial on Vancouver Island. Such an
institution, with accommodation for some 150 men, would provide a selection
centre and a base of operation for the development of a number of camps in the
Sayward Forest area as the work in this forest develops.
23. Much mention has been made in our planning of forest camps. I make
no apology for this as I feel thoroughly convinced from our experience to date
that the forest camp has a great deal to offer as a vehicle for prisoner retraining.
Its positive sense of purpose; its atmosphere; the result of its setting; the informality of its routine, which tends to lessen tension and anxiety so prevalent in
prison; its size, which allows for easy division into small, compact groups of 10
2
 EE 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
to 15 men—all this helps to break down the artificial barrier which the prison
culture erects between staff and inmates. Until this barrier can be breached and
a relationship developed between staff and inmates, little of value can be achieved.
The camps are accomplishing this, and it is our intention to continue to
experiment with ways and means of strengthening this relationship. It is also our
intention to enrich the programme of training in the camps to take in not only
the work aspect, but also the broader aspect of living together with others and
contributing to the welfare of the community. I have touched elsewhere on the
value of these camps in the general economy of the Province and the invaluable
co-operation we have received from the Forest Service, without whose planning
and direction we would have found it most difficult to function at all.
24. Central Classification. — With the diversification of facilities and the
establishment of institutions on a regional basis, there will be a greater need than
ever to provide for a Central Classification Committee. The Central Classification
Committee of the future may be required to visit the various institutions and camps
on a regular basis and play a larger part in the reclassification process than it has
heretofore. It is intended to set up this Committee this coming year, separate from
Oakalla, with the Supervisor of Classification responsible directly to the Director
of Correction.
25. Psychiatric Services.—The matter of the provision of psychiatric services
on a larger scale and the establishment of a unit for prisoners showing severe
personality disorders is touched on by the Senior Medical Officer in his report,
which is quoted in toto in Chapter VI of this Report. It is hoped that discussions
with Dr. Tyhurst, head of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of British
Columbia, will lead to the establishment of increased psychiatric assistance, which
will take the form of the setting-up of an associate professorship and the training
of psychiatric residents within the prison setting. If this is accomplished, we should
have sufficient skilled assistance to be able to undertake a thorough survey of this
whole area and see exactly what is required with regard to future psychiatric
treatment needs and services. The present practice of committing difficult sociopaths to the Provincial Mental Hospital and receiving them back again within a
matter of months is merely evading the issue. Provision for this scheme in cooperation with the University is contained in our estimates for the coming fiscal
year.
26. Probation Services.—As noted elsewhere in this Report, the difficulty
in recruiting professionally trained officers continues to be a matter of grave concern.
In spite of the need to expand our probation services in areas as yet unserved,
and to increase services in heavily populated communities where more than one
officer is required, we have been unable to fill the increase in the establishment
of officers authorized by the Legislature for this year, and in one instance have
had to close an office completely. There would appear to be two alternative ways
to rectify this situation: either we must be prepared to subsidize likely young
candidates for the Probation Service by sending them to the University on full
salary, as is done in the Province of Alberta, or we must institute in-service training
of our own of a sufficiently high standard both to attract candidates of the right
type and train them adequately for their duties. There is also a need for an
additional category of Probation Officer, a Senior Probation Officer or Probation
Officer 3, who can assist with the training, supervision, and periodic inspection
of both Probation Officers in training and those in the field. These officers would
carry a small case load themselves along with their other duties. You will note
that the number of cases placed on probation this year fell by nearly 15 per cent.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 19
This is a matter for concern in view of the increasing volume of cases being handled
by the Criminal Courts of the Province. It is hoped that we shall be able to
rectify the recruiting rate of Probation Officers this coming year.
27. Some thought is being given to the possibility of establishing an experimental probation hostel. A resource of this kind could be most useful for those
youthful offenders who cannot be placed on probation as they have no home, or
those who require more intensive supervision and control than can be given in
normal probation practice. Under present circumstances, youths are more often
than not committed to gaol for lack of such a resource. The requirements for a
hostel of this kind, and the need, are currently under study.
28. Somewhat along the same lines as the probation hostel is the half-way
house. This latter device is a means of bridging over the gap between life in an
institution and normal community living. For the homeless, for those with poor
job prospects on release, for the youth who requires some support to enable him
to adjust to complete freedom, for those with problems such as alcoholism or
addiction, the half-way house can be an invaluable resource. Experimental houses
initiated by the church have been in operation in a number of centres in the United
States, and there are at least two in existence in the Province of Ontario. The value
of such a house has been recognized in the mental health field, and the Mental
Health Service maintains one in Vancouver where patients ready for release to
the community can stay while they are finding employment and living accommodation and becoming adjusted to community living. Whether this resource is best
operated by Government or a private agency is a matter for speculation, but
there is a very real need for a half-way house in the Vancouver area.
29. Future Needs in Staff-training.—In the forthcoming year, emphasis will
be placed on advanced training courses in order to embrace a large backlog of
staff who have not had the opportunity to attend this course.
30. Basic and field training remain to be developed at the Kamloops Provincial Gaol. Planning has been completed, and senior staff are now ready to
develop a time-table for these courses.
31. A need exists to develop a specialized course for staff assigned to forest
camps, and some preliminary discussion has been initiated along these lines.
32. A need exists for the development of leadership and correctional theory
courses for staff at the Principal and Senior Correctional Officer levels. There is
no question but that the new officer learns faster and more intensely on the job.
By providing supervisors with training, we can assist them to play an even greater
role in staff development.
33. One of the most critical problems faced by the Service is the selection
and development of administrative level staff. We are lacking in staff trained
and prepared to assume administrative responsibility. Another feature of this
problem is that university-trained staff are skilled in their professional disciplines
but are not trained as competent administrators. The requirements of personality,
maturity, and leadership ability demanded in this field are sufficiently great that
recent graduates of university are not prepared to fill them. Therefore, it is felt
that for corrections to advance we must pick promising young staff who have
demonstrated that they have the required personal qualities and send them to
university full time at Government expense.
 EE 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHAPTER II
STAFF
HEADQUARTERS STAFF
1. Mr. E. G. B. Stevens retired as Director of Correction on January 31st.
Mr. S. Rocksborough Smith, Deputy Director, was appointed Director on February
1, 1962, and Dr. M. A. Matheson, Personnel and Staff Training Officer, was
appointed as Assistant Director.
INSTITUTIONAL STAFF
2. Mr. W. Teal retired as Warden, Kamloops Provincial Gaol, July 31, 1961.
Mr. W. Scott, Deputy Warden at Kamloops, was appointed Warden August 1, 1961.
Mr. T. S. Pink, Senior Correctional Officer, Prince George Provincial Gaol, was
promoted to Deputy Warden at Kamloops, September, 1961.
3. Mr. A. H. Collins retired as Deputy Warden, Prince George Provincial
Gaol, June 1, 1961. Mr. H. B. Bjarnason, Senior Correctional Officer, Haney
Correctional Institution, was promoted to fill this vacancy on June 1, 1961.
Mr. R. S. Uncles, Principal Officer, Prince George Provincial Gaol, was selected
to replace Mr. T. Pink as Senior Correctional Officer at Prince George on Mr.
Pink's promotion to Deputy Warden, Kamloops.
4. Miss D. Coutts received an appointment as Senior Correctional Officer
at the Women's Gaol, Oakalla Prison Farm.
5. Mr. W. McDonald was appointed Supervisor of Social Training at the
Haney Correctional Institution in December, 1961.
6. All these appointments were made as a result of in-service competition.
PROBATION STAFF
7. Mr. R. Green, Principal Officer, Haney Correctional Institution, and Messrs.
J. A. Willox and D. A. Rankine, Supervisors, New Haven, won appointments as
Parole Officers through in-service competitions held in July, 1961, and February,
1961.
8. Two Probation Officers resigned during the year, both to accept senior
posts elsewhere in Canada.
RECRUITMENT
9. There were 72 separations from the permanent ranks of the Gaol Service
during the year, giving a turnover rate of 13.9 per cent for the 515 permanent
positions in the Service.
10. To fill these vacancies, and to keep up to strength, 79 appointments
were made during the year. Recruitment in the temporary and probationary
levels of the Service continued to be difficult. Oakalla Prison Farm had the greatest
problem in this regard, with 189 officers taken on and 143 released in these ranks.
In addition, the problem of guards at the Vancouver General Hospital continued,
with 156 short-term appointments for temporary guards during the year. Hopefully,
the use of a single separate ward for prisoners will consolidate inmate patients in
one location and so drastically reduce the number of hospital guards required.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 21
IN-SERVICE TRAINING
11. A decentralized plan of training was continued this year. A detailed
outline of training content was developed at headquarters, which established
minimum training standards for all institutions. This ensured a standardization
of training throughout the Service, but did not prevent any institution developing
its training programme beyond the minimum required standards.
12. Orientation training for new staff has continued at New Haven, Prince
George Gaol, and the Haney Correctional Institution. Preliminary planning has
taken place to introduce it as part of the training programme at all other institutions.
13. Basic training courses have continued at the Prince George Gaol for the
new staff of that institution. The same course has been given on seven occasions
during the year at Oakalla Prison Farm for the staff of that institution in addition
to New Haven and Haney Correctional Institution staff. At the end of the year
only 45 permanent staff remained to complete their basic training.
14. Field training has been intensely developed at the Haney Correctional
Institution, all permanent staff having completed this section of their training. New
Haven has sent its staff to the Haney Correctional Institution for field training
pending the development of its own programme. Oakalla Prison Farm, Westgate
Unit, had all staff complete a review of basic training and started on their field
training content. Prince George Gaol has also embarked on its field training for
all staff.
15. Advanced training commenced at the Haney Correctional Institution for
the whole Service. This part of the training plan was not implemented until the
latter half of the year, allowing only four courses with a total of 62 staff to be
so trained.
SPECIALIZED COURSES
16. Instructional Technique.—Senior Correctional Officer R. Fitchett, Haney
Correctional Institution, was assigned to the Prince George Gaol for a week in
October, 1961, for the purpose of conducting an Instructional Technique Course.
This course was given to all senior staff at this institution to assist them in their
duties as instructors in staff-training courses. The same course was given to the
senior staff of the Kamloops Provincial Gaol in November, 1961. The senior
officers at both institutions reported favourably on this course, and Mr. Fitchett
was sent a letter of commendation by the Director of Correction for the excellence
of the course.
17. Forestry.—A two-day course on planting was conducted at the Chilliwack
forestry camp by British Columbia Forest Service personnel. A representative
group of officers from all forestry camps attended this course.
18. Civil Defence.—Mr. H. Watson, Deputy Warden (Training), Haney
Correctional Institution, attended the Civil Defence College, Arnprior, Ont., in
November, 1961. Following this, a one-day Civil Defence Orientation Course was
organized at Corrections Branch headquarters for heads of institutions and senior
administrative staff. In February, 1962, Principal Officer Corrins, Haney Correctional Institution, and Senior Correctional Officer Loveless, Oakalla Prison Farm,
attended a Rescue Course in Vancouver, and Principal Officer Jones, of Prince
George, attended a three-day Civil Defence Course given in that city.
19. University Extension Courses.—The number of staff attending university
extension courses has dropped off considerably. This is due mainly to the repeating
of the same courses and an ever-decreasing number of suitable courses. In the
fall of 1961, only two courses were within the area of interest of staff—The Psy-
 EE 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
chology of Frustration and Adjustment, and The Fundamentals of Social Work
Philosophy and Practice. Both these courses have been repeated over the past
three years, with the result that this year only six staff attended. A series of
seminars on current social-work philosophy and practice, arranged through the
University Extension Department, was attended by Warden H. G. Christie, Oakalla
Prison Farm.
20. First-aid Training.—Six officers from the Chilliwack forestry camps
attended again this year a St. John First-aid Training Course. This now allows an
officer qualified in first aid to be stationed at each of the three forestry camps.
21. Safety Course.—Six staff from various institutions attended a Workmen's
Compensation Board Safety Course of four sessions in September, 1961.
STAFF CONFERENCES
22. Institute on Group Counselling.—In October, 1961, a conference of 47
staff from the Probation and Gaol Service met for two days at the conference centre
of the University of British Columbia to discuss the development of our new group
counselling programme started last year. Dr. Norman Fenton, retired Deputy
Director of Corrections for California, met with the group as a consultant. This
conference was most profitable in providing an opportunity to evaluate the current
stage of development of group counselling and future problems to be overcome. It
was significant to note that Dr. Fenton, in his observation of the New Haven group
counselling, stated that it had developed to a higher level of participation by inmates
and non-directiveness of staff than they had been able to accomplish in the California
institutions.
23. Institute on Management.—In March, 1962, 29 staff at the administrative
level in probation and institutions met at the University conference centre for three
days to focus on questions of administration. Dr. B. Storm, of the University of
Southern California School of Public Administration, presented a series of papers
on management. The remainder of the conference was taken up with workshops
focusing on specific administrative problems. This conference proved valuable in
orienting administrative staff to the reality of achieving organizational goals through
the direction of subordinates and their responsibilities in this regard.
24. Monthly Seminars.—Starting in November, a series of monthly seminars
on current topics was organized. These seminars were open to all staff wishing to
attend and resulted in an attendance of from 96 to 60 staff during the various
meetings. The seminar leaders and topics were as follows: Dr. M. Matheson, " The
Pine Hills Project "; Dr. Regal, " Group Counselling "; Dr. R. G. E. Richmond,
" Explorations into the Concept of the Sociopath "; Dr. P. Middleton, " Problems in
the Treatment of Psychopathology."
GROUP COUNSELLING TRAINING
25. Weekly Staff Meetings.—With the continuation of group counselling at
New Haven, meetings were held weekly with group leaders. These meetings focused
on a discussion of the development of the group and problems of specific inmates.
They proved extremely valuable in reassuring staff of their role and showed them
how to avoid situations where the group leader would assume all responsibility for
the discussion. It also allowed for an intense observation of the developmental stages
that groups go through. This proved to be invaluable information in the training of
future group leaders.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 23
26. Observation at New Haven.—As a result of the encouraging results of
group counselling at New Haven, it was extended to the Haney Correctional Institution. Staff selected as group leaders at this institution were sent in rotation to
New Haven for a week's observation and discussion on group counselling. In addition, Senior Correctional Officer Uncles, who was to assume supervision of group
counselling at the Prince George Gaol, was placed at New Haven for a two-week
observation period.
27. Group Leaders Supervisors Training.—A series of five seminars on group
counselling by Dr. Regal, University of British Columbia School of Education, was
presented in January and February, 1962. Seventeen staff from the Probation Service, New Haven, Oakalla Prison Farm, and Haney Correctional Institution, who
were either supervising or potential supervisors of group counselling, attended these
seminars. Emphasis was placed on developing through discussion an extensive
understanding of the goals and techniques of group counselling in order that they
could train and assist group leaders under their supervision.
STAFF-TRAINING GRANT
28. The staff-training grant was again completely spent this year supporting the
before-mentioned training activities. Degree assistance was provided to three officers, one of whom, Mr. Suddaby, completed his social-work training this year and
was subsequently appointed as a counsellor at the Haney Correctional Institution.
PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS
29. Oakalla Prison Farm.—Along with the Warden and senior staff, a decentralized organization was planned and introduced into Oakalla. This breaking of
the total institution into smaller semi-autonomous operating units, it is hoped, will
do much to offset the sterility of a mass organization where inmates are known by
number rather than by name.
30. Salaries.—A comparative survey of salaries in corrections across Canada
was undertaken.
31. Performance Evaluation Form.—A simplified one-page evaluation form
was developed and standardized throughout the Service. This form is completed at
the end of an officer's probationary period, and thereafter at the conclusion of each
year's service.
 EE 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHAPTER III
TREATMENT OF MEN
GENERAL
1. The Effects of Overcrowding.—With the increasing population throughout
the year, the number of men accommodated two in a cell reached a new maximum,
at the end of the year, of 166. This problem has been especially acute in the Waiting
Trial and Appeal Wing, as the prisoners here spend approximately 20 hours of each
day in their cells.
The Old Gaol Annex had to be utilized throughout the year, with close to 200
older alcoholics accommodated in the double bunks of this dormitory. The hazard
this unit presents in terms of fire goes without question, and its lack of proper
accommodation and sanitary features is a constant health hazard. With a new hospital now provided, this unit must be given highest priority in terms of replacement.
Reception and classification staff have worked often far into the night to cope
with the flow of prisoners. At Oakalla Prison Farm there were 48,308 prisoner
movements through the admitting and records area. This increasing operation,
involving as it does the handling of cash, security checks, clothing changes, laundry
services, records, etc., has become a major operation which, though it has to be
done, strains total staff and physical resources while progressively reducing the
amount of time available for the training programme.
The habitual delinquent group, some of whom are as young as 17, have had to
be housed in the East Wing of Oakalla Prison Farm. This wing has a population
breakdown of approximately 50 per cent narcotic addict, 25 per cent alcoholic, and
25 per cent habitual delinquent. This latter group are inmates who have had to be
transferred out of other units and institutions because of problem behaviour. Many
of this group are either mentally disturbed, of below average intelligence, or severely
hostile and aggressive, and have an extensive criminal record even though relatively
young.   Essentially they are the hard-core younger delinquent.
Unfortunately, due to the lack of alternate facilities, these prisoners have to be
housed in the East Wing as this is the only maximum-security space available.
Whereas the physical unit itself is not a severe problem, the association of this disturbed and impressionable group with narcotic addicts is most undesirable. There
is, in the opinion of the staff of this wing, a constant threat that the delinquent may
become an addict, which would, of course, double the problem.
2. Discipline.—There were no incidents of major indiscipline during the year.
The paddle as a form of punishment has not been used for many years now, the
major form of punishment awarded being isolation and restricted diet. This level
of punishment has been found sufficient to maintain control and good discipline,
mainly because of the excellent leadership displayed by staff.
An interesting note from the Haney Correctional Institution is that with the
introduction of the unit team concept and the subsequent improvement of staff-
trainee relationships, there has been a noticeable decrease in disciplinary incidents.
The actual number of disciplinary infractions is as follows:—
Total Assaults on
Infractions Officers
Oakalla Prison Farm  1,259 9
Haney Correctional Institution  1,352 21
New Haven  1
Kamloops Provincial Gaol        19
Prince George Provincial Gaol      100 3
i Throwing stones.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 25
The high rate of assaults on officers is a point of concern. It centres at Oakalla
Prison Farm, which, in its overcrowded state, must handle many mentally disturbed
inmates.   In fact, we are fortunate that it is not higher.
3. Security.—The number of escapes from closed and open institutions is
given below, opposite the number of prisoners who went through the institution for
the year.
Oakalla Prison Fanri-
Chilliwack camps (open)	
Haney Correctional Institution       1,952
Camps (open)	
New Haven (open)	
Kamloops Provincial Gaol     1,693
Clearwater Camp (open)	
Prince George Provincial Gaol	
Number
of Inmates
Housed
Number of
Inmates Who
Escaped
12,242
27
1,207
1
1,952
16
780
3
78
5
1,693
2
586
978
—
19,516 54
The total of 54 escapes represents 0.28 per cent of the number of inmates that
were held in custody during the year. When it is considered that 2,651 inmates were
housed in open facilities, this is indeed a very low rate and is due in large measure
to the leadership of work crew officers and the morale they create in their charges.
An additional factor of significance is the careful classification of inmates and the
constant study given by the classification personnel of factors in an individual's background that might indicate a poor security risk.
4. Central Classification.—The central classification team provided by Oakalla
continued to carry out its dual function of selecting inmates for the various institutions as well as for the units of Oakalla Prison Farm. During the year central
classification interviewed 1,751 inmates with sentences of three months or more, or
an average of seven per day. In addition to the information gathered through interviews, psychological testing was completed and, where possible, the obtaining of
pre-sentence reports from the Probation Service. Of the total, 765, or 43 per cent,
were directed to the Haney Correctional Institution; 43, or 3 per cent, to New
Haven; and the balance of 943, or 54 per cent, to Oakalla Prison Farm. Those with
sentences under three months were classified direct to various units of Oakalla
Prison Farm. The total of all inmates reviewed by the classification team amounted
to 9,883. Of those classified to Oakalla Prison Farm, 1,207 were subsequently reclassified to the Chilliwack camps.
5. Research.—Three research projects were commenced during the year,
although investigations are as yet incomplete. One is a study of the personality
structure of young offenders intended for New Haven through the application of the
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. This inventory is also being used to
study a group of narcotic addicts and a closely related control group of non-addicts.
The third project is a demographic survey of the present-day addict being carried
out in conjunction with students and staff from the Department of Psychiatry,
University of British Columbia School of Medicine.
RELIGION
6. Chaplains.—The chaplains in the Service, under the direction of the Senior
Protestant and Roman Catholic Chaplains, have continued to follow most diligently
their role of instructing the inmate in the tenets of the faith.    The methods they
3
 EE 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
have employed are varied, but it is often the personality of the chaplain and the
strength of his own faith which control the success of his efforts. Some of the
methods employed, for example, are the careful selection of religious films which
lay the foundation for a spirited discussion of the implications of the Christian faith.
In addition, from a series of such films interpreted and explained, requests are forthcoming for personal interviews on religious matters, for classes in Bible study, for
Bible correspondence courses, for religious periodicals and books, all of which the
chaplain endeavours to meet. It has been noticed also that there is frequently a
renewed interest in public worship.
In the field of corrections, many chaplains find their work handicapped by
limited facilities. There is a tendency for the work to become departmentalized and
poorly integrated with other aspects of the institutional programme. This, I feel, is
not the case with our chaplains. There is no doubt but that work in many instances
is handicapped by inadequate facilities. The lack of chapels in every institution,
with the exception of New Haven, is possibly the outstanding or most obvious
illustration of this. Yet the philosophy behind all institutional programmes is by no
means indifferent to what a religious programme has to offer.
To the Vancouver and District Council of Churches and other religious bodies,
to the theological colleges on the campus of the University of British Columbia, and
to various after-care organizations, the chaplains wish to extend their grateful thanks.
By acting as sponsor for Alcoholics Anonymous, or by leading certain other
groups, not specifically of a religious orientation, the chaplain has been able in many
cases to establish a relationship with the inmate which frequently leads to opportunities for individual religious counselling. By interesting himself in domestic
problems which come to his attention, by showing an interest in strengthening or
rebuilding the ties between an inmate and his family, the chaplain represents the
church and its interest in the home and family. Often by a referral to the local
church the inmate's family has a resource which may strengthen its own faith,
courage, and hope.
By accepting invitations to speak to meetings in local churches, at service clubs,
and fraternal societies, the chaplain has been able to interpret to those in the community not only what he as a Christian minister is attempting to do, but also what
the entire programme of the institution is seeking to accomplish.
7. Protestant Worship.—Services of public worship were held regularly in all
institutions, with special services on Remembrance Day, Good Friday, and during
Holy Week.
Holy Communion was celebrated regularly and is always most reverently
observed. A service of Holy Communion on Christmas Eve was held this year for
the first time at Oakalla Prison Farm, while at Haney this service held there at
midnight is always well attended and regarded by the chaplain as perhaps the most
outstanding service of the year.
Family services with relatives of inmates were held three times this year at
Haney, and once at Christmas at New Haven.
Where it is possible there is an increasing opportunity given to inmates to
prepare areas where services are held, to join church advisory groups, as at Haney
and the Women's Gaol at Oakalla, and to attend services at certain churches in the
community and, on occasion, having some of the trainees taking part in the services by reading the lesson. These and similar or allied activities leave no doubt but
that religion continues to make a powerful appeal to those who are conscious of
their shortcomings and failures, particularly so if they feel it is relevant to their needs
and aspirations.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 27
8. Roman Catholic Worship.—The Holy Sacrifice of Mass has been celebrated
each Sunday in the institutions. The attendance has been encouraging, becoming
exceptional on Holy Days of Obligation; at Haney Correctional Institution alone
this has numbered 90, and at Oakalla Prison Farm over 100. Confessions are
heard regularly on request.
The Padre's Hour has been a regular weekly occurrence, and, in addition,
the Roman Catholic chaplains have answered calls from inmates who required
their help at irregular times. Pastoral counselling continues both on an individual
and group basis. Assistance has been given in this counselling programme by the
Legion of Mary and a number of visiting chaplains. In addition, our chaplains have
sponsored the Holy Name Society and the St. Dimas Club, two voluntary inmate
activity groups.
9. Non-institutional Worship.—In addition to the institutional religious programme, we have been most fortunate in being able to arrange for inmates in the
pre-release stage to attend Sunday night services in the community. Apart from
participation in the services themselves, the trainees have been able to join in an
informal gathering after the services and have been met there with friendliness
and Christian charity. It has been encouraging for the escorting staff members
to observe amongst the congregation the number of ex-trainees who are continuing
their church attendance after release.
SOCIAL TRAINING
10. The New Haven Experiment with Group Counselling.—Group counselling
was initiated at New Haven on April 10, 1961, on an experimental basis. The
basic concept behind this programme is to place responsibility on the trainee in
terms of examining his own behaviour and how he intends to improve. In the
group meeting the staff leader is essentially non-directive, and even in periods of
silence does not interfere. The result of this has been a satisfying growth of group
feeling and examination by trainees of their own and others' behaviour.
11. Development in Other Institutions.—The success of the New Haven
experiment led to the introduction of group counselling into the Haney Correctional
Institution, where it has shown even further development.
Prince George Gaol, which was the first to experiment with group counselling
on a limited basis, has shown favourable progress. The Warden has met weekly
with group leaders to assess developments in the groups. This top-level support
has done much to stimulate this counselling programme, and significant progress
is apparent even with lay leaders.
The Male Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit instituted an intensive group counselling programme with positive results in terms of inmates putting greater effort
into their training. The East Wing at Oakalla Prison Farm and the Old Gaol
Annex have set up four pilot groups in this type of counselling.
12. Recreation Programme.—The usual activities in terms of sport and hobbies
were carried on during the year. At Oakalla Prison Farm a compulsory " keep fit "
programme of 20 minutes physical training was put into effect. At all institutions
as much outdoor activity as possible was introduced, even during the winter, where
at Prince George an outdoor skating-rink was fashioned in the exercise yard.
A total of 18 trainee clubs is now in operation at the Haney Correctional Institution.
A noticeable improvement in quality has resulted in this area of programme because
of the added experience of staff and increased responsibility being given to trainees
themselves to conduct the affairs of their clubs. The Drama Club has been a particularly successful operation, having won several competitions.
 EE 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Many teams and individual trainees have engaged in outside competition,
winning several honours. Further, community contact has occurred through volunteers from local districts coming into the institution to participate in several activities.
For example, at Oakalla Prison Farm a group of university students came in on a
weekly basis for six weeks to meet with one of the inmate groups. The students
provided excellent leadership in many athletic activities, and gradually both students
and inmates were involved in joint planning for subsequent evenings.
The recreation programme in the institutions has not been just a diversionary
time-passing device. In most instances it has been organized on a group basis,
each group having its own officer or instructor. This then involves the officer and
his charges in working out needs and interests in a give-and-take process, which is
calculated to help inmates learn to live with one another and, hopefully, society
upon release.
COUNSELLING
13. Casework by professionally trained workers has continued at the larger,
more extensively staffed institutions. A more sophisticated level of counselling was
explored in the use of abreactive therapy with some difficult cases under the direction
of an institutional psychiatrist.
The lay counselling programme has been expanded to allow professionally
trained counsellors more time for difficult cases. This activity now involves over
35 officers who act as lay counsellors for over 91 trainees. The lay counselling
is under the guidance of a fully trained counsellor. Results to date indicate the
desirability of expanding this type of counselling, and it is planned to train more
officers.
Inmate leadership in counselling groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, has
met with some success, and its has been gratifying to learn from discharged inmates
of the help they have received on release from participation in such group activity.
EDUCATION
14. Academic Training.—Efforts to expand the academic programme have
continued. The need for elementary education seems to be increasing. Quite a
number of trainees are working at less than a Grade VI level, and a number of
these are illiterate and semi-illiterate. Special efforts are made with this latter
group, and plans are under way for a more intensive plan of teaching for them.
We have, once again, enjoyed excellent co-operation from the Correspondence
Branch of the Department of Education. A large number of our inmates have
taken these courses, some on their own, and some under the direction of part-time
or volunteer teachers. It is hoped this area can be expanded to allow for greater
part-time teaching services, especially in our smaller gaols.
An interesting development at New Haven is the growing realization among
trainees that higher academic qualifications are a prerequisite to good job placements. Many of them are school drop-outs, who have a common inability to
concentrate for other than very short periods. Their attention span is limited, and,
along with this, they have an almost compulsive need to move away from any
continuous effort. An experimental programme of remedial studying has been
instituted in an attempt to correct this fault. With this it is interesting to note that
several students who previously had graded quite low in school subjects improved
considerably.
The Draughting and Exploratory Shops at the Haney Correctional Institution
have had a most successful year.   Eight trainees completed the draughting course,
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 29
and six were awarded Department of Education certificates. Opportunities for
employment in this trade are relatively good, and there is a growing number of
trainees interested in draughting. The Exploratory Shop has been particularly
successful in motivating some 50 trainees to take advantage of training opportunities.
15. Vocational Training.—The vocational shops at the Haney Correctional
Institution received approximately 400 trainees during the year. The instructors
have continued to increase their qualifications so that nearly all now have permanent
Vocational Teaching Certificates. Continued contact has been kept with industry
to keep up with developments in the various trades and to enhance placement
opportunities for those trainees who have shown good potential.
Once again certain Haney Correctional Institutional facilities and instructors
were made available to the community night-school programme. In co-operation
with the Maple Ridge School Board, six courses were given, with a total enrolment
of 110. In addition, a number of staff gave various courses in the local schools.
Some 200 citizens were able to use the special facilities of the Automotive Shop as
part of a safe drivers' programme. These contributions to the community have
greatly enhanced the public relations of the Institution.
During the year five trainees at Haney Correctional Institution and six at
Oakalla Prison Farm were assigned to the boiler-houses. At both one inmate was
successful in completing the requirements for a Fourth Class Steam Engineering
Certificate.
16. Library.—Libraries have continued to operate in all institutions. At
New Haven the library was reorganized to provide a reading-room.
A note of interest is that the library at the Haney Correctional Institution
has experienced an upsurge in use, starting about one year after each unit had
purchased a television set. Thus, in spite of their shifting population, they parallel
the experience of public libraries generally.
WORK
17. New work projects undertaken during the year include:—
(1) The first stages of renovation of the new hospital, including sand-blasting
and complete redecorating, in addition to the installation of new electrical
supply circuits.
(2) Completion of a parking-lot for staff and visitors at Oakalla, including
levelling, ditching, cement and stone work.
(3) Reforestation of the area surrounding the Haney Correctional Institution,
construction of fire and access roads, and the draining of marsh land.
(4) Slashing, burning, and reforestation by inmates from Kamloops Gaol in
the Falkland Ranger District.
Farming, maintenance, and general-labour projects continued throughout the
year. Varied projects of short duration, ranging from the refitting of Game Branch
boats to the assisting of Public Works crews, were completed. The farms continued
to produce well, with the Oakalla Prison Farm showing a substantial increase over
last year.
18. Production.—The following table gives a breakdown of the year's production for the indicated production shops at Oakalla Prison Farm. Internal
consumption is defined as items produced for and used by Oakalla Prison Farm.
External consumption indicates items produced for other Government agencies.
The value attached to production is always the lowest current market value as
determined by the British Columbia Purchasing Commission.
 EE 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1 Not known.
Shop
Number of
Items Produced
Value of
Internal
Consumption
Value of
External
Consumption
Tailor
24,476
23,248
4,986 doz.
1,416,000 pr.
3,350 pr. plus
2,410 pr. repaired
27
(!)
C1)
$65,965.15
12,568.00
21,208.00
Sheet Mf.tfll
$65,500.04
Snc-.lc-
8,651.15
283,200.00
ShnK
46,127.00
9,172.00
1,620.00
Upholstery..    	
45.00
3,160.80
22,990.00
Totals  	
$145,913.15
$394,293.99
The Sheet Metal Shop is rapidly approaching a full production rate on filing-
cabinets of various dimensions. The Moulding Shop has had a particularly full
year producing some eight fibreglass boats for the British Columbia Forest Service
and one 21-foot cabin cruiser for the Federal Government's Department of Fisheries.
PRE-RELEASE
19. Pre-release Camps.—The Haney Correctional Institution pre-release camp
is located on the grounds of that institution, while Oakalla Prison Farm utilizes the
camps in the Chilliwack Valley for the same purpose.
The basic philosophy of these camps is to give a community-oriented release
preparation. This includes planned trips to the community primarily of an educational or employment-seeking nature. In addition, representatives of the National
Employment Service, Alcoholism Foundation, and Narcotic Addiction Foundation
have visited to participate in group discussions.
It has been found that the camp atmosphere of hard work in a more informal
setting does much to prepare the inmate for his release.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 31
CHAPTER IV
FORESTRY CAMPS
INTERDEPARTMENTAL CO-ORDINATING COMMITTEE
1. Committee Activity.—The Interdepartmental Committee, composed of
senior officials of the Forest Service and Corrections Branch, met several times during the year to plan out forestry projects for the year, check on progress, and redirect
programme emphasis as was required.
A similar meeting of Corrections Branch and Parks Branch officials has occurred to deal with the work of camps located in Provincial parks.
CHILLIWACK FOREST CAMPS
2. The three camps located in the Chilliwack Valley have had a most successful
year. The amount of clearing and stand improvement, planting, nursery work,
building, cone-harvesting, and the operation of the sawmill attached to Camp No. 2
was estimated during the year to have reached a value of $254,343. This production value combined with the low cost of operation of camps and the eventual timber
yield of this valley make this a most rewarding project in terms of pure economics.
The bonus feature is the positive impact the work and setting have on both staff and
inmates.
3. A tour of the camps was made by the Ministers of both Departments accompanied by senior officials, to which the press was invited, on July 14, 1961. Each
member of the tour received a copy of the booklet " Project 46," which was prepared jointly by the two Departments for the purpose of enlightening the press on
the scope of the over-all programme. The tour covered the whole forest area and
visited all projects and areas of interest.
This Provincial forest is operated as a sustained-yield unit and encompasses
over 73,000 productive forest acres with an annual harvesting capacity of 3,000,000
cubic feet of timber. It therefore plays an important role, helping to bring stability
both to the forest economy of the Province as a whole and to the busy farming area
of the Fraser Valley in particular. The productive forest capacity of the whole
sustained-yield unit has been greatly increased as a result of the labour of the 180
men attached to these three camps, working under the supervision of their officers
and under the general over-all direction of Forest Service officials.
4. Gold Creek Camp.—This camp has also had a good year, putting in some
60,000 man-hours of work on the development of Garibaldi Park. This has included
camp-site construction, cutting cordwood for campers, concrete work, landscaping,
and general maintenance in the park.
The camp inmates have also engaged in work for the Forest Service. Fire
access roads were cleared and fire-suppression duties performed. On two occasions
trainees from this camp successfully extinguished forest fires.
5. Pre-release Camp.—The Haney Correctional Institution pre-release camp
has not only worked on the immediate area in terms of forest management, but also
has sent crews into the University of British Columbia research forest. Here they
have thinned standing green timber, slashed, burned, and replanted new seedling
conifers, and fought fires in the forest.
6. Clearwater Camp.—The Clearwater Camp during the year improved the
access road to the Wells Gray Provincial Park and kept it open throughout the year.
 EE 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Additional park road was constructed, as well as maintenance and repair work as
requested by the park superintendent.   Inmates also assisted in fire suppression.
A feature of this camp is its mobile unit, in which a crew of 14 inmates and one
officer leave to work in isolated areas for weeks at a time. This year they worked
the summer months improving the road to Clearwater Lake.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 33
CHAPTER V
TREATMENT OF WOMEN
GENERAL
1. Population.—During the year there were 1,266 admissions, creating an
average daily population of 120. The majority were suffering symptoms of withdrawal from narcotics or alcohol on admission. Two points of concern, aside from
the rising numbers, are the high proportion of Indian inebriates and the increasing
number of juveniles. It is hoped that appropriate community agencies will be alert
to this trend and initiate preventive action.
2. Discipline.—The discipline has remained, on the whole, good. There was
a total of 40 disciplinary infractions and three assaults on matrons. Many of the
women entering or re-entering the institution were excessively hostile or aggressive.
The Senior Medical Officer has expressed concern over the relatively high number
of mentally disturbed admissions and has commended the matrons on their ability
to handle such a difficult population. Under these circumstances we were fortunate
in having such a low rate of disciplinary cases.
3. Security.—There were no escapes from the Women's Gaol. Twin Maples
Farm, an open unit in the Fraser Valley, had three escapes. Again, this is not a
situation of great concern as a certain number of " walk-aways " will always occur
in open institutions.
4. Classification Process.—Adjustment to limitations and understanding of
programme is first introduced to the new inmate in the records and admitting area.
The medical, orientation, and classification staff treat, counsel, and control her until
she is prepared to accept and co-operate with programme, or is either released by
the Court or transferred to a more appropriate institution. Then, if the press of
population permits, the Classification Committee makes a careful study of the needs
of each new inmate and places her in one of ten living groups for socialization, and
in one of the eight vocational classes or work teams for training. All too frequently
the inmate is placed in a unit because there is space available or her bed in the
orientation area is required for an increased daily influx of population.
5. Psychological Testing.—The Gaol Service psychologist administered psychological tests and interviewed 76 girls between August 24, 1961, and March 14,
1962. His discussions with them after tests were written centred around the general
indication of their interests and abilities. At first the girls showed some reluctance
to write tests. However, when they learned the extent to which these results could
help them, they readily co-operated. In one instance a girl with Grade VII education possessed ability sufficient to complete high school. This led to encouragement
to put more effort into completing home nursing and to commencement of study of
business subjects. Recently one girl, who has had Grade V, was found to indicate
sufficient ability to complete high school, although her behaviour and attitude had
given the impression that she was dull and might be a candidate for Woodlands
School. She expressed an interest in working with children and has asked her social
worker for help in this once she has resolved some of her personal problems.
RELIGION
6. Protestant Worship.—The Senior Protestant Chaplain has, in addition to
regular religious services and pastoral counselling, organized effective group discussions built around various visual aid and recording devices. The response to this
inquiring type of religious discussion has been most heartening.   Another interesting
 EE 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
development has been the formation of a Church Advisory Group.   These inmates
meet with the chaplain weekly to discuss methods of increasing interest in religion.
7. Roman Catholic Worship.—Religious services and pastoral counselling were
conducted throughout the year by the Senior Roman Catholic Chaplain. Group discussion periods were organized and assisted by volunteers from the Legion of Mary.
The Legion of Mary has also been most helpful in providing after-care for homeless
girls in its Sancta Maria House.
8. Non-institutional Worship.—On occasion, members of all denominations
have been allowed to attend church services in the community. Several have belonged to community church choirs.
SOCIAL TRAINING
9. Group Discussion.—Staff have experimented with various techniques of
group counselling. At the moment they are at the level of group discussions where
the subject is selected by the matron. The non-directive approach was not found
satisfactory with the female inmate.
10. Recreation Programme.—An evening programme in classes of modelling,
public speaking, lapidary projects, and physical training was organized, in which
volunteer leaders from the community were utilized. The inmates responded very
well to these instructors from the community and enjoyed this outside contact. Three
inmate groups had regular visits from social-work and education students from the
University during the winter season. The students invited each of the three groups
to go with them for outside entertainment. A social evening was arranged in the
community with the students and staff. This project was received with enthusiasm
by the inmates, who displayed a gratifying level of maturity in their behaviour.
RESEARCH
11. Narcotic Addiction Treatment Unit.—Under the immediate direction of
the Warden, this unit has become involved in its most intensive venture into group
therapy and self-planned an imposed programme. This programme has given some
indication that hitherto unreformable inmates with long records do respond. These
inmates were motivated to initiate a level of self-help, which produced some rehabilitated cases.   This project will be watched with interest in the future.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 35
CHAPTER VI
HEALTH AND HYGIENE
1. The Senior Medical Officer reports as follows:—
" We are pleased to report a year in preparation for the opening of the new
prison hospital at Oakalla Prison Farm; we greatly appreciate the co-operation we
have received from the Attorney-General's Department resulting, we hope, in the
standard of prison medical services which will be gratifying to the medical profession
on the whole as well as to penologists.
" We would like also to express our appreciation of the services of visiting consultants, who have given such prompt and skilful attention, and also of the services
rendered by the staff of the Vancouver General Hospital in all departments. Though
we have rarely utilized the resources of the Out-patient Department there, any patient
we have sent to the Emergency Department at Vancouver General Hospital has
received the utmost attention and been admitted as in-patient when necessary. Call
on the staff for escort and guarding duties has been considerable. Again we wish
to express our gratitude to Dr. E. Lewison for his skill and generosity in continuing
to donate his services in plastic surgery. Demands on the services of your prison
physicians increase year by year, and were it not for the assistance afforded us by
the prison staffs, the doctors would be quite unable to give their attention to those
who are most in need of it. More and more responsibility has to be placed on the
staff in the units of all institutions to be discriminating in their referrals, a task which
is not at all easy when confronted with the usual response, ' You're not a doctor;
how can you stop me seeing one? '
" By and large it amounts to the same discretion a parent invokes where a decision has to be made if one of the family should be seen by a doctor or not. The
nursing staff, too, are contributing greatly in the attempt to retain medical service
within realistic bounds. At Oakalla Prison Farm two doctors, between them covering 14 hours each day with routine examinations, classification, sick parades, hospital rounds, and referrals, attend approximately to 130 inmates personally daily.
This is apart from administration and duties relating to public health.
" During the year at Oakalla Prison Farm I have been most ably assisted by
Dr. G. E. Singer, who was succeeded by Dr. G. F. Clay, and at week-ends by Dr. A.
Robertshaw, who is good enough to provide this relief for us in spite of his own
heavy schedule.
" At Haney Correctional Institution Dr. A. Trudel has continued to serve most
conscientiously as part-time physician. There are greater calls on a part-time physician there than he can possibly meet, and more hours of coverage by a doctor are
very necessary.
" The general health of the inmates in those institutions covered in this report
has been satisfactory. Amongst Oakalla Prison Farm inmates there were three
deaths, at Vancouver General Hospital. Oakalla Prison Farm Hospital has accommodated those from other institutions requiring prolonged treatment and considered
unsuitable for training programmes elsewhere. There were a few cases of rubella
at Oakalla Prison Farm earlier in the year, but insufficient to be described as an
epidemic.
" The treatment of narcotic addicts undergoing withdrawal has been greatly
assisted by the use of methadon. Whereas women addicts at times caused grave
concern during their withdrawal, a methadon routine has almost eliminated serious
symptoms, and some are well enough to work during their withdrawal. The complications of withdrawal from barbiturates remain a hazard.
 EE 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" The large numbers of admissions suffering from withdrawal from alcohol are
a problem owing to their very repetitive indulgence. The need for prolonged detention of these men and women under therapeutic conditions is paramount. At present, accommodation at Oakalla is most unsatisfactory for them. Amongst the women
the high proportion of Indian inebriates indicates a tragic social deficiency.
"As regards hygiene, at Oakalla Prison Farm there still continue to be too
many inmates infected with vermin, usually on reception or shortly afterwards. The
present bathroom facilities for receptions is entirely inadequate. It is understood
that for some years plans have been prepared for major improvements in this area.
Ventilation and facilities for the storage of clothing are also unsatisfactory. The
kitchen at Oakalla Prison Farm remains a haven for cockroaches, but it is hoped
that improved ventilation will minimize their breeding behind the ceiling tiles. The
Old Gaol Unit, wherein are mainly housed 192 alcoholics and senile and disabled
inmates, would be condemned by any health authority from the point of view of
overcrowding, the age of the building, and lack of sanitary and ablution facilities.
" Concerning tuberculosis and venereal disease, the Tuberculosis Control Unit
acts as a valuable screen for a significant proportion of the general population more
susceptible to tuberculosis. Excellent service is rendered in routine investigation
of all inmates received at Oakalla Prison Farm by Dr. Hakstain. We are also grateful for the continued interest of the Metropolitan Health Committee, represented by
Miss W. Neen. As often as possible our patients with active tuberculosis are admitted to tuberculosis hospitals (Provincial Government and the Department of Indian
Affairs) on a temporary ticket of leave; in addition, there are usually three or four
cases of active tuberculosis in the TB. ward of Oakalla Prison Farm hospital.
" The incidence of venereal disease amongst the male inmates is relatively
infrequent, and, except for more serious cases, they are treated at Oakalla Prison
Farm. The venereal disease control department of the Metropolitan Health Services
has offered us all its resources, and the weekly visits to the Women's Building of
their physician, examining and prescribing for the many cases of venereal disease
there, has continued to offer invaluable attention.
" Dr. A. Johnson has provided full-time dental services by spending three days
at Oakalla Prison Farm and two days at Haney Correctional Institution. He has
brought dental services to a high standard. We are urgently in need of an arrangement whereby we can supply needy inmates with dentures. To effect this, a hospital
staff member at Haney Correctional Institution was trained as a dental technician
at Essondale for service at Haney Correctional Institution. A dental laboratory was
adequately equipped there. It was intended that he should do the denture work
for Oakalla Prison Farm and Haney Correctional Institution. Unfortunately he
has been able to make only a few dentures for Haney Correctional Institution trainees
as he cannot be spared from his ward duties for a period necessary in a dental laboratory to do anything more than this. It is our strong recommendation that arrangements be made so that he could be allowed to spend his full time in the dental laboratory. It is considered that the provision of dentures provides very necessary
medium for rehabilitation in the case of those inmates whose health and appearance
are suffering from lack of them.
" Concerning the Women's Building at Oakalla Prison Farm, in spite of overcrowding, the general health of the women inmates has been satisfactory. The major
medical problem has been the relatively large numbers of grossly disturbed women
prisoners. Whereas it is less difficult to control them in a small community, the
overcrowding has rendered the situation at times intolerable, and were it not for the
co-operation of the Attorney-General's Department and Mental Health Services
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 37
there would have been episodes of violence and total disruption, and much credit is
due to Miss Maybee and her staff. The concentrated efforts of Warden Christie on
behalf of the small group of selected women addicts in the Panabode Unit have been
most instructive in their intensity and response.
" I have visited all camps as frequently as possible throughout the year. The
hygiene has been very satisfactory, as has also been the general health of the inmates
in the camps. We have been fortunate in the small number of accidents which have
arisen. The Oakalla camps at Chilliwack take a wide variety of personnel, including
some inmates partially disabled by age or other physical limitations, and the care
taken by the staff in selecting suitable employment and in supervision has thoroughly
justified the practice of taking reasonable risk in this respect. It has also been
strongly recommended that at the Oakalla camps the standards of medical care be
raised to conform to the requirements of the Workmen's Compensation Board. To
this end, first-aid centres are being established in each camp, and it is gratifying to
have so many of the staff with their industrial first-aid certificates. An ambulance
is urgently necessary for the Oakalla camps. Gold Creek Camp and pre-release
camp at Haney Correctional Institution are admirably organized from the medical
point of view; buildings and equipment through dilapidation are constantly in need
of care and maintenance, and it is hoped there will be adequate financial provision
for this.
" In the matter of psychiatric services, we greatly appreciate those which are
rendered by Dr. Caunt and his staff at Essondale in the treatment of those who perhaps could be described as their most problematical group of psychotics or sociopaths, who come mainly from Oakalla. We appreciate the difficulties which patients
committed to Essondale by Order in Council present. Oakalla is not yet equipped
with the necessary psychiatric unit for the treatment of the mentally ill prisoners.
Dr. Garrido has visited us at frequent intervals, and whenever possible we have
obtained his advice before request for committal. We understand that his successor,
Dr. MacGregor, will be continuing to visit Oakalla, and that he will help us to make
the utmost possible use of the appropriate unit in the new prison hospital. We hope
that under these conditions we can reduce the number of transfers to Essondale from
Oakalla. We also would like to express our appreciation of the assistance given by
the neurological department at the Crease Clinic in continuing to undertake our
E.E.G.   (electro-encephalograph)  investigations.
" Dr. Middleton, at Haney Correctional Institution, has continued to give invaluable psychiatric advice. The services of Dr. J. C. Thomas have been in constant
demand by the Courts.
" There is an abundant field for forensic psychiatry in probation and in the
institutions for diagnosis treatment and classification, also for research.
" The need for a unit for the young offender unsuitable for Haney Correctional
Institution or New Haven is, in my opinion, pressing. At present they are mainly
classified to Westgate ' B.' This unit contains inmates of all ages, and in spite of
the devoted skill of the senior staff there, some of these young offenders deteriorate
to an extent which requires committal to Essondale.
" In conclusion, it is a privilege for your Senior Medical Officer to pay tribute
to your vision and that of your headquarters and institutional staffs in promoting
and encouraging projects which may well revolutionize penological endeavour, such
as the advance staff-training sessions at Haney Correctional Institution, the seminars
and workshops for senior staff at the University of British Columbia, and group
counselling. Group counselling, more especially, as practised at New Haven, which
is an almost ideal setting for group research, gives every promise of breaking down
 EE 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
that almost insuperable barrier to successful rehabilitation, the prison subculture,
and renders the stimuli operative in change of behaviour intrinsic rather than extrinsic. The potentiality of this type and quality of operation is seemingly unbounded.
" It only remains to express our appreciation of the utmost co-operation we
have received medically from yourself and your Wardens in our attempt to maintain
and improve prison medical services, and also we are grateful to the architect and
officers of the Department of Public Works for their industry and enterprise in the
completion of the new hospital."
2. The warden, Prince George Provincial Gaol, reports as follows:—
" Arrangements were completed during the year for the improvement of medical
services at the institution. An agreement was made with local physicians of the
Associate Medical Clinic to provide for weekly attendance at the institution of the
same physician on a sessional basis. Under the new arrangement all newly admitted
inmates as well as those referred by our hospital officer are seen by the gaol physician. Special arrangements on a fee-for-service basis have been set up to deal with
emergencies and night calls.
" Quarterly medical inspections of the institution are also now being carried
out by the medical officer. The Provincial Department of Health's annual inspection
of the institution was also made by Drs. Bonham and Baker and Senior Sanitation
Officer Bell of the Cariboo Health Unit. These officers commended the hygienic
state and good order of the Gaol, but at the same time pointed out the need for more
adequate refrigeration and root-crop storage facilities."
3. The Warden, Kamloops Provincial Gaol, reports as follows:—
" The general health of the inmate population was satisfactory. The usual
cases of minimum infections and diseases were encountered. If severe enough to
warrant medical attention, the doctors from the Burris Clinic, who serve as gaol
physicians, treated these, along with any minor accidents which required medical
attention. A small number of cases had to be admitted to the Royal Inland Hospital;
these were of short duration. The normal colds, minor ailments, and accidents were
handled by the gaol staff at Kamloops and Clearwater Camp, where Guard-Medical
Orderly T. Thompson, a qualified first-aid man, supervised treatment and first aid
to injuries and minor ailments. The more serious cases were returned to Kamloops
Gaol for treatment by the gaol physicians."
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 39
CHAPTER VII
PAROLE SUPERVISION AND AFTER-CARE
GENERAL
1. Staff.—In addition to the secretary of the British Columbia Parole Board,
five Parole Officers were in the field during the year. Three officers supervised
cases released from the Haney Correctional Institution, and two supervised those
released from Oakalla Prison Farm. One Follow-up Officer was assigned the after-
discharge care of inmates released from the Male and Female Narcotic Addiction
Treatment Units.
2. British Columbia Borstal Association.—This volunteer association continued to assume responsibility for the after-care of some 25 discharged during the
year from New Haven.
3. After-care Associations.—The John Howard Society, Alcoholism Foundation, Narcotic Addiction Foundation, Legion of Mary, Salvation Army, and many
other interested volunteers continued to provide after-care assistance for which
we are most grateful.
BRITISH COLUMBIA PAROLE BOARD
4. Released on Parole.—The British Columbia Parole Board held 74 meetings
during the year. These meetings were held at Oakalla Prison Farm, Haney Correctional Institution, and New Haven to consider the release date of all inmates
serving definite plus indefinite sentences. The number of new cases dealt with
amounted to 417, with an additional 198 cases brought up for review. The Board
saw fit to release 380 trainees on parole during the year—282 from the Haney
Correctional Institution, 73 from Oakalla Prison Farm, and 25 from New Haven.
5. Revocations.—Of the 380 cases released on parole 119, or 31 per cent,
had their parole revoked by the Board. Of this total, 71, or 18 per cent, were due
to further criminal offences, and 48, or 12 per cent, were revoked on the recommendation of their Parole Officer. From the standpoint of the protection of society
in the sense of no further criminal offences, parole was successful in 82 per cent
of the cases released. The significance of this rate is even greater when it is considered that over 90 per cent of the inmates who have definite sentences are released
on parole. This group is not a highly selected segment of the population of inmates
sentenced to a definite plus indefinite term; it is the total of this young group.
A figure of equal significance to the success rate of parole is the number of parole
revocations by the Board based on the recommendation of the supervising Parole
Officer. The Parole Officer exercises close supervision, and in doing so sets
demands and controls on the parolee. If the officer feels the parolee is not responding and living up to his obligations, he is not loathe to recommend the revocation
of parole. In this manner the parolee is protected from committing a further offence
which would only add to his problem, and society is in turn protected.
6. Day Parole.—Day parole is a procedure whereby the British Columbia
Parole Board allows an offender serving the indefinite portion of his sentence to
be released from the institution for the day, returning at night. This then allows
him to work in the community on a trial basis during his pre-release stage. There
were three such paroles granted to cases at New Haven and one at the Haney
Correctional Institution.
7. Family Meetings.—Once every two months the British Columbia Parole
Board meets with parents or guardians of younger offenders.   These meetings give
 EE 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA    |
parents an opportunity to discuss the progress of their sons and the operation of
the parole process with members of the Board. Through this technique an attempt
is made to keep the parent aware of the individual's progress on parole and how
parents can assist their son in meeting his responsibilities on parole.
NATIONAL PAROLE BOARD
8. Inmates serving a straight definite sentence have continued to apply to the
National Parole Board for release. Our institutions have continued to supply information on such cases to the National Parole Service representatives, and our Probation Officers have provided parole supervision in some 45 cases. The provisions
of day parole have also been exercised in connection with a limited number of both
male and female persons serving definite sentences through the co-operation of
the National Parole Board. These men and women leave the institution by the
day to work in the community, returning each evening. Selected staff discuss with
them any difficulties they may have encountered during the day in an attempt to
rebuild their confidence and ability to deal realistically with their problems.
FAMILY COUNSELLING
9. The John Howard Society of Vancouver, in co-operation with the Haney
Correctional Institution, has developed an interesting family counselling programme.
During the year selected inmates have been brought into the John Howard Society's
offices in Vancouver. Here the inmate and his wife have met with a caseworker to
discuss problems of family concern. This programme has been and will continue
to be, watched with interest.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 41
CHAPTER VIII
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROBATION SERVICE
GENERAL
1. Probation Cases.—During the year, 1,491 new cases were placed on
probation. This is a decrease of 254 (14.5 per cent) compared to last year's
figure of 1,745 new cases. Since the Probation Service was instituted in 1942, the
rate of new cases annually has increased significantly to last year's peak of 1,745
new cases. This year's drop was due to the fact that several field offices had to
be left unmanned during part of the year, and one office vacant for the entire year,
due to our inability to recruit personnel of the required high standard. However,
the reported immediate increase in salaries for Probation Officers should do much
to improve this situation.
2. Pre-sentence Reports.—The number of pre-sentence reports prepared by
Probation Officers during the year totalled 1,989, a decrease of 266 (11.7 per cent)
from last year's high of 2,255. This decrease is also attributable to field office
vacancies. In regard to these reports it is interesting to note a continuing trend
to the effect that almost 500 more pre-sentence reports were prepared than the
number of new probation cases. As was mentioned in last year's Annual Report,
it appears that Magistrates and Judges wish to have all information possible on
offenders and call for pre-sentence reports even where there is little likelihood of
the cases being placed on probation.
3. Case Loads.—As of March 31, 1962, there were 1,358 individuals on
probation, creating an average case load of 40 for the 35 officers in the field. This
case load, along with an average of 58 pre-sentence reports per officer for the year,
is the maximum an officer can manage effectively. Hopefully, through filling
current vacancies and increases in establishment this favourable case-load average
can be maintained in the future.
4. Field Offices.—Due to staff shortages it was not possible to open new field
offices in the Sechelt Peninsula or in the Lillooet area. It is to be hoped that these
areas will soon be covered.
NEW DEVELOPMENTS
5. Family Court.—In December, 1961, a female Probation Officer initiated
services in the Family Court at Cloverdale. In this setting the main focus was
family counselling, and all complainants under the Wives' and Children's Maintenance Act were interviewed. In this manner the officer was in many instances able
to effect maintenance payments by those responsible without the necessity of a
formal Court hearing and order.
With the growing numbers involved in Criminal Court cases and subsequent
placement on probation or in an institution, it is becoming increasingly important
that preventive services be intensified. Traditionally corrections as a professional
discipline has been defensive—defensive in the sense that the greatest focus has
been placed on cases after they have come to the attention of Criminal Courts.
However, in spite of the strides that have been made in this area, our number of
offenders increases. If this tide is to be stemmed, so as to allow for intensive work
with already confirmed offenders, an aggressive attack must be made to prevent
crime.    The Family Court with its trained Probation Officer provides a setting
 EE 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA
where a professionally trained officer can deal with many problems before they
develop to a point of delinquency. It is hoped that we can develop this area
significantly in the future.
PROBATION SERVICE FIELD OFFICES
Vancouver:
Room 205, 1075 Melville Street, Vancouver 5, B.C.
Abbotsford:
P.O.   Box  444,  Courthouse,  Abbotsford,
B.C.
Burnaby:
7272 Kingsway, Burnaby 1, B.C.
Chilliwack:
Room 75, Courthouse, 77 College Street,
Chilliwack, B.C.
Courtenay:
P.O.  Box   1017,  Courthouse,  Courtenay,
B.C.
Cloverdale:
Juvenile   and  Family  Court,  Cloverdale,
B.C.
Dawson Creek:
10003b Tenth Street, Dawson Creek, B.C.
Haney:
Room 4, 22336 Lougheed Highway, Mide
Block, Haney, B.C.
Kamloops:
Room 211, 523  Columbia Street, Kamloops, B.C.
Kelowna:
Room 227, Courthouse, Kelowna, B.C.
Nanaimo:
Room 105, Courthouse, Nanaimo, B.C.
Nelson:
Room 2, Courthouse, Nelson, B.C.
New Westminster:
Room 1, 618 Columbia Street, New Westminster, B.C.
North Vancouver:
8  Charles Block,   117  East  15th Street,
North Vancouver, B.C.
Penticton:
Room 4, 284 Main Street, Penticton, B.C.
Port Alberni:
400 Argyle Street, Port Alberni, B.C.
Prince George:
Courthouse, Prince George, B.C.
Prince Rupert:
Room  209,   Courthouse,   Prince   Rupert,
B.C.
Trail:
815 Victoria Street, Trail, B.C.
Vernon:
Courthouse, Vernon, B.C.
Victoria:
Room   104,   Law   Courts,   850   Burdett
Avenue, Victoria, B.C.
c/o luvenile and Family Court, 1947 Cook
Street, Victoria, B.C.
Williams Lake:
Speers Building 72 Second Avenue, Williams Lake, B.C.
PROVINCIAL PROBATION SERVICE STATISTICS, 1961/62
Year
New
Probation
Cases
New
Follow-up
Cases
Presentence
Reports
Total
Cases
Miscellaneous
1942/43..
1945/46..
1948/49..
1951/52-
1954/55..
1957/58..
1959/60-
1960/61..
1961/62..
Totals since inception..
63
105
276
591
831
1,431
1,593
1,745
1,491
14,140
24
50
36
33
151
395
489
448
491
3,473
49
84
262
472
892
1,602
1,896
2,255
1,989
15,710
136
239
574
1,096
1,874
3,428
3,978
4,448
3,971
33,323
74
238
80
95
93
94
1,593
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62
New Probation Cases
EE 43
Year
Under
20 Years
20-25
Years
Over 25
Years
Probationers
Married       Single
Total
1951/52...
1954/55.-
1957/58-
1959/60-
1960/61-
1961/62..
496
710
1,193
1,302
1,371
1,152
49
65
124
131
178
158
46
56
114
160
196
181
40
58
120
168
194
177
551
773
1,311
1,425
1,551
1,314
591
831
1,431
1,593
1,745
1,491
New Follow-up Cases
Year
Under
20 Years
20-25
Years
Over 25
Years
Follow-up Cases
Married
Single
Total
1951/57
22
107
234
267
247
310
11
41
159
206
195
167
~~3
2
16
6
14
3
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14
26
17
22
30
143
381
463
431
469
33
1Q54/55
151
1957/Sfi
395
1959/60                                                   ..   .
10611/61
489
448
1961/62	
491
 EE 44
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EE 45
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 EE 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
2. Accommodation and Population of Correctional Institutions
Accommodation
Establishment
Cells
Other
Total
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
Oakalla Prison Farm—
740
100
16
94
—
138
180
11
288
119
40
29
60
3
103
16
12
4
878
180
11
388
119
40
45
60
97
103
16
N.D.T. units               ..           	
12
Haney Correctional Institution—
Kamloops—
4
Population
Establishment
Daily Average
Population
Greatest
Number
Least
Number
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
Oakalla Prison Farm—
Main Prison  	
1,023
180
9
365
107
36
48
57
89
106
5
9
2
1,184
209
11
388
116
39
49
66
120
123
16
10
4
890
136
7
330
93
31
28
47
67
85
N.T1.T, unitsc
8
Haney Correctional Institution—
Kamloops—
3. Sex
1960/61
1961/62
Increase or
Decrease
12,365
1,034
13,146
1,072
+781
+38
13,399
14,218
+ 819
4. Educational Status
Illiterate 	
Elementary —
High school  -
College or university-
Totals	
761
8,066
4,359
213
8,844
4,374
192
+47
+778
+ 15
—21
13,399
14,218
+ 819
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62
5. Nationality (Place of Birth)
EE 47
1960/61
1961/62
Increase or
Decrease
British-
11,323
367
445
12,299
368
364
+976
+ 1
—81
Totals         .       .	
12,135        !        13,031                  +896
Foreign—
United States                                ....             ~             	
228
987
39
10
246
867
51
23
+ 18
— 120
+ 12
+ 13
Totals .  	
1,264
1,187                   —77
13,399
14,218
+ 819
6. Racial
White	
Coloured.	
Indian 	
Mongolian..
Others _
Totals..
10,776
90
2,459
53
21
13,399
11,332
93
2,706
61
26
14,218
+556
+ 3
+247
+8
+5
+ 819
7. Civil State
8.289
2,099
378
2,095
538
8,858
2,175
441
2,127
617
+ 569
+76
+63
+32
+79
Widowed	
Divorced        .
Totals	
13,399
14,218
+ 819
8. Ages
18 years and under..
19-21 years	
21-25    „	
26-30    „ 	
31^10    „   	
41-50    „    	
51-60    „     	
Over 60 years _
Totals	
652
592
—60
1,170
1,246
+76
1,366
1,231
— 135
1,681
1,846
+ 165
3,495
3,603
+ 108
2,752
3,115
+363
1,650
1,825
+ 175
633
760
+ 127
13,399
14,218
+819
9. Habits as to Use of Alcohol
Abstainers _  - .
634
2,819
9,946
579
2,776
10,863
—55
—43
Intemperate  -	
+917
Totals                       	
13,399
14,218
1
+819
10. Habits as to Use of Narcotics
12,594
47
758
13,373
85
760
+779
+38
+2
Totals                         .          ..              	
13,399
14,218
+ 819
 EE 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
11. Creeds (on Admission)
1960/61
1961/62
Increase or
Decrease
Roman Catholic	
Church of England..
Presbyterian	
United Church	
B aptist	
Lutheran  	
Greek Catholic	
Other Christian creeds..
Doukhobor  	
Hebrew	
Buddhist-
Others—
Atheist-
None	
6,217
2,688
1,011
1,472
287
756
96
174
33
17
7
155
20
466
Totals..
13,399
6,860
2,765
1,073
1,472
447
720
86
95
111
21
12
168
36
352
14,218
+643
+77
+62
+ 160
—36
— 10
-79
+78
+4
+ 5
+ 13
+ 16
— 114
+ 819
12. Duration of Sentence
Under 1 month	
1 month and under 2 months.
2 months and under 3 months..
3 months and under 6 months	
6 months and under 12 months—
12 months and under 18 months-
18 months and under 24 months-
Indefinite sentence	
Sentenced to penitentiary..
Probation	
Death sentence-
Suspended .
To mental hospital-
Unfinished	
Case dismissed	
Not guilty 	
Death in gaol-
Stay of proceedings-
Others	
Totals..
13. Previous .Admissions
3,680
1,661
1,112
727
596
482
367
351
321
257
232
222
175
168
183
141
134
132
114
51
277
670
446
254
241
405
3,706
1,814
1,204
817
591
433
363
394
323
262
275
223
221
187
180
176
147
133
124
151
248
614
556
342
264
470
+26
+ 153
+92
+90
5
1	
7
t
4
5                                   	
49
6                                  	
4
7  _	
+43
+2
+5
+43
+ 1
+46
+ 19
3
8             .        ...   .
9
11
11
1?
13                                                             .     __	
14
15
+35
+13
+ 1
+ 10
+ 100
29
16	
17...    	
18 ..                          .-	
1"
•Ml
71-3(1
—56
31-40    	
+ 110
+88
+23
+65
41-50       	
51 60                                           ...                   -
Over fif)
Totals                                                    	
13,399
14,218
+819
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1961/62 EE 49
14. Offences for Which Prisoners Were Committed and Sentenced during the Year
Committed
i
Sentenced
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
(a)  Crimes against the Person
2
2
263
117
8
2
2
11
14
19
18
5
1
1
1
5
3
2
3
3
268
117
8
2
2
11
17
21
18
5
1
5
3
267
128
15
10
1
10
8
17
18
5
1
1
3
2
5
Abortion
4
270
Assault, felonious
128
15
10
1
10
8
19
Rape and assault with intent to rape	
Criminal negligence—	
18
5
1
Totals  	
464
12
476
488
6
494
(b)  Crimes against Property
82
597
133
120
108
262
60
24
16
23
255
44
28
534
937
15
4
11
11
12
10
18
7
2
7
4
4
35
38
86
608
144
132
118
280
67
24
16
25
262
48
32
569
975
15
2
933
130
185
158
639
85
44
7
29
296
44
30
653
1,025
10
12
6
28
10
25
2
5
4
2
23
42
2
945
136
213
168
664
85
44
7
31
301
48
32
Theft-
Over $50
676
Under $50       	
1,067
10
3,238
163
3,401
4,270
159
4,429
(t?)  Crimes against Public Morals
and Decency
6
27
18
9
5
2
90
1
2
2
2
1
3
2
7
27
18
12
5
2
2
90
1
2
2
2
12
30
17
11
5
2
90
1
~2
1
3
13
30
17
Gross indecency   , 	
14
5
Inmates and frequenters of houses of ill fame-
2
1
90
Perjury
Seduction	
1
2
Totals   - ..
164
6
170
170
5
175
(rf)  Crimes against Public Order and Peace
6,006
7
156
40
411
76
36
3
66
369
62
687
3
402
234
474
125
75
15
7
4
5
1
69
72
17
6,480
132
231
40
426
76
43
7
71
370
62
756
3
474
251
6,039
5
164
104
735
93
69
3
73
373
74
712
18
358
254
479
148
52
29
10
5
7
3
68
59
17
6,518
Breaches of Excise Act  -. 	
153
216
Breaches of by-laws (not including B.L.C.A.).
104
764
Possessing offensive weapon 	
Breach of recognizance	
Escaping        .	
93
79
8
80
376
Obstructing an officer 	
Selling or giving liquor to Indians (not including B.C.L.A.)     	
74
780
18
417
271
Totals  -  	
8,558
864
9,422
9,074
877
9,951
(e)  Other Offences Not Enumerated Above
711
17
728
838
24
862
Grand totals of (a), (6), (c), (d),
and (e)	
13,135
1,062
14,197
14,840
1,071
15,911
 EE 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
15. Employment of Prisoners—Daily Average Population
Oakalla Prison Farm
Haney
Correctional
Kamloops
Institution
New
Drug
Huts
Prince
Camps
Haven
George
Main
Prison
Women's
Prison
Main
Inst.
Camps
Main
Bldg.
Camp
M.
F.
M.'
F.
1. Manufacturing.   	
88
2. Building trades	
36
40
	
2
	
~i
12
	
2
11
3. Vocational training.
27
16
5
3
5
147
10
36
4. Mechanical services
19
	
5
	
2
	
13
3
2
5. Farming	
46
	
3
.._
12
f>   Forestry
101
44
8
17
7
7. Domestic services—
Sewing and mend
ing	
37
	
1
	
2
	
8
Cleaners.. 	
107
10
1
2
26
5
	
3
2
Labourers	
146
3
83
16
8
22
18
Gardeners
14
~
2
3
Culinary-workers
49
16
1
1
1
43
11
4
7
17
Clerks
9
8
Hospital orderlies
1
]
	
	
I!
H
4
Stokers. — .
1
 .
3
	
	
	
	
6
Laundry-workers
5
12
	
	
	
1
15
3
	
1
2
11
8. Unemployable	
43
22
	
—
	
	
10
2
	
2
2
11
9. Unemployed    —
140
11
—
—
9
1
—
1
1
3
10. Outside employmen'
	
	
	
—
	
—
	
	
	
11   Classification
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
10
14
—
16. Number of Officers and Employees on March 31, 1962
Oakalla Prison Farm
Haney
Correctional
Institution
New
Haven
Kamloops
Prince
George
Main
Prison
Women's
Prison
Camps
Drug
Huts
Main
Inst.
Camps
Main
Bldg.
Camp
1
1
1
3
7
8
73
1
3
2
1
1
4
5
"T
2
1
5
12
1
6
5
1
1
1
1
6
14
108
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
20
1
1
10
1
1
1
2
9
1
1
11
1
1
Custodial
Deputy Wardens	
Assistant Deputy War-
1
1
Senior Correctional Officers 	
Senior Prison Guards-
~4
Matrons 	
23
Training
Assistant Deputy War-
2
Classification Officers	
Supervisor of Academic
Education _.	
Supervisor of Social Ed-
Supervisor of Vocation-
Educational Officers	
Vocational Officers	
—
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1961/62 EE 51
16. Number of Officers and Employees on March 31, 1962—Continued
Haney
Oakalla Prison Farm
Correctional
Kamloops
Institution
New
Haven
Prince
George
Main
Prison
Women's
Prison
Camps
Drug
Huts
Main
Inst.
Camps
Main
Bldg.
Camp
Training—Continued
Instructors, Academic-
3
3
2
Instructors, Vocational
18
3
	
15
3
1
1
1
Librarians	
1
1
Counsellors	
1
2
7
Programme Officers	
4
2
	
5
	
	
	
10
Guards 	
5
3
Supervisors	
2
	
	
	
	
	
Matrons 	
35
	
	
	
	
	
Guards—	
48
12
	
	
	
	
	
Clerk 	
	
	
1
	
Consultant, Recrea
tional  	
....
—
1
—
_
--
Maintenance
Business Managers-Bur-
1
1
Foreman of Works	
1
1
1
1
Assistant Chief Engi-
1
1
Chief Stewards...	
1
__
__
1
1
Dietician	
1
	
	
	
	
	
Assistant Chief Stew-
4
1
Chief, Mechanical
Maintenance	
1
	
	
	
	
	
Foreman of Plate-shop„
1
	
	
	
	
	
	
Foreman Electrician	
1
	
	
„
	
	
Laundry Managers	
1
—
	
—
1
	
	
	
Accountants	
1
—
—
1
	
	
	
....
Clerks.- 	
1
	
	
	
12
	
	
	
Storekeepers	
4
—
—
6
	
	
	
	
Tool Control Officers _
2
—
—
—
2
	
	
	
	
	
Engineers
5
—
10
	
—.
5
Tradesmen.—	
9
—
—
—
9
	
	
Senior Prison Guards...
3
1
	
48
12
2
Stenographers	
5
	
	
4
	
	
Carpenter Foremen-
Overseers
1
	
	
1
	
	
	
1
Mechanics, Heavy Duty
1
—
—
—
1
	
	
	
Stores Driver	
—
	
1
	
	
__„
P.B.X. Operators	
2
	
2
....
	
....
Grounds Officer—	
1
Medical
1
1
—
—
Dentist	
___
2
1
Senior Prison Hospital
Officers
1
	
	
1
	
Technician	
	
	
	
1
..
	
	
12
2
6
1
Vs
Nurses	
4
General Hospital
Guards
6
3
.
..
Doukhobour Guards	
6
	
	
27
_„
—
_
—
....
 EE 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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