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REPORT OF THE Department of Commercial Transport containing the reports on RAILWAYS, AERIAL TRAMWAYS,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1963

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT
Hon. E. C. Westwood. Minister A. J. Bowering. Deputy Minister
REPORT OF THE
Department of
Commercial Transport
containing the reports on
RAILWAYS, AERIAL TRAMWAYS, PIPE-LINES,
INDUSTRIAL TRANSPORTATION
and COMMERCIAL VEHICLES
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1962
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1963
  Victoria, B.C., January 21, 1963.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B, D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits the Annual Report of the Department of
Commercial Transport for the year ended December 31, 1962.
Earle C. Westwood,
Minister of Commercial Transport.
 The Honourable Earle C. Westwood,
Minister of Commercial Transport.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Commercial Transport for the year ended December 31, 1962.
A. J. Bowering,
Deputy Minister of Commercial Transport.
 Report of the
Department of Commercial Transport, 1962
A. J. Bowering, Deputy Minister
INTRODUCTION
In reporting on the operation of the Department of Commercial Transport for
the year 1962, a number of interesting events affecting the Department may be noted.
Development and construction of several more aerial tramways have increased
to twenty the number being maintained under the supervision of the Department.
This is an indication that private interests are building greater recreational facilities
for the use of British Columbia residents and tourists.
Pipe-line construction during the year has been largely in gathering systems,
with some 57 miles of high-pressure oil-lines and 270 miles of gas-lines being
installed. Further activity in drilling in the Peace River area of the Province indicates that additional pipe-lines will be built during 1963.
Through an Act of the Legislature, ownership of the British Columbia Electric
Railway was assumed by the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority; however, the company's railway facilities continue to be subject to the provisions of the
Railway Act, administered by the Department. Reports from our Engineering
Branch indicate that the equipment and road-bed of this railway and of the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway are being maintained in good order, in accordance with a
systematic rehabilitation and maintenance programme.
The completion of the Trans-Canada Highway had a considerable effect upon
trucking within and through the Province. Heavy and large truck and trailer combinations are now operating through the Fraser Canyon, and the opening of the
Rogers Pass section of the Trans-Canada Highway has improved trucking to and
from the Province of Alberta. Opening of the Christina Lake-Blueberry section
of the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway has made it possible for heavy trucks
to move into the Kootenay area of the Province more freely. All of these changes
have increased the flexibility of trucking within the Province, and trucking firms
may now plan on long-range trucking programmes with more assurance. Lifting
of the restriction on weight, which has been a control over trucking operations for
years on the Fraser Canyon section of the Trans-Canada Highway, has meant a
great deal to many trucking firms.
 T 6
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT,  1962 T 7
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE BRANCH AND ACCOUNTS BRANCH
George Lindsay, Superintendent of Motor-vehicles
J. G. M. Lock, Director of Operations
D. I. Ewan, Senior Clerk
Road construction in British Columbia emanated from the introduction in the
House of Assembly of Vancouver Island in the year 1860 of a Road Act, which
provided for enforcement of Statute labour on roads. Despite considerable protest,
this system prevailed unt;l the year 1866, when a Bill establishing road districts was
passed, based upon a $2 annual road tax.
The successful completion of the trail from Yale to Spuzzum in 1860 created
considerable interest in road-building in the Province, and from this was born the
idea of building the Cariboo Road.
Preliminary engineering surveys conducted along the chosen route from Yale
to Lytton and thence to Spences Bridge indicated the necessity of a crossing of the
Fraser River. In the year 1863 the first Alexandra Suspension Bridge was built
by Mr. J. W. Trutch.
Th's road from Yale north through the Fraser Canyon was used until 1880,
when construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway destroyed portions of the road
at various po'nts, including the section immediately north of Yale.
Not until 1924 was any attempt made to replace the sections which had been
destroyed. By 1927, however, there was again a completed road ready for use
from Yale north. This construction included a new suspension bridge at Alexandra,
which was built for heavier loads.
To provide revenue to pay for this new road, which was expensive, a toll-gate
was established immediately north of Yale, where the road entered the narrow
rocky section of the canyon. This toll-gate was also used for weighing trucks, as
there was a gross limit of 30,000 pounds placed on vehicles using the road.
Improvements over the following years made it possible to increase this gross
weight limit for trucks to 40,000 pounds. This increased load limit remained in
effect until 1962, when the present Alexandra Bridge was opened. Alexandra III,
as it is sometimes called, was designed and constructed to carry heavy modern
equipment, and the present weight allowance for regular trucks and combinations
is 76,000 pounds.
But let us look back at some of the history of this great accomplishment which
has made this important change in trucking. In 1861 Governor Douglas, after
receiving a report from the Royal Engineers, wrote to the Duke of Newcastle and
in part said: —
" The information which I have thus laid before your Grace leaves no room
for doubt as to the vast auriferous wealth and extraordinary productive capacity of
British Columbia; and with scarcely less probability it may be assumed as a natural
consequence resulting from the marvelous discoveries of Cariboo that there will be
a rush thither, and an enormous increase of population becomes one of the paramount duties of the Government. I, therefore, propose to push on rapidly with
the formation of roads during the coming winter in order to have the great thoroughfare leading to the remotest mines, now upwards of five hundred miles from the
seacoast, so improved as to render travel easy, and to reduce the cost of transport,
thereby securing the whole trade of the colony for Fraser's River and defeating all
attempts at competition from Oregon.
 T 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" The only insuperable difficulty I experience is want of funds; the revenue
of the colony will doubtless in the course of the year furnish the means, but cannot
supply the funds that are immediately wanted to carry on these works—I have,
under these circumstances, come to the resolution of meeting the contingency and
raising the necessary funds by effecting a loan of £15,000 or £20,000 in this country,
which will probably be a sufficient sum until I receive the loan which your Grace
gave me hopes of effecting for the colonies in England."
May, 1862, saw the commencement of construction of the first 6 miles of the
Cariboo Road by the Engineers under the direction of Captain Grant, R.E. Further
contracts totalling over $200,000 were awarded to Thomas Spence, J. W. Trutch.
Walter Moberly, and Charles Oppenheim, but defection of the workmen to the gold-
fields and an epidemic of smallpox among the Chinese and Indians employed resulted
in delays, and it was necessary for the Government to complete certain of the
contracts.
Early transportation facilities were provided by means of mule trains of from
sixteen to forty-eight animals. Freight from 250 to 400 pounds was carried on
a sort of leather sack filled with straw, girded on the animal's back. The trip from
Yale to Spences Bridge took nine days, and thence to the Cariboo, seventeen days.
In the always present search for improvement, one of the many packers conceived
the idea that camels might serve better than mules, and in May of 1862 the first of
a string of twenty-one camels was placed into service. Alas! the experiment was
not successful, as the rocky terrain, instead of the sand to which they were accustomed, proved unsuitable for the camels' feet. This and many other pertinent
problems initiated litigation which resulted in the withdrawal of the camels from
service.
In 1863 the road was completed, with the exception of the portion between
Chapman Bar and Boston Bar to Soda Creek, and freight began to move without
delay over the completed portions.
The introduction of toll charges by the Government on certain roads in 1864
was continued until 1886. Records indicate that a total of $879,223 was collected
in tolls during that fiscal period. This amounted to slightly under 27 per cent of
the total road expenditure in the same period. These figures include only tolls collected by the Government and not those collected by the holders of private charters.
The discovery of the Cariboo goldfields gave great impetus to the development
of transportation and road haulage facilities of the era. The goldfield settlements
demanded supplies, and vast quantities of all nature of goods, from pins to pianos
and bales of hay, shipped from San Francisco via Victoria and New Westminster,
were hauled to the Cariboo mines. It is reported that the value of such imports
into Victoria in the year 1862 was in excess of $3,500,000.
The first freight line was introduced by the famous Billy Ballou in 1858 between
Victoria and the Fraser River diggings. Soon after, Kent & Smith's Express was
established, and on the Douglas-Lillooet Trail Messrs. Lindhart and Barnard began
to operate. For the first few years, however, Ballou's Express remained the chief
link between the goldfields and the outside world.
Although it was in 1860 that F. J. Barnard really entered the field of transportation by carrying express in a pack on his back, and then in 1862 by pony express,
it was not until the year 1863 that Barnard became an active competitior, when he
underbid Ballou in connection with a Government express contract.
From this point Barnard's future was assured, and Barnard's Express continued
to grow. He introduced wagons into the express service, and in 1864 put the first
stage-coach into service on the road.
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT, 1962 T 9
Cost of construction and maintenance of the roads of the Province was borne
from general revenue, and up to 1886 road taxes and tolls had provided approximately a 30-per-cent return on the investment. With the advent of the motor-car,
however, the licence fees were a factor to be considered, and later a tax on gasoline.
Motor-car fees were first collected in 1903-4, amounting to some $36. They
did not represent any appreciable portion of the road expenditure until recent years.
As the popularity of the motor-car increased, changed conditions were required
with respect to roads. Smoother surfaces, better grades and curvature were required, involving greater expenditures.
From the initial trails, built to accommodate foot passengers and mule trains,
to the multitude of modern highways which we are privileged to enjoy today; from
early wagons of Barnard's Express to the modern tractor-trailer units used today,
a big step has been made by the pioneers of this country. The annals of history
will record the names of these great men, responsible for the foundation upon which
has been built the great road and transportation systems within British Columbia.
Judge Howay, in a graphic description of the Cariboo Road, said:—
" Reaching from Yale, the head of navigation, to the mines of Cariboo, a distance of nearly four hundred miles, and solidly and substantially constructed by our
infant colony in less than three years, this road was the pride of British Columbia,
and a source of wonder and admiration to its visitors, who were loud in their expressions of surprise at the daring conception and skilful execution of the work. Here
the road was supported by piling—there built upon immense masonry ' fills,' sometimes on gigantic cribwork, the ruins of which remain—sometimes cut through a
sheer rock bluff, now almost at the water's level and anon raised to a giddy elevation
whence the river seemed but a silver ribbon. As one has said ' If we could look
back into the past along that mighty highway, what a strange scene we would behold.
Long lines of pack animals, heavy freight wagons, six-horse coaches, with the well-
known faces of their passengers, camels and traction engines, an army of men with
pack straps, some going, some returning, many unsuccessful, men drunk and men
sober—all sorts and conditions of men—a motley crowd; bustling activity at the
rough and ready roadhouses; such was the Cariboo road in the balmy days of its
greatness that are no more."
This description by Judge Howay portrayed the ingenuity and intestinal fortitude of early residents of the Province. How these people would have enjoyed the
use of modern-day equipment for construction, and even more so the modern truck -
and-trailer combinations for transportation purposes.
The opening of Alexandra III for traffic provided the final strong link on the
road from Vancouver to Prince George for heavy gross loads of 76,000 pounds.
This major accomplishment in completing reconstruction of all the bridges through
the Fraser Canyon section of highway has made the year 1962 one of outstanding
importance to the trucking industry of this Province. In future years, truck operators will look back to this date as a turning-point in progress and improvement in
the industry. For the first time in the history of the Province, two routes to the
Interior area are now open for heavy trucking, and freight may be moved more
directly to its destination.
OPERATIONS AND ACCOUNTS
In the year 1962 there was a further increase in the use of restricted-route
permits by operators hauling logs, poles, piling, and rough lumber. Increased
activity in the forest industry, particularly in the Interior of the Province, has created
this increased demand for permits.
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 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT,  1962
T 11
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Alexandra II and III.
Further extension to the list and mileage of highways which have been classed
for heavier trucking was made during the past year. The most important sections
added to Schedule 8 of the regulations included the Fraser Canyon and Rogers Pass
sections of the Trans-Canada Highway and the Christina Lake-Blueberry sections
of the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway.
Opening of the Trans-Canada Highway through Rogers Pass has had a considerable effect upon trucking through the Province. Many firms are now using
this route to Alberta, and trucks are travelling a greater distance within the Province
of British Columb'a. This will increase fuel taxes paid to the Province. Trucks
which formerly operated over the Hope-Princeton Highway through Merritt to
Spences Bridge are now travelling directly north from Hope on their way to Prince
George. This has not only meant a saving in time and distance to operators, but
it has decreased operating costs cons:derabfy as the grades on the Trans-Canada
Highway through the Fraser Canyon are generally much easier than those encountered on the Hope-Princeton Highway.
The reduction in time required for trucks to travel from Vancouver to points in
Alberta by the opening of the Trans-Canada Highway through Rogers Pass has
increased trucking potential in the Province. Fresh fruit from various areas of the
Province may now be placed in stores in Alberta in better condition at less cost.
Lumber, poles, and piling are being hauled to other Provinces by truck rather than
by railway. Plywood, cattle, and many other commodities are now moving more
freely into and out of the Province.
As a result of this change in export of produce, trucking trends are altering,
and provision for additional personnel at some points in the Province was necessary
to take care of operators' requirements. At Golden three weighmasters have been
employed at the weigh-station since the highway was opened to provide a twenty-
four-hour control on trucking and a service to truckers.
 Official cavalcade opening Alexandra III.
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT, 1962 T 13
Opening of a new weigh-scale at Sicamous, on the Trans-Canada Highway near
its junction with the Okanagan Highway, has provided a necessary control on trucking in the area. This new station has also provided a suitable location for the
British Columbia Tree Fruit Board to check vehicles for transportation of fruit
and vegetables.
The year 1962 has been the first full year in which weighmasters have checked
trucks for operating authority under the Motor Carrier Act. Although only 7 per
cent of all vehicles checked for this purpose were operating in violation of the Motor
Carrier Act and regulations, the results from these checks have improved conditions
generally in the trucking industry. Checking of commercial vehicles for this purpose will be continued during 1963, and the present level of enforcement will be
maintained.
In the northern section of the Province, exploration for natural gas and oil continues at an active pace, resulting in frequent movement of heavy drilling equipment.
Field staff of the Department have been busy checking these trucks and arranging
for permits to move the large and heavy loads. To provide more control over commercial vehicles, and to make it possible for operators to obtain permits more readily,
a new weigh-station has been built at Fort Nelson. This station was opened early
in December, and there is every indication that it will be quite busy.
Construction work which has been carried out in connection with the new Peace
River dam has required a considerable amount of attention from our field staff due
to the movement of heavy equipment into the construction-site. Additional heavy
equipment will likely move into this area in 1963 as progress is made on further
construction contracts.
In other areas of the Province, development of mines has resulted in the movement of some heavy equipment, particularly on Vancouver Island and in the Merritt-
Ashcroft area. Ore from the Bethlehem copper mine, south-east of Ashcroft, will
be hauled by truck to tidewater at North Vancouver. The company expects to move
25,000 tons of concentrates annually in this manner. Opening of the Fraser Canyon
section of the Trans-Canada Highway for maximum loads has been of real benefit in
this operation. Copper concentrates being mined and milled at Phoenix, near
Greenwood, will be moved by truck to North Vancouver in 1963. This operation
calls for the movement of 1,200 tons per month.
During 1962 violation notices issued by the Department have been separated
into three types. These notices segregate violations for revenue enforcement, Motor
Carrier Act enforcement, and enforcement for oversize and overweight loads. The
new forms have increased efficiency, and they are simpler for the operators to understand. More information is now available for ready analysis of the level of enforcement in each area of control.
Mileage charts which were produced by the Department in 1961 have been
revised in line with new highway construction. These charts have been distributed
to many operators in the industry for their use in calculating the cost of moving
overweight loads. They also ensure uniform issuance of permits at all field offices.
Several departments of government are using them for various reasons, including
checking of mileage operated by private vehicles. Copies of mileage charts have
been provided to the Automotive Transport Association, Construction Equipment
Association, Heavy Construction Association, Royal Canadian Mounted Police,
Liquor Control Board, Commissioner of Income Tax, as well as the Departments
of Highways, Finance, and Agriculture, the British Columbia Toll Authority, and
several others.
 Official opening of Rogers Pass section of the Trans-Canada Highway.
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT, 1962 T 15
The Reciprocal Commercial Vehicle Licencing Agreement which was entered
into between this Province and fourteen States of the United States of America has
proven satisfactory during the past year, and it is being extended for a further year.
This Agreement has provided more flexibility for operators engaged in international
trucking operations and has increased the export of commodities such as shingles,
peat, and frozen fish. The arrangement has reduced over-all licence fees paid by
operators, and it has provided them with a larger field for their trucking operations
without reducing over-all Provincial revenue.
Auditing of the operators' records is carried out by using information taken at
the time vehicles covered by the Agreement enter the Province at border point weigh-
scales. This information has proven very useful when firms apply for new licences
and state the mileage their vehicles have operated within the Province.
Movement of commercial vehicles, and particularly large trucking combinations, has changed to some extent since the Rogers Pass section of the Trans-Canada
Highway has been opened and heavier units are permitted through the Fraser
Canyon. It will be interesting to note how these highway improvements will affect
trucking within and through the Province during 1963. Some adjustment of field
staff has been necessary due to this change in trucking, and further moves may be
required.
There has been a normal increase in the number of commercial vehicles registered in the Province, and this is expected to continue.
The average number of permits audited by the Accounts Branch during 1962
has been 2,100 per month. Auditing of operators' reports on term permits is done
by checking these with weigh-station reports. The number of charge accounts has
remained at approximately 500, showing the acceptance of this simple method of
paying for oversize and overweight permits.
Portable weighing units operated by the field staff continue to check vehicles
in areas where there are no permanent scales established. This operation not only
provides control over large and heavy loads, but makes it possible for operators to
obtam necessary permits to move trucks without travelling a considerable distance
to wei°h-stations or Government offices. Generally, the trucking industry is cooperating very well with the field staff of th:s Department and frequently requests
assistance in the movement of large and heavy loads. Portable units are directed
to areas by radio or telephone when required for this purpose.
During the twelve-month period a total of 1,300,000 trucks was checked at the
Department's weigh-stations to ensure that they were not oversize or overweight
and to ensure that they were correctly licensed. A smaller percentage of these
vehicles was found to be out of line with Provincial regulations than in the previous
year, which indicates that operators are becoming more familiar with the rules they
are required to operate under.
The Department's field staff continues to carry out duties for other departments,
includ'ng the Department of Agriculture, British Columbia Forest Service, Department of Finance, Department of Highways, Department of Municipal Affairs, and
the Motor Carrier Branch of the Public Utilities Commission.
The Director of Operations and his staff continue to maintain a close liaison
with the Department of Highways so as to keep an up-to-date record of bridge and
road restrictions. A large-scale map of the Province is utilized for this purpose.
It is posted with small flags of various colours, showing details of all bridge and highway restrictions. During the spring break-up period, all seasonal restrictions are
posted on the map as well. As weather conditions change rapidly and restrictions
are altered frequently, this is a quick way of providing necessary information.
 T 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA
A ready reference, kept up to date in this manner, is particularly useful when inquiries are received by telephone regarding the possibility of moving heavy loads.
Table No. 1.—Revenue from Gasoline and Motive-fuel Use Taxes
for Passenger-cars and Commercial Vehicles
Fiscal Year Amount Fiscal Year Amount
1952/53   $14,574,000 1957/58 $24,500,000
1953/54   15,963,000 1958/59   26,100,000
1954/55   17,455,000 1959/60  __  28,582,000
1955/56   19,820,000 1960/61 ... 30,093,000
1956/57   22,593,000 1961/62   39,262,000
Table No. 2.—Summary of Commercial Vehicle Licences and Permits
Issued, January 1, 1962, to December 31, 1962
Number of
Number of
Number of
Non-resident
Permits
Issued
Number of
Number of
Number of
Commercial
Commercial
Temporary
Oversize and
Vehicles
Month
Vehicles
Trailers
Operation
Overweight
Checked
Registered
Registered
Permits
Permits
at Weigh-
and Licensed1
and Licensed1
Issued
Issued
stations
15,229
1.096
1,280
1,116
1,781
85,099
February 	
61,260
3.868
1,206
1,123
1,667
108,822
March 	
16,585
2,836
1,812
2,552
2,025
128,158
April 	
6,073
408
973
2,206
1,960
89,503
May   	
5,000
665
1,022
2,402
1,977
90,316
June	
4,072
426
1.368
2,334
2,164
130,923
July           .     .   ..
2,841
335
1,118
1,814
2,030
102,404
2,405
160
1,227
1,879
2,601
119,412
September —
1,961
150
1,166
1,504
2,171
107,282
October   	
1,797
211
1,174
1,711
2,125
108,798
November _	
1,697
146
1,077
1.620
2,207
123,100
December	
1,129
156
988
1,223
1,342
24,050
95,191
Totals
120,049
10,457
14,411
21.484
1,289,008
i Includes vehicles licensed under prorate agreement with American States.
Table No. 3.—Summary of Prorate Operations, 1962
Companies
Pro-rated
Tractor            Trailer
Units              Units
Reciprocity
Plates
84
193
363                   529
2,050                3,470
12
Totals     	
277         1         2.413         I         3.999
12
I
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT,  1962
T 17
Table No. 4.—Comparison of Gross Revenue Collections from Commercial Licence and Permit Fees for Five-year Period 1957/58 to 1961/62,
Inclusive.
Source
1957/58
1958/59
1959/60
1960/61
1961/62
Commercial motor-vehicle licences
Non-resident commercial permits-
$4,359,750.33
106,882.19
185,866.41
$4,470,162.49
133,716.34
201,547.95
$6,804,101.57
189,374.062
128,123.38
5,001.20
276,741.12*
$7,541,536,021
401,976.11
60,325.003
45,765.00
317,568.53
$7,938,605.82
478,156.17
57,452.34
58,442.51
21,176.00
321,730.55
Totals  _.	
$4,652,498.93 1 $4,826,602.78
1
$7,403,341.33
$8,367,170.66
$8,854,387.39
1 Commenced issuing licences on gross vehicle weight January 1, 1960.
2 Department of Commercial Transport commenced issuing permits June 15, 1959.
3 Licence fees now collected on gross-vehicle-weight basis are charged to tractor unit and $10 nominal fee
collected on trailer.   This has reduced trailer fees and transferred them to commercial vehicle licences.
* Department of Commercial Transport commenced issuing permits July 15, 1959.
Table No. 5.—Summary of Violation Notices Issued,
January 1, 1962, to December 31, 1962
Licence and Permit Violations
Gross vehicle weight.
1,565
Motor-vehicle registration  249
  487
  77
  11
  18
Licence-plates
Trailer plates	
Quarterly licence	
Non-resident permit	
Temporary operation permit
Motive-fuel emblem	
Overweight permit	
Oversize permit	
Restricted-route permit
  21
  7
  3 8
  26
Highway crossing permit __.         31
Proration  19
Other   27
Total violations
2,584*
1 This figure represents 0.19 per cent of vehicles checked.
Motor Carrier Violations
Motor-carrier plates not displayed.
Motor-carrier licence not carried...
Conditions of licence not carried _
  283
  387
  424
  226
  1,320]
Total number of vehicles checked—     19,009
Operating otherwise than permitted by licence
Total violations	
1 The figure represents 6.9 per cent of vehicles checked.
Weight Violations
Overweight
647
 IMIIIIIIIiBI
■mm
BO
3
o
A!
SO
o
o
00
e
<
A
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT,  1962 T 19
ENGINEERING BRANCH
(Railways, Aerial Tramways, Pipe-lines,
and Industrial Transportation)
R. E. Swanson, P.Eng., Chief Inspecting Engineer
RAILWAYS
Remarkable changes in the nation's transportation system have taken place
over the last fifteen years. A more complex transportation system has developed
in which road carriers have expanded their business fourfold and air lines twelvefold,
while oil pipe-lines now account for a significant portion of total freight. Among
the traditional carriers, water-borne transport has almost doubled its volume, but
railways generally have experienced difficulties in maintaining theirs.
A significant change, largely due to the development of alternative forms of
transportation, is the heightened degree of competition in the transportation industry. Until such time as some form of competitive co-existence is achieved, carriers
will have to make severe adjustments to their operations and become more flexible.
Railways, long established as the nation's principal carrier, will undoubtedly
continue to play the major role, but at the same time will bear the brunt of competition from carriers catering to specialized forms of freight. The degree of flexibility
of railroads being somewhat limited, they find it difficult to adjust, but they are
continually experimenting with ideas to marry their operations with those of competing carriers.
A typical example of the results of this experimentation is the introduction of
the so-called "piggyback" service, in which road trailers are carried on specially
designed flat cars between railway terminal points.
The economic expansion currently under way in British Columbia and the
increase in through traffic between the United States and its new State of Alaska
continue to be an incentive to further experimentation and future development in
the transportation media of the Province. This is more particularly apparent in the
case of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, which, due to its north and south location, plays a major role in the economic development of British Columbia.
The railways in British Columbia, both common carrier and industrial, can be
justly proud of their achievements and their contribution to British Columbia's
future.
 T 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Equipment Inspections during 1962 under the Railway Act
Following is  a list of individual inspections  carried out by  Department
engineers:—
Hydrostatic tests applied to boilers  56
Internal-combustion locomotives and cranes inspected and certified 30
Air locomotives inspected and certified  10
Electric locomotives inspected and certified  6
Self-powered rail-cars inspected and certified  21
Diesel-electric locomotives inspected  84
Air reservoirs tested and inspected  26
Railway cars inspected on industrial railways  400
Railway cars inspected on common-carrier railways  240
Miles of railway track inspected  1,800
Aerial tramways inspected and certified  16
Railway conductors examined and certified  2
Power-car operators examined and certified  3
Diesel-locomotive engineers examined and certified  2
Locomotive-crane engineers examined and certified  5
Steam-locomotive engineers examined and certified  3
Motormen examined and certified (Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. of Canada Ltd.)  4
Accidents investigated on logging and industrial railways   (dismantling Kettle Valley Railway)  1
Fatal accidents on logging and industrial railways    	
Compensable employee accidents, P.G.E. Railway  94
Accidents involving automobiles at crossings, etc., P.G.E. Railway 17
Passengers injured, P.G.E. Railway  6
Fatal accidents to employees, P.G.E. Railway  2
Fatal accidents to non-employees, P.G.E. Railway    	
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT,  1962
List of Railways and Summary of Mileage
Industrial Railways
T 21
No. and Owners/Name of Railway
Head Office
Operating
Mileage
Main
Sidings,
etc.
Total
Gauge
1.
2.
1:
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Aluminum Co. of Canada Ltd
Arrowhead Wood Preservers Ltd...
B.C. Forest Products Ltd 	
Canada Creosoting Co. Ltd—	
Canada Creosoting Co. Ltd 	
Canadian Forest Products Ltd.
Canadian Forest Products Ltd.
Montreal..—	
Revelstoke.
Vancouver
Montreal	
Montreal	
Vancouver
Vancouver
Montreal	
Montreal	
Vancouver
Trail .'
Trail 	
Kitimat.	
Revelstoke -
Crofton — 	
New Westminster..
North Vancouver.
Nimpkish Valley-
Port Mellon	
James Island.......
Watson Island
Ladysmith —
Trail..- ,	
Kimberley	
Michel—	
North Vancouver
Mesachie Lake	
2.90
0.92
1.50
3.00
91.00
0.50
6.25
3.19
6.09
0.92
4.00
6.00
0.75
110.10
1.00
7.50
7.01
25.82
19.00
42.01
1.53
2.00
7.50
3.00
5.39
4.10
2.20
1.00
1.50
0.33
5.20
3.76
1.25
2.00
7.60
0.95
Standard.
2.50
3.00
0.75
19.10
0.50
1.25
7.01
4.02
30" and
standard
Standard.
30" and
Columbia Cellulose Co. Ltd	
Comox Logging & Railway Co
Consolidated Mining & Smelting
Co. of Canada Ltd.
Consolidated Mining & Smelting
Co. of Canada Ltd.
Crow's Nest Pass Coal Co. Ltd.
Hooker Chemicals Ltd 	
Hillcrest Lumber Co. Ltd	
Elk Falls Co. Ltd	
standard.
Standard.
21.80
19.00
9.00
1.53
0.10
6.00
18"."
33.01
18", 36".
Fernie.	
North Vancouver
MesachieLake
Vancouver
Vancouver	
Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver.
Vancouver
MesachieLake
New Westminster
Calgary, Alta.
Vancouver
Vancouver
Honeymoon
Bay
Quesnel	
30".
1.90
1.50
3.00
3.81
3.10
Standard.
MacMillan,   Bloedel   and   Powell
River Ltd.
MacMillan,   Bloedel   and   Powell
River Ltd.
MacMillan,   Bloedel   and  Powell
River Ltd.
MacMillan,   Bloedel   and   Powell
River Ltd.
MacMillan,   Bloedei   and   Powell
River Ltd.
Osborn Bay Wharf Co. Ltd. 	
Pacific Coast Terminals Co. Ltd....
Pacific, Jefferson Lake, Westcoast
(Pacific Petroleums Ltd.)
Chemainus —	
Dunsmuir District
Harmac Pulp Div.
Port Alberni
Powell River	
Crofton — -
New Westminster
1.58
1.00
2.20
»
1.00
1.50
0.33
5.20
3.05
1.25
2.00
7.00
0.95
0.71
Twigg Island	
North Vancouver
Honeymoon Bay—
Quesnel. 	
Western Forest Industries Ltd.
Western Plywood (Cariboo) Ltd...
0.60
»
Common-a
irrier Railways
29.
30.
British    Columbia    Hydro    and
Power Authority
Pacific Great Eastern Railway Co.
Vancouver
Vancouver
New Westminster-
Huntingdon-
Chilliwack
Vancouver to Fort
St.  John and
Dawson Creek
76.58
788.60
25.29
146.10
101.87
934.70
Standard.
Electronic Signal Equipment
In keeping with the pioneering spirit and its efforts toward the betterment of
railroading in British Columbia, the Pacific Great Eastern Railway Company is
proud of its achievement in the development of a unique railway-crossing signal.
This signal, the first of its type on the continent, was designed by the engineers
of the railway's communications department and operates by an electronic device
which detects the presence of a piece of approaching railway equipment. The
design allows for operation by emergency battery in case of power failure.
 T 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The major components of the signal were all built in British Columbia at
considerably less cost than that of the conventional standard crossing signal previously used. Also additional savings are experienced in time and money spent on
maintenance.
The first of these electronic signals was installed in the Squamish subdivision
and is proving very successful. It is envisaged that in the not too distant future
more such signals will be installed throughout the company's railway system.
Radio in Railroading
Outstanding among the advances made in the techniques of railroading in
British Columbia is the modern communication system in use.
The current system, employing V.H.F. radiotelephone, received its introduction to railroading in British Columbia in the year 1956 by the Pacific Great Eastern
Railway Company, who, through its pioneering efforts in the field, is responsible for
the current interest in the use of this means of communication by other railroads
and industries.
The Pacific Great Eastern Railway Company presently employs more than 300
radio units of various types to provide a communication nerve system which links
the central dispatch office with engines, cabooses, stations, work and section crews,
patrol speeders, and many other vehicles used by the company within its 800-mile
sphere of operation.
V.H.F. radiotelephone is ideally suited to railway operations. Special antennas
may be installed at stations to direct the radio signal along the route of the track.
The F.M. equipment employed has the ability to lock out any noise or static, and
good-quality understandable communication is possible with this equipment even
when operating completely surrounded by the numerous electrical components that
comprise the modern diesel-electric locomotive. Its only disadvantage is its limited
range in rough or wooded country. The Pacific Great Eastern has overcome this
disadvantage by locating its main radiotelephone equipment at the mountain-top
microwave repeater-stations that are established along the length of the railway.
Radio equipment installed in locomotives is of a type designed specifically for
railroad use. The ability of the engineman to speak with other members of the crew
and with other trains has made movement very much safer through areas of poor
visibility.
The units that are mounted in maintenance-of-way equipment, track motorcars,
vehicles, cabooses, etc., are standard mobile or portable units but have been adapted
by the Pacific Great Eastern communications department for their specific task.
For instance, units mounted in track motorcars must be equipped with additional
protective housings and vibration-damping mountings in order to prevent the very
early destruction of the delicate components which comprise radio equipment.
Track motorcars also have to be equipped with a heavy-duty generator in order to
provide adequate battery-charging power to operate the radio equipment.
Caboose radios, allowing voice contact with the head end and wayside stations,
have contributed much to the faster, safer, and more convenient handling of trains.
Portable radios have found their way into many phases of railroading, such as
switching operations, air-line tests, survey and construction, and and for security
purposes, and in emergency they have proven most valuable.
Maintenance-of-way operations have also been speeded up by the use of radio.
Sets are installed in every kind of maintenance-of-way equipment on the Pacific
Great Eastern. Roadmasters and section foremen may now communicate directly
from any point on the line, and orders may be issued without the necessity of getting
to a station or a siding to telephone.
 Dispatcher's office at
from NorthvZZll'rtoT^ m°~ts * a     .
to Dawson Creek and For, St £     °Perating
■microwavestation at Prince^
- high as 2?0 fee,    ^ °f this ^ have ,owers
 T 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Communicating with dispatcher from cab of engine by radiotelephone.
The most spectacular savings have resulted from the prevention of derailments
and delays by the use of radio-equipped patrol speeders. These units, which precede
trains on the Pacific Great Eastern, are in direct contact with the locomotive engineer, and in numerous cases their presence and ability to communicate quickly and
in detail has averted possible serious derailments from slides and washouts, etc.
Radio-equipped vehicles also provide officials with close contact to the railway
operation even when travelling the highways or in the city. The Pacific Great
Eastern communication system is operated in such a way as to provide communication between any radio-equipped units over the entire length of the railway. The
dispatchers, who are located in Vancouver, may, by keying on radio units at selected
points, talk with trains, stations, maintenance-of-way equipment, and officials at
any location within range of the high-sited radio towers mentioned earlier.
The backbone of the Pacific Great Eastern communication system consists of
a chain of twenty-seven microwave stations between Vancouver and Fort St. John.
This 120-channel system carries a host of administrative and operational circuits
to accommodate the increased business that has resulted from the railway's
modernization.
Channels on the microwave are also leased to other companies for various
purposes. All of the communications for the oil and gas pipe-line between Fort St.
John and Clinton are carried on this system. All of the public telephone circuits
between Vancouver and as far north as Lillooet are provided by the Pacific Great
Eastern system. Forestry, highways, and various other Government departments
utilize the Pacific Great Eastern's communication system to expedite their communications. Revenues derived from these facilities help to offset the cost of development of Canada's most modern railway communication system.
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT,  1962 T 25
Pacific Great Eastern Railway
Inspecting Engineer's Report
Between September 11 and 20, 1962, the annual inspection of the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway was conducted by track motor between North Vancouver and
Chetwynd, Chetwynd and Fort St. John, and Chetwynd and Dawson Creek. The
chief engineer, the right-of-way officer, and various roadmasters and assistant engineers of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway accompanied me during the inspection.
Observations were made of all conditions pertaining to the railway, its operation and its maintenance. A number of observations were made regarding the level
railway crossings over the entire line, and in this regard an appendix is included in
this report listing various railway crossings with conditions found and the remedial
action required to put them in order. This matter has been taken up with the
officials of the company concerned, and it has been agreed the necessary action as
outlined should be taken.
Right-of-way conditions between North Vancouver and Squamish are generally-
good. Since construction, the road-bed has consolidated and the track is quite
stable. Occasional slides occur, which are normal in this type of terrain, and the
company maintenance crews handle the emergencies as a normal course of events.
Bridges and tunnels in this area were inspected and found to be in order.
Between Squamish and Clinton, track conditions were observed and found to
be normal. Maintenance is being taken care of. There is some rail wear on the
heavy curves, and maintenance crews are changing and turning rail as required.
Bridges and structures in this area are in order and are being well maintained.
Between Clinton and Williams Lake, maintenance was found to be good.
A considerable amount of ditching had been done, and ballast was well maintained.
It was observed that new creosoted ties have been installed on the Fraser River
Bridge. The former ties were not creosoted and lasted approximately sixteen years.
It is expected the creosoted ties will give double this life. Considerable rail wear
was noticed on Pavilion Mountain, but rail is being turned and changed as required.
Rail wear in this case is due to heavy grade and sharp curvature, but track-oilers
installed at advantageous points are doing much to alleviate the condition. It is
noted that wyes have been removed in a number of cases with the elimination of
switches, and in a number of cases sidings have been taken out which are no longer
necessary due to dieselization and the hauling of longer trains.
Between Williams Lake and Quesnel, it is noted a number of railway crossings
need attention, and these conditions are outlined in the appendix. In this area considerable ballast work and ditching have been done, and the track is now in quite
good condition. With regard to the ditching, use has been made of Jordan spreader
equipment so that good clearance and drainage have now been provided in a number
of the cuts, and a most commendable job has been done in this regard. This will go
a long way in reducing maintenance and tie renewals.
From Quesnel to Prince George, observation as to the consolidation of the
1948-52 construction was made, and generally it was noticed the ground is consolidating, so that track conditions are becoming stable. The Cottonwood Bridge
was observed, particularly at the north abutment. The ground at this point has
consolidated, and the drainage tunnels are working properly. At Bellos, Mile
400.9, conditions have not stabilized, but slow orders and temporary measures on
the part of the company have taken care of operating conditions.
 T 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
New 1,800-horsepower diesel locomotives equipped with 26l Westinghouse as well as
dynamic braking systems for smoother running and more efficient control.
At the Prince George south yard an overpass is being constructed to accommodate the new Fraser River Bridge. Considerable work is being done in this area,
and signals and protection were found to be in order.
At mile 465.9 a public crossing has given considerable difficulty due to motor-
vehicles running into the side of trains. The new bridge mentioned in the last paragraph will divert considerable traffic from this crossing, and after due study of
conditions leading up to accidents, a conclusion has been reached that automatic
protection at this point is not the answer, but mercury vapour street-type lights would
illuminate the area so that motorists would see trains when they are stopped or are
switching over the crossing. This recommendation is included in the appendix under
the general heading of " Crossings."
Between Prince George and Chetwynd, particular attention was paid to roadbed conditions due to new construction. The Fraser River Bridge and other bridges
were found to be in order. The unstable ground condition at the " old four mile "
appears to be corrected. The corrective measures have been largely due to a soil
study and the recommendations of soil engineers engaged by the company, and it
can be stated that generally between Prince George and Chetwynd the track is in good
condition and is being properly maintained.
Between Chetwynd and Fort St. John, the railway is in order, and it is noted
that the Peace River Bridge has been painted, the approaches are in good condition,
and ground conditions leading into the Peace River on either side are stabilized.
This again is due to soil engineering practices which have been implemented by the
management of the company. It was noted, however, at the Alaska Highway overpass near Fort St. John there was an unstable condition in the fill, where the ground
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT,  1962 T 27
appears to be sloughing. This was discussed with the chief engineer, and soil engineering techniques are to be applied in this area.
The yard at Fort St. John was inspected and found to be in order, and it is
noted a number of grain elevators have been completed in this area.
The inspection between Chetwynd and Dawson Creek revealed the track was
in order, but in a number of places soil conditions have not yet consolidated. Soil
engineering practices are being applied, and improvement is indicated.
Traffic on this branch-line subdivision is comparatively light, and most of the
rail is 60-pound re-lay. This is adequate for present-day traffic, and as the ground
consolidates conditions will improve.
An inspection was made of the automatic protection at the Alaska Highway.
This was found in order.
Construction and maintenance work were being done on the interchange tracks
between the Pacific Great Eastern and Northern Alberta Railways, and it would
appear considerable traffic is being interchanged between the two railways.
General
Stations were inspected and found to be clean and properly maintained, so that
the public is being properly served. Platforms were clear and passengers were being
properly accommodated.
An inspection was made of the interchange between the McMahon plant and
the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. This was found to be in order. The 2-mile
railway between the McMahon plant and the Pacific Great Eastern Railway is not
operated by the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. A Pacific Great Eastern Railway
locomotive is leased to the McMahon plant but is manned by McMahon plant
employees.
All pipe-line crossings were found to conform to the regulations, and necessary
signs are displayed.
It was noted considerable fencing was being done in the Cariboo area. A substantial job of fencing is being made, and the fencing is being done in areas where
most needed. In this regard it is interesting to note that over the past five or six
years the wet summers have caused an increase in the grazing areas, and additional
fencing has been done by the company to accommodate the cattlemen.
The shops and mechanical facilities of the railway were inspected a number of
times during the year, when locomotives and rolling-stock were periodically inspected. It can be reported both the motive power and rolling-stock are in satisfactory condition as the new facilities at the shops are now capable of coping with
maintenance conditions that arise throughout the operation.
It was observed the microwave dispatching is working properly and that communication can be made with the dispatcher at all times. Much time is saved in
making meets, and the general operation of the railway has been very much improved.
Over most of the line, telephone-poles and telephone-lines have been removed for
salvage as they are no longer required.
In conclusion it can be stated the Pacific Great Eastern Railway is generally
in a much-improved condition, and operation and maintenance are in order. •
 T 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Appendix.—Grade Crossings on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway
Requiring Attention
Mileage
Name or Location
Remarks
28.1
203.2
259.8
260.2
260.3
316.1
316.3
316.5
344.8
358.1
365.4
444.5
465.9
501.8
523.5
540.5
35.8
Furry Creek. -
Access to oil-station-
Used as public crossing at Exeter Station .
Logging crossing 	
Public crossing  	
Industrial  	
Farm crossing	
Garbage-dump public access..
Cariboo Road at Macalister  —
Alexandria Station	
Westcoast Transmission access road	
Public access crossing..
Prince George public crossing-
Industrial crossing	
Industrial crossing.
Dawson Creek Subdivision public crossing-
To be defined an industrial crossing.
To be made a public crossing.
Should be made a public crossing.
To be made an industrial crossing.
To be made a public crossing.
To be made an industrial crossing.
To be made a public crossing.
To be moved 625 feet north and made an industrial
crossing.
Further protection to be provided.
To be made a public crossing.
To be made a public crossing.
Signs to be installed.
Adequate illumination to be provided.
To be made a public access crossing and signs to be
installed.
To be made a public access crossing and signs to be
installed.
Install whistle-boards.
Clear brush to improve vision.
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority
Inspecting Engineer's Report
On October 12, 1962, the general annual inspection was made of the above
company's District 3 main line from Mile 0, New Westminster, to Mile 63.92,
Chilliwack.
The inspection was made by track motor in company with Mr. D. Martin,
manager of railway operations; Mr. J. A. Deptford, superintendent of maintenance-
of-way and shops; and Mr. W. Alcock, roadmaster.
The main line, passing-tracks, and spur lines are all in excellent condition.
It is evident that ballasting, tie renewals, weed control, ditching of wet cuts, and
culvert installations have been carried out under an efficient maintenance-of-way
programme. The scaling of loose rock along the cuts in the vicinity of Mile 53 to
Mile 55 has been almost completed, and good clearance obtained. The steel Vedder
River span and all wooden trestles are in good condition.
Track-oilers are being kept in good working-order, and, as a result, flange wear
on the motive power is kept to a minimum, and the 85-pound rail laid in 1959 shows
little signs of wear.
All motive power and track vehicles are radio-equipped. This enables the
movement of all traffic over the line to be efficiently controlled by the dispatcher.
At the time of the inspection, radio contact with the dispatcher and also with traffic
moving over the line was exceptionally good.
Diesel-electric locomotives, which are maintained at the New Westminster
repair-shop, supply the motive power for the movement of freight over this line.
The shop maintenance staff is maintaining the locomotives in good safe working-
order for immediate use.
Highway, farm, and private crossings over the railway, 165 in all, were inspected, and in general are in good order. There are several farm crossings yet to be
equipped with gates, and this has been taken up with the parties concerned. Mile-
boards have been installed over the full length of the line, and this gives a much
better method of the location of any particular item in comparison to the old method
of place-names.
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT, 1962 T 29
The Queensborough Bridge over the Fraser River on the branch line to Annacis
Island was inspected. This was formerly a traffic and railway bridge combined and
was owned by the City of New Westminster. It has been purchased by the railway
company and completely rebuilt and strengthened, and is now a single-track railway
bridge with a swing centre span, which is controlled and operated by railway
personnel.
Comox Logging & Railway Company
Inspecting Engineer's Report
On October 10, 1962, in company with Superintendent Gordon Naylor, an
inspection was made of the railway track, bridges, and equipment operated by the
above company between Ladysmith and Nanaimo Lakes.
The track terminates at First Lake as the Second Lake railway loading operation has been abolished. The new loading-works at First Lake is in good condition
and is being operated in a satisfactory manner.
Generally the entire operation is in good condition and is being well maintained. Eight thousand new ties were installed this year, and anchors have been
installed on all grades to prevent tie slippage.
The bridges were in good condition, some crossings have been replanked, and
in most cases crossing signs were properly displayed.
Diesel-electric Locomotive No. 7128 was inspected in service and found to be
in good operating condition.
Yard Switcher No. 107 and Rail Car No. 104 were also inspected, reservoirs
tested, and certificates issued to cover same.
The following conditions were noted and require attention: Railway crossing
sign required at Troutland crossing; repaint crossing signs at old pipe-line crossing;
remove railway crossing signs north of Nanaimo Lakes camp as not required.
MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River Limited
Inspecting Engineer's Report
On December 12, 1962, an inspection was made of the railway installation and
motive power owned and operated by the above company at the Nanaimo River
operation.
The company operates the railway between Ladysmith and Nanaimo jointly
with Comox Logging & Railway Company, and the maintenance of this line is taken
care of by both companies on a cost-share basis.
The Nanaimo River operation is a truck-railway transportation system. Logs
are brought in from the woods on trucks to a railway transfer point in the Nanaimo
River camp. The entire truck-load is transferred from the tractor-trailer units to
the skeleton railway cars. Trains are made up in the camp and hauled to Ladysmith
by steam-locomotives. Further marshalling is done at Ladysmith, and the loaded
log-car trains are hauled by the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway to the company yard
at the Chemainus mill.
The following conditions were noted:—
The new gluelam bridge over the Nanaimo River adjacent to the camp is in
good condition. Planking is intact on the deck and the footings appear to be in
good condition.
The track in the camp is in good condition.
Locomotive No. 1055 was inspected under steam and is in order.
Locomotive No. 1077, which is held for spare and is out of service, was also
inspected and is in order.
 T 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The boilers of both locomotives were given an annual hydrostatic test this year
and were found to be in satisfactory condition. New driving-tires are on hand for
Locomotive No. 1055, and it is expected they will be installed in 1963.
Canadian Forest Products Limited
Inspecting Engineer's Report
During the period November 5 to 9, 1962, an inspection was made of the
railway track and equipment owned and operated by the above company at its
Englewood Logging Division.
The track between Beaver Cove, Nimpkish, Woss, and Vernon Lake camps
was found to be in good condition. Rock ballast has been used between Beaver
Cove and Mile-post 44.5, and it is intended that the balance of the railway will be
rock-ballasted in 1963.
Mile-posts are clearly indicated, and the telephone-lines appear to be in good
order.
The bridges on the entire railway operation were inspected and generally found
to be in good condition; however, some conditions were noted and will require
immediate attention, as follows:—
Elk River Bridge: Shim cap at rail pile, No. 3 bent.
Mile-post 4:   Check culvert and provide support for lower side of track.
Woodengle Bridge: Renew No. 1 bent, south end.
Delusion Creek: Cap bearing poor, No. 1 bent, south end.
Bridge 10: New deck and guard-rail required.
Bridge 11: Check mud-sill for moving.
Groves Creek Bridge: No. 2 cap cracked, south end.
Rail Cars Nos. 121, 124, 125, 129, 130, and 131 were inspected, reservoirs
tested, and certificates issued with defects noted.    Rail Car No. 122 has not been
repaired since being involved in a collision and is therefore out of service.
Internal-combustion Locomotives Nos. 250, 252, and 253 were also inspected,
reservoirs tested, and certificates issued with defects noted.
Samuel Hardy and Walter Nadelko passed satisfactory examinations as power-
car operator and crane operator respectively.
Twenty-two skeleton logging-cars were inspected, with defects noted on Form
2. The replacement of side bearings on the logging-cars is progressing favourably,
and it is the intention to have a complete installation as quickly as possible.
It was noted that the operator of Locomotive No. 251 was not using the engine
bell while switching around Nimpkish yard, the reason being that the bell-ringer
operating valve is on the opposite side of the cab from the operator. This will have
to be relocated to a position convenient to the operator so that the bell may be rung
as required by the rules.
AERIAL TRAMWAYS
The use of aerial tramways has increased over the past three years by 200 per
cent, the greatest increase being in 1962. Prior to 1961, fourteen aerial tramways
were registered in the Department, and six have been added during 1962.
Some of the new aerial tramways include T-bar type tows of improved design.
Several designs were imported from France, and others originated in Switzerland
and other European countries. Many improvements to the European designs have
been made by local builders to their tramways so as to increase safety, and these
changes have been carried out with the Department's approval.
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT, 1962 T 31
The first aerial tramway regulations written in the English language were published by the British Columbia Government in 1947, and since that time the State
of California and Provinces in Eastern Canada, as well as New Zealand and Australia, have copied these regulations, making changes to suit their local conditions. As
a result, the safety and general strength of design are fairly uniform throughout
English-speaking countries, and this has resulted from the pioneering effort of personnel in the Department of Commercial Transport.
It is expected the use of aerial tramways will increase during the coming year
as mountain recreational facilities are becoming more popular.
An additional use of aerial tramways has been brought about by microwave
radiotelephones. Microwave requires reflector or repeater stations on the tops of
mountains, which are accessible only by helicopter or aerial tramway, and, of course,
during bad weather helicopters cannot be used, and aerial tramways provide the
necessary transportation on a twenty-four-hour-a-day basis. Such aerial tramways
now exist on Dog Mountain and Jarvis Mountain in the vicinity of Hope, and it is
expected that wider use will be made of aerial tramways for this purpose in the
near future.
No serious accidents on aerial tramways were reported during 1962, with the
exception of the damage to the tramway of Hollyburn Aerial Trams Ltd. in December of that year.
Investigation revealed that interference by vandals at the lower terminal resulted in the destruction of a tower by a swinging chair. Several persons stranded
on the tramway were rescued after a few hours of anxiety, but were fortunately
none the worse for their experience.
PIPE-LINES
During 1962 the pipe-line industry was very active. Innumerable pipe-lines
were built in the oilfields of North-eastern British Columbia. A proportion of the
pipe-lines built were for the transportation of crude oil, the remainder being for the
transport of gas from the fields to the Taylor plant and thence by pipe-line to Lower
British Columbia and the United States.
The 12-inch oil-line from Taylor to Kamloops was completed in January, 1962,
at which time the line was put into service. This line transports British Columbia
crude from British Columbia fields in the Peace River area to Kamloops, where the
oil is injected into the Trans Mountain system and transported to the refineries in
the Vancouver area.
During 1962 the new Western Pacific Products & Crude Oil Pipelines Ltd.
oil-line was connected with the Royalite refinery in Kamloops, so that this refinery
now operates on British Columbia crude. The initial capacity of the Western Pacific
Products pipe-line was 25,000 barrels per day, and the capacity at the end of 1962
was 45,000 barrels. The increase is an indication of the amount of British Columbia
oil now available to British Columbia refineries in Kamloops and at the Coast. In
some circles there was doubt as to the economic feasibility of this project when first
conceived, but after a year's operation there is no doubt whatsoever that the construction and installation of an all British Columbia line was in the best interests of
British Columbia, and those with the foresight to bring about the construction of
such a line should certainly be commended.
In the Lower Mainland the consumer lines of the British Columbia Hydro and
Power Authority and Inland Natural Gas continue to expand, while in South-eastern
British Columbia the Columbia Natural Gas Company Limited constructed new
pipe-lines to serve the towns of Cranbrook, Creston, Kimberley, and Fernie with
 T 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
NATURAL GAS
TRANSMISSION
PIPE-LINES
WESTCOAST
TRANSMISSION
GAS TRUNK  LINE
OF B.C.
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT, 1962
T 33
 T 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
natural gas obtained from the Alberta Natural Gas Company's main line, which
runs through South-eastern British Columbia.
It was the intention of Magna Pipeline Company Ltd. to construct a pipe-line
from Huntingdon to the area of Tsawwassen and from Tsawwassen to Crofton on
Vancouver Island. It was the company's intention to construct a flexible gas pipeline under the Strait of Georgia. A British manufacturer was to develop and lay a
flexible pipe for a distance of 20 miles under the Strait of Georgia, and in this
regard an engineer from this Department attended sea trial tests conducted in Loch
Fyne, Scotland, where a mile or more of the new-type flexible pipe was laid in 600
feet of water. Some difficulty was experienced in laying lengths of the flexible pipe
with couplings installed.
In view of the difficulties encountered, the Magna Pipeline Company has given
up the idea of laying a pipe-line to Vancouver Island, and the certificate granting
leave to construct such a pipe-line has been cancelled.
A large gasfield has been discovered in the area of Fort Nelson, and at this
writing the gas transmission companies are preparing to accommodate a large-
diameter pipe-line from Fort Nelson to Chetwynd. In all probability this pipe-line
will be constructed in 1964, with the ancillary equipment installed during 1963. It
is therefore expected that the years 1963 and 1964 will be busy years in the pipeline industry.
The pipe-line industry has felt the need for a uniform Canadian code to govern
the construction and operation of pipe-lines. Such a code should be uniform with
any code used in the United States and other parts of the world. With this in mind,
the Canadian Standards Association has set up a pipe-line committee to formulate
a new code. One of the engineers of this Department is vice-chairman of the Code
Committee, and the first meeting was held in Calgary in November, 1962.
The National Energy Board and representatives from Governments of the
various Provinces, as well as representatives from various pipe-line companies, are
members of the Committee. The Canadian Gas Association is also represented.
With respect to uniformity of rules, all the Provinces in Canada have already
adopted uniform rules to govern pressure vessels, and in this respect it is the feeling
of all the Provinces that the inspection of pressure vessels should be strictly a Provincial matter, and consequently inspecting engineers from this Department have,
during 1962, inspected all compressors and pumping-stations where pressure vessels
are used and installed. It is worthy of note that some of the compressor-stations
are large plants with a capacity in excess of 16,000 horsepower and pressures
ranging to 1,000 pounds per square inch.
All pipe-lines inspected during 1962 were certified and registered, and where
accidents or failures took place, inspecting engineers from this office investigated
and submitted reports.
The status of pipe-lines constructed in 1962 and tested is contained in the
appendix of this report.
Appendix
Annual Inspections under the Pipe-lines Act, 1962
Miles of new pipe-line inspected and tested  212.5
Number of pipe-line inspections  150
Compressor-stations inspected  6
Pumping-stations inspected  6
Accidents investigated on pipe-lines  1
Gas distribution and metering stations inspected  7
Number of tank-farms inspected  3
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT,  1962
T 35
Number of new pipe-line projects approved  49
Number of pipe-line crossings of railways inspected   1
Number of pipe-line crossings of highways inspected  5
Number of pipe-line crossings of other pipe-lines approved  18
Power-line crossings over pipe-line right-of-way approved  3
Pipe-line hearings attended  3
River crossings of pipe-lines approved and inspected  4
Approval of sets of plans and specifications for pipe-line projects __ 49
Approval of company pipe-line testing procedures  7
Investigation of pipe-line problems involving subdivisions  2
Certificates issued under the Pipe-lines Act authorizing the construction of new pipe-lines  6
Certificates of inspection issued under the Pipe-lines Act authorizing the operation of new pipe-line projects  44
Pipe-lines Approved, Installed, and Tested, 1962
Name of Company
Oil or
Gas
Project
No.
Pipe-line Location
Gas
1152
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority	
1139
Grandview Station, Vancouver.
1140
Standard Oil Co. lateral, Vancouver.
1120
Vancouver.
British Columbia Oil Transmission Co. Ltd 	
Oil
1129
Blueberry Field.
1103
Blueberry Field.
Columbia Natural Gas Ltd _— , 	
Gas
1132
Fernie lateral.
,,
1133
Cranbrook-Kimberley lateral.
1134
Yahk-Creston lateral.
1136
Laprise Creek.
Gas Trunk Line of British Columbia Ltd 	
1151
South Beg.
1153
1165
Rigel Creek extension.
1164
Rigel Creek extension.
,,
1156
Rigel Creek extension.
..
1163
Rigel Creek extension.
1146
Community of Rolla lateral.
1142
Prince George.
1143
Prince George.
1144
Prince George.
1135
Prince George.
1131
Prince George.
,,
1161
Kamloops diversion.
1147
1149
Jedney Field.
Jedney Field.
1123
,,
1119
North Beg.
,,
1121
North Beg.
,,
1122
Montney.
,,
1111
Jedney Field.
,,
1148
North Jedney.
,,
1150
Highway gathering system.
Plains Western Gas & Electric Co. Ltd _	
1137
Fort St. John.
Royalite Oil Co. Ltd.	
Oil
1141
Kamloops.
Blueberry.
Blueberry.
Sun Oil Co.- _	
Gas
1130
1109
1154
,
1125
Nig Creek.
,,
1159
North Jedney.
,,
1157
Boundary Lake.
,,
1158
Nig Creek.
Oil
1138
Boundary Lake.
Peejay Field.
1126
,,
1127
Wildmint Field.
,,
1128
Boundary Lake.
„
1124
Boundary Lake-Taylor loop.
,,
1116
Taylor-Pacific Western.
,,
1162
Taylor-Pacific Western.
>■
1160
Wildnvnt Field.
 T 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
INDUSTRIAL TRANSPORTATION
During 1962 industry made full use of truck transportation by private roads.
Some of the larger companies operate hundreds of miles of private roads, and these
roads are scattered throughout various parts of the Province.
Since the Industrial Transportation Act came into force in 1955, companies
concerned have responded well to the safety regulations brought about through that
legislation. A number of the companies were quick to recognize the advantage of
this Act and had their own regulations approved so that they could control traffic
on their private roads, which did not come within the jurisdiction of the Motor-
vehicle Act. This allowed such a company to appoint peace officers and to police
its own roads. Offences have been dealt with through the Courts in the same manner as done under the Motor-vehicle Act.
The severe grades and the special conditions encountered on industrial roads
require that the specifications for brakes and the qualifications for drivers be more
stringent than they are on public highways, and as a result the Department engineers
have conducted lectures on air brakes and safety so as to upgrade the drivers and
create a sense of responsibility, where prior to our regulations no uniformity of rules
or enforcement existed.
No fatal accidents occurred on industrial roads in 1962 due to the failure or
malfunction of air brakes, whereas before our regulations were in force and the
educational programme for drivers was put into effect, it was commonplace to have
fatalities where logging-trucks operated on heavy grades.
The Industrial Transportation Act does not cover trucks or roads in open-pit
mines, but in this regard the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources has
seen fit to adopt our rules where they could apply to vehicles operating in mines,
and our inspectors work with the inspectors of that Department to bring about
uniformity of regulations and safe practices on mining property.
A number of the logging-roads go through areas where hunting, ski-ing, and
fishing are enjoyed by the public. Some of the companies have been most cooperative in making arrangements to accommodate those people wishing to enjoy
these recreational facilities, and, accordingly, in some cases the companies have
supplied a watchman at the gates and allowed access under controlled conditions.
It is regrettable that all companies have not co-operated to the fullest extent in this
regard, but it is felt conditions will improve with time.
During 1962, inspectors from this office have made inspections of as many
industrial roads as possible, and where complaints have been received regarding
equipment or the transportation of workmen, inspectors have been dispatched to
the operation concerned, where corrective measures have been brought about to
improve safety.
Annual Inspections under the Industrial Transportation Act
Logging-trucks inspected  292
Gravel-trucks inspected  42
Crummies  89
Miscellaneous vehicles inspected  15
Highway vehicles inspected with Royal Canadian Mounted Police.— 80
Number of new logging-trucks put into service  107
Air-brake lectures  16
Logging-truck operators certified  382
Lectures to Royal Canadian Mounted Police  2
 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT, 1962 T 37
Lecture classes held for mechanics for Department of Education  7
Mechanics examined and certified for Department of Education  22
Accidents investigated on logging-truck roads  	
Fatal accidents on logging-truck roads	
Accidents investigated on highways for Royal Canadian Mounted
Police  1
Air-brake Lectures and Examinations Held in the Field
Number Number
Attending Examined
Blubber Bay  16 13
Boston Bar  12 7
Campbell River  38 16
Merritt  55 55
Nakusp  30 21
Nelson (R.C.M.P. patrol)  16
Nitinat  28 21
Port Alberni  15 27
Revelstoke  13 13
Ucluelet  30 12
Vocational Curriculum Development Division, Burnaby  25 25
Haney Correctional Institution  45 26
British Columbia Vocational School, Nanaimo  84 84
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1963
360-163-5063
   

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