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BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCIAL MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY and ANTHROPOLOGY REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1962 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1963]

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Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
  To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1962.
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Office of the Minister of Recreation and Conservation,
January, 1963.
 Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology,
Victoria, B.C., January 23, 1963.
The Honourable E. C. Westwood,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The undersigned respectfully submits herewith a report covering the
activities of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the
calendar year 1962.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
The Honourable Earle C. Westwood, Minister.
D. B. Turner, Ph.D., Deputy Minister.
G. Clifford Carl, Ph.D., Director.
Charles J. Guiguet, M.A., Curator of Birds and Mammals.
Wilson Duff, M.A., Curator of Anthropology.
Adam F. Szczawinski, Ph.D., Curator of Botany.
Donald N. Abbott, B.A., Assistant in Anthropology.
Frank L. Beebe, Illustrator and Museum Technician.
Margaret Crummy, B.A., Clerk-Stenographer.
Betty C. Newton, Assistant in Museum Technique.
Sheila Y. Newnham, Assistant in Museum Technique.
Helen M. Burkholder, Clerk (half time).
Claude G. Briggs, Attendant.
C. E. Hope, Relief Attendant.
Gordon King, Relief Attendant.
Totem-pole Restoration Programme
Mungo Martin, Chief Carver (to August 31st).
Henry Hunt, Chief Carver (from September 1st).
C. E. (Tony) Hunt, Assistant Carver.
(a) To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the
(b) To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the
(c) To obtain information respecting the natural sciences, relating particularly
to the natural history of the Province, and to increase and diffuse knowledge
regarding the same.
(Section 4, Provincial Museum Act, chapter 311, R.S.B.C. 1960.)
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free, on week-days, 8.30 a.m. to
5 p.m., and on Sunday afternoons, 1 to 5 p.m.
Report of the Director.  9
Field Work  9
Publications  9
Curatorial Activities  10
Displays  11
Research  11
Attendance  12
Volunteer Docents  12
Extension Work  12
Thunderbird Park  13
Obituaries  13
Donations and Accessions  15
" Birds Seen from Clover Point, Victoria, B.C.," by R. Y. Edwards and
David Stirling  19
" Stone Clubs from the Skeena River Area," by Wilson Duff  27
 Chief Mungo Martin, late chief carver, Provincial Museum.
(B.C. Government photo.)
Model of British Columbia, 5 by 7 feet, designed and constructed by F. L. Beebe,
Museum technician.
For the Year 1962
Two significant events marked 1962 as memorable in the history of the Provincial Museum: a record attendance was attained and the institution celebrated its
seventy-fifth birthday.   Otherwise, activities were carried on much as usual.
Undoubtedly the increase in number of visitors was due to the World's Fair,
which brought several millions of persons to the Seattle area, plus the centennial
celebrations in Victoria, which further encouraged visitors to come to Vancouver
Island. Whatever the reason, the end result was that more than 270,000 persons
passed through the Museum during the tourist season, more than two and one-half
times as many as in any previous entire year.
Since October 25, 1887, when the Provincial Museum was officially opened,
this branch of the Government has given three-quarters of a century of continuous
service. To commemorate the occasion, the Provincial Government was host to a
banquet on October 27, 1962, which was attended by Government officials, representatives of related organizations, and individuals who have been associated with
the Museum over the years. Chairman was the Honourable E. C. Westwood, Minister of the Department of Recreation and Conservation. The Honourable W. N.
Chant, Minister of Public Works, represented Premier W. A. C. Bennett; Dr. L. S.
Russell, Director of the National Museum of Canada and president of the Canadian
Museums Association, was guest speaker.
Various members of the staff spent periods of time during the year in various
portions of the Province. Bird and mammal work was largely confined to assisting
in photographic work in the Creston area on two occasions, in making a reconnaissance of islands in Barkley Sound, and in aiding an aerial big-game census in the
Columbia Valley.
Botanical collecting was carried on in Northern British Columbia, and a preliminary reconnaissance was made of the Revelstoke-Arrow Lakes-Kootenay Lake
district in preparation for a survey planned for 1963.
Anthropological contacts were maintained and work accomplished by a trip
including stops in the Shuswap Lake area, Hazelton region, Prince Rupert, and
certain parts of the Queen Charlotte Islands. In addition, colour slides and tape
recordings were obtained and two totem-poles were collected. Various " digs "
being sponsored by the Archselogical Sites Advisory Board were also visited, and
during the winter several local Indian spirit dances were attended.
The following publications have appeared in 1962:—
" Guide to the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology,"
October, 1962.
Donald N. Abbott—
" Victoria and District Archaeology Club."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 18,
No. 7, p. 98.
" Care of Silver."   Museum Round-up, No. 8, p. 16, October, 1962.
Frank L. Beebe—
" Museum Techniques."   Museum Round-up, No. 8, pp. 22-23, October, 1962.
G. Clifford Carl—
" The Sea."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 51-54.
" 75 Years of Progress."   The Islander, Daily Colonist, Sunday, November 18, pp. 2 and 10.
Wilson Duff—
" Wanted:   A Word."   The Clearing House (Western Museums Quarterly), Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 23, 1961.
Review of "Men of Medeek," by Will Robinson.   Beaver, Outfit 293,
winter 1962, p. 56.
C. J. Guiguet—
"River Otter."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 18, No. 5, p. 53.
" The Cougar on Vancouver Island."    Canadian Audubon, Vol. 24,
No. 1, Jan.-Feb., 1962, pp. 6-9.
" Don't Condemn the Cougar."   British Columbia Digest, Vol. 18, No. 5,
October, 1962, p. 19.
" Bird Finding in British Columbia."   Canadian Audubon, Vol. 24, No. 4,
Sept.-Oct, 1962, pp. 108-112.
George A. Hardy—
" Notes on the Life Histories of One Butterfly and Three Moths from
Vancouver Island (Lepidoptera: Lycsnida?, Phalasnidae and Geo-
metrida?)." Proc. Entomological Society of British Columbia, Vol.
59, pp. 35-39.
"Additional Notes on Nymphalis californica Bdv." Proc. Entomological
Society of British Columbia, Vol. 59, p. 34.
Josephine F. L. Hart—
" Records of Distribution of Some Crustacea in British Columbia." Report
of the Provincial Museum for 1961, pp. 17-19.
W. E. Ricker and Ferris Neave—
" Nesting Colony of Mew Gulls on Kennedy Lake, Vancouver Island."
Report of the Provincial Museum for 1961, pp. 20-21.
Adam F. Szczawinski and G. A. Hardy—
" Guide to Common Edible Plants of British Columbia." British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 20, pp. 1-90.
The "Guide to Common Edible Plants," by Dr. Szczawinski and Mr. Hardy
(formerly of the Museum staff), is a revised edition of Handbook No. 1, prepared
by Mr. Hardy more than twenty years ago. The old booklet has been a continuous
" best seller," and the new edition has already proved to be exceedingly popular.
It has pointed out the need for a companion volume on poisonous plants, a publication planned for early production.
Other publications in the fields of anthropology and natural history are in various stages of preparation or are awaiting publication.
As time between field work and other activities permitted, the entire study collection of bird-skins was rearranged to incorporate all specimens acquired in recent
years.   The skins are now in their correct order, and spaces have been left so that
new specimens can be readily added.
The colony of bone-cleaning beetles that has been maintained for many years
in the Museum laboratory has now been moved to a separate insect-proof structure
kindly provided by the Department of Public Works.
A large number of plant specimens has been prepared during the year and has
been added to the herbarium, bringing the number up to 38,250.
In the anthropological division, the stone, bone, and other archaeological materials have been checked, cleaned, and rearranged on storage shelves, mostly by a
volunteer assistant, Mr. John Sendey, to whom we are greatly indebted. The New-
combe Collection was incorporated in storage, and the Interior Indian display-room,
which had been used as a receiving-room, was opened once more to the public.
In November the Department of Public Works awarded a contract to a local
firm which undertook to provide regular pest-control service in the Museum wing,
storerooms, and laboratory.
During the spring months much time was spent in completely rearranging the
bird display in the public gallery. Each old-style glass case was modified by installing a back and two wings of wallboard to which perches were attached for the
support of each bird. The buds were arranged in natural groups, and a harmonious
colour scheme was adopted to demonstrate the relationships of various groups.
Later a new display-wall was installed on the main floor to feature living amphibians and reptiles. The exhibit includes several individual cages, each designed
to show the typical habitat of the animal featured. Background is mostly foam plastic supporting natural accessories. Overhead lamps provide both light and heat for
the animals requiring warm quarters.
A number of choice items from the Indian collection were on display in the
Fine Arts Building at the World's Fair in Seattle for a six-month period beginning
in April, where they were viewed by several millions of people. In addition, various
other small temporary displays were arranged, as requested from time to time.
During the period October 23rd to November 7th, a number of Haida and
Kwakiutl drawings and several other objects of Indian art were displayed at the Art
Gallery of Greater Victoria.
Some progress was made in three long-term projects that have been carried on
for several years, mainly the study of small-animal populations on Coastal islands,
the Province-wide botanical survey, and the study of social organization in the
Tsimshian. Work ih these fields is carried on by staff members when time and
opportunity permit.
In addition, a preliminary report was completed on the Beach Grove archaeological site (DgRsl) and several additions were made to the file of British Columbia
archaeological sites, mostly from reports of interested outsiders.
In January the Provincial Museum received a National Science Foundation
grant to support independent research being carried on by Dr. J. F. L. Hart, a volunteer assistant. Results are to be published by the National Museum, Washington, D.C.
From time to time during the year, samples of glaucous-winged gulls were collected in Oak Bay and sent to the University of Washington at Seattle, where a long-
term study of plumage changes is being made.
Because the visitors' register was no longer serving a useful purpose and was
interfering with traffic flow, it was removed early in the year, and the policy of asking
visitors to sign was discontinued. The following attendance figures are monthly
estimates based on registrations or»on sample counts at irregular intervals:—
January   1,600               August   115,000
February   3,000               September      20,000
March   3,400               October       3,600
April   6,600               November        1,600
May   12,000               December       1,200
June   20,000                                                   	
July  85,000 Grand total  273,000
The total estimated attendance of more than 270,000 is the highest on record,
exceeding previous records by more than two and one-half times.
To help cope with the crowds and to provide pleasant surroundings for leisure
time, the Museum hours were extended to 9 p.m. each evening except Sunday during
July, August, and part of September. Many persons availed themselves of this
extra service, particularly on evenings when flag-lowering ceremonies were presented in front of the Legislative Buildings.
Volunteer Docents
The offer of assistance as volunteer guides by several lady members of the
Victoria Natural History Society was enthusiastically accepted in the early summer,
and the extra service was offered during July and August. No set schedule was
followed, the ladies coming as time permitted. As it was found that visitors preferred asking questions of the guides rather than being taken on conducted tours,
the organizing of groups was not attempted. Nevertheless, the service was much
appreciated and proved of value to both visitor and guide.
We are greatly indebted to the various members of the Victoria Natural History
Society who gave freely of their time and knowledge in furthering the enjoyment
of Museum visitors.
Staff members have continued to give numerous illustrated talks both locally
and in other parts of the Province throughout the year. In March the Director gave
a series of wildlife lectures in Florida under the combined auspices of the Canadian
Audubon Society, the National Audubon Society, and local organizations.
At various times, specimens and materials were loaned for temporary displays
in Vancouver, Chase, and Victoria, and during the British Columbia Museums Association meetings at Barkerville in September certain staff members gave instruction
and practical demonstrations of museum techniques.
In November a photographic team from West Germany filmed sections of the
Indian displays and activities at Thunderbird Park for television use.
The Director, and occasionally other members of the staff, has contributed regularly to a local weekly radio panel, " Outdoors with the Experts," which started in
1955. Staff members also participated several times in a local television programme
featuring work of the Department.
During the fall term the Curator of Botany gave an evening non-credit course
called " Mushrooms for Beginners " under the auspices of Victoria College.
The death of Chief Mungo Martin in August, after ten years as chief carver of
the totem-pole restoration programme, was a sad blow, for his knowledge and talents
can never be replaced. The programme will continue with Henry Hunt as chief
Carving was started in April, and three projects were completed during the
year. An additional copy of a 21-foot Kitwancool Frog pole was made and will be
held available for loans when requested. A large plaque representing the Thunder-
bird and Whale was made for display in the new Travel Bureau office in Vancouver.
A copy was made of one of the two large Kitwancool poles collected during the
summer, to be sent back and erected in that village. In addition, arrangements were
completed to carve a 65-foot totem-pole as a gift from Canada to the City of Buenos
Several improvemens were made to the exhibits in the park. A new Thunder-
bird Park arch using more authentic carvings was constructed to replace the old one.
A replica of one of the large Kitwancool poles was erected to replace an old Bella
Coola entrance pole, which was moved to storage. New labels were placed on all
exhibits, and three new benches provided by the Parks Branch were installed, preparatory to landscaping and planting of native shrubs, which is now in progress.
With regret we record here the passing of five persons who, over the years,
have rendered many services to the Museum and to the Province as a whole.
Mr. Gordon Stace Smith, of Creston, B.C., an amateur collector and authority
on beetles of British Columbia (February 19th).
Mr. I. E. Cornwall, an early student and collector of fossils on Southern Vancouver Island and later an authority on barnacles of the Province (August 6th).
Chief Mungo Martin, world-renowned Kwakiutl artist and chief carver in the
Museum's totem restoration programme (August 16th).
Mrs. Amy Barrow, widow of the late F. J. Barrow of Sidney, B.C., who was a
student and photographer of Coastal Indian pictographs and amateur archaeologist
(November 20th).
Mr. Francis Cecil Whitehouse, an authority on sports fishing in British Columbia and on dragonflies of the Province.    (December 3, 1959, in Phoenix, Arizona.)
 AA 14
58                 59                 60                 61                 €
Major plant collections were received from T. R. Ashlee, Victoria (Saltspring
Island); L. Butterworth, Victoria; Mrs. D. Calverley, Dawson Creek; L. Erickson,
Fort St. James; Dr. C. D. Fowle, Toronto (Mitlenatch Island); Dr. S. S. Holland,
Victoria (Northern British Columbia); A. McLaughlin, Victoria (Fraser Lake);
J. E. Underhill, Victoria (Manning Park); and Dr. W. Ziller, Victoria.
Herbarium exchange was continued with the following institutions: National
Museum of Canada, Ottawa; Science Service, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa;
Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC; University of British Columbia, Vancouver; University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.; Victoria College, Victoria; Stockholm Museum, Stockholm, Sweden; University of Jena, East Germany; and others.
Finally, we wish to acknowledge in general the voluntary co-operation and help
of those who contribute to botanical collections and knowledge. Unfortunately,
space does not permit us to list each one individually, but we intend to include all of
them in a grateful vote of thanks.
_,     .. Mammals
By gift-
Ronald Angus, Victoria, three whale teeth.
Mrs. Guy Barclay, Victoria, earbone and teeth of whale.
British Columbia Fish and Game Branch, one bighorn sheep.
B. O. G. Dixon, Cassidy, one weasel.
E. G. Flesher, Phillips Arm, one wolverine skull, one otter jawbone.
Alan L. Greig, Victoria, one pair of walrus tusks.
J. A. Lohbrunner, Happy Valley, one house cat.
D Birds
By gift-
Mrs. Guy Barclay, Victoria, one albatross egg.
Miss Joyce Barnes, Crescent Beach, one great gray owl.
T. F. Baxter, Victoria, one fox sparrow.
Mrs. H. M. S. Bell, Victoria, one juvenile linnet.
British Columbia Fish and Game Branch, one Cooper hawk.
Harrison Brown, Hornby Island, one sharp-shinned hawk, one saw-whet owl.
H. Bunker, Victoria, one golden-crowned sparrow.
A. R. Davidson, Victoria, one screech owl.
Vernon Harknett, Victoria, one fork-tailed petrel.
Canon M. W. Holdom, Crescent Beach, one golden-crowned kinglet, one
Swainson thrush.
C. E. Loggin, Victoria, one quail egg.
Mrs. George Lowe, Victoria, one great auk egg.
Miss B. C. Newton, Victoria, one red-breasted sapsucker.
W. H. Parker, Victoria, one starling with nest and eggs.
W. A. B. Paul, Hornby Island, two nests, Hammond and Traill flycatcher.
S. H. Phillips, Sidney, one mounted quail.
Mrs. S. Sharcott, Victoria, one violet-green swallow.
David Stirling, Victoria, one fulmar.
Mrs. E. Thompson, Victoria, one red-shafted flicker.
Mrs. G. A. Thompson, Victoria, collection of mounted birds.
Mrs. W. G. Ziller, Victoria, one pine siskin.
„     ._, Amphibians and Reptiles
By gift-
Jackie Brown and Fred Cliff, Victoria, one painted turtle.
Mrs. J. F. L. Carl, Victoria, one garter snake.
David Duris, Victoria, one blue racer.
Miss Maureen King, Sooke, one garter snake skin.
Robert D. Ortenburger, Tulsa, Okla., one gopher snake from Galiano Island.
D. Scholes, Victoria, one clouded salamander.
David Sisson, Victoria, one garter snake.
r>      -t* FlSH
By gift—
W. E. Baraclough, Nanaimo, one soft sculpin.
Art Brookman, Victoria, one lamprey.
W. F. Campbell, Victoria, one redside shiner.
J. R. C. Hewett, Victoria, one lamprey.
H. W. Laird, Victoria, one coho.
Tom Murphy, Victoria, one coho.
_,     .. Invertebrates
By gift-
Mrs. Guy Barclay, Victoria, collection of coral.
Miss Roberta Boyd, Victoria, one polyphemus moth.
Pat Cardinell, Victoria, one mourning cloak butterfly.
W. Cook, Victoria, one black widow spider.
Mrs. W. Glenny, one crayfish.
Frank L. Godfrey, Victoria, one wasp nest.
George W. Hagglund, Victoria, one electric-light bug.
Mrs. L. A. Haines, Heriot Bay, one striped cockchafer.
Phil Hendry, Victoria, one polyphemus moth.
Larry Kanester, Ganges, two sea urchins, one scallop shell.
K. H. Kinsman, Victoria, two banded grey longhorn beetles.
W. Matthews, Victoria, one Austral-Asian roach.
Miss R. Osselton, Victoria, one black widow spider.
W. H. Parker, Victoria, one hair worm.
A. G. Phillips, Victoria, one polyphemus moth.
David Politano, Victoria, one black widow spider.
Neil Pollock, Glen Lake, one orb-weaver spider.
H. J. Sceats, Victoria, one striped cockchafer.
Mrs. F. C. Smith, Victoria, one striped cockchafer.
T. Steigenberger, Victoria, one polyphemus moth.
Brian, Lisa, and Elaine Taylor, Victoria, one eyed hawk moth.
Miss D. White, Victoria, one grub of striped cockchafer.
By purchase—
Archie Nicholls, formerly of Sooke, seven boxes of local and foreign insects.
„     .„ Paleontology
By gift-
Fred Russell, Victoria, piece of sandstone containing fossil shells.
_      .. Miscellaneous
By gift-
Mrs. A. I. Halkett, Victoria, collection of books and pamphlets on barnacles
from the estate of the late I. E. Cornwall, of Victoria.
Robert D. Ortenburger, Tulsa, Okla., collection of books from the estate of
the late Dr. A. I. Ortenburger, Galiano Island.
The Mrs. Edna Acteson Collection.—(Gift.)    Athapaskan(?) moccasins, Tlingit
raven rattle, and Nootka and Squamish baskets.   Donated in memory of Mrs.
Acteson's parents, Frank and Mildred Boyd.
The Mel Lynum Collection.—(Gift.)    Archaelogical specimens from Digby Island
and Tachick Lake.    (Per Mrs. J. A. Munro, Okanagan Landing.)
The James M. Macalister Collection.—(Gift.)    Archaelogical specimens from Mr.
Macalister's property near Marguerite and from other Cariboo sites.
The Frank H. Stevens Collection.—(Gift.)     Salish and Nootka baskets and a
chipped projectile point from Victoria.
By gift-
Howard Barker, Victoria, chipped knife and chipped projectile point.
Mrs. Grace C. Coates, Victoria, Athapaskan copper knife.
Richard Cox, Victoria, surface collections of artifacts.
Mrs. W. H. Cross, Sidney, surface collection of seven soapstone artifacts.
Mrs. Eleanore Davidson, Victoria, one Nootka and one Salish basket.
John Davis, Miss Sue Irving, and John Sendey, Victoria, artifacts found while
skin diving.
Paul Despins, Sayward (per Russell Porter), human skull.
Mrs. Charles Foulkes, Victoria, Salish basketry cradle.
S. Franks, T. A. Paterson, and Doug Pitt, Victoria, human skeleton.
Mrs. Gilby, Ladner, chipped basalt point or knife fragment.
Willi Helmer, Vancouver, drawing of Sisiutl by George Wilson, of Fort Rupert.
Norman R. Hill, Victoria, one chipped basalt and one ground slate projectile point.
Mrs. Trevor Hughes, Vancouver, bone awl fragment.
Richard Hutchins, Victoria, hand-maul.
Mrs. Virginia Hutchison, Martinez, Calif., basketry fragments,  stake, and
other wooden pieces from an old weir.
O. Jowett, Victoria, chipped basalt projectile point or knife.
R. S. Kidd, Seattle, Wash., surface collections of artifacts.
Freeman King, Victoria, two hand-maul fragments.
Mrs. George Lowe, Victoria, hand-maul fragment and ground slate projectile
Mr. and Mrs. A. McGregor, Victoria, Haida spruce-root hat with painted
Ronald Ian McPhee, Victoria, human skull.
P. R. F. Marshall, Denman Island, jade adze blade.
A. J. Meyers (per Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Williams Lake), five
human skeletons.
J. D. Munro, Victoria, chipped basalt scraper and ground slate projectile-point
Jack Mrus, Port Renfrew, prehistoric carved hardwood spear point.
 AA 18
Mrs. T. W. S. Parsons, Victoria, one pair of Athapaskan and one pair of
Shuswap snowshoes.
Mrs. C. D. Prentice, Sarnia, Ont., Nootka canoe (full size).
Miss Marie Riddell, two Squamish and one Nootka baskets.
Mr. Rohack, Wynndel (per Mrs. J. A. Munro, Okanagan Landing), chipped
projectile point.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ucluelet, deformed human skull.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Williams Lake, human skeletal material.
Martin Schaddelee, Victoria, jade celt.
John Sendey, Victoria, human skeletal material and surface collections of artifacts from several sites.
C. J. Smith, Victoria, trepanned human skull.
Atholl Sutherland-Brown, Haida harpoon-head fragment.
Susan Turkington, Victoria, chipped stone projectile point.
C. O. Twiss, Galiano Island, human skull.
Aubrey Walls, Victoria, three Nootka-style model canoes.
W. P. Wellgress, Ladner, chipped stone knife and an abrasive stone.
By purchase—
Alfred George, Victoria, Songhees spirit dance costume.
By the staff—
Kwakiutl model totem-pole and large wall plaque carved by Henry Hunt in
Thunderbird Park.
Surface collections of artifacts from various sites.
During 1962 the sum of $466.39, proceeds from the donation box, was turned
over to the Queen Alexandra Solarium for Crippled Children.
By R. Y. Edwards and David Stirling, Parks Branch,
Department of Recreation and Conservation
In the middle of September, 1961, we began to make a weekly inventory of the
birds on and visible from Clover Point, Victoria, B.C., over a period of a year.
Dotted here and there on the map of earth are places especially favoured by abundant life; Clover Point is such a place. Here birds that live about shallow seas are
often abundant. Much of the year, birds of many species are present and usually
their numbers are impressive, but the picture changes with the seasons. Around the
cycle of a year, species come and go, their numbers waxing and waning in a pattern
of change that is tied to the seasons. The purpose of our study was to record this
annual scene of change in numerical terms. Our survey was mainly concerned with
the more common birds of the area. When we saw rarities we noted them, but it
was not our purpose to emphasize the waifs that might visit the point.
Clover Point is part of Victoria's Beacon Hill Park. It is about 1 Vz miles air
line from the junction of Fort and Government Streets in downtown Victoria, so is
easily accessible to residents and visitors. A loop of road makes all shores of the
point more or less visible from cars.
The point is about 400 yards long and 100 yards or less wide. Its surface is
flat-topped, much of it maintained in lawn. From the top to the shore below is a
drop of perhaps 25 feet. These shores are rocky, and somewhat broken because
composed of the black lava characteristic of much of the coast about this part of
Victoria. Kelp beds lie offshore to the south and south-west, while to the east is a
bay often sheltered from the wind by the point, which may consequently be favoured
by waterfowl. A major sewer outlet a few yards off the end of the point attracts
some ducks and numbers of gulls, their abundance depending on the season.
The storms of winter are spectacular from Clover Point. When the wind is a
gale, the heaving sea can be very close, yet the point is high enough to be above the
waves. On clear days the Olympic Mountains form a scenic wall beyond the strait
to the south.
The point is a popular place. It is a pleasant spot to sit in one's car by the sea,
and at noon on a fine day many office people drive there to eat lunch and to enjoy
the fresh air and scenery. It is also a favourite hunting-ground for naturalists, particularly those looking for birds. When the birding is good, and the grapevine has
had time to spread the news, a dozen or more people, with binoculars and telescopes,
may be staring back at the birds from near the end of the point. There is possibly
no other place in Canada so close to the heart of a city that is so well endowed with
birds of the shore and sea.
The birds of Clover Point are mainly water birds. The point has little to offer
land birds, except for the northwestern crows often attracted in numbers to the food
left by an ebbing tide. As the graphs clearly show, in summer the birds nearly desert
the point, but in winter their numbers are impressive.
People wishing to see western birds find the point outstanding. The western
and eared grebes can be common. The pelagic cormorant is often seen. Harlequin
ducks are there almost all year, and surf and white-winged scoters are numerous
outside the summer. The shorebirds offer black turnstones in all months but June.
Surfbirds and rock sandpipers can be common. Black oystercatchers are resident
in the region.   Glaucous-winged gulls are always there.   The mew gull is abundant
much of the year, and the California gull is numerous during late summer and early
fall. Here, with any luck at all, you will see Mexico's Heermann gull in September,
and the western gull is a possibility any time for the lucky and observant. Fairly
reliable Alcids in winter are the pigeon guillemot and marbled murrelet. With a
good glass, your chances increase for seeing common murres or, more rarely, an
ancient murrelet.
Even within the region, Clover Point is known as a place to see birds, often
unusual birds. Storms frequently bring pelagic species close to its shores. Local
naturalists are apt to welcome the numerous storms of winter that are windy and wet,
but often quick to pass. When the storm is on, and shortly after, sharp eyes may
find a fulmar, or Sabine gulls, a kittiwake or skua; or a rhinoceros auklet may be
close to shore.
And then there are the birds, just rare or not too often seen, that come to Clover
Point, like wandering tattlers, and ruddy turnstones, common scoters, and the sooty
shearwaters that most summers stay out of the eye's reach, but which occasionally
can pour into sight in startling numbers.
This small patch of ground and its adjacent waters have had 161 species of
birds, all seen since early 1957 by local naturalists. Mr. G. A. Poynter's list, given
below, shows the many kinds to be seen in a place like Clover Point, where there are
many birds, and many people who enjoy seeing them.
In this report we speak in generalities, and to be brief we will tend to state rules
but not their exceptions. Biology is full of exceptions, and it is easy to let them hide
the rules. When we say that loons are absent from Clover Point waters through
August and September, the statement, of course, applies to what we saw in the
period of study, and if we had seen one loon there during this period, we would not
have let one wanderer destroy the useful idea that loons are absent in late summer.
Remember also that we are talking only of that bit of earth's surface that can be
seen from Clover Point. Do not assume that Clover Point conditions are necessarily
similar to those by any other bit of nearby shoreline, and do remember that what was
there in one twelve-month period will not be exactly duplicated in other years.
The four species of loons in the world were seen from the point. A yellow-
billed loon was seen December 19th (see note in The Murrelet 42:44). The common loon was commonest, seen frequently but irregularly from early October to late
July, usually as singles in the count, but once up to four. Arctic loons were seen
infrequently in November, December, February, and May. The red-throated loon
was less abundant, and seen in November and January. Loons in general, dominated by the common loon, were present in small numbers from October to July, and
absent in August and September.
Four species of grebes are common in season (see graphs). Western grebes
arrive the middle of October, increase until mid-December, then are present in
numbers up to fifty until mid-March. Numbers then decrease. We saw none from
early April to mid-October. Red-necked grebes are present without fail but in small
numbers (up to seven, often two or three) from late September to mid-March, and
less reliably thereafter. We saw only one (April 24th) from April 3rd to September
25th. Horned grebes arrive with the red-necks, are reliably present through winter
in numbers up to fifteen, usually less than ten, and they remain until early May, later
than the red-necks. Eared grebes arrive with the western grebes in mid-October,
and are reliably present in numbers up to ten or so until mid-April. As to grebes in
general, four species are present from mid-October to early April, absent May to
September.   Several straggler eared and horned appeared in August and September.
Red neck.
Late September.
Late September.
Early May.
Early April.
We saw only one, a fulmar, in heavy seas on November 21st. Another species,
sooty shearwater, although not seen by us, is probably the one species of tube-nose
most likely to be seen from the point, and can be abundant for brief periods in some
Three species occur. Pelagic cormorants nest on nearby islands. Seen every
count; up to thirty but mostly less than ten. Numbers were fairly constant, with
high days in March, April, May, and September. Brandt cormorants were seen all
through October (up to fifteen), then irregularly and in small numbers through the
winter to mid-March. Double-crested cormorants were seen irregularly and in small
numbers (up to three) in November and December, then once in January (four),
March (one), and June (two). Cormorants in general are dominated by the resident pelagic. Brandt, which breeds in the San Juan Islands, is a winter visitor.
Double-crests are erratic visitors, probably from nearby brackish waters.
Great blue herons feed from kelp beds occasionally in the fall (September 5th
and 19th and November 15th).
Ducks and Geese
Diving ducks dominate this group. Of the two kinds of geese, Canada geese
are overhead migrants (April 24th a flock of 120), and black brant are reliable
migrants, feeding nearby, from mid-March to early May. Marsh ducks are irregular
and in small numbers. Mallards are present as a pair or two through April and
May, and appear irregularly in other months except in July and August. American
widgeon occur irregularly early October to early May, usually as several, occasionally to twelve or twenty-one; none otherwise, except one June 19th. Shovellers
occur reliably late November to late December, and were absent otherwise (one in
January). Outside of summer, greater scaups dominate the bird scene, except for
the gulls. Scaups arrive in mid-September, have reached winter abundance (over
300) by mid-October, and may peak to 400 or 500 in December and January.
Numbers decline through April, and none was seen after mid-May. Buffleheads, the
next most abundant, arrive in mid-October, are numerous (70 to 100) by November, and maintain this abundance to late March. They decrease through April, most
have gone by early May, but stragglers remain later.    None was seen in June or
 AA 22                                                  BRITISH COLUMBIA
through the summer.    Common goldeneyes arrive in late October, remain at less
than twenty (fifty-five on November 30th) through winter to April.   They decline
in early April and disappear in mid-April.    Barrow goldeneye is rare (one bird
November 15th).   Old squaws are reliable in small numbers (under ten) from mid-
October to early May.   Harlequin ducks are non-breeding residents in the region.
They are reliably present (ten to twenty) at Clover Point early September to mid-
July, unreliable thereafter through August.    Three scoters occur.    The common
scoter is rare (two on January 4th).    Surf scoters are common (seldom under
twenty, up to seventy) from early September to late April, declining through May
and reappearing late August.   None was seen in June, July, or early part of August.
White-winged scoter has, like the surf scoter, fluctuating abundance (usually under
twenty), is fairly reliable through October, and quite reliable through November to
mid-May.    Irregular occurrences through the rest of the year (two on June 19th,
two on July 9th, two on August 7th, two on September 5th, etc.).   Red-breasted
merganser occurs irregularly through late October and November  (up to six),
reliably thereafter (but often only one or two) to early April.    Last seen in late
April.   Ducks in general (see graph) are abundant from October through April, and
nearly absent June through August.   Scaups are most numerous by far, with buffleheads a poor second.   Early arrivals (September) are greater scaup, surf scoter, and
harlequin;   late arrivals (late October)  are common goldeneye and red-breasted
mergansers.   These last two are also the early departers (April).    Late departers
(late May) are surf scoters, while harlequins and white-winged scoters may occur in
Surf scoter.
Greater scaup.
White-winged scoter.
Common goldeneye.
Early September.
Early October.
Late October.
Late May.
Early May.
These are occasional passers-over, and sparrow hawks may stop to hunt (September 18th).   Single record also for pigeon hawk (November 21st).
Rails, etc.
Coots are rare visitors in winter;  one seen on December 5th and 12th, and
January 4th.
Sixteen species were recorded.    Black turnstones  (see graph)   were most
numerous, appearing in late July, uncommon until mid-August, then reliable and
numerous (ten to thirty usually, up to sixty) to mid-May, absent in June and parts
of May and July.   Surfbirds (see graph) occur irregularly (sometimes over forty,
usually under ten) from late July to late April;  absent almost three months.   Note
that few spend the winter.    Black oystercatchers nest on nearby islands.    They
occurred irregularly throughout the year (42 per cent of counts) in small numbers
(often three or less, up to six).   The wandering tattler was a rare migrant in spring
(May 1st and 7th) and fall (July 25th and September 5th).    Rock sandpipers
arrived in late October and occurred irregularly to February, then reliably through
 REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM,  1962                       AA 23
February to early May;  often ten or less, but up to thirty-five.    These five are the
species associated with the point's black rocks.   Northern phalarope were seen offshore once (April 27th) and were common after the study period in mid-October,
1962.    Generally rare in spring, regular in fall. (Red phalarope, not seen in the
study period, were numerous October  17,   18,  and  19,  1962.)     Killdeers were
attracted mainly by the lawn on the point.    They were seen irregularly in small
numbers (usually under four, but twenty-one on October 31st and fifteen on February 6th) through the year, except none was seen in April, nor in June and July.
One semipalmated plover was seen September  19th.    One or two sanderlings
accompanied black turnstones irregularly from early December to mid-April.   Dunlins occurred reliably from early November to early May (usually under fifteen, but
up to twenty-two).   Dowitchers were seen on July 21st (one) and August 23rd
(two).    Greater yellowlegs, as singles, were seen once in September, October,
November, December, and March.   One lesser yellowlegs was there January 23rd.
Among the " peeps," western sandpipers were seen September 19th (one), May 1st
(one), and May 9th (three), while a least sandpiper was seen May 9th.   Ten ruddy
turnstones, May 9th, were spring migrants, and one, August 7th, was heading south.
Shorebirds in general (see graph) are dominated by several wintering species (black
turnstone, surf bird, rock sandpiper) partial to Victoria's black lava coastline.   No
shorebird was seen in June (except for one oystercatcher), and relatively few were
seen in May or July.    Note that many shorebirds arrive from the north in late
summer rather than in fall.
Black turnstone.
Rock sandpiper.
Late July.
Late July.
Late October.
Late April.
Early May.
Jaegers, Gulls, and Terns
Parasitic jaegers, rare in spring, are regular fall migrants in small numbers (one
each on September 11th and 19th, two on May 9th, reliable through mid-October
following this study).   The resident gull is the glaucous-winged gull, found reliably
through the year in constant numbers (usually fifty to seventy-five).    It breeds on
nearby islands.   The most common gull in season is the mew gull, which finds the
sewer particularly attractive.   It arrives in late July, and 200 to 300, up to 420, are
present reliably to mid-April.   A few dozen remain to early May, one to three to late
May, none seen through June and most of July.   Bonaparte gulls arrive in late July,
shortly after mew gulls, and are present reliably, and in numbers from a few to
several hundred until early October;  thereafter a few remain irregulaly until late
November.   They reappear in much smaller numbers in spring.   One or two may be
seen irregularly in April, and a few are present through most of May.    California
gulls put in a brief appearance in spring (four on April 24th), singles were seen in
June (one each on June 10th and 26th), and they are most common through the
last half of July, all of August and September, and half of October.   Stragglers only
in November.   Herring gulls are rare (one on April 3rd, another on May 9th).   One
western gull was seen on July 20th.   The Heermann gull is here as a result of post-
breeding season wandering northward from the Mexican coast.   They are present
in small numbers (one to five) reliably through September, and irregularly to mid-
October.    (Note.—In the study period, this species and the next were common in
nearby waters for some weeks before we saw them at Clover Point.) The common
tern occurs rarely in spring (twenty on May 9th), and through September and early
October reliably up to twelve in number. Gulls in general show the summer lows
and winter abundances of other groups. But for resident glaucous-winged gulls,
totals would drop to zero in June, except for straggler California gulls.
Mew gull.
Bonaparte gull.
California gull.
Heermann gull.
Late July.
Late July.
Early September.
Early May.
Late November.
Late May.
The pigeon guillemot is a breeding resident in the area. We saw it irregularly
and in small numbers (usually three or less) throughout the year, but more careful
work with a telescope would probably make it a fairly reliable species from Clover
Point. Marbled murrelets were seen irregularly and rather infrequently throughout
the year. We failed to see it in February, March, May, July, and August, but most
or all of these gaps in data may reflect shortcomings in observers rather than absences
of murrelets. (Ancient murrelets were seen regularly through late October and
early November, after the study period; this was unusual.) Common murres were
seen irregularly in August, September, October, November, December (120 on one
day of movement), and January, and in the other six months but once (one, May
1st). Rhinoceros auklet was seen twice (two on September 19th, one on October
10th). Auks in general are unreliable, but one of some kind was seen on about 70
per cent of the counts.
One rock dove occasionally fed on the point by the road. The seashore offers
no attraction.
One passerine, the song sparrow, is resident on the point. It is present the year
round in the shrubby tangles on the steep banks, the population being about three
pairs. Northwestern crows feed on the point the year round, but may be absent
when tides are unfavourable. Up to fifty-one were seen. Barn swallows nest in
the boathouse on the point. They arrived in early May, and were seen reliably (one
to six) until late August. The violet-green swallow was present reliably through
May, June, and July (usually one or two, up to six), with stragglers in early April
and late August. Savannah sparrows were present reliably as migrants from mid-
April to the last of May, and again from mid-September to mid-October. The nine
remaining passerines were seen only once or twice: Goldfinch, August 23rd and
October 10th; lapland longspur, October 10th; house finch, August 7th and October
31st; robin, January 23rd; brown-headed cowbird, May 24th and 31st; house
sparrow, June 6th and August 7th; eastern kingbird, June 15th; horned lark,
August 4th; and water pipit, September 19th. For passerines in general, Clover
Point has attraction for only a few species. Many species seen are migrants noted
as they pause on their way, and most of the remainder are found more commonly
nearby, but only occasionally occur on the point.
AA 25
SCAUP                    .
—'--         \
/                /
\   *
I '
\V                    J t
•-'■rr^-^- . <£-.-^-..
/      N
/  /
(/y -.
Fig. 1. Graphs showing the seasonal abundance of birds at Clover Point. The
curve marked " individuals " shows total numbers of all birds regardless of species.
In the curve showing numbers of species, note that the ordinate does not begin at zero.
This list, compiled by G. A. Poynter, includes all reliable sight records since
1957. Some of these birds have been recorded only once, others are scarce but
regular visitors.
Common loon.
Yellow-billed loon.
Arctic loon.
Red-throated loon.
Red-necked grebe.
Horned grebe.
Eared grebe.
Western grebe.
Pied-billed grebe.
Sooty shearwater.
Slender-billed shearwater.
Flesh-footed shearwater.
Double-crested cormorant.
Pelagic cormorant.
Brandt cormorant.
Great blue heron.
Canada goose.
Black brant.
White-fronted goose.
Green-winged teal.
American widgeon.
Ring-necked duck.
Greater scaup.
Lesser scaup.
Common goldeneye.
Barrow goldeneye.
Old squaw.
White-winged scoter.
Surf scoter.
Common scoter.
Ruddy duck.
Hooded merganser.
Red-breasted merganser.
Turkey vulture.
Sharp-shinned hawk.
Cooper hawk.
Red-tailed hawk.
Biald eagle.
Peregrine falcon.
Pigeon hawk.
Sparrow hawk.
California quail.
Ring-necked pheasant.
Sandhill crane.
American coot.
Black oystercatcher.
Semipalmated plover.
Golden plover.
Black-bellied plover.
Ruddy turnstone.
Black turnstone.
Common snipe.
Spotted sandpiper.
Wandering tattler.
Greater yellowlegs.
 AA 26
Lesser yellowlegs.
Rock sandpiper.
Pectoral sandpiper.
Baird sandpiper.
Least sandpiper.
Short-billed dowitcher.
Western sandpiper.
Marbled godwit.
Red phalarope.
Northern phalarope.
Parasitic jaeger.
Long-tailed jaeger.
Glaucous gull.
Glaucous-winged gull.
Western gull.
Herring gull.
California gull.
Ring-billed gull.
Mew gull.
Franklin gull.
Bonaparte gull.
Heermann gull.
Black-legged kittiwake.
Sabine gull.
Common tern.
Common murre.
Pigeon guillemot.
Marbled murrelet.
Ancient murrelet.
Cassin auklet.
Rhinoceros auklet.
Tufted puffin.
Band-tailed pigeon.
Rock dove.
Short-eared owl.
Common nighthawk.
Black swift.
Vaux swift.
Rufous hummingbird.
Belted kingfisher.
Yellow-shafted flicker.
Red-shafted flicker.
Downy woodpecker.
Eastern kingbird.
Western flycatcher.
Horned lark.
Violet-green swallow.
Tree swallow.
Rough-winged swallow.
Barn swallow.
Cliff swallow.
Purple martin.
Steller jay.
Common raven.
Northwestern crow.
Chestnut-backed chickadee.
Winter wren.
Bewick wren.
Varied thrush.
Swainson thrush.
Golden-crowned kinglet.
Ruby-crowned kinglet.
Water pipit.
Cedar waxwing.
Northern shrike.
Orange-crowned warbler.
Yellow warbler.
Audubon warbler.
Wilson warbler.
House sparrow.
Western meadowlark.
Red-winged blackbird.
Brewer blackbird.
Brown-headed cowbird.
Evening grosbeak.
Purple finch.
House finch.
Pine siskin.
American goldfinch.
Rufous-sided towhee.
Savannah sparrow.
Oregon junco.
Chipping sparrow.
White-crowned sparrow.
Fox sparrow.
Lincoln sparrow.
Song sparrow.
Lapland longspur.
Snow bunting.
AA 27
Wilson Duff, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
(Based on notes by Dr. C. F. Newcombe.)
Among the notes and photographs which the Provincial Museum acquired with
the Newcombe Collection in 1961 was a small bundle marked " Tsimshian stone
batons." It contained materials which Dr. Newcombe had assembled, with the
intention of publishing an article, on a remarkable series of more than thirty-five
carved stone clubs found together in a cache at an old village-site on the Bulkley
Canyon near Hazelton in the upper Skeena area in 1898. One of the clubs was
acquired by Dr. Newcombe, and has come to the Museum with the collection
(Fig. la).   Included with the notes were photographs of a smaller series of clubs
' s&.
* r.V*
Fig. 1. Four of the sculptured stone clubs found in the cache at Hagwilget in
1898: a, No. 31 (34 cm. long); b, No. 32; c, No. 33; d, No. 34. See text for descriptions.    (From a photograph by Dr. C. F. Newcombe.)
in the National Museum of Canada, which had come from Metlakatla, on the coast
a few miles north of the mouth of the Skeena. My purpose in this article is to carry
through Dr. Newcombe's intention, though more than half a century late, of describing these clubs in print, and thereby bringing attention to a significant addition to the
known styles of prehistoric stone sculpture of Western North America. As an additional postscript, I have added three more clubs from the upper Skeena area, which
augment the series from the cache.
According to the notes, the cache of clubs was found by Chief Johnny Muldoe,
of Hagwilget, while he was digging a post-hole for a house. They were 4 or 5 feet
beneath the surface, in a cavity in the clay which was capped with a large stone. He
reported his discovery to R. E. Loring, the Indian Agent in Hazelton, who informed
A. W. Vowell, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Province of British Columbia, who happened to be in Hazelton on a tour of inspection. Mr. Vowell persuaded
Chief Muldoe to part with the clubs, and brought them to Victoria. On his request,
Mr. Loring made inquiries amongst the older Indians for any tradition which might
explain the cache. He learned that some generations before, another Gitksan tribe
attacked the Gitanmaks of Hazelton and were beaten off. A Gitanmaks woman
gathered up the arms and insignia of the slain and hid them in a cache. The attackers returned, reinforced by men from Kitsegukla, and killed most of the Gitanmaks,
including the woman who had hidden the clubs. This battle is said to have occurred
before the people of Temlaham, the traditional town on the Skeena, migrated to the
The Indian history of that part of the Province is better known to us now than
it was in 1898, although I have not seen any other reference to that battle or to the
finding of the clubs. The old Hagwilget village site at the foot of the Bulkley
Canyon, where the cache was found, marks the recent boundary between the Gitksan
(Tsimshian-speaking) tribes of the upper Skeena and the Bulkley River Carrier.
Before 1820 is was clearly within Gitksan territory, belonging to the Gitanmaks
" people of the torchlight-fishing place," whose principal village was 3 miles farther
down the Bulkley near its junction with the Skeena (where the present road makes
a sharp turn as it enters Hazelton). In 1879 the tribe moved over to the bank of
the Skeena just above Hazelton, where they still reside. A native-made bridge
crossed the Bulkley at the canyon, and families of this tribe owned the fishing-stations
there, but whether the tribe ever made their principal village there is not known.
The Carriers, before 1820, centred their fishing activities 25 miles farther up
the Bulkley at the Moricetown Canyon, and the recognized boundary was at Porphyry Creek, about half-way between the two canyons. About that time a large
rock-slide blocked the river and prevented the salmon from ascending, and many
of the Carriers moved down and established a fishing village on the flat at the foot of
the Bulkley Canyon. Its Gitksan owners, who for some reason called the newcomers
" Hagwilget " (nice agreeable people), permitted them to use the site on some sort
of rental basis, and they have remained ever since. Jenness has published a description and diagram of the village as it was in the closing decades of the last century
(1943 , p. 486), and Barbeau has described the four totem-poles that stood among
the smokehouses on the site in the 1920's (Barbeau, 1929). In the 1890's the
people moved up to the high ground above the flat, where they still live.
The available evidence therefore indicates quite clearly that the clubs must have
Delonged to Gitksan Indians of late prehistoric times. It was a fortunate circumstance that they were all found together, because they show a range of types and
styles which may therefore be attributed definitely to the same locality and period.
Seldom is such a generous sample of prehistoric culture found in such a neat package.
Judging from Dr. Newcombe's photographs, Mr. Vowell owned a large and
excellent collection of Indian artifacts from the North-west Coast, of which the clubs
formed only a part. I have not been able to learn what became of the collection.
Therefore, the present location of all of the clubs except one is unknown, and, needless to say, would be of considerable interest.* Dr. Newcombe photographed the
Vowell collection in 1899. One of his photographs (EC. 12) shows a large number
of objects, including twelve of the clubs. Another (E. C. 13) shows four more,
including the one which Mr. Vowell presented to him. At the same time Dr. Newcombe made descriptive notes on thirty-four of the clubs in the series. The descriptions given below are based upon these notes, and the illustrations (Figs. 1 and 2)
have been made from the photographs.
Some of the objects found in the cache are obviously weapons, having functional
handles and functional striking-blades similar to those of clubs found elsewhere.
However, many would be very inefficient as weapons, and although they usually have
definite handles, they are sculptured into fish, bird, or other forms, which were
obviously designed with something other than an effective striking-surface in mind,
and which probably had some supernatural or crest significance. Dr. Newcombe
was evidently reluctant to call them clubs, using the term " batons " instead. He
wrote down these comments on the thirty-four which he examined:—
Nine of these are of such a shape and material as to be suitable for striking a blow on
a skull or an object such as a wooden helmet without themselves suffering by the violent
contact. Of the remainder some are of proper form to be weapons but are of fragile
material, others are of proper material but unsuitable shape, and lastly a few are of neither
suitable form nor material for rough usage in war.
I prefer to call them clubs, whether or not they may have had the additional function
of displaying a crest or possessing supernatural power. Such magical stone clubs
are not unknown in the traditions of the Tsimshian.
Clubs from the Cache
1 to 8. (Represented by Fig. 2 a.) Eight clubs of similar shape, the largest of which
is 44 cm. long. The blade is wide and flat with a bluntly pointed end, like a short Roman
sword, and tapers to a rounded handle, which terminates with a pointed knob. Four specimens
show traces of dull red paint.   All are smoothly finished, but only one (not shown) is polished.
9. (Fig. 2 b.) Club, 33 cm. long. The blade is decorated with eight rows of shallow
longitudinal fluting on each side.
10. (Not shown.) Stone implement 57 cm. long. Cylindrical, with the front third tapered
to a point, and the rear quarter narrowed and flattened to a wedge-shaped point, apparently for
insertion into a socket, as though it were the head of a pike.
11. (Not shown.) Club, broken, but with two wolf-like ears and one side of the jaw
visible.   The mid third is decorated with narrow longitudinal ridges.
12. (Not shown.) Club, long and slim with a rectangular cross-section for most of its
length.   One end is carved in the form of a long narrow beak.
13. (Not shown.) Club, cylindrical with shallow longitudinal fluting, showing distinct
traces of dull red paint. The front end is carved and forms a short, pointed beak. Eyes are
14. (Fig. 2 c.) Club, 31 cm. long. The body is oval in section and shaped like a fish,
with a smooth finish. The front is in the form of a bluntly pointed head with an oblique mouth.
Just behind the eyes is a ridge-like crest. The handle is flattened. " This specimen might have
been used as a weapon."
15. (Not shown.) Club, body section ovoid. Head pointed like that of a wolf. Eyes and
mouth plainly shown. On each side of the body are three rows of shallow transverse grooves;
on the back there are four longitudinal grooves.   Red paint shows here and there.
*After this article went to press, my attention was directed to the new book Indian Art of America, by Frederick J. Dockstader, which illustrates two of the clubs described: No. 33 (Fig. 1 c) and No. A 1 (Fig. 3 a).
These are now in the collection of the Museum of the American Indian, New York.
 AA 30
16. (Not shown.) Club, body rounded oblong in section. Sides flattened and decorated
with numerous transverse furrows. In front is a pointed head with a short neck, mouth, and
perforated slit for the nostril.   Narrowed behind to form a handle.   Traces of red paint.
17. (Not shown.) Club, of yellowish-brown sandstone. Shape irregularly long-oblong.
The body is carved and shows four rudely made legs; it ends in front in a broad flattened head
with large eyes and a wide mouth like that of a frog or toad.
18. (Fig. 2d.) Club, 35 cm. long. The body is fish-shaped with flattened sides. The
front end is shaped like a bird's head with large eyes and a hooked beak. On the upper edge
are two conical crests (dorsal fins?). There is a round handle which ends in a pointed triangular
knob. Along each side of the body are nine shallow incised grooves. There are traces of dull
red paint.
19. (Fig. 2e.) Club, 26 cm. long, of sandstone. The body is fish-shaped and flattened.
On the upper edge are three oblong crests (fins?) and a smaller triangular one. The rounded
lower edge shows a few transverse ridges, and is covered with red paint. There are six shallow
grooves along each side. The handle occupies one-third of the length. The front end is plain
and blunt.
Fig. 2. Stone clubs found in the cache at Hagwilget in 1898: a, No. 1 (44 cm.
long); b, No. 9; c, No. 14; d, No. 18; e, No. 19; f, No. 22; g, No. 23; h, No. 24;
i. No. 25; j, No. 27; k, No. 28; 1, No. 30. See text for descriptions. (Drawn by
Frank L. Beebe from a photograph by Dr. C. F. Newcombe.)
20 and 21. (Not shown.) Two clubs of the same type. The sides of the body are flattened
and decorated with shallow transverse grooves. The upper edge is cross-hatched. At the front
is a squared head, below which projects a short curved beak. Round handles show traces of
red paint.
22. (Fig. 2f.) Club, 30 cm. long. The front half forms a head with long narrow jaws
ending in a blunt snout which has oblique excavated nostrils. Eyes are shown above the inner
angle of the mouth, and small ears are shown on the upper surface where the head joins the
body. There is no constriction for the handle, the entire back half forming the body, which is
decorated with incised lines.
23. (Fig. 2g.) Club, 32 cm. long, carved to represent a bird. The front half forms a
head with a long, narrow, and nearly straight beak. The back of the head is prominent and
rounded. There are large round eyes above the angle of the mouth. On each side of the body
is a raised carving representing a wing, with feathers indicated by oblique incised lines. On the
upper edge near the posterior end is a tail.   Part of the handle has been broken off.
24. (Fig. 2 h.) Club, 39 cm. long. This is a remarkably perfect specimen, mostly covered
with dull red paint. The front two-fifths of its length is carved as a bird-like head with a large
beak, the top edge of which is perforated by grooves from each side. The eyes are indicated
above the inner angle of the beak and in front of a prominent transverse grooved ridge which
extends over the uppsr surface. The sides of the body are slightly flattened and marked with
numerous transverse incised lines. A short handle with a rounded knob occupies the back fifth
of the baton.
25. (Fig. 2i.) Club, 37 cm. long. The front third forms a head with long narrow jaws.
The upper jaw terminates in circular nostrils. Eyes are shown just behind the mouth, and small
ears are shown on the upper surface where the head joins the body. The body occupies the
middle third, and its flat sides are decorated with twelve rib-like ridges. The posterior third
forms a smooth plain handle.
26. (Not shown.)   Club, shaped like a fish but very imperfect.
27. (Fig. 2j.) Club, 22 cm. long. The body is slim, somewhat curved, and fish-shaped,
with a small head ending in a small circular mouth. The eyes are prominent. The body has
seven rib-like transverse ridges on each side, which pass over the upper edge but are not continuous below.    There is red paint on the handle.
28. (Fig. 2 k.) Club. The front part forms a head, of which the snout or beak is broken
off. The head has gill-like markings and circular eyes. The upper edge of the beak is perforated. The body, which also forms the handle, has flattened sides and incised grooves on the
upper edge.    (This club has strong similarities with No. 31, Fig. 1 a.—W.D.)
29. (Not shown.) Club similar to No. 28. The handle and front of the snout are missing.
The head has gill-like markings and a crest on the upper edge.
30. (Fig. 21.) Ceremonial object, 35 cm. long, shaped like a heavy boomerang. The
ends expand to form what appear to be human heads, across the foreheads of which are six
transverse ridges. The upper edge is decorated with shallow longitudinal grooves. The flat
front and back surfaces are also decorated on the upper half with longitudinal grooves; the
lower portion is covered with dull red paint.
31. (Fig. 1 a.) Sandstone club, 34 cm. long. This specimen was presented by A. W.
Vowell to Dr. C. F. Newcombe and is now No. 9548 in the Provincial Museum collection.
The front half represents a bird's head, with a long pointed bill, the upper edge of which is perforated by grooves from either side to form a nostril. Upper and lower mandibles are completely divided for more than an inch, and the underside of the lower mandible has a deep
groove dividing the jaws. Circular eyes are prominent. Beginning on the back of the head
and extending back to the handle is a network pattern formed by a series of diamond-shaped
depressions separated by diagonal ridges. The body tapers to a plain handle. There are traces
of red paint on the body. (Details of the beak and the feather pattern on the head and neck
seem strikingly similar to those of a sandhill crane.—W.D.)
32. (Fig. 1 b.) Club, 33 cm. long. An old but elaborately carved specimen. The front
end is in the form of a beak, with three prominent horizontal ridges above it, like folds of skin
above the head of a turtle. On the neck are two more collar-like ridges. The cylindrical body
is decorated with about twelve longitudinal furrows separated by low rounded ridges. These
terminate at a deep groove which passes around the body, separating it from the large terminal
knob, which is decorated with three transverse grooves. (The head resembles that of the surf
33. (Fig. 1 c.) Club, 34 cm. long. This specimen is remarkable for the arch of stone
which extends from the back of the short head to the junction of the body and the handle. The
jaws are furnished with distinct teeth, and the circular pitted eyes stand out boldly below the
 AA 32
forehead.    The body is decorated with numerous parallel longitudinal lines.    The handle is
smoothly finished and terminates with a blunt four-angled knob.*
34. (Fig. 1 d.) Club, 39 cm. long, the longest specimen in the collection. More smoothly
finished than most, it is made of hard close-grained stone. The long cylindrical body tapers
gently to a blunt cap at one end and a handle and blunt conical knob at the other. Near the
front end is carved an owl's head in high relief, with two large orbits and a straight mandible
overhung by a curved upper one, and a round perforation between them.
Three more sculptured stone clubs (Fig. 3) are known to us from the same
general locality as the Hagwilget cache. One is said to be in New York, another
is in the local museum at Hazelton, and the third is in the collection of the Provincial
Museum. Each of these shows an obvious kinship with the series from the cache,
and each augments the series with distinctive traits of type or style.
*'■■'■■■' ■ ■'■' '■■"-''■>■- -"''.■ ''*-■■- :'•'.
■' '
.. ■.
Fig. 3. Three additional clubs from the upper Skeena area:  a, No. A 1; b, No. A 2,
28 cm. long;  c. No. A 3.   See text for descriptions.    (Drawn by Frank L. Beebe.)
* This club is illustrated in Dockstader, 1962 (Plate 1), with the erroneous caption " Found in a rock cave
in Niska Valley by Lt. G. T. Emmons. Buckley Canyon, British Columbia." Museum of the American Indian,
No. 5/5059.
A 1. (Fig. 3 a.) Club, size unknown. This club is known to us only from a small photograph in the Newcombe Collection. According to notes written on the back of the snapshot, it
was found by a white man of New Hazelton (the white community closest to Hagwilgate) under
the roots of a 2-foot cedar-tree in 1923. Dr. Newcombe received the photograph from W. B.
Anderson in July, 1923, and later the same month heard that the club had been purchased by
George Heye, of New York (in which case it is now presumably in the Museum of the American
Indian). This club has a blade identical in shape to those of Nos. 1 to 8 (Fig. 2a), but is
unique in that the end of the handle is carved in the shape of a human head. The stylistic
treatment of this head is very strange, and is not reminiscent of any other known sculpture of
the region. The handle is also unique in having corrugated edges, and in the zigzag ridge which
separates it from the blade.*
A 2. (Fig. 3 b.) Club, 28 cm. long. This fine club, in the private collection of Mrs. R. S.
Sargent, is on exhibit in the Skeena Treasure House in Hazelton. The illustration is drawn from
a photograph by the author. The club was found many years ago in a field on a terrace of the
Bulkley River immediately below the old Hagwilget village. It is most remarkable for the fine
craftsmanship with which it was made, and for its close similarity to No. 18 from the cache
(Fig. 2 d). The fine fluting which decorates the body, along the sides and across the belly, is
masterfully done.   The bird's head may be that of an owl or possibly a hawk.
A 3. (Fig. 3 c.) Club, 30 cm. long. Provincial Museum No. 4855, from the collection of
the late Dr. H. C. Wrinch. Its exact provenience is unknown, but it is presumably from the
Hazelton vicinity. A grotesque object of coarse brown sandstone, this " club " resembles the
others in the series mostly in the form of its handle. The figure which makes up the body of
the club is incomplete and defies identification.
In 1917 Harlan I. Smith, of the National Museum of Canada, sent Dr. Newcombe photographs of eleven additional stone clubs from the Tsimshian area
(Fig. 4). These had been collected, ten from Metlakatla and one from Port Simpson, by Dr. I. W. Powell, the first Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Province
of British Columbia (VowelPs predecessor), and were presented to the National
Museum in 1879. The descriptive comments below are based entirely upon the
photographs. Dimensions are not known, but the photographs are presumably all of
the same scale.
Metlakatla, the Christian Tsimshian village founded by William Duncan in
1862, occupies the site of one of the late-prehistoric winter villages of the lower
Skeena Tsimshian. The ten tribes of this group wintered in a cluster of villages
along Venn (Medakatla) Passage until the 1830's, when they moved to the Hudson's
Bay Company post at Port Simpson. Some of them moved back with Father
Duncan, so that when Dr. Powell became acquainted with them and acquired the
clubs, these Tsimshian occupied two villages—-Metlakatla and Port Simpson. It is
not known whether the clubs were family heirlooms or archasological finds; however,
it would seem likely that they were given to him as a set rather than singly. It is
interesting to note in passing that many family lines of the lower Skeena Tsimshian
claim to have migrated down the river from Temlaham in early times.
This Metlakatla series is noteworthy in itself, but it takes on even more significance when it is compared with the upper Skeena series. With one exception, these
clubs were made with inferior craftsmanship and of indifferent stone. Some of
them can be viewed as little else than poor copies of counterparts up the river, halfhearted copies based on half-forgotten prototypes. Why this should be the case is a
question which invites all sorts of conjecture.
* A beautiful photograph of this club is to be seen in Dockstader, 1962 (Plate 4). It is now No. 12/3273 in
the collection of the Museum of the American Indian, and is said to come from " Two Mile Creek, Buckley Canyon."    Its length is 13 inches.
 AA 34
' ■'':■■'        ■      : "■'.' ■.'   '
Fig. 4. Stone clubs from Metlakatla (a-f, h-k) and Port Simpson (g) in the
National Museum of Canada: a, No. B 1; b, No. B 2; c, No. B 3; d, No. B 4; e,
No. B 5; f. No. B 6; g, No. B 7; h, No. B 8; i, No. B 9; j, No. B 10; k, No. B 11.
See text for descriptions. (From National Museum of Canada photographs 38055-
B 1. (Fig. 4 a.) Club from Metlakatla, with a rudimentary handle and tapering blade
decorated with an incised eye.    (N.M.C. photograph 38059a.)
B2. (Fig. 4 b.) Club from Metlakatla, with a tapering handle and body carved in the
form of a bird, similar to No. 14 (Fig. 2 c). Although inferior to the latter in over-all form,
this club has more surface decoration—incised marks in rows along the back and part of the
side.   (N.M.C. photograph 38061a.)
B 3. (Fig. 4 c.) Club from Metlakatla, carved in the form of an animal with four fins(?)
on its back. A comparison with No. 18 (Fig. 2 d) and A 2 (Fig. 3 b) will reveal that this club
shares a similar concept with the others but is inferior in design and craftsmanship. (N.M.C.
photograph 38057a.)
B4. (Fig. 4 d.) Club from Metlakatla. This too resembles one of the Hagkilget clubs
(No. 19, Fig. 2e), and is an inferior version of a similar concept. Its form also begins to
resemble the " slave killers " with multiple axe-like bits from the Columbia Valley and Northern
California.    (N.M.C. photograph 38057b.)
B 5. (Fig. 4 e.) Club from Metlakatla, with handle and a stubby body in the form of a
fish.   The gills and eye may also be discerned.    (N.M.C. photograph 38060a.)
B 6. (Fig. 4 f.) Club from Metlakatla, rudely shaped in animal form, with a large mouth,
eye, and ears(?). The concept is vaguely similar to that of No. 22 (Fig. 2 f). (N.M.C. photograph 38056b.)
B 7. (Fig. 4g.) Pestle-shaped club from Port Simpson, with zoomorphic head. (N.M.C.
photograph 38055a.)
B 8. (Fig. 4h.) Pestle-shaped club from Metlakatla, about 34 cm. long. This finely
sculptured and polished club, inlaid with abalone shell, was illustrated in the form of a simple
line drawing by Harlan I. Smith (1923, Plate XXX), and he suggested that it was modern.
The owl-like head is similar to that on No. 34 (Fig. 1 d), and it has a small frog-like figure
carved on the back. On the body of the club are two large circular disks, standing in relief and
inlaid with abalone shell.    (N.M.C. photograph 38055b.)
B 9. (Fig. 4 i.) Club from Metlakatla. This specimen is like No. 33 (Fig. 1 c) in having
an arch of stone over the body, and a comparison of the two can only reinforce the impression
that the up-river example is the prototype. The " eyes " extend completely through, and it is the
only one of the clubs so perforated.    (N.M.C. photograph 38061b.)
B 10. (Fig. 4j.) Club from Metlakatla, carved with a crude human head. Brows, eyes,
large nose, mouth, and chin have been shaped by pecking. Additional forms on the front may
represent arms. Although this carving is vaguely reminiscent of the human head on No. A 1
(Fig. 3 a), it is too crude to permit a meaningful comparison.    (N.M.C. photograph 38056a.)
B 11. (Fig. 4 k.) Club from Metlakatla. Though quite crude, this is one of the most
remarkable of all the clubs, because it bears a representation of a human body with the head on
upside down. The head, which forms an expanded knob at the handle end, has a broad band
passing across the forehead and down the sides, which is decorated with drilled(?) dots. The
eye is shallow and circular, the nose plain and flat, the mouth a plain flat band. This head, at
least in outline, resembles the " human heads " on either end of the boomerang-like object
No. 30 (Fig. 2 1). The body is carved in low relief along the central third of the club. There
is a collar and a trunk with prominent ribs. A spindly arm with a large hand and leg with a
large three-toed foot are also clearly depicted.    (N.M.C. photograph 38060b.)
Still more stone clubs of this general Tsimshian complex probably exist in other
museums and private collections, but no effort has been made to include them in this
paper. In the Vancouver City Museum, for example, is one shaped like a " kingfisher," from Kitimat, somewhat similar in concept to Nos. 31 and 32 (Fig. 1 a, b)
but larger and more elaborate. And in the Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia is an excellent club from Khutzeymateen Inlet, somewhat
like No. 14 (Fig. 2 c) but with a projecting blade. These two at least are related
to the Skeena River series and help to indicate its over-all distribution.
Since both the upper Skeena series and the Metlakatla series come from areas
which were occupied, in recent times at least, by Tsimshian-speaking Indians, one
might reasonably expect to find some reference to such unusual objects in Tsimshian
myths and traditions. And indeed there is one well-known story, that of Gao'a or
Skawah, in which a carved stone club with supernatural powers has an important
part. This is the origin myth of the Temlaham branch or clan of the Fireweed
phratry (Gispuwadwada, Gisgast). It begins with a conflict between the people of
two villages on opposite sides of a river (in most versions the Nass) in which warriors
of one kill all the people of the other except one woman and her daughter Skawah.
Skawah is taken as a bride by the son of the chief of the Sky, and in due course
bears him four sons and a daughter. The Sky chief presents them with crests (including the Sun, Rainbow, and Stars) and supernatural powers for war, including a
magical stone club, which is given to the youngest (and left-handed) brother. They
return to earth at the site of their old village and destroy their former enemies.   By
pointing the club at the enemy and turning it over, they can uproot and overturn the
enemy village. Later they lose the club and move to Temlaham. (Published versions of the story may be found in Barbeau, 1928, and Boas, 1902, pp. 221-225.)
Temlaham is the most famous of the ancestral homes of the Tsimshian. In the
traditions it is said to have been a large town which stretched along the west bank of
the Skeena just below the present Hazelton. A severe local winter and famine,
which came as supernatural retribution for the mistreatment of animals, drove the
people from the town. It is remembered as then place of origin by many families of
the Gispuwadwada phratry of the Nass River and Coastal Tsimshian, and also by
most families of two phratries of the Gitksan tribes up the Skeena. Although the
traditions are quite explicit on the location of this ancestral town, no trace of it can
be seen today.
Club Types
Clubs of stone have been found in small numbers at scattered locations along
the western slope of North America (Smith, 1907, pp. 412-420). Those from the
Skeena River now make up one of the largest known concentrations, but the types
found here are not the same as those found in other areas. In fact, the types and
distributions of stone clubs do not seem to fall into clear patterns at all. Perhaps we
should not expect them to; having outlasted then counterparts made of less imperishable materials, they are in a sense random relics of former patterns of club types
and distributions, yet it is impossible to say how truly they in themselves mirror
those patterns.
The Skeena River clubs are not all of the same type. For purposes of comparison we may recognize in them local varieties of four different types, distinguished
by the shape of their striking surfaces:—
(1) Blade flat and paddle-shaped (Figs. 2 a, 3 a).
(2) Long, cylindrical, pestle-shaped (Figs. 1 d, 4 g, h).
(3) Body with projecting points or blades (Figs. 2 d, e, 3 b, 4 c, d).
(4) Body sculptured into animal or other form (Figs. 1 a-c, 2 c-k, 3 b, c,
Clubs with paddle-shaped blades, made more frequently of bone than of stone,
have been found from California to the Skeena, though no others are of exactly the
same shape as those from the Hagwilget cache. The most numerous and distinctive
type is the whale-bone club of the west coast of Vancouver Island, the Gulf of
Georgia, and, more rarely, the lower and middle Fraser and Columbia Valleys (Boas
in Smith, 1907, pp. 403-412). This type seems to date from late prehistoric and
early historic times. It differs from the Hagwilget type in that the blade has a
rounded end and a lozenge-shaped cross-section, and the handle is carved with a
bird- or human-like head and is perforated for a lanyard. The few additional flat-
bladed stone clubs which are known have been found singly, in widely scattered
locations, and show much individual variation in details of form (e.g., Smith, 1907,
pp. 412-417). The Skeena River examples, in short, may be regarded as a distinct
local variation on a widespread theme.
Long cylindrical stone implements have also been found in several parts of
Western North America, but they have been called pestles more often than clubs.
The Provincial Museum collection contains four unsculptured examples from
Tsimshian and Haida territories, and these are catalogued as pestles (Nos. 750,
1482, 1707, 1712).   However, Niblack (1890, PI. XXVII) illustrates a similar one
from Port Simpson, calling it a war club. Elsewhere, as for example on the Columbia, similar implements were used as pestles. While we may assume from their
associations that the Skeena River examples are in fact clubs, they would appear to
borrow their general form from a widespread type of pestle.
Stone clubs with projecting axe-like blades, and often with two or more blades
set in line, have been found in greatest numbers in Northern California and the lower
Columbia Valley, where they are called slave-killers. A very small number of the
same general type, occasionally with sculptured handles, have been found as far
north as the Gulf of Georgia (Duff, 1956, p. 87). Clubs of this type can be conceived as replicas of war picks and tomahawks made entirely of stone; war picks of
similar concept, using a jade point set in a wooden or anfler handle, were also used
on the northern North-west Coast. Here again the few of this type in the Skeena
complex are local expressions of a widespread concept.
It is those which have the entire body sculptured into an animal or other form
which do not seem to have close counterparts among stone clubs elsewhere. Such a
modification detracts from their utility as clubs, and suggests that some motive other
than usefulness dictated then form. Among the wooden artifacts of the North-west
Coast, rattles, batons, and sea-mammal clubs also shared the combination of a plain
handle and a sculptured body. In these cases the sculpture seems mostly to have
been in the nature of ornamentation, although magical and crest associations have
often been suggested as well. Perhaps it was the same with the stone clubs. But it
remains a puzzle why they should have been made of stone in the first place; certainly the choice was not suggested by the availability of an attractive or easily
worked kind of stone (as could well have been the case with Fraser River soapstone
sculpture). Probably the material was used to conform to some magical or traditional prototype.
Art Style
Although it may not be proper to judge the art style of a period and area on
the basis of a single form, especially when it is made from a poor and difficult
material, the fine craftsmanship and sculptural variety of the upper Skeena stone
clubs do permit some comments on their style. In general, that style does not show
any strong similarity with any other known style of stone sculpture, nor, surprisingly,
with the classic North-west Coast style which was present in the area throughout
historic times. The only trait which it seems to share with the recent coastal style is
a tendency to favour animal and human motifs. The clubs show no complex compositions of two or more figures, nor do they show any examples of the distinctive
recent type of surface decoration which uses eye designs, rounded rectangles, and
feather patterns in rigidly conventionalized shapes. The surface decoration on the
clubs consists of parallel grooves and ridges, sometimes in quite complex patterns
reminiscent of the decorative adzing on some old Coast Indian boxes. Zigzag and
network patterns were occasionally used, and in addition many of the clubs were
painted red. Most of the animals depicted on the clubs are birds, with the owl and
crane predominating. Vague " fish " and " wolf " forms are also present. The
animals tend to be portrayed realistically rather than in the stylized manner of the
recent art style. The eyes are invariably small simple circles, and there is no hint of
the distinctive " North-west Coast eye " with its large his enclosed by two doubly
recurved lids. The art style shown on the clubs, in short, seems to be a quite distinct
local style which preceded the classic North-west Coast style in the area.
Two groups of stone clubs from the Tsimshian area have been described and
illustrated—one from the upper Skeena River, and the other from Metlakatla on the
coast near its mouth. The two series are obviously related to each other, and the
relationship seems to be that most of the clubs in the Metlakatla series are poorly
made copies of prototypes which may be found, superior in craftsmanship and more
specific in concept, in the upper Skeena series. The implied suggestion that the
complex is an original up-river development which spread to the coast is reinforced
by Tsimshian traditions which link the use of such clubs with Temlaham, the traditional homeland up the river from which many coastal families claim to have migrated in the not too distant past.
The clubs are not all of a single type; in fact, the complex is made up of local
variations of three widespread types (clubs with paddle-shaped blades, clubs shaped
like pestles, and clubs with projecting points or blades) and a unique local type in
which the entire body of the club is sculptured into an animal or other form. The
material of which most of the clubs are made is not suitable either for sculpture or for
effective use as clubs; therefore, the stimulus to use stone must have come from some
magical or crest concept. The art style is not like that on any other known body of
sculpture, and shows little relationship with the recent classic style of the coast.
If, as we assume, the clubs are of no great antiquity, it would seem that the famous
coast style was not present along the Skeena River until late in prehistoric times.
The clubs provide a hint, perhaps, of the relative recency of the classic culture of the
northern North-west Coast, and also a glimpse of what preceded it.
Barbeau, Marius.
1928. The Downfall of Temlaham.   The Macmillan Co., Toronto.
1929. Totem Poles of the Gitksan, Upper Skeena River, British Columbia.
Bulletin No. 61, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa.
Boas, Franz.
1902.    Tsimshian Texts.   Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 27, Washington, D.C.
1962. Indian Art in America. New York Graphic Society, Greenwich, Conn.
Duff, Wilson.
1956.    Prehistoric Stone Sculpture of the Fraser River and Gulf of Georgia.
Anthropology in British Columbia, No. 5, British Columbia Provincial
Museum, Victoria.
Jenness, Diamond.
1943.    The Carrier Indians of the Bulkley River, Then Social and Religious
Life.    Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 133, pp. 469-586,
Washington, D.C.
Niblack, A. P.
1890.    The Coast Indians of Southern Alaska and Northern British Columbia.
Report of the National Museum, 1887-88, Washington, D.C.
Smith, Harlan I.
1907.    Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia and Puget Sound.   Memoirs of the
American Museum of Natural History, Vol. IV, Part VI, New York.
1923.    An Album of Prehistoric Canadian Art.   Victoria Memorial Museum,
Department of Mines, Bulletin No. 37, Ottawa.
 Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.


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