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REPORT of the LANDS SERVICE and the WATER RESOURCES SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1962 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1963]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister
E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands A. F. Paget, Deputy Minister of Water Resources
REPORT
of the
LANDS SERVICE
and the
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1962
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1963
  Victoria, B.C., January 31, 1963.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Reports of the British Columbia Lands Service and the Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands,
Forests, and Water Resources for the year ended December 31, 1962.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
  CONTENTS
Lands Service—
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Lands.
Accounting Division	
Lands Branch—
Superintendent of Lands	
Land Inspection Division.—
Surveys and Mapping Branch—
Surveyor-General	
Legal Surveys Division	
Topographic Division	
Geographic Division	
Air Division	
University Endowment Lands	
Water Resources Service—
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Water Resources-
Accounting Division	
Operations Division-
Hydraulic Investigations Division-
Personnel Office	
Mail and File Room.
Pace
11
15
22
30
40
48
53
60
65
73
83
91
97
107
119
123
\
   Victoria, B.C., January 31, 1963.
I
The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands. Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Lands Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for the
twelve months ended December 31, 1962.
E. W. BASSETT,
Deputy Minister of Lands.
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 Report of the British Columbia Lands Service
E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
As a result of an amendment to the Department of Lands and Forests Act,
administration of the water resources of British Columbia was, on April 1, 1962,
transferred from the Water Rights Branch of the Lands Service to the newly created
Water Resources Service. The Department is now composed of three principal
units—the Lands, Forests, and Water Resources Services. Apart from the separation of the former Water Rights Branch, the affairs of the Lands Service proceeded
normally through 1962. The Lands and the Surveys and Mapping Branches both
had a very active year and continued to reflect the high level of social and economic
activity which has been characteristic of British Columbia during the past decade.
There were several changes in the senior staff during 1962, resulting in new
personnel for the following positions: Superintendent and Assistant Superintendent
of Lands, Chief and Assistant Chief of the Air Division, and Assistant Chief Land
Inspector. It is especially gratifying to note that these five positions were filled by
promotion within the Lands Service.
Certain features pertaining to the settlement and administration of Crown lands
deserve comment. The Peace River region continued to attract a large volume of
applications for agricultural land, although there was also a notable upswing in the
Burns Lake-Smithers belt and in the vicinity of Quesnel. Arrangements were made
to have the provisions of the Grazing Act extended to include the Peace River District, and grazing requirements of prospective ranchers in this area will generally
now be handled on a grazing permit basis. Leases for ranch headquarters and
agricultural development purposes, such leases not to exceed 1,280 acres in total
area, will be granted covering predominantly arable lands, subject to conditions
designed to ensure that the lessees shall make bona fide use of the property.
The Lands Branch continued to develop subdivision lots where there is high
public interest, and seven Crown subdivisions were planned and serviced. The
disposal of Crown land by public auction or tender also continued to be popular.
Forty-four acreage parcels were offered for sale and eight for lease by sealed tender,
while public auctions offered 323 lots for purchase and 75 lots for lease.
The staff of the Land Inspection Division recorded 4,150 examinations of
Crown land, a slight increase over the 1961 figure. Among this total were 44
appraisals on behalf of other Government departments and public agencies.
A three-day conference held at Kamloops in February was attended by the full staff
of the Land Inspection Division and by the Superintendent and Assistant Superintendent of Lands. The conferees benefited from the exchange of ideas, problems,
and opinions.
The Legal Surveys, Topographic, Geographic, and Air Divisions of the Surveys
and Mapping Branch continued to expand the survey framework and cartographic
coverage of British Columbia.
In connection with cadastral surveys of Crown lands, the Legal Surveys Division issued 967 sets of instructions in 1962; this was 204 more than during the
previous year. The Division also processed 12,541 clearances of Crown land applications, timber sales, water licences, and Crown grants. Other office work included
preparing 2,941 plans for use by Land Inspectors and compiling 59 large-scale
composite maps.
Introduced in 1961, the system of checking Land Registry Office plans by
electronic computer was enlarged on October 1, 1962, to embrace the Land
Registry Offices at Kamloops, Nelson, and Prince Rupert.
11
 BB 12      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Field work conducted by the Legal Surveys Division was essentially similar to
that performed in 1961. Subdivisions of Crown land produced 21 town lots and
222 rural lots, with Land Settlement Board lands at Ootischenia accounting for 166
of the latter. Survey notes were also received for 247 waterfront lots, five acreage
parcels, 82.7 miles of highway right-of-way, 435 acres of parks, and three recreational reserves.
The Topographic Division introduced an editing system to review compilations
of topographic, cadastral, and cultural detail on photogrammetrically produced
sheets. In the Clinton and Bridge Lake areas a field check was made of 15 map-
sheets which had been compiled from 1951 aerial photographs.
Field control for 15 standard National Topographic map-sheets was extended
north-west of Fort St. James, and a survey crew aboard the motor-vessel " B.C.
Surveyor" conducted photographic identification of 236 coastal triangulation stations on the Mainland between Jervis Inlet and Douglas Channel. Another Topographic Division field crew began a programme for extending second-order survey
control from existing geodetic stations in the Lower Fraser Valley.
Eight entirely new Provincial maps were published by the Geographic Division
in 1962. Particularly noteworthy was completion of the sixth and final sheet of a
regional series covering the Province at 1 -inch-to- 10-miles scale and publication of
land-status sheets at 1:250,000 scale for the Alberni, Victoria, and Vancouver
areas. The complexity of cadastral detail shown on these status maps reflects the
variety of cultural endeavour in this heavily settled section of British Columbia.
Altogether, five such status maps were issued, completing the replacement of three
older sheets, and the latter were removed from distribution.
Continuing a programme begun in 1961, the Geographic Division examined
366 well-site plans made from surveys under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act.
A new record of 99,324 maps were sold and distributed in 1962, an increase of 14
per cent over the previous 12 months.
The Air Division continued to concentrate on the production of interim maps
at 4-inches-to-l-mile scale for the Surveys and Inventory Division of the British
Columbia Forest Service. Besides the 15,000 square miles covered by slotted
templet lay-downs at the above scale, another 14,000 square miles of cadastral
detail were plotted and 60 final tracings prepared for public distribution.
The Air Division also commenced a special project on behalf of the Department
of Finance. The entire 3,297-square-mile area of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway land grant will, over a period of three years, be mapped at a scale of 2 inches
to 1 mile to show the latest cultural and cadastral detail. A total of 2,400 square
miles of ground survey data had been plotted by the end of the year.
Though poor photographic weather hindered flying operations, 19,726 aerial
photographs were exposed in 1962. Slightly more than three-quarters of the photographs were for forest inventory purposes and the remainder for such uses as forest-
development road engineering, water resources studies, highway projects, and land
inspection.
This introduction has touched on a few highlights of the accomplishments of
the Lands Service during the past year. The following pages contain, in detail, an
account of these accomplishments.
   ACCOUNTING DIVISION BB  15
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
M. B. MacLean, B.Com., Departmental Comptroller
The Division increased its establishment during 1962 by the addition of a junior
clerk. This was the first increase in staff in over 10 years despite substantial increases in volume of expenditure, revenue, and number of active lease and purchase
accounts.
Lease accounts increased from 4,886 as at December 31, 1961, to 5,452 at
December 31, 1962, while purchase accounts increased from 1,810 to 1,874 during
the same period.
The decrease in " land leases, rentals, fees, etc." revenue is accounted for by
the fact that one large sand and gravel lease expired early in 1962 and operations
on two other sand and gravel leases were considerably reduced.
Table 1.—Summary of Revenue Collections for the Year Ended
December 31,1962
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc  $933,607.66
Land sales  836,270.32
Sale of maps and air photos  77,579.85
Water rentals and recording fees -  2,115,738.00
Total  $3,963,195.83
Table 2.—Comparison of Revenue Collections for 10-year
Period 1953-62, Inclusive
1953 ll I lull I ll, 11 ll U>"^               Hill iiMiiiiH III llll $3,705,480.02
1954 III ■■■ mi nil mil ■ ■ m ll 2,065,181.52
1955 ""——■"■ ■— 2,248,293.16
1956 ""*"—«— ■  2,518,722.51
1957 wammmm—mm—m^^mm 2,454,435.40
1958 '■-" - —■.■■*.! ■ mi ii 11 iii  2,596,050.13
1959 ll Willi ill                      mill Ill J 2,687,816.62
1960 MllllilwITTinmMirnMI Illlllll  3,224,498.27
1961 mmmmmm—i^^m^mm^^—m 3,618,860.72
1962 —i—■W| i iii immuiMcmni ■ ii 3,963,195.83
Total -  $29,082,534.18
Ten-year average, $2,908,253.41.
Table 3.—Classification of Revenue Collections for the Year Ended
December 31,1962
Land sales—
Country lands  $645,983.22
Town lots     182,701.05
Surface rights, mineral claims         7,586.05
      $836,270.32
 BB  16      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table 3.—Classification of Revenue Collections for the Year Ended
December 31,1962—Continued
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc.—
Foreshore leases—
Booming and log storage  $275,164.38
Commercial (marinas, etc.)      229,330.52
Oyster         8,533.60
Miscellaneous   (foreshore  protection, etc.)   679.26
  $513,707.76
Land leases—
Grazing and (or) agriculture)  $59,264.30
Quarrying   (limestone,   sand  and
gravel)   32,044.23
Camp-site (lodge, fishing)   5,554.79
Home-site   1,783.82
Miscellaneous (residential, etc.) _. 72,761.95
     171,409.09
Land-use permits         1,391.20
Licences of occupation        7,451.67
Royalty collections       75,466.44
Easement collections—
Annual rentals       $3,392.16
Outright considerations        74,379.41
       77,771.57
Fees—
Crown grant  $ 10,400.00
Assignment   2,530.00
Miscellaneous (lease, search, etc.) 7,494.00
20,424.00
Sundry  collections   (occupational,  rental,   survey
charges, etc.)        65,985.93
Sale of maps and air photos-^-
Legal Division  $26,784.10
Geographic Division a,  26,578.86
Air Division  24,216.89
933,607.66
77,579.85
Water rentals and recording fees     2,115,738.00
Gross revenue for year  $3,963,195.83
 ACCOUNTING DIVISION
BB  17
Table 4.—Comparison of Land Leases, Rentals, Fees, etc., Revenue for
10-year Period 1953-62, Inclusive
■■■ilium mi $1,608,773.65
330,397.09
425,595.79
I 576,331.17
472,415.55
■ 605,229.73
wm 668,367.70
Trimtm 842,413.17
nana 1,001,071.13
-[—mrWTT 933,607.66
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
Total..
$7,464,202.64
Ten-year average, $746,420.26.
Note.—The year 1953 includes coal, petroleum and natural-gas revenue.
Table 5.—Comparison of Land Sales for 10-year Period 1953—62, Inclusive
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
$594
488
605
573
522
677
589
806
703
836
,004.08
,303.49
469.42
,976.49
,825.65
,036.15
,975.24
723.54
,705.71
,270.32
Total
$6,398,290.09
Ten-year average, $639,829.
  LANDS BRANCH
 THE LANDS BRANCH
At the time of the Fraser River gold-rush in 1858 the demand for land in British
Columbia was greatly intensified and pre-emptions predated surveys. Within four years
254 pre-emptors had taken up more than 50,000 acres of land. To facilitate the transfer
of real estate and provide for the registration of titles, the Land Registry Act was passed
in 1860. The Government of the Province of British Columbia was now in the real-
estate business in a big way; the more than 366,000 square miles of land and water that
constitutes British Columbia was the real estate in question.
With the entrance of British Columbia into Confederation in 1871, the demand for
land quickened to a rush, and over the next thirty years the land-settler (and the promoter) succeeded the gold-miner in importance. Railroads were built and land grants
passed, cities came into being, and companies became established. Land was at the core
of all developments.
The task of land administration became very heavy and necessitated the formation
of a Department of Lands in 1908. In 1912 a Forest Branch was included in the Department of Lands. Today the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources exercises
control of more than 90 per cent of the surface of British Columbia.
How does the Lands Branch fit into the total organization of the British Columbia
Lands Service of today? The relation may be expressed briefly. The Lands Branch
has jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the disposition of Crown land, and is
charged with so administering and disposing of the land that the general welfare,
present and future, of the Province must be protected at all times.
When an individual, or group, desires to purchase or lease Crown land, the application is directed to the Superintendent of Lands, head of the Lands Branch. His authority governs the following matters:—
Sale, lease, and pre-emption of Crown lands for such purposes as agricultural,
industrial, commercial, and home-sites.
Preparation and issuance of Crown grants under the Land Act and the Mineral
Act.
Preparation and issuance of right-of-way easements for power, telephone, pipe
lines, etc.
Reservation of suitable Crown lands and foreshore for national defence, use
and enjoyment of the public, forestry experimentation, fisheries research
work, highways, etc.
Granting railway rights-of-way under various Statutes.
Protection of historic sites from alienation.
Reservation and conveying of Crown lands for such purposes as school-sites,
cemeteries, and fair grounds.
Leasing of land and foreshore for such varied purposes as wharf-sites, booming-
grounds, canneries, oyster and other mollusc fisheries, and for boat-houses,
quarry-sites, cattle-ranching, trappers' cabins, ship-building, and aircraft
bases.
To perform these and other functions efficiently, the Lands Branch works in close
co-operation with a great number of other agencies, such as municipal and city administrations, town-planning authorities, the British Columbia Forest Service, the Water Resources Service, the Surveys and Mapping Branch within the British Columbia Lands
Service, and all the departments in the Government of the Province, notably Highways,
Education, Attorney-General, and Agriculture.
Outside the Provincial departments there is much business transacted with Federal
departments, such as the Department of National Defence, the Veterans' Land Settlement
Act administration, the Public Works Department, and the Indian Affairs Branch of the
Department of Citizenship and Immigration.
Direct service to the people of British Columbia is the first duty of the Lands Branch
and this takes the bulk of the time of the Lands Branch personnel. Associated with this
prime duty is the important function of the maintenance of the records, which in many
cases are the only ones in British Columbia showing the correct legal status of the surface of the Province.
  BB 22      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
LANDS BRANCH
D. Borthwick, B.S.A., B.Ed., A.A.C.I., Superintendent of Lands
During 1962 the most active region of the Province with respect to agricultural
land applications has been the Peace River District. The suitability of this area for
stock-raising and the growing of coarse grains has stimulated public interest, with a
resultant influx of settlers from the United States and Prairie Provinces. A trend
toward large grazing-lease applications for marginal agricultural land precipitated
the adoption of a revised lease policy late in the year. The benefits of the Grazing
Act were extended to the Peace River District, and henceforth grazing rights will
generally be by permit. Leases for agricultural development and (or) ranch headquarters not exceeding 1,280 acres in extent will be accepted over predominantly
arable lands, subject to the lessee making bona fide use of same within the initial
three-year period of the lease. It is hoped that this change in policy will encourage
development of the land and discourage speculative applications which restrict the
influx of bona fide settlers.
In addition to the Peace River area, there has been considerable interest in
agricultural lands in the Burns Lake-Smithers area. Most of these applications have
been for grazing purposes, and the interest stems from local settlers as well as from
new residents to the district.
The Lands Branch policy to provide Crown subdivision lots in the unorganized
areas of the Province where sufficient public interest is manifest was continued in
1962. Seven subdivisions were laid out and serviced by roads on Green Lake,
Ryder Lake, Tie Lake, Wasa Lake, Horse Lake, Young Lake, and Marshall Lake.
The policy of granting financial assistance toward the cost of extending rural
electric lines where such lines traversed unalienated parcels of vacant Crown land
was continued in 1962.
Work was continued on the compilation and revision of the Land Series bulletins in 1962. A new bulletin on the Peace River District was compiled and is now
available. The Kootenay bulletin, Fort Fraser-Fort George bulletin, Lower Coast
bulletin, and the bulletin covering the acquisition of Crown lands were revised
during the past year.
The activities of the Department continued at a high level during 1962. The
volume of work handled was almost identical to last year, but the gross revenue
received was the highest on record for the past 10 years, representing a 3.8-per-cent
increase over 1961 and a 40-per-cent increase over the average income for the past
10 years.
A brief summary of the activities of the various sections of the Administration
Division of the Lands Branch is set out hereunder:—
Lease Section.—The work load of this Section showed a slight decrease,
from 2,363 applications received in 1961 to 2,246 applications in
1962.   However, the number of lease indentures prepared increased
by about 10 per cent, rising from 1,033 in 1961 to 1,133 in 1962.
Purchase Section.—The work load of this Section rose from 2,165 applications in  1961 to 2,246 applications in  1962, representing an
increase of 3.7 per cent.
Crown Grant Section.—There was a reduction in the number of Crown
grant applications received, but an increase in the number of Crown
grants prepared.
Pre-emption and Reserve Section.—In this Section there was a decrease
in the number of applications received, dropping from a total of 804
 LANDS BRANCH BB 23
applications in 1961 to 709 applications in 1962.   There was, however, a sharp increase in the number of reserves established, ranging
from 545 in 1961 to 623 in 1962.   In addition to the above work,
this Section dealt with 2,411 general inquiry letters.
Status Section.—Once again the activity of this Section reflected a very
sharp increase over the previous year.    In 1962 the number of
statuses completed was 18,671, as compared to 14,611 in 1961,
representing an increase of 28 per cent.
Easement Section.—There was a marked increase in the activities of this
Section.  The applications received climbed to 207 in 1962, as compared with 145 in 1961, depicting a percentage increase amounting
to 48 per cent.
In addition to the above activities, 30,351 letters were received by the Lands
Branch and 2,091 counter inquiries were handled by the staff.
A total of 44 acreage parcels was offered for sale by tender, of which 24 were
sold for a bid price of $32,867.32. In addition, eight acreage parcels were offered
for leasehold by tender.
Twenty-six public auction sales involving 323 lots were offered for purchase by
auction. One hundred and forty-six lots were sold on the date of the sale, realizing
in total the sum of $153,733. Six public auctions of leases, comprising a total of
75 lots, were also held during the year.
The tables following indicate in some detail the work carried out by the
Administrative Division of the Lands Branch. The report of the Inspection Division
is presented separately by the Chief Land Inspector.
Table 1.—Country Land Sales, 1962
Acres
Surveyed      99,845.69
Unsurveyed     27,310.06
Total  127,155.75
Table 2.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1962
Land Recording District Total
Alberni   21
Atlin   	
Cranbrook   45
Fernie   13
Fort Fraser  7 8
Fort George  137
Fort St. John  204
Golden  17
Kamloops   61
Kaslo   6
Lillooet   48
Nanaimo   30
Nelson   11
New Westminster  12
Osoyoos   6
Pouce Coupe   102
Prince Rupert  37
 BB 24      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table 2.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1962—Continued
Land Recording District                                                                                                            Total
Onesnel                                                          _                                         __              43
Revelstoke     _    _____          _ _       _ _ _ _ _               	
          7
Similkameen _   	
        28
Smithers                                     _              _    	
        66
Telegraph Creek     	
Vancouver 	
        41
Victoria      _ _    __              "■    _    _ _ 	
          8
Williams Lake         _          _          _       _
        85
Total	
  1,106
Table 3.—Town Lots Sold, 1962
Town                                                                                                 Lots
Barkerville                                                              10
Value
$1,315.00
1,320.00
275.00
275.00
25.00
250.00 .
450.00
285.00
450.00
145.00
310.00
200.00
1,250.00
711.00
2,480.00
1,795.00
885.00
25.00
120.00
200.00
1,214.00
1,600.00
200.00
2,410.00
130.00
750.00
20.00
460.00
250.00
920.00
31,685.00
5,720.00
260.00
225.00
2,990.00
3,440.00
Barriere        4
Beaverdell       4
Bralorne                                      __ _                         1
Carmi    _ ._        1
Cascade                               _     _____                  4
Celista       2
Chetwynd        1
Coalmont                _   __..    _       __ _          9
Cowichan Station _             _        1
Elko          7
Extension    ___       2
Falkland         4
Fernie           5
Fort Fraser      35
Fort Nelson       4
Gold Bridge       7
Harrison Hot Springs       1
Hedley        1
Hope                         _       _       - _        _   _   _         1
Hosmer      _            28
Houston      10
Huntingdon       1
Lac la Hache            9
Masset        5
Merritt        3
Montrose        2
New Hazelton       14
Port Clements                ~   _                    _ _         3
Port Edward                      4
Prince George     38
Prince Rupert                  ■ ■ -               ■           _ _      7
Princeton          1
Qualicum Beach       1
Queen Charlotte    74
Ste. Marie Lake     _        15
 LANDS BRANCH
BB 25
Table 3.—Town Lots Sold, 1962-
Town
Salmo _
Slocan _
-Continued
Lots
_      4
1
Smithers   41
Sointula  4
South Fort George  7
Stewart  20
Telkwa  1
Topley   3
Union Bay  7
Vancouver   1
Vanderhoof   1
Wells   16
Williams Lake  1
Willow River  1
Wilmer  25
Yale   1
Ymir   4
Miscellaneous   61
Totals  518
Table 4.—New Leases Issued, 1962
Land—■ Number
Agriculture  52
Hay and grazing (pasture and hay-cutting) 478
Quarrying (sand, gravel, limestone, etc.)  11
Home-site (section 78, Land Act)  10
Residential   304
Miscellaneous   (resorts,   service-stations,
camp-sites, mill-sites, etc.)  50
Foreshore—
Booming, log storage, log-dumping, etc.—_ 90
Oyster and shellfish  9
Industrial (canneries, mill-sites, wharves,
etc.)  13
Quarrying (sand, gravel from river-beds) _ 2
Commercial (boat rentals, marinas, marine
service-stations, etc.)  46
Miscellaneous   (private   wharves,   boat-
houses, etc.)  29
Totals  1,094
Table 5.—Temporary Tenure Leases Renewed,
Value
$344.00
72.00
5,205.00
1,400.00
4,225.00
2,590.00
70.00
200.00
980.00
10.00
90.00
2,200.00
31,200.00
50.00
720.00
100.00
363.00
14,815.00
$129,674.00
Acreage
16,823.00
165,711.81
674.59
146.00
640.86
872.08
1,350.51
60.13
75.22
22.50
224.55
205.14
186,806.39
7962
Number
Acreage.
Number_.
Acreage..
Table 6.—Land-use Permits Issued, 1962
93
12,804.27
21
63.50
 BB 26      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table 7.—Licences to Occupy Issued, 1962
Number	
  18
Acreage     2,200.87
Table 8.—Assignments Approved, 1962
Leases, land-use permits, licences of occupation	
434
Table 9.—Easements Granted, 1962
Number
Miles
Acres
Foreshore
Water pipe-line..     	
3
2
1
1
1.535
0.063
1.119
0.155
6.057
0.076
i       95.450
7.490
V
2.874
109.073
Land
15
15
1
3
7
3
10
1
9
93.566
17.020
0.140
553.720
Oas
108.230
0.933
5.500
0.776
1.164
3.174
2.510
3.099
12.649
1.290
	
133.720
Totals
64
115.840
821 651
71
118.714
930 724
In line with current Departmental policy, 62 letters of consent for the construction of access roads were issued during the year.
Table 10.—Crown Grants Issued, 1962
Purchases (country lands)
678
Purchases (town lots)       287
Pre-emptions 	
Surface rights (Mineral Act) _'.
Public Schools Act	
Veterans' Land Settlement Act.
Home-site leases 	
Pacific Great Eastern Railway Company.
Supplementary timber grants	
Miscellaneous 	
Total.
Certified copies of Crown grants issued, 2.
21
26
19
5
14
12
1
18
1,081
 LANDS BRANCH
BB 27
Table 11.—Crown Grants Issued for Past 10 Years
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
Total.
1,829
1,276
1,498
1,518
1,426
1,043
1,471
1,399
1,074
1,081
13,615
Ten-year average, 1,361.
Table 12.-—Total Area Deeded by Crown Grant, 1962
Purchases (country lands)
Acres
  61,508.78
Pre-emptions          3,264.79
Surface rights (Mineral Act)  998.84
Public Schools Act  31.18
Veterans' Land Settlement Act  636.32
Home-site leases  190.16
Pacific Great Eastern Railway Company  1,131.55
Supplementary timber grants  20.00
Miscellaneous   208.25
Total.
67,989.87
 BB 28      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table 13.—Pre-emption Records, 1962
Land Recording District
Pre-emptions
Applications
Received
Applications
Allowed
Cancelled
C. of I.
Issued
Alberni..
Atlin	
Craribrook-
Fernie	
Fort Fraser (Burns Lake)	
Fort George (Prince George)..
Fort St. John   _..
Golden   _ _ _
Kamloops  	
Kaslo  	
Lillooet (Clinton)..
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster.—
Osoyoos (Vernon)..
Pouce Coupe 	
Prince Rupert	
Quesnel	
Revelstoke	
Similkameen (Penticton)..
Smithers	
Telegraph Creek (Prince Rupert)..
Vancouver	
Victoria	
Williams Lake-
Totals..
3
19
42
79
11
3
8
36
73
6
127
1
9
14
1
60
3
14
1
22
Table 14.—Reserves, 1962
Applications
Received
Use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public  171
British Columbia Department of Highways  (rights-of-
way, gravel pits, bridge sites, etc.)  169
Federal Government (defence purposes, wharf-sites, etc.)    46
British Columbia Forest Service (Ranger stations, grazing, radio-sites, reforestation, etc.)     64
Miscellaneous (Game Branch, water-power projects, gar-
bags dumps, school-sites, cemeteries, etc.)     97
Totals ;  547
Reserves
Completed
250
164
52
69
623
 LANDS BRANCH
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 BB 30      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
LAND INSPECTION DIVISION
L. D. Fraser, B.Sc.A., P.Ag., A.A.C.I., Chief Land Inspector
The trend established in past years toward an ever-increasing volume of work
handled by this Division continued during 1962. The increase in completed inspections this year over last was only 2 per cent, which is nominal; the backlog of 571
inspections at the end of 1962 represents a 26-per-cent increase over last year.
During the past year this Division examined and submitted appraisal reports
for many outside departments and agencies. Although the total number of examinations involved was only 44, or slightly better than 1 per cent of our total work
load, the hours of work required for each examination were far above the average
devoted to most reports. This is due to the complexity of the appraisals concerned
and to the fact that up to one or two weeks have been spent on one appraisal.
Detailed appraisals were made for the Pacific Great Eastern Railway Company,
Capital City Planning Board, Department of Highways, British Columbia Forest
Service, Department of Public Works, Department of Recreation and Conservation,
Southern Okanagan Lands Project, Land Settlement Board, Veterans' Land Act,
and Fort Steele Restoration Committee.
The following increases or decreases in requests for land examinations received
by each land inspection district are noted below:—
Per Cent Per Cent
Clinton   —31                Prince George  —9
Courtenay   +12               Quesnel  ■_  +35
Fort St. John  +7                Smithers   +33
Kamloops  +26                Vancouver  —23
Kelowna  —12                Victoria  —20
Nelson  —21                Williams Lake  +32
New Westminster  +43 British Columbia Forest
Pouce Coupe  —5                    Service and others  +71
There was an increase in eight districts and a decrease in seven, counting the
Coast.
The number of requests for land inspections in the Peace River District shows
signs of levelling off, but the acreage involved in each application is increasing.
There was a distinct increase in the Smithers district due to greater demand for
land. This is probably a sign that the district is emerging from the pioneer stage to
a more stable farming economy.
The increase in the Kamloops area was due primarily to boundary changes.
Portions of the Clinton, Kelowna, and Prince George districts were added to Kamloops. Without these changes, the work load would have been down from last year.
The shifting of district boundaries resulted in a decline in the three other districts
involved.
In Quesnel there was a noticeable increase in inspections for agricultural land.
In most instances the applicants were established farmers, interested in expanding
their own holdings. This is a desirable situation and should result in a more stable
farm economy. About 20 per cent of the applications were from new settlers
moving into the district.
The trend to acquire ranches in the Cariboo region by ranchers from Washington, Oregon, and California is continuing. This influx of new settlers has increased
land inspections.    It has also prompted local ranchers to make application for
 LANDS BRANCH' BB 31
Crown lands formerly grazed under permit. As a result, many problems dealing
with the management of Crown range have arisen in the Williams Lake and Clinton
districts.
An increase in the New Westminster district was due to the transfer of the
Indian Arm area from the Vancouver district. The work in this area is predominantly summer-home site inspections and accounted for 41 examinations during the
past year. While this transfer resulted in an increase in work for the New Westminster district, it caused a decrease for the Vancouver district. Indications are
that the work volume should increase in this latter district in the next year or two
due to the proposed extension of the Squamish Highway to Pemberton. The proposed increase in ferry service to the Sechelt Peninsula should also result in increased
activity in that area.
Although the work load is down this year in the Nelson district, it is anticipated
that this condition will be short lived. There will undoubtedly be a decided increase
in tourist traffic in future years due to the completion of the Rogers Pass section of
the Trans-Canada Highway and the Christina Lake-Kinnaird Road. The anticipated influx of tourists should result in a demand for land for many purposes
associated with the tourist industry.
The work load in the Victoria district has remained fairly constant when compared to past years but is increasing in the Courtenay area and upper Coastal
regions. Much of the latter work is currently being done by the British Columbia
Forest Service.
There is a growing need for the use of float-equipped aircraft to examine applications in remote and inaccessible parts of the Province. Inspections which used
to take several days by boat can now be done in a matter of hours. The Topographic
Division of the Lands Service has made its float-equipped Beaver aircraft available
for inspection work before and after its field season. Unfortunately, inclement
weather in the spring and fall of this year prohibited advantageous use of this
aircraft.
STAFF
During the past year several changes were made in the location of the field
staff. Mr. W. R. Redel, Assistant Chief Land Inspector, was promoted to the
position of Assistant Superintendent of Lands, effective August 16, 1962. The
position of Assistant Chief Land Inspector remained vacant until September 1,
1962, when it was filled by the appointment of Mr. F. M. Cunningham, who subsequently transferred from Vancouver to Victoria on November 1, 1962. Mr. G. H.
Wilson, Land Inspector 2, was promoted to Land Inspector 3, effective October 15,
1962, and transferred from Kamloops to Vancouver, effective November 1, 1962.
On October 26, 1962, Mr. D. I. Snider, Land Inspector 2, Prince George, was
selected for transfer to Kamloops. However, the actual transfer has not been
effected to date. As a result of this transfer, a vacant position exists in the Prince
George office at the present time. Mr. L. M. Warner, a recent graduate in agriculture from the University of British Columbia, was taken on the staff, effective May
22, 1962, and assigned to the Pouce Coupe district.
DISTRICT PROBLEMS
During the past year it was found necessary to rush temporary assistance to
various land inspection districts throughout the Province where the backlog of
outstanding inspections had reached a critical stage.   Some temporary measure of
 BB 32      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
relief was provided by shifting Inspectors from other districts where the work load
was less critical.
Some changes were made in district boundaries to distribute the work load
more evenly. In some cases the development or extension of roads resulted in
particular areas being more accessible from one district headquarters than from
another.
In the Peace River area the average size of each lease application increased
from 200 acres in 1958 to 480 in 1962. This alone has necessitated extra field
work, which is not reflected in the work load. Petroleum and hydro projects continue to encourage settlement by providing access to Crown lands and employment
for prospective settlers. Unfortunately the access roads provided by exploration
companies are often abandoned, which creates an access problem in subsequent
years to good farm land, which is becoming increasingly scarce in the Peace River
District.
In the Prince George area the same notable increase in the size of the applications was apparent. In 1959 the average size for each application was 90 acres.
In 1962 this had increased to 150 acres. Time devoted to inspections, particularly
applications for agricultural land, is increasing due to poor road access and increasing conflict in land use between agriculture and forestry.
Another problem is the conflict between established ranchers and new settlers
over the acquisition of favourable grazing areas. This problem will continue to
increase as more lands are placed under lease tenure or sold. The Land Inspector
is placed in the position of having to interview interested parties personally where
conflicts are known or anticipated.
A problem facing the Inspectors in the Williams Lake area is the rapid growth
in the beaver population. This has resulted in damming and flooding, and access
is hampered thereby.
LAND INSPECTORS' CONFERENCE
A conference was held at Kamloops on February 7, 8, and 9, 1962. All Land
Inspectors attended, as well as the Chief Land Inspector, the Assistant Chief Land
Inspector, the Superintendent of Lands, and the Assistant Superintendent of Lands.
Each Land Inspector prepared a paper on a special appraisal or land-use
problem. These were presented at the conference and contributed a great deal
toward an increased understanding of each other's problems. Special district problems were raised, which resulted in beneficial discussions.
STATISTICS
Table 1 presents a comparison on a year-to-year basis of the volume of field
work completed by the Land Inspection Division over the past five years. Table 2
presents a breakdown of the number and type of inspections completed during 1962.
A review of Table 2 indicates that inspections for applications to purchase
Crown land decreased by 11.4 per cent in 1962 compared to 1961. On the other
hand, inspections for applications to lease Crown land for various purposes increased
by 19.5 per cent over 1961. This is attributable to an increase in applications for
grazing leases. Foreshore lease inspections increased 15 per cent in 1962 over
1961, with the increase mainly due to foreshore lease reviews, which increased
from 73 in 1961 to 146 in 1962.
 LANDS BRANCH
Table 1.—Land Inspection, 1958-62
BB 33
Land Inspection District
Examinations Made during—
Outstanding at the End of—
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
Clinton __	
173
168
409
189
175
189
149
250
342
123
205
200
116
318
37
259
187
428
154
216
201
175
308
1     382
141
225
184
112
276
59
249
219
435
163
226
221
164
330
395
205
215
258
119
280
85
234
199
580
229
198
290
133
436
503
195
217
287
129
389
56
185
187
584
277
160
211
177
512
474
218
290
219
100
457
98
49
31
33
23
34
22
6
11
34
14
57
7
3
24
31
29
52
12
39
54
8
42
66
23
33
12
11
50
28
40
63
10
24
38
2
4
51
28
33
16
3
121
41
18
60
8
25
19
1
44
67
24
66
11
2
68
16
Courtenay 	
Fort St. John	
33
100
Kamloops 	
22
Kelowna 	
Nelson     _. ..
13
42
12
Pouce Coupe _	
30
Prince George	
73
43
116
Vancouver _	
19
3
Williams Lake	
49
B.C.F.S. and others 	
Totals.	
3,043
3,307
3,564
4,075
4,150
348
462
461
454
571
Table 2.—Types of Inspections, 1962
Purchases—
Agriculture (other than grazing) _
Access (roads, etc.)_
Commercial (resorts, service-stations, hotels, airfields, etc.)_
Community (cemeteries, church-sites, parking areas, etc.)___
Grazing (pasture, range)	
Home-sites (permanent) _
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants, etc.)
Summer-home or camp site	
Wood-lots or tree-farms	
Purchase Crown F.S	
Leases—
Land—
Agriculture (other than grazing)	
Commercial  (resorts, service-stations, hotels, airfields,
etc.)	
Community (parks, cemeteries, dump-sites, etc.)	
Grazing (pasture, range, hay-cutting, etc.)	
Home-sites (section 78 oi Land Act)	
Home-sites (permanent, other than section 78 of Land
A ct)	
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants,
etc.)	
Summer-home or camp site	
Quarrying (sand, gravel, limestone, diatomaceous earth,
etc.)_
Reviews (rental and (or) diligent use)	
Trap cabin	
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage or log-dumping	
Commercial   (boat   rentals,   marine   service-stations,
wharves, etc.)	
455
5
68
18
233
296
31
33
3
4
289
29
24
624
5
50
19
279
29
48
1
102
52
 BB 34      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table 2.—Types of Inspections, 1962—Continued
Leases—Continued
Foreshore—Continued
Industrial  (mill-sites, canneries, factory-sites, wharves,
etc.)  28
Quarrying (sand and gravel from river-beds)  2
Oyster and shellfish  3
Private (floats, boat-houses)  15
Reviews (rentals and (or) diligent use)  146
Recreational, public use, mill waste  4
Land-use permits  41
Licence of occupation  23
Easements and (or) rights-of-way  9
Pre-emptions—
Applications  89
Annual inspections (including applications for Crown grant) 208
Subdivisions—
Valuations  30
Survey inspections  5
Plans cancellation  1
Proposals (lake-shore, residential, etc.)  10
Reserves—■
Grazing   3
Gravel pits  1
Recreational   58
Others   21
Veterans' Land Act  3
Land Settlement Board—
Classification  5
Valuations    7
Doukhobor lands  4
Southern Okanagan Lands Project  2
Pacific Great Eastern Railway Company  14
Department of Social Welfare  1
Other agencies—Highways, British Columbia Forest Service, Department of Public Works, Game Branch, Fort Steele Restoration Committee  8
Miscellaneous inspections—
Assignments  1
Delinquent accounts  19
Escheats Act  1
Lake reconnaissance  48
Land-use surveys  37
Land values (current market values)  24
Protests   18
Section 53 (2) of Land Act (verifying improvements)  413
Section 65 of Land Act (free grants)  2
Section 78 of Land Act (re compliance with provisions of) ___ 42
Section 130 of Land Act (lands vested in Crown under Taxation Act) 	
 LANDS BRANCH BB 35
Table 2.—Types of Inspections, 1962—Continued
Miscellaneous Inspections—Continued
Section 131b of Land Act (cases of doubt regarding inclusion
of body of water in Crown grant)        12
Trespass (land)         36
Trespass (water)         36
Quieting Titles Act        14
Others—River-bank erosion, dump-site (garbage), permission to waive royalty payment, check building removal,
exchange with Indian Affairs Department, lake-bottom
improvements   9
Total  4,150
Included in this table are 98 inspections completed by the British Columbia
Forest Service and Department of Finance. These inspections were made in the
more remote areas of the Province. This amounts to a 71-per-cent increase over
the work done last year for this Division by outside branches.
   THE SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
The framework of maps and surveys so necessary for the orderly development and
settlement of British Columbia is provided through the Surveys and Mapping Branch.
That such scientific foundations were necessary even in the earliest days is shown by the
fact that in 1851 the position of Colonial Surveyor for the young Crown Colony of
Vancouver Island was created. In more than 100 years which have passed since Joseph
Despard Pemberton was appointed first Surveyor-General, British Columbia has expanded
immensely in all spheres of human endeavour. Much of the foundation for the way of
life we have in British Columbia today rests on the reliability of our basic surveys. As
British Columbia has progressed through time, so the surveys and maps of the Province
have increased in magnitude and complexity.
It is the responsibility of the Surveys and Mapping Branch, through the Boundary
Commissioner, to establish and maintain co-operatively the boundaries between this
Province and the other adjacent Provinces and Territories of Canada. Within the Province, the Branch has established and is ever extending a basic network of triangulation
surveys which are fundamental to determining geographical locations and co-ordinating
property boundaries. The surveying procedures vary according to the intended purposes.
Topographic surveys are constantly improving the portrayal of various physical features.
Cadastral (legal) surveys, on the other hand, delineate the parcels of Crown lands subject
to alienation under the Land Act. Finally, it is necessary to show on published maps the
combined survey effort in order to give a visual account of the position of land alienation
and geographic features of British Columbia. Maps must satisfy a wide range of uses,
whether it be by the sportsman searching for an untapped valley or virgin lake, the homesteader seeking unsettled lands, or the industrialist planning new ways and new places to
develop the resources of this Province.
So much for the uses of maps and surveys and their necessity. Also interesting is the
great variety of techniques and equipment which must support our complex surveying and
mapping organization. This includes photography from aircraft using precise cameras
calibrated to less than a thousandth of an inch, modern optical surveyors' theodolites
which read directly to seconds of arc, other instruments such as the tellurometer (a
distance-measuring device which operates on a principle similar to radar), and plotting
devices which are capable of precise mapping directly from aerial photographs. Helicopters and other aircraft speed surveyors to the remotest locations. Surveying is also
expanding into the realm of electronic computers which can process the contents of field-
notes in seconds compared with hours by manual methods. In all these ways, the science
of surveying and mapping continues to serve the people by keeping pace with their needs
and with the continual technological advances of our age.
The following is a brief summary of the functions of the various divisions of the
Surveys and Mapping Branch:—
/. Administration.—General co-ordination of the four divisions of the Branch, being
Legal Surveys, Geographic, Topographic, and Air; delineation and maintenance of
boundaries under the Provincial Boundary Commissioner—namely, (a) Alberta-British
Columbia Boundary and (b) British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary;
interdepartmental and intergovernmental liaison, such as the Fraser River Board.
_7. Legal Surveys Division.—Regulations for surveys under the various Provincial
Acts, such as Land, Land Registry, Mineral, Petroleum and Natural Gas; instructions to
British Columbia land surveyors regarding surveys of Crown lands and subsequent check
of field-notes and plans of same; preparation and custody of official plans; preparation
and maintenance of Departmental reference maps, mineral reference maps, and composite
(cadastral) maps; processing for status of all applications concerning Crown lands; field
surveys of Crown lands, highway rights-of-way, etc.; preparation of legal descriptions;
operation of blue-print and photostat sections; computational scrutiny of certain land
registry subdivision plans; inspection surveys; restoration surveys.
///. Geographic Division.—Map compilation, drawing and negative engraving, editing, and reproduction; map checking, distribution, geographical naming—Gazetteer of
British Columbia; field and culture surveys for preparation of land bulletins and maps;
preparation of legal descriptions for and delineation of administrative boundaries; compilation and distribution of annual Lands Service Report; trigonometric computation and
recording of geographic co-ordinates; general liaison between this Department and Federal and other mapping agencies on exchange of survey and mapping data; checking well-
site survey plans under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act.
IV. Topographic Division.—Propagation of field survey control—namely, triangulation, traverses, and photo-topographic control; operation of Beaver float-plane and M.V.
"B.C. Suryeyor"; helicopters on charter; compilation and fair drawing of manuscripts
for standard topographic mapping; special field control for composite and photogram-
metric mapping and other special projects; precise mapping from aerial photographs
through the use of the most modern plotting-machines.
V. Air Division.—Aerial photographic operations involving maintenance and operation of three aircraft; photographic processing, air-photo distribution, and Provincial airphoto library; compilation of interim base maps, primarily for the forest inventory;
air-photo control propagation; instrument-shop for the repair, maintenance, and development of technical equipment.
J
 "-(rcV
 BB 40      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., B.C.L.S., F.R.G.S.,
Director, Surveyor-General, and Boundaries Commissioner
A synopsis for this Branch, including pertinent statistical highlights, for the
calendar year 1962 has been reported by the Deputy Minister of Lands in preceding
pages. Details of the year's activities may be found in four divisional sections following, under the headings Legal Surveys, Topographic, Geographic, and Air Divisions. It may therefore be convenient to review here some special aspects of surveys
and mapping which broadly affect the welfare of British Columbia.
RESTORATION SURVEYS
An increase in the 1962/63 budget allotment to the Legal Surveys Division for
restoration surveys from $10,000 the previous year to $15,000 was an endorsement
of the value of this work. The purpose, as the name implies, is to renew important
survey monuments which, by the ravages of time, have disappeared and thus impose
an unfair burden on citizens having interest in nearby land when resurvey becomes
necessary in connection with safeguard or transfer of title, subdivision, trespass, etc.
Part of the restoration allotment is used to finance field surveys by one Departmental
land surveyor and crew, whose efforts are directed to areas of greatest need from the
standpoint of dereliction of the old survey structure in relation to current public
activity in land setdement, development, and subdivision. Another channel for
beneficial use of these funds is to assist land surveyors in private practice who encounter unusual difficulty in tying in surveys for individual clients to the surrounding
structure, as required by statutory regulation, which cases, upon review by this
Branch, are found to impose an unfair burden, cost-wise, on the client. This type of
restoration is more sporadic over the whole Province and more localized in each case.
Preservation and restoration of survey monuments raise the question of division of responsibility between the individual private owner of land and the public
collectively in several levels of government—Municipal, Provincial, and Federal.
Fundamentally it is assumed that each individual owner is responsible for the boundary markers of his own property. A simple case is the pioneer whose isolated
rectangular property is marked by four corner posts. Surrounded by unoccupied
Crown land, he shares the responsibility for his four corner posts with the Crown
(Provincial), in this case the adjoining owner. His net responsibility thus should
be two post units, so to speak. The more general case is when each owner is completely surrounded by adjacent owners, in a sizeable rectangular subdivision. For
example, if there are n lots in each row and n rows of lots in a complex, each owned
individually, the total number of owners is n2 and the total number of posts is
(n -j- l)2. As n increases, in large subdivisions, the responsibility approaches one
post per owner. Other variables enter the case. Legal boundaries of rights-of-way
are usually posted at each intersection with lot boundaries, thus materially increasing the number of survey monuments requiring protection and maintenance. Public
rights-of-way for roads, highways, etc., should further increase the responsibility at
Municipal and Provincial Government levels.
Other Government activities result in placing additional survey monuments of
various kinds, all sacrosanct, to be preserved with vigilance. The Federal Government sets up primary survey control for the whole nation through the Geodetic
Survey of Canada, most commonly in the form of triangulation stations and benchmarks located and co-ordinated with extreme precision on the continent-wide North
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 41
American Datum (1927). These stations are relatively sparse, normally 10 to 50
miles apart, and are confined to main routes across certain parts of the country, as
in British Columbia along the 49th parallel, up the West Coast, along the .Alaska,
Cariboo, and Hart Highways. They are established mostly on or near mountain-
tops and often set in bedrock, so are comparatively invulnerable, although building
of forestry lookouts and, more recendy, microwave stations has, through ignorance
or carelessness, destroyed a few or encumbered them to the point of uselessness.
In connection with standard topographic mapping, both Provincial and Federal
agencies, including the Army, for many years have been and are continuing to
propagate a denser incidence of mapping control monuments of secondary and
tertiary precision, but based on and co-ordinated with the aforementioned primary
geodetic network. These monuments are established at greater density, 5 to 10
miles apart, and in British Columbia follow generally the pattern of standard mapping, as indicated on Index 4 appended to this Report.
Although the above-mentioned first, second, and third order control monuments
(and bench-marks for elevation) are not directly of legal significance in connection
with property boundaries, they constitute the ubiquitous survey framework over the
whole area of the Province, with which eventually all survey markers should be
integrated. Of this, more is said in later paragraphs. As the network of control is
further broken down and integrated with the property or cadastral survey structure
in densely setded areas of the Province, these monuments, too, will become vulnerable to the same destructive influences which menace property markers. The importance of survey control monuments to the public collectively makes the responsibility for their preservation that of the Provincial Government, although the Geodetic Survey of Canada does restore its primary stations and bench-marks, which
action, however, depends on incidental reports of damage rather than systematic
inspection.
Another aspect of safeguarding survey monuments derives from the Government practice from time to time of surveying Crown land into lots, anticipating
disposal sooner or later by Crown grant. In the years prior to the First World War,
very large tracts of land considered suitable for settlement were surveyed into district
lots, up to 640 acres in size. However, many of these remained as vacant surveyed
Crown lots, some of which are only now, after half a century, encompassed in the
path of current settlement. In those earlier times, survey regulations countenanced
wooden survey posts, which have since proven vulnerable to decay, forest fires, and
logging operations. It is clearly a public responsibility to either restore these
corners, which legally govern all subsequent surveys for land alienation or subdivision, or to cancel them under provisions of the Land Act (section 10). With
the reversion to the Crown of any previously alienated lands, it would seem that the
responsibility for the condition of the pertinent survey monuments also reverts with
tide, calling for inspection, and restoration if necessary, prior to redisposal as surveyed land.
INTEGRATION OF SURVEYS
Reference has been made to the integration of all surveys on the continental
North American Datum (1927) by co-ordination of all monuments or markers
governing the legal boundaries of property, engineering projects, bench-marks, and
indeed man-made structures of a substantial and permanent nature with the survey
control network. Only on this basis can both relocation and restoration of lost
points, as well as detection and equitable reconciliation of errors accruing from the
past, right back to the earliest colonial times, be effected with confidence, simplicity,
 BB 42      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
accuracy, and economy. This ideal conception is the real solution to the problem
of lost monuments and contentious confusion arising from survey anomalies of the
past.
Integration of surveys has received increasingly widespread support in recent
years. It will be the theme of the forthcoming annual convention of the nation-wide
Canadian Institute of Surveying in Ottawa, February, 1963. The question arises,
if co-ordinate integration of surveys is such a panacea for survey problems, including
high costs, why is it only now being advocated with such vigour? The facts are that
it is only in recent years that the necessary over-all control surveys have been extended sufficiently to provide a widespread structure for survey integration. Also,
it is only recently that certain revolutionary technical equipment has been available
to make practicable, for the first time in history, the rapid and economic breakdown
of the primary control structure into a density of stations necessary for effective
universal survey integration. These technical developments come mainly from
electronics as applied to distance measurement and computations, from precise aerial
photogrammetry, from air-borne field transport, and radio communication. Even
with these new technological aids, the task of catching up v/ith the integration of the
enormous aggregation of cadastral surveys from the past is colossal.
Actually the integration of surveys has been a feature of British Columbia
survey policy for several decades, but due to the enormity of the task, catching up
with more or less a century's lead in primary lot surveys under the Land Act and
subdivision and right-of-way surveys under the Land Registry Act, in relation to
limitations of staff, budget, and available survey techniques, only sporadic ties could
be made between the new expanding mapping control system and nearby district lot
corners, as opportune. In spite of these limitations, a very creditable array of coordinated points has been established. Some 33,000 are now documented in our
control records, of which about one-quarter are cadastral corners, the balance being
geodetic and mapping control stations. Along the Alaska Highway right-of-way,
for example, where the cadastral structure is already co-ordinated, the survey
markers have been invaluable for well-site locations under the requirements of the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act.
Another significant trend is that since World War II the major control survey
potential of this Branch has been almost fully absorbed in extending the standard
topographic mapping into remote and thinly populated regions, where interest in
resource development of all kinds has been of primary Government concern. For
this reason these remote areas, ironically, have been better served with integration
of the primary cadastral structure than the older, more densely congested communities. It is only in very recent times that the benefits of integration in the latter have
been brought into focus and the demand for them more clearly articulated.
Considering primary cadastral surveys under the Land Act, there are now
approximately 104,000 district lots surveyed and identified, plus some 300 townships
surveyed into 36 sections (each of which in turn may have four quarters of 160
acres) in the Province, exclusive of the old Dominion land surveys in the former
railway (C.P.R.) belt, and in the Peace River Block. These, with both urban and
suburban subdivisions, imply an astronomic number of property corners eventually
to be co-ordinated with the control network datum.
The density of control monuments will vary according to development in an
area. In cities they must be spaced about 1,000 feet apart; that is, 25 per square
mile. The suburban density may thin out to four or five, and rural to about one per
square mile. However, if an average of, say, only three monuments per square mile
were struck for the whole of British Columbia, it would imply over 1,000,000
monumented control points, over 30 times the number we now have.    And this
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 43
would merely set the stage for the final act of integrating the galaxy of cadastral lot
corners. Full realization of the system will be in the million-dollar cost category,
but will be justified by savings of greater magnitude. Because of its enormity, the
programme must be one of many years' duration. Nevertheless, all leading authorities testify to the necessity of it. We know that work already done, and to continue,
we hope at an increased pace, will be of great value. On a practical basis it is
obvious that these operations should be focused to complete small areas, one at a
time, according to the greatest need.
One mitigating feature of the integration of surveys problem is that with the
control survey network established to the required density, only new work need be
co-ordinated, including, of course, such old corners as are pertinent to the new work.
Fortunately there are many areas of dense subdivision which enjoy for the time being
at least a condition of maturity in the survey sense; that is to say, individual property
boundaries are well established, and a climax condition of survey stability prevails.
These areas may well be left in then quiescent condition, on the principle " let
sleeping dogs lie," until such a time as some new development calls for resurvey in
whole or in part, and with it co-ordination of the points involved.
With the gratifying approval of the Honourable the Minister of this Department,
a modest beginning on a specific programme for integrated surveys in British Columbia was undertaken during the past field season in the Lower Fraser Valley. Due
to difficulties with weather, smog, and rather expensive helicopter access to key
mountain-top geodetic stations, only 23 new stations were established, instead of
some 40 originally planned. However, the accuracy achieved was of a very high
order, and the stage is now set for a further breakdown and intensification of this
control structure. Experience gained will also prove valuable in continuing the
programme.   Various problems have also become more clearly appreciated.
One is specifications for siting and construction of the control monuments.
Difficulties of using private property for these are obvious, hence the preference for
placing them on vacant Crown land or in public rights-of-way. In certain cases the
use of private property may be unavoidable, and these should be formalized by legal
consent. This points up the need of statutory provision for Crown reserves of the
land surrounding every survey monument, and in special cases for the resumption by
the Crown of title, to provide a sanctuary against depredatkm. The area surrounding
such points could be small, within a radius of 6 feet or less (about one four-hundredth of an acre).
Another problem is the best form of monument itself. Should it be a substantial
conspicuous concrete obelisk for all to see and to revere, or should it be a sizeable
but hidden buried installation, known only to the authorized few—surveyors, engineers, and ilk? Intervisibility between monuments and subordinate reference marks
are other desirable features. In any case, specifications should be flexible for the
best application to local conditions encountered by the surveyor in charge, providing
permanency, intervisibility, and accessibility are achieved.
The statutory aspect of legalizing identity and authenticity of co-ordinate locations is an important and essential part of the scheme, and will depend on support of
the Attorney-General's Department, the legal profession in general, and Land Registrars in particular. Probably amendments should be incorporated in appropriate
Statutes, making provision for the following:—
(1) Legal authenticity of co-ordinates for property markers once officially
approved against all challenge where there is no other overriding evidence
available.
(2) Proclamation, from time to time, of co-ordinated areas by Order in Council as the necessary control surveys are set up and declared ready by the
 BB 44      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Surveyor-General, with the requirement that all new property monuments
and all repostings be co-ordinated on the control datum with adequate
precision.
(3) The revision of official co-ordinate values, from time to time, as survey
control improves and becomes more accurate. This takes care of the progressive transformation from rural to suburban and to urban development,
and allows the desirable flexibility of accuracy specifications in relation to
land values, and for the rectification of errors which may come to light.
(4) The basis of co-ordinates to be on technical specifications, such as the
shape and size of the ellipsoid and suitable rectangular grid projection,
under authority of the Surveyor-General.
(5) Provision for the sanctity and preservation of survey control monuments
and the plot of ground surrounding them.
The division of responsibility between three levels of government for establishment, maintenance, and monitoring the use of the co-ordinate control structure
should be clearly defined and accepted. Logic and precedent place the primary
first-order control framework under the Federal Geodetic Survey of Canada. There
are some conspicuous gaps in this in relation to our population distribution, a glaring
one being along a route from Osoyoos to Salmon Arm via the Okanagan Valley.
Breakdown of the primary net into second and third order would logically fall to the
Provincial survey authority, and this would include the maintenance of such monuments in unorganized territory. Municipalities and cities should take responsibility
for co-ordinating the detail cadastral structure as well as provision and maintenance
of the control monuments within then boundaries. Furthermore, it should fall on
the pertinent approving officers under the Land Registry Act to ensure that all subdivisions and other plans are properly co-ordinated to the control datum.
COMPUTATIONAL SERVICE TO LAND REGISTRY OFFICES
The Deputy Minister has noted that the mathematical checking of Land Registry Office plans by the Legal Surveys Division was expanded, from the trial basis
initiated in 1961 with the Victoria Land Registry Office, to include those at Prince
Rupert, Kamloops, and Nelson. A satisfactory work-flow routine was established,
whereby plans received in Victoria by Monday's mail were checked and in return
mail by the following Friday.
AIR-PHOTO SERVICES
In accordance with the French proverb that the appetite grows with eating,
British Columbia, having thrived on a generous diet of air-photo services for the
past 16 years, exhibits an ever-increasing penchant for this form of nourishment.
Demands from a widening circle of government agencies now exceed the potential of
the Air Division in this particular service. The current conversion to Beechcraft
Expediters from the old wartime Ansons, noted elsewhere in this and prior Annual
Reports, will not materially improve our picture-taking capacity. We have now
arrived at the point where either a third similar photo aircraft should be added or
a higher performance unit or units be obtained. A higher operational ceiling from
20,000 feet to, say, 28,000 feet, better air speed from 150 miles per hour to 250
miles per hour, an operational range of nine hours instead of eight, and greater pay
load are all urgent desiderata if we are to bring in the bigger harvest of air photos
now in urgent demand.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
A NEW AIR-PHOTO PLOTTER
BB 45
A new air-photo stereoplotter, of original design, built in the Surveys instrument-shop during the second half of the year, was completed and placed on trial in
December (see Plate 1). It is a relatively simple plotter, based on an optical principle* first proposed by the late Dr. E. G. Deville, I.S.O., LL.D., D.T.S., Surveyor-
General of Dominion Lands, Ottawa, 1885 to 1924, the acknowledged " Father of
Photogrammetry " in Canada.f The original Deville proposal was conceived for
terrestrial survey photographs from mountain stations many years prior to the advent
of aerial photography.    A method of applying the Deville principle to vertical air
Plate 1. The Deville Plotter.
photos was contrived by the writer as long ago as 1934, when aerial photogrammetry
in British Columbia was still very much in embryo.
After some preliminary experiments, a prototype plotter was made in 1937/38
with funds from a Charles Lathrop Pack Fellowship Award then held by the writer.
While this prototype validated the general optical approach, provision of further
mechanical adjustments for the haphazard conditions of camera orientation in flight
was necessary, for which the mechanical design was interrupted by the incidence of
war in 1939. A second prototype was built during the limited opportunities of overseas war service, mainly to demonstrate the principle for possible development under
military auspices in the United Kingdom in connection with war mapping. There
was a great need for a simple and portable stereoplotter. However, due to the
exigencies of war, nothing significant could be done at that time. A third experimental plotter was designed and built here in the Surveys instrument-shop about
1950.   This model had all the spatial adjustments necessary for achieving stereo
* Deville, E. G.:   Transactions, Royal Society of Canada 1902, Section III, page 63.
t Field, R. H.:    The History of Photogrammetry in Canada.    The Canadian Surveyor, Vol   XI, No   3
January, 1953.
1
 BB 46      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
correspondence of the ah photos covering an overlap and for levelling the stereo-
model to the survey control datum, and while it proved too cumbersome for efficient
plotting, it served to clarify the practical range of the various adjustments so that
refinements in design could be specified for a much simpler, more efficient operational
instrument. Also the (1950) Mark III prototype clarified certain operational
features which remained to be solved. The (1962) Mark IV " Deville Plotter," on
preliminary tests at the end of the year, shows promise of being an effective and much-
needed addition to the array of standard photogrammetric equipment now in use in
our mapping operations. Its main function is to take off accurate contour and other
map detail from the stereo air-photo model, for which vertical and horizontal control
has been set up by a machine of first-order precision, such as the Wild A7, thus
reducing the bottleneck on the latter. The new plotter uses ordinary (non-distortion)
paper prints from the Air Photo Library, instead of expensive and fragile glass
diapositives required by the other plotters, so that its cost is fractional in comparison.
It has distinct visual advantages over the anaglyphic principle in wide use, and plots
at the desired map scale.
In connection with the production of the new Mark IV " Deville Plotter," it
is appropriate to acknowledge the valuable participation of Mr. A. D. Wight,
B.C.L.S., of the Topographic Division, who not only drew up the specifications for
the new model based on trials with the Mark III unit, but contributed certain basic
ideas, without which the new plotter could not have been fully operational in the
production sense. Much credit is also due Mr. A. R. Best, instrument-maker, on
the staff of the Air Division, for many elegant features of machine handiwork which
realized the instrument's workability and compactness. Finally, since this is the
first official announcement of the new plotter, it is appropriate to express appreciation for the interest and helpful suggestions made some 25 years ago by Dr. Gordon
Shrum, Co-Chairman of the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, when he
was, then, head of the Physics Department at the University of British Columbia.
It is anticipated that the coming year will provide ample operational basis for further
refinements in design, as well as for a report on accuracy and efficiency a year hence.
Meanwhile indications of its value have led to the choice of its name, the " Deville
Plotter," as an appropriate tribute to the acknowledged "Father of Photogrammetry" in Canada, Dr. Edouard Gaston Deville (1849-1924).
ADMINISTRATION
In 1962 the authorized personnel establishment of the Surveys and Mapping
Branch was 174 permanent employees, all grades, plus seven temporary so-called
" casual " positions. Ten years ago the authorized establishment of the Branch was
192 permanent employees plus more than 14 temporary positions, the highest
establishment on record. The work load and output, in both quantity and quality,
have however increased significantly in this period, in keeping with the well-known
growth of the Province. The reason that it has been possible to accomplish more
work, better, with smaller staff is due largely to automation, but also significantiy to
improved training, experience, and skill of the staff, as has been remarked in previous
Reports. The time has now come, however, when these advantages can no longer
be expected to offset the unbalance between ever-growing demands and limited
staff. Important aspects of the work are being necessarily neglected due to staff
shortage, one instance being the Departmental reference maps of the Legal Surveys
Division. Some of these are so shop-worn that they are almost illegible. These are
the basis for status clearances by the said Division for all applications under the
 r
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 47
Land Act, the Forest Act, and the Water Rights Act, as well as many other status
queries.
Early in the year the Surveys and Mapping Branch sustained the loss of an
outstanding staff member by resignation, in the person of Mr. William Hall, M.C.,
B.A.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., who had been Chief, Air Division, since 1952, when
he succeeded the writer in that position. Mr. Hall joined the Department first in
1925 as a messenger with an annual salary which he proudly boasts was $360.
Between the years 1927 and 1932, he took time out to attend the University of
British Columbia, obtaining the forestry degree, but during concurrent summer
seasons served on various British Columbia forest survey parties. In the low years
of the depression, Mr. Hall obtained a teacher's diploma at the Provincial Normal
School, Victoria, and then gained experience in the logging industry. He re-entered
the Forest Service in 1935, and late in 1937 joined the writer in the Air Survey
section of the Forest Surveys Division. Overseas war service occupied the years
1940 to 1945 in the United Kingdom, North Africa, where he won the Military
Cross, and in Italy, where he was severely wounded. As Assistant Chief, 1948 to
1952, he took a large share with the writer in setting up the Ah Division of the
Surveys and Mapping Branch. Thus for many years Mr. Hall was closely associated
with the writer in pioneering ah photography and ah surveys in British Columbia,
and contributed materially in its application to base maps for the Province-wide
forest inventory. Having served on the Council of the Association of Professional
Engineers of British Columbia for several years, he became president in 1961. Early
in 1962 he was offered and accepted the position of registrar of that organization.
It is gratifying that Mr. Hall's talents will continue to serve with distinction in his
new field, as they did so conspicuously during his many years in both Provincial
Government and military service.
 BB 48      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
D. Pearmain, Chief
The Legal Surveys Division, under the direction of the Surveyor-General, is
responsible for cadastral surveys of all Crown lands of the Province. This entails
the issuing of instructions to the land surveyors engaged to make each survey and
supplying them with copies of the field-notes and plans of adjoining or adjacent
surveys. After the completion of the survey, the returns are forwarded to this office
for checking and plotting. Included in the above returns are all right-of-way surveys,
including those for highways, railways, and transmission-lines. During the year,
967 sets of the above instructions were issued, this being an increase of 204 over
1961.
In 1962, 455 sets of field-notes covering the survey of 621 lots were received
in this office and duly indexed, checked, plotted, and official plans prepared therefrom. Of the above-mentioned surveys, 598 were made under the Land Act and 23
under the Mineral Act. At the present time there are approximately 97,330 sets of
field-notes on record in our vaults.
There were 503 plans received from land surveyors covering surveys made
under the Land Registry Act. These were duly indexed and checked, and certified
copies deposited in the respective Land Registry Offices.
In order that a graphic record may be kept of alienations of both surveyed and
unsurveyed Crown lands together with reserves, a set of reference maps, 210 in
number, covering the whole of the Province must be maintained. These show all
cadastral surveys which are on file in the Department, and are kept up to date by
adding new information as it accrues from day to day. Prints of them are available
to the public (see Indexes 1 to 7 in the envelope attached to the back cover of this
Annual Report). A start was made last year on the recompilation of the four reference maps covering the Lower Fraser Valley between Vancouver and Hope. These
reference maps are presently drawn at the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and on the re-
compilation will be drawn at the scale of one-quarter mile to 1 inch. It is most
regrettable that through the pressure of other work it has been impossible to carry
the above recompilation through to completion. Likewise, the renewing and redrawing of the reference maps which become worn through constant use and handling
has fallen very far behind. Whereas we should be renewing a minimum of 25 of
these maps a year, only 13 could be done in 1962.
All applications to purchase or lease Crown lands or foreshore which are
received by the Lands Branch and all applications to purchase Crown timber
received by the Forest Service are channelled through this Division for clearance.
The orderly processing of these applications requires that an exhaustive status be
made from the reference maps, official plans, and Land Registry Office plans. From
the reference maps, together with other information and facilities maintained by this
Division, it is possible to give an up-to-the-minute status on any parcel of Crown
land in the Province.
It has been necessary during the year, for status and compilation purposes, to
obtain 1,594 plans from the various Land Registry Offices. Copies of these have
been made, indexed, and filed as part of the Division's records.
This Division co-operates with the other departments of Government by preparing and checking legal descriptions which they require. Those assisted in this
way were the Attorney-General's Department (descriptions of Small Debts Courts),
the Department of Agriculture (descriptions of disease-free areas and pound districts), the Department of Municipal Affairs (descriptions for the incorporation or
 '       -
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 49
amendment of municipal areas), the Forest Service (descriptions of tree-farm licences
and working circles), and the Lands Branch (descriptions for gazetted reserves,
etc.). During the year 119 of the above descriptions were prepared, and this entailed
270 man-hours.
REPRODUCTION SECTION
The Legal Surveys Division, through this Section, continues to supply a service
to all departments of Government and to the public, as well as supplying all the
prints and photostats, etc., required by the Surveys and Mapping Branch. The total
number of prints made during the year was 268,515, in the preparation of which
170,400 yards or 96.7 miles of paper and linen were used. The number of photostats, films, and autopositives made was 68,688.
It is interesting to note that of the 268,515 prints made during the year, 79,723
were for the Surveys and Mapping Branch, 72,752 for other branches of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, 106,800 for other departments of
Government, and 9,240 for the public. Likewise, of the 68,688 photostats, films,
etc., made, 29,031 were for the Surveys and Mapping Branch, 19,663 for the other
branches of the Department, 10,648 for the other departments of Government, and
9,346 for the public.
The multilith machine turned out 163,436 copies during the year.
In the latter half of December a Xerox 914 copier was set up in the Reproduction Section to replace the Unicop machine which we have had in operation for some
years. The copying of letters, field-notes, etc., will be improved both in regard to
speed, quality, and cost.
COMPOSITE MAP SECTION
This Section is responsible for the compilation and fair drawing of composite
maps, mostly at a scale of 500 feet to 1 inch, of the more densely subdivided areas
of the Province and especially where they occur in unorganized territory.
During the year 59 sheets were completed and covered areas as follows: Gulf
Islands, 46 sheets; Revelstoke, 4 sheets; Smithers, 4 sheets; Burns Lake, 3 sheets;
Hazelton, 1 sheet;  and Clinton, 1 sheet.
LAND EXAMINATION PLANS SECTION
This Section is responsible for the preparation of plans for the use of the Land
Inspectors in then examination of applications for Crown lands. These plans are
a consolidation of all the information available in this Department and pertinent to
the application requiring inspection. A synopsis of the work accomplished by this
Section during the past six years is as follows:—
Year Plans Prepared Year Plans Prepared
1957  2,290 1960  2,609
1958  2,192 1961  2,660
1959  2,473 1962  2,941
GENERAL
As of October 1st of this year, the Legal Surveys Division undertook the task
of giving a thorough mathematical check to all plans tendered for deposit in the
Land Registry Offices at Kamloops, Nelson, and Prince Rupert. The Victoria Land
Registry Office has been similarly assisted since April, 1961.   Already some prob-
 BB 50      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
lems have been encountered relative to staff shortages in the I.B.M. 650 electronic
computing section, so that for a short period at the end of the year the checking
service broke down. It is hoped that no further disruptions in electronic computing
will occur, since so many departments are thereby adversely affected.
The receiving and distribution of survey posts, which are stored at 859 Devonshire Road, has operated smoothly and efficiently. The following synopsis shows
the quantities of posts shipped during the past year and to whom:—
Standard
Pipe
Standard
Rock
B.C.L.S.
Bars
Purchased by private surveyors from headquarters .
Supplied to Departmental surveyors  	
Shipped to Government Agents for resale	
Totals._.   .__. 	
370
645
3,635
4,650
87
29
458
574
181
2,725
1,600
4,506
Summary of Office Work for the Years 1961 and 1962,
Legal Surveys Division
Number of field-books received
lots surveyed	
lots plotted	
lots gazetted	
lots cancelled	
lots amended	
mineral-claim field-books prepared __
reference maps compiled or renewed
applications for purchase cleared
applications for pre-emption cleared
applications for lease cleared	
water licences cleared	
timber sales cleared	
Crown-grant applications cleared
cancellations made	
inquiries cleared
placer-mining leases plotted on maps.—
letters received and dealt with	
land-examination plans       2
Crown-grant and lease tracings made _
miscellaneous tracings made	
photostats made     68
blue-prints made  268
1961
1962
457
455
631
621
453
447
445
418
14
16
157
163
38
22
11
13
2,368
2,465
196
147
2,988
3,193
125
158
5,605
5,422
1,129
1,156
5,272
5,027
1,578
1,504
324
6,247
6,019
2,660
2,941
4,106
4,675
6
10
8,932
68,688
8,779
268,515
FIELD WORK
The pattern established in recent years of legal surveys for many departments
of Government repeated itself in 1962. Another increase in funds available for
restoration surveys made it possible for a modest expansion of the work through the
use of the services of some private surveyors.
Two Topographic Division surveyors were made available for legal surveys in
order to maintain the work programme and to fill a vacancy created by the resignation of a land surveyor from this Division.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 51
As a measure to reduce time and cost of setting permanent survey monuments,
a new type of driveable pipe post was produced by this Division and is now available
for use in the northern areas on winter work. Whether or not the post will be used
through the Province will depend on its performance there in the current year.
Subdivision of Crown Land
Town lots were surveyed at various locations—six at Savona, six at Sointula,
one at Westbank, and eight on the University campus. Rural lots this year were
greatly increased due to the Department being requested to participate in the subdivision of Doukhobor lands at Ootischenia, where 166 lots were created. Further
areas of subdivisions of this type at Nelson, Pemberton, Tulameen, Howser, 100
Mile House, Cheakamus, and Isle Pierre brought this total to 222.
Waterfront lots for residential lease were up again this year, with the largest
subdivision being made at Green Lake in the Cariboo, of 133 lots. Other lake-front
surveys at Clearwater, Sharpes, Heffley, Charlotte, Tie, and Young Lakes made a
total of 247 of this type of lot. Five surveys of acreage parcels at 70 Mile House,
100 Mile House, Lac la Hache, Cranbrook, and Cobble Hill completed the subdivision programme.
Public Reserves and Forestry Sites
Sanitary reserves in unorganized areas at Rock Creek, Beaverdell, Cache Creek,
and Endako were surveyed, as is the usual custom to encourage the proper disposition of refuse of a gregarious population.
Park and Recreational Reserves
Recreational sites were surveyed in nine areas. Seven of these were parks at
the request of the Department of Recreation and Conservation. One was located
at China Beach near Jordan River, where a beautiful fine sandy beach is now available for public use. Another was an addition to Thomas Francis Park near Victoria,
and a fine large site at Beaver Creek, just south of Trail, will soon be a popular campsite for the touring public. Another acquisition at Rolley Lake near Mission and
the whole of Rosedale Island in the Fraser River will be welcomed by the Fraser
Valley population. Thirty acres were surveyed near Victoria for the Capital Improvement Commission as part of a green belt on approaches to the city. The last
10 acres of unsurveyed land in the vicinity of Goldstream were surveyed and became
an addition to that park. Four hundred and thirty-five acres in all became park,
with recreational reserves in addition at Charlotte, Young, and Sharpes Lakes.
Restoration Surveys
The road survey programme continues to provide the best means of restoring
old corners when surveyed land is encountered. One hundred and eleven district
lot and section corners were permanently remonumented in this manner during the
current year. The total is smaller than in previous years as much of our highway
survey was through old Dominion township areas, which were well monumented with
metal posts in the beginning. Restoration work was continued in the Chief Lake
area near Prince George. Areas like this are practically devoid of posts, and the
work progresses very slowly because of the unusual amount of searching required
for evidence in rotten condition. An additional 51 main corners were restored on
Departmental surveys. Six district lots at Shirley, on Southern Vancouver Island,
were remonumented early in the season, and a few corners of town lots at Crescent
Beach and Golden were also renewed.
 BB 52      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The Department was able to assist, through private surveyors, in a small restoration of five lots at China Lake in the Cariboo and a large resurvey of 12 sections in
the Chemainus district, where 22 section corners were renewed. In addition, there
were several cases where the Department was able to assist in bearing the cost of
locating old evidence in conjunction with private work.
Highways
The Trans-Canada Highway between Griffin Lake and Malakwa Cemetery, a
distance of 14.2 miles, was completed between previously surveyed areas. East of
Revelstoke the survey was completed between Albert Canyon and Glacier National
Park and from the east boundary of the Park to Donald—in total, 28 miles. Another
10 miles between Golden and Blueberry Creek was completed, leaving only 6 miles
unfinished between Sicamous and Golden. On the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway 13 miles between Christina Lake and Grand Forks was filled in where very old
lot and right-of-way surveys were encountered, making this new survey important
from a restoration standpoint. Our Northern Trans-Provincial Highway programme,
begun in 1956, was extended another 17 miles westward between Endako and Burns
Lake. A grand total of 82.7 miles of highway survey was completed this year.
INSPECTIONS
Only one request for field inspection of a survey was received this year, and
this was through a Land Registry Office. Field work turned up evidence not apparent
from plan inspections, which again proves the worth of this service. However, the
much-reduced activity necessary in this work is a development we are pleased to
note. What was commenced as a park-site survey on Saltspring Island resulted in
quite an extensive investigation into records and occupation pertaining to the property. The fault in this case was that no surveys of the numerous transactions through
the last 70 years had been made, and owners had no idea where the registered
boundary lay.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 53
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief
Field control was completed for 15 standard National Topographic map-sheets
covering approximately 5,000 square miles. In addition, partial control was obtained
for 21 standard Topographic map-sheets in the Coastal areas where the M.V. " B.C.
Surveyor " was able to operate. A helicopter operation to obtain the mountain
control required to complete these sheets was kept in mind throughout the survey,
and such operation appears entirely feasible. The use of a scow, suitably decked,
as a mobile landing-site, offers a good means of helicopter access to the Coast
mountains. The " B.C. Surveyor " would be used for towing such a unit, and also
as the supply ship.
The first stage of a proposed Fraser Valley co-ordinate system was commenced.
Completed was the establishment of some 23 second-order control stations from
Chilliwack to Vancouver. The Geodetic network over this 75-mile portion of the
valley was broken down to supply second-order stations that would be more readily
accessible for a future programme of an integrated survey system.
Five National Topographic Series projects, covering 41 map-sheets of approximately 14,000 square miles, were completed in the Photogrammetric Section. In
addition, there were 14 large-scale plots, ranging in scale from 50 feet to 1,320 feet
to 1 inch.   These include pondage maps, dam-sites, and large-scale detailed plots.
The Draughting Section reports the completion of nine standard topographic
manuscripts at the scale of 2 inches to 1 mile, 161 large-scale mapping plans at
various scales, plus 8 large plans at 20, 50, and 100 feet to 1 inch, of the Essondale
Mental Hospital site, and the Nelson and Kelowna Vocational School sites. In addition, the plotting of the cadastral survey on two Federal Government 1:50,000
manuscripts was completed. Six mosaics were assembled and rephotographed, to
the scale required by the department involved, for use in planning.
The Federal Government now has 82 of our 1:50,000 scale manuscripts on
hand for printing, which are in various stages of reproduction.
This Division has used the helicopter as a means of mountain transportation
each year since 1948; in fact, it was the first in Canada to land surveyors at the
site of their mountain work. In the first year, many trips were required to lift the
men and equipment into position, mainly because of the critical load limit. This
past year the Division had the services of a Hiller 12e on charter, and this machine,
with the advantage of more than double the old load-limit, was able to lift two men
and all their equipment to an elevation of 7,500 feet in one trip. The three contributing factors for this speed-up are, (1) modern equipment, (2) lighter loads, and
(3) method. The use of the tellurometer has cut the instrument work required at
each station down to a few hours, and has also enabled a reduction in weight.
Control requirements for modern photogrammetric equipment has changed the
modus operandi to the careful selection of relatively few points well spaced rather
than the great numbers which were formerly required.
The helicopter operation this year was a continuation northward of the 1961
control, and commenced generally at the 55th parallel of latitude (see Fig. 1). The
towns of Prince George and Smithers were used as supply centres, with Tabor Lake
(Six Mile), near Prince George, and Tyee Lake, near Telkwa, the supply bases. The
helicopter contract was for 200 flying-hours or a two-month time-limit, whichever
came first. The main weakness with a short contract such as this is that the weather
can be the governing factor. One hundred and eighty-seven hours flying-time was
recorded, which indicates that weather conditions did hamper the operation.   The
 BB 54      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
GEODETIC   TRIANGULATION ®
PROVINCIAL  TRIANGULATION    ic
TELLUROMETER   STATIONS     •
Fig. 1.
Department's DeHavilland Beaver was used in conjunction with the helicopter, and
also kept the camps supplied. The supply of aviation fuel was simplified by the
fact that both aircraft used the same octane-rated gasoline.
On the Coast, the M.V. " B.C. Surveyor " sailed approximately 3,600 miles
to allow the crew to photo-identify 236 triangulation stations. In the course of
their work they " tied " the Sir Alexander MacKenzie monument to the triangulation
system in Dean Channel. Particular attention was paid at all times to the possibility
for helicopter operation, and the surveyor reported that the mountains in all areas
appear suitable. While in the Gardner Canal, the " B.C. Surveyor " developed
serious manifold trouble, and the voyage was curtailed rather than risk the safety of
the crew. The engineer was able to make temporary repairs to allow the ship to
return to Victoria under her own power late in August.
The Fraser Valley operation was the first stage leading to a co-ordinate system
for all surveys in the area. Angular measurements made with Wild T2 and T3
theodolites sighting on lights were combined with the distance measurements made
with tellurometers. The results were used to establish second-order control from the
existing geodetic station. This was the Division's first attempt at this particular type
of operation, and some difficulties were encountered.    The Vancouver " smog "
 —
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 55
delayed observations, and we also found that it can rain hard enough to make distance measuring with the tellurometer impossible.
Communication between lightkeepers and observers is most essential, particularly because of the haze conditions. This Division's Model B sets were too cumbersome as they require a 150-foot antenna, and the radio traffic close to their
frequency was very heavy in the evenings. Eventually three Motorola F.M. portables on a rental basis were obtained, and that proved very satisfactory. For any
future work of this nature, good reliable radio contact will be mandatory.
It was found that tower-building using finished lumber was costly and time-
consuming. Permission had to be obtained from the property-owner to allow such
an erection, and usually it had to be removed by a specified date. Recommendations
for any future operation in an urban area would most likely include the rental of
Sarnia scaffolding and the use of a giraffe-type lift for reconnaissance.
The preservation of permanent monuments has been, and most likely always
will be, a major problem in urban areas where development is in continual progress.
It is certain that, before the second stage of this operation is commenced, a definite
solution will have to be found for the siting of these monuments, and responsibility
for their preservation will have to be assigned to the proper authority.
A fourth crew with a roving commission completed six separate projects. Two
of these were detailed plots of vocational-school sites at Kelowna and Nelson, required by the Public Works Department for planning and siting purposes. Ground
control was obtained in the Haney Forest for a detailed map of approximately 23
square miles requested by the Forest Service. The fourth was a detailed topographic
map of a specific area on the Clearwater River between Dam-site No. 141 and Dutch
Lake, at a scale of 100 feet to 1 inch with a 10-foot contour interval. This was an
addition to work previously requested and completed for the Fraser River Board in
that locality. The crew completed the season in the Fort St. James area. Firstly,
a line of double levels was run up the Tachie River to establish a bench-mark at the
spawning-ground of the salmon. Following this, some additional levels were run
at Fort St. James for the Fraser River Board, to supplement work done in 1961.
To meet a need which was developed along with the times, a Review and Edit
Section was formed, its main function to bridge the gap between compilation and
fair drawing that developed after new equipment and methods produced a general
speed-up in all stages of our work. In the early years of the post-war era, the
surveyor and his crew who went into an area to be mapped became intimately
acquainted with its topography through rugged climbs to the triangulation stations
and week-long hikes across the country on barometer runs. The classification of
the detail on the air photographs used for compilation could be quickly resolved
from personal reminiscence. The surveyor was personally involved in compiling the
project, which seldom exceeded a map-sheet in area.
Today modern photogrammetric plotters have reduced the amount of field
control necessary for mapping to the point where the surveyor gains only superficial
knowledge of his area, which now averages about 10 map-sheets. He is seldom
involved in the plotting, and the previous personal supervision of his maps is lost.
The multiplex operator has no personal knowledge of the terrain, and can only map
to the extent of what can be seen in the air photographs.
High-altitude photography was another tool that helped increase production
and also posed new problems. Identification of culture that is always difficult to
see, such as roads, trails, buildings, etc., became invisible on the high-altitude photographs.    Either additional photographs taken at lower altitude or a field visit
 BB 56      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
becomes necessary. The Review and Edit Section, as one of its duties, will visit
those areas requiring a field check.
During a period of two months this year the section visited and completed a
field check on 15 topographic map-sheets in the Clinton and Bridge Lake areas.
The need for such a visit was apparent where the mapping photography was exposed
in 1951 and tremendous activity has since taken place. As a result, the aforesaid
15 map-sheets have been revised to date, checked as to accuracy of the topography,
culture, and cadastral detail, and are now ready for the draughting office.
Copies of the multiplex large-scale mapping and the completed manuscripts as
shown on the indexes following this report are available upon request.
List of Large-scale Mapping
No.
Name
Available
Scale
Contour
Interval
No. of
Sheets
Date
XI
S.P. 1
S.P. 2
Goldfields.	
Richmond	
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1"=800', 900',
1,000', 1,320'
1"=200', 600'
1"=1,000'
1"= 1,000'
1"=20 ch.
1"=   550'
l"=10ch.
1"=10 ch.
l"=10ch.
1"= 1,300'
l"=13ch.
1"=   100'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   100'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,320'
\"=   200'
1"=   200'
1"=   400'
1"=   400'
1"=1,320'
1"=   400'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"=_:1,320'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1 "= 1,000'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"-=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
l"r=   500'
1"_=   500'
1"=   300'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   400'
1"=   200'
1"=   500'
1"=1,000'
1"=1,000'
100'
Mosaic
5'-50' then 50'
5'-50' then 50'
20'
20'
100'
50'
50'
50'
500'
5'
50'
20'-40'
5'
50'
10'-20'
20'^10'
50'
5'
Spot heights
5'-10'-25'
5'-10'-20'
100'
20'-100'
20'-40'
20'^10'
50'
50'
Ity-Atf
20'^10'
20'-40'
50'
20'
20'
50'
20'^10'
10'
10'
10'
20'
5'-10'-15'
20'-40'
10'
5'-10'-20'
20'
10'
Planimetric
10'-20'
20'-40'
20'^10'
18
20
t1)
13
1
1
38
8
6
13
28
73
2
7
(T)
a
12
8
6
6
1
1
26
3
39
8
23
11
5
2
7
7
20
8
11
2
4
2
4
5
1957
S.P. 3
1958
1
2
Squamish	
1952
1951/52
3
1950
4
1951/52
5
1951
6
7
Kemano _	
1952/53
1951
8
9
Moran Dam-site	
1951/52
1952
10
11
13
Moran Pondage —	
University Lands	
1952
1952
1953
14
1951
15
16
Fraser Pondage...	
1953
1953
17
1953
18
1953/54
19
Doukhobor Lands—
Grand Forks _	
Krestova-Raspberry,  Brilliant, etc.
1953/54
1953/54
1953/54
21
24
Agassiz (Extension) 	
1954
28
M2
1954/55
M3
1955
M4
1955
M5
M6
M 7
Gaspard Creek  —
Churn Creek  	
1955
1955
1955/56
M8
M 9
Upper McGregor River
1956
1956
M 11
1955
M12
M 13
Moran-Lytton   ..
1955
1954
M 14
1954
M 15
1954
M 16
M17
M21
M24
Lower McGregor River
Creston	
Clearwater  ,	
1956
1954
1955
1956
M26
M 27
1958
M 29
1956
M30
M34
M 36
Goat River	
Fruitvale _ -
1956
1957
1957
M 37
1956/57
i One (Map 5e).
2 See No. 17.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
List of Large-scale Mapping—Continued
BB 57
No.
Name
Available
Scale
Contour
Interval
No. ot
Sheets
Date
M38
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"-=   500'
1"_=   600'
1"= 1,000'
1"=_   600'
1"=1,320'
1"_=   200'
1"=   200'
1"=   500'
1"=2,640'
1"=   500'
1"_= 1,320'
1"=   500'
1"=_1,320'
1"=1,320'
1"=1,000'
1"_=   400'
1"=   400'
1"= 1,320'
1"= 1,320'
1"= 1,000'
1"-=   500'
1"=   200'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"= 1,000'
1"-=   300'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   250'
1"=   500'
1"-= 1,000'
V—   500'
1"-=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=1,320'
1"=   100'
1"=   200'
1"=   500'
V'=     40'
1"= 1,000'
1"= 1,320'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   400'
1"=   500'
1"=     20'
1"=     20'
1"=     40'
1"=     40'
1"=     50'
1"=   100'
1"=     50'
1"=   100'
1"=     40'
20'^10'
20'
10'
10'-20'
20'
20'
20'
50'
5'
5'
50'
100'
20'
20'
10'
2O'-2,6O0'then50'
20'
20'
10'
10'
20'
25'
20'
10'
10'
10'-20'
10'-20'
20'
20'
5'
20'
5'
20'
10'
50'
20'
Planimetry
5'
5'-10'
20'
10'
10'-20'
10'-20'
20'
2'
10'-20'
10'
2'
20'
50'-100'
20'
25'
50'
10'
10'
2'
2' and 5'
2'
2'
2'
Spot heights
2'
2'
2'
3
9
16
40
7
3
10
2
8
17
1
10
2
2
613
29*
5
10
4
3
10
48
5
1
25
20
17
5
14
15
11
4
6
5
12
4
68
7
7
4
9
3
3
1
6
4
4
2
2
1
2
5
5
4
4
2
2
3
1956/57
M39
1956/57
(1957)
M39
(1958)
M39
(1960)
M40
Dease-Stikine Dam-sites
Dease-Stikine Dam-sites	
1959
1960
1956
M41
M42
Summit Lake Diversion
1958
1957
M43
1956
M44
1958
M45
1958
M 52
1959
M54
Big Bar 	
1957
M 56
1958
M 59
1958
M62
M63
Alberni   	
1958
1958
M63
M63a
M 66
Parsnip River Pondage	
Parsnip River Pondage Addition
1961/62
1962
1958
M67
1958
M68
1958
M70
1958
M73
M73
North Okanagan	
1959
1959
M74
1959
M75
M76
Duncan...  ~
1959
1960
M77
1960
M88
M 89
1960
M89
1960
M90
M92
M98
Similkameen 	
Skeena River 	
1960
1962
1960
M 105
M107
M 108
Clearwater Lake-Azure Lake
Campbell River	
1962
1961
1961
Mill
M113
M 117
Clearwater River Dam-site....
Nanaimo     —
1961
1962
M 117
1962
M118
M 121
M 122
Nitinat 	
Winfield -....	
1962
1961
1962
M 125
Port Hardy	
1962
M 126
M127
M 129
Thompson River —	
Parksville    	
1962
1962
M 130
M 131
McGregor River Pondage
1962
1962
M 134
M 136
M138
M 139
Kamloops Lake— 	
Haney   .. 	
Hobscm Lake Extension.
1962
1962
1962
1962
M 142
Government House Grounds
Victoria University Campus
Victoria University, Gordon
Head
Oakalla  _ 	
1959
M84
M83
1960
1960/61
1960
MlOO
MlOO
M114
M114
M141
Essondale. .. 	
Essondale _ _ 	
Tranquille	
Tranquille  _	
Legislative Precinct, Victoria
1962
1962
1962
1962
3 South area.
4 North area.
 BB 58      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
List of British Columbia Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed
Sheet
82F/3 	
82 F/4 	
82K/11, W. .
82K/12 	
82 L/7 	
Date
..1951,
.1944,
W.
82L/10 .
82M/13
83D/4 .
83D/5 .
83 D/12
83 D/13,
92 B/5 	
92 B/6, W. ...
92 B/ll, W.
92 B/12 	
92 B/13 	
92 B/14 	
92C/8 	
92 C/9 	
92 C/10 	
92C/11 	
92C/13 	
92C/14 	
92 C/15	
92C/16  	
92E/1 	
92E/7 	
92E/8 	
92E/9   	
92E/10 	
1959:
-.1937, 1938,
 1938.
.1942, 1943,
.1937,
.1937,
.1937,
 1937,
..1937, 1938,
 1943,
..1938, 1946,
92E/14	
92E/16	
92 F/l 	
92F/2	
92F/3	
92 F/4  	
92 F/5 	
92F/6  .. 	
92F/7 	
92F/8 	
92 F/9  _
92 F/l0 	
92F/11 	
92 F/12 	
92F/13 	
92 F/14 	
92 F/15, part
92 F/16, part
92 G/4	
92 G/5	
.1938,
..1938,
1940,
1940,
 1937, 1938,
-1937, 1940, 1941.
  ...1942,
..1942, 1943,
  1950,
._ 1934,
-.1936, 1937,
 1935,
..1942,
..1950,
92 G/7, part...
92 G/10, part .
92G/11 	
92 G/12 	
92 G/13	
92 G/14	
92H/1  	
92 H/2 _ 	
92H/3 	
92H/4 	
92 1/12 _..
921/13 	
92 J/4, W	
92 J/15 	
92 J/16 	
92 K/l
92K/2
92K/3	
92 K/4 	
92 K/5 	
92 K/6 	
92 K/7 	
92 K/8, W. ...
92 K/10, W. .
92K/11 	
92 K/12 	
92 K/13 	
92 K/14 	
..1950,
.1950,
.1920
1923,
 1923,
-1924, 1931, 1948,
 1948,
..1948,
.1948,
part .
.1961,
Sheet
Date
1960
92K/15 	
1947
97. T/I   	
1952
92 L/2 	
1931,
1958
92L/3      	
1958
92 L/4	
1958
92 L/6  	
       1931,
1959
92 L/7    	
1959
92 L/8 	
1931,
1959
92L/10  ..
1931, 1940,
1960
92L/11 	
1960
92 L/12 	
1935,
1955
92L/13 	
1955
92 M/2   _	
1955
92 M/3      	
1955
92 M/4 	
1951
92 M/5  —	
1951
92 M/6  	
1938
92M/11, W	
1938
92 M/12 	
1938
92 M/13  	
1938
92 M/14, W.  	
92 N/1  	
1938
1938
92 N/7  -
1938
92 N/8      -
1942
92 N/9 — —
1942
92 N/10 	
1946
92N/15 -  —
1946
92 O/l       .
1947
92 0/2 	
1947
92 0/3
1948
92 0/4   	
1947
92 0/5 —  .
1942
92 0/6 	
1942
92 0/7	
    1950,
1941
92 0/8 —  	
1942
92 0/9 -	
1943
92 O/10   —
1943
92 O/ll 	
1943
92 0/12
1950
92 0/16 	
1950
92 P/2     	
1953
92 P/3  	
1935
92 P/4    .
1938
92 P/5  	
1936
92 P/6   	
1935
92 P/7  	
1950
92 P/10  	
1950
92P/11  	
1943
92 P/12   	
1952
92 P/13 	
1940
92 P/14	
1940
92 P/15   ' .
1952
92P/16 — — -
1952
93 A/1  	
1952
93 A/2  	
—  1936, 1959,
1952
93 A/3       	
1959,
1949
93 A/4  —
1949
93 A/5  -	
1949
93 A/6  	
1956
1958
93 A/7 — -
93 A/8 	
 1936, 1959,
1958
93 A/9     	
1959,
1962
93 A/10      	
   1934,
1949
93 A/11 .       .
1933,
1949
1950
93 A/12   _
93 A/13	
-  1931, 1933,
1962
93 A/14 	
     . 1933,
1949
93 A/15             	
.    .              1934,
1949
93 A/16 '	
1949
93 B/l	
1949
93 B/8   	
1961
93 B/9  	
1962
93 B/16 	
1962
93 C/5  	
1962
93 D/2
1962
93 D/3  	
1962
93 D/4	
1962
93 D/5 ..„	
1962
1932
1932
1948
1948
1934
1931
1932
1956
1940
1936
1936
1962
1959
1959
1959
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1958
1958
1958
1958
1958
1958
1950
1947
1958
1958
1958
1958
1958
1950
1951
1958
1958
1958
1951
1959
1959
1958
1958
1959
1959
1959
1959
1958
1958
1959
1959
1959
1959
1960
1960
1959
1935
1935
1960
1959
1960
1960
1934
1934
1934
1934
1960
1960
1951
1952
1950
1950
1959
1962
1962
1962
1962
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 59
List of British Columbia Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed—Continued
Sheet
93 D/6 ...
93 D/7 _
93 D/8 ....
93D/11,
93 G/2 ...
93 G/3 -
93 G/4 ...
93 G/5 ...
93 G/6 ...
93 G/7 -
93 G/10 .
93G/11 .
93 G/12 .
93 G/14 .
93 1/8 ....
93 1/9 —
93 1/10 ..
93 1/11 ..
93 1/12 ..
93 1/13 „
93 1/14 „
93 1/15 ..
93 1/16 _
93 J/2 ....
93 J/3 —
93 J/5 ....
93 J/6 ....
93 J/11 ..
93 J/12 ..
93 J/13 ..
93 K/l ...
93 K/2 -
93 K/7 ....
93 K/8 ....
93 K/9 ....
93 K/10 ..
93 K/ll .
93 K/12 -
93K/13 .
93 K/14 .
93 K/15 .
93 K/16 .
93 L/2 —
93 L/7 ....
93L/8 ....
93L/9 ....
93 L/10 ..
93 L/ll ..
93 L/14 ..
93L/15 ..
93 L/16 ..
93M/1 ...
93 M/5 ...
93M/12 .
93 N/1 ....
93 N/2 ....
93 N/3 ....
93 N/4 —
93 N/5 ....
93 N/6 ....
93 N/7 ....
93 N/8 ....
93 N/9 ....
93 N/10 ..
93 N/11 ..
93 N/12 ..
93 0/1 ....
93 0/4 ....
93 0/5 ....
93 0/6 ....
93 0/8 —
93 0/11 ..
93 0/12 ..
93 0/13 ..
93 0/14 ..
93 P/l ..._
93 P/2 _
93P/3 ...
93 P/4   -
1958
..1958
1933
..1933
.1950,
Date
  1962
, 1962
1959
1962
1960
1960
1960
1960
19£0
1960
1960
1960
1960
1948
1956
1956
1956
1957
1957
1957
1957
1956
1956
1949
1949
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1946
1946
1960
1960
1960
1960
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1950
1950
1962
1962
1962
1949
1949
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1957
1961
1961
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1956
1956
1957
1957
Sheet
93 P/5	
93 P/6  	
93 P/7 	
93 P/8 	
94 B/4	
94 C, part 	
94 E, part 	
94 F, part
94 L, part 	
94 M, part
102 1/8	
102 1/9 	
102 1/15  	
102 1/16 _
102 P/8, E	
102 P/9, E	
102P/16 	
103 A/1   	
103 A/2, E. ...
103 A/8    -
103 A/9    -
103 A/13, E. .
103 G/l, E. -
103 G/7, E. _
103 G/8	
103 G/9 —	
103 G/10, E.
103 G/16, E.
103 G/16	
103 H/3    —
103 H/4    -
103 H/5   	
103 H/6  	
103 H/7  	
103 H/8   	
103 H/10  	
103 H/15  	
103 1/2 	
103 1/7 	
103 1/10 	
103 P/9 	
103 P/10, E. ..
103 P/14, E. _
103P/15 -	
104 A/2, W.-
104 A/3   	
104 A/5, E. -
104 A/6	
104 A/11, W.
104 A/12 	
104 A/13, W. .
104 B/16 	
104 G/l 	
104 G/8  -
104 G/9	
104 G/14 	
104 G/15 -
104 G/16 	
104 H/12, W. .
104H/13, W. .
104 J/2, W. -.
104 J/3  _
104 J/4 	
104 J/5 	
104 J/12 	
104 J/13 	
E.
104 K/16,
104 N/1   	
104 N/2  	
104 N/3, E	
104 N/5   	
104 N/6 	
104 N/7, part .
104 N/11, W. .
104 N/12   	
104 N/13   	
104 P, part 	
104P/15	
104 P/16, part.
.1939,
.1940,
-1935,
1936,
1957
1957
. 1956
1956
, 1957
1939
1939
1939
, 1941
1941
,1937
.1935, 1936, 1937
1937
, 1937
. 1961
. 1961
1961
. 1961
1961
1961
. 1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
. 1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1962
1962
1962
1962
1949
1948
1947
1949
1950
1950
1950
1950
1950
1950
1950
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1952
1952
1952
1952
1952
1952
.1953
,1953
1953
1953
1952
1953
1953
1952
1952
1952
1941
1941
1941
1952,
.1952,
1952, :
 BB 60      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
W. R. Young, B.C.L.S., Chief, and Provincial Representative on
Canadian Permanent Committee on Geographical Names
A very satisfactory year was experienced by the Geographic Division in 1962,
with advances being recorded along several avenues of endeavour. Particularly
gratifying was the number of map-sheets produced, there being 18 during 1962,
compared with 12 the previous year. Eight of these maps were entirely new editions, four were completely revised reprints, and one received minor revision. The
remaining five were status maps reprinted without revision in order to replenish
stocks depleted by heavy demand.
Of special importance was the publication of Map 1b (North-western British
Columbia) at l-inch-to-10-miles scale. This map is the sixth in a regional series at
that scale, and with its publication the series is now complete. Besides being printed
in grey to match the others in the series, the landforms edition of Map 1b was also
printed in light sand colour, which tends to give greater emphasis to relief than does
grey. The reprinted landforms edition of Map 1e (South-eastern British Columbia)
was also done in light sand, and it is expected that, as others of the series become
due for reprinting, they will be converted to this colour.
Another highlight of the year's activities was the production of National Topographic status maps at 1:250,000 scale for Victoria (92b-c), Alberni (92f), and
Vancouver (92g) . Besides providing an up-to-date status of Crown land alienation
for the most densely populated portion of the Province, these new seven-colour maps
illustrate the great complexity of cadastral detail which exists in this part of British
Columbia. They also show, in their latest form, cultural features, such as highways,
power-lines, tunnels, and dams. It is gratifying to note that the general public has
reacted very favourably to these maps.
Work performed by the Trigonometric Control Section is tabulated in Tables
A and B. Though the number of new calculations decreased, a considerable proportion of the Section's efforts was directed toward the rewriting of approximately
30,000 file cards showing changes from the Dominion Manual System of Rectangular Co-ordinates to the Polyconic Rectangular Co-ordinate System. This conversion programme should be finished in 1963. Checking of petroleum and natural-gas
well-site surveys made under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act completed its first
full year of operation. Well-site plans numbering 366 were examined in 1962,
compared with 67 the previous year.
Four Land Series bulletins were reprinted during 1962, all of which required
revision in order to maintain then reputation for being up to date. The following
bulletin areas were involved: Kootenay (No. 1), Lower Coast (No. 3), and Fort
Fraser-Fort George (No. 7). A revised edition of the Land Series bulletin titled
"Acquisition of Crown Lands in British Columbia " was also issued. A full revision
of the Peace River Bulletin Area (No. 10) was published in the spring of 1962.
A total of 26 Provincial topographic manuscripts was sent to Ottawa, where
they await reproduction at 1:50,000 scale. The number of such maps now in production by the Army Survey Establishment totals 92, compared with 66 at the end
of 1961 (see Table J). The Army Survey Establishment reproduced and printed
seven Provincial Government National Topographic sheets at 1:50,000 scale (see
Table H), compared with 14 the previous years. All were reprints of existing
coverage.
The 35 map-sheets and manuscripts checked for cultural features and place-
names resulted in 215 new names being added to the Gazetteer files maintained by
the Geographic Division.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 61
In contrast to 1961, when only nine two-coloured provisional maps were issued
by the Federal Government, output rose sharply to 60 during 1962. An additional
63 sheets at 1:50,000 scale were printed in colour. Bulk stocks of 19 of the aforementioned full-colour maps were received from the Army Survey Establishment.
The Department of Mines and Technical Surveys also issued National Topographic
maps at 1:250,000 scale covering the Nelson, Kananaskis, Ashcroft, and Graham
Island areas.
Provincial map production has already been partially reviewed in the opening
paragraphs of this Report. The 1 -inch-to- 10-miles scale regional maps Southeastern British Columbia (1e) and North-western British Columbia (1b) were
issued in planimetric, landforms, and special brown landforms editions (see Table
G). New status editions at 1:250,000 scale included Victoria (92b-c), Vancouver
(92g), and Alberni (92f), whereas a completely revised Smithers sheet (93l) was
also released. The publication of Maps 92b-c and 92f has completed the replacement of the former (Map 2a (Southerly Vancouver Island). The Provincial 1-inch-
to-2-miles scale mapping programme resulted in two new sheets being released—
namely, Creston (82F/SE) and Slocan (82F/NW). This completes the replacement of the old Degree Series Maps 4a and 4b. As indicated in Table I, work in
hand at the end of 1962 included five new l-inch-to-2-miles status sheets covering
parts of the Kootenays not previously mapped with status.
Sale and distribution of map-sheets rose by 14 per cent over 1961 to reach a
new high of 99,324. More than one-half of this total (52,958) were Provincial
maps showing land status. Revenue derived from the sale and distribution of all
maps totalled $35,391. In addition, the Division received another 130,420 new
editions, revisions, and reprints into stock, thus depleting still further the storage
space available.
In November a modest increase was applied to the price of all Provincially
distributed maps. However, the probability is that further price adjustments will
be made in 1963 in order to conform with proposed price changes in maps published by Canadian Government agencies.
The Geographic Division continued to handle the editing, publication, and
distribution of the Lands Service Annual Report, as well as special cartographic
jobs on behalf of other Government departments and the general public. The latter
totalled 18 in 1962, with a value of $1,708 (see Table E).
Summary tables of statistical computations, correspondence, and cartographic
achievements of the Geographic Division are contained in Tables A to J on the following pages. For convenience, Indexes to Published Maps (Nos. 8 to 14) may be
found in the envelope attached to the back cover of this Annual Report. The indexes
provide full details concerning prices, date of publication, and how to order maps.
STATISTICAL COMPUTATIONS
Table A.—Least-square Triangulation Adjustments Completed
Net
Locality
Type of
Bearings
Number of
Triangles
Involved
Canadian Hydrographic Service-
Canadian Hydrographic Service.
Canadian Hydrographic Service-
Canadian Hydrographic Service.
Hiekish Narrows -    	
Mathieson Channel and Sheep Passage-
Hunter Channel and Lama Passage	
Raymond Passage and vicinity. 	
Grid
Grid
Grid
Grid
22
64
59
26
The following tables give comparison with the previous five-year period:—
 BB 62      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table B.—Computations.
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
Triangles adjusted by least squares  .—
Stations calculated from rectangular co-ordinates-
Stations fixed by tellurometer measurements —
Ties to cadastral surveys -
Elevation of stations determined .
Index cards—
New	
Old (rewritten)-
Total on file	
Requests for control attended to .
567
669
70
325
1,637
613
26,289
403
562
918
22
378
1,173
1,297
27,462
397
542
806
24
133
1,563
945
29,025
383
543
891
73
174
251
1,419
551
30,444
349
182
168
201
113
128
1,930
149
32,374
333
171
14
89
10
42
917
9
33,291
417
Table C.—Canadian Permanent Committee on Geographical Names
1957
1958
1960
1961
1962
Number of map-sheets or charts checked...
Number of names checked 	
Number of new names recorded _
54
1,884
306
49
4,698
278
51
6,321
372
41
4,949
322
74
7,837
360
35
7,168
215
Table D.—Map Stock and Distribution
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
Maps issued to departments and public 	
55,167
181,412
$20,441
62,544
117,729
$21,911
78,074
92,374
$27,117
68,518
175,495
$24,378
87,198
126,502
$32,936
99,324
130,420
$35,391
Table E.—Geographical Work for Other Departments and Public
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
86
$2,654
55
$1,447
20
$2,754
18
$1,370
22
$1,452
'    18
$1,708
Table F.—Letters
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
5,516
6,545
6,865
6,929
8,670
8,790
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 63
Table G.—Maps Reproduced and Printed by the Geographic Division, Victoria,
during 1962
Map. No.
Name
Scale
Remarks
1b
lBL
lBLS
IE
lEL
1ELS
3F
3j
92b-c
92f
92g
92j
93l
103i
82 F/SE
82 F/NW
82 L/SW
92 G/SE
North-western British Columbia, planimetric—
North-western British Columbia, landforms	
North-western British Columbia, landforms in
brown   	
South-eastern British Columbia, planimetric	
South-eastern British Columbia, landforms	
South-eastern British Columbia, landforms in
brown.   	
Chilcotin      —
North Thompson.
Victoria (first status edition) . 	
Alberni (second status edition) .	
Vancouver (second status edition)..
Pemberton (first status edition)	
Smithers (second status edition)	
Terrace (first status edition)	
Creston (first status edition)	
Slocan (first status edition)	
Vernon (first status edition)	
Langley (first status edition)	
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 3 mi.
1 in. to 3 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
Complete revision.
Complete revision.
Complete revision.
Reprint, minor revisions.
Reprint, no revision.
New, seven colours, contoured.
New, seven colours, contoured.
New, seven colours, contoured.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint, complete revision.
Reprint, no revision.
New, seven colours, contoured.
New, seven colours, contoured.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint, no revision.
Table H.—Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Reproduced and
Printed at 1:50,000 Scale by the Canadian Government, Ottawa, during 1962
Map No.
Name
Map No.
Name
92 C/9, E. & W.
92 F/l, E. &W.
San Juan (second edition reprint).
Nanaimo Lakes (second edition reprint) .
92 F/7, E. & W.
92 G/4, W.
Home   Lake   (second   edition   reprint) .
Nanaimo (first edition reprint).
Table I.—Maps Being Reproduced by the Geographic Division, Victoria,
during 1962
Map No.
Name
Scale
Remarks
Ik
92j
93d
93f
93K
103F-G-K
1031-j
103P
82 G/SE
82 G/NW-NE
82 G/SW
82 J/SE-SW
82 K/SE
South-western British Columbia	
Pemberton (second status edition).—
Bella Coola (second status edition)...
Nechako River (first status edition)..
Fort Fraser (second status edition)...
Graham Island (first status edition)..
Terrace (second status edition)	
Nass River (second status edition) —
Flathead (first status edition). 	
Cranbrook (first status edition)..	
Elko (first status edition) — —
Canal Flats (first status edition)	
Lardeau (first status edition)	
1 in. to 10 mi
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
In draughting.
In draughting.
Draughting complete.
In draughting.
In draughting.
In compilation.
In compilation.
In compilation.
In draughting.
In compilation.
Draughting complete.
In compilation.
In draughting.
 BB 64      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table J.—Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Being Reproduced at
1:50,000 Scale by the Canadian Government, Ottawa, during 1962
Map No.
Name
Map No.
Name
82 F/3, E. & W.
Salmo (second edition).
93 0/6, E. & W.
Morfee Lakes (first edition).
82K/11, W.
Trout Lake (first edition).
93 0/11, E. &W.
Cut Thumb Creek (first edition).
82K/12, E. &W.
Beaton (first edition).
93 0/12, E. &W.
Blackwater Creek (first edition).
82 L/7, E. & W.
Lumby (first edition).
93 0/13, E. &W.
Finlay Forks (first edition).
82L/10, E. &W.
Mabel Lake (first edition).
93 0/14, E. & W.
Point Creek (first edition).
82M/13, E. &W.
Raft River (first edition).
93P/1.E. &W.
Kiskatinaw River (first edition).
92J/15, E. &W.
Bralorne (first edition).
93 P/2, E. & W.
Flatbed Creek (first edition).
92 J/16, E. &W.
Bridge River (first edition).
93P/3, E. &W.
Bullmoose Creek (first edition).
92 L/10, E. & W.
Alert Bay (first edition).
93 P/4, E. & W.
Sukunka Creek (first edition).
92 M/3, E. & W.
Belize Inlet (first edition).
93P/5, E. &W.
Burnt River (first edition).
92 M/4, E. & W.
Cape Caution (first edition).
93 P/6, E. & W.
Gwillim Lake (first edition).
92 M/5, E. & W.
Goose Bay (first edition).
93 P/7, E. & W.
Sundown Creek (first edition).
92 0/9, E. &W.
Dog Creek (first edition).
93 P/8, E.&W.
Tupper Creek (first edition).
93C/5, E. &W.
Atnarko (first edition).
94 B/4, E. & W.
Wicked River (first edition).
93 D/7, E.
Bella Coola (first edition).
104 A/2, W.
Kwinageese River (first edition).
93D/8.E. &W.
Stuie (first edition).
104 A/5, W.
Bowser Lake (first edition).
93 1/8, E.&W.
Narraway River (first edition).
104 A/6, E. &W.
Bell-Irving River (first edition).
93 1/9, E. & W.
Belcourt Creek (first edition).
104 A/11, W.
Taft Creek (first edition).
93 1/10, E.&W.
Wapiti Lake (first edition).
104 A/12, E.&W.
Delta Peak (first edition).
93 1/11, E.&W.
Monkman Pass (first edition).
104 A/13, W.
Mount Alger (first edition).
93 1/12, E. & W.
Missinka River (first edition).
104 B/16, E.&W.
Bob Quinn Lake (first edition).
93 1/13, E.&W.
Sentinel Peak (first edition).
104 K/16, E.
Nahlin River (first edition).
93 1/14, E.&W.
Kinuseo Falls (first edition).
104 N/1, E.&W.
Nakina Lake (first edition).
93 1/15, E.&W.
Kinuseo Creek (first edition).
104 N/2, E.&W.
Nakina (first edition).
93 1/16, E.&W.
Redwillow River (first edition).
104 N/3, E.
Sloko River (first edition).
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 65
AIR DIVISION
A. C. Kinnear, B.C.R.F., Chief
The function and accomplishment of the Ah Division during 1962 continued
in much the same pattern as has been established during the past several years.
The two photographic aircraft of the Division, Anson CF-EZI and Beechcraft
CF-BCE, flew a combined total of 504 hours during the year and exposed nearly
20,000 air photos for all projects. Of this total, the largest single demand was for
the Forest Service inventory programme, in which some 15,000 air photos were
exposed for the flying-time of nearly 260 hours. This is slightly less than the average for recent years, but considering the extremely poor weather pattern of the
summer it is a creditable figure. Again many other Government departments requested new photography in various parts of the Province. It is regretted that many
such projects could not be completed owing to the lack of sufficient photographic
weather during the flying season, in relation to authorized potential in personnel
and equipment.
The Mapping and Compilation Sections were primarily engaged in the production of l-inch-to-20-chains interim map-sheets of the public working circles
throughout the Province for the Forest Survey and Inventory Division. A total of
some 15,000 square miles of slotted template lay-downs, representing nearly 380
map sheets, was produced. An additional 14,000 square miles of cadastral surveys
were plotted for permanent record, of which 60 final tracings, covering 2,875 square
miles, were completed and are ready for public distribution.
Since 1961, when the 9- by 9-inch negatives replaced the 5- by 5-inch
negatives for the forest inventory programme, a steady increase in the production
of 9- by 9-inch contact prints is reported by the Process Laboratory. A corresponding decrease is noted in the output of 9- by 9-inch enlargements made from the older
5- by 5-inch negatives. The combined total of these two types of prints has decreased, however, in the last two years because of greater time required to make the
contact prints and, to a lesser extent, by lost time collecting and returning air-film
rolls from a new storage vault located some distance from the laboratory.
The Ah Photo Library reports a decrease in the total number of reprints and
loans issued to the public. The total number, 38,186, compares with the traffic in
1958, when there was a general decrease in exploration work throughout the Province. Another factor which may help account for this decrease is the fee charged
for the loan service, imposed for the first time this year.
An increase in the number of people visiting the library in person is reported
this year, and it is interesting to note that nearly $4,000 in cash was collected over
the counter. In previous years this amount was so insignificant that details were
not reported. The bulk of the revenue, however, is still received by mail in Departmental accounts.
The two Williamson ordinance survey cameras (O.S.C.), obtained on loan
from the Royal Canadian Air Force, as reported last year, were purchased from the
Crown Assets Disposal Corporation, and have produced excellent negatives for all
projects other than precision mapping. The Wild RC8 camera is still the camera
used for the latter. A third O.S.C. camera is being purchased from a commercial
survey company and will be available as a serviceable spare unit.
The former R.C.A.F. cameras served well during the first year's operation, but
they have many worn parts, connections, etc., which can cause unserviceability
during the flying season.   Extensive reconditioning is therefore being done in the
 BB 66      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
instrument-shop. No further progress can be reported on the Logetronic equipment
at this time, but it is anticipated that development work will be resumed early in
1963. The automatic determination of exposure for contact prints, ensuring uniformity between all prints in a particular area, is a system well established in other
comparable organizations and should be incorporated here in the future.
The writer assumed responsibility for the Division in March, 1962, following
the resignation of the former Chief, Mr. W. Hall, P.Eng., B.C.R.F.
Mr. Eric S. W. Andrews, B.C.L.S., formerly of the Topographic Division, was
promoted to Assistant Chief in May, 1962, following a competition, and brings to
the Division considerable experience in the field of photogrammetric mapping.
Details of the Air Division's activities and accomplishments during the year
are given in the following sections and tables, and Index Maps Nos. 15 to 18 which
are contained in envelope attached to back cover of this Annual Report.
FLYING OPERATIONS
The year 1962 saw the Division's first full season's use of the recently modified
Beechcraft D18S (Expeditor), CF-BCE. While this aircraft operated for a few
hours in 1961, it could not be properly assessed until a full season's work had been
completed. Much credit must be given to the aircraft maintenance staff of the Department of Highways and our own mechanics for modifying this R.C.A.F. surplus
unit into an aircraft suitable for our type of operation. While a close replacement
for the worthy Anson, the Beechcraft, nevertheless, has limits in range, altitude,
speed, and pay load. As requirements for ah photos are reaching into areas
farther from airfields and over higher ground elevations, and as demands for photography are ever-increasing, some thought must be given to higher-performance aircraft
for the future.
In spite of one of the poorest seasons on record, weatherwise, both detachments took advantage of every opportunity and completed about 70 per cent of
first-priority demands.
Detachment EZI flew a total of 21 days and Detachment BCE flew 23 days.
The normal average over the years is 30 days. The detachments operated on a
more mobile basis this year and returned to the home base at Patricia Bay during prolonged spells of poor weather. A total of 542 lineal miles of tricamera photography
was attempted, but for various reasons it is not of acceptable quality and will only
be used as a last resort. Four experienced personnel left this Section during the
off-season—one pilot, two photographers, and one mechanic—representing 50 per
cent of the active strength of the field crews. Replacements were engaged prior to
the field season, and by a " crash" training programme the senior members of the
air crews were able to fit the new members into an efficient and harmonious team.
The accomplishment, in spite of the weather, for this summer speaks well for all
personnel engaged on flying operations.
MAPPING AND COMPILATION
In addition to the main forest inventory programme, as stated earlier, a special
project was undertaken for the Surveyor of Taxes, Department of Finance. The
entire E. & N. land grant area is to be mapped at a scale of 40 chains to 1 inch, and
interim maps produced showing all cadastral surveys and cultural features brought
up to date. The first section of this programme was photographed this summer
using the Wild RC8 camera, and a slotted template lay-down was made.   A total
 —
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 67
of 2,400 square miles, covering 19 map-sheets, has been plotted with all ground survey information. This programme is expected to be completed in three years' time.
A function of this Section, started several years ago, is the recording and tabulation on air photographs of all known accurately identified control points. These
are obtained through the co-operation of the Topographic and Legal Surveys Divisions, Hydrographic Services of Canada, etc. There are now 3,998 of these points
accurately identified and located on air photos and are available to all users. The
template lay-down sheets, produced during the compilation of the l-inch-to-20-
chains sheets on the forest inventory programme, are proving invaluable to industrial users for preparing their own maps before the final interim map is available,
some months later.
INSTRUMENT-SHOP
Extensive work on the R.C.A.F. surplus O.S.C. cameras was handled in the
instrument-shop, as well as the rebuilding of ancillary equipment for these cameras.
Co-operation with the Department of Highways, Department of Finance, Forest
Service, and Water Resources Service in many small development and maintenance
problems has been continued during the year.
One of the Division's instrument-makers was engaged in the production of the
new model "Andrews Plotter," but now that this instrument is in the trial operating
stage, it is expected that the development of the Logetron printer will be resumed.
Through the ingenuity and ability of personnel in the instrument-shop, a whirler
for the rapid drying of paper prints was developed and put into operation in the
Process Laboratory. This piece of equipment, originally a second-hand washing-
machine purchased for $15, considerably reduces the time required to dry photographic prints.
PROCESS LABORATORY
A new contact printer was added to the equipment in the laboratory this year
to replace the out-of-date equipment previously in use. Although contact printing
is slower than projection printing, the total of 132,027 9- by 9-inch prints made still
represents a production of over 500 prints per day. The other work of enlargements, up to 40 by 40 inches, autopositives, Kelsh, and A7 plates, continues to be
required for other departments and commercial users.
A new stable-base air film was tried for the first time this year on an experimental basis. Various manufacturers are producing this film, but it awaits final
proof of stability before being adopted for use on precision mapping projects.
The problem of eliminating dirt from the water in the laboratory is still of
major concern. A small filtering system has been in use for some years, but has
never proved satisfactory. It is hoped that a better system can be installed in the
near future.
AIR PHOTO LIBRARY
One of the largest single orders for reprints was received from the Geological
Survey of Canada during the year. A total of 10,031 prints was ordered and
delivered.
While a decrease in the public loans was recorded, an increase of 5,000 prints
was issued to Provincial Government offices. New l-inch-to-20-chains photographs, which were previously held for mapping copies, were released for loan
purposes and probably account for this increase. As more of these larger-scale
photographs become available for loans, the traffic is expected to further increase.
 BB 68      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
1962 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects
id
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A. Basic vertical cover—Queen Charlotte
Hr.
7
14
Min.
55
05
1,075
$916.79
1,630.93
$916.79
542
$8.74
$3,065.80
4,696.73
	
C, Triangulation control identification ....
D. Forest   inventory    cover    (approximately 20 chains to 1 inch)—■
1. New cover—
7
12
63
53
28
28
46
18
55
40
20
55
15
25
40
45
170
585
4,635
3,105
1,660
1,405
2,565
815
210
565
3,900
3,725
1,600
1,445
2,870
1,050
$916.79
1,466.88
7,334.34
6,243.85
3,271.50
3,290.80
5,404.25
2,171.35
$484.83
1,668.38
13,218.62
1     8,855.19
4,734.18
4,006.94
7,315.16
2,324.32
$1,401.62
3,135.26
	
20,552.96
15,099 04
8,005.68
7,297.74
12,719.41
4,495.67
	
259
3
55
05
14,940
60
15,365
$30,099.76
357.07
$42,607.62
171.11
$72,707.38
528.18
2. Improvement flying, all districts-
Totals
263
00
15,000
$4.88
15,365
$4.77
$30,456.83
$42,778.73
$73,235.56
Average cost	
E. Forest engineering—
Ashnola bridge sites . 	
Ashnola Forest-development
Road            	
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
55
25
40
45
00
30
00
45
15
30
00
50
20
00
00
30
30
16
41
14
2
30
8
$221.97
395.68
77.20
86.85
115.80
173.71
115.80
202.67
144.76
173.71
115.80
96.50
270.21
115.80
115.80
173.71
173.71
$45.63
116.93
39.93
$267.60
512.61
117.13
86 85
21
16
14
56
26
39
10
38
80
40
39
20
54
13
12
59.89
45.63
39.93
159.71
74.15
111.22
28.52
108.37
228.15
114.08
111.22
57.04
154.00
175 69
219.34
Horsefly-Hendrix bridge sites
2
25
18
24
362.38
284 93
2
144 32
23
50
25
27
13
36
204.87
-
	
498.36
Slok Creek
229.88
 —
	
227.02
Tochcha   	
White River      __.
230.75
327.71
Totals     	
23
55
524
$8.14
308
$13.38
2
$72.16
$2,769.68
$1,494.40
  	
$4,264.08
F. Precision mapping projects—
Ashcroft area irrigation	
8
4
18
3
2
2
3
3
2
26
1
30
00
00
30
00
35
00
00
35
10
05
190
10
505
7
30
18
2
45
48
779
3
	
110
15
880
10
36
28
1
50
64
1,215
1
	
$984.35
463.22
2,084.50
405.32
231.61
299.16
347.42
347.42
299.16
3,030.24
125.45
$541.86
28.52
1,440.22
19.96
85.56
51.33
5.70
128.34
136.89
2,221.64
8.56
$1,526.21
491.74
3,524.72
	
425.28
-
317.17
350.49
	
353.12
475.76
Sechelt water supply     ._
Wells Gray Park.	
436.05
5,251.88
134.01
Legislative Precinct.	
Totals -
74
25
1,637
$8.12
2,410
1
$8,617.85
$4,668.58
$13,286.43
Average cost
$5.51
G. Special projects—
Water Resources—
3
3
1
1
1
3
35
25
55
30
15
00
30
96
71
38
28
3
49
81
70
115
18
15
2
35
126
$414.98
395.67
221.96
173.71
28.95
115.80
405.32
$273.78
202.49
108.37
79.85
8.56
139.74
231.00
$688.76
598 16
330.33
253.56
	
37.51
Department   of   Highways—Port
	
255.54
Department of Mines—Strathcona
Park  -
636.32
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
1962 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects—Continuea
BB 69
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G. Special Projects—Continued
Forest Surveys—20-chain compara-
Hr. Min
50
2 00
1    30
30
1    15
1 00
3 15
2 05
18   20
4 25
8    05
1
5
5
	
$96.50
231.61
173.71
57.90
144.76
115.80
376.37
241.26
2,123.11
511.47
936.09
$14.26
51.33
99.82
114.08
14.26
68.45
99.82
1,711.15
179.67
199.63
$110.76
231.61
225.04
157.72
258.84
130.06
444.82
341.08
3,834.26
691.14
1,135.72
Geographic Division—Bridge River
pondage _  	
Land Inspector—
Christina Lake shoreline _	
Villages on Queen Charlotte Islands	
Legal Surveys—
Burns Lake-Endako Highway ...
Curzon Junction-Goatfell Highway	
18
35
40
5
24
35
600
1      63
70
12
9
37
4
18
20
1,000
88
105
	
	
Grand   Forks-Christina   Lake
Highway	
Surveyor of Taxes—
E. & N. Block and Gulf Islands-
Gold River           .....
Peace River Block   	
58    25
1,261
$8.22
1,679
$6.17
	
$6,764.97
$3,596.26
$10,361.23
Average cost 	
H. Miscellaneous flying—
Forest     Management — Farwell
Creek beetle kill obliques	
Federal   Fisheries   Department —
Sea lion experimental photo.
Surveyor     of    Taxes — Nanaimo
3 35
2   50
2    15
25
4 55
1    30
50
10   45
6    15
10   50
18    35
80
34
10
3
20
15
3
36
28
2
1
15
	
$414.97
328.11
260.56
48.25
569.38
173.71
96.50
$228.14
96.96
28.52
8.56
57.04
42.78
8.56
$643.11
425.07
289.08
56.81
626.42
216.49
105.06
Internal—
	
Peace River area obliques	
P.N.E. Grounds  	
	
1
20
Aircraft maintenance! — .
Administration flying 	
Totals —
2,152.06
2,152.06
62   45
229
$1.97
	
39
$11.57
$4,043,541       $470,561    $4,514.10
 1       -1-	
Average cost  	
Grand totals	
504   30
19,726
15,365
4,978
2
$55,200.59 2$56,074.331$111,274.92
i Cost of maintenance and training charged to all projects.
2 Includes purchasing two O.S.C. 12-inch cameras.
Production Record, 1962, Air Photo Processing Laboratory
Processing completed—
Air camera films—
RC 8   18 r
oils
O.S.C.   85 r
oils
Eaele 5   17 r
oils
F24, H.M.C. Dockyai
K20. Federal Hvdroer
d      2 rolls
aohic
     3 rolls
F24. colour 	
     1
roll
70 mm.  1.00C
)ft.
Topographic—118
Printing completed—
Standard nrints. 10 1
  71 r
Dlls
3v 10 inches
  75.2
S45
Enlargements, uo to 40 bv 84 in
ches
        952
 BB 70      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Printing completed—Continued
Contact prints—
10 by 10 inches  56,682
20 by 24 inches  122
Kelsh and A7-A8 plates, 9Vi by 9V6 inches  597
Film transparencies, up to 30 by 30 inches  204
Autopositive films, up to 30 by 42 inches  320
Ground photos, 4 by 5 inches  4
Requisitions completed   1,923
Orders for Standard Prints (9 by 9 Inches) from
British Columbia Negatives, 1962
Reprints
Requisitions
Number
Loans
Requisitions      Number
Public-
Individuals .
Companies and organizations..
Mining	
Oil and natural gas	
Schools and universities	
Towns and cities	
Commercial air survey	
Forest industries 	
Real estate	
Totals	
Federal Government—
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys...
Department of National Defence	
Department of Agriculture	
Department of Fisheries	
Miscellaneous _	
Totals.
Provincial Government—■
Surveys and Mapping..
Land Inspectors.
Water Resources Service 	
Lands Branch (miscellaneous)..
Department of Highways	
Forest Surveys.
Department of Finance	
Department of Agriculture..
Department of Mines..
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority-
Regional Planning..
Department of Recreation and Conservation..
Pacflic Great Eastern Railway	
Totals	
Grand totals.
678
109
116
33
122
7
82
238
36
1,421
29
28
8
12
77
152
37
29
3
73
134
48
16
22
25
9
20
1
569
2,067
3,861
1,109
5,640
4,337
1,170
174
5,652
6,063
220
28,226
14,311
143
109
261
14,824
20,457
2,167
1,529
69
952
56,970
3,605
866
375
633
831
479
44
88,977
132,027
145
42
54
7
15
4
47
101
24
439  |
19
532
15
56
20
226
329
28
13
43
22
16
131
1,889
1,476
1,156
1,541
534
697
16
1,310
3,120
110
9,960
45
36
59
83
223
9,811
148
609
251
3,695
7,674
333
151
857
617
142
1,715
1,431  |   26,003
36,186
Public Loans and Reprints
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
Loans. -	
8,646
32,131
13,981
45,644
11,840
49,627
13,399
34,659
9,960
28,226
Totals	
40,777
59,625
61,467
48,058
38,186
   UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS BB 73
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
M. E. Ferguson, Project Manager
Owing to the dormant state of development operations, this Project's activities
for 1962 were naturally related mainly to general administration items.
In addition to the usual administrative problems of a small town operating
without the benefit of the usual legal controls, there were, however, several additional problems which required attention.
One of the problems was in connection with the control of traffic and parking
within the residential area. This was the result of the increased enrolment at the
University, coupled with the fact that a new policy of creating a walking campus
was initiated, and a plan was inaugurated whereby all students and staff were
charged a fee for the privilege of parking on the campus. The parking problem
has been fairly well controlled by the posting of parking restrictions. The traffic
problem will continue to become an even greater problem until a new access road
is constructed between the City of Vancouver and the U.B.C. campus. Serious
consideration is presently being given to the possible location of such an access
road, and when the opinions and recommendations of the traffic consultants for
the University are received, further consideration will be given this matter.
During the year the report of Swan-Wooster Engineering Company was
received, and meetings held by the Chairman of the Erosion Committee, Mr. E. W.
Bassett, to consider same. As a result of these meetings, additional exploratory
work is presently being carried out by sub-committees for submission to the full
committee in due course.
The continued growth of the University campus continues to increase demands
on our present water supply, but the steps presently being proceeded with by the
Greater Vancouver Water Board should keep this problem under control. The
Board is now increasing supply-lines to the Endowment Lands and is about to
obtain a reservoir-site in the area.
The Fire Department continued its operation under the special assistance arrangements with the City of Vancouver. Present arrangements expire March 31,
1963, at which time it is hoped more permanent planning will become effective.
An added difficulty arose in fire protection on the campus through creation of oneway streets plus the installation of barricades on the main mall, where the main
water supply and fire-hydrants are located. It is hoped at least the most pressing
items relating to these barricades will be solved shortly by the initiating of a modified
form of traffic control.
Like most other residential districts, the Endowment Lands encountered a
considerable amount of damage from the storm " Frieda," which occurred on
October 12th and 13th. Many boulevard trees were toppled, and crews worked
around the clock trying to keep streets open. The number of power and telephone
lines brought down added to the situation because of the danger from high-voltage
wires. This experience, which resulted in most of the area being without power
or heat for over two days, made many people aware of the advantages of having
power distribution underground. The damage was beyond the scope of the current
year's budget to do more than a minimum amount of tree removal with no hope of
considering replacement at present.
Probably the most outstanding item to record for the year was the fact that
the general-tax mill rate was actually reduced slightly while most other adjoining
 BB 74      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
areas recorded substantial increases.    This is unique for the added reason that a
further decrease appears likely for 1963.
With the last remaining fraternity lot being built on this year, it became evident something would have to be done to provide additional lots for other fraternities
that are presently trying to locate near the campus. It would now appear that a
solution to this will be reached shortly and provision made to accommodate these
fraternities early next year.
Number and Value of Building Permits Issued during the Years
Ended December 31, 1960,1961, and 1962
1
1960
1961
1962
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
4
2
12
4
	
1
1
1
1
10
9
1
11
1
$11,000.00
$150,000.00
13,000.00
20,000.00
50,000.00
44,450.00
8,400.00
$19,800.00
100,530.00
55,831.00
4,200.00
Alterations 	
Garages, etc  	
48,400.00
1,000.00
Totals 	
22
$180,361.00
23
$285,850.00
13
$60,400.00
 university endowment lands
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    Victoria, B.C., January 31, 1963.
The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister oi Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for the nine months ended December 31, 1962. Included in this Annual
Report are the activities of the Water Rights Branch for the first three months of
1962, during which period the Water Rights Branch was still under the Lands
Service of the Department of Lands and Forests.
A. F. PAGET,
Deputy Minister of Water Resources.
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
THE WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which administers the control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water Act.
The main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:—
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all the water at any time in
any stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in right
of the Province. The common-law principle of riparian water right has been
abolished.
(2) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Earlier licences
have priority over licences issued later.
(3) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the water-licence rentals, and observance of the regulations of the
Water Act.
(4) A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land, mine, or
undertaking, and it will pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof.
(5) If it is necessary that a water licensee construct works on another person's land,
he can expropriate the land reasonably required if an amenable agreement cannot be reached. If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee may
acquire a permit to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to generally supervise and
assist the administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under
the Water Act for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, dyking, street-lighting, providing financial aid to hospitals, fire protection, and several other purposes. An improvement district
is a self-governing public corporate body administered by elected Trustees. The undertakings of an improvement district can be financed by Provincially guaranteed debenture
issues.
The administration of the Water Act is carried out by the Comptroller of Water
Rights, and his staff are located at a headquarters office in Victoria and district offices at
Victoria, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, Prince George, and Mission City.
Water is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on economic
development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand by the utilizers
of other resources. Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this
Province is associated with the use of British Columbia water. A large number of communities have been incorporated into improvement districts to operate community projects
and provide essential amenities.
THE WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
With the creation of an independent Water Resources Service, effective April 1, 1962,
the technical matters pertaining to the water resources of the Province which are not
directly connected with the administration of the Water Act are being transferred from the
Water Rights Branch to the newly formed Water Investigations Branch. The Hydraulic
Investigations Division of the Water Rights Branch will thus form the nucleus of the new
Water Investigations Branch, which is headed by the Chief Engineer.
The dominant function of the Water Investigations Branch is to carry out water
resources surveys. Basic hydrometeorological data are gathered and analysed to encourage and guide the future use and conservation of our water resources. Engineering
investigations are carried out pertaining to irrigation and domestic water supply, water
power, stream erosion, flooding, and other water problems.
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 Report of Water Resources Service
A. F. Paget, Deputy Minister of Water Resources and
Comptroller of Water Rights
The Department of Lands and Forests Amendment Act, 1962, transferred the
administration of the Water Act and all matters pertaining to the water resources
of the Province to the newly created post of Deputy Minister of Water Resources.
Accordingly, the Water Rights Branch was transferred from the Lands Service to
the Water Resources Service on April 1, 1962, and a Deputy Minister of Water
Resources appointed.
The Water Rights Branch, headed by the Comptroller of Water Rights, has
been administering the Water Act since 1909 and passed its 50-year anniversary
date a few years ago. In the future the Water Resources Service will deal mainly
with the administration of the control and use of water under the authority of the
Water Act. The technical matters pertaining to the water resources of our Province are being transferred to the newly created Water Investigations Branch, headed
by the Chief Engineer.
At the beginning of 1962 the Water Rights Branch was still a part of the Lands
Service. For this reason, the 1962 Annual Report is prepared jointly with the Deputy
Minister of Lands. As the transfer of technical water matters from the Water Rights
Branch to the newly created Water Investigations Branch commenced only in December, 1962, it appeared to be convenient to report on all activities as having been
under the Water Rights Branch. The Hydraulic Investigations Division of the latter
forms now the Water Investigations Branch, and it is anticipated that the new Branch
will be given its full responsibilities next year.
The personnel matters, the accounting, and the mailing and filing of the Water
Resources Service are handled on a co-operative basis by the respective officers of
the Lands Service. Similarly, the Mechanical Superintendent of the Forest Service
carries out inspection of the motor-vehicles.
The Deputy Minister of Water Resources received his appointment effective
April 1, 1962. For the time being he still retains his second position as the Comptroller of Water Rights. Mr. V. Raudsepp, Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights
since 1956, was appointed to the position of Chief Engineer, to be in charge of the
Water Investigations Branch. Mr. G. J. A. Kidd returned from the British Columbia
Hydro and Power Authority to the Water Resources Service as Deputy Comptroller,
effective December 10, 1962.
The permanent establishment of the Water Resources Service experienced
several other changes. Mr. J. P. Riley, Water Rights District Engineer at Nelson,
was transferred to Victoria to occupy the position of Project Engineer in connection
with the Fraser River Board studies. Mr. R. A. Pollard, of the Hydraulic Investigations Division, is now the Nelson District Engineer. Six additional positions to the
establishment were allowed in the 1962/63 appropriations. Among these were one
engineering position for each of the district offices of Kelowna and Kamloops, now
occupied by Mr. W. K. A. Dobson and Mr. J. Wester respectively.
Activities in connection with water licensing continued to increase. A record
number of new water-licence applications was received. In August this figure was
up to 142. Among the major water licences issued in 1962 were the Columbia Basin
development; storage licences at Mica Creek, Arrow Lakes, and at Duncan Lake,
issued in April; and a power and a storage licence on Peace River for Portage Mountain site issued in December, all to the British Columbia Hydro and Power Author-
83
 BB 84      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ity. Messrs. H. D. DeBeck and D. B. Tanner carried out extensive studies in connection with these proposed major power projects.
Work load continued to be heavy in the section dealing with community water-
supply projects, under the direction of Mr. P. J. Leslie, assisted by Mr. J. W. Webber.
Most of these projects were associated with either proposed or existing improvement
districts, the administration of which is guided by Mr. A. K. Sutherland, solicitor
of the Water Resources Service. It is noteworthy that the total number of improvement districts has grown to 278.
A good start was made by Mr. E. Livingston in compilation of available data
on ground-water resources. In the field of surface-water investigations, our co-operative activities with the Fraser River Board took up a large portion of the available
manpower and time. In addition, a variety of assignments involving flooding and
erosion, irrigation, and other water-supply proposals received extensive studies. The
snow surveys and run-off forecasting under Mr. H. I. Hunter, meteorologist, were
successfully continued and expanded.
Finally, there were, as in the past, a number of boards and committees or organizations dealing with water problems and related matters, and on which the senior
members of the Water Resources Service participate. A list of these includes the
following: British Columbia Energy Board, Fraser River Board, International
Kootenay Lake Board of Control, Pollution-control Board, Interdepartmental Committee on Public Access, British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, Hydrology Sub-committee of the National Research Council, Western Snow Conference,
Western Reclamation Association, British Columbia Public Works Association,
Cowichan River Erosion and Flooding Committee, etc.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS
There are 278 improvement districts under the supervision of the Water Resources Service. The districts are incorporated for various purposes, among which
are to extend financial aid to hospitals; to provide hospitals, irrigation, waterworks,
fire protection, street-lighting, sewage disposal, garbage collection and disposal, land
protection, dyking, drainage, community halls, ambulance services; the operation
and maintenance of cemeteries; the provision and maintenance of parks and playgrounds; and the provision of mosquito control. Nine improvement districts were
incorporated this year, as follows: Coldwater Improvement District, Dellcliff Waterworks District, Genelle Improvement District, Ladysmith and District Hospital
Improvement District No. 33, Fort Fraser Waterworks District, Hudson Hope
Improvement District, Mill Bay Waterworks District, Minto Improvement District,
and Sheltered Cove Improvement District. One district was dissolved—namely,
Somerset Waterworks District.
Pursuant to section 62 of the Water Act, $572,672 was advanced to improvement districts by the Province of British Columbia for 1962 requirements to provide fire protection, financial aid to hospitals, ambulance services, and street-lighting, and will be collected by the Province by way of taxes over a period of time from
1 to 20 years, depending upon the capability of the area to repay. The tax levy for
1962 to take care of the aforementioned advances and those of previous years was
$1,050,969.
Pursuant to the Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act, chapter 38 of the
Statutes of British Columbia, 1945, and amendments thereto, the Province of British
Columbia guaranteed debentures with respect to both principal and interest in the
amount of $862,000. In addition, temporary borrowings with respect to both principal and interest in the amount of $2,143,000 were guaranteed by the Province of
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE BB 85
British Columbia. Of this amount of temporary borrowings, $118,500 was liquidated
from funds received from the sale of debentures as aforesaid. This Branch recommends the feasibility of the projects before the Province guarantees temporary borrowings and debentures with respect thereto, and, further, that the areas can liquidate
the debentures as they become due. Of the total net amount guaranteed as aforesaid,
$669,500 was used for rehabilitating and constructing waterworks systems and
sewers, $21,000 was used for rehabilitating irrigation systems, $2,160,000 was used
for constructing new hospitals, and $36,000 was used for constructing a new fire-hall.
WATER-USERS' COMMUNITIES
There are 66 water-users' communities in the Province at the present time.
They are incorporated under the Water Act by certificate of incorporation issued
by the Comptroller of Water Rights and are usually small corporate bodies of six
or more persons holding water licences. A community can install and operate a
water-supply system for its members. Their powers are more restricted than those
of an improvement district, and the administration is carried out by a manager
under the supervision of the Comptroller of Water Rights. Four water-users' communities were incorporated during 1962.
INTERNATIONAL WATERS—COLUMBIA BASIN
Ratification of the Columbia Treaty between the United States and Canada
is still pending a decision by the Parliament of Canada. In British Columbia, however, much work has been done and water licences for the three storage projects
—Mica, Arrow Lakes, and Duncan—were issued to the British Columbia Hydro
and Power Authority on April 16, 1962. As a result of evidence submitted at public
hearings in September, October, and November of 1961, a number of special provisions were inserted in these licences in order to protect the interests of the public.
Studies at present being undertaken by or in participation with the Water
Resources Service in connection with the aforementioned special provisions include
the establishment of a hydro-meterological network, a road relocation programme, a
flood-routing programme, and a study to determine the best method of transporting
wood products around or over the Arrow Lakes dam. In addition to these, the
Department of Recreation and Conservation is conducting studies to determine the
effects on fisheries and wildlife, and will be making a report of its findings to the
Comptroller. The Forest Service is studying the effects on timber that will be flooded
by the reservoirs, and will also be advising the Comptroller on the necessary
measures to be taken.
The British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority and its consultants are
continuing work on the design of the dams. This work is complete for Duncan, but
some details have still to be decided for Arrow Lakes. Mica is the subject of an
intensive two-year study which should be ready next year. The matter of relocation
of persons affected by flooding, mainly by Arrow, is receiving very much attention,
and an outline of proposed measures for resettlement was made at recent public
meetings in the area. However, due to the delay in ratification of the treaty, funds
are not available as yet for carrying out the actual development of the projects.
FRASER RIVER BASIN
The Fraser River Board, of which the Comptroller is a member, is engaged
in an analysis of flood regulation and hydro-electric development in the headwater
streams of the Fraser system. During the year the Water Resources Service continued
active participation in studies and field investigations for the Fraser River Board.
 BB 86      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A study was undertaken to establish flood-protection benefits now provided by
the existing dyking and drainage works in the Lower Fraser Valley. In addition, a
determination was made of those benefits which could be provided by a proposed
system of up-stream reservoirs. The areas included in the reservoir benefit study were
the Lower Fraser Valley, Kamloops, Prince George, and Quesnel. The benefits were
those derived from protection against spring floods of all frequencies up to the limit
set by a calculated maximum flood.
Studies were continued of the dyking systems in the Lower Fraser Valley in an
effort to establish their effectiveness as flood-protection structures. A drilling programme was initiated through which some 200 miles of dyke are being investigated.
The drill samples are being subjected to standard soil mechanics tests and analyses.
From the results of this study and from information already obtained, recommendations will be formulated concerning the ability of the present dykes to provide flood
protection.
Studies have indicated that the proposed system of dams in the basin of the
Clearwater River is capable of sufficient regulation to eliminate flood damage at
Kamloops. It was also established that flood damage could be reduced at Kamloops
by an improvement in outflow conditions at Kamloops Lake.
An investigation was carried out of the possible effects of Fraser River flow
regulation on drainage conditions in the Lower Fraser Valley. Row regulation will
modify not only the stages of the spring floods, but also will effect changes in the
river levels during the winter months. These changes in river levels will have some
effects on both seepage inflow and gravity drainage for certain dyking districts. For
these districts, the study indicated possible changes in both pumping costs and flooding conditions.
DEVELOPED AND UNDEVELOPED WATER POWER
Records of hydro-power generation for 1961 and preceding years are shown
graphically in Plates 2 and 3. Plate 2 shows the Provincial totals of peak loads,
average loads, and installed capacities, and Plate 3 shows the breakdown between
the major producers. The attention of the reader is brought to the note on Plate 2
referring to peak loads.
The total amount of electrical energy generated at hydro-electric plants during
1961 was 12,371,000,000 kilowatt-hours, a decrease of 2.1 per cent on the corresponding figure for 1960. This drop in production is entirely due to the two months'
shut-down of the Aluminum Company of Canada's power plant at Kemano. If Alcan
had maintained its output of the previous year, the over-all total for the Province
would have shown an increase of around 5 per cent.
Over the last 10 years the total amount of power generated by hydro plants in
the Province has risen at a rate of 10.1 per cent compound. The total generation,
both hydro and thermal for the same period, has risen at a rate of 9.8 per cent compound, from 5,143,000,000 kwh. in 1951 to 13,158,000,000 kwh. in 1961. It is
interesting to note that the average rate for the last 41 years, the longest period for
which records are available, is 8.2 per cent compound.
ADDITIONAL INSTALLATION DURING 1962
There has been only one significant addition to the list of operating hydro plants
during 1962. This is on the Raging River near Port Alice, Vancouver Island, where
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, has recently reopened its Benson Lake copper mine. It should be noted that the curve on Plate 3
for " Installed Capacity—CM. & S." shows a slight drop.   This is due to the aban-
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE BB 87
donment, during 1961, of the plant at Anyox, which had been inoperative for some
years. The Raging River addition will be reflected in next year's report. Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, is also installing a third
72-megawatt unit at its Waneta plant. Installation was originally scheduled for
mid-1962 but has been delayed. An application in connection with this plant was
recently made to the National Energy Board of Canada for an equi-change of
electrical energy with the Bonneville Power Administration in the United States,
which application was approved in December, 1962.
In the thermal-power field the first 150,000-kilowatt unit of the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority's Burrard plant at loco is now in operation.
UNDEVELOPED WATER POWER
There have been no recent additions of any significance to the known undeveloped hydro-electric power resources of the Province. The present estimated total
therefore still stands at 22,100,000 kilowatts of prime power, or some 34,000,000
kilowatts of installed capacity. Studies which may well reveal additional resources
are continuing.
PEACE RIVER POWER DEVELOPMENT
In February, 1962, the B. C. Electric Company, now part of the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, made applications for power and storage licences
of 58,300 c.f.s. and 32,000,000 acre-feet respectively on the Peace River at Portage
Mountain. As required under the Water Act, all the affected persons received notification of these water applications, and the Comptroller of Water Rights received
some 70 letters objecting to or expressing concern about these applications.
These representations were considered at a public hearing at Chetwynd in early
August and at a further meeting in Victoria. Water licences for the Portage Mountain power development on the Peace River were issued by the Comptroller of Water
Rights to the British Columbia Power and Hydro Authority on December 21, 1962.
  1
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
REVENUE AND EXPENSE GRAPH
FOR
FISCAL YEARS    1935-1962
AND
DISTRIBUTION   DIAGRAM
FOR
FISCAL YEAR   1961- 1962
1945 1950 1955
FISCAL   YEARS     (ENDING    MARCH   31")
 ACCOUNTING DIVISION BB 91
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
M. B. Maclean, B.Com., Departmental Comptroller
Revenue from water rentals and recording fees amounted to $2,115,738 for the
calendar year 1962, and was derived from the following sources of use:—
Domestic, incidental use, and fees  $      68,323.29
Waterworks  11,874.54
Irrigation    3,106.35
Power       1,731,914.41
Funds held on application         300,519.41
Total    _ $ 2,115,738.00
Water-rights rental is payable annually, and the billing (except for power) is
issued in the first week of January of each year. As of December 31, 1962, approximately 18,500 licences were in effect, involving 13,200 accounts. Power accounts are normally billed in March of each year.
Comparison of Water Rentals and Recording Fees Revenue
for 10-year Period 1953-62, Inclusive
1953 ——,— $     700,289.17
1954 ^^HccccccH 813,413.61
1955 nmmmmsaatmm 849,980.00
1956 —-■"■-rrr-l,-,TTT°TT—n 1,081,592.07
1957 m j i 1,152,370.05
1958 enssH^ssBssrimsEatamsst 1,256,004.37
1959 tvtifflwffiwiiiiii ii i mil 1,363,939.33
1960 Basts^x.sB^^sisisssas^wssssjs 1,510,277.86
1961 mm^mmum^mt, inmmmTmmf*i 1,853,653.18
1962 McccccccJccccccccccccHccccccccccMccccccHcccciccccHcc^ 2,115,738.00
Total      $ 12,697,257.64
Ten-year average, $1,269,725.76
 BB 92      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
DEVELOPMENT  OF   HYDRO-POWER
IN
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
BRITISH    COLUMBIA    TOTAL
GENERATING   CAPACITY
AND
ANNUAL   LOADS
The peak loads  of individual  power  plants,    rarely
occur at  the  same  time. The   Total of Plant Peak Loads
thus   exceeds   the highest simultaneous  output   of
all B-C. hydro plants, though  the  yearly   cha
shown  in the graph should be similar in size  and
direction.
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7920     7325      1330     1335
1340     1345      1350      1355
CALENDAR     YEAR
1360     1365     1310      1315
 ACCOUNTING DIVISION
BB 93
DEVELOPMENT  OF    HYDRO-POWER
IN
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
ANNUAL    PRODUCTION   OF    HYDRO-ELECTRIC   ENERGY
BY    MAJOR    PRODUCERS
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CALENDAR     YEAR
ALCAN Aluminum   Company of   Canada.
BCE British Columbia Electric   Company ~\
BCPC British  Columbia   Fbwer  Commission.]
CMi5 Consolidated Mining 4 5meltino   Company 4 West Kootenay ,
I C Po*er tHs-Jn, Authority
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CALENDAR    YEAR
    OPERATIONS DIVISION BB 97
OPERATIONS DIVISION
M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Chief, Operations Division
The Operations Division is charged with the duties arising out of processing and
investigating applications for water licences and with supervising and regulating the
diversion and use of water under water licences and approvals issued pursuant to the
provisions of the Water Act.
The Operations Division is under the general supervision of the Chief Operations Division, who is responsible to the Comptroller and Deputy Comptroller for
the operation of his division. The Division's administrative composition is as follows:
(1) General office, under the supervision of Chief Clerk.
(2) Administrative draughting office, under the supervision of Chief Draughtsman.
(3) Six district offices, located at Victoria, Mission City, Kamloops, Kelowna,
Nelson, and Prince George, each in the charge of a District Engineer.
The statutory requirements for making an application for a water licence are
set out in the Water Act and the regulations thereto. All applications received are
"cleared" by the administrative draughting office with reference to existing water
licences, reserves, and lands affected. The application is reviewed in the general
office to ascertain that the statutory requirements have been fulfilled, including posting and filing of the application and notification of all parties required. The application is then referred for investigation and recommendation to the Engineer for the
Water District within which the application falls, after which the application is
granted and a water licence issued or it is refused.
The most easily developed sources within economic reach of lands and communities requiring water are rapidly becoming fully licensed, and applications for
additional water licences on these sources therefore require careful study. The increasing pressure for water in these areas also requires that water use under licence
requires increasingly more administrative attention. The district offices have continued their studies of possibilities for alleviating deficiencies in the existing water-
short areas.
Although initial prospects for an adequate supply of water for the year under
review did not appear too favourable in some areas, a wetter-than-usual growing
season throughout the Province caused very little, if any, shortages to be experienced
in any area.
Once again the statistics included in the reports of the Chief Clerk and the Chief
Draughtsman show substantial increases in all phases of the work handled by the
Operations Division. In particular, 1,186 applications for new water licences were
received during the year, which is the highest number ever received in any one year.
The separate reports of the general office, administrative draughting office, and
the district offices follow.
 BB 98      DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
GENERAL OFFICE
(Period November 1, 1961, to October 31, 1962)
1958
1959
1960
1961    1
1
1,038
939
1,102
42
36
25
23
31
31
75
115
175
69
84
67
109
160
184
5
17
2,364
2,293
2,669
190
222
384
1962
Applications for licences  .
Applications for apportionments _...
Applications for change of appurtenancy..
Applications for change of works	
Applications for extension of time
Applications for right-of-way over Crown lands .
Change of ownership, address, etc..
Cancellations of abandonments	
Totals _	
Conditional licences issued	
Final licences issued	
977
16
25
54
298
131
2,299
257
1,186
55
59
106
69
166
10
2,652
341
Total licences issued 	
Right-of-way permits over Crown lands issued..
Approvals issued.—	
Totals   	
4,057
3,910
3,885
4,654
4,644
562
275
850
274
718
228
810
220
880
200
837
132
1,124
112
946
183
5
1,030
185
17
1,080
203
10
969
1,236    |
 I
1,134
1,232
1,293
DRAUGHTING OFFICE
New water applications cleared and plotted on maps__
Final-  and conditional-licence plats  compiled and
traced 	
New water-rights maps compiled and traced	
Water-rights maps revised-
New improvement districts described and plans prepared	
Improvement districts'descriptions and plans amended
Reference maps renewed	
Water clearances (change of ownership, apportionments, cancellations, etc.)	
Land clearances   (purchases, Crown grants, leases,
etc.)   	
Land clearances (cancellations)	
Rights-of-way over Crown land	
1961
1962
1,013
1,097
932
1,195
30
49
42
19
19
10
37
42
16
36
3,109
6,232
1,517
185
Totals
.13,132
3,213
6,700
1,660
203
14,224
During the year many inquiries by the public and other departments were
taken care of. The usual requests for maps and other information by our District
Engineers were also attended to during the year.
Considerable time was spent during the year checking petitions and drawing up
legal descriptions for improvement districts.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS ENGINEERING SECTION
The work of the Improvement Districts Engineering Section is concerned principally with the preparation of feasibility reports for proposed waterworks and irrigation schemes, and with the review of engineering reports and plans submitted by
improvement districts. Advising improvement districts on engineering problems also
forms an important facet of the Section's activities.
A summary of the major investigations which were reported on during the year
follows.
 operations division bb 99
Covert Irrigation District
This improvement district is located immediately west of Grand Forks.
Due to the deterioration of certain parts of the district's irrigation system, replacements became necessary. As the original system layout was inefficient, it was
recommended that the renewals be made in conformity with a master plan for a
revised and improved layout.
Water Supplies for the John Hart Highway Area
During the past decade considerable development has taken place in the area
along the John Hart Highway immediately north of Prince George. The existing
private well supplies are in many cases unsatisfactory, and a study was therefore
made to determine the economic feasibility of installing domestic water-supply
systems to serve the communities in the area. The costs of operating the systems
were, however, found to be relatively high, and it was recommended that consideration of the schemes be deferred until more consumers become available.
Athalmer Improvement District
Tests have shown that a large number of the private well supplies in Athalmer
are subject to pollution, and the residents are therefore anxious to install a community water system. Following a study of the various possibilities, it was recommended
that a well located outside the district and remote from possible sources of contamination be used as the source of supply for the proposed waterworks.
Hudson Hope Improvement District
A large influx of personnel into Hudson Hope is expected concomitant with
developments on the Peace River, and adequate water supply and sewerage facilities
were therefore deemed necessary. A field trip was made to Hudson Hope, and a
source of water supply recommended. Subsequently the plans of the proposed systems, prepared by the district's consulting engineer, were reviewed and checked.
Boundary Line Irrigation District
The district, which is located near Osoyoos, has for some time been experiencing operational difficulties with its system, and, in addition, replacement of part of
the pumping main will shordy become necessary. A study of the district's problem
is at present being made, and a report will be issued in the near future.
Proposed Water Supply, Tulameen
A report was prepared to establish the feasibility of providing a water-supply
system for the existing community at Tulameen. The report considered that a suitable
system could be installed for approximately $38,000, and that resultant water
charges would be in the region of $4 per household per month.
Proposed Water Supply, Port Hardy
Following requests from Port Hardy and District Chamber of Commerce, a
report was prepared on the economic feasibility of installing a water-supply system
to serve the community. The report found that the estimated capital cost was beyond
the financial ability of the existing and potential consumers to support.
 bb 100   department of lands, forests, and water resources
Proposed Water Supply, South Pandozy Area
In a report on a proposed water-supply system for the South Pandozy area,
near Kelowna, it was demonstrated that the project was marginally feasible. The
report recommended the property-owners give serious consideration to inclusion in
the City of Kelowna before committing themselves to a programme of independent
development of essential services.
Rutland Waterworks District
An appraisal was made of the existing works serving the Rutland Waterworks
District with a view to advising the Trustees on future district policy. The investigation indicated that the consumers were using excessive quantities of water to the point
where the existing pumping facilities were becoming overloaded. The consequent
heavy system operating costs were threatening the district's financial position.
Subsequendy the Trustees have decided to install water meters on domestic
services. This policy, together with the vigorous development currently taking place
in the area, should restore a satisfactory over-all condition.
Tsawwassen Waterworks District
In response to a request from the Trustees of the Tsawwassen Waterworks District, technical guidance was rendered to facilitate the reconstruction of the intake
and pumping storage sump serving the existing system.
The suggested modifications have since been completed.
WlNFIELD  AND  OKANAGAN  CENTRE  IRRIGATION  DISTRICT
Contoured mapping of the Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District
has been completed, and work is currendy proceeding on a report designed to guide
the Trustees on future system rehabilitation policy.
Miscellany
Numerous miscellaneous investigations, reports, and meetings were undertaken
during the year, which included studies of the proposed extension of Lakeview Irrigation District, the preparation of agreements and attendance at organizational
meetings regarding North Saanich domestic water supply, the preparation and presentation of a technical paper at the Irrigation Workshop held at the University of
British Columbia, and the appraisal of a large number of plans submitted by consulting engineers in connection with waterworks for improvement districts.
VICTORIA DISTRICT OFFICE
C. Errington, P.Eng., District Engineer
The area under the administration of the Victoria District Office is comprised
of the Alberni, Nanaimo, and Victoria Water Districts and covers Vancouver Island
and the adjacent Gulf Islands. This office operates out of the Victoria head office.
There is no Assistant Engineer in this district.
Rainfall for the period from June 1st to September 30th was normal for Victoria
and Nanaimo, but almost twice the average for Alberni, and an increase of 44 per
cent over average for Campbell River. In all areas studied the precipitation in August
was more than twice the long-term average.
 I
OPERATIONS DIVISION BB  101
For this reason, shortages of water for irrigation and domestic purpose and the
relevant problems which usually appear in August and September did not occur in
1962.
During the period November 1, 1961, to October 31, 1962, some 17 special
investigations, studies, or reports were made.
Summary of Year's Work
Total applications received    186
Conditional licences issued  167
Final licences issued  53
Conditional licences reported on  183
Licences abandoned or cancelled  42
KELOWNA DISTRICT OFFICE
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kelowna District Office, administering an area of approximately 15,000
square miles, comprises the Kettle, Similkameen, and Okanagan drainage basins, the
Shuswap River drainage basin from Sicamous to its source, and that part of the
Columbia River drainage basin from Boat Encampment, the northerly limit of the
Columbia River, to a point about 15 miles south of Arrowhead on the Upper
Arrow Lake.
The water supply during 1962 was generally adequate. jAlthough a number of
storage reservoirs failed to fill in one area, sufficient water was available for irrigation
requirements as a result of favourable weather conditions.
Several irrigation and domestic water-supply investigations were carried out,
and this has now become an important part of the district office work. Studies are
continuing concerning areas with short water supply. This work has been completed
for the Grand Forks Water District, and the results compiled in the form of a report.
In addition, surveys of existing storage-works are being carried out for the purpose
of estimating existing storage capacity and preparing plans of existing works.
During the year a record number of 174 water applications was processed, of
which 134 were recommended. In addition, a total of 75 meetings was held, of
which 57 were in connection with improvement districts.
There was one staff change in the Kelowna Office staff during the past year,
Mr. K. Dobson succeeding Mr. R. Sorokoski as Assistant District Engineer. Mr.
Sorokoski was transferred to the Hydraulic Investigations Division.
Summary of Year's Work
Applications on hand and received  248
Applications investigated and reported on  153
Applications abandoned or cancelled  21
Final-licence survey reports  59
Dam inspections  41
Site inspections for proposed dams  8
Miscellaneous field investigations and surveys  9
Engineering investigations for irrigation and domestic water supply 17
Investigations of flooding, drainage, and erosion  18
Meetings with improvement districts and others  75
 BB  102    DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Engineering Investigations and Studies
Engineering investigations requiring preparation of reports including design,
cost estimates, financial study, and recommendations were as follows:—
(1) Bridesville Waterworks District—report on replacement of the existing
expended system was completed and presented to the district. The new
system has now been installed.
(2) Village of Oliver—a full review of the existing domestic water-supply
system was made, including a plan of the layout and an appraisal of its
condition, operation, and economics. In addition, a master plan for improvement and extension of the distribution system was included.
Further investigations involving engineering study and the giving of engineering advice were as follows: Bankhead Irrigation District (feasibility of supplying
irrigation to additional lands), Covert Irrigating District (obtaining field data and
water requirements for reconstruction design), Glenmore and Ellison Irrigation
Districts (recommendations for installation of new measuring-weirs), Grandview
Waterworks District (investigation of additional water-supply possibilities), Guisa-
chan Water Users' Community (design for replacement of part of the main ditch by
pipe), Keremeos Irrigation District (design of measuring-weir at headworks), Rutland Waterworks District (study of silting conditions at intake).
In addition to the above, an active programme of surveying all existing dams
has been followed in order to prepare plans and assess the condition of the storage
structures and to obtain information on storage exercised and further storage
possibilities of the reservoirs.
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT OFFICE
P. G. Odynsky, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kamloops District Office administers the Water Act over the central section
of the Fraser River drainage basin, extending from Spuzzum to a point 20 miles
north of Quesnel. Containing approximately 57,000 square miles, this section is
divided into seven water districts — Ashcroft, Barkerville, Cariboo, Kamloops,
Lillooet, Nicola, and Quesnel. During 1962, administration was extended into the
Chilcotin area as far west as Anahim Lake.
In the Kamloops, Ashcroft, Nicola Districts, below average winter snowfall
resulted in a dry spring, with many lakes showing below normal storages of water.
However, after the middle of May frequent rains filled these storages to overflowing
and persisted through the summer to reduce water-shortage problems to a minimum.
Many areas which experienced a pronounced shortage in 1961 had ample water in
1962, the northern districts having excess water in the early summer months.
Although 1962 was a good water year, the diminishing availability of unrecorded water in the more settled areas is demanding more time and study for the
investigation and disposition of new water applications. The recent addition of Mr.
Jacob Wester to the Kamloops Office engineering staff should help considerably in
processing these applications and in coping with work which has accumulated during
the past years.
During the year of review 182 conditional licences and 33 final licences were
added to our files, bringing the number of active water licences up to a total of 4,705.
Summary of Year's Work
Applications received     300
Applications inspected and reported on       163
Final-licence survey reports         67
 —
—
OPERATIONS DIVISION BB  103
Dam inspections  63
Applications for apportionments and changes of works investigated
and reported on  31
Miscellaneous field investigations and surveys  113
Meetings with improvement districts and others  14
Orders issued  2
Engineering Investigations and Studies
1. Study and report on erosion caused by Quesnel River near Quesnel.
2. Special study required in connection with granting of a water licence for
land-improvement purposes on the Chilanko River near Chilanko Forks.
3. Field investigation of flooding caused by Dragon Creek near Quesnel. Report is under preparation.
4. Concluded studies of watersheds of Duffy, Cherry, Blaker, and Campbell
Creeks near Kamloops and Borland and Valley Creeks near 150 Mile House in
connection with the report on water-short areas under preparation.
NELSON DISTRICT OFFICE
R. A. Pollard, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Nelson Office administers the Water Act over some 25,000 square miles
of the Kootenay Land District of South-eastern British Columbia. There are seven
water districts in this area, each with problems peculiar to its own location.
Water supplies generally were adequate in most sections of the Nelson District.
Isolated instances of disputes arose among water-users experiencing shortages, but
all were settled amicably.
The diminishing supply of unrecorded water in the more setded areas continues.
The trend to ground-water development continues, and in many areas of both the
East and West Kootenays ground-water has become an important source of community water supply.
As in previous years, there was a noticeable increase in the routine administrative work, not only in the number of water applications requiring attention, but
also in the number of licences requiring amendment. With the present limited staff
of the Nelson Office, it has not been possible to satisfy the demands for service which
the public has made and which they are entitied to.
In July of this year Mr. R. A. Pollard, P.Eng., replaced Mr. J. P. Riley, P.Eng.,
as District Engineer, on Mr. Riley's transfer to Victoria.
During the year 156 new conditional licences and 72 new final licences were
added to the files.
Summary of Year's Work
New applications received  185
New applications investigated and reported  161
New applications abandoned and cancelled  43
Final-licence and amendment surveys  77
Pollution investigations   4
Flooding investigations  14
Water-use investigations  7
Meetings with improvement districts and water-users' communities 29
Miscellaneous meetings and investigations of non-routine nature  76
Routine calls and problems  1,649
Sampling snow courses  15
Dam inspections  5
 BB  104    DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Engineering Investigations and Studies
1. Domestic water supplies for Elko, Kitchener, Trout Lake City, Invermere,
Wilmer, and Canal Flats investigated.
2. Flooding by small streams in Creston area.
3. Erosion problem on Salmo River.
4. Rogun Lake dam on Salter Creek.
5. Pollution problem on Michel Creek.
6. Office study of surface-water supplies for water-short areas.
7. Flooding of Lardeau River at Lardeau.
8. Erosion study of Cottonwood Creek at Nelson.
9. Flooding problem on Kemball Creek at Kaslo.
10. Pollution problems on various streams investigated and dealt with.
PRINCE GEORGE DISTRICT OFFICE
C. K. Harman, P.Eng., District Engineer
The area administered from the Prince George District Office includes the
Skeena River drainage, the Peace River drainage within British Columbia, and the
Fraser River drainage up-stream from a point 20 miles north of Quesnel.
There were no reports of water shortages in any of the water districts. Minor
flooding occurred in the Burns Lake area in late June as a result of heavy rainfall.
Fifty-one new applications were received, and 59 new conditional water
licences were added to the files during the year.
The residents in the unorganized areas surrounding Prince George continued
to show keen interest in the formation of improvement districts for the purpose of
establishing water supplies. This office assisted the Victoria Office in obtaining field
information and in the preparation of a feasibility report for a domestic water system
for the John Hart Highway area just north of Prince George. It also assisted the
Groundwater Section in a water-well survey in the Prince George area in order to
determine the feasibility of ground-water as a source for domestic water supply.
This office also assisted in the organization of the Fort Fraser Waterworks
District and the Hudson Hope Improvement District, which were incorporated this
year.
MISSION CITY DISTRICT OFFICE
E. G. Harrison, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Mission City District Office administers water-rights matters in the Vancouver and New Westminster Water Districts, an area of approximately 40,000
square miles.
The past year was wetter than average, but there were still disputes among
water-users in some water-short areas. This office also investigated several complaints
of pollution, flooding, and unauthorized works and obstructions in streams. Two
hundred and fifty applications for water licences were received, and 206 were investigated and reported on.
There are 2,900 active water licences in the Mission District, of which 172
were added to the files this past report year.
   HYDRAULIC INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION BB  107
HYDRAULIC INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION
T. A. J. Leach, P.Eng., Chief, Hydraulic Investigations Division
GENERAL
The problems investigated and reported upon by the Hydraulic Investigations
Division and the ground-water investigations of the Operations Division have been
grouped under the following sections:—
(1) Flooding, Erosion, and Drainage.
(2) Irrigation and Water Supply.
(3) Hydro-electric power.
(4) Hydrology.
(5) Ground-water.
Probably the two main investigations were the completion of a report on winter
flooding within the Coquitlam River watershed and the flood studies carried out for
the Fraser River Board on areas in the Lower Mainland as well as up-stream points
such as Kamloops, Prince George, and Quesnel.
In the Ashcroft area the feasibility of irrigating some 11,000 acres was looked
into, and in the case of the Kaleden Improvement District various alternatives were
reported upon in connection with the rehabilitation of this old system which supplies
both irrigation and domestic water.
Hydro-electric power investigations have been limited to the completion of
mapping of some of the northern rivers. Such preliminary work will assist in studies
of the power potential of the northern portion of our Province.
The field of hydrology is, of course, basic to all these investigations. In the
case of snow-surveying, which is one of our main endeavours in this field, a programme of volume run-off forecasts for the spring and summer months of April
to July or April to August was continued. In the Columbia and Peace watersheds
this activity has been intensified through a co-operative programme with the British
Columbia Hydro and Power Authority. Office analysis of snow-survey data has been
accelerated through the use of the Department of Finance's I.B.M. 650 electronic
computer. This service, which was started last year, has allowed the exploration
of a wide range of variables which previously could not be included because of time
limitations.
Most of the hydraulic investigations which are described below are covered in
reports, of which there are now over 1,000 in the Water Rights Branch library. This
total is being added to at the rate of 70 per year, and these are available to the public
at a nominal charge for assembling only.
Some 200 reports were distributed to the public, and, in addition, over 100
inquiries were answered in connection with the hydro-power potential within the
various parts of the Province.
FLOODING, EROSION, AND DRAINAGE
Flooding and erosion during the winter within the Coastal areas, due predominantly to rain, augmented in some instances by snow melt, continue to be a problem
in built-up areas. In contrast to these local coastal conditions are the spring floods
which occur in the major rivers and which are caused mainly by a prolonged period
of snow melt.
 BB 108    DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Coquitlam River Flooding
Early in the year the Coquidam River flooding report was completed and supplied to the City of Port Coquitlam and the District of Coquidam. This report explores various methods of flood control and indicates that up-stream storage, coupled
with an improved lower channel, would, under proper maintenance, regulate most
floods to safe levels within the lower reaches. It is understood that, at present, work
is under way to improve the channel immediately above the Lougheed Highway
bridge which should have a remedial effect on river-bank erosion.
Columbia River Flooding at Athalmer
Flooding of the Columbia River between Athalmer and Golden can be attributed to the flat valley gradient, which averages only 0.8 feet per mile over some 60
miles. The natural channel is inadequate to contain the spring freshet flows, and
annually the natural levees are overtopped. The cost of protecting the low lands at
Athalmer, at the outlet of Windermere Lake, was investigated. The various alternatives were all found to be expensive when compared with the benefits of such flood
control. Because of this, a limited " first aid " programme was suggested which
would provide a more adequate channel immediately down-stream of Athalmer
through the removal of old navigational and bridge structures.
Cowichan River Flooding
Studies on Cowichan River flood-control possibilities, which commenced after
the January, 1961, flood, were continued. Precipitation in the Cowichan River
valley during the winter of 1961/62 ranged from 17 inches at Cowichan Bay to 35
inches at Nitinat and were less than 75 per cent of the long-term average and only
about 50 per cent of the maximum which was recorded during the winter of
1960/61. The maximum level of Cowichan Lake for 1962 occurred on November
27th, when a gauge elevation of 9.92 feet was recorded. This is some 4 feet lower
than the January 15, 1961, maximum.
The local committee, consisting of representatives from the municipalities and
the Indian Affairs Branch, continued to consider flood-control possibilities for the
lower reaches of Cowichan and Koksilah Rivers. The Water Rights Branch, in turn,
completed an investigation into the feasibility of diverting a portion of Cowichan
Lake flood inflow into the Nitinat River watershed. A limited drilling programme
along the possible diversion route was carried out. It is estimated that such a diversion proposal would be an expensive one and would not provide adequate flood
control in the lower reaches of the Cowichan River.
Squamish River Erosion
In response to a request from the Department of Highways, a brief field investigation of erosion along the east bank of the Squamish River some 15 miles from
Squamish was carried out during August, 1962. The road in this area has been
washed out on a number of occasions and was again threatened this year. Three
types of bank protection were considered, consisting of riprap revetment, a system
of groins to direct the main current away from the eroding east bank, or a cut-off
channel to by-pass the threatened area. While revetment would appear to be the
most feasible, its high cost suggests that road relocation would probably be the most
economical solution.
 HYDRAULIC INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION
BB  109
Salmon River Sedimentation Into Shuswap Lake
Sediment accumulation at the Salmon Arm wharf channel is a problem of long
standing, as indicated by past records of dredging dating back to the turn of the
century. In response to a request from local organizations, investigations were
carried out in the summer of 1961 and April, 1962. The main cause of navigation
difficulties in recent years would appear to be the diversion of the mouth of the
Salmon River to the east and closer to the wharf channel. The Salmon River silt
load, which was previously deposited farther to the north-west, is now being caught
up by the navigation channel.
A rediversion of the Salmon River mouth could improve this local condition,
but it would not eliminate the sedimentation problem, and the permanency of such
a solution is open to question. Any type of works which would intercept the silt
load before it reached the boat channel would be expensive and would require
periodic clean-out by dredging.
Liard River Watershed Suspended Sediment
As reported in the previous year, sporadic sampling of suspended sediment was
undertaken in the Liard River watershed at or near the Alaska Highway crossings in
1961. In most cases the samples were taken after peak stages of the streams. The
results are summarized as follows:—
Stream
Date of
Sampling,
1961
Drainage
Area
(Sq. Mi.)
Water
Discharge
(C.F.S.)
Average
Sediment
Concentration
(Parts per
Million by
Weight)
Suspended
Sediment
(1,000 Tons
per Day)
June 29 	
860
7,770
710
940
40,020
1,450
3,850
3,370
12,290
6,820
110,000
3,860
3,990
112,000
1,530
5,970
10,230
33,890
1,080
3,800
258
81
81
30
20
28
27
20.00
Muskwa	
Racing  ._ _ 	
Toad 	
June 30 ,
July 2	
July 3 	
July 5 	
620.00
2.70
0.87
24.00
Smith. .
July 5...
0.13
July 6	
0.32
Hyland	
July 7	
July 8	
0.76
2.40
Vancouver North Shore Flooding
The North Shore area, which includes the City of North Vancouver and the
Districts of North and West Vancouver, is subject to intense winter rain-storms
which cause flash floods and erosion. This condition is becoming more and more
critical as residential land development extends into the various mountain watersheds and upon lands threatened by floods and stream erosion.
In the summer of 1962 the Water Rights Branch undertook a preliminary
survey of the main streams which have flooded in the past—namely, the Capilano
River and Mosquito, Lynn, and Seymour Creeks. Air photography of the whole area
was obtained, from which enlarged air photos were prepared. Discussions have
been carried out with local municipal officials, and a report is being prepared dealing
with some of the main flooding and erosion problems in each area.
Fraser River Basin
Active participation in the studies and field investigations of the Fraser River
Board were continued.   A benefit-cost study was undertaken with respect to the
 BB  110    DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
existing dyking and drainage works in the Lower Fraser Valley, and also with respect
to the effect of the proposed flood-control storage reservoirs. The latter studies were
made also for the Prince George, Quesnel, and Kamloops areas. Further, the effect
that Fraser River flow regulation might have on drainage conditions in the Lower
Fraser Valley was investigated.
The above-mentioned studies in the Lower Fraser Valley were based on enlarged air photographs giving elevations which were derived by Wild A7 stereoplotter from ground control surveys. Direct flood damage to agriculture and to
industries and other improvements were appraised. In addition, losses of income
and other direct and indirect losses and costs that would be associated with flooding
were assessed. All information was so compiled that the total and the average
annual value of flood protection could be determined for various flood frequencies.
The regulation of the Fraser River discharges by operation of up-stream storage
reservoirs in the future will modify not only the spring flood-levels, but will also
modify the winter water-levels of the Fraser River. Such changes would have some
effect on certain lower Fraser dyking districts, where, during heavy winter storms,
gravity drainage ceases due to rising river-water levels. Under these conditions all
water behind the dykes must be pumped. In order to assess the effect of such future
changes on the drainage conditions of the Lower Fraser Valley dyked areas, it was
necessary to carry out a detailed survey of the existing dyking and drainage works.
This was followed by an investigation with respect to seepage flow from the Fraser
River into the adjoining dyked areas. This study required estimates for the various
hydrologic factors, such as evaporation, soil moisture, ground-water storage, precipitation, and run-off. Two dyked areas—the Pitt Polder and the Matsqui Dyking
District—were studied in detail, and the effect of seepage inflow on drainage conditions was estimated.
A study of flooding at Kamloops was undertaken, in which the following details
were determined:—
(a) Flood-levels through the area under natural conditions and alternately
with up-stream regulation through future storage dams on the Clearwater
River.
(b) Actual flood profiles which have occurred in the Kamloops region and
the effect of improvements to the lake outflow conditions on these flood
profiles.
This study involved a comprehensive field survey during 1961 and 1962 to
obtain lake soundings and large-scale maps of the area and the river. During 1962,
water-level gauges were established throughout the area and water profiles obtained
for the high run-off period. Discharge measurements of the Thompson River about
1,000 feet below the old highway bridge to North Kamloops were undertaken during
the high-water period through the assistance of the Federal Water Resources Division.
Investigations for Other Provincial Agencies
The Department of Highways requested advice on erosion problems at the
Elk River bridge on Highway No. 93, and in connection with the proposed new
road crossing at the Copper River near Terrace.
The Department of Public Works received advice in connection with flooding
and erosion potential at a proposed building-site on North Thompson River, and a
land- drainage proposal was prepared for a technical-school site near Kelowna.
 HYDRAULIC INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION BB  111
Beach Grove at Boundary Bay
The Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources was requested to
investigate the Beach Grove area at Boundary Bay, where decaying seaweeds here
produced objectionable odours. A brief inspection was carried out jointly with the
Lands Service, and certain remedial measures were suggested.
IRRIGATION AND WATER SUPPLY
Norbury Creek Hatchery
Water-supply possibilities for Norbury Creek fish hatchery in East Kootenay,
proposed by the Department of Recreation and Conservation, were investigated by
the Department of Public Works and the Water Rights Branch. Additional topographic mapping was arranged in order to investigate alternative sources of supply.
The Department of Public Works undertook well-drilling, which would enable the
use of ground-water to control the water temperature in summer and to augment
surface supplies.
Ashcroft Area Irrigation
In response to a request from the Ashcroft and District Board of Trade, a
reconnaissance of an irrigation proposal was carried out in that area during the
latter part of 1961. This was followed by further investigations in 1962 covering
the feasibility of providing irrigation water to the Upper Thompson Valley east and
south of Ashcroft and Cache Creek. The total area that might be served amounts
to 11,000 acres, 2,000 of which are presently irrigated. It is contained within a
30-mile-long strip of rolling bench and fan topography averaging less than 1 mile
in width. The elevations range from 1,000 feet in low benches near the river-level
to over 1,700 feet in the Semlin Valley and though the main acreage is located north
of the Thompson River there are scattered areas south of the river which are included in the investigation.
Following the completion of a co-ordinated programme consisting of an engineering and soil survey carried out by the Water Rights Branch and the Department
of Agriculture respectively, a Reclamation Committee meeting was held, at which
soil types and irrigation-water requirements were estimated. While field mapping
has been kept to a minimum, new air photography was obtained of the region and
survey control was established at a sufficient density to obtain large-scale mapping
should it be required in the future. The present study will indicate the approximate
cost of providing irrigation water to the various areas.
Kaleden Irrigation District
In response to a request from the Kaleden Irrigation District, the Branch carried
out an investigation into alternative water-supply possibilities for the rehabilitation
of the district's existing system. This irrigation district comprises some 100 dwellings and 535 acres of orchards adjoining the west side of Skaha Lake south of Penticton. Incorporated in 1922, the district took over the original water system laid
out in 1910. The system has been expanded and presently receives water through
long diversion-works from Shingle and Shatford Creeks and the Marron River. The
operation of these diversion-works and the supporting storage reservoirs has been
very expensive in view of the limited acreage assessed by the district. In addition,
water quality for domestic use has been unsatisfactory.
Previous Water Rights Branch reports on this district were attempted to set up
a renewal plan which would provide for an orderly replacement of the existing struc-
 BB  112    DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
tures. Investigations in 1962 have brought these proposals up to date and have also
included other alternatives which would eliminate a part or all of the existing gravity
system in favour of pumping from Skaha Lake.
Doukhobor Lands Water Supply
The subdivision and sale of the Doukhobor lands in the Grand Forks and
Kootenay areas has brought with it a request from the Orthodox group, who are
the main purchasers, for investigations of water-supply and sewerage systems. This
request, made to the Attorney-General, was directed to the Water Rights Branch,
which had participated in water-supply investigation during the Judge Lord study
of 1956.
A brief reconnaissance was made of the area, and meetings were held with the
Orthodox group committee at Grand Forks and at Brilliant. It would appear that
the first area that might be developed would be the Grand Forks region, where a
number of ground-water wells may be the most economic solution. However, to
date no exploratory work has been undertaken.
West Osoyoos Bench Irrigation
In co-operation with the Department of Agriculture and the Surveys and Mapping Branch, an investigation of the feasibility of irrigating some 300 acres of
Osoyoos west bench area, located within the Southern Okanagan Lands Project,
was carried out. The cost of irrigating some 10 lots appears to be rather high, and
a further appraisal is now under way to determine whether additional acreage might
be included.
Hydro-electric Power
No field investigations of hydro-electric power were carried out this year. However, a mapping programme of our northern rivers was continued, and the following
basic data, together with stream-flow information, are now becoming available.
Dease-Stikine Hydro Power
The Stikine is the largest of our northerly Coastal rivers, with a length of 335
miles. An office study using the existing maps and some of the large-scale dam-site
plans, scale 1 inch to 1,000 feet, indicates a total hydro-power potential at 1,160,000
horsepower. This includes four power-sites, varying in head from 500 to 600 feet,
and does not include any water diversion from the Dease Lake drainage.
Skeena River Hydro Power
Similar office studies on the Skeena River where large-scale mapping is limited
to dam-site areas reveals a power potential of 1,240,000 horsepower through the
development of three sites with a total head of 475 feet.
Liard River Hydro Power
Mapping has been completed on the Liard River and its several tributaries as
the result of the field surveys carried out in 1960. This consists of pondage maps
and site maps at scales of 500 feet to 1 inch.
Some additional mapping has been done in the Yukon by the Federal Water
Resources Branch, and it is planned to use this information as well in computing the
potential hydro power of this watershed.
 HYDRAULIC investigations DIVISION BB 113
HYDROLOGY
Snow Surveys
The snow-survey programme continued to expand in 1962. As requested by
agencies interested in water supply, 23 new snow courses were installed this past
summer. These included 12 in the Peace River drainage, 3 in the Upper Columbia,
1 on the Kettle River, and 7 scattered throughout the large Fraser River basin. All
were located for the specific purpose of ultimately providing estimates of potential
snow-melt water supply. A total of 133 snow courses will be in active operation
during the coming sampling season, and of this total, 78 will be sampled free of
charge by personnel of co-operating agencies.
At British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority's request, the Peace River
courses were established to provide a backlog of snow data so that reservoir inflows
can be forecasted in succeeding years. The 12 sampling-sites ring the Peace catchment, and all are located near the headwaters of major tributaries. A float-plane
was used to make the installations, and, because of this, all 12 were sited in alpine
meadows close to mountain lakes. Depending on lake ice conditions, either a ski-
equipped aeroplane or a helicopter will be used to transport the snow surveyors for
their winter samplings.
Also at the request of British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, three new
high-level courses were established on Upper Columbia drainage. These include the
Goldstream watershed in the Big Bend region, the avalanche research station on
Fidelity Mountain in Glacier National Park, and the Beaverfoot range just south-east
of Golden. British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority will use an over-snow
vehicle to complete the Goldstream and Beaverfoot winter measurements, while
personnel at the avalanche station will carry out those for Fidelity Mountain. Still
on Columbia drainage but farther south and west, a Kettie River snow course was
established near the Carmi radio range station.
On the Fraser Basin, seven new courses were installed and one was abandoned.
These include two low-level courses at Hope and Lytton for the Federal Meteorological Service, one middle-elevation course near Longworth on the Upper Fraser, two
on the Bridge watershed with locations near Bralorne and atop Mission Mountain,
one near the Federal Department of Transport's radio beacon site near Enderby,
and finally a middle-elevation course near Blue River on the North Thompson drainage. The abandoned course was Penrose Mountain on the Bridge watershed near
Bralorne.
In addition to the new installations, 25 existing courses were visited and the
necessary repair work completed at each. During the winter of 1962, 17 snow
courses were visited, and at-site instruction in the proper procedures of snow-sampling was given to the responsible surveyors. Office work included the collection,
checking, and filing of meteorological, hydrological, and hydrometric data; written
instructions to some 80 part-time snow surveyors; collaboration with United States
Government agencies regarding Columbia River snow-survey schedules and in the
development of common forecast procedures for international gauging-sites ; and
continued use of the electronic computer to develop new stream-flow forecast procedure, as well as refining those already developed. As a public service, six snow
bulletins were edited and published in the period February 1st through June 1st.
These bulletins provided quantitative forecasts of river-water supply and showed
build-up and depletion of the 1962 mountain snow cover.
 BB  114    DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Long Lake Hydrology
Long Lake is located some 4 miles north of Nanaimo. In order to assess the
feasibility of further diversions from the lake a brief hydrological study on the average inflow was made, based on meteorological records available in nearby areas.
Arrangements have been made for the installation of a gauge on Long Lake, which
will, in time, confirm or modify our present analysis.
Millstone River Control
The flow of Millstone River, near Nanaimo, varies from a few cubic feet per
second to some 800 cubic feet per second. Preliminary investigations to regulate
the maximum discharges and improve the minimum flows for irrigation water supply
was investigated. It was found that storage on Brannen Lake would be too limited
to prevent flooding, but that minimum flows could be augmented appreciably to
assist in irrigation.
Enos Lake Hydrology
A study on available water supply from Enos Lake, north of Nanaimo, was
made, based on available meteorological records. Run-off, evaporation, and other
losses were estimated in order to arrive at the usable yield of this watershed. In
order to check the tentative results, a gauging-station was installed at Enos Lake.
Hydrometric Network Planning
Stream-gauging network planning for new stations was carried out, with particular emphasis on northern rivers and the Columbia River watershed. In the case
of the latter, some consideration is being given not only to the extension of stream-
gauging stations, but also to the need for additional meteorological stations.
Some preliminary work has also been done in a study of maximum discharges
of the Lower Fraser Valley streams. Most of the records are of very short duration.
Where longer records are available, the approach has been to establish flood frequencies and a relationship between maximum discharges and the physical characteristics of the watershed.
GROUND-WATER
Compilation of the available information on ground-water potential and its
existing use was continued by the Ground-water Section of the Operations Division.
A number of observation wells have been established, and a few reconnaissance
surveys in connection with water-supply problems were carried out.
Well records for about 10,000 water wells were obtained from the Geological
Survey of Canada, co-operating well-drillers, and others. These are being filed, using
a punched-card system, the well locations being plotted on maps. Well maps for the
Fraser Valley from Chilliwack to Ladner have been completed. Similar maps for
the eastern portion of Vancouver Island from Campbell River to Victoria are being
compiled. A ground-water reconnaissance survey of the Saanich Peninsula, involving geologic mapping and compilation of well records, is approaching completion.
Similar investigations were carried out at Comox and in the Prince George area.
Short investigations of local ground-water problems were carried out at Grand
Forks, Beaver Falls, Marysville, Point Grey, and Yarrow. Drilling of an irrigation
well for the Forest Service nursery in Surrey was supervised. A test well near Prince
George was started in late 1962.
 hydraulic investigations division BB 115
A network of 19 observation wells was established in the Lower Fraser Valley
between Vancouver and Abbotsford; nine of these were drilled by the Department
of Highways, the remainder being privately owned wells already in existence. Water-
table elevation is measured once a month, and the information is exchanged with the
Geological Survey of Canada, which also operates several observation wells in this
area. Observation wells were also established near Comox, Nanaimo, and Sidney
on Vancouver Island, and near Vernon, Kelowna, and Kamloops.
    PERSONNEL OFFICE
BB  119
PERSONNEL OFFICE
J. H. Palmer, B.A., B.Com., Personnel Officer
ESTABLISHMENT AND ORGANIZATION
The separation of the Lands Service into the two departments known as the
Lands Service and the Water Resources Service was the principal organizational
change affecting the Department this year. This report, however, covers both
Services.
A start was made toward the establishment of two Branches in the Water
Resources Service with the appointment of Mr. V. Raudsepp, P.Eng., to head the
Water Investigations Branch as Chief Engineer and with Mr. G. J. A. Kidd, B.Sc.,
P.Eng., heading the Water Rights Branch as Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights.
Mr. Kidd returned to the Department following service with the British Columbia
Hydro and Power Authority. The Chief Engineer filled one of four new engineering
positions established this year, and Mr. J. P. Riley, B.A.Sc, I.E., P.Eng., filled
another as Project Engineer, Fraser River. Appointments were made of an additional engineer in Kamloops and one in Kelowna. A Clerk 2 was added to the
general office.
Two positions—a Senior Clerk and a Clerk 3—were added to the Leases
Section, and a Clerk-Typist in Victoria and a Land Inspector at Pouce Coupe were
added to the staff of the Land Inspection Division of the Lands Branch. A Mapping
Assistant 4 was added to the staff of the Legal Surveys Division to prepare Land
Registry Office plans for checking by electronic computer.
STAFF CHANGES
The following table indicates the volume of staff changes, such as separations,
promotions, etc.:—
Lands
Service
Water
Resources
Service
Total
Separations  	
In-service promotions..
Reclassifications.
Transfers to other departments..
28
17
24
7
37
22
27
Senior changes in the Lands Service were as follows: Mr. D. Borthwick,
B.S.A., B.Ed., A.A.C.I., and Mr. W. R. Redel, B.A.Sc, P.Ag., A.A.C.I, were promoted to Superintendent and Assistant Superintendent of Lands respectively, and
Mr. A. C. Kinnear, B.C.R.F., and Mr. E. S. W. Andrews, B.C.L.S., to Chief and
Assistant Chief of the Air Surveys Division respectively. Mr. James Edward, Technical Draughtsman, retired from the Legal Surveys Division after more than 38
years with the Department. He was the first Civil Servant awarded the Premier's
long-service plaque for loyal and efficient service. Mr. William Hall, M.C., B.Sc.F.,
P.Eng., B.C.R.F., resigned from the position of Chief, Air Surveys Division, after
more than 25 years' service to accept the position of registrar of the Association of
Professional Engineers of British Columbia. Mr. C. T. W. Hyslop, B.S.A., P.Ag.,
Superintendent of Lands, resigned to accept a senior resource planning position with
the Federal Government.
 BB 120    DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
TRAINING
Two employees entered the third year of the Executive Development Training
Plan course, four commenced the second year, and three began the first year of this
in-service training scheme. Ten employees completed short courses in English
fundamentals under the sponsorship of the Civil Service Commission.
SAFETY PROGRAMME
In keeping with the Government's concern over the cost of injuries at work, a
Lands Service Safety Committee chaired by Mr. A. H. Ralfs, Assistant Director of
Surveys and Mapping, and with Mr. D. Pearmain, Chief, Legal Surveys Division,
Mr. L. D. Fraser, Chief Land Inspector, and Mr. J. H. Palmer, Personnel Officer,
as members, was established by the Deputy Minister and commenced studies of
accident patterns within the Lands Service with a view to fostering safety wherever
possible. The scope of this Committee was later expanded to include the Water
Resources Service by the appointment of Mr. J. H. Doughty-Davies, Engineer i/c
Water Resources Compilation Section, as a member.
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
Negotiations leading to a salary increase and the granting of additional time
off in lieu of statutory holidays for University Endowment Lands Fire Department
personnel were concluded by the Minister's Salary Advisory Committee for the
University Endowment Lands.
   MAIL AND FILE ROOM                                            BB  123
MAIL AND FILE ROOM
John A. Grant
Letters received in the Department during 1962 amounted to 228,015, compared to 237,317 in 1961, a decrease of 9,302.   This was probably due in part to a
light fire season, which is reflected in the Forest Service mail.
A total of 11,374 files was created during the year, which will necessitate the
expansion of facilities at Topaz Avenue vaults for the storage of inactive files in
order to make room for the new files in the Department's main vaults.
Letters Inward
Branch
1961
1962
10-year Average,
1953-62
44,552
148,863
24,169
19,733
45,514
137,979
24,150
20,372
38,374
117,469
22,147
17,399
Surveys and Mapping .. -	
237,317          |        228,015
1
195,389
Letters Outward (Recorded)
Branch
1961
1962
10-year Average,
1953-62
16,674
2,296
2,381
17,374
2,045
2,275
11,897
3,421
1,833
21,351
21,694
17,151
Miscellaneous Reports
Designation
1961
1962
10-year Average,
1953-62
9,184
532
14,792
4,075
4,372
5,551
524
13,724
4,1341
2,473
5,131
458
15,046
3,009
Totals            — _	
32,955
26,406
23,644
i Estimated.
New Files Created
Designation
1961
1962
10-year Average,
1953-62
" 0 *' files.. --
5,767
1,208
2,660
7,404
1,450
2,520
5,031
1,368
3,345
Totals                                 —-
9,635
11,374
9,744
 Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1963
1,060-363-6100
     1963
INDEXES  1   TO 7
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND  WATER RESOURCES
LANDS SERVICE
HON. R. G. WILLISTON -    -    MINISTER
E. w. bassett, deputy minister of lands
DECEMBER 31st,   1962
INDEX TO DEPARTMENTAL REFERENCE MAPS AND MANUSCRIPTS
EXPLANATION OF THE VARIOUS MAP SERIES
Most of the maps listed in this index were prepared originally for Departmental
use, and, having proved of value to the public, copies of same are for sale. As the
originals of these maps are on tracing-linen or paper-backed manuscript, the copies are
available only in white print or ozalid print form, which shows the map detail with
dark-blue or black lines on a white-background paper.
The topographic manuscripts shown on Index 4   are being published on a  scale
of   1:50,000.     Index 14, showing the progress of this programme is available on
request. ■■$$•	
Address all orders and inquiries to:—
Director, Surveys and Mapping Branch,
Attention: Legal Surveys Division,
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,   Victoria, B.C.
Applicants are requested to enclose the correct payment with their
orders as Government Publications must be paid for in advance. Orders
to points within Canada may be sent COD. upon request. For orders
to be delivered within the Province 5-per-cent social services tax must
be added. Cheques or money orders should be made payable to the
Minister of Finance for British Columbia.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND SERVICES AVAILABLE
FIELD-NOTES.—Prints or photostat copies of original survey notes of District Lot
Divisions are obtainable, cost depending on the size of the original. Prices on
request.
TOWNSHIP PLANS.—Prints are obtainable of most of the townships within the old
Dominion Railway Belt and Peace River Block within British Columbia. Price,
30 4 per print.
LAND REGISTRY PLANS.—Inquiries regarding Land Registry plans of subdivisions
of district lots should be addressed to the Land Registry Office in the district
concerned.   The districts and offices are as follows:—
Kamloops.
Prince Rupert.
Nelson.
Vancouver.
New Westminster.
Victoria.
(See also Index 3 for composite maps of L.R.O. plans.)
To avoid misunderstanding, applicants are requested to state the map number and
index map of sheets required. Maps supplied from these indexes are not kept in stock
but have to be printed especially to fulfil each individual request. As we have no
way of making use of same once they have been printed, they have no returnable value.
LAND   BULLETINS
The Land Bulletins listed below give information both on the agriculture potentialities and general economy of the various districts to incoming settlers.
LAND BULLETINS
Date of Issue
No,
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Kootenay Bulletin Area — \961
Okanagan Bulletin Area      1961
Lower Coast Bulletin Area  1962
Vancouver Island Bulletin Area    _-' 1959
Ouesnel-Lillooet Bulletin Area  1961
Kamloops Bulletin Area   -% 1960
Fort Fraser—Fort George Bulletin area.......i&^J^ajC.'..'. 1962
Prince Rupert-Smithers Bulletin Area        ..Ef.SUj^y* *- 1961
Atlin Bulletin Area : 1961
Peace River District    1962
Acquisition of Crown Lands in British Columbia - 1963
Forest Service
" How to Obtain a Timber Sale.'
Grazing Regulations	
F.S. 223..
 1960
 1959
PHOTOSTAT REPRODUCTIONS.—Photostat copies of survey plans, maps, documents, etc., recorded in the Department, can be supplied to any size or scale—
enlargement or reduction.   Price :-r-
One sheet 18e'x24",  $ 1.15   per photostat.
One half-sheet 12"x 18", 60^ per photostat.
PUBLISHED MAPS—A separate Index to Published Maps will be supplied upon request,
showing the various types of maps covering the Province.   Series are as follows:—
General Maps __„__  —-  Index 8
Regional Maps -^:. -     Index 9
National Topographic Maps on the scale of:
1 inch to 2 miles Index 10
1:250,000 and 1 inch to 4 miles .-. Index 11
1 inch to 8 miles  .......Index 12
1:1,000,000 Index 13
1:50,000 and 1 inch to 1 mile Index 14
AIR PHOTOGRAPHS—Prints of British Columbia Government air photographs are
available to the public. Indexes 15, 16, 17, and 18 show photographs taken at
various altitudes.      Prices will be supplied on request.
DEPARTMENT OF MINES
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS LOCATION MAPS.—Prints of these
maps showing permits and licences are available to the public. Price, $3.45
per print.   An index to areas covered by location maps will be supplied on request.
MINERAL CLAIMS AND PLACER LEASES,—Prints showing the approximate
locations of staked mineral claims and placer-mining leases are available to the public.
These maps conform in geographical detail, size, and number to the reference maps
shown on Index 1 and mineral reference maps shown on Index 2.   Price,   $1.15 per
print.
Address all inquiries to:— Chief Gold Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
139'        138T        13r        136"        135"        13<1*        133*       13Z"        131"        130'        129°       lZtt        127
INDEX 2
List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps
10T2IS. Stump lake; Nicola Valley   -,-*
1T2S7. Mt Sicker.
2I2S7. Cherry Creek; Iron Mask, Peterson Creek. Kam<oops.
31269. Portland Canal; Sftwtrti Marmot River to Billet Creek.
• 4T269. Premier Mine; Big Missouri; Ruf us Argent*
5T269 Salmon ind Oilworlh Glaciers.
7T269. Upper Xitsault Ri«r, Dolly Varden Mine.
9T269  Grind Forks jnd Granbv River.
10T769. CreenHood, Injiain Creek to Eholt.
lin«9. McRae Creek, Coryell <ind Paulson to Porcupine.
I2T269. Franklin tne] Burrell Creeks    -> ;
13T269   Princeton and Copper Mountain, r* -'
14T269   Headwaters of Boundary and Pots Creeks. -
151269. Wallace Mountain. Beaverdell. and Carmi.
161269. Hedley Camp.
171269. Northerly Portion of Teieda island.
111269. Camp McKmney^ Rock Creek.
191269. Owen Lake
201269. Topley-R.chfleld Hint. -
21T269. Bridge River. Pioneer. Bralorne, and Mints Mines.
221269. Anyoi. Hastings Am to Portland Canal
231269. Windfall (Lost) Creek to Kettle River,
241269. McGilhvray Creek and Headwaters of Cadwallader Creek.
H. ' 25T269. Coo and Tvaughton Creeks ' , V...   r
11290   South Okanagan and Fairview Camp.
2T280. Ymir and Porcupine Creeks
3T280. Hosstand; Big Sheep Creek to Columbia River
-51280   Phillips Arm: Fanny Bay, Thurlow and Sonora Wands. '.
6T280. Trail; Ftrt Of RotlltjAB; Murphy Creek.
71280. Sheep Creek ind Salmo.    - >
8T-280   Taku Arm of lagish like; engineer Mine.    '
9T280. Fort Steele Hid Wild Horse Creek,
101280. Castlegar and Cut to Erie Cited.
121280 Moyie Lake
131280  Osoyoos and Vicinity.
1T286. lardeau River, Poplar to Cerrard
2T286   Sullivan Mine and Kimberley Area.
3T286. Trout Lake and Lardeau Creek.
4T286   Lardeau River, Poola
' 5T286 Ferguson to VhKlfill River,  4.
6T286   Beaver Creek; Erie to Fru i tvale    31
7T286   Camborne, Incomappleun River, ind Poole Creek
IT286. DUOCM River to Headwaters of Healy Creek.   . ■■ i
I0T286. Summit Creek. Headwaters Sheep Creek, and John Bull Mtn
111286. Smithers. Hudson Bay Mountain: Outhie Mine.
I2T286   Britannia Mine, westerly portion, Howl Sound.
IT294   Britannia Mine, easterly portion
21294. Atlin, Pine and Spruce Creeks,  i
3T294. Christina Lake lo Big Sheep Creed
4T294. Coast Copper Mint; Elk River and Kathleen Like.
-51284.1"
8T294   Beai Valley, George Copper Mini to Mtnadin Lake.
91294. Williams Creek; vicinity of Barkerville.
10T294   Hocher Oeboule Mountain   near Ha/elton.
IT300. Nelson and South to Hall Creek
2T30O Ainsworth, Kokanee Park, and Slocan. 12 in.=l mi.)
3T300. Kaslo. Sandon, and Silverton. fi in - I mi I trtr,
4T300   Horseshoe Mountain; Canyon Creek. Kettle? River
ST300. Kootenay Lake, Midge Creek, and Headwaters Ym<r Creek
6T300. Kootenay River; Beasfey to Thrums.    «
7T300  South Fork Of Salmo River and Priest River   / I
8T300. Kootenay landing ind Cultus Creek.
' 9T300   Reeves MacDonald Mint; Find d'Oreille Rivet   '..  '
10T300   Poupore Creek. Castlegar, ind West to Shields.
11T300   Headwaters ol Big Sheep Creek .  j
121323. TitMkvt River, Cassiar District 14 jn—1 mil .
1T332. Monashee Creek, Cherry Creek .contoured:
21332. Lightning Peak and Headwaters Of Granby River Icon I)
31332. Lightning Creek, Cottonwood and Swift Rivers
4 T332. Antler Creek. Cunningham Creek, .and Swamp Rim
5T332. Caribou Mtn , Swift River, and Little Swift River I
6T332. Swift River and Fountain Creek (contour edl.  .
7T332. Rock Cried. Westbndge. Did Kettle River
' 8T332. Bridge River: Tyaughton Creek lo Reimount.
10T332. Zeballos and Tahsis Rivers
1T348   Perry Creek and Mjrysvitle   ■'■"■.
1 2T348. St Mary Lake and St   Mary River.
3T348   Amberty and Sutler Creeks (Summit Camp),
4T348   Moyie River Hid Upper Firry Creed
ST348. Kootenay River Valley; Lewis
6T348. West of Kimberley, Watthew Creek. 1
Mineral reference maps are  prepared to show Departmental  inform
ation, particularly  surveyed mineral claims and placer - mining   leases.
They are compiled from all available data, and    prints on the scale of
1 inch to 1,500 feet, except where otherwise noted, are obtainable for
$ 1.15    per copy.    Orders or inquiries should quote map numbers.
127* 126° 125°      I      124' 123°
122° 121° 12 O' 119°
116" 115°
136"        135'
133"       132"
130*       129°       128°
126°       125
124*       123"       122'        121°
117" 116°
INDEX 3
LIST OF COMPOSITE MAPS
No. of
Sheets Map Name
Scale:  1 Inch to 500 Feet
North Bend     1
Oliver and District 18
Osoyoos and District 9
Penticton and District  12
Powell River |and District 15
Prince George and District ! 10
Quesnel „._   2
 I
 1963
INDEXES 8 TO  14
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS,  FORESTS, AND  WATER  RESOURCES
LANDS SERVICE
HON.   R. G. WILLISTON -    -     MINISTER
E. W. BASSETT    DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS
INDEX   TO   PUBLISHED   MAPS
EXPLANATION OF THE VARIOUS MAP SERIES
The Pre-emptor and Degree Series of regional maps (Index 9) are gradually
being replaced by the National TopographicSystemmaps on the l-inch-to-2-mile
and 1:250,000   (approx. 1 in. to 4 mi.) scales.
The latter system is a series of map sheets on the following scales designed
to cover Canada in a regular manner using lines of latitude and longitude
for the borders.
1 inch to 2 miles See Index 10
1:250,000 (approx. 1 in. to 4 mi.) ,_  „      „     11
1 inch to 8 miles  „      „    12
1:1,000,000 (approx. 1 in. to 16 mi.)  „      „    13
1:50,000 and 1 inch to 1 mile See  Index 14     (on reverse)
GENERAL   MAPS
INDEX 8
Map
No.
Address all orders and inquiries to:—
Director, Surveys and Mapping Branch,
Attention:   Geographic Division,
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,      Victoria, B.C.
Applicants are requested to enclose the correct payment with their
orders as Government Publications must be paid for in advance. Orders
to points within Canada may be sent C.O.D. upon request. For orders
to be delivered within the Province 5-per-cent social services tax must
be added. Cheques or money orders should be made payable to the
Minister of Finance for British Columbia.
U
lCR
}MD
1j
t   I JB
t  Ijc
t 1JD
I 1JE
t 1JF
J 1JG
t IJH
I ljj
t 1 IK
t 1JL
t   'JNT
Ijr
Ijs
Year of
Issue
To avoid misunderstanding, applicants are requested to state the map
number and  index map of sheets required.
Government Agents throughout the Province stock copies of maps available
within their districts for over - the - counter sale.
Unless otherwise requested, maps will be sent folded.
LAND   BULLETINS
The Land Bulletins listed below give information both on the agriculture
potentialities and general economy of the various districts to incoming settlers.
LAND  BULLETINS                                                                                              Date of Issue
No.  1. Kootenay Bulletin Area 1962
2   Okanagan Bulletin Area 1961
 1962
1953
Year of
Issue
1958
1951
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1960
1945
Title of Map
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In two sheets.   Roads, trails,
railways, etc    When joined—
British Columbia—Tentative Range Map 	
Ditto —Mining Divisions  '■Hajp't      ^	
British Columbia.    In one sheet.   Showing post offices, railways,
main roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc  _	
B.C. Land Districts  _ _ 	
B.C. Land Recording Districts (revised, 1960) .	
B.C. Mining Divisions (revised, 1958) . . j_ 3;
B.C. Assessment and Collection Districts (revised, 1960)_ __lj
B.C. Electoral Districts (redistribution. 1938) (revised, 1955)._^
B.C. Counties (Revised Statutes. 1948) and Sheriffs' Districts £
B.C. School Districts (revised. 1962) ^_„
B.C. Forest and Grazing Districts (revised, 196V)        ;; ,  ■•■-   "*".
B.C. RegistraUon Districts, Bills of Sale (revised, 1950) j "*
B.C. Land Registration Districts (Revised Statutes, 1948)    	
B.C. Showing N.T. System     _.ii™^ .
B.C. Relict  Map—Layer Colours (precipitation inset)	
B.C. Census Divisions... _	
57X71
17X22
17X22
30X38
30X39
30X38
30X38
30X38
30X38
30X38
30X38
30x38
30X38
30x38
30X38
30x38
32X41
1:1,000,000 or
1 in. to 15.78 m.
Reports
Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia—Contains recorded geographical names of cities, villages,
post offices, railway stations, rivers, creeks, lakes, islands, mountains, etc -	
Per
Copy
$3.45
Free
Free
Per
Copy
$ 1.15
Prints only available.
»In course of compilation
3. Lower Coast Bulletin Area—I—
4. Vancouver Island Bulletin Area..
5. Ouesnel-Lillooet Bulletin Area	
6. Kamloops Bulletin Area —   1960
7. Fort Fraser—Fort George Bulletin area
8. Prince Rupert-Smithers Bulletin Area	
9. Atlin Bulletin Area 	
10. Peace River District -
.1959
.1961
.1962
..1961
.1961
.1962
Certain departmental reference plans and manuscripts are available to the public in ozalid or
photostat form. Indexes of the following, showing scales and prices, will be supplied on request:—
Index 1 —Departmental Reference Maps showing all land surveys, leases, applications, etc., to
date of order (1 in. to 1 mi. except where noted on index)
Index 2 —Departmental Mineral Reference Maps showing surveyed mineral claims, placer mining
leases, etc. (1 in. to 1,500 ft.).
Index 3 — Composite Maps showing subdivisions (1 in. to 500 ft.) (I inch to 300 ft ).
Index 4 —Topographic Survey Mapping showing lots and contours (2 in. or 1 in. to 1 mi.).
Index 5 — Interim Mapping (2 in. to 1 mi.) showing planimetry compiled from air photos .
Index 6 -Large Scale Mapping (1 in. to 100 ft.) to (1 in. to 1,320 ft.).
Index 7 —Interim Mapping (4 in. to 1 mi.) showing planimetry from air photos
Indexes 15, 16, 17, and 18 show   British Columbia Government air photographs   taken at
various altitudes.
11. Acquisition of Crown Lands in British Columbia 1963
(Status maps showing vacant Crown land will be found on Indexes 9, 10, and 11.)
Forest Service
" How to Obtain a Timber Sale."
Grazing Regulations	
F.S. 223-
-1960
.1959
Detailed topographic maps are also available of the B.C.-Alberta Boundary,
B.C.-U.S.A. Boundaries, of the 1:25,000 series, Victoria-Vancouver area, and the
valleys of the Columbia River Basin. Indexes will be supplied on request.
For forest cover maps, write to Surveys and Inventory Division, British Columbia Forest Service, Victoria.
For marine charts, write to the Canadian Hydrographic Service, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Victoria,
B.C.jor Ottawa, Ont.
For aeronautical charts, write to Map Distribution Office, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa, Ont.
For published soil maps, write to Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
For staked mineral claim, placer lease maps,  also petroleum and natural-gas  location maps, write to Chief Gold
Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
REGIONAL   MAPS
INDEX  9
Map
No.
2c
3a
3c
3e
3f
3o
3h
.3j
Year of
Issue
1958
1954
1960
1949
1960
1950
1949
1958
1952
Title of Map
LAND SERIES
Northerly Vancouver Island 	
Queen Charlotte Islands !B	
PRE-EMPTOR  SERIES
Fort George	
Stuart Lake (contoured)- yjX..™ 	
Peace River (contoured) (Revised status 1963)
Chilcotin (Revised Status    1958).  	
Quesnel (contoured) (Revised Status 15*57).—.
TSte Jaune  _	
North Thompson (contoured)  	
DEGREE SERIES
Size of
Sheet (in
Inches)
28X42
28X42
28X42
28X42
28X42
28X42
28X42
28x42
28X42
Scale,
Miles, etc.
1 in. to
1 in. to
1 in. to
1 in. to
1 in. to
1 in. to
1 in. to
1 in. to
4 m.
4 m.
3 m.
3 m.
4 m.
3 m.
3 m.
3 m.
3 m.
Per
Copy
Map
No.
.90
.90
.60
.60
.60
.60
.60
.60
.60
5Bs
1929
5Bn
1929
5c
1929
5n
1953
5e
1952
6a
mrmI
mrm2
mrm3
mrm4
mrm5
mrm6
mrm7
mrm8
Year of
Issue
1952
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1934
1935
Title of Map
TOPOGRAPHICAL  SERIES
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South	
„ „ „ North	
Stikine River (contoured)	
Revelstoke-Golden (Big Bend-Columbia River) (com.)	
Lower Squamish-Valley (contoured)	
COMPOSITE MAPS   printed
Prince George and Vicinity  	
MINERAL REFERENCE MAPS   printed
Slocan, Slocan City, Ainsworth, and Nelson.	
Trout Lake, Lardeau, and Ainsworth 	
Ainsworth, Trout Lake, and Slocan  „.	
Nelson and Trail Creek (Ymir)	
Trail Creek and Nelson (Rossland)	
Grand Forks, Greenwood, and Trail Creek -	
Greenwood and Osoyoos —	
Barkerville and Lightning Creek	
The maps listed above are compilations of a
addition to general geographical detail.
« The Land and Pre-emptor Series show vacant Crown land to the date of issue
10 and 11 for additional maps showing land status.
Year of
Issue
Showing
REGIONAL MAPS
Scale
10 0       25     50 00 150 200
LEGEND
Sheets published shown thus
Title of Map
North Western British Columbia
North Western British Columbia
Northwestern British Columbia
North Eastern British Columbia-
North Eastern British Columbia-
North Eastern British Columbia-
South Eastern British Columbia-
South Eastern British Columbia-
South Eastern British Columbia-
West Central British Columbia-
West Central British Columbia-
West Central British Columbia-
East Central British Columbia-
East Central British Columbia—
East Central British Columbia-
South Western British Columbia
South Western British Columbia
South Western British Columbia
Size of
Sheet (in
Inches)
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy
28X42
2 in. to
1 m.
■60
28X42
2 in. to
1 m.
.60
28X42
1 in. to
5 m.
• 60
28X38
1 in. to
4 m.
.60
25X40
4 in. to
1 m.
• 60
28X42
1 in. to
800 ft.
.60
32X44
1 in. to
1 m.
.60
28X43
1 in. to
1 m.
.60
22X32
1 in. to
1 m.
.60
24x42
1 in. to
1 m.
.60
22X42
1 in. to
1 m.
.60
22X43
1 in. to
1 m.
.60
22x42
1 in. to
1 m.
.60
32X44
1 in. to
1 m.
.60
available survey data and show lot surveys in
See Indexes
—Planimetric-
—Landforms....
—Special —
-Planimetric...
-Landforms...
-Special	
-Planimetric...
-Landforms...
-Special	
Planimetric	
Landforms	
Special	
Planimetric	
Landforms	
-Special	
—Planimetric-
—Landforms...
—Special....	
Size of
Sheet (in
Inches)
30x38
30x38
30x38
30x38
30x38
30x38
28x38
28x38
28x38
30x38
30x38
30x38
30x38
30x38
30x38
30x38
30x38
30x38
Scale,
Miles, etc.
1 in.to 10
1 in.to 10
i in. to 10
1 in.to 10
1 in.to 10
1 in.to 10
1 in.to 10
1 in. to 10
1 in.to 10
1 in.to 10
1 in.to 10
1 in.to 10
1 in. to 10
1 in. to 10
1 in. to 10
1 in. to 10
1 in.to 10
1 in. to 10
Per
Copy
tMaps   1B.1D, IE, IF, 1G. IK show water features, place-names, raiiways, roads, airports, parks, etc.
Maps   1BL.1DL.IEL, 1FL, 1GL, 1KL show, in addition, relief in grey.(lBL,lEL,lKL also available in sand.)
Maps   1BLS. 1DLS, 1ELS, 1FLS, ldLS, 1KLS show only water features and relief in brown.
The above sheets were compiled from air photographs.
118' 117' US* 115* 114* 113* S3
PROVINCIAL PARK MAPS—ADVANCE PRINTS ONLY
130° 129° 128* 127* 12CV 125* 124° 123* 122' 121" 120" 119* 118* 117*
Per
Map No.
Title of Map
Scale
Copy
P.S.G. 1
Garibaldi Park—planimetric —
1 in. to 4 m.
$0.30
P.S.G. 2
Garibaldi Park—contoured ...
1 in. to 2 m.
.60
P.S.G. 3
Western Garibaldi—contoured
1 in. to 1 m.
.30
P.S.T. 1
Tweedsmuir Park—planimetric
1 in. to 8 m.
.30
P.S.T. 2
Tweedsmuir Park—planimetric
1 in. to 4 m.
.60
P.S.W. 1
Wells Gray Park—planimetric
1 in. to 4 m.
.30
P.S.W. 2
Wells Gray Park—contoured
1 in. to 2 m.
.60
For  Vacation  and Tourist Information,  write
to:—
The British Columbia Government Travel Bureau,
"> Victoria, B.C.
INDEX  13
NATIONAL
TOPOGRAPHIC SERIES
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Showing Maps Published     13,73
SCALE   1:   1,000,000
LEGEND
Sheets published shown thus
Price 60 < per copy
Layer Colour Contours
Size of sheets: 25 in.x30 in.
130* 129* 128* 127*     I       126* 125* 124" 123" 122* 121* 120* 119' 118* 117* 116* 115*
Explanation:   The maps published on this scale, will show:   water features in blue; relief features (if available)
with brown contour lines and cultural features, such as place names, roads, railways, and boundaries, in black.
Road classification is shown in red. Provincial maps show vacant Crown land to the date of issue.
Contour Interval:   100 and 200 feet.
Size of sheet:  24 in.x30 in.
116* 115*
INDEX 11
ONLY   SHEETS   SHOWN   IN   RED   ARE   PUBLISHED
127*       126*
304 N
-WI&4
Ic\ -
;t04ftJ
IbBO^
■-J1Q4. I>
®« 1)95*1^
K4H'
MstSaT
3    ..c?.U>"
FOFcT Sr. JAMES VSt-W*^
aSScTVl WMM
\yaasW*w,
ililiw 1  f"Hi*
INDEX 12
<0°  NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC SERIES
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Showing Maps Published
!   o    1    INCH   TO  8   MILES
i LEGEND
FiylAY rcWscR I
\  94SW\
_jjj§ ^NtnfBHH
mmp"- ssfSrSr^SSL-
vIbkw*^*-
vtxe*
Ir'—
jAMPBEtt RIVER-; :    . M£fcREtT*l_.
fcsw"'
B28K
EXPLANATION:
The maps published on this scale, on the index to the left,
will show:   water features in blue; relief features (if available) with brown
contour lines and cultural features, such as place names, roads, railways,
5S'   and boundaries,  in black.    On   provisional   editions  water features and
contours are also shown in black.    Canadian Government series  showing
wooded areas, if available, will be supplied if specifically requested. Provincial maps show vacant Crown land
to the date of issue.
INDEX 11
NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC SERIES
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Showing Maps Published
SCALE   1:   250,000   (Approx. 1 in. to 4 mi.)
SCALE
10   0 25        50 100 150 200
LEGEND
Sheets published shown thus:—
Provincial Government
Price 60 4 per copy
Canadian Government
Price 60 4 per copy
Order by Map No., e.g.—92 G
Sheets published
shown thus
56° Price 60 ( per copy
Layer, Colour Contours
Size of sheets:
i»*..
24 in. x 30 in.
wSBS"
84sW
J4l
92 H
Contour Interval:  500 feet.
Size of sheetsr 24 in. x30 in.
113*  52
1952—denotes date of publication.
C —denotes   sheets  showing
IARLOTTE
..l02_Lf
19154
5i
contours.
I—denotes sheets on which
lot surveys are shown.
All published Provincial
maps show land status.
£—denotes    provisional
maps.
A—denotes Advance ozalid
prints only, no contours.
49   Price, 30tf per copy.
 139°
138°
137°
136°
135°
134°
133
132°
ONLY   SHEETS   SHOWN
131° 130° 129° 128°
IN
PUBLISHED
125° 124°
123°
122°
121°
120°
LIST  OF   PUBLISHED   MAPS
INDEX  14
60° -\
a
-y
ma.
m
iSiV
u
59°
13
14
i%s>
II
iS
<c
\CAKAL
II
lU
<\
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V
it
\15.
sr
16 V N
16
cpeos;
$&i
~\^ft.
T~~
3sr
13
IOC    9
ii
ssHi
isfiSS
Jour darv
••^. i r
^
56°
7
g^ 0
^
'£
14       15
Cry
15
Cj5
111 13
&■&
n
|LNel»9n
10
!•$
§&os
-nt
16
14
03
<2\
JAcAcLvi^S
I   I
**-?&
ml
\2
ft 5®
!<$£
1^
&5|
13
-58°
mm
WM
14
15
I I
I6\
i!2
\T
15
to
t2
HSi
iiisst
14
10
_V[
W
BB
**
*A
2? jr^cc
li
O"
■E.ZV TRjl N C ll
54°
TV
EXPLANATION
53°-
52° -
The topographic maps published on the scales
listed below will show water features in blue;
relief features with brown contour lines; and
cultural features, such as place-names, roads,
railways, and boundaries, in black. On maps
containing further information, lot lines are
shown in black and additional colours are used,
such as red for road classification, green for
wooded areas. Maps showing wooded areas,
if available, will be supplied if specifically
requested.
Provisional maps are contoured sheets either
printed from the compilation stage or converted
from existing   I inch to 1 mile maps.
The list to the right gives the latest edition date
and also indicates the maps which show lot surveys.
Size of sheets:
1:50,000—each half—22 X 29
1 inch to 1 mile (1:63,360)—24 in.x30 in.
Contour Interval:   100 feet.
1 •*', is iJ5cj, &AM,
™tW$1 ''%$$®\%.
Bp
PllINCEFjLtB3B1<
W-
11
mm
cPrem i er-tf:
IP
ils&ficfflP'SE
:m
LocKtttgjp
3H
137°
136°
135°
14
10
15
10
■ -«
134°
133°
132°
w
%
131°
15
5ini&a
dtt
16
iV
Jatlat
13
-57°
Kt\Q
\M
14
I I1
W
16\
atnftne
.<s8
•56
®M
m
[13
*o&&
13
I I
383?
12
14
Rosswc
Aiyansh/
AWcx
ms
■?7f$u
16
wm
%M
13X
12
$ an
13
^
,\Sr'
J4
16
Map. No.
Date
82 E/4 (1 sheet)
P 1940
82 E/6, 7, 10, 11,
parts of
P 1911
82 F/2 E
P 1925
82 F/4
L 1951
82F/6
L 1958
82F/9
L 1951
82F/12
L 1959
82 F/l5
L 1961
82F/16
L 1951
82 G/l
L I960
82G/2
L 1960
82G/4
L 1959
82G/5
L 1960
82G/6
L 1960
82 G/7
L 1961
82 G/8
L 1960
82 G/10
L 1961
82G/11
L 1959
82 G/l2 (1 sheet)
P 1934
82 G/l3
L 1954
82 G/l4
L 1960
82G/15
L 1960
82 J/2
L 1960
82 J/4
L 1954
82 J/7 W
L 1961
82 J/10 W
L 1954
82K/1
1956
82K/4
L 1962
82 K/5
L 1961
82 K/I0
L 1961
82K/14
P 1961
82 L/3
L 1961
82L/6
L 1957
82L/11
L 1957
82L/12
L 1958
82L/13
L 1958
82L/14
L 1958
82L/15
L 1958
82L/16
L 1959
82M/1 E
L 1962
82M/2
P 1962
82M/3
P 1961
82M/4
P 1961
82M/5
P 1962
82M/6
P 1962
82M/7
P 1962
82M/8
P 1962
82M/I1
L 1961
82M/12
L 1962
82 N/1
L 1961
82 N/2
L 1959
82 N/3
L 1961
82 N/4
L 1960
82 N/6
L 1959
82 N/7
L 1959
82 N/8
L 1959
82 N/11
L 1959
82 0/4
L 1959
83 D/15
L 1960
83 D/16
1953
83 E/2
L 1960
92 B/5
L 1959
92 B/6 W
L 1960
92 B/U W
L 1960
92 B/12
L 1960
92 B/13
L 1955
92 B/14
L 1956
92C/8
L 1955
92C/9
L 1958
92C/10
L 1955
92C/11 E
L 1954
92C/13 E
L 1955
92C/14
L 1956
92C/15
L 1955
92C/16
L 1955
92 E/l E
L 1956
92 E/7 E
L 1955
92 E/8
L 1955
92 E/9
L 1955
92 E/10
L 1957
92 E/14
L 1957
SCALE:
Map. No.
92 E/l5
92 E/16
92 F/l
92 F/2
92F/3
92 F/4
92 F/5
92 F/6
92 F/7
92 F/8
92 F/9
92 F/10
92F/11
92 F/l2
92F/I3
92 F/l4
92 G/l
92G/2
92 G/3 E
92G/4
92G/5
92G/6
92 G/7
92 G/8
92 G/9
92 G/l 1
92G/12
92G/13
92 G/14
92H/1
92H/2
92H/3
92H/4
92 H/5
92 H/6 W
92 H/ll W
92 H/12 E
92H/12 W
92H/13 E
92 H/14W
92 1/3, W
92 1/4, E
92 1/5, E
92 1/6
92 1/9
92 1/10
92 l/ll
92 1/14
92 1/15
92 1/16
92 J/14, 15
92 K/3
92 K/4
9.2 K/5
92 K/6
92L/1
92L/2
92 L/3
92L/4
92 L/5
92 L/6
92 L/7
92 L/8
92 L/ll
92 L/12
92 L/13
92 L/14
92 0/1
92 0/2
92 0/8
92 0/16
92P/1
92 P/8
92 P/9
93 B/l
93 B/8
93 B/9
93 B/16
93 C/1
93C/2
93C/7
93C/8
1:50.000   (TWO SHEETS EACH  UNLESS
Date
L 1958
L 1955
L 1958
L 1955
L 1956
L 1956
L 1955
L 1955
L 1956
L 1955
L 1955
L 1956
L 1956
L 1957
L 1958
L 1957
1949
L 1962
L 1961
L 1955
L 1955
L 1961
L 1958
L 1961
L 1962
L 1957
L 1958
L 1957
L 1960
L 1960
L 1960
L 1960
L 1959
L 1958
L 1957
L 1957
1955
L 1960
L 1956
L 1957
L 1957
L 1958
L 1958
L 1958
L 1960
L 1958
L 1958
L 1958
L 1958
L 1957
P 1940
L 1956
L 1955
L 1957
L 1955
L 1957
L 1957
L 1957
L 1960
L 1961
L 1956
L 1956
L 1955
L 1958
' L 1958
L 1958
P 1959
L 1960
L 1954
L 1960
L 1958
L 1961
L 1961
L 1960
L 1958
L 1960
L 1955
L 1955
L 1962
L 1960
L 1960
L 1960
,54
W
4 1'?.
OlSGFflcjfl
13
W
^^V
rm
11
I0*fl
m
LO&dC
3M//li<"1^
INDEX 14
NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
BRITISH COLUMBIA
SCALES     1:50,000 (m.
Showing maps published on
1 mi)  and  1    INCH   TO
Scale
&    1
Provincial Government Surveys published.
Scale:   1:50,000 (E V2 & W Vi)
Provisional
1    MILE (1:63,360)
: 50,000
Canadian Government Surveys published.
Scale:   1:50,000 (E V2 & W Vi)
Scale:
inch to 1 mile
Scale:
Scale:
Provisional    1:50,000      §|1|
Wmws
.  Prices
1:50,000 (E Vi & VV -/&)... 60 4 ea. half
1 inch to 1 mile  60<# per copy
When ordering Maps, show:
Index No  92 Advance ozalid prints                       ^ ^
Alphabet letter   G Scale: 1:50,000                                g    If
Sheet No                                     4 9      m
State if only EasrorWesthalfTs" Price> 30* each half                        §£ g|
required, e.g., Nanaimo,—92 G/4 W Vi.
Note:   Prints of manuscripts of this series not yet published are shown on Index 4,
which is available on request.
QUEEN
I
51°
CHARLOTTE
SOUND
50
r92
49°
I
I2„
<JcJ<-
/3\;
14
;/<6
*yf".
Map. No.
93 G/8
93 G/9
93G/13
93 G/14
93G/15
93 G/16
93 H/l
93 H/4
93 H/6
93 H/ll
93 H/12
93 H/13
93 H/14
93 1/4
93 J/l
93 J/2
93 J/3
93 J n
93 J/8
93 J/9
93 J/10
93 J/14
93 J/15
93 J/16
93 K/l
93 K/2
93 K/3
93 K/4
93 K/5
93 K/6
93 L/l
93 L/2
93 L/7
93 L/8
93 L/9
93L/10
93 L/ll
93 L/14
93 L/15W
93 M/3
93 M/5
93 M/6
93 M/12
93 0/2
93 0/3
93 0/7
93 0/9 E '
93 0/9 W
93 0/10
93 0/15
93 0/16 E
93 0/16 W
93 P/8 E
93 P/9
93 P/10
93 P/ll
93 P/12W
93 P/12 E
93 P/13
93 P/15
93 P/16
94 A/1
94 A/2
94 A/3
94 A/4
94 A/5
94 A/6
94 A/7
94 A/8
94 A/9
94 A/10
94 A/11
94 A/12
94 A/13
94 A/14
94 A/15
94 A/16
94 B/l
94 B/2
94 B/3
94 B/7
94 B/8
94 B/9
94B/10
94 B/I5
94 B/16
94 G/l
94G/2
94 G/7
94 G/8
94 G/9 (1 sheet)
94 G/10
94 G/l 1 E
94G/15
94 G/16 (1 sheet)
94 H/l (1 sheet)
94 H/2 (1 sheet)
94 H/3
94 H/4
Map. No
94 H/5
94 H/6
94 H/7 (1 sheet)
94H/8 (1 sheet)
94 H/9 (1 sheet)
94 H/10 (1 sheet)
94 H/ll (1 sheet)
94 H/12 (1 sheet)
94 H/13 (1 sheet)
94 H/14 (1 sheet)
94 H/15 (1 sheet)
94 H/16 (1 sheet)
94 l/I
NOTED)
Date
L 1960
L 1955
P 1959
P 1959
P 1960
P 1959
P 1959
P 1959
P 1959
P 1959
P 1959
P 1959
P 1960
P 1961
P 1961
P 1960
P 1961
Date
L 1961
L 1960
L 1960
L 1952
L 1960
L 1961
L 1961
L 1961
L 1961
L 1960
L 1960
L 1961
L 1960
P1956 94 1/2
P1956 94 1/3
L 1954 94 1/4
L1953 94 1/5
P 1957 94 1/6 P 1961
P 1958 94 1/7 1961
P 1958 94 1/8 P 1961
P 1957 94 1/9 P 1961
P 1957 94 l/ll p 1961
P 1958 94 1/12 1961
P 1958 94 1/13 P 1963
L 1956 94 1/14 P 1961
L 1956 94 1/15 P 1960
L 1961 94 1/16 P1961
L 1960 94 J/l P 1961
L1960 94 J/2 L1954
L 1960 94 J/7 L 1955
L 1961 94 J/8 P 1961
L 1956 94 J/9 p 1961
L1955 94 J/10 L1955
L1955 94 J/11 1955
L1955 94 J/12 L 1955
L 1956 94 J/13 L 1955
L1955 94 J/14 L.1955
L 1955 94 J/15 - 1955
P 1923 94 J/16 1955
L 1961 94 K/9 1954
L1953 94K/10 L 1954
L196I 94 K/l 1 1953
L1953 94K/12 1953
L1960 94K/13 L 1953
L1958 94K/14 L1954
L 1958 94 K/15 W 1954
P 1944 94 M/l E 1954
L 1958 94 M/7 E 1954
L 1959 94 M/8 L 1954
L 1960 94M/9 1955
P 1944 94 M/10 L 1956
L1960 94M/11 L1955
L1952 94 M/l 2 1955
L1953 94 M/13 L 1954
P 1959 94 M/14 1953
P 1959 94 M/15 1956
P 1944 94 M/16 1957
P 1959 94 N/4 L 1954
P 1958 94 N/5 1954
L 1953 94 P/l p 1962
L 1952 94 P/2 p 1961
1960 94 P/3 p 1961
L 1956 94 P/4 p 1962
L 1956 94 P/5 p 1961
P 1957 94 P/6 p 1961
P1957 94 P/7 P1961
L 1956 94 P/8 P 1961
L 1956 94 P/9 p 1961
L 1961 94 P/10 P 1961
L 1961 94 P/ll p 1961
LI961 94 P/12 P196I
L 1955 94 P/13 p 1962
L 1955 94 P/I4 P 1961
1955 94 P/15 p 1961
L1955 102 1/8 E L1957
L1961 102 1/9 L1957
L1961 102 1/16 L1955
P 1944 102 0/14 E L 1961
L 1961 103 B/2 W P 1957
L 1961 103 B/3 p 1957
P 1958 103 B/5 E P 1957
P 1958 103 B/6 P 1957
L 1960 103 B/ll W L 1961
P 1958 103 B/12 P 1957
L1961 103 B/13 P 1957
L 1954 103 C/9E P 1957
L 1954 103 C/16 P 1957
L 1954 103 F/l P 1957
L1953 103 F/2 E P1957
1960 103 F/7 P 1958
P 1959 103 F/8 P 1958
L 1953 103 F/9 p 1958
1953 103 F/10 P 1958
L 1953 103 F/14 E P 1958
P 1959 103 F/15 P 1958
P 1959 103 F/16 P 1958
P 1959 103 G/4 p 1957
1955 103G/5 W P 1958
1955 103G/12 W P 1958
denotes sheets on which lot surveys are shown,
denotes provisional maps with contours.
Map. No.
103 G/13
103 H/ll
103 1/2
103 1/3
103 1/4
103 1/6
103 1/7
103 1/9
103 1/10
103 1/16
103J/l
103 J/2
103 J/4
103 J/7
103 J/8
103 J/9
103 J/10
103 J/15E
103 J/16
103 K/l
103 K/2
130 K/3 E
103 P/9
103 P/10 E
103 P/13 W
103 P/l 4 E
103 P/15
104 A/2W
104 A/3
104 A/4 W
104 A/5 E
104 A/6
104 A/9
104 A/1 1 W
104 A/12
104 A/13 W
104 B/16
104 G/l
104 G/8
104 G/9
104 G/14
104 G/l5
104 G/16
104 H/l
104 H/12W
104 H/13W
104 1/4 W
104 1/5 W
104 1/12 W
104 1/13
104J/l
104 J/2 E
104 J/2W
104 J/3
104 J/4
104 J/5
104 J/7 E
104 J/8
104 J/9 E
104 J/12
104 J/13
104 J/16E
104 M/9
104 M/10
104 M/l 1 E
104 M/14 E
104 M/15
104 M/16
104 N/5
104 N/6
104 N/7 W
104 N/1 1 W
104 N/12
104 N/13
104 N/16
1040/13
104 0/14
104 0/15
104 P/3 (1 sheet)
104 P/4 (1 sheet)
104 P/5 (1 sheet)
104 P/6 (1 sheet)-.
104 P/12 W
104 P/15
104 P/16
1 14 P/9 W
114 P/10 E
114 P/15
114 P/16W
Dale
P 1958
L 1961
L 1957
L 1961
L 1961
L 1961
L 1958
L 1960
L 1958
L 1961
L 1954
L 1954
L 1960
L 1955
L 1955
L 1960
L 1960
P 1958
L 1958
L 1960
L 1960
L 1960
L 1955
L 1955
P 1929
L 1955
L 1955
1961
L 1955
P 1929
1963
L 1963
L 1954
1963
1963
1963
1963
1955
1957
1955
L 1958
L 1958
L 1958
L 1953
1960
1960
P 1959
P 1959
P 1959
P 1959
P 1959
P 1959
L 1958
L 1958
L 1957
L 1959
P 1959
P 1959
P 1959
L 1958
1958
P 1959
1960
1960
1960
L 1960
L 1960
1960
L 1957
1955
1956
L 1956
L 1956
L 1956
L 1954
1954
1955
1955
P 1959
P 1961
P 1959
P 1959
P 1961
L 1956
L 1956
L 1960
L 1960
P 1959
P 1959
SCALE:
INCH  TO  1   MILE
82 F/14
93 A/5
93 A/6
93 A/11
93 A/12
93 A/13
93 A/14
104 A/16
1929
L 1952
L 1952
L 1949
L 1949
L 1949
L 1949
L 1950
15
13
14
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ADVANCE
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Map. No.
82 F/3
82 L/7
82 L/10
82 M/13
92 F/16 E
92 L/10
52°
51°
50°
^
-V
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T_J
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L
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-M
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Spo^?'
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•Nene
V<J!l\°fe
49°
48°
Date
LP 1960
LP 1958
LP 1958
LP 1959
LP 1957
LP 1956
LP 1959
LP 1959
LP 1959
LP 1959
LP 1959
LP 1959
P 1956
P 1956
P 1956
P 1957
P 1957
P 1957
P 1957
P 1956
LP 1956
L P 1957
P 1957
P 1957
L P 1957
P 1957
LP 1956
P 1956
LP 1957
LP 1957
P 1957
LP 1957
LP 1956
LP 1956
LP 1957
130°
129°
128° 127° 126° 125" 124° 123°
ONLY   SHEETS   SHOWN   IN   RED   ARE   PUBLISHED
120
119
118°
17°
115"
 1963
INDEXES  15 TO  18
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER  RESOURCES
LANDS SERVICE
HON. R. G. WILLISTON -    -    MINISTER
E. W. BASSETT   DEPUTY MINISTER OF  LANDS
INDEX TO  AIR  PHOTO  COVER AND AIR  PHOTO  INDEX MAPS
DECEMBER   31st, 1962
EXPLANATION
Indexes 15,16, 17, and 18  show th<
sample air photo index map as follows:—
Air Photo cover of British Columbia and a
Index 15—Sample Air Photo Index Map.
Index 16—Basic vertical photo cover.
Index 17—Basic tri camera photo cover and small scale vertical.
Index 1 8— Special photo cover (inc. Forest Inventory, 20 chain.)
There are two main sources of photos covering the Province.   For
the photography done by the Canadian Government, negatives are held in Ottawa. The
numbers for these are prefixed by "A."    For the photography done by the Provincial
Government, negatives are held in Victoria.   The numbers for these are prefixed by the
letters "BC," and also by the letter "X" for tri camera photography.
AIR PHOTO INDEX MAPS—Index 15.
For ease of reference, photos are keyed as accurately as possible on appropriate
maps, copies of which are available at the prices noted. See Index 15 for sample.
These are indexes to air photographs only. For maps compiled from air photographs
obtain Indexes 4,5,6,10, II, and 14.
BASIC   VERTICAL PHOTO COVER — Index 16.      vMg,
Basic vertical photos are taken from heights between 17,500 and 20,000 feet above
sea-level, and the scale of the photos varies according to the height above ground from
which they were taken.   In hilly country the scale varies within each photo,   and averages about 2,640 feet to the inch on a 9" x 9" print.   The area covered by each photo
varies from about 26 to 34 square miles, depending on the terrain.
TRI CAMERA PHOTO COVER — Index 17.
The term "tri camera" refers to single runs of photos taken from various altitudes
using an assembly of three cameras. One camera points straight down and obtains
standard vertical photos,while the other two point, one to the right and one to the left,
and obtain oblique photos that cover the ground from the horizon to a line that slightly
overlaps the vertical photo.
The three cameras are exposed simultaneously so that a tri camera assembly will
consist of three photos, two obliques and one vertical, that cover the ground from horizon
to horizon.   Any of the three photos may be ordered individually.
For ease of reference, all tri camera photos are recorded with a number prefixed by
the letter "X" in addition to the "BC" number. The left obliques are prefixed "XL,"
the right obliques "XR," and the centre vertical "XC."
SMALL SCALE VERTICAL — Index 17
Small-scale vertical photography has been flown by the Canadian Government.
These photos were taken from an altitude of 35,000 feet above sea-level and are at a
scale of approximately 1 mile to 1 inch.    Each photo covers approximately 80 square
miles.
SPECIAL PHOTO COVER — Index 18.
Special tri-camera, forest inventory   and vertical photography generally at a larger
scale is taken to supplement   basic cover as required.    The area covered by a single
photo will vary considerably, depending upon height of aircraft above ground and focal
length of camera used.
B.C.  PROVINCIAL AIR  PHOTO LIBRARY
A library of air photos taken in B.C. by both Provincial and Canadian governments
is maintained by the Air Division, Surveys and Mapping Branch, Department of Lands
and Forests, Victoria, B.C., and is available for both departmental and public reference.
Basic photo cover (Indexes 16 and 17) is available on loan in Canada only.
A minimum service charge of $ 1 for loan up to and including five prints. Additional prints loaned at the same time, 10 cents per print over and above the minimum
charge (i.e., seven prints $1.20).   All charges to be prepaid with order.
Time-limit for loans in Lower Mainland area, two weeks; elsewhere, three weeks.
Failure to comply with return date will result in additional assessment equal to purchase
price of reprints.
Graduated service charge for viewing air photos in Air Photo Library. Minimum
charge 50 cents.
METHODS OF ORDERING AIR  PHOTOGRAPHS
When an index map is available the exact photo number and roll number may be
ascertained {see Index 15 ). Otherwise, it is necessary to specify the area for which
photos are required in sufficient detail so it can be located on a map.
The size of a standard print is 9" x 9" but enlargements up to 30" x 30" of those
photos taken by the Provincial Government may be obtained on request.
The following is a price list for British Columbia Government air photos:—
<jjze Price Per Print
9" x    9"  - - - -  $0.70
18" x  18"  -   - - -     4.60
20" x 20''    -     5-25
30" x 30"  -       8.30
30" x 30" (retouched) -  12.00
Air Photo Index Maps are available at 30 or 60  cents per print.
Address all orders and inquiries to:—
Director, Surveys and Mapping Branch,
Attention:      Air Division,
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,      Victoria, B.C.
Applicants are requested to enclose the correct payment with their
orders as Government Publications must be paid for in advance. Orders
to points within Canada may be sent C.O.D. upon request. For orders
to be delivered within the Province 5-per-cent social services tax must
be added. Cheques or money orders should be made payable to the
Minister of Finance for British Columbia.
Further information regarding Canadian Government photos and prices may be
obtained by writing directly to:—
National Air Photo Library
Department of Mines & Technical Surveys
Ottawa.
INDEX  15
INDEX 15 Sample of an Air Photo Index Map for basic vertical photos (Sheet 92 G) as indicated on Index 16 on this page. These indexes scale 1 inch to 4 miles,
this sample being at reduced scale. To order reprints of air photos from an index map quote roll number and photo numbers. For example, to cover Coquitlam Lake photos B.C. 1632:95-99 inclusive would be required for stereoscopic viewing, with the necessary 60% overlap. If photos are not required for
stereoscopic use, alternate photographs, e.g., B.C. 1632:95, 97, 99 will provide cover of Coquitlam Lake. Where an area has been photographed more than
once there may be more than one air photo index.
139*        138*        137*        136*       135"       134"       133*       13Z"       13r        130»       129"       128*       127*
126*       125*       124*       123*       122*       121*        120*        119"        118"        117' 116'        115'        114* 113* 112* 111" HO*
INDEX 17
BASIC
TRI   CAMERA   AIR   PHOTO   COVEIR
Basic tri camera photos are indexed on
one inch to 16 mile maps. Each of these
maps is shown on this index with a num -
ber.
Prints of these index maps are available on
request at 30 cents per copy, plus 5 per cent
social services tax.
When ordering copies of indexes of tri
camera photos, it is necessary to specify that
it is an air photo index that is required,
thus:-
Air Photo Index Map 93.
Each air photo index map resembles
sample Index 15 shown on this page, in that
the flight number and photo numbers at
intervals are shown.
136* 135*
133' 132' 131" 130* 129
 139        138°
137°
136°
135°        134°        133°       132°
131°
13 0°       129°       128°
127°
126°        125°        124        123°
122°        121°
120°
119°
iW
INDEX  18
BRITISH     COLUMBIA
SPECIAL AIR PHOTO COVER
TRI  CAMERA   AND VERTICAL  PHOTOGRAPHY
Provincial Government   1946—1961
Provincial Government   1962
FOREST   INVENTORY    PROGRAMME
Provincial Government    (1 inch to 20 chains) 1955 — 1961
Provincial Government     (1 inch to 20 chains) 1962
INDEX  18
SPECIAL  AIR  PHOTO COVER
Special vertical, forest inventory and large scale tri camera
air photos are indexed on I inch to 2 mile base maps. Each base map
is shown on this index by a number, letter and, in addition is divided
into East  and West halves, e.g.,
Air Photo Index Map 92 H   W V2 (for the Chilliwack area).
Prints of these index maps arc available on request at 60<;t per
half-sheet, plus 5% Social Services Tax.
Each air photo index map resembles sample Index 15 in
that the   flight   number  and  photo  numbers  at   intervals are shown.
Special photo cover is available for purchase only   —   not on
Address all inquiries to:
Director, Surveys and Mapping Branch
- Attention:   Air Division
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, Victoria, B.C.
/
13 0°
129
128
127
126
125°
124°
123°
122°
121°
120°
119°
118°
117c
116°
115c

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