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Department of Agriculture FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 1962 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1963

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
FIFTY-SEVENTH
ANNUAL REPORT
1962
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1963
  To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1962.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C.
FRANK RICHTER,
Minister of Agriculture.
  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF,  1962
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable Frank Richter
Minister's Secretary:
Miss M. Jewell
Deputy Minister:
Wm. MacGillivray
A dministrative:
N. L. Camsusa, Administrative Assistant, Victoria.
J. S. Wells, Accountant, Victoria.
B. K. Oxendale, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria.
Markets and Statistics:
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria.
Horticulture:
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria.
J. A. Smith, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna.
D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver.
I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford.
W. D. Christie, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Greenhouse and Nursery Crops), Vancouver.
B. A. Hodge, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Vernon.
E. M. King, B.S.A., M.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Kelowna.
A. E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria.
E. B. MacDonald, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Penticton.
W. F. Morton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna.
M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon.
J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston.
J. C. Taylor, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Abbotsford.
G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, New Westminster.
M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., M.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton.
A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland.
J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Vancouver.
R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna.
Apiary:
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Courthouse, Vernon.
Plant Pathology:
W. R. Foster, B.Sc, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria.
J. A. Moisey, B.A., M.Sc, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Kelowna.
Entomology:
C. L. Neilson, B.S.A., M.Sc., Provincial Entomologist, Victoria.
J. C. Arrand, B.S.A., M.Sc, Assistant Entomologist, Vernon.
Live Stock:
A. Kidd, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector,
Victoria.
R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., Assistant Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria.
J. C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Vancouver.
J. A. Mace, Superintendent, Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Victoria.
5
 DD 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Live Stock—Continued
T. Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria.
T. R. B. Barr, B.Sc, B.Sc(Vet.), M.R.C.V.S., M.V.Sc, Ph.D., Veterinary Inspector and
Animal Pathologist, Vancouver
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Kamloops.
W. H. Burr, Dairy Farm Inspector, Abbotsford.
Miss G. K. Chow, B.Sc, Bacteriologist, Vancouver.
J. B. Clapp, D.V.M., VS., Veterinary Inspector, Vernon.
F. C. Clark, B.S.A., M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster.
J. J. Comley, Dairy Farm Inspector, Vernon.
C C Cunningham, B.S.A., D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops.
K. G. Fletcher, Dairy Farm Inspector, Abbotsford.
J. R. Hannam, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Chilliwack.
H. Johnson, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Abbotsford.
A. L. Kirkby, Dairy Farm Inspector, Nanaimo.
R. L. Lancaster, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Abbotsford.
E. V. Langford, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist,
Vancouver.
P. G. Lawrence, Inspector, Vancouver.
Mrs. A. B. Mah, B.Sc, Bacteriologist, Vancouver.
S. Munro, Deputy Brand Inspector, Clinton.
J. Mustard, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster.
W. C. Newby, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Abbotsford.
R. Pigeon, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake.
B. R. Stewart, Dairy Farm Inspector, Chilliwack.
K. H. Thompson, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Prince George.
Dairy:
K. G. Savage, B.S.A., M.Sc, Dairy Commissioner, Victoria.
R. N. Hitchman, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver.
N. H. Ingledew, B.S.A., M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson.
G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna.
P. Regehr, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria.
C. Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver.
Poultry:
W. H. Pope, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria.
R. C. Bentley, Resident Supervisor, Random Sample Poultry Test Station, Abbotsford.
H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster.
D. M. Hamilton, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Nanaimo.
N. J. Supeene, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Abbotsford.
C. W. Wood, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Kelowna.
Field Crops:
N. F. Putnam, B.Sc, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
H. Crockard, Potato Specialist, Vancouver.
E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant in Field Crops, New Westminster.
J. H. Neufeld, B.S.A., Soil Analyst, Victoria.
Farmers' Institutes:
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent, Victoria.
Soil Survey:
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Senior Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
C. H. Brownlee, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
A. B. Dawson, B.A., B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
M. G. Driehuyzen, B.S.A., Extension Soil Surveyor, Cloverdale.
M. K. John, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
V. E. Osborne, B.S.A., M.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
G. G. Runka, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 7
Agricultural Development and Extension:
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Director.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria.
G. L. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops.
S. G. Preston, B.S.A., M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George.
A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek.
J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook.
H. Barber, Accountant, Land Clearing Division, Victoria.
G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, Extension Agriculturist Engineer, Victoria.
J. F. Carmichael, B.Sc, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks.
G. Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack.
A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George.
P. E. Ewert, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Mission.
R. C. Fry, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel.
J. E. Hall, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Abbotsford.
J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm.
K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan.
Miss Lorna Michael, B.Sc(H.Ec), Home Economist, Victoria.
G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cloverdale.
K. E. May, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Vernon.
J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers.
S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria.
J. E. Piercy, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Fort St. John.
J. C. Ryder, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vernon.
E. M. Soder, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops.
T. A. Windt, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Abbotsford.
Land Settlement Board:
Chairman: Wm. MacGellivray, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria.
Director: G. L. Landon, Director, Agricultural Development and Extension, Victoria.
Director: L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria.
Secretary: Miss C. Stephenson, Victoria.
Dyking Commissioner and Inspector of Dykes:
W. R. Meighen, B.Sc, New Westminster.
Deputy Dyking Commissioner:
W. S. Jackson, B.A.Sc, New Westminster.
Southern Okanagan Lands Project:
F. O. McDonald, Project Manager, Oliver.
Institutional Farms:
W. B. Richardson, B.S.A., Superintendent, Essondale.
D. F. Caldow, Farm Foreman, Essondale.
P. Cummins, Farm Foreman, Colquitz.
L. King, Farm Foreman, Tranquille.
Milk Board:
E. C. Carr, Chairman, Vancouver.
W. J. Anderson, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D., Member, Vancouver.
J. D. Honeyman, Member, Ladner.
G. T. Bell, Chief Clerk, Vancouver.
G. Crothers, Inspector, Kelowna.
E. D. Daum, Accountant, Vancouver.
R. E. d'Easum, Inspector, Vancouver.
A. S. Dkon, Inspector, Nanaimo.
J. W. McIntosh, Inspector, Vancouver.
  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Reports—
Page
Deputy Minister  11
Agricultural Development and Extension Branch  14
Apiary Branch  24
Dairy Branch *  26
Dyking and Drainage Districts  29
Entomology Branch  29
Farmers' Institutes Branch  32
Field Crops Branch  3 3
Horticultural Branch  36
Land Settlement Board  45
Live Stock Branch  45
Markets and Statistics Branch  53
Plant Pathology Branch  5 6
Poultry Branch  57
Soil Survey Branch  61
Southern Okanagan Lands Project  63
Appendices—
No.   1. Calfhood Vaccinations  64
No.   2. Dairy-farm Inspections  64
No.   3. Cattle and Hide Shipments  65
No.   4. Breed Averages for 1961  65
No.   5. Animal Pathology  66
No.   6. Egg Production .  66
No.   7. British Columbia Weighted Egg Price to Producers  66
No.   8. Poultry in Pounds  67
No.   9. Average Monthly Producer Price for Live Poultry  67
No. 10. Poultry-flock Approval  67
No. 11. Poultry-flock Testing, 1962  68
No. 12. Turkey-flock Approval  68
No. 13. Distribution of Poultry Vaccines  68
9
 DD 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Appendices—Continued
Page
No. 14. Tree-fruit Production, 1961, and Estimate for 1962  68
No. 15. Grape Varieties and Acreage.  69
No. 16. Production of Small Fruits, Grapes, and Filberts for 1961 and
Estimate for 1962  69
No. 17. Tree-fruit Nursery-stock Production  69
No. 18. Number and Percentage of Various Apple Rootstocks  70
No. 19. Production of Grass and Legume Seeds  70
No. 20. Publications Printed in 1962  71
 Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable Frank Richter,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to present herewith the Fifty-seventh jAnnual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31, 1962.
The Report comprises a summary of agricultural conditions and a brief review
of the performance of all branches and divisions of the Department during the year.
As is customary, detailed information is omitted but is on file and available for
reference purposes.
The release this year of the findings of the 1961 Census of Canada has done
much to clarify the agricultural picture, and thereby to make possible a better
understanding of the changes that have occurred and the trends that are developing.
An example is found in the enumeration of farms, in which a farm is now defined
as a holding of 1 acre or larger from which sales of farm products valued at $50
or more were made during the preceding twelve months. Previously a farm was
defined as a holding of 3 acres or larger, or a holding of 1 to 3 acres having a production valued at $250 or more. Further, a new category in which all farms
reporting sales of agricultural products valued at $1,200 or more are henceforth
to be classed as commercial was introduced. Under this change in classification,
British Columbia lost 4,012 farm units that would have been included in the Provincial total had the definition as applied in the 1951 Census been retained.
In the ten-year period 1951 to 1961 there was a decline in the total number
of farm holdings from 26,406 to 19,934 units, while those qualifying as commercial
farms decreased by 1,000 units to 10,902. These later figures, together with the
revised definitions, bring into focus a truer picture of actual agricultural conditions
and indicate, when related to such factors as productions and cash returns, that
agriculture in this Province is in a relatively healthy state.
This is borne out by the figure for total cash income from the sale of farm
products, which reached a new all-time high in 1962. In spite of unseasonably cool,
unsetded weather during much of the growing season, total production was well
maintained, and depressed returns for some items were more than offset by firm
prices for others. Contributing substantially to the latter were higher returns realized for grains, live stock, and some fruits.
For the most part, developments in agriculture during the year were related
to continuing trends that have been in evidence for some time. An example of this
is found in the recent reports of the Dairy Herd Improvement Services, which show
that the average size of herds on test today stands at 35 cows, whereas ten years
ago the average was 22. This is a direct reflection of the trend toward fewer but
larger dairy-farm operations. This same trend has been evident in virtually all lines
of agriculture.
Similarly, advances made as a result of research findings are not as a rule identifiable with any given calendar year. Instead, they are of a continuing nature and
may only achieve significance when results of a series of trials are compared.   Tests
11
 DD 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
conducted on broiler chickens in this Province during 1962, for example, showed
that birds can now be brought to a weight of 3.67 pounds in eight weeks with a
feed conversion factor of 2.1 pounds. Similar tests carried out in the 1958/59
period proved that birds could be turned out at 3.41 pounds after ten weeks with a
feed conversion of 2.49 pounds. This gain in efficiency is unmatched in Canada
and augurs well for the future of the broiler-chicken industry in British Columbia.
The interpreting of such findings into practical application at the farm level
continues to be a primary function of this Department, and many of our policies
are shaped to that end.
The various branches directly concerned with extension activities continued to
develop new methods of instruction and enlarge upon established practices. Particular emphasis was again placed upon field-days where improved technology in
all types of husbandry could be readily demonstrated. Coupled with these were
short courses designed to illustrate and explain the latest developments on the farm
front. Rounding out the over-all programme were a number of field trials and
applied research projects, some of which were carried out in co-operation with the
Canada Department of Agriculture and the University of British Columbia.
Typical of the new techniques employed to convey useful information to the
primary producer was the expansion, this year, of the televised series of instructional
papers and interviews in the Interior. As conditions permit, increased use of television as an educational medium will be made.
The Plant Pathology Branch reported serious outbreaks of botrytis in beans
and strawberries and the occurrence of pear trellis rust, all in the Fraser Valley.
The last named was the first reported outbreak on the mainland of North America.
Eradication work is under way.
No major insect outbreaks were reported by the Entomology Branch this year,
but work was continued on the programme of eradication of the warble fly in live
stock. Encouraging results from efforts to eradicate grape phylloxera in the Okanagan Valley were also reported.
Also encouraging were results on pollination trials on apple-trees, conducted
in co-operation with the Apiary Branch. Significant gains in apple production were
achieved by this means.
The Live Stock Branch reported further progress in the long-range programme
aimed at stamping out brucellosis in the cattle population, with every indication that
the entire Province will be declared free of this disease shortly.
The South Okanagan Health Unit was officially approved as a milk pasteurization area under provisions of the Milk Industry Act, to become the first area in
the Province to be so designated.
Introductory work on classification of land for forestry, in addition to its regular
soil-survey projects, was carried out this year by the Soil Survey Branch.
Over 8,000 acres were cleared and 6,000 broken this year under provisions of
the Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act. In the sixteen years since this Act was
introduced, work costing over $4,000,000 has been carried out in clearing approximately 106,000 acres and breaking 40,000 acres of new land and constructing water
dugouts and drainage systems.
LEGISLATION
The Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development (British Columbia) Act was
passed during the 1962 Session of the Legislature. As implied by its title, this Act
provides authority for the undertaking of rural rehabilitation and conservation measures. A general agreement providing for joint action in this respect with the Government of Canada under similar Federal legislation was also signed during the year.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 13
Also enacted were the Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act and the Live-stock
Public Sales Act. The latter makes provision for the licensing of live-stock sales
yards, and the licensing and bonding of operators, auctioneers, and those dealers
not covered by terms of the Stock Brands Act. Minor amendments were made to
the Animals Act, Milk Industry Act, Plant Protection Act, Pound District Act, and
Trespass Act.
APPOINTMENTS
M. K. John, B.Sc., M.Sc, Ph.D., Agriculturist, January 22nd.
S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, May 1st.
J. V. Zacharias, B.S.A., Agriculturist, May 22nd.
T. R. B. Barr, D.V.M., Animal Pathologist, June 1st.
J. C. Taylor, B.S.A., Agriculturist, June 4th.
E. B. MacDonald, B.S.A., Agriculturist, June 6th.
J. B. Clapp, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, July 1st.
R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., Assistant Live Stock Commissioner, September 1st.
SUPERANNUATION
I. Spielmans, Inspector, Land Settlement Board, July 31st.
W. MacGILLIVRAY,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
 DD  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXTENSION
BRANCH
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Director
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
With an increase in population in the Province the volume of work performed
by the Agricultural Development and Extension staff continues to expand each year;
this includes an increasing number of contacts with people in urban areas. Revised
methods and techniques must be used since many areas in the Province require
programmes adapted to part-time farming. There is also an increasing need for
specialists in many fields to carry on an effective programme in all areas of the
Province.
LOWER MAINLAND AND VANCOUVER ISLAND
As an alternative to dairying, more and more farmers are turning to veal and
beef production in this area. High beef prices, coupled with an optimistic outlook,
are resulting in a definite increase in feeder operations in this area. Farm forestry
is receiving considerable attention in this area, particularly on the north side of the
Fraser River, and some co-operative research is being undertaken by our extension
staff.
PEACE RIVER, CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA, AND
CARIBOO REGION
A comprehensive study of a beef-sheep programme has been undertaken in
this area, and a live-stock organization was established in the Burns Lake area.
Increased interest is being shown in both beef and sheep from Terrace to McBride.
SOUTHERN INTERIOR AND KOOTENAY REGION
Due to specialized nature of the agriculture in this area, the emphasis is varied
in each district, depending upon whether production is keyed to dairying, beef cattle,
vegetables, or mixed farming. A marked increase in beef production is evident in
the entire area from Kamloops to East Kootenay.
REGIONAL CONFERENCES AND SHORT COURSES
Very good regional conferences of extension staff and specialists were held in
Prince George in April and November and at Chilliwack and Duncan in April and
October. These are proving very effective as short-term in-service training sessions.
Several staff members attended the short courses on sheep and beef at Kamloops,
seed production in the Peace River, and swine at Saanichton.
LIVE STOCK
The great interest in beef-cattle production is considered due mainly to the
dollar discount on Canadian funds and resulting United States demand for Canadian feeder cattle. There is also an increasing demand from Ontario and British
Columbia for feeder cattle from Western Canada.
Because of good prices for grain, cattle-finishing is not making any great progress in the Peace River area.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 15
BEEF CATTLE ADVISORY COMMITTEE
Four meetings of this Committee were held during the year. Seven subcommittees were in operation—Cattle Identification, Range Management, Tranquille
Farm, Cattle Finishing and Marketing, Progeny Testing, Publicity Advisory to the
Minister, and Live Cattle-Carcass Display. Considerable time was spent in making
an analysis of the report on " The Economic Survey of Cattle Ranching in the
Interior of B.C.," by E. D. Woodward, and a survey was made by the Committee
of the possibilities offered by the Tranquille Farm toward contributing answers to
some of the general live-stock problems. In the cattle-finishing field the main project
was formulating an approach to the finishing of beef cattle on farms in the Lower
Fraser Valley in lieu of surplus production of milk at manufacture prices.
SHEEP INDUSTRY
There is a sustained interest in sheep in British Columbia despite the uncertain
market. Prices showed marked improvement early in the summer over those of
1961, but quickly declined as shipments were received from the range bands. All
alpine ranges lying within the Kamloops district were put to full use this year for
the first time in the history of the sheep industry. Very unseasonable weather in
July made grazing at the high levels very poor. Predators, mainly grizzly bear,
made disastrous invasions on all mountain ranges, even in areas which formerly
had been comparatively free of this kind of a problem.   Losses were quite heavy.
McBRIDE-DUNSTER GRAZING ASSOCIATION
This association, made up of five owners with 1,250 head, pioneered, for the
first time, grazing in the foothills of the Rockies north-east of Dunster. Herder and
grizzly bear troubles made the venture difficult, but this is not unusual with the first
entry into a new range to which sheep are not accustomed. Despite the shortness
of the season away from the steads the growth recovery on the home pastures was
phenomenal, serving as fall pastures and thereby pushing winter feeding into a
shorter period.
LAMB-GRADING
Assistance was given in grading the first truck and trailer shipment of lambs
from the Prince George area. Some sheepmen arrived to the collection point with
their lambs well selected for finish and weight, while others did just the opposite.
The requirements of the market were demonstrated, and resulted in an improvement
in selection in the second shipment.
SHEEP FIELD-DAYS
Three sheep field-days were held in the Interior in 1962—at Dawson Creek,
Prince George, and Westwold. At all three field-days the carcass demonstrations
displayed some surprising results when related to that of live grading, indicating that
the degree of finish was very often under-assessed in live lambs.
R.O.P. FOR SHEEP
Early in the year an R.O.P. programme was initiated in the McBride-Dunster
area using a simple system of identification of matching ewes and lambs by ear-tags
with numbers designed to permit the culling-out of unprofitable ewes and more intelligent selection of replacement ewe lambs.
 DD 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
(G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, P.Eng., Senior Agricultural Engineer)
During the year the operation of the Division was changed by the establishment
of two district offices, with Mr. K. E. May located at Vernon and Mr. T. A. Windt
at Abbotsford. Six students were hired during the summer to assist with the work
under the land-clearing assistance programme and demonstration work carried out
by the Division.
Power and Machinery
Projects
1. Potato-sprayer.—The potato-sprayer developed over the past four years by
the Division in conjunction with the Agricultural Engineering Department at the
University of British Columbia was retested this year. A review of results indicates
that the unit is satisfactory for economic control of aphids, flea beetles, and late
blight in crops. Expansion of the use of the principles incorporated in this unit is
assured due to the interest of one large sprayer-manufacturer in the use of this information in their sprayer-development programme.
A second portion of this trial dealt with the development of tractor wheel-
guards for tractors used in sprayer operations. Modifications carried out to date
have not resulted in a completely effective unit.
2. Mechanical Feeding of Silage.—With the trend toward increased mechanization of choring activities in the farmyard, some emphasis has been placed on
mechanical feeding equipment, with two units being investigated:—
(a) Conveyor Chain Feeder.—The feeder employs the principle of an endless
chain with specially designed cross-flights to distribute silage evenly on a
feed bunk. The modified unit has been field-tested for half of one season
and works effectively.
(b ) Tractor Front-end Silage Fork.—A tractor-mounted front-end loader, with
grapple fork, was tested and demonstrated to show its use for silage-
feeding operations from a bunker silo. The unit has proven effective and
is set up as a continuing demonstration with working plans available from
district offices.
3. Forage-harvesting Machinery Study.—A questionnaire-type study has been
set up in co-operation with the Economics Division of the Canada Department of
Agriculture to review equipment and costs encountered in forage-harvesting. It is
anticipated that the results of this study, when analysed, will indicate costs, trends,
and problems.
4. Hay-drying.—A diesel-powered fan which utilizes the waste heat from the
engine to heat the drying air has been given a partial year's test for hay-drying in
the Lower Fraser Valley. Results achieved to date indicate the value of continuing
this test.
5. Committee to Study Fruit-handling Equipment.—A detailed report on the
results determined by this committee from their investigations in the season of 1961
was published, and 1,000 copies distributed on request. Results indicated further
investigation was required to reduce damage at picking and in portions of the
packing-line. Therefore, experimental work is being carried out on picking-bags,
dumpers, packing-tubs, and bin-fillers. A paper was prepared and presented to the
Pacific Northwest Section of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.
Tractor-maintenance Courses
Five tractor-maintenance courses were held in the south-east portion of the
Province, with attendance of sixty-two persons.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD  17
In addition, welding courses were arranged at two centres in co-operation with
a welding-supply company and local interests.
Publications
A new bulletin, "Tractor Service Manuals," A.E. 13, was prepared and distributed, and a bulletin, " Potato Spraying Equipment," A.E. 10, to be revised,
effective 1962.
A report of committee activities during 1961 by the Committee to Study Fruit
Handling Equipment is also available.
A plan showing the recommended shapes and placement of teeth for land-
clearing blades has been prepared.
Meetings and Field-days
Two machinery field-days were attended, and information on various farm
equipment presented at three meetings.
Soil and Water
Drainage Projects
1. Tile Covering.—Problems with concrete sediment-boxes were encountered
in the tile-covering demonstration under way. These boxes were replaced with plywood and metal collection boxes. To date all coverings tried are working effectively
in the elimination of silt from the drain-lines.
2. Fibreglass Placement.—Tests indicate that light fibreglass sheeting is effective in controlling sedimentation of tile-lines. Special reels were developed for auto-
tomatic placement of this material on a further demonstration to assess the effectiveness of the material for flow sands.
3. Pervious Back-fill.—Plans were drawn up and a slipform constructed to
permit placement of a 6-inch width of gravel in a 16-inch-wide trench, where gravel
back-fill is recommended due to extremely heavy soils. Tests were encouraging, but
emphasized the need to carry out work under dry ground conditions.
4. Pump Tests.—Delivery rates and efficiencies of a number of pumps presently in use have been checked. The low efficiencies recorded indicate the need for
improvement in small pumps for farm drainage and further test work to assess the
best methods of installation.
5. Drainage Coefficients.—All preliminary work to establish a demonstration
to check drainage coefficients in the western portion of the Lower Fraser Valley
have been completed. Demonstration will be carried out on the Canada Department of Agriculture substation at Ladner, Advisory assistance will be obtained
from the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of British Columbia
and assistance in collection of rainfall information from the Department of National
Defence and the Department of Transport of the Federal Government. It is proposed that the site will also be used to check devices for ditch-flow measurement,
further pump studies, and volumes of discharge from submerged outlets.
Design of Drainage Systems
Topographical surveys have been carried out on the major portions of thirty-
three farms and cover 1,164 acres. Complete drainage systems have been designed
for thirty-one of these farms, covering 1,098 acres. Installation of tile has lagged
somewhat behind the survey work, but was moving ahead at a fairly steady rate in
 DD 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the late fall.    Seven other surveys and preliminary investigations were carried out
on drainage requests.
In addition to the survey and planning work completed, talks on drainage were
presented to three meetings.
Irrigation
The Departmental irrigation equipment located at Vanderhoof was once again
used on cash crops. The expansion of the use of this practice is extremely slow in
the demonstration area.
Detailed system designs were prepared for four farms, covering 385 acres. In
addition, partial design information and advisory assistance was provided to eighteen
individuals, with information on the development of water supplies for irrigation
provided for six additional queries.
The Division, in conjunction with the Lower Mainland Advisory Subcommittee
on Agricultural Engineering, organized an irrigation workshop, which brought together information on the latest developments in irrigation, including equipment,
moisture measurement, system design, and irrigation scheduling. Papers were presented on a wide variety of subjects as a basis for discussion periods.
A Federally sponsored irrigation round-up at Lethbridge was attended, and
the extension of information on irrigation equipment and use was presented to two
farm groups.
The A.S.A.E. Recommendations for the Minimum Requirements for the
Design, Installation and Performance of Sprinkler Irrigation Equipment have been
printed as Bulletin A.E. 20, and is available for distribution.
Soil Conservation
Information on terrace construction for soil conservation was presented to one
meeting, and a review is under way covering the major erosion problems on the
Slocan River.
Domestic Water
A detailed report has been prepared on the Canyon Creek water system. Other
work includes advisory assistance on eight domestic water systems. Under the
Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act, assistance has been provided with the construction of a number of dugouts for domestic water.
Farm Structures
Potato-storage Ventilation
The fan ducts and controls installed in the potato ventilation demonstration
project have indicated that accurate control of temperatures within a very narrow
temperature range is possible. However, shrinkage losses observed to date indicate
that further work may be necessary in assessing the best flow rates to keep shrinkage
to a minimum.
Plan Service
The development of new plans for distribution is primarily the responsibility of
the Canadian Farm Building Plan Service; however, Provincial departments are
accepting more responsibility in supplying material for the revision of these plans
by catalogues. This Division's contribution to the revision of the dairy-housing
plans has been the preparation of three plans on manure disposal, including the
recent interest in liquid-manure disposal. The Division is chairing the sub-committee to review buildings and equipment in the fruit and vegetable catalogue, and
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 19
employed two students during the summer to revise and prepare plans for this catalogue revision. Detailed work was carried out on twenty-four plans. The material
was then reviewed by the full committee, with the majority of material now being
passed to the draughting centre at Guelph for final rework. The finalized plans for
this series should be available within eighteen months. On an interim basis, the
plans which have been prepared will be available through the Department. These
include plans for apple storage and refrigeration, peach storage, vegetable storage
(potato, carrot, turnip, beet), onions, together with a variety of equipment.
Other plans which have been prepared by the Division include a bulb-dipping
tank; goat-housing plans and fair building for goats, together with four specific
building layouts, primarily dairy structures; and seven farmstead plans.
Total plan distribution for the year was 4,308 plan sets.
Building Standards
A contribution to the Farm Buildings Standards Sub-committee of the Associate Committee on the National Building Code has consisted of the preparation of
a set of structural considerations, in the design of buildings, which must be observed
to meet health and sanitation regulations.
Rural Electrification
The Bibliography on Rural Electrification Publications has been revised, and
a mimeographed brochure prepared on Development of Electrical Energy from
Small Water Sources.
Farm Safety
Activity in this field has been extremely limited, with only one meeting being
attended, and the balance of the effort dealing with answers to letters of inquiry.
Land Clearing and Development
From 1946 to March 31, 1962, work in the amount of $4,150,991.55 has
been carried out for farmers on 7,951 accounts. The accounts receivable book
balance at that date was $887,334.41.
Work completed to the above date includes 105,800 acres cleared, 40,300
acres broken, 960 acres drained, 99 dugouts for domestic water, and other minor
work consisting of road construction, fence-lines, and land-levelling.
Up to November 30th of the 1962 operating year 8,041 acres were cleared
and 5,913 acres broken. The expenditure during the year to the time stated was
approximately $357,000, of which 45 per cent of the expenditure was in the Peace
River, which accounted for 65 per cent of the cleared acreage and 80 per cent of
the acreage broken.
The finalized figures for the fiscal year 1961/62 show 10,300 acres cleared
and 4,865 acres broken.
Duirng 1962 private contractors were utilized to carry out all work. Reten-
dering was carried out in the following areas: North Vancouver Island, South Vancouver Island, Fraser Valley, Salmon Arm, Creston, Prince George, South Peace
River, and North Peace River (twice).
In all other areas existing contractors were reapproved when equipment inspection showed it to be satisfactory. Approval was granted to seventy-eight contractors,
who operated eighty-nine crawler tractors, nine scrapers, ten mouldboard plough
breakers, twenty-two disk breakers, fourteen backhoes, thirteen drag-lines, three
grade-alls, three wheel-type trenchers, and one well-drilling rig. The equipment
and work of all contractors were reviewed at least once during the season.
 DD 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Summary of Land Clearing and Development
1946 to Mar. 31,1962
(Approximate
Acres)
1961/62 Fiscal Year
District
Clearing
Breaking
Cleared
Broken
Number
of
Acres
Average
Cost
per
Acre
High
Low
Acres
Broken
Average
Cost
per
Acre
20,500
18,500
11,000
2,800
6,000
3,000
500
4,800
3,500
9,000
8,000
5,600
6,800
1,000
4,800
11,500
12,000
7,000
2,000
2,500
900
200
3,000
600
500
N.A.
n.a.
N.A.
100
N.A.
2,570
3,213
489
345
815
216
36
810
31
675
260
120
520
60
140
$16.50
18.65
33.40
42.80
15.40
34.00
87.00
29.20
45.00
47.80
61.00
68.50
112.00
65.50
115.00
$21.90
24.75
40.70
68.00
21.60
37.00
111.00
50.00
49.00
61.50
83.00
96.00
142.00
106.00
206.80
$12.00
13.00
25.00
37.00
11.00
22.00
77.00
25.00
35.00
33.00
46.00
53.00
88.00
52.00
78.00
1,116
2,003
308
223
417
68
$9.60
8.90
8.65
McBride	
8.50
8.70
Smithers _.  —
11.80
377
7.90
9.40
322
8.20
14
13.40
Pemberton 	
17
11.25
Totals   	
105,800
40,300
10,300
	
	
	
4,865
N.A. under " Broken " indicates that the methods used in clearing do not require the utilization of heavy
breaking equipment for the clearing also in eflect breaks the land.
4-H CLUB DIVISION
(S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., Supervisor)
Enrolments
Club membership remained essentially the same in 1962 as in 1961. There
were, however, sixteen new clubs organized, to bring their number to a new high of
279. Girls outnumbered boys in club work and will continue to increase proportionately as Home Arts Clubs materialize. Club numbers and membership at the
end of the year was as follows:—
Number of clubs      279
Number of boys  1,592
Number of girls  1,648
Total members
3,240
Membership Statistics
It is interesting to note the number of members within the various age-groups
from 10 to 21 years and the percentage each comprises of the total, as follows:—
Age
10 years
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Members
._ 391
._ 490
_ 519
_. 462
._ 502
_ 392
.. 248
.. 155
Per Cent
12.6
15.1
16.0
14.2
15.5
11.7
7.6
4.8
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962
DD 21
Age
18 years
19 „
20 „
21 „
Members
Per Cent
35
1.08
26
0.8
19
0.6
1
The average age of club members was 13.1 years. This figure compares closely
with the National average age of 13.8 years reported by the Canadian Council in
1961.
One of the most useful yardsticks to gauge the trend of membership lies in the
numbers of years that a youngster stays in club work, as shown below:—
Years
One __.
Two _.
Three
Four .
Five _
Six _
Seven
Eight.
Nine _.
Ten _
Members
1,112
810
511
345
224
123
61
35
14
5
Per Cent
34.3
25.0
15.8
10.7
6.9
3.9
1.9
1.09
0.04
From this table it is evident that 59 per cent of all members have less than two
years' experience in club work.
It is expected that the new expanded programme will affect these data within
the next two or three years. It is hoped that two things will happen: (1) more
members will remain longer in club work; (2) the average age will be raised above
13.1 years.
Project Work
A breakdown of membership into the various project enterprises indicates the
extent of types of 4-H activity. The resulting production from projects is represented in the final column as reported by club leaders.
Project
Clubs
Members
Membership
Percentage
of Total
Productivity
Beef	
44
80
25
18
4
3
6
8
5
15
9
6
56
485
934
403
219
46
27
50
109
52
160
75
50
630
15.0
28.9
12.4
6.8
1.4
0.8
1.5
3.4
1.6
4.9
2.3
1.5
19.4
925 calves, 253 yearlings.
noat
Poultry
Rabbits
3,485 birds.
73 does and litters.
Tractor
Club Activities
It is quite impossible to recount all the many 4-H activities that were organized
by local agricultural offices in co-operation with their District Councils. Virtually
all districts staged special 4-H events of one kind or another.    Several districts
 DD 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
organized field-days and rallies with outstanding success in programme content and
participation by district members.
Provincial 4-H Club Week
It was found necessary this year to move the location of Provincial 4-H Club
Week from Tranquille to New Denver. While certain difficulties were encountered
in effecting this change, the advantages attained did much to bring success to the
week's programme. Particular emphasis was laid on such subjects as farm and
home planning, debating, junior leadership, news-writing, and the construction of
educational displays.
At the close of Club Week, final selections were made for the following
awards:—
(1) Canadian National Exhibition scholarship of $600 to Arthur Brooke, of
Pitt Meadows.
(2) Trip to the National 4-H Conference in Washington, D.C, to John Stan-
lake, of Saanichton.
(3) Trip to attend National Club Week in Toronto and Ottawa to Donna
Scoullar, Quesnel; Paul Howe, Saanichton; Doris Benson, Cedar; Barry
Baehr, Cloverdale; Frank Allison, Cedar; Bob Evans, Victoria; Rose
Smart, Victoria; Donna Hepburn, Chilliwack; Joan Youell, Victoria;
Pat Hoole, Saanichton; Fay Grant, Abbotsford; Dennis Tournemille,
Cloverdale; Daphne Brooke, Pitt Meadows; and Andy Grodoway,
Grindrod.
Other Awards
In addition to the above awards, four members were chosen from the Fraser
Valley to attend the State 4-H Conference at Pullman, Wash. These were Marilyn
Hook, Mission; Krys Olejnik, Aldergrove; Maureen Verbeck, Hope; and Jack
Closkey, Surrey. Aid was extended to two members—Lome Earl, Newgate, and
Joan Phillips, Lister—to attend the State 4-H Camp in Montana. Two members
from Cranbrook district—Hazel Lye, Newgate, and Bill Blaine, Wycliffe—also participated in an exchange visit with Idaho 4-H'ers.
A tour for thirty 4-H members from Saanichton to Grays Harbour in Washington was organized this year. It is planned that the American group will return
the visit in 1963.
Several in-Province exchanges were arranged between participating District
Councils, giving each the privilege of visiting in another section of British Columbia
and living in a 4-H home.
Leadership Development
Ten regional Leaders' Workshops were held during February and March at
Dawson Creek, Vanderhoof, Armstrong, Salmon Arm, Kamloops, Langley, Abbotsford, Penticton, Nanaimo, and Cranbrook.
While these were primarily programmed to serve the needs of the leaders, they
were of much benefit to staff members as well. Unique opportunities for discussion
on all aspects of club work were afforded, which proved useful in final progress
analysis. An estimated 80 per cent of all club leaders was reached through the
workshop approach.
Two workshops were held in Saanichton and Vernon for the benefit of the
junior leaders and proved to be of outstanding value.
 department of agriculture, 1962 dd 23
Summer Assistants
As in past years, agriculture students from the University of British Columbia
were hired to assist with the heavy summer commitment of the 4-H programme.
The five students proved most capable and discharged their responsibilities with
enthusiasm and vigour.
HOME ARTS SECTION
The activities of the Home Economist are reported in detail in her annual
report. The Home Arts phase differs markedly in two respects from its parallel
agricultural programme, as follows:—
(1) Home Arts is very short of local " resource " people. This results in most
project problems, normally handled on a district basis, being directed to
the central office.
(2) The entire concept of Home Arts projects and organization procedures is
new to leaders and district staff. It can be reported, however, that progress is being made at a satisfactory rate.
The greatest need appears to be in the area of project and leadership instruction.
To accomplish this, full participation in Leaders' Workshops, Provincial Club Week,
and special training sessions with leaders and members on a club basis were carried
out. More than sixty homes were visited, and forty separate club programmes were
attended with this objective in mind.
Home Arts Projects
Level
1   	
Number of Members in Clothing Projects
Members
           232
Per Cent
49.5
2 	
     60
12.5
3
     67
14.2
4 	
     65
13.5
5 	
       12
2.5
6 	
     37
7.8
Totals   473
100.01
f all Home Arts.
Number of Members in Food Projects
1 84.6 per cent o
Level 1
    30
Advanced
■ '   11
Per cent of all Home Arts
7.4
Members
Number of Members in Home Design Projects
    45
Per cent of all Home Arts	
  8.1
Project Evaluation
All Home Arts projects were inspected and evaluated at the close of the club-
year. To achieve this for the 627 members, it was necessary to hire two university
students as assistants.
Altogether sixty-five separate achievement-days were attended, 482 garments
examined and scored, and 984 other items marked at these events. In addition, the
assistants worked at field-days, fairs, Provincial Club Week, and finally at the Pacific
National Exhibition.
 DD 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
APIARY BRANCH
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist
This year a total of 21.000 colonies of honeybees produced 1,450,000 pounds
of honey, the smallest annual crop of the past ten years. A drop in production in
the Peace River accounted for most of this reduction.
BEE DISEASES
With the exception of European foul brood and sacbrood, the incidence of
honeybee diseases this year has been normal. Sacbrood, or what appears to be
sacbrood, showed up in many colonies, with a total of forty-three cases reported
from the Haney district. This disease was extremely severe in some colonies, with
whole frames of brood affected. Some paralysis was noted on Vancouver Island
and the New Westminster district.
This year a programme of very early spring inspections was instituted, in which
inspectors were instructed to check apiaries for dead or very weak colonies. Over
50 per cent of our A.F.B.-infected colonies were located in this way. Such colonies
and equipment were eliminated before early-flying bees had an opportunity to rob
remaining stores. The time and effort spent on these early inspections was an
important contribution to our disease-control programme.
Recorded outbreaks of nosema and paralysis were few, but cool, inclement
weather resulted in widespread severe outbreaks of European foul brood in the
Lower Mainland. TM 25 has been, and is, an extremely effective controlling agent
of our two major brood diseases—European foul brood (bacillus pluton bacillus
alvei) and American foul brood (bacillus larva;).
Number of beekeepers     1,500
Number of colonies  21,000
American foul brood (colonies affected and burned)  105
American foul brood (colonies treated)      32
        137
European foul brood (colonies affected)        202
POLLINATION
Work on pollination has continued in co-operation with the Entomology
Branch. In the Vernon area, beehive inserts and hand-collected pollen were
employed on a block of 25-year-old Mcintosh trees, and bouquets of Golden Delicious bloom were employed along with honeybee colonies on Red Delicious. Yields
were increased in both instances, again demonstrating the value of pollination as a
necessary part of the cultural practice. A detailed report on this work is available.
Results are shown in the accompanying table.
Rental of honeybee colonies for pollination of crops increased during 1962.
A total of 710 colonies was rented at a cost of $4,430, an average of $6.24 per
colony.
Forty-five bumble bee domiciles were established in the Fort St. John district,
with approximately 30 per cent acceptance recorded. Cool weather adversely
affected this work during spring and early summer. The controlled use of certain
species of bumble bees and solitary bees, alkali bee (Nomia melanderi and Megachile
rotundata) offers real promise for increased production of alfalfa seed in British
Columbia.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 25
PACKAGE BEES
Twenty-five packages of bees were shaken at Coaldale, Alta., and installed on
prepared brood nests in the Creston area. Acceptance of queens and establishment
of packages were entirely successful.   Details of this work are available on request.
OVER-WINTERING AND DIVISIONS
Colonies from the British Columbia Peace River area and Alberta are being
over-wintered in the Okanagan, Fraser Valley, and Vancouver Island districts. A
total of 2,000 divisions was trucked into the Peace River District this spring. This
method of colony replacement will expand and result in considerable savings to the
industry.   Each division is valued at $5.50.
QUEEN-REARING
Two producers in British Columbia obtained queen stock which had been
imported from Europe for the first time in many years. Plans are under way to
conduct tests on carrying queens over winter in cage banks placed in colonies.
PUBLICATIONS
Five issues of " Bee Wise " were distributed. Circulation of this publication is
1,400 copies.
Work is progressing on revision and reprinting of the following publications:—
Apiary Circular No. 13—The Use of Drugs and Antibiotics in Controlling
Bee Diseases.
Apiary Circular No. 11—Wintering Bees in British Columbia.
Apiary Circular No. 12—Package Bees in British Columbia.
A publication on tree-fruit pollination and a manual of beekeeping in British
Columbia are also being prepared.
EXTENSION
Following a two-week beemaster's course at the University of British Columbia,
twenty candidates obtained certificates. Short courses were held at Nanaimo, Fort
St. John, and Dawson Creek.
Our 16-mm. colour film "Diseases and Pests of the Honeybee in British
Columbia " is nearly completed. During the coming year, commentary and sound
track will be added to the completed film.
POLLINATION TABLE
Yield of Apples in Numbers of Loose Apple-boxes in the
Demonstration Orchards
Mcintosh Block Red Delicious Block
(550 25-year-old Trees) (150 16-year-old Trees)
Year Yield Year Yield
1958  12,554 1958  1,764
1959  10,260 1959  442
1960  10,385 1960  2,760
1961 -  10,049 1961  1,794
1962  19,604 1962  4,036
4
 DD 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
DAIRY BRANCH
Kenneth G. Savage, B.S.A., M.Sc, Dairy Commissioner
PRODUCTION
1961 1962 (Estimated)
 lb. 917,301,840 930,000,000
Milk 	
Manufactured products-
Butter (creamery)
Cheese (Cheddar)
Cheese (cottage)  .
Ice-cream  	
gal.
5,879,585
1,167,867
6,351,000
4,484,546
6,500,000
1,050,000
6,800,000
4,500,000
UTILIZATION
Used in manufacture ..__	
Used in fluid form—
Fluid sales	
Farm-home consumed
Fed to live stock	
lb.
1961
372,301,000
479,500,000
31,710,000
33,790,000
1962 (Estimated)
378,500,000
485,000,000
32,000,000
34,500,000
UTILIZATION OF MILK AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
PRODUCTION, 1961
Creamery butter
Cheese  	
Concentrated milk and ice-cream
Fluid sales 	
Farm butter 	
Other purposes	
Canada
British Columbia
42.8
15.0
7.5
2.2
9.1
22.5
30.2
52.3
1.0
0.9
9.4
7.1
MARKETING
In 1962 consumption figures for nearly all classes of dairy products showed the
same trend which has become apparent in recent years. Consumption increases
have not kept pace with increases in population or with accepted indices of increased
standard of living. The exception to the general trend has been butter consumption,
which has increased per capita due to significant price reductions.
Weighted average prices in Milk Board control areas show minor price fluctuations, which reflect an approximate 2-per-cent increase in milk production.
The Dominion Bureau of Statistics reports that in 1961 the average farm value
of all sales of milk in British Columbia was $4.33 per hundredweight, compared to
$3.09 for Canada as a whole. These figures are not expected to change materially
this year.
DAIRY PLANTS
Eighty-three creamery or dairy licences were issued in 1962. During the year
twelve dairy plants ceased operation for one reason or another leaving seventy-one in
operation. Of this number, fifty-four are pasteurizing milk, twenty-one are making
ice-cream, twelve butter, four cheese, one milk powder, one evaporated milk, and
twelve cottage cheese.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962
DD 27
LICENCES, CERTIFICATES, AND PERMITS
Licences
Creamery or dairy
Milk-testers  	
Milk-graders 	
Cream-graders
Tank-milk graders 	
Oleomargarine manufacturers
Oleomargarine wholesalers	
Certificates of Proficiency
Pasteurizer operators—
First class 	
Second class 	
Temporary 	
Ice-cream makers—
First class 	
Second class 	
Cheese-makers—
First class 	
Second class 	
Butter-makers—
First class 	
Second class 	
Issued 1962
.__      7
.__      7
._    2
1
Issued 1962
._._ 83
_. 85
61
_ 16
_ 69
____ 3
_ 20
Total Valid
49
138
11
16
4
9
To reconstitute milk
Tank-trucks 	
Farm holding-tanks
Permits
Issued 1962
.__        2
._        7
.__ 190
MILK GRADING
Milk graded by the resazurin test and reported by licensed milk-graders is compared below to figures for 1960 and 1961:—
Number of
Completed Tests
Number of Samples
Not Qualifying
Percentage Not
Qualifying
I960   „
78,097
77,246
76,814
2,792
2,789
2,612
3.56
3.61
1962   	
3.40
A committee was established in 1962 at the request of the Minister to undertake
research into milk-grading standards and to present recommendations which would
lead to legislation establishing new standards for bacterial quality of raw milk. The
committee's report was presented in December.
DAIRY SHORT COURSE
Seventeen students completed the correspondence and residence portions of
the 1962 dairy short course.
 DD 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
LEGISLATION
The Milk Industry Act was amended in the 1962 Legislative Session. These
amendments, the first major ones since 1956, were largely designed to correct
problems which had arisen with regard to effective administration of this legislation.
Regulations under the Milk Industry Act have been reviewed and amended, and their
promulgation is anticipated shortly.
PERSONNEL
To fill an existing vacancy in the Dairy Branch staff (Vancouver office), Mr.
R. N. Hitchman was transferred from the Prince George office to Vancouver,
effective December, 1962. Mr. P. Regehr (Victoria office) spent some forty days
assisting in the Vancouver area during 1962. A vacancy exists at the present time
in the Prince George office.
SUMMARY OF DAIRY BRANCH SERVICES, 1962
Number of inspections and visits—
Dairy plants       691
Dairy-farms       518
Butterf at check tests—
Producer  1,110
Finished product       322
Laboratory analysis  1,841
Examinations (licences and certificates)        41
H.T.S.T. pasteurizers checked        18
Oleomargarine checks         58
Farm holding-tanks certified      190
Tank-trucks examined  9
Milk and cream grades checked  1,563
Milk samples collected   3,384
Meetings attended         72
SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
The total farm cash value of all milk produced again exceeded $40,000,000.
The increase in milk production was not as great in 1962, and 1963 should show a
continuation of this trend. The problems facing the dairy plants in 1962 were intensified by general economic weakness, and those plants whose position was weakest,
either in terms of capitalization or obsolescence of plant and equipment, ceased
operation or were taken over by their stronger competitors. This reduction in the
number of dairy plants may well continue into 1963. The quality of the dairy
products offered to the consumer in British Columbia has remained high, and with
improved methods and standards of raw-milk grading the quality should reach still
higher levels in the future. Labour-saving devices on the farm and in the dairy plant
have become more and more commonplace, and the future certainly indicates that
even more extensive use will be made of them. A cautious note of optimism might
be expressed for the dairy industry in general, although it continues to be beset by
the cost-price squeeze. It now seems apparent that the successful survivors will be
those who employ bold, aggressive tactics to increase a depressed profit margin in
this most important industry.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 29
DYKING AND DRAINAGE DISTRICTS
W. R. Meighen, B.Sc, Dyking Commissioner
The year past was one of fairly quiet and normal operations for all of the various
dyking and drainage districts in this Province. Few storms of high-intensity rainfall
occurred to cause drainage problems or flooding and other damage to district properties. The one newsworthy storm of the year—Hurricane Frieda—which struck
the Fraser Valley area in mid-October caused a power cut-off to many pumping-
stations which lasted for several hours. This storm was not accompanied by a large
amount of rain during the period of the power failure, and, therefore, little flooding
occurred. Electrical installations or other works of the districts were not damaged
as a result of this storm.
This year's freshet was not troublesome or costly to any district. Maximum
reading on the Mission gauge was 17.22 feet, which is well below the average maximum of other recent years, and also below the danger level. No emergency conditions developed during the freshet in any of the dyke areas. Districts were therefore
able to carry out a reasonable and adequate amount of maintenance of their works
during the year and to make renewals of a capital nature in some instances.
Maple Ridge, Matsqui, and Sumas renewed electrical wiring and switch-box
equipment in pumping-stations in these districts.
Matsqui renewed a concrete flood-box.
Numerous districts along the river carried out extreme bank-protection projects
on river-banks fronting dykes to combat bank erosion. Total expenditure on this
type of work approximated $180,000, financed jointly by the districts, the Province,
and the Government of Canada.
The Surrey Dyking District carried out an extremely costly dyke-improvement
programme.
ENTOMOLOGY BRANCH
C. L. Neilson, M.Sc, Provincial Entomologist
The year 1962 produced no major insect outbreaks. However, the cherry fruit
fly (Rhagoletis indifferens Curr.) occurred in serious numbers in the Creston area
for the first time, and San Jose scale was a problem in the South Okanagan. Further
cases of resistance to hydrocarbons by carrot rust fly and cabbage root maggot were
reported, and possible resistance to DDT by onion thrips occurred in the Okanagan.
More than 500 inquiries concerning insects were handled from Victoria.
FIELD-CROP, FORAGE, AND VEGETABLE INSECTS
Grasshopper and cutworm populations remained low. Leaf roll of potatoes
in the Lower Mainland was unusually high. The presence of tuber flea beetle
(Epitrix tuberis) was established for the first time at Soda Creek, and the spotted
cucumber beetle (Crioceris duodecimpunctata) appeared for the first time in the
Okanagan Valley at Kelowna. Aphids were a problem on peppers at Vernon and
also on crucifers in the Fraser Valley. Tomato horn worm occurred frequently in
the Okanagan and Kamloops districts. Alfalfa webworm (Autographa californica)
and beet webworm (Loxostege sticticalus) were a problem on canning-spinach at
Vernon.
 DD 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The " silver-tip of grasses " research project in the Peace River again showed
DDT treatment as recommended gave partial control, but the reasons for the condition are still obscure. A wheat midge control project by adult spraying with DDT
resulted in promising reductions of infested wheat. The turnip maggot project at
Prince George and the aphids on crucifers project at Agassiz continued. A sym-
philid-control project was initiated at Chilliwack.
Miscellaneous inquiries covered a wide range of insects, as well as slugs, snails,
moles, nematodes, and symphilids.
The work of establishing bumble bee domiciles in the Peace River area met
with only fair success due to cool weather, but will be expanded in 1963, together
with an attempt to establish the alkali bee (Nomia melanderi) in the Ashcroft district.
The clover weevil (Tychius picirostris) was recorded as doing its first economic
damage in British Columbia at Creston.
ORCHARD INSECTS
In general, orchard insects caused less concern in 1962 than for the past several years. Considerable work was done in the Okanagan on San Jose scale, aimed
at establishing more data regarding seasonal development. Results of this work
will result in a change in the control programme for 1963. Investigations at Creston
established that the cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis indifferens) (normally only on wild
cherries) was very prevalent on cultivated cherries, and due to its later appearance
extra sprays were needed to prevent serious damage. A pollination demonstration
at Vernon, conducted with the Apiary Branch, on both Red Delicious and Mcintosh
apples was most gratifying. Yields were almost double those of the previous five-
year average, and quality was excellent. Observations on seasonal development of
the shot-hole borer (Scolytus rugulosus) on tree fruits in the Okanagan indicated an
earlier appearance of adults than previously recorded. In Coastal areas, tree fruits
were bothered by leaf roller, codling moth, tent caterpillar, and sawfly and aphids,
but inquiries were largely from back-yard gardeners. Other inquiries involved flat-
headed borers, mites, peach twig borer, cherry fruit fly, lecanium scale, and earwigs.
SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS
An attempt was made to eradicate grape phylloxera, which were brought into
the Okanagan on grape plants in the spring. Some 4 acres of plants were dug and
treated in November, 1961. During 1962 this acreage was treated with Dowfume
85W, with a soil insecticide applicator, and the surface further treated with Korlan.
The treated plants were replanted during early May in the treated soil. Results to
date indicate some damage from the previous November dipping of the plants in
nicotine oil, but none from soil fumigation. A survey during the fall showed no
infestation in these areas, but revealed subsequent spot leaf infestations of plants
that were imported after a malathion dip and planted in the previous spring. These
were eliminated individually, and the surrounding soil treated. The project will
continue.
Cyclamen mite caused serious damage to a few fields of strawberries in the
Abbotsford area. The better strawberry-growers are maintaining a more adequate
spray schedule for both insects and diseases, with generally good results. Strawberry fruitworm and orange tortrix damage occurred infrequently. Root weevils
continue to cause some damage each year. Black-headed fireworm control on
cranberries with parathion spray was not as good as usual, probably due to the cool
spring and prolonged emergence of adults.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 31
Additional inquiries were received concerning white grubs, leaf rollers, currant
fruitworm, leaf hoppers, black vine weevil, thread worm in strawberries, and col-
lembola.
LIVE-STOCK INSECTS
A warble fly control campaign with systemic insecticides was carried out during
September and October. Articles appeared in most newspapers and farm journals.
Television shows were produced by the C.B.C. for Province-wide release and for
individual shows at Kamloops and Kelowna. In addition, several districts were
visited and the programme discussed at meetings with cattlemen. A revised publication, " Livestock Pests," was prepared and released.
There was some trouble with tick paralysis of cattle in the areas south-west of
Williams Lake near the Fraser River and Kamloops-Merritt areas.
Mosquitoes continue as an annual problem, with technical support being given
to the control districts as far as we are able. Results of control in most of the
organized areas were fair to good. This phase of the work deserves more attention
than we can possibly devote to it.
HOUSEHOLD AND WAREHOUSE INSECTS
There were numerous inquiries for control measures for carpet beetles, carpenter ants, termites, black widow spiders, powder post beetles, wasps, ants, and
earwigs in homes from residents of Coastal areas. Other frequent inquiries concerned bedbugs, lice, ladybird beeties, booklice, fleas, flies, mites on canaries, house-
plant insects, ticks, angleworm-rearing, flatheaded borers in flooring, ground beetles,
silverfish, Mediterranean flour moth, spider beetles, false scorpions, root weevils in
homes, clover mites, clothes moth, ambrosia beetles in furniture, bats, and miscellaneous spiders. There was an unusual case of the hide beetle (Dermistes vulpinus)
larva? infesting Gyproc which was shipped in a rail car that had previously had hides
shipped in it.
The Canada Department of Agriculture, Vancouver, reports no new insects
occurring in cereal warehouses and mills throughout the Province. The degree of
infestation of the various species of insects common to such establishments in different centres is listed as revealed through continuous inspection.
ORNAMENTAL- AND SHADE-TREE INSECTS
Ponderosa pine in the Summerland area was heavily infested with pine needle
scale. Rogor was tried as a bark treatment, but was inadequate. Similarly, Rogor
was ineffective as either a spray or bark treatment for balsam woolly aphid at New
Westminster. Insecticide trials were conducted in conjunction with the Canada
Department of Forestry, Vernon, for control of midges (Contarinia) on Douglas fir
(Christmas-tree trade). Results indicated Thiodan to be very promising, and this
will be recommended on a trial basis to Christmas-tree farmers. Other common
pests on ornamentals in the Interior included the rose slug, yellow-necked caterpillar,
and the elm gall aphid. In Coastal areas common pests were leaf rollers, tent caterpillars, cotoneaster webworm, and juniper webworm. Miscellaneous inquiries included oak looper, holly leaf miner, laurel borer, willow apple gall, rose weevil,
mites, spiny elm caterpillar, blister mite on walnut, pear slug on mountain ash,
hawk moth larva, Douglas fir tussock moth, cyclamen mite, nematodes, azalea leaf
miner, and aphids.
 DD 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
EXTENSION AND PUBLICATIONS
We took an active part in the revision of tree-fruit, vegetables, and small-fruit
insect- and disease-control calendars. Mr. Arrand participated in the Northern
Chautauqua Tour, the Okanagan Orchard Tour, the Armstrong Fall Fair, the Vegetable Growers' Field-day at Vernon, the Beemasters' Course, the Pacific Northwest
Insect Conference at Portland, Ore., adult education school at Armstrong, and several stockmen's meetings regarding warble fly control. Mr. Neilson participated in
Fraser Valley Mosquito Control Board programme and other similar control programmes, the National Pesticide Committee, the Western Livestock Conference,
Sheep Producers' Field-days, adult education (agriculture) school at Abbotsford,
grape phylloxera control with Federal officials, and several meetings on warble fly
control. We participated in seven television programmes, prepared several press
and radio releases, and took an active role in the Entomological Society of British
Columbia. Two new circulars were prepared and released, together with nine
mimeograph leaflets.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent
At the start of the year 1962 fifty-six Farmers' Institutes that for a number of
years had been inactive were dissolved and their certificates of incorporation cancelled. During the year four more institutes ceased to operate, and two institutes,
Sweetwater and Parklands, amalgamated. One hundred and twenty-two institutes
filed annual reports, showing a membership of 4,986 and purchase of commodities
for members totalling approximately $1,500,000.
DISTRICT INSTITUTES
District Institutes held annual meetings during the year, as follows:—
District
Place
Date
District
District
District
District
District
District
District'
District
District
District
'—Lower Fraser Valley..
—East Kootenay      _
"—Okanagan-Shuswap—
"—Cariboo	
—Peace River  	
'—Nechako 	
—Skeena-Bulkley  	
-Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.
—Kamloops-North Thompson	
—West Kootenay (semi-annual)	
New Westminster.-.
Cranbrook	
Deep Creek	
Quesnel.
Fort St. John...
Prince George-
Telkwa	
Nanaimo	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
March 2.
May 31.
June 6.
June 9.
June 20.
June 21 and 22.
June 25 and 26.
September 29.
October 19.
June 2.
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
The forty-fifth annual meeting of the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes
was held in Victoria on October 23rd, 24th, and 25th, at which time the Board
dealt with seventy-one resolutions submitted by the ten District Institutes and presented a brief to the Provincial Cabinet dealing with such matters as farm machinery,
land-clearing, revision of the Sheep Protection Act, rural electrification, land-
surveying, coloured gas for farm vehicles, soil-testing, and exemption from the
social services tax on drugs for veterinary purposes.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 33
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS
During the year the Central Fraser Valley Fairs Association at Abbotsford was
granted Class B status, bringing the total number of Class B exhibitions in the Province to eight. In addition, there were one Class A and ten Class C exhibitions and
forty-four recognized fall fairs.
POUND DISTRICTS
Pound districts constituted in unorganized territories during the year are as
follows: Little Boulder, January 5th; Keats Island, February 15th; Sointula,
March 26th; Fanny Bay, July 12th; Cobble Hill, July 12th; Carmi, August 6th;
and Nukko Lake, August 23rd.
Boundaries of six pound districts were extended, and pound-keepers appointed
for fifteen districts.
MISCELLANEOUS
Seven Grasshopper-control Committees received advances for the purpose of
exterminating and controlling grasshoppers in their respective areas.
Fence-viewers were appointed for the Cowichan-Newcastle and Esquimalt
Electoral Districts, and 120 licences were issued to sell poisons used exclusively in
agriculture.
FIELD CROPS BRANCH
Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner
CROP PRODUCTION
Cereals
Acreage increased this year, principally in the Peace River District. Adequate
rainfall during the summer produced good yields but tended to delay maturity.
Continued damp weather made harvesting difficult and resulted in a down-grading
of both quality and grade. Grain production in the North Okanagan and Creston
districts was about average. Harvesting of a good oat crop in the Fraser Valley was
hampered by unusually wet weather conditions. Movement of feed grains from the
Peace River to feeding areas in the southern parts of the Province continued at a
steady pace.
Hay and Pasture
As with the cereals, hay and pasture growth benefited from summer rains, but
unfavourable harvesting weather resulted in a general lowering of the quality of
winter hay stocks. In the Cariboo a number of the wild-hay meadows were inundated, preventing many ranchers from cutting sufficient stands to maintain normal
winter feeding requirements.
Seed Production
Because of the improved grain-marketing situation, there was a reduction in
forage-seed acreage this year, as many of the old fescue-fields were ploughed under
and seeded to cereals. Production of registered seed of Selkirk wheat and Rodney
oats remained unchanged in the Creston area.
 Crop
Acres
Wheat 	
  775
Oats  	
  571
Barley   	
  325
DD 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The following table lists the acreage of crops inspected in British Columbia as
supplied by the Plant Products Division, Canada Department of Agriculture:—
Crop Acres
Flax         15
Forage seeds  1,567
Estimated yields of commercial forage-crop seeds for 1962, together with the
final production figures for 1961, are shown in Appendix No. 19.
The annual seed fair was held in February this year at Fort St. John.
A seed-growers' short course was also held in the Peace River in July of this
year, sponsored jointly by the Seed Growers' Association, the Department of Extension at the University of British Columbia, and our own Department. The course
was well attended and received.
Potatoes
Potato acreage was up slightly this year, but average marketable yields were
down due to the unfavourable growing and harvesting year. The wet fall in Coast
areas made digging difficult, and many crops went into storage in a wet, dirty condition. Many acres of low-lying potato land on Vancouver Island could not be
harvested because of flooding.
Approximately 1,500 acres of certified seed potatoes were passed by the Federal inspection service this year. The main areas of seed production with acres
inspected in 1962 are as follows (1961 acreages in parentheses): Pemberton, 261
(405); Vancouver Island, 337 (309); Lower Mainland, 115 (340); Okanagan,
142 (182); Cariboo, 200 (190); Central British Columbia, 26 (53); Boundary
District, 93 (215); Kootenays, 332 (414).
Sixty potato samples from seed-growers in British Columbia are being tested
in greenhouses at the University of British Columbia and at the Experimental Farm,
Saanichton. Disease readings were completed on these samples by the end of the
year and forwarded to growers.
Field Peas
Acreage in field peas was again reduced this year, and yields are about average.
BRITISH COLUMBIA CROP IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION
Forty-one tests were forwarded to members during the past season, with alfalfa
variety trials being the most popular. Foundation seed of La Salle red clover,
Rambler alfalfa, and Manchar brome was distributed to seed-growers for production.
DEMONSTRATIONS AND TRIALS
Demonstration trial plots, including fertilizers, herbicides, forage crops, and
potatoes, were established in many areas of the Province again this year. Most of
these trials are on a continuing basis to assess results over several years. A soils
extension programme was started this year.
SOIL AND FORAGE ANALYSES
Laboratory work is continuing to increase. The following table indicates the
work of the laboratory this year:—
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962
DD 35
Materials Tested
Determinations or Analysis
Number of Samples
Soils .
Water	
Feeds and Forage-
Nitrates, phosphorus, potash, calcium, and pH .
Conductivity (total salts)   	
pH and conductivity  	
Crude protein, moisture, pH	
3,700
250
15
153
AGRICULTURAL LIME
For the ten-month period ended October 31, 1962, 34,911 tons were distributed under the Federal-Provincial Lime Subsidy Policy, a decrease from 1961.
The following is a five-year summary of movement of agricultural lime and subvention paid:—
Fiscal Year
Total Number of
Applications
Approved
Total Amount
of Subsidy
Recommended
Total Tonnage
Used
1957/58..  	
1,461
1,288
1,326
1,328
1,436
$100,588.24
107,749.24
118,989.76
117,110.26
129,212.85
34,404.75
1958/59      .
36,529.09
1959/60 	
1960/61	
1961/62 	
41,298.81
39,835.68
43,505.20
FERTILIZER   AND AGRICULTURAL POISONS BOARD
One meeting of the Board was held this year, and the following fertilizer mixes
were approved: 2-15-15, 4-10-10, 6-8-6 (organic), 6-30-15, 8-10-6, 10-20-10,
10-30-10, and 13-16-10.
WEED CONTROL
During the past season two Weed Inspectors were employed for the summer
season in the Peace River District, and one temporary Weed Inspector in the Pemberton Valley for two weeks in June.
The Department of Highways increased its spray programme this year to include approximately 3,000 miles of roadside. There is increased acceptance of
chemical herbicides for weed control in small-fruit and horticultural crops.
TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR
There was a limited number of samples forwarded this year from British Columbia growers. Mr. Needoba, of Salmon Arm, and Mr. Pendray, of Victoria, took
second and third places respectively in Netted Gem potatoes.
GRAIN SCREENINGS
During the eleven-month period January to November, sixteen permits for
removal of screenings were issued to elevators and merchants, and during the same
period forty feeders' permits were issued.
Nine processing plants are licensed to devitalize screenings. The grinding and
steam pressure as prescribed have, in all cases, given excellent devitalization of weed
seeds. Most of the refuse screenings used in British Columbia are now being devitalized and pelleted. Prices remained high during the past year due to a shortage
of supplies.
 DD 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist
Unfavourable weather made 1962 a difficult year for most producers of horticultural crops. Spring frosts, summer rains, a low accumulation of heat units, and
less than average sunshine combined to create many problems. A favourable aspect
was the open fall with moderately dry weather, permitting the harvest of most crops
without undue difficulty.
Highlights during the year included a keen interest in grape production throughout the Province, particularly in the Okanagan Valley. The acreage increase in
the past two years has been 196 acres. Loganberries also gained substantially in
popularity over the same period. Two years ago it was difficult to market these
crops, but today the demand exceeds the supply, and it appears that this will
continue. Fruit-trees in the Interior have seldom looked better than they did in
1962, largely as a result of good cultural practices and relatively mild winters since
1955/56.
The Branch has carried out an intensive study of the present methods of picking, storing, packing, shipping, and marketing of fresh tomatoes in co-operation with
the Research Station at Summerland. The information gleaned is being supplied
to the industry through meetings and the published " Grower Notes," which are
mailed out regularly. It is hoped that there will be a return to tomato production
on a sound economic basis for both the processing and fresh markets from Interior
fields.
A continuing programme introduced two years ago to help the greenhouse
industry is making greater supplies of tomatoes available during the spring of the
year.
The certification programme for nursery stock received a setback because of
the lack of agreement on a programme acceptable to the Interior tree-fruit nurseries,
but the delay provided another year for work in the colour coding of nursery stock.
The Branch has now shown the way in tree coding, and as soon as the industry is
prepared to move into the programme, it will be prepared to assist them.
TREE FRUITS IN THE INTERIOR
All areas reported good orchards in demand but few for sale. The trend to
larger holdings continued either on a purchase or lease basis. The price of orchards,
particularly in the Kelowna area, is increasing. Reasons for this include the desirability of the Okanagan as a place to reside and higher prices received generally
for fruit.
The completion and opening of the Trans-Canada Highway has caused a tremendous upsurge in highway traffic throughout the tree-fruit area. Significant
quantities of produce are being sold on the roadsides. In some districts the impact
of these sales is being felt by packing-houses and is reflected in higher packing
charges. On the other hand, the easier access to Prairie markets, lower transportation costs, and reduced shipping time are especially important with highly perishable
products.    (See Appendix No. 14.)
Cherries.—Although cherry production was down from last year, it was still
the third largest crop recorded. The quality was generally good, and splitting was
light. Cherries for distant markets were harvested earlier than usual this year. The
potential for this crop is now greater than it has ever been.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 37
Apricots.—The apricot crop was equal to the average of recent years. The
harvest period was spread out over a long period, in sharp contrast to 1961, but in
spite of this the Wenatchee Moorpark variety continued difficult to market.
Peaches.—Despite cool weather in midsummer, the fruit sized well and produced the largest crop since 1949. Quality was good, and a prolonged harvest
period made picking less of a problem than usual.
Pears.—The Bartlett crop was down, but Anjous were up sharply. Mixed sizes
and maturities resulted from the prolonged blossom period. The quality of the crop
was not up to the usual standard because of physiological disorders and frost damage
to the fruit.
Apples.—The apple crop was up from last year, largely because of the increased
size of the fruit. Red colour developed slowly, particularly in the older trees which
have not been converted to red strains. Water-core was a serious problem in Delicious and Winesaps. A tank has been developed in which an alcohol-water solution
is used to separate out the water-cored from the sound fruit. There were reports
of weak fruit from several areas of the Pacific Northwest, which adversely affected
prices.
Tree-fruit Exports
For many years apples and pears were the only tree-fruit crops exported, but
during the last two years B.C. Tree Fruits Limited has tested the feasibility of exporting fresh cherries, apricots, and peaches to the United Kingdom. In the 1961 tests,
cherries arrived in satisfactory condition and sold at good prices. Troubles were
encountered with apricots through freezing on board ship, and disappointing delivery
was made.
In 1962 the cherry export was expanded, but the fruit did not arrive in satisfactory condition. However, apricots arrived in excellent condition and brought top
prices.   Elberta peaches were also well received.   These tests will be continued.
Apple exports in 1962 to the United Kingdom were restricted because of the
lack of small-sized fruit in the higher grades.
Picking-bags for Tree Fruits
Experimental picking-bags, designed to reduce fruit bruising, were supplied to
each Interior office for evaluation in co-operation with the Department engineers.
This programme allowed a number of growers to try the equipment before purchase
and provided an opportunity to suggest further improvements.
Sprayer Testing
In addition to air-speed indicators, tachometers have been issued to each horticulturist in the tree-fruit area. Growers are becoming increasingly aware of the
value of the Horticultural Branch sprayer-testing programme. An example was
noted in the Kelowna area where forty machines were tested and eighteen were found
to have an adequate air speed. This compares with thirty-five inadequate last year
out of fifty-two machines. Suggestions were made for simple improvements generally, although in many instances specialist technicians were required.
TREE FRUITS ON THE COAST
Low temperatures, strong winds, and frequent showers prevailed throughout
the blossoming period of tree fruits on the Coast. In spite of the adverse conditions,
the set on fruit-trees was fairly good. A heavy drop took place on cherries and
prunes.
 DD 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Unsprayed apple and pear trees were severely infected with scab, which made
the fruit unmarketable. Stone fruits, particularly sweet cherry, were infected with
coryneum blight. The prune crop was light and tended toward small fruit sizes.
Many inquiries have been made in district offices regarding apple-culture on the
Coast, using dwarfing stocks.
GRAPE PRODUCTION
The Horticultural Branch throughout the Interior is spending considerable time
on grape problems. New varieties are being assessed for yield, quality, winter hardiness, disease and insect resistance, and other factors.
In the past two years the acreage for this crop had increased by 204 acres and
the number of growers by thirty-six. The main increase was 80 acres in the Diamond
variety, 60 acres in trial hybrids, and 19 acres in Patricia. On the Coast, once again
poor pollinating conditions resulted in a very poor grape crop. (See Appendix
No. 15.)
Grape plantings are increasing at a more rapid rate than had been anticipated
because of the substantial increase in demand by the four wineries in British Columbia. Until recently wine grapes were grown mainly in the Kelowna district, but now
commercial plantings are located in areas from Winfield to the United States Border
and in the Similkameen Valley. In some cases long-term leases have been obtained
on Indian reservations for vineyards. The price offered to growers is $120 or more
per ton by wineries, with contracts lasting ten or more years.
Soluble solids content of winery shipments was checked by Branch personnel
and found to be satisfactory despite the cool weather, except for the Diamond variety,
which was harvested at a somewhat immature stage.
The Kelowna office has instituted trials on pruning methods which have been
used in other grape-growing areas but not in this Province. Results of trials in the
Westbank area indicate that specialized pruning methods will have considerable
influence on yield.
SMALL FRUITS
The acreage of strawberries, raspberries, loganberries, blueberries, and cranberries is increasing steadily at present. The demand for fruit has been good, and
prices have reflected the high quality of the British Columbia small-fruit crop. (See
Appendix No. 16.)
Strawberries.—Spring growth on strawberry plantings was very slow through
April and May on the Coast, with full bloom occurring in the Fraser Valley on May
27th, fourteen days later than the long-term average. Picking was carried out between June 25th and July 15th. The plants carried a satisfactory crop, but losses
occurred from fruit rots, particularly on the variety Siletz. In spite of the adverse
weather, yields were good, with 6 to 8 tons per acre common.
Saanich and Salmon Arm fresh strawberries were shipped to the Prairies, and
the growers were encouraged by the prices received. Creston acreage is declining,
and most of the crop is sold directly from the farm.
Three new varieties are under trial in the strawberry area of the Province—
Cascade, Columbia, and Mollala. They were developed in Washington and Oregon
and are showing promise here, especially on the Coast.
The certified plants which were planted in the spring by growers required some
replanting, especially in the Saanich area. The supply of certified plants for the
1963 planting looks promising as to quality. The number available for 1963 is
substantially greater than for 1962, and an early estimate is as follows:—
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 39
Variety 1962 1963
British Sovereign  372,000 625,000
Siletz  125,000 450,000
Agassiz   30,000 225,000
Puget Beauty      75,000
Raspberries.—Raspberry production in the Fraser Valley was again lighter
than average. The reduction resulted from drought conditions the previous year
and fruit rots associated with rains at picking-time.
A large acreage was planted out this year, with up to 250 acres in the Abbotsford district. The canes grew vigorously, so that the crop could increase by 40 per
cent in 1963. In Creston there will need to be a replacement programme with virus-
free stocks before the industry shows an upward trend in production.
A very strong market demand for raspberries existed in 1962 at favourable
prices to the growers, and inventory holdings in the United States indicate a similar
market for the 1963 crop.
The raspberry certification programme was inaugurated in 1961 and has progressed satisfactorily. The varieties Newburgh, Sumner, Willamette, and Puyallup
will be available to growers for 1963 plantings.
The Newburgh variety has been propagated under the programme through
direct contract between the industry and one propagator. Planting stock of this
variety will be available to growers of the firms participating in the contract.
The following shows an estimate of raspberry plants for 1963 planting under
the raspberry certification programme:—
Sufficient
Number of to Plant
Variety Plants (Acres)
Newburgh   105,000 52
Willamette   20,000 10
Sumner   30,000 15
Puyallup   5,000 2
Blueberries.—The total blueberry production for 1962 was lower than the 1961
crop by approximately 14 per cent. This crop depression was brought about by
several factors, with the weather being the main deterrent. Cool, damp weather
during the blossom period reduced the fruit set. In addition, several diseases were
rampant.
The blueberry industry still enjoys a strong market and favourable prices; consequently, expansion continues and estimates suggest that the industry will involve
1,000 acres in 1963.
Cranberries.—The cranberry industry expected to show a substantial crop increase this season, but frost, hail, and sub-normal temperatures reduced the crop by
16 per cent below last year. Weeds, dry-stem, insect damage, and water relationships also caused some crop reduction.
Harvesting and pruning are accomplished by mechanical means. Last year's
operations in one plantation revealed that equipment damage to the following season's crop may be excessive. One grower estimated a 25-per-cent crop reduction
in some portions of the field where extra travelling by machinery had occurred.
The industry will show a slight acreage increase in 1963.
Loganberries.—The size of the loganberry crop was reduced by adverse weather
in the spring, as were other small-fruit crops generally, but the remaining crop was
of excellent quality.
 DD 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fresh sales were lighter than last year, and only six carloads were shipped to
the Prairies. The price received by growers for processing berries was down from
last year, a situation which does not reflect the strong demand for this crop.
Bush Fruits.—Interest in black currants, red currants, and gooseberries remains
at a very low level, and few new plantings are being set out. No increase is anticipated until such time as varieties adaptable to mechanized harvesting are available,
or a substantial price increase occurs.
Filberts.—Pollinating conditions were poor for the 1962 crop, but the increased
productivity of the plantings compensated for the poor set, so that the estimated
crop of 150 tons is little changed from 1961. A 1962 survey of the Fraser Valley
indicated 317 acres planted to this crop. The price to the producer is 30 cents per
pound, which is an increase from 28 Vi cents in 1961. Other parts of the Province
have small acreages of little economic importance.
VEGETABLE CROPS ON THE COAST
Competition between various firms in vegetable processing for growers and
land is becoming more intensive. There is a trend toward company-operated enterprises, particularly in peas, beans, and corn. The packer is anxious to assure himself of a given tonnage of uniform-quality product. The processing firms in the
Chilliwack area alone are reported to have produced $5,000,000 worth of packed
horticultural products in 1962.
Peas.—Early-maturing varieties seeded during April and early May produced
heavy crops. The growing season upset the maturity schedule, resulting in lower
quality and a crop out-turn slightly below average.
Pole Beans.—Pole bean crops probably fared the poorest of any vegetable this
year as the crop was seriously damaged by diseases. Harvesting labour was scarce
in September, and yields were very low, with the average around 4 tons per acre.
Corn.—In spite of a late start, the cannery-corn crop gave the highest yield
for many years. Presumably the uniform soil moisture during the summer with a
relatively warm September allowed the corn to develop to the utmost. Sweet corn
for processing averaged about 7 tons per acre instead of the normal 5 tons.
Broccoli.—Broccoli developed very slowly through August, but the warm temperature prevailing through September and October permitted continued harvesting,
with yields of about A-Vi tons per acre. The packers were unable to process sufficient tonnage, primarily because they lack adequate facilities to handle the crop
which was available before the end of August.
Cauliflower.—Cauliflower tonnages were lower than expected as the cool temperature in August resulted in premature bolting. Minor element deficiencies
were troublesome and are being studied.
Brussels Sprouts.—The topping and single harvest technique on brussels sprouts
is creating a renewed interest in this crop. Officials from the Abbotsford office
worked very closely with the growers in an attempt to develop the programme, and
the result has been most gratifying.
VEGETABLE CROPS IN THE INTERIOR
A total of 5,224 acres was devoted to fresh and processed vegetables in 1962.
Among the twenty-five vegetable crops grown, only onions registered a substantial
increase in acreage. Early cabbage, peppers, zucca melons, and baby beets for processing showed small acreage gains. Potatoes, tomatoes, dried peas and beans registered a substantial decline in acreage.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 41
In the Cranbrook, Creston, and Grand Forks areas, vegetable acreage declined,
with the main reduction in dried peas.
In Northern British Columbia, vegetable acreage was 1,194 acres last year and
1,275 acres this year. The 1960 acreage had totalled approximately 800 acres.
First shipments to the fresh market were made during the last week of July, almost
a month later than normal.
Tomatoes.—Nearly all shipments of tomatoes to the fresh market from the
Okanagan were pre-cooled to 53° F. at shipping point this year, and buyers indicated that fruit condition was improved over previous years.
Canneries did not start processing this crop until early September. The cannery pack was lighter and the quality of tomatoes was lower than usual. Loss in
the field from diseases is estimated to be about 5 tons per acre on the average.
It appears that an annual spray programme for prevention of these troubles will have
to be carried out.
The Superintendent of the Summerland Research Centre requested the Horticultural Branch to co-operate on a special committee to deal with tomato problems
in the British Columbia Interior. Much of the work of this committee will centre
around the establishment of several project farms in the Vernon area. Preliminary
meetings in the fall have outlined plans for selection and operation of the farms.
Efforts in promoting the development of a larger Interior onion industry have
resulted in an increased production in the Interior from 4,000 tons in 1959 to nearly
7,000 tons this year. Further increases are required until the industry reaches a
production of 12,000 tons annually if our normal markets are to be supplied from
B.C.-grown onions.
Asparagus.—The first asparagus was harvested on April 15th, but volume was
not available until the end of the month. Asparagus quality was up but yields were
down this season. Cannery shipments concluded June 11th. The price this year
was 16-j-i cents per pound for the 7-inch utility grade at the farm.
Cucumbers.—Cucumbers of excellent quality were shipped throughout July,
and movement of the crop was satisfactory.
Peppers.—Peppers showed blossom by the end of June, but fruits were not
shipped until early August.   Quality and prices were exceptionally high.
Swede Turnips.—Swede turnip acreage in North Central British Columbia continued its gradual increase in 1962. Approximately 150 acres were grown in that
area this year. Crop development was good, but splitting from excess moisture was
a major problem.
GREENHOUSE CROPS
A survey of greenhouse areas and crops was completed during the summer
months. Total area under glass and plastic in the Lower Mainland is 1,902,987
square feet, as compared to the 1957 area of 1,606,839 square feet.
A steady growth of the greenhouse industry on the Lower Mainland is continuing. The area under glass is increasing steadily, and the type of construction
is being constantly improved. A summary shows the 1962 crop areas as compared
to those of 1958 for some of the more important greenhouse crops. It is noteworthy
that cucumbers and corn have increased by 88 per cent and chrysanthemums by 44
per cent.   Decreases were reported in stocks and carnations.
 DD 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Greenhouse Crop Areas, Lower Mainland
Square Feet, Square Feet,
1958 1962
Tomatoes   353,990 403,330
Cucumbers   40,000 75,222
Chrysanthemums  .  554,588 799,003
Carnations   165,745 142,375
Roses   74,925 141,297
Stocks   78,399 45,920
Snaps   44,560 52,465
Bedding plants (number of flats)   133,300 148,650
Tomatoes.—The yield and quality was generally good, except for some ranges
on Vancouver Island.
Bright weather early in the year favoured the tomato crop. Dull, wet weather
in the latter part of the season favoured development of fungus diseases. Prices
throughout the season were satisfactory.
Cucumbers.—Production of long English cucumbers continued to increase
steadily on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island. The seasonal demand for
this crop is influenced strongly by the weather, and during the past season there were
temporary surpluses. Average prices throughout the season were satisfactory, and
prospects are for a continued increase in production.
Chrysanthemums.—The long open fall has reduced the demand for greenhouse
flowers, and prices for the fall crop were low. Although the fall chrysanthemums
crops have not varied greatly during the past few years, there has been a large increase in the crop of year-round chrysanthemums, especially on the Lower Mainland, where 581,000 square feet are devoted to this crop, as compared to 417,000
square feet for the fall crop.
Roses.—Production of greenhouse roses has increased steadily, and this trend
is continuing. Most of the extension work with roses is in connection with pest and
disease controls.
Carnations.—One large carnation-grower in Vancouver has been forced to
remove his greenhouse, which has resulted in a temporary reduction in crop area.
The carnation market appears to be steady, and a gradual increase in production
over the next few years is foreseen.
Specialty Flowers.—There appears to be less demand than formerly for gardenias, and the one grower producing this crop has reduced output. Orchid production has increased about 15 per cent in the past three years. No further increases for the time being are expected.
Pot Plants.—Chrysanthemums are the most important crop in this category
with 127,000 square feet of production. Tropical foliage plants with 69,000 square
feet are second, followed by geraniums, azaleas, Easter lilies, hydrangeas, poinset-
tias, and cyclamen, in order of importance.
NURSERY STOCK
Tree Fruits.—There has been a slight decrease in the tree-fruit nursery-stock
crop. Appendix No. 17 shows the numbers of trees of the various kinds produced
during the past five seasons.
Apple Rootstocks.—Appendix No. 18 shows the number and percentages of
1-year-old apple-trees produced on the various rootstocks in 1962. E.M. II continues to maintain its place as the most important of the clonal stocks, followed by
E.M. VII.   There is a significant increase in M.M. 104 and a sharp increase in M.M.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962
DD 43
106, and M.M. Ill is in prospect for the coming year. Mcintosh seedlings account
for the bulk of the non-clonal stock, and in the category " other fruit stocks " the
largest portion is Antanovka seedling.
Hardy Framework Trees.—Mcintosh continues to be the most important of the
hardy framework trees. Although the number of Antanovka and Haralson show
an increase over the previous year, very little of these varieties has budded for 1963.
Hibernal has almost disappeared from the nurseries. There is some interest in
Ottawa 292 and Red Astrachan; these varieties will be available in small quantities
in 1963.
Coniferous Evergreens.—Locally produced evergreens have been sold at an
increasing rate in the past few years. Imports are now confined mostly to lifting-out
stock.
Broad-leaved Evergreens.—Local growers have taken advantage of the increase
in price of imports and have propagated large quantities of rhododendrons and other
broad-leaved evergreens during the post season. There is a continuing good demand
for this stock, and no overproduction is foreseen in the immediate future.
Tree-fruit Nursery Stock.—With the exception of peaches, all 1-year-old tree-
fruit nursery stock grown in British Columbia was inspected for trueness to variety
during the summer, and mixtures were either removed or marked. Rootstocks for
budding were also inspected, and any mixtures found were removed. There was
substantial decrease in the number of mixtures found this year, and this is attributed
largely to the fact that much of the budwood used for this year's crop was obtained
from the Research Station at Summerland.
Colour Coding Nursery Stock and Certification.—The colour coding of nursery
stock, as developed by the Branch, has proved to be a practical method of marking
varieties in the field to identify trees grown from approved budwood material and
to prevent mixtures after digging. Aerosol-type containers of tree- and log-marking
paint are used, and each variety is marked with either a narrow or a wide band of
paint on the trunk at about 3 feet above ground-level. A second band of paint,
either just above or just below the bud union, identifies the rootstock.
A comprehensive certification programme for tree-fruit nursery stock which
requires use of approved and, as far as possible, virus-free budwood has been requested by the British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association. Co-operation between
the various groups concerned and the Horticultural Branch has developed a certification system which will provide healthy productive nursery stock for the fruit
industry.
During the past summer approximately 57,000 trees were marked. When a
full-scale certification programme is adopted, it is expected that it will be necessary
to mark at least 200,000 trees per year.
Dormant tree-fruit nursery-stock inspections were carried out as in the past.
Trees were rather late in maturing this fall, and, as a result, digging, which commenced on October 15th, had to be halted, and much of the stock was not dug
until the early part of November.
DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS
District offices of the Horticultural Branch have again given demonstrations
on pruning, budding, grafting, and crop-handling in its various aspects. Numerous
tests on fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides have been carried out in all areas
where horticulturists are located. A few selected demonstrations follow in brief
outline:—
 DD 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Apple Scab Control.—The extension trial programme to determine the minimum dosage of cyprex and the minimum number of spray applications required to
control apple scab has continued. The efficiency of new and trial materials is also
under test.
Strawberry and Raspberry Variety Trials.—Trials are under way at Saanichton,
Abbotsford, Salmon Arm, and Creston Valley to evaluate new varieties of strawberries and raspberries to observe their suitability to various parts of the Province.
Vegetable Varieties.—Samples of promising new vegetable varieties were supplied to growers for test and limited commercial trial in many areas where field
vegetables and greenhouse vegetables are grown.
Blueberry Fertilizer Trials.—Plots have been maintained since 1957 by the
New Westminster office to determine the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash
on blueberries. It has been observed that high nitrogen causes excessive growth and
reduced yields on organic soils.
Nematode Studies.—Horticulturists from Abbotsford and Kelowna were given
an intensive one-week course on nematodes by the specialists at the Saanichton Experimental Station. Facilities are being provided at Abbotsford to extract nematodes.   Tests using marigolds to suppress nematodes were continued.
EXTENSION PROGRAMMES
Mass media is being used more extensively than ever. The weekly television
show on CHBC-TV has continued, and has been expanded to provide another weekly
show at Kamloops.
All District Horticulturists have presented programmes regularly on the radio
stations in the Okanagan and in the Fraser Valley. Numerous spot bulletins were
broadcast over radio stations and the C.B.C. network.
Articles for orchard journals have been contributed regularly. Interviews and
prepared articles have been made available to the local newspapers.
The Growers Chautauqua meetings were presented at twelve points. Field-
days during the growing season were also held. These attract keen interest, especially when carefully timed. Requests for speakers at growers' or gardeners' meetings were filled.
PLANT PROTECTION ACT
The Plant Protection Act was amended in 1962, making provision for the
licensing of each place of business selling more than $250 worth of nursery stock
and increasing the penalty for persons violating the Act.
Regulations were passed providing for codling moth districts at Kaleden, Win-
field and Okanagan Centre, Rutland and Ellison.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL FARM LABOUR SERVICE FOR
BRITISH COLUMBIA
(A. C. Carter, Director)
The supply of casual labour was satisfactory to meet the requirements of the
various industries using this service throughout the Province. Placements were well
in excess of those made in 1961.
A high degree of co-operation and co-ordination existed between the placement
officers in the seasonal farm employment offices and their counterparts in the
National Employment Service. Mr. A. T. Stephenson, Regional Primary Industries
Officer, Unemployment Insurance Commission, Vancouver, was co-ordinator of the
programme.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 45
The former field office at Sidney was replaced by a growers' field representative
working under the direction of the National Employment Service manager at Victoria. The arrangements worked out particularly well, and growers expressed
approval of service provided this season.
Labour for harvesting small fruits in the Abbotsford district has been a problem
for many years. At the end of 1961 the District Horticulturist, with various farm-
labour representatives, persuaded growers to appoint their own committee to suggest
improvements and work with the National Employment Service. A mimeographed
booklet outlining steps that should be considered in alleviating labour problems was
widely distributed and favourably received. In November the activities of the committee were unanimously endorsed at a meeting that approved a suggestion each
grower be asked to contribute 50 cents per ton of strawberries and raspberries produced to assist in carrying out grower responsibilities in the farm-labour programme.
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD
During the year the sales made by the Board amounted to $88,213. Ninety-
one purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and two borrowers paid
up in full and received release of mortgage.   Collections were as follows:	
Loans      $3,411.06
Land sales      51,340.60
Foreclosed properties and areas—rentals, etc  902.80
Total   $55,654.46
The above figures include collections from the sale and rental of Doukhobor
lands in the amount of $24,080.23.
LIVE STOCK BRANCH
A. Kidd, V.S., D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Live Stock Commissioner and
Chief Veterinary Inspector
LIVE STOCK AND VETERINARY DIVISIONS
Acts
Animals Act
The Darfield-Mt. Olie Bull-control Area was approved on December 13th.
There are fourteen bull-control areas, sixteen bull districts, and three stallion-control
areas within the Province. Under the Animals Act Amendment Act, 1962, the
definition of " artificial insemination centre " now includes any establishment where
semen is collected, stored, or distributed for purposes of artificial insemination.
In addition to the two semen-producing centres, twenty-four insemination centres
have also been licensed. Fifty-nine technicians were licensed, of which four were
newly licensed, following examinations in theory and practice held by the Board of
Examiners.
 DD 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act
The eradication of brucellosis from the cattle population of the Province continues at a rapid rate. During the year the South Okanagan, the Kamloops-North
Okanagan, and the Cherryville Brucellosis-control Areas were declared certified
brucellosis-free areas by the Health of Animals Division of the Canada Department
of Agriculture. Through initial tests and retests the entire Province is certified
brucellosis-free, except for the Cariboo-Central British Columbia-Peace River portion of the Province. As the entire Province has been turned over to the Canada
Department of Agriculture to be certified brucellosis-free, it is likely this will be
achieved in 1963 as Veterinary Inspectors of the Health of Animals Division are
currently carrying out the initial tests of cattle in the remainder of the Province.
During the twelve-month period ended June 30th, there were 67,706 calves
inoculated with brucella vaccine. The cumulative total from the time the Federal-
Provincial brucellosis-control programme was established July 15, 1950, until June
30, 1962, now stands at 518,358 head. The total of calfhood vaccinations under
the joint programme is listed in Appendix No. 1.
Payments to veterinary practitioners for services rendered during the calfhood
vaccination year was $72,956. Total payments since the inception of free calfhood
vaccinations on May 1, 1956, now amount to $367,404.
Vibriosis continues to be a sporadic problem in some beef-cattle herds. The
ranchers are very conscious of this disease and are able to cope with it through
improved management practices. For the first time, vibriosis of sheep was diagnosed
on two sheep-ranches in the North Okanagan.
The Honourable the Minister of Agriculture appointed an Advisory Committee
to recommend a course of action to ascertain the cause of bovine pulmonary emphysema (skyline disease or bog fever). A pulmonary emphysema project was set up
and carried out on Tranquille Meadows, headed by a Veterinary Inspector of this
Department. From the report compiled, substantial progress has been made during
the first year, but a continuous series of yearly projects will be required in order to
establish the complete etiology.
In the Smithers-Burns Lake area, 1,200 pregnant cows and 200 pregnant ewes
were injected during January and February with selenium by a staff Veterinary
Inspector in order to demonstrate the efficiency of this procedure to prevent white
muscle disease (W.M.D.) in the calves and lambs born to the treated animals. The
cows received 25 milligrams of selenium and the ewes 5 milligrams. One calf
showed slight signs of W.M.D., and another calf, born five days after injection,
showed severe W.M.D. Inoculation of this calf resulted in a cure. There were no
deaths of offspring born from treated pregnant cattle and sheep. Owners, where
W.M.D. occurs, are advised to carry out a regular programme of inoculations for
the pregnant cow or ewe in order to prevent W.M.D. in the offspring.
Pink-eye continues to be a serious problem in some range areas, particularly in
the vicinity of Kamloops.
Veterinary Inspectors carried out routine inspections for foot-rot on 16,697
sheep at twenty-four sheep-ranches before grazing permits were issued allowing
sheep on Crown lands. Three flocks were quarantined until the foot-rot was cleaned
up.
Fur-farm Act
A total of 539 fur-farm licences was issued and $5,355 collected. The numbers
of breeding males and femals were: Mink, 113,472; chinchilla, 10,384; nutria, 414;
fox, 39; and marten, 29.   Inspectors made a total of 132 fur-farm visits.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962
DD 47
Two fur-farms were quarantined because of distemper in mink. One quarantine was lifted, along with three carry-over quarantines from the previous year. One
distemper quarantine remains in effect at the year-end.
Virus enteritis of mink was positively diagnosed on three farms in the Fraser
Valley through the Animal Pathology Laboratory. In the five years virus enteritis
has been present in this area, thirty-five farms have had a positive diagnosis. It is
known the disease is occurring on other mink-ranches but is not being reported.
Widespread use of vaccines for virus enteritis, distemper, and botulism is practised
by the great majority of mink ranchers. Aleutian disease is currently a general
problem and a serious situation for some mink-ranchers. Encouraging results with
iodine agglutination test (I.A.T.) in diagnosing sub-clinical cases shows great
promise for the control and eradication of jAieutian disease, and the experimental
use of vaccines shows promise.
lows:
Meat Inspection Act
Establishments under Meat Inspection Service during the year were as fol-
Establish-
ment No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Establishment and Location
Class
Clappison Packers Ltd., Haney	
Seed & Pitts Ltd., Pitt Meadows 	
Cariboo Meat Packing Co. Ltd., Prince George-
Star Meat Co. Ltd., Abbotsford  	
Kohler's European Sausage Ltd., Aldergrove	
Tommy Hong (T.H. Ranch), North Surrey _
Cambie Stock Farms Ltd., Richmond  	
Sun Min Sang Co., Ladner 	
Borsato Meat Ltd., Langley  	
Delta Cold Storage, Ladner  _.
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
Federal
Grading
Service
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Cariboo Meat Packing Co. Ltd. licence cancelled January 13th;   Sun Min Sang Co. licence cancelled February 19th;  T. H. Ranch licence cancelled February 21st;   Kohler's European Sausage Ltd. licensed April 16th.
Total carcasses inspected after slaughter and condemnations for 1962 were as
follows:—
Carcasses
Marked
" B.C.
Passed "
Carcasses
Condemned
Total
Percentage
Condemned
Portions
Condemned
Cattle	
Calves	
Sheep   	
Lambs      	
8,355i4
17,125
996
552
16,376
45
63%
789
8
1
20
8,419
17,914
1,004
553
16,396
45
0.757
4.404
0.796
0.180
0.122
1,419
623
84
79
4,484
3
Goats   	
 DD 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Causes of carcass condemnation were as follows:
Cause
Cattle
Calves
Swine
Sheep
1
17%
19
2
2
2
1
1
6
1
9
1
1
134
45
399
23
73
6
33
50
24
0
0
0
1
1
2
1
8
4
1
3
i
6
3
Septicaemia and pyemia   	
Dead in yard—ante-mortem— 	
—
Totals  	
63%
789
20
9
Milk Industry Act
The trend of more milk being produced on fewer dairy-farms continues, and
the number of farm holding-tanks and pipe-line milkers being installed assists toward
this end.
Veterinary Inspectors on seventy-eight dairy-farms examined 1,462 cows for
clinical causes of mastitis and found 649. Of these cases, treatment was recommended for 474 cows and fifty-four were eliminated as incurable. In four herds,
vaccination of the milking cows was recommended.
Two persons were charged under section 5 of the Milk Industry Act for illegal
sale of milk and were assessed fines and costs.
Under provisions of section 6 (1), the described area covered by the South
Okanagan Health Unit was approved as a milk pasteurization area on November
26th, the first in British Columbia and the first under the Milk Industry Act.
Appendix No. 2 contains the totals of dairy-farm inspections carried out, by
districts, by Veterinary Inspectors and Dairy Farm Inspectors.
Sheep Protection Act
Compensation paid from the Dog Tax Fund for the years 1960, 1961, and
1962 is as follows:—
Goats
Sheep
Poultry
Year
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
I960                  	
2
1
$42.50
15.00
263
197
227
$5,341.00
3,767.00
4,194.00
404
685
1,417
$665.06
1°61
574.21
1962                                	
1,472.00
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 49
Policies
Artificial Insemination Assistance Policy
The Live Stock Inspector maintained his regular check of frozen-semen ampules
at the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre, Milner, as required by the
Joint Dairy Breeds Committee for pure-bred cattle.
Grants were made to the Young Sire Evaluation Programme at the British
Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre. The annual grant toward sharing the
building costs and fieldman services was continued. Special (and final) grants were
made to the Alberni Farmers' Institute, the Bulkley Valley Cattle Breeders' Association, the Kamloops Artificial Insemination Association, and the Quesnel Artificial
Insemination Association.
The Artificial Insemination Assistance Policy was enlarged to assist inseminating centres in the purchase of a frozen-semen cabinet, where difficulties encountered
in transport of semen from the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre to
the inseminating centres have made fresh-semen service impracticable.
Cattle Placement Policy
Seventeen head of grade Holstein cows and heifers and a young registered
Guernsey bull calf were selected by the Live Stock Inspector from the Fraser Valley
Dairy Herd Improvement Association herds and shipped to Telkwa, Saanich, and
Quesnel. During the thirteen-year period of this policy, 803 head of dairy cattle
have been selected and shipped.
Three registered Hereford yearling bulls were selected from Fraser Valley beef
herds, and shipments arranged to Bella Coola, Lasqueti Island, and Graham Island
in the Queen Charlottes.
Federal-Provincial Sheep Transportation Policy
Three shipments qualified, and 372 grade breeding ewes were transported.
A total of $479.64 was refunded to the purchasers.
Live Stock Improvement Policy
Freight assistance was given on six pure-bred 4-H Ayrshire calves and one
pure-bred ram transported into the Peace River Block.
Pure-bred Sires Purchase Assistance Policy
A total of seventeen bulls was bought—three Aberdeen-Angus, thirteen Here-
fords, and one Holstein.
Veterinary Service District Policy
Four veterinary service districts were serviced by veterinary practitioners
located at Dawson Creek, Prince George, Smithers, and Williams Lake, and were
paid the maximum grant.
General
Assisted by members of the Extension Branch, the Live Stock Branch sponsored five sheep-breeder field-days at Duncan, Dawson Creek, Prince George, Abbotsford, and Westwold, as well as a swine-breeders' short course at the Federal
Experimental Farm, Saanichton. Staff assistance was provided at the sheepmen's
conference, the bred gilt sale, and the carcass display at the Bull Sale.
 DD 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In dairy-cattle feeding and management, lectures were presented by the Live
Stock Inspector at Tomslake, Fort St. John, McBride, Smithers, Vanderhoof, Prince
George, Quesnel, Cloverdale, Richmond, Saanich, and Metchosin.
Staff members participated in the activities of the Artificial Insemination
Advisory Committee, the Beef Cattle Advisory Committee, the Sheep Steering Committee, the Bovine Pulmonary Emphysema Committee, and the Board of Examiners
for artificial-insemination technicians.
The Assistant Live Stock Commissioner was present at the Royal Winter Fair
in connection with the three carloads of British Columbia dairy cattle exhibited, and
attended two meetings at Ottawa—one on R.O.P. beef cattle and the other on
R.O.P. swine.
Practically all staff members, to varying degrees, have participated in civil
defence activities. Three Veterinary Inspectors attended two veterinary indoctrination courses, and the Live Stock Commissioner attended the first senior administrative agriculturists' indoctrination course, all courses being at the Civil Defence College, Arnprior, Ont.
BRANDS DIVISION
(Thomas Moore)
Inspection Service
Brand inspection was carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at
seventy-one shipping points and by Brand Inspectors and Deputy Brand Inspectors
at twenty-six points.
Brand Inspection
A total of 153,651 head of cattle was inspected, an increase of 27,300 from
1961. Horses inspected numbered 8,548, an increase of 900. There were 15,264
hides inspected, an increase of seventy-one from 1961. Kamloops-Nicola area had
54,848 cattle inspected, an increase of 4,672 head. Cariboo cattle inspections
totalled 33,361, an increase of 9,501.   (See Appendix No. 3.)
Exports to United States
Total cattle exported from British Columbia to the United States from January
1st to December 31st numbered 27,686, of which 26,183 head moved from Interior
points. This is 5,025 more than in 1961, and comprised 446 bulls, 1,685 cows,
15,312 steers, 3,708 heifers, and 5,032 calves. (Figures by courtesy of Health of
Animals Division, Canada Department of Agriculture, Vancouver.)
Check Points
Shipments of stock, hides, and dressed beef are checked through these posts by
the Department of Commercial Transport members, who are Deputy Brand Inspectors.   Shipments checked are as follows:—
Flood  1961 1962
Cattle   13,480 14,686
Horses    1,897                1,855
Hides   6,908                6,349
Dressed beef (quarters)   665                   596      ;•]
Number of trucks checked  1,979                1,868
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962
DD 51
Fernie—
Cattle
Horses
Hides -
Number of trucks checked
Golden (August to November, 1962)—
Cattle 	
Horses 	
Number of trucks checked	
1961
1962
14,747
12,543
144
433
1,048
160
687
628
1,792
52
80
Brand Book Supplement No. 2
The annual supplement, No. 2, to the Brand Book, showing all brands issued in
1962, will be compiled in 1963 and will be available later in the year.
Marketing of Cattle
Cattle in the Interior continue to be marketed mainly through sales held twice a
month and in some cases weekly at Kamloops, Williams Lake, Quesnel, Okanagan
Falls, Merritt, Dawson Creek, and Fort St. John during the heavier shipping season.
McLeod Auction Sale, Alberta, has handled a lot of British Columbia cattle from the
Kootenay area and several large shipments from Douglas Lake and Chilco ranches.
The opening of the Rogers Pass has made a fast highway for stock to the Calgary
market.
Dairy Farm Inspectors made 462 visits to farms, slaughter-houses, and auction
sales in order to check that all persons dealing in stock are licensed.
Convictions under the Criminal Code
Eighteen convictions for theft of cattle and one for fraudulent possession of stray
cattle were obtained by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police during the year of 1962.
Convictions under the Stock Brands Act
Twenty-two prosecutions were made under the above Act by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and our Brand Inspectors. Nineteen convictions were obtained.
DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT SERVICES
(J. A. Mace)
Operation and Production
As at June 30, 1962, the same twenty-six routes were in operation as previously
reported. They contained 554 herds and 19,112 cows. This is a decrease from a
year ago of twenty-four herds and 149 cows. Average herd size showed a further
increase of 0.2 to 34.5 cows. Decrease in the number of herds on test was caused
by lowering the work-day requirements of D.H.I.A. supervisors from twenty-three
per month to twenty-one.
Two major changes in rules concerning record reporting were instituted as of
January 1, 1961. One was that the production of yearling and 2-year-old cows
was reported as of the three hundred and fifth day of lactation (instead of up to 365
days as previously allowed), and the other that a cow's lactation belonged to the
year in which occurred the three hundred and fifth day instead of the four hundredth
day.    These changes caused a major increase in the number of milking periods
 DD 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
reported in 1961, and it was anticipated that the loss of heifer production for sixty
days would cause a lowering of the previous year's average.
Completed lactations number 20,376, an increase of 5,711; however, production showed an increase of 125 pounds to 10,725 pounds of milk, and the decrease
was limited to 2 pounds of butterfat for an average of 435 pounds.
A summarized report of production by breeds is attached as Appendix No. 4.
Approximately 5,000 heifer calves will be identified by D.O.T. ear-tags in 1962.
Subsidy
During the fiscal year April 1, 1961, to March 31, 1962, subsidy payments to
dairy herd improvement associations amounted to $56,210.
Reports
Lifetime production of cows on D.H.I.A. test continues to be reported.
H.I.C. Stencil No. 89 will show details of those animals with over 2,500 pounds of
butterfat to their credit.
Reports on the production of sires in A.I. units continue to be made, two
reports for each breed being stencilled and distributed during the year.
A further increase in the productive ability of A.I. over non-A.I. cattle was
shown in 1961, with the A.I. animals showing an increase of 2 percentage points
for milk and 1 for fat over the preceding year, while the non-A.I. cows remained
the same.
Summary
The Quesnel-Prince George route continues to lack sufficient members for fully
efficient operation. While this is not desirable, it appears that it will be necessary
to extend coverage to include the Vanderhoof area to overcome this situation.
Many herds still wish to come on D.H.I.A. routes which are presently unable
to accommodate them, although this pressure has been somewhat alleviated by the
institution of two private-owner sampler operations in the Fraser Valley, which are
now testing approximately 100 herds with about 2,000 cows in them. This system
of testing can give valuable information to participating herd-owners in the culling
and feeding of their dairy herd.
ANIMAL PATHOLOGY LABORATORY
(Dr. J. C. Bankier, B.V.Sc.)
Assistance of other laboratories has been sought from time to time in conducting certain studies on specimen material which the Animal Pathology Laboratory is
not equipped to handle. In this regard, the co-operation of the Federal Animal
Pathology Laboratory, on the University of British Columbia campus; the Ontario
Veterinary College, Guelph, Ont.; Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, Toronto, Ont.; and the Animal Diseases Research Institute, Hull, Que., is gratefully
acknowledged.
Numerous meetings of live-stock and poultry owners and meetings related to
Departmental work were attended by staff members. Field visits were made in connection with disease problems encountered in specimens submitted to the laboratory.
Personal interviews in the laboratory with farmers or their representatives concerning disease problems numbered 1,013. The number of live-stock and poultry owners
who received service on the basis of specimens submitted totalled 822. The total
number of specimens examined was 9,276.    (See Appendix No. 5.)
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 53
Some of the more important diseases encountered in submitted specimens
were:—
Animal Species Disease Encountered
Cattle Aspergillosis, clostridiosis, coccidiosis, eosinophilic myositis,
fungal infection in foetus, listeriosis, lungworm, pasteur-
ellosis, pulmonary emphysema, salmonellosis, staphylococcal mastitis, vibriosis.
Chinchilla Giardosis, pasteurella pseudo-tuberculosis, sterility due to pro-
teus infection of female reproductive tract.
Goat Demodectic mange.
Horse Joint-ill, tetanus.
Mink Distemper, enterotoxEemia, plasmacytosis, rickets, salmonellosis, steatitis, tuberculosis, virus enteritis.
Rabbit Mucoid enteritis, pasteurellosis.
Sheep Coccidiosis, hookworm, listeriosis, pasteurellosis.
Swine Erysipelas, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis.
Poultry Aspergillosis, chronic respiratory disease, entero-hepatitis, epidemic tremor, erysipelas, infectious bronchitis, leucosis,
moniliasis, Newcastle disease, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis, tuberculosis.
A detailed tabulation of findings in specimens examined is available upon
request.
MARKETS AND STATISTICS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner
SYNOPSIS
Increased production was a dominating feature of the agricultural economy in
1962, and resulted in a spotty market price structure for a number of the major
crop items.
In spite of this, the index of farm prices (1935-39=100) displayed a rising
tendency early in the year and remained buoyant throughout, reaching a high of
295.7 in October. The index average for the twelve-month period was 287.8, the
second highest figure on record, exceeded only by the all-time high of 291.4 established in 1952. Higher returns from live stock, principally cattle, and from cereal
grains were among the chief contributing factors to this development.
Reflecting these higher returns was the farm cash income from the sale of farm
products, which reached a new record of $148,000,000, a gain of nearly $11,000,-
000 over the figure for 1961.
FEEDS
Decreased supplies of feed grains, resulting from the reduced harvest of the
preceding year, forced prices upward during 1962. By midsummer feed wheat had
increased by $8 per ton, oats by $6, and barley by $11. The improved supply
position in the latter months of the year brought prices down. Feed wheat declined
$5 from its top price and oats $14, while the barley price increase was wiped out.
Prepared feeds rose by about 5 per cent during the year, but hay and fodder
prices remained steady throughout.
 DD 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
LIVE STOCK
Once again the market for live stock was dominated by higher prices for beef
cattle, which by September had risen as much as $6 per hundredweight above the
price one year earlier. This was a reflection of a continued strong demand, particularly for export, as a result of the devaluation of the Canadian dollar.
Exports of cattle continued to increase as a total of 27,690 head was shipped
to United States points. This represented a gain of 31 per cent over the movement
in 1961.   The bulk of export traffic was again made up of feeder cattle.
A sharp increase of more than 60 per cent in shipments of cattle to Prairie
points was noted this year. In all, nearly 44,000 head were shipped out, mainly for
finishing.
Year-end population figures indicated a further increase in numbers of beef
cows and heifers on farms as compared to totals of one year earlier, pointing to a
continuation of the trend toward cow-calf operations among the Province's beef-
growers.
Hog prices also showed substantial increases during the year, but production
showed a change downward from 1961 levels. Hog numbers declined 8 per cent
to a total of only 37,000 head at the end of the year.
In September the Federal Government announced a reduction of $1 on the
$3 premium payable on Grade A hogs.
Sheep and lamb marketings showed a slight drop as prices remained relatively
static until late autumn, when the market strengthened moderately.
Lambs came under support on a deficiency payment basis on July 1st. The
support price was set at $18.80 per hundredweight for live lambs grading Good
and Choice in the 36- to 56-pound dressed-weight range.
POULTRY AND EGGS
Higher feed costs coupled with lower egg prices presented difficulties for producers this year. While total egg production increased moderately, the average
weighted price for all eggs sold fell to 30.9 cents per dozen, the lowest level of the
entire post-war period.   Egg deficiency payments amounted to 1 cent per dozen.
Total production of poultry meat was down fractionally from the 1961 output,
but prices were slightly higher for chicken, particularly broilers. Turkey production
decreased, chiefly in the medium-weight range, while average prices remained relatively unchanged.
Broiler marketings were down, but prices increased by 4*/2 cents per pound
during the year.
DAIRY PRODUCTS
For the first time in recent years the continued trend toward annual increases
in milk production appeared to have been halted. Preliminary estimates for 1962
place the dairy-cow population of the Province at 91,000 head, a decrease of 3,000
from the preceding year. This in turn reflected a continued decline in dairy-herd
numbers and a further increase in average herd size.
While output of creamery butter rose by 22 per cent to a total of 7,215,000
pounds for the year, production of Cheddar cheese fell off 19 per cent to 979,000
pounds.
Manufacture of ice-cream totalled 4,576,000 gallons, while production of cottage cheese amounted to an estimated 6,800,000 pounds.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 55
This year, for the first time, dairy-farmers in those areas under marketing control were declared eligible for the Federal Government subsidy of 25 cents per hundredweight for milk going into manufacture.
FRUIT
Increased yields of apples, peaches, and small fruits this year more than offset
modest declines in other fruits to produce a substantial 16-per-cent rise in over-all
production. An apple crop of over 120,000 tons was a major contributing factor
to this increase.
For the greater part, sales were satisfactory, although a disproportionate percentage of larger sizes of apples created some difficulties. By the end of December,
apple stocks had been reduced to about 2,370,000 boxes, following brisker movements in both Eastern and Western Canadian markets and in the United States than
were experienced in 1961.
Apple sales to the United Kingdom were down slightly, due primarily to shortages of the smaller sizes preferred on that market.
Among highlights of the fruit-marketing picture in 1962 was the setting of an
all-time record in the distribution of Mcintosh apples in the popular Handi-pak
carton.   In all, sales totalled in excess of 1,500,000 packages.
Further progress was achieved in the development of the United Kingdom
market for cherries, apricots, and peaches. Shipments of these amounted to 15,400,
9,985, and 32,400 packages respectively.
In the small-fruits field a firm demand continued for all types, particularly
strawberries, blueberries, and cane fruits.
VEGETABLES
A cutback in planted acreages of corn, dried and seed peas reduced total vegetable production this year. Production of other vegetables was on a par with the
average of recent years, although the general quality of some was adversely affected
by the unseasonably cool weather encountered during the growing season. Prices
were generally unchanged from the preceding year.
Signs of renewed activity in the growing of field tomatoes for the fresh market
became evident this year as growers indicated decreasing interest in producing canning varieties. The cannery prices of $37 per ton for No. 1 grade and $18 for No. 2
failed to arouse sustained grower interest, and tomato acreage remained at a comparatively low level.
FIELD CROPS
An increase in seeded acreage combined with favourable growing conditions
to produce a grain crop of over 11,000,000 bushels this year. This represented a
gain of 15 per cent over the 1961 crop total, and was one of the largest on record.
Prices were firm as sales continued at a brisk pace.
Production of forage-crop seed dropped sharply as much of the land previously
cropped was diverted to the more readily marketable cereal grains. The total yield
was below 3,000,000 pounds, as compared with 8,500,000 pounds one year ago.
Potato production declined by 12 per cent as a result of acreage cuts. Prices
also dropped to less than $40 per ton in the face of low-priced imports. The value
for duty import on United States potatoes, under which duty was based upon an
arbitrary value of $2.65 per hundredweight, was imposed in mid-October.
 DD 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
MISCELLANEOUS
Cool summer temperatures and unsettled weather effectively reduced honey
production to 1,450,000 pounds, a drop of 30 per cent from the record 1961 crop.
Prices remained at an average of 21 cents per pound at wholesale.
The wool crop was down slightly as some 50,000 head produced 389,000
pounds.   The average farm price was 48 cents per pound.
A feature of the 1962 ranch-fur market was the sale of thirty-seven matched
B.C.-raised mink pelts at $2,886, an average of $78 per pelt. This was a new
record price for mink pelts in North America. Total sales at auction in Vancouver
this year exceeded $1,000,000.
PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Provincial Plant Pathologist
The year 1962 is notable for the dramatic development of several minor diseases. For example, most growers have never previously observed the disease
botrytis on beans. There was also a sudden increase in the severity of early blight
of tomatoes in the Northern Okanagan. The main predisposing factor that favoured
the development of these minor diseases was excessive moisture.
DISEASES
Field Crops and Vegetables
Anthracnose of Tomatoes.—This disease was found for the first time in the
Interior.   It appears to be of minor importance.
Early Blight of Tomatoes.—This disease was the major problem in the canning
industry of the Interior.   The greatest losses were experienced in the Vernon area.
Botrytis of Beans.—This disease was widespread in the Lower Fraser Valley for
the first time in many years. Prolonged wet weather in early August favoured the
development of this disease and caused an estimated loss of about 20 per cent.
Bacterial Ring-rot of Potatoes.—Ten growers' potato crops are under detention,
compared with twenty-seven the previous year. British Columbia has much less
ring-rot than the rest of Canada.
Bacterial Soft-rot of Potatoes.—This disease has caused severe losses to growers
whose potatoes were partially flooded at the Coast.
Tree Fruits
Apple Scab.—The incidence of scab was slight in the Interior and heavy at the
Coast. The currently recommended fungicides adequately control this disease.
There is some indication that two early applications of dodine (Cyprex) applied at
appropriate times may be all that is necessary.
Perennial Canker of Apple.—This disease continues to be a problem in the
Okanagan. For the first time three forms of this disease have been reported—
(1) conventional perennial canker, (2) confused perennial canker, and (3) anthracnose. The Antonovka apple variety was adversely affected by the recently diagnosed
confused perennial canker.
Powdery Mildew of Apple.—This disease was widespread and caused a considerable amount of russetting on the fruit in the Okanagan.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 57
Coryneum Blight of Cherries.—This disease caused severe damage in the
Abbotsford and Chilliwack districts.
Fireblight of Pears.—There has been a sudden increase in the incidence of this
disease in some districts in the Okanagan during the last two years. The over-all
loss was not great.
Trellis Rust of Pears and Junipers.—A new outbreak was found at Chilliwack,
the first on the mainland of Canada. Fortunately this outbreak appears to be of
recent origin. The incidence is slight and apparently is confined to an area bounded
by Reece and Berkeley Avenues, Young Street North, and Corbould Street North.
An eradication programme will begin during April, 1963.
The eradication programme of the first outbreak in North America at Victoria
and district continues. Fifteen additional junipers were removed and destroyed.
The rust fungus Gymnosporangium fuscum D.C. has been found on the following
species of junipers: Juniperus chinensis L. var. plumosa Hornibr., Juniperus sabina
L. var. sabina, Juniperus sabina L. var. tamariscifolia Ait., Juniperus sabina L. var.
variegata (West.) Audib., Juniperus squamata Lamb. var. fargesii Rehd. and Wils.,
Juniperus squamata Lamb. var. meyeri Rehd., Juniperus squamata Lamb. var. pro-
strata Hornibr., and Pyrus communis L.
The rust was not recognized on Juniper squamata var. meyeri until the spring
of 1962. The rust on certain pear-trees also indicates that another species is strongly
suspected of being a host, Juniperus communis L. var. hibernica Gord., the Irish
juniper. There was about a 70-per-cent reduction in the amount of rust on pear-
trees in 1962 compared with 1961. The rust, however, is still well established and
widely distributed in Oak Bay, Victoria, and Gordon Head.
Bacterial Canker of Cherry.—This disease was widely distributed at the Coast
and caused considerable damage to young trees.
Small Fruits
Godronia Canker of Blueberry.—The incidence of this disease was very high.
Experimental tests with four different fungicides applied at five different times failed
to give any significant results.
Botrytis of Strawberry.—Fruit rot caused by Botrytis sp. was widespread in the
Fraser Valley.   Losses of 1 to 2 tons per acre were experienced in some districts.
Powdery Mildew of Strawberry.—The incidence of this disease was greater in
the Fraser Valley than it has been for many years.
Ornamentals
Scab of Flowering Crab.—This disease was widespread and was severe enough
to cause defoliation in the Fraser Valley.
Bacterial Blight of Japanese Flowering Cherry.—This disease was prevalent at
the Coast.
POULTRY BRANCH
W. H. Pope, P.Ag., Poultry Commissioner
During 1962 the poultry industry of this Province has made an effort to adjust
production to the market's demand. There has been some expansion of commercial
egg production on Vancouver Island and Central Interior points to meet local requirements.    Expansion has been accomplished by increasing flock size with a
 DD 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
general decrease in numbers of flocks. This is generally true throughout the Province as farms get fewer in number and larger in size. High feed costs coupled with
record low prices for commercial eggs and fowl and marginal prices for turkey have
taxed the ability and ingenuity of the most efficient producers to show minimum
operating margins.   Broiler production is the notable exception.
The following table shows the trend of poultry prices during the past five
years:—
Producer Price
1962 Price as
Percentage
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
of Five-year
Average
33.3
25.0
19.4
33.0
t
32.1
22.2
12.8
24.0
t
31.4
21.4
13.9
31.1
t
32.1
17.9
12.7
26.1
t
30.9
23.0
11.0
26.0
96.8
Chicken  —   	
103.1
78.5
Turkey       _ 	
92.8
COMMERCIAL EGGS
The heavy pullet-chick placement during the latter months of 1961 resulted in
generous supplies of commercial eggs being available during the first nine months
of 1962. Eggs handled through registered grading-stations reached an all-time high
of 16,166 cases, or nearly one-half million dozen eggs during the week ended September 1st.
Egg Quality Study
A three-year study of factors that affect egg quality is in its terminal year.
This study, jointly supported by the B.C. Feed Manufacturers' Association and the
Department of Agriculture, has resulted in the publication of two reports, with a
third and final report under preparation.
Egg Marketing
Again this year commercial egg-producers have attempted to evolve a marketing scheme under the Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act acceptable to the majority of producers. The activities of the committee concerned have
resulted in the formation of a Provincial organization known as the B.C. Egg
Producers' Association.   (For prices and production see Appendices Nos. 6 and 7.)
POULTRY-MEAT PRODUCTION
Broilers
The production and marketing of broilers and roasters have been the most
stable and profitable part of British Columbia's poultry industry during 1962. Production in bird numbers has been reduced by about 7 per cent, but the reduction in
the number of pounds of meat produced was slight. Birds marketed in 1962 averaged 5.5 per cent heavier than those marketed during the same period in 1961.
Fowl
Fowl continued to be a salvage product of commercial egg production, with
prices to the producer bearing little relation to those charged at retail levels.
 department of agriculture, 1962 dd 59
Turkeys
Turkey production dropped sharply from 1961 levels, as egg settings for all
weights were down about 20 per cent from 1961. High feed prices and several years
of unsatisfactory returns contributed to this reduction. (For production and producer prices see Appendices Nos. 8 and 9.)
FLOCK APPROVAL POLICY
The success of this programme can be measured by the virtual elimination of
pullorum disease as an economic factor from poultry flocks of British Columbia.
While there have been occasional introductions of infected stock from the United
States, these have been located and eliminated. All birds reacting to the field test
have been submitted to the Provincial Laboratory for confirmation and possible
isolation of the causative organism.    (See Appendices Nos. 10, 11, and 12.)
DISEASE
Respiratory diseases of poultry were reported generally throughout the Province, with the greatest incidence in the Central Fraser Valley. Recognition and
prevention or treatment was generally complicated by the presence of more than one
disease producing entity in the affected flock.
There has been a sharp increase in the number of flocks reporting a high incidence of leucosis. This disease is becoming a serious factor in broiler flocks, with
losses commencing as early as six weeks and condemnations at the killing plants
running as high as 20 per cent in isolated lots. A request for a study of leucosis
research and possible control measures was made to the Canada Department of Agriculture by the Canadian Poultry Commissioners in September of this year.
Epidemic tremors is widespread and is particularly serious in hatchery flocks
because of the constant danger of spread through the hatching-eggs produced. It is
probable that this disease has a greater economic significance to commercial egg
producers than is presently recognized.
Available vaccines for respiratory diseases continued to be used widely by producers in the Fraser Valley, although total sales were down sharply from 1961, as
indicated in Appendix No. 13.
There have been continued requests by producers and their organizations for
additional laboratory facilities to increase the efficiency and scope of the diagnostic
service.
FARM MANAGEMENT AND RECORD-KEEPING
Sixteen commercial egg-producers and thirty-three broiler-producers have participated in the farm management and record-keeping programme during 1962.
The required records are being maintained and processed by the Nanaimo and New
Westminster offices of this Branch. In addition to providing producers with an
opportunity of determining their cost of production, this programme allows them to
compare the efficiency of their operation with those of others in their area. All
records are coded to prevent farm identification. Distribution of the summaries is
limited to those participating.
This programme also provides this Branch with a current indicator of the
economic well-being of these forms of poultry production.
 DD 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PRODUCER-DISTRIBUTORS
The constantly diminishing production margin made it necessary for many
relatively large commercial egg-producers to wholesale, and at times retail, all or
part of their product in order to maintain an adequate return. The increase in this
practice resulted in a softer price structure as attempts were made to gain new
outlets for a reasonably large volume. This trend has created healthy competition
at the wholesale level but has been responsible for a downward pressure on producer
prices. In many instances, and this has been particularly true on Vancouver Island
and in the Central Interior, eggs were produced at or about cost, and the producer
derived his income from his marketing activities. It is likely that this trend will
continue as production margins remain low.
PUBLICATIONS
As a result of recommendations made at poultry servicemen's workshops in
late 1961, a series of six leaflets on poultry management were published in cooperation with the University of British Columbia. These publications cover egg
quality, growing pullets, broiler breeders, laying flocks, vaccination, and replacement
chicks. In co-operation and collaboration with the Department of Poultry Science,
University of British Columbia, a bulletin entitled " Some Nutritional Aspects of
Broiler Production " and a paper on the " Mineral Intake of Laying Birds in Relation
to Rate and Quality of Egg Production " were published and distributed.
FIELD ACTIVITIES
Field service work with producers of various poultry products continued to
occupy a major portion of the time and effort of this Branch.
As the industry has developed and farms have become larger, there has been a
considerable change in the type of information sought. The problems of large farms
require detailed analysis and careful programming to ensure reasonable continuity
of high-level production. Consideration of such problems requires more time and
care than was formerly necessary.
RANDOM SAMPLE TEST
The random sample test station on Marshall Road, Abbotsford, continued to
satisfactorily perform the functions for which it was designed; that is, to measure
the inherent productive capacity of poultry exposed for sale in the Province of British
Columbia. The results of this programme are contained in the various reports
published by and available from this Department.
In addition to production testing, two additional projects of interest to the
industry have been or are being carried out:—
(1) A project to determine the effect of egg dipping on hatchability was undertaken. This work involved the use of the hatchery facilities when they
were not being used for the production testing programme. Reports on
the results are on file. Further work will be undertaken when the hatchery
is again available.
(2) A study of the effects of the interaction of levels of nutrition, population
density, and strain differences is being conducted in substitution for a
broiler production test. This project was recommended by the Advisory
Committee to the random sample test to replace the broiler test for one
year.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1962
DD 61
As differences in the productive capacity of the various strains and kinds of
poultry narrows, the facilities at the test station will be available for a wider range of
investigation and demonstration.
SOIL SURVEY BRANCH
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Chief
Field surveys in 1962 were in Matsqui Municipality and in the Thompson
River valley from Ashcroft to Savona and Shuswap Lake area. A research project
on forest-land classification was started in the Fly Hills region.
Interim reports and soil maps of Chilliwhack and Sumas Municipalities were
completed. At Ottawa the editing of the report for publication " Soil Survey of the
Kettle River Valley " is progressing. Two meetings of the Soils Advisory Committee and from two to three meetings of each of three subcommittees were held
and reported. A meeting of the Reclamation Committee took place in the Ashcroft-
Savona area in October. This was reported as Brief 41 of the Reclamation Committee in November. A member of the staff was appointed to a committee on postgraduate studies at the University of British Columbia. Two members were engaged at soils extension work.
MATSQUI MUNICIPALITY
A soil survey of Matsqui Municipality was started in May and will be continued
in 1963. About 35,000 acres were classified in detail, and an additional 10,500
acres in unorganized territory on adjacent uplands also were classified, but on a
reconnaissance scale of mapping. Representative soil-type profiles were described
and sampled for analyses.
The lowland soils are derived chiefly from Fraser River flood-plain deposits of
a nature similar to those in Chilliwhack Municipality, which was surveyed in 1961.
Most of the soils were assigned to the Gleysolic, Regosolic, and Organic orders.
These distinctions are due mainly to the different drainage conditions.
The soils of the uplands are derived from a mantle of loess which overlies glacial outwash, glacial till, and glacio-marine formations. The upland soils were
assigned to the Acid Brown Wooded and Concretionary Brown soil groups.
ASHCROFT-SAVONA AREA
This area includes the Bonaparte Valley along the Cariboo Highway and the
Thompson River valley between Ashcroft and Savona. The soil survey was undertaken at the request of the Comptroller of Water Rights as part of a combined soil
and irrigation-water resource survey. About 51,000 acres were classified on a scale
of 1,000 feet to an inch, of which 24,300 were graded as potentially irrigable.
Eventually this map-area will be included in the general soil survey of the Thompson
River valley.
The map-area is in the most arid part of British Columbia, the annual precipitation being around 8 inches. Most of the soils were assigned to the Brown soil
group; a few Regosolic and Meadow soils also were differentiated. According to
suitability for irrigation, about 75 per cent of the irrigable land was rated in the
fourth and fifth classes. This is due to coarse texture-profiles, stoniness, shallow
solums, and adverse topography. Salts occur in the subsoils of many of these soils,
which could cause trouble when they are irrigated by forming accumulations in
depressions or on lower slopes.
 DD 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Information as to irrigation-water requirements, the most suitable crops and
their probable yields was reported in Reclamation Committee Brief 41. An interim
soil-survey report and soil maps of the area will be prepared in 1963.
SHUSWAP LAKE AREA
The survey extending westward from the Salmon Arm locality, started in 1961,
was continued in 1962. About 23,000 acres were classified between Notch Hill
and Adams River, including Turtle Valley and the lower part of the valley of Chase
Creek.   Very few new soil types were encountered.
Since the soil survey of the North and South Thompson River valleys and adjacent lands will take several years to complete, interim soil-survey reports and soil
maps will be produced for use by co-operating agencies. These will fill the more
immediate needs for soils information, and serve until published reports are available. An interim soil-survey report and soil map covering the Salmon River valley
and the Salmon Arm area will be prepared in 1963.
FOREST-LAND CLASSIFICATION
Introductory work was done in 1962 in regard to the classification of land for
forestry. Inasmuch as the Canadian system of soil classification was designed primarily for service to agriculture, research is necessary to determine what adjustments are necessary to make soil classification serve a useful purpose in forest
management. The demand was from the Federal and Provincial Forest Services.
Early in 1962 the Soils Advisory Committee appointed a sub-committee on forest-
land classification. The sub-committee assigned a research project to the Soil Survey Branch.
The study consisted of the mapping of soils and natural vegetation on a transect
a mile in width. The transect began in the Salmon River valley-bottom near Falkland, at about 1,800 feet elevation, and was to end near Bolean Lake, about 5,000
feet elevation.   The area was chosen to include a wide range of soils and vegetation.
However, the time available for this purpose was too limited to complete more
than 4 miles of a 10-mile strip. As far as the survey went, the soils were examined
in detail, and descriptions of the natural vegetation also were taken. The age, height,
and diameter of tree species were included at a number of locations to compile site
indices on each classified soil. The information will be processed early in 1963
to determine if a satisfactory correlation is possible between mappable soil conditions and the volume of tree growth.
SOIL CONSERVATION
Soil testing of samples submitted by farmers, district officials, and others was
continued in 1962. Some 660 samples were examined for alkali. Twelve per cent
contained black and 14 per cent white alkali in concentrations harmful to plant
growth. Thirty-three samples of water intended for irrigation were tested; 25 per
cent were too alkaline for the purpose.
In the Okanagan Valley about seventy visits were made to farms with drainage
problems. Plans were made for 9,000 feet of drainage-works, which were installed
by December 1st, and plans for an additional 1,700 feet of drains are in progress.
In the Lower Fraser Valley thirty-one farms which occupy 1,163 acres were
examined for drainage. This Branch co-operated with the Agricultural Engineering
Branch in planning 175,991 feet of tile drains and 18,700 feet of ditches.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962 DD 63
Water-table studies and hydraulic conductivity measurements were undertaken
at nine locations in the Lower Fraser Valley to determine the most economic spacing between Tile drains in different soils. Studies of sub-surface drainage conditions and subsidence of peat and muck soils when drained and cultivated were
undertaken. An inventory of drainage-works and the preparation of a proposed
drainage extension programme has been started.
In the Okanagan Valley there was an increased demand in 1962 for advisory
assistance in regard to irrigation. Some seventy-three farm visits were made to
check sprinkler systems, application rates, irrigation intervals, and soil water requirements. Co-operation was continued with irrigation districts and the Canada Research Station, Summerland, the emphasis being on flow control, irrigation requirements of soils, and the overhead irrigation of grapes and dwarf-tree fruits.
Other duties included lectures to farm audiences, irrigation workshops, television programmes, the Soils Advisory Committee Sub-committee on Land Drainage,
and advisory assistance to the Water Rights Service on water requirements of soils
in relation to applications for water rights by ranchers and farmers.
LABORATORY
Laboratory analyses completed in 1962 included examination of soil samples
collected from the Shuswap Lake area in 1961, and 1962 samples from the Ashcroft-
Savona area. Clays were separated from four soil profiles from the Shuswap Lake
area. Arrangements for X-ray analyses to determine the nature of these clays is in
progress. Many soil and water samples brought in by district officials, farmers, and
others were tested for harmful content of alkali.
In the winter of 1962/63 laboratory investigations were started as a preliminary step in the development of soil-testing procedures for soils in different parts
of the Province. This will include a study of the nature of nutrient element compounds and their distribution in the soil groups of classified areas.
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
F. O. McDonald, Manager
Mild winter weather permitted the refilling of cisterns in the first week of February, and water was turned into the system in mid-April, with all nine pumps in
operation. Services were further increased to 7 industrial, 84 commercial, and 562
residential customers.
For the fourth consecutive year, another 3,000 feet of waterproofing with fibre-
glass and asphalt was carried out. Replacement of wooden flumes with half-round
steel sheets was continued.
Construction of 1,300 feet of new flume was commenced this year, as well as
the first stage of a drainage project on Osoyoos West Bench. An additional 150
acres, comprising the Reed, Hester, Testalinda, and Tinhorn Creek fans, have been
surveyed and will be serviced shortly.
The committee conducting experiments on irrigation factors on soils in the
Oliver-Osoyoos area submitted an interim report on findings to date. Indications
point to the possibility of a considerable saving in future volumes of water application in this area.
 DD 64                                              BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDICES
APPENDIX No.  1
Calfhood Vaccinations under Federal-Provincial Brucellosis Control
Total
Period                                                                                                        Vaccinations
July 15, 1950, to June 30, 1951                                   ....    18,929
July 1, 1951, to June 30, 1952 -    24,178
July 1, 1952, to June 30, 1953          29,605
July 1, 1953, to June 30, 1954                                                       ..     34,105
July 1, 1954, to June 30, 1955     36,815
July 1, 1955, to June 30, 1956 >    36,412
July 1, 1956, to June 30, 1957..    39,230
July 1, 1957, to Tune 30,  1958                                                                                                                        47,087
July 1, 1958, to June 30, 1959       ....                                  58,896
July 1, 1959, to June 30, 1960                                  ....    59,945
July 1, 1960, to June 30, 1961 -                   65,450
July 1, 1961, to June 30, 1962	
    67,706
Totals 	
  518,358
Total calves vaccinated under the Provincial policy during the period from July 31, 1941, to July 14, 1950,
was 83,730 head.
APPENDIX No. 2
Dairy-farm Inspections under Milk Industry Act
District
Number of
Dairy-farm
Number of Dairy-farms
Issued Notice of Cancellation by Inspectors
Number of Approved
Dairy-farms
Raw
Fluid
Raw
Fluid
157
4
9
3
42
157
13
9
31
667
1
4
1
136
344
1
1
71
466
21
5
133
2,679
87
2,014
712
2
7
25
243
5
1
Pemberton-Sechelt
33
3
5
Sandspit
1
1
	
Tota's
5,221
8
142
48
2,675
Four hundred and forty-seven additional notices of cancellation were mailed out in Milk Board areas where
the dairy-farmer notified the Board of cessation of operations.
Twenty-two visits were made to issue warning where milk was deemed to be sold illegally.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962
DD 65
APPENDIX No. 3
Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1962
District                                                 Cattle Hides                    District                                                 Cattle   Hides
Cariboo—■ Similkameen—
Quesnel  —    3,330 512               Princeton, Keremeos, etc	
Williams Lake, Alexis Creek  21,417 331                Grand Forks, Greenwood	
Clinton,   Lac   la   Hache,   100   Mile
House,   Graham   Siding,    Bridge
Lake, Lone Butte     7,804 42            South-eastern British Columbia—
Lillooet,   Pavilion,   Bralorne,   Pern- Rossland, Crescent Valley	
berton .         798 1                 Nelson, Creston, etc.  ....
Bella Coola             12 10                 Cranbrook, Fernie, etc _
    Invermere, Golden 	
33,361 896
Kamloops, Nicola, etc.—
Kamloops, Chase  .._  30,791 609             Central British Columbia—
Merritt   _  11,138 216               Prince George, Vanderhoof	
Ashcroft, Lytton, etc  10,757 37                 Smithers, Giscome, etc  	
Salmon Arm      2,152 1,057               Burns Lake 	
54,838 1,919
Okanagan—■ Peace River—
Vernon, Lumby, Falkland     8,373 1,630                Fort St. John _	
Armstrong, Enderby, Sicamous    4,232 601                Dawson Creek  	
Kelowna       4,033 3,076
Penticton, Summerland         937 33                                                                             16,424   3,040
Oliver, Osoyoos      2,738 747
20,313 6,087
7,723
3,816
219
371
11,539
590
543
1,891
6,533
1,498
357
981
364
100
10,465
1,802
2,845
2,026
1,840
347
510
73
6,711
930
5,296
11,128
665
2,375
Totals Compared
1962
1961
1960
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
33,361
54,838
31,852
10,465
23,135
896
1,919
6,677
1,802
3,970
23,860
50,176
27,029
8,945
16,341
776
2,084
5,698
2,166
4,469
20,786
47,279
25,976
7,784
13,835
845
1,965
4,579
1,970
Central British Columbia and Peace River. 	
4,630
Tnfals
153,651
15,264
126,351
15,193
115,660
13,989
APPENDIX No. 4
Breed Averages for 1960 and 1961
Percentage of
Fat
Breed
Total D.H.I.
Per Cent
Pounds
1960
1961
1960
1961
1960
1961
1960
1961
Ayrshire	
Guernsey	
Holstein 	
Jersey	
Unclassified (cross-breds, etc.)
3.2
13.3
60.7
14.2
8.6
3.0
11.5
64.3
12.8
8.4
9,321
8,918
11,735
7,864
10,181
9,507
8,737
11,805
7,840
10,011
4.13
4.84
3.80
5.21
4.35
4.03
4.81
3.77
5.20
4.33
385
431
446
410
443
383
420
445
408
434
 DD 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 5
Animal Pathology Specimen Examinations
Specimens
Chickens
Turkeys
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
Swine
Fur-
bearers
Miscellaneous
Total
Miscellaneous	
3,266
3,086
755
302
388
33
31
27
331
418
639
5,470
3,806
Grand totals	
6,352
1,057
388
33
31
27
749
639
9,276
APPENDIX No. 6
Egg Production
(Number of cases through registered stations.)
Month
A.E.L.
A.L.
A.M.
A.S.
A.P.W.
CRAX
Estimated
Totals,
1962
Totals,
1961
January	
February	
March	
April	
May	
June.. —
July 	
August.	
September	
October 	
November	
December —
Totals..
2,127
1,620
1,795
1,882
2,526
1,865
1,733
2,064
1,742
1,861
2,537
2,196
43,642
34,782
35,507
35,817
45,361
35,802
33,513
40,989
32,989
33,913
42,285
36,655
17,897
12,157
11,265
10,734
15,052
13,023
13,163
19,087
14,879
14,264
18,221
14,060
2,397
1,999
1,702
1,878
3,347
2,983
3,714
4,832
3,387
3,270
3,754
2,273
136
132
106
145
259
257
307
364
321
299
312
179
2,597
2,527
2,386
2,265
3,259
2,898
3,035
3,551
2,418
2,275
2,668
2,141
600
474
455
509
745
625
670
638
519
493
604
398
3,978
3,261
3,246
3,403
4,802
3,894
4,231
5,141
3,760
3,797
4,606
3,468
73,374
56,952
56,462
56,633
75,351
61,347
60,366
76,666
60,015
60,172
74,987
61,370
63,892
50,755
50,823
52,097
65,576
53,322
52,497
70,488
56,635
57,110
1 67,334
54,402
23,948
451,255
173,802
35,536
2,817
32,020
6,730
47,587
773,695
694,931
APPENDIX No. 7
British Columbia Weighted Egg Price per Dozen to Producers
(Average paying price weighted by grade.)
Month
1962
1961
1960
Canada,
1962
January ...
February.
March	
April	
May	
June	
July.	
August.
September	
October 	
November	
December	
Yearly average..
t
30.9
28.5
29.3
31.4
28.8
26.0
26.5
32.2
34.4
32.9
34.8
33.8
30.9
t
32.0
29.5
30.8
28.5
29.0
29.7
33.9
34.6
33.1
34.2
36.6
32.5
32.1
t
26.4
25.9
33.6
34.2
32.6
29.9
29.9
31.2
34.2
33.4
34.1
35.5
31.4
24.4
29.6
30.4
29.1
24.2
23.6
24.5
34.2
33.1
36.6
38.2
30.6
29.9
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962
DD 67
APPENDIX No. 8
Poultry in Pounds through Registered Stations in British Columbia
Month
Chicken
Fowl
Turkey
Duck
Geese
Monthly
Totals, 1962
Five-year
Averages
1957-61
January..
February	
March	
April	
May	
June 	
July.	
1,202,666
1,433,137
1,457,918
1,759,740
2,654,804
1,892,648
2,035,229
2,370,640
1,915,420
1,513,751
1,968,887
1,236,202
442,330
346,428
337,557
236,838
451,567
431,249
430,648
452,806
466,873
469,750
508,583
388,489
420,638
94,022
95,836
362,137
272,447
302,880
302,867
1,042,856
1,178,836
1,419,331
1,630,135
1,302,170
13,765
13,005
16,641
20,813
30,853
26,770
25,798
34,971
41,529
32,688
23,048
16,162
1,512
113
2,080,911
1,886,592
1,907,952
2,379,528
3,409,671
2,653,547
2,794,542
3,901,273
3,602,658
3,435,520
4,130,653
2,943,136
1,788,008
1,437,295
1,434,989
1,685,464
2,180,391
2,098,173
2,007,319
2,861,612
September
3,013,901
3,297,495
November
December	
3,167,528
2,586,838
Yearly
totals —
21,441,042
4,963,118
8,424,155
296,043
1,625
35,125,983
27,559,013
APPENDIX No. 9
1962 Average Monthly Producer Price per Pound for Live Poultry (Vancouver)
Month
Chicken
Under
4 Lb.
4-5
Lb.
5-61/2
Lb.
6Y2 Lb.
and
Over
Fowl
Under
5 Lb.
5-6
Lb.
Over
6 Lb.
Young Turkey
Under
10 Lb.
10-20
Lb.
Over
20 Lb.
January....
February..
March	
April	
May...	
June 	
July..
August	
September-
October	
November...
December...
t
19
20
20!/2
21!/2
211/2
22
221/2
22V2
22V4
22V2
221/2
221/2
t
19
20
20!/2
211/2
21!/2
22
22!/2
221/2
22!/2
221/2
22H
221/2
t
20
20
2Wi
2IV2
211/2
22
22!/2
221/2
22V2
22%
221/4
221/2
t
21
23
241/2
25
25
27
26
26
27
27
27
27
10
10
11
10
9
9
9
10
lOi/2
IO1/2
11
10
t
10
10
11
11
11
10
9
10
11
13
13
13
t
13
13
13
13
13
13
12
13
14
14
14
14
27
28
29
30
30
30
30
30
29
28
28
28
(
25
26
27
28
28
28
30
28
29
28
28
27
t
22
22
23
26
26
28
30
28
26
25
25
25
APPENDIX No. 10
Poultry-flock Approval
Number of
Flocks
Number of
Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Number of
Birds per
Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
•9fi->
128
136
228,816
251,493
1.787               n nfifi4
Five-year average, 1957 to 1961, inclusive	
1,771
0.0412
 DD 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No.  11
Summary of Poultry-flock Testing, 1962
Number of
Premises
Number of
Chickens
Approved for egg production —
Approved for meat production..
54
81
Total poultry approved-
Tested as commercial layers ..
Poultry retested.
1281
Pullorum disease reactors—
Egg production stock	
Meat production stock	
Total poultry tested..
1
52
128
90,736
135,353
226,089
204
2,371
18
134
228,816
1 Seven premises with both egg- and meat-type breeders.
2 Three premises retested as a result of 1962 testing and two premises as a carry-over from 1961 testing.
APPENDDC No.  12
Turkey-flock Approval
Number of
Flocks
Number of
Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number of
Birds per
Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
1962...    	
7
19
9,584
16,211
1,369
871
Five-year average, 1957 to 1961, inclusive	
0.006
APPENDIX No. 13
Amount and Kind of Vaccine Distributed
Type of Vaccine
1962
1961
1960
1959
1958
10,674,636
2,442,436
13,751,400
3,184,900
8,829,800
1,816,600
8,747,150
1,851,450
6,171,710
1,986,000
Totals
13,117,072
16,936,300
10,646,400
10,598,600
8,157,710
APPENDIX No. 14
Production of Tree-fruit Crops in British Columbia for 1961 and an Estimate for 1962
1961 Production (Lb.)
1962 Estimate
Fresh Sales
Processed Sales
Total
Production
of Total
Production
158,530,000
841,000
24,165,000
339,000
8,015,000
7,945,000
15,391,000
9,410,000
34,035,000
769,000
6,314,000
26,000
3,245,000
1,092,000
11,158,000
3,859,000
192,565,000
1,610,000
30,479,000
365,000
11,260,000
9,037,000
26,549,000
13,269,000
243,441,000
2,295,500
29,166,500
378,606
13,396,900
9,241,300
30,759,600
15,135,800
Tnt-clcj
224,636,000
60,498,000
285,134,000
343,815,206
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1962
DD 69
APPENDIX No.  15
Grape Varieties and Acreage in the Okanagan Valley, 1962
1-4 Years
Over 4 Years
Total
Number of
Plants
Acres
Number of
Plants
Acres
Number of
Plants
Acres
Campbell Early    L
20,400
1,395
119,965
55
19,275
450
19,010
970
18,816
5,310
32,603
3,720
40.26
2.56
230.00
34,744
46,814
19,970
4,695
1,058
20,985
18,740
13,687
59.87
74.61
35.78
7.36
1.95
39.24
34.33
24.35
0.10
2.00
23.62
55,144
48,209
139,875
4,695
1,113
40,260
19,190
32,697
970
18,946
6,350
32,603
20,301
100.13
77.17
265.78
7.36
Niagara...	
Patricia..	
Portland	
0.19
38.00
0.89
34.91
1.75
33.44
10.67
61.24
6.78
2.14
77.24
35.22
59.26
1.75
Himrod....... '
Buffalo
Hybrids	
Mixed 	
130
1,040
167581
33.54
12.67
61.24
30.40
Totals
243,648
463.84
192,918
329.50
436,566
793.34
APPENDIX No.  16
Small-fruit, Grape, and Filbert Production in British Columbia for 1961
and an Estimate for 1962
Fresh
Processed
Total
Production
1962 Estimate
of Total
Production
Strawberries	
Raspberries  ~	
Loganberries   — —
Blackberries..	
Lb.
1,506,000
701,000
191,000
52,000
28,000
20,000
19,000
759,000
Lb.
6,498,000
6,899,000
1,012,000
425,000
17,000
Lb.
8,004,000
7,600,000
1,203,000
477,000
45,000
20,000
48,000
1,763,000
404,000
3,603,000
303,000
Lb.
10,384,000
8,699,000
1,022,000
287,000
31,000
56,000
29,000
1,004,000
404,000
2,378,000
19,000
1,909,000
190,000
1,225,000
303,000
3,421,000
267,000
4,804,000
18,666,000
23,470,000
26,285,000
APPENDIX No.  17
Tree-fruit Nursery-stock Production in British Columbia
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
357,100
59,965
46,875
4,700
12,630
3,410
307,337
48,277
35,083
9,984
44,356
4,245
148,258
27,997
15,566
8,942
26,857
3,262
178,921
47,278
52,685
15,586
37,699
8,077
158,510
42,657
46,238
12,153
36,694
5,265
Totals	
484,680
449,282
230,882
340,246
301,517
 DD 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No.  18
Number and Percentage of Various Apple Rootstocks Grown in
British Columbia in 1962
Number
Approximate Percentage
Type
1959
1960
1961
1962
1959
1960
1961
1962
EM II	
79,641
7,200
58,489
16,335
895
3,650
3,110
1,915
122,411
28,609
920
42,689
12,058
515
1,558
1,827
1,075
532
45,845
50,760
740
38,357
7,787
350
6,288
2,950
937
3,120
46,613
50,288
1,710
32,928
6,397
26.0
2.3
19.0
5.3
0.3
1.2
1.1
0.6
40.0
19.2
0.62
28.0
8.1
0.34
1.5
1.2
0.72
0.35
31.0
28.4
0.4
21.4
4.4
0.2
3.5
1.6
0.5
1.7
26.0
31.7
EM IV	
1.1
EMVTI
EM IX.      ...      -.   -
20.7
4.0
EM XVI...	
MM 104....  	
15,619
2,553
370
2,480
36,287
9,978
9.9
MM 106	
1.6
MM 109	
0.2
MM 111 -
Seedling (Mcintosh)	
1.6
22.9
6.3
APPENDIX No. 19
Production of Grass and Legume Seeds, 1961-62
Production
(Final) 1961
Estimated Production 1962
Alfalfa	
Red clover, single ...
Red clover, double .
Alsike clover	
Sweet clover	
White Dutch clover..
Timothy..
Timothy-alsike	
Brome	
Blue-grass, Kentucky-
Crested wheat 	
Creeping red fescue .
Meadow fescue	
Orchard-grass	
Red-top.
Chewing's fescue	
Birdsfoot trefoil	
Ryegrass, perennial..
Ryegrass, annual	
Lb.
165,000
600,000
150,000
2,541,000
405,000
65,000
210,000
120,000
200,000
7,300
58,000
4,000,000
19,000
1,000
612
14,000
1,800
Lb.
150,000
160,000
60,000
750,000
250,000
10,000
75,000
75,000
200,000
16,000
45,000
1,000,000
15,000
300
6,000
2,000
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DD 71
APPENDIX No. 20
Publications Printed in 1962
Reports
Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, 1961.
The Climate of British Columbia, 1961.
Annual Report of the Milk Board, 1961.
Bulletins
Raising Sheep in British Columbia.
Burning Tree Stumps with the Help of Chemicals.
Practical Rabbit Raising.
Land Clearing Equipment and Methods.
Minimum Requirements for the Design, Installation, and Performance of
Sprinkler Irrigation Equipment.
Red-stele of Strawberries.
Loose Housing of Dairy Cattle.
Tractor Service Manuals.
Door of Opportunities in Agriculture.
Growing Outdoor Chrysanthemums in British Columbia.
Damping-off of Vegetables and Flowers.
Carpet Beetles.
Insect Control for the Home Gardener.
Livestock Pests.
Bibliography on Rural Electrification.
Bloat:  What? Why? When? How?
Silage Harvesting Machinery.
Horticultural Recommendations for the Peace River Region of British Columbia.
Practical Goose Raising.
2,4-D Susceptible Crop (leaflet and poster).
Mushroom Culture in British Columbia.
Black Knot of Plums.
Highbush Blueberry Culture in British Columbia.
Soil Reaction.
Chemical Weed Control around the Home.
Loose Stall Housing.
Holly Culture in British Columbia.
Asparagus Production in British Columbia.
Charts
Control of Small Fruit Pests and Diseases, 1962—63.
Fertilizer Recommendations for the Lower Mainland, Zone 2 (reprint).
Tree-fruit Spray Calendar, Interior Districts, 1962.
Control of Vegetable and Field Crop Pests and Diseases, 1962-63.
Vegetable Varieties Recommended for the Lower Mainland and Vancouver
Island.
Chemical Weed Control, 1961-63 (reprint).
Miscellaneous
List of Publications.
Mineral Intake of Laying Birds in Relation to Rate and Quality of Egg Production.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1963
8S0-363-6346
 

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