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REPORT OF THE Department of Recreation and Conservation containing the reports of the FISH AND GAME BRANCH,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1963

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Hon. E. C. Westwood, Minister D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister
REPORT OF THE
Department of Recreation
and Conservation
containing the reports of the
FISH AND GAME BRANCH, PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH,
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU,
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND
ANTHROPOLOGY, PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH, AND
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
Year Ended December 31
1962
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1963
  Victoria, B.C., January 24, 1963.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department
of Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1962.
E. C. WESTWOOD,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 Victoria, B.C., January 24, 1963.
The Honourable E. C. Westwood,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1962.
D. B. TURNER,
Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 CONTENTS
Page
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation  7
Fish and Game Branch  11
Provincial Parks Branch 1 33
British Columbia Government Travel Bureau  47
Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology  55
Photographic Branch  63
Commercial Fisheries Branch  71
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 Report of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation, 1962
D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister and Commissioner of Fisheries
INTRODUCTION
During 1962 almost every activity of the Department contributed directly
or indirectly toward making the year a record one for the tourist industry. The
improvement of parks, the excellent condition of game stocks, the vigorous activity
of the Travel Bureau, the excellence of the Museum, and the attention drawn to the
Province by the record salmon harvest, all influenced the record total of more than
3,700,000 visitors and the estimated value of the tourist industry amounting to
$145,000,000. This was an increase of $30,000,000 over the 1961 record high of
$115,000,000.
Game stocks in almost every species continued to supply recreation for
increasing numbers of hunters. It is expected there was a slight increase in the
number of resident hunters entering the field in 1962 over 1961, with relatively the
same ratio of success.
It is noteworthy that in 1961 British Columbia provided twenty-one trophy-
winners in the Boone and Crockett competition for North American big game, more
than any other Province or State on the continent.
During the year, 415 lakes were stocked with trout, an increase of fifty over
1961, good news for the increasing number of British Columbia anglers and certainly
an attraction for those from less fortunate areas of the continent.
The programme of lake clearance and rehabilitation continued, with fewer but
larger lakes receiving treatment.
The Provincial park system continued to increase in use, with 3.7 million
people utilizing the developed portions of the 6,376,580 acres of Provincial parks.
Public interest in the historic site of Barkerville continued to mount, and an estimated 107,000 people visited the old town, a phenomenal increase over the 25,000
visitors in 1961.
The nature interpretation programme continued to grow in popularity, with the
centres at Miracle Beach, Manning Park, and Shuswap Lake attracting more than
54,000 people. The Shuswap Lake Nature Centre, opened during the year, attracted
16,000 visitors. Nature-trail conducted walks also proved to be extremely popular
and edifying.
The Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology in Victoria
celebrated its seventy-fifth anniversary during 1962, and more than 270,000 people
visited it during the year. This was more than two and a half times the number of
visitors in any previous year.
The Photographic Branch, aside from coping with a continuous flow of darkroom work and special projects for " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine, released
five excellent motion pictures and continued work on three others. All of these films
and the many others previously released have contributed to the attracting of many
visitors to the Province.
A record catch of pink salmon reflected favourably on the scope of our offshore
fisheries, although other species were slightly lower than the 1961 pack.   More than
 S 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
10,000 visitors, a great many from Alberta, were attracted to the Shuswap Lake area
to witness the spawning run of the Adams River sockeye. This run, which appears
every four years, has engendered the " Salute to the Sockeye " celebrations in the
Chase-Salmon Arm area, and is proving a great attraction to visitors from all parts
of the Province and adjacent States.
As a result of another Christmas sales-promotion programme, the subscription
list for the award-winning Beautiful British Columbia magazine has soared to more
than 25,000, with an average quarterly sale of approximately 70,000 copies.
MR. FRANK R. BUTLER
The sportsmen of British Columbia, as well as all of us in the Department of
Recreation and Conservation, witnessed the closing of a most illustrious career in
the field of game management with the retirement of Fish and Game Director Frank
Raymond Butler on July 4, 1962, after more than forty-eight years' service to the
Fish and Game Branch. I believe this to be a record of service in the field of game
administration.
Mr. Butler at all times pursued a course that he felt was in the best interests of
the Province's sportsmen, and the fact British Columbia today enjoys one of the
healthiest game stocks in the world is due in no small measure to his dedication to
duty and his willingness to accept new challenges and new concepts of game management.
Therefore, may I extend to him and to Mrs. Butler the best wishes of every
member of the Department, as well as those of everyone who knew and respected
him throughout the years.
 HIGHLIGHTS OF 1962
FISH AND GAME BRANCH
DEER STOCKS PLENTIFUL
Deer harvests on Vancouver Island continue to mount, and deer stocks are
improving to meet the increasing hunting-pressure.
HYDRO-ELECTRIC STUDIES
Extensive studies of the ecological effects from proposed hydro-electric flooding were continued.
HATCHERY PROGRAMME
Trout liberations increased by fifty lakes over 1961 for a total of 415 lakes
stocked during the year.
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
PARK USE INCREASE
More than 3.7 million people utilized British Columbia's 6,376,580 acres of
park lands.
NATURE HOUSES POPULAR
Nature centre use at Miracle Beach, Manning Park, and Shuswap Lake increased by 40 per cent over 1961.
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU
RECORD YEAR FOR VISITORS
An estimated 3,625,000 people visited the Province, to contribute $145,000,-
000 to the Provincial economy.
TOURIST SURVEY UNDERTAKEN
A first survey of the tourist-industry market was completed during the year and
is proving invaluable to those engaged in the industry.
CONVENTION SECTION ADDED
A Convention Director was appointed to the Travel Bureau to aid in attracting
national conventions to British Columbia.
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY
The Museum celebrated seventy-five years of cultural contribution to the
Province.
9
 S 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
RECORD ATTENDANCE
More than 270,000 people visited the Museum during the season. This is two
and a half times more than in any previous season.
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH
NEW FILMS
Five new films, produced by the Branch, were released during the year. " Play
It Safe," an outdoors safety film, has been hailed as one of the finest of its kind ever
made.
COLOUR PRODUCTION
Approximately 2,500 colour pictures were taken during the year, to answer a
rising demand for colour prints of the Province from all parts of the world. Many
were used in the production of Beautiful British Columbia magazine.
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
RECORD RUN OF PINK SALMON
A record run of pink salmon brightened an otherwise drab picture of the 1962
fishery harvest.   The pink harvest set an all-time record of 1,187,933 cases.
ADAMS RIVER RUN
A successful spawning of Adams River sockeye took place in October and
attracted much attention to the fishery resources of the Province.
 FISH and
GAME
BRANCH
 Scuba divers of the Fish and Game Branch during winter studies on
Corbett Lake near Merritt.
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Aerial survey of elk.
 Frank Raymond Butler, Director of the Fish and Game Branch, retired from that
position on July 4, 1962, after more than forty-eight years of public service. He joined
the Game Department on April 1, 1914, and, with the exception of three years' overseas service in World War I, remained with it until his retirement.
 S 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
FISH AND GAME BRANCH
James Hatter, Assistant Director
ADMINISTRATION
The year 1962 was one of the most eventful in the history of wildlife administration in British Columbia. Apart from numerous administrative changes, it
marked the end of a long and outstanding career by Director Frank R. Butler, who
retired in July after forty-eight years of service.
Attention was directed toward achieving a higher level of participation of the
Conservation Officers in all functions of the Branch. More responsibility for organization and supervision at the field level was placed upon the Inspectors and the
District Supervisor to achieve integration. The objective is to have all field staff
identified as much as possible with the Branch as a whole rather than the particular
division to which individuals belong for administrative purposes. In this way,
integration of activities and work satisfaction may be stimulated and greater
efficiency achieved.
Headquarters of the Fish and Game Branch was moved from Vancouver to
Victoria in May, to its present location in the Temple Building at 525 Fort Street.
Coincident with this move, the Vancouver office was relocated from 567 Burrard
Street to 787 Hornby Street, in the newly created British Columbia Information
Centre. Mr. G. A. West, under the new title and position of District Supervisor,
assumed charge of " E " Game Division and administrative head of the new centre.
The District Supervisor is responsible for co-ordinating all Fish and Game Branch
activities in the Division, and as Departmental representative may be called upon
for administration and co-ordination of Departmental activities in the Lower Mainland area.
Along with these changes, former " B " Division Inspector C. E. Estlin was
moved from Nelson to the Victoria headquarters as Chief, Conservation Officers.
This new position was created to provide an administrative head for the Conservation Officers, who, unlike'the technical game and fisheries division, had been without
a headquarters supervisor. The vacancy left by Mr. Estlin was filled by the promotion of Conservation Officer J. P. Gibault to Inspector, " B " Division.
Other changes in senior positions included the promotion of Mr. D. J. Robinson to Chief, Game Management, to fill the vacancy left by Dr. James Hatter upon
his appointment to Assistant Director of the Fish and Game Branch. Former
Regional Game Biologist P. W. Martin replaced Mr. Robinson as Assistant Chief,
Game Management. The vacancy left by Conservation Officer J. P. Gibault at
Williams Lake was filled by Mr. H. D. Mulligan as Senior Conservation Officer.
This officer is responsible for supervision of three Conservation Officers in the Cariboo and Chilcotin Districts, under the direction of Inspector L. G. Smith. Supervision of field staff in these areas has been facilitated by appointment of an intermediate supervisor at Williams Lake.
The first steelhead punch-card was introduced in 1962, but its return by anglers
is voluntary rather than compulsory. Some question arises whether satisfactory
information will be gathered from this non-compulsory system.
Further attention to Federal-Provincial cost-sharing in fisheries and wildlife
resulted in preparation of a brief supporting the need for Federal aid.   The brief was
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 15
presented by Dr. D. B. Turner at the Canadian Tourist Association Conference at
Ottawa in November.
Further representation was made to the Federal Department of Transport to
obtain much-needed delegated authority for the control and regulation of small
vessels on inland waters of the Province. This authority is required in the interest of
safety and recreational pursuits.
Despite efforts to promote hunting safety and reduce the number of accidents
this year, I am sorry to report that in 1962 there has been a slight increase in fatal
hunting accidents. In total, however, hunting accidents were fewer than last year,
which is encouraging.
For the third consecutive year, the in-service training programme was continued at the Green Timbers forestry school. This was the final year for the initial
course of training, which will be followed in 1963 by a new programme of instruction.
In November the motor-vessel " P.G.D. No. 2 " was replaced by a 28-foot sea
skiff, thus marking a new trend toward smaller, faster boats for patrol purposes on
Coastal waters along the Southern Mainland and Vancouver Island.
The Fish and Game Branch is most thankful for the co-operation and assistance received from the other branches of the Department and from other departments of the Provincial Government. Likewise, the assistance frequently rendered
members of the Branch by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is gratefully acknowledged.
GAME MANAGEMENT
General
Licence sales indicate increasing interest and participation in hunting. Resident
firearms licences increased from 101,000 in 1957 to 120,500 in 1961. This trend
is being stimulated by improved access to hunting areas, better highways, a relatively
high rate of hunter success, and a general increase in the population. Industrial
developments in the north, especially in the Peace River region, have resulted in a
large increase in the population and a corresponding increase in numbers of people
taking advantage of the excellent hunting in the surrounding area. Not only do these
residents take advantage of the sport locally, they also invite many friends from the
centres of population to share their good fortune. More hunters are using areas
previously unexploited, and, indeed, the hunting public is becoming increasingly
mobile and less wedded to traditional hunting-grounds.
Game Regulations
A policy of liberalization of hunting regulations based on game supply and
hunter demand has been implemented over the past five years. The liberalizations
were brought about only after careful field inventories of game and checks of hunter
success. During this period, season extensions and liberalizations were implemented
for caribou, including the innovation of harvesting female caribou. Extensions and
liberalization of moose and deer seasons were also initiated, and these involved the
cropping of females in most areas of the Province. Seasons and bag limits for the
taking of native grouse have been liberalized due to recognition of the fact that
hunter kill contributes little to the total factors causing mortalities in these birds and
so affects their fluctuations to a negligible extent.
The costly and inefficient practice of releasing pheasants was abandoned in
1958, with no decrease in the average yearly harvest thereafter.   Following the trend
 S 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA
in pheasant management in North America, and several years of successful cropping
of hen pheasants on Vancouver Island, hen seasons were declared on the Lower
Mainland and Kootenays in 1962, further contributing to the efficiency of harvest of
these birds.
Waterfowl seasons have not been curtailed in British Columbia to the extent
that has been necessary in the remainder of Canada. The Pacific flyway has enjoyed
excellent water conditions, and hence waterfowl stocks have not suffered to the same
extent as those of the Prairie Provinces.
Game Harvests
Game harvests continue to increase year by year, due to the increasing mobility
of hunters, a good standing population of all game species, and improved regulations. Weather conditions have been favourable for the past five years, resulting in
excellent survival of big-game animals. This year, however, the grouse harvest
declined due to a natural reduction in all species throughout the Province. This is
a regular occurrence and will be followed by a natural return to their former abundance.
A comparison of total harvests of major species of game taken during the past
five years is contained in the following table:—
Game-harvest Estimates from the Hunter Sample Questionnaire
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
Ducks	
346,000
432,100
390,200
390,000
377,200
Grouse	
304,880
554,800
365,000
344,000
413,600
Pheasant  	
44,600
70,000
50,700
46,600
57,100
Moose	
9,900
11,500
12,200
11,300
15,200
Elk    	
1,800
3,100
2,300
2,300
3,500
Deer '	
47,400
59,700
61,400
58,600
67,000
Although many checking-stations are operated throughout the Province, the
permanent one at Cache Creek especially gathers data which provide an excellent
measure of hunter success in Central British Columbia.
Cache Creek Checking-station
Totals, 1957-62
1957
1958
1959
I960
1961
1962
Deer	
Moose	
Black bear 	
Caribou 	
Elk 	
Mountain sheep
Mountain goat
Waterfowl	
2,245
2,799
179
48
4
24
91
8,193
11,027
14,146
2,345
3,064
113
45
3
43
82
8,985
19,351
14,763
2,732
2,645
225
60
5
23
65
7,563
7,853
14,938
3,295
2,919
140
106
9
50
121
6,890
5,701
17,902
4,800
4,175
121
104
12
56
112
7,942
12,000
20,757
3,690
4,833
158
142
39
44
122
8,424
6,188
23,291
During the course of their duties, Fish and Game Branch personnel interviewed
approximately 100,000 hunters in the field and checked about 20,000 big-game
animals. This represents a doubling of effort over the past five years. Data are
recorded for each animal checked, and these are subsequently compiled, correlated,
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 17
and analysed to provide an invaluable body of information for use in evaluating
current management practices.
Resource Use
Hunting Licence Sales, 1958 to 1962, Inclusive
Resident Hunters Non-resident Hunters
1958  109,208 3,116
1959  113,599 3,185
1960  118,608 3,876
1961  120,640 3,937
1962  126,330 4,504
It will be noted that resident licences increased by 20 per cent during the past
five-year period and that non-resident hunters increased by 44 per cent. It must be
remembered that in addition to the consumptive users of the game resource, there are
innumerable non-consumptive users of the same resource, such as photographers,
hikers, and naturalists, who enjoy seeing wildlife at all times of the year. The Fish
and Game Branch is aware of the value of wildlife to non-consumptive users, and
their interests are always considered.
Game Inventories
Game inventories are an essential part of the game-management programme.
Inventories, such as aerial moose counts, post-winter deer surveys, spring counts to
determine yearling survival, and summer surveys, are all necessary to correlate with
road-check information and hunter-success figures to fulfil the needs of a balanced
management programme.
Moose.—Aircraft are used extensively to obtain inventories and statistical data
relating to moose populations. It is the only medium of transportation versatile and
efficient enough to enable extensive observations over large areas in the short periods
of time available each year.
Aerial surveys were made in seven major moose-producing areas immediately
following the close of the 1961 hunting seasons, and a total of 3,122 moose was
classified as to age and sex. Subsequently, spring counts were carried out in March
and April of 1962 to determine the survival of calves over the winter. During these
counts, 2,468 moose were classified as to age. Comparison of the age structure of
the various moose populations indicates that G.M.A. 14 (Clinton-Williams Lake
region) and that part of G.M.A. 21 in the Peace River District had the best reproductive success. These areas had a post-hunting-season calf crop of 28 and 32 per
cent respectively. Productive moose herds such as these can stand heavy hunting
pressure without danger of depletion.
Deer.—A bumper crop of deer was harvested last year, but owing to a very mild
autumn and some winter losses due to crusted snow, the 1962 deer harvest in the
Interior will not equal that of 1961. It is anticipated, however, that the Vancouver
Island deer harvest will set new records. During extensive post-season surveys of
deer, in conjunction with other game species, 1,790 deer were classified in 1961.
Post-winter deer counts were made in March, 1962, in most of the major deer ranges
of the Interior, and a total of almost 4,000 animals was classified. On Vancouver
Island, counts totalling 1,263 animals were made in five areas. Fawn survival
throughout the Province varied from average to excellent. These field data were
verified during the 1962 hunting season.
 S 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Caribou.—Caribou are becoming more popular with improved access to caribou
ranges. Observations in the northern part of Tweedsmuir Park and the Telkwa
Mountains indicated a calf-to-yearling survival of 25 per cent. This is a most satisfactory index of reproduction for caribou.
Elk.—The status of elk on Vancouver Island remains unchanged. The Kootenay
herds produce the major proportion of the annual Provincial harvest. Spring surveys
indicated that these herds, had wintered well. During the course of game surveys in
the Peace River, special attention was given to the indigenous elk. These scattered
herds are of great interest as they are residual from the pre-white exploration period
and may well be genetically distinct from the elk in the remainder of North America.
These northern animals are large and should furnish many excellent trophies in the
future.
Other Big Game.—Aerial reconnaissance was conducted in the Cassiar District
to determine the status of caribou, sheep, and other game species in the area. During
this field trip, 795 stone sheep, 117 caribou, and 276 mountain goat were recorded.
This preliminary work pointed out the need for more detailed surveys and inventories
in view of increased hunting pressure. At present these populations appear to be in
a satisfactory state, but more knowledge is essential if efficient management is to be
undertaken coincident with increased hunter access.
Game Birds.—Grouse experienced a Province-wide decline, which was largely
attributed to inclement weather conditions. The species most affected—namely,
ruffed grouse, spruce grouse, and sharp-tailed grouse—are known to be cyclic, and
the decline coincided with the anticipated crash. A normal recovery is expected over
the next four or five years.
Chukar partridges suffered heavy losses in the Thompson Valley due to winter
blizzards and subsequent crusted snow conditions. Reproduction by surviving birds
was excellent, and in some areas good shooting occurred. Chukar stocks in the
South Okanagan are in a most satisfactory condition.
Pheasant populations declined sharply on Vancouver Island but maintained
themselves well on the Lower Mainland and in the Okanagan, where some excellent
harvests were obtained. A hen season was initiated on the Lower Mainland, and
the data collected indicated that it has been quite successful.
Publications
" Management of Moose by Population Ratios," by D. J. Robinson, was
presented at the Forty-second Annual Conference of Western Association of State
Fish and Game Commissions in Seattle, Wash., July, 1962. "The California
Bighorn in British Columbia," by Lawson G. Sugden, published in 1961, was
awarded first place in the technical publications section of the annual competition
of the American Association for Conservation Information.
Note
In the 1961 Boone and Crockett competition for North American big game,
British Columbia provided twenty-one trophy-winners. This is more than any other
State or Province and illustrates the variety and quality of British Columbia's big
game.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1962
S 19
COMPARISON   OF 1962   CACHE CREEK GAME
CHECK WITH  5 YEAR AVERAGE (1958-62 Inc).
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 S 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PREDATOR CONTROL
Complaints involving predators increased 53.7 per cent over the numbers
recorded during the previous year, and damage to live stock and other property
also increased but not proportionately. Table I illustrates the complaints that were
received and attended during the period.
Table I.—Species Complaints
Bears  352 Dogs        96
Cougars  207 Sundry1      257
Co votes    105                                                       	
Wolves __._ 21                                Total   1,038
1 Includes all other species.
Bear complaints and the numbers taken increased very sharply over the entire
Province, with the exception of portions of the Lower Mainland Coast and Vancouver Island. This increase approached the order of 200 per cent on the Province-
wide basis Most field personnel were of the opinion that natural foods were in
short supply and bears were forced into or near areas of habitation for sustenance.
There were no individual instances of outstanding damage, but the species as a
••-/hole did inflict measureable losses or damage. In some instances, bears became
a serious nuisance around camp-sites and resorts.
Cougar complaints and sightings also increased sharply during 1961, as did
the numbers taken. Complaints almost doubled over 1961, and the numbers taken
increased by slightly more than 70 per cent. Damage to domestic stock was not
severe, but a few individual cougars inflicted heavy losses locally before they were
destroyed.   Cougar populations are on the increase over most of their range.
Coyotes were responsible for a slightly smaller number of incidents, but not
significantly so. The populations are being kept in check very successfully, with
one or two exceptions. Late in 1962 a noticeable increase was observed in the
Bridesville-Grand Forks district, where it is believed a sizeable number emigrated
from Washington State.   Actual damage to domestic stock was lower than in 1961.
Wolves caused a slighdy increased number of complaints, but only two incidents involved the destruction of domestic stock.
The policy of not treating wilderness areas was maintained over the entire
Province, as there was no justification for the destruction of wolf populations within
these districts. Game herds appeared more than adequate to withstand predation
by an even larger population of wolves.
Complaints of dogs destroying game and domestic animals remained high,
unchanged from the previous year. Damage was high in total and shows no sign
of lessening. Bitter complaints were received when numerous dogs were allowed
to roam at large and chase wild animals into towns in many points of the Interior.
Much time and effort were expended in the investigation of dog complaints, but in
most instances little could be done to alleviate the situation under the circumstances.
Predation caused by " sundry " predators was considerable in total but quite
low in terms of individual complaints. Bobcats and skunks maintained their numbers, but raccoons were comparatively few. Red foxes in the Lower Mainland
apparently decreased in numbers. Intensive trapping operations were continued in
the Fraser Valley, and the decline in complaints received and the number of foxes
taken reflect the success of the programme. The opossum population has increased
tremendously during the past two years, but damage is negligible.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1962 S 21
Table II shows the numbers of the more important mammalian predators taken
by Fish and Game Branch personnel during 1960, 1961, and 1962.
Table II
Species
Bears 	
Bobcats	
Cougars       127
Coyotes  	
Dogs (wild)       242
Foxes 	
Raccoons	
Skunks 	
Wolves	
Totals  2,076 1,882 1,819
Table III illustrates the numbers of other mammalian predators taken by personnel during 1961 and 1962.
Table III
Species 1961 1962
Cats (wild)       788 702
Gophers   1,106 344
Lynx           6 6
Opossums         31 120
Wolverines .          4 2
I960
1961
1962
370
196
ill
131
114
111
127
67
155
617
570
336
242
218
151
243
317
279
139
78
81
183
315
323
24
7
11
Totals  1,035 1,174
Table IV shows the numbers of avian predators destroyed by Fish and Game
Branch personnel during 1961 and 1962.
Table IV
Species 1961 1962
Crows   2,404 1,709
Eagles   1                  	
Hawks  50 9
Magpies   622 445
Mergansers   19 23
Owls  17 2
Ravens  224 291
Starlings  559 594
Totals  3,896 3,073
Some 1,213 baiting-stations were established during the winter months for the
control of wolves and coyotes. Of these, 965 were placed by the use of aircraft and
the remaining 248 were distributed by ground crews. All but a few were placed
in the Interior of the Province. Control, particularly of coyotes, was effective in
all districts.   No wilderness area was treated during the past year.
The rodent-control programme was again expanded, and 34,000 acres of crop
lands and orchards were treated for the control of groundsquirrels and pocket
gophers.   Control measures were exercised in the East Kootenay, Boundary District
 S 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA
(Bridesville-Westbridge), South Okanagan, North Okanagan, North Thompson,
South Cariboo, and the Princeton areas. Demand for rodent control continued to
increase, but with conversion to almost full mechanization it was possible to maintain a good level of service. Damage to crops and orchards has been drastically
reduced, especially in instances where land-owners have continued with a follow-up
programme of their own to eliminate stragglers and prevent reinfestations.
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Lake Rehabilitation
Table I.—Fishing-licence Sales, 1958—62
Resident Non-resident
1958   129,083 39,745
1959   134,690 42,933
1960   139,383 44,240
1961   139,945 46,048
1962   144,084 52,836
Table 11'.—Number and Volume of Rehabilitated Lakes, 1956-62
Year
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
Number of
Lakes Treated
-  13
  13
  57
.  18
.  14
Acre-feet
Treated
22,000
115,000
211,000
98,644
164,582
145,193
80,033
As most of the smaller accessible lakes which would benefit from chemical
treatment to remove coarse fish have now been treated, attention is being directed
to the larger and more difficult lake systems. Two major projects undertaken in
1962 were Roche and Paul Lakes near Kamloops. Due to the complexity of Roche
Lake drainage area and its multitude of small tributary streams, lakes, and beaver
ponds, a helicopter was successfully used for the first time in British Columbia on
this type of project.
Fishing success in rehabilitated lakes continued to be excellent during the year.
Kawkawa Lake near Hope is open to fishing, and for the first time is producing large
catches of rainbow trout. Through co-operation with the Royal Canadian Corps of
Army Engineers a public access road and boat-launching site was built at the lake,
and these facilities have contributed greatly to the programme's success. Particularly good results from rehabilitated lakes over the Province were reported from
Heffley and Stump Lakes near Kamloops, 'Pinaus Lake near Falkland, Ness Lake
near Prince George, and Edwards Lake near Fernie.
Table II summarizes the Fish and Game Branch lake-rehabilitation programme
during the period 1956 to 1962.
Stream Surveys
The lake-survey programme was discontinued during 1962 in order to catch
up on the processing of an accumulation of data. Information is sorely needed from
major streams in the Province for purposes of fishing regulations, general management, pollution control, and hydro-electric projects.    For these reasons a stream
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 23
survey was started, and the crew concentrated on streams in the Vancouver Island,
Cariboo, and Prince George districts. It is expected that much valuable information will be obtained, and that stream surveys will prove as profitable as lake surveys
have been in the past.
Kootenay Lake Study
By closing the spawning-grounds to fishing at all times and by imposing special
closures on Kootenay Lake, the numbers of fish in the spawning run of large Kootenay Lake trout in the Lardeau River have been increasing. At the peak of the
run in 1962, these large (up to 25 pounds) rainbow trout numbered 258 fish, which
represents the largest count since 1957. Although there have been annual fluctuations in numbers, it is apparent that the run is increasing in size. As a matter of
interest, the number of fish taken over 14 inches in length was the largest number
since the Fish and Game Branch commenced keeping creel census records some
eight years ago.
A number of eggs taken from the Lardeau River run of Kootenay Lake fish
have been raised in the Summerland hatchery and planted in Niskonlith Lake near
Chase. It is hoped that the fish in this lake will grow rapidly, allowing eggs to be
taken, which can then be planted back into the Lardeau River. The experiment has
been designed in the hope of increasing the numbers of young fish in the Lardeau
River, which in turn might increase future runs of adult fish to the Lardeau spawning-
grounds. Whether or not Niskonlith Lake can support a year-round sport fishery
as well as sufficient trout eggs for the Lardeau remains to be seen.
Hydro-electric Fish Studies
Money granted from the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority enabled
a survey crew to conduct studies of the areas to be flooded by the proposed High
Arrow, Mica Creek, and Duncan Lake dams. Much of the work this year concentrated on the Duncan Lake area, since little was known about the effects a dam there
might have on Kootenay Lake and its sport fishery. Stream surveys were conducted
on the Arrow Lakes to assess kokanee spawning runs. The Big Bend area of the
Mica Creek reservoir was also investigated.
In connection with the Fraser River Board studies, fisheries surveys were carried out on lakes and streams in the headwater areas of the Fraser River. A somewhat similar survey of Morice River and lake, where hydro-electric development is
less imminent, was also undertaken.
A submission outlining the fish, game, and recreational resources of the proposed Peace River reservoir area was presented at a public hearing on this development. This presentation included recommendations. A brief was presented at the
Puntledge River hearings, conducted by Dean H. L. Angus, inquiring into the effects
on the salmon and steelhead fisheries of the Puntledge River by the British Columbia
Hydro and Power Authority power development. The Fish and Game Branch,
together with the Federal Fisheries Department, contended that fish-protective
devices were required in order to prevent these valuable runs of fish from being
seriously depleted. Deans Angus later ruled in favour of the fisheries proposals
and recommended that they be incorporated into the project for the protection of
these resources.
Steelhead Management
A report assessing the steelhead planting programme on the Coquidam River
was prepared. Since the initiation of steelhead stocking in 1957, a total of 35,140
smolts (all marked by fin clipping) has been released on an experimental basis.
 S 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
From the smolts released a total of seventy-two fin-clipped adult steelhead have
been verified as caught. Considering total reported returns from the Coquitlam
River (1957-61), 475 smolts, representing a total cost of $137.13, were required
to produce each reported returning adult fish. Lower costs have been obtained for
some specific plantings; for example, a 1957 release of smolts resulted in the return
of twenty-six marked steelhead, representing a cost of $69.30 a fish. If full allowance for incomplete returns is taken into account, the cost would appear to be in
excess of $35 per adult fish caught. These results were similar to studies conducted
on the Vedder River and elsewhere, and, as a result, it has been concluded that the
experimental planting of hatchery-reared steelhead smolts, while of considerable
research value and an aid to the hatchery in developing steelhead planting techniques, is prohibitive as a general management technique at the present time. As a
result, the Cultus Lake hatchery has discontinued the propagation of steelhead and
is concentrating on the production of badly needed rainbow trout for the Lower
Mainland district.
Green Lake Study
Since Green Lake in the Cariboo District was reported to be saline and unsuitable for rainbow trout, 125,000 chinook-salmon fingerlings were released in the
hope of establishing these as a sport fishery. This technique has worked on occasion
elsewhere. Additional plantings will be carried out in 1963, then the results will
be assessed through netting. It is important to note that no chinook were netted
from Green Lake in an experimental set in October of 1962, but additional nettings
may be more productive at a later date, when any surviving chinooks should be
larger.
Eastern Brook Trout Plantings
It has been found that the Eastern brook trout thrives and attains a remarkable
size in some shallow warm lakes which are unsuitable for rainbow-trout production.
The planting programme of Eastern brook trout was very successful in the Kootenay
District. Attention is now being focused on the southern Cariboo District, where
a great many apparently suitable lakes are available. It is hoped sport fisheries in
otherwise unproductive lakes may be developed.
Lower Mainland Surveys
While the bulk of the population of the Province is in the Lower Mainland,
good fishing lakes and streams are relatively scarce. As a result, the Fish and Game
Branch has been conducting a survey programme to bring every suitable lake in the
district into top production as a sport fishery. It is hoped that through judicious
management (plantings, regulations, chemical treatments, etc.) much additional
water can be opened up to the Lower Mainland angling fraternity. Consideration
is also being given to relaxing fishing regulations in order to provide more fishing-
waters for children.
Pollution Control
Development of secondary industries in British Columbia has increased the
diversity of pollution investigations required by the Fish and Game Branch. A firm
policy to eliminate sawdust pollutions has been followed in the Prince George-
Vanderhoof area. Stream-water quality monitoring programmes have been instituted on stream systems on the Lower Mainland to evaluate the effects of industrial
and population growth in the area. Co-operation with the mining industry in curbing placer-mining pollutions in the Cariboo District is continuing with good results.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962
S 25
Mining activity in the Vancouver Island, Cariboo, and Kootenay Districts continues to increase, with a consequent increase in pollution-control investigations and
consultations. Aerial spraying for insect control is increasing noticeably in the
Interior of the Province. The effects on fish of this activity were assessed at Sugar
Lake, on the Thompson River, and at Monte Lake near Kamloops. Observations
were made during the application of copper sulphate to lake waters for the control
of swimmers' itch and on the effect of sodium arsenite in the control of aquatic
vegetation.
Excellent co-operation in assessing pollution and solving pollution problems
has been experienced with those Government departments responsible for administration of primary resources, and this co-operative attitude is being increasingly
encountered on the part of individuals and companies in their adoption of extensive
pollution-control measures.
Net Fishing in Non-tidal Waters
Net fishing in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under licence from the Minister of Recreation and Conservation. The fishing
is confined almost exclusively to residents living within short distance of the lakes
in question. The following table gives the principal catch figures for this type of
fishing:—
Catch of Fish Taken from Non-tidal Waters, 1961-62
Kind of Licence
Number of
Fish Taken
Approxi-
Name of System
Fur-farm
Commercial
Home
Use
Sturgeon
Weight
(Lb.)
1
6(3)
KD
4(1)
f(5)
3(1)
2(1)
6(2)
2
1
1
361
2,525
	
300
146
50
1(1)
140
170
1,025
672
1,769
3
2,212
1,136
	
5,450
1,424
4
4,880
185
20(3)
2
1,156
32
55
135
120
Totals 	
1      	
_
6,745
17,201
i Did not fish.
Numbers in parentheses beside the number of licences issued indicate the number of licence-holders who
failed to file a return.
Catches by Species
Species Number of Fish
Kokanee __
Lake trout
Whitefish _.
Ling 	
Pike 	
Sturgeon _
Squawfish
Suckers _
Others -___
2,451
440
3,116
74
308
3
27
104
132
Weight (Lb.)
1,245
3,397
9,714
357
1,478
185
33
207
585
Totals
6,745
17,201
 S 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
There has been an increasing interest in recent years in developing a freshwater commercial fishery on lakes in the Peace River District of the Province. The
Fish and Game Branch does not look with favour on the establishment of a commercial fishery on lakes in which the sport fishery is prominent and where it might
suffer as a result of a commercial net fishery. As a result, commercial fishing, except
for a few isolated and specialized cases, is not allowed anywhere in the southern part
of the Province. In the Peace River District, where fishing pressures are light, it is
considered that a limited commercial fishery can be allowed under strict supervision.
Licences have been granted for several years for lakes in the Peace River Block, and
a survey has been designed to evaluate the present status of this fishery. Several
interesting features of the fishery have emerged. In almost all cases of a fishery
extensive enough to cover expenses and provide a profit, the lake fish showed a
decline in catch in a very few years. It is probable that an extensive revision of the
existing fishing regulations will be needed in order to properly manage and protect
the fishery of this region.
Hatcheries
Trout liberations in 1962 were increased over 1961 by fifty lakes, and the
total number of lakes stocked was 415. Production was about similar to 1961, and
totalled 45,000 pounds. Aerial liberations, which in years prior to 1961 were
limted to two or three trips annually, were increased in 1962.
Steelhead production was abandoned in favour of trout production, and an
attempt was made to increase the supply of native trout eggs. No major construction
was undertaken, although one egg-collection station has been reactivated.
Egg-collection station, Pennask Lake.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 27
Liberations
The lakes stocked by the Fish and Game Branch lie roughly within the lower
one-third of the Province. The number of lakes that have been stocked has risen
steadily since 1958, when 246 were stocked, to 1962, when 415 lakes were stocked.
This latter figure is not expected to increase appreciably until additional hatchery
facilities can be provided.
While aerial liberations were practically non-existent in 1958, by 1961 the
programme had expanded to the stocking of ninety-three lakes (in the southern
Cariboo and Okanagan). This programme was expanded still further in 1962, and
165 lakes were stocked by aerial means.
Production
Production rose steadily through the years 1958 to 1960, inclusively, but since
that time has levelled off at about 45,000 pounds annually and will remain at this
level until rearing facilities are expanded. Steelhead production at Cultus Lake
hatchery was abandoned in favour of trout production, and in view of the heavy
demand on the trout fishery in the Lower Mainland, the whole fish-culture programme at Cultus Lake has been converted to a trout programme.
Egg Collections
The rehabilitation programme has resulted in an increased demand for native
rainbow fry. Pennask Lake hatchery, last used in 1958, will be used again in 1963.
In the fall of 1962 a new spawning-fence was constructed at Pennask (see picture
on page 26), and a target of 4,500,000 eggs has been set for 1963. Eggs collected
will be flown directly to Summerland hatchery.
Beaver Lake was also the site of egg collections in 1962, but as the spawning
run is diminishing, a spawning operation was organized at Stump Lake, south of
Kamloops. About 1,000,000 eggs were collected here (see picture on page 28),
and a further attempt will be made in 1963, using a slightly changed trap design.
About 300,000 Yellowstone cutthroat eggs were collected at the outlet of
Kiakho Lake, near Cranbrook. These were distributed as fry in the East Kootenay
District.
About 3,250,000 rainbow eggs were obtained from State agencies in Washington, Oregon, and California, 1,500,000 Eastern brook trout from Washington and
Oregon, and 150,000 spring-salmon eggs from Washington Department of Fisheries.
All except the latter were exchanged for kokanee and Kamloops eggs from British
Columbia.
Hatchery Research
The two programmes organized in 1960 were continued. These include (a)
a study of " strain survival," which involves native rainbow, fall-spawning rainbow
(Oregon domestic stock), and spring-spawning rainbow (Washington), and (b)
a study of survival of different sizes of a particular stock. This involves fry and fish
which run 500, 100, and 50 to the pound.
The Green Lake (Lower Cariboo) chinook experiment, initiated in 1961, was
pursued through 1962 and will be continued in 1963. Because of the high salinity
of this lake, it was believed a species with high salinity tolerance might survive.
Spring (chinook) salmon, having this characteristic, were introduced, and results-
should be known by mid-1963.
 S 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Lardeau River-Niskonlith Lake programme, initiated in 1961, was continued in 1962 and will be terminated in 1963. In this programme, offspring from
a small part of the Lardeau River spawning run (out of the north end of Kootenay
Lake) were planted into Niskonlith Lake (Kamloops region). Eggs from the
spawning run will then be taken and planted back into the Lardeau River. The
first eggs from Niskonlith Lake are anticipated in 1964.
It is interesting to note that although production has quadrupled in the last ten
years, the number of permanent hatchery staff has remained the same. Temporary
personnel have been reduced each year, and in 1962 only three were required, as
opposed to nine as recently as five years ago. These reductions have been the result
of (a) closing small operations and centralizing efforts, (b) new techniques in transporting trout by vehicle, (c) aerial liberations, which have resulted in a tremendous
saving in time, and (d) greater co-ordination and efficiency by a capable, adaptable,
and well-trained hatchery staff.
Stump Lake egg collection.
Basic Research
Studies continued during 1962 on several important and basic fisheries research
projects. These include life-history studies on suckers at Baker Lake, kokanee
behaviour in Nicola Lake, and the interaction and behaviour of trout and salmon
fingerlings in Coastal streams. In conjunction with this last project, an artificial
stream observation tank has been built at Courtenay and is being used to study,
under controlled conditions, the various factors associated with the Coastal stream
studies.
A very important as well as interesting research project involving the artificial
aeration of Corbett Lake (Merritt) was initiated in 1962.   Several small productive
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 29
Interior lakes are subject to severe or complete winter kill of their trout populations.
By studying a number of these lakes it may be possible to determine why some are
subject to winter kill while other adjacent and apparendy similar lakes are not.
A detailed comparison has been made between Courtney Lake and adjacent Corbett
Lake. Courtney Lake rarely, if ever, winter kills, while Corbett Lake, a deeper lake
less than a mile away, frequently does. Water temperature, oxygen, and other
features of their water chemistry, as well as plankton and fish abundance, have been
regularly recorded for over a year. During the winter of 1961/62 all trout in
Corbett Lake were killed during a long period of low oxygen levels. Members of
the Research Division, using Scuba diving-gear, recovered many dead fish from
the lake-bottom.
The Research Division began pumping compressed air into the lake in mid-
October through a plastic pipe 1 inch in diameter. This pipe, laid in a circle of
2,400 feet circumference, is suspended from rafts to a depth 40 feet below the
lake-surface. Air bubbles escape through small holes in the pipe and circulate
the deeper deoxygenated water up to the surface. Before pumping began there
was virtually no oxygen below a depth of 35 feet. By mid-November a good
supply had been distributed to all depths.
The conditions in both Corbett and Courtney Lakes will be closely followed
throughout the winter of 1962/63 to determine whether or not artificial circulation
of the water before freeze-up may prevent serious winter kill of trout.
Publications
The following papers were published in the Journal of Fisheries Research
Board of Canada:—
(1) Migratory Behaviour of Juvenile Rainbow Trout, Salmo gairdneri, in
Outlet and Inlet Streams of Loon Lake, British Columbia, by T. G.
Northcote.
(2) Comparison of Inlet and Outlet Spawning Runs of Rainbow Trout in
Loon Lake, British Columbia, by G. F. Hartman, T. G. Northcote, and
C. C. Lindsey.
Mimeographed paper: Effects on Rainbow Trout of Field Applications of
Phytoactin L-318, by H. Lorz.
The folder " Good Fishing Doesn't Happen by Accident," published by the
Fish and Game Branch in 1961, won second place for non-technical publications
in the 1962 competition of the American Association for Conservation Information.
 S 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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1952
TROUT    HATCHERIES
TROUT   LIBERATION GRAPH
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YEARS
1962
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1962
S 31
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TROUT HATCHERIES
PRODUCTION GRAPH
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1952
1957
YEARS
1962
 S 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
TROUT    HATCHERIES
COST PER  POUND  GRAPH.
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1952
1957
YEARS
1962
 PROVINCIAL
PARKS
BRANCH
\            RECREATION            /
j\        CONSERVATION        ik
6
 WSSKe^^^irS%P»^jf-:.?>Z%',JV■„&!%>?-&£$:*%£'•$ .
Valley View Lookout, Manning Provincial Park.
Ballingall Islets bird sanctuary park.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962
S 35
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
H. G. McWilliams, Director
Year
1957 ._
Number
of Parks                           Acres
  116                8,416,657
1958    _
  132                 8,418,880
1959 _.
  147                8,421,142
1960 ....
.... 163                8,423,406
1961
  186                6,356,176
1962
  202                6.376.580
Note 1.—The decrease in acreage from 1960 to 1961 was due to the
reduction of Hamber Park, which was resurveyed to include only areas of high
recreational value.
Note 2.—Of the 202 parks shown for 1962, 170 have been provided
with facilities for public use.    Eighty-seven parks contain camp-sites; eighty-
three are for picnicking only.
The highest use of Provincial parks to date occurred during 1962, when 3.7
million people enjoyed park facilities, in spite of generally poor weather conditions.
Mount Seymour Park received greater use than any other single park by accommodating 350,000 visitors. Twenty-five per cent of all park visitors used parks on
Vancouver Island.
To provide park facilities with waterfrontage within alienated areas where
public access would otherwise be denied, the Branch found it necessary to purchase
643 acres, giving access to Spectacle Lake, Cowichan River, Kootenay Lake, and
other sites.
Lakelse Lake Park suffered a severe loss of land area from a mud-slide early
in the year, but the loss was compensated for by the generosity of the Aluminum
Company of Canada Limited, which donated land for park use adjacent to the
damaged park.
A land exchange at Pilot Bay laid the foundation for the development of an
800-acre park on the east side of Kootenay Lake. Bowron Lake Park, a 297,301-
acre tract of wilderness enclosing a 70-mile, rectangular, round-trip waterway, rich
in wildlife and ideal for canoeing, is now available for public use.
Although a continued expansion of park facilities has been carried out through
a vigorous work programme, this year's use figures indicate that future demands
will be even greater, and the need to continue to expand steadily is clearly evident.
YOUTH CREWS
The youth crew programme again offered a selected group of young citizens
the opportunity of enjoying a valuable outdoor experience. In 1962, 150 young
men were selected by lot from approximately 600 who volunteered for this programme. They were allocated to areas as follows: One crew at Alice Lake, two
crews at Long Beach, one crew at Newcastle Island, two crews at Moyie Lake,
two crews at Ten Mile Lake, and five crews at Manning Park.
Each crew comprised twelve or thirteen boys, together with supervisory staff,
which directed their extensive outdoor work programme.
 S 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL PROGRAMME
There was a continued expansion of park facilities under the terms of the
Federal-Provincial Agreement winter works programme.
PLANNING DIVISION
Land Acquisition and Park Inventory
A recommendation originally advanced by local outdoor enthusiasts resulted
in the creation this year of Monashee Provincial Park, an 18,566-acre, wild, alpine
area near Sugar Lake.
Purchases of park land involved 305 acres and included Spectacle Lake, Cowichan River frontage, and Otter Lake access. In addition, 338 acres of Kootenay
Lake frontage were purchased at Kokanee Creek in co-operation with the Department of Social Welfare. The boundaries of Thomas S. Francis Park were amended,
and the park consolidated by a land exchange under the Department of Recreation
and Conservation Act. A land exchange at Pilot Bay, negotiated by the Parks
Branch and conducted by the Lands Service, will result in the acquisition of 32 acres,
including waterfrontage, and will form part of an 800-acre proposed park on the
east side of Kootenay Lake. Timber was purchased on the west shore of Davis
Lake to protect aesthetic values in this small park. A 254-acre parcel of sea-
frontage was acquired at Schooner Cove on Long Beach in exchange for timber in
the Bedwell River drainage. Assistance from the Department of Lands, Forests,
and Water Resources and co-operation with Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
resulted in the acquisition of China Beach in a land exchange.
Valuable donations of park land involving 215 acres were made by the following: Mrs. J. M. Goodall, Eves Park near Westholme; the Aluminum Company of
Canada Limited, an addition to Lakelse Lake Park; the Board of School Trustees
of School District No. 30 (South Cariboo), Clinton Creek Park; the Columbia
Cellulose Company Limited, a park property on Prudhomme Lake.
Co-operation and assistance from other departments helped materially in securing recreational land for public use. Land Inspectors, Forest Rangers, District Engineers, and Mining Recorders initiated the reservation of valuable park land. The
Forest Service released 136 acres in the Niskonlith and Chilliwack Forests for park
purposes.
The compilation of field data resulted in recommendations on park values in
the Akamina-Kishinena region and the Skagit River. Valuation appraisals of properties on Quadra Island and Otter Lake were completed. A system of recording
all recreational reserves on a set of transparent reference maps keyed to the Branch's
new file system is being initiated. The compilation and analysis of park attendance
figures continued.
Potential easy access to Cheakamus River directed attention to this region, and
a reappraisal of park values here resulted in specific recommendations. An application to amend the west boundary of Tweedsmuir Park resulted in a careful field
examination. Reports describe an outstanding alpine area and suggest modification of the proposal. An intensive search for a marine park in the Sechelt-Powell
River area continued.
A multitude of site examinations and the inventory of their recreational values
took personnel into the East and West Kootenays, the Thompson River, the Okanagan, and the Peace River.
In summary, nine new Class A parks were established, increasing Provincial
park lands by 19,638 acres.   These included the following:   Monashee, Spencer
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 37
Tuck, Ten Mile Lake, Murrin, Ellison, and Kiskatinaw. A total of 478 acres was
added to the following existing parks: Lakelse Lake, Qualicum, Sidney Spit, and
John Dean. An area of 26,140 acres in Strathcona Park was reclassified as a
Class B park. Ten new Class C parks were established, representing a total of 515
acres and included the following: Clinton Creek, Cedar Point, Eves, Mara Point,
Mission Beach, Haslam Lake, Elizabeth Lake, Blue River, Cayoosh, and Blenkin
Memorial. Westview Park, Class C, was cancelled, and its administration and
control turned over to The Corporation of the District of Powell River. Class A
parks now number 130 and cover 2,311,540 acres; Class B, 7, covering 4,036,338
acres; and Class C, 65 covering 28,701 acres.
Assistance from other Government departments enabled the reservation of
180 sites for public recreational use, involving approximately 17,880 acres. This
brings the total area reserved for recreational purposes to approximately 298,380
acres and includes some 1,860 individual sites.
Development Plans Office
During the year this office has been engaged in the traditional planning functions of site inspection, mapping, development plans, field checks, and ground supervision during the development period. There has been a considered attempt to
devote more time to master planning of some major parks in an effort to chart the
course that should be steered in administering these large " national park " type
land areas. Studies and field examinations relevant to the compilation of data on
these parks are time-consuming and necessarily require a studious, conservative
approach if conclusions are to be valid over many years. These studies are being
carried out in Mount Seymour Park, Bowron Lakes Park, and Garibaldi Park
(Alouette region). It is the intention to commence this work in several other
major parks in 1963.
The planning of regional parks of the 20- to 400-acre size range still demands
the greater part of our efforts. These recreational areas offer their greatest challenge
to planning in the problem of relating the facilities to the topography in an artistic
yet utilitarian way. Parks in this category which have been worked over this past
year are those at Davis Lake, Stump Lake, Heffley Lake, Chilliwack River, Bedwell
Harbour, Saltery Bay, and Premier Lake.
The mapping crews working out of the Planning Office were busier than usual,
with additional students employed as mapping assistants. Maps were prepared of
areas at MacDonald Park, Rock Creek, Jimsmith Lake, Cascade, Kidd Creek, Wasa
Lake, Bear Creek, Cedar Point, and Bowron Lakes.
After a setback in 1961 the entrance-portal programme has once more gone
ahead, with new portals carved for Peace Arch Park, Wells Gray Park, and Barkerville historic site.
During 1962 the major landscaping project undertaken by this Branch was the
continuing programme of landscaping the day-use area at Alouette Lake in southern
Garibaldi Park. This included the creation of swimming areas, extension of the
existing beach, planting of shade trees in various picnic areas, and the reshaping
and planting of picnic terraces as an erosion-control measure. Considerable rock-
work is also in progress, such as stone bases or pads under picnic tables and stone
catch-basins at culvert ends.
Also in the same portion of Garibaldi Park, new beach areas have been
planned, as has an additional boat-launching ramp and parking-lots. Planning of
a group-camping layout is presently in progress.
 S 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Riding-trails totalling approximately 6 miles were constructed, together with
a small corral and parking-lot; the trails lead from the park entrance to Alouette
Lake, with a branch trail to Mike Lake.
During the summer months, hydro-seeding was undertaken in the Kootenay
District at Wasa Lake, Jimsmith Lake, and Champion Lakes.
1948   49     50     51     52     53    54     55     56    57     58    59     60    61      62     63
ANNUAL   ATTENDANCE
PROVINCIAL        PARKS
Chart No. 1.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962
S 39
Extension work undertaken by the Branch has increased considerably over
the past twelve months. During that period ten projects have been undertaken for
various cities, villages, municipalities, and non-profit organizations. Included were
park-development plans for the Village of Campbell River, City of Courtenay,
Village of Sidney, the Kinsmen Club of Cumberland, the Comox Valley Exhibition
Board, the City of Kelowna, the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, the Girl
Guide Association, Lakeview Park at Cowichan Lake, and suggested developments
for park areas at Squamish.
NATURE    HOUSE    ATTENDANCE.
LU
□- a.
O o
LU g
i
Mil
Jj  Mi dm
Lua.    ffrmi Unfit
innn inrHff nnnr fflnnr
j ii Jit Jit Jit Jit
m      &JLB   JlHBl JLTlIiil nn nn Awiin
Jii Jit Jit A Jit iflu
ItTHf BH fflffflf jfffftif HHrr Ifflff
1957        1958 1959 1960        1961 1962
YEAR
Chart No. 2.
 S 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Interpretation and Research
Interpretation programmes continued in Manning and Miracle Beach Parks,
and were initiated in Shuswap Lake and Goldstream Parks. Three nature centres
had a total attendance of over 54,000, and 142 conducted walks were attended by
3,400 people. No estimate was made of the use given five nature trails in four
parks.   Nature centre use increased by 40 per cent over that of 1961.
The Shuswap Lake Nature House had a successful first year, serving about
16,000 people. People's reactions were interesting. Formerly a new house was
approached with cautious curiosity. Now most people know what a nature house
has to offer as a result of familiarity with the two older houses.
In Manning, Miracle Beach, and Goldstream Parks regular walks, conducted
by park naturalists, were offered to the public. They were received with enthusiasm.
In Goldstream Park there was no nature house, the interpretation programme consisting almost entirely of frequent conducted walks. During the summer the naturalist there led eighty-nine walks, a total of over 2,200 people.
The Miracle Beach Nature House was in its new building for the first year.
Eighteen new exhibits were planned and made to furnish it. The new Shuswap
Lake Nature House, under canvas this year, received seventeen new exhibits.
An experiment with heavily plasticized labels on nature trails was conducted
in Goldstream Park, and results were encouraging. The aim is to perfect a tough,
damage-resistant label for use on trails given infrequent servicing.
In 1962, after cautious trials in previous years, large, colourful, plywood signs
at features of interest were made for five situations. These were placed in Sproat
Lake, Miracle Beach, Okanagan Lake, and Mount Seymour Parks. Some of the
more exposed were heavily damaged, as expected. The experiment has suggested
how to reduce damage by using different materials and by placing the signs in what
are now recognized as low-damage positions.
Brief inspections of Garibaldi Park (Alouette Lake area) and Ellison Park
showed both to be suitable for interpretation.
A research programme in Wells Gray Park dwelt mainly on filling gaps in
knowledge of moose. This study has now reached the stage where the data should
be thoroughly organized and assembled into a readable story. Future research and
management policy should be based on this assessment.
Historic Sites
Funds for the various historic programmes are administered by the Provincial
Secretary's Department. The Barkerville Restoration Advisory Committee defines
broad policy to guide development.
The bulk of available funds is spent on the Barkerville project. Of this sum,
approximately one-third was utilized in constructing a modern restroom building
and in providing road access, diversion lines, and a water-tank site in connection
wth the water-supply system. A temporary water system was installed to service
the toilet building and the museum.
Considerable effort was necessary to remodel the community hall so it could
operate as the " Theatre Royal" during summer months. Various buildings were
modernized to house theatrical staff. The Richfield Courthouse received extensive
repairs to both roof and foundation.
A grading and ditching project created a service and parking area across from
the new museum. Ram Pasture Camp-site was extended by another eight units,
and a new camp-site of twenty-five units was built after demolishment of the old
Government buildings then occupying the site.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 41
A major undertaking from the aspect of time was the complete furnishing of
the new museum display-room. This building was officially opened on August 13th
by the Premier.
Park personnel completed a Cornish pump and wheel, and the operation of
this was a feature attraction. A new entrance sign and additions to interpretive
panels were carried out.
Furnishings from the Victoria Courthouse were selected in sufficient quantity
to refurbish the Richfield building. A steady programme of acquisition of historic
items was carried out both in Victoria and Barkerville.
Publicity accruing to Barkerville because of its centennial and the various
special features to mark the occasion brought in an estimated 107,000 visitors,
a remarkable increase from the 25,000 of the previous year.
No action was taken at Cottonwood House because the present tenant found
it difficult to vacate and all park workmen were concentrating on Barkerville.
Fort Steele was a source of interest to many visitors, although no development
was undertaken.    Several properties were purchased.
" Stop of interest " plaques erected this year were " Crimson Sockeye," " Eagle
Pass," " K'shian the Skeena," " Moricetown Canyon," " Penticton," and " Kelowna."
The first four of these had been cast the previous year.
One local historic marker, " The Clinton Hotel," was provided to the South
Cariboo Historical Museum Society.
Public Information and Education
Working in co-operation with other sections of the Parks Branch, the Public
Information Office continued to keep the public informed of Branch activities and
new facilities provided for public enjoyment. The information was disseminated
through the media of press, radio, television, talks, special articles, publications, and
displays.
A large but unrecorded number of maps and pamphlets was sent to adults and
school-children in answer to inquiries covering a variety of subjects within the
recreation and conservation field.
Talks given by request to various groups were illustrated with 16-mm. motion
pictures and 35-mm. slides.
Writers and journalists were supplied with material, and several private and
Government agencies producing tourist guide material were assisted.
Members of the office assisted in the " Salute to the Sockeye " programme at
Adams River and at Departmental exhibits at fall fairs.
Formal openings were organized in co-operation with other groups for Beaumont, Green Point, and Montague Harbour Parks and the new chair lift at Mount
Seymour.
ENGINEERING DIVISION
The increase in basic park facilities for the year ended December 31, 1962,
is as follows: 483 new camp-sites, a 15.1-per-cent increase for a total of 3,688,
and 185 new picnic-sites, a 9.5-per-cent increase for a total of 2,121. Total tables
in use in camp-sites and picnic-sites to December 31, 1962, were 5,809, or a 13-
per-cent increase over 1961.
Youth Crew Programme
One hundred and fifty boys were employed in six areas, as follows: Alice Lake,
12; Long Beach, 24; Newcasde Island, 12; Moyie Lake, 24; Ten Mile Lake, 24;
6
 S 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and Manning Park, 54. These crews were used primarily in the completion stages
of camp-ground and picnic-site development, and in some cases were employed in
the maintenance of established parks.
Federal-Provincial Programme
During 1962 the Parks Branch received funds for park development under the
terms of the Federal-Provincial Agreement to the extent of approximately $450,000.
Projects Undertaken in 1962 by Parks
1. Alice Lake: Deep well pumping-station established and park project completed.
2. Bear Lake: Deep well established.
3. Beaumont: Forty-nine-unit camp-site, twenty-three-unit picnic-site, and
boat-launching site.
4. Boundary Creek: Former picnic-site converted to seventeen-unit camp-site.
5. Cultus Lake: Twenty-one new picnic tables, three parking-lots, and boat-
launching site established at Maple Bay; Watt Creek channel stabilized and new
bridge constructed; swimming-floats designed.
6. Englishman River:   Paving of access road to picnic area.
7. Gabriola Sands: Twelve-unit picnic-site, new ball-field and roadside parking, beach improvement, and sanitary facilities.
8. Garibaldi Park, South (Alouette Lake area): Paving to 3.4 miles of Alouette Lake Road; picnic-area water-main extension; forty-three new camp-sites and
twenty-three new picnic tables; extensive landscaping programme carried out at
picnic-site area; horse corral and riding-trail established along main road.
9. Garibaldi Park, North (Diamond Head-Black Tusk area): Completion of
water system, oil heating system, and sewage-disposal system to Diamond Head
Chalet; some road work; rustic shelter built in Black Tusk area.
10. Haynes Point: Thirty-unit camp-site and nine-unit picnic-site; parking
facilities and boat-launching site.
11. Kiskatinaw: Twenty-six-unit camp-site.
12. Keats Island:   Improvements to mooring facilities.
13. Kokanee Creek:  Garage workshop and service area.
14. Lakelse Lake:   Water system to camp-site.
15. Little Qualicum Falls:  Paving of access road into camp-site.
16. Long Beach:  Eighty-nine camp-sites and twelve picnic-sites.
17. McClure Lake:  Twelve additional camp-sites.
18. Manning Park: Continuation of work on the dam and recreational reservoir; east entrance portal completed; sewage-ejection system for Pine Woods laundry; preparation of design and specifications for Pine Woods kitchen and electric
survey.
19. Miracle Beach: Salt-water and domestic-water system for nature museum.
20. Montague Harbour: Thirty-one-unit camp-site and twenty-five picnic-sites;
parking-access road to park, beach, and marine facilities.
21. Mara Lake:  Deep well pumping-station.
22. Mouat Park:  Six-unit picnic-site.
23. Moyie Lake:  Service area and construction camp.
24. Mount Seymour: Work begun on new parking-lot and building-sites for
cafeteria and toilet building.
25. Mahood Lake: Park patrolman's residence and service area; deep well
and water system.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962
S 43
26. Newcastie Island: Eighteen camp-sites and fifteen picnic-sites established;
two new boat floats and dismanding of old C.P.R. pier; start made on Beaver Lake
clearing.
27. Otter Bay: Fifty-three camp-sites and fifty-three-unit picnic-site; parking-
lots and beach access.
28. Rolley Lake: Fifty camp-sites; parking-lot; service area and beach-
clearing.
29. Saltery Bay:  Forty-two-unit camp-site and eight-unit picnic-site.
30. Shuswap Lake: New pumping system; power-line extension; temporary
nature-house; design of swimming-floats.
31. Skihist:  Water system to camp-site and picnic-site.
32. Sproat Lake:  Lake pumping-station and chlorination.
33. Ten Mile Lake: Twenty-seven-unit camp-site and twenty-one-unit picnic-
site; design of change-house; service area and construction camp.
34. Wasa Lake:  Minor improvements to camp-sites and picnic-sites.
35. Wells Gray: Thirty-unit camp-site; boat-launching site; reorganization
of park administration area at Clearwater Lake; road improvements.
Draughting
Draughting consisted of thirty-five engineering and architectural drawings and
160 topographical map-sheets.
Langford Workshop Production (Main Items Only)
Entrance shelters  8 Picnic tables  786
Entrance portals  4 Park benches     42
Incinerators  10 Type A signs     16
Marine buoys  26 Fireplaces  595
Garbage gobblers  7 Number posts  677
Diving-boards   13 Toilet seat sections  149
Standard carved signs  700 Miscellaneous signs  133
Summary of Facilities
Public buildings  47               Camp-sites  3,688
Miscellaneous structures  131                Picnic-sites   2,121
Boat-launching ramps  19               Pit toilets  1,185
" Stop of interest " signs— 48                Fireplaces  3,950
Water systems  66               Garbage-cans   4,746
The maintenance and servicing of the above facilities were carried on by a staff
varying from forty in the winter to 160 in the high-use season of July and August.
 S 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA
CAMPING     UNITS.
Developed     During    The   Year.
414                   437                   542                  408                   483
_Z
jL      A.
2  _A__A_
UNITS
r symbol
1   JLA.A.
CAMPER
500    pe
sy                  w                  w                  w                  sy
A  .A A- A. A.
sy                w                sy                sy                sy
A. _A_ A. A. A
sy                \y                \y                \y                sy
A   A   A   A   A
w             w             w             w             y
A   A   A   A   A
1958            1959             1960            1961             1962
YEAR
Each c
amper unit accommodates one average family; 3,688 camper units now
available.
Chart No. 3.
•
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1962
S 45
PICNIC     UNITS.
c
%   Increase
Over   Previous    Year
s
32-59                26-85
25-50
1306
13-00
v:
-5
vv
VV
VV
vv
vv
vv
vv
1
vv
vv
vv
BLES
'mbol
vv
vv
vv
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<      ST
u i
V    vv
vv
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PICNI
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-s£Ar  -^V
vv
vv
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w vv
vv
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vv
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vv
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1958           1959
1960
1961
1962
YEAR
Chart No. 4.
  BRITISH   COLUMBIA   GOVERNMENT
TRAVEL
BUREAU
 The Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C., opening the new Department of Recreation
and Conservation Information Centre in Vancouver. The Centre provides information
on all aspects of the Department's operations and has assisted many thousands of
visitors since the opening in April, 1962.
Traffic in the new Rogers Pass route immediately after the opening in July, 1962.
This new scenic route through the Rockies has created a vastly increased potential for
tourist traffic between the Prairie Provinces and British Columbia.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 49
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU
R. L. Colby, Director
Value of Tourism in the Past Five Years
1962  $145,000,000
1961  115,000,000
1960  100,400,000
1959  100,000,000
1958  106,000,000
Despite capricious summer weather, British Columbia had its greatest influx
of tourists during 1962. An estimated 3,625,000 people visited the Province, contributing the record amount of $145,000,000 to Provincial coffers.
California, with more than 45 per cent, was the largest United States tourist
contributor, followed by Washington with 20 per cent, West and Mid-west States
with between 10 and 15 per cent, and Oregon with between 5 and 10 per cent.
Other areas provided less than 5 per cent.
More than 50 per cent of the United States visitors took one- or two-day
holidays in the Province, while less than 6 per cent stayed more than a week. This is
partially due to the influence of the Seatde World's Fair.
Significant changes took place nationally. British Columbia was visited by
more Canadians than at any other time in history. Similarly, there was a definite
trend among British Columbians to holiday within Provincial boundaries.
PROMOTION
A new and modern Departmental branch office was opened at 787 Hornby
Street in Vancouver in April, 1962. Since, more than 22,000 visitors have been
served by the office.
Displays were manned at fairs, exhibitions, and sport shows locally, provin-
cially, and internationally. Staff members were guests on radio and television on a
number of occasions, which has helped to publicize the work of the Bureau.
Close liaison was maintained with the British Columbia Division of Expo-
Lodging, resulting in valuable service between the Bureau and that organization.
ACCOMMODATION
Emphasis this year was placed on areas not visited since 1959. Altogether,
almost 18,000 miles were covered by the two inspectors, and some 700 classifications completed.
Particular attention was paid to the Fraser Valley between New Westminster
and Hope, Highway No. 5 between Princeton and Kamloops, and Highway No. 1
between Cache Creek and Kamloops. The East and West Kootenays were also
covered extensively, and calls were also made in the Okanagan area.
 S 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The following are the accommodation statistics to date:
Hotels
Motels
Ranches
and
Lodges
Trailers
and
Camps
Totals
Per
Cent
Total    	
306
267
14,348
1,786
1,114
260
248
48
10,892
39
1,418
1,381
14,706
5,103
1,869
510
274
283
6,667
37
320
277
2,737
544
207
109
86
93
1,698
43
236
2,280
1,925
31,791
7,433
3,190
879
608
424
19,257
119
23
3-star   .  -            .. 	
10
2-star                 	
3
2
0-star                      _
1
Ungraded _ _.	
61
New registrations, 135; change of owners, 305; places closed, 86.
ADVERTISING
The heaviest campaign in Bureau history began in February with half- and full-
page advertisements in Holiday, Sunset, Look, Motorland, Westways, Maclean's, and
Chatelaine magazines. Space was taken in newspapers in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Toronto, and Montreal. The Seattle Fair campaign, launched in May, was
supported by a further campaign in newspapers and magazines in California. This
was followed by a concentrated schedule in the Seattle press. The Seattle Times
Calendar of Events was used almost exclusively, which, together with advertisements
in the official World's Fair programme and display-boards on Seattle bus-sides, kept
the name of British Columbia to the forefront.
LITERATURE
Since January, 1962, more than IV2 million pieces of literature have been sent
out by the Bureau, another record. We had expected an increased demand this
year, and, accordingly, had enlarged our stocks early in the year. A considerable
amount of revision took place in our publications. The road map was given a complete face-lifting, and was produced from an amalgamation of previous camp-site
and fishing maps. This was the first step in a long-range programme of revision
and updating all Bureau publications.
Throughout the year the Bureau was pleased to display, and sent out where
needed, the publications of regional and local organizations. The standard, particularly as regards regional pieces, was much improved this year.
PUBLICITY
Demand for publicity stories on British Columbia exceeded all other years.
This, coupled with the several visits of travel editors and staff journalists, made
heavy demands on public information sources. Bureau staff worked with publishing
houses and concerns to develop travel articles. Several visiting correspondents were
assisted in the preparation of column copy that subsequently found its way across
North America via syndication. It is interesting to note that some publications, not
previously users of travel copy, have been changing their policies, and we have been
able to break new ground in this way.
The Bureau public information officer also acts as editor of the British Columbia Government News, a free monthly publication describing the various activities
of Governmental departments. Current circulation is between 61,000 and 62,000
per issue.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 51
"BEAUTIFUL BRITISH COLUMBIA" MAGAZINE
Circulation of this popular quarterly has now reached an estimated 80,000
copies per issue, of which 25,000 are by subscription. The magazine is now read in
sixty-six different countries, and in 1962 was runner-up in a national magazine
competition for tourist-promotion publications.
TOURIST INFORMATION CENTRES
The White Rock Information Centre, on Highway No. 99 at the Canadian
Border, served 30,635 cars carrying 98,478 visitors between April 1st and October
21st. In 1961 this office served a total of 14,424 cars bringing 44,729 Provincial
visitors between June 15th and September 15th. For this same period in 1962,
23,971 cars brought 80,985 people, an increase of 9,547 cars or 66 per cent.
The mobile centre at Flood was visited by 9,920 cars carrying 28,942 people,
nearly one-third of them on their first visit to British Columbia.
The Cache Creek Centre, in operation for only seven weeks, gave assistance to
more than 6,000 visitors. By providing additional information about the Interior of
the Province, some 400,000 additional visitor miles were added to the 3,000,000
miles these visitors originally intended to travel.
The Sicamous Centre, in operation between June 15th and September 15th,
served 9,600 visitors. Many entering British Columbia for the first time did so
over newly opened Rogers Pass. Outlook is that a larger volume of traffic may be
expected during 1963. Almost all the visitors indicated they would return. Statistics
compiled at this Centre show the staff was able to extend planned mileages by 10
per cent.
Our Banff operation served 6,000-odd visitors, increasing their planned mileage
in British Columbia by 300,000 miles.
REGIONAL MATCHING GRANTS PLAN
A budget of $150,000 was passed as the Government stake in this plan in 1962.
Available to the eight Provincial regions on a dollar-for-dollar matching basis, this
year's appropriation, though not fully absorbed, did provide great incentive for
regional activity.
FIELD WORK AND LIAISON
Staff members travelled extensively in the Province to foster still further Bureau-
civic relations. Valuable contacts were maintained with tourist-minded organizations, Boards of Trade, and Chambers of Commerce in an effort to further develop
the Province's tourist industry.
Much of the Director's time was absorbed by travelling and meetings with
officials in the industry both in and out of the Province. Increased administrative
duties also added to a tight year-round schedule that included attending conventions
and discussions at Provincial and National level. In many of these duties he was
aided by the newly appointed Assistant Director.
During the summer months of 1962 the Bureau carried out a survey of travellers between the United States and British Columbia to determine a more effective
approach to our advertising and promotional programme. The results of this survey,
since published in book form, have been distributed to interested parties in the
industry.
 S 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CONVENTIONS SECTION
At the first of the year a Conventions Section was added to the Bureau's activities, and a representative appointed. The most important function of this new office
is to co-ordinate the convention sales story for the Province and encourage convention business as a whole. So far this year, 305 inquiries have been dealt with by the
Section and 27,000 pieces of literature sent to prospective clients in Canada and the
United States.
SETTLEMENT
The Bureau gratefully acknowledges the assistance of various departments in
answering the 216 inquiries from other parts of Canada, the United States, and other
parts of the world from persons considering residence or business in British Columbia. Though the Bureau does not connect itself direcdy with immigration, it does
nevertheless endeavour to assist such inquirers by directing their requests to the
appropriate department.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HOUSE, SAN FRANCISCO
Coinciding with the Seattle World's Fair, the first full year of operation was a
busy one. With the knowledge that large numbers of visitors would be drawn to
the Pacific Northwest for the fair, concentration was on the extension of this traffic
to British Columbia.
Throughout the year, staff members participated in major Californian fairs and
exhibitions. This was supported by editorial promotion in daily and periodical publications, film showings, lectures to social groups and businessmen's organizations,
and by contacts with transportation companies and tourist information outlets in
California.
The portable display made in California was put to excellent use at travel and
trade exhibitions showing combined gate attendance figures of 2,314,779. More
than 600 interested persons attending these functions requested mailing of special
literature.
Valuable groundwork has been done toward creation of new package tours of
British Columbia involving major rail and bus companies in the Western United
States and Canada.
TRAVEL WRITING AWARD
The Third Annual B.C. Government-Press Journal travel writing award was
won by London, Ont., journalist William Heine, who, with his wife, enjoyed ten days
in British Columbia. More than fifty-six entries were received and judged by Press
Journal magazine.
This award is made annually to the writer of the best story on travel in Canada
published in a Canadian publication and is an effort to create an interest in travel
writing among the country's journalists. It comprises a cash award of $250 and a
ten-day all-expense tour for two to British Columbia via Trans-Canada Air Lines.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962
S 53
NUMBER OF U.S. CARS ENTERING BRITISH
COLUMBIA  DURING 1961 AND 1962
SOURCE DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS.
Q
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JAN       FEB     MAR     APRIL    MAY      JUNE    JULY     AUG.
MONTH
1962
I      1961
 S 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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SQNVSnOHl  Nl  S3IcJinON3
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF
NATURAL HISTORY AND
ANTHROPOLOGY
 Chief Mungo Martin, late chief carver, Provincial Museum.
(B.C. Government photo.)
Model of British Columbia, 5 by 7 feet, designed and constructed by F. L. Beebe,
Museum technician.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 57
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
G. Clifford Carl, Director
Two significant events marked 1962 as memorable in the history of the Provincial Museum: a record attendance was attained and the institution celebrated its
seventy-fifth birthday.   Otherwise, activities were carried on much as usual.
Undoubtedly the increase in number of visitors was due to the World's Fair,
which brought several millions of persons to the Seattle area, plus the centennial
celebrations in Victoria, which further encouraged visitors to come to Vancouver
Island. Whatever the reason, the end result was that more than 270,000 persons
passed through the Museum during the tourist season, more than two and one-half
times as many as in any previous entire year.
Since October 25, 1887, when the Provincial Museum was officially opened,
this branch of the Government has given three-quarters of a century of continuous
service. To commemorate the occasion, the Provincial Government was host to a
banquet on October 27, 1962, which was attended by Government officials, representatives of related organizations, and individuals who have been associated with
the Museum over the years. Chairman was the Honourable E. C. Westwood, Minister of the Department of Recreation and Conservation. The Honourable W. N.
Chant, Minister of Public Works, represented Premier W. A. C. Bennett; Dr. L. S.
Russell, Director of the National Museum of Canada and president of the Canadian
Museums Association, was guest speaker.
FIELD WORK
Various members of the staff spent periods of time during the year in various
portions of the Province. Bird and mammal work was largely confined to assisting
in photographic work in the Creston area on two occasions, in making a reconnaissance of islands in Barkley Sound, and in aiding an aerial big-game census in the
Columbia Valley.
Botanical collecting was carried on in Northern British Columbia, and a preliminary reconnaissance was made of the Revelstoke-Arrow Lakes-Kootenay Lake
district in preparation for a survey planned for 1963.
Anthropological contacts were maintained and work accomplished by a trip
including stops in the Shuswap Lake area, Hazelton region, Prince Rupert, and
certain parts of the Queen Charlotte Islands. In addition, colour slides and tape
recordings were obtained and two totem-poles were collected. Various " digs "
being sponsored by the Archslogical Sites Advisory Board were also visited, and
during the winter several local Indian spirit dances were attended.
PUBLICATIONS
The following publications have appeared in 1962:—
Anonymous—
" Guide to the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology,"
October, 1962.
Donald N. Abbott—
" Victoria and District Archaeology Club."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 18,
No. 7, p. 98.
" Care of Silver."   Museum Round-up, No. 8, p. 16, October, 1962.
 S 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Frank L. Beebe—
"Museum Techniques."   Museum Round-up, No. 8, pp. 22-23, October, 1962.
G. Clifford Carl—
" The Sea."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 51-54.
" 75 Years of Progress."   The Islander, Daily Colonist, Sunday, November 18, pp. 2 and 10.
Wilson Duff—
" Wanted:   A Word."   The Clearing House (Western Museums Quarterly), Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 23, 1961.
Review of " Men of Medeek," by Will Robinson.   Beaver, Outfit 293,
winter 1962, p. 56.
C. J. Guiguet—
" River Otter."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 18, No. 5, p. 53.
" The Cougar on Vancouver Island."    Canadian Audubon, Vol. 24,
No. 1, lan.-Feb., 1962, pp. 6-9.
" Don't Condemn the Cougar."   British Columbia Digest, Vol. 18, No. 5,
October, 1962, p. 19.
" Bird Finding in British Columbia."   Canadian Audubon, Vol. 24, No. 4,
Sept.-Oct, 1962, pp. 108-112.
George A. Hardy—
" Notes on the Life Histories of One Butterfly and Three Moths from
Vancouver Island (Lepidoptera: Lycasnidae, Phak-enidas and Geo-
metridae)." Proc. Entomological Society of British Columbia, Vol.
59, pp. 35-39.
"Additional Notes on Nymphalis californica Bdv." Proc. Entomological
Society of British Columbia, Vol. 59, p. 34.
Josephine F. L. Hart—
" Records of Distribution of Some Crustacea in British Columbia." Report
of the Provincial Museum for 1961, pp. 17-19.
W. E. Ricker and Ferris Neave—
" Nesting Colony of Mew Gulls on Kennedy Lake, Vancouver Island."
Report of the Provincial Museum for 1961, pp. 20-21.
Adam F. Szczawinski and G. A. Hardy—
" Guide to Common Edible Plants of British Columbia." British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 20, pp. 1-90.
The " Guide to Common Edible Plants," by Dr. Szczawinski and Mr. Hardy
(formerly of the Museum staff), is a revised edition of Handbook No. 1, prepared
by Mr. Hardy more than twenty years ago. The old booklet has been a continuous
" best seller," and the new edition has already proved to be exceedingly popular.
It has pointed out the need for a companion volume on poisonous plants, a publication planned for early production.
Other publications in the fields of anthropology and natural history are in various stages of preparation or are awaiting publication.
CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES
As time between field work and other activities permitted, the entire study collection of bird-skins was rearranged to incorporate all specimens acquired in recent
years. The skins are now in their correct order, and spaces have been left so that
new specimens can be readily added.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1962 S 59
The colony of bone-cleaning beetles that has been maintained for many years
in the Museum laboratory has now been moved to a separate insect-proof structure
kindly provided by the Department of Public Works.
A large number of plant specimens has been prepared during the year and has
been added to the herbarium, bringing the number up to 38,250.
In the anthropological division, the stone, bone, and other archaeological materials have been checked, cleaned, and rearranged on storage shelves, mostly by a
volunteer assistant, Mr. John Sendey, to whom we are greatly indebted. The New-
combe Collection was incorporated in storage, and the Interior Indian display-room,
which had been used as a receiving-room, was opened once more to the public.
In November the Department of Public Works awarded a contract to a local
firm which undertook to provide regular pest-control service in the Museum wing,
storerooms, and laboratory.
DISPLAYS
During the spring months much time was spent in completely rearranging the
bird display in the public gallery. Each old-style glass case was modified by installing a back and two wings of wallboard to which perches were attached for the
support of each bird. The birds were arranged in natural groups, and a harmonious
colour scheme was adopted to demonstrate the relationships of various groups.
Later a new display-wall was installed on the main floor to feature living amphibians and reptiles. The exhibit includes several individual cages, each designed
to show the typical habitat of the animal featured. Background is mostly foam plastic supporting natural accessories. Overhead lamps provide both light and heat for
the animals requiring warm quarters.
A number of choice items from the Indian collection were on display in the
Fine Arts Building at the World's Fair in Seattle for a six-month period beginning
in April, where they were viewed by several millions of people. In addition, various
other small temporary displays were arranged, as requested from time to time.
During the period October 23rd to November 7th, a number of Haida and
Kwakiutl drawings and several other objects of Indian art were displayed at the Art
Gallery of Greater Victoria.
RESEARCH
Some progress was made in three long-term projects that have been carried on
for several years, mainly the study of small-animal populations on Coastal islands,
the Province-wide botanical survey, and the study of social organization in the
Tsimshian. Work in these fields is carried on by staff members when time and
opportunity permit.
In addition, a preliminary report was completed on the Beach Grove archaeological site (DgRsl) and several additions were made to the file of British Columbia
archaeological sites, mostly from reports of interested outsiders.
In January the Provincial Museum received a National Science Foundation
grant to support independent research being carried on by Dr. J. F. L. Hart, a volunteer assistant. Results are to be published by the National Museum, Washington, D.C.
From time to time during the year, samples of glaucous-winged gulls were collected in Oak Bay and sent to the University of Washington at Seattle, where a long-
term study of plumage changes is being made.
 S 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ATTENDANCE
Because the visitors' register was no longer serving a useful purpose and was
interfering with traffic flow, it was removed early in the year, and the policy of asking
visitors to sign was discontinued. The following attendance figures are monthly
estimates based on registrations or on sample counts at irregular intervals:—
January      1,600 August   115,000
February      3,000 September      20,000
March      3,400 October       3,600
April      6,600 November         1,600
May    12,000 December        1,200
June   20,000 	
July   85,000 Grand total  273,000
The total estimated attendance of more than 270,000 is the highest on record,
exceeding previous records by more than two and one-half times.
To help cope with the crowds and to provide pleasant surroundings for leisure
time, the Museum hours were extended to 9 p.m. each evening except Sunday during
July, August, and part of September. Many persons availed themselves of this
extra service, particularly on evenings when flag-lowering ceremonies were presented in front of the Legislative Buildings.
Volunteer Docents
The offer of assistance as volunteer guides by several lady members of the
Victoria Natural History Society was enthusiastically accepted in the early summer,
and the extra service was offered during July and August. No set schedule was
followed, the ladies coming as time permitted. As it was found that visitors preferred asking questions of the guides rather than being taken on conducted tours,
the organizing of groups was not attempted. Nevertheless, the service was much
appreciated and proved of value to both visitor and guide.
We are greatly indebted to the various members of the Victoria Natural History
Society who gave freely of their time and knowledge in furthering the enjoyment
of Museum visitors.
EXTENSION WORK
Staff members have continued to give numerous illustrated talks both locally
and in other parts of the Province throughout the year. In March the Director gave
a series of wildlife lectures in Florida under the combined auspices of the Canadian
Audubon Society, the National Audubon Society, and local organizations.
At various times, specimens and materials were loaned for temporary displays
in Vancouver, Chase, and Victoria, and during the British Columbia Museums Association meetings at Barkerville in September certain staff members gave instruction
and practical demonstrations of museum techniques.
In November a photographic team from West Germany filmed sections of the
Indian displays and activities at Thunderbird Park for television use.
The Director, and occasionally other members of the staff, has contributed regularly to a local weekly radio panel, " Outdoors with the Experts," which started in
1955. Staff members also participated several times in a local television programme
featuring work of the Department.
During the fall term the Curator of Botany gave an evening non-credit course
called " Mushrooms for Beginners " under the auspices of Victoria College.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962
S 61
THUNDERBIRD PARK
The death of Chief Mungo Martin in August, after ten years as chief carver of
the totem-pole restoration programme, was a sad blow, for his knowledge and talents
can never be replaced. The programme will continue with Henry Hunt as chief
carver.
Carving was started in April, and three projects were completed during the
year. An additional copy of a 21-foot Kitwancool Frog pole was made and will be
held available for loans when requested. A large plaque representing the Thunder-
bird and Whale was made for display in the new Travel Bureau office in Vancouver.
A copy was made of one of the two large Kitwancool poles collected during the
summer, to be sent back and erected in that village. In addition, arrangements were
completed to carve a 65-foot totem-pole as a gift from Canada to the City of Buenos
Aires.
Several improvemens were made to the exhibits in the park. A new Thunder-
bird Park arch using more authentic carvings was constructed to replace the old one.
A replica of one of the large Kitwancool poles was erected to replace an old Bella
Coola entrance pole, which was moved to storage. New labels were placed on all
exhibits, and three new benches provided by the Parks Branch were installed, preparatory to landscaping and planting of native shrubs, which is now in progress.
OBITUARIES
With regret we record here the passing of five persons who, over the years,
have rendered many services to the Museum and to the Province as a whole.
Mr. Gordon Stace Smith, of Creston, B.C., an amateur collector and authority
on beetles of British Columbia (February 19th).
Mr. I. E. Cornwall, an early student and collector of fossils on Southern Vancouver Island and later an authority on barnacles of the Province (August 6th).
Chief Mungo Martin, world-renowned Kwakiutl artist and chief carver in the
Museum's totem restoration programme (August 16th).
Mrs. Amy Barrow, widow of the late F. J. Barrow of Sidney, B.C., who was a
student and photographer of Coastal Indian pictographs and amateur archaeologist
(November 20th).
Mr. Francis Cecil Whitehouse, an authority on sports fishing in British Columbia and on dragonflies of the Province.    (December 3, 1959, in Phoenix, Arizona.)
 S 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL   MUSEUM
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YEAR
  Rogers Pass.
Shuswap River.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 65
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH
R. L. Colby, Chief
During the year the Photographic Branch completed work for every department
of the Government. Portraits were taken in the studio; the new Courthouse was
photographed at the request of the Department of Public Works; the Honourable
L. H. Shantz, Speaker of the House, and Sergeant-at-Arms were photographed in the
Legislative Chambers.
The launching of the new ferry " City of Vancouver " was covered for photographic records, and the civil defence classes at Keating were photographed. Progress shots of the new wing of the Royal Jubilee Hospital were taken on two occasions,
the staff of " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine was photographed at work in
the Accounts Office for the Civil Service Commission, and pictures were taken in
colour and in black and white of winter sports on the Mainland, for the albums.
February saw work again completed for all departments, including photographs
in this Department's Accounts Office for a story on " Beautiful British Columbia "
magazine, and a mental health display was photographed for Hospital Insurance
Service.
The Honourable Earle C. Westwood and Mayor R. B. Wilson were photographed in the Minister's office for publicity purposes in connection with " Beautiful
British Columbia " magazine. The taking-over ceremony of the new Government
ferry " City of Victoria " was covered, as was the opening of the curling season in
Victoria at the curling-rink, and a group picture of Press Gallery reporters was taken.
The opening of the Legislature and the reception held in the Empress Hotel
were both covered. Photographs were taken in the Legislature on the occasion of
bringing down the Budget, and a field trip was taken to the Interior for pictures of
winter sports.
Two further trips were taken to the Interior of British Columbia to assist a
National Film Board photographer, and for further winter-sports pictures for the
albums. Seventy-odd specimens and a group of Indian art works were photographed
for the Provincial Museum; a trip was taken to Sooke for pictures for " Beautiful
British Columbia " magazine; and candidates for the Civil Defence Training Programme were photographed at the Keating Crossroad headquarters for Civil
Defence.
Work was completed for all departments again in March, amounting to almost
1,500 prints. Additional projects covered were the opening of Mount Seymour ski
lift at Vancouver and the photographing of Civil Defence Training Course candidates
on two occasions at Keating Crossroad. Progress shots of the addition to Royal
Jubilee Hospital were taken. Pictures were taken of the presentation on the occasion
of the retirement of Mr. B. W. Dysart. A flag was photographed for the Department
of the Provincial Secretary, a drawing of a proposed building was photographed for
the Department of Public Works, and pictures were taken of the Jericho Hill School
in Vancouver. The 4-H Club was photographed at the new Courthouse for the
Department of Agriculture, a trip was taken to Duck Lake in Creston area to secure
a picture story of bird migration, and pictures were taken of " Miss Hawaii " (Miss
Rose Marie Alvaro) on her visit to Victoria.
Work proceeded steadily through April, and included a portrait of the Honourable Earle C. Westwood in his office, a group photograph for the Department of
Education in connection with a Waitress Training Course, and a portrait of Mr.
 S 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
T. Uphill for the Provincial Secretary. A special motion-picture show was projected
at Government House for the Lieutenant-Governor.
A total of six field trips was taken to obtain spring flower pictures for the
Museum and for possible use in " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine. An aeroplane trip was taken to obtain aerial shots of the British Columbia Government
ferries.
Photographs were taken at the Fish and Game School held at Green Timbers;
a number of slides were prepared for the Travel Bureau; the taking-over ceremony
of the M.V. " City of Vancouver " was covered for the British Columbia Toll
Authority Ferry System; and further pictures were taken for Civil Defence at
Keating Crossroad.
Several trips were taken in May for further wild-flower pictures for " Beautiful
British Columbia " magazine, and wild flowers and fungi were photographed for the
Museum. The retirement ceremony for Mr. F. M. Shandley, and a presentation
being made, was covered for the Department of Finance. Figures at the Wax Museum
were photographed for " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine; an arbutus-tree
was photographed whilst in blossom, in colour and in black and white, for the
Museum; a waitress-training class was photographed for the Department of Education; the display of Civil Defence was photographed at the Jaycees Fair, in colour;
and the annual Cloverdale Stampede was covered for " Beautiful British Columbia "
magazine. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer executives were photographed with Premier
W. A. C. Bennett in his office prior to the arrival of the replica of H.M.S. " Bounty "
in Victoria. A delegation of the Common Market Timber Association was photographed in the Empress Hotel, and a dinner for them in the evening was also covered.
Further progress shots were also taken at Royal Jubilee Hospital; the opening of the
new Deas Island Throughway was covered; and fungus shots were made on location
for the Museum. Almost 1,400 prints were turned out for other departments and
for magazine and newspaper writers.
Darkroom production in June totalled more than 1,000 prints, which covered
material required by many departments. Field trips were taken to cover whaling at
Port Hardy, wild flowers, the International Peace Arch celebrations at Douglas-
Blaine customs, and clearing of timber and debris from Silver Creek for the Fish and
Game Branch.
Two flights were made to obtain pohtographs of B.C. Government ferries on
their respective routes; interior pictures of M.V. " City of Victoria " were taken for
the British Columbia Toll Authority Ferry System; the visit of the sailing-ship
" Bounty " was photographed in colour; and Civil Defence classes were photographed at Keating training centre.
Her Royal Highness the Princess Royal was photographed on two separate
occasions at ceremonies in Victoria.
Darkroom production rose to almost 1,200 prints in July to fill requests from
other branches and writers. Trips included Galiano Island, Nanaimo, Duncan,
Rogers Pass, Vancouver, Manning Park, and Kamloops for picture coverage for the
albums and for " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine. Photographs were taken
of the new fountain on Superior Street, and of maps, bees, and a turtle for the
Museum.
In August, darkroom production increased to almost 1,800 prints, with a third
of these going to fill requests from magazine and newspaper writers, and the remainder to other departments. Assignments included identification pictures for the
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources; the Premiers' Conference in
Victoria, in Barkerville Historic Park, and the Premiers' departure in M.V. " City
of Vancouver " from Swartz Bay;  at Prince George for Simon Fraser Days;  the
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 67
Sunshine Coast for " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine; a tree-planting ceremony at Government House; and the Trans-Canada Caravan in Rogers Pass and
on its arrival at Victoria. Pictures were taken of Burnaby for possible use in
" Beautiful British Columbia " magazine, and two trips were taken to Vancouver
in connection with the magazine. Additional trips were taken to Manning Park,
Keremeos, Princeton, Hudson Hope, Fort St. John, Dawson Creek, and Prince
George.
About a third of the darkroom production of 1,400 prints was used to fill
requests from writers, and the other two-thirds were required by other departments.
Indian relics and a relief map were photographed for the Museum, and the
Royal Jubilee Hospital was photographed along with progress shots of the new
wing. Special assignments were photographing a burned-out stone-crusher at a
gravel pit near Goldstream, the display at Esquimalt Fall Fair, and tourists shopping
in Victoria. Premier W. A. C. Bennett was photographed in his office during the
presentation of a red hat to open Safe Hunting Week, and again at the opening of
the P.G.E. Railway station at Pemberton. Field trips were quite extensive and included visits to 100 Mile House, Lillooet, Cache Creek, Merritt, Princeton, Keremeos,
Yoho National Park, Kootenay and Okanagan areas. Pictures were taken of campsites and of the Fish and Game Branch checking-station at Cache Creek. A series
of 35-mm. slides was made for the Department of Agriculture for lecture use, and
a number of portraits were taken in the studio.
October darkroom figures showed an increase to almost 1,600 prints, more than
1,000 of which were direct orders from other departments of the Government,
with writers, newspapers, and magazines accounting for the balance. Special assignments covered by the photographers included the Engineers' Convention in the
Douglas Building, the launching and christening of the Fish and Game Branch boat
" The Marten," the graduating class of the Executive Development Training Course
at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, fungi pictures for the Museum,
the typewriter staff at work in their shops for the Government News, colour shots
of Anne Hathaway Cottage in Esquimalt for " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine, the " Salute to the Sockeye " at Squilax, the Sunshine Coast for a picture story
for " Beautiful British Columbia " magazine, and a trip to the Lower Fraser Valley
for autumn colour pictures. On two occasions it was necessary to go to Vancouver
for sounding the films " Big Game Camera Holiday " and " Indian Days." The
studio accounted for thirty portraits.
Considerable darkroom work was completed in November, including a large
number of mounted enlargements, special orders for advertising purposes, and a
heavy schedule of identification portraits. Print production accounted for more than
1,000 pictures for other Government departments, and an additional 452 were
sent out to writers, magazines, and newspapers.
Special assignments included the Maritime Museum, a group picture for the
Minister of Agriculture at the Douglas Building, the Deputy Ministers' banquet at
Government House, a trip to Vancouver for film-sounding, the reptile exhibit at the
Museum, totem-poles in the workshop at Thunderbird Park, and the launching of
the M.V. " Queen of Saanich " at Victoria Machinery Depot docks.
Identification picture requests were all completed, and the fountain was photographed in colour for the Department of Public Works.
Darkroom production in December reached a high level, with all orders and
requests being filled. Special assignments included Civil Service twenty-five-year
award luncheons at the Empress Hotel and at the Hotel Vancouver. Trips were
also made to Vancouver for film sounding and editing purposes.
 S 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
MOTION PICTURES
" Life Line," " Play It Safe," " Highlights of Highway 16," " Big Game Camera
Holiday," and " Indian Days " were released during the year. Footage was shot
and editing done on three further films presently referred to as "Rogers Pass,"
" Vancouver Island," and " Duck Lake Bird Film."
DARKROOM PRODUCTION
A total of 3,079 negatives was processed and 18,455 prints were made, of
which 5,311 were supplied to writers, newspapers, and magazines, with the balance
used by other departments of the Government.
COLOUR PRODUCTION
Approximately 2,500 colour pictures were taken, covering the entire Province,
and these have been added to the colour albums. Demand for the negatives of these
pictures is increasing steadily, and they are used in many countries.
GENERAL
Letters received at the Branch totalled 1,433, and those sent out exceeded the
1,000 mark. A total of 113 portraits was taken in the Branch studio, and seventy-
seven shows were given in the theatre. During the year this Branch absorbed the
film library of the Fish and Game Branch, while the demand for all films continues
to grow. According to incomplete records, private showings of Branch films in
Canada amounted to 2,504, with audiences of 185,204, and there were 144 television showings, all directed from the Branch office. In the United States there
were 11,836 private showings to a total audience of 588,456 people, plus 120 television shows, arranged through the Canadian Government Travel Bureau film
library in that country.
Considering the adverse weather conditions encountered through most of the
year, the Branch was able to accomplish much useful work.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962
S 69
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1957 1958 1959 1960
YEAR
1961
1962
  COMMERCIAL
FISHERIES
BRANCH
 Tagging spawning sockeye salmon at the mouth of the Adams River.
Part of the whaling fleet, just before leaving Vancouver to start a new fishing season.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 73
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
J. Kemp, Supervisor
Total Marketed Value of Fish
1957  $63,100,000
1958  $98,200,000
1959   $66,400,000
1960  $52,300,000
1961   $77,900,000
Number of Licensed Fishermen
1957  12,016
1958  14,266
1959   14,463
1960  14,191
1961  15,660
Number of Licensed Boats
1957  8,106
1958  8,177
1959  8,478
1960  8,623
1961   8,856
Value of Gear
1957   $7,997,000
1958  $8,185,000
1959  $7,701,000
1960  $8,545,000
1961   $8,946,000
The canned-salmon pack for 1962 was 1,815,609 cases, an increase over the
1961 pack of 404,035 cases. Once again the salmon fishery was free from any
tie-ups due to disputes between the fishermen and the operators. Over all, fishing
was rather poor, and if it had not been for the unprecedented run of pinks, the
fishing picture might not have been as good as in 1961. The sockeye pack was down
by 100,236 cases, the coho by 58,134, followed by blueback, down 477 cases,
springs down 858 cases, and steelhead down 161 cases, for a total of 159,866 cases
fewer than the 1961 pack. More than offsetting this, however, was the pink pack of
1,187,933 cases, a gain over 1961 of 526,475 cases. Also helping to swell the total
was a better pack of chums, 133,638 cases, for a gain of 38,238.
The canned-salmon pack for 1962 was made up of the following species (48-
pound cases): Sockeyes, 298,188; bluebacks, 12,050; chums, 133,638; springs,
7,069; cohoes, 175,913; pinks, 1,187,933; steelheads, 818.
BRITISH COLUMBIA CANNING INDUSTRY
Twenty-one salmon canneries were licensed to operate in the Province by this
Branch. The locations were as follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena River,
7; Central Area, 1; Vancouver Island, 2; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 10.
Two canneries, normally licensed, Glen Rose and Port Alberni, did not operate this
year, and a third plant, Namu, was razed by fire. Balancing this deficit to some
extent were two new operations—one at Tofino and the other at Prince Rupert.
Sockeye Salmon
The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, which manages the
sockeye and pink runs to the Fraser River, predicted that this year's run would be
a poor one. To allow a minimum escapement of spawners, it was necessary to
severely limit fishing in order that the necessary Wi to 2 million fish could reach
the spawning-ground. In the previous peak year of 1958, at least 19,000,000 fish
taxed the capacity of the spawning-grounds.
 r
S 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Because of the poor run, the total pack of sockeye was only 298,188 cases, as
compared to last year's pack of 398,303 cases and 776,117 fewer cases than the
previous peak cyclical year of 1958.
" Salute to the Sockeye "
This " Salute" is held every four years to coincide with the peak cyclical return
of this species to the Adams River spawning-grounds. The Federal Department of
Fisheries, the Department of Recreation and Conservation, the International Pacific
Salmon Fisheries Commission, the Fisheries Association of British Columbia, and
the United Fishermen and Allied Workers' Union collaborated to make the event
a success. Nearly 8,000 persons attended this event, to view the displays set up
by these organizations and to watch the brightly coloured salmon struggle up-stream.
The total Adams River run was extremely small this year, with an estimated
1,700,000 fish, as contrasted to the more than 19,000,000 that taxed the capacity
of the spawning-grounds in 1958.
Pink Salmon
The pink-salmon pack this year set an all-time record with 1,187,933 cases.
The best previous figure was in 1930, when 1,112,000 cases were canned.
The waters of Fisher Channel, Fitz Hugh Sound, and Burke Channel, in the
north central coast area, yielded the most spectacular catches as the fish passed
through them on their way to the Bella Coola and Atnarko Rivers.
The 1962 pack exceeded that of 1961 by 526,475 cases.
Coho Salmon
The coho pack at 175,913 cases was about average, although it was down by
58,134 cases from the 1961 pack of 227,479 cases. The 1961 figure, however, was
12,050 cases higher than the average pack for the last six years, 1957 to 1962,
inclusive.
Chum Salmon
Because of good fishing in the Queen Charlottes and other northern areas, the
chum-salmon pack was the best since 1958. Southern area runs were failures. In
Johnstone Strait about 75,000 fish were landed, and the west coast fishing in all
areas south of Cape Caution yielded no more than 100,000 fish by the end of
October.
The chum pack for 1962 was 133,638 cases, an increase of 38,238 cases over
1961 and the highest since 1958.
Spring Salmon
The spring-salmon pack for 1962 was down slightly from the previous year,
when 7,412 cases were packed. This year saw a total pack of 7,069 cases, 2,459
cases lower than the average pack for the last six years, 1957 to 1962, inclusive.
TUNA
Two British Columbia boats fished for tuna off the California coast in 1962.
The new venture was made possible by the use of a revolutionary brine-spray freezing system. This system, installed under a special subsidy programme of the Canadian Department of Fisheries, enabled the two vessels to make the long haul
successfully and deliver tuna in prime condition to British Columbia ports.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 75
Good fishing was enjoyed, but both captains are convinced larger boats will be
necessary in future if the venture is to be completely successful.
The bluefin tuna caught on the trips was sold in the United States, but the
albacore was processed locally near Steveston.
DOGFISH CONTROL
Fishing for dogfish under the Canadian Department of Fisheries dogfish-liver
subsidy programme was a mop-up operation to finish subsidy money left over from
the previous season. Fishing continued for three weeks early in the year, from
March 6th to March 31st. During this period 81,600 pounds of liver, worth
approximately $12,000, were deliverd to shore plants.
HALIBUT
The International Pacific Halibut Commission was set up under treaty between
Canada and the United States for the protection and rehabilitation of the halibut
fishery. For the purpose of regulation, the Pacific Coast is divided into a number of
areas.   The 1962 regulatory areas are as follows:—
Area 1a—South of Heceta Head, Ore., U.S.A.
Area 1b—Between Heceta Head and Willapa Bay, Wash., U.S.A.
Area 2—Between Willapa Bay and Cape Spencer, Alaska.
Area 3a—Between Cape Spencer and Kupreanof Point, near Shumagin
Islands.
Area 3 b South—South of Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, between
Kupreanof Point and Cape Sagak, Umnak Island.
Area 3b North—Bering Sea and around Aleutians west of Cape Sagak.
With the end of fishing in Area 3b, the halibut season came to a close this year
on October 15th.
Record-breaking catches, coupled with the highest ex-vessel prices paid in
seventy-two years, produced the best halibut season in the industry's history.
British Columbia fishermen took 35,000,000 pounds, thus beating the previous
record of 33,700,000 pounds set in 1960.
It was felt that the remarkably good production this year is the result of regulation and control set up by the International Pacific Halibut Commission, and
represents a 31,000,000-pound catch in excess of the depleted production potential
prior to 1931, when international management began.
HERRING
For the eighth time in the last ten years, the herring fleet was tied up because of
a strike in the industry, the fishermen demanding $16 a ton, or $5.60 more per ton
than was paid in 1961. Settlement was reached on October 27th, and the fleet
resumed fishing on December 1, 1962. New prices offered were $16 per ton for
herring used for eating and $11.40 a ton for herring used for fertilizer.
Last available reports for the year show herring-meal production of 22,895 tons
and herring-oil production of 3,097,561 imperial gallons.
WHALING
This year two large companies—British Columbia Packers Limited of Canada
and Taiyo Gyogyo Fishing Company of Japan—combined in an effort to revive the
British Columbia whaling industry.
 S 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Six catcher boats were used—four Canadian and two Japanese.
Japanese experts worked with Canadians in this joint effort. These technicians
were on hand to teach new methods of handling the whales in order to produce high-
quality meat for human consumption. The meat was produced for the Japanese
market. In addition to the meat, by-products were obtained for mink and pet food.
Whale oil and meal were also manufactured.
Unfortunately the final catch of 713 whales fell far short of the 1,000 whales
the company had hoped to take. The whales were smaller in size than desired,
which further added to the company's disappointment. Main reason for the poor
season was the weather, which was stormy almost from the start, with the result
fishing closed two weeks earlier than originally scheduled.
Other factors adversely affecting company operations for this first year were
market conditions. Japanese cutback of imports reduced the demand for whale
meat, and the world market for whale oil was poor.
PACIFIC OYSTER BREEDING
Weather conditions during the summer of 1962 were not favourable to the
creation of suitable hydrographic conditions for oyster-breeding, although the period
between July 20th and August 6th produced surface-water temperatures between
20° and 24° C. in both Ladysmith Harbour and Pendrell Sound.
On July 23rd a fairly good spawning occurred in Ladysmith Harbour, and
survival until July 31st was reasonable, but thereafter losses were suffered. No significant setting resulted.
In Pendrell Sound, first spawning occurred about June 24th, but this was small
and produced no spat. A much larger spawning occurred about July 15th. A spat-
fall of commercial proportions was forecast for the week beginning August 1st.
Actual survival was excellent, and a heavier spatfall than expected occurred. Shell
cultch exposed between July 30th and August 7th collected 1,900 spat per shell.
About 40,000 shell strings were exposed, but they were put in about August 3rd,
when the main setting intensity was over. Commercial strings exposed between
August 3rd and 7th collected an average of just over 100 spat per shell.
Another small spawning occurred on or about July 20th, but yielded only
insignificant numbers of spat.
REVIEW OF FISHERIES PRODUCTION, 1961
The total marketed value of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1961
amounted to $77,900,000, an increase of $25,600,000 over 1960. 1960 was a very
poor year, and the $77,900,000 return for 1961 was more in keeping with the last ten
years' average.
The principal species as marketed were salmon, with a value of $57,314,000;
herring, with a value of $8,207,000; and halibut, with a marketed value of
$7,099,000.
The landed value of the 1961 halibut catch was $5,316,000, as compared to
$4,379,000 in 1960.
In 1961 the marketed value of shellfish amounted to $1,641,000. The value
of the clam production was $324,000; oyster production, $480,000; crab production, $470,000; shrimp and prawn production, $367,000.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 77
VESSELS AND BOATS
The number and value of boats used in catching and landing fish in British
Columbia for 1961 included 1,184 boats in the 10-ton-and-over class and 7,672
boats in the under-10-ton group, which totalled 8,856 boats, valued at $53,803,000.
There were 233 more boats operating in Coastal waters than in 1960.
Gear and Equipment
The 1961 inventory of fishing-gear included 8,350 gill-nets, 508 salmon seine-
nets, and 146 herring seine-nets, valued at $5,671,000. Wire, cotton, and nylon
trolling-lines were valued at $451,000.
Number of Fishermen Licensed
Fifteen thousand six hundred and sixty commercial fishermen were licensed in
British Columbia in 1961, compared with 14,191 licensed in 1960. The number of
men employed on fish-packers and collector boats totalled 1,145.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING
INDUSTRY, 1961
The Commercial Fisheries Branch licensed twenty-three salmon canneries to
operate in 1961, one less than in 1960. The operating canneries in 1961 were
located as follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena River, 6; Central Area, 2;
Vancouver Island, 2; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 12.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia, according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by canners licensed to operate in 1961, amounted
to 1,405,158 cases, slightly below the 1951-60 average. The value of all salmon,
however, at $46,151,000, had only been exceeded twice—in 1951 and again in
1958. Although canned-salmon prices were lower than the 1960 average, total
landings increased by 61 per cent, thus this year's market value was more than
double the $22,800,000 reported the previous year.
Sockeye and Pink Salmon
These two species together accounted for 1,059,495 cases, which was 75 per
cent of the total canned-salmon pack or 62 per cent of the total market value for
all the salmon production of this year.
The sockeye pack in 1961 was 398,205 cases, an increase over the 1960 pack
of 171,361 cases. The pinks likewise showed an increase over 1960's pack, with a
gain of 441,726 cases, bringing their total pack up to 661,290 cases.
Coho Salmon
The 1961 coho pack was 241,379 cases, a substantial increase over 1960.
A 75-per-cent higher catch was responsible for this increase, which yielded a canned
pack worth $8,600,000, with other coho marketings adding a further $3,700,000
to the total.
Chum Salmon
Fall runs of chum salmon were poor, and most of this season's 30-per-cent
decline in catch was attributed to this factor. The summer runs, however, were
sufficiently high to allow an over-all increase of 10 per cent over the 1960 pack,
which amounted to 86,818 cases.   The 1961 pack was 95,385 cases.
 S 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Spring Salmon
The 1961 spring-salmon pack amounted to 7,488 cases, an increase of 1,575
cases over 1960. The total market value of spring salmon dropped by approximately 10 per cent to $4,400,000. Average prices for fresh dressed products
showed little change, but unit values for frozen dressed for marketing were high.
Steelhead
The 1961 steelhead pack amounted to 979 cases, an increase over the 1960
pack of 479 cases. Steelhead are not salmon, but some are canned each year, principally those caught incidental to fishing other species.
OTHER CANNERIES
Herring Canneries.—Two canneries were licensed to operate and produced
19,102 cases of canned herring.
Pilchard Canneries.—There has been no pilchard run off the west coast of Vancouver Island since 1949.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—Three tuna-fish canneries were licensed to operate in
1961 and produced 39,110 cases.
Shellfish Canneries.—In 1961 nine shellfish canneries were licensed to operate
in British Columbia and produced a pack as follows: Clams, 28,986 cases; crabs,
38,849 cases; oysters, 14,473 cases of 24/1A,s smoked oysters and 9,741 cases of
24/10-ounce stewed oysters;  shrimp, 308 cases;  abalone, 40 cases.
MILD-CURED SALMON
Four of the five plants licensed to mild-cure salmon in 1961 operated and produced a pack of 362 tierces, containing 2,986^ hundredweight. This operation is
comparable with the production of five plants which operated in 1960 to produce
a pack of 320 tierces, containing 2,639 hundredweight.
HALIBUT
The halibut season opened in Bering Sea in April, and on the remainder of the
Pacific Coast waters in May. Stocks were low, markets firm, prices well above the
levels at which they opened in the previous year, and fishing was good. The season
closed in British Columbia waters on September 7th and in Alaska on October 1st.
The catch was about 14 per cent smaller but 13 per cent more valuable than in 1960.
A swing from iced to frozen halibut was noted in market demand. Freezings
increased by about 20 per cent, but stocks were lower at the end of the season.
British buyers had taken about 1,300,000 pounds in 1960, and repeated their orders
in 1961.
Halibut landed in British Columbia ports by Canadian fishermen dropped
slightly by about 2,200,000 pounds to 24,951,000 pounds, worth $7,099,000.
Canadian landings of halibut to United States ports also declined from 6,706,000
pounds landed in 1960 to 4,530,000 pounds landed in 1961.
FISH OIL AND MEAL
There was an exceptionally good catch of herring in 1961 of 224,200 tons.
As usual, the herring fishery was to a large extent dependent on the meal and oil
market.   Cannery and specialty-product marketing was light.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962 S 79
In 1961 eight herring plants were licensed to operate. These plants produced
a total of 40,746 tons of meal and 4,751,082 gallons of oil. This compared with
1960 when eight plants produced 31,203 tons of meal and 2,966,547 gallons of oil.
Fish-liver Reduction.—Three plants were licensed to operate in 1961, processing 1,555,395 pounds of fish livers and producing 3,228,748 million U.S.P. units
of Vitamin A. In 1960 three plants processed 1,158,880 pounds of fish livers and
produced 2,258,748 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A.
Miscellaneous Reduction—Fish Offal and Dogfish.—During the 1961 season
eight plants were licensed to operate, and produced 1,157 tons of meal and 127,580
gallons of oil. This production is compared with 1960, in which year seven plants
produced 2,099 tons of meal and 62,983 gallons of oil.
Whale Reduction.—In British Columbia there is only one shore-based whaling-
station.   During 1961 it did not operate.
 S 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATISTICAL TABLES
Table 1.—Licences Issued and Revenue Collected, 1958 to 1962,
Inclusive
1958
Number
Revenue
1959
Number
Revenue
1960
Number
Revenue
1961
Number
Revenue
1962
Number
Revenue
Salmon cannery	
Herring cannery	
Herring reduction.....
Tierced salmon. 	
Fish cold storage	
Fish-processing	
Shellfish cannery	
Tuna-fish cannery	
Fish-offal reduction..
Fish-liver reduction ..
Whale reduction	
Herring dry-saltery...
Fish-buyers 	
Totals....
20       $4,000
1
9
3
1
442
536
24       $4,800
1
100
12
1,200
7
700
16
1,600
16
16
1
9
3
100
11,050
10
6
17
18
9
3
9
3
1
2
1,000
600
1,700
18
9
3
9
3
100
200
23
1
8
5
18
20
$4,600
100
800
500
1,800
20
8
A
7
3
457    [  11,425
425    |  10,625
$18,787       559     $19,867
520    |$ 18,465
23
2
6
5
18
19
9
3
434
$4,600
200
600
500
1,800
19
9
3
10,850
21
9
6
20
21
8
2
9
3
1
448
$4,200
900
600
2,000
21
8
2
9
3
100
11,200
530     $18,592
548
$19,043
Table II.—Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia,
1957 to 1961, Inclusive
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
Salmon  	
$44,903,000
6,290,000
5,616,000
1,141,000
552,000
579,000
329,000
912,000
391,000
375,000
219,000
1,782,000
$75,800,000
8,990,000
6,690,000
1,264,000
564,000
752,000
321,000
780,000
181,000
259,000
151,000
2,472,000
$45,140,000
8,843,000
6,236,000
1,376,000
510,000
630,000
471,000
552,000
147,000
310,000
271,000
1,891,000
$35,963,000
3,450,000
6,534,000
1,729,000
593,000
647,000
406,000
795,000
253,000
535,000
126,000
1,228,000
$57,314,000
8,207,000
Halibut     . - -
7,099,000
1,511,000
Ling-cod           	
551,000
487,000
Oysters..... — 	
480,000
552,000
147,000
324,000
Livers and viscera  —	
Miscellaneous!	
122,000
1,092,000
Totals                 	
$63,089,000
$98,224,000
$66,377,000
$52,259,000
$77,886,000
i Includes mink-feed and fish products, meal and oil, for which no breakdown into species was available.
Source:  Canadian Department of Fisheries.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962
S 81
Table III.—Statement Showing the Quantity of Herring Products
Produced in British Columbia, 1956 to 1962, Inclusive
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Meal
Oil
Cases
Tons
Tons
Gal.
1956/57 -
11,728
290
32,772
3,602,937
1957/58 	
18,349
2,645
13,643
1,746,227
1958/59	
10,351
43,527
4,545,474
1959/60.	
	
	
32,559
4,249,801
1960/61...	
9,074
31,203
2,966,547
1961/62	
19,102
40,746
4,751,082
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st, annually.
Table IV.—Statement Showing the Quantity of Meal, Oil, and Vitamin A
Produced from Sources Other than Herring, 1955 to 1962, Inclusive
From Whales
Oil from
Fish Livers
From Other Sources
Season
Whalebone
and Meal
Oil
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
1955/56.  	
1956/57.   .        .         	
Tons
3,411
2,182
3,446
4,226
4,058
Gal.
759,785
526,584
952,702
908,482
940,455
Units i
4,760,668
2,355,410
3,292,552
1,821,994
3,474,267
2,258,748
3,228,400
Tons
1,993
1,925
1,570
2,318
1,140
2,099
1,157
Gal.
201,690
187,787
1957/58     ..                  	
170,433
1958/59                         	
272,223
1959/60                         	
110,977
1960/61 	
62,983
1961/62    	
127,580
i Million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A.
 S 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1957 to 1961, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned
(48-pound cases.)
These tables supplied by courtesy of the Canadian Department of Fisheries in Vancouver.
1957
Area
Species
District
No. 1
Skeena
River
Central Area
and Queen
Charlottes
Total
157,207
3,376V4
448
1,923
2,852
3871/2
12,147
112,909
471,895^4
72,330
44,779
480
178
256
2271/2
539
226,466
188V4
228,452
4,045
626
402
1491/2
200
2,581
White spring  	
3,229
1.126V4
12,147
Coho                                      	
43,5031/4
209,8835/2
75,9671/2
24,4981/2
69,829
91,2411/2
180,911
Pink.   	
751,608
239,539
835,475'/2
375,814
212,975
1,424,2641/2
1957 canned production from 1956 frozen stock not included.
1958
820,3601/2
1,4001/2
2,911
2,373!/2
456
11,1031/4
74,059
98,052
103,6681/2
154.556V4
1,108
2651/2
810
578
522
99,388
111
    .
1,074,305
2,619i/2
2651/2
7011/2
290!/2
227
4,422!/2
3,242
1,205
11,1031/i
Coho                      	
25,7891/2
257,3011/2
53,939
20,5751/2
96,448
73,029
120,424
Pink
451,8011/4
230,6361/2
Totals   	
1,114,3841/2
494,870
290,7701/2
1,900,025
1959
189,297
2,4171/2
4,925
4,832
418
10,114
150,756
338,947
75,7091/2
46,827
8241/2
811
527
329
32,215
82,005
36,136
20,0461/2
661/2
5981/2
228 Yi
119V4
20,020
37,644
21,283
256,1701/2
3,3081/2
6,3341/2
5,5871/2
866V2
10,114
Coho                             	
202,991
458,596
Pink  	
133,128 Vi
Totals	
777,416
199,6741/2
100,0061/4
1,077,097
1959 canned production from 1958 stock not included.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1962
Table V
S 83
British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1957 to 1961, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned—Continued
1960
Area
Species
Districts Nos.
1 and 3
District
No. 2
ToUl
172,505
1,1131/2
1,436
1,1511/2
339V4
23,345
41,1941/2
52,6891/4
47,081
54,339
4581/2
1,056
700
164V4
226,844
1,572
2,492
1,851 !4
504
23,345
Coho     	
26,965
166,8741/4
39,737!/2
68,1591/2
Pink      ....    	
219,564
86,8181/2
Totals    .	
340.8551/,.   1       290.295
631,150V2
1960 canned production from 1959 stock not included.
1961
239,667
1,735
2,678
1,471
587!/2
12,5271/2
153,994
286,5441/2
28,994
158,538
412
1,0221/2
6O21/2
391
398,205
2,147
3,700 !4
2,073V2
978 V4
12,5271/4
Coho                                                                   	
74,8571/2
374,745V2
66,391
228,8511/2
Pink     _ 	
661,290
95,385
Totals. 	
728,1981/2
676,960
l,405,158!/2
1961 canned production from 1960 stock not included.
 Chart No. 7.
 Chart No. 8.
 Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1963
1,410-163-4758
  

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