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REPORT of the FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1962 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1963

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. G. Wrliston, Minister R. G. McKee, Deputy Minister of Forests
F. S. McKinnon, Chief Forester
REPORT
of the
FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1962
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1963
  The British Columbia Forest Service was formed in 1912. Among its early members,
photographed in front of its headquarters building after a Forest Service conference in 1913,
were, left to right, front row: Percy Le Mare, R. E. Benedict, A. M. O. Gold, J. R. Martin,
Walter L. Loveland, M. A. Grainger (Assistant Chief Forester), S. W. Barclay, P. Z. Caver-
hill, J. G. Sutherland, R. L. Campbell, Thomas Mouat, H. R. MacMillan (Chief Forester),
J. D. Gilmour, H. R. Christie, A. K. Shives, and H. G. Marvin. Back row: W. C. Gladwin,
H. K. Robinson, W. J. Van Dusen (Assistant Chief Forester, Management), Jack Stilwell,
L. R. Andrews, P. S. Bonney, H. C. Kinghorn, C. MacFayden, H. S. Irwin, H. B. Murray,
and G. H. Prince. Discernible in the window (right) is S. Hawkins, then office boy in the
Water Rights Branch.
The first headquarters was at 566 Superior Street.   Fifty years later the building housed offices
of the Department of Labour.
R. G. McKee,
Deputy Minister of Forests.
The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and
Water Resources.
F. S. McKinnon
Chief Forester.
As the Forest Service entered its second half-century, these were its leaders.
  Victoria, B.C., February, 1963.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor oj the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service
of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for the calendar year
1962.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
 The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the
Forest Service during the calendar year 1962.
R. G. McKEE,
Deputy Minister of Forests.
 CONTENTS
Page
1. Chief Forester's Summary  11
2. Forest Surveys and Inventory  13
Field Programme  13
Forest Classification and Sampling  13
Growth  13
Loss-factor Project  13
Timber Berths  15
Taxation Cruises  15
Regeneration Surveys  15
Haney Correctional Institution  15
Office Programme  15
Forest Mapping  15
Area and Volume Summaries  15
Empirical Growth Estimates  16
Volume Table and Loss-factor Projects  16
Photo Mensuration  19
3. Forest Research  20
Experiment Stations  20
Data-processing  20
Field Programme  20
Tabulation of Research Projects Active in  1962  21
Research Publications, 1962  22
4. Reforestation  23
Forest Nurseries  23
Seed Collection  24
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  25
Planting  25
Plantation Improvement and Maintenance  25
Preparation of Planting-sites  25
Permanent Improvements  25
Co-operation  26
Interdepartmental Rehabilitation and Forestry Programme  26
7
 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Page
5. Working Plans  27
Introduction  27
Pulpwood Harvesting Areas  27
Other Public Sustained-yield Units  28
Tree-farm Licences  28
Certified Tree-farms  29
Farm Wood-lot Licences  29
Other Public Units  29
6. Public Information and Education  30
Communication Media  30
Photography and Motion-picture Production  30
Film Library  31
Publications and Printing  31
Radio and Television  31
Press and Periodicals  32
Commercial Theatres  33
Signs and Exhibits  3 3
School Lecture Programme  34
Library  34
District Office (Prince George)  34
Co-operation and Special Projects  35
7. Forest Management  36
General  36
Administration of Managed Units  37
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  38
Lumber Prices  38
Log Prices  3 8
Stumpage Prices  39
Sliding-scale Adjustments  39
Silviculture  40
Scaling  43
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 9
Page
8. Grazing  44
General Conditions    44
Range  44
Hay  44
Markets and Prices  44
Live-stock Losses  44
Diseases of Live Stock  45
Range Management  45
Range Surveys  45
Range Improvements  45
Peace River Pastures  46
Co-operation  46
Administration  47
Grazing Permits  47
Hay Permits  48
Special-use Permits  48
Grazing Fees  48
Violations and Prosecutions  48
9. Engineering Services  49
Engineering Section  49
Development Engineering  49
Road Location  49
Road Construction and Maintenance  50
General Engineering  50
Mechanical Section _  52
Building Design and Construction  53
Marine Design  55
Forest Museum    56
Forest Service Marine Station  56
Marine Work  56
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop  56
Machine-shop    57
Radio Section  57
 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Page
10. Forest Protection  59
Weather  59
Fires  59
Occurrence and Causes  59
Cost of Fire-fighting  61
Damage  61
Fire-control Planning and Research  61
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers  61
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  61
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks  62
Snag-falling Projects  62
Fire-weather Records and Investigations  62
Protection Research  62
Fire-suppression Crews  62
Aircraft  63
Roads and Trails  64
Slash Disposal and Snag-falling  65
Fire-law Enforcement  66
11. Training-school  67
Extra Courses and Functions  68
Acknowledgments  68
12. Personnel  69
General  69
Communications and Training  69
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  70
Classifications, Salaries, and Working Conditions  71
13. Accounting  72
Fiscal  72
Administration  72
14. Personnel Directory, 1963  74
15. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service  79
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1962
CHIEF FORESTER'S SUMMARY
Last year marked the fiftieth anniversary of the passage of the Forest Act which
constituted the British Columbia Forest Service and established the basic legislative
framework for resource management which has evolved into the present system of
sustained-yield forestry.
Our first half-century was one of vastly significant change in both technique
and concept. As the cover of this Annual Report for the first year of our second
half-century suggests, that pattern will be continued.
Nineteen sixty-two was not a dramatic year, but one of steady progress in which
definite and measurable steps were taken toward our ultimate objectives of maximum
efficiency in tenure, yield, and utilization. As in the past, changes in both technique
and concept were implemented, and some new production peaks were attained.
Before discussing them, a word should be said about changes in legislation
affecting the Service. The name of the Department of Lands and Forests was officially changed to Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, and there were three amendments to the Forest Act. Section 174, dealing with pulpwood harvesting areas, was
amended to provide for the extension of this section to lands west of the Cascades,
to permit the Minister to grant an option where there is only one applicant for pulp-
wood and to provide for the renewal of an option after 21 years. Section 27 was
amended to provide for special sales areas so that urnegulated areas could be tied
in to a pulpwood harvesting area, and section 58 was amended by deleting references to specific dates during which rates of royalty applied.
The most notable of the peaks referred to was that for total scale, which last
year reached 1,342,000,000 cubic feet and surpassed the previous record set in 1960
by 100,000,000 cubic feet. The total value of all forest production, including lumber, pulp, plywood, etc., and loading and freight charges within the Province, was
approximately $850,323,000. This figure, a rough gauge of economic activity in
the Province, is $75,453,000 above the figure for 1961.
The increased scale and improved prices were reflected in an upward trend in
the financial return to the Forest Service, up 10.4 per cent after a moderate decline
in 1961.
The Management Division reported an interesting development with regard to
scale. Fifty-eight per cent of the total came from the Coast, a 2-per-cent increase
following the steady decrease of recent years.
Other divisions in the Operations Branch also submitted gratifying annual
reports. Thanks largely to the weather, there were only 1,536 forest fires, compared
to 3,102 in 1961 and a 10-year average of 1,822.
This, plus gradually improving detection and suppression methods, resulted in
a substantial decrease in fire-fighting cost and damage figures. The aircraft programme, planned in advance of the fire season with 36 aircraft, fixed wing and.
rotary, available on a charter basis, was highly successful, though not tested in
extreme circumstances. The aircraft successfully fulfilled their chief function of
holding fires to a small size. At the same time the suppression crews were able to
keep 79 per cent of the 188 fires they attended to less than 1 acre.
Fire-fighting expenditure was $341,637, approximately one-fifth of the average
for the last 10 years, and losses to forest-cover were $311,445, approximately one-
ninth of the average.
n
 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
During the year the Engineering Services Division completed the construction
of the " Hecate Ranger." This 66-foot all-wood vessel, queen of the Forest Service's
conglomerate fleet, is already proving her value to rangers and timber cruisers in the
Prince Rupert Forest District. She's a far cry from her early predecessor shown on
the cover. The engineers, along with their great range of service work with and for
other divisions, also built 141 miles of road and located on the ground 317 more.
The Grazing Division reported a record number of live stock on Crown forest
range. Improved prices, the best since 1951, plus the fact that the cattle came off
the range in good shape, made the year generally a successful one for the live-stock
industry.
For the Planning Branch of the Forest Service, 1962 was a year of distinct
accomplishment. Legislation passed in 1961 provided for the establishment of
pulpwood harvesting areas, designed to increase forest utilization within the public
sustained-yield units. Last year the first two such areas were awarded, in the Prince
George and Kamloops Districts, and No. 1, at Prince George, was awarded and the
contract signed. Some administrative details may yet have to be worked out as
problems arise.
Two more public sustained-yield units, Ashnola and Tatla, became operative,
bringing the total to 80 and the productive acreage under sustained yield to 56.6
million. The allowable cut from sustained-yield units is now 870 million cubic feet,
65 per cent of the 1962 scale.
Meanwhile another six, and part of a seventh, public sustained-yield Units were
covered by the Surveys and Inventory Division in the second year of the programme
of intensive forest inventory management surveys, and the inventory of Texada
Island was completed.
A new high was also reached by the Reforestation Division, which provided
10,600,000 seedlings for planting over 28,647 acres. Since the reforestation programme began in 1939, 160,000,000 plantings have taken place.
Another record total of nearly 12,000,000 seedlings are available for planting
this year, and the clearing of 13.5 acres at the Green Timbers Nursery will permit
the return to a three-year rotation at the 15,000,000-per-year production level.
Some 50 research projects are being carried out by the Forest Research Division in
the fields of seed production, regeneration, and growth-factor improvement.
Detailed accounts of the work of the various divisions will be found in subsequent pages of this Report, and statistical information in the Appendix.
F. S. McKinnon,
Chief Forester.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 13
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
FIELD PROGRAMME
The Surveys and Inventory Division completed the second year of the programme for intensive forest inventory management surveys in public sustained-yield
units. Financial assistance was continued by the Government of Canada according
to the agreement for forest inventory implemented under the Department of Forestry Act.
Seven public sustained-yield units in five forest districts received forest inventory coverage in 1962. They were Salmo (Nelson Forest District), Arrowhead
(Nelson Forest District), Salmon Arm (Kamloops Forest District), Big Bar (Kamloops Forest District), Yale (Vancouver Forest District), Nechako (Prince George
Forest District), and part of Dean (Prince Rupert Forest District).
Forest Classification and Sampling
The seven public sustained-yield units that were classified and sampled in 1962
had a total area of some 11,700,000 acres. Air photographs to a scale of 20 chains
to 1 inch were the basis for the inventory of these units, with the exception of Block
1 of the Dean Public Sustained-yield Unit, where 40-chain air photographs were
used. Forest sampling in Block 1 of the Dean Public Sustained-yield Unit will be
continued during the 1963 field season. In addition to the regular programme, the
forest inventory of Texada Island (Sechelt Public Working Circle) was completed.
During the year some 1,936 multi-plot samples were established. Another 165
samples were obtained under co-operative agreements with private agencies.
One Bell 47 G-2 helicopter and one Bell 47 G-3B on a four-month charter
were used in the forest classification and sampling of the seven public sustained-yield
units. Such mode of transportation was particularly valuable in transporting crews
into the more inaccessible areas of the rugged Yale and Dean Public Sustained-yield
Units. The co-ordinated use of launch, barge, and helicopter in the remote Dean
Public Sustained-yield Unit proved a successful operation with significant savings
in ferry time.
Experimental sampling with the wedge prism commenced in several areas, and
1,298 samples were established. In addition, wedge prisms were used extensively
in forest classification, where it was found to be an excellent tool for determining
the species combination of forest types.
Growth
Fourteen permanent growth plots, of one-fifth acre each, were established in
the Sechelt Public Working Circle. In addition, assistance was given to another
agency in establishing and measuring six permanent growth plots.
A new growth-plot record-sheet has been designed to improve field recording
and future remeasurements. All of the 29 V^-acre plots established since 1960
have been entered on this permanent record-sheet.
During 1963 the Division plans to expand its programme for the establishment of permanent growth plots in the immature stands of the Province's public
sustained-yield units.
Loss-factor Project
The decay study in the decadent hemlock and balsam stands of the Kitwanga
Public Sustained-yield Unit was completed in 1962.   A total of 2,442 trees was
 This is how Rangers set out on surveys in 1913.
*'V' ^
In winter, back in 1926, they travelled like this.
In 1962 this is how they set out.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 15
felled and measured on 92 sample plots.   In order to provide a better distribution
of samples, helicopters were used to carry crews to inaccessible areas within the unit.
The Division plans to embark on similar decay studies in the Hazelton and Soo
Public Sustained-yield Units in 1963.
Timber Berths
Timber-berth investigations continued during the year. Eighteen Coastal and
16 Interior areas were examined, and reports and recommendations prepared
for each.
Taxation Cruises
A four-man cruising party continued the inspection of Crown-granted timber
land and timber licences on Vancouver Island for the purposes of real-property
assessment and taxation. A total of 6,275 acres received intensive field examination,
including the establishment of 883 VS-acre sample plots.
Regeneration Surveys
At the request of the Reforestation Division, a regeneration survey of the
logged areas in the Bella Coola River and Necleetsconnay River drainages was completed in 1962. The objective of this survey was to determine whether a regeneration problem did exist in these areas and to bring forth suitable recommendations
in this regard.
The field investigation was conducted by a four-man crew and involved the
establishment of 9,888 mil-acre quadrats in the logged-over areas in the two
drainages.
Haney Correctional Institution
An investigation of the area adjacent to the Haney Correctional Institution was
completed during the year. The objective was to secure a detailed forest inventory
of the area and to prepare a guide for the implementation of an intensive stand-
treatment programme. A total of 3,050 chains of strip was run in gathering data
pertaining to regeneration problems, stand-improvement recommendations, salvage
possibilities, etc.
OFFICE PROGRAMME
Forest Mapping
The production of final forest-cover maps is now in balance with the current
field-work projects. The progress of forest-cover mapping based on maintenance
surveys (1958-60) and unit surveys (1961 + ) of areas under public management
is shown on the key map following page 18.
A total of 500 final and interim forest-cover maps, covering 9,700,000 acres,
was completed this year. Mapping of all the 1962 field projects is in progress.
Published maps, the majority of which are of 20-chains-to-l-inch scale, are now
available for 33 public sustained-yield units.
During the year, 12,900 maps were distributed in response to requests received
from various public and private agencies.
Area and Volume Summaries
Forest survey reports covering 31 public sustained-yield units were issued
during 1962, making a total of 33 reports available for areas mapped {see key
 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
map). Twenty-six of these are based on maintenance surveys from field work done
during 1958-60. For these an area statement is available for each map. Seven
reports are based on unit surveys of 1961 field work. For these an area and volume
statement is available for each map. Reports on 1962 field work will be issued
during 1963.
Planimetry of 20-chains-to-l-inch maps alone exceeded 12,000,000 acres. In
addition, some 500 map-area statements were printed, completing the area figures
for the above reports.  Work is now in progress on the 1962 project areas.
Forty-two requests were received requiring statistical summaries, to be used
mainly for management planning and access-road development. They involved a
total area of 27,000,000 acres and a net timber volume exceeding 15,000,000,000
cubic feet.
All of the 23,335 Provincial samples, 1953 to 1962, inclusive, have now been
compiled on the basis of the 1962 Standard Cubic Foot Volume Table. Each
sample is presented as an individual sample volume statement {see sample on page
17) showing the volume in cubic feet per acre, by species, for five levels of diameter, namely, 5.1-7.0, 7.1+, 9.1+, 11.1+, and 13.1-f inches d.b.h., and to
several utilization standards of stump height and top diameter inside bark.
In addition, where species composition, age, height, and stocking class are
common, samples have been grouped within zones and presented as average net
(and gross) volume statements, similar to the above levels. The statements form
the basis for all the survey reports and special volume requests issued during the
year.   Prints of any type of sample statement are available upon request.
Continued use was made of the I.B.M. 650 computer and data-processing
equipment on area and sample volume compilation work. Approximately 2,500,000
cards were involved.
Empirical Growth Estimates
Following the new sample recompilation using the 1962 volume table, it was
necessary to recalculate all net (less decay) and gross mean annual increments.
Net mean annual increments were calculated for major growth types in 32
public sustained-yield units. Gross increments were calculated for Zone 3, and
final work is in progress in all zones, except Zones 5 and 6. The former data are
included in the majority of the unit survey and maintenance survey reports issued
during the year. The latter data will be available as a revision or supplement to
Forest Survey Note No. 6.
During the year many requests for growth information were received and
processed.
Volume Table and Loss-factor Projects
All tree measurements for the Kitwanga Public Sustained-yield Unit were compiled and analysed to attain the objectives of (1) determining meaningful estimates
of decay and related losses in the forest stands, (2) providing a local volume table
for the unit, and (3) to evaluate the significance of external signs of decay and to
assess their value as aids to local cruising.
The measurements of 29,500 trees which were made prior to 1961 are being
transformed for each tree from a tabular form to a diagram showing taper and any
decay columns present.
Taper curves for all Coast and Interior species {see sample on page 18) have
been published in booklet form and are available for distribution.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962
17
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(S3H0NI)  XMV8   30ISNI   HSISINVIQ
 136°
134°
132°
130°
128°
126°
124°
122°
120°
118°
114°
112°
58"
56c
54'
50'
BRITISH COLUMBIA FOREST SERVICE
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY DIVISION
MAINTENANCE SURVEYS (1958-1960)    Hi
1. Babine
2. Barkley
3. Big Valley
4. Bowron
5. Cape Scott
6. Carp
Chilliwack
Cottonwood
Creston
Crooked
Kyuquot
Lac la Hache
Longworth
14. Morice
15. Naver
16. Niskonlith
17. Purden
18. Quesnel Lake
19. Redonda
20. Robson
21. Sayward
22. Sechelt
23. Spallumcheen
24. Stuart
25. Williams Lake
26. Willow River
Dundasl.l
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
(a) Maps--majority at 1/4 mile to 1 inch;
balance at 1/2 mile to 1  inch.
(b) - Statements—area statement for each map.
(c) Reports--for each P. W. C. --S . Y. U.;
a maintenance survey report.
UNIT SURVEYS (1961+)
IN PROGRESS   g-2^2
(1962 fieldwork)
8. Arrowhead
9. Big Bar
10. Dean
11. Nechako
12. Salmo
13. Salmon Arm
14. Texada
15. Yale
DIXON ENTRANCE
BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
HONOURABLE R. G. WILLISTON, MINISTER
Scale
40    3.0   20    10     0 40 80 1?0
160 MILES
PROGRESS OF FOREST-COVER MAPPING
BASED ON MAINTENANCE SURVEYS AND UNIT SURVEYS
OF AREAS UNDER PUBLIC MANAGEMENT
PRINCE
IQJPEBT^
Portia
.EdwarcP
Caamano
Sound
58°
56°
54°
QUEEN
CHARLOTTE
SOUND
50°
Cape Scott ^
Cape Co
48°
Ucluelet
Cape Flattery*;
136°
134°
132°
130°
128°
126°
124°
122°
120°
118°
116°
 report of forest service, 1962 19
Photo Mensuration
Aerial photo-volume sampling was completed for the Nechako Public Sustained-
yield Unit. Fifty-eight double photo-ground samples were established in mature
types and were used to produce local aerial photo stand volume tables for the unit.
These volume tables were in turn used to estimate the volume for an additional 887
mature single photo samples. This information will be incorporated in the Nechako
survey report.
Further tests with 70-mm. low-elevation photography from helicopters were
completed. In the Big Bar Public Sustained-yield Unit, 33 Va-hctq plots in Douglas
fir and lodgepole pine types were established on the ground. All trees 7.1 inches
plus d.b.h. were measured for height using chain and Abney. After being photographed, 682 trees measured on the ground were identified and measured on the
photos for height and crown diameter, and each tree crown was assessed as thrifty
or decadent.   The average error in photo-measured tree heights was ± 3.5 feet.
An attempt is being made to construct single-tree photo volume tables for each
of these species.   At present the results are incomplete.
 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST RESEARCH
Details of the research programme may be found in the Forest Research Review
for the year ended March, 1962.
EXPERIMENT STATIONS
Clearing and grubbing continued in the small research nursery established at
Aleza Lake. A total of 4,800 square feet of beds was sown in the spring to white
spruce and 2,400 square feet were sown in the fall. A further 2,400 square feet
of beds were prepared for sowing in the spring of 1963.
A general review of the experimental reserve was undertaken to evaluate silvi-
cultural progress and development work accomplished during the first five years of
the working plan in order to establish terms of reference and objectives for a revised
plan.
Three miles of right-of-way were logged and slashed on the East Branch Road
and a cut-off road located from the east branch to the Ranger station.
One timber sale was active in the long-term selection working circle, and one
sale completed in the clear-cut working circle. New sales have been prepared in
each of these working circles.
The Cowichan Lake Experiment Station was maintained, but no new development undertaken. The station was used as a headquarters for a variety of studies
carried out in the region.
DATA-PROCESSING
Time was made available to the Research Division during the year on the
I.B.M. 650 processing system of the Department of Industrial Development, Trade,
and Commerce. Programmes were written for analyses of variance and covariance
to suit the general models used in experiments, and 150 problems were processed.
Programmes are in preparation for tests of homogeneity of variance and for anovas
of disproportional subclass cases which prevail in genetic experiments to date. In
co-operation with the Management Division, the I.B.M. 650 system is being used
as one medium for trials associated with processing administrative data, Vancouver
District scale computation and billing extensions being the subject of the first programme.
FIELD PROGRAMME
In the field of tree-breeding, cruising for plus trees for Douglas fir seed orchards
was concentrated in the Kyuquot and Chilliwack Public Working Circles. In the
latter area, industrial co-operation materially aided in this search for outstanding
trees. During the spring, scions were collected from 134 trees for grafting in clone
banks and seed orchards.
Seed-fall records were maintained on the west coast of Vancouver Island, where
a light fall of hemlock, cedar, and spruce was recorded. On the east coast there
was a crop failure in young trees and only a fair crop from mature Douglas fir.
A study on cone-handling and seed-processing is nearing completion.
In studies concerning the effects of climatic factors upon various altitudinal
provenances of Douglas fir, a late spring frost damaged high-elevation provenances
planted at a low elevation.
Several new plantation projects were established, involving the use of different
grades of Douglas fir seedlings and stock held in cold storage for varying periods.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962
21
A species and spacing trial was established on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
Another study concerns the effects of soil texture, stoniness, and drainage upon the
growth of Douglas fir 1+0 seedlings.
A study was made of brush-control projects carried out in coastal British Columbia. Another study analysed the effects of game browsing on the growth of
young forests.
A number of thinning plots were examined. A valuable demonstration of the
effects of delayed or early thinnings upon growth and form of crop trees is to be
found in a 23-year-old plantation thinned to varying intensities at different intervals
of time since the initial thinning in 1952.
In the Prince Rupert Forest District, work was concentrated on lodgepole pine
investigations, with plot work completed on a regeneration study in cut-over pine
stands. A number of plantations were re-examined. The 1962 season was generally mild and wet, and favourable for seedling survival and development. Browsing
by rodents is emerging as the most important factor interfering with development
of plantations.
In the Prince George District a study on the influence of time on effectiveness
of scarified seed-beds showed that the invasion of weed growth is very rapid, and
that suppression of seedlings occurs within three years of scarification.
A mature spruce-alpine fir stand in the Kamloops Forest District was subjected
to various cutting methods. Ten years later the losses through windfall and natural
causes were found to more than offset the growth accruing on the residual stands.
In co-operation with research officers of the Federal Departments of Agriculture and of Forestry, a study of the classification of forest land, based on landform,
soils, and plant associations, was initiated in an area near Kamloops.
Several studies on direct seeding of conifers have been initiated in both Kamloops and Nelson Districts. In the latter district a new study of seed dissemination,
with particular reference to the dispersal of hemlock and cedar seed, was started.
Tabulation of Research Projects Active in 1962
Experimental
Project No.
Title
Region
226
274
370
371
428
468
474
477
478
479
480
482
483
502
513
528
530
531
537
538
539
541
543
552
553
555
560
Cone production in immature stands of Douglas fir..
Cone production in mature stands of Douglas fir.	
Partial cutting in a mixed wet belt type-
Cutting methods in overmature spruce-alpine fir-
Plantation trials _   _	
Cone-crop studies.
Inbreeding experiments with Douglas fir .
A study of phenotypes in Douglas fir-
Phenotypic selection in open-grown Douglas fir 	
Plus tree selection for Douglas fir seed orchards. 	
Co-operative seed provenance study of Douglas fir  _
Climate and the altitudinal distribution of conifers	
Record of plantations of exotic species throughout British Columbia-
Plantation trials       	
Planting of exotic conifers for future hybridization	
Influence of time on the effectiveness of scarified seed-beds in spruce-alpine fir..
Morphological characteristics of selected Douglas fir and their progeny	
Anatomical characteristics of wood of selected trees   	
Spacing trials, white spruce .
Seed dissemination and the influence of weather conditions-
Studies of cone-handling and seed-processing	
Natural nurseries —   —
An ecological classification of stands for Christmas-tree production-
Planting trials with ponderosa pine (1960)— 	
Ecological investigations of Montane forest region-
Germination and survival of western hemlock and associated species.
A study of planting methods, ponderosa pine (1961) 	
Vancouver
Vancouver
Nelson.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver
Island.
Island.
Island.
Island.
Island.
Island.
Island.
Island.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Tabulation of Research Projects Active in 1962—Continued
570
571
572
581
582
585
586
589
590
591
592
594
595
597
599
602
604
605
606
607
608
609
Species and spacing trial, west coast	
Planting trials with ponderosa pine (1961) 	
Co-operative planting study of Douglas fir cull stock-
Planting study of cold storage 2+0 Douglas fir stock-
Plantation studies  	
Planting stock comparison trials..
Comparison of 2+0, 2+1, and 1+2 Douglas fir stock..
A study of the compatability of tree and grass seeding, 1962-
Regeneration study in cut-over lodgepole pine stands	
Direct seeding trial, Mars Creek-
Brush control, coastal British Columbia..
Outplanting of different fertilized stock-
Planting trial with ponderosa pine, 1962  	
Problem analysis on approach to provenance experimentation-
Problem analysis of lodgepole pine-
Direct seeding of coniferous spruces, a problem analysis .
Determination of the optimum season for direct seeding ..
Direct seeding of Douglas fir and Engelmann spruce	
Spacing trials, ponderosa pine..
The effect of texture, stoniness, and drainage on the growth of Douglas fir seedling
A study of forest-land classification   .	
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Nelson.
Nelson.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS, 1962
Forest Research Review for the year ended March, 1962.
Schmidt, R. L., and Hamblett, K.C. (1962):   Directional Source of Extraneous
Pollen at Three Seed Orchard Sites on Vancouver Island.   Forestry Chronicle
38(2), pp. 203-207, 1962.
Schmidt, R. L., and Marshall, J. R. (1962):   Remodelling a Hygrothermograph
Clock to Obtain a Four-week Record.   Ecology 43(3), pp. 530-531, 1962.
Unpublished Manuscript Reports
Clark, M. B.: Growth and Development of Some Douglas Fir-Ponderosa Pine
Types:   a Comparison of Growth Study Methods.   Final report E.P. 439.
Clark, M. B.: Regeneration Problems in Decadent Cedar-Hemlock Stands. Final
report E.P. 529.
Revel, J.:  Planting-stock Standards for Coast Douglas Fir.   Final report E.P. 579.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 23
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
The weather during 1962 was somewhat abnormal. Precipitation during the
first three months of the year was much below normal, and consequently snowfall
was light. Cool cloudy weather persisted through most of the spring and summer
months, but rainfall was little more than average for this period. Conditions improved during the late summer and early fall and were followed by mild weather
and heavy rainfall during the last three months of the year. The heavy rains during
this period brought the yearly total precipitation to about the normal level.
The dull weather during the growing season was favourable for germination
and growth of seedlings but had an adverse effect on the weed problem in all the
nurseries.
Heavy frost, with no snow cover, during late January caused some damage to
1-year seedlings at the Coast nurseries. The East Kootenay nursery experienced
rather severe summer frosts, with resulting damage to some stock.
The use of polyethylene sheets to cover spruce beds during the winter months
proved quite effective as a protection against frost heaving. It would appear that
the chief benefit is derived from the exclusion of moisture from the soil. This lessens
the formation of ice crystals, which are the cause of the soil heaving. Some increase
in soil temperature is also effected, which again reduces the chance of frost heaving.
Wet soil conditions again delayed the completion of sowing, particularly at
Green Timbers, where sowing was not completed until June 12th.
The number of beds producing 1-0 stock totals 3,500, of which 125 were sown
in the fall of 1961. A further 379 seed-beds were sown in the various nurseries in
the autumn of this year. Additional autumn sowing had been planned, but heavy
rains during November prevented its completion. The majority of the fall-sown
beds were spruce. Fall sowing of spruce produces a larger and better-rooted seedling
in the first year than is normally produced from spring sowing. This is an important
factor in survival during the first winter in the seed-beds.
A new area comprising 13.5 acres is being cleared for nursery use at Green
Timbers. It was hoped that a portion of this area would be ready for sowing in 1963,
but heavy rains during the fall prevented completion of the work. This additional
area is only sufficient, at our present production level, to allow us to return to a
normal three-year rotation at the 15,000,000 per year level in the Coast nurseries,
where overproduction has been resorted to in order to keep up with the demand for
planting stock. Any increase in seedling production will require additional nursery
space.
Two new types of irrigation equipment were tried out—the Skinner oscillating
type and the 14V Rainbird used on portable aluminum pipe. At the East Kootenay
nursery, where wind is a serious problem, the Skinner system was favoured because
it gives a heavier application. At the Coast nurseries, preference was given to the
14V Rainbird. This is a conventional-type rotating sprinkler with a low-volume
and low-trajectory output. At a 30- by 40-foot spacing, good coverage is obtained,
and also the low volume eliminates much of the soil puddling that has occurred with
the heavier-type sprinklers previously used.
A record total of just over 11,000,000 trees was distributed from the various
nurseries in the Province. Nearly 12,000,000 are available for planting in the
coming season.
 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Nursery Stock Distributed, 1962
Nursery
Age-classes
1-0
2-0
1-1
2-1, 2-2
3-0
Totals
Green Timbers..
Campbell River..
Duncan 	
Brannen Lake _
East Kootenay..
Chilliwack	
Telkwa..	
Hixon	
Kelowna	
Totals.
Transplanted.
184,600
541,600
2,621,100
3,404,600
3,391,700
33,000
131,000
209,900
3,400
39,800
8,300
46,800
25,900
150,600
157,400
3,000
6,500
50,200
1,400
2,621,100
3,644,300
3,933,300
58,900
331,800
367,300
4,400
9,900
39,800
726,200
9,834,500
8,300
390,200
50,600    | 11,010,800
300,000
294,000
594,000
Forest Nursery Stocks on Hand on December 31,
1962
Nursery
Age-classes
Totals
1-0
2-0
1-1
2-1,2-2
3-0
6,468,000
4,613,000
3,035,500
98,000
3,022,050
1,218,000
212,000
35,000
72,000
2,745,600
4,670,500
2,947,100
137,000
335,740
383,000
12,500
4,000
89,000
9,213,600
32,000
4,000
60,000
1,000
12,500
159,850
15,000
65,200
34,975
11,300
9,316,500
Duncan   	
55,700
5,999,100
454,850
3,428,490
130,000
1,796,200
259,475
	
50,300
161,000
Totals
18,773,550
11,324,440
226,000
299,825
55,700
30,679,515
SEED COLLECTION
In 1962 there was generally a light cone crop throughout the Province for all
species, but medium crops for various species were to be found in scattered areas.
A low-elevation Douglas fir crop on the east coast of Vancouver Island was destroyed by insects, with damage being less in the north. Spruce cone crops in the
Interior were also infested with insects. The best Interior spruce crop occurred west
of Smithers, and a medium spruce cone crop occurred at Aleza Lake. There was a
good Sitka spruce crop on the Queen Charlotte Islands. In the area between 130
Mile and Quesnel there was a medium Douglas fir crop. A good crop of ponderosa
pine cones occurred from an area east of Merritt to Kamloops.
Five bushels of West Coast hemlock cones were collected in the Vancouver
Forest District. In the Prince Rupert Forest District 64Vi bushels of Interior spruce
cones and 9 bushels of Douglas fir cones were collected. One hundred and thirty-
one bushels of Interior spruce and 6 bushels of Douglas fir were harvested in the
Prince George Forest District. The Kamloops Forest District produced 106 bushels
of Douglas fir and 30 bushels of ponderosa pine. Total Forest Service collections
for the Province consisted of 31 seed lots, which amounted to 351 bushels.
In the seed laboratory at Duncan 208 seed tests were completed during the
year. Each test consists of four replicates of 100 seeds and involves in total approximately two man-hours to complete.
The Forest Service inventory of seed on hand totals 3,250 kilograms (7,150
pounds). Just over half of this is Coastal Douglas fir from the 1959 crop. Including forest industry seed, there are a total of 832 lots in storage.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962 25
Development of seed-production areas continues, and at least one area has
now been selected in each forest district. Marking and thinning have been completed on several of these in preparation for fertilizing. Selection of other areas
continues.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
This Division co-operated with the Surveys and Inventory Division in a cooperative regeneration survey of the Dean Public Sustained-yield Unit. In addition,
26,800 acres were covered by reconnaissance and 16,000 by intensive survey on
the Coast and in the East Kootenay. Of the latter, 39 per cent is not satisfactorily
restocked.
PLANTING
The usual pattern was evident on the Coast. Planting commenced on Vancouver Island on February 5th, but the onset of freezing weather and snow caused
a shutdown from mid-February to mid-March, and it was not completed until May
15th. In the Southern Interior, planting commenced before mid-April, and in the
northern districts during the second week in May.
Autumn planting began on October 1st and was terminated before mid-
November because of frozen ground.
During the year 50 projects were organized for planting in 40 different localities. A new development of significance was the organization of some 15 planting
projects in their districts by various Rangers in the Vancouver Forest District.
Total planting for the year by all agencies amounted to 10,600,000 trees on
28,647 acres, making 1962 the best year on record.   (See Table 2 in the Appendix.)
Plantation Improvement and Maintenance
Thinning of a further 84 acres of overstocked young ponderosa pine brought
the total so far treated to 715 acres. The severe wind-storm of last autumn caused
some windfall in plantations at Green Timbers.  These are being cleaned up.
Preparation of Planting-sites
Snags were felled on 2,623 acres on the Coast and 809 acres in the Interior.
Part of this involved removal of heavy concentrations which constituted a hazard
in large, otherwise snag-free areas of natural and artificial reproduction.
PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS
At Green Timbers, 13.5 acres were cleared for nursery beds. Unfortunately
the extremely wet autumn prevented installation of drains and final grading and
working. A 4- to 5-foot-deep perimeter ditch was dug to keep seepage water off
the new field. The 30-year-old tile-drain system of one 5-acre field was completely
replaced, and the field deep scarified to break up the plough pan. A new 116-foot
by 12-inch well capable of delivering 300 gallons per minute was drilled. A seedling cold-storage building with a capacity of 2,000,000 seedlings was constructed.
This will permit considerable economy and increase the efficiency of lifting the
increasing production of this nursery. It will also be utilized to hold Interior spruce
grown on the Coast until the Interior planting-sites open up in April and May. An
old concrete root cellar was converted for storing covering soil. A pump-house for
the new well was incorporated into a new implement-shed.
At the Campbell River nursery, clearing and cleaning-up of a second seed-
orchard site was completed and the area fenced.
 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A new deer-proof fence 2,800 feet long was erected at the East Kootenay nursery to exclude game animals which were browsing the seed-beds during the winter.
Posts were renewed and wire rehung on 3,400 feet of existing boundary fence.
CO-OPERATION
The Reforestation Division continued to play an active part in Industry-Forest
Service co-operation in the field of artificial regeneration. Reforestation personnel
played a large part in the organization of a reforestation workshop held under the
auspices of the Reforestation Sub-committee of the Tree Farm Forestry Committee.
Help and advice were also given to individuals and organizations regarding planting,
Christmas-tree culture, etc.
Interdepartmental Rehabilitation and Forestry Programme
The Reforestation Division is charged with the planning, technical supervision,
and liaison of all forestry phases of this co-operative programme between the
Department of the Attorney-General and the Department of Lands, Forests, and
Water Resources.
In the Chilliwack Public Sustained-yield Unit, inmate crews under Reforestation Division direction constructed 3 miles of trail, slashed over 1 mile of road, and
blew stumps on another mile, in addition to maintaining the forest-development
road. In addition to planting 230 acres in the public sustained-yield unit, inmate
crews maintained the nurseries, which produced 367,320 trees during the year, and
transplanted a further 255,000. Twenty acres of young natural reproduction were
pruned. Logs cut on road right-of-way were manufactured into 275 M f.b.m. of
lumber, which was utilized in the public sustained-yield unit for camp construction,
bridges, culverts, and nursery seed-beds. One hundred and seventeen signs and
127,000 survey stakes and posts were made, mostly from salvaged cedar. Two
courses in planting were given for officers by members of the Reforestation Division staff.
Late in the year the Reforestation Division staff assisted the Attorney-General's
Department in selecting a site for a new camp in the Sayward Forest, and provided
trailers and other equipment to develop the camp-site and access road.
A third phase of this interdepartmental co-operation was the planting of 48
acres by inmates from the Kamloops Gaol. They had previously cleared the area
of fire-killed young growth. During the autumn a similar project involved the
thinning and cleaning-out of a seed-production area.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962
27
WORKING PLANS
INTRODUCTION
During 1962, pursuant to section 17a of the Forest Act, an option was granted
to Canadian Forest Products Limited to purchase pulpwood from a pulpwood harvesting area. Section 17a enables several public sustained-yield units, initially
established on a sawlog basis, to be combined into one pulpwood harvesting area to
provide a new pulp-mill with a source of wood from the available material not suitable for sawmilling. This new concept of management planning, having as its objective a higher degree of utilization through more diversified production, will therefore
apply to nine public sustained-yield units and a special sale area in the Prince George
vicinity, to be known as " Pulpwood Harvesting Area No. 1." Following a second
public hearing, a pulpwood harvesting area in the Kamloops vicinity was awarded
to Kamloops Wood Conversion Limited, subject to formal ratification in the future.
Two new public sustained-yield units were established, and there was no change
in the number of tree-farm licences. Two new Taxation Act tree-farms were certified. Eleven new farm wood-lots were awarded, and four farm wood-lots were cancelled. As a result, there are now in operation 80 public sustained-yield units, 39
tree-farm licences, 24 out of a total of 37 Taxation Act tree-farms which are not
managed as an integral part of the tree-farm licences, and 57 farm wood-lot licences.
The total area committed under working plans amounts to slightly under
56,675,000 acres of productive forest, with a total allowable annual cut of 870,-
067,000 cubic feet, equivalent to 65 per cent of the total Provincial scale for 1962.
The following table illustrates the progress made up to 1962 in the organization of
the various forms of units committed to forest management under working plans for
sustained yield:—
Progress of Sustained-yield Programme up to 1962
Type of Unit or Tenure
Number of
Units
Productive Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Annual Cut
(M C.F.)
Public sustained-yield units..
Tree-farm licences 	
Tree-farms (excluding those in tree-farm licences)..
Farm wood-lots  	
Totals   	
80
39
24
57
48,940,122
7,054,191
665,666
14,940
520,750
328,441
20,497
379
200
56,674,919
870,067
For tabular summaries of basic data applicable to the four types of management units see Tables 57 and 58 in the Appendix.
PULPWOOD HARVESTING AREAS
The option agreement for Pulpwood Harvesting Area No. 1 was formally ratified by Canadian Forest Products Limited and the Honourable the Minister of Lands,
Forests, and Water Resources on November 22, 1962. Public sustained-yield units
included are Big Valley, Carp, Crooked River, Naver, Nechako, Parsnip, Stuart
Lake, Westlake, and Willow River. In these units, forest values suitable only for
pulp production will now have a possibility of contributing to sustained-yield management. Under the agreement, the new pulp-mill is scheduled to be in operation
on or before December 31, 1965. As shown on the accompanying map, the option
agreement for Pulpwood Harvesting Area No. 1 includes, in addition, some of the
 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
pulpwood timber in a special sale area which is referred to as Schedule B in the
agreement, and whereby sales may be made which are designated " pulp timber sale
licences."
A second pulpwood harvesting area has been awarded to Kamloops Wood
Conversion Limited, but a formal agreement has not yet been ratified. Public
sustained-yield units included are Adams, Barriere, Barton Hill, Botanie, Eagle,
Nehalliston, Nicola, Niskonlith, North Thompson, Raft, Salmon Arm, Shuswap,
and Spallumcheen.
Government map reserves were established over two other groups of fully committed public sustained-yield units to enable two other potential pulpwood harvesting
areas to be investigated by industry. In addition, industry continued to study a
number of other such areas in the Province.
OTHER PUBLIC SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS
Two new public sustained-yield units—the Ashnola and the Tatla—were established during the year. In line with the policy of bringing all Crown land under
sustained yield, many minor gaps between existing public and private sustained-yield
units were closed. By including in reviews and reports the inventory data applicable
to areas containing private forests as well as for Crown lands within public sustained-
yield units, it will eventually be possible to obtain detailed area and volume classification of forest and non-forest areas in each forest district. During the year these
changes in the boundaries and the establishment of two units resulted in an addition
of 2,736,380 productive acres and an increase in allowable annual cut of 5,760,000
cubic feet.
Seven 20-chain management-unit surveys providing an advanced degree of
precision were received in 1962 and one of them—the Westlake—was the object
of a co-operative study. This study involved the Working Plans Division, the Prince
George Forest District staff, the Management Division, and the Forest Surveys and
Inventory Division. A similar study was commenced using maintenance 20-chain
survey reports which were provided for a further 24 public sustained-yield units.
Both classes of surveys provide the opportunity to review in more detail the present
management potential of these units. The co-operation of the staff of the other
districts and divisions is essential for deriving suitable cutting-plan policies and other
working-plan aspects based on these revised forest inventories.
Liaison with the five forest districts continued to improve, with one forester
in the Division continuously associated with one district. This was very evident in
preliminary work leading to approval of tree-farm licence working plans, farm
wood-lots, allowable-cut reviews for the public sustained-yield units, and forest-
development studies.
A brief and complete analysis was made of the extraction and protection access-
road situation within all five districts, and this is expected to aid the districts and
the Engineering Services Division to analyse the current access requirements for all
public sustained-yield units.
Work studies within the Division have been eased by the help of a new technical
forest officer. This officer has been assigned to assist the forester concerned with
allowable-cut and forest-development reviews for the public sustained-yield units.
TREE-FARM LICENCES
No new tree-farm licences were established in 1962, but new working plans,
including revised inventory figures, resulted in an increased classification of area as
  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 29
productive forest land of 36,597 acres and plans for improved utilization amounting
to 4,200,000 cubic feet annually.
CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS
Two new tree-farms were certified in 1962, bringing the total to 37 tree-farms
under the Taxation Act. Of these, 13 are still managed as portions of tree-farm
licences with a productive acreage of 284,697 and allowable cuts totalling 12,876,-
000 cubic feet. The remaining 24 tree-farms commit a further 665,666 productive
acres, with a combined allowable annual cut of 20,497,000 cubic feet, to the over-all
sustained-yield programme.
FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
Due to greater activity in farm wood-lot administration, it was possible during
the year to deal with a large backlog of farm wood-lot applications. This resulted
in the signing of 11 new documents. Due to change of tenure or lack of adhering
to the management plan, four existing farm wood-lots were cancelled. The net
increase of seven brings the number in good standing to 57. The acreage of productive forest land involved in this phase is 14,940 acres and the allowable cut is
379,000 cubic feet per annum.
OTHER PUBLIC UNITS
As mentioned under " Pulpwood Harvesting Areas," a special sale area in the
previously unregulated portion of the Prince George Forest District in the vicinity
of Prince George and extending down to surround Quesnel was established by Order
in Council No. 2811 and included in Pulpwood Harvesting Area No. 1. In this
area, applications for replacement sawlog timber sales are limited to established
licensee operators.
The Kamloops region is that area surrounded by the Barton Hill, Nicola,
Botanie, Big Bar, Nehalliston, Niskonlith, and Shuswap Public Sustained-yield Units
and Tree-farm Licences Nos. 16, 32, and 35. This area was investigated as a prospect for sustained-yield management, but it was found that this was not feasible
under present conditions. It was decided, therefore, to establish the Kamloops
region with its own system of regulation to hold production at the level of past performance, with replacement timber-sale applications limited to established licensees.
 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
PURLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
The year 1962 brought a series of major staff changes to the Division, which
affected its whole structural organization and necessitated many adjustments to new
situations. In rapid succession, the Division received a new director, librarian,
assistant librarian, and public information assistant. These appointments were made
during the busy and critical summer, giving new appointees little time for study and
adjustment.
To get the necessary staff cohesion, a public information work-shop for all
Divisional personnel was held in Victoria early in December. It was believed to be
the first of its type held in the Provincial Government service and was attended by
representatives of the news media and others involved in the public information field.
In general, however, the work pattern departed little from the established norm
of previous years. Full information services for press, radio, and television outlets
was carried out; exhibits and tours were undertaken; and photo, library, and general
information programmes functioned as usual. A slight drop in the number of school
lectures delivered can be attributed to the fact that the public information (lecturer's) appointment was vacated at the critical period of early summer. The new
appointee commenced these duties in October.
COMMUNICATION MEDIA
Photography and Motion-picture Production
During the year 11,314 photographic prints in various sizes were produced in
the darkroom. This is the highest number since records have been kept and a 72.2-
per-cent increase over the total for 1961. This is noteworthy, as again in 1962
production was curtailed, first for one month while the staff was working on an
exhibit, and again for a two-week period when alterations to the darkroom layout
were in progress. Field commitments on several occasions required the attention
of the whole staff, thus closing the darkroom for short periods. On other occasions
it was found necessary to contract our jobs to a commercial photographer when
demands for service were too great for the facilities.
During the year 130 rolls of black-and-white film were processed for other
Forest Service divisions. The photographic staff took 291 large format negatives
and 49 rolls in black and white, and 27 large format negatives and 9 rolls in negative
colour film. A total of 2,166 black-and-white negatives, 1,385 being for Engineering Services Division, 184 colour negatives, and 50 35-mm. slides were added to
the files in the photo library.
Work was continued on " The Man in the Tower," an instructional film for
lookoutmen. Over 3,000 feet of 16-mm. colour motion-picture film has been shot,
bringing this production close to completion. However, adverse weather conditions
forced several postponements of scene-shooting until early summer of 1963.
Motion-picture coverage was given to the first " bird-dog " training course held
at the Forest Service training-school during May. Several hundred feet of film were
shot, with a view to producing a short informative film at a later date.
Other Forest Service activities covered by film included a demonstration use
of Phytoactin spraying from a helicopter; trials of Forest Service vessels " J.C. 2"
and " Hecate Ranger "; and test usage of ball-and-chain land-clearing in the Peace
River District.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 31
Still-photo coverage was given to a scarification course held in the spring, and
during July and August still photographic work was carried out in the Prince Rupert
Forest District.
For the first time, work was undertaken to provide the various forest districts
with information as to what photographs are available. File proof prints and a
caption list representing a cross-section of negatives put in file from January to
June, 1962, were sent to each district. These will continue to be sent at six-month
intervals.
Also undertaken for the first time was the production of black-and-white stereo
positives from 70-mm. negative rolls. Some 212 positives were produced for the
Surveys and Inventory Division and the Research Division. Also supplied to the
Research Division were 307 8"x8" enlargements from these 70-mm. negatives,
using Kenora " 30-second print" equipment.
Film Library
The year 1962 began with 140 films in the library, an apparent increase of 45
films over the previous year. Actually the increase is due to the fact that the table
now shows all of the multiple prints of the various subjects.
A total of 140 films was loaned out to some 957 borrowers, for a total audience
of 155,052, an increase of 14,694. The film library has shown a steady increase
each year, with more loans made last year than in any of the past eight. This was
due to the heavy circulation of the film catalogue in 1961.
Officers of the Division, other than school lecturers, gave many film and lecture programmes to schools, service clubs, church groups, and Parent-Teacher
Associations.
This year, for the first time, forestry films were used for vocational training of
inmates of three Provincial prisons as a rehabilitation programme.
With the extensive safety programme now under way in the Forest Service, this
library is constantly on the alert for new films dealing with safety.
Publications and Printing
In 1962 the most important printing projects were the Annual Report of the
Forest Service, the Research Review, and the reissue of the school scribblers. Not
actually issued, but carried to the point of publication in early 1963, are a new
poster and the Safety Manual.
A special booklet was produced to commemorate the tour of the Royal Forestry Societies of England, Wales, and Scotland. A special-interest poster described
the " Life of a Sawlog" and was, in basic terms, a description of the amount of
lumber one operator could obtain from a cubic foot of log scale.
Co-operating once again with the Canadian Forestry Association (British
Columbia Branch), a revision was made of some of the original conservation topics.
Three of these have been published in a new booklet entitled " The Tree, the Forest
and Wildlife."
Radio and Television
Radio
Due to an increasing demand for greater coverage by forest-protection radio
announcements, an entirely new approach was taken toward radio broadcasts
during the 1962 fire season. In co-operation with a Victoria radio station, the
Division produced 20 prepared tapes, each containing 12 individual 30-second
announcements.
 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
These taped announcements were supplied to 14 radio stations in the Vancouver Forest District and later to three stations in the Prince George Forest District.
Announcements were scheduled to be broadcast each Friday, Saturday, and Sunday
as often as possible, depending on the station's advertising rates. Each station
broadcast 50 to 80 paid announcements.
In addition to these scheduled announcements, radio stations in the Prince
George and Vancouver Forest Districts were supplied with 20 special hazard flashes
which were available during periods of extreme fire hazard.
Radio stations in the Prince Rupert, Kamloops, and Nelson Forest Districts
were supplied with a schedule of eighteen 15-second flashes, ten 1-minute spot
announcements, and twenty special hazard flashes.
During the 1962 fire season the 26 radio stations throughout the Province
broadcast 1,614 paid Forest Service announcements.
In addition to the paid radio advertising schedule, Division officers arranged
for, and participated in, numerous radio programmes. Twenty-five 1-minute protection announcements were taped for a Victoria Station, CFAX, for broadcast
once each day during the fire season. Station CKDA, Victoria, taped each day a
direct announcement on the existing fire hazard and for broadcast during news
round-up.
Television
Paid television advertising by the Forest Service is limited to a series of forest-
protection messages telecast over CBU-TV, Vancouver. During the 1962 fire
season the Division prepared and produced a slide presentation which was scheduled
for broadcast over CBU during July and August. A total of thirty-six 20-second
flashes were broadcast.
In addition, the Division supplied 20-second film clips to three Interior television stations for broadcast on a public service basis. Although stations are quite
willing to offer this service, there are certain disadvantages in not being able to
schedule announcements when required. Public service announcements are often
telecast during periods when our " problem " audience is not available.
During the year, Division personnel participated in, or arranged for, several
special-event-type programmes; that is, television coverage of the fiftieth anniversary
exhibit, Forest Products Week, interviews of Forest Service personnel on current
topics, supplying photographs and film footage for news broadcasts, and preparation
of written material for other productions.
Press and Periodicals
In general, the demand for news releases, stories, and articles continued to be
high. Demands for this type of public information constituted a large part of the
normal work load for the information officers.
Despite an excellent fire season, there was an unabated interest by news outlets
in all items referring to it. The period of the fire season showed a considerable drop
in the number of special releases giving immediate news of the fire situation, such
as the imposition of forest closures and notices of particularly hazardous conditions.
The normal number of weekly fire reports was issued however, and there was a slight
increase in the number of daily releases. The Division also issued special stories
concerned with such matters as the awarding of the new pulpwood harvesting areas,
the launching of the " Hecate Ranger," the death of two fire-fighters, and the fiftieth
anniversary of the Forest Service. Numerous aspects of the work of the Service
were also covered by releases.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 33
In an effort to obtain a better assessment of the value of news releases, the
services of a clipping bureau were retained. The advantages of a professional clipping service are manifold. News-clips on forestry are now obtained from some 14
daily and 80 weekly newspapers. An examination of clips reveals what type of
releases are most used, how widespread their impact and effectiveness, and their
saturation points.
Commercial Theatres
Eighteen 35-mm. protection film trailers were scheduled in 44 theatres for
showing during July and August. The film trailer was shown for one week in each
theatre to a total audience estimated to be in excess of 100,000.
Signs and Exhibits
Signs
The Division continued to supervise the production and maintenance of the
seven standard Forest Service signs. New techniques have enabled the Service to
produce these at a lower cost per unit. It is, however, almost impossible to fill
present requirements for new and replacement signs, particularly the Scotchlite
" Prevent Forest Fires."
A five-man crew, under the supervision of a Division officer, repainted 120
"Keep B.C. Green—Use Your Ashtray" highway signs. Due to the Province's
expanded highway system, there has been a demand for greater coverage by the
sign crew. Unfortunately the present coverage is the maximum possible under
existing conditions.
Exhibits
A special exhibit featuring 50 years of forest administration in British Columbia was constructed and displayed during the year. This exhibit marked the
occasion of the passing of the original British Columbia Forest Act on February
22, 1912.
The fiftieth anniversary exhibit was designed to be exhibited first in the rotunda
of the Legislative Buildings and then, in part or in its entirety, at exhibitions throughout the Province. To this end the purpose was achieved with great success. The
following is a list of exhibitions where the exhibit was displayed:—
(1) Rotunda, Legislative Buildings, February 24th to March 30th. While in
the rotunda the exhibit was viewed by a definite audience of over 1,900
who actually signed the guest book, and many thousands of others who
didn't.
(2) British Columbia Building, Pacific National Exhibition, August. The
entire exhibit was displayed on the gantry surrounding the world-famous
" Challenger Map of British Columbia." Approximately 25,000 visitors
visited it.
(3) Lower Fraser Valley Exhibition, September 13th, 14th, and 15th. Sections of the exhibit dealing with reforestation, protection, and engineering
were displayed.   Approximately 15,000 visitors viewed the exhibit.
(4) C.I.F. Convention, Vancouver, October 22nd to 25th. Viewed by 500
visitors and delegates.
(5) British Columbia Parent-Teacher Association Convention, April 24th to
27th.  Viewed by approximately 500 visitors and delegates.
(6) Victoria Exhibition, May 14th to 19th. Viewed by approximately 90,000
visitors.
2
<-
 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(7) Victoria Centennial Committee, during the run of Loggers' Week of the.
centennial festivities.
In addition, numerous panels were used by various organizations during National Forest Products Week, October 22nd to 25th.
The Service's permanent exhibit in the British Columbia Building, Pacific
National Exhibition, Vancouver, was altered to include the addition of three individual show-cases containing scale models of a protection scene, a reforestation
nursery, and a logging setting showing forest-development road construction.
P.N.E. officials estimated that more than 800,000 students, teachers, service clubs,
citizens, and visitors viewed our permanent display during the year.
The forest genetic exhibit was displayed at the C.I.F. National Convention in
Vancouver, as well as being on permanent display at the Pacific National Exhibition.
An exhibit featuring teaching aids in forestry was displayed at Victoria University, Parent-Teacher Association Convention in Burnaby, and at several career
days in different high schools.
School Lecture Programme
The school lecture programme was again reduced because of a mid-year change
in the one-man headquarters lecture staff. Nevertheless, the school lecturer and the
district information officer in the Prince George District gave 167 lectures in 96
schools in the Vancouver, Nelson, and Prince George Forest Districts, and reached
an audience of 24,822 students.
They also appeared before 26 non-school audiences of service clubs and community groups, using words and movies to explain the importance of the forests to
the economy, the principles of sustained-yield forest management and the importance of fire protection and other conservation measures.
LIBRARY
A chronic shortage of space in the library has been alleviated for the time being
by the addition of extra shelves. This however, is a temporary expedient, since the
real need is for more floor space.
The year saw the library fully reclassified under the Oxford decimal system.
This monumental task was carried out as planned, despite the retirement of the
librarian and the appointment of a successor during the course of the year.
Inter-library loans have once again claimed an increasing share of the staff's
time. During the year, 152 items were borrowed from various libraries in Canada
and the United States.
DISTRICT OFFICE (PRINCE GEORGE)
The wisdom of establishing a district information officer in the Prince George
District has been proven. Under direction of the District Forester, the information
officer has been able to provide invaluable service.
This is borne out by the fact that in 1962 releases and stories to area news
outlets amounted to an estimated 2,597 column inches of Forest Service news. This
has been of great value, especially during the fire season when daily fire reports were
released. The district information officer has also undertaken extensive radio and
television coverage, conducted a school lecture programme, and has undertaken
joint publicity ventures with other organizations.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 35
CO-OPERATION AND SPECIAL PROJECTS
The year brought to the Service continued and happy liaison with news media
and with other public information offices, particularly in the forest industries and
associations.
Spurred by the fiftieth anniversary, extra efforts were made to carry out special
projects and to advise and assist others with exhibits having a forestry or forest
industries flavour.
The Division was also involved in the visit of a group from the Royal Forestry
Societies of England, Wales, and Scotland, during the first week of October. A tour
was planned and administered by members of the Division and included visits to
Forest Service projects and forest industries' developments on Vancouver Island.
Lesser tours were conducted at various times for local newsmen, for the director
of a national television programme, and for a visiting Colombo Plan forester from
India.
With a noticeable interest in safety and safety programmes generally, the Division assisted in planning and carrying out several safety award presentations, including one Turtle Club award.
The promotion of National Forest Products Week once again brought close
co-operation with the forest industries. The holding of the annual meeting of Canadian Institute of Forestry in Vancouver provided a further field for co-operation
with that organization.
For the fifth consecutive year, a member of the Division conducted classes for
the Canadian Girl Guides Association leading to the obtaining of the woodsman's
badge.
Grateful acknowledgment is made for the continued support of the Forest Service school lecture programme by the Department of Education.
 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST MANAGEMENT
GENERAL
During the latter part of 1961 both the log and lumber markets saw a gradual
improvement. The recovery in the North American market continued into 1962,
so that by the end of the year prices were appreciably higher than in 1961. However, in comparing prices the devaluation of the Canadian dollar must be taken
into account.
The steady improvement in log and lumber prices is reflected in both the estimated value of all forest production and the total scale of all products. The former,
including loading and freight within the Province, is estimated at $850,323,000,
once again setting a new high and exceeding the 1961 figure by $75,453,000.
The value of lumber production continues to lead other products, but while it
increased by approximately $29,000,000 to $388,290,000, it fell short of the percentage increases shown by pulp and paper, and by plywood. The value of lumber
production only increased 8 per cent as compared to 13 per cent for both the latter
products.
The value of pulp and paper production is estimated at $291,954,000 for 1962.
This increase in value is reflected in the increase in volume of sawlog scale used for
pulp and chips. In 1961 the volume used was 180,005,000 cubic feet, while in
1962 a volume of 204,800,000 cubic feet was used. The volume of pulp chips
from sawmill residues remained constant, but with the advent of further pulp-mills
in the Interior a substantial increase in the future can be expected.
The value of plywood production rose from $79,840,000 in 1961 to
$89,600,000 in 1962. The value of shingle production increased by a little over a
million dollars to $18,088,000, while the value of poles, piling, and mine timbers
increased $2,500,000 to $11,724,000, but still fell short of the record year of 1957.
Total scale for 1962 of 1,342 million cubic feet (7,912 million feet board
measure) set an all-time record, surpassing the 1960 record by over 100 million
cubic feet. The scales for both the Interior and Coast increased, with the latter
showing the greatest gain. The Coast scale was approximately 58 per cent of the
total scale for the Province, which was a 2-per-cent increase as compared to a steady
decrease during the past few years.
Douglas fir continued to lead the species by volume, but hemlock showed a
small percentage gain on it. During the year 396 million cubic feet of Douglas fir
were scaled, followed by hemlock with 307 million cubic feet, spruce with 240 million, cedar with 173 million, and balsam with 122 million. While Douglas fir is the
leading species for the whole Province, hemlock continues to lead on the Coast and
actually increased its lead over Douglas fir, scaling out 277 million cubic feet as
compared to 234 million in 1961. In the Interior the spruce scale increased approximately 37 per cent to 207 million cubic feet and took the lead from Douglas
fir, which had a scale of 193 million cubic feet.
The total scale from Crown land tenures amounted to just over 1 billion cubic
feet or approximately 81 per cent of the total scale for the Province. Notable increases in scale were shown from timber sales and otherwise unalienated Crown
lands in tree-farm licences. Production from timber sales increased by 70 million
cubic feet for a total of 663 million cubic feet, and the scale from tree-farm licences
rose to 167 million cubic feet from 141 million in 1961.
A new record for water-borne shipments was established at 1,847 million board-
feet, being a 3-per-cent increase over 1961, the previous high. Shipments to the
United Kingdom showed only a slight increase to 442 million board-feet, which is
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 37
a long way off the record year of 1940, when 971 million board-feet were shipped.
It is interesting to note that Spain is listed for the first time as a destination for
approximately 5 million feet. Water-borne shipments to the United States again
showed an increase for a total of 876 million board-feet.
The upsurge in log exports during 1961 was not maintained in 1962 and
dropped from 101 million board-feet to 75 million. A notable feature of the volume
of logs exported over the years is the fluctuation in percentage by species. In 1953
the volume of hemlock was nearly two-thirds of the total volume, while in 1961 it
was third behind cedar and spruce. However, in 1962 it rose again and comprised
40 per cent of the total volume.
During the year, 1,871 timber sales were cruised. These comprised 615,500
acres, with a volume of 921,710 cubic feet and 18,508,084 lineal feet of poles, mine
timbers, etc. In line with the trend toward a decrease in the number of sales cruised,
the number of timber-sale contracts awarded decreased from 1,857 in 1961 to 1,679
in 1962. Acreage and volume also showed sharp drops. Tree-farm licences have
taken a portion of the cut that used to be attributed to the cut from timber sales.
The drop in number of sales awarded was also reflected in the total estimated revenue from this source, which amounted to $18,959,000 as compared to $22,599,000
in 1961. There was no significant change in the competition for timber sales.
Ninety-one per cent of the sales were bid at upset stumpage, 7 per cent were bid
less than two times the upset, and 2 per cent were bid at more than two times the
upset.
Further timber-sale contracts were awarded for the removal of timber within
the flood area of the proposed Peace River power development. Nearly all the area
between the dam-site and Finlay Forks has been cruised, and the timber will be put
up for sale as the cruises are processed.
Section 58 (3) of the Forest Act was amended, changing the reference to the
top diameter of poles, piles, and crib timber from a 15-inch top diameter to an
11-inch top diameter. Thus any of these products with a top diameter in excess of
11 inches must be scaled as a sawlog in accordance with clause {a) or {b) of subsection (1) of section 58.
The Lieutenant-Governor in Council passed an Order in Council pursuant to
clause (/) of subsection (3) of section 58 of the Forest Act fixing the royalty rates
for lumber reject logs at 50 cents per thousand board-feet or 30 cents per hundred
cubic feet.
ADMINISTRATION OF MANAGED UNITS
The recorded cut of 900 million cubic feet from all areas operating under
approved allowable cuts maintained the 65-per-cent relationship to the total cut for
the Province as in 1961.
This was the first year the total recorded cut from the public sustained-yield
units exceeded, though only by 1 per cent, their total approved allowable cut. The
concentrated effort and success of the salvage programme of fire-killed timber
account in part for the record cut of 527 million cubic feet. We can expect certain
units to be overcut in any one year, but over a stated period the results should even
out.
The sealed-tender protection offered in subsection (la) of section 17 of the
Forest Act was requested by the majority of those getting replacement sales in the
units operating under the licensee priority system. This protection did not deter
bidding completely, but it appears to have given a psychological benefit to the applicants. None of the units qualified for emergency area status as provided for under
clause {a) of subsection (2) of section 17 of the Forest Act.
 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
During the year the Division took over the administration of the Ashnola and
Tatla units in the Kamloops Forest District as public sustained-yield units. Due
to the limited timber resources in the vicinity of Kamloops, this area is being administered under a modified form of regulation, but is not classed as a public sustained-
yield unit.
The administration of Pulpwood Harvesting Area No. 1, referred to in the
Working Plans Division section of this Report, will be the responsibility of the
Management Division.
The 38 tree-farm licences had a recorded cut of 337 million cubic feet, which
amounts to an overcut of about 8 per cent of the total approved allowable cut (figures exclude Tree-farm Licence No. 2).
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber Prices
The selling prices that were received by the mills in the Interior of the Province
that report their prices to the Forest Service continued to reflect the recovery in
the North American market area that began in 1961. The decline in the value of
the Canadian dollar, culminating with the pegging of the value of the dollar in June,
1962, must, however, be accepted as a significant factor in any comparison of
1961-62 prices.
The 1962 quarterly prices for all species, except white pine, are higher than
for the comparable 1961 quarter. The white pine price, which fell during the first
two quarters, picked up during the third quarter, so that for the last two quarters
of 1962 the price for white pine, like that for all other species, was appreciably
higher than for the comparable quarters of 1961. This comparative increase is a
reflection of a continuing gradual improvement in the market price and the impact
of devaluation on that market price expressed in Canadian dollars.
The market outlook at the end of this year was reported to be good.
1962 Uncorrected Quarterly Average Dressed-lumber Prices (Interior)
Jan.-Mar.
Apr.-
Tune
July-Sept.
Oct.-
Dec.
Species
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
156,172
192,086
9,205
5,095
1,761
$57.05
55.10
52.56
87.99
55.96
170,456
282,738
12,606
4,925
4,979
$63.22
58.33
57.91
86.89
58.12
215,774
270,188
10,440
5,623
4,358
$63.52
57.64
58.61
99.10
64.24
177,704
192,859
6,892
3,761
1,830
$57.63
56.43
56.72
98.04
56.32
Log Prices
The prices paid for logs in the Vancouver log market firmed up in the last
quarter of 1961. Prices continued to rise in to the third quarter of 1962, when the
price for all species except fir appeared to level off. The price for Douglas fir logs
continued to rise in the fourth quarter, reflecting the increased demand for peeler
and quality sawlog material that can be attributed at least in part to the devaluation
of the Canadian dollar.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962
1962 Quarterly Average Log Prices per M B.M. (Lower Coast)
39
ALL
GRADES
Species
Jan.-Mar.
Apr.-June
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.
Fir
$65.09
38.80
42.45
40.04
45.36
47.23
$66.73
40.48
44.44
41.79
45.16
48.80
$70.10
41.15
44.23
41.07
44.44
49.07
$70.37
39.76
42.44
39.53
46.05
White pine
49.24
No. 3 GRADE
Fin	
Cedar	
Hemlock	
Balsam (pulp)..
Spruce	
White pine	
$56.06
32.75
40.54
35.81
38.83
42.36
$57.78
$58.86
$59.42
33.93
34.07
33.37
43.03
42.68
40.68
34.57
34.47
33.86
40.29
39.47
38.22
43.40
43.13
43.52
Stumpage Prices
The average stumpage price for all species was $3.01 per hundred cubic feet.
The comparable figures for the years 1958, 1959, 1960, and 1961 are $4.03, $3.88,
$3.55, and $2.53. The rates for all species were higher in 1962 than in 1961. (For
detailed figures see Table 20 of the Appendix.)
The actual increase in the upset stumpage rates for conventional sawlog sales is
distorted in a comparison of the average prices which include the volumes that are
sold at " salvage value only " rates. The volume sold in this type of timber sale is
increasing each year, particularly in the Interior where the decadent cedar-hemlock
stands are being opened up. The impact of this type of sale is reflected in the " Price
Range " column of Table 20.
Forest Service stumpage-appraisal policies were reviewed in 1962 by the Select
Standing Committee on Forestry at the Legislative Assembly as a result of representations to that Committee by some of the industry associations. The Committee
reported to the Legislative Assembly, in part, as follows:—
" Insufficient evidence was presented to the Committee to warrant a recommendation that zoning and minimum stumpage regulations be changed at this time.
No positive indications were given that merchantable timber could not be sold in
any one of the coastal sustained-yield units. The net effect of the request to abandon
minimum stumpage and zoning regulations would be to reduce Crown revenue. The
contention that additional volumes of timber would be harvested and would make
up any such reduction in revenue was not positively substantiated. The Committee
still believes that zoning regulations have led to a decentralization of the forest industry. The Committee does not accept the contention that the timber harvest on the
Coast can be increased three times without the establishment of additional pulp and
paper utilization plants together with an increase in the market for such products."
Sliding-scale Adjustments
There were 2,942 stumpage adjustments under provision of the sliding-scale
condition of timber-sale contracts; 2,692 increased the stumpage payable, 250
reduced it.
Of the upward adjustments, 908 were for fir, hemlock, spruce, or balsam on
timber sales in the Coast zones where the stumpage is tied to the Vancouver log-
 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
market prices.  There were no downward adjustments for timber sales in the Coast
zones.
The 250 downward adjustments were for the Interior species—cedar, yellow
pine, and white pine. The 1961 decline in the dressed-lumber selling price for cedar
and yellow pine carried over into early 1962, and the white pine dressed-lumber
price slumped in mid-year. The selling prices for these species recovered by the
year's end, and there was an upward adjustment for cedar and yellow pine on those
sales that had the rate for those species reduced by sliding scale earlier in the year.
SILVICULTURE
The programme for 1962 included stand treatment, field studies, and road
location in both sustained-yield units and public working circles.
Following the trend established in the past, the principal activities were in the
field of stand treatment. All districts were active in this field, and some 757 timber
sales, principally in the Interior, received some form of treatment. This involved
the treatment of 195,951 acres. This is an increase of 63,182 acres over that treated
in 1961. The increase is almost entirely due to the fact that 1962 was not a bad
fire year, and consequently the stand treatment crews were not required for emergency fire-fighting duties.
Stands are generally treated to attain either natural regeneration or increment,
or, in some cases, a combination of both. The cutting methods which are most
frequently employed are single-tree selection, strips, groups, patches, or single
seed-trees.
Of the 195,951 acres, 9,553 acres were treated under single-tree selection,
compared with 78,764 acres in strips or patches and 107,634 acres in seed blocks
or single seed-trees.
Although natural regeneration is dependent on several interrelated factors, a
satisfactory seed-bed and a suitable seed source can be regarded as prime requisites.
The preparation of a satisfactory seed-bed may require either burning or scarification. The past few years have seen an increase in this phase of stand treatment.
To date, 9,792 acres have been scarified in the Prince George Forest District.
Similar programmes have been developed in the Kamloops, Nelson, and Prince
Rupert Forest Districts. Though 1962 was not a good year for site preparation due
to the inclement weather, some 2,451 acres were nevertheless scarified.
The results following scarification have been extremely promising. The average
stocking following scarification is 70 per cent stocked quadrats, the majority of
which is spruce. While the over-all picture is satisfactory, there have been failures,
and field studies indicate that glacial tills appear to present the best chance for
scarification. These soils can be scarified for less than $10 per acre, with stocking
ranging from 65 to 85 per cent.
Studies on machine application have now been concluded. These studies have
resulted in a set of rules which make it possible to appraise individual areas and
ascertain the machine most likely to produce the cheapest and most satisfactory
result.
In addition to the preparation of a suitable seed-bed by scarification, a series
of broadcast burns has been initiated in the Interior with the object of either preparing the site for planting or facilitating natural regeneration. Broadcast burning
appears to hold considerable promise in the decadent cedar-hemlock type, both as
a means of reducing the hazard and encouraging a higher stocking of the more desirable species, such as fir, spruce, and larch. The following results from a recent burn
at Kitwanga in the Prince Rupert District are typical of many of the results following
burning:—
 i
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 41
Germinants per Acre
Burned Area Control (Unburned)
Hemlock   1,680 390
Cedar  1,040 470
Sitka spruce      200 30
Lodgepole pine        10 30
Alpine fir      10
Totals   2,930 930
In connection with the above, it is interesting to note that the control area
received approximately twice as much seed as the burn.
The evaluation of the different cutting methods used in the Northern Interior
in treating the spruce-alpine fir type has been completed and the findings incorporated in the current programme.
The year also saw the completion of a study on the efficacy of the single seed-
tree method in the fir-larch-yellow pine type. Preliminary results indicate that the
areas are, for the most part, satisfactorily restocked, and that the losses from insects,
disease, and blow-down have been negligible.
One of the most significant advances in recent years has been the development
of antibiotics to control white pine blister rust. The basal spray programme, which
was initiated in 1961, was continued and expanded to include the first aerial application of Phytoactin in Canada. The helicopter spray was a co-operative project
involving Pabst Laboratories, the manufacturers of Phytoactin; International Salmon
Commission; and the British Columbia Fish and Game Branch. The project was
designed to determine the mortality among trout and salmon fingerlings following
aerial applications of Phytoactin. The study indicated that no mortality could be
directly attributed to the effects of the spray.
The increasing tempo of logging operations has led to an increase in the Douglas fir bark beetle populations. Following consultations with the Canada Department of Forestry and the industry, measures have been introduced to reduce the
amount of breeding material available to these voracious insects.
Planting was again carried out in the Interior in co-operation with the Reforestation Division. All districts were active in this regard. In all, some 358,150
trees were planted. In addition to the actual planting, a total of 83 man-days was
spent assisting the Reforestation Division as crew supervisors. The 1962 cone crop
was only fair; however, some 344 bushels of cones were picked and shipped to the
Reforestation Division.
An interesting development associated with the planting programme was the
selection throughout the Interior of seed-production areas. This was a co-operative
project with the Reforestation Division. Future plans call for the development of
these areas, with the ultimate goal of producing a better quality of seed than has
resulted from random cone collections.
Development continued at the Telkwa nursery, which has recently been expanded to 133 beds, of which 124 contain white spruce, while the remaining nine
are sown to Douglas fir. If present plans mature, this nursery will produce more
than 200,000 seedlings during 1963, which will increase the present planting programme and necessitate the construction of cold-storage facilities.
 Log scalers of 1914—H. S. Irwin and M. A. Grainger in the Prince Rupert Forest District.
Log scalers of 1962—H. D. Rolston and L. C. Maggiora at Plumper Bay.
 —
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 43
SCALING
Coast
At the end of the year the official scaling staff had increased to 136 official
scalers. Acting official scalers totalled 486. Supervision of the official scaling staff
and the acting official scalers was maintained by the scaling supervisors and the
Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
Inspectors of export made 118 inspections during the year on all classes of
product.   Permits to export logs totalled 176.
From a total of 73 candidates for the licensed scalers' examinations held at
Vancouver, 25 were awarded scaling licences. The difficulty in recruiting licensed
scalers for the official scaling staff required that classes of student scalers be continued.
Official scaling fees were reduced during the year.
Interior
Examinations of candidates for scaling licences were held at 37 different times
and places in the Interior. While the percentage of successful candidates remained
low, a total of 235 scaling licences were awarded. Two scaling licences were cancelled during the year. The Inspectors of Licensed Scalers continued to instruct
evening classes in scaling procedures at the various examination centres, and at Kamloops this instruction was given by one Inspector in co-operation with the directors
of the adult education programme there.
A new scaling inspection report form came into more general use in all districts.
The excellent co-operation of the Ranger staffs in using this form has provided the
Inspectors of Licensed Scalers with a more effective means of control of scaling
practices. Co-operation with the investigators of the Accounts Division on matters
affecting scaling practices was maintained.
 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
GRAZING
GENERAL CONDITIONS
Nineteen sixty-two was a generally successful year for the range live-stock
industry. Adverse weather conditions seriously interfered with haying operations
in some areas and caused moderate to severe delay in range forage development.
On the other hand, range forage production was finally fairly abundant, stock came
off the ranges in generally good condition, and cattle prices were the highest enjoyed
since 1951.   Record numbers of stock used Crown ranges during the year.
Range
Forage growth was delayed by cool conditions which persisted through the
spring and early summer. This applied particularly to alpine ranges, some of which
could not be used for as much as a month and a half later than usual. However,
the cool moist conditions produced abundant forage in most areas once growth had
commenced. Spring ranges, many of which were subject to premature grazing as
a result of the cool spring, generally made a good recovery as a result of favourable
summer growing conditions. All ranges appeared to be in reasonable condition at
the end of the grazing season.
Hay
The advent of early snows and cold weather in the fall of 1961, combined with
the cold spring of 1962, resulted in a long feeding period in most areas. Although
hay reserves were rather severely depleted, distress conditions were confined to
limited areas or isolated cases. Haying conditions were far from favourable in 1962.
Many natural-hay meadows could not be cut due to wet conditions, and the cool
weather reduced the hay crop in many areas. Even in those areas where the hay
crop was fairly abundant, showery conditions often resulted in reduced quality.
Markets and Prices
Cattle-producers continued to enjoy favourable market conditions in 1962.
During the early part of the year, prices remained steady at the high levels reached
toward the end of 1961, and strengthened further later on. Weighted average prices
received by cattlemen through the British Columbia Livestock Producers' Cooperative Association were $21.20 per hundredweight in 1962, compared to $18.29
per hundredweight in 1961, an increase of $2.91. The prices for sheep and lambs
shipped through the co-operative were down slightly from the previous year.
Live-stock Losses
Losses of stock from undetermined causes appear to be increasing on Crown
summer ranges. This may be due in part to the use of rougher remote corners of
the range from which stock may stray and become trapped in windfall areas, ravines,
etc., without detection. However, there are strong suspicions of theft in many cases,
and several convictions for this offence resulted from police action during the year.
The risk of theft is increasing as access to the bulk of the Crown range area is
improved.
Poisonous plants caused no particular difficulty during the year, except for
timber milk vetch, which was responsible for heavier losses than in recent years.
Bears were a decided nuisance in many areas and were reported to be responsible
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962 45
for fairly large losses of sheep and some cattle on alpine ranges.   Cougar are also
reported to have destroyed some cattle in the East Kootenay area.
Highway, railway, and hunting accidents continued to take their toll of stock.
In the Peace River area 22 head of cattle died as a result of consuming a wood
preservative used in treating posts for a Forest Service fencing project. Procedures
with respect to the use of wood preservatives on Crown range were modified to
minimize the possibility of similar accidents in future.
Diseases of Live Stock
There were no outbreaks of disease necessitating extensive adjustments in
range allocation or management plans during the year. The issuance of grazing
permits was delayed pending the control of disease situations in several herds.
However, all of these were cleaned up and quarantines lifted by normal turnout time.
RANGE MANAGEMENT
Rapidly increasing numbers of stock on Crown range, combined with increased
use of the same land for other purposes, continued to demand intensified range
management. As range units become stocked to capacity, which is now the general
situation, it is absolutely essential to control stock numbers, season of use, and distribution of stock to ensure maintenance of both the productive and protective
functions of the range. Further, improvement and development practices are necessary to accommodate the growing range needs of the industry. Unless these things
are done, range depletion and conflict with other land uses is inevitable.
Unfortunately, staff limitations did not permit the formulation and implementation of adequate management plans on many range units during 1962, a situation
which has prevailed for several years. However, range yield, readiness, condition,
and trend studies were continued and extended wherever possible. This work was
concentrated on range units which reached full stocking rates during the year.
Range Surveys
It was necessary to further reduce primary range survey work during 1962.
Field work was completed on one project—the Bridge Lake Stock Range—comprising 200,000 acres. Maps and reports on field work done in several areas in
previous years were compiled. Numerous range inspections were carried out during
the year as a basis for dealing with current management and administrative problems.
Range Improvements
During 1962, $52,780 was spent from the Range Improvement Fund. In
addition, material to the value of $10,019 was on hand at the beginning of the year.
Material valued at $9,971 was on hand and not assigned to projects at the end of
the year. Gross assistance to range-improvement projects from the Fund was thus
$52,918.
The following projects, chargeable wholly or in part to the Fund, were constructed or extensively rehabilitated: 25 cattle-guards, 39 drift fences, 4 experimental plots, 6 holding-grounds, 2 meadow improvements, 3 mud-hole fences, 2
pasture developments, 22 stock-trails, 36 water developments, 1 yellow pine thinning, range seeding, and wild-horse disposal.
In addition to the above noted cost to the Fund, permittees made considerable
contributions, mainly in the form of labour, to the projects listed. Also, authority
was granted to permittees to construct and maintain entirely at their own expense
 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
the following: 3 breeding pastures, 2 corrals, 25 drift fences, 2 holding-grounds, 4
stock-trails, and 3 water developments.
The experimental plots listed above were established to study the results of
special seeding and cultural practices and the ability of the range to recover under
protection from grazing. One of the pasture-development projects involved the trial
clearing, rough cultivation, and seeding of a heavily brushed-up area which had not
restocked to timber following fire some 50 years ago.
The other pasture-development project involved cultivation and seeding, preparation for brush-control work, and fencing on an intensive multiple-use demonstration area in the East Kootenay. The yellow pine thinning trial was designed to
improve the forage cover as well as timber production in an overstocked stand in
the Cranbrook area. It is expected that this investigational work will yield valuable
information which may be applied to larger projects in the future.
A total of 21,440 pounds of grass and legume seed was sown on Crown ranges
during the year. Although this is considerably less than the 36,200 pounds sown in
1961, the difference is due entirely to the fact that there were no burns requiring
seeding in 1962. All of the seed sown was used on logged areas. Seeding was more
closely supervised to ensure most effective use of seed. Aerial seeding of burns
undertaken in 1960 and 1961 were examined, and results were found to be rather
disappointing. Further investigation of aerial seeding techniques appears to be
necessary as seedings from the ground in the same areas were much more successful.
All of the Kamloops Grazing District and most of the Nelson Grazing District
were closed to horses during the winter of 1961/62 to prevent damaging grazing
during this period. A total of 74 horses which remained on the Crown range in
contravention of the closure was removed by horse-disposal licensees.
Peace River Pastures
Special funds were again provided for pasture-development work in the Peace
River District, a total of $19,994 being spent for this purpose. Work completed
involved the following: 19V4 miles of fencing, 12 stock-watering dugouts, 17x/i
miles of fence-line clearing and fire-guards, 5 miles of stock-trails, 300 acres of
severely burned brush area aerially seeded, 25 acres cleared in preparation for
breaking and seeding, and 160 acres cleared using ball-and-chain technique. Maintenance work was also done on existing installations where required.
A feature in 1962 was the trial use of the ball-and-chain method for clearing
preparatory to pasture development. This technique of land-clearing shows considerable promise under certain conditions, but full evaluation must await completion
of succeeding steps of the work.
Further technical studies on pasture development were carried out by the
Beaverlodge Experimental Farm.
CO-OPERATION
As stresses develop from heavier grazing pressures and conflicting land uses,
local range live-stock associations have an increasingly important role to play. These
groups constitute the medium through which grazing permittees may be effectively
consulted by the Forest Service regarding the wide variety of problems which arise.
There are now 57 local live-stock associations approved under the Grazing Act.
Two new associations were approved during the year, and one newly incorporated
association was in the process of applying for approval at the end of the year. In
addition to the local groups, close contact was maintained with the British Columbia
 —
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 47
Beef Cattle Growers' Association and the British Columbia Sheep Breeders' Association on matters of interest to the whole industry. A total of 163 association
meetings was attended by one or more forest officers during the year, a marked
increase reflecting the growing complexity of range problems.
Once again the British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association, the producer-owned marketing agency, supplied the five-stock price figures
necessary for the sliding scale of grazing fees. The co-operation of this agency is
deeply appreciated by the Forest Service.
During the year a constructive brief dealing with the need for intensive range
improvement and development practices was submitted by the British Columbia
Beef Cattle Growers' Association.
Close liaison was maintained with various agencies associated with range or
live-stock matters during the year. Numerous consultations and field inspections
were carried out with other agencies of this Government, notably the Department
of Agriculture, Land Inspection Division of the Lands Service, the Provincial Parks
Branch, and the Fish and Game Branch. The Canada Research Station at Kamloops
again extended valuable assistance on a variety of technical matters, and additional
joint projects were commenced.
Technical studies on the pilot pasture-development work in the Peace River
District were continued by staff of the Canada Research Station at Beaverlodge, Alta.
Continued progress made in dealing with Indian use of Crown range was largely
due to the co-operation received from the Indian Affairs Branch, Canada Department of Citizenship and Immigration.
Grazing officers participated actively in organizing the annual meeting of the
American Society of Range Management held in Kamloops this year and assisted
with the University of British Columbia Faculty of Agriculture students' tour in the
range area. Four television appearances were made on programmes dealing with
ranch and range subjects.
ADMINISTRATION
Virtually all stock ranges are now approaching or have reached full rates of
stocking, at least at the presently practical level of management. This, combined
with continuing land settlement and rapidly increasing competitive land uses such
as recreation and timber production, has resulted in a massive increase in the administration work load. During the year, procedures were reviewed and modified
wherever practical to meet the situation. Also, a meeting of grazing officers was
held to review the general problems of administration arising from intensified range
use.
Pressure for the commencement of range administration in the Prince George-
Smithers area and extension of administration in the Peace River District continued
to increase. The need for, and feasibility of, such administration received further
study without definite conclusions being reached by the end of the year. In the
Peace River District, administration remained confined to three pastures south of
the river.
Grazing Permits
During 1962, 1,924 grazing permits were issued authorizing the depasturing
of 146,830 cattle, 5,007 horses, and 23,370 sheep on Crown range. This represents an increase of 99 permits over 1961, the same increase as occurred between
1960 and 1961. Cattle numbers were up 14,081 head or 10.6 per cent and sheep
2,061 head or 9.6 per cent over the previous year. Horses were up only 22 head.
Both the number of permits and number of cattle were by far the highest ever
 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
recorded.    The increases were shared by all districts.     (See Table 56 in the
Appendix.)
Hay Permits
A total of 221 hay-cutting permits were issued authorizing the harvesting of
2,908 tons of hay from Crown range, an increase of 29 permits and 595 tons over
1961. Unfortunately, flooding conditions resulting from both wet weather and
beaver activity necessitated the cancellation of 34 permits involving 608 tons of hay.
Great difficulty was experienced in harvesting much of the remainder due to showery
conditions.   Hay-cutting fees remained at $1 per ton.
Special-use Permits
There are now 90 grazing special-use permits in effect. These permits are
issued for special pasture purposes within Provincial forests under the Forest Reserve
Regulations. Particular care is taken to ensure that grazing practices within these
permit areas are compatible with timber production and other associated land uses.
Grazing Fees
Grazing fees per head per month for 1962 were 18 cents for cattle, 3.25 cents
for sheep, and 22.5 cents for horses. These fees are up 1 cent per head per month
for cattle and 1.25 cents per head per month for horses over the previous year. The
fees for sheep remained the same as in 1961. The increased fees for 1962 reflect
the higher prices received for cattle the previous year.
Owing to higher cattle and horse fees, together with increased numbers of stock
on the range, total billings for grazing fees were up markedly from the 1961 level
and established an all-time high.   Collections were also the highest ever recorded.
Violations and Prosecutions
As is normal, a number of violations of grazing regulations and permit conditions occurred during the year. Most of these were promptly corrected when
brought to the attention of the owners of the offending stock. However, it was
necessary to authorize seizure of stock in trespass on five occasions during the year.
In four of these cases the imminence of seizure resulted in belated compliance with
regulations by the owners of the stock involved. In one case, seizure was actually
made.   No cases of trespass were taken to Court during the year.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 49
ENGINEERING SERVICES
ENGINEERING SECTION
Work continued during 1962 on the forest-development roads programme
approved under the terms of a two-year Federal-Provincial cost-sharing agreement.
With many of the road-construction projects hampered by wet weather, additional
emphasis was placed on the development engineering and road-location aspects of
the programme.
In addition, work continued on the investigation and location of access routes
into timber stands within the pondage of the Peace River power project, and construction was started on a main haul-road for extraction of the timber below flood-
line in the Parsnip River drainage.
The provision of professional engineering services in the day-to-day operations
of the Forest Service continued with assistance on such diverse projects as the design
and construction of docking facilities, drainage systems, and buildings; the inspection and load rating of existing bridges, and the inspection of road work undertaken
by licensees under the terms of timber-sale contracts.
Development Engineering
Four field crews carried out development engineering studies on 15 forest areas
encompassing some 21,000,000 acres of forest land with a current recoverable
mature timber volume of approximately 9 billion cubic feet. In each investigation
the concept of area development was emphasized.
The work undertaken in the Vancouver Forest District included further studies
on the Port Hardy development and in the Clowhom River drainage. An analysis
of road development in the Seymour River area was also undertaken. In the Kamloops District primary investigations of two areas—one tributary to the Adams
River system and the other tributary to the headwaters of the Shuswap River—were
carried out.   In addition, access to the Texas Creek valley was investigated.
Development engineering studies in the Nelson Forest District included work
in the Duncan River valley and southerly of the Pend d'Oreille River. Area studies
in the Prince George Forest District included work in the area between the northern
boundary of the Moberly Public Sustained-yield Unit and the Peace River and in
an area west of the Parsnip and Finlay Rivers. Special route reconnaissance in the
Gerry Creek drainage of the Willow River system was also concluded. In the Prince
Rupert Forest District a route reconnaissance was made in the Pinkut Creek valley.
In addition, initial road-development proposals for the Maxam Creek area, the
north-westerly sector of the Morice Public Sustained-yield Unit, and the valley of
the Dean River were studied.
Road Location
During the field season a total of 317 miles of road was located on the ground,
including 197 miles of haul-road and 120 miles of protection access road. In
addition to new location, reconstruction surveys, complete with designs, plans, and
estimates, were run on 73 miles of substandard road on which future improvements
are planned.
The increased use of aerial photography in the pre-selection of routes and the
application of simplified ground survey procedures were important factors in the
success of the increased location programme undertaken in 1962.
 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
NEW AREAS OF FOREST WEALTH
MADE   AVAILABLE  BY
FOREST    DEVELOPMENT     ROADS
250-
2000
750
FOREST
AREA 500
IN
THOUSANDS
OF
ACRES
250
1000
750 H
500
250-1
r 3670
3280
-2870
FOREST
;(        AREA
IN
2050
1640
1230
-820
410
0
SQUARE
MILES
1950  1956   1957   1958   1959   I960  1961    1962
TO
1955 time in years
Road Construction and Maintenance
The construction of forest-development roads continued during 1962 under a
cost-sharing agreement with the Federal Government. Despite poor construction
weather experienced on several projects during the summer months, 113 miles of
road were completed under this programme.
Working in conjunction with the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority
on the development of the Peace River power project, a further 28 miles of road
were built on a haul-road for the extraction of merchantable timber located below
flood-line in the Parsnip River drainage.
The construction of this total of 141 miles of road involved the clearing of
1,600 acres of right-of-way, the movement of 1,600,000 cubic yards of common
excavation and 160,000 cubic yards of solid rock, and the installation of 17,000
lineal feet of culvert pipe. The construction of bridges again constituted an important part of the road-building programme, with nine permanent timber and four
local-material structures erected during the year.
As a result of the expanded construction programme in recent years, road maintenance is becoming increasingly important. During 1962 routine maintenance and
repair work were carried out on 525 miles of previously constructed road. In addition, autumn storms brought heavy precipitation and flooding, which resulted in
extensive damage to roads and drainage structures in the Vancouver Forest District.
General Engineering
Designs were completed for 16 pressure-creosoted timber bridges, a greater
number than in any previous year.   Seven of these were for the Parsnip River Road,
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962
51
with the remainder required for stream crossings on the Kettle River, Horsefly River,
Hendrix Creek, Cayoosh Creek, and Port Hardy Forest-development Roads.
A further 12 preliminary designs and cost estimates were prepared in connection with the 1962 road-location programme.
Perhaps one of the most difficult jobs in the engineering field is the inspection
and establishment of safe loadings on older timber structures, particularly those
built of untreated local material. During 1962, inspections of this type were undertaken on a total of 20 bridges on roads in the Chilliwack, Kettle, and Ashnola River
areas.
Assistance was provided in the design and construction of a wharf at Chatham
Channel, the design of a wharf at Prince Rupert, the design and installation of a
sub-drainage system at Green Timbers Nursery, and the design of a number of
structural frames and foundations for buildings. Engineering assistance was also
provided in connection with work undertaken by Provincial Gaol inmates at Chilliwack, Haney, and Campbell River under the interdepartmental rehabilitation and
forestry programme.
Forest Road Programme, 1962
Project
Regulation Unit
Reconnaissance
Location
Construction
Vancouver Forest District
Blue Mountain P.A.R	
Chipmunk Creek P.A.R	
Emory-Garnet P.A.R	
Port Hardy F.D.R   	
Qualark P.A.R 	
Seymour River.  _ 	
Squeah P.A.R  	
West Harrison P.A.R 	
Prince Rupert Forest District
Blunt Creek F.D.R 	
Dean River F.D.R	
Kimsquit River F.D.R  _
Kispiox River F.D.R	
Maxam Creek 	
Morice River F.D.R	
Upper Pinkut Creek  	
Prince George Forest District
Aleza Lake F.D.R  _	
Callazon-Clearwater- 	
Omineca	
Parsnip River Road  _...
Sukunka F.D.R  	
Tatuk F.D.R  _ _	
Tezzeron Creek F.D.R. _ _.
Upper Salmon-Tezzeron 	
Willow River	
Kamloops Forest District
Adams River  	
Ashnola River F.D.R 	
Cayoosh Creek F.D.R  	
Hendrix Creek F.D.R	
Horsefly River F.D.R  _	
Seymour River F.D.R.	
Shuswap River-Greenbush Lake	
Texas Creek	
V.C.L	
Chilliwack P.W.C
Yale S.Y.U	
Cape Scott P.W.C..
Yale S.Y.U _
Seymour S.Y.U	
Yale S.YU  _
Harrison S.Y.U.„
Smithers P.W.C...
Dean S.Y.U _
Dean S.Y.U	
Hazelton S.Y.U	
Burns Lake S.Y.U..
Morice S.Y.U _
Burns Lake S.Y.U...
Aleza Lake Forest..
Moberly S.Y.U. and V.C.L-
V.C.L  	
Parsnip S.Y.U _
Moberly S.Y.U	
Nechako S.Y.U	
Stuart Lake P.W.C.
Carp S.Y.U..
Stuart Lake P.W.C..
Willow P.W.C. ._	
Adams Lake S.Y.U	
Shuswap S.Y.U	
Ashnola S.Y.U	
Yalakom S.Y.U	
Lac la Hache S.Y.U....
Quesnel Lake P.W.C...
Shuswap S.Y.U 	
Eagle S.Y.U 	
Spallumcheen S.Y.U...
Yalakom S.Y.U	
Miles
15
14
35
32
7
30
90
40
20
12
65
28
13
36
5
Miles
3.0
5.5
2.4
9.3
5.0
5.1
13.3
19.S
7.7
2.4
18.3
3.2
1.7
24.4
12.4
15.0
10.3
18.0
3.2
11.2
13.8
Miles
6.1
14.0
7.6
1.0
28.0
13.2
~2.6
12.0
14.1
F.D.R.=Forest-development road.
P.A.R.=Protection access road.
P.W.C.=Public working circle.
S.Y.U.=Sustained-yield unit.
V.C.L. =;Vacant Crown land.
 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Forest Road Programme, 1962—Continued
Project
Regulation Unit
Reconnaissance
Location
Construction
Nelson Forest District
Akolkolex River F.D.R 	
Arrowhead P.W.C.
Miles
14
10
Miles
6.0
32.0
12.0
8.0
18.0
15.4
18.2
2.2
Miles
Bull River P.A.R 	
Cranbrook S.Y.U.
Granby River F.D.R.. _	
Granby S.Y.U   	
V.C.L.	
Kettle River F.D.R	
Kettle P.W.C.
37.8
Kootenay River F.D.R	
Upper Kootenay P.W.C.
Cranhrnnli- S.Y.U
Narboe-Brule P.A.R   	
Cranbrook S.Y.U. and Fernie
S.Y.U.
Palliser River P.A.R.	
Upper Kootenay P.W.C	
Salmo S.Y.U.,	
White River F.D.R -   ..
Upper Kootenay P.W.C.
5.6
Wildhorse River P.A.R	
Cranhmnk S Y TT
474
3,442
316.8
1,295.6
141.4
529.1
Totals, forest road programme,
1950-62 -	
3,916
1,612.4
670.5
MECHANICAL SECTION
Trends noted in 1961 continued in 1962, with four-wheel-drive passenger-type
vehicles replacing two-wheel-drive units. An increase in four-wheel-drive pick-ups
is also evident. Closely following the four-wheel-drive pick-up in general demand
is the 3A -ton pick-up truck with four-speed transmission and limited-slip differential.
The most noticeable increase in numbers appears under the heading of trail
motor-cycles. These units have achieved considerable popularity and appear to be
performing a very useful service.
A relatively quiet fire season prevented the field testing of much water-bombing
equipment, and reports as to the relative success of particular units are therefore
not available.
A year of experience with the trial outboard-motor test tanks has proved the
usefulness of the units, and the objective is now a tank at each Ranger station. The
tanks can serve a dual purpose as they may be used for quick and easy checking
of fire-pumps.
Demands for more electrical power at Ranger stations are very noticeable, particularly in the northern districts and coastal points.
The Ranger station at Thurston Bay was provided this year with two 10-
kilowatt diesel-electric units which can be operated singly or in parallel. A similar
arrangement has been installed at Aleza Lake, and a 20-kilowatt unit, supplied in
part by the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, has been placed at Summit
Lake. Ten-kilowatt diesel-electric units have replaced 5-kilowatt units in two locations, and requests for more such changes are awaiting attention.
A trailer-mounted 10-kilowatt stand-by electric generating unit was completed
and has supplied emergency power at least three times since its assembly. A 20-
kilowatt water-cooled load-testing device for electric generators, suggested by the
Mechanical Section and produced by the Forest Service Marine Station, is now in
operation. Loads varying in steps from 1 to 20 kilowatts can be snapped on and
off and the resultant voltage changes observed. A " record of testing " tag will be
affixed to each electric generating set after overhaul and will show the number of
hours that the unit was on test plus the observed voltage and current readings.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962
Forest Service Mechanical Equipment
53
Type
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1962
Removed
from
Service
New
Purchases
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1963
Sedans       	
Suburbans, station wagons, and sedan deliveries..
Small-type passenger-vehicles —	
Panel deliveries     	
Four-wheel-drive passenger types   	
Four-wheel-drive %-ton pick-ups, etc	
Power-wagons	
Vi-ton pick-ups    _	
%-ton pick-ups  _  	
14,000-24,000 G.V.W. trucks (2, 3, and 4 tons)-.
24,000-40,000 G.V.W. trucks (heavy duty)	
Fire-fighting tank-trucks —	
Trail motor-cycles 	
Total vehicles.
Tractors-
Graders ~
Scrapers—self-propelled	
Scrapers—not self-propelled ..
Shovels—power. 	
Loaders—self-propelled ...
Outboard motors	
Fire-pumps—various...
Fire-pumps—portable tanker  _
Bean fire-fighting units—high pressure-
Borate mixer pumps  - —.
Chain saws  _	
Lighting plants	
Snow sedan—propeller-driven	
Speeders—railway  —	
Trailers—low and high bed-
Trailers—dwelling, bunk-house, etc_
Trailers—miscellaneous —	
Air-compressors  	
Rock drills—gas-powered..
Muskeg and snow tractors (personnel carriers)..
Yarders	
Crushing plants 	
Mechanical wheelbarrows ..
Welders  —	
Cement-mixers  —	
Augers—power, planting...
Fork lift truck—electric
39
103
31
63
91
263
25
118
47
55
3
4
4
846
41
15
4
2
2
1
374
832
59
34
2
333
95
1
14
7
142
201
5
8
10
1
1
22
9
6
4
1
10
11
7
12
45
4
9
3
3
3
13
13
15
48
1
7
9
2
22
32
105
31
69
104
266
22
116
56
54
3
4
26
112
133
863
49
2
41
81
5
15
12
44
15
4
2
2
1
387
851
100
34
10
365
98
1
14
7
157
213
5
8
10
1
1
22
9
6
4
1
The usual 10-day course of instruction on the operation and maintenance of
mechanical equipment was given at the Forest Service training-school early in the
year. Commencing with the five-day course given to Assistant Rangers at the school
in the fall, similar short courses are scheduled for spring and fall of each year.
Some instruction on fire-pumps was given to supervisory personnel working for
industry at the fire-control course sponsored by the Canadian Forestry Association
at Prince George at the start of the fire season. Probably the most effective training
of field staff is given in day-to-day contacts and specific instruction of equipment
operators by all members of the Mechanical Section. As an example of the significance of such efforts, the campaign to promote the use of safety belts in vehicles
may be cited. Some 860 belts were purchased by Government employees throughout the Province, largely through the efforts of the Mechanical Section.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN
There was no new development theme this year with regard to any particular
type of building other than finalization of the standard flat-roof warehouse building
designed last year. No building of this type has as yet been constructed, but
materials are on order for the erection of one in the northern part of the Province.
 54
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The residential designs are still subject to much discussion, and the adoption
of a standard plan is at the present time in a fluid state, with the possibility of
abandoning a standard residence still to the fore. The alternative is to design a
structure to suit the climate and other conditions of the locale involved.
In co-operation with the Design Subsection, a 40-foot lookout tower was
designed on an 8-foot-height module which is to be submitted for approval as a
prefabricated structure available in 8-foot-high modules for use with the 8- by 8-foot
cabin-type lookout. At the present time a prototype is being manufactured at the
Marine Station and, if accepted, will go into production there.
The appended table outlines the projects undertaken during the year along
with 38 other miscellaneous projects completed.
Building Construction Undertaken during 1962
Location
Project
Construction
Agency
Progress
Carry-over of 1961/62
Programme
Contract	
Own forces.	
Office
Office
Residence. _
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces
Contract	
office
Street-lighting   .,_            ... .
Office      .
Own forces	
Own forces	
1962/63 Programme
Work proceeding.
Alexis Creek  _	
Own forces	
Own forces     .   ..
Own forces    _.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Contract..
Contract	
Own forces	
Chilliwack	
Dining-cookhouse _ ,
Completed.
Work proceeding.
M.T. shed
Own forces...   .
Design proceeding.
Courtenay 	
Own forces
Completed.
Own forces.
Own forces	
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Warehouse
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces.	
Own forces	
Materials ordered.
Gold Bridge                 	
Design completed.
Completed.
Office renovations	
Own forces . ..
Drilling well
Contract	
Own forces
Own forces
Own forces	
Completed.
Hudson Hope - 	
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962
Building Construction Undertaken during 1962—Continued
55
Location
Project
Construction
Agency
Progress
Kispiox —
Kitwanga..
Kitwanga..
Likely	
Lund	
Merritt	
Merritt—
Merritt—
Mesachie Lake-
McBride	
Parsnip River	
Pemberton	
Port Hardy.	
Prince Rupert-
Queen Charlotte City_
Quinsam	
Quinsam.
Revelstoke	
Sayward Forest-
Smithers	
Spillimacheen_
Spillimacheen	
Telkwa	
Topley	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Victoria	
Wells	
Wlliams Lake-
Construction camp	
Electrical distribution .
Water-supply system	
Marine ways	
Residence	
Camp services..
Addition to residence-
Addition to office	
Heating renovations	
Addition to office	
Construction camp	
Vehicle-shed  _
Heating renovations.
Mooring facilities	
Residence  	
Addition to residence-
Addition to residence_
Bunk-house	
Water-supply system	
Alterations to hangar-
Addition to residence..
Water-treatment sytem..
Cold-storage and warehouse building..
Water-supply system-
Boiler-room, Forest Service Marine Station.
Recreation building (training-school) _..
Instruction shelter (training-school)	
Warehouse renovations	
Residence	
Residence	
Own forces_
Contract	
Own forces..
Own forces.-
Own forces..
Own forces..
Own forces-
Own forces-
Contract	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Contract	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Contract	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Own forces	
Completed.
Design proceeding.
Design proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Tenders called.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Design proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Design completed.
Work proceeding.
Design proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Design proceeding.
Design completed.
Design proceeding.
Completed.
Design proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding
Work proceeding-
Worfc p»oceeding.
To meet the continuing needs for mobile field accommodation, the following
trailers and portable buildings were designed and purchased from commercial
builders:—
Type and Size
Used By
District or
Division
Office Porta-building, 10' x 38' 6"	
Wash-house Porta-building, 10' x 38' 6"
Dining Porta-building, 10' x 38' 6"	
Dwelling trailer (two), 10'x42'	
Dwelling trailer, 8' x 22'  	
Dwelling trailer, 8' x 22'  	
Dwelling trailer, 8' x 14'  _..
Dwelling trailer, 7' x 12'.	
Camper unit (truck), 7' x 8'. 	
Project crews .
Project crews..
Project crews .
Ranger staff....
Grader crew-
Project crew....
Patrolman	
Supervisor	
Patrolman	
Engineering.
Engineering.
Engineering.
Prince George.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver.
Prince Rupert.
Engineering.
Prince Rupert.
Marine Design
The completion of the northern waters Ranger vessel " Hecate Ranger" required considerable attention during the first eight months of the year, the more so
because a large part of the materials and components were purchased by the Department for installation by the shipyard. This vessel is now in service providing transportation and accommodation for the Ranger staff and timber-cruising crews in the
Prince Rupert Forest District.
With a view to necessary replacements in the Coast launch fleet, some preliminary investigations have been made toward more economical construction of
displacement-type vessels which, while making even greater use of native woods
pressure-treated with preservatives, may also result in reduction of labour costs.
 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Despite an obvious need for more jet-propelled river-boats in certain selected
localities, production of additional boats has been postponed pending solution of
minor problems associated with this type of propulsion. Consultation with other
users promises to help resolve these difficulties, especially as regards cavitation at
the jet intake and removal of vegetable debris from the intake grid.
Consideration of safety prompted the issue to all launches of the Marine
Distress Panel recently devised by the British Columbia Safety Council in conjunction with the air-sea rescue group.
Forest Museum
The honorary curator assisted the Public Information and Education Division
in preparing and assembling the fiftieth anniversary exhibit displayed in the rotunda
of the Parliament Buildings during January and February. The services of the
former honorary curator were also obtained for this work, and display-stands of
permanent value to the Government for future exhibits were designed by the
Engineering Services Division and built by the Forest Service Marine Station.
The work of cataloguing and storing museum material as it is received is a
continuing process.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION
A favourable fire season and absence of any special high-priority programme
permitted the regular work of the Station to proceed without interruption. This
was fortunate, particularly in regard to marine work, as the maintenance of launches
in service provides full-time employment for marine mechanics and shipwrights.
Marine Work
Forty-four major overhauls, together with 20 additional routine maintenance
jobs, were completed on the launches used for administrative and forest-protection
duties. Alterations to the superstructure of the M.V. " Forest Surveyor " required
six weeks. The installation of new engines in the launches "Amabilis " and " White
Spruce " merit special mention. Other maintenance projects included the repairing
or rebuilding of 65 small craft (outboard cruisers, river-boats, and dinghies).
New construction was limited to 5 river-boats and 12 dinghies. However,
some supervisory time was spent in connection with the construction under contract
by an outside shipyard of the M.V. " Hecate Ranger." The acceptance trials of this
craft were held in early August and delivery made to Prince Rupert in October.
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop
Eight new 14- by 14-foot lookout buildings, as well as 10 commenced in 1961,
were completed during the year. Six house trailers were rebuilt and four others
renovated under the trailer-maintenance programme, which is now an important
function of the shop. Other articles manufactured included 45 pieces of office furniture; 7 outboard testing-tanks; 280 tool-boxes, power-saw boxes, outboard-motor
boxes, pump-crates, etc.; 62 signs of various types; and crates for 45 lighting plants.
Machine-shop
The work load of the machine-shop returned to normal. Two hundred and
thirty-three pumps, 71 outboard motors, 47 lighting plants, and 43 power-saw overhauls were completed. Twenty-six portable tanker units were assembled. Fifty
gravity funnels were manufactured and 85,000 feet of new hose were coupled.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 57
Other machine operations included the manufacture of 1,000 pump and hose fittings
and 500 miscellaneous items, such as marine fittings, various metal brackets, and
bearings.
RADIO SECTION
New transmitting units acquired during the year amounted to 100, consisting
of the following types:—
A.M.—
Portable   16
Fixed station  13
Marine      7
Total A.M     36
F.M.—
Portable   22
Fixed-station 60-watt  13
Fixed-station 10-25-watt     3
Mobile   26
Total F.M     64
Total purchases, all types  100
Written off during year     23
Net increase     77
No new Department of Transport specifications relative to Forest Service equipment were issued during the year, but existing regulations continued to tighten in
all types of communication equipment. Specification 126, issued in 1962, narrowed
the allowable spectrum space available to each transmitter, thereby placing other
stations closer to our frequencies. This channel-narrowing caused considerable
interference during the summer, particularly in the Vancouver Forest District, but
all sources of interference were successfully removed. Specification 136 became
effective in 1962, opening to public use a group of A.M. frequencies in the 27-
megacycle band. Portable transmitters of camera size appeared on the market and
were tested by the Victoria laboratory with the object of finding an extremely light
unit for use on the fire-line. Of many makes tested, one was found to have a useful
range of approximately 4 miles over obstructed terrain.
In the forest districts, few major changes took place and emergency acquisition
of equipment proved unnecessary. The removal of the entire Prince George headquarters transmitting station to the new building was accomplished on a temporary
basis in time for the fire season and completed in the autumn. Fire-fighting communications were augmented by the establishement of a 150-watt A.M. transmitter
at the airport as an aid to the dispatching of aircraft used for water bombing and
reconnaissance.
In the Prince Rupert Forest District, favourable atmospheric conditions prevailed for most of the year, permitting improved long-distance A.M. contacts to
the normally difficult areas. The area between Burns Lake and Prince Rupert was
surveyed, with the object of establishing repeaters for a point-to-point V.H.F. circuit.
A workable repeater path was established, but implementation of the plan depends
on the prior establishment of power by other agencies on the mountains concerned.
Kamloops Forest District improvements consisted of the establishment of
Missezula repeater, surveyed in 1961, and a new repeater on Lime Mountain.   The
 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
former brought Princeton and Merritt into the V.H.F. network, and the latter was
intended to replace the battery repeater on Botanie serving Lillooet and Lytton, and
to provide improved signals to Clinton. After six months of operation, Lime repeater proved unsatisfactory, except to Clinton, and will be relocated.
C.N.R. microwave construction on several mountains overlooking the Clearwater Valley was started in the summer, providing at last mountain-top power for
a repeater to connect Ranger stations in the Clearwater Valley with Kamloops.
Extensive antenna alterations at Timothy repeater extended the repeater range to
Alexis Creek and permitted the removal of the temporary repeater on Alex Graham
Lookout. At the same time, temporary connections to Birch Island and Clearwater
resulted from the improved antenna installation, leaving only Blue River without
adequate radio communication, pending the establishment of a repeater capable of
serving the entire valley.
The status quo was maintained in the Vancouver Forest District, with one extra
repeater on Sumas Mountain being installed and tested but not put into active service
by the end of the year. Emphasis was placed on higher-power A.M. equipment for
use at Ranger stations north of Seymour Narrows and on the fire-line, while four
more vessels were equipped with type-approved A.M. units of 100 watts.
Field work by the Victoria staff was confined to providing additional district
maintenance until the latter part of the summer, and, as previously mentioned, an
extensive propagation survey of the Prince Rupert District was carried out during
August and September. Laboratory work consisted of routine assembly of equipment purchased in module form, modification of present equipment to meet narrowband requirements, and testing of new models. Design work included the conversion of single frequency mobile units to two-frequency operation, and the production
of extra heavy duty, high-gain directional aerials designed to resist serious icing
conditions.
The V.H.F. circuit to Kamloops and Prince George proved impossible to
maintain adequately due to the great distances between the repeaters and the nearest
headquarters. The chain of repeaters, therefore, has been replaced by the lease of
a P.G.E. microwave link to Prince George with a drop at Kamloops, eliminating the
bulk of the maintenance now entailed.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 59
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
Most areas of the Province were subjected to rain with such frequency during
the 1962 fire season that even areas which received less than average rainfall for
the summer season enjoyed few consecutively sunny days. This absence of extended
periods of build-up was reflected in the comparatively low number of fires last year.
April, which was warm during the first half, turned cooler during the latter
portion of the month over most of the Province. This was combined with near-
normal precipitation, except in the Central Interior, which was less than normal,
and the Coastal area, which was above normal.
This cool weather trend continued through most of May, but the precipitation
pattern changed so that the North Coast areas and the west coast of Vancouver
Island received well below normal rainfall, and the Interior ran very close to normal.
During June, hot spells were non-existent, with the whole Province subjected
to colder-than-average temperatures. The rainfall patterns in the southern parts of
the Vancouver and Nelson Forest Districts and the south half of the Kamloops Forest District were from 50 to 75 per cent of normal, and the remainder of the Province received 125 to 150 per cent of normal precipitation.
In July this cool and cloudy weather pattern continued, except for portions of
the Prince George Forest District, which enjoyed 12 days of sunny weather. During
the last 5 to 10 days of July, most of the Province experienced a warming trend,
although it was not sufficient to raise the average temperature beyond normal. Six
stations did record temperatures of 100 degrees or higher during this period. The
majority of the Province received average or just below average rainfall, except on
the North Coast, where Prince Rupert received only 33 per cent of normal. This
warm spell resulted in many lightning fires in the Kamloops, Nelson, and Prince
George Forest Districts.
August brought a complete change from the late July warm period, bringing
British Columbia one of the coldest and wettest Augusts on record. Rainfalls were
above normal throughout the Province, except in the South Coast portion, which
received 86 per cent of normal.
In September, temperatures were within a degree of normal throughout most
of the Province. The rainfall was generally normal, except for excess amounts in
the southern parts of the Vancouver Forest District and parts of the Kamloops Forest District, and less than normal in the Okanagan, Kootenay, and Queen Charlotte
Islands areas.
An intense wind-storm, which was the main feature of the October weather,
hit the Lower Coast on October 12th. Temperatures were normal in the Interior
and warmer than average on the Coast. Rainfall was fairly general throughout the
Province the first half of October. The fire season was terminated by Order in
Council on October 15th.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes .
The pattern of summer rainfall and high humidities is the only significant factor
in the low fire incidence over the Province in 1962. The number of fires reported
(1,536) is 16 per cent below the average for the last ten years (1,822). At the
same time the specific causes of fires show no great variation from the normal trend
over the past decade.   For further details see Table 43 in the Appendix.
 WHEELS OF PROGRESS
kH. ',ow th* times are changed since the days when
V     I worked as a rarajsr.
Trottlna- around with this ri^-! Little had we,but-
luck.
. To fujfbt & fir« i-n my time; not much to cope with.
"v. the danger 1
Only some simple toots, handled with brains
and pluck.
r ..ft*.   X|OWt'Mre are automobiles and other contrap-
* Jr *vlN-       tlons as clever,
Pumps and flying machines; everything run
i on a plan!
t   Only the trees are the sarr
i     orreen for ever,
burns
In 1923 the Forest Service started to mechanize.   W. H. Currie, in line drawing and verse,
expressed nostalgic memories of the horse-and-buggy days of fire suppression.
As its first half-century ended, those old days were far more distant.
Here a helicopter unloads supplies on the fire-line.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 61
Fire Occurrence
during 10-year Percentage
Forest District                                                                                  Period 1953-62 of All B.C.
Vancouver1     3,397 18.6
Prince Rupert     1,258 6.9
Prince George     2,561. 14.1
Kamloops2     6,893 37.8
Nelson      4,108 22.6
Totals  18,217 100.0
i Excludes 8,530 non-statistical railroad-tie fires.
2 Excludes 99 non-statistical railroad-tie fires.
Cost of Fire-fighting
Fire-control expenditures are normally a more realistic gauge of the severity
of a fire season than is the number of fires recorded. Table 50 shows that the Forest
Service expenditure in fire-fighting in 1962 was one-fifth of the average annual cost
of the past ten years. Some credit for low suppression costs in 1962 must be given
to the expanded aerial-attack system pre-organized in reasonable strength for the
first time this year. In a survey of 59 fires on which helicopters and air tankers
were used in one forest district, there was an indicated reduction of 45 per cent in
the cost of fire-fighting with aerial suppression support from that of suppression
through conventional means. This saving was completely separate from any decrease in the damage to forest-cover which might have accrued through holding
fires to a small acreage by using very prompt initial attack facilities provided by aerial
support. Further information on fire-fighting costs may be found in Tables 48 and
50 of the Appendix.
Damage
Losses to forest-cover from fires were reduced commensurate with the severity
of the fire season. However, a significant increase in damage to cut forest products
is recorded in 1962. Six fires on active logging operations in the Vancouver Forest
District accounted for a 50-per-cent increase in this figure over the average for the
past 10 years.
The true economic loss to the Province is the investment value of the final
product which, if not destroyed by fire, would have been manufactured within the
Province and, it is assumed, would be approximately 10 times the stumpage value.
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers
In 1962 fires are currently being plotted on the Provincial Fire Atlas and a
summary of fire information entered in the fire statistics ledgers.
Coding of fire-report information for mechanical tabulation card recording is
continuing, and it is hoped to be able to accelerate this programme. Correlated with
the coding programme, a start has been made, for the 1950-59 decade, in modifying
the Fire Classification Atlas to our standard 2-mile base.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
The generally poor summer weather had no adverse effect on these activities,
which are dependent on good visibility conditions.
 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
One two-man visibility mapping crew did some early-season work on Vancouver Island, and was employed in the Prince Rupert District for the balance of the
summer, mapping some 23 points.
Panoramic lookout photographs were completed on four lookouts.
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks
Six hundred and seventy-eight sets of 100-gram fuel-moisture indicator sticks
were made available after spring field testing, with the forest industry absorbing 418
sets, the Federal Department of Forestry 14 sets, and the balance being utilized by
the British Columbia Forest Service.
Acknowledgment is made of the use of the kiln and facilities and assistance
provided at the Forest Products Laboratory of the Federal Department of Forestry
at the University of British Columbia.
Snag-falling Projects
As part of the fire protection programme of reducing the snag hazard in areas
of old burn and young growth in Vancouver Forest District, two snag-falling contracts were awarded through this Division in 1962, comprising a total area of 3,505
acres. Additional snag-falling continued on some contracts awarded the previous
year and not completed.
Fire-weather Records and Investigations
The records of the Fire Danger Index tables kept at the various stations throughout the Province were checked and the more common errors in calculations summarized.
Using the mechanical tabulation data for the 1960 fire season, an association
of weather pattern and fire-causing lightning-storms was prepared. No conclusions
can be drawn from the single season, but more years will be added as the data
become available.
This Division supervised the construction of a sample weather-instrument site
on the grounds of the Forest Service training-school.
A climatelogical summary of winds observed at lookouts in the Vancouver
Forest District between 1956 and 1960 was prepared.
During the year the Divisional meteorologist was a delegate to the third session of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology of the World Meteorological
Organization held during luly at Toronto.
Lectures on fire weather were presented to the Forest Service training-school,
the University of British Columbia, and the Northern Interior Lumbermen's Association at Prince George.
Protection Research
A review has been made of the most appropriate aspects of fire-protection research and development that can be most adequately developed by the Protection
Division. It was complemented by replies to a research questionnaire submitted to
the districts.
Fire-suppression Crews
One hundred and eighty-eight fires were attended by 16 suppression crews of
10 men each, located in hazardous areas throughout the southern part of the Province. This is 11 fires less than the 10-year average of 199. Seventy-nine per cent
of the fires fought by these crews were held to a size less than 1 acre.   Only 4.3
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962
63
per cent of the fires fought by the suppression crews exceeded 50 acres. It was
possible to use some of the suppression crewmen at several of the air-tanker bases
for the mixing of slurry. Because of the wet summer the crews were also used on
numerous projects, such as road and trail work, painting Ranger stations, and other
miscellaneous work.
Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities, 1962
Size of Fire when Attacked
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
Vi Acre
or Less
Over 'A
Overt
OverS
Acre to
Acre to
Acres to
1 Acre
5 Acres
50 Acres
6
2
21
1
.
15
2
—
11
27
18
13
Over 50
Acres
Spot (up to 14 acre)	
Over Vi acre and up to 1 acre	
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres	
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres-.
Over 50 acres  	
Totals-
131
22
17
16
2
122
188
122
AIRCRAFT
A greatly expanded aircraft programme was instituted during 1962, 36 aircraft
being available under contract during the fire season. Pacific Western Airlines,
Okanagan Helicopters, Skyway Air Services, and Cariboo Air Charter Limited held
contracts for various types of aircraft. The machines involved were 6 Beavers on
floats, 12 Hiller & Bell helicopters, 12 Avengers, 4 smaller-type fixed-wing aircraft
for " bird-dog " purposes, and 2 Super Cubs with extra-large wheels. Although the
fire season was not severe, the aircraft programme is credited with holding many
fires to a very small size and keeping damage figures low. Valuable experience was
gained in the use of air tankers and helicopters, which are now recognized as necessary tools in the suppression of forest fires.
Contract Flying, Fixed-wing Aircraft, 1962
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Beaver 	
Beaver  _  	
321
421
958
Kamloops	
Beaver (2)   _	
537
Beaver..   	
468
Total
2,705
Contract Flying, Helicopters, 1962
Forest District
Base
Type of Helicopter
Hours Flown
Hiller & BelL...
253
Prince Rupert  .
Hiller & Bell
544
Peace River and Prince George
Kamlnnps
Hiller & Bell	
Hiller & BelL
1,000
447
Kamloops
Nelson
Hiller & Belt...
432
Total 	
2,676
 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Contract Flying, Air Tankers, 1962
Forest District
Main Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Vancouver-
Prince Rupert-
Prince George	
Kamloops 	
Nelson	
Smithers	
Prince George..
Kamloops..	
Cranbrook	
Avenger (3) and Bird-dog (1).
Avenger (3) and Bird-dog (1).
Avenger (3) and Bird-dog (1).
Avenger (3) and Bird-dog (1).
Total	
125
110
102
185
522
Bentonite continued to be the main additive for the slurry used in aerial bombing. Tanker bases were established at Smithers, Prince George, Kamloops, and
Cranbrook, with secondary bases at Terrace, Woodcock, Vanderhoof, Quesnel,
Williams Lake, Kelowna, and Castlegar.
The 12 helicopters were based at Prince Rupert, Smithers, Prince George, Fort
St. lohn, Kamloops, Nelson, Cranbrook, Vancouver, and Campbell River. Helicopters made it possible to land small crews near many isolated fires very quickly.
This was important even during a relatively light fire season as numerous lightning
fires frequently occur from one electrical storm. The importance of this versatile
machine was clearly demonstrated in all forest districts during the past fire season.
Use of Fixed-wing Aircraft in Fire-fighting, 1962 (Non-contract)
Reconnaissance
Transportation of
Men and Supplies
Water Bombing
Total
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert	
10
76
5
48
$680
9
46
174
$607
3,692
12,964
12
$1,598
19
46
262
5
$1,287
3,692
3,924
138
1,101
18,486
138
48     |       1,101
Totals, 1962	
139    |    $5,843 |       229    | $17,263
12    |    $1,598 |       380    | $24,704
Totals, 1961	
1,825
$107,648
1,435    |$107,739
1,067
$202,533
4,327
$417,920
Use of Helicopters in Fire-fighting, 1962 (Non-contract)
Forest District
Reconnaissance
Transportation of
Men and Supplies
Water Bombing
Total
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours   1    Cost
1
Hours
Cost
4
5
51
15
3
$530
5,610
1,575
330
	
5
55
15
3
32
$530
$357
5,967
1,575
330
32    |      3,803
3,803
Totals, 1962
4
$357
106    | $11,848
..    	
110
$12,205
Totals, 1961
655
$73,304
2,548
$275,620
3
$324
3,206
$349,248
ROADS AND TRAILS
The construction and maintenance of forest-protection roads and trails continued about the same as in 1961. Ground access is essential for successful and
economical suppression of most fires as there will never be enough aircraft available
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962
65
for all fires, and it would be impractical not to plan on this method of access for
the majority of forest fires. Abandoned logging, mine, or oil-exploration roads
are opened, and new roads and trails are pushed into the more hazardous inaccessible areas.
Construction of Protection Roads and Trails, 1962
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
82.5
1,110.3
Miles
65.0
554.4
Miles
75.0
322.9
Miles
222.5
1,987.6
1,192.8
619.4
397.9
2,210.1
11.3
206.3
31.0
210.0
11.2
66.9
53.5
483.2
217.6
241.0
78.1
536.7
SLASH DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
The sustained cool, damp summer of 1962 maintained slash areas in an unusually damp condition, and there was some apprehension that the lack of normal summer drying effect would materially affect attempts to burn slash in September. However, weather conditions improved considerably during the latter part of August,
and by early September almost ideal burning conditions prevailed over the entire
Vancouver Forest District, although they were limited to a relatively short period.
Some of the east coast of Vancouver Island eventually became too dry, particularly on south and west exposures, and those operators who had failed to take advantage of the earlier good burning conditions were obliged to wait until later rains in
September. These rains were heavy and resulted in ineffective and disappointing
attempts at subsequent slash disposal. Those operators who did take advantage of
the brief period of good burning conditions were very successful, and results exceeded expectations.
The trend continues toward more broadcast burning and less spot burning, as
indicated in Table 39, wherein it is shown that in 1962 some 32,868 acres were
required to be broadcast-burned with some 16,312 acres to be spot-burned. It
should be noted that the 1962 total acreage abated includes a large acreage of undisposed slash carried over from 1961. Similarly, a considerable acreage of unburned
1962 slash will be carried over to 1963.
The major portion of the damage, as shown in Table 41, resulted from several
slash-burn escape fires, caused largely by unusual local high winds which developed
suddenly and without warning.
Costs of slash-burning for 1962 decreased from previous years, despite some
claims by the industry that slash-disposal costs are increasing. Some operators have
been making a practice of putting in tractor guards and hand guards in an attempt
to minimize damage to timber at the margins of slash burns, thereby materially increasing costs. It is felt that there has been some overemphasis on such development of fire-guards at timber margins, since proper burning techniques and normal
precautions can minimize damage to marginal timber.
The invasion of brush and deciduous species on high-site Crown lands in the
Vancouver Forest District has been cause for some concern. Present plans call for
broadcast burning of this particular site type, followed by immediate regeneration
by planting where necessary. In 1962 approximately 1,000 acres of high-site lands
were planted with 2-0 Douglas fir seedlings, and it is planned to double this programme in 1963.
 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
The very light fire season, during which only a few fire-fighters were impressed
and not a single forest closure imposed, resulted in only 18 prosecutions for fire-law
infractions.   This is less than a third of the normal activity in this field.
Under subsection (3) of section 147 of the Forest Act, the Horsefly-Quesnel
Lake Road was closed on May 3, 1962, and the closure was lifted on lune 14, 1962.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962
67
TRAINING-SCHOOL
The twelfth Ranger class, consisting of 20 men, graduated April 10, 1962.
The name of the school was changed from the B.C. Forest Service Ranger
School to the B.C. Forest Service Training School.
Proposals to change the training procedure were adopted, and a start was
made with the introduction of Basic Course No. 1. The three-month course commenced September 17, 1962, and consisted of 20 junior men (four per forest district).   The first class of basic trainees graduated December 14, 1962.
Commencing August 1, 1962, another instructor was added to the staff. Financial assistance was provided by Federal grant to cover salary and expenses for this
position and to supply a limited amount of training equipment.
Subjects covered during the year were as follows:—
Third Term, Twelfth Ranger Class, Spring, 1962
Subject
Construction
Management Policies and Procedures
Public Speaking	
Ranger District Organization	
Silviculture	
Mechanics	
Navigation and Launches
Grazing	
Personnel	
Days Allotted
_ 71/2
- 13
- 4V2
___ 6
- 10
- 9
- 2
- IY2
_. 2
- 1
National Film Board	
Fish and Game Branch (Department of Recreation and Conservation)      1
Examinations, visitors, and field trips     8V2
Total days  66
First Aid, two hours per week in evenings for nine weeks.
Basic Course No. 1, Fall, 1962
Subject Days Allotted
Protection Policies and Procedures  6
Pre-suppression Studies   5 Vi
Fire Suppression  IIY2
Mathematics and Survey Fundamentals  6
Management Policies and Procedures  6
Mensuration  8
Mechanics  8
Silviculture and Related Fields  5
Air Photos  3
Reports and Maps  V/i
Examinations, visitors, and field trips  1V2
Total days  63
First Aid, two hours per week in evenings for nine weeks.
Typing, 4 to 5 p.m., two days per week.
Physical Education, 11.30 to 11.50 a.m. daily.
 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
EXTRA COURSES AND FUNCTIONS
Training School facilities were used for two weeks in April by the Department
of Recreation and Conservation for an in-service training course. Average attendance was 34.
The usual course for lookoutmen for the Vancouver Forest District was not
given.
The first air-tanker school was held May 1st to 4th, inclusive. It was most
successful, with 25 in attendance.
The Training School facilities were also used for a five-day silviculture school
on scarification and a three-day management meeting in May.
The instructional staff participated in courses and lectures to various groups.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to speakers and lecturers and for equipment provided by the following agencies: Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch, Canada
Department of Forestry; Air Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch, Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources; Chief Forecaster's Office, Department of Transport, Vancouver; Power Machinery Company Limited, Vancouver;
Wajax Equipment Company Limited, Vancouver; as well as lecturers from other
divisions and districts of the Forest Service.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 69
PERSONNEL
GENERAL
In 1962 there were a number of changes in senior personnel. The retirement
of one District Forester resulted in the transfer or promotion of eight senior staff
members. The Personnel Officer was promoted to the position of Co-ordinator of
Accident Prevention under the direction of the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and the Director of Public Information and Education left the Service to
take up similar duties with the Federal Forest Service. Staff turnover was again
down slightly, and applications for employment again reached a new high.
In addition to the usual functions of personnel administration, the Division
completed the review and change-over of technical field staff classifications, with
the resulting standardization of qualification and training requirements for technical
fieldmen. The service-wide safety and accident-prevention programme continued,
receiving some additional thrust from the appointment of a Co-ordinator of Accident Prevention.
In the matter of employee relations, five grievances or formal complaints were
received from various employee associations, and one is still active. All salary
ranges were increased by one step, and all flat-rate salaries were adjusted upward,
resulting in a salary increase for a large number of the employees.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
A District Foresters' meeting was held in February, which culminated in a
banquet and the annual Forest Service dance to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the British Columbia Forest Service. Ranger meetings were held in Prince
Rupert and Prince George, and a Provincial protection meeting in Victoria. A forest
management meeting was held at the Training School in May, and the silviculture
officers and Engineering Services Division combined on a scarification meeting, at
which industry gave extensive demonstrations of its equipment. The Forest Surveys
and Inventory Division held a full-scale safety meeting with its field supervisors in
an effort to develop a programme of on-the-job safety training. A number of Forest
Service officers, as well as the Personnel Officers, took part in vocation-day programmes sponsored by various schools throughout the Province.
Four men—three foresters and one Technical Forest Officer—were selected
for the seventh class of the Executive Development Training Plan, which was held
for the Interior region of the Province and sponsored by the Government through
the University of British Columbia. Six foresters and one Forest Protection Officer
graduated from the fourth class of this programme. A number of field staff enrolled
in first-aid courses throughout the Province, and the Civil Defence Office in Victoria
arranged for a number of first-aid courses by the St. lohn Ambulance Association
at various levels. Civil defence training continued in the normal manner. The Civil
Service Commission held one interdepartmental Personnel Officers' meeting. In-
service training programmes continued for lookoutmen and Assistant Rangers, as
well as field training courses by districts and divisions in specific phases of field
work. The two-year formalized training programme for engineers-in-training is
continuing, with very good results. A number of Ranger School graduates are still
pursuing directed studies to qualify for registration in the Association of British
Columbia Foresters, and one such graduate was successful in obtaining registration
during 1962.
 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A programme of basic training for technical fieldmen was commenced by the
Ranger School this year, which necessitated changing the name to the Forest Service
Training School.  This programme will be continued during 1963.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment for the Forest Service at the end
of the 1961/62 fiscal year was 846 positions, and 13 were added to make the total at
the end of the fiscal year 859. This increase included one Forester, one Ranger, and
one Deputy Ranger for the new Hudson Hope Ranger District. These positions
were approved under the Peace River timber salvage. The Engineering Services
Division increased its professional field staff by five junior engineers due to the
expanded Federal-Provincial forest road programme.
During 1962, 117 persons received Civil Service appointments and 63 left
the permanent service. Six 25-year service badges were earned, and recalculation
showed two earned for 1961 and one additional for 1960, making a total of nine.
There were four retirements during the year. Forty-seven transfers of permanent
staff took place. Eight graduate foresters and three engineers left the service and
10 forestry graduates and eight engineers were hired. Of the 10 forestry graduates,
four were previously employed in sub-professional employment and were transferred
to professional status, while four new graduates were employed on sub-professional
work.
Turnover of Civil Service appointed staff, including permanent and full-time
casual, averaged 10 per cent, down slightly from the previous year. The Prince
Rupert Forest District again suffered the greatest disruption, with an over-all average
of 15.2 per cent, which was a large improvement from last year. The per cent turnover for office staff was 30.6, as compared to 46.8 last year. The Kamloops Forest
District was again the lowest, with a total turnover of 5.4 per cent over all and 12.8
per cent for office staff. Professional staff turnover at 5.5 per cent is up one-half of
1 per cent from last year, and technical staff turnover at 3.6 per cent is down from
the two previous years. Total office staff turnover continued on its downward trend
but is still at 19.5 per cent. Percentage of female employees employed in the clerical group remains much the same as the past year at 60.4 per cent.
This group, however, comprises 72.5 per cent of the total staff turnover. Four
employees were lost in fatal accidents on the job. A snag-faller in the Vancouver
Forest District was killed when hit on the head by the top of another snag which
broke off after being struck by the snag being felled. He was killed despite the
partial protection of a hard hat. Two fire-fighters were killed when the fire crowned
in the Kamloops Forest District. A survey assistant with the Forest Surveys and
Inventory Division was drowned when he fell off a log while crossing a spated
stream. In the matter of discipline among permanent staff or during probationary
periods, one person was released by Order in Council and two disciplinary suspensions were imposed for breach of safety regulations. Six annual increases were
withheld.
Over 700 written applications for employment were processed in the personnel
office in addition to those handled by divisional and district staff. Special written
examinations were held for five promotional positions in addition to the regular
promotional examination for draughtsmen. Oral examinations at panel interviews
were employed in filling 22 other positions. The Personnel Officer and assistant also
participated in selection of 171 other Civil Service positions. At the annual spring
examination for Assistant Rangers, 350 candidates sat and 119 passed. There were
only 29 vacancies for Assistant Rangers, and we were again provided with an excel-
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 71
lent eligibility list for selection of candidates for subsequent vacancies in this and
other positions at the same level.
CLASSIFICATIONS, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
The year 1962 saw a major change in the classification of field staff. Four
grades of a new position of Technical Forest Officer were added to two existing
grades of Forest Assistant. These six grades have now been established to cover the
positions of Suppression Crewmen, Dispatchers, Senior Dispatchers, Lookoutmen,
Patrolmen, Assistant Rangers, Rangers 1 and 2, Ranger Supervisors, Inspector of
Licensed Scalers, Forest Assistants 3, 4, and 5, Cruisers, Compassmen, Stand Treatment Foremen, Nursery Superintendents, Supervisors of Forest Nurseries, Senior
Scalers, Scaling Supervisors, and Scaling Dispatchers. In fact, almost all technical
employees in the Forest Service are now contained in this one group. Numerous
individual position classifications were reviewed, and of these, 40 were submitted to
the Civil Service Commission. Thirty-seven of those submitted were approved and
three were rejected.
Six employees were registered with the Association of British Columbia Foresters during the year, one of whom advanced from the Ranger staff. Working
conditions throughout the Service remained more or less unchanged. An effort is
being made to establish special living-allowance areas in the northern part of the
Province on a standardized basis for all departments. This matter is presently under
review by the Civil Service Commission, and a revised system is expected some time
during 1963.
The safety and accident-prevention programme continued to show some improvement over the previous year, although it is generally felt by all concerned that
there is still room for improvement. The accident-frequency rate (cases involving
over three days' time-loss per million man-hours), excluding fire-fighters, for 1962
was 21.3, as compared to 26.1 for 1961. The same figure including fire-fighters
was 25.8 for 1962, a vast improvement over 38.2 for 1961.
 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ACCOUNTING
FISCAL
Reflecting the record high volume of timber scaled (see Tables 6 and 7 in the
Appendix), the financial return to the Forest Service resumed an upward trend in
1962 after experiencing a moderate decline in 1961. The year was featured by a
combination of favourable conditions, with a light fire season, an absence of any
prolonged work stoppages in the industry, and an apparent improvement in market
conditions.
Although not matching the percentage increase in the timber scale (over 15
per cent), the total of amounts charged against logging operations increased by 10.4
per cent over the previous year to $31,838,009 (see Table 29 in the Appendix).
The dollar total was not a record high, however, having been exceeded in both 1956
and 1960. The Vancouver Forest District contributed the largest increase (20 per
cent), with Prince Rupert and Nelson also recording substantial gains to offset
decreases in Kamloops and Prince George. Billing rates are, of course, subject to
varying factors, such as tenures, species and timber types involved, and sliding-scale
adjustments.
Direct forest revenue collected did set a calendar-year record, increasing by
6.7 per cent to $30,890,820 (see Table 28 in the Appendix). Of this total, timber-
sale stumpage contributed $26,315,940, an increase of 7.2 per cent over 1961.
Rentals and fees on timber sales also increased some 4 per cent, but cruising and
advertising charges declined by 8.2 per cent after recording a sharp gain in 1961
when rates were revised upward. The drop in the latter during 1962 stems from a
decrease in the number and total acreage of timber sales awarded, which is the
source of the recovery of cruising charges.
Timber royalty increased to $2,433,175, a gain of 8.3 per cent from last year,
due to an increase of scale of timber cut from old royalty-bearing tenures. Rentals
and fees collected on timber licences, berths, and leases varied by minor amounts
from 1961, probably due to early or late payment in some cases. Forest-protection
tax collected declined 3.3 per cent to $550,949, from the effect of the decrease in
acreage of timber sales awarded, although this was largely offset by continued progress in collecting arrears of this tax assessed against Crown-granted areas. Collection of revenue from miscellaneous items continued to increase, showing a 19.7-
per-cent gain to $161,447.
Tables of forest revenue and expenditure for the fiscal year 1961/62 appear
in the Appendix (see Tables 31 and 32), and details of the latter will be found in
Public Accounts issued by the Department of Finance.
The Federal-Provincial Forestry Agreement was renewed by memorandum of
agreement dated May 11, 1962, under which Canada undertakes to pay the Province a sum of $1,804,461 in respect of expenditures made by the Province in each
of the fiscal years 1962/63 and 1963/64. Forty per cent of this amount must be
in respect of expenditures on access projects, with the balance being distributed
between forest fire protection, inventory, reforestation, and stand-improvement
projects.
ADMINISTRATION
As indicated by the analysis above and the tables in the Appendix, the accounting volume during the year remained at a high level.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 73
No major changes were made in accounting policy or in staff organization, but
staff turnover generally and the difficulty in obtaining replacements were problems
to both headquarters and district offices. In spite of this and the increase in volume,
the position with regard to outstanding revenue accounts improved significantly,
with all districts being able to report substantial progress. The welcome circumstance of a light fire season also enabled staff of expenditure accounts sections to
concentrate on processing normal items of expenditure.
A new procedure was devised in an effort to assist field staff in dealing with
the troublesome problem of accounting for commissary provided for forest-fire
fighters. This had become an increasingly worrisome matter for Rangers in charge
of large fires such as occurred in serious fire seasons in the previous two years. The
procedure was introduced in two districts on an experimental basis, but due to the
improved fire situation it was difficult to assess results. From the favourable reaction of the field staff, however, it appeared to hold promise of at least a partial solution to the problem.
In the area of investigation of mill records in respect of unreported scale, a
limited number of test runs were conducted of mills in the Kamloops District to
acquire additional background information. It is hoped this programme can be
expanded materially in 1963.
 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1963
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
R. G. McKee --- - Deputy Minister of Forests
F. S. McKinnon    -----------      Chief Forester
L. F. Swannell Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations Branch
J. S. Stokes Assistant Chief Forester i/c Planning Branch
Staff Division Heads:
Cooper, C.   ------ Forest Counsel
Hicks, W. V. -        - Departmental Comptroller
Park, S. E. Director, Public Information
McKeever, A. E. -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -      Personnel Officer
Operations Branch Division Heads:
Forse, H. B. -        - Forester i/c Protection Division
Greggor, R. D.     -       -       -       -       -       - Forester i/c Engineering Services Division
Hughes, W. G.     -       -       -       -       -       -       -    Forester i/c Management Division
Pendray, W. C.  Director, Grazing Division
Robinson, E. W.   -       -       -       -       -        Forester i/c Forest Service Training School
Planning Branch Division Heads:
Pogue, H. M.        ------- Forester i/c Working Plans Division
Young, W. E. L.   -       -       -       -       -       Forester i/c Surveys and Inventory Division
Silburn, G.   ------- Forester i/c Reforestation Division
Spilsbury, R. H.    -        -        -        -       -        -        -        - Forester i/c Research Division
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver Forest District
I. T. Cameron        ----------- District Forester
J. A. K. Reid      --------- Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Carr, W. S. (Chilliwack); McDaniel, R. W. (Hope); Wilson, R. S. (Harrison Lake); Webster,
J. B. (Mission); Mudge, M. H. (Port Moody); Carradice, J. H. (Squamish); Chamberlin,
L. C. (Sechelt); Thomas, R. W. (Madeira Park); Hollinshead, S. B. (Powell River); Norbirg,
H. (Lund); Donnelly, R. W. (Thurston Bay East); Doerksen, H. G. (Thurston Bay West);
Hannah, M. (Chatham Channel); Brash, W. E. (Echo Bay); Bertram, G. D. (Alert Bay);
Sykes, S. J. (Port Hardy); Ormond, L. D. D. (Campbell River); Antonelli, M. W. (Courtenay);
Moss, R. D. (Parksville); Howard, W. G. (Nanaimo); McKinnon, C. G. (Duncan); Lorent-
sen, L. H. (Ganges); Jones, R. W. (Langford); Morley, K. A. (Lake Cowichan); Haley, K.
(Alberni); McArthur, E. J. (Tofino); Gill, D. E. (Pemberton).
Prince Rupert Forest District
N. A. McRae District Forester
L. W. W. Lehrle --------- Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Brooks, T. (Ocean Falls); Gorley, O. J. (Queen Charlotte City); Hamilton, H. D. (Prince
Rupert); Lindstrom, W. C. (Terrace); Simmons, C. F. (Kitwanga); Antonenko, J. (Hazel-
ton); Mould, J. (Smithers); Clay, W. D. (Telkwa); Berard, R. K. (Houston); Kullander,
M. O. (Pendleton Bay); Mastin, T. J. (Burns Lake); Hawkins, R. M. (Bella Coola);
Pement, A. T. (Southbank); Nelson, J. N. (Atlin District); Crosby, D. N. (Topley).
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962 75
Prince George Forest District
A. H. Dixon ------------ District Forester
C. E. Bennett       --------- Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Weinard, R. H. (McBride); York, G. M. (Penny); Meents, G. E. (Prince George); Magee,
K. W. (Prince George); Northrup, K. A. (Fort St. James); Thornton, S. H. (Quesnel);
Barbour, H. T. (Dawson Creek); Keefe, R. R. (Aleza Lake); Graham, G. W. (Vanderhoof);
Cosens, A. S. (Fort St. John); Griffiths, P. F. (Fort Fraser); Waller, T. G. (Summit Lake);
Angly, R. B. (Quesnel); Flynn, D. M. (Prince George); Hamblin, R. A. (Hixon); Pearce, F.
(Quesnel); Rohn, C. (Quesnel); McQueen, L. (Chetwynd); Morris, D. J. (Hudson Hope).
Kamloops Forest District
W. C. Phillips      -       - District Forester
L. B. B. Boulton --------- Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Hopkins, H. V. (Lumby); Williams, R. V. (Birch Island); Wittner, D. J. (Barriere); Hill,
A. F. (Kamloops South); Paquette, O. (Chase); Gibson, C. L. (Salmon Arm); Jones, G. G.
(Sicamous); Cameron, A. G. (Lillooet); Kuly, A. (Vernon); Scott, E. L. (Penticton);
Baker, F. M. (Princeton); Robertson, C. E. (Clinton); Hamilton, T. J. (Williams Lake);
Monteith, M. E. (Alexis Creek); Hewlett, H. C. (Kelowna); Noble, J. O. (Ashcroft); Jan-
ning, H. A. W. (Merritt); Bodman, G. F. (Blue River); Collins, B. G. (Enderby); Petty,
A. P. (100 Mile North); Weinard, J. P. (Kamloops North); Craig, V. D. (Horsefly); Ash-
ton, L. J. (100 Mile South).
Nelson Forest District
J. R. Johnston District Forester
M. G. Isenor       --------- Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Taft, L. G. (Invermere); Humphrey, J. L. (Fernie); Anderson, S. E. (Golden); Gierl, J. B.
(Cranbrook East); Ross, A. I. (Creston); Allin, G. B. (Kaslo): Benwell, W. G. (Lardeau);
Robinson, R. E. (Nelson); Jupp, C. C. (New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Nakusp); Wood, H. R.
(Castlegar); Reid, E. W. (Grand Forks); Uphill, W. T. (Kettle Valley); Cartwright, G. M.
(Canal Flats); Russell, P. F. (Arrowhead); Haggart, W. D. (Edgewood); Hesketh, F. G.
(Elko); Bellmond, C. N. (Spillimacheen); Bailey, J. F. (Cranbrook West); Hamann, L. O.
(Beaverdell); Webster, G. R. (Slocan City); Jackson, R. C. (Revelstoke).
  APPENDIX
  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962 79
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
table General
No. Pace
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1962  81
Reforestation
2. Summary of Planting, 1953-62  82
Forest Management
3. Estimated Value of Production, Including Loading and Freight within the
Province, 1953-62  83
4. Paper Production (in Tons), 1953-62  83
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.), 1953-62  84
6. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1961
and 1962:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  85
7. Species Cut, All Products, 1962:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  86
8. Total Scale, All Products, 1962 (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts):   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet -  87
9. Timber Scaled by Months and Forest Districts, 1962  88
10. Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty and
Stumpage, 1953-62, in Thousand Cubic Feet  89
11. Number of Acres Operating under Approved Annual Allowable Cuts,
1953-62  90
12. Total Scale of All Products from Areas Operated under Approved Annual
Allowable Cuts, 1953-62  91
13. Logging Inspections, 1962  92
14. Trespasses, 1962  93
15. Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
Land Act, 1962  94
16. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1962  94
17. Timber-sale Record, 1962  94
18. Competition for Timber Sales Awarded, 1962  95
19. Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1962  96
20. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on Tim
ber Sales in 1962, per C C.F. Log-scale  97
21. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Saw-timber on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits Issued in 1962  98
22. Timber Cut and Scaled from Timber Sales, 1962  99
23. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1962  100
24. Export of Logs (inF.B.M.), 1962  101
25. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.,
1962  101
26. Summary of Exports of Minor Products, 1962  102
27. Timber Marks Issued, 1953-62  102
 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
TNaE                                           Forest Finance Page
28. Forest Revenue  103
29. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1962  104
30. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1961/62  105
31. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1961/62  106
32. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1961/62  106
33. Scaling Fund  107
34. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  107
Forest Protection
35. Forest-protection Expenditure by the Forest Service for Fiscal Year
1961/ 62  108
36. Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by Other Agen
cies, 1962  109
37. Summary of Snag-falling, 1962, Vancouver Forest District  109
38. Summary of Logging Slash Reported, 1962, Vancouver Forest District  109
39. Acreage Analysis of Slash Disposal Required, 1962, Vancouver Forest
District  110
40. Analysis of Progress in Slash Disposal, 1962, Vancouver Forest District  110
41. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1962, Vancouver Forest Dis
trict  111
42. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1962  111
43. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1962  112
44. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for Last Ten Years  112
45. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1962  113
46. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1962  114
47. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1962—Parts I, II 114, 115
48. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1962  116
49. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  117
50. Fires Classified by Forest District and Cost per Fire of Fire-fighting, 1962- 118
51. Prosecutions, 1962  119
Training-school
52. Enrolment at Ranger Course, 1962  120
Public Information and Education
53. Motion-picture Library, 1953-62  121
54. Summary of Coverage by School Lecturers, 1953-62  122
55. Forest Service Library, 1953-62  123
Grazing
56. Grazing Permits Issued  123
Working Plans
57. Summary of Basic Data for Public Sustained-yield Units (Crown Land
Only), Comparison of Commitment vs. Cut for Years 1960, 1961,
and 1962  124
58. Tree-farm  Licences  Awarded,  Summary  of Basic  Data — Tree-farm
Licences (Private Sustained-yield Units)  127
59. Farm Wood-lot Licences to December 31, 1962  129
60. Tree-farms (Excluding Those in Tree-farm Licences) to December 31,
1962  129
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL,  1962
81
Personnel
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant
Chief Foresters  —	
Division Foresters..
Directors of Grazing and Public Information __
Forest Counsel and Personnel Officers	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters   _.	
Foresters and Foresters-in-training 	
Agrologists and Agrologists-in-training —
Engineers and Engineers-in-training „	
Forest Protection Officers   —
Supervisors of Rangers 	
Rangers—Grades 1 and 2 _.
Superintendent of Scaling and Assistants .
Scalers, Official.  	
Scalers, Official, temporary.
Comptroller, Accountant, and Audit Assistants..
Engineering, Mechanical and Radio _ —
Technical Forest and Public Information Assistants	
Reforestation, Research, and Survey Assistants-
Nursery Superintendents _.	
Draughtsmen and Mapping Assistants _ —
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers _
Superintendent and Foremen,  Forest  Service
Marine Station __  	
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians .
Launch Crewmen	
Assistant and Acting Rangers 	
Dispatchers  _
Cruisers, Compassmen, and Silviculture Crewmen.  	
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators	
Foremen 	
Miscellaneous    ,
Totals, continuous personnel.
Seasonally Employed
Assistant and Acting Rangers	
Patrolmen —             	
Lookoutmen
Dispatchers, Radio Operators, and Clerks	
Fire-suppression Crewmen  _
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc	
Cruisers and Compassmen 	
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators	
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineer-
ing Aides
Silvicultural Crewmen..
Foremen	
Miscellaneous	
Totals, seasonal personnel-
Totals, all personnel..	
2
12
3
3
35
11
77
37
6
98
3
18
44
15
32
6
2
1
415
7
1
38
13
60
12
20
155
570
2
2
18
2
2
5
29
6
33
11
36
1
2
12
1
2
13
5
2
10
2
2
3
29
3
1
3
31
3
1
1
2
3
29
2
1
5
32
16
1
5
31
12
1
4
22
35
11
66
3
2
2
51
19
60
47
11
28
2
171 |  225 |  249
8
1
4
20
28
3
5
5
3
1
2
11
18
41 I
68
212 |  293
I
3
34
4
62
120
369
185
1
9
41
10
40
113
297
97
34
4
7
75
20
47
4
29
112
6
47
6
14
27
25
571
6
165
1
193
4
66
2
3
10
153
8
34
14
14
142
21
81
38
7
94
70
51
4
54
324
6
55
30
210
67
222
26
31
32
1,815
16
18
161
41
162
165
5
24
195
3
19
123
435 |  932
1,006 | 2,747
 82
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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85
(6A)
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING YEARS 1961 AND 1962 IN F.B.M.
(All products converted to f.b.ra.)
Forest District
10-year Average,
1953-62
1961
1962
Increase
Vancouver ,  .._„	
3,452,241,932
387,719,471
3,444,163,621
508,111,879
4,093,000,614
607,098,846
648,836,993
98,986,967
Totals, Coast	
3,839,961,403
3,952,275,500
4,700,099,460
747,823,960
228,352,019
701,448,331
960,126,495
504,760,131
264,893,698
844,784,972
1,175,270,448
637,997,472
287,584,416
932,304,270
1,270,125,786
727,607,714
22,690,718
87,519,298
Kamloops	
Nelson.	
94,855,338
89,610,242
Totals, Interior	
2,394,686,976
2,922,946,590
3,217,622,186
294,675,596
Grand totals  ____
6,234,648,379
6,875,222,090
7,917,721,646
1,042,499,556
(6B)
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING YEARS 1961 AND 1962 IN CUBIC FEET
(Conversion factors: Coast—6 f.b.m. = l cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f .b.m. = l cu. ft.)
(All products converted to cubic feet.)
Forest District
10-year Average,
1953-62
1961
1962
Increase
Vancouver  	
575,373,655
64,619,912
574,027,270
84,685,313
682,166,769
101,183,141
108,139,499
16,497,828
Totals, Coast	
639,993,567
658,712,583
783,349,910
124,637,327
39,579,752
121,595,313
166,534,448
87,495,123
46,068,469
146,919,126
204,394,861
110,956,082
50,014,681
162,139,873
220,891,441
126,540,472
3,946,212
15,220,747
16,496,580
15,584,390
Totals, Interior	
415,204,636
508,338,538
559,586,467
1,342,936,377
51,247,929
1,055,198,203
1,167,051,121
175,885,256
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H 0
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962
87
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS,  1962, IN F.B.M.  (SEGREGATED BY
(8<U LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
820,632,024
19,445,988
4,275,171
20,446,080
28,442,594
41,972,694
872,795,777
104,578,452
166,997,226
117,311,796
74,830,758
5,559,768
32,094
709,338
1,280,298,426
96,271,860
516,782,874
8,560,902
117,311,796
39,274,140
114,104,898
53,110,560
58,670,328
32,094
Hand-loggers' licences....
Farm wood-lots	
43,573
206,636,652
649,882
795,370,504
129,059
979,978,583
53,067
418,968,793
1,584,919
3,874,485,831
4,080,253
193,232,873
4,080,253
Pulp-timber sales	
No mark visible	
96,271,860
225,033,222
2.752.2,2
67,996,665
1 .«w mo
61,841,791
12,810,770
63,680,836
9,958,046
156,401,708
4,621,999
1,091,737,096
40,207,008
Sub-totals, Crown
lands	
3,025,568,292
12,244,272
923,059,386
51,950,676
19,594,746
60,583,242
517,483,260
336
32,375,808
8,885,334
8,181,828
40,172,280
276,179,969
2,470,470
54,873
86,526
1,508,771
7,283,807
890,118,935
236,889
939,084
1,105,771
6,564,286
33,339,305
1,078,467,775
34,250,042
42,645,369
17,656,888
29,382,057
67,723,655
650,460,855
1,442,957
3,635,777
49,105,707
9,558,547
13,403,871
6,438,279,086
50,644,966
1,002,710,297
128,790,902
74,790,235
222,506,160
Crown grants—
To 1887. -	
1887-1906	
1906-1914 	
1914 to date-
Totals   -	
4,093,000,614
607,098,846
287,584,416
932,304,270
1,270,125,786
727,607,714|7,917,721,646
1
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS,  1962, IN CUBIC FEET (SEGREGATFD
BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
(8B) (Conversion factors: Coast—6f.b.m.=l cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=1 «*»• ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prir«
oeorge
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
136,772,004
17,429 742
3,381,911
743,508
3,555,840
4,946,538
7,299,599
145,843,961
28,285,181
19,551,966
19,551,966
12,471,793
926,628
5,349
118,223
213,383,071
16,045,310
86,130,479
1,426,817
6,545,690
8,851,760
19,017,483
Pulp licences    .	
9,778,388
5,349
7,578
35,936,809
113,023
138,325,305
22,445
170,431,058
9,229
72,864,138
270,498
Timber sales 	
32,205,479
680,042
663,145,860
680,042
16,045,310
Tree-farm licences	
37,505,537
458,702
11,825,507
261,405
10,755,0941     11,074,928
2.227-960         1.731.834
27,200,297
803.826
184,491,842
6.910.544
Sub-totals, Crown
lands -	
504,261,382
2,040,712
153,843,231
8,658,446
3,265,791
10,097,207
86,247,210
56
5,395,968
1,480,889
1,363,638
6,695,380
48,031,299
429,647
9,543
15,048
262,395
1,266,749
154,803,293
41,198
163,319
192,308
1,141,615
5,798,140
187,559,613
5,956,529
7,416,586
3,070,763
5,109,923
11,778,027
113,123,627
250,949
632,309
8,540,123
1,662,356
2.331.108
1,094,026,424
8,719,091
Crown grants—
To 1887             	
167,460,956
1887-1906 	
1906-1914 	
1914 to date 	
21,957,577
12,805,718
37.966.611
Totals -	
682,166,769
101,183,141
50,014,681
162,139,873
220,891,441
126,540,472| 1,342,936,377
1
 88
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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VOLUME OF WOOD REMOVED UNDER RELOGGING AT REDUCED ROYALTY
(10) AND STUMPAGE,  1953-62, IN THOUSANDS OF CUBIC FEET
Salvage Wood Salvage Wood
Year (M Cu. Ft.) Year (M Cu. Ft.)
1953   1,053 1958   1,427
1954   1,888 1959   1,257
1955     1,209 1960   1,976
1956   1,795 1961   1,813
1957   3,663 1962   2,580
Ten-year average, 1953-62, 1,866 M cu. ft.
 90
DEPARTMENT
OF LANDS,
FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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(13) LOGGING INSPECTIONS,  1962
Type of Tenure Operated
Number of Inspections Made
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Leases, Licences, Crown
Grants,
and Other
Tenures
Total
Timber
Sales
Other
Tenures
Total
Vancouver 	
1,195
877
1,854
2,054
1,099
1,430
326
1,369
1,908
1,612
2,625
1,203
3,223
3,962
2,711
4,587
2,765
4,869
4,132
2,249
2,913
600
1,042
717
1,081
7,500
3,365
5,911
4,849
Nelson..	
3,330
Totals, 1962	
7,079
6,645
13,724
18,602
6,353
24,955
Totals, 1961	
7,088
6,463
13,551
18,330
6,242
24,572
Totals, I960..	
7,249
5,120
12,369
C1)
C1)
26,151
Totals, 1959 -   	
6,273
4,898
11,171
C1)
(!)
26,912
Totals, 1958	
5,936
4,341
10,277
(!)
(!)
23,802
Totals, 1957	
7,503
5,940
13,443
(!)
(!)
25,253
Totals, 1956..
7,492
5,841
13,333
C1)
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22,038
Totals, 1955       	
6,818
4,676
11,494
(!)
(1)
22,355
Totals, 1954	
5,855
4,877
10,732
C1)
(1)
21,011
Totals, 1953...	
5,851
4,862
10,713
(!)
(!)
20,656
Ten-year average, 1953-62..
6,714
5,366
12,081
	
23,770
i No breakdown made prior to 1961.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962
93
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
AREAS EXAMINED BY THE FOREST SERVICE FOR MISCELLANEOUS
(IS) PURPOSES OF THE LAND ACT, 1962
Forest District
Applications for
Foreshore Leases
Applications to
Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
10
52
95
1,174
1
11
160
740
3      I        325
18            1,168
14
81
580
Prince Rupert 	
3,082
Totals       	
62
1,269
12
900
21       1      1.493
95
3,662
(16)
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES,  1962
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(M CF.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
etc.
(No.)
Vancouver  —
Prince Rupert  - _
Prince George	
Kamloops  	
Nelson	
Totals, 1962  	
Totals, 1961  	
Totals, 1960  	
Totals, 1959  	
Totals, 1958 _
Totals, 1957- -
Totals, 1956— —
Totals, 1955  _
Totals, 1954  	
Totals, 1953	
Ten-year average, 1953-62
577
286
387
445
176
1,871
1,892
2,122
2,317
1,922
2,582
3,089
3,354
3,085
2,579
2,481
93,921
94,584
77,194
218,364
131,437
615,500
720,144
767,351
681,550
609,563
781,748
1,095,150
1,077,986
781,665
719,234
197,219
191,045
133,545
298,610
101,291
921,710
1,027,243
1,142,479
877,370
890,285
1,171,283
1,273,970
1,131,521
561,601
784,989 I  969,488
22,818 |
1,980,305 I
106,100
1,714,141 |
14,684,720 |
5,372
3,159
8,525
1,760
524
18,508,084 | 19,340
7,687,920 | 14,798
8,807,614 | 29,050
7,387,960 I 27,753
1,772,888 I 24,316
16,099,489 I 39,254
13,981,856 | 44,287
9,885,451 | 16,819
10,532,164 | 76,859
12,887,882 I 12,328
24,000
13,809
26,875
34,430
95,209
128,432
145,525
76,310
141,313
4,000
21,400
73,400
66,665
399,400
564,865
1,395,285
1,405,370
1,124,400
1,146,719
1,149,133
1,916,510
501,820
1,127,346
694,182
11,455,131 | 30,480 I 68,590 | 1,102,563
(17)
TIMBER-SALE RECORD,  1962
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest-protection Tax
(Acres)
Total
10-per-cent
Deposit
Vancouver	
552
254
345
365
163
649
275
355
505
202
1,639
1,006
1,171
1,746
700
603,965
417,210
671,793
1,157,303
635,896
556,724
387,711
589,577
1,117,841
600,597
$5,989,278.47
1,396,470.74
2,054,381.04
Kamloops.         	
Nelson.                	
3,332,619.96
1,942,161.59
Totals	
Cash sales ....                 . ...
1,679
312
1,986
6,262
3,486,167
3,252,450
$14,714,911.80
1,991
	
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HHHHHHHHHHH
 100 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(23) SAW AND SHINGLE MILLS OF THE PROVINCE,  1962
Forest District
Operating
Sawmills
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Shingle-mills
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Shut Down
Sawmills
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Shingle-mills
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals, 1962	
Totals, 1961	
Totals, I960- _
Totals, 1959	
Totals, 1958 	
Totals, 1957..	
Totals, 1956..	
Totals, 1955	
Totals, 1954. -
Totals, 1953	
Ten-year average,
1953-62	
159
191
543
504
230
6,729
1,916
7,937
7,693
3,959
1627
28,234
1,778
29,025
1,938
29,432
2,005
28,280
2,010
27,694
2,255
26,752
2,435
29,080
2,489
28,016
2.346
25,602
2,413
23,300
2,130 |  27,541
25
57
561
30
33
591
60
917
44
950
65
1,138
56
1,141
58
1,390
66
1,381
72
1,804
57
1,108
59
1,121
1,154
512
3,217
559
3,613
558
3,381
587
3,975
586
4,007
514
3,124
390
2,013
404
2,285
367
2,281
286
2,186
476
3,008
10
35
69
195
382
1,400
566
674
7
1
6
64
200
94
114
2
26
14
92
9
49
17
93
6
23
9
37
10
121
8
15
3
19
13
22
12
47
52
 (24)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962
EXPORT OF LOGS (IN F.B.M.), 1962
101
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir
1,088,828
2,150,528
512,353
302,567
1,846,481
5,204,074
2,954,023
2,212,951
4,082,414
11,475,991
26,424,621
131,080
2,646,598
7,017,723
460,468
104,888
18,830,593
Hemlock	
13,142,264
30,351,465
13,247,152
440
7,375
217
1,229,502
7,815
217
16,579
248,101
1,494,182
828
828
5,006
660,201
718,592
1,383,799
Totals, 1962 	
3,773,734
11,215,447
46,151,663
13,143,092
696,436
74,980,372
Totals, 1961 	
9,216,534
28,611,982
48,009,763
12,202,800
3,311,119
101,352,198
Totals, 1960 	
1,391,803
5,351,398
20,872,330
11,805,419
890,260
40,311,210
Totals, 1959      	
486,685
2,601,653
19,608,208
3,999,901
1,839,030
28,535,477
Totals, 1958	
734,991
3,727,452
16,164,689
3,715,124
3,762,411
28,104,667
Totals, 1957      	
524,180
3,987,443
22,016,291
5,625,910
3,421,354
35,575,178
Totals, 1956	
183,859
2,933,129
27,433,037
12,929,722
3,530,479
47,010,226
Totals, 1955 ,	
906,141
7,468,949
58,863,477
16,974,165
4,754,796
88,967,528
Totals, 1954 	
3,948,345
19,595,544
90,691,771
17,465,267
9,274,995
140,975,922
Totals, 1953	
5,341,576
15,853,076
74,187,464
18,974,550
5,788,905
120,145,571
Ten-year average, 1953-62
2,650,785
10,134,607
42,399,869
11,683,595
3,726,978
70,595,834
1 Of this total, 44,255,041  f.b.m.  were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege;
30,725,331 f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas.
SHIPMENTS OF POLES, PILING, MINE-PROPS, FENCE-POSTS,
(25) RAILWAY-TIES, ETC.,  1962
duct
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
Forest District and Pro
United
States
Canada
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles	
Piling  	
Stakes and sticks. .   	
lin. ft.
5,717,147
4,267,547
121,980
86
29,763,837
16,652
2,731,009
15,544
128,370
63,028
2,947,549
2,848
570,609
214,910
2,314,013
77,659
216,600
2,125,369
86,350
45
4,988
4,940
1,191,914
$3,036,760.20
1,450,691.70
3,659.40
25.80
1,785,830.22
24,978.00
1,037,698.62
621.76
45,748.75
14,496.44
934,339.33
113,920.00
336,636.40
47,280.00
1,195,448.00
1,243.00
3,249.00
31,881.00
5,180.00
527.00
209,496.00
198.00
750,906.00
4,587,760
18,450
121,980
86
29,698,857
16,652
1,638,602
271,911
543,573
857,476
3,705,524
Fence-posts      	
pieces
18,855
46,125
Prince Rupert—
.....lin. ft.
f.b.m.
 lin. ft.
1,092,407
15,544
30,535
63,028
1,872,899
2,848
9,920
177,175
911,725
77,659
Prince George—
Poles  -	
97,835
Kamloops—■
...lin. ft.
cords
pieces
..... lin. ft.
1,074,650
560,689
37,735
1,402,288
Nelson—
Poles 	
     „
216,600
1,636,456
488,913
86,350
45
4,404
584
4,940
977,369
214,545
Total value, 1962 ....
	
$11,030,814.62
     |    	
Total value, 1961 ..
$12,412,978.00
 102
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(26)
SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF MINOR PRODUCTS FOR
PROVINCE, 1962
Product
Volume
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
Poles — -                                 lin. ft.
8,791,436
4,267,547
5,261,562
86,350
121,980
77,659
2,125,369
216,600
29,763,837
1,779,175
63,114
4,940
7,836
45
15,544
$4,167,487.57
1,450,691.70
2,129,787.33
5,180.00
3,659.40
1,243.00
31,881.00
3,249.00
1,785,830.22
1,112,520.40
14,522.24
198.00
323,416.00
527.00
621.76
37.7804
Piling                                 .    „
13.1513
19.3076
0.0470
0.0332
Corral-rails      ,,
0.0113
0.2890
Orchard-props - _   „
Cedar shakes.—   pieces
0.0294
16.1895
10 0856
Fence-posts _       ~                „
Shake blanks                                                                                  „
Fence-posts.      cords
Cordwood      „
Boom-sticks   f.b.m.
0.1316
0.0018
2.9319
0.0048
0.0056
Total value _	
$11,030,814.62
100.0000
(27)
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED,  1953-62
Ten-year
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
Average,
1953-62
Old Crown grants	
381
528
609
480
320
215
299
315
268
300
372
Crown grants, 1887-
1906..  	
134
175
218
207
108
93
103
115
121
150
142
Crown grants, 1906-
1914   	
136
160
171
172
97
93
125
123
121
164
136
Section 58, Forest Act-
409
485
653
655
460
362
524
517
470
589
512
Stumpage reservations
95
69
95
82
59
89
108
116
117
109
94
Pre-emptions  -	
10
1
2
6
1
	
1
3
9
3
3
1
10
10
7
7
9
4
4
12
7
24
30
31
46
23
9
21
15
8
20
23
2,881
2,786
3,130
2,859
2,239
1,900
1,926
2,136
2,141
1,991
2,399
Special marks and
63
44
43
71
74
80
85
113
91
90
75
3
1
6
1
1
7
1
1
5
5
3
	
	
	
	
	
2
Totals	
4,139
4,280
4,968
4,589
3,389
2,855
3,201
3,456
3,349
3,441
3,767
Transfers and changes
744
780
867
873
615
598
669
794
691
809
744
 (28)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962
FOREST REVENUE
103
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1958
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1959
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1960
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1961
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1962
10-year
Average,
1953-62
Timber-licence rentals
and fees  - 	
Timber-berth rentals and
fees  	
Timber-lease rentals and
fees  	
Timber-sale rentals and
fees	
Timber-sale stumpage.	
Timber-sale cruising and
advertising	
Timber royalties	
Grazing permits and fees
Forest-protection tax	
Miscellaneous	
Totals	
$362,192.71
19,335.48
70,780.38
425,867.87
21,355,873.18
225,790.42
1,719,957.61
73,093.16
500,914.85
132,917.72
$362,825.25
19,910.61
70,094.39
435,589.31
23,092,737.28
252,985.19
1,890,590.96
86,506.29
510,661.47
121,287.96
$24,886,723.38
$26,843,188.71
$363,597.80
18,712.81
76,493.46
452,788.69
26,374,420.04
277,345.73
2,281,028.09
101,240.36
456,491.27
121,461.72
$30,523,579.97
$366,600.53
21,929.03
59,071.23
480,803.23
24,554,147.30
377,755.89
2,245,313.71
119,876.87
569,749.95
134,824.47
$28,930,072.21
$352,418.29
19,795.95
73,139.35
500,208.12
26,315,940.41
346,627.67
2,433,175.10
137,118.26
550,949.16
161,447.52
$30,890,819.83
$367,985.34
19,942.85
69,089.32
374,095.64
22,053,560.81
254,102.67
2,074,217.54
92,862.38
123,368.93
$25,429,225.48
 104
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 106
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(31)
FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1961/62
Timber-licence rentals and fees
Timber-berth rentals and fees _
Timber-lease rentals and fees	
Timber-sale rentals and fees _
Timber-sale stumpage
Timber-sale cruising and advertising
Timber royalties 	
Grazing permits and fees	
Forest-protection tax 	
Miscellaneous   	
$364,484.71
21,837.56
66,706.38
481,083.80
24,459,993.09
393,053.67
2,300,697.92
116,377.38
549,145.61
149,005.61
$28,902,385.73
10-year Average
$373,967.19
18,230.66
66,489.43
339,652.97
20,074,108.52
228,121.88
2,099,667.30
81,497.44
(!)
112,074.86
$23,393,810.25
1 Formerly credited to Forest Protection Fund.
Note.—The information in respect to taxation collections formerly shown in this statement will be found in
the Details of Revenue section of the Public Accounts.
(32)
FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1961/621
Forest District
Salaries
Expenses
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert..
Prince George.
Kamloops	
Nelson 	
Victoria _
$590,750.38
430,304.69
488,069.54
646,915.18
493,876.74
471,442.47
Totals .
$3,121,359.00
Reforestation and forest nursery..
Forest management	
Forest research 	
Public information and education.
Forest Ranger school._
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association-
Office furniture and fixtures	
Silviculture	
Engineering services-
Forest protection	
Forest surveys.
Grazing Range Improvement Fund2-
Forest-development roads	
Fire suppression .
Peace River community pastures..
$210,071.37
131,726.39
126,905.66
155,233.02
112,344.62
374,141.77
$1,110,422.83
$800,821.75
562,031.08
614,975.20
802,148.20
606,221.36
845,584.24
$4,231,781.83
475,844.68
595,611.28
211,494.20
107,838.49
98,903.90
10,000.00
31,155.31
1,397,046.62
939,916.48
3,177,683.58
1,029,464.58
52,069.03
2,997,835.06
4,497,950.41
19,675.47
$19,874,270.92
1 True gross expenditures.
2 Statement provided in Table 34.
 (33)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962
SCALING FUND
107
Surplus, April 1, 1961	
Collections, fiscal year 1961/62
Expenditures, fiscal year 1961/62
Surplus, March 31, 1962
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1962	
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1962
Surplus, December 31, 1962	
$54,274.04
1,278,029.77
$1,332,303.81
1,185,759.93
$146,543.88
1,027,641.57
$1,174,185.45
985,767.16
$188,418.29
(34)
GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Deficit, April 1, 1961 	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act)
Expenditures, fiscal year 1961/62
Deficit, March 31, 1962	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act)
$20,493.78
53,632.20
$33,138.42
52,069.03
$18,930.61
58,188.69
$39,258.08
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1962    33,295.86
Surplus, December 31, 1962    $5,962.22
 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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109
REPORTED APPROXIMATE EXPENDITURE IN FOREST PROTECTION
(36) BY OTHER AGENCIES,! 1962
Expenditures
Forest District
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
$114,355
131,150
40,000
8,694
140,400
$448,251
45,466
10,000
6,427
61,565
$168,381
6,549
18,445
14,793
28,832
$49,700
24,500
95,500
14,750
42,729
$780,687
207,665
163,945
44,664
273,526
Totals 	
$434,599
$571,709
$237,000
$227,179
$1,470,487
Ten-year average, 1953-62	
$316,646
$423,907
$320,560
$296,986
$1,358,099
■ Principally forest industry.
(37)    SUMMARY OF SNAG-FALLING,  1962, VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total area logged, 1962	
Logged in small exempted operations i       388
Assessed for non-compliance, less 468 acres subsequently felled  1,528
Balance logged acres snagged, 1962
Snags felled 1962 by Forest Service Protection Division	
Snags felled 1962 by Forest Service Reforestation Division
Total area snagged, 1962 	
Acres
90,014
1,916
88,098
8,324
3,432
99,854
- Exemption granted under subsection (3) of section 116 of the Forest Act.
(38)
SUMMARY OF LOGGING SLASH REPORTED IN  1962,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total area logged, 1962  _	
Area covered by full hazard reports	
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash disposal	
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from slash and snag disposal) 1   	
Slash created and not reported in 1962
90,014
49,180
24,380
388
73,948
16,066
i Exemption granted under subsection (3) of section 116 of the Forest Act.
 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ACREAGE ANALYSIS OF SLASH DISPOSAL REQUIRED,  1962,
(39) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1962 19621 Total Acres
Broadcast burning  14,543 18,325 32,868
Spot burning    8,258 8,054 16,312
Totals
22,801
26,379
49,180
1962 reports not recommending slash disposal  24,380
1962 slash on very small operations exempted without special examination        388
Total area of slash dealt with, 1962
24,768
73,948
1 Does not include the estimated 16,066 acres (see Table 40) created too late to be dealt with in 1962.
ANALYSIS OF PROGRESS IN SLASH DISPOSAL, 1962,
(10) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total disposal required (see Table 41)   49,180
Acres of Slash
Type of Disposal Prior to 1962 1962 Total Acres
Spring broadcast burning  47 271 318
Spring spot burning   245 133 378
Fall broadcast burning  18,356 15,185 33,541
Fall spot burning  6,120 4,545 10,665
Total burning completed  24,768 20,134 44,902
Burning by accidental fires     2,304
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc.     	
Total  47,206
Balance reported slash not yet abated     1,974
Slash created, 1962—acres assessed         82
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1962  16,066
Total area of slash carried over to 1963 for disposition1  18,122
i Does not show the acreage instructed in 1962 to be extended or assessed in 1963.
Actual area burned in spring spot burning, 28 acres.
Actual area burned in fall spot burning, 916 acres.
The above figures do not include 1961 slash-burn reports received too late for inclusion in 1962 Annual
Report, 1,783 acres.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962
111
SUMMARY OF SLASH-BURN DAMAGE AND COSTS,  1962,
(41) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1962  627
Net damage to forest-cover  $12,444.28
Net damage to cut products       2,734.50
Net damage to equipment and property     12,083.65
Total damage  $27,262.43
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Cost per Cost per
Total Cost Acres MB.F. Acre
(a) Spring broadcast burning  $9,164.00 318 $0.72 $28.81
(b) Spring spot burning  365.00 378 .032 .97
(c) Fall broadcast burning   121,268.75 33,541 .09 3.31
(d) Fall spot burning  14,965.00 10,665 .046 1.40
(42)
FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS,  1962
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
2
3
3
17
3
5
9
3
45
12
12
44
53
34
11
85
20
48
124
68
82
29
77
188
184
29
16
33
97
77
45
5
5
26
31
1
5
5
261
126
222
536
391
17.0
8.2
14.4
Kamloops2	
34.9
25.5
Totals..	
28
74
154
345
560
252
112
"
1,536
100.0
1.8
4.8
10.0
22.5
36.5
16.4
7.3
0.7
100.0
Ten-year average,
1953-62	
30
83
275
243
563
462
141
25
1,822
1.6
4.6
15.1
13.3
30.9
25.4
7.7
1.4
100.0
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2,250
67
78
83
2,479
i Excludes 2,380 railroad-tie fires,
2 Excludes 99 railroad-tie fires.
 112 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(43) NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES,  1962
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35
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51
12
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31
3
50
13
261
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20
26
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126
8.2
100
31
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13
19
8
15
5
19
6
222
14.4
199
58
25
65
23
32
6
29
5
66
28
536
34.9
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239
32
3
38
5
11
11
9
34
9
391
25.5
Totals	
615
182
41
162
60
62 |     35
109
25
183
62
1,536
100.0
40.0
11.9
2.7
10.6
3.9
4.0 |    2.3
7.1
1.6
11.9
4.0
100.0
Ten-year average,
1953-62 _
648
207
116
240
76
76
32
141
30
201
55
1,822
35.6
11.4
6.4
13.2
4.2
4.2 |    1.7
7.7
1.6
11.0
3.0
100.0
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2,479
	
	
	
	
2,479
i Excludes 2,380 railroad-tie fires.
2 Excludes 99 railroad-tie fires.
(44)   NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE LAST TEN YEARS
Causes
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
Total
597
174
105
171
47
7
10
83
10
109
28
116
157
69
120
63
3
11
64
12
79
21
418
195
74
206
47
2
24
89
15
132
50
497
214
135
281
112
47
73
183
27
213
73
307
170
85
182
65
48
46
107
22
172
45
1,150
296
162
478
120
131
18
246
53
310
94
184
172
88
211
75
190
30
204
34
253
33
1,166
241
245
257
82
87
36
137
54
271
59
1,426
269
154
336
86
179
36
194
49
290
83
615
182
41
162
60
62
35
109
25
183
62
6,476
2,070
Railroads operating!	
Smokers    	
Brush-burning (not railway or right-
1,158
2,404
757
756
Road   and  power-,   telephone-,   and
319
Industrial operations (logging, etc.)	
Incendiary 	
Miscellaneous known causes —	
1,416
301
2,012
548
Totals
1,341
715
1,252
1855
1,249
3,058
1,474
2,635
3,102
1,536
18,217
79
49
132
955
370
1,062
536
1,478
1,489
2,479
8,629
i Excludes 8,629 railroad-tie fires.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1962
113
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 114 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(46) DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS,  19621
Forest District
Forest
Products
Cut, Logs,
Lumber, etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
$127,357.00
269.00
$10,000.00
25.00
150.00
4,295.00
11,500.00
$82,110.00
1,060.00
$30,700.00
720.00
150.00
950.00
1.00
$250,167.00
2,074.00
300.00
16,453.00
11,706.00
89.1
0.7
Prince George	
0.1
1,208.00
205.00
10,000.00
5.9
Nelson 	
4.2
Totals	
$129,039.00
$25,970.00 |    $93,170.00
$32,521.00
$280,700.00 |      100.0
46.0
9.2    |            33.2
11.6 1           100 0    |
Ten-year average, 1953-62—
$86,304.00 |    $27,927.00 | $166,181.00
$23,587.00 | $303,999.00 \      	
28.4
9.2
54.7
7.7
100.0
1 Does not include intentional slash burns.   (For this item see page 111.)
(47)
DAMAGE TO FOREST-COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES,  1962-
PART Ii
Merchantable Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
Net Stumpage
Loss
Net Area
Killed
Present
Value
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert...	
Prince George  - —
Acres
211
542
806
1,812
73
M Cu. Ft.
782
904
1,407
1,407
123
M Cu. Ft.
559
335
128
250
7
$
9,474
14,188
27,341
19,516
1,491
Acres
172
311
243
1,229
196
$
8,454
7,933
2,746
18,444
6,068
Totals —	
3,444              3,972
1,279
72,0102    |       2,151      |        43,6452
7.6               100.0
32.2
23.1      |           4.7      |            14.0
Ten-year average, 1953-62
58,968      |      82,270
26,734
1,263,921              57,326      |   1,166,682
13.0
100.0
32.5
45.9
12.7
42.3
1 Does not include intentional slash burns.    (For this item see page 111.)
2 The dollar value of losses in merchantable and immature timber represents only stumpage loss to the
Crown.   Actual payroll loss to the Province is 10 times these figures.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962
115
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 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(48)
FIRE CAUSES, AREA BURNED, FOREST SERVICE COST,
AND TOTAL DAMAGE, 1962
Causes
Fire Causes
Number
Per
Cent
Area Burned
Acres
Per
Cent
Forest Service
Cost
Cost
Per
Cent
Total Damage
Value
Per
Cent
Lightning  	
Recreational (campers, etc.).
Railroads operatingi	
Smokers.
Brush-burning (not railway or
right-of-way clearing) 	
Range-burning...  	
Road and power-, telephone-, and
pipe-line construction	
Industrial operations (logging,
etc.)	
Incendiary..
Miscellaneous known causes..
Unknown causes 	
Totals 	
615
182
41
162
60
62
109
25
183
62
1,536
40.0
11.9
2.7
10.6
3.9
4.0
2.3
7.1
1.6
11.9
4.0
100.0
8,710
833
107
1,767
2,029
15,631
115
4,331
20
11,846
228
45,617
19.1
1.8
0.2
3.9
4.4
34.3
0.3
9.5
26.0
0.5
100.0
$160,175
24,343
6,955
32,399
3,490
23,514
3,927
55,487
2,817
23,664
4,866
$341,637
46.9
7.1
2.0
9.5
1.0
6.9
1.2
16.3
0.8
6.9
1.4
100.0
$51,677
8,936
4,552
41,279
4,238
51,828
6,046
249,189
963
161,864
11,573
$592,145
8.7
1.5
0.8
7.0
0.7
8.7
1.0
42.1
0.2
27.3
2.0
100.0
i Excludes 2,479 railroad-tie fires.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962
117
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(S2) ENROLMENT AT RANGER COURSE, 1962
Forest District
Forest
Assistants,
Cruisers,
Etc.
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Graduations
2
1
—
3
3
2
31
6
3
3
4
4
6
3
3
4
Kamloops —
4
6
Attendance, 1962    	
3
—
—
17
._.
20
20
Attendance, 1961	
3
__
—
17
20
—
Attendance, 1960	
4
—
17
—
21
21
Attendance, 1959	
4
....
.._
17
—
21
	
Attendance, 1959	
—
21
—
21
21
Attendance, 1958	
—
—
21
....
21
—
Attendance, 1957	
4
_
....
26
—
30
30
Attendance, 1956	
4
—
_
26
—
30
—
Attendance, 1956	
3
—
....
18
—
21
21
Attendance, 1955	
3
.-.
18
21
—
Attendance, 1954	
—
—
—
20
—
20
20
Attendance, 1953	
—
21
—
21
—
Attendance, 1953..	
20
....
20
20
Attendance, 1952.	
—
—
20
_..
20
—
....
3
3
15
—
21
21
Attendance, 1950	
3
3
15
—
21
21
Attendance, 1949	
3
2
16
21
—
Attendance, 1948	
4
2
12
2
20
20
8
....
12
—
20
20
Attendance, 1946	
2
9
9
—
20
20
i Started with four Assistant Rangers.   One man was returned to district for health reasons,
from 21 to 20 accordingly.   It was too far advanced to take a replacement.
Note.—Since 1949/50, each class has taken Wi years to complete the course.
Class reduced
Enrolment at Basic Course, 1962
Forest District
Forest
Assistants,
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Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Graduations
Class 1
Vancouver.-	
1
1
i
....
—
3
3
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Nelson   	
4
Attendance, 1962
3
—
17
20
20
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962
121
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962
FOREST SERVICE LIBRARY,  1953-62
123
Classification
Items Catalogued and Indexed
10-year
Average,
1953-62
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961 |
1962
41
484
90
111
66
1,800
62
246
92
124
127
932
55
190
94
136
141
1,090
37
179
170
151
177
1,321
45
266
109
155
214
1,417
48
177
159
133
230
1,139
43
142
165
130
302
1,502
39
123
200
115
274
999
31
92
135
134
375
878
29
113
140
151
378
911
43
Government reports and bulle-
201
Ofher bulletins and reports
135
134
228
1,198
(56)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED
District
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
Kamloops.
Nelson	
Prince George-
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
1,272
459
193
1962..
1961..
1960.
1959-
1958-
1957_
1956-
1955-.
1954-
1953-
1,730
122,027
18,211
6,592
108,894
3,414
1,240
353
4,133
21,318
1,156
896
1,924
146,830
5,007
23,370
1.825
132,749
4,985
21,309
1,726
127,148
4,504
19,460
1,683
124,425
4,377
20,604
1,571
122,489
4,169
20,927
1,640
128,978
3,886
20,693
1,776
127,182
3,667
22,310
1,705
121,284
3,575
22,560
1,750
111,767
3,738
24,909
23,172
 124
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 (59)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1962
FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES TO DECEMBER 31, 1962
129
Forest District
Number
of
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Mature
Volume
(Cu. Ft.)
Allowable
Annual Cut
(Cu. Ft.)
Crown
Private
Total
Vancouver  	
18
4
19
8
8
2,389
1,160
4,367
2,169
2,246
343
387
728
307
844
2,732
1,547
5,095
2,476
3,090
4,862,377
1,647,627
7,839,005
2,004,516
2,201,540
97,200
34,190
143,000
51,900
Nelson  	
52,700
Totals	
57
12,331
2,609
14,940
18,555,065
378,990
TREE-FARMS (EXCLUDING THOSE IN TREE-FARM LICENCES)
(60) TO DECEMBER 31,  1962
Forest District
Number
of Tree-
farms
Productive
Area
(Acres)
Mature
Volume
(MCu. Ft.)
Allowable
Annual Cut
(M Cu. Ft.)
Vancouver-	
Nelson._	
18
6
394,385
271,281
1,223,325
194,2571
18,157
2,3402
Totals                  	
24
665,666
1,417,582
20,497
i Plus 1,640,724 Christmas trees.
2 Plus 386,740 Christmas trees.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1963
1,560-263-5245
I
   

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