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Department of Agriculture FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 1961 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1962

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
FIFTY-SIXTH
ANNUAL REPORT
1961
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1962
  To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
VC, P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1961.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C.
FRANK RICHTER,
Minister of Agriculture.
  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF, 1961
Minister of Agriculture-
Honourable Frank Richter
Minister's Secretary:
Miss M. Jewell
Deputy Minister:
Wm. MacGillivray
Administrative:
N. L. Camsusa, Administrative Assistant, Victoria.
J. S. Wells, Accountant, Victoria.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria.
B. K. Oxendale, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria.
Markets and Statistics:
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria.
M. A. Cronkhite, B.S.A., Farm Management Adviser, Victoria.
Horticulture:
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria.
J. A. Smith, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna.
D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver.
M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon.
I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford.
A. E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria.
W. F. Morton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna.
J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston.
G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, New Westminster.
M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., M.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton.
A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland.
R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna.
B. A. Hodge, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Vernon.
J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Vancouver.
W. D. Christie, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Greenhouse and Nursery Crop), Abbotsford.
E. M. King, B.S.A., M.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Kelowna.
Apiary:
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Court-house, Vernon.
Plant Pathology:
W. R. Foster, B.Sc, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria.
J. A. Moisey, B.A., M.Sc, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Kelowna.
Entomology:
C. L. Neilson, B.S.A., M.Sc, Provincial Entomologist, Victoria.
J. C. Arrand, B.S.A., M.Sc, Assistant Entomologist, Vernon.
Live Stock:
A. Kidd, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria.
J. C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Vancouver.
E. V. Langford, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector and Assistant Animal
Pathologist, Vancouver.
 DD 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Live Stock—Continued
F. C. Clark, B.S.A., M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster.
T. Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria.
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Nicola.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops.
R. Pigeon, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake.
P. G. Lawrence, Inspector, Vancouver.
S. Munro, Deputy Brand Inspector, Clinton.
I. D. C. Clark, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops.
R. L. Lancaster, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Abbotsford.
J. Mustard, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster.
W. C. Newby, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Abbotsford.
K. H. Thompson, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Prince George.
C. C. Cunningham, B.S.A., D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson.
J. A. Mace, Superintendent, Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Victoria.
H. Johnson, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Abbotsford.
J. R. Hannam, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Chilliwack.
Mrs. A. B. Mah, B.Sc, Bacteriologist, Vancouver.
R. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria.
W. H. Burr, Dairy Farm Inspector, Abbotsford.
K. G. Fletcher, Dairy Farm Inspector, Abbotsford.
A. L. Kirkby, Dairy Farm Inspector, Nanaimo.
B. R. Stewart, Dairy Farm Inspector, Chilliwack.
J. J. Comley, Dairy Farm Inspector, Vernon.
Dairy:
K. G. Savage, B.S.A., M.Sc, Dairy Commissioner, Victoria.
R. N. Hitchman, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Prince George.
N. H. Ingledew, B.S.A., M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson.
G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna.
P. Regehr, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria.
C. Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver.
Poultry:
W. H. Pope, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria.
H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster.
N. J. Supeene, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Abbotsford.
C. W. Wood, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Kelowna.
D. M. Hamilton, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Nanaimo.
R. C. Bentley, Resident Supervisor, Random Sample Poultry Test Station, Abbotsford.
Field Crops:
N. F. Putnam, B.Sc, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant in Field Crops, New Westminster.
J. H. Neufeld, B.S.A., Soil Analyst, Victoria.
Farmers' Institutes:
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria.
Soil Survey:
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Senior Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
M. G. Driehuyzen, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Cloverdale.
C. H. Brownlee, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
A. B, Dawson, B.A., B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
V. E. Osborne, B.S.A., M.Sc, Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
V. K. Comar, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
G. G. Runka, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961
DD 7
Agricultural Development and Extension:
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Director, Victoria.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria.
G. L. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops.
S. G. Preston, B.S.A., M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George.
A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek.
J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook.
K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan.
S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay.
G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cloverdale.
P. E. Ewert, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Mission City.
G. Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack.
J. F. Carmichael, B.Sc, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks.
J. C. Ryder, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vernon.
J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm.
R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops.
R. C. Fry, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel.
A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George.
J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers.
R. W. Brown, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof.
J. E. Hall, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Abbotsford.
J. E. Piercy, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Fort St. John.
R. C. Bailey, B.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria.
E. M. Soder, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops.
G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria.
K. E. May, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria.
T. A. Windt, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria.
Miss Lorna Michael, B.Sc(H.Ec), Home Economist, Victoria.
H. Barber, Accountant, Land Clearing Division, Victoria.
Land Settlement Board:
Chairman: Wm. MacGillivray, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria.
Director: G. L. Landon, Director, Agricultural Development and Extension, Victoria.
Director: L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria.
Secretary: Miss C. Stephenson, Victoria.
Inspector: I. Spielmans, Nelson.
Dyking Commissioner and Inspector of Dykes:
W. R. Meighen, B.Sc, New Westminster.
Deputy Dyking Commissioner:
W. S. Jackson, B.A.Sc, New Westminster.
Southern Okanagan Lands Project:
F. O. McDonald, Project Manager, Oliver.
Institutional Farms:
W. B. Richardson, B.S.A., Superintendent, Essondale.
L. King, Farm Foreman, Tranquille.
P. Cummins, Farm Foreman, Colquitz.
D. F. Caldow, Farm Foreman, Essondale.
Milk Board:
E. C. Carr, Chairman, Vancouver.
W. J. Anderson, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D., Member, Vancouver.
J. D. Honeyman, Member, Ladner.
G. T. Bell, Chief Clerk, Vancouver.
E. D. Daum, Accountant, Vancouver.
R. E. d'Easum, Inspector, Vancouver.
J. W. McIntosh, Inspector, Vancouver.
A. S. Dixon, Inspector, Nanaimo.
G. Crothers, Inspector, Kelowna.
  :
Page
11
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Report of the Deputy Minister	
Report of Markets and Statistics Branch —  13
Report of Horticultural Branch  16
Report of Plant Pathology Branch  21
Report of Entomology Branch j.  22
Report of Apiary Branch .__ 25
Report of Live Stock Branch  26
Report of Dairy Branch  34
Report of Poultry Branch 4_T„. 37
Report of Field Crops Branch  39
Report of Farmers' Institutes  42
Report of Soil Survey Branch  43
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch  45
Report of Southern Okanagan Lands Project  51
Report of Land Settlement Board  52
Report of Dyking and Drainage  52
Appendices—
No.    1. Slaughter in Abattoirs Licensed under the Stock Brands Act and
Provincial Meat Inspection Act  53
No.   2. Dairy-farm Inspections under Milk Industry Act_
53
No. 3. Cattle and Hide Inspections  54
No. 4. Breed Averages for 1960    54
No. 5. Animal Pathology Specimen Examinations  55
No. 6. Poultry-flock Approval  55
No. 7. Breeds Approved for Egg Production  55
No. 8. Turkey-flock Approval  55
No. 9. Turkey-flock Approval by Breed  56
9
 DD 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Appendices—Continued
Page
No. 10. Poultry Vaccine Distribution  56
No. 11. Production of Grass and Legume Seeds, 1960-61  56
No. 12. Feed-grain Movements under Freight Assistance  57
No. 13. Tree-fruit Production, 1960, and Estimate for 1961  57
No. 14. Small-fruits Acreages, 1960  57
No. 15. Production of Small Fruits, Grapes, and Filberts for 1960 and
Estimate for 1961  58
No. 16. Vegetable Acreage and Production, 1961 Estimate     58
No. 17. Tree-fruit Nursery-stock Production, 1958-61  59
No. 18. Comparison of Apple-tree Numbers by Variety, 1958-61  59
No. 19. Production of Apple Root-stocks, 1959-61  59
No. 20. Publications Printed in 1961  60
 Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable Frank Richter,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to present herewith the Fifty-sixth Annual Report of
the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31, 1961.
The Report represents a condensed review of the activities of all branches and
divisions of the Department during the year. Detailed data are on file and available
for reference.
The year 1961 can be considered a satisfactory one for agriculture, in which
farm cash income reached a record level of more than $130,000,000, reflecting
sustained production and generally firm market demand for farm products.
While the industry has continued to demonstrate its stability to a degree that
is encouraging, it is not without a number of problems of a serious nature. Among
these is the matter of land and operating costs, which continue at a high level and
threaten to rise further as urban expansion exerts increasing pressure on land use
in the Province.
In the dairy industry the steady increase in the production of fluid milk continues to outstrip consumption, in turn exerting strong downward pressure on unit
returns. A parallel situation has developed in the tree-fruits industry, in which
mounting distribution costs and increasing production in competing areas pose a
threat to the sales potential in a number of the major market outlets for fruit.
At the secondary level, the closing-down of one of the major meat-packing
operations in Vancouver reflected the changed economics in that industry, which
now tends to favour imports of dressed meats over local slaughtering.
Notwithstanding these and related problems, British Columbia's agriculture can
still be said to be progressing on a relatively sound basis. The continued increase
in the Province's population, coupled with a rising personal income, offers encouraging prospects for future progress at the farm level.
This year the Department continued its programme of extension activities with
farmers and farm groups, with emphasis on field-days and refresher courses. Complementing this has been an increased use of field trials and research projects in
co-operation with other agencies, including the Canada Department of Agriculture
and the University of British Columbia.
The Horticultural Branch conducted a successful demonstration showing the
value of certified strawberry plants during the year, and launched a sprayer improvement programme in the Okanagan and Kootenay Valleys. Also introduced
was a new system of certification of tree-fruit nursery stock.
In the related fields of plant pathology and entomology, problems of bacterial
ring-rot in potatoes and forest tent caterpillar in Fraser Valley trees respectively
received attention.
Demonstrations of the value of honeybees as pollinators to increase crop yields
of alsike clover and blueberries were most successful this year. Yields of the former
were increased by 60 per cent above the average, according to reports of the Apiary
Branch.
The Live Stock Branch reported continued progress in the blood testing of
cattle in the region extending from the North Thompson Valley southward to the
11
 DD  12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
International Boundary. With the establishment of the East Kootenay and Fraser
Valley Brucellosis-control Areas as certified brucellosis-free areas during the year
brought to seven the number of such areas in the Province. A total of over 65,000
calfhood vaccinations was also carried out.
Twenty-six students enrolled in the revised Dairy Short Course conducted by
the Dairy Branch this year, and there were nine applicants for the Babcock Tester's
Licence Course. The Branch reported a total of over 77,000 resazurin tests on
milk for the year, with a 3.6-per-cent failure rate.
Twenty afternoon and evening classes for producers in the main poultry-
raising areas were organized by the Poultry Branch in 1961. The Branch also
reported results on one laying and two broiler tests, involving 13,000 birds at the
Random Sample Testing Station at Abbotsford.
The Field Crops Branch continued its programme of demonstration work on
fertilizers and herbicides, as well as cereal and forage crops. A total of 3,600 soil
and 212 forage samples was analysed by the Branch's laboratory in Victoria.
The survey of the soil types in Sumas and Chilliwhack Mumcipalities and
adjacent unorganized territory was completed by the Soil Survey Branch, involving
close to 83,000 acres of land. The report of the survey on the Upper Columbia
River valley was published, and a survey of the Thompson River valley commenced
this year.
The Agricultural Development and Extension Branch reported an increased
use of specialist services and short courses as a part of a programme aimed at
broader coverage of the main aspects of agriculture. The Engineering Division of
the Branch provided four tractor-maintenance courses and several field-days devoted
to sprayer demonstrations and farm drainage systems. Topographic surveys were
carried out and plans prepared for thirty-six farms, involving some 1,800 acres of
land.
A total of 7,500 acres was cleared and over 4,000 acres broken under terms
of the Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act in 1961. This brought the cumulative totals of cleared and broken land since 1946 to 100,000 and 40,000 acres
respectively.
The 4-H Club Division was enlarged this year with the addition of a graduate
home economist. This provided for additional assistance to rural families in domestic science. The Division reported a record enrolment of over 3,000 members in
263 clubs throughout the Province, indicating a renewed interest in this field.
The Dyking Commissioner and the manager of the Southern Okanagan Lands
Project both reported normal operations and maintenance for 1961, while the Land
Settlement Board recorded sales in the amount of $69,282.40.
LEGISLATION
This year minor amendments were made to the Beef Grading Act, Dyking
Assessments Adjustment Act, Farmers' and Women's Institutes Act, and the Meat
Inspection Act.
APPOINTMENTS
C. C. Cunningham, B.S.A., D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, January 1st.
M. G. Driehuyzen, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, May 5th.
Miss L. R. Michael, B.Sc. (H.Ec), Home Economist, June 16th.
K. G. Savage, B.Sc, M.Sc, Dairy Commissioner, August 1st.
G. G. Runka, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, September 1st.
Mrs. A. B. Mah, B.Sc, Bacteriologist, November 27th.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1961 DD 13
SUPERANNUATION
G. Patchett, Dairy Commissioner, July 31st.
PUBLICATIONS
Appendix No. 20 contains a listing of publications issued in 1961.
MARKETS AND STATISTICS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner
SYNOPSIS
Favourable growing conditions combined with steady market demand resulted
in a generally satisfactory year in all major segments of British Columbia agriculture
in 1961. With the exception of fruits, production equalled or exceeded the levels
of the preceding year.
The index of farm prices (1935-39=100) held a firmer tone throughout the
year, averaging 275.6, as compared with 271.6 in 1960. Higher returns for live
stock and eggs were the chief contributing factors to this index gain.
Preliminary estimates place the total cash income from the sale of farm products at approximately $134,352,000, a rise of 5Vi per cent over the 1960 total,
and a record high for the industry in this Province. Farm net income also set a
record of $59,671,000, an increase of nearly $3,500,000 over the 1960 figure.
FEEDS
Live-stock and poultry feeds registered price gains during the year, reflecting
increased demand and decreased supplies. Feed-wheat, barley, and all-mash laying
ration rose by $7 per ton by late summer, while oats and dairy mash increased by
$6 and $5 respectively.
Ample stocks of hay and fodder kept prices of these basic items unchanged
from 1960 averages.
LIVE STOCK
An unexpected strengthening of the market for beef cattle highlighted the
live-stock market picture in 1961. Fed cattle averaged $21 through the early
months, dipped slightly by midsummer, then closed out the year at around $22.
Heavy calves reached a top of $24.50; lighter weights, $27.
Cattle export shipments to the United States rose sharply to a total of 21,158
head for the year, a gain of 47 per cent over the 1960 figure.
The general market trend toward younger cattle was again evident this year,
as more British Columbia beef-growers converted their operations to a cow-calf
basis. As a result, the numbers of beef cows and heifers in the Province increased
by nearly 5 per cent during the year.
Hog prices registered a moderate decline in the latter half of 1961, dropping
about $2 per hundredweight below comparable 1960 averages. Affecting total
returns was the discontinuance in October of the premium on Grade Bj hogs.
 DD  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sheep and lamb prices also declined slightly this year, averaging about $1
below 1960 quotations by December. The sheep and lamb population also dripped
to a Provincial total of only 55,000 head by late autumn.
POULTRY AND EGGS
Commercial egg production increased by nearly 4 per cent this year at an
average weighted producer price of 32.1 cents per dozen, a gain of slightly less than
1 cent. Although eggs placed in registered hatcheries for laying purposes showed
an increase of 5 per cent, domestic supplies of eggs during the latter months of the
year were insufficient to meet market demand.
Once again production of poultry meat recorded an increase, rising to a record
total of over 40,000,000 pounds. The bulk of this increase was contributed by
a further sharp rise in broiler production, amounting to more than 13,000,000
pounds for the year.
For the first time in recent years the production of broilers outstripped immediate market capacity, driving producer prices down to 16Vi cents per pound.
Production cutbacks and a continued firm demand brought prices up by 1 Vi cents
late in the year.
Sharp increases in turkey production depressed producer prices to 28 cents
per pound for popular weights, a decline of 7 cents from the 1960 level.
DAIRY PRODUCTS
The dairy industry in 1961 continued its established trend toward annual
production gains. Output of fluid milk increased by 5 per cent to a total for the
year of 918,000,000 pounds.
As a result of the failure of fluid-milk consumption to keep pace with this
rate of increased production, output of dairy products also showed marked gains,
with Cheddar cheese up 27 per cent, butter 20 per cent, ice-cream 8 per cent, and
cottage cheese 5 per cent.
While the average farm value for all milk produced in the Province declined
to an estimated $4.30 per hundredweight, total returns for the dairy industry for
the year increased to approximately $38,000,000.
Dairy-cow numbers showed a moderate increase of 2,000 over the 1960 population, bringing the Provincial total to 96,000 head.
FRUIT
Total production of all fruits was down 16 per cent at 156,000 tons this year.
In tree fruits, only cherries recorded an increase, while grapes and blueberries were
the only small fruits to reverse the general trend. The Okanagan cherry-crop
totalled 376,652 packages, the largest in twelve years.
The 1961 apple-crop was down 20 per cent from the preceding year at 100,000
tons. Higher prices tended to offset this decline however, bringing total returns
well up to 1960 levels. Shipments of over 700,000 boxes to the United Kingdom
brought returns significantly higher than the average established in recent years.
For the first time, 42 tons of fresh cherries, 300 tons of apricots, and a carlot
of peaches were shipped to the United Kingdom market this year. Results from
the first two of these items were encouraging.
Production of grapes doubled the 1960 total this year as recent plantings came
into bearing.   Further increases appear likely in the near future.
Prices for all fruits were equal to, or higher than, those realized in 1960.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1961 DD 15
VEGETABLES
Substantial increases in the output of beans, corn, and peas combined to bring
1961 vegetable production to 74,000 tons, a gain of 19 per cent over the previous
year's total. This was achieved on virtually the same total acreage as that seeded
in 1960.   Decreased yields were registered by carrots, onions, and field tomatoes.
Prices for all major vegetable-crops were generally firm throughout, averaging
slightly higher than those realized in 1960.
FIELD CROPS
Although seeded acreage in potatoes was up this year, lower yields resulted
in a total crop no greater than the 105,000 tons lifted in 1960. Prices were down,
but sharp declines were avoided through the Federal Government's action in placing
a fair value for duty on United States imports in July.
In contrast to the major grain-growing areas of the country, British Columbia
harvested an excellent crop in 1961. A total of 8,115,000 bushels of cereal grains
was taken off, of which 4,300,000 bushels were oats.
Prices were firm and grades were above average, producing significant increases
over all. Wheat, for example, found a ready cash sale for feeding purposes at prices
as high as $1.35 per bushel.
Production of forage-crop seed was down 20 per cent this year, due primarily
to sharp declines in creeping red fescue and alsike clover. Prices generally remained
at the depressed levels established in 1960.
MISCELLANEOUS
The 1961 honey-crop reached a new all-time record for the second successive
year as a total of 2,080,000 pounds was extracted from 21,514 colonies. Prices
remained unchanged at 21 cents per pound wholesale.
Wool production increased to 391,000 pounds as 50,200 sheep yielded an
average fleece weight of 7.8 pounds.
LEGISLATION
Two schemes pursuant to the Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia)
Act were passed by Order in Council during the year. The first, the British Columbia Egg Marketing Scheme, was voted on in a plebiscite among all poultrymen
having 500 or more laying birds, and was defeated by a 2 to 1 majority.
The second, the British Columbia Broiler Marketing Scheme, 1961, was similarly voted on, and received the endorsation of 84 per cent of the eligible producers.
A three-man marketing board was subsequently elected to control the marketing of
broiler chickens produced in the Province.
Further revisions to the regulation pursuant to the Fruit, Vegetables, and Honey
Grades Act were also drawn up and published.
ADVERTISING
A new policy of dollar-matching grants in aid of promotional advertising of
British Columbia farm products was introduced this year, with encouraging results.
Products featured included Cheddar cheese, potatoes, tree fruits, and loganberries.
 DD 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist
The Horticultural Branch continued its intensive programme of service to the
farmers throughout horticultural areas of Southern British Columbia. In addition,
specialist service was provided to Central British Columbia and the Peace River
District. Farm contacts were reinforced by the use of demonstration plots, mass
media, and group meetings.
Some of the programme highlights include the successful demonstration of
the value of certified strawberries, the institution of a sprayer improvement programme in the Okanagan Valley and Creston, the introduction of a scheme to certify
tree-fruit nursery stock, and general improvement in the production of greenhouse
crops.
Reports on horticultural-crop development, by means of the Horticultural
Newsletter, have been streamlined by issuing a brief weekly summary of crop development and a regular schedule of crop estimates.
TREE FRUITS
The 1961 tree-fruit crop was light, with notable deficiencies in Bartlett pears,
Mcintosh apples, and prunes. Orchard labour was in good supply. A cool spring
followed by a warm summer favoured the development of codling moth, mites, apple
scab, and mildew.   See Appendix No. 13 for production figures.
The cool spring weather reduced the fruit-set in all crops, with the exception
of cherries, in which production reached the highest level since 1949-50. However, the warm summer provided excellent growing conditions, resulting in generally
good sizing and quality. This was particularly evident in Bartlett pears, in which
improved size and quality helped offset the lightest crop in a decade. There was
also less " pear decline " than has been evident in recent years.
Similarly, the warm summer brought most of the peach-crop to maturity in
August, so that the inferior quality usually associated with September harvesting
was avoided.
Fruit size was variable and colour was slow in developing in the apple-crop as
a result of the prolonged warm weather. This was particularly evident in the
Mcintosh variety. Newtowns were generally small and Winesaps medium to small
in size.
The change to bulk handling of tree fruits continues in packing-houses throughout the Okanagan. Grading equipment and handling facilities are showing marked
improvements.
Sprayer Testing
Short courses have been given to Interior horticulturists so that they will be
fully aware of the requirements of an efficient spray machine. Air-speed indicators
were supplied to each office during the past year to assist in this programme. In
almost every instance where the service was requested, improvements were possible
in the machine.   This programme will be continued in the coming season.
Bird Damage
Damage was reported from evening and pine grosbeaks, which destroyed
fruit buds in the spring. Starlings were noticeably present in the early autumn.
Orchardists made extensive use of scare guns, and the industry paid a bounty on
birds shot.   Many built traps, using the plans distributed by this Branch.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961 DD  17
SMALL FRUITS
A small-fruit survey was carried out in the Province during the winter of 1960
and early spring of 1961 to determine the acreage and varieties grown throughout
the major small-fruit areas of the Province.    (See Appendix No. 14.)
The highlight of the survey is the increase in blueberry acreage from 553 to
858 acres between 1957 and 1960. Cranberries have also increased by a third
during the same period to a record high of 148 acres in 1960. Strawberry acreage
declined in all areas of the Province. However, spring plantings of an estimated
450 acres will restore the Lower Mainland industry to its former position. A slight
increase in loganberry acreage was noted on Vancouver Island, the main area of
production for this crop.
Blueberries.—The market demand for fresh and processing blueberries is brisk.
Growers are expanding their acreages, and many new growers are interested in this
crop. By the end of next year it is estimated that there will be well over 1,000
acres planted. A decade ago the production was less than 20,000 pounds; this
year it was 1,882,000 pounds. Co-operation has been given in a variety testing
programme for processing, through the Research Station at Summerland.
Cranberries.—The production of cranberries increased by over 100 per cent
in the past year. This was possible through new acreage and improved knowledge
of the crop.   The trend is to larger crops in the future.
Loganberries.—The crop was 10 per cent heavier than last year, and an even
larger crop would have been harvested if the extremely hot weather in July had
not damaged some of the fruit. The wine industry continues to take a large portion
of the production.
Strawberries.—There is a trend toward larger units of production in strawberries, with several plantings in excess of 25 acres now in operation. It is also noted
that there is a reduction in the number of holdings in the 2- to 5-acre category.
Growers are optimistic about the future of strawberries, provided labour is available
to harvest the crop. The highlight of the year has been the unqualified grower
acceptance of the virus-free plants originating from the strawberry certification
programme. One 10-acre block produced over 9 tons of berries to the acre using
certified British Sovereign plants.
Raspberries.—The processing industry is anxious to obtain more raspberries,
and it is probable that there will be an increase in acreage of this crop. Many
plantings of the Newburgh variety are now more than 10 years old and due for
replacement. Certified plants of this variety will be available in 1963 through the
co-operative programme with the Department and the Experimental Farm at
Agassiz. The Sumner variety is proving satisfactory, and plants of this variety
will also be available through the above programme.
Grapes.—-The 1961 grape-crop in the Okanagan amounted to 2,827,656
pounds, equal to the previous record high set in 1944. Sixty per cent of the crop
was sent to wineries. Variety and testing of grapes continues in the Okanagan,
with emphasis laid on the French hybrids. Your Provincial Horticulturist arranged
for grape varieties to be tested at the Vineland Experiment Farm, to determine
whether there is a significant difference between varieties grown in the Niagara
area of Ontario and in the Okanagan Valley as far as the wine industry is concerned.
An outbreak of grape phylloxera on two plantings of vines imported from Ontario
this year has been dealt with by means of an eradication and control programme.
District offices checked plantings of French hybrids in their areas for this pest.
 DD  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
Coastal Region
The wet, cold soils delayed the planting of many vegetable crops until April.
By July the weather had turned unusually hot, and where irrigation was available,
excellent crops were produced.
Moderate increases were made in processing crop acreages of peas, corn, pole
beans, bush beans, broccoli, cauliflower, and potatoes.    (See Appendix No. 16.)
Onions.—Considerable interest is developing in the production of onions in
the Fraser Valley. This crop requires special care in harvesting and storage, especially on muck soils. Progress in this field has been made in a co-operative project
with the University of British Columbia Farm Engineering Department.
Carrots.—The fresh market demands long carrots. Growers have had difficulty in handling this crop, but now mechanical harvesters have been introduced
which are satisfactory. They will dig and top up to 60 tons per day. Bulk handling
of carrots for processing is another relatively new programme.
Beans.—The Fraser Valley crop of beans was excellent where moisture was
available. Pole beans are no longer as popular as they were because of the labour
problems. There is a marked trend toward the production of bush beans, which
can be mechanically harvested. The situation is similar for the limited acreage in
the Okanagan Valley.
Mushroom Production.—The 1961 crop of mushrooms was estimated to be
1,776,000 pounds, which will return about $800,000 to the producers. The industry is considering various marketing programmes it might use if production increases
significantly.
Interior Region
Crops developed well in the Interior with a warm spring and hot summer, and
the harvest was completed under ideal conditions. Potatoes, onions, sweet corn,
and turnips increased in acreage, while tomatoes, asparagus, and beans registered
a decline.
There has been a steady decline in tomato acreage over the past fifteen years.
Considerable effort has been put into programmes to increase tomato production
by industry and Government agencies. Reports in previous years have carried an
outline of the work done. Increasing attention is being paid to the fresh market
for tomatoes. It is possible to double the present acreage if available markets are
to be supplied.
Vegetable Varieties.—Tests have been carried out with field and greenhouse
tomatoes, sweet corn, cucumbers, and a number of other crops.
Turnip Processing.—In co-operation with the Research Station at Summerland,
tests are being carried out with turnips as a base for candied peel, as a frozen diced
vegetable, as a preserved prepared vegetable for restaurant trade, as deep-fried
slices, and as a canned product. Limited commercial trials are under way at the
present time, and if they are successful the turnip industry may expand considerably.
GREENHOUSE CROPS
For the second consecutive year, the market for greenhouse vegetable-crops
improved. The situation with flower-crops is quite healthy, with no serious overproduction and generally satisfactory prices. There is a steady growth of the industry,
especially in the Fraser Valley.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961 DD 19
Greenhouse tomatoes suffered from poor iignt conditions last spring. Physiological conditions, such as blotchy ripening and tissue breakdown, occurred.
Cucumbers continue to be popular, especially the Long English variety. The production and return from chrysanthemums, roses, stocks, and snapdragons has been
satisfactory, and there has been an increase in the production of specialty flowers
such as orchids.
Commercial sources indicate that 2,500,000 square feet of Mylar plastic has
been sold in British Columbia this year. Mylar houses are suitable for plants which
tolerate high humidity and are superior to glass houses for crops such as foliage
plants. Glass houses continue to be most suitable for roses, carnations, chrysanthemums, and tomatoes.
NURSERIES
Production of nursery stock is increasing in British Columbia. There are a
number of factors which will likely continue this upward trend, such as the revaluation of the Dutch guilder, increasing ocean freight rates, and an increase in price
for stock in Holland. In addition, some stock is imported from Japan, but only
bare-rooted material. There is no prospect of any great increase from this source.
(See Appendix No. 17 for tree-fruit nursery stock production and Appendix No. 18
for apple varieties.)
Apple Root-stocks.—A large proportion of the trees grown for local planting
have been on East Mailing II, and this situation continues. The only Mailing Mer-
ton stock being used in quantity is MM 104. There is interest in EM 26 as a dwarfing stock, but it is not available in commercial quantities. The varieties Mcintosh,
Canada Baldwin, Antonovka, and Haralson are grown for hardy frameworks. (See
Appendix No. 19.)
Colour Coding and Certification of Nursery Stock.—There have been losses to
growers from incorrectly named nursery stock and a potential danger of spreading
viruses from infected bud and root sources. Consequently a programme was instituted to provide healthy nursery stock which is true to name. Meetings were held
during the year with officials of the Canada Department of Agriculture, the nurserymen, and the fruit-growing industry to initiate this programme.
Prior to the fall inspection, colour marking of trees was carried out as a test
run on apples in anticipation of a much extended programme in the near future.
Inspections.—During the year, nurseries were inspected for incorrectly named
fruit-trees, and 1,219 mixtures were found out of a total of 340,246. All tree-fruit
stocks were inspected in the fall at digging-time. In addition, spot checks were
made for the presence of nematodes in nursery stock in co-operation with the
Saanichton Experimental Farm.
DEMONSTRATION WORK
District offices of the Horticultural Branch have given group demonstrations
of horticultural practices such as pruning, grafting, and budding during the year.
Pear Sizing.—Four years of study have been put into a project to determine
the growth rate of Bartlett pears in an attempt to predict the size of the fruit at
harvest-time.   This project will be given extensive trials during the coming year.
Factors Influencing Fruit-set.—The effectiveness of using bouquets of polleniz-
ing blooms in setting a crop of Red Delicious was tested, and it was found that the
bouquets had little effect, even as close as 2 feet from adjacent Delicious blossom.
Fertilizer Plots. — The Kelowna office has been carrying out demonstration
work with fertilizers on apples to determine the optimum amount of nitrogen
 DD 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
required for bearing apple-trees and the response, if any, to phosphorus and potash.
Fertilizer trials have also been carried out on grapes to evaluate the quantity and
type of fertilizer suitable to the area.
Spray Materials.—Testing programmes for scab-control continue to be an
important project in the Kootenay area.   Cherry fruit fly is also under study.
Potato Variety Trials.—Various new introductions have been grown in the
area served by the Vernon office.
Lettuce and Celery Nutrition.—An application of minor elements, including
iron, zinc, copper, manganese, magnesium, boron, and molybdenum, was made on
lettuce and celery crops in the Fraser Valley. There appeared to be a slight response
from boron.
Blueberry and Cranberry Fertilizers.—A trial on various fertilizers in plantings has been under way since 1957 in the muck soils. It has been observed that
nitrogen is necessary in small amounts; phosphorus and potash are required in
greater amounts than nitrogen.
Greenhouse Tomatoes.—The programme of greenhouse improvement is gaining momentum on Vancouver Island. Demonstrations of soil fumigation, soil
improvement with organic matter, and plant management have resulted in a general
improvement in yield of tomatoes in many houses.
Chemical Weed-control.—Horticulturists in all areas are carrying on limited
trials of chemical weed-control in various horticultural crops. The most extensive
programmes are being carried out at Abbotsford and Vernon.
NEMATODES
It is becoming increasingly apparent that heavy populations of parasitic
nematodes can prevent horticultural crops being produced, especially in the Coastal
areas. Any new programme in control of this pest is given consideration. One
tried last year included the planting of various marigold species to determine the
effect in depressing known heavy populations of nematodes. Some success has
been indicated, and further study will be given to this practical programme.
Through the co-operation of Mr. J. E. Bosher, of the Experimental Farm at
Saanichton, a series of tests was run to help evaluate the nematode problem. Samples
from the Fraser Valley were checked, representing 139 sites last year. The following table gives an indication of the seriousness of nematode populations:—
Zero  20 Medium  13
Trace   55 High  36
Low  15
This could be the answer to the problem of poor plant growth in old strawberry land which, up to the last few years, has remained unknown.
SPRAY CHARTS
Spray charts for vegetables, small fruits, and tree fruit in the Interior have
been revised in 1961.   Each of these publications will appear in book form for 1962.
LITTLE CHERRY CONTROL REGULATIONS
District Horticulturists throughout the Okanagan Valley have co-operated
in a voluntary programme of flowering-cherry removal. This programme has been
carried out to give protection to the sweet-cherry industry.   Cherry stocks brought
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961
DD 21
into the Okanagan moved under permit through the co-operation of the Plant
Protection Division of the Canada Department of Agriculture.
CODLING MOTH CONTROL REGULATIONS
Codling moth control areas have been formed under the Plant Protection Act
in Creston, Keremeos-Cawston, Naramata, and South and East Kelowna. Applications for consideration have been received from Kaleden and Winfield-Okanagan
Centre.
EXTENSION METHODS
Short Courses.—Grower short courses were held on Vancouver Island and
the Fraser Valley during the winter months, with emphasis on small-fruit and
vegetable production. In the Interior the annual tree-fruit Chautauqua meetings
were again held in ten centres, with twenty meetings in all.
Field-days were held during the summer for the small-fruit, tree-fruit, and
grape industries and various phases of the vegetable industry. In addition, horticulturists participated in field-days held by greenhouse operators and bulb, nut,
holly, and other growers.
Speakers were provided for numerous meetings throughout the Province.
Radio has been widely used, together with newspapers, as extension media.
In addition, television was used, especially in the Okanagan, where a weekly half-
hour programme was provided. This service, broadcast by CHBC-TV to Interior
farmers, is produced by your horticulturists, and they participate in the programmes
frequently.
PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Provincial Plant Pathologist
DISEASES
Field Crops and Vegetables
Bacterial Wilt of Alfalfa.—This was found on 38 per cent of the farms of the
Interior in 1961, compared with 78 per cent in 1956. The resistant variety Vernal
is gradually replacing the susceptible Grimm.
Onion smut showed an increase at Kelowna. Formaldehyde and anticarrie
80 per cent hexachlorobenzene seem to be the only effective treatments.
Bacterial ring-rot of potatoes resulted in twenty-seven farms in the Fraser Valley
being placed under detention. Twenty-four had from trace to slight amounts of
disease and three had from 6 to 15 per cent. Twenty-two of the outbreaks occurred
in the Kennebec variety. The main source of infection appeared to be certified
seed from Prince Edward Island and the United States.
Leaf-roll of Potatoes.—The incidence of primary leaf-roll net necrosis in the
Netted Gem variety appeared to be slight both at the Coast and the Okanagan.
Tree Fruits
Powdery mildew of apple was widespread in the Okanagan, where it caused
some russetting on the fruit.
 DD 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Apple Scab.—Wet weather in the spring and early summer until the middle of
July was favourable for infection. The dry weather of August and September was
unfavourable for the development of pin-point scab. The most effective fungicides
for control were Dodine and Dichlone. When these were applied at low temperature,
they sometimes produced a russetting. The risk of russetting seems to increase with
the effectiveness of the fungicide against scab.
Little cherry has not been found west of the Arrow Lakes. The little cherry
indicator variety Sam, planted at a number of locations between Vernon and Nakusp
in 1959, showed no evidence of the disease when examined in August. Japanese
flowering cherry-trees, symptomless carriers of this disease, have been removed
from the Okanagan.
Fire-blight of Pears.—Severe infections of the fruit occurred where pears were
damaged by hail in the Okanagan.
Trellis Rust of Pears.—Eradication of trellis rust of pears, caused by the fungus
Gymnosporangium fuscum, was started as a result of (1) the discovery of this rust
for the first time in North America by Dr. W. G. Ziller, Forestry Biology, Canada
Department of Forestry, at Victoria on February 15th, and (2) the placing of a
two-year post-entry embargo on pear and juniper nursery stock by the United States
Government. The eradication on the junipers took place in April and on the pears
in August, as follows: (a) Junipers, 32 removed and 34 pruned; (b) pears, 20
removed, 16 heavily pruned, 11 slightly pruned, and affected leaves removed from
177 trees.
Small Fruits
Cane-gall of blueberry is widespread in the following susceptible varieties:
Cabot, Dixi, Weymouth, Stanley, Charlotte, and Burlington.
Godronia canker of blueberry is widespread in the Fraser Valley. The older
varieties Grover, Pioneer, Rancocas, and Rubel, which have been grown for over
thirty years, appear to be more resistant than the more recent varieties.
Raspberry leaf-curl is widespread in the Creston Valley. Growers have been
advised to rogue early, often, and thoroughly. A spray programme has also been
recommended in an attempt to control the vector.
Ornamentals
Root-rot of Lawson's cypress continues to cause considerable damage at the
Coast.
Bacterial blight of forsythia was observed in a number of gardens on Vancouver
Island for the first time.
Bacterial blight of lilacs was widespread throughout the Province.
ENTOMOLOGY BRANCH
C. L. Neilson, M.S., Provincial Entomologist
The year 1961 did not produce any major economic insect outbreaks. However, damage to trees by forest tent caterpillar was particularly heavy in the Fraser
Valley. Codling moth infestations were higher and resistance to hydrocarbon
insecticides by carrot rust fly was established.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961
DD 23
FIELD-CROP AND VEGETABLE INSECTS
Grasshopper populations remained low. Red-backed cutworms were a minor
problem in Interior vegetable areas. Green peach aphid infestations on potatoes
were the lowest in the past three years. Demonstrations of aphid-control on
potatoes were conducted at Lavington and Grand Forks, but were not conclusive,
due to low aphid populations. English grain aphid and pea aphid populations
were low in the Fraser Valley, but the cabbage aphid was more prevalent than it
has been for the past two years. There were cases of resistance to hydrocarbon
insecticides by cabbage and turnip maggot and also carrot rust fly in the Fraser
Valley. A combined experiment in turnip maggot control was carried out with
the Canada Department of Agriculture (Vancouver) at Prince George and Armstrong. An attempt to control onion maggot by the " dip " method for onion transplants was made at Kelowna. The imported cabbage worm was abundant throughout the Interior and Fraser Valley. Corn earworm was troublesome for the second
year, particularly in the Fraser River delta area.
The pollination demonstration by honeybees on alsike clover was carried on
for the second year at Mile 24, Alaska Highway. Seed yield was increased approximately 150 pounds per acre over the district average of 250 pounds per acre.
Early season dusting of alsike with one-half pound of actual DDT per acre for plant
bug control also gave a 75-pounds-per-acre increase in seed yield over non-treated
areas.
The joint project into reasons for seed-head blasting of merion blue and fescue
grasses in the Peace River area continued with the Canada Department of Agriculture (Kamloops). Wheat midge was again a problem in the Kersley area. Miscellaneous inquiries covered a wide range of both field-crop and vegetable insects.
ORCHARD INSECTS
Codling moth caused more injury than in 1960, especially by first-brood larva?,
due to very favourable egg-lay weather. Rust mites were more injurious than in
1960, but blister mite damage was the lowest in several years. European red mite
damage to pome fruit was less than in 1960, but higher in many peach-orchards.
McDaniel spider mite was the worst orchard pest in 1961. Dieldrin failed to control pear psylla in many orchards, due to resistance. Apple and cherry aphid
infestations were generally lower than in 1960. European earwigs proved particularly troublesome to peach and apricot orchards, with some reports of damage to
apples near harvest. Eye-spotted bud moth and fruit-tree leaf roller populations
were low, as were most scale insects, peach-tree borer, and woolly apple aphids.
The shot-hole borer was troublesome in the Oliver-Osoyoos areas, with reports of
damage to healthy trees. The peach twig borer caused economic losses for the
first time in several years.
A demonstration of the use of honeybees and pollen inserts was conducted
jointly with the Provincial Apiarist at Oyama.
SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS
Grape phylloxera was found for the first time in British Columbia in the
Okanagan. Infected plantings were pruned, dug out, and treated then heeled in
for 1962 replanting. Soil will be fumigated prior to replanting of the acreages
concerned. The grape erineum mite was also found for the first time in British
Columbia at Penticton. The clay-coloured weevil was observed damaging buds of
raspberry in the early spring in the Abbotsford area.    The black vine and straw-
 DD 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
berry root weevils were troublesome as usual on untreated soil. The weevil
Sciopithes obscurus caused serious damage to plants on some treated soils in the
Saanich district. Cyclamen mite caused serious damage to Northwest and Siletz
strawberries on a 10-acre planting at Abbotsford. Blackheaded fireworm was
numerous on untreated cranberry bogs. Leaf hoppers were abundant on cane fruits
in the Fraser Valley, and forest tent caterpillar was troublesome on blueberries.
LIVE-STOCK INSECTS
Warble fly work continued as a major research project of the Canada Department of Agriculture Laboratory, Kamloops, with the main emphasis on control
through the use of systemic insecticides. The Empire Valley joint warble-control
project continued for the fourth consecutive year, with Ruelene pour-on method
being used for the first time. Warble-control demonstrations with Ruelene pour-on
method were made at Rock Creek (two); Okanagan Falls (two); Lac la Hache,
Quick, Barnston Island (five); Courtenay (two);  and Duncan (three).
Paralysis ticks were present somewhat earlier than usual in the North Thompson Valley than previously recorded, but few cases of cattle paralysis were reported.
Cattle lice continued to be of concern, and live-stock men are hopeful that the new
warble fly treatment will control lice as well. Good sheep ked control was reported
on a large flock which was dusted with 1 per cent Dieldrin in the spring of 1961.
Mosquitoes were abundant in many areas. All control districts were visited
at least once during the year in an effort to improve their control techniques.
New control areas were initiated at McBride, Chu Chua, and the Windermere
district. The Canada Department of Agriculture (Kamloops) instituted a research
programme on mosquitoes in the Fraser Valley, which should prove very beneficial
to the control programme in the years ahead.
OTHER INSECTS
Inquiries for identification and (or) control measures were many and varied.
There was a case of poisoning by black widow spider in Vernon, and wasps and
yellow-jackets were particularly troublesome. Carpet beetles, termites, carpenter
ants, powder post beetles, strawberry root weevil in homes, lawn moth, slugs, and
boxelder bugs were among the most numerous inquiries. A joint experiment with
Forest Biology (Vernon) to control aspen leaf miner and Douglas fir midge through
the use of Rogor, applied as a trunk or foliage treatment, was conducted at Vernon.
The foliage treatment was successful.
EXTENSION AND PUBLICATIONS
At least one visit was made to every district office in British Columbia, and
local problems investigated as needed. Mr. Arrand addressed several beekeeper
short courses and field-days. Newspaper, radio, and television articles and presentations were made on many occasions. Two technical papers were presented at the
annual meeting of the Entomological Society of British Columbia. We also participated in the vegetable-growers' meetings, the tree-fruit summer field-days, and
Chautauqua meetings. We took an active role in the revision of tree-fruit, small-
fruit, and vegetable insect and disease control calendars. Mimeographed sheets on
several insects were prepared for distribution. Two articles were prepared for publication in " Bee Wise." In addition to the above, conferences were attended on
mosquitoes in California; forage, vegetable, and fruit insects at Portland, Ore.;
live-stock insects at Lethbridge, Alta.; fruit pollination at Penticton; and grape
phylloxera at Penticton.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1961 DD 25
APIARY BRANCH
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist
Honey production during the 1961 season totalled 2,080,000 pounds, the
highest on record. The Peace River area realized on average of 200 pounds per
colony, but elsewhere in the Interior the average per-colony production of 60 pounds
was the lowest recorded for the past ten years.
BEE DISEASES
The incidence of American foul brood (Bacillus larva;) was more severe this
year as a very short honey-flow period in the southern half of the Province brought
on intensive robbing by powerful colonies. This resulted in spread of American
foul brood at a difficult time for control. Another contributing factor was the feeding by over-wintered colonies on unused reserves of stores.
A total of fifty-three cases of European foul brood was located, with outbreaks
of this disease being observed in Okanagan apiaries for the first time in recent years.
A total of 200 cases of American foul brood was located and burned. Sac brood,
as always, was fairly widespread and more noticeable in the Thompson Valley area.
Nosema disease was serious during spring months in the Lower Mainland area, but
declined as warm weather developed.
Preventive feeding of terramycin (TM 25) in the spring and sodium sulpha-
thiazole in the fall is now an established method of disease-control in British
Columbia.
WINTERING
Wintering conditions were ideal during the 1960/61 winter months. Estimated
winter loss from all causes was only 3 per cent.
POLLINATION
Germination tests of hand-collectied pollen were carried out in co-operation
with Dr. K. Lapins, of the Summerland Research Station.
In the British Columbia Peace River area the practical demonstration of the
use of honeybees on alsike clover was continued. An average of 400 pounds of
cleaned seed per acre was harvested, which was 150 pounds more than the district
average of 250 pounds. A total of 393 colonies was rented by growers of fruit and
legume seed.    Rental fee for these was $1,798, or an average of $4.58 per colony.
Field tests were carried out in Oyama on the use of mechanical beehive inserts
for the distribution of hand-collected pollen. These were used to pollinate a block
of Red Delicious apple-trees.
For pollinating high-bush blueberries, 121 colonies were used, as compared
to ninety-two colonies during the 1960 season. An increase of berry production
was noted on these farms—290 tons, as compared to the 1960 production of 213
tons on the same fields.
PUBLICATIONS
A small leaflet entitled " Clover Seed Growers—Why Gamble—Use Bees "
was published. Standards of perfection for preparing, exhibiting, and judging honey
were written and published. Mimeographs on the following subjects were prepared:—
(1) Fumidil B for the Control of Nosema Disease.
(2) Poisoning of Bees and Brood.
 DD 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HYBRID-QUEEN REARING PROJECT
This project was continued with the co-operation of Mr. L. Fuhr, of Okanagan
Landing.   A small number of queens were distributed to beekeepers.
EXTENSION
Extension programmes and short courses were held in Dawson Creek, Fort St.
John, Penticton, Kamloops, Victoria, and Duncan. Five television programmes and
four radio broadcasts were given. Eighty-five meetings and fifteen field-days were
attended. Tapes dealing with pollination and insecticide poisoning were made, and
a 16-mm. film, " Disease and Pests of the Honeybee in British Columbia," is nearing
completion.
LIVE STOCK BRANCH
A. Kidd, V.S., D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Live Stock Commissioner
and Chief Veterinary Inspector
LIVE STOCK AND VETERINARY DIVISIONS
Acts
Animals Act
The Clinton Bull-control Area was established, bringing the total of bull-control
areas within the Province to thirteen, while the establishment of the North Okanagan
and Upper Cache Creek Bull Districts brought that total to sixteen. The three
stallion-control areas still remain. Regulations respecting artificial insemination
of cattle were approved during the year. Two artificial-insemination centres and
fifty-eight technicians were licensed.
Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act
The eradication of brucellosis from the cattle population of the Province continues to exceed expectations. During the year the East Kootenay and Fraser
Valley Brucellosis-control areas were declared certified brucellosis-free areas by the
Health of Animals Division of the Canada Department of Agriculture. There are
now seven certified brucellosis-free areas — Pemberton-Sechelt, West Kootenay,
McBride, Vancouver Island, and Nicola in addition to the above two.
The blood-testing of cattle in the two Federal brucellosis-control areas—the
South Okanagan and the Kamloops-North Okanagan—is progressing favourably,
and no doubt both will be declared certified brucellosis-free areas some time during
1962.
The establishment of Cariboo-Central British Columbia as a brucellosis-control
area brought the whole Province under the supervision of the Health of Animals
Division for brucellosis eradication, except for the Peace River Block. It appears
that the objective of the Department of Agriculture of having the whole Province
under Federal supervision for brucellosis by 1963 will be achieved.
The two Veterinary Inspectors seconded to the Health of Animals Division to
assist with the brucellosis-eradication programme in the Fraser Valley returned to
duty with this Department during June.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961 DD 27
During the twelve-month period ended June 30th there were 59,362 calfhood
vaccinations carried out in the brucellosis-control and certified areas, while total
vaccinations amounted to 65,450 in the same period. The cumulative totals from
the time the Federal-Provincial Joint Policy on Brucellosis Control was established
July 15, 1950, until June 30, 1961, now stand at 337,072 and 450,699 respectively.
Payments to veterinary practitioners for services rendered since the inception
of free calfhood vaccinations on May 1, 1956, now amount to $294,448.
Veterinary Inspectors vaccinated a total of 1,115 calves on 189 premises and
blood-tested 139 cattle on ten premises. Brucellosis blood-test results showed 137
head were negative and 2 head over 36 months of age were suspicious. Vibriosis
of beef cattle was present in some herds, but was not as widespread as it has been
in previous years.
It has become evident that range-cattle deaths reported last year as " bovine
pulmonary emphysema," " Skyline disease," or " bog fever " are quite numerous in
the area between Prince George and the Alberta Border. This situation is serious,
and officials at the Federal Range Experimental Farm at Kamloops are conducting
a research project to determine the nature of the disease complex. Considerable
work on this " proliferative pneumonia " syndrome is being done on the North
American Continent. Progress in solving the problem will likely be slow. In the
meantime, rational and empirical treatment is recommended, depending on the
symptoms of each case presented.
There was a serious genital infection in range cattle in the Princeton area during the late summer and early fall. The primary infectious agent was found to
belong to the virus group causing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-infectious pustular vulvo-vaginitis (I.B.R.-I.P.V.) and was complicated by a secondary bacterial
infection. It is likely the infection was introduced to the area through the addition
of an infected bull.
Pink-eye was very prevalent during the summer months in the beef cattle of
the Kamloops area.
In the Smithers-Burns Lake area considerable work was carried out to determine the cause of the yearly deaths in calves and lambs during the early spring.
It was known the deaths were due to white muscle disease (W.M.D.), which is
primarily due to a selenium deficiency. Affected calves and lambs were injected
with a selenium product which is on the market for use for the first time, and the
results were very encouraging, in particular where affected calves were injected.
The Department has embarked on a programme of selenium injections to the pregnant cows and ewes as a preventive measure. This will then terminate the Department's participation as cattle and sheep owners will be expected to look after white
muscle disease in future years.
Trichinosis, a parasitic disease of hogs where the larva? lodge in the muscle
tissue, was a serious problem in the Clearbrook area of the Fraser Valley. Twenty-
four persons were known to become infected through the eating of raw pork sausage. The problem of trichinosis in humans is Canada-wide and occurs mostly in
new Canadians from Europe who have been used to eating pork products in the
raw state.
Veterinary Inspectors carried out routine inspections for foot-rot on 11,645
sheep at twenty-three sheep-ranches before grazing permits were issued allowing
sheep on Crown lands. Three flocks were quarantined until the foot-rot was
cleaned up.
 DD 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fur-farm Act
For 1961 a total of 484 fur-farm licences was isued and $5,795 collected.
The number of fur-farms is decreasing, but the number of fur-bearers on each unit
is increasing.   Inspectors made a total of 157 fur-farm visits.
During the year three fur-farms were quarantined because of distemper in
mink and two quarantines were lifted which were carry-overs from the previous
year.   Three distemper quarantines remain in effect at the year-end.
Virus enteritis of mink was positively diagnosed on thirteen farms in the Fraser
Valley through the Animal Pathology Laboratory. In the four years virus enteritis
has been present in the Fraser Valley, thirty-two farms have had a positive diagnosis. The Fur Farm Inspector reports the infection is even more widespread as
many mink-ranchers with this problem are not presenting mink to the Animal
Pathology Laboratory for diagnostic purposes. There is, however, widespread use
of vaccines for virus enteritis, distemper, and botulism.
Eight persons who refused to obtain their fur-farm licences were charged in
Court under section 5 of the Act.   All were assessed fines and costs.
Meat Inspection Act
Establishments under the Meat Inspection Service during the year were as
follows: —
Establishment No.
Establishment and Location
Class
Federal
Grading
Service
1
2
Clappison Packers Ltd., Haney  ....             	
Seed & Pitts Ltd., Pitt Meadows
A
B
A
B
B
A
B
A
B
Yes
Yes
3
Yes
4
Star Meat Co. Ltd., Ahhotsford
No
6
No
7
Yes
8
9
Sun Min Sanf* Co., T adnpr
No
No
10
No
Cambie Stock Farms Ltd. licensed January 25th;   Sun Min Sang Co. licensed March 31st;   Borsato Meat
Ltd. licensed April 18th;   Delta Cold Storage licensed April 18th.
Total carcasses inspected after slaughter and condemnations for 1961 were
as follows:—
Carcasses
Marked
"B.C.
Passed "
Carcasses
Condemned
Total
Percentage
Condemned
Portions
Condemned
Cattle     	
6,669
17,839
376
1,133
16,957
121
19
940
4
3
31
6,688
18,779
380
0.284
5.005
1.050
3,161
465
30
1,136                0.264
16,988                0.182
121
95
6,382
5
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961
Causes of carcass condemnations were as follows:—
DD 29
Cause
Cattle
Calves
Swine
Sheep
2
5
2
1
1
3
4
1
120
52
574
22
63
16
14
33
2
41
2
1
1
1
13
1
4
2
1
1
3
1
2
1
4
3
Metritis  —- .
—
Peritonitis...    	
Pyrexia
—
Uremia    — .
Contamination.	
—
Erysipelas 	
Salmonellosis	
—
Totals                       	
19
940
31
7
The total slaughtering done in abattoirs licensed under the Stock Brands Act
and the Provincial Meat Inspection Act for the years 1957 to June 31, 1961, inclusive, is included in Appendix No. 1.
Milk Industry Act
The inspection of dairy-farms selling raw milk as approved raw-milk dairy-
farms and dairy-farms shipping milk as approved fluid-milk dairy-farms is efficiently
carried out by the Veterinary Inspectors and the Dairy Farm Inspectors.
The trend of more milk being produced on fewer dairy-farms continues, and
the number of farm holding-tanks and pipe-line milkers installed increases at a rapid
pace. Vancouver Island dairy-farmers have, in particular, commenced converting
to farm holding-tanks in great numbers during the year.
Veterinary Inspectors on seventy-six dairy-farms examined 1,024 cows for
clinical cases of mastitis and found 373. Of these, treatment was recommended for
363 cows and ten were eliminated as incurable.
Four persons were charged under section 5 of the Milk Industry Act for the
illegal sale of milk and were assessed fines and costs.
Appendix No. 2 contains the totals of dairy-farm inspections carried out, by
districts, by Veterinary Inspectors and Dairy Farm Inspectors under the Milk
Industry Act.
Sheep Protection Act
Compensation paid from the Dog Tax Fund for the years 1959,
1961 is as follows:—
1960, and
Goats
Sheep
Poultry
Year
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
1959	
2
242
263
197
$5,421.00
5,341.00
3,767.00
2,278
404
685
$2,768.10
I960..	
665.06
1961	
$42.50
574.21
 dd 30 british columbia
Policies
Artificial Insemination Assistance Policy
Under this policy, grants were made toward the Young Sire Evaluation
Programme and the frozen-semen laboratory at the British Columbia Artificial
Insemination Centre, Milner. Special grants were made to the Quesnel Artificial
Insemination Association, the Nechako Valley Dairymen's Association, the Dawson
Creek District Dairy Producers' Association, the Kamloops Artificial Insemination
Association, the Alberni Farmers' Institute, and the Bulkley Valley Cattle Breeders'
Association.
The Live Stock Inspector continued regular checks of frozen-semen ampules
at the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre as required by the Joint Dairy
Breeds Committee for pure-bred cattle.
Dairy Cattle Placement Policy
A total of 34 head of dairy stock, including 32 head of young Holstein heifer
calves, was selected by the Live Stock Inspector from Fraser Valley Dairy Herd
Improvement Association herds and shipped to the Okanagan Valley, Quesnel, the
Queen Charlotte Islands, and Bella Coola.
During the twelve-year period since inauguration of this programme, a total of
785 head of dairy cattle have been selected.
Thirty-six of the heifers shipped to the Okanagan Valley over the years have
completed 105 records in eleven D.H.I.A. herds, with an average production of
11,370 pounds of milk, 423 pounds of fat, and a test of 3.7 per cent, almost 2,000
pounds more milk and 20 pounds more fat than the average for all D.H.I.A. records
completed in 1960 in the Okanagan area. This latter was 9,448 pounds of milk and
403 pounds of fat.
The Placement Programme heifers produced 770 pounds more milk than the
Provincial average of all D.H.I.A. records completed in 1960, and 73 per cent of
the records completed by these animals ranged from 10,000 pounds of milk upwards.
Federal-Provincial Sheep Transportation Policy
This policy came into effect during the fall to encourage and assist farmers in
purchasing within this Province or from approved Prairie points high-quality grade
ewes, up to and including 5-year-olds, to provide the foundation for a sound commercial sheep-breeding programme. To be eligible under this policy, a minimum
of 100 ewes must be transported a distance of over 200 miles. Four shipments
qualified, and 600 grade breeding ewes were transported.
Live-stock Improvement Policy
Assistance given to defray freight costs of pure-bred animals transported into
the Peace River Block covered four boars and seven rams.
Pure-bred Sires Purchase Assistance Policy
A total of twenty-three bulls was bought.
Veterinary Service District Policy
The purpose of this policy is to provide veterinary services in those areas where
the scattered nature of farm settlements and (or) the long distances between stock
farms or ranches have discouraged qualified veterinarians from establishing resi-
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961 DD 31
dence and practice, and where present and immediate potential live-stock population
warrants such action. The four veterinary service districts were serviced by veterinarians located at Creston, Dawson Creek, Prince George, and Williams Lake.
During September the three-year agreement terminated with the Creston Veterinary
Service District as the veterinary practitioner was sufficiently well established, and
the grant for that district was transferred to Fort St. John. So far, a veterinarian
has not been located to establish practice there. A fifth veterinary service district
was established at Smithers on December 15th.
General
Assisted by members of the Extension Branch, the Live Stock Division sponsored four sheep-breeder field-days at Duncan, Abbotsford, Fort Fraser, and West-
wold, as well as a Swine Breeders' Short Course at Abbotsford.
In dairy-cattle feeding and management, lectures were presented at Abbotsford,
Alberni, Aldergrove, Coombs, Courtenay, Kelowna, Little Fort, Metchosin, Salmon
Arm, and Vernon.
Staff members have participated in the activities of the Beef Cattle Advisory
Committee and the Sheep Steering Committee.
Practically all staff members, to some degree, have participated in the civil
defence activities, which are becoming more evident as a part of our duties in this
Department. Two Veterinary Inspectors attended separate veterinary indoctrination
courses at the Civil Defence College at Arnprior, Ont., and the Live Stock Inspector
attended an ogrologists' indoctrination course held in Victoria.
BRANDS DIVISION
(Thomas Moore)
Inspection Service
Brand inspection was carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at
sixty-eight shipping points and by Brand Inspectors and Deputy Brand Inspectors
at twenty-six points.
Brand Inspections
A total of 126,351 head of cattle was inspected, an increase of 10,691 from
1960. Horses inspected numbered 7,648, an increase of 1,118. There were 15,193
hides inspected, an increase from 1960 of 1,204. Kamloops-Nicola area had 50,193
cattle inspected, an increase of 2,897 head. Cariboo cattle inspection totalled
23,860, an increase of 3,074.   (See Appendix No. 3.)
Exports to United States
Total cattle exported numbered 21,158, of which 20,931 head moved from the
Interior points. This is 6,597 more than in 1960, and comprised 299 bulls, 1,889
cows, 11,999 steers, 2,743 heifers, and 4,302 calves.
Flood and Fernie Check-points
Shipments of stock, hides, and dressed beef are checked through these posts by
the Department of Commercial Transport members, who are Deputy Brand Inspectors.   Shipments checked were as follows:—
 DD 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Flood  1960 1961
Cattle   12,175 13,480
Horses     2,417 1,897
Hides     3,376 6,908
Dressed beef (quarters)        678 665
Number of trucks checked     1,617 1,979
Fernie—
Cattle  10,777 14,747
Horses  311 144
Hides  245 1,048
Number of trucks checked  540 687
Brand-book
The B.C. Horse and Cattle Brands, 1960, which is compiled once every four
years, was completed during the year and the usual distribution made.
The annual supplement, No. 1, to the 1960 brand-book, showing all brands
issued in 1961, will be compiled early in 1962 and will be available later in that year.
Marketing of Cattle
Cattle in the Interior continue to be marketed mainly through sales held twice
a month, and in some cases weekly, at Kamloops, Williams Lake, Quesnel, Okanagan
Falls, Merritt, Dawson Creek, and Fort St. John during the heavier shipping season.
Stock Brands Act
Twenty-two convictions were obtained under the above Act.
Criminal Code
Two convictions for the theft of cattle were obtained by the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police.
DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT SERVICES
(J. A. Mace)
Operation and Production
As at June 30, 1961, there were 19,261 cows on test, an all-time high and an
increase over June 30, 1960, of 1,573 cows.
These animals were contained in 578 herds on test in twenty-six routes, another
all-time high, and an increase over 1960 of fifteen herds. The average number of
cows per herd was 33.3, an increase of 1.9. The average number of cows per route
is 741, an increase of thirty-four.
Completed milking periods for 1960 numbered 14,665, an increase of 179 over
the previous year. They averaged 10,600 pounds of milk and 437 pounds of butter-
fat. This is an increase over 1960 of 24 pounds of milk and 2 pounds of butter-fat,
another all-time high.
A summarized report of production by breeds is attached as Appendix No. 4.
From January to December, 5,700 D.O.T. ear-tags were issued, an increase
of 350.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961 DD 33
Subsidy
Grants to twenty-six D.H.I.A. routes amounted to $56,120, an increase of
$2,595 over 1960 (full year of operation of two new routes compared with one-half
year in 1960).
Publications
H.I.C. No. 88, the lifetime production list, is in the process of being stencilled.
Five reports were published on A.I. sires giving comparative B.C.A. figures for
daughter-dam pairs and total A.I. daughters. D.H.I.A. and R.O.P. records were
included in all reports.
A comparison of A.I. and non-A.I. animals was prepared involving 19,124
completed records. These included 1,261 cross-bred, 1,395 Ayrshire, 2,453 Guernsey, 11,416 Holstein, and 3,615 Jersey animals. The actual average production
for all animals is as follows:— Number Milk (Lb } Fat (Lb.)
A.I     3,804 10,350 431
Non-A.I -  15,320 10,386 431
Breed class average with cross-breds eliminated:—
Milk (Lb.)        Butter-fat (Lb.)
A.I  114 116
Non-A.I.   111 111
Summary
All routes except the one at Quesnel-Prince George are in a very healthy state,
most of them having waiting lists of dairymen wishing to take advantage of D.H.I.
service. Before any further expansion is considered, it will be necessary to make
provision for additional assistance both in field and office staff.
ANIMAL PATHOLOGY LABORATORY
(Dr. J. C. Bankier)
Assistance of other laboratories has been sought from time to time to elucidate
the nature of disease problems, and a great deal of valuable service has been rendered by the Federal Animal Pathology Laboratory, particularly in connection with
virus infections in poultry.
The Animal Disease Research Institute, Hull, Que.; the National Salmonella
Typing Centre, Ottawa; the Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph; and Connaught
Medical Research Laboratories, Toronto, have been most helpful in conducting
certain studies on specimen material which the Animal Pathology Laboratory is not
equipped to handle.
The assistance and co-operation received from the various laboratories is gratefully acknowledged.
Numerous meetings of live-stock and poultry owners and meetings relative to
Departmental work were attended. One hundred and thirty field visits were made
to farms in connection with disease problems encountered in specimens submitted
to the laboratory. Personal interviews with farmers or their representatives who
visited the laboratory concerning disease problems numbered 967. The number of
live-stock and poultry owners who received service from the laboratory on the basis
of specimen submissions totalled 786. The total number of specimens examined
was 8,429.    (See Appendix No. 5.)
 DD 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
On the basis of various animal species from which specimen material was submitted to the laboratory for diagnosis, the following are some of the more important
diseases encountered (those in italic are also communicable to man):—
Animal Species Disease Encountered
Cattle Johne's disease, lungworm, listeriosis, coli-bacillosis, clos-
tridiosis, white muscle disease, paratyphoid, mastitis.
Sheep Contagious ecthyma, listeriosis, vibrionic abortion, pasteurel-
losis, nasal tumours, entero-toxsemias.
Horse Virus abortion.
Mink Tuberculosis, paratyphoid, distemper, virus enteritis.
Chinchilla Listeriosis, pseudo-tuberculosis.
Rabbit Pasteurellosis.
Swine Paratyphoid.
Poultry Tuberculosis,   fowl  cholera,  Newcastle  disease,   infectious
bronchitis, chronic respiratory disease, entero-hepatitis,
erysipelas, necrotic enteritis, vibrionic hepatitis, pox,
paratyphoid, aspergillosis, crop mycosis.
A tabulation of the findings in specimens examined in the laboratory is available upon request.
DAIRY BRANCH
Kenneth G. Savage, B.S.A., M.Sc, Dairy Commissioner
PRODUCTION
I960
Milk (total production) lb. 876,084,000
Manufactured products—
Butter (creamery)  lb.      4,990,000
Cheese (Cheddar)  „ 954,000
Cheese (cottage)  „       5,849,000
Ice-cream  gal.      4,350,000
1961 (Estimated)
918,000,000
5,984,000
1,216,000
6,140,000
4,718,000
Creamery butter
UTILIZATION
Canada British Columbia
(PerCent) (PerCent)
  40.6 13.3
Factory cheese __        7.3 1.8
Concentrated milk and ice-cream  10.1 22.3
Fluid sales  31.1 54.3
Farm butter     2.1 1.1
Other purposes     9.7 7.2
MARKETING
In 1960 the total consumption of all milk products represented the use of an
estimated 876 pounds of milk per capita per annum, with 318 pounds consumed
as fluid milk and cream (0.67 of a pint per day). Consumption figures for all
classes of dairy products have not kept pace with the increase in population over
the past few years, and this trend continued into 1961. It is estimated that fluid
milk and cream sales were up 1 per cent from 1960, which is marginally less than
would be expected if per capita consumption had remained at 1960 levels.    Con-
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1961 DD 35
sumption of margarine during 1960 was 23,360,659 pounds or 14.3 pounds per
capita.
Weighted average prices in areas of production under Milk Board control
show minor price fluctuations, which are a reflection of the approximate 5-per-cent
increase in milk production with a corresponding increase of only 1 per cent in fluid
sales. Slightly higher prices for milk directed to manufacturing channels mitigated
against greater reductions in average returns.
The Dominion Bureau of Statistics reports that in 1960 the average farm value
of all sales of milk in British Columbia was $4.45 per hundredweight, compared to
$3.16 for all Canada. Comparable figures for 1961 are expected to show a decrease
for British Columbia and an increase for Canada.
DAIRY PLANTS
Seventy-nine creamery or dairy licences were issued in 1961. Sixty-four
plants pasteurize milk, twenty-seven make ice-cream, twelve butter, two Cheddar
cheese, one milk powder, one evaporated milk, and sixteen cottage cheese. Two
plants ceased operations during the year.
LICENCES, CERTIFICATES, AND PERMITS
Licences
Issued 1961
Creamery or dairy  79
Milk-testers  90
Milk-graders   66
Cream-graders   17
Special tank-milk graders  57
Oleomargarine manufacturers     4
Oleomargarine wholesalers  17
Certificates of Proficiency
Pasteurizer operators— issued i96i       Total valid
First class      5 42
Second class   14 131
Temporary     7
Ice-cream makers—
First class    10
Second class  ._. 16
Cheese-makers—
First class	
Second class    4
Butter-makers—
First class     1 4
Second class  9
Permits
Issued 1961
Farm holding-tanks  201
Tank-trucks        7
To reconstitute milk       2
 DD 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
MILK GRADING
Milk graded by the resazurin test and reported by licensed milk-graders is compared below to figures for 1959 and 1960:—
Number of
Completed
Tests
Number of
Samples Failing
to Qualify
Per Cent
Failing
1959                      	
80,132                        3,296
78.097                            5>.795>
4.11
I960                	
3.56
1961,...--    	
77,246
2,789
3.61
DAIRY SHORT COURSE
The revised short course started in 1959 has continued to attract good numbers
of students. Twenty-six students enrolled in the 1961 course and will attend the
residence portion of this course after having completed their correspondence assignments.   There are nine applicants for the Babcock tester's licence course.
PERSONNEL
Mr. George Patchett was superannuated on August 1, 1961, and was succeeded in the position of Dairy Commissioner by Mr. K. G. Savage.
MISCELLANEOUS
Miss Clara Taylor, of Saanichton, British Columbia's Dairy Princess for 1961,
was chosen as Canada's Dairy Princess at the Canadian National Exhibition.
SUMMARY OF DAIRY BRANCH SERVICES,  1961
Number of inspections—
Dairy plants	
Dairy-farms (farm holding-tanks calibration, certification, etc.)
Butter-fat check tests (milk and cream)	
Grade checks (milk and cream)	
Samples taken for ring test	
Laboratory analyses (milk and cream)	
Other tests	
Examinations (licences and certificates)	
Number of H.T.S.T. pasteurizers tested
Number of farm holding-tanks certified and (or) checked
Number of tank-trucks examined for permit	
Oleomargarine checks made	
745
780
2,074
4,321
446
1,193
104
119
9
287
8
23
SUMMARY
The dairy industry in British Columbia is in a reasonably healthy condition.
The total farm cash value of all milk produced should exceed $40,000,000. Increased production of milk without a corresponding increase in consumption, particularly of fluid milk, necessitates a greater proportion of milk being diverted to
manufactured products. This trend has been of concern to the industry, and in late
1961 production declined somewhat. Increased use of labour-saving methods on
the farm, during transport to the dairy plants and in the plants themselves, continued
to be exploited during 1961. Automation, improved equipment and methods
throughout the industry, resulted in an improved quality of dairy product being
offered to the consumer.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961 DD 37
POULTRY BRANCH
W. H. Pope, P.Ag., Poultry Commissioner
The poultry industry this year saw increases of 3 per cent in the production of
commercial eggs, 25 per cent in broilers, and a substantial increase in turkeys.
Improved techniques, larger flocks, disease-resistant stock, and greater productivity have lowered production costs. The well-established trend to fewer and larger
production units continues and is well illustrated by the report of Vancouver Island,
which states: " In 1958 the average number of birds per farm was 1,700, while in
1961 this number had increased to 2,281." This increase of 34 per cent per flock
compared with the increase of 7.6 per cent in the total poultry population indicates
the extent of the change throughout the Province. Increased unit productivity is the
prime economic force that is accelerating this trend.
The following table clearly shows the general downward trend of prices for
poultry products that has been made possible by greater production efficiency:—-
Producer Price
1961 Price as
Percentage
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
of Five-year
Average
t
32.6
25.6
18.2
31.4
t
33.3
25.0
19.4
33.0
t
32.1
22.2
12.8
24.0
t
31.4
21.4
13.9
31.1
r
32.1
17.9
12.7
26.1
99.0
Chicken.  ., 	
Fowl 	
Turkey                                        	
79.9
84.4
89.6
COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION
The sharp downward trend of the past ten years in the price of commercial eggs
appears to have reached a level at which the industry is sensitive to any further price
reduction. The market was in generally short supply after June this year and
required imports from the Prairie Provinces and the United States. Firming prices
resulted in an increase in the purchases of replacement stock.
Egg Quality Study
Initiated in 1960 and supported by the British Columbia Feed Manufacturers'
Association and this Department, a study to determine the nutritional and management factors involved in the production of market eggs of high quality was continued
during 1961. A report prepared jointly by this Department and the Department of
Poultry Science of the University of British Columbia covering the first stage of this
study was published. A second report dealing with nutritional factors is being
prepared.
General
Slightly higher prices, firm markets, and active demand have contributed to
increased confidence in commercial egg production. Feed-manufacturers' activity
in financing new production facilities and their entry into ownership and operation
of commercial egg production units have accelerated the trend toward fewer and
larger farms. These newly developed large production units, which, within narrow
margins, have fixed costs and where production is generally committed to a single
marketing agent, will undoubtedly exert a stabilizing influence. It is already
evident that the smaller producer must compensate for the possible advantages
 DD 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
inherent in greater volume by increased productivity and strict control of input
factors. The Department's farm-management programme, which could assist these
producers, has not yet been widely accepted.
BROILER PRODUCTION
Broiler production is confined to the Lower Fraser Valley and Southern Vancouver Island, with about 90 per cent of the volume coming from the Valley. During
the first half of the year, new broiler buildings, completed during the fall and winter
of 1960/61, came into full production and resulted in a 35-per-cent increase by
mid-June. In February, a co-operative promotional campaign involving the Markets
Branch of this Department, the Poultry Products Institute, and the British Columbia
Poultry Industries Council was successful in removing the immediate surplus, but
mounting supplies overwhelmed any lasting benefit. The year closed with a total
increase of approximately 25 per cent.
TURKEY PRODUCTION
While the British Columbia turkey-producers followed the Canadian trend to
greater production, their increase was much more modest than that of some of the
other Provinces. Vigorous action by the British Columbia Turkey Association in
co-operation with the Canadian Turkey Association has undoubtedly had an influence in preventing an almost complete price collapse.
General
The technical members of this Branch attended the meetings of those organizations directly associated with the poultry industry.
In co-operation with the Department of University Extension, twenty afternoon and evening classes were held in the various production centres. These classes,
designed to bring the latest production information to the producers, were well
attended.
A two-day workshop was developed, in co-operation with the University of
British Columbia, for the poultry-service personnel of the Province to prepar a uniform set of recommendations to be used by all who advise on production problems.
Flock Approval
This programme continues to operated efficiently and effectively, under mc
direct supervision of Mr. H. C. Gasperdone, at the lowest cost to the producer of any
Province.    Six temporary inspectors and testers are employed on a part-time basis.
The control of pullorum disease has been complicated by heavy imports of
day-old chicks and hatching-eggs from the United States, where control programmes
are somewhat lacking in uniformity. The willing co-operation of officials of the
Health of Animals Division in preventing continued imports of stock of questionable
pullorum status has been of great value. (See Appendices Nos. 6 to 9, inclusive,
for tabular summary of the flock approval programme.)
Farm Management
The record-keeping and analysis portion of this programme is essential for the
profitable operation of those farms not large enough to support a commercial cost
accounting service. Those who have participated in the programme are appreciative
of the operating efficiencies that it has made possible. Six producers on Vancouver
Island and two in the Fraser Valley are presently participating in the programme.
 department of agriculture, 1961 dd 39
Random Sample Test
Two broiler tests and one laying test involving 13,000 birds were completed
during 1961. Appropriate reports have been published and distributed to all Canadian and many United States centres. Further supplies are available from the
Poultry Commissioner's office.
A marked increase in the incidence of the various forms of leucosis has been
encountered.
It is interesting to note that the results at eight weeks in the seventh broiler
test, September 14 to November 7, 1961, are slightly better than those obtained at
ten weeks in the first broiler test, September 15 to November 23, 1958. This
marked difference is indicative of the improvements that have been made in the
fields of genetics and nutrition in the past three years as measured by our testing
programme.
Field Work
Over 3,400 visits have been made to producer premises during the year, in
addition to those made to related phases of the industry.
The use of avian vaccines for the control of certain respiratory diseases in
poultry for the past five years is summarized in Appendix No. 10. This table indicates the increased use of vaccine seems to be correlated with the decreased incidence of these diseases.
FIELD CROPS BRANCH
Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner
CROP PRODUCTION
Cereals
The past season has been one of the most favourable in recent years for field-
crop production throughout the Province. There was some incidence of winter
killing of fall-seeded wheat in the Southern Interior, and high water in Creston
caused some seepage damage, but elsewhere all cereals, including the spring-seeded
varieties, came along well with timely rains to provide good growing conditions.
Fall weather remained fine, allowing for ideal harvest conditions to take off high-
quality grain. Movement of feed-grain from the Peace River and Creston to the
Cariboo and Fraser Valley continues at an accelerated pace, and prices have
advanced with the generally favourable market prospects for all grades of grain
in Canada.
Hay and Pasture
The season also provided ideal conditions for putting up ample supplies of
winter forage. With the severe drought on the Prairies, farmers in British Columbia
harvested more forage this year with a view to possible export sale, which has not
materialized. Pastures in the early season were good throughout the Province,
but dry weather at the Coast during July and August restricted growth, forcing
heavier feeding of hay and silage.
 DD 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SEED PRODUCTION
The Peace River continues as one of our major seed-growing areas. Acreages
of inspected cereals and forage declined somewhat this year. Creston Flats continues to increase production of registered seed of Selkirk wheat and Rodney oats.
The following table lists the acreage of crops inspected in British Columbia as
supplied by the Plant Products Division, Canada Department of Agriculture:—
Crop Acres Crop Acres
Barley   162.00 Flax .      143.00
Oats      56.30 Forage seeds  1,439.00
Wheat  639.00
Commercial forage seed declined somewhat this year, particularly the acreage
of creeping red fescue. Estimated yields of forage-crop seeds for 1961, together
with the final production figures for 1960, are shown in Appendix No. 11.
The annual seed fair was held at Fort St. John on February 8th, featuring the
World Seed Year.
Potatoes
The potato acreage was up slightly this year and yields were generally favourable. Summer drought on some of the highland soils in the Fraser Valley resulted
in a heavy cull-out of Gems. Acreage of the Kennebec variety increased again this
year in the Fraser Valley. A seed-potato control area has been established on the
Creston Flats, indicating the importance of the seed-potato industry developing there.
The main areas of certified-seed potato production are, with acres inspected
in 1961 (1960 acreages in parentheses): Vancouver Island, 309 (275); Lower
Mainland, 340 (257); Pemberton, 405 (297); Okanagan, 182 (313); Cariboo,
190 (193); Central British Columbia, 53 (12); Boundary District, 215 (355);
Kootenays, 414 (400).
One hundred and ten seed-potato samples from growers are again being tested
in the greenhouses at the University of British Columbia and the Experimental Farm,
Saanichton.
Field Peas
Acreage in field peas was below last year's, but yields were about average.
CROP IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION
During 1961 twenty-seven tests were forwarded to members, a decrease from
last year, but the alfalfa varieties continued to be popular. Seed of Duraturf creeping red fescue, Rambler alfalfa, and Manchar brome was distributed to seed-growers
for production.
DEMONSTRATIONS AND TRIALS
Demonstration trial plots, including fertilizers, herbicides, forage-crops, cereals,
and potatoes, were laid down in many areas of the Province. Many of these are
on a continuing basis to assess production over several years.
SOIL AND FORAGE ANALYSES
The number of samples of soil and forage-crops analysed increased substantially again this year. The following table indicates the work of our laboratory
this year:—
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961
DD 41
Type of Material Tested
Determinations or Analysis for—
Number of
Samples
Soils
Irrigation-water..
Forage	
Nitrates, phosphorus, potash, calcium, and pH
Conductivity (total salts).— — —	
pH and total salts .
Crude protein, moisture, pH	
Total nitrogen, nitrogen as nitrates..
3,400
200
20
197
15
AGRICULTURAL LIME
For the eleven-month period ended November 30, 1961, 42,084.36 tons were
distributed under the Federal-Provincial Lime Subsidy Policy, an increase over 1960.
The following is a five-year summary of movement of agricultural lime and
subvention paid:—
Fiscal Year
Total Number
of Applications
Approved
Total Amount
of Subsidy
Recommended
Total Tonnage
Used
1956/57  	
1,052
1,461
1,288
1,326
1,328
$52,784.88
100,588.24
99,942.98
122,473.12
117,110.26
21,528.45
34,404.75
36,529.09
41,298.81
39 835 68
1957/58.  	
1958/59    	
1959/60 	
1960/61.     	
FERTILIZER AND AGRICULTURAL POISONS BOARD
No meetings of the Board were held last year, and no changes were recommended in the following approved fertilizer mixes: 0-15-15, 2-15-15, 4-10-10,
6-8-6 (organic), 6-30-15, 8-10-6, 10-20-10, 10-30-10, and 13-16-10.
WEED-CONTROL
During the past season two Weed Inspectors were employed for the summer
in the Peace River area, and one in the Pemberton Valley for a short period in June.
We continue to carry out demonstration and trial projects to assess new weedicides
for controlling weeds in crops. The Department of Highways has increased its
spray programme again this year to include 2,400 miles of roadside.
TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR
There were not as many growers exhibiting in the hay and grain section of the
show this year. However, there was good representation in double-cut red clover
entries from the Fraser Valley. Our potato-growers did well. Don Wilson, of
Ladysmith; John Pendray, of Victoria; and Ross Brothers, of Pemberton, placed
first, second, and fourth, respectively, in the Netted Gem class. Mrs. Hays, of
Armstrong, took second prize with alfalfa.
GRAIN SCREENINGS
During the first eleven months, January 1 to November 30, 1961, fifteen permits for removal of screenings were issued to elevators and merchants. During
the same period thirty-nine feeders' permits were issued.
 DD 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Nine processing plants are licensed to devitalize screenings. The grinding,
pressure and steam, as prescribed, has, in all cases, given excellent devitalization of
weed seeds. Eighty-three per cent of the refuse screenings used in British Columbia
were pelleted. Prices have advanced slightly on raw refuse and pelleted materials
due to large export orders.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent
One new Farmers' Institute, West Fraser, was incorporated and two inactive
institutes, Eaglet Lake and Narcosli Creek, were restored during the year, leaving a
total of 129 institutes in operation, with a total membership of 5,611.
During the past ten years, active institutes have decreased by twenty-four and
membership by 900. However, the remaining institutes continue to expand, with
over-all assets increasing by $370,000 and the purchase of commodities for members
by approximately $500,000.
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
The Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes met in Victoria on October 31st and
November 1st and 2nd to deal with seventy-seven resolutions submitted by the ten
district institutes and to present a brief to the Provincial Cabinet dealing with such
matters as property taxes, social welfare, rural electrification, gasoline prices and
coloured gasoline for farm vehicles, land-clearing assistance, and rural road drainage.
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS
Sixty-three recognized exhibitions and fall fairs were held in the Province, as
follows: One Class A, seven Class B, and ten Class C exhibitions, and forty-five
fall fairs.
During the year the Dawson Creek Exhibition was granted Class B status and
two fall fairs obtained Class C rating.
POUND DISTRICTS
Six pound districts were constituted in unorganized territory during the year.
Boundaries of six existing pound districts were extended and pound-keepers
appointed for eleven.
MISCELLANEOUS
Seven Grasshopper-control Committees received advances for the purpose of
exterminating and controlling grasshoppers in their respective areas.
Fence-viewers were appointed for the Cowichan-Newcastle and Esquimalt
Electoral Districts, and 115 licences to sell poisonous substances used exclusively
in agriculture were issued.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1961
DD 43
SOIL SURVEY BRANCH
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Chief, Soils Division
In 1961, soil surveys were undertaken in five areas. In the Lower Fraser
Valley, detailed surveys of the Chilliwhack and Sumas Municipalities were completed. A pioneer reconnaissance survey of the Thompson River valley was started,
the field party working westward from Salmon Arm. The Covert Irrigation District
near Grand Forks and the Osoyoos West Bench were reclassified in detail.
An interim report and soil-map covering Surrey Municipality was completed.
A report, " Soil Survey of the Upper Columbia River Valley," was published, and
another, " Soil Survey of the Kettle River Valley," has been submitted for publication. A Soils Advisory Committee was formed, which held six meetings, all of which
were reported.
CHILLIWHACK AND SUMAS MUNICIPALITIES
The survey of the Chilliwhack Municipality was started in 1960 and completed
in the early part of the 1961 field season, involving classification of 13,900 acres in
detail. Detailed work in Sumas Municipality amounted to 27,930 acres. Adjacent
uplands which occupy an additional 42,120 acres also were classified, but on a
reconnaissance scale of mapping. The areas soil-mapped within the two municipalities and in adjacent unorganized territory totalled 82,950 acres. Most of the Sumas
soils were assigned to the Acid Brown Wooded soil group. Reports and maps
covering Chilliwhack and Sumas Municipalities will be prepared during the winter
of 1961/62.
THOMPSON RIVER VALLEY
The objective of this survey is an inventory of soil resources of the entire
Thompson Valley region, and will occupy the attention of a soil survey party for
several years.
In 1961 the classification was begun from the 1959 reclassification of the North
Okanagan Valley. About 54,200 acres were mapped on a scale of detailed reconnaissance from the Salmon Arm area westward to include the Tappen and White
Lake localities. In addition, some 47,600 acres of upland were surveyed on a
broader scale of mapping.
The usual wide range of soil-forming deposits was encountered. Of main
agricultural significance are the alluvial soils of the Salmon River valley, and, at
higher elevations, the glacio-lacustrine materials of medium to heavy texture. Soil
and climatic variation is the cause of some fifty soil distinctions which were recognized. The soil-group variation is from Brown Wooded to Podzol soils with good
drainage, and from Gleysolic to Organic soils under progressive degrees of drainage
restriction.
Excepting soils with a high water-table, production could be increased by irrigation, even of the heavy-textured glacio-lacustrine soils which are common in the
map-area.
COVERT IRRIGATION DISTRICT
A detailed soil survey of the Covert Irrigation District was undertaken in June
and was planned as part of a general investigation in connection with redesign of a
worn-out irrigation system.
The Covert Irrigation District adjoins the International Boundary in the vicinity
of Carson, about 3 miles west of Grand Forks.   A total of 289 acres was classified,
 DD 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of which 272 are suitable for irrigation. The irrigation requirement of each soil type
was estimated. A soil-map and report were completed and supplied to the Water
Rights Branch of the Department of Lands and Forests.
WEST OSOYOOS BENCH
This was a reclassification in detail to provide additional information for a
proposed development of the area. A total of 1,065 acres was mapped on a scale
of 500 feet to 1 inch; 1,008 acres were classed as potentially irrigable.
As part of the job, an investigation of substrata and a study of potential seepage
were undertaken. A drainage proposal was prepared which suggested some 23,000
feet of drains, pumps, and other works necessary to afford drainage if 621 acres
are irrigated. A report, "A Drainage Proposal for the Northern Part of the West
Osoyoos Bench," was completed in July. A Reclamation Committee meeting on
this subject was reported in Reclamation Brief No. 40.
SOIL CONSERVATION
Testing for soil abnormalities of samples submitted by farmers and others was
continued in 1961. A total of 520 samples was examined for alkali. Of these,
about 10 per cent contained black alkali in toxic amounts, and 13 per cent indicated
white alkali concentrations which were too great for normal plant growth. Twenty-
five samples of water intended for irrigation use also were tested, seventeen being
too alkaline for the purpose.
In the Okanagan Valley, sixty farm visits were made and plans prepared for
10,223 feet of drainage-works, which were installed by December 1st. Plans for an
additional 3,301 feet of drains are complete, and an investigation of eight additional
drainage problems is in progress. In the Lower Fraser Valley, thirty farm visits
were made in regard to drainage of 1,320 acres. This Branch and the Agricultural
Engineering Branch co-operated in connection with planning of 446,100 feet of
drainage-works, of which 82,350 feet were installed by December 1st.
Water-table studies to determine the optimum spacing of tile drains in the
Lower Fraser Valley are being conducted at six locations, and three additional
locations are planned. Two sediment basins have been installed to study the amount
of sediment carried by tile drains in certain soils. A programme to study soil permeability in the field has been started, and the possibility of long-range drainage plots
is being investigated.
In the Okanagan Valley, advisory assistance was continued to check the engineering and performance of sprinkler irrigation systems, rates of application, irrigation intervals, and water requirements of soil types. There was co-operation with
irrigation districts and with the Research Station, Summerland, on different phases
of soil and water conservation.
LABORATORY
Laboratory analyses completed during the past year included soil samples collected in the 1960 field season in the Chilliwack area and on the Colony Farm,
Essondale, and on 1961 soil samples from the Cultus Lake and Sumas areas.
Progress was made with an investigation of the chemistry of a new group of soils
encountered in the Kettle River valley, which in part led to their definition as the
Grey Forested soil group. In keeping with the need of information by farmers and
others, soil and water samples were examined for alkali content.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1961 DD 45
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXTENSION
BRANCH
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., P.Ag., Director
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
The volume of work performed by the Agricultural Development and Extension staff continues to increase each year as more and more extension methods are
being used to encourage improved farm practices and to help rural people to help
themselves. Greater use is being made of the services of specialists in poultry,
live stock, field crops, engineering and horticulture.
LOWER MAINLAND AND VANCOUVER ISLAND
Mr. J. S. Allin, Supervising Agriculturist in this area, reports a steady increase
in dairying, with a definite reduction in the number of dairy-farmers brought about
by changing economic conditions. The District Agriculturists report 3,643 farm
visits and 7,884 office contacts, as compared with 3,105 farm visits and 6,643 office
calls in 1959.
PEACE RIVER, CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA,
AND CARIBOO REGION
Mr. S. G. Preston, Supervising Agriculturist, reports special attention being
given to analysis of the agricultural needs of the areas with greater use being made
of specialists.
Excellent co-operation is being received from Agricultural Planning Committees
in Vanderhoof and Burns Lake.
SOUTHERN INTERIOR AND KOOTENAY REGION
This region, from Kamloops to Cranbrook, has a number of areas of specialized
agriculture, such as beef production, vegetables, tree fruits, dairying, and poultry.
Extension programmes were developed accordingly.
IN-SERVICE TRAINING AND SHORT COURSES
Several staff members attended the Stockmen's Short Course at Washington
State University, and Mr. R. C. Bailey attended the Western Regional Summer
School at Colorado. Short courses were arranged on swine at Abbotsford and
beef cattle at Tranquille. Dairy courses were held in the Kamloops-Okanagan area.
Courses on live stock, seed production, etc., were held in the Boundary, Peace River,
and other areas.
FARM MANAGEMENT
The farm-management programme undertaken in 1958 continued during 1961,
with emphasis on analysis of simple farm records which the individual farmer keeps
for himself.
A special publicity campaign was undertaken to make farmers aware of this
programme, and five press releases were issued in October and November.
LIVE STOCK
M. G. A. Luyat, Supervising Agriculturist and Live Stock Specialist, reports
the beef-cattle industry had a very satisfactory year.    Markets strengthened early
 DD 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
in the year when it became apparent that the United States cattle population had
been estimated too high. Cows were in short supply as ranchers seemed to be
holding on to breeding stock and selling calves and yearlings because of good prices.
The large supplies of feed in the United States together with the devaluation of the
Canadian dollar were responsible for the substantial prices paid, while the droughty
conditions of the Western Prairies made supplies available, thereby saving the short
supply of grass for breeding stock. Despite higher grain prices, Prairie feeders
began to fill up their feed-lots. Exports of feeder cattle to the United States during
the last months of the year increased substantially at remarkably good prices.
Cattle-finishing in British Columbia is not on the increase generally. More
interest is being shown in this phase of the industry in the Fraser Valley, where
a few operators are attempting to grass-finish yearlings. Properly managed, both
pastures and cattle in the Lower Fraser could contribute something to the industry.
Grain surpluses in the Peace River have disappeared, and it is not anticipated that
the small start in farm finishing of cattle will expand for the present at least.
Some anxiety has been expressed over the closure of the Burns & Company
abattoir in Vancouver. Freight rates on live cattle to be processed in the Coast
city have made it prohibitive as against the shipment direct from Calgary of dressed
carcasses. The trend has been away from grass cattle for slaughter, and since British
Columbia does not produce grain-finished cattle, the demand for slaughter facilities
in Vancouver has lessened. The ranges of the Interior are now used for the production of feeder cattle for export.
BEEF CATTLE ADVISORY COMMITTEE
Three meetings of this Committee were held during the year. Four Subcommittees were in operation—Cattle Identification, Cattle Finishing and Marketing,
Range Management, and Progeny Testing of Sires. As a result of a study made by
the Cattle Finishing and Marketing Sub-committee on carcass evaluation and desirability, plans were laid to organize a carcass demonstration for educational purposes
at the 1962 bull sale, having in mind that this would be a forerunner to a carcass
competition at later shows. Dr. H. H. Nicholson, Animal Husbandman, Range
Experimental Farm, Kamloops, replaced Mr. T. G. Willis on the Committee.
THE SHEEP INDUSTRY
There is a general increase in the sheep population of British Columbia despite
the lower prices received and the widening differential with cattle prices. Some
smaller operations have converted to cattle, but this slack was picked up by others.
Several thousand head were imported from Montana and Alberta during the year.
The premium payment of $2 and $1 on lamb carcasses rail-graded as 1a and 2b
weighing between 36 and 51 pounds, as announced by the Federal Department of
Agriculture, taking effect August 14th, has given an impetus to sheep production.
SHEEP FIELD-DAYS
Five sheep field-days organized by the Department of Agriculture were held
during May and June at Duncan, Abbotsford, Westwold, Fort Fraser, and Fort
St. John, which were very successful. Cross-breeding, live and carcass grading,
etc., were emphasized.
HOGS
Hog production is dropping in the Peace River area and will likely continue
to do so as long as a remunerative market for grain remains.    Production elsewhere
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1961 DD 47
in the Province has been affected by increased grain prices, and an increase is not
likely to occur for some time.
A very successful swine field-day was held in Abbotsford in November.
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
(G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, P.Eng., Senior Agricultural Engineer)
Power and Machinery
Projects
1. Potato-sprayer.—The modification to sprayer equipment has been completed this year, with a modified drop-boom and efficient spray-tank agitation being
added. Leaf coverage was once again analysed. In addition, careful inspection
for aphid-control was observed, with very satisfactory results being obtained in all
cases.
Trials were also conducted with an air-blast sprayer. Results do not indicate
that this type of equipment is competitive with the drop-boom in so far as per cent
coverage is concerned.
2. Apple-handling.—As a result of the trial work carried out during the past
year, it will be possible to prepare recommendations which will permit both growers
and packing-house operators to reduce fruit damage below present levels in both
field and plant operations. These recommendations will be prepared and published
as a separate report.
3. Turnip-harvesting.—Work on a prototype turnip-harvester utilizing several
separate units when combined into one machine did not work in a satisfactory manner. This project will not be pursued since modifications would increase its cost
to the point where it would not be competitive with equipment presently available.
4. Forage Machinery.—This project is just being initiated and will include the
study of separate machines to work out the most compatible combination of units
and work on mechanization of feeding procedures for all crops but with the emphasis
placed on silage.
Tractor-maintenance Courses
These courses still appear popular in the Province. Four separate schools
were held, with a total attendance of forty-seven.
Publications
Two new bulletins have been prepared by the Division. These are A.E. 11,
"A New Self-propelled Machine for Removing Droppings from Laying-cage
Houses," and A.E. 12, " Land-clearing Equipment and Methods."
In addition to this, a paper has been prepared on sprayers, including the most
recent information on tests carried out, and a number of reports have been prepared
based on project work under way.
Meetings and Field-days
Seven meetings were attended to present information on sprayers and on the
work of the Committee on Apple-handling Equipment.
Three field-days on potato-growing were attended to present information on
sprayer-development work.
 DD 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Soil and Water
Drainage
1. Tile-covering.—A review of this demonstration indicated that all covering
methods followed were effective in controlling sand movement into tile-lines. This
project may need to be duplicated in areas where more serious flow problems are
encountered.
2. Pump-flow Trials.—A project has been set up to check the efficiencies of
pumps presently being used for drainage in the Fraser Valley. This will be extended
to include tile effluent measurement as a basis of checking drainage coefficient
design figures being used at present.
Design of Systems
Work has been continued along the lines of that started in 1960 to carry out
topographical surveys on those farms where tile systems are to be installed. Detailed
plans were prepared for thirty-six farms, covering a total of 1,830 acres. In addition
to this, seven surveys were carried out where surface drainage only was to be
installed to provide drainage for 525 acres. In these two basic projects a total of
44,500 feet of open ditch was surveyed in detail. In addition, special emphasis
was placed this year on checking outlets to make sure that sufficient fall was obtainable at the major outlet of drainage-ditches.
Talks on drainage were presented at six meetings, and one field-day was
attended.
One detailed paper on drainage was prepared for a special night-school course
on this subject.
Irrigation
The Departmental irrigation equipment located at Vanderhoof was used on
cash crops. The results indicated that irrigation can triple the yield of potatoes and
substantially increase the turnip yield within this area, indicating that this is the
prime area for consideration of irrigation in Central British Columbia.
Irrigation systems were designed for ten farms, covering 210 acres. In addition, special investigations have been initiated on two area schemes. This work will
be of a preliminary nature, with follow-up to be carried out by the districts interested.
Six meetings were attended, at which information was presented on sprinkler
irrigation system design and special problems.
Design reports were prepared for two storage dams, with advisory assistance
being provided on the design of spillways for three other structures.
Domestic Water
Assistance was provided under the terms of the Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act on the construction of eight dugouts. Some problems are still being
encountered in controlling seepage in dugouts constructed in laminar silts and clays.
No simple solution is apparent at present.
Farm Structures
Project
Potato-storage Ventilation.—This project is in its second year. Results from
the first year were not too indicative, but results from this winter's operation should
provide some basic data on the design of forced-air ventilation of future potato-
storage structures.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1961
DD 49
Plans
This Division has distributed 4,630 plan sets, with plans being obtained primarily from the Farm Building Plan Service, together with other sources. In addition to this service, individual assistance has been provided on seven farm structure
layouts.
General
In all phases of work, much information has been supplied in answer to individual letters of inquiry. In addition, it has been possible to augment our supply
of reference material to better answer such queries.
Land Clearing and Development
Through the operations of the Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act, initiated in 1946, there has been in excess of $4,000,000 worth of work completed for
farmers in the Province. Over 100,000 acres of land have been cleared, 40,000
acres broken, and 1,400 acres drained. An additional $250,000 has been spent on
repiling, double disking, farm roads, clearing fence-lines, constructing dugouts,
levelling, and other earth work, including 7,900 separate contracts.
During 1961, private contractors were again utilized to carry out the development work. In all, negotiations were made with sixty-nine contractors, involving
eighty-one crawler-type tractors, eight scrapers, sixteen back-hoes, fourteen draglines, two well-drilling rigs, and three wheel-type trenchers.
Up to November 30th of the 1961 operating year, approximately 7,442 acres
were cleared and 4,075 acres broken.
The final figures for the fiscal year 1960/61 show 10,600 acres cleared and
5,500 acres broken.
Summary of Land Clearing and Development, 1961
District
Acres
Acres
Cleared
Broken
140
491
492
100
1,589
1,159
683
463
2,004
1,485
1,943
939
Cost per
Acre for
Clearing
Cost per
Acre for
Breaking
Vancouver Island   ...
Fraser Valley and Pemberton. 	
Okanagan, Shuswap, and Kamloops..
Boundary and Kootenays..
Cariboo, Prince George, McBride..
Vanderhoof, Smithers, Terrace	
South Peace River.	
North Peace River	
$91.00
100.00
56.00
75.00
34.00
27.00
19.00
15.00
$8.00
9.00
9.00
9.00
HOME ECONOMICS
(Miss  Lorna R.  Michael,  B.Sc.   (HE.))
Commencing June 19th a Home Economics office was added to the 4-H Club
Division, with headquarters in Victoria. The duties of the Home Economist included both office and field work related to the organization of a 4-H Homecraft
programme througout the Province.
Leaflets are now available on such subjects as clothing construction, textiles,
food cookery and preservation, nutrition, home management, child-care, home planning and home decorating, besides supplementary 4-H project information. Further
demands from adults also necessitated preparation of twenty additional mimeographed sheets on Home Economics subject-matter. A total of 1,588 bulletins and
project material has been sent out in this six-month period.
A total of twenty-two leaders' meetings was held, with over 100 leaders, District
Agriculturists, and members present.
 DD 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
After a survey of the needs of Homecraft leaders and members, six projects
were outlined for Clothing Club members, two for Foods, and one for Home Beautifi-
cation. Senior Homecraft proficiency examinations were set for Clothing and Food
members, a total of seventy being written. Clothing Club members in various areas
were instructed as to their participation in local dress revues, and eighteen girls from
all parts of British Columbia competed for the Dress Revue Queen crown at the
Pacific National Exhibition. Instruction was given to leaders and club members
on techniques of demonstrations, and assistance was given in judging numerous
demonstration competitions.
4-H CLUB DIVISION
(R. C. Bailey, B.S.A., P.Ag., Supervisor)
Enrolment
In 1961 club membership rose to an all-time high of 263 clubs containing
3,260 members. This is an increase in membership of close to 10 per cent over 1960
and 21 per cent over 1959. Nearly all projects registered an increase in both clubs
and members, with the largest increase in live-stock projects.
Project Work
Records show that 4-H members raised 520 beef animals, 982 dairy calves, 58
goats, over 6,000 chickens, 275 rabbits, 364 sheep, 234 hogs, grew 18 acres of grain,
and raised over 200 gardens. More than 500 girls made over 2,000 articles for
their wardrobes and homes, while some seventy-five boys looked after and maintained as many farm tractors. Altogether, these members completed more than
2,700 projects, valued at approximately $250,000.
Club Activities
Field-days to give club members experience in judging and demonstrations were
held in nearly every district of the Province. In addition, public speaking and
demonstration competitions were held to add opportunities for personal development.
The first 4-H Club rally in British Columbia was held in Cloverdale this year
and proved to be a successful way of testing 4-H Club members on the various skills
they learn in club work.
Provincial Club Week
Again this year, Provincial Club Week was held at Tranquille in July. During
the week, 4-H members were given training in leadership, farm and home planning,
farm safety, and careers, and selections made for the following awards:—
(1) Canadian National Exhibition scholarship of $600 awarded to Mr. Jim
Thompson, of Salmon Arm.
- (2) Award trip to the National 4-H Conference in Washington, D.C, in April,
1962, to Miss Kathy Bechtold, of Armstrong.
(3) Award trip to attend National Club Week in Toronto and Ottawa in
November, 1961, to Miss Rose Couling, Coombs; Miss Jacquelyn Ros-
man, Saanich; Miss Julia Hansen, Ladner; Miss Sharon McArthur, Cloverdale; Miss Dierdre Gorsuch, Langley; Miss Roberta Armistead, Langley; Mr. Albert Anderson, Langley; Mr. Arthur Brooke, Pitt Meadows;
Mr. Chris Finch, Dewdney; Mr. Barry Brady, Heffley Creek; Miss Helen
Curylo, Chilliwack; Mr. Ken Neuman, Barriere; Miss Janice Smith,
Armstrong;  and Miss Karen Hendricks, Dawson Creek.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961 DD 51
Other awards included a trip to the National 4-H Club Congress to Miss
Dolores Sandstrom, sponsored by the 4-H Leaders' Council at Mission, and a trip
to the State 4-H Conference in Pullman, Wash., to Miss Gwen Long, McBride; Mr.
Jon Long, Quesnel; Miss Patricia Keith, Engen; and Mr. Howard Harding, Telkwa.
Pacific National Exhibition
Again this year, twenty-six boys and girls from Central British Columbia and
the Peace River were assisted by the Norgan Foundation to attend the Pacific
National Exhibition and take part in competitions. Each district in British Columbia sent its best members to compete in judging, demonstrations, and dress revue
events.
Leadership Development
Eight regional workshops were held during February and March at Dawson
Creek, Vanderhoof, Kamloops, Armstrong, Chilliwack, Mission, Cloverdale, and
Nanaimo. A total of 281 leaders and assistant leaders was contacted by these
workshops.
Over eighty senior 4-H Club members enrolled in the Junior Leadership project, designed to provide experience and knowledge in leadership skills. In addition,
nine adult leaders received their five-year certificate, seven their ten-year certificate,
and one a fifteen-year certificate in recognition of contributions made to rural youth.
Summer Assistants
Five students from the University of British Columbia assisted with the 4-H
programme this past summer and assisted with the heavy schedule of 4-H activities
during the busy summer months.
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
F. O. McDonald, Manager
During the year no serious interruption of water-supply occurred and leaks
developing in the wood-stave system were normal. No damage to orchards was
caused as a result of the repair programme.
Domestic services were expanded, and now stand at 564 residential; 80 commercial; 6 industrial; 50 meters in operation. Hydrant pressure was 70 to 120
p.s.i. and water temperature averaged 55 degrees.
Water was turned into the canal on April 17th, the earliest in many years,
and pumping-stations were started on May 1st. The canal was put at full flow on
June 15th and continued until September. Water was kept in the main canal until
October 19th for floating timber into place in the renewal section and for ordinary
replacement throughout the system.
Another 3,000 feet of main canal was waterproofed by cleaning, foundation
sealing, and the application of fibreglass and hot asphalt. Generally, this appears
to be an economical method of waterproofing concrete under water.
The dormant spraying of ditch sides and bottom with copper sulphate was
continued. It is apparent that alga? and aquatic growth are discouraged by application of a strong solution. There was no dangerous concentration of solution after
an initial run of four or five hours.
Instead of one large crew with a general foreman, three crews were used this
year for the first time in an effort to speed up the winter work programme. This
resulted in an earlier turn-on of water for irrigation.
 DD 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Winter water for cisterns was not supplied this year, being too close to the
freezing point to risk running it into the canal. Water temperature of 38 degrees
or higher is required for this purpose.
LAND  SETTLEMENT BOARD
During the year the sales made by the Board amounted to  $69,282.40.
Twenty-nine purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and four
borrowers paid up in full and received release of mortgage.
Collections were as follows:—
Loans   $12,501.39
Land sales     50,192.20
Dyking loan refunds, etc.        1,666.83
Foreclosed properties and areas, rentals, etc.       6,053.85
Total  $70,414.27
The above figures include collections from the sale and rental of Doukhobor
lands in the amount of $29,638.56.
DYKING AND DRAINAGE DISTRICTS
W. R. Meighen, B.Sc, P.Eng., Dyking Commissioner
This year's freshet in the Fraser River was of normal proportions, with the
river reaching its peak of 20.6 feet on the Mission gauge on June 6th. Patrols were
placed on the most vulnerable dykes for a period of about ten days while the river
was at or above the 20-foot reading.
Amendments were enacted to the Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development
District Act and to the Dyking Assessment Adjustment Act, 1947, during the 1961
Session which were intended to broaden the basis of assessment and thereby provide
greater revenue to the districts to which these Acts apply. The new legislation
increased minimum taxes in the Sumas District from $2 to $5 for any separate
parcel of land, and also permitted the district to impose a 5-mill levy on 75 per cent
of the assessed value of improvements. Revenues were thereby increased from
$85,000 in 1960 to $103,000 in 1961, reducing some of the district's accumulated
deficit position.
The Matsqui and Nicomen Districts carried out extensive rock placement on
river-banks and enlarged their quarry operations, while Harrison Mills and Silver-
dale electrified pumping-stations.
All of the districts, excepting Surrey, carried out fairly substantial river-bank
protection projects during the year.
Creston area was threatened by a very high freshet in the Kootenay River
this year. The Department of Highways, the Army, and other agencies provided
very necessary and helpful assistance to the local dyking authorities in combating
this threat and in preventing dyke failures.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961
DD 53
APPENDICES
APPENDIX No.  1
Slaughtering in Abattoirs Licensed under Stock Brands Act
and Provincial Meat Inspection Act
1957
1958
1959
1960,
First Six
Months
1960,
Second
Six
Months
1961,
First Six
Months
Cattle
Licensed under Stock Brands Act and Pro-
2,639
15,235
3,258
15,955
2,759
17,341
2,205
9,336
2,970
10,650
3,086
8,854
17,874
19,213
20,100
11,541
13,541
11,940
Calves
Licensed under Stock Brands Act and Provincial Meat Inspection Act.... 	
2,342
5,548
7,890
5,087
6,392
11,479
5,206
11,065
16,271
5,743
4,794
10,334
5,991
7,545
3,194
Totals...  	
10,537
16,325
10,739
Swine
Licensed under Stock Brands Act and Pro-
Licensed under Stock Brands Act	
4,381
10,852
4,396
13,803
5,346
15,713
5,258
7,251
5,224
8,579
8,333
8,308
Totals ■:	
15,233
18,199
21,059
12,509
13,803
16,641
Sheep
Licensed under Stock Brands Act and Pro-
17
593
35
514
17
604
150
406
201
288
137
Totals	
610
549
621
556
489
556
Lambs
Licensed under Stock Brands Act and Pro-
220
2,613
330
3,569
488
3,773
214
2,709
418
2,353
2,288
Totals   	
2,833
3,899
4,261
2,923
2,771
2,638
APPENDIX No. 2
Dairy-farm Inspections under Milk Industry Act
District
Number of
Dairy-farm
Inspections
Number of Dairy-farms
Issued Notice of Cancellation by Inspectors
Number of Approved
Dairy-farms
Raw
Fluid
Raw
Fluid
East Kootenay 	
128
140
770
429
425
3,580
704
5
32
1
2
1
3
4
7
6
9
21
68
17
1
......
6
10
3
2
5
27
1
4
1
45
40
158
South Okanagan..—    . 	
77
145
2,054
Vancouver Island   ...
North Bend   .      .                     	
266
5
Totals..   .   .              	
6,221
10
138
59
2,790
Three hundred and fifty-five additional notices of cancellation were mailed out in Milk Board area where the
dairy-farmer notified the Board of cessation of operations.
Twenty-three visits were made to issue warning where milk was deemed to be sold illegally.
 DD 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 3
Cattle and Hide Inspections, 1961
District
Cariboo—
Quesnel ....
Cattle   Hides
   -  2,981
Williams Lake, Alexis Creek  13,468
Clinton,   Lac   la   Hache,   100   Mile
House,    Graham   Siding,   Bridge
Lake, Lone Butte      6,525
Lillooet, Pavilion, Bralorne   886
Bella Coola   _   	
382
304
75
5
10
23,860      776
Kamloops, Nicola, etc-
Kamloops, Chase
  28,330
Merritt     10,212
Ashcroft, Lytton, etc.     9,367
Salmon Arm    2,267
917
276
14
877
50,176   2,084
Okanagan—
Vernon, Lumby, Falkland .
....   6,330 1,167
Armstrong, Enderby, Sicamous     3,442 373
Kelowna     4,343 2,861
934 17
....   5,088 768
Kelowna
Penticton, Summerland	
Oliver, Osoyoos  	
District
Similkameen—
Princeton, Keremeos, etc.
Grand Forks, Greenwood
Cattle Hides
.     3,506 215
     3,386 297
6,892 512
South-eastern British Columbia—
Rossland, Crescent Valley       261 218
Nelson, Creston, etc.     2,502 1,290
Cranbrook, Fernie, etc     5,143 619
Invermere, Golden      1,039 39
8,945 2,166
Central British Columbia—
Prince George, Vanderhoof _     1,708 1,272
Smithers, Giscome, etc      1,176 608
Burns Lake   _    1,160 42
Peace River—
Fort St. John
Dawson Creek
4,044    1,922
4,455       673
7,842    1,874
20,137    5,186
12,297    2,547
Totals Compared
District
1961
1960
1959
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
23,860
50,176
27,029
8,945
16,341
776
2,084
5,698
2,166
4,469
20,786
47,279
25,976
7,784
13,835
845
1,965
4,579
1,970
4,630
25,249
41,702
22,572
7,395
15,604
875
1,747
3,789
2,046
Central British Columbia and Peace River	
5,858
Totals              	
126,351
15,193
115,660
13,989
112,522
14,315
APPENDIX No. 4
Breed Averages for 1960
Breed
Percentage of
Total D.H.I.
1959        1960
Milk (Pounds)
1959 1960
Fat
Per Cent
1959        1960
Pounds
1959       1960
Ayrshire.—
Guernsey..
Holstein	
Jersey-
Unclassified (cross-breds, etc.)..
3.3
13.9
58.0
15.5
9.3
3.2
13.3
60.7
14.2
8.6
9,407
8,920
11,879
7,835
9,937
9,321
8,918
11,735
7,864
10,181
4.11
4.82
3.76
5.17
4.40
4.13
4.84
3.80
5.21
4.35
387
430
447
405
437
385
431
446
410
443
1959 figures shown for comparison.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1961
DD 55
APPENDIX No. 5
Animal Pathology Specimen Examinations
Specimen
Chickens
Turkeys
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
Swine
Fur-
bearers
Miscellaneous
Total
Miscellaneous 	
Serology 	
3,034
2,563
875
265
106
229
19
23
41
4
238
1,030
2
5,366
3,063
Totals     ...
5,597
1,140    |       335
1
19
23
45
238
1,032
8,429
APPENDIX No. 6
Poultry-flock Approval
Number
of Flocks
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number
of Birds
per Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
1961          _ 	
Five-year average, 1956 to 1960, inclusive 	
148
159
260,146
261,803
1,757.7
1,691.1
0.1137
0.0459
APPENDIX No. 7
Breeds Approved for Egg Production
Breed
Total, 1961
Total, 1960
1,504
856
182
~~ 536
1,720
7,128
5,263
1,433
95,223
4,498
662
298
1,825
California Grey  	
117
63
228
2,159
New Hampshire       	
15,471
1,197
Rhode Island White  	
S.C. White Leghorn      	
80,733
White Plymouth Rock                             .
2 774
3 154
Totals
119,005
108,020
APPENDIX No. 8
Turkey-flock Approval
Number
of Flocks
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number
of Birds
per Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
1961
7
24
9,609.0
18,817.2
1,372.70
840.12
0.0000
0 0094
 DD 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 9
Turkey-flock Approval by Breed
Breed
1961
1960
6,041
1,928
1,640
12,837
2,297
310
238
Small Whites     	
Totals	
9,609
15,232
APPENDIX No. 10
Amount and Kind of Vaccine Distributed
Type of Vaccine
1961
1960
1959
1958
1957
13,751,400
3,184,900
8,829,800
1,816,600
8,747,150
1,851,450
6,171,710
1,986,000
5,149,350
1,628,950
Totals	
16,936,300
10,646,400
10,598,600
8,157,710
6,778,300
APPENDIX No.  11
Production of Grass and Legume Seeds, 1960-61
Production
(Final), 1960
Estimated Production, 1961
Alfalfa..
Red clover, single	
Red clover, double
Alsike clover	
Sweet clover	
White clover	
Timothy..
Timothy-alsike_
Brome	
Blue-grass, Kentucky-
Crested wheat	
Creeping red fescue	
Meadow fescue 	
Orchard-grass	
Red-top..
Chewing's fescue..
Birdsfoot trefoil...
Lb.
70,000
500,000
153,000
2,499,000
160,000
23,600
200,000
56,700
175,000
60,000
36,500
4,500,000
25,000
1,000
11,000
8,000
1,500
Lb.
160,000
410,000
145,000
1,800,000
350,000
52,000
220,000
60,000
200,000
7,300
20,000
3,580,000
19,000
1,000
lojoob
1,800
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961
DD 57
APPENDIX No. 12
Movement of Feed-grains under Federal Freight Assistance Policy into British
Columbia for the Fiscal Years Shown
Feed
1955/56
1956/57
1957/58
1958/59
1959/60
1960/61
Wheat—  ..
Oats	
Barley	
Tons
78,932
54,603
32,562
121
3,745
2,015
44,504
Tons
87,076
41,002
31,455
5
2,887
2,211
40,463
Tons
82,184
36,343
31,315
Tons
78,761
39,848
32,510
6
1,520
7,929
36,210
Tons
90,484
48,601
49,479
1,943
8,935
47,129
Tons
82,818
43,307
53,818
74
Com (Manitoba
2,652
2,946
38,251
1,588
Screenings	
5,427
45,117
Totals	
216,482
205,099
193,691
196,784
246,571
232,149
Total subsidy	
Average per ton
subsidy 	
$1,287,185.51
$5.94
$1,265,865.43
$6.17
$1,512,679.96
$7.81
$1,560,253.08
$7.93
$2,096,297.96
$8.50
$1,915,644.93
$8.25
APPENDIX No. 13
Production of Tree-fruit Crops in British Columbia for
and Estimate for 1961
1960
I960 Production
Fresh Sales
Processed Sales
Total
Production
1961 Estimate
of Total
Production
Apples...
Crab-apples..
Pears	
Plums.. 	
Prunes	
Cherries-
Peaches	
Apricots-
Lb.
189,864,000
1,529,000
23,897,000
303,000
6,913,000
4,560,000
16,392,000
9,484,000
Totals..
252,942,000
Lb.
52,251,000
1,963,000
8,542,000
28,000
2,494,000
903,000
13,069,000
5,786,000
85,036,000
Lb.
242,115,000
3,492,000
32,439,000
331,000
9,407,000
5,463,000
29,461,000
15,270,000
Lb.
198,736,000
1,573,000
29,416,000
430,000
10,488,000
9,032,000
24,695,000
12,203,000
337,978,000      [    286,573,000
APPENDIX No. 14
Total Acreage of Small Fruits by Areas in British Columbia in the Fall of 1960
Vancouver
Island
Lower
Mainland
Okanagan
Creston
B.C. Totals
Strawberries.	
213.7
7.2
5.2
14.8
216.4
0.2
3.0
0.4
0.3
1.2
1,066.6
1,272.1
857.7
147.6
31.5
11.7
0.9
1.3
1.3
0.5
0.5
62.1
14.5
47.6
31.9
1,390.0
1,325.7
862.9
Cranberries. 	
0.5
147.6
46.8
Loganberries.	
228.1
1.1
0.6
0.8
0.7
4 9
2 5
Gooseberries —	
Others     	
	
1.5
1.7
Totals — -
462.4
3,391.7
76.6
82.1
4,012.8
 DD 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 15
Production of Small Fruits, Grapes, and Filberts for 1960
and Estimate for 1961
1960 Production
1961 Estimate
of Total
Production
Fresh Sales
Processed Sales
Total
Production
Lb.
1,411,000
727,000
105,000
58,000
33,000
20,000
19,000
183,000
Lb.
5,984,000
10,592,000
990,000
344,000
6,000
15,000
10,000
1,480,000
202,000
838,000
Lb.
7,395,000
11,319,000
1,095,000
402,000
39,000
35,000
29,000
1,663,000
202,000
1,329,000
136,000
Lb.
7,487,000
Raspberries..  	
Loganberries       	
Blackberries	
10,097,000
1,194,000
490,000
32,000
33,000
24,000
1 889,000
405,000
Grapes
491,000
136,000
3,264,000
207,000
Totals
3,183,000
20,461,000
23,644,000
25,122,000
APPENDIX No. 16
Estimate of the Acreage and Production of Selected Vegetable-crops
in British Columbia for 1961
Kind of Vegetable
Acreagee
Production
Lb.
500
993,000
1,439
10,881,000
141
2,514,000
208
1,265,000
37
200,000
468
6,986,000
468
11,056,000
537
5,455,000
176
3,843,000
3,715
19,807,000
488
5,731,000
1,684,000
526
7,830,000
1,851,000
524
10,073,000
10,792
24,346,000
1,886
19,293,000
7,341
133,432,000
124
986,000
885
16,849,000
	
3,260,000
225
4,719,000
760
8,518,000
31,240
301,572,000
Asparagus..
Beans	
Beets	
Broccoli  _
Brussels sprouts..
Cabbage	
Carrots.. 	
Cauliflower	
Celery	
Corn	
Cucumbers, outdoor	
Cucumbers, hothouse-
Lettuce, field	
Mushrooms	
Onions  	
Peas  	
Potatoes, early 	
Potatoes, late	
Spinach-
Tomatoes, field	
Tomatoes, hothouse...
Turnips .
Other vegetables-
Totals....
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1961
DD 59
APPENDIX No.  17
Tree-fruit Nursery-stock Production in British Columbia, 1958 to 1961
1958
1959
1960
1961
Apples - - - 	
357,100
59,965
46,875
4,700
12,630
3,410
307,337
48,277
35,083
9,984
44,356
4,245
148,258
27,997
15,566
8,942
26,857
3,262
178,921
47,278
Cherrips
Plums and prunes -  .
Peaches 	
52,685
15,586
37,699
8,077
Totals
484,680
449,282
230,882
340,246
APPENDIX No. 18
Comparison of Apple-tree Numbers by Variety, 1958 to 1961
Variety
1958
1959
1960
1961
Mcintosh
Delicious „	
90,277
72,520
37,120
29,010
14,455
44,663
47,524
39,783
39,096
14,212
2,954
16,167
29,160
25,013
10,758
18,671
2,939
1,203
10,304
3,087
7,600
2,580
1,315
13,106
1,285
4,430
16,720
29,827
25,210
16,950
Spartan
26,477
2,610
1,401
5,480
11,106
8,624
8,319
10,157
8,104
13,250
1,201
4,712
22,253
7,610
7,907
3,990
2,035
1,850
30,907
APPENDIX No. 19
Apple Root-stocks Grown in British Columbia for Sale
as Nursery Stock, 1959 to 1961
Type of Stock
Number of Trees Grown
Approximate Percentage
1959
1960
1961
1959
1960
1961
FMTT
79,641
7,200
58,489
16,335
895
3,650
3,110
1,915
122,411
28,609
920
42,689
12,058
515
1.558
50,760
740
38,357
7,787
350
6.288
27.0
2.5
19.9
5.6
0.3
1.2
1.1
0.7
41.7
18.9
28.4
EM IV	
0.6                    0.4
EM VII 	
28.3
8.0
0.3
1.0
1.2
0.7
0.4
30.3
6.8
3.5
21.4
EM IX                             	
4.4
EM XVI 	
0.2
MM 104  .    —	
3.5
MM 106      -	
1.827                2.950
1.7
MM 109. 	
1,075
532
45,845
10.220
937
3,120
46,613
6.507
0.5
MM 111                  	
1.7
26.1
3.6
5.248              14.500
8.1
 DD 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 20
Publications Printed in 1961
Reports
Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, 1960.
The Climate of British Columbia, 1960.
Agricultural Statistics, 1960.
Annual Report of the Milk Board, 1960.
Bulletins
Feeding Dairy Cows in British Columbia.
Silos.
Observations on Strawberry Varieties as Grown in the Fraser Valley.
Strawberry Growing with Particular Application to the Fraser Valley.
Ticks and Man.
Raspberry Varieties as Grown in the Fraser Valley.
An Introduction to the Tree Fruit Industry of British Columbia.
Red Raspberry Growing with Particular Application to the Fraser Valley.
Garlic.
Storage Onion Production in British Columbia.
Wild Oats.
Soil Organic Matter.
Soil Reaction.
Clover Seed Growers.   Why Gamble?   Use Bees.
Control Potato Leafroll.
How to Take Soil Samples.
Exhibition Standards of Perfection for Dairy Products, Poultry Products,
and Honey.
Exhibition Standards of Perfection for Vegetables and Field Crops.
Exhibition Standards of Perfection for Fruit and Flowers.
A New Self-propelled Machine for Removing Droppings from Laying-cage
Houses.
Beehive Construction for Beginners.
Propagation and Grafting of Fruit Trees.
Chemical Fertilizers.
White Muscle Disease in Calves and Lambs.
Grape Growing in British Columbia.
Bovine Mastitis.
Peach Leaf Curl.
Bacterial Ring-rot of Potatoes.
Some Factors Affecting Production of Greenhouse Tomatoes.
Peat and Muck Soils.
Alkaline and Saline Soils.
Charts
Chemical Weed Control, 1961-63.
Control of Tree-fruit Pests and Diseases, 1961-62.
Control of Vegetable and Field Crop Pests and Diseases, 1961-62.
Fertilizer Recommendations for the Lower Mainland, 1961.
Spray Calendar for Coniferous Evergreens and Roses.
Forage Crop Recommendations for Vancouver Island, 1961-62.
Control of Tree-fruit Pests and Diseases, Interior Districts, 1961.
Miscellaneous
Regulations Covering Fruit, Vegetables, and Honey.
List of Publications.
A Survey of the Quality of Newly Laid Eggs on Farms in British Columbia.
Performance of Broilers Fed Different Rations in the Fifth and Sixth Random Sample Poultry Tests.
 Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1962
860-362-8782
   

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