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REPORT OF THE Department of Recreation and Conservation containing the reports of the FISH AND GAME BRANCH,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1962

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Hon. E. C. Westwood, Minister D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister
REPORT OF THE
Department of Recreation
and Conservation
containing the reports of the
FISH AND GAME BRANCH, PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH,
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU,
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND
ANTHROPOLOGY, PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH, AND
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
Year Ended December 31
1961
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1962
  Victoria, B.C., January 15, 1962.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department
of Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1961.
E. C. WESTWOOD,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 Victoria, B.C., January 15, 1962.
The Honourable E. C. Westwood,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1961.
D. B. TURNER,
Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 CONTENTS
Page
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation  7
Fish and Game Branch  11
Provincial Parks Branch  31
British Columbia Government Travel Bureau  43
Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology  53
Photographic Branch  61
Commercial Fisheries Branch  67
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 Report of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation, 1961
D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister and Commissioner of Fisheries
INTRODUCTION
The year 1961 was one of steady, planned growth. This characteristic was
uniform for all six components of the Department—the Fish and Game Branch, the
Provincial Parks Branch, the British Columbia Government Travel Bureau, the
Provincial Museum, the British Columbia Government Photographic Branch, and
the Commercial Fisheries Branch. In each the fruits yielded were the products of
operational care based on sound research, planning, and management.
Accomplishments in recreation and conservation throughout the year were
highly satisfying rather than spectacular, and many contributions were made toward
increasing and widening the opportunities of British Columbians and their visitors
to enjoy and appreciate the Provincial outdoors.
1961 saw the largest harvest of big game in the history of the Province. While
the harvest of deer was at somewhat lower levels on the Mainland, the 19,700 deer
harvested on Vancouver Island was the largest crop ever recorded.
The problem of pollution, recognized as being of prime importance in every
pertinent panel at the Resources for Tomorrow Conference, held in Montreal in
October, continued to mount. The problem received intensive study by the Fish
and Game Branch, and will continue to do so during 1962.
Park attendance in British Columbia during 1961 reached an all-time high.
Some 3,500,000 visits to camp and picnic sites were recorded during the year.
Gifts of land for park purposes totalling more than 1,000 acres were made
to the Crown. Donors include Crown Zellerbach of Canada Limited, The Corporation of the District of Mission, City of Nanaimo, and Royal City Sawmills Limited.
Fifteen new Class "A" parks were added to the system and more than 50,000
visited Provincial nature centres at Manning Park and Miracle Beach.
British Columbia's famous old gold-mining centre, Barkerville, the restoration
of which now is approximately one-third completed, was visited by 25,000 people.
The Travel Bureau estimates the value of the tourist industry during 1961 was
$115,000,000, an all-time high.
A promotion programme of regional matching grants to stimulate local interest
in the tourist industry was undertaken with marked success, and a new position of
Conventions Representative for the Province was authorized, filled, and becomes
operative in January, 1962.
Border crossings by visitors to British Columbia from the United States
increased by 14.2 per cent, against a national increase of between 5 and 6 per cent.
In all, approximately 2,395,000 visitors entered the Province, and with the stimulus
provided by the Seattle's World Fair, it is estimated this figure will be increased
strikingly and perhaps doubled in 1962.
Three new motion pictures produced by the Photographic Branch were released
during 1961. They are " The Silent Ones," " Kootenay Lake Holiday," and " Highway on the Sea."
7
 V 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The purchase of the almost invaluable Newcombe collection of authentic, historic Indian artifacts, pictures, negatives, and library for the people of British
Columbia was made by the Government and is in the custody of the Provincial
Museum of Natural History and Anthropology.
" Beautiful British Columbia" magazine, the forty-eight-page four-colour
quarterly published by the Department, has enjoyed growing success during the
year. This publication, which goes to forty-four countries throughout the world,
has an average sale of 60,000 copies per issue.
Prior to the Christmas season a special subscription promotion more than
tripled the annual subscription list from an average 5,000.
 HIGHLIGHTS OF 1961
FISH AND GAME BRANCH
RECORD DEER HARVEST
Vancouver Island hunters enjoyed the largest harvest of deer in the Island's
history.   More than 19,700 animals were cropped.
HUNTING PRESSURES CONTINUE TO MOUNT
More than 130,000 hunting licences were purchased by British Columbia nim-
rods.   This was an increase of 4 per cent over 1960 and 83 per cent over 1950.
LAKE SURVEYS CONTINUE
Ecological and biological surveys were made on forty-four lakes, to increase
the total of lakes surveyed to 538.
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
PARK USE AT NEW HIGH
A record 3,500,000 park visits were recorded, up from 3,100,000 in 1960.
HISTORIC SITES IMPROVED
Work on the restoration of Barkerville was one-third completed. More than
25,000 visited Barkerville. Cottonwood House, on the Quesnel-Barkerville Road,
was acquired as a historic site.
LAND DONATIONS ADD TO PARKS
Land gifts to the Crown for park use in four separate areas totalled 1,000 acres.
NATURE CENTRES POPULAR
Nature centres at Manning Park and Miracle Beach received the attention of
50,000 visitors. Conducted " walks " were a successful feature and attracted more
than 100 people per walk.
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU
RECORD YEAR
An estimated 15-per-cent increase in holiday travel to and within the Province
raised visitor entries to 2,395,000 and tourist revenue to $115,000,000.
TOURIST ASSOCIATION
The 22-year-old British Columbia Tourist Advisory Council, grown from
thirteen members to over 100, attained independent status by its incorporation as
a society known as the " British Columbia Tourist Association."
 V 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
MATCHING GRANTS
Regional tourist promotions received substantial assistance through the Department's inauguration of a matching grants plan offering a first-year total of $50,000
in dollar-for-dollar grants divided among eight regions.
NEW REPRESENTATION
The opening of a new Canadian Government Travel Bureau office and of
British Columbia House in San Francisco placed valuable new services in the heart
of the Province's major tourist market.
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH
THREE NEW MOTION PICTURES RELEASED
" Highway on the Sea," " The Silent Ones," and " Kootenay Lake Holiday,"
produced by the Photographic Branch, were released for distribution.
HONOURABLE MENTION AT CANNES
The Departmentally produced films, " Legend of the West," " Tight Lines,"
and " Fraser Canyon," each received honourable mention at the Film Festival in
Cannes, France, sponsored by the American Society of Travel Agents.
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
SALMON-FISHING
British Columbia's fishermen earned more in July, 1961, than in any other
month in the Province's fishing history. Value of July landings totalled $13,820,000.
Previous high was in 1958, when July landings were valued at $10,860,000.
CLAM-DIGGING
With the opening of Area 13 and the northern portions of Areas 14 and 15
in Fisheries District No. 3, virtually all the coast is now open for the taking of butter
clams for the first time since 1957.
JONES CREEK
By building an artificial spawning channel, using Jones Creek water, the run
of 400 pink salmon in 1955 had been built up to more than 4,000 spawners by
October, 1961. Survival rate, from egg to fry, was 63 per cent in 1959. Survival
in nature averages 10 per cent. Success on this small scale has led to larger experiments on Robertson Creek and Big Qualicum River on Vancouver Island.
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
IMPORTANT ACQUISITIONS
The purchase of the W. A. Newcombe collection added a great many invaluable
items to all divisions of the Museum.
INCREASED ATTENDANCE
The number of visitors shows an increase of about 13 per cent over the 1960
attendance.
 FISH and
GAME
BRANCH
 Netting ducks for banding in Beacon Hill Park, Victoria.
Planting trout eggs in the Okanagan.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 13
FISH AND GAME BRANCH
Frank R. Butler, Director
Examination of the reports submitted by the Game Management, Fisheries
Management, and Predator Control Divisions will indicate many important facts,
such as increased hunting and fishing pressures, increased use of modern techniques
in the management of game and fish, and outstanding developments in predator-
control practices.
As in the previous year, a training-school was held for a period of two weeks
at the Green Timbers camp of the British Columbia Forest Service, and once again
it is a pleasure to report that personnel attending were furnished with information
on many phases of wildlife conservation. As a result, those who have attended the
school are now capable of dealing with many matters pertaining to conservation and
have become better qualified to present the conservation story to the general public.
Attention is drawn to the statistical statements contained in the report of the
Game Management Division covering the operations of the Cache Creek Checking-
station. The statement indicates the scope of data gathered each year since 1946
and from which we have been able to set and manage the annual game harvest,
especially in the Cariboo or Central Interior section of British Columbia. Spot or
surprise road checks carried out in many other sections during the hunting seasons
have supplied supporting scientific data that are invaluable in the work of instituting
sound management policies.
Conservation Officers have, as usual, done an outstanding job, as have all
personnel of the Branch. I am satisfied that few administrators have been privileged
to work with more dedicated men.
The Branch has continued to press for changes in the Small Vessel Regulations
(Federal) which would enable our Provincial Government to have greater control of
the use of motor-boats in the non-tidal waters of the Province in the interests of safety
and in a manner compatible with other forms of recreation. Conferences have been
held with Federal and Provincial authorities, and it is sincerely hoped that the control
requested by British Columbia will soon be an established fact.
The Branch has continued its efforts in taking every possible step to reduce, if
not actually stop, the annual hunting-accident toll. It is pleasing to observe that
definite progress is being made in this connection. At the time of writing, the
hunting-accident record for 1961 is apparently well below the number of accidents
that occurred in 1960. Full co-operation has been given the junior firearms safety
programme sponsored by the British Columbia Federation of Fish and Game Clubs,
and our Conservation Officers have carried out many examinations of juveniles as
part of this programme. As mentioned in last year's report, hunting accidents can
only be attributed to gross carelessness, and constant educational work is apparently
the only method of keeping these unfortunate accidents down to the lowest possible
minimum.   (See Fig. 1, illustrating accident trend.)
The circulation of our publication, " Wildlife Review," has greatly increased,
and there can be no doubt that this publication is providing the means of keeping
the general public informed of the need of continuing our programme of sustained
management of our most valuable wildlife resource.
Waterfowl populations in the Prairie Provinces in 1961 were seriously reduced
due to drought conditions. The Fish and Game Branch has done its utmost to
co-operate with the Prairie wildlife administrations to compensate for these losses
by reducing our daily bag-limit for ducks during the 1961/62 hunting season, as
 V 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
many ducks raised in the affected area fly through British Columbia each year on
their migratory pattern.
The co-operation of the British Columbia Forest Service of the Department of
Lands and Forests in allowing the use of its Green Timbers camp in connection with
our annual training-school, the friendly help and consideration of the other branches
of the Department of Recreation and Conservation in our wildlife work, the excellent
and outstanding co-operation of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the help and
advice of farmers', game, and other similar organizations in the Province are very
greatly appreciated. It is also most pleasing to be able to express sincere thanks
for all the help extended by the Provincial Department of Agriculture, as well as
many other Provincial departments.
GAME MANAGEMENT DIVISION
General
Participation in hunting continues to increase at a rate several times that of
general population growth. During 1961 more than 130,000 hunting licences were
sold, which represents a 4-per-cent increase over 1960, and in the last ten years an
increase of 83 per cent. An estimate of the 1961 harvest is not possible at the time
of writing, but all available indices point toward the largest big-game take in the
history of the Province. This record harvest is the result of four factors—improved
management, better access and roads, more hunters, and a series of mild winters
resulting in a general abundance of big-game species.
Game Regulations
Modification of the format of the Game Regulations was continued, to assist
understanding and interpretation by sportsmen. In general, seasons on big game
and, to a lesser extent, on upland birds were more liberal. Waterfowl regulations
were more stringent due to the Prairie drought and its effect on duck populations.
A successful attempt was made to encourage early-season hunting in the mountains through earlier openings. This type of hunting has high recreational value,
which surpasses its role as a game-harvesting implement. Antlerless seasons were
lengthened on deer and moose throughout most of the Province after careful examination of extensive field survey data, analysis of records from game checks and the
Game Harvest Questionnaire. An experimental season on big-game animals opening as early as August 1 st was held in the extreme north-west corner of the Province,
where access and weather conditions prevent effective hunting after mid-October.
The main purpose of this early opening was to increase the necessary harvest of
trophy species.
Upland-bird seasons were liberalized by a longer season on chukar partridge
and an increased bag-limit on pheasants. The bag-limit on ducks was decreased
from eight to six per day to conform with similar reductions in the other Provinces.
In summary, the two important objectives of hunting seasons—recreation for
the public and adequate harvest of game-stocks—are being realized more than ever
before in British Columbia through application of modern management philosophy
and techniques.
Game Harvest
The 1960 harvest of game as reported by the Game Harvest Questionnaire
showed few changes from years immediately preceding. The following table summarizes the harvest of the last five years for which records are complete and includes
1951 for comparative purposes: —
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961
V 15
Species
1951
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
Ducks	
Grouse	
Pheasants	
Moose	
Elk	
403,100
275,000
35,300
4,880
880
22,700
319,800
188,000
39,400
6,500
2,200
43,000
346,000
304,880
44,600
9,900
1,800
47,400
432,100
554,800
70,000
11,500
3,100
59,700
390,200
365,000
50,700
12,200
2,300
61,400
390,000
344,000
46,600
11,300
2,300
58,600
There were relatively few differences, as already mentioned, between game-
harvest levels of 1959 and 1960. This was to be expected as the two years were
alike in mild weather throughout the hunting season. The weather factor at times
influences the size of the game harvest more than species abundance. The 1961
autumn, by comparison, was considerably colder, and this helped to increase big-
game harvests above those of previous years.
The chief indication of hunting success throughout Central British Columbia
is obtained from the Cache Creek Checking-station. The following table shows the
comparative harvest for various species since 1957 and includes 1953 for comparison on a long term basis:—
Cache Creek Checking-station Totals
Species
1953
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
Deer                           	
1,403
1,672
124
12
1
66
16
9,880
9,170
2,245
2,799
179
48
4
91
24
8,193
11,027
14,146
2,344
3,064
113
45
3
82
43
8,985
19,351
14,763
2,732
2,645
225
60
5
65
23
7,563
7,853
14,938
3,295
2,919
140
106
9
121
50
6,890
5,701
17,902
4,800
4,175
121
104
Elk	
12
112
56
7,942
12,000
20,757
The 1961 figures indicate significant increases, not only in game harvested, but
also in the number of hunters. However, hunter success also increased, so the
increased harvest is not simply a reflection of more hunters. Rather, it reflects a
complex of the following factors: More liberal seasons, better access, more hunters,
increased game populations, and better hunting weather.
An integrated and greatly expanded system of road checks in all major game
areas of the Province has increased the number of hunter contacts, enabling the
Game Management Division to collect necessary biological data. These facts are
part of the framework used in devising proper management programmes.
Status of Game Populations
Moose.—Aerial moose counts were modified this past year with the aim of
classifying all animals observed. Over 1,500 moose were classified as to bulls,
cows, or calves. From these counts a post-season moose population was constructed. By relating these data to carry-over counts in the spring and age-class
structure obtained from ageing animals harvested, standard herd compositions can
be determined. Any radical departures from normal population structure will be
promptly investigated to determine the cause. Variations of this standard procedure
will be used on most big-game species to determine their periodic status.
 V  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
By and large, moose populations are in excellent condition. The Southern
Cariboo area was reopened for antlerless moose after a two-year closure because
field evidence indicated a healthy population.
Deer.—The Provincial harvest of deer during 1960 was substantially the same
as the previous two years. However, certain regional differences occurred. Vancouver Island produced 19,700 animals, the largest harvest ever recorded. This was
greater than the entire Provincial deer harvest in 1952. The Interior harvest was
down due to mild weather during the hunting season. The figures for 1961, however, while not complete as yet, indicate a marked increase in the deer harvest from
the Interior.   The estimated 1961 Interior harvest will be in excess of 26,000 deer.
A preliminary survey of mule deer in the Peace River area produced a count
of 788 animals during a two-hour flight. Further work on mule deer of this region
is necessary to ensure proper management.
In the East Kootenay a helicopter was used to classify over 1,300 deer. This
method of taking a census shows great promise when specific data are required and
animals are concentrated.
Deer populations throughout British Columbia are as high as local habitat
conditions will allow and higher than can be sustained through severe winters.
Elk.—A helicopter was also used to count elk in the Kootenay drainage. Over
1,200 animals were classified, and the information obtained was of great value in
deciding upon future management.
Other Big Game.—Many more hunters are seeking the rare or trophy species
of big game. This is a gratifying trend, as trophy species furnish a large amount
of recreation for the numbers harvested. Caribou, sheep, goat, and grizzly bear
populations are generally in excellent condition. As both highways and back-
country access improve, more hunting pressure will be exerted on such species.
This will necessitate collection of more information for management purposes.
Hunting regulations for caribou were relaxed this season, with earlier bull
seasons and a longer hunting period for antlerless animals. Seasons on California
and Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were also lengthened, which resulted in an
increased take of these animals.
Game Birds.—Spring counts of breeding ruffed grouse indicated a significant
increase over the previous year. These findings were substantiated by results from
the Cache Creek Checking-station, which showed the 1961 take of ruffed grouse
to be 2.5 times that of the previous year. Indeed, all grouse species experienced
an increased harvest.
Sharp-tailed grouse were plentiful in the Peace River area but rather scarce
throughout Central British Columbia.
Chukar partridges inhabiting the Thompson Valley were not as plentiful this
year and may have followed the classic pattern of many exotics by erupting and
then declining within a decade. More information on this species will be available
early in lanuary.
Pheasant populations in the Central and North Okanagan appeared thrifty and
abundant, and regulations were relaxed to permit a three-bird limit. Production,
as indicated by juvenile birds in the harvest, was excellent.
Waterfowl.—Waterfowl production on the Prairies was poor this year. However, in British Columbia it was excellent, and possibly we absorbed some of the
displaced breeding populations. Even with a reduced daily limit, the 1961 harvest
will be substantially the same as in previous years.
A different migration pattern made direct comparison of pre-season waterfowl
numbers with previous years difficult. Counts on the Lower Mainland placed the
number of birds present about midway between the 7,500 in 1959 and 39,000 in
1960.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 17
Access and Public Shooting-grounds
Access to the Tofino Waterfowl Management Area was completed and used
by hunters during 1961.
Several strategic foreshore areas totalling 27,500 acres on the Lower Mainland
were reserved for public use, especially waterfowl hunting. These areas, which
include Woodward Island and Roberts Bank, together with other shooting-sites
reserved for public use, will go far toward perpetuating waterfowl hunting on the
Lower Mainland.
Research
The following research projects were carried out in 1961:—
(1) Continuation and expansion of the study into relationships between deer
and sustained-yield forestry at Northwest Bay (MacMillan, Bloedel and
Powell River, Nanaimo). This study involves evaluation of deer use
within various types of habitat resulting from logging, deer population
changes, nutrition studies, and food content of basic deer-foods.
(2) Blue grouse studies in co-operation with the University of British Columbia were continued in the Campbell River area.
(3) Basic research into deer physiology was continued through a grant to the
University of British Columbia.
(4) Evaluation of the nest-box programme for golden-eye and buffle-head
ducks was begun in the Southern Cariboo region.
(5) A long-term range study was started on a key big-game winter range in
the East Kootenay. The effect and interaction of several big-game species and live stock upon vegetation will be documented through the use
of selective exclosure plots.
Publications
The first monograph by the Fish and Game Branch dealing with a big-game
species in British Columbia was completed with publication of " The California
Bighorn in British Columbia," by Lawson G. Sugden. Papers were prepared for
the Thirteenth British Columbia Resources Conference as follows:—
Hatter, J.:  Wildlife and People in Interior British Columbia.
Robinson, D. J.:  Wildlife and People in Coastal British Columbia.
Public Relations
Members of the Game Management Division were active in the field of public
relations and attended more than 100 meetings of rod and gun and service clubs
throughout the Province.   Several radio and television appearances were made.
Acknowledgments
Without assistance from the much larger body of Conservation Officers and
others, efforts of the Game Management Division would have been less fruitful.
Where possible, attempts are being made to develop functional integration of work
among all divisions of the Branch and thereby achieve maximum unity and realization of over-all goals as a branch rather than as a division function.
 V  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT DIVISION
General
While British Columbia's population increased by about 1.5 per cent between
1960 and 1961, the number of sport fishermen during the same period increased
by over 4 per cent, a growth rate almost three times the population growth rate.
Similar trends have been shown in the United States and graphically illustrate an
ever-increasing interest in sport fishing. As available leisure time increases, and as
improvements in access and modes of transportation continue to develop, it can be
assumed that angling pressures will continue to mushroom. In 1961 an estimated
$30,000,000 was spent on angling by 185,000 fishermen. A brief outline of some
of the more interesting management activities undertaken during 1961 illustrates
the scope of fisheries management in British Columbia to-day.
Lake Rehabilitation
Approximately the same volume of water was treated in 1961 as in 1960 in
order to remove coarse fish and improve game-fish production. Since most of the
smaller accessible lakes which would benefit from this form of management have
been treated, more attention is now being focused on larger lakes (lakes several
square miles in area). However, many of these larger lakes will be difficult to treat
because of extensive swamp and beaver-dam areas, as well as their miles of tributary
streams and lakes. At the moment, hatchery production is being heavily taxed to
supply treated lakes with hatchery trout, therefore, further rehabilitations will be
restricted until the necessary hatchery production can be realized. The following
lakes were treated in 1961: Summit, Taylor, Sheridan, Echoes, Blackwater, White-
swan, Peckams, and Garbutts. In addition, the entire Little Bull River system was
treated in order to improve it as a hatchery water-supply.
Province-wide reports show that sport fishing was excellent in 1961, particularly from rehabilitated lakes. Many lakes in the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts
produced superb fishing. Lake of the Woods near Hope, although a basically unproductive type of lake, was rehabilitated two years ago, stocked with trout, and
opened to fishing in early summer and produced an excellent sport fishery.
Lake Surveys
Forty-four lakes were surveyed for ecological and biological content by the
lake survey crew in 1961, bringing the total number of lakes surveyed to date to
538.
Kootenay Lake Study
Following completion of the Kootenay Lake study in 1961, results were published in a report entitled " Investigation of the Rainbow Trout of Kootenay Lake,
British Columbia, with Special Reference to the Lardeau River." Spawning-ground
counts will continue on the Lardeau River in 1962. Some 40,000 fingerling rainbow trout originating from eggs taken on the Lardeau are being held at the Summer-
land hatchery. These fish will be introduced into Niskonlith Lake (rehabilitated
in 1959), and when these fish mature their eggs will be taken and replanted in the
Lardeau River. The experiment was designed in an attempt to increase the
numbers of young fish in the Lardeau, which, in turn, might increase future runs
of adult fish on to the Lardeau spawning-grounds.
Hooking Mortality Studies
For management and regulation purposes, three hooking studies were conducted in 1961.    The studies were set up to determine the mortality rate in fish
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V  19
which were caught by anglers and subsequently released. It is a common belief,
particularly with respect to steelhead, that many fish which are hooked and then
released die. Preliminary results of studies of steelhead on the Gold River and of
rainbow in Pennask Lake and in the Bonaparte River indicate that the death rate
of hooked and released fish is very much lower than many anglers believe.
Hydro-electric Fish Studies
Reservoir areas of the proposed Libby, High Arrow, Mica Creek, and Duncan
Lake dams on the Columbia were investigated, and a report assessing the possible
effects on sport-fish interests was prepared. Similar studies were made and reported
on a proposed hydro-electric development on the Fulton River, a tributary to
Babine Lake.
Pollution-control
Industrial activity in British Columbia is resulting in an alarming rise in the
number of pollutions. Most have been investigated and satisfactorily resolved by
the Fish and Game Branch in conjunction with one or more other Government
departments. To handle the pollution problem, attention must be diverted from
other fisheries matters, but as clean water is basic to sound fisheries-management
programmes, pollution-control work receives a high priority.
Water-pollution problems arose from an increasing variety of industrial activities in 1961. Techniques of disposal of salt brines from gas wells were investigated,
and pollution-control methods were devised and given tentative approval. Federal
Government assistance in constructing sewage-disposal plants has resulted in an
increase in activity in this field, and many proposed sewage plants were investigated
by this Branch. Gravel-removal operations are becoming an increasingly serious
problem and have received special attention.
An experimental programme of disposing mine effluent into a lake of great
depth has been undertaken, and a continuing programme of sampling for turbidity
and other changes has been instituted in order to determine whether or not this
type of effluent-disposal is harmful to the fishery involved. Should it be determined
that this method adversely affects fish populations, alternative disposal methods
will be employed. Another pollution-problem experiment involved holding fish in
live-boxes in the Cameron River on Vancouver Island to determine the effects of
the aerial spraying with DDT in the control of the pine butterfly. This work has
been concluded and reported upon. Studies and observations of other pesticide
programmes for the control of mosquitoes, ambrosia beetles, and saddleback looper
are continuing.
Many pollution problems are particularly evident in the Lower Mainland
because of the concentration of industry and population. A monthly sampling programme, in co-operation with the Department of Health, has been instituted on
several streams to determine the extent of pollution. Pollution will be judged on
the basis of changes of oxygen concentration, acidity, and bacterial count.
In general, the most important activity of the Branch in pollution-control has
been the preventing of pollution before it begins. Our work in this direction appears to have been particularly successful.
Net Fishing in Non-tidal Waters
Net fishing in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under licence from the Minister of Recreation and Conservation. The control of this non-tidal net fishery was transferred from the Commercial Fisheries
 V 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Branch to the Fish and Game Branch in 1961. The fishery is confined almost exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes in question.
The following tables give the principal catch figures for this fishery.
Catch of Fish Taken from Non-tidal Waters, 1960/61
Kind of Licence
Number of
Fish Taken
Approxi-
Name of System
Fur-farm
Commercial
Home
Use
Sturgeon
Weight
(Lb.)
Christina Lake _	
1
3
1
1
8
2
1
6
1
1
3
1
140
1
2
1
~1
300
331
207
50
321
971
1,093
(2)
(2)
2,439
2
8,352
11
134
5,024
6,300
300
Nulki Lake1                          	
6,995
80
Swan Lake	
488
Totals 	
1
22        |      150
1
12,870
20,529
i No returns were submitted by licence-holders covering these lakes.
2 Did not fish.
Species
Kokanee _
Lake trout
Whitefish ..
Ling	
Pike	
Sturgeon __
Squawfish .
Suckers 	
Others 	
Catch by Species
Number of Fish
_ 8,805
588
_ 2,669
89
314
3
53
273
77
Totals
12,870
Weight (Lb.)
7,133
3,333
6,828
352
1,620
300
78
608
277
20,529
Public Relations
The fisheries staff, our Regional Fisheries Biologists in particular, have continued to carry a heavy load of public speaking engagements. These talks have
been given not only at rod and gun clubs, but at service clubs, schools, and other
public organizations. As in the past, emphasis has been placed on those areas of
public education for which there is a need of public vigilance. Talks on water use
and pollution are popular, and it is evident that there is a growing awareness in
this field.
Hatcheries
In 1958 hatcheries embarked on an expansion and modification programme
of existing facilities which was designed to make maximum use of those facilities,
to increase pond (rearing) space within budget limitations, to improve trout transportation methods, to increase public awareness of the purpose of a trout-hatchery,
to cut costs while increasing production, to expand research, and to generally im-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 21
prove efficiency wherever possible. Phases of this programme neared completion
in 1961. Rearing space has been almost doubled. Trout transportation methods
have been continually modified, and the system now in use compares favourably
with any in North America. Production has been increased largely through triple
cropping (that is, trout eggs are brought into the hatchery three times annually)
and use of dried pelleted trout-food. Research has been greatly expanded to include
both fundamental and applied projects. Publicity was sharply increased through
radio and television interviews and publication and circulation of a hatchery brochure.
Stockings
In 1960 injection of pure oxygen into the aerating system used on trout transportation tanks was tried with considerable success, and in 1961 all aerating systems
were fully redesigned. This new method resulted in the safe hauling of greater
loads at decreased transportation costs.
In 1961 another new technique of fish transport was successfully applied.
This involved the use of a float-equipped aeroplane, specially designed containers,
and an oxygen system which permitted constant aeration while in flight. About
1,000,000 small trout were liberated into lakes of the Lower Cariboo and Okanagan
Districts (this represented the largest number of trout liberated by air in the history
of British Columbia trout-hatcheries).
Total liberations totalled about 4,000,000, approximately the same as in 1960.
Number of lakes stocked was increased from 336 to 366, and in addition two rivers
were stocked with steelhead smolts. Production totalled about 40,000 pounds at
a cost per pound slightly higher than that of the preceding year (the result of raising
and stocking smaller fish, which are more costly to produce).
The egg-planting programme was greatly expanded, and about 1,400,000
Kamloops trout eggs were planted in tributary streams of two Lower Cariboo lakes.
In an effort to establish a steelhead run, a steelhead-egg plant of 200,000 eggs,
representing a follow-up of the 1960 plant, was made in the Horsefly River system.
Hatchery Research
Research activities in hatcheries increased in 1961. In 1960 two programmes
were formulated to determine relative survival of various strains and sizes of liberated trout. This programme continued in 1961, and the results will be applied to
hatchery production.
Fundamental research continued on steelhead trout since a complete understanding of this species is essential to a hatchery programme designed to increase
or maintain steelhead stocks.
Support of fundamental research programmes at the University of British Columbia continued as trout and eggs were provided to various biological groups.
Of considerable future impact on hatchery production was the acquisition of
property adjacent to Summerland trout-hatchery, and, as a result, space is available
for pond construction in the future to triple present rearing capacity.
Research
Baker Lake.—The return of suckers to spawn in the inlet stream of Baker
Lake, near Quesnel, was studied during April and May. These fish were first
marked as spawners in 1956. Out of several hundred fish examined, about 5 per
cent had entered the stream in the spawning runs of 1956, 1958, and 1960. Many
were 12 to 14 years old.
 V 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Movement of adult redside shiners into Baker Lake inlet streams is fairly precisely timed to rising water temperatures; the run begins as soon as the stream
temperature rises above 50° F. Young shiner fry move down-stream solely at night,
as do trout fry. The timing and intensity of movement is closely associated with
light conditions.
Nicola Lake.—The movement and distribution of kokanee and peamouth chub
in Nicola Lake were investigated, using deep curtains of monofilament nylon net
and recording echo sounders. Both netting and echo sounding confirmed a rise of
fish to surface layers at night and a descent into deeper waters during the day.
Timing of this movement was directly related to surface and underwater light
conditions.
Investigation of the life-history of juvenile trout and salmon on Coastal streams
continued in 1961. Information gathered indicates that many species of fish in
the streams occupy specific types of habitat. The choice of a particular habitat is
determined by water velocity, depth, light intensity, and presence or absence of
protective cover. Underwater observations indicate that young coho and steelhead
in large streams hide under log-jams and stones in winter when water temperatures
fall below about 44° F. Winter freshets or winter log-driving may cause serious
mortality of fish under such cover.
Fish Census.—Diving-gear was used to take a census of large Kootenay Lake
rainbow trout on the Lardeau River spawning-grounds near Gerrard. Diver counts
of spawners were compared with those made from the river-bank and from helicopter. The following table summarizes spawner counts obtained by the three
methods in two different sections of rivet, each about 200 yards long:—
Bank and Overhead Visibility-
Bank Count
Helicopter
Count
Diver Count
Good  -    	
i
86                        97
v    14                             17
81
65
All three methods gave comparable counts in sections of the river with good
bank and overhead visibility. Counts of rainbow spawns made by divers were
considerably higher than either bank or helicopter counts in river sections with poor
bank or overhead visibility.
A further evaluation of the reliability of diving-gear in census of stream fish
populations was conducted on the Similkameen River. A section of the river was
blocked off with seines, and several counts made by two- and four-man diver teams.
The number of whitefish and rainbow trout counted in the section was recorded.
Then all fish in the section were removed by rotenone, and total numbers compared
to counts made by divers. The diver counts were remarkably close to known number
of both species in the section, indicating that under favourable conditions diving
census does give a fairly accurate estimate of the sport-fish population.
Stud'es of Marginal Lakes.—A number of lakes in the Interior where trout
production is marginal or non-existent were studied throughout the year. Temperature and oxygen content of the lake waters were recorded from surface to bottom
depths, as well as light penetration, alkalinity, acidity, total dissolved mineral content, and other physical and chemical conditions. The abundance of plankton and
bottom fauna in the lakes was also measured. Information from this study will be
used to develop methods of improving or developing sport fisheries in lakes which
at present are not utilized for fishing.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961
PREDATOR CONTROL DIVISION
V 23
Complaints of predation decreased 12 per cent during 1961, and measureable
damage to domestic stocks and other property had a corresponding decrease with
few exceptions. Table I is a breakdown of the complaints received and administered
during the period.
Table I.—Species Complaints
Bear
Cougar
Coyote
Wolf
Dog
Sundry i
Totals
95
21
74
47
114
17
131
14
2
16   ~
17
76
93
159
39
~~ 198"
473
Conservation Officers 	
202
116
121
675
1 Includes bobcat, racoon, skunk, and fox.
Complaints on the activity of bears and the number destroyed decreased sharply
over the entire Province, with the exception of the East and West Kootenays. The
decline in complaints was almost 50 per cent. There were no reasons established
for the decrease, although several factors could be contributory.
There were no outstanding instances in which bears caused damage, but individuals were responsible for a wide variety of complaints, ranging from scares to
campers to the killing of domestic stock.
A study was initiated between this Division and the Canada Department of
Agriculture, Pathology Section, at the University of British Columbia in an effort
to find trichinosis, a debilitating parasite which affects black bears. The species was
suspected to be a carrier of this parasite, particularly in the Lower Mainland area.
However, the study was badly hampered by the lack of specimens, although one
specimen out of four submitted was positive. Arrangements were made to submit
racoon as specimens rather than bears, as they are more readily available. The
diets of the two species are similar, and the presence of the parasite is detectable
in each.
Cougar complaints did not increase, but weather conditions over much of the
Province discouraged the animals from entering inhabited areas. Reports received
showed no indication this species is increasing in most areas.
The number of cougar destroyed by Fish and Game Branch personnel decreased
from the 1960 total.    Mild weather was the main reason for the decrease.
Domestic damage caused by this species was very low, although two or three
individual animals caused fairly severe losses in local areas before they were
destroyed.
Coyotes were responsible for a larger number of complaints than during 1960,
especially in the East Kootenay District. In this area it is suspected the animals
thrive under the protection of nearby National parks, and this source maintains
a steady population. Steps have been taken to possibly correct this situation, however. The remainder of the Province appeared to be well under control, although
one or two ranchers suffered heavy losses of sheep before calling on the services of
the Branch to correct the situation.
Wolves created a small number of complaints, none of which included damage
to domestic stocks, a great improvement over other years.
Dogs have become one of the most serious of predators, especially on Vancouver Island, as indicated by the following table. Damage to both game and domestic
stocks has been severe and is currently increasing.
 V 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sundry predation caused by bobcats, racoons, skunks, and foxes is considerable
in total but small in terms of individual complaints. Bobcats are maintaining their
numbers; skunks are still increasing at a rapid rate; racoons have decreased slightly;
while foxes have maintained a fairly high population number. The intensive trapping operation carried out in the Lower Fraser Valley during the summer months
was very productive, but it is too early to evaluate the results. Area trapping has
been successful in other districts, and it is assumed similar success will be enjoyed
in this project.
Table II shows the numbers of the more important mammalian predators taken
by Fish and Game Branch personnel during 1959, 1960, and 1961.
Table II
Species
Year
1959
1960
1961
449
79
71
599
276
140
124
140
46
370
131
127
617
242
243
139
183
24
196
114
67
570
218
317
78
315
7
1,924
2,076
1,882
Others
Cats (wild)	
	
788
1,106
6
31
4
Totals...  	
1,935
Table III shows the numbers of avian predators destroyed by Fish and Game
Branch personnel during 1961.
Table III
Number
  2,404
  1
Species
Crows 	
Eagles 	
Hawks 	
Magpies	
Mergansers
Owls 	
Ravens	
Starlings ____.
50
622
19
17
224
559
Total
3,896
Some 992 baiting-stations were established during the winter months for the
control of coyotes and wolves. Of these, 714 were placed from aircraft and the
remaining 278 were distributed by ground crews. All but twenty-nine were placed
in the Interior districts. In most districts, particularly the West Kootenay, baiting
success was excellent, and control was effected with little difficulty. Almost without
exception, the baits were placed either in stock-raising or heavily hunted areas. The
Fort Nelson district was the major exception because it was felt that the wolf population had reached the level where control was necessary to prevent a large increase.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1961
V 25
Rodent-control measures were again increased, and some 25,300 acres were
treated for the control of groundsquirrels and pocket gophers on agricultural lands,
particularly those involved in the production of cover-crops and fruit.
Controls were exercised in the East Kootenay, Boundary District (Bridesville),
South Okanagan, North Okanagan, North Thompson, South Cariboo, and the
McBride areas. Demand for the services increased despite increased efforts. However, with the partial introduction of mechanization of operations, the situation was
vastly improved.
As controls progress, more and more instances of heavy damage to crops
appear. It has been impossible to estimate total losses, but individual growers were
suffering as high as 35 per cent annually on dwarf fruit-trees because of pocket
gophers.
In treated areas, spot checks have shown a success level of from 80 to 95 per
cent, especially where mechanization was utilized. These checks were made mainly
on lands treated during the early spring and observed through late fall. A follow-up
check will be necessary early in 1962 to ascertain the long-range effects of control.
Orchard mice have been observed in large numbers in local areas of the South
Okanagan, and controls were introduced to lower or eliminate these local populations before the situation became serious. To date the problem has not been solved,
but promising results have been indicated.
Starlings have caused very serious concern in the Okanagan area as their
depredations on fruits have resulted in heavy losses. Unfortunately, little can be
accomplished as this species is within the Province either for the nesting and rearing periods only, when they are hopelessly scattered, or during periods of migration,
when natural foods are more than readily available. Research has been carried
out in the Northern United States to find a method of wholesale destruction of the
birds on their wintering grounds. Although very large numbers have been destroyed, nothing has proved to have measurable effect on the total population.
Fruit-growers have shown every co-operation in this problem and have been given
all available aid and advice.   However, the results have been almost negligible.
The members of the rodent-control staff were gainfully employed during the
off season helping with game checks, predator-control in agricultural areas, and on
surveys for future control techniques or areas requiring service.
Throughout the year the Predator Control Division has received a remarkable
amount of aid from members of the other divisions of the Fish and Game Branch.
This is very gratefully acknowledged.
 V 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
HUNTING   ACCIDENT   DECLINE
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Fig.| TREND   IN   ACCIDENT   RATE   PER   10.000   HUNTERS
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961
V 27
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 V 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   FISH AND   GAME   BRANCH
SOURCE  OF REVENUE
NON-RESIDENT   FIREARMS   5.8%
.TROPHY  FEES   8.6%
GAME   TAGS   I I %
FINES   1.6%
MISCELLANEOUS  .7%
RESIDENT   ANGLERS   17.3%
NON-RESIDENT   ANGLERS   14.7%
TOTAL   REVENUE    FISCAL   YEAR   APRIL   HI.  I960  TO   MARCH 31st.   1961 -1,512,003.02
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1961 V 29
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   FISH AND  GAME   BRANCH
HOW  THE  SPORTSMEN'S   DOLLAR   WAS  SPENT - E XPE NDITURE   FOR  FISCAL   YEAR
APRIL   1st. I960   TO   MARCH  31st. 1961
* 1,143,710.50
MANAGEMENT  8.2%
RESEARCH   1.3%
MANAGEMENT   11.3%
HATCHERIES
10.7%
RESEARCH  3.2%
ENGINEERING 1.3%
  PROVINCIAL
PARKS
BRANCH
 HI
Camping in a Provincial park.
The late Gavin Mouat and Minister, the Honourable E. C. Westwood, at opening
of Mouat Park, Ganges, Saltspring Island.
 The family studies nature together.
 V 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
H. G. McWilliams, Director
In 1961 the Provincial park system has continued to follow a trend established
during the early post-war years. The parks have increased in number and have
enjoyed a steadily increasing public use. The scale of developed areas has also
expanded and the programme of land acquisition has gone forward without dimin-
ishment.
The most noteworthy event of the year was, however, the reduction of Hamber
Park by nearly 2V2 million acres. This occurrence was significant for several reasons and indicated the parks organization is willing to make major and drastic
adjustments to its area holdings if these are justified in the light of proper recreational assessment and recommendation. This reduction placed the total park acreage below that of 1940. It also showed the present acreage as almost half of that
prevailing in 1945, when the system had ballooned to almost 11 million acres, yet
covered a mere fifty-three parks. There are now more than three times as many
individual parks, utilizing much-needed land of the highest recreational content only.
Mention has already been made of the continued upsurge in park visits. The
following figures indicate the trend: 1948, 0.11 million visits; 1959, 2.7 million
visits;  1960, 3.1 million visits;  1961, 3.5 million visits.
Another event of major importance was the introduction of an experimental
fee system for camp-site use at four specific parks—Miracle Beach, Cultus Lake,
Okanagan Lake, and Shuswap Lake. The objective was to encourage campers to
visit many parts of the Province.
YOUTH CREWS
The youth crew programme again offered a selected group of young citizens
the opportunity of enjoying a valuable outdoor experience. In 1961, 150 young
men were selected by lot from approximately 700 who had volunteered for this
programme. They were allocated to areas as follows: Two crews at Alice Lake,
one crew at Champion Lakes, five crews at Manning Park, one crew at Mount
Robson Park, and two crews at Bear Lake Park.
Each crew comprised twelve or thirteen boys, together with supervisory staff
which directed their extensive outdoor work programme.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL PROGRAMME
There was a continued expansion of park facilities under the terms of the
Federal-Provincial Agreement winter works programme.
PLANNING DIVISION
Land Acquisition and Park Inventory
A noteworthy achievement of 1961 was the establishment of Bowron Lake
Park. This valuable wilderness region has added 297,301 acres to the system.
With its abundant wildlife and fishing, the new park is considered a great asset to
the system. Of equal importance, however, was the release, after careful evaluation, of 2,370,905 acres for other resource use. Hamber Park was reduced to an
area of 60,585 acres surrounding Fortress Lake, together with 470 acres at Marl
Creek near Golden.    Other reductions included 380 acres from Garibaldi Park
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1961 V 35
and a small portion from Westbank Park. Kelowna Provincial Park was cancelled
and conveyed to local authorities for park purposes.
Gifts of land to the Province for park purposes involved some 1,000 acres this
year and included the following: Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited donated two
areas on Bedwell Harbour, totalling 33 acres, for park purposes; The Corporation
of the District of Mission assisted materially in the establishment of Rolley Lake
Park by making key lake-frontage available; the City of Nanaimo conveyed Newcastle Island to the Province, permitting an establishment of a 746-acre park; Royal
City Sawmills Ltd. donated 155 acres on the access road to Weaver Lake to assist
in the establishment of a park in this area.
Co-operation with other agencies was enjoyed again this year and resulted in
the addition of 2,344 acres of land to existing parks and the designation of 299,081
acres to new parks. This land was previously reserved for recreational purposes.
Some 705 acres of land recently withdrawn from forest reserves went to the creation of one new park on Paul Lake and served as an addition to Koksilah River
Park.
The purchase of park land included some 1,458 acres and affected properties
on Windermere Lake, Otter Bay, Antlers Beach, Ten Mile Lake, Madden Lake,
Okanagan Lake, Little Shuswap Lake, and McLeese Lake.
Valuation appraisals were completed on other properties whose acquisition
has not yet been concluded.
In summary, fifteen new Class "A" parks were established, increasing Provincial park lands by 355,111.6 acres. These included the following: Skookumchuck,
James Johnstone, Rolley Lake, Victor Lake, Fort Steele, Chilliwack River, Hamber, Marl Creek, Bowron Lake, Kuskanook, Mitlenatch Island, Sidney Spit, Newcastle Island, Paul Lake, and Mouat Park. The creation of five new Class " C "
parks added a total of 1,244 acres to this classification. Class "A" parks now number 121 and cover 2,312,734 acres; Class "B," 6, covering 4,010,199 acres; and
Class "C," 56, containing 28,182 acres.
Reconnaissance work was undertaken throughout the Province, including miscellaneous site examinations and work in the following general areas: Harrison
Lake, Indian Arm, Sechelt, Squamish, Pemberton Valley, Cowichan Lake and
River, Kwoiek Creek valley, Cathedral Lakes, Cariboo Lakes, Willow River, Chief
Lakes, Kitimat, Dean River, and Bella Coola.
The assistance from other Government departments enabled the reservation
of 142 sites for public recreational use involving approximately 29,500 acres.
DEVELOPMENT PLANS OFFICE
During 1961, as in past years, planning studies, with relevant field work, have
continued to occupy a major portion of time. Some of these studies resulted in
completed development plans; some in the rejection of areas for development;
in others, studies are continuing. Geographically, these areas were dispersed
throughout the Province. Continued emphasis was, however, placed on the Lower
Mainland region, where population pressures place relentless demand on recreational resources. Central and Northern British Columbia regions continue to receive close attention because of their dynamic potential growth. A listing of some
areas where planning studies were carried out will serve to illustrate the widespread
nature of this work—Rolley Lake (Mission), Davis Lake (Hatzic), Haynes Point
(Osoyoos), Clearwater Lake (Wells Gray Park), Long Beach (west coast of Vancouver Island), Chasm (Clinton), Fraser Lake (Vanderhoof), Newcastle Island
(Gulf Islands), Bedwell Harbour (Gulf Islands), Queen Charlotte Islands, Prud-
 V 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
homme Lake (Prince Rupert), Moyie Lake (Cranbrook), Mara Lake (North Okanagan), Nicola Lake (Merritt), Victor Lake (Revelstoke), Stump Lake (Kamloops), Ten Mile Lake (Quesnel), Bear Lake (Prince George), Charlie Lake (Fort
St. John), Mount Robson Park (Rocky Mountains), Alice Lake (Squamish), and
Otter Point (Vernon).
Mount Seymour Park continues to grow in popularity as a ski-ing centre, resulting in a compounding of the complex problems existing there.
In the summer of 1961 the Lightning Lake reservoir project at Manning Park
was activated. This project aims at creating a body of water within the park to
provide recreation for the large number of vacationers who pass through the region.
Examinations and detailed planning instructions to supplement this project continue
to occupy planning staff.
While field planning on the development for Tlell River Park, Queen Charlotte
Islands, proceeded, advantage was taken of the opportunity to examine other park
reserves in this region. It was found the islands had a distinctive charm which,
combined with the ocean climate and extensive beaches, could provide the basis
for a future tourist industry.
Requests for the extension of park planning services continue to grow annually.
In addition to the plans prepared for Tlell River Park, others were completed for
Sardis Park and Fullers Lake, while studies were started, leading to similar plans
for Knox Mountain Park, Kelowna. A great deal of information and advice was
given local park boards in all parts of the Province, mainly through the medium of
specific on-the-site instruction.
An unfortunate accident involving a key member of the wood-carving staff
made it impossible to continue the rapid progress of past years in beautifying park
entrance portals. This work, however, is once again in full operation, and it is
expected the programme will continue through 1962.
Many park areas proposed for development were mapped during 1961.
Among them were Ruby Lake, Beaver Creek, Fruitvale, Otter Bay, Stump Lake,
Saltery Lake, Saltery Bay, Mahood Lake, HefHey Lake, Montague Harbour, and
Crater Lake. It should be noted that mapping work is additional to the extensive
mapping programme carried out by crews attached to the Engineering Division.
The 1960 policy of replacing the motley collection of aesthetically displeasing
signs and boards at some park entrances with a new standard-pattern shelter was
continued in 1961. The redesigning of entrances and the construction of the new
structures were undertaken at the following parks: Alice Lake, Garibaldi, Shu-
swap Lake, Goldstream, Cultus Lake, and Bear Lake.
The largest single landscaping project undertaken during 1961 was at Alouette
Lake, in the southern part of Garibaldi Park, and extensive work was completed.
Labour for this project was supplied by the Haney Correctional Institution from its
Gold Creek Camp, located in Garibaldi Park. The work included landscaping of
the new toilet and change house, regrading, seeding and planting of one picnic area,
landscaping the disposal field, and beach developments. One Parks Branch employee was fully employed at all times on this work, weekly supervision being provided by the Victoria office.
Residence landscaping was planned for Shuswap Lake Park, and general landscaping was carried out at the following places: Sproat Lake, Mara Lake, Victor
Lake, Manning Park, Green Point, and Bamberton. Landscape planning was
undertaken at Cultus Lake, Lakelse Lake, Barkerville, Manning Park, and Mount
Seymour. Hydroseeding of the Mount Seymour Park ski slopes was accomplished
in the early summer, and further hydroseeding was undertaken in Manning Park
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 37
during the autumn.    Several areas within the confines of the Haney Correctional
Institution were also hydroseeded during the month of May.
Interpretation and Research
The interpretation programmes in Manning and Miracle Beach Parks had a
total attendance of over 50,000 people during the summer of 1961. The new building in Manning Park undoubtedly contributed to a 38-per-cent increase in visits at
that park. The nature centre attendance figures were 39,000, an increase of 6 per
cent over the 1960 figures. Nature trails (three in Manning, one in Miracle Beach)
were used by an estimated 11,000 people. Conducted walks were stressed this
year. These were mainly under the direction of Dr. C. D. Fowle, York University,
Toronto. A total of twenty-one walks provided pleasant outdoor instruction for
850 people. By the use of adequate promotion, the Miracle Beach Park programme
attracted over 100 people per walk.
The newly constructed Manning nature centre contained twenty-six freshly
designed and constructed exhibits. The Miracle Beach nature centre was under
canvas for the last time.    Four of its eleven exhibits were new.
A biological study of Mitlenatch Island, undertaken in June, explored the
natural features of the island. It led to strong recommendation for its preservation
for use in nature interpretation and research. Mitlenatch Island was subsequently
designated a nature park.
The interpretative programme, begun in 1957, now serves four times as many
people as in that first year; cumulatively the total is now over 150,000 participants.
Data were gathered on people using large, wild areas in parks in a continuing
programme to study the use of wilderness and near-wilderness. Focal points for
study were Wells Gray Park and Black Tusk Meadows in Garibaldi Park.
Continuing studies in Wells Gray Park dealt mainly with moose and caribou.
New features were the successful maintenance of a captive moose for study of
growth and food, and a detailed study of lichens on caribou winter range. For the
latter study, Dr. Teuvo Ahti, of Helsinki, Finland, spent the summer in the park.
In the course of an interpretation reconnaissance of Mitlenatch Island, time
was found to study the breeding biology of glaucous-winged gulls and pelagic
cormorants. Crow predation on these two species was also studied. Further
research into these problems through co-operation with research institutions will be
encouraged.
Historic Sites
Projects involving the historic-sites programme are carried out with the help
and co-operation of the Barkerville Advisory Committee. Funds for the various
works are administered by the Provincial Secretary's Department. Contracts were
let in Barkerville for the completion in 1961 of the museum building and Dentist
Jones's office. Park crews built Dr. Watts's office and remodelled several other
structures to create exhibit buildings. A considerable alteration was made to the
present community hall to prepare it for use next year. The " Wake Up Jake "
Coffee Saloon was opened and operated successfully. Several land purchases were
made, greatly reducing the remaining amount of private land.
With the moving of most of the residents, together with their buildings, to a
subdivision about a half-mile away, a marked change in the appearance of the
approaches to Barkerville took place. Clearing of the thick brush and grading for
two parking-lots added greatly to the cleaning-up project.
Plans for the water system included well-drilling tests, reservoir exploratory
work, and the survey of an access road and pipe-lines.
 V 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Attendance increased to 25,000 persons but suffered appreciably from road
conditions and forest-fire hazards.
Legal difficulties postponed improvements to Cottonwood House.
Property purchase continued at Fort Steele. The collection and storage of
historic materials has continued.
Two new " stop of interest " plaques were erected—" Bralorne Mines " and
" Overland Telegraph." Three other markers were cast. Four local historic markers were provided to approved applicants.
Geographer
An analysis was conducted of off-site factors affecting the form of development
for two newly acquired parks—one at Otter Bay, Okanagan Lake, and the other
at Ten Mile Lake, Quesnel. An assessment of existing outdoor recreation facilities
and of recreation pursuits in the Peace River District was also carried out to obtain
preliminary information of assistance to park planning. This included an estimate
of recreational, as distinct from commercial, traffic utilizing the Alaska Highway.
A camp-site feature preference study was concluded to gauge public reaction
to different camp-site attributes and to changes in the form of camp-site commonly
installed by the Parks Branch. Park-use studies were also conducted at Lakelse
Lake and Alice Lake Parks to observe the adequacy of facilities and appropriateness of new development at these parks.
The collection of attendance records and analysis of character of use for developed parks were a continuing function.
Public Information and Education
During 1961 the Public Information Office has continued to interpret the
activities of the Branch to the general public.
The office has been called upon to use a wide variety of media and methods.
It provided speakers for groups representing university and professional bodies,
service clubs, parent-teacher and adult education associations, and societies and
clubs with outdoor interests. In our allied field it also provided instructors for
camping courses and worked closely with other organizations having similar objectives. Perhaps the most rewarding of these co-operative activities was assistance
to the Girl Guides' Association in its establishment of a family camping scheme.
Members of the unit also appeared on several television and radio shows and
panels.
The office also worked closely with other branches of the Department in providing entries for exhibitions and fairs. The most notable perhaps was the Vancouver Sportsman's Show, which was opened by a member of this office.
Formal opening ceremonies for three parks—Bamberton, Murrin, and Mouat
—were also organized by this office. Two of these openings were planned on a
co-operative basis by this office and the public relations representatives of large
commercial concerns.
Normal unit projects have been carried out during the year. These included
the provision of large maps for park entrances, the production of publicity sheets,
news releases, assistance to journalists, and the usual inquiries, which vary little
from year to year.
ENGINEERING DIVISION
The increase in basic park facilities for the year ended December 31, 1961,
are as follows: 408 new camp-sites, a 14.6-per-cent increase for a total of 3,205;
186 new picnic-sites, a 10.6-per-cent increase for a total of 1,936.   Total tables in
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1961
V 39
use in camp-sites and picnic-sites to December 31, 1961, 5,141, or a 13.1-per-cent
increase over 1960.
Youth Crew Programme
One hundred and fifty boys were employed in five crews, as follows: Alice
Lake, 30; Champion Lakes, 12; Manning Park, 64; Mount Robson, 14; Bear
Lake, 30.
Federal-Provincial Agreement
The Branch received funds for park development under the terms of the
Federal-Provincial Agreement and Trans-Canada programme to the extent of approximately $380,000.
List of Projects Undertaken in 1961, by Parks
1. Alice Lake: Seventy-eight-unit camp-site; ninety-five-unit picnic-site;
water system; toilet-changehouse.
2. Allison Lake: Deep well established.
3. Bear Lake: Construction of two swimming-floats; gravelling and service
area completion; camp-site completed and picnic area improved.
4. Bamberton: Paving of road system and parking-lots; landscaping, water
fountains, portal and slope treatment.
5. Garibaldi (south to Alouette Lake): Two miles of park road; sewage-
disposal field to change-house; extensive landscaping to picnic-site area; ninety-
nine camp-sites.
6. Garibaldi, North (Diamond Head area): Two miles of jeep access road
to icefields; road improvement on main access to chalet; water system and sanitary
facilities to Diamond Head Chalet.
7. Ganges Camp-site (Mouat Park): Fifteen-unit camp-site; water system;
pavement to roads.
8. Gabriola Sands:  Sanitary facilities.
9. Greenpoint:   Landscaping;  extension of boat-launching ramp.
10. Jimsmith Lake:  Deep well established.
11. Johnstone Creek:  Deep well established.
12. Keats Island:  Marine park; ten camp-sites; six picnic-sites; boat-wharf.
13. Kleanza Creek: All facilities reconstructed; camp-site expanded from
four to eleven units; new parking-lot.
14. Lakelse Lake: Twenty-seven new camp-sites; continuation of construction to camp-site and picnic-site; garage-workshop;  swimming-floats.
15. Lac la Hache:   Garage-workshop; water system to service area.
16. Liard Hotsprings: Replacement of board walk to hotsprings; improved
sanitary facilities; parking-lot.
17. Lockhart Beach: Complete reconstruction; camp-site increased from
seven to twelve units; beach improvements; new parking-lot.
18. Long Beach: Initial development on large camp-site and beach area; construction of the Tofino Water-fowl Area Access Road for Game Branch.
19. McLure Lake:  Gravelling entrance road and parking-lot.
20. Monck Park: Sixty-one camp-sites; twenty-seven picnic-sites; parking-
lot; service area; boat-launching ramp.
21. Mara Lake: Completion of picnic-site—expansion from twelve tables to
twenty-six; water system; change-house
22. Mount Fernie:   Improvement to access road.
 V 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
23. Mount Seymour:   Jeep access road to upper ski-ing area;  slope-clearing
and hydroseeding.
24. Manning Park:  Start made on Gibson Pass Road; start made on recreational reservoir; entrance portal.
25. Murrin Park:  Nine-unit picnic-site; parking-lot and trail.
26. Miracle Beach:  Nature museum.
27. Newcastle Island:  Boat-mooring floats.
28. Okanagan Lake:   Fifty-five new camp-sites.
29. Prudhomme Lake:  Seventeen new camp-sites.
30. Rolley Lake:   Thirty-six-unit picnic-site;  access road; parking-lots.
31. Rebecca Spit:  Deep well established.
32. Roberts Creek:  Gravelling and reconstruction.
33. Seeley Lake:   Reconstruction of entire site;  swimming-floats;  camp-site
expansion from four to seven units.
34. Sproat Lake:   Toilet-changehouse;  water system;  completion of works.
35. Shuswap Lake:   Completion of supervisor's residence.
36. Strathcona Park:   Establishment of wilderness camp-sites on shores of
Buttle Lake; sanitary facilities.
37. Victor Lake:  Nine-unit picnic-site; water system; boat-launching ramp.
38. Wasa Lake:   Completion of water-system intake and storage for picnic-
site.
39. Wells Gray:   Start made on thirty-unit camp-site at Clearwater Lake.
40. Yahk:  Reconstruction of entire site; expanded from nine to fifteen units.
41. Yard Creek:   Change in water systems;   paving of entrance road and
parking-lot.
Langford Workshop—Summary of Main Items
Tables  400
Type A signs     18
Designation or other signs  770
Fireplaces   471
Entrance shelters     10
Park benches     35
Entrance portals       3
Buoys      38
Garbage gobblers       2
Incinerators      24
Toilet seat assemblies     69
Number posts  432
Inventory of Parks Branch Facilities to December 31, 1961
Buildings         98
Water systems        46
Camp-sites  3,205
Picnic-sites   1,93 6
Pit toilets  1,041
Fireplaces ..  3,461
Garbage-cans  4,081
Carved signs  2,890
The maintenance and servicing of the above faculties in the park system was
carried on by a staff which varied from sixty in the winter to 140 in the high-use
season of July and August.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1961 V 41
TJ
CO a
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4200
4000
3800
3600
3400
3200
3000
2800
26O0
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
200
A
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4
i
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4
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1948  49     50     51      52     53    54     55     56     57     58    59     60     61      62     63
ANNUAL   ATTENDANCE
PROVINCIAL   PARKS
  BRITISH   COLUMBIA   GOVERNMENT
TRAVEL
BUREAU
 The Honourable Earle C. Westwood addressing the dinner meet of the British
Columbia Tourist Association at Prince George.
Mr. Alan Field, Director of the Canadian Government Travel Bureau; the Honourable Walter Dinsdale, Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources; and Dr.
D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation, study " Beautiful British
Columbia " magazine at the Resources of Tomorrow Conference held in Montreal.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 45
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU
R. L. Colby, Director
Significant advances in several important directions contributed to a general
expansion of British Columbia's visitor industry in 1961 and justify the description
of this period as a year of records and milestones.
Visitor entries, encouraged by good weather and activated by a stronger advertising campaign, registered a 14.5-per-cent improvement over last year up to the end
of September, and it was anticipated that this gain would be reflected in year-end
totals.
The twelve-month estimates of 1,763,000 United States visitors, 632,500
Canadians from other Provinces, and 530,000 local holiday trips by British Columbia residents are considered to have increased the total tourist revenue for the calendar year from $100,400,000 in 1960 to an estimated record figure of $115,000,000
in 1961, divided as follows: $70,500,000 spent by United States visitors, $25,300,-
000 by other Canadians, and $19,200,000 by residents holidaying at home.
Milestones marking the progress of tourist promotional development included
the inauguration of the Department's $50,000 regional matching grants plan, the
decision of the British Columbia Tourist Advisory Council to incorporate as a society
named the " British Columbia Tourist Association," and the establishment by the
Provincial Government of British Columbia House in San Francisco.
The substantial gain in tourist business for the Province during 1961 was particularly significant in view of the fact that British Columbia's increase in United
States visitor entries was more than double the national average despite the lack of
any important new major events commanding special attention.
ATTRACTIONS
Encouraging development was noted in the promising field of winter recreation,
with considerably more effort going into winter carnivals now held at Vernon, Kimberley, and Fernie, in addition to improvement in ski-ing facilities at Kamloops,
Penticton, and other points. Promotion of major summer events, such as the
International Trade Fair, International Festival, and Pacific National Exhibition
at Vancouver, the Kelowna Regatta, Penticton Peach Festival, and Williams Lake
Stampede, was assisted by production of a new Travel Bureau folder, " Outstanding
Events in B.C.," distributed mainly through the large public carriers.
ACCOMMODATION
The trend toward higher-class construction continued during 1961, with the
larger centres gaining a number of luxury drive-in motels. One hundred new registrations were recorded by the Travel Bureau up to October 31st, with fifteen places
closing and 172, or 7.8 per cent, changing ownership. Total registered tourist establishments at that date were 2,200, containing a total of 30,482 rental units, of which
73 per cent had accepted grading by Bureau inspectors. The 21,797 graded units
comprised 43 per per cent four-star, 26 per cent three-star, 13 per cent two-star,
9 per cent one-star, and 9 per cent no-star.
INDUSTRY EDUCATION
The industry education programme, conducted by the Department of Education
with Mr. George Seldon as Tourist Services Consultant, continued until midsummer,
when Mr. Seldon resigned to return to private business, and was supplemented by
 V 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
a workshop clinic in Prince George, arranged by the late Director of the Travel
Bureau, Mr. Ernest Evans. The advisory committee to the industry education programme, comprising representatives of the Travel Bureau, the British Columbia
Restaurant Association, British Columbia Hotels' Association, Hotel Operators' and
Innkeepers' Society, Auto Courts and Resorts Association, and Hotel and Restaurant
Employees' Union, met again after the tourist season and reviewed applications for
a new Tourist Services Consultant to reactivate the programme in 1962.
TOURIST ASSOCIATION
At its twenty-second annual meeting, held in Prince George, September 12th,
13th, and 14th, the British Columbia Tourist Advisory Council, under the chairmanship of Mr. Jack K. Melville, president, took the important step of incorporating as
a society under the name " British Columbia Tourist Association." The association, in its new status, is pledged to publicize and advertise the Province of British
Columbia as a tourist and convention area in addition to its previous function as
a medium for the exchange, co-ordination, and recommendation of tourist promotion ideas. The new president, Col. George Paulin, and the association's board of
twenty-four directors now constitute the British Columbia Tourist Advisory Council,
whose task is to maintain close liaison with the Minister of Recreation and Conservation and the British Columbia Government Travel Bureau.
ADVERTISING
The Travel Bureau continued its successful use of space advertising in the
Western United States and Eastern Canada with pre-season and early-summer campaigns incorporating Sunset, Motorland, Westways, and Maclean's magazines, as
well as eleven American and six Canadian newspapers in major population centres.
National coverage was again assured through joint advertising with Washington and
Oregon in Holiday magazine, and the previous year's combined advertising with
Alberta and Saskatchewan in Maclean's magazine was also repeated.
The considerably expanded use of newspapers encouraged full-page British
Columbia layouts guaranteed by the insertion of large Travel Bureau advertisements,
with other British Columbia advertisers taking advantage of the high impact value
of space on these pages and with editorial columns being filled out with specially
written publicity material. This method of co-operative advertising was also used
in a special promotion involving the participation of the Department of Industrial
Development, Trade, and Commerce and many British Columbia tourist groups and
individual advertisers in a British Columbia supplement of the Seattle Times, circulated to a quarter of a million readers on Sunday, June 11.
PUBLICITY
A wide range of publicity outlets in all communications media was used by the
Bureau's Public Relations Officer in spreading the image of British Columbia as
a choice vacation area. Special articles were written in conjunction with the
advertising schedule, and freelance writers and travel editors, as well as major
publications in the travel field, were supplied with a steady flow of editorial and
photographic material.
REGIONAL MATCHING GRANTS PLAN
Early in 1961, announcement was made of a special grant of $50,000 for the
purpose of encouraging regional tourist promotion throughout the Province.   Ad-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 47
ministered by the Travel Bureau, this grant offered dollar-for-dollar matching assistance through promotional organizations set up in eight Provincial regions to be
applied against the cost of selected promotions, such as advertising, literature production, displays and exhibits, national and international tourist association memberships, regional signs, and administration of community tourist promotion offices.
Toward the year's end, five of the regions had taken full advantage of their matching grant quotas and the remaining three had promotions under way which were
expected to be finalized before the end of the fiscal year.
SPECIAL PROMOTIONS
The Bureau co-operated during the year with other organizations, such as the
Pacific Northwest Travel Association and the British Columbia Division of Expo-
Lodging, in the reception of visiting travel editors and conducted its own ten-day
familiarization tour for seven travel counsellors from Los Angeles, San Francisco,
Seattle, Portland, and New York during the month of September. The value of
this tour was highly praised by the Canadian Government Travel Bureau and automobile clubs from whose offices the counsellors were drawn, and it is anticipated
that the increased knowledge of British Columbia holiday attractions will serve the
Province well in the future contacts of these counsellors with potential tourists in
their various areas. The Bureau again sponsored, in conjunction with the magazine
Press Journal, a national travel writing contest, won this year by a Victoria journalist for his excellent coverage of historic Barkerville.
LITERATURE
The Bureau's expanded programme of literature production during 1961 featured the publication of several new folders in addition to larger numbers of the
standard formats in revised editions. New publications included " Outstanding
Events in B.C.," for distribution mainly by the large transportation companies, a
marine services map, and an air facilities map, produced in co-operation with two
other Government departments for distribution by the British Columbia Aviation
Council. The Tourist Accommodation Directory was enlarged by one-third, the
camp-site and sport-fishing maps were revised and reprinted in half a million copies,
and reprints of three folders of general descriptive nature were also issued in
quantity.
"BEAUTIFUL BRITISH COLUMBIA" MAGAZINE
Sales of Beautiful British Columbia magazine, a forty-eight-page four-colour
quarterly, continued to mount. It has been estimated that through this medium
52,000,000 scenic views of the Province have been disseminated throughout the
world.
Due to a Christmas promotion, subscriptions to the magazine increased from
5,000 to 17,000 during the pre-Christmas season. Magazine sales now average
close to 60,000 per issue.
FIELD WORK
With the transfer to Victoria in 1960 of the travel trade representative previously maintained in the Western United States jointly by the British Columbia
Travel Bureau and the Alberta Travel Bureau, a spring tour of California contacts
was conducted by a representative of the Bureau. The tour was designed to retain
this valuable liaison pending establishment of offices in San Francisco by the Canadian Government Travel Bureau and the Province of British Columbia.
 V 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Federal office opened in July under management of the former Assistant
Director of the British Columbia Government Travel Bureau. British Columbia
House opened in August under Mr. Newton P. Steacy as Commissioner for Trade
and Tourism, with a Travel Bureau field representative appointed to that office
representing the Department of Recreation and Conservation.
In early spring the Travel Bureau placed and manned an exhibit at the San
Francisco Boat Show and sent representation to a combined Western Provinces
exhibit at the Toronto Sportsmen's Show, in addition to its participation through
Pacific Northwest Travel Association in seven sport shows at major United States
points.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HOUSE, SAN FRANCISCO
The tourist information services provided by the opening of British Columbia
House, San Francisco, on August 9th proved popular and valuable from the outset.
A heavy flow of inquiries, ranging over a wide field of interests, was reported
by the Commissioner for Trade and Tourism, whose staff includes a representative
of the Travel Bureau.
Supplementing the counter information service, personnel of the new office
answered many mail inquiries, arranged film showings, attended meetings, distributed literature to schools and other outlets, and called on travel agencies, transportation companies, and other groups concerned with the travel industry.
The Commissioner addressed twenty-two meetings in the Bay area, with audiences totalling over 1,800.
Plans set in motion for 1962 included participation in fairs and exhibitions at
San Francisco, Sacramento, Los Angeles, and San Diego, as well as the extension
of publicity into the adjacent states of Arizona and Nevada.
INQUIRIES
To the end of October, 54,823 mail inquiries had been received and answered
at the Bureau's Victoria office, which total compared favourably with the 50,000,
exclusive of reforwarded area inquiry coupons, received up to that date last year.
TOURIST INFORMATION CENTRES
The Bureau's reception centres, operated at White Rock, Flood, and Banff during the summer season, reflected the heavy increase in tourist traffic. Reports indicated that 14,424 cars stopped at White Rock for information service, an increase
of 24.6 per cent over last year. This figure represents a total of 44,729 visitors,
27.3 per cent more than last year, and a total stop-over in British Columbia of
60,356 days. Flood mobile reception centre reported 7,258 cars and 25,088 visitors, increases over last year of 18.3 and 24 per cent respectively, with a total of
57,818 days spent in the Province.
Following the preliminary test service at Banff last year, an office was fully
staffed in that popular resort city during the tourist season. More than 6,150 travellers were provided with information on British Columbia facilities and attractions.
SURVEYS
A series of visitor interviews was conducted by Bureau personnel stationed
aboard the Tsawwassen-Swartz Bay ferry in early spring to test the value of this
method of recording tourist preferences, but due to the difficulty of distinguishing
United States visitors from Victoria-Vancouver commuters and to the short time
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961
V 49
provided by the fast crossing, this survey method was not considered of sufficient
value to establish on a regular basis.
The Bureau emphasizes the continuing need for a full-scale survey embracing
all aspects of the tourist industry of the Province to provide a sound basis for future
promotional programmes.
LIAISON
The Bureau's new Director attended the Canadian Tourist Association annual
meeting, held in Halifax this year, and the Federal-Provincial Tourist Conference
in Ottawa, continuing the close liaison which has been established over the years
with tourist interests in industry and government, not only on the national level,
but also with organizations within the Province, such as the Greater Vancouver
Tourist Association, the Victoria and Island Publicity Bureau, and other regional
associations, the Auto Courts and Resorts Association, British Columbia Hotels
Association, and the Hotel Operators' and Innkeepers' Society. Active support
was given to the Pacific Northwest Travel Association and the Okanagan-Cariboo
Trail Association.
The Bureau1 acknowledges the co-operation of the Directors and staffs of the
Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan Travel Bureaux, officers and staff of the
Canadian Government Travel Bureau, the officers of the Canadian Tourist Association, the directors and members of the British Columbia Tourist Association, and
the officers and personnel of Chambers of Commerce, Boards of Trade, and travel
bureaux throughout the Province.
SETTLEMENT
Settlement inquiries were received during the year from thirty-nine of the fifty
United States, all other Provinces of Canada, and many foreign countries around
the world. The Bureau does not solicit immigration, but provides inquirers with
general information and directs them for special information to the Department of
Citizenship and Immigration, the National Employment Service, and the Provincial
Departments of Lands and Agriculture, whose assistance is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
 V 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
COMPARATIVE  TOURIST   REVENUES
I960- 1961   ESTIMATES
1960
mm
*5i^M-    -Wo.ooc
A^P^^>-^bTHER   ■
U.S.        \:;Fwi^^NADIANS ^25,300,000
$3,012,000
'70,500,000
'115,000.000 Tota|
$,
•23,000,000
 *21,850.000
 *9.200.000
 '3,450.000
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 51
WHITE   ROCK   RECEPTION  CENTRE
1960-1961  (To Sept.10*h.)
60,000
AVERAGE   NUMBER  OF   VISITORS   PER  CAR
1960-3.03 1961-3.1
AVERAGE   DAYS   PER   VISIT
1960-4.3 1961-4.1
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
24.6%(
10,000
1960    '61
CARS
■27.3°/o
:•:*:•»
1960    '61
VISITORS
18°/e
>:•:•:•:•
W&
■■■•■
Mlli
1960    '61
VISITOR
DAYS
 V 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
GENERAL  MAIL   INQUIRIES
VICTORIA
SPECIAL    COUPON   INQUIRIES
NOT   APPLICABLE   IN   1961
|||||
55,000
50,000-
45,000
40,000-
35 000-
I
1959 1960 1961
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF
NATURAL HISTORY AND
ANTHROPOLOGY
 Argillite chest carved by Charles Edenshaw, of Masset, B.C.
(Newcombe collection.)
Tsimshian portrait mask.   (Newcombe collection.)
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 55
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
G. Clifford Carl, Director
Two major events affecting the Provincial Museum during 1961 were the
transfer in administration to the present Department and the acquisition of the Newcombe collection of Indian artifacts, pictures, and negatives. Both will have far-
reaching effects.
The administrative move from the Department of Education to the Department
of Recreation and Conservation brings the Provincial Museum into closer contact
with branches working in related fields, a move which will result in mutual advantage. At the same time, it will permit the Museum to carry on its scientific and
education function more effectively to the benefit of the people of the Province.
The Newcombe material, which was purchased by the Provincial Government
from the estate of the late W. A. Newcombe, of Victoria, comprises extensive collections in the fields of anthropology, natural history, palaeontology, mineralogy, art,
and local history. It is particularly rich in fine examples of Indian art, photographs,
negatives, field-notes, local and foreign shells, fossils, plant specimens, Emily Carr
sketches and paintings, and reference books in the various fields. The acquisition
of these valuable materials, which are being divided among the Museum, Archives,
and Library, has provided an over-all " lift" and has added greatly to the research
and display aspects in all divisions.
FIELD WORK
Short surveys and collecting trips were made in all divisions of the Museum
field. The study of small-mammal distribution, begun in 1948, was continued by
a collecting trip to the Tofino area, where a survey of five islands was carried out.
The continued co-operation of the Federal Department of Fisheries in providing
some transportation and other services is gratefully acknowledged.
Reconnaissance surveys of vegetation were carried out at Boat Basin and Kennedy Lake on the west coast of Vancouver Island, and at Dease Lake, Atlin Lake,
and a number of other areas along the British Columbia-Yukon border, not previously studied.
Several days were also spent near Tofino and at Friday Harbor, Washington,
doing marine collecting and photographic work.
Several short surveys of archaeological sites were made locally and on two of
the Gulf Islands. In addition, Museum personnel participated in the activities
of the Archaeological Sites Advisory Board by examining sites and conducting
emergency excavations at site near Ladner which is being disturbed by house
construction.
PUBLICATIONS
The following publications have appeared in 1961:—
By Frank L. Beebe—
"Blood on the Snow."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 17, Nos. 5, 6, and 7.
By G. Clifford Carl-
Review of " Organization of Museums " Practical Advice No. IX.
Museums and Monuments Series, UNESCO, in UNESCO Publications
Review, No. 10, p. 61.
" Sapsuckers Eating Ants."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 17, No. 7, p. 94.
"Animals around Us."    Series in Victoria Daily Times, July.
"Amphibian Migration."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 18, No. 3, p. 36.
 V 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
By R. H. Drent and C. J. Guiguet—
" A Catalogue of British Columbia Sea-bird Colonies."
Occasional Papers, B.C. Provincial Museum, No. 12, pp. 1-173.
By Wilson Duff—
" Preserving British Columbia's Prehistory.   A Guide for Amateur Archaeologists."   Archaeological Sites Advisory Board, February, pp. 1-12.
" The Killer Whale Copper."   Report of the Provincial Museum for 1960,
pp. 32-36.
" The Indians of the Gulf Islands."   A Gulf Islands Patchwork.    Gulf
Islands Branch, B.C. Historical Association, pp. 1-5.
By C. J. Guiguet—
" Some Recent Sight Records of European Starling Nesting on New Territory in Western British Columbia."    Report  of  the Provincial
Museum for 1960, pp. 29-31.
" The Harlequin Duck."    Beautiful British Columbia, Vol. 2, No. 4.
" Shoveller."    Beautiful British Columbia, Vol. 3, No. 1.
" Geese."    Beautiful British Columbia, Vol. 3, No. 3.
" The Birds of British Columbia.    (4) Upland Games Birds."    British
Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 10, 2nd edition.
By Adam F. Szczawinski—
" The Heathers (Ericaceae) of British Columbia."   British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 19.    (In press.)
A number of staff members have a number of other publications in various
stages of preparation.
EXTENSION WORK
Numerous illustrated lectures were given in 1961 by various staff members
both locally and in other parts of the Province. In April the Director lectured in
several of the Central States under the combined auspices of the Canadian Audubon
Society and the National Audubon Society.
Two special displays featuring the conservation work of the Department were
organized and set up during the year—the first in the Sportsmen's Show in the
spring, the second in the fall show of the Victoria Horticultural Society.
The services and facilities of the carving project in Thunderbird Park were
placed at the disposal of a photographic team from the University of California who
are making education films featuring early Indian life and customs.
THUNDERBIRD PARK
The totem-pole carving programme in Thunderbird Park was continued through
the year, under the direction of the anthropological office. The main project completed by the carvers, Mungo Martin and Henry Hunt, was a pair of 15-foot posts
to be incorporated into the entrance portal of Rebecca Spit Park. In addition, a
number of minor projects were completed, and the carvers' activities continued to
be an outstanding attraction for visiting photographers and scholars.
CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES
Through the services of a student assistant, a number of old and damaged bird
and mammal study skins were repaired or remade and the entire collection was
restocked with insect repellent. The addition of three storage cases helped relieve
the crowding in the reference collection of bird-skins.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1961
V 57
In the botanical section the newly acquired Newcombe plant collection was
fumigated, cleaned, re-sorted, and largely remounted.
Two thousand eight hundred and seventy-two herbarium sheets were restored
from the Newcombe collection and 1,120 herbarium specimens were acquired by
collecting and by exchange and added to the Provincial Herbarium, bringing our
total up to 36,691.
In the anthropological section a great deal of time was spent in sorting, cleaning,
accessioning, and storing material from the Newcombe Indian collection.
DISPLAY MATERIALS
The major project in this field has been the planning and construction of a
relief model of British Columbia, measuring 7 by 8 feet, to show the physiographic
features and the main types of vegetative cover. It is to be installed in the Museum
entrance hall as an " orientation " exhibit.
Several enlarged models of protected flowers and other display items were
produced in plastic for use in permanent exhibits and in temporary public displays.
BUILDING MAINTENANCE
Before the 1961 tourist season the entire Museum building was cleaned and
redecorated. We are greatly indebted to the Public Works Department for this
service.
LIBRARY REORGANIZATION
The reorganization and recataloguing of the Museum reference library were
continued by members of the Provincial Library staff. A number of periodicals
have yet to be catalogued.
ATTENDANCE
The number of visitors to the Museum according to the register is as follows:—
January  1,161
February  1,379
March  1,973
April  3,366
May   3,399
June  7,968
July  14,328
August   15,920
September  6,304
October  1,815
November   800
December   640
Total
64,353
The number of registered visitors in 1961 was 13 per cent greater than in 1960.
This increase is similar to that enjoyed by other public institutions, and probably
is largely due to increased travel during an exceptionally fine summer.
When counts of school classes and other organized groups are included, the
total 1961 attendance is estimated to be about 100,000 persons.
 V 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The July attendance figures have been broken down as follows:—
Residence Registration
Washington  2,212
Oregon  1,197
California  1,931
Other States  3,717
Great Britain   160
Other countries  143
Alberta 	
725
Saskatchewan	
331
Manitoba 	
160
Ontario 	
675
Quebec	
195
Nova Scotia      	
30
New Brunswick	
26
Prince Edward Island __
10
Newfoundland 	
13
Yukon 	
11
Northwest Territories __
3
Total	
4,949
Total  14,328
Compared with figures obtained in the previous year, the July attendance in
1961 was down about 16 per cent, but still well above the average based on records
from the past six years. On the other hand, the August attendance showed a 20-
per-cent increase over the same period in 1960.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION  AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 59
PROVINCIAL   MUSEUM
ATTENDANCE
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s
s
/
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,
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1956
57 58 59 60
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62
*    ESTIMATED   TOTAL OF VISITORS 1961 = 100,000
  PHOTOGRAPHIC
BRANCH
 Hudson Bay Mountain, near Kathleen Lake, Smithers, B.C.
Somass River, Port Alberni, B.C.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 63
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH
R. L. Colby, Chief
STILL PHOTOGRAPHY
In January, opening of the Legislature, photographed in black-and-white and
colour, began a busy year. A pictorial story of British Columbia was prepared
for the University of Malaya. Demolition of the Royal Jubilee Hospital old administration building was recorded, as were sessions of Civil Defence at Keating Centre
and Empress Hotel, and Indian copper plaques and wild-flower display for the Provincial Museum. Inspection of the New Westminster Mental Hospital by members of the Legislative Assembly was covered for the Department of Health and
Welfare.
Members of the Press Gallery were photographed during February. This
month's work also included:    (a) Classes and group pictures for Civil Defence;
(b) progress shots of Mr. Mungo Martin carving Federal Government totem-pole;
(c) document-signing ceremony by Dr. Amyot; (d) presentation made by the
Honourable R. W. Bonner to Mr. A. E. King, of Vancouver; (e) office photographs
of the British Columbia Hospital Insurance Service; and (/) training programme
display for Department of Agriculture.
Photographic coverage of the Natural Resources Conference, March 1st, 2nd,
and 3rd, was obtained. Open'ng of the Upper Levels Bridge, Civil Defence group
photograph, duck-banding in Beacon Hill Park, and the Honourable Leslie Peterson
and Indian Advisory Council were photographed in black-and-white. Maps for the
Regional Planning Board, copies of the Magna Charta, the Lieutenant-Governor at
Government House, and the 1961 British Columbia Legislature were photographed
in colour.
Further demolition shots at Royal Jubilee Hospital were among April assignments. Progress pictures of the new Court-house were taken. Photographic record
was made of the in-service training-school for Conservation Officers held in Vancouver, whilst Stump Lake biological survey and presentation ceremony of the
Minister of Agriculture were also photographed.
Keel-laying ceremony of the new Government ferry at Victoria Machinery
Depot was part of the May photographic assignments. Others were exercise " Tocsin " at Nanaimo, Western Region Conference of A.S.T.A. at Harrison Hot Springs,
Fish and Game Convention at Penticton, Stump Lake opening, activities at Poison
Pool (Vernon), a plaque at Thunderbird Park for Provincial Museum, records of
Bamberton Park for Parks Branch, and pieces of equipment for Department of
Mines. A trip was made to obtain a picture story of the area from Muchalat Inlet
to Zeballos. The Honourable Minister of Agriculture receiving a cheque from Mr.
E. Peden as a reward for the study of egg quality in British Columbia was
photographed.
In June, Harrison Hot Springs was visited for picture-story material. A farewell dinner honouring Dr. J. V. Fisher was photographed in the Empress Hotel.
Coloured pictures of recently remodelled dining-rooms in Government ferries were
taken, and progress shots of M.V. " Victoria " were taken on two occasions. Official
opening of Bamberton Park by the Honourable Earle C. Westwood was recorded.
For Beautiful British Columbia magazine, photographs were taken of Mayne Island,
" Indian Days " at Kamloops, strawberries on Vancouver Island, and accommodation facilities at Parksville.
Campbell River area was covered during July for material for office files and
subsequent use in Beautiful British Columbia magazine.    Retirement presentation
 V 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ceremony for Miss M. E. Booth, Department of Finance, was photographed.
Marine parks and general boating facilities in the Gulf Islands was recorded, as
were two series of new Government ferries progress shots. Photographic coverage
was made of AU-Sooke Day, Goldstream Park and Picnic-site for Parks Branch,
and retirement ceremony for Mr. H. Pearson, Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce. Field trips were made to Fraser Valley, Upper
Vancouver Island, Port Renfrew, Prince Rupert area, and Lakelse Park for Beautiful British Columbia magazine material, and to assist in production of Parks Branch
booklet.
The special session of the Legislature was photographed in August. Coloured
and black-and-white photographs were taken of the following: Government ferry,
new Court-house for Public Works, Indian sweaters for Beautiful British Columbia
magazine, Thunderbird Park for Branch albums, E. B. Paul Building and Government House for Public Works, maps for Municipal Affairs, Inner Harbour, retirement presentation ceremony for Miss Stella Hynes for Department of Labour,
Government House fireplace at the request of the Lieutenant-Governor, and Pacific
National Exhibition for Beautiful British Columbia magazine.
Field trips were made to Okanagan for Century 21 publicity material, Gabriola
Island and Qualicum for Beautiful British Columbia magazine, to Prince Rupert
area for motion-picture footage, and Bowron Lakes for a picture story on the new
park there.
September assignments were made up of photographing retirement ceremony
for Mr. A. A. Bagattin, Supervisor, Commercial Fisheries, model cities for Town
Planning, transfer ceremony of Gulf Island Ferries to Provincial Government,
aerials of Victoria in black-and-white and colour, maps for Water Rights Branch
and Department of Highways, opening ceremony of marine park at Saltspring
Island, Kootenay area for Department of Highways, Highway No. 16 for Branch
albums and Beautiful British Columbia magazine, Messrs. H. Hunt and Mungo
Martin carving totem-pole in Thunderbird Park, Wax Museum, Kwakiutl Indian
house-post for Museum, and Government ferry progress shots at Victoria Machinery
Depot. Meeting of the Tourist Advisory Council at Prince George was photographed. The Lieutenant-Governor signing an Order in Council was also recorded.
Field trips to Cariboo, Okanagan, and Deas Lake areas were made for Beautiful
British Columbia magazine and album use.
In October, maps were photographed for Department of Highways, presentation dinner for Minister of Agriculture, totem-pole carving and historic urn for
Museum, ferry-progress shots, Cenotaph for Women's Institute, Victoria and
environs for Star Weekly, Beacon Hill Park for Branch albums, R.C.M.P. building
for Town Planning, classes for Civil Defence, post office for Provincial Secretary,
and a particular arbutus-tree for Department of Education. Representatives of
Canadian Government Travel Bureau and Holiday magazine were assisted and
escorted to various centres on Vancouver Island. M.V. " Victoria " launching ceremony was photographed, as was the new Trail Bridge opening.
Civil Defence classes were photographed during November. Personnel of Vancouver Mental Health Services were photographed for the Department of Health
and Welfare, and telephone switchboard operators for Provincial Secretary. Jubilee
Hospital sod-turning ceremony, performed by the Honourable Eric Martin, was
likewise recorded. Other assignments included model of British Columbia for
Provincial Museum, presentation ceremony at City Hall, Purchasing Commission
personnel for Provincial Secretary, and Civil Defence at Keating. Galiano Island
was visited for Beautiful British Columbia material, which further included photo-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1961
V 65
graphing Victoria Wax Museum, Victoria College, Victoria for scenics, and Hel-
mcken House.
The year ended with photographic records of twenty-five-year presentation
ceremonies in Hotel Vancouver and Empress Hotel performed by the Premier, the
Honourable W. A. C. Bennett.
MOTION PICTURES
" Highway on the Sea," " The Silent Ones," and " Kootenay Lake Holiday "
were released during the year. Footage was shot for, and editing done on, the
following: " Rogers Pass," " Fraser Canyon," " Cascade Highway," " Big Game,"
" Highway No. 16," " British Columbia International Trade Fair," and " Firearms
Safety " film.
"The Silent Ones" and "Fraser Canyon" won awards at the 1961 Vancouver International Film Festival. Honourable mentions were gained by " Tight
Lines," " Legend of the West," and '" Fraser Canyon " at the American Society of
Travel Agents film competition held at Cannes, France.
DARKROOM PRODUCTION
A total of 2,791 negatives was processed and 17,014 prints were made,
which 4,273 were supplied to writers, newspapers, and magazines.
of
COLOUR PRODUCTION
Some 2,100 coloured pictures were taken from widely scattered points and
added to our colour albums.
GENERAL
Letters received and sent out amounted to 1,425 and 953 respectively. In the
Branch studio, 125 portraits were taken, and eighty-four shows were given in the
Branch theatre. Demand for Branch films continues to grow. This constitutes
considerable extra work in checking, shipping, and record-keeping. According to
incomplete records, private showings of Branch films in Canada amounted to 2,013,
with audiences of 141,954, and there were sixty-two television showings, all
directed from the Branch office. In the United States there were 7,235 screenings
and 357,254 audience, plus 101 television shows, arranged through the Canadian
Government Travel Bureau film library in that country.
 V 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
PHOTOGRAPHIC   BRANCH
CHARTS   ON   FILM   SHOWINGS
DIRECT    SCREENINGS
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000    —TT-
O
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
TELEVISION    SHOWS
120
100
80   —V
1957
1958
1959 1960
UNITED   STATES
CANADA
1961
 COMMERCIAL
FISHERIES
BRANCH
 Salmon gill-netter, Fraser River.
Fish packers and seiners, Port Renfrew, B.C.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 69
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
J. Kemp, Supervisor
The canned-salmon pack for 1961 was 1,403,994 cases, an increase over the
1960 pack of 772,843Vi cases. The salmon season was marked by freedom from
disputes between the fishermen and the operators, and full advantage was taken of
all available runs. Early results were very good, and July was a record month
with heavy early catches in northern areas and generally good troll landings of
coho. However, in the south, by the middle of August, the season's landings were
smaller than anticipated, and the August catch was only slightly higher than the
poor year of 1960. This had the effect of levelling out the season's catch, and
consequently the pack, although higher than 1960, was rather disappointing after
such good fishing in the first part of the year.
The canned-salmon pack for 1961 consisted of the following species (48-pound
cases): Sockeyes, 398,303; springs, 7,488; steelheads, 979; cohoes, including
bluebacks, 240,734; pinks, 661,103; and chums, 95,387.
BRITISH COLUMBIA CANNING INDUSTRY
Twenty-three salmon-canneries were licensed to operate in the Province by
the Branch. The locations were as follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena
River. 6; Central Area, 2; Vancouver Island, 2; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 12. One cannery, normally licensed, in the Skeena River area did not operate,
but the fish usually handled by this plant was canned on a co-operative basis by
one nearby.   This accounted for the drop of one in the figures from last year.
Sockeye Salmon
The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission manages the sockeye
and pink runs to the Fraser River. The Commission had predicted that 1961 would
be better than the cycle-year for sockeye. Although early July fishing in Juan
de Fuca Strait and Johnstone Strait appeared to bear out this prediction, August
landings fell off so quickly that it became necessary to implement drastic closures
of Convention areas to conserve adequate spawning stock. Northern waters had
an earlier run, and by mid-July had built up to better than average; as a consequence, canneries in the area worked at full capacity.
The sockeye-salmon pack of 1961 was 398,303 cases, an increase of 161,459
cases over the 1960 pack of 226,844 cases.
Pink Salmon
Pink salmon were in abundant supply in northern waters by June, particularly
in the Nass and Skeena Rivers and later in Rivers and Smith Inlets, where, by
July, they were better than average. In the Convention areas to the south, the
catch was one of the lowest expected in this cycle for many years. In other southern
waters, pink returns were fair to good.
The 1961 pink-salmon pack was 661,103 cases, an increase of 441,539 cases
over the 1960 pack of 219,564 cases.
Coho Salmon
The troll fishery for coho opened June 15th, and an excellent run was soon in
evidence off the west coast of Vancouver Island.   In the northern areas the canned
 V 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
pack of coho reached a record level.   Net catches were good in Juan de Fuca and
Johnstone Straits.   However, over-all fall fishing was poor.
The 1961 coho-salmon pack was 240,734 cases, an increase of 149,230 cases
over the 1960 pack of 91,504 cases.
Chum Salmon
The fall fishing for chums was very poor, whilst the August catch in northern
waters was smaller than the low 1960 figure.
The 1961 chum-salmon pack was 95,387 cases, a decrease of 131,457 cases
from the 1960 pack of 226,844 cases.
Spring Salmon
Early troll landings of spring salmon were heavier than in the poor year of
1960, but fell sharply in July and August. Total summer production was the
lowest in the last ten years. Several shipments of this species were sent to Europe,
indicating an increased market interest in this particular fish.
The 1961 spring-salmon pack was 7,488 cases, an increase of 1,572 cases
over the 1960 pack of 5,916 cases.
TUNA
The first commercial catch of tuna off the west coast of Vancouver Island was
made in 1940. Since that time, tuna have proven to be rather variable in abundance
in Canadian waters.
This year, again, British Columbia fishermen equipped several vessels with
seine-nets for the purpose of fishing tuna in the high seas.
Tuna landings were a feature last year, when September catches totalled
245,000 pounds, valued at $35,000, but dropped to less than 6,000 pounds this
year.
September landings this year totalled 5,700 pounds—3,800 by offshore trailers
and 1,900 by seine.
DOGFISH-CONTROL
The Canadian Department of Fisheries dogfish-liver subsidy programme for
British Columbia terminated on November 6, 1961. The $150,000 earmarked by
the Federal Government for this programme was used up by this date. The possibility exists that before the end of the current fiscal year the subsidy will be increased
by another $150,000. The total number of pounds of dogfish liver landed up to
November 6th was 1,250,000, which, at the rate of 12 cents per pound, accounted
for the $150,000.
At the end of the previous fiscal year (ended March 31, 1961), only 990,169
pounds of dogfish livers were landed in British Columbia as the subsidy fishing
did not begin until the month of October, 1960.
HALIBUT
The International Pacific Halibut Commission was set up under treaty between
Canada and the United States for the protection and rehabilitation of the halibut-
fishery. For the purpose of regulation, the Pacific Coast is divided into a number
of areas.   The 1961 regulatory areas are as follows:—
Area 1a—South of Heceta Head, Ore., U.S.A.
Area 1b—Between Heceta Head and Willapa Bay, Wash., U.S.A.
Area 2—Between Willapa Bay and Cape Spencer, Alaska.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 71
Area 3a—Between Cape Spencer and Kupreanof Point, near Shumagin
Islands.
Area 3 b South—South of Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands between
Kupreanof Point and Cape Sagak, Umnak Island.
Area 3b North—Bering Sea and around Aleutians west of Cape Sagak.
The principal areas from a standpoint of production are Areas 2 and 3.
The catch-limits set by the Commission for the 1961 season were 28,000,000
pounds in Area 2 and 33,000,000 pounds in Area 3a. A significant difference in
the 1961 regulations was the division of Area 3b into two parts, with different
opening dates of April 10th and April 25th respectively.
HERRING
Figures for the year 1961, as of December 16th, show a total of 126,810 tons
of herring landed. This compares favourably with the figure, at the same date,
for 1960, when a total of 73,091 tons had been landed. Production of meal was
21,952 tons (13,172 in 1960); oil, 3,366,057 imperial gallons (1,717,563 in
1960). Because of strikes in the herring-fishing industry, no figures are available
for the canned-herring pack.
CLAMS
That part of Fisheries District No. 3 (that is, Area 13 and the northern portions of Areas 14 and 15) formerly closed for the taking of butter clams since
October 25, 1960, was reopened at 12 o'clock midnight on Tuesday, October
31,1961.
This action was taken on the recommendation of the Pacific Coast Shell-fish
Committee, and serves to reopen the remaining portion of those waters of District
No. 3 which had been closed to the taking of clams since November 1, 1957.
The testing of shell-fish samples taken from various locations on the coast on
a regular basis is being continued in the interests of public health.
PACIFIC OYSTER BREEDING
Weather conditions during the summer of 1961 created favourable hydro-
graphic conditions for Pacific oyster breeding. Consequently spatting was widespread throughout Georgia Strait and in the main breeding areas, with about
the same distribution as in 1958 but with reduced intensity.
In Ladysmith Harbour the first spawning occurred on July 12th. Numbers
of larva, were reduced very considerably during the larval period, but shells
exposed between July 25th and Aueust 1st causht an average of 46 spat per shell,
an excellent commercial set. Spawning of smaller magnitude occurred until the
end of August, but no further major setting took place. Weekly setting during
August ranged from 4 to 10 spat per shell.
The first spawning in Pendrell Sound occurred on June 13th, the earliest
occasion on record. This breeding was insufficient in magnitude to provide significant setting, but a spawning about June 20th indicated a commercial spatfall
would occur in the first week of July. Shells exposed between July 4th and 17th
caught an average of 261 spat per shell, with a range of 120 to 603 in the upper
and middle sounds at seven stations.
Another spawning occurred on July 20th and a commercial set was forecast
for July 25th. Shells exposed at Station 2 (upper sound) between July 24th and
31st caught an average set of 581 spat per shell.
 V 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
On July 13th a further spawning occurred, producing sufficient larva, (up to
180 straight hinge larva, per gallon) to produce a commercial set. Shells exposed
at Station 2 between July 31st and August 7th produced an average set of 1,041
spat per shell. Shells exposed at Station 2 between August 7th and 15th caught
an average of 213 spat per shell, these larva, originating from a series of smaller
spawnings.   Low-intensity spatting occurred until the end of August.
About 15,000 strings of shell cultch were exposed.
LICENCES ISSUED AND REVENUE COLLECTED
The following table shows the number of licences issued and revenue collected
as of December 15, 1961:—
Licences
Salmon-cannery	
Herring-cannery       2
Herring reduction       6
Tierced Salmon	
Fish cold storage	
Fish-processing	
Shell-fish cannery	
Tuna-fish cannery	
Fish-offal reduction .
Fish-liver reduction	
Fish-buyers'	
dumber of
Licences
Revenue
23
$4,600.00
2
200.00
6
600.00
5
500.00
18
1,800.00
19
19.00
9
9.00
3
3.00
8
8.00
3
3.00
434
10,850.00
$18,592.00
REVIEW OF FISHERIES PRODUCTION, 1960
The total marketed value of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1960
amounted to $52,300,000, a decrease of $14,077,000 from the 1959 total of
$66,377,000. The 1960 total was approximately 48 per cent less than the record
total of $98,224,000 reported in 1958.
The principal species, as marketed, were salmon, with a value of $35,963,000;
herring, with a value of $3,450,000; and halibut, with a marketed value of
$6,534,000.
The landed value of the 1960 halibut-catch was $4,379,000, as compared to
$4,398,000 in 1959.
In 1960 the marketed value of shell-fish amounted to $2,141,000. The value
of the clam production was $535,000; oyster production, $406,000; crab production, $1,300,000;  shrimps and prawns landed were valued at $529,000.
Vessels and Boats
The number and value of boats used in catching and landing fish in British
Columbia for 1960 included 1,048 boats in the 10-ton-and-over class and 7,575
boats in the under-10-ton group, which totalled 8,623 boats, valued at $49,601,000.
There were 145 more boats operating in Coastal waters than in 1959.
In the under-10-ton class, trailers showed the most increase, and at the end
of 1960 a total of 1,598 trailers under 10 tons but over 20 feet was reported, as
compared to 1,420 in 1959.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961 V 73
Gear and Equipment
The 1960 inventory of fishing-gear, such as 8,181 gill-nets, 512 salmon
seine-nets, and 110 herring purse-seine nets, was valued at $5,253,000. Wire, cotton, and nylon trolling-lines were valued at $455,000.
Number of Fishermen Licensed
A total of 14,191 fishermen was licensed in British Columbia in 1960, compared with 14,463 licensed in 1959. The number of men employed on fish packers
and collector boats totalled 968.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING
INDUSTRY, 1960
This Branch licensed twenty-four salmon-canneries to operate in 1960. This
number was the same as the previous year. The operating canneries in 1960 were
located as follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena River, 7; Central Area, 1;
Vancouver Island, 2;  Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 13.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia, according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by canners licensed to operate in 1960, amounted
to 631,150 cases, compared with 1,077,097 cases packed in 1959. This was
751,990 cases below the average annual pack for the previous five-year period.
The decrease in the canned-salmon pack in 1960 was not due to any tie-ups
or strike action, but rather to lower runs to most areas. Higher unit prices resulted
in landed values totalling only slightly lower than those reported in 1955 and 1957,
when salmon-landings were 80 per cent higher than in 1960. However, the
canned-salmon pack in 1960 totalled 631,150 cases, valued at $22,767,000. This
was the lowest pack reported since 1921 and was nearly $12,000,000 less than
in 1959.
In the year under review the canned-salmon pack was composed of 226,844
cases of sockeyes, 5,916 cases of springs, 504 cases of steelheads, 91,504 cases of
cohoes, 219,564 cases of pinks, and 86,818 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon
The sockeye-pack in 1960 amounted to 226,844 cases, compared with 256,170
in 1959, being 847,461 cases less than 1958, which included the very large Adams
River sockeye-pack.
Coho Salmon
In 1960 the coho-pack amounted to 91,504 cases, compared with 213,105
cases in 1959.
Pink Salmon
The pink-salmon pack in 1960 amounted to 219,564 cases, compared with
458,597 in 1959.
Chum Salmon
The 1960 chum-pack amounted to 86,818 cases. This was 46,310 cases below
the 1959 pack, when 133,128 cases were packed. However, as large numbers of
chum salmon are used in the fresh and frozen markets, the pack figures are not
indicative of the catch.
 V 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Spring Salmon
The 1960 spring-salmon pack amounted to 5,916 cases, compared with 15,231
cases packed in 1959.
Steelhead
In 1960 the steelhead-pack amounted to 504 cases, compared with 866 cases
in 1959. Steelhead are not salmon, but some are canned each year, principally
those caught incidental to fishing other species.
OTHER CANNERIES
Herring-canneries.—One cannery operated and produced 9,074 cases canned
herring.
Pilchard-canneries.—There has been no run of pilchards off the west coast of
Vancouver Island since 1949.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—Three tuna-fish canneries were licensed to operate in
1960 and produced 47,084 cases of 48/4-ounce, 1, 920 cases of 24/7-ounce, 39,674
cases of 48/6-ounce, and 75,125 cases of 48/7-ounce.
Shell-fish Canneries.—In 1960 nine shell-fish canneries were licensed to operate in British Columbia and produced a pack as follows:—
Clams:   3,521 cases of 24/Vi's, 26,996 cases of 24/1's, 2,468 case? of
48/1's and 100 cases of 25/15-ounce.
Crabs:   31,909 cases of 48/Vi's and 6,523 cases of 48/1's.
Oysters:   5,421 cases of 24/1,4's smoked oysters and 12,612 cases of
24/10-ounce oyster stew.
MILD-CURED SALMON
Five plants were licensed to mild-cure salmon in 1960, and produced a pack
of 320 tierces, containing 2,639 hundredweight. This operation is comparable
with the production of six plants licensed to operate in 1959, which produced a
pack of 604 tierces, containing 4,982 hundredweight.
HALIBUT
The 1960 catch quotas set by the International Pacific Halibut Commission for
the different areas were as follows: Area 2, 26,500,000 pounds, and Area 3a,
30,000,000 pounds. Two separate seasons were again allowed in halibut Area 2;
the first season ran for ninety-one days from May 1st to July 21st, and the second
season opened on September 11th and closed September 18th. The early opening
of the Bering Sea area on April 1st resulted in greatly increased activity by the
Canadian halibut fleet. This year total landings by Canadian fishermen at United
States ports reached record levels.
Halibut-landings in 1960 (1959 in parentheses) by the combined Canadian
and United States vessels amounted to 71,915,000 (71,715,000) pounds.
Average price paid for Canadian landings in Canadian ports was 2 cents per
pound below that offered in 1959. Consequently, in spite of increased landings,
the value of the catch (this excludes United States landings) was approximately the
same as last year, at $4,400,000.
The Canadian vessels landed 93,458 pounds of halibut livers and viscera in
1960, with a combined total value of $20,543, as compared with 136,000 pounds
in 1959, with a combined total value of $26,000.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961
V 75
The figures relating to the halibut-catch are to the nearest thousand pounds.
The statistical information is supplied by the International Halibut Commission and
is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
FISH OIL AND MEAL
Herring Reduction.—The herring-fishermen ceased their limited operation
during the spring, and there was no general fleet activity until November 20th owing
to continued lack of agreement between fishermen and operators.
In 1960 eight herring plants were licensed to operate. These plants produced
a total of 31,203 tons of meal and 2,966,547 gallons of oil. This compared with
1959 when nine plants produced 32,559 tons of meal and 4,249,801 gallons of oil.
Fish-liver Reduction.—Three plants were licensed to operate in 1960, processing 1,158,880 pounds of fish-livers and producing 2,258,748 million U.S.P. units
of Vitamin A. In 1959 three plants processed 1,679,407 pounds of fish-livers and
produced 3,474,267 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A.
Miscellaneous Reduction—Fish-offal and Dogfish.—During the 1960 season
seven plants were licensed to operate and produced 2,099 tons of meal and 62,983
gallons of oil. This production is compared with 1959, in which year nine plants
produced 1,140 tons of meal and 110,977 gallons of oil.
Whale Reduction.—In British Columbia there is only one shore-based whaling-
station.    During 1960 it did not operate.
 V 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATISTICAL TABLES
Table I.—Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia
A total marketed value of each of the principal species taken in British Columbia for the year 1960 is as follows:—
Kind of Fish Value
Salmon   $35,963,000
Herring        3,450,000
Halibut        6,534,000
Grey cod _
Ling-cod _
Black cod
Red cod __
Clams	
Crabs 	
Eulachon
Flounders
Oysters
Shrimps and prawns
Skate	
Soles 	
Sturgeon 	
Livers and viscera ...
Miscellaneous1 	
Total
647,000
593,000
253,000
47,000
535,000
1,200,000
24,000
15,000
406,000
529,000
11,000
795,000
11,000
181,000
1,106,000
$52,300,000
1 Includes mink-feed and fish products, meal and oil, for which no breakdown into species was available.
Source:   Canadian Department of Fisheries, Vancouver, B.C.
Table II.—Statement Showing the Quantity of Herring Products
Produced in British Columbia, 1955 to 1961, Inclusive
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Meal
Oil
1955/56-
1956/57..
1957/58-
1958/59.
1959/60..
1960/61-
Cases
25,508
11,728
18,349
10,351
Tons
249
290
2,645
9,074
Tons
47,097
32,772
13,643
43,527
32,559
31.203
Gal.
4,475,536
3,602,937
1,746,227
4,545,474
4,249,801
2,966,547
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st, annually.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1961
V 77
Table III.—Statement Showing the Quantity of Meal, Oil, and Vitamin A
Produced from Sources Other than Herring, 1954 to 1961, Inclusive
From Whales
Oil from
Fish-livers
From Other Sources
Season
Whalebone
and Meal
Oil
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
1954/55 ..-	
1955/56
Tons
2,502
3,411
2,182
3,446
4,226
4,058
Gal.
872,060
759,785
526,584
952,702
908,482
940,455
Unitsi
4.310 057
4,760,668
2,355,410
3,292,552
1,821,994
3,474,267
2,258,748
Tons
2,361
1,993
1,925
1,570
2,318
1,140
2,099
Gal.
265,405
201,690
1956/57 	
187,787
1957/58.— 	
1958/59 -
170,433
272,223
1959/60       	
110,977
1960/61
62,983
1 Million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A.
Table IV.—British Columbia Salmon-pack, 1956 to 1960, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned
(48-pound cases.)
These tables supplied by courtesy of the Canadian Department of Fisheries in Vancouver.
1956
Area
Species
District
No. 1
Skeena
River
Central Area
and Queen
Charlottes
Total
f
186,0781/2
3,384
1321/2
3,807
2,363
3941/2
10,549
133,221
86,409
87,939
60,776
343 V.
3121/2
243%
262
616
70,2411/2
352*4
320,096
4,080
445
284%
I861/2
243
22,137
106,141
47,457V_
4,335
2,811%
1,253%
10,549
207,366
Coho              -   —  	
52,008
171,0831/2
68,313
Pink                                       - 	
363,633%
203,709%
Totals —
514,277 V_
356,958
247,043%
1,118,279
l
957
157,207
3,3761/2
448
1,923
2,852
3871/2
12,147
112,909
471,895i/>
72,330
44,779
480
178
256
2271/2
539
43,5031/2
209,8831/2
75,9671/2
226,466
I881/2
228,452
4,045
626
402
1491/2
200
2,581
3,229
1,126%
12,147
180,911
751,608
239,539
White spring  _     	
Coho   	
24,498%
69,829
91,241%
Pink ...	
Totals.
835,4751/2
375,814
212,975      |
1
1,424,264%
1957 canned production from 1956 frozen stock not included.
 V 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—British Columbia Salmon-pack, 1956 to 1960, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned—Continued
1958
Area
Species
District
No. 1
Skeena
River
Central Area
and Queen
Charlottes
Total
820,3601/2
1,400%
2,911
2,373%
456
11,103%
74,059
98,052
103,668%
154,556%
1,108
265%
810
578
522
99,388
111
701%
290%
227
20,575%
96,448
73,029
1,074,305
2,619%
265%
4,422%
White spring - ... 	
3,242
1,205
11,103%
Cnhn
25,789%
257,301%
53,939
120,424
Pink                             ....    	
451,801%
230,636%
Totals            	
1,114,384%
494,870      |      290,770%
1
1,900,025
1959
Sockeye	
Red spring	
Pink spring ...
White spring..
Steelhead	
Blueback _.
Coho 	
Pink 	
Chum.
Totals-
189,297
2,417%
4,925
4,832
418
10,114
150,756
338,947
75,709%
46,827
824%
811
527
329
32,215
82,005
36,136
777,416      |      199,674%
 I	
20,046%
66%
598%
228%
119%
20,020
37,644
21,283	
100,006%
256,170%
3,308%
6,334%
5,587%
866%
10,114
202,991
458,596
133,128%
1,077,097
1959 canned production from 1958 stock (not included above).
1960
Species
Area
Districts Nos.
1 and 3
District
No. 2
Total
172,505
1,113%
1,436
1,151%
339%
23,345
41,194%
52,689%
47,081
54,339
458%
1,056
700
164%
26,965
166,874%
39,737%
226,844
1,572
2,492
1,851%
504
23,345
Coho             	
68,159%
Pink .    	
219,564
86,818%
Totals
340,855%
290,295
631,150%
1960 canned production from 1959 stock (not included above).
  1,410-162-7047

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