Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCIAL MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY and ANTHROPOLOGY REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1961 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1962]

Item Metadata


JSON: bcsessional-1.0363244.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0363244-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0363244-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0363244-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0363244-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0363244-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0363244-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
  To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1961.
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Office of the Minister of Recreation and Conservation,
January, 1962.
 Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology,
Victoria, B.C., January 16, 1962.
The Honourable E. C. Westwood,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The undersigned respectfully submits herewith a report covering the
activities of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the
calendar year 1961.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
The Honourable Earle C. Westwood, Minister.
D. B. Turner, Ph.D., Deputy Minister.
G. Clifford Carl, Ph.D., Director.
Charles J. Guiguet, M. A., Curator of Birds and Mammals.
Wilson Duff, M.A., Curator of Anthropology.
Adam F. Szczawinski, Ph.D., Curator of Botany.
Donald N. Abbott, B.A., Assistant in Anthropology.
Frank L. Beebe, Illustrator and Museum Technician.
Margaret Crummy, B.A., Clerk-Stenographer.
Betty C. Newton, Assistant in Museum Technique.
Sheila Y. Newnham, Assistant in Museum Technique.
Claude G. Briggs, Attendant.
C. E. Hope, Relief Attendant.
Totem-pole Restoration Programme
Mungo Martin, Chief Carver.
Henry Hunt, Assistant Carver.
(a) To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the
(b) To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the
(c) To obtain information respecting the natural sciences, relating particularly to the natural history of the Province, and to increase and diffuse knowledge
regarding the same.
(Section 4, Provincial Museum Act, chapter 311, R.S.B.C. 1960.)
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free, on week-days, 9 a.m. to
5 p.m., and on Sunday afternoons, 1 to 5 p.m.
Report of the Director  9
Field Work  9
Publications  9
Extension Work  10
Thunderbird Park  10
Curatorial Activities :.___ 11
Display Materials  11
Building Maintenance  1]
Library Reorganization  11
Attendance   11
Obituaries  12
Donations and Accessions  13
" Records of Distribution of Some Crustacea in British Columbia," by
Josephine F. L. Hart    17
" Nesting Colony of Mew Gulls on Kennedy Lake, Vancouver Island,"
by W. E. Ricker and Ferris Neave   20
 Argillite chest carved by Charles Edenshaw, of Masset, B.C.
(Newcombe collection.)
Tsimshian portrait mask.   (Newcombe collection.)
For the Year 1961
Two major events affecting the Provincial Museum during 1961 were the
transfer in administration to the present Department and the acquisition of the Newcombe collection of Indian artifacts, pictures, and negatives. Both will have far-
reaching effects.
The administrative move from the Department of Education to the Department
of Recreation and Conservation brings the Provincial Museum into closer contact
with branches working in related fields, a move which will result in mutual advantage. At the same time, it will permit the Museum to carry on its scientific and
education function more effectively to the benefit of the people of the Province.
The Newcombe material, which was purchased by the Provincial Government
from the estate of the late W. A. Newcombe, of Victoria, comprises extensive collections in the fields of anthropology, natural history, palaeontology, mineralogy, art,
and local history. It is particularly rich in fine examples of Indian art, photographs,
negatives, field-notes, local and foreign shells, fossils, plant specimens, Emily Carr
sketches and paintings, and reference books in the various fields. The acquisition
of these valuable materials, which are being divided among the Museum, Archives,
and Library, has provided an over-all " lift " and has added greatly to the research
and display aspects in all divisions.
Short surveys and collecting trips were made in all divisions of the Museum
field. The study of small-mammal distribution, begun in 1948, was continued by
a collecting trip to the Tofino area, where a survey of five islands was carried out.
The continued co-operation of the Federal Department of Fisheries in providing
some transportation and other services is gratefully acknowledged.
Reconnaissance surveys of vegetation were carried out at Boat Basin and Kennedy Lake on the west coast of Vancouver Island, and at Dease Lake, Atlin Lake,
and a number of other areas along the British Columbia-Yukon border, not previously studied.
Several days were also spent near Tofino and at Friday Harbor, Washington,
doing marine collecting and photographic work.
Several short surveys of archaeological sites were made locally and on two of
the Gulf Islands. In addition, Museum personnel participated in the activities
of the Archaeological Sites Advisory Board by examining sites and conducting
emergency excavations at site near Ladner which is being disturbed by house
The following publications have appeared in 1961:—
By Frank L. Beebe—
"Blood on the Snow."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 17, Nos. 5, 6, and 7.
By G. Clifford Carl-
Review of " Organization of Museums " Practical Advice No. IX.
Museums and Monuments Series, UNESCO, in UNESCO Publications
Review, No. 10, p. 61.
" Sapsuckers Eating Ants."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 17, No. 7, p. 94.
"Animals around Us."    Series in Victoria Daily Times, July.
" Amphibian Migration."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 18, No. 3, p. 36.
By R. H. Drent and C. J. Guiguet—
" A Catalogue of British Columbia Sea-bird Colonies."
Occasional Papers, B.C. Provincial Museum, No. 12, pp. 1-173.
By Wilson Duff—
" Preserving British Columbia's Prehistory.   A Guide for Amateur Archaeologists."   Archaeological Sites Advisory Board, February, pp. 1-12.
" The Killer Whale Copper."   Report of the Provincial Museum for 1960,
pp. 32-36.
" The Indians of the Gulf Islands."   A Gulf Islands Patchwork.    Gulf
Islands Branch, B.C. Historical Association, pp. 1-5.
By C. J. Guiguet—
" Some Recent Sight Records of European Starling Nesting on New Territory in Western British Columbia."    Report  of  the  Provincial
Museum for 1960, pp. 29-31.
" The Harlequin Duck."    Beautiful British Columbia, Vol. 2, No. 4.
" Shoveller."    Beautiful British Columbia, Vol. 3, No. 1.
" Geese."    Beautiful British Columbia, Vol. 3, No. 3.
" The Birds of British Columbia.    (4) Upland Games Birds."    British
Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 10, 2nd edition.
By Adam F. Szczawinski—
" The Heathers   (Ericaceae)  of British Columbia."    British Columbia
Provincial Museum Handbook No. 19.    (In press.)
A number of staff members have a number of other publications in various
stages of preparation.
Numerous illustrated lectures were given in 1961 by various staff members
both locally and in other parts of the Province. In April the Director lectured in
several of the Central States under the combined auspices of the Canadian Audubon
Society and the National Audubon Society.
Two special displays featuring the conservation work of the Department were
organized and set up during the year—the first in the Sportsmen's Show in the
spring, the second in the fall show of the Victoria Horticultural Society.
The services and facilities of the carving project in Thunderbird Park were
placed at the disposal of a photographic team from the University of California who
are making education films featuring early Indian life and customs.
The totem-pole carving programme in Thunderbird Park was continued through
the year, under the direction of the anthropological office. The main project completed by the carvers, Mungo Martin and Henry Hunt, was a pair of 15-foot posts
to be incorporated into the entrance portal of Rebecca Spit Park. In addition, a
number of minor projects were completed, and the carvers' activities continued to
be an outstanding attraction for visiting photographers and scholars.
Through the services of a student assistant, a number of old and damaged bird
and mammal study skins were repaired or remade and the entire collection was
restocked with insect repellent. The addition of three storage cases helped relieve
the crowding in the reference collection of bird-skins.
In the botanical section the newly acquired Newcombe plant collection was
fumigated, cleaned, re-sorted, and largely remounted.
Two thousand eight hundred and seventy-two herbarium sheets were restored
from the Newcombe collection and 1,120 herbarium specimens were acquired by
collecting and by exchange and added to the Provincial Herbarium, bringing our
total up to 36,691.
In the anthropological section a great deal of time was spent in sorting, cleaning,
accessioning, and storing material from the Newcombe Indian collection.
The major project in this field has been the planning and construction of a
relief model of British Columbia, measuring 7 by 8 feet, to show the physiographic
features and the main types of vegetative cover. It is to be installed in the Museum
entrance hall as an " orientation " exhibit.
Several enlarged models of protected flowers and other display items were
produced in plastic for use in permanent exhibits and in temporary public displays.
Before the 1961 tourist season the entire Museum buildmg was cleaned and
redecorated. We are greatly indebted to the Public Works Department for this
The reorganization and recataloguing of the Museum reference library were
continued by members of the Provincial Library staff. A number of periodicals
have yet to be catalogued.
The number of visitors to the Museum according to the register is as follows:—
January  1,161 August   15,920
February  1,379 September     6,304
March   1,973 October     1,815
April  3,366 November         800
May   3,399 December         640
June   7,968                                                     	
July  14,328                                Total  64,353
The number of registered visitors in 1961 was 13 per cent greater than in 1960.
This increase is similar to that enjoyed by other public institutions, and probably
is largely due to increased travel during an exceptionally fine summer.
When counts of school classes and other organized groups are included, the
total 1961 attendance is estimated to be about 100,000 persons.
The July attendance figures have been broken down as follows:—
British Columbia	
Nova Scotia	
New Brunswick     	
Prince Edward Island __
Northwest Territories __
Residence Registration
Washington  2,212
Oregon  1,197
California  1,931
Other States  3,717
Great Britain  160
Other countries   143
Total  14,328
Compared with figures obtained in the previous year, the July attendance in
1961 was down about 16 per cent, but still well above the average based on records
from the past six years. On the other hand, the August attendance showed a 20-
per-cent increase over the same period in 1960.
With regret we record here the passing of several persons who have rendered
services to the Museum and to the Province as a whole.
Mr. Thomas Francis, a long-time resident of the Victoria area, donor of a
tract of timbered land now known as " The Thomas Francis Provincial Park "
(January 6th).
Mr. T. L. Thacker, naturalist and donor of the Little Mountain area, near
Hope, to the University of British Columbia for use in wildlife research (March 21st).
Mr. John Nutt, local botanist and part-time assistant on the Museum staff
(February 5th).
Dr. H. T. Gussow, former Federal Plant Pathologist and authority on fungi
(June 15th).
Mr. Lionel E. Taylor, botanist and collector, authority on the flora of South
Africa (October 27th).
Mrs. Lillian C. Sweeney, noted artist and bird carver, formerly technical assistant on the Museum staff (December 4th). During her years of service as artist
on the Museum staff, Mrs. Sweeney produced many life-like models of fishes, mushrooms, flowers, and prehistoric mammals, of which most are still on display. Her
wax replicas of native fishes have never been excelled, despite the advent of plastics
and more modern techniques, and her painted dioramas of Indian life will continue
to be used in schools of the Province for years to come.
Mr. E. R. Buckell, well-known entomologist and naturalist of Salmon Arm
(December 17th).
Plant collections were received from the following persons: T. R. Ashlee,
Victoria; Mrs. D. Calverley, Dawson Creek; Mrs. C. J. Guiguet, Victoria; Dr.
S. S. Holland, Victoria; A. McLaughlin, Victoria; J. E. Underhill, Victoria.
Herbarium specimens were obtained by exchange from the following institutions: National Museum of Canada, Ottawa; Science Service, Department of
Agriculture, Ottawa; Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C; University of British
Columbia, Vancouver; University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; University
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
By „jft  Mammals
Stephen Doherty, Victoria, one skull of blacktail deer.
R. Dudman, Saanichton, one immature shrew.
Fish and Game Branch, Victoria, two opossums, one cougar.
David Fowle, Toronto, thirteen white-footed mice.
J. Lenfesty, Victoria, two blacktail deer.
W. H. Parker, Glen Lake, four bats.
J. Richardson, Victoria, one raccoon skull.
R. Troup, Saanichton, one fallow deer (mounted head).
Victoria City Police, one cougar.
Mrs. A. G. Waldron, Estevan Point, one elephant-seal skull.
By the staff, 103.
By gift— BlRDS
T. R. Ashlee, Victoria, bird specimens collected by the late Dr. William C.
W. Atkinson, Victoria, one short-eared owl.
H. Bonsall, Westholme, one albino blackbird.
C. D. Buckle, North Saanich, one dwarf hermit thrush.
R. G. Bunyard, Sidney, one bushtit nest.
A. Campbell, Victoria, one varied thrush.
Fish and Game Branch, one blue-winged teal, four whistling swans.
Mark Guiguet, Victoria, one Canada goose.
C. Howatson, Saanich, one house finch nest and eggs.
J. P. E. Klaverwyden, Victoria, one cedar waxwing.
Mrs. Margaret Lawrence, Victoria, one rufous hummingbird.
R. Mason, Duncan, one bushtit nest.
K. Mollet, Sidney, two snowy owls.
W. A. B. Paul, Kleena Kleene, one fox sparrow.
Mrs. D. Penton, Prospect Lake, one rufous hummingbird.
A. L. Poldermon, Brentwood, one barn owl.
A. Poynter, Victoria, one Pacific fulmar.
Mrs. O. F. Springer, Victoria, nest and egg of Oregon junco.
E. Von Carlosfeld and E. Schnor, Jordan River, one saw-whet owl.
J. West, Victoria, one rufous hummingbird.
Mrs. W. E. Wilford, Victoria, nest and eggs of chipping sparrow.
D. Wood, Victoria, one whistling swan, one fork-tailed petrel.
By the staff, sixteen.
__     ... Amphibians and Reptiles
By gift—
E. Anglin, Victoria, one painted turtle.
Constable Boyer, Shawnigan Lake, one painted turtle.
J. Lindsay, Victoria, one alligator lizard.
J. Paxton, Victoria, one alligator lizard.
W. F. Sewell, Victoria, one painted turtle.
By the staff, two garter snakes, one clouded salamander.
r.     ■&_ Fish
By gift—
T. G. Hatcher, Victoria, one skate.
R. E. Honour, Victoria, collection of fish from West Indies.
H. W. Laird, Victoria, one coho salmon.
„     ... Invertebrates
By gift—-
W. A. Burnham, Victoria, collection of black widow spiders.
C. J. Butts, Victoria, one parasite from Alaska king crab.
George Buvyer, Victoria, one orb-weaver spider.
Mrs. I. M. Coughtry, Muchalat, one California silk moth.
Miss Myrna Faust, Victoria, one wolf-spider.
W. R. Fellows, Campbell River, one jumping spider.
Gregory Brant Hepburn, Victoria, one aeroplane moth.
S. J. Kilvington, Victoria, one orb-weaver spider.
Mrs. S. McConnell, Victoria, collection of Indiana insects.
M. McKinney, Victoria, one hawk-moth.
Arthur Morton, Cobble Hill, one gum-boot snail.
Michael L. Pattison, Victoria, two barnacles on one clam.
Geoff Partington, Metchosin, one spider.
Miss Beverley Anne Smith, Victoria, one pecten shell.
Lyle Smith, Victoria, one hair worm.
O. F. Springer, Victoria, one crab (Phyllolithodes papillosus Brandt).
Miss M. Taylor, Victoria, one oak moth.
Miss Pattie Whitehouse, Saanichton, one ichneumon fly.
... Geology
By gift—
Bjorn Stavrum, Victoria, one fossil ammonite.
A. Sumner, Victoria, one fossil shell and portion of fossil tree.
__,     .. Miscellaneous
By gift—
A. C. Crawford, Pender Island, one decorative floral specimen.
William Jones, Victoria, two sets of photographs.
Eric Sismey, Penticton, one copy of " Game Birds of California."
The W. A. Newcombe Collection.—(Purchase.) More than 1,500 important and
well-catalogued ethnological and archaeological specimens from all parts of
the Province collected by the late Mr. Newcombe and by his father, the late
Dr. C. F. Newcombe; also several thousand photographs of Indian subjects
taken by the Newcombes, Maynard, and other early Victoria photographers.
The B. A. McKelvie Collection.—(Purchase.) A varied collection of ethnological
and archaeological specimens acquired by the late Mr. McKelvie.
The George S. McTavish Collection.—(Gift.) Forty-six specimens collected by
Mr. and Mrs. McTavish, mostly at Rivers Inlet. Donated by Mrs. McTavish's
sister, Miss Evelyn M. Gurd.
The Mrs. Melba Menzies Collection.—(Gift.) Indian basketry and recent model
totem-poles.    (Per Provincial Archives.)
By gift-
Mrs. Maria Abbott, Victoria, surface collections of artifacts.
Brian Alexander, Victoria, stone bowl.
David Alsdorf, Brian Schernoff, and Frank Hanson, Victoria, human skeletal
material and trade goods.
Fred S. Auger, Vancouver, chipped projectile point from Chilcotin area.
John R. Beard, Vancouver, prehistoric basketry fragments.
A. H. Burritt, Victoria, nine chipped projectile points and fragments.
J. M. Campbell. Saturna Island, human skull.
Mrs. H. Carmichael, Victoria, two Lillooet baskets.
T. L. Clarke, Victoria, hand-maul fragment and sinker.
Les Cook, Barkerville, chipped knife.
L. Coton, Victoria, adze blade.
Richard Cox, Victoria, human skull.
Mrs. Anne Dodds, North Vancouver, 500 clay shale beads.
Mr. and Mrs. T. P. Forrester, Sechelt, prehistoric sandstone carving.
W. C. Gilmore, Chemainus, prehistoric pecked stone ornament.
Gary Green, Victoria, human skeleton.
W. B. Harrison, Jr., Duncan, hand-maul.
Mrs. L. R. Jensen, Ladner, abrasive stone.
R. S. Kidd, Seattle, surface collections of artifacts.
Mrs. Joe Marsh, Victoria, one adze, two leister spears, and one unfinished
Mr. Martin, Lillooet, hand-maul.
Mrs. James A. Menzies, Vancouver, brass blanket pin.
Frank Orton, Sidney, barbed bone point.
Mrs. J. Osborne, Victoria, one Coast Salish basket.
Mrs. Louise Paulsen, Winter Harbour, two human skulls.
Mrs. H. Peasland, Victoria, human skull.
Mrs. Arthur Peel, White Rock, hand-maul.
Miss H. Purdy and Mrs. T. Rose, Ganges, prehistoric sandstone zoomorphic
Mrs. Catherine Rasmussen, Victoria, two bone points and five chipped projectile points.
Sydney Rodd, Maple Bay, abrasive stone.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Campbell River, human skull and fragments
of matting.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Courtenay, one human skull.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ganges, human skeleton.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Kamloops Rural Detachment, human
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Williams Lake, human skull.
John Sendey, Victoria, microblades and polyhedral cores from sites in the
Victoria area, and perishable objects from a rock shelter on Valdes
Eric D. Sismey, Penticton, old square spike from an Indian house.
Mrs. H. H. Skidmore, Victoria, five Interior Salish baskets.
Frank P. Smith, Ladner, prehistoric stone bowl, two hand-mauls, and one
stone axe.
C. A. Trotter, Victoria, two stone adze blades.
Victoria City Police, parts of human skeleton.
Members of Victoria and District Archaeology Club, surface collection of
Mrs. Harry B. Vivian, Vancouver, human skull and femora.
Mrs. Arthur F. Wale, Langford, hand-maul.
Dr. C. A. Watson, Victoria, two large Kwakiutl zoomorphic feast dishes.
Isaac Williams, Tsawwassen, antler wedge and another antler object fragment.
Keith A. Wilson, Qualicum Bay, one Kwakiutl cedar-bark mat, one basket of
Lillooet style, and one basket of Athapaskan style.
By purchase—
John Guerin, Victoria, two Coast Salish mountain goat wool blankets.
By the staff—
Artifacts and associated materials from excavations at site DgRsl, Beach
Surface collections of artifacts and skeletal remains from various sites.
One Kwakiutl killer whale mask carved by Henry Hunt in Thunderbird Park.
By Josephine F. L. Hart, Volunteer Assistant, Provincial Museum,
Victoria, B.C.
From time to time unusual Crustacea are brought to the Museum for identification, or have been collected during Museum expeditions. Some of these appear to
be unrecorded in the literature, and thus are of importance as additions to the faunal
list of British Columbia, while others serve to add to our knowledge of the habitat
and distribution within the Province.
(Photo by George N. Y. Simpson.)
Cystisoma pellucidum (Willemoes-Suhm), a large pelagic amphipod.
Knowledge of the amphipods occurring in British Columbia is very meagre,
and as the majority of the species are small and need magnification to show the
intricacies of their structure, they are often not noticed. However, examples of
three large species have been found recently which merit attention for several
reasons: (1) they are considered deep-water forms and yet these were discovered
on the seashore; (2) they apparently have not been recorded previously from this
area; (3) they are very large for amphipods and amazingly transparent; and (4)
they were still alive and thus permitted the taking of colour notes, perhaps for the
first time.
The first to be noted is a specimen of Cystisoma pellucidum (Willemoes-Suhm),
67 mm. in length, found by Richard Cox, of Victoria, on the beach adjacent to the
Oak Bay Golf Links on December 2, 1955. It fortunately lived for four days. As
may be seen by the illustration, it looks very different from the familiar sand flea or
beach hopper, yet they both belong to the same group.
The animal was very buoyant and seemed able to stay suspended in the water
while exhibiting practically no movement. It was extraordinarily transparent; the
only readily visible structure was a bilobed organ above the mouth, which was
coral red. The relatively enormous eyes were practically unpigmented, being only
faintly orange ventrally, but the details of structure could be seen by magnification
and careful observation. Narrow bands (1 mm. wide) which were definitely less
transparent than the rest of the animal could be seen near the tips of the appendages.
A living specimen of a similar species, C. fabricii Stebbing, considerably smaller
(45 mm.) than the first, was found on August 7, 1960, on the sand of Foul Bay,
Victoria, by Pat and Maureen Vesey and Margaret White.
The third species has been known from European waters for many years, but
apparently has not been recorded previously from British Columbia. This is Phro-
nima sedentaria (Forskal), another transparent oceanic amphipod not usually
observed along the seashore. This animal normally dwells in the empty, transparent, barrel-shaped test of a salp (a free-swimming tunicate), propelling itself
and " house " by means of its pleopods and using the sides of the test as a brood-
chamber for its young. A specimen of this interesting form was collected off the
float of the Oak Bay Boat-house on January 6, 1958, by Mr. W. G. Fields, of
Victoria College. I found another specimen stranded on a kelp frond at low tide at
Harling Point, Victoria, June 28, 1961. It was very transparent, with four small
dark pigmented areas in the large eyes, situated just dorsal to the mouth parts.
Scattered dark chromatophores were on the coxal plates of the thoracic appendages,
on abdominal segments 4-6, on the meri of the walking legs, on all joints of the
gnathopod (third leg), and on the uropods.
In 1898 Alfred O. Walker identified a collection of Crustacea made the previous
year in Puget Sound by W. A. Herdman. Among the species found was a mysid,
Heteromysis odontops, which he described as a new species. As this form has not
been recorded since the original collection, specimens recently obtained at Victoria
seem worthy of note. These were collected by Mr. Frank White on July 13, 1960,
while skin diving, in 13 fathoms, off the breakwater at Victoria. An empty shell
in a cluster of large barnacles, Balanus nubilus Darwin, contained 11 mysids of this
species.  This constitutes the first record for British Columbia and for Canada.
As the specimens were still alive, I made colour notes. The body was a deep
yellow, and the females had either green eggs or yellow young in the brood-pouches.
Under magnification, branched red chromatophores were seen to be scattered over
the carapace, and in bands at the posterior margin of each abdominal segment. The
peduncles of the antennules and antennae bore pigment spots, as did the bases of
the legs, while the flagella were red tinged.
On a number of visits to various beaches on the west and south-west coasts
of Vancouver Island and to the area near Masset of Queen Charlotte Islands,
during periods of low tides, some species of rarely collected crabs have been found.
In several cases these records have extended the known distribution in British
The pea crab, Pinnixa eburna Wells, is recorded in the literature as occurring
only in the vicinity of Victoria in British Columbia. In 1945-46 the late Edward
F. Ricketts obtained this species at Masset (Yakan Point), Queen Charlotte Islands,
and I have taken it at the sandspit of Witty's Lagoon (May 13, 1953), some 12
miles west of Victoria; at Whiffin Spit at Sooke (May 11, 1960), 10 miles farther
west; and at Cox Bay, Tofino, Clayoquot Sound (July 8, 1960). This small crab
is commensal in the burrows of lug worms, Arenicola (Abarenicola) vagabunda
vagabunda Healy and Wells, and A. (A) v. oceanica Healy and Wells.
Another pea crab, Pinnixa tubicola Holmes, which lives in the shell- and
gravel-encrusted tubes of terebellid worms (Eupolymia sp.) has been recorded only
from the more sheltered waters of British Columbia. Ricketts also found this species
on the west coast of Vancouver Island (Clayoquot region) and near Masset on the
Queen Charlotte Islands. I, too, collected this species in the Clayoquot region (Cox
Bay, Tofino, July 8, 1960). At Clayoquot also, Ricketts found Fabia subquadrata
Dana, an inhabitant of various bivalve molluscs.
Specimens in the Ricketts collection extend the known range of Orthopagurus
schmittx Stevens and Pugettia richii Dana northward to include the Queen Charlotte
Until recently a number of crabs and hermit crabs were known in British
Columbia only from the exposed outer coasts. Thus the finding of some of these
in more easterly localities is of some interest. Petrolisthes cinctipes (Randall) and
Pagurus hemphilli (Benedict) were taken at Botany Bay, Port Renfrew, May 4,
1958; (Edignathus inermis (Stimpson) was collected at the same time and locality
and also at China Beach (about 3 miles west of Jordan River) on April 16, 1960;
Mimulus foliatus Stimpson was taken at Muir Creek on June 22, 1959, and also
at Whiffin Spit, Sooke, on June 11, 1960; and Pachycheles pubescens Holmes was
found on the breakwater at Victoria on May 23, 1959. The last named has been
rarely taken in British Columbia: from Esperanza Inlet in 1934, from Ucluelet in
1945-46 (E. F. Ricketts), and from Goose Island in 1948.
The amphipods were identified by Dr. Thomas B. Bowman, Division of Marine
Invertebrates, United States National Museum, Washington, D.C, and the mysids
by Dr. E. L. Bousfield, Canadian National Museum, Ottawa. Permission to use
the late Mr. E. F. Ricketts's records was granted by Dr. D. P. Abbott, Hopkins
Marine Station, Pacific Grove, Calif.
By W. E. Ricker and Ferris Neave, Fisheries Research Board
of Canada, Nanaimo, B.C.
A colony of twenty-five to forty adult mew gulls (Larus canus L.) nests on
small islands lying just east of Laylee Island in Kennedy Lake, 17 miles almost due
north of Ucluelet, B.C. The principal nesting-site is a low island—here called
" Mew Gull Island "—half a mile north of the south-eastern corner of Laylee and
perhaps 150 yards east from that island. We encountered the gulls first in late
afternoon of June 24, 1955, when, with Davis Neave and John Ricker, we were
relaying ourselves and supplies up-lake by motor-boat. The gulls were first seen
shortly after we put off from the south shore, and they soon became noisy and
aggressive. On both trips from the southern tip of Laylee Island to our camp at
the second narrows north, about 4 miles, gulls accompanied the boat. The second
voyage started in the dusk and ended long after dark, but several of the birds stayed
with us all the way. Their shrill cries came down out of the gloom, and every little
while a white phantom would dive down at us.
On the return trip we slept on a small island a mile north of Mew Gull Island,
and rowed down past their home about 4 o'clock (Standard time) on the morning
of June 28th. The gulls were again very critical. Whether because of this or our
motor trouble or rain-weariness, no landing was made to see what stage nesting had
Five years later we decided to have a good look at the colony. The west-coast
road had been built meanwhile, and an inspection with field-glasses from the east
side of the lake in May of 1960 had shown that a group of gulls was still interested
in Mew Gull Island. On June 26th we put a canoe in at the head of the lake and
paddled the 6 miles down to the nesting-site. There were about nine nests on
Mew Gull Island that appeared to have been used that season. One had two eggs.
We found two young gulls well hidden among the colourful Claytonia, saxifrage,
columbine, and Castilleja. Others may have been present. Several larger young
swam away from the island after we landed, attended by anxious parents. The size
of the young birds ranged from recently hatched to more than half-grown.
The island was about 200 by 75 feet, low, rocky or swampy, with a few small
trees and shrubs. Nests were widely scattered over it, usually on bare rock 3 or 4
feet above water-level. Photographs of eggs and young were taken " for the
Returning northward, we stopped in response to an increased volume of gull
excitement and found three more nests, all with eggs (two with three, one with four).
These were on the more southern of two small islands near the north-east corner
of Laylee and about a mile north of Mew Gull Island—in fact, the place we had
camped on the return trip in 1955. The nests were along the top of the main ridge
about 20 feet above water-level, in the shade of 6-inch pine-trees—quite a different
setting from those of the larger colony. Another nest, also with eggs, was on a small
bare rock only a few yards across, lying in the narrow channel between this island
and the one next north.
Paddling homeward, we noted much excitement from several gulls near the
southern tip of Rocky Island. We landed, but found nothing. A little farther on,
however, on a very small rock in the channel between Rocky Island and the " mainland " eastward, a mew gull was sitting on a nest.
How do these birds make a living? A clue is afforded by a fish found near one
nest on Mew Gull Island. It was a fairly well preserved embiotocid, Cymatogaster
aggregatus, the yellow shiner that is common around docks and rocks of the British
Columbia coast. Evidently at least part of the foraging of these gulls is done on salt
water, which is 7 miles distant on the south-east (Toquart Bay) and a little farther
on the north-west (Tofino Inlet) or south-west (Pacific Ocean).
Although the mew gull is an abundant winter bird in South-western British
Columbia, there is only a handful of nesting records for the Province (Munro and
Cowan, 1947). The Kennedy Lake colony is the most southerly one known in
British Columbia, and in America. A breeding record for Harrison River is only 10
miles or so farther north, but it apparently involved only one nest, built on a pile
driven into the river mud (information from Dr. I. McTaggart Cowan). The nearest
known group of nests is at Rivers Inlet. However, if nesting has gone unrecorded
up to now on such a comparatively well-known lake as Kennedy, there may well
be other colonies spotted among the remote Coastal lakes of Vancouver Island and
the Southern Mainland.
Munro, J. A., and Cowan, I. McTaggart. 1947. A review of the bird fauna of
British Columbia. Special Publication, British Columbia Provincial Museum,
Victoria, B.C.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items