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REPORT of the LANDS SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1961 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1962

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
REPORT
of the
LANDS SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1961
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1962
  Victoria, B.C., January 31, 1962.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Lands Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year ended
December 31, 1961.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
 Victoria, B.C., January 31, 1962.
The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Lands Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the twelve months ended
December 31, 1961.
E. W. BASSETT,
Deputy Minister of Lands.
 Village of Taylor, looking north across the Peace River.
  CONTENTS
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Lands	
Accounting Division	
Page
9
15
Lands Branch—
Superintendent of Lands     22
Land Inspection Division-
Surveys and Mapping Branch-
Surveyor-General 	
Legal Surveys Division -.
Topographic Division	
Geographic Division	
Air Division	
Water Rights Branch—
Comptroller of Water Rights
Operations Division	
Hydraulic Investigations Division-
University Endowment Lands	
Personnel Office	
Mail and File Room
30
40
43
48
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75
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se
 Report of the British Columbia Lands Service
E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
When reviewing the events and accomplishments of 1961, it is at once apparent
that, in the face of continuing heavy increases in the volume and complexity of their
work, Lands Service personnel carried out their duties with notable dispatch and
efficiency. In particular, many of the senior staff were involved in heavy administrative responsibilities concerning development of the Province's major natural
resources, and in this regard they gave unstinting effort.
The Lands Branch continued to experience an upward trend in the number of
applications for alienation of Crown land, particularly by leasehold tenure. Applications to lease rose sharply to 2,363 and were, for the first time, more numerous
than applications to purchase. Several very large blocks of land for grazing and
agricultural purposes were applied for, and careful consideration was necessary to
ensure valid and orderly development of the land involved.
The staff of the Land Inspection Division completed 4,075 examinations in
1961, the highest total on record. Additional to their usual field work in connection with land applications, duties of the Land Inspectors included such varied tasks
as counselling potential settlers, making appraisals for other Government departments, resolving disputes arising from conflicting land use, and recommending
reserves for the use, recreation, and enjoyment of the general public.
The Legal Surveys Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch checked,
indexed, plotted, and made official plans from 457 sets of field-notes covering the
survey of 631 Crown lots. Use of the IBM 650 computer operated by the Data
Processing Division of the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and
Commerce greatly aided the mathematical checking of field-notes, subdivision plans,
and right-of-way plans. After a successful trial period, the computer programme
was extended to also include all plans received by the Victoria Land Registry Office.
Records of Crown land alienation continued to be kept up to date on the 210
Provincial Departmental reference maps. During 1961 a start was made on the
recompilation of four Departmental reference maps covering the Lower Fraser
Valley between Vancouver and Hope. In order to show the complexity of land
alienations more clearly, it has been found necessary to redraw these sheets at
4-inches-to-l-mile scale (compared with the existing scale of 1 inch to 1 mile),
and their number accordingly is increased to thirty-one.
Field work of the Legal Surveys Division also included subdivision surveys at
Bear Lake, Willow River, and Merritt. Two park-sites, two Forest Service Ranger
stations, thirty community-use reserves, and 206 roadside lots were also surveyed.
In addition, five field parties surveyed 69.19 miles of main Provincial highway.
In spite of an abbreviated field season and temporary loss of the Beaver float
aeroplane which was damaged by a fishing-boat, field crews of the Topographic
Division established survey control for 29 Vz standard National Topographic map-
sheets. This is a fine accomplishment and compares favourably with the 21Vi
sheets controlled in 1960. Work was facilitated through the use of helicopters ana
by concentrating mainly on relatively accessible areas along the coast which could
be reached from the vessel " B.C. Surveyor." A total of twenty-six topographic
manuscripts at 2-inches-to-l-mile scale was compiled, and eighty-eight plans were
draughted at scales as large as 1 inch to 20 feet. The Photogrammetric Section
handled twenty-one large-scale plotting assignments and 3,638 square miles of
National Topographic coverage.
9
2
 CC 10 department of lands and forests
New regulations governing the survey of well-sites under the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Act were instituted by the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources in 1961. The responsibility of examining well-site plans to ensure that they
conform to the standards outlined in the regulations was assigned to the Trigonometric Control Section of the Geographic Division.
The Canadian Board on Geographical Names was formally dissolved by the
Federal Government, and the Canadian Permanent Committee on Geographical
Names was established in its place. The Chief of the Geographic Division was
appointed to the Committee as the member for British Columbia.
Seven new Provincial maps were published in 1961 by the Geographic Division, including the fifth sheet of the popular 1-inch-to-10-miles regional series,
North-eastern British Columbia (Map Id). A record total of 87,198 maps was
distributed to the general public and to various Government departments.
A notable event in the Air Division concerned replacement of the two Anson
V aircraft by Beechcraft D18S (Expeditors) which had been declared surplus by
the Royal Canadian Air Force. One Expeditor was converted for camera operations and saw service during the latter part of the 1961 field season. Two Ordinance Survey cameras were acquired on loan from the Royal Canadian Air Force
and proved to be very satisfactory for forest inventory photography and general
reconnaissance. The Air Photo Library distributed a total of 184,286 reprints and
loans of standard 9- by 9-inch air photographs, of which 48,058 were taken by the
general public.
Sixteen years of study and negotiation culminated in the signing of the Columbia River Treaty by Canada and the United States on January 17, 1961. The treaty
has yet to be ratified before coming into force. The Comptroller and several senior
members of the Water Rights Branch participated at the committee and working-
group level in drafting of the document. Further to the treaty, applications for
water licences were received later in the year for storage projects at Mica Creek,
Duncan Lake, and the outlet of Lower Arrow Lake. Public hearings were held by
the Comptroller in the Kootenay areas affected by the three proposed dams with
a view to full study and consideration prior to any issuance of licence.
The Operations Division of the Water Rights Branch processed 1,102 applications for water licences during 1961. This was 17.4 per cent higher than in 1960
and 6.2 per cent more than in 1959, the previous record year. Establishment of a
District Engineer at Mission City brought to six the number of district offices now in
existence. In anticipation of the issuance of licences for the use of ground-water,
a geological engineer was added to the staff of the Operations Division.
Various engineering and feasibility studies on behalf of the 270 improvement
districts in British Columbia or other agencies resulted in thirteen major reports
during 1961.
The Hydraulic Investigations Division noted an increase of problems relating
to flooding, erosion, and drainage. Flood conditions on the Capilano, Seymour,
Alouette, and Cowichan Rivers were examined with a view to establishing better
control of their flow. Other major investigations were undertaken at the request
of various agencies on the Lillooet River, Fraser River, Kamloops Lake, Lynn
Creek, Nicomekl River, Salmon River, Shuswap Lake, and Windermere Lake.
In Northern British Columbia, the Sikanni Chief, Muskwa, Racing, and Toad
Rivers were sampled for suspended sediments. Hydro-electric power investigations
on northern streams were continued, with large-scale mapping projects being completed for the Stikine and Liard Rivers.
 LANDS SERVICE REPORT
CC 11
Among the four major water-supply studies recorded in 1961 was a two-
volume report on domestic and irrigation water in the Vernon area of the Northern
Okanagan.
Besides maintaining its network of snow measurement sites, the Hydraulic
Investigations Division examined potential snow courses on the Columbia River
watershed which would be needed with the damming of that river. Work also
progressed on programming stream-flow forecasts for the IBM 650 computer.
The Water Rights Branch also participated in various flood-control and hydroelectric studies with the Fraser River Board.
The accomplishments cited in this brief introduction are only a sample of the
wide range of activities which are the responsibility of the Lands Service, a more
detailed account of which is set forth in the following pages.
  ACCOUNTING DIVISION
  accounting division
CC 15
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
M. B. Maclean, B.Com., Departmental Comptroller
The year 1961 has been a very active one for the Accounting Division. As
shown by the following bar chart, revenue from Lands Service sources has continued
to increase. It will be noted particularly that throughout the year there has been
a strong and continued interest shown by the public in the leasing of Crown land,
and this has resulted in a very substantial increase in revenue under the item " Land
leases, rentals, fees, etc." The number of active lease accounts has increased by
over 1,000 during the past year.
Table 1.—Summary of Revenue Collections for the Year Ended
December 31,1961
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc.  $1,001,071.13
Land sales  703,705.71
Sale of maps and air photos  60,430.70
Water rentals and recording fees  1,853,653.18
Total  $3,618,860.72
Table 2.—Comparison of Revenue Collections for Ten-year
Period 1952-61, Inclusive
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
$2,761,152.78
3,705,480.02
2,065,181.52
2,248,293.16
2,518,722.51
2,454,435.40
2,596,050.13
2,687,816.62
3,224,498.27
3,618,860.72
Total  $27,880,491.13
Ten-year average, $2,788,049.11.
Table 3.—Classification of Revenue Collections for the Year
Ended December 31,1961
Land sales—
Country lands  $494,846.44
Town lots     207,747.42
Surface rights, mineral claims         1,107.80
Indian reserve cut-off  4.05
$703,705.71
 CC 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 3.—Classification of Revenue Collections for the Year
Ended December 31, 1961—Continued
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc.—
Foreshore leases—
Booming and log storage  $249,941.15
Commercial (marinas, etc.)     268,927.77
Oyster .       9,361.93
Miscellaneous   (foreshore  protection, etc.)          1,105.10
  $529,335.95
Land leases-
Grazing and (or) agriculture     $43,728.11
Quarrying   (limestone,   sand  and
gravel)  .       25,349.97
Camp-site (lodge, fishing)          5,010.82
Home-site          2,499.94
Miscellaneous (residential, etc.) ___      61,440.90
     138,029.74
Land-use permits  777.50
Licences of occupation         1,728.77
Royalty collections     196,342.14
Easement collections—
Annual rentals       $3,290.41
Outright considerations        49,658.31
       52,948.72
Fees—
Crown grant  $ 10,279.87
Assignment  1,820.00
Miscellaneous (lease, search, etc.) 7,130.50
Sundry   collections   (occupation,   rental,   survey
charges, etc.)        62,677.94
19,230.37
$1,001,071.13
Sale of maps and air photos—
Legal Division     $21,388.53
Geographic Division        20,723.66
Air Division       18,318.51
  60,430.70
Water rentals and recording fees     1,853,653.18
Gross revenue for year  $3,618,860.72
 ACCOUNTING DIVISION
CC 17
Table 4.—Comparison of Land Leases, Rentals, Fees, etc., Revenue
for Ten-year Period 1952-61, Inclusive
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
$1,694,073.93
1,608,773.65
330,397.09
425,595.79
576,331.17
472,415.55
605,229.73
668,367.70
842,413.17
1,001,071.13
Total  $8,224,668.91
Ten-year average, $822,466.89.
Note.—-The years 1952 and 1953 include coal, petroleum and natural-gas
revenue.
Table 5.—Comparison of Land Sales for Ten-year Period
1952-61, Inclusive
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
Total
Ten-year average, $618,128.29.
$619,263.14
594,004.08
488,303.49
605,469.42
573,976.49
522,825.65
677,036.15
589,975.24
806,723.54
703,705.71
$6,181,282.91
Table 6.—Comparison of Water Rentals and Recording Fees Revenue
for Nine-year Period 1953-61, Inclusive
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
$700,289.17
813,413.61
849,980.00
1,081,592.07
1,152,370.05
1,256,004.37
1,363,939.33
1,510,277.86
1,853,653.18
Total
Nine-year-average, $1,175,724.40
$10,581,519.64
Note.—Revenue for years previous to 1953 available on fiscal basis only.
  LANDS BRANCH
 Note 1 THE LANDS BRANCH
At the time of the Fraser River gold-rush in 1858 the demand for land in British
Columbia was greatly intensified and pre-emptions predated surveys. Within four years
254 pre-emptors had taken up more than 50,000 acres of land. To facilitate the transfer
of real estate and provide for the registration of titles, the Land Registry Act was passed
in 1860. The Government of the Province of British Columbia was now in the real-
estate business in a big way; the more than 366,000 square miles of land and water that
constitutes British Columbia was the real estate in question.
With the entrance of British Columbia into Confederation in 1871, the demand for
land quickened to a rush, and over the next thirty years the land-settler (and the promoter) succeeded the gold-miner in importance. Railroads were built and land grants
passed, cities came into being, and companies became established. Land was at the core
of all developments.
The task of land administration became very heavy and necessitated the formation
of a Department of Lands in 1908. In 1912 a Forest Branch was included in the Department of Lands. To-day the Department of Lands and Forests exercises control of more
than 90 per cent of the surface of British Columbia.
How does the Lands Branch fit into the total organization of the British Columbia
Lands Service of to-day? The relation may be expressed briefly. The Lands Branch
has jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the disposition of Crown land, and is
charged with so administering and disposing of the land that the general welfare,
present and future, of the Province must be protected at all times.
When an individual, or group, desires to purchase or lease Crown land, the application is directed to the Superintendent of Lands, head of the Lands Branch. His authority governs the following matters:—
Sale, lease, and pre-emption of Crown lands for such purposes as agricultural,
industrial, commercial, and home-sites.
Preparation and issuance of Crown grants under the Land Act, the Mineral Act,
and the Taxation Act.
Preparation and issuance of right-of-way easements for power, telephone, pipe
lines, etc.
Reservation of suitable Crown lands and foreshore for national defence, use
and enjoyment of the public, forestry experimentation, fisheries research
work, highways, etc.
Granting railway rights-of-way under various Statutes.
Protection of historic sites from alienation.
Reservation and conveying of Crown lands for such purposes as school-sites,
cemeteries, and fair grounds.
Leasing of land and foreshore for such varied purposes as wharf-sites, booming-
grounds, canneries, oyster and other mollusc fisheries, and for boat-houses,
quarry-sites, cattle-ranching, trappers' cabins, ship-building,  and aircraft
bases.
To perform these and other functions efficiently, the Lands Branch works in close
co-operation with a great number of other agencies, such as municipal and city administrations, town-planning authorities, the British Columbia Forest Service, the Branches of
Water Rights and Surveys and Mapping within the British Columbia Lands Service, and
all the departments in the Government of the Province, notably Public Works, Education,
Attorney-General, and now Agriculture.
Outside the Provincial departments there is much business transacted with Federal
departments, such as the Department of National Defence, the Veterans' Land Settlement
Act administration, the Public Works Department, and the Indian Affairs Branch of the
Department of Citizenship and Immigration.
Direct service to the people of British Columbia is the first duty of the Lands Branch
and this takes the bulk of the time of the Lands Branch personnel. Associated with this
prime duty is the important function of the maintenance of the records, which in many
cases are the only ones in British Columbia showing the correct legal status of the surface of the Province.—Reprinted from 1952 Report.
  CC 22 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LANDS BRANCH
C. T. W. Hyslop, B.S.A., P.Ac, Superintendent of Lands
The general work load of the Lands Branch showed a marked increase in 1961,
and this is reflected in the total number of applications received, which numbered
6,462, an increase of nearly 10 per cent over the previous year.
The staff of the Administration Division was increased by two clerks during
1961 for a total of thirty-seven.
The following summary is a brief outline of the highlights of the work carried
out by the various sections of the Administration Division of the Lands Branch:—■
Lease Section.—The work load of this Section has increased 58 per cent—in
1961 2,363 applications to lease were received, as compared to 1,498 in
1960.   In the past five years the number of applications has increased
over 230 per cent.
Purchase Section.—This Section operated at approximately the same level in
1961 as it did in 1960.   A total of 2,165 applications was received in the
former year and 2,192 applications in the latter year.
Crown Grants Section.—There was a slight reduction in the number of Crown
grants issued during 1961.    This is due primarily to a decrease in the
number of Crown grants issued covering mineral claims.
Pre-emption and Reserve Section.—This Section processed a total of 804 applications in 1961, as compared to 710 in 1960, an increase of 13 per
cent.
Status Section.—A total of 14,611 parcels of land was checked as to status
during 1961, an increase of 13 per cent over the previous year.   The type
of work carried out in this Section becomes increasingly more complex
due to the multiplicity of tenures, especially near the settlement areas of
the Province.
Easement Section.—There was a slight increase in activity in this Section:   145
applications were received in 1961 as compared to 138 in 1960.
A total of twenty-five parcels of land was offered for purchase by tender, of
which nineteen were sold, having a value of $20,840.   Ten parcels were offered for
leasehold by tender, the majority of which were for grazing purposes.
Twenty public auction sales of Crown lands were held during the year. A total
of 302 parcels was offered by auction, and 110 of these were purchased on the day
of the sale for $132,517. Nine public auctions of leases were held involving 150
water-front lots, the majority of which fronted on lakes in the Interior of the
Province.
A number of subdivisions were planned during the year, and arrangements
made with the Department of Highways to construct the necessary subdivision
roads. Much greater emphasis is being placed on road access to Crown subdivisions
in an effort to co-operate with the Department of Highways.
There has been a marked increase in the number of large applications to lease
Crown lands for grazing and agricultural purposes, especially in the Peace River
District. In some instances the areas involve extensive acreages. The Lands Branch
is having all such applications carefully investigated to ensure that they are bona
fide and that a concrete development plan has been formulated and sufficient operating capital is available.
The continued expansion of the petroleum and natural-gas industry in the
Province and the resulting construction of pipe-lines has kept the Lands Branch
 LANDS BRANCH CC 23
under pressure to provide the industry with status information covering the Crown
lands involved in their projects and in issuing rights-of-way to cover these projects.
Applications to purchase Crown lands lying within sustained-yield units and
public working circles in the Central Interior area have created problems resulting
from the limitation of annual timber cuts by the Forest Service. Close liaison with
the Forest Service is maintained in such areas, and often joint examinations are
made by Lands Service and Forest Service personnel to ensure that the disposition
of Crown lands is effected in the best public interest.
The past five years have been a period of greatly increased activity in the Lands
Branch. Annual revenue collected by the Branch has risen from $980,411.88 to
$1,704,776.84, an increase of 73 per cent. Total applications received have risen
from 4,555 to 6,462 per annum, an increase of 42 per cent. The number of letters
received has risen from 17,077 to 30,272, an increase of 77 per cent.
The following tables indicate in some detail the work carried out by the
Administration Division of the Lands Branch. The report of the Inspection Division
is submitted separately by the Chief Land Inspector.
Table 1.—Country Land Sales, 1961
Acres
Surveyed  79,844.05
Unsurveyed  18,062.15
Total  97,906.20
Table 2.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1961
Land Recording District Total
Alberni  55
Atlin       	
Cranbrook  23
Fernie   13
Fort Fraser  68
Fort George  92
Fort St. John  123
Golden  15
Kamloops  41
Kaslo  5
Lillooet  57
Nanaimo .  25
Nelson.  20
New Westminster  27
Osoyoos  7
Pouce Coupe  69
Prince Rupert  34
Quesnel  50
Revelstoke   20
Similkameen  44
Smithers  50
Telegraph Creek
Vancouver 	
Victoria
 CC 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 3.—Town Lots Sold, 1961
Town Lots Value
Alberni  25 $17,525.00
Barkerville  24 600.00
Barriere  8 728.00
Bear Lake  2 400.00
Beaverdell  7 350.00
Blueberry  3 725.00
Carmi  1 36.00
Cascade  7 388.00
Castlegar  2 420.00
Cedar  2 150.00
Chase  1 300.00
Chetwynd   2 500.00
Coalmont .  2 150.00
Cowichan Station  13 1,854.00
Elko   11 3,960.00
Extension  12 1,080.00
Falkland   1 250.00
Fernie   6 126.00
Fort Fraser  29 1,320.00
Fort Nelson  31 13,005.00
Fraser Lake  3 130.00
Gold Bridge  10 930.00
Golden _  24 1,515.00
Grand Forks  1 25.00
Greenwood  1 50.00
Hazelton   17 435.00
Houston  4 400.00
Huntingdon  3 450.00
Jessica  1 50.00
Keremeos  1 300.00
Lac la Hache  2 675.00
Lower Post  1 75.00
McBride  2 600.00
Merritt  4 779.30
Moyie   2 30.00
Nakusp   11 3,150.00
New Hazelton  2 50.00
Pemberton   2 725.00
Port Alberni  2 655.00
Port Clements  14 450.00
Port Edward  4 895.00
Prince George  205 92,520.00
Prince Rupert  21 9,855.00
Queen Charlotte  24 1,400.00
Rock Creek  1 200.00
Shawnigan Lake  4 1,000.00
Slocan  4 150.00
Smithers  41 6,090.00
Squamish   10 1,151.33
 Table 3.-
Town
Stewart _    	
LANDS BRANCH
—Town Lots Sold, 1961-
—Continued
Lots
__    15
C
Value
$2,340.00
Topley      ._
1
105.00
Vanderhoof	
1
-       3
1
60.00
Wells --    	
275.00
Willow River   t
60.00
Wilmer   	
..    12
270.00
Ymir	
~      8
240.00
Miscellaneous 	
_      6
2,810.00
__ 657
Totals	
$174,762.63
CC 25
Table 4.—-New Leases Issued, 1961
Land  Number
Agriculture  20
Hay and grazing (pasture and hay-cutting).. 290
Quarrying (sand, gravel, limestone, etc.)  27
Home-site (section 78, Land Act)  7
Residential  402
Miscellaneous (resorts, service-stations,campsites, mill-sites, etc.)  64
Foreshore—•
Booming, log storage, log-dumping, etc.  99
Oyster and shell-fish  21
Industrial (canneries, mill-sites, wharves, etc.) 6
Quarrying (sand, gravel from river-beds) __ 4
Commercial (boat rentals, marinas, marine
service-stations, etc.)   34
Miscellaneous (private wharves, boat-houses,
etc.)   39
Acreage
4,811.35
92,101.94
2,044.98
105.00
707.78
1,134.57
2,006.80
426.28
278.09
112.24
139.25
161.15
Totals
1,013 104,029.43
Table 5.—Temporary Tenure Leases Renewed, 1961
Number
Acreage
100
11,014.56
Number
Acreage
Table 6.—Land-use Permits Issued, 1961
13
47.90
Number
Acreage.
Table 7.—Licenses to Occupy Issued, 1961
7
201.90
 CC 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 8.—Assignments Approved, 1961
Leases, land-use permits, licences of occupation	
316
Table 9.—Easements Granted, 1961
Number
Miles
Acres
Foreshore
Access road                           	
1
1
3
1
0.321
0.167
0.730
0.037
1.410
0.115
Sewer pipe-lines ... _..
1.146
0.220
Totals   	
6
1.255
2.891
Land
Sewer pipe-lines   	
Water and sewer pipe-lines 	
Television satellite station  	
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
3
7
9
5
0.131
0.227
0.147
1.380
1.150
0.454
0.050
2.580
5.827
0.237
55.650
0.034
0.534
0.340
502.980
134.370
26.770
5.574
2.745
0.830
2,736.686
325.985
121.380
36
668.436
3,257.625
Licences of Occupation
1
1
1
0.216
0.265
0.114
2.820
9.430
Totals
3
0.595
12.250
45
670.286
3,272.766
In line with current Departmental policy, thirty-one letters of consent for the
construction of access roads were issued during the year.
Table 10.—Crown Grants Issued, 1961
Purchases (country lands)   665
Purchases (town lots)  321
__:  28
  7
  15
  6
  11
  5
  2
  14
Pre-emptions	
Surf ace rights {Mineral Act) ___
Public Schools Act	
Veterans' Land Settlement Act.
Home-site leases	
Pacific Great Eastern Railway__
Supplementary timber grants._...
Miscellaneous 	
Total
1,074
Certified copies of Crown grants issued, 3.
 LANDS BRANCH
CC 27
Table 11.—Crown Grants Issued for Past Ten Years
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
Total
Ten-year average, 1,440.
1,872
1,829
1,276
1,498
1,518
1,426
1,043
1,471
1,399
1,074
14,406
Table 12.—Total Area Deeded by Crown Grant, 1961
Acres
Purchases (country lands)  69,069.19
Pre-emptions     4,428.00
Surface rights {Mineral Act) ____.
Public Schools Act	
Veterans' Land Settlement Act-
Home-site leases	
Pacific Great Eastern Railway	
Supplementary timber grants	
Miscellaneous	
271.90
68.20
805.00
312.16
89.11
362.40
80.57
Total
75,486.53
 CC 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 13.—Pre-emption Records, 1961
Pre-emptions
Cof I.
Issued
Land Recording District
Applications
Received
Applications
Allowed
Cancelled
7
23
53
1
2
2
104
1
22
2
1
5
1
7
31
103
5
—
-
3
4
1
50
1
1
....
::::
....
....
z
Atlin                             ... '	
Fernie 	
Fort St. John	
Nelson    	
Revelstoke-   -   —.	
Similkameen (Penticton) 	
Smithers    	
"1
j
223
147
60
18
Table 14.—Reserves, 1961
Applications
Received
Use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public  193
British Columbia Department of Highways  (rights-of-
way, gravel-pits, bridge-sites, etc.)  146
Federal Government (defence purposes, wharf-sites, etc.)     65
British Columbia Forest Service (Ranger stations, grazing, radio-sites, reforestation, etc.)      95
Miscellaneous   (Game  Branch,  water-power  projects,
garbage-dumps, school-sites, cemeteries, etc.)     82
Totals  581
Reserves
Completed
148
137
63
119
78
545
 LANDS BRANCH
CC 29
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 CC 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LAND INSPECTION DIVISION
L. D. Fraser, B.Sc.A., P.Ac, A.A.C.I., Chief Land Inspector
Annual Reports of previous years have indicated an ever-increasing volume of
work being handled by the Land Inspection Division. The year 1961 was by no
means an exception as the number of field examinations completed showed a 14.3-
per-cent increase over the previous year. This percentage increase, which amounted
to 511 additional field examinations, is more than a mere recital of figures when it
is realized that the diversity and complexity of many of the examinations are increasing year by year. More accurate and detailed supporting data are being demanded
in the fixing of land and timber values, and hence the time spent in gathering and
analysing this information is on the increase.
During the past year this Division has undertaken a number of detailed
examinations of tributary Crown lands adjacent to proposed rural line extensions.
The purpose of these examinations was to estimate the number of potential farm or
residential users of power along the line that could be anticipated in the near future.
Based on this figure, the Government contributes a portion of the cost of construction
of the line and thus relieves the immediate users of the cost of servicing Crown lands
suitable for future development. Any costs assumed by the Government are charged
against the parcels selected and will be recovered from future purchasers of these
Crown lands.
There has been a tendency over the past few years for other Government
departments and agencies to call on the Land Inspection Division for assistance in
the appraisal and valuation of various properties they wish to buy or sell. It is
anticipated that this tendency will increase as more and more Land Inspectors
become accredited appraisers. During the past year detailed appraisals have been
compiled for the Capital City Planning Board, the Barkerville Restoration Committee, the Land Settlement Board, Forest Service, Parks Branch, the Social Welfare
Department, and the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
The greatest increase in land applications has occurred in the Fort St. John
and Pouce Coupe Districts. In the Fort St. John District there has been a 25-percent increase in new applications, while in the Pouce Coupe area the increase
amounted to 75 per cent. The expanding oil and gas industry, together with the
proposed power development on the Peace River, coupled with the availability of
considerable areas of land suitable for agriculture and grazing, has attracted new
setders. Much of the land is being disposed of by lease. It would appear that
many new settlers have limited capital and find that the leasing of Government land
for grazing and agriculture, at reasonable rentals, enables them to put their remaining
funds into live stock and machinery.
A brief reference to Table 1 on page 33 clearly indicates that, while the output
of the Land Inspection Division has been steadily increasing over the years, the
number of outstanding examinations at the end of each year has remained almost
stationary. Over the past year, field working conditions were ideal in most areas,
and it is felt that the field staff have reached the apex of their capabilities.
A review of the number and type of examinations completed in 1961, and more
particularly shown in Table 2, page 34, presents some interesting comparisons.
For example, in 1961, 13.8 per cent of all examinations made were pre-Crown grant
inspections required for land sold subject to section 53 of the Land Act. In 1957,
this type of examination comprised less than 7 per cent of the volume of field work.
In 1961, 101 reserves for the recreation and enjoyment of the public were recommended by the Land Inspectors.   In 1957 only twenty-six such reserves were recom-
 LANDS BRANCH CC 31
mended. The increase in the number of public reserves is largely due to a change in
Government policy, whereby all lakes are reconnoitred before further alienations,
either by lease or purchase, are entertained to ensure that the needs of the public
have been adequately cared for.
STAFF
In 1961 there was no change in the field staff of the Land Inspection Division,
which has remained at seventeen District Inspectors. A review of the staff complement of this Division for the past five years reveals some rather startling information. In 1957 the field staff consisted of fifteen permanent Land Inspectors and two
part-time summer assistants. Part-time assistance during the summer months was
valuable, but the time lost by permanent Inspectors in training these people and the
further loss of time in supervising and scrutinizing their reports was considered to
be less efficient than hiring permanent staff. In 1958 no summer assistants were
hired, but the permanent field staff was increased to seventeen Inspectors. The
result of replacing two part-time assistants with two permanent fieldmen actually
was a net increase in staff over 1957 equivalent to one permanent Inspector.
In 1957 the Land Inspection Division completed 2,589 examinations and was
left with a backlog of 526 outstanding inspections at the end of the working-year.
In 1958, with the net increase in staff equivalent to one permanent Inspector, 3,043
examinations were completed, leaving a backlog of 348 inspections. In 1961 the
field staff completed 4,075 inspections, leaving an outstanding backlog of 454
examinations at the end of the year. On a comparative basis, 1,486 more examinations were done in 1961 than were done in 1957, with a net increase in staff equivalent to only one permanent fieldman. This phenomonal increase in the output of
the Division must be credited to the diligent efforts of the field Inspectors, as well
as the fact that most Inspectors have remained in one district for several years and
hence their personal knowledge and familiarity with the district have cut examination time to a minimum. Other factors that have assisted the Land Inspector in
increasing his output are the construction of new roads, better maps, and the availability of excellent air-photo coverage.
There is an urgent need to compile an up-to-date Land Inspector's manual that
will provide written instructions for all aspects of the field work, as well as outline
proper office procedure.
Other problems, such as the valuation of microwave and television sites, land-
use surveys, the appraisal of forest lands, a study of royalty charges, and a review
of the basis for fixing grazing-lease rentals, are in immediate need of attention.
Considerable background material must be gathered to support valuation guides
and to make recommendations affecting changes in policy.
On August 7, 1961, a Clerk—Grade 2 was appointed to assist in the Chief
Land Inspector's office and the Lands general office.
During the past year Mr. A. Paulsen, Land Inspector at Kelowna, was successful in fulfilling all requirements of the Appraisal Institute of Canada and was
awarded his A.A.C.I. accreditation. Other Land Inspectors are in various stages
of completing the demonstration appraisals that will lead to accreditation if and
when accepted. It is hoped that by the end of 1962 the majority of Land Inspectors
will have been accredited with the Appraisal Institute of Canada.
DISTRICT PROBLEMS
During the past year it has been necessary to rush temporary assistance to
various land inspection districts throughout the Province where the backlog of outstanding inspections had reached a critical stage.   Some temporary measure of relief
 CC 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
was provided by shifting Inspectors from other districts where the work load was not
quite as critical.
Mr. D. M. Thom, Land Inspector at Kamloops, assisted in the Clinton, Nelson,
Prince George, and Williams Lake Districts.
Mr. G. A. Rhoades, Land Inspector at Clinton, assisted in the Williams Lake
District.
Mr. A. F. Smith, Land Inspector at New Westminster, assisted in the Victoria,
Courtenay, and Smithers Districts.
Mr. D. E. Goodwin, Land Inspector at Courtenay, assisted in the Fort St.
John District and undertook a number of examinations in remote areas at the north
end of Vancouver Island.
As a result of the extra assistance required in many of the Interior districts of
the Province, it was decided to adjust some district boundaries in the hope that the
work load will be more evenly distributed. This move was also taken because parts
of some districts have now become more accessible from neighbouring districts, and
hence less field time would be spent in travelling.
One major problem which is coming to the fore is the means of gaining access
to remote areas where road access is not available. This problem has been partially
solved through the assistance of the Topographic Division, which has made its float-
equipped Beaver aircraft available to the Land Inspector when not employed on
other work. Experience has proved than it is sometimes more economic to charter
private aircraft to reach remote lakes rather than spend several days trying to reach
them by boat or horseback. Helicopters have also proven to be a great time-saver
when employed to spot-check soils, timber types, and topographic features in very
large acreage applications.
Most of the district offices now have adequate office accommodation. However, it is felt that the offices at Kelowna, Clinton, Quesnel, Smithers, and Pouce
Coupe are too small to accommodate the necessary office equipment and still allow
a reasonable amount of area for the stenographer and the visiting public. Efforts
will be made to expand the office facilities in these five districts at the first
opportunity.
Most districts have reported a continuing increase in the number of office calls
and personal interviews. The Inspector's knowledge of specific areas and his
familiarity with local agricultural practices are information much in demand by
prospective settlers. Efforts are made to keep these interviews to a minimum, but
in offices located adjacent to the busier travelled routes, the number of people calling has reached the stage where the time involved has seriously cut into the office
hours of the Inspector. This problem is particularly acute in the Cariboo, Prince
George, and Peace River districts, where there has been an influx of new settlers.
Several Interior Land Inspectors have reported that an increasing amount of
time is being spent cruising lodgepole pine stands of small-diameter timber. These
small-diameter trees have become attractive to logging operators in view of the
marketability of the logs for stud-mills operating in the districts concerned. In the
Prince George and Kamloops Forest Districts, stud-mills are utilizing logs down to
8 inches in diameter breast height. Many of the agricultural applications are situated
in Forest Service sustained-yield units or in public working circles. Although alienation of small individual parcels of timber would not appreciably affect the sustained
yield of the forested area concerned, when these applications are considered collectively, they could appreciably affect the annual cut of the area. More detailed
and exhaustive cruises are being requested to establish the present worth of the
cover, as well as to ensure that the land has agricultural potential, before a decision
 LANDS BRANCH
CC 33
to sell the lands is made. In dealing with forested lands of this nature, the Land
Inspector works closely with the Forest Ranger to ensure that it is in the public
interest to dispose of the lands concerned.
The Land Inspectors in the Kamloops-Cariboo area have been called upon
to submit solutions to a number of grazing conflicts that have arisen. These problems
roughly fall into two main types, namely: (1) The resistance offered by established
ranchers to the influx of new settlement in land areas that have been used for grazing
purposes in the past and (2) problems arising between ranchers themselves as they
seek to improve their position by alienating more land by lease or purchase. In this
latter category the Department has received a number of complaints regarding the
actual use that is being made of certain lands held under lease. In most instances
it is alleged that the lessee is making beneficial use of the areas. Before problems
of this nature can be settled, the Land Inspector is requested to examine the lease
and submit a report detailing his findings. This type of request is time-consuming
and controversial as such examinations often entail numerous interviews with the
protestant, the lessee, neighbours, and other people who may have had occasion to
visit the property.
Table 1 presents a comparison on a year-to-year basis of the volume of field
work completed by the Land Inspection Division over the past five years. Table 2
presents a breakdown of the number and type of inspections completed during 1961.
1
Table 1.—Land Inspection
,1957
-61
Land Inspection District
Examinations Made during—
Outstanding at the End of—
1957
1958
1959   1    1960
I
1961
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
Clinton 	
196
158
279
90
214
143
129
226
309
112
188
173
96
193
83
173
168
409
189
175
189
149
250
342
123
205
200
116
318
37
259
187
428
154
216
201
175
308
382
141
225
184
112
276
59
249
219
435
163
226
221
164
330
395
205
215
258
119
280
85
234
199
580
229
198
290
133
436
503
195
217
287
129
389
56
48
21
14
90
43
26
37
16
64
23
29
25
14
76
49
31
33
23
34
22
6
11
34
14
57
7
3
24
31
29
52
12
39
54
8
42
66
23
33
12
11
50
28
40
63
10
24
38
2
4
51
28
33
16
3
121
41
18
Fort St. John	
Kamloops   ,	
Kelowna  	
Nelson   	
60
8
25
19
1
44
67
24
Smithers	
Vancouver   	
66
11
2
68
B.C.F.S and others	
Totals 	
2,589
3,043
3,307
3,564
4,075
526
348
462
461
454
Table 2.—Types of Inspections, 1961
Purchases—
Agriculture  483
Access (roads, etc.)  9
Commercial (resorts, service-stations, hotels, airfields, etc.)„ 61
Community (cemeteries, church-sites, parking areas, etc.)  27
Grazing (pasture, range)  283
Home-sites (permanent)  349
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants, etc.) 43
Summer-home or camp- site  30
Wood-lots or tree-farms  8
5
 CC 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 2.—Types of Inspections, 1961—Continued
Leases—
Land—
Agriculture (other than grazing)  229
Commercial (resorts, service-stations, hotels, airfields,
etc.)   26
Community (parks, cemeteries, dump-sites, etc.)  16
Fur-farming.  2
Grazing (pasture, range, hay-cutting, etc.)  527
Home-sites (section 78 of the Land Act)  39
Home-sites (permanent, other than section 78 of Land
A ct)   26
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants,
etc.)   32
Summer-home or camp site (residential)  214
Quarrying (sand, gravel, diatomaceous earth, etc.)  46
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage or log-dumping  122
Commercial (boat rentals, marine service-stations,
wharves, etc.).  72
Industrial (mill-sites, canneries, factory-sites, wharves,
etc.)   19
Quarrying (sand and gravel from river-beds)  1
Oyster and shell-fish  10
Private (floats, boat-houses)  9
Land-use permits  33
Licences to occupy  7
Easements  16
Pre-emptions-
Applications   136
Annual inspections (including applications for Crown grant) 159
Subdivisions—
Valuations  30
Survey inspections  5
Plans cancellation  2
Proposals (lake-shore, residential, etc.).  15
Reserves—
Grazing  6
Gravel-pits   6
Recreational  101
Others  11
Veterans' Land Act  10
Land Settlement Board—
Classification  5
Valuations  5
Miscellaneous inspections—
Delinquent accounts  14
Land-use surveys  106
Land values (current market values)  36
Protests   28
Trespass, land  42
Trespass, water  61
 LANDS BRANCH CC 35
Table 2.—Types of Inspections, 1961—Continued
Lease rental reviews (not recorded above)—
Land    12
Foreshore  73
Pre-Crown grants—
Section 53 of Land Act  423
Section 7 8 of Land A ct  2 8
Section 65(1) of Land Act  	
Property transferred to Crown Valuations—
Department of Health and Welfare  2
Repurchase (section 135 ol Land Act)  	
Applications under other Acts (escheats, quieting titles, etc.) 20
Total 1  4,075]
i Included in this figure are fifty-six examinations completed by the Forest Service and the Department
of Finance in remote areas beyond the reach of the local Land Inspector.
   Note 2
THE SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
The framework of maps and surveys so necessary for the orderly development and
settlement of British Columbia is provided through the Surveys and Mapping Branch.
That such scientific foundations were necessary even in the earliest days is shown by the
fact that in 1851 the position of Colonial Surveyor for the young Crown Colony of
Vancouver Island was created. In more than 100 years which have passed since Joseph
Despard Pemberton was appointed first Surveyor-General, British Columbia has expanded
immensely in all spheres of human endeavour. Much of the foundation for the way of
life we have in British Columbia to-day rests on the reliability of our basic surveys. As
British Columbia has progressed through time, so the surveys and maps of the Province
have increased in magnitude and complexity.
It is the responsibility of the Surveys and Mapping Branch, through the Boundary
Commissioner, to establish and maintain co-operatively the boundaries between this
Province and the other adjacent Provinces and Territories of Canada. Within the Province, the Branch has established and is ever extending a basic network of triangulation
surveys which are fundamental to determining geographical locations and co-ordinating
property boundaries. The surveying procedures vary according to the intended purposes.
Topographic surveys are constantly improving the portrayal of various physical features.
Cadastral (legal) surveys, on the other hand, delineate the parcels of Crown lands subject
to alienation under the Land Act. Finally, it is necessary to show on published maps the
combined survey effort in order to give a visual account of the position of land alienation
and geographic features of British Columbia. Maps must satisfy a wide range of uses,
whether it be by the sportsman searching for an untapped valley or virgin lake, the homesteader seeking unsettled lands, or the industrialist planning new ways and new places to
develop the resources of this Province.
So much for the uses of maps and surveys and their necessity. Also interesting is the
great variety of techniques and equipment which must support our complex surveying and
mapping organization. This includes photography from aircraft using precise cameras
calibrated to less than a thousandth of an inch, modern optical surveyors' theodolites
which read directly to seconds of arc, other instruments such as the tellurometer (a
distance-measuring device which operates on a principle similar to radar), and plotting
devices which are capable of precise mapping directly from aerial photographs. Helicopters and other aircraft speed surveyors to the remotest locations. Surveying is also
expanding into the realm of electronic computers which can process the contents of field-
notes in seconds compared with hours by manual methods. In all these ways, the science
of surveying and mapping continues to serve the people by keeping pace with their needs
and with the continual technological advances of our age.
The following is a brief summary of the functions of the various divisions of the
Surveys and Mapping Branch:—
/. Administration.—General co-ordination of the four divisions of the Branch, being
Legal Surveys, Geographic, Topographic, and Air;_ delineation and maintenance of
boundaries under the Provincial Boundary Commissioner—namely, (a) Alberta-British
Columbia Boundary and (b) British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary;
interdepartmental and intergovernmental liaison, such as the Fraser River Board.
//. Legal Surveys Division.—Regulations for surveys under the various Provincial
Acts, such as Land, Land Registry, Mineral, Petroleum and Natural Gas; instructions to
British Columbia land surveyors regarding surveys of Crown lands and subsequent check
of field-notes and plans of same; preparation and custody of official plans; preparation
and maintenance of Departmental reference maps, mineral reference maps, and composite
(cadastral) maps; processing for status of all applications concerning Crown lands; field
surveys of Crown lands, highway rights-of-way, etc.; preparation of legal descriptions;
operation of blue-print and photostat sections; computational scrutiny of certain land
registry subdivision plans; inspection surveys; restoration surveys.
///. Geographic Division.—Map compilation, drawing and negative engraving, editing, and reproduction; map checking, distribution, geographical naming—Gazetteer of
British Columbia; field and culture surveys for preparation of land bulletins and maps;
preparation of legal descriptions for and delineation of administrative boundaries; compilation and distribution of annual Lands Service Report; trigonometric computation and
recording of geographic co-ordinates; general liaison between this Department and Federal and other mapping agencies on exchange of survey and mapping data; checking well-
site survey plans under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act.
IV. Topographic Division.—Propagation of field survey control—namely, triangulation, traverses, and photo-topographic control; operation of Beaver float-plane and M.V.
"B.C. Surveyor"; helicopters on charter; compilation and fair drawing of manuscripts
for standard topographic mapping; special field control for composite and photogram-
metric mapping and other special projects; precise mapping from aerial photographs
through the use of the most modern plotting-machines.
V. Air Division.—Aerial photographic operations involving maintenance and operation of three aircraft; photographic processing, air-photo distribution, and Provincial airphoto library; compilation of interim base maps, primarily for the forest inventory;
air-photo control propagation; instrument-shop for the repair, maintenance, and development of technical equipment.
  CC 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., B.C.L.S., F.R.G.S.,
Director, Surveyor-General, and Boundaries Commissioner
The year 1961 witnessed certain developments characterized by automation
which are likely to influence the pattern of surveys and mapping in British Columbia
during the new decade just begun. Some of these were anticipated in my report a
year ago.
In several forms, automation has already been an established feature of field
operations, especially in control surveys for topographic mapping—namely, air
transport, radio communication, weather prognostication, air-photo " bridging," as
well as in the fundamental tasks of measuring distances and angles. Due to these,
it has been possible to cope with increasing demands for such surveys with little, if
any, increase in field staff. In fact, it may be remarked with regret that we are no
longer able to offer summer employment to students during their vacations, to any
significant degree. Aside from aggravating the economic problem of those who
must personally earn their higher education, this effect of automation also denies
these young men the physical and moral training, unique to survey work, especially
in the wilderness, which would be so beneficial throughout their lives, no matter
what calling they may follow later. Indeed there may be merit in a suggestion that
these surveys should be subsidized to provide character-building experience for the
youth of our Province, aside from the benefits of an accelerated mapping programme.
One of the two Anson V aircraft (CF-EZN) acquired in 1949 was replaced
successfully by a more modern all-metal Beechcraft (D18S Expediter (CF-BCE).
A second identical replacement unit (CF-BCD) was acquired at the same time,
anticipating retirement of the second Anson (CF-EZI) during 1962 or soon after.
The Ansons have given outstanding service to the Province during the sixteen-year
post World War II period to date, having photographed a gross of nearly 500,000
square miles (including revision projects) recorded on some 300,000 high-quality
air photo-negatives, at low unit costs unparalleled elsewhere, in spite of the rugged
terrain and uncertain weather factors characteristic of British Columbia.
The replacement aircraft were obtained at nominal cost from Crown (R.C.A.F)
surplus. The highly specialized installations and modifications necessary for air
survey photography were fully and satisfactorily performed in the B.C. Government hangar at Victoria Airport. The necessity of change-over from the Anson was
aggravated by deterioration of the laminated wooden structure of the older aircraft
due to fungous infection. Due to this change-over from the Anson CF-EZN to the
Expediter aircraft CF-BCE not being effective till well on in the season, the complete programme was, for the most part, restricted to one operational Anson,
CF-EZI. This reduced the total accomplishment compared to normal years when
two aircraft had a full season's operation.
Of significance during the past year has been the adaptation of various survey
calculations to speedy and faultless solutions on the IBM 650 electronic computer,
recently installed by the Provincial Government. By this means, lengthy and involved
computational operation for checking, adjustments, conversions, etc., are now a
matter of routine, which with desk computers implied exhaustive labour and time.
For each type of computation it is necessary to develop a "programme " which in
effect " instructs" the electronic computer (a tireless, agile, obedient, and infallible
moron) what to do with the raw data fed in.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH CC 41
A prominent member of our staff, having high mathematical and survey qualifications, has developed and perfected a number of original programmes for the
IBM 650 computer, namely:—
" Surmap 02 "—solution and adjustment of traverses.
" Surmap 03 "—plan-checking, closing errors, adjustments, bearings and
distances, lengths of curved boundaries, areas.
" Surmap 04 "—reduction of measured distances to sea-level datum.
" Surmap 05"—conversion  of  spherical  geographical  co-ordinates  to
plane rectangulars and vice versa.
" Surmap 07 "—aerotriangulation,  bridging adjustment,  horizontal coordinates.
" Surmap 07a "•—-same as " Surmap 07 " for elevations.
By arrangement with the Attorney-General's Department, on a trial basis, all
subdivision plans submitted to the Land Registrar, Victoria, have been checked with
the " Surmap 03 " programme, with such good results that consideration is now
being given to extending this service to the other Land Registry Offices.
Programme " Surmap 05 " has been useful for giving survey control data for
our own needs as well as for well-site and right-of-way surveys under the Petroleum
and Natural Gas Act.
The " Surmap 07 and 07a " programmes are effecting valuable economies in
control surveys for topographic mapping, both in the general programme and in
special large-scale projects (such as for dam-site reservoirs, etc.).
Aside from the foregoing developments, which certainly have the flavour of
automation, and which should be significant in future activities, the year 1961 was
marked with considerable success in our many normal tasks, details of which are
presented in the accompanying reports of the four divisions.
A modest but welcome increase in the Legal Surveys budget for restoration
surveys was devoted to several troublesome areas in the Province. It is hoped that
this type of work may gain momentum, since the backlog still awaiting attention is
formidable.
Under new regulations (Order in Council No. 2033/61, August 14, 1961)
governing drilling of wells, etc., under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, the
location of the well-site by accurate survey rather than lease corners has been given
emphasis. The task of checking the resultant survey returns from this type of activity
has been assigned to the Geographic Division and constitutes an added burden to
its already full load. At the year's end sixty-seven of these well-site surveys had
been processed under the new regulations. Indications are that this activity will be
sustained, if not accelerated, in the future. The Geographic Division also produced
seven new map editions featuring the 2-mile, 4-mile, and 10-mile per inch scale
categories.
A variation in the Topographic Division's field programme was the resumption
of water-borne access by the use of the launch " B.C. Surveyor " after a lapse of
some nine years, during which time the staunch little vessel had been on loan to
the Forest Service for inventory surveys. With the " B.C. Surveyor " as a mobile
headquarters, mapping control was established for a total of thirteen map-sheets
along the west coast—one group in the vicinity of Banks Island and another group
near Bella Bella. Unusually good weather during the summer facilitated this work
and was one factor in a greater accomplishment than was anticipated. A comparable
area—namely, thirteen sheets—was also controlled in the Stuart Lake vicinity, using
the Beaver float-plane and a helicopter on short-term contract. This operation
suffered some interference from smoke accumulation during the crescendo in forest
fire incidence in that area in mid-August.
6
 CC 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Referring back to the concluding paragraphs of my report a year ago, four
specific items were put forward as worthy objectives for accomplishment now and
during the immediate years ahead.
The first of these, restoration surveys, did receive a gratifying impetus in 1961,
as has been reported, with favourable indications of continued attention.
In so far as co-ordinating all legal survey corners on the geodetic North
American datum, while no formal moves have yet been made, the necessary preliminary work of ties and remonumentation continued, with the final objective still
very much in mind.
Regarding the compilation work of our Photogrammetric Section of the Topographic Division, a backlog still persists due to the ever-increasing demands for the
larger-scaled engineering maps. The obtaining of a desirable second shift on this
type of work has not as yet been possible.
Finally, the extension of tricamera air photography with the Anson CF-EZI
was not possible due to the fact, already mentioned, that, for the most part, this
aircraft was carrying the whole load of our air-photo programme. The outlook,
however, for doing some tricamera photography in the coming season appears hopeful now that the new unit CF-BCE is operational.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH CC 43
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
D. Pearmain, Chief
The Legal Surveys Division, under the direction of the Surveyor-General, is
responsible for cadastral surveys of all Crown lands of the Province. This entails
the issuing of instructions to the land surveyors engaged to make each survey and
supplying them with copies of the field-notes and plans of adjoining or adjacent
surveys. After the completion of the survey, the returns are forwarded to this office
for checking and plotting. Included in the above returns are all right-of-way surveys, including those for highways, railways, and transmission-lines. During the
year 763 sets of instructions were issued, this being an increase of fifty-four over
1960.
In 1961, 457 sets of field-notes covering the survey of 631 lots were received
in this office and duly indexed, checked, plotted, and official plans prepared therefrom. Of the above-mentioned surveys, 601 were made under the Land Act and
thirty under the Mineral Act. At the present time there are approximately 96,875
sets of field-notes on record in our vaults.
There were 444 plans received from land surveyors covering surveys made
under the Land Registry Act. These were duly indexed and checked, and certified
copies deposited in the respective Land Registry Offices.
In order that a graphic record may be kept of alienations of both surveyed and
unsurveyed Crown lands together with reserves, a set of reference maps, 210 in
number, covering the whole of the Province must be maintained. These maps show
all cadastral surveys which are on file in the Department, and are kept up to date
by adding new information as it accrues from day to day. Prints of them are available to the public. A start was made this year on the recompilation of the four
reference maps covering the Lower Fraser Valley between Vancouver and Hope.
These reference maps are presently drawn at the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and on
the recompilation will be drawn at the scale of one-quarter mile to 1 inch. By this
increase of scale it will take thirty-one maps to cover the area. It is hoped that
these larger-scale maps will greatly assist in the statusing of Crown lands, especially
those bordering the Fraser River, which will show apparent accretion or erosion.
All applications to purchase or lease Crown lands or foreshore which are
received by the Lands Branch and all applications to purchase Crown timber
received by the Forest Service are channelled through this Division for clearance.
The orderly processing of these applications requires that an exhaustive status be
made from the reference maps, official plans, and Land Registry Office plans. From
the reference maps, together with other information and facilities maintained by
this Division, it is possible to give an up-to-the-minute status on any parcel of Crown
land in the Province.
It has been necessary during the year, for status and compilation purposes, to
obtain 1,331 plans from the various Land Registry Offices. Copies of these have
been made, indexed, and filed as part of the Division's records.
This Division co-operates with the other departments of Government by preparing and checking legal descriptions which they require. Those assisted in this way
were the Attorney-General's Department (descriptions of Small Debts Courts), the
Department of Agriculture (descriptions of disease-free areas and pound districts),
the Department of Municipal Affairs (descriptions for the incorporation or amendment of municipal areas), the Forest Service (descriptions of tree-farm licences and
working circles), and the Lands Branch (descriptions for gazetted reserves, etc.).
During the year 146 of the above descriptions were prepared, and this entailed 373
man-hours.
 CC 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
REPRODUCTION SECTION
The Legal Surveys Division, through this Section, continues to supply a service
to all departments of Government and to the public, as well as supplying all the
prints and photostats, etc., required by the Surveys and Mapping Branch. The
total number of prints made during the year was 268,779, which was an increase
of 33,631 over 1960, while in the preparation of these prints 131,500 yards or 74.7
miles of paper and linen were used. The number of photostats, films, and auto-
positives made was 68,932, which was an increase of 13,502 over the previous year.
It is interesting to note that of the 268,779 prints made during the year, 81,509
were for the Surveys and Mapping Branch, 77,720 for other branches of the Department of Lands and Forests, 98,104 for other departments of Government, and
11,436 for the public. Likewise, of the 68,932 photostats, films, etc., made, 32,849
were for the Surveys and Mapping Branch, 23,435 for the other branches of the
Department of Lands and Forests, 5,786 for the other departments of Government,
and 6,862 for the public.
The Barcro camera, which is a new addition to our facilities, was put into
operation in February and has proven to be a versatile and useful piece of equipment.
COMPOSITE MAP SECTION
This Section is responsible for the compilation and fair drawing of composite
maps, mostly at a scale of 500 feet to 1 inch, of the more thickly subdivided areas
of the Province, and especially where they occur in unorganized territory.
The project this year was mapping the northerly part of the Sechelt Peninsula
and the area south of Powell River. This is covered by thirty-nine sheets, and copies
of same are now available.
LAND EXAMINATION PLANS SECTION
This Section is responsible for the preparation of plans for the use of the Land
Inspectors in their examination of applications for Crown lands. These plans are
a consolidation of all the information available in this Department and pertinent to
the application requiring inspection. A synopsis of the work accomplished by this
Section during the past six years is as follows:—
Year Plans Prepared Year Plans Prepared
1956  2,340 1959  2,473
1957  2,290 1960  2,609
1958  2,192 1961  2,660
GENERAL
The IBM 650 computer has proved a real boon to this Division. During the
past year we have put the mathematical checking of all the field-notes, subdivision
plans, and right-of-way plans received in this office through the computer. Also all
of the computing for the routes, etc., necessary in the compilation of the composite
maps has been done by the IBM 650.
In April of this year the Victoria Land Registry Office was approached and
asked if they would acquiesce to a trial period in which the Legal Surveys Division
would undertake a mathematical check of all plans presented to that office for
deposit. This they readily agreed to, and prints of the plans presented to that office
were forwarded here, and one member of our staff undertook the duty of preparing
the data sheets and scrutinizing the returns from the electronic computer.   The trial
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
CC 45
period was successful, and this Division is now continuing on a permanent basis
the mathematical checking of all plans presented to the Victoria Land Registry
Office.
The receiving and distribution of survey posts, which are stored at 859
Devonshire Road, has operated smoothly and efficiently. The following synopsis
shows the quantities of posts shipped during the past year and to whom:—
Standard
Pipe
Standard
Rock
B.C.L.S.
Bars
Purchased by private surveyors from headquarters..  	
293
880
2,480
123
53
565
368
2,250
2,410
Totals 	
3,653
741
5,028
Summary of Office Work for the Years 1960 and 1961,
Legal Surveys Division
Number of field-books received	
lots surveyed	
lots plotted _	
lots gazetted	
lots cancelled	
lots amended	
mineral-claim field-books prepared...
reference maps compiled or renewed.
applications for purchase cleared	
applications for pre-emption cleared...
applications for lease cleared	
water licences cleared	
timber sales cleared	
Crown-grant applications cleared	
cancellations made	
inquiries cleared	
placer-mining leases plotted on maps.
letters received and dealt with	
land-examination plans	
Crown-grant and lease tracings made.
miscellaneous tracings made	
photostats made	
blue-prints made 	
I960
514
858
623
492
11
217
24
18
2,482
147
2,453
14
5,710
1,485
5,521
1,807
417
6,513
2,609
3,719
18
55,450
235,148
1961
457
631
453
445
14
157
38
11
2,368
196
2,988
125
5,605
1,129
5,272
1,578
324
6,247
2,660
4,106
6
68,932
268,779
FIELD WORK
Activity was maintained in the usual types of surveys carried out. An increased
effort was possible in restoration of old corners due to provision of additional funds
and the resultant allocation of one survey party to this important work. Assistance
in completing our field programme was forthcoming from the Topographic Division,
which made a surveyor, his assistant, and their equipment available for a season's
work on highway surveys, and another survey party made available by this Division
for a month's duration to carry out a survey in a remote area in which they were
located.
 CC 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Subdivisions of Crown Land
At Bear Lake on the John Hart Highway, where a small townsite was created
last year, an additional twenty-five lots were added, and a similar development in
the Willow River area at St. Mary Lake created forty-two town lots. A subdivision
at Merritt, where the interest is dependent on the copper-mining activity, brought
the total to ninety-nine town lots. Rural roadside lots almost doubled over last
year, totalling 206, at Port Alberni, Woss Lake, Mission Creek near Kelowna,
Invermere, Riske Creek, and at Williams Lake. Waterfrontage lots were slightly
down at 187, being surveyed at Christina Lake, Cheakamus River, Marshall Lake
in the Bralorne area, Tunkwa and Leighton Lakes on the high land south of Savona,
at Pilot Bay on Kootenay Lake, at East Barriere, Machete, and Meadow Lakes in
the Cariboo, and at Anahim Lake in the Chilcotin. Thirteen large acreage parcels
for various purposes were created at the Southern Okanagan Valley Lands Project,
at Sooke, and in the Three Valley Lakes area near Revelstoke.
Public, Recreational, and Special Reserves
Reserves for community sanitary use, recreational pursuits, and other special
purposes necessitated the surveying of thirty parcels. Most of these were in connection with subdivisions previously mentioned, but additional areas in which this
activity took place were at Rock Creek, Westbridge, the Richter Pass, Boswell, on
Grouse Island near Quadra Island, on the Mamquam River, at Albert Canyon in
the Rogers Pass area, and a lighthouse reserve site on Protection Island in Nanaimo
Harbour.
Park and Forestry Sites
Two park-sites, one of just over 8 acres at Prudhomme Lake near Prince
Rupert and one of 140 acres at Drywilliam Lake in the Fraser Lake area, were
surveyed for the Department of Recreation and Conservation, and two Forest Service
Ranger station sites were called for in the Willow River and Tunkwa Lake surveys.
Restoration Surveys
Remonumenting of old section and district lot corners in conjunction with
highway surveys resulted in 128 old corners being renewed to present standards.
In connection with other miscellaneous surveys previously mentioned, another
seventy-two old corners were renewed. The restoration survey party, which tackled
two areas at Chief Lake and around the Chilako River, accomplished the setting
of sixty-six district lot corners. These areas were selected because they were known
to be especially destitute of old corners, and, therefore, the progress is understandably moderate. Contact was maintained between our party and local surveyors in
order to plan our work to service the areas in which private surveys were required, in
an effort to keep costs down to the public. In addition to this district lot and section
activity, four small lots were completely reposted at Nanoose and Clinton, and about
forty blocks of lots at Fort Fraser townsite and at South Hazelton were reposted and
plans filed of the work in the Land Registry Offices. One hundred and sixty corners
were set in these two communities, which are expected to be of considerable assistance to local people in their boundary and survey problems. A further five blocks
of lots in Kaleden townsite were reposted by a private surveyor engaged by this
Division, to bring to light an ambiguous situation existing there.
 surveys and mapping branch cc 47
Inspections
Inspection survey work was continued at about the same pace as in previous
years. In the Victoria area a complaint that survey work was being performed by
unqualified personnel in responsible employ was investigated, and the situation has
been rectified. Two surveys, one at New Westminster and the other at Francois
Lake were inspected at the request of Registrars of the Land Registry Offices controlling those areas, and the questions involved in each case were resolved. Three
current surveys were inspected on the initiative of this Division at Metchosin,
Nanaimo, and Pender Harbour. The first two resulted from queries which became
apparent subsequent to the IBM plan-checking programme, and the last one was
prompted by a complaint from a private citizen. Correction to the surveys was
required in these three cases. An old survey at Pavilion which was suspect was
investigated and found to be correct, although surrounding data heretofore not
suspect was in error. Finally an inspection and report was made in the locality of
Vernon at the request of the Surveyors' Association. The variety of inspections
and the confidence established by this service makes the continuation of it very
worth while.
Highways
On the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway, the survey of last year which
terminated at Irishman Creek was continued westerly for 7.95 miles to Yahk. A
section of the new road from Christina Lake to Castlegar was terminated at Coryell,
a distance of 12.3 miles. A further break in the survey of the Southern Trans-
Provincial Highway of 7.42 miles was filled in at Rock Creek. On the Rogers Pass
section of the Trans-Canada Highway, 12.3 miles were completed, and west of
Revelstoke in the Three Valley section another 11.9 miles were accomplished.
Further work in both these sections is necessary next year. On the Northern Trans-
Provincial Highway, our trend of previous years was continued westerly from Fraser
Lake for 12.32 miles. Total mileage for the five highway survey parties was 69.19
miles.
 CC 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief
Field control was completed for TSVi standard National Topographic map-
sheets covering approximately 10,000 square miles. In addition, ten large-scale
projects were controlled in the McGregor River, Prince George, Quesnel, Hobson
Lake, Clearwater River, Fraser River, Kamloops, Nanaimo, Port Hardy, and
Nitinat areas.
A shortened field season was planned for this year. However, the return to
the Division of the motorship " B.C. Surveyor," a two-month helicopter contract,
and the choice of several easily controlled areas resulted in more map-sheets than
in a normal four-month season.
Early in May, while the Department's De Havilland Beaver was based at Port
Hardy during the course of duties for the Land Inspection Division, a fish-boat
collided with the plane, which was moored at the Department of Transport float,
and tore off a wing. The Engineering Section of the Forest Service co-operated
immediately by dispatching its self-propelled barge from Vancouver to transport the
crippled plane to Victoria, where the necessary repairs were to be made. Departmental mechanics did the work and made such excellent progress that only a few
days were lost when the Beaver failed to rendezvous at Prince George by the commencement date of the helicopter contract. An insurance claim is presently in the
course of being settled.
In the Photogrammetric Section, two National Topographic Series projects were
completed, totalling 3,638 square miles. In addition, there were twenty-one large-
scale plots, ranging in scale from 50 feet to 1,320 feet to 1 inch. These include
pondage maps, spot heighting, and large-scale detailed plots of the Essondale and
Tranquille sites.
The Draughting Section reports the completion of twenty-six standard topographic manuscripts at the scale of 2 inches to 1 mile, eighty large-scale mapping
plans at various scales, plus eight large plans at 20, 40, 50, and 100 feet to 1 inch
of the Nanaimo Vocational School, Victoria University-Gordon Head area, and
the Tranquille School. In addition, the plotting of the cadastral surveys on seventy
Federal Government 1:50,000 manuscripts was completed.
The Federal Government now has fifty-six of our 1:50,000 scale manuscripts
on hand for printing, which are in various stages of reproduction.
Copies of the multiplex large-scale mapping and the completed manuscripts
as shown on the indexes following this report are available upon request.
One field party, using the M.V. " B.C. Surveyor " for transportation and accommodation, completed photo identification of existing Coastal triangulation for use as
control for I6V2 National Topographic Series map-sheets {see Fig. 1). In addition,
strong ties were made between various Coast triangulation systems. During August,
eighteen days were spent surveying the right-of-way of a forest-development road
at the head of Kingcome Inlet, as well as a district lot in the same locality.
Another field party completed control for thirteen National Topographic Series
map-sheets west of Davie Lake and north of Stuart and Babine Lakes {see Fig. 2).
Use was made of a Bell G-2 helicopter, chartered from Vancouver Island Helicopters
Ltd. for two months, as well as the Department's De Havilland Beaver. Organized
as an all air-borne operation, it was difficult to substitute other methods of transportation when either aircraft was not available. This was particularly noticeable
when the Beaver was late in arriving at the commencement of the survey, during
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
CC 49
KITIMAT
SCALE
TELLUROMETER   STATIONS
COASTAL   TRIANGULATION
NAVIGATION     LIGHT
Fig. 1.
 CC 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the operation when smoke conditions curtailed flying, and again when the helicopter
was placed on forest fire duty. Tellurometers were used for distance measurement
and proved excellent.
GEODETIC  TRIANGULATION ,i
PROVINCIAL  TRIANGULATION    1
TELLUROMETER   STATIONS     •
Fig. 2.
A third field party commenced operations in mid-May, and by the end of
September had completed ten individual projects. In the McGregor River area,
use was obtained of a Bell G-2 helicopter which was on charter to Noranda Mines
Ltd. Noranda did not require the helicopter for a two-week period and allowed the
Branch to charter this at an hourly rate. It would have taken a great deal longer
to complete the work required in this rugged area without use of the helicopter.
A normally poor weather section and a rocky canyon at the lower reaches of the
river make this a difficult area in which to operate. An air-borne operation was,
however, able to take full advantage of the good weather and low-water conditions.
A further field party obtained control for six relatively small areas for large-
scale mapping at scales ranging from 40 to 500 feet to 1 inch. Three of these, the
Victoria College, the University Endowment Lands, and the Cowichan Lake Diversion, were priority jobs that were completed and ready for compilation as soon as
the field work on each one was finished.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH                                  CC 51
A final party worked on four projects for the Fraser River Board on the
Clearwater River and Hobson and Summit Lakes.    The projects involved were
either extensions of presently mapped areas or bedrock locations which had to be
tied to existing surveys.    The party co-operated with other Fraser River Board
personnel in the area, and supplied data on the spot when requested by the resident
engineer.
List of Large-scale Mapping
No.
Name
Available
Scale
Contour
Interval
No. of
Sheets
Date
X 1
S.P. 1
S.P. 2
S.P. 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
24
28
M2
M3
M4
M5
M6
M7
M8
M9
Mil
M 12
M13
M14
M15
M16
M17
M21
M24
M26
M27
M29
M30
M34
M36
M37
M38
M39
(1957)
M39
(1958)
M39
(1960)
M40
Goldfields	
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1"=800', 900"
1,000', 1,320'
1"=200', 600'
1"= 1,000'
1"= 1,000'
1"=20 ch.
l"=   550'
l"=10ch.
l"=10ch.
l"=10ch.
1"=1,300'
l"=13ch.
1"=   100'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
V-   100'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=1,320'
1"=   200'
1"=   200'
1"=   400'
1"=   400'
1"=1,320'
\"=   400'
V-   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"= 1,320'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
V—   500'
1"=   300'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   400'
1"=   200'
1"=   500'
1"=1,000'
1"= 1,000'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
\"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   600'
100'
Mosaic
5'-50' then 50'
5'-50' then 50'
20'
20'
100'
50'
so-
so'
500'
5'
50'
20'-40'
5'
50'
10'-20'
20'-40'
50'
5'
Spot heights
5'-10'-25'
5'-10'-20'
100'
20'-100'
20/-40'
20'-40'
50'
50'
20'-40'
20'-40'
20'-40'
50'
20'
20'
50'
20'-40'
10'
10'
10'
20'
5'-10'-15'
20'-40'
10'
5'-10'-20'
20'
10'
Planimetric
10'-20'
20'-40'
20'-40'
20'-40'
20'
10'
1C-20'
20'
18
20
(1)
13
1
1
38
8
6
1957
1958
1952
1951/52
1950
1951/52
1951
1952/53
1951
1951/52
1952
1952
1952
1953
1951
Richmond	
Lawless Creek.  	
Salmo -  	
Moran Pondage	
Fraser Pondage  	
Gulf Islands         	
13         |        1953
1        1953
28
73
2
7
("2")
11
12
8
6
6
1
1
26
3
39
8
23
11
5
2
7
7
20
8
11
2
4
2
4
5
3
9
1953
1953/54
1953/54
1953/54
1953/54
1954
1954/55
1955
1955
1955
1955
1955/56
1956
1956
1955
1955
1954
1954
1954
1956
1954
1955
1956
1958
1956
1956
1957
1957
1956/57
1956/57
1956/57
Doukhobor Lands—
Krestova-Raspberry, Bril-
Agassiz (Extension) 	
Upper McGregor River	
Sinclair Mills 	
Moran-Lytton  	
Penticton-Osoyoos	
Lower McGregor River	
Creston 	
Clearwater	
Taghum 	
Naramata 	
Fruitvale 	
Dease-Stikine Dam-sites
Dease-Stikine Dam-sites
16        |       1959
40                1960
7        j       1956
lOne(Map5E).            2 See No. 17.
 CC 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
List of Large-scale Mapping—Continued
No.
Name
Available
Scale
Contour
Interval
No. of
Sheets
Date
M41
M42
Summit Lake Diversion	
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
1"= 1,000'
1"=   600'
1"=1,320'
1"=   200'
1"=   200'
1"=   500'
1"=2,640'
1"=   500'
1"=1,320'
1"=   500'
1"=1,320'
1"= 1,320'
1"=   400'
1"=   400'
1"=1,320'
1"= 1,320'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   200'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"—1,000'
1"=   300'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   250'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
V—   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,320'
1"=   100'
1"=   200'
1"=   500'
1"=     40'
1"=     20'
1"=     20'
1"=     40'
1"=     40'
1"=     50'
1"=   100'
1"=     50'
1"=   100'
20'
20'
50'
5'
5'
50'
100'
20'
20'
10'
20'-2,600' then 50'
20'
10'
10'
20'
25'
20'
10'
10'
10'-20'
10'-20'
20'
20'
5'
20'
5'
20'
10'
20'
Planimetry
5'
5'-10'
20'
10'
10'-20'
10'-20'
20'
2'
10'-20
10'
2'
2'
2' and 5'
2'
2'
2'
Spot heights
2'
2'
3
10
2
8
17
1
10
2
2
613
10*
10
4
3
10
48
5
1
25
20
17
5
14
15
4
5
12
4
4
4
9
3
3
1
2
5
5
4
4
2
2'
3
1958
1957
M43
Alert Bay     	
1956
M44
M45
Prince George East	
1958
1958
M52
1959
M 54
Big Bar
1957
M56
1958
M59
1958
M62
M63
Alberni     	
1958
1958
M63
1961
M66
1958
M67
1958
M68
1958
M70
M73
Courtenay-Comox	
1958
1959
M73
1959
M74
1959
M75
M76
M77
Duncan  	
Nanaimo	
1959
1960
1960
M88
M89
M89
North Thompson	
1960
1960
M90
M92
Similkameen
1960
M98
1960
M 107
1961
M 108
1961
Mill
M 113
M 117
Clearwater River Dam-site
Nanaimo	
1961
M117
M118
M 121
Nitinat  	
Winfleld        	
1962
1961
M122
M125
Stuart Lake Pondage   	
1962
1962
M126
M 127
M129
1962
M84
M83
Government House Grounds
Victoria University Campus
Victoria University, Gordon
Head 	
Oakalla	
1959
1960
1960/61
1960
M 100
1962
M 100
1962
M114
M114
Tranquille—  	
Tranquille 	
1962
1962
3 South area.
* North area.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
CC 53
List of British Columbia Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed
Date
.1951, 1960
.1944, 1947
 1952
 1952
 1958
 1958
 1959
 1959
 1959
Sheet
82 F/3  -	
82 F/4  -  	
82 K/ll, W.	
82 K/12  _ _	
82 L/7 -	
82 L/10	
82 M/13 	
83 D/4 	
83 D/5    	
83 D/12 .1959, 1960
83 D/13, W.  1960
92 B/5   1937,1938, 1955
92 B/6, W   1955
92 B/ll, W  1955
92 B/12   1938, 1955
92 B/13  _   1942,1943,1951
92 B/14   1951
92 C/8    1937, 1938
92 C/9  .1937, 1938
92 C/10  1937,1938
92 C/ll  _  1938
92 C/13     1938
92 C/14  _    1938
92 C/15 _ 1937, 1938
92 C/16   1937, 1938, 1942
92 E/l     1942
92 E/7   _  1946
92 E/8       1943, 1946
92 E/9  _   1938, 1946, 1947
92 E/10  1947
92 E/14   _ ....1948
92 E/16 _ 1947
92 F/l    1942
92 F/2 1938, 1940,1942
92 F/3 1938, 1940, 1941
92 F/4  1942
92 F/5   1937, 1938, 1943
92 F/6    .......1937, 1940, 1941, 1943
92 F/7     .1942, 1943
92 F/8      1942, 1943, 1950
92 F/9       1950
92 F/10  1950, 1953
92 F/ll    _ _ 1934, 1935
92 F/12  - _ ....._ 1936, 1937, 1938
92 F/13   - 1935,1936
92 F/14 ._ 1935
92 F/15, part  1950
92 F/16, part ___   —.1950
92 G/4 -—-    1942, 1943
92 G/5 - 1950, 1952
92 G/7, part ....1940
92 G/10, part _ _  1940
92 G/l 1    1952
92 G/12   _ _ .1950, 1952
92 G/13   -1950, 1952
92 G/14    1952
92 H/l    1920, 1923, 1949
92 H/2      1923, 1949
92 H/3     1924, 1931, 1948, 1949
92 H/4     1948, 1956
92 1/12    1958
92 1/13  _ -  1958
92 J/15    ....1948, 1949
92 J/16  .._ 1948, 1949
92 K/l, part    1950
92 K/2, W   _  1961
92 K/3    1949
92 K/4    _  1949
92 K/5 _  1949
92 K/6      1949
92 K/7    1961
92 L/l  _ --1932
92 L/2      1931, 1932
92 L/3  -- — _..1948
92 L/4      1948
92 L/6    -1931, 1934
92 L/7    1931
92 L/8  -1931, 1932
-193L
Sheet
92 L/10 —.  	
92 L/l 1	
92 L/12 -	
92 L/13  - 1936
Date
1940, 1956
......1940
1936
.1935,
92 M/3  _..	
92 M/4   	
92 M/5  	
92 N/1	
92 N/7   	
92 N/8 	
92 N/9 	
92 N/10	
92 N/15 	
92 O/l _	
92 0/2  	
92 0/3  -	
92 0/4   	
92 0/5  	
92 0/6  	
92 0/7  _	
92 0/8   	
92 0/9  	
92 O/10  	
92 O/ll -  	
92 0/12  _	
92 0/16   	
92 P/2   	
92 P/3   _	
92 P/4    	
92 P/5     	
92 P/6   _
92 P/7	
92 P/10   	
92 P/ll    _	
92 P/12   - 1958
92 P/13   ._   1958
92 P/14 1959
92 P/15    1959
92 P/16 1959
93 A/1      1959
93 A/2     1936, 1959, 1960
93 A/3      - 1959, 1960
93 A/4  _   - 1959
93 A/5      1935
93 A/6 ..1935
93 A/7 . -.   1936, 1959, 1960
93 A/8 ......   -- 1959
93 A/9  -    1959, 1960
93 A/10 -  1934, 1960
93 A/11   _.1933, 1934
93 A/12     1931, 1933, 1934
93 A/13  1934
93 A/14 - 1933, 1934
93 A/15  - - 1934, 1960
93 A/16     1960
93 B/l       1951
93 B/8      1952
93 B/9   _  1950
93 B/16    1950
93 C/5    1959
93 D/7, E   1958
..1959
 1959
 1959
 1958
 1958
 1958
 1958
 1958
 1958
 1950
 1947
 1958
 1958
 1958
 1958
.1950, 1958
 1950
 1951
 ......1958
 1958
 1958
 1951
  1959
 1959
 1958
 1958
 1959
_ 1959
 1959
 1959
93 D/8
93 G/2 ..
93 G/3 ..
93 G/4 ..
93 G/5 ..
93 G/6 ..
93 G/7 ..
93 G/10
93 G/ll
93 G/12
93 G/14
93 1/8 ...
93 1/9 ....
93 1/10 .
93 1/11 ..
93 1/12 ..
93 1/13 .
.1958, 1959
.1933, 1960
 1960
 1960
 _...1960
 1960
.1933, 1960
 1960
 1960
 1960
 1948
 1956
 1956
 1956
 1957
 1957
 1957
 CC 54
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
List of British Columbia Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed—Continued
Sheet
93 1/14 	
93 1/15 	
93 1/16 .......
93 J/2 	
93 J/3 -	
93 J/5 	
93 J/6 _ -
93 J/11	
93 J/12 _	
93 J/13 ......
93 K/l 	
93 K/2 .	
93 K/7 ......
93 K/8 _	
93 K/9 -	
93 K/10 -.-
93 K/ll 	
93 K/12 .	
93 K/13 	
93 K/14	
93 K/l5 .-..
93 K/16	
93 L/2 	
93 L/7 	
93 L/8 	
93 L/9 	
93 L/10 ......
93 L/ll 	
93 L/14 	
93 M/5 .	
93 M/12	
93 O/l  	
93 0/4  	
93 0/5  .	
93 0/6 	
93 0/8  .	
93 O/ll
93 0/12 	
93 0/13 	
93 0/14 ......
93 P/l 	
93 P/2 	
93 P/3 	
93 P/4 	
93 P/5 	
93 P/6 	
93 P/7 	
93 P/8 	
94 B/4 	
94 C, part ..
94 E, part ~
94 F, part ..
94 L, part _
94 M, part
102 1/8
102 1/9 .	
102 1/15 	
102 1/16 	
102 P/8, E.
102 P/9, E.
Date
. 1957
 1956
. 1956
. 1949
. 1949
. 1961
 1961
 1961
 1961
......1961
 1946
. 1946
 1960
. 1960
 1960
— -I960
.......1961
 1961
. 1961
.......1961
 1961
 1961
 1951
 1951
 1951
. 1951
.1950, 1951
 1950
 1950
 1949
 1949
 1957
 1961
 1961
._ 1957
 1957
 1957
 1957
 1957
 1957
 1956
 1956
 1957
_. —1957
 1957
 ...1957
 1956
  1956
„;....1939,1957
  1939
  1939
  1939
_1940,1941
 1941
 ...1935, 1937
.1935, 1936, 1937
   1937
..1936, 1937
 1961
 1961
Sheet Date
102 P/16  1961
103 A/1    1961
103 A/2, E.  1961
103 A/8 --    1961
103 A/9  1961
103 A/13, E _  1961
103 G/l, E    _ -.1961
103 G/7, E   1961
103 G/8   1961
103 G/9  _  1961
103 G/10, E.    1961
103 G/16, E   1961
103 G/16   1961
103 H/3    1961
103 H/4     1961
103 H/5 1961
103 H/6   1961
103 1/2    1949
103 1/7   1948
103 1/10      1947
103 P/9     1949
103 P/10, E   1950
103 P/14, E    1950
103 P/15    1950
104 A/2, W  1950
104 A/3  1950
104 A/5, E.  1950
104 A/6  _  1950
104 A/11, W  1951
104 A/12    1951
104 A/13, W. _..  1951
104 B/16     1951
104 G/l  1951
104 G/8 1951
104 G/9    1951
104 G/14    1951
104 G/15    1951
104 G/16   -  1951
104 H/12, W 1951
104 H/13, W    1951
104   J/2, W    1952
104 J/3    1952
104 J/4  1952
104 J/5    —  1952
104 J/12   1952
104 J/13    1952
104 K/16, E.    1952,1953
104 N/1      1952, 1953
104 N/2    1953
104 N/3, E.    1953
104 N/5     1952
104 N/6    1952, 1953
104 N/7, part  1953
104 N/11, W.    1952
104 N/12   _  1952
104 N/13     1952
104 P, part   1941
104 P/15  1941
104 P/16, part    1941
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH CC 55
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
W. R. Young, B.C.L.S., Chief, and Provincial Representative on
Canadian Permanent Committee on Geographical Names
The Geographic Division not only continued to maintain the usual flow of
published maps and computations, but also introduced new techniques and assumed
new responsibilities in 1961. Among the innovations was a new method of classifying roads on certain Provincial maps at l-inch-to-2-miles and 1:250,000 scale, and
checking well-site surveys made under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act.
During 1961 there was no net increase or decrease in staff. However, one
senior cartographer resigned to accept a posting with a United Nations technical
assistance mission in Somalia, while one vacancy was filled at the junior cartographer
level. As indicated in Table F of the statistical tables following this written report,
the volume of correspondence handled increased by a wide margin (one-quarter)
over the previous year.
On July 13, 1961, the Government of Canada, by Order in Council, established
a new body in lieu of the Canadian Board on Geographical Names. While retaining
many of the terms of reference of the former Board, the new group, designated the
" Canadian Permanent Committee on Geographical Names," was to be somewhat
broader in scope. Provision was made for creation of a research section, which,
acting under the Committee's instructions, would be responsible for matters of
research and investigation pertaining to place-names.
Later in the year the writer was honoured to be appointed by Provincial Order
in Council as representative for British Columbia on the Canadian Permanent Committee on Geographical Names.
New regulations (Order in Council No. 2033/61) governing the survey of
well-sites under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act became effective in September,
and it was arranged that the Geographic Division would receive and examine all
well-site survey plans to see that they conformed to the standard of accuracy required
by the regulations. In co-operation with the Legal Surveys Division, a system was
devised for checking the accuracy of the field survey and the scale and format of
the submitted plan. Checking, which is done by the Trigonometric Control Section,
accounted for sixty-seven plans by the end of the year.
The above procedure adds considerably to the work of the Trigonometric
Control Section. In many cases, well-site surveys are commenced from a point on
a surveyed oil or gas pipe-line right-of-way, and before the survey check can proceed
it is necessary to obtain the right-of-way survey plan in order to calculate an
adjusted position for the point of commencement. One man has been employed
full-time on examination of well-site plans, and occasionally one or even two more
are necessary in order to facilitate prompt return of the plans to the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Branch of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources. Besides
this new responsibility, the Trigonometric Control Section maintained its usual task
of determining least-scale triangulation adjustments and other types of computation
{see Tables A and B).
The Research Assistant made minor revisions to two Land Series bulletins,
Prince Rupert-Smithers Bulletin Area (No. 8) and Okanagan Bulletin Area (No.
2). Two new bulletins were distributed, Atlin Bulletin Area (No. 9) and The
Acquisition of Crown Lands in British Columbia. In December, 1961, the manuscript of a completely revised and standardized Peace River Bulletin (No. 10) was
submitted for printing in 1962.    Since work on the new series of land bulletins
 CC 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
commenced in 1952, a total of 112,000 of these booklets has been printed for
distribution.
Seven Provincial topographic manuscripts were checked for cultural detail and
place-names and sent to Ottawa, where they were added to stocks on hand awaiting
reproduction {see Table J).
Ottawa mapping agencies supplied lithographed stocks of eight new 1:50,000
scale sheets and six reprints compiled by the Provincial Surveys and Mapping
Branch. These are listed in Table H. An additional seventy-one National Topographic maps of British Columbia at 1:50,000 scale were edited by Ottawa, of
which nine were two-colour provisional sheets. Major stocks were received of
twenty-four of the aforementioned maps. Three maps of the 1:250,000 scale
National Topographic Series were also received from Ottawa. Stocks of a new
series of large-scale (1:25,000) maps were produced by the Army Survey Establishment. During 1961 fifteen sheets were received covering parts of metropolitan
Victoria and metropolitan Vancouver. This new series should be of particular
interest to those engaged in planning and in regional studies of small areas.
Provincial mapping by Geographic Division continued apace. Seven new
editions of maps appeared and five others were reprinted {see Table G). The fifth
sheet of the popular 1-inch-to-10-miles regional series was released in three editions
—planimetric, grey landforms, and special brown landforms. The area covered
by this new map is North-eastern British Columbia. Other mapping accomplishments included two completely new land-status maps at 1:250,000 scale, these
being Nootka Sound (92e) and Taseko Lakes (92o) and two land-status maps
at l-inch-to-2-miles scale—namely, Kaslo (82F/NE) and Nakusp (82K/SW).
Continuing demands for maps showing land status necessitated the reprinting, with
or without revision, of two maps at l-inch-to-2-miles scale, one at l-inch-to-3-miles
scale, and one at 1:250,000 scale. Also reprinted was a planimetric edition of West
Central British Columbia (Map If).
As the result of concentrating mainly on land-status editions at l-inch-to-2-
miles scale, the results of the ten-year interval since mapping began at 1:250,000
scale are now being felt. Ten of the latter sheets are due for replacement, all of
which have either gone out of print or nearly so. Six of the replacement sheets
are in hand {see Table I), and compilation of the remainder must soon be started.
A good proportion of the restatusing has involved areas of South-western British
Columbia, where the density of settlement is particularly high and, therefore, the
extent of land alienated from the Crown is correspondingly large.
In order to facilitate identification of private access roads, a new code key was
devised for use on maps at l-inch-to-2-miles and 1:250,000 scale. This extra
refinement is designed to aid the public when travelling off the network of main
roads and also improves the legibility of the map.
Field work in the form of a culture check was performed in the East Kootenay
area between Cranbrook and Harrogate. The results will be shown on four new
l-inch-to-2-miles sheets, 82 G/NW, 82 J/NW, 82 J/SW, and 82 K/NE, and on
the east half of 82 K/SE. The new maps will replace portions of the old Degree
Series sheets, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4f, and 4g.
Routine stock handling, map editing, and miscellaneous clerical and cartographic work all showed substantial increases over 1960. Seventy-four sheets and
charts were checked for geographical names and cultural detail, while 360 new
names were accumulated in the Gazetteer records. A total of 87,198 maps, valued
at $32,936, was distributed to various Government departments and to the general
public.   Both the aforementioned figures represent all-time records for the Division.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
CC 57
In addition to assembling, publishing, and distributing of the Lands Service Annual
Report, a total of twenty-two mapping jobs was completed for various Government
departments and the general public, for a value of $1,452. Of special note was
the production of an Air Facilities Map of British Columbia. This map, which is
distributed through the offices of the British Columbia Aviation Council, used
Provincial Map 1j (l-inch-to-30-miles scale) as a base with an overprint showing
airports, airstrips, and other details of interest to pilots. The reverse side of the
sheet contains a numerical index to the airports and airstrips shown on the
map face, location of these by co-ordinates, length of runways, etc., and pertinent
information relating to flying in British Columbia.
A statistical summary of the work completed by the Geographic Division may
be found in Tables A to J below. For convenience, Indexes to Published Maps
(Nos. 8 to 14), which list information concerning prices, dates of publication, and
how to order maps, are contained in the envelope attached to the back cover of this
Annual Report.
STATISTICAL COMPUTATIONS
Table A.—Least-square Triangulation Adjustments Completed
Net
Locality
Type of
Bearings
Number of
Triangles
Involved
Provincial Main -  	
Provincial Main - 	
Provincial Main  __.
Canadian Hydrographic Service
Canadian Hydrographic Service-
Tie Triangulation, Alaska Highway..
Stuart Lake and vicinity-
Skeena River to Takla Lake (revision)-.
Mathieson and Seaforth Channels -	
Prince Rupert Harbour and approaches..
True
True
True
Grid
Grid
20
27
31
48
56
The following tables give comparison with the previous five-year period:-
Table B.
—Computations
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
Triangles adjusted by least squares —  —	
Stations calculated from rectangular co-ordinates
814
536
32
82
1,093
888
24,652
461
567
669
562
918
542
806
543
891
73
174
251
1,419
551
30,444
349
182
168
201
Ties to cadastral surveys- -  	
70
325
1,637
613
26,289
403
22
378
1,173
1,297
27,462
397
24
133
1,563
945
29,025
383
113
128
Index cards—
1,930
149
32,374
333
Table C.—Canadian Permanent Committee on Geographical Names
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
61
6,664
247
54
8,884
306
49
4,698
278
51
6,321
372
41
4,949
322
74
7,837
Number of new names recorded       	
360
 CC 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table D.—Map Stock and Distribution
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
Maps issued to departments and public
Maps received into stock	
Total value of maps issued 	
59,290
129,901
$20,523
55,167
181,412
$20,441
62,544
117,729
$21,911
78,074
92,374
$27,117
68,518
175,495
$24,378
87,198
126,502
$32,936
Table E.—Geographical Work for Other Departments and Public
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
84
$2,687
86
$2,654
55
$1,447
20
$2,754
18
$1,370
22
$1,452
Table F.—Letters
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
5,419
5,516
6,545
6,865
6,929
8,670
Table G.—Maps Reproduced and Printed by the Geographic Division, Victoria,
during 1961
Map. No.
Name
Scale
Remarks
Id
lDL
lDLS
If
30
92E
92o
93d
82 F/NE
82 K/SW
82 L/SW
92 1/SE
North-eastern British Columbia, planimetric	
North-eastern British Columbia, landforms	
North-eastern British Columbia, landforms in
brown  	
West Central British Columbia, planimetric-
Quesnel..
Nootka Sound (first status edition)..
Taseko Lakes (first status edition).-
Bella Coola (first status edition)	
Kaslo (first status edition)	
Nakusp (first status edition)	
Vernon (second edition)..
Merritt (second status edition)..
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 3 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 ml.
1 in. to 2 mi.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
Reprint, minor revisions.
Reprint, no revision.
New, seven colours, contoured.
New, seven colours, contoured.
Reprint, no revision.
New, seven colours, contoured.
New, seven colours, contoured.
Status overprint, no revision.
Complete revision.
Table H.—Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Reproduced and
Printed at 1:50,000 Scale by the Canadian Government, Ottawa, during 1961
Map No.
Name
Map No.
Name
92B/13, E. &W.
92C/16.E. &W.
92F/11, E. &W.
92 H/3, E. & W.
Duncan (second edition reprint).
Cowichan Lake (first edition reprint).
Forbidden Plateau (second edition
reprint).
Skagit (second edition).
92 O/l, E. & W.
92 0/8, E. & W.
104H/12.W.
104H/13.W.
Yalakom River (first edition).
Empire Valley (first edition).
Kluea Lake (first edition)
Ealue Lake (first edition).
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
CC 59
Table I.—Maps Being Reproduced by the Geographic Division, Victoria,
during 1961
Map No.
Name
Scale
Remarks
1b
92B/C
92P
92G
92j
93d
103 I/J
82 F/NW
82 F/SE
82 G/NW-NE
82 G/SE
82 G/SW
82 K/SE
North-western British Columbia-
Victoria (first status edition)	
Alberni (second status edition) _
Vancouver (second status edition)	
Pemberton (second status edition)	
Bella Coola (second status edition)	
Prince Rupert (second status edition)-
Slocan (first status edition) 	
Creston (first status edition)	
Cranbrook (first status edition)	
Flathead (first status edition) 	
Elko (first status edition) 	
Lardeau (first status edition)	
1 in. to 10 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
In draughting.
Draughting complete.
Draughting complete.
In draughting.
In compilation.
In draughting.
In compilation.
In draughting.
In draughting.
In compilation.
In compilation.
In draughting.
In compilation.
Table J.—Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Being Reproduced at
1:50,000 Scale by the Canadian Government, Ottawa, during 1961
Map No.
Name
Map No.
Name
82 F/3, E. & W.
Salmo (secondedition).
93 P/2, E. & W.
Flatbed Creek (first edition).
82K/11.W.
Trout Lake (first edition).
93 P/3, E. & W.
BullmooseCreek (first edition).
82K/12.E. &W.
Beaton (first edition).
93 P/4, E. & W.
Sukunka Creek (first edition).
92J/15, E. &W.
Bralorne (first edition).
93 P/5, E. & W.
Burnt River (first edition).
92 J/16, E. & W.
Bridge River (first edition).
93 P/6, E. & W.
Gwillim Lake (first edition).
92 L/10, E. & W.
Alert Bay (first edition).
93 P/7, E. & W.
Sundown Creek (first edition).
92M/3, E. &W.
Belize Inlet (first edition).
93 P/8, E. & W.
Tupper Creek (first edition).
92M/4, E. &W.
Cape Caution (first edition).
104 A/2, W.
Kwinageese River (first edition).
92 M/5, E. & W.
Goose Bay (first edition).
104 A/5, W.
Bowser Lake (first edition).
92 0/9, E. &W.
Dog Creek (first edition).
104 A/6, E. & W.
Bell-Irving River (first edition).
93C/5, E. &W.
Atnarko (first edition).
104 A/11, W.
Taft Creek (first edition).
93 D/7, E.
Bella Coola (first edition).
104 A/12, E. & W.
Delta Peak (first edition).
93 D/8, E. & W.
Stuie (first edition).
104 A/13, W.
Mount Alger (first edition).
93 1/8, E.&W.
Narraway River (first edition).
104 B/16, E.&W.
Bob Quinn Lake (first edition).
93 1/9, E. & W.
Belcourt Creek (first edition).
104 K/16, E.
Nahlin River (first edition).
93 1/10, E. & W.
Wapiti Lake (first edition).
104 N/2, E. & W.
Nakina (first edition).
93 1/15, E.&W.
Kinuseo Creek (first edition).
104 N/1, E.&W.
NakinaLake (first edition).
93 1/16, E. & W.
Redwillow River (first edition).
104 N/3, E.
Sloko River (first edition).
93 P/l, E. & W.
Kiskatinaw River (first edition).
 CC 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
AIR DIVISION
W. Hall, P.Eng., B.C.R.F., Chief
The work of the Air Division for the year 1961 continued in much the same
pattern as established in 1960.
The air-photography operations carried out during the summer months totalled
12,357 square miles of photography for various mapping projects and 2,762 lineal
miles of photography for various purposes, including map revision for the Geographic Division, road reconnaissance for Forest Engineering, and cross flights to
be used by the Topographic Division for bridging or air triangulation.
The Mapping and Compilation Sections produced 20,000 square miles of
slotted templet lay-downs and 14,600 square miles of detail plotting of cadastral,
highway, railway, transmission, and pipe-line surveys. This plotting is done at the
scale of 1 inch to 20 chains for the Forest Surveys and Inventory Division current
programme of producing surveys of the public working circle areas established
throughout the Province.
The Processing Laboratory maintained its normal production of nearly 150,000
standard 9- by 9-inch prints and 2,000 other types, including enlargements. Because
of the increased demand for reprints and the necessity of maintaining a complete
stock of prints available in the Air Photo Library, a backlog of 40,000 requests for
reprints existed at the end of the year. Inasmuch as the amount of new photography
obtained during the 1961 summer season was below average, it is hoped that this
backlog can be substantially reduced during 1962.
The Air Photo Library continued to be most active, and the loan traffic to the
general public was above that of 1960, a total of 13,399 prints being sent out on
loan during the year as against 11,840 during 1960. This was partially offset by
a decrease in the number of reprints supplied to the general public, which decreased
from a total of 49,627 prints in 1960 to a total of 34,659 prints supplied in 1961.
The total traffic handled through the Air Photo Library amounted to 149,820
reprints and 34,466 prints on loan.
In the report of this Division for last year, it was mentioned that the possibility
of having to obtain replacements for the two Anson V aircraft was being given
serious consideration.
It developed during the annual inspection routinely conducted during the
winter that such replacements were more urgent than had been suspected, inasmuch as the inspection revealed that aircraft CF-EZN had developed extensive rot
in the wood forming the structure of the centre section of the fuselage. While it
would have been possible to rebuild the section, such a project would have been a
major undertaking and no guarantee could be given that similar deterioration would
not recur.
It was decided, therefore, to purchase two Beechcraft D18S (Expeditor) aircraft which had been declared surplus by the Royal Canadian Air Force and carry
out the necessary modifications on one of them to replace Anson V CF-EZN for the
summer operations of 1961.
This was done at the Government hangar at the Victoria International Airport, and although the work of modifying the aircraft for air photography took
much longer than anticipated, the aircraft was put into operational use toward the
end of the season and proved to be most successful for the type of work required.
Another item of interest was the acquisition of two O.S.C. air cameras on loan
from the Royal Canadian Air Force.    These were obtained on a trial basis and
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH CC 61
proved to be most suitable for forest inventory and general reconnaissance purposes. They are subject to a minimum of mechanical trouble, and the negatives
obtained by them are of excellent quality. It is hoped these cameras can be
retained on a permanent basis in the future.
Details of the Air Division's activities and accomplishments during the year
are given in the following reports, tables, and maps.
AIR OPERATIONS
The highlights of the year were the obtaining of two aircraft to replace the
Anson V types that have been in constant service with the Air Division since 1947,
and two air cameras to replace the F-24 cameras which had been modified in the
Air Division Instrument-shop for use on the forest inventory programme.
The obsolescence of the two Anson V aircraft has been anticipated for some
time, and many types of aircraft were investigated as possible replacements. These
investigations indicated that the Beechcraft D18S (Expeditor) aircraft would, with
suitable modification, have the necessary performance for the type of work required.
The first Beechcraft DISS, CF-BCE, was overhauled and modified at the
Provincial Government hangar at the Victoria International Airport, and, after some
delays, was put into operation early in September. Subsequently a total of sixty-
nine hours was flown by this aircraft, forty-four of which were on air photography,
and its performance has been most gratifying. While it is not as roomy nor as stable
as the Anson, it has a faster rate of climb and a 20-per-cent higher cruising speed,
and there is every indication that it will be most suitable for the work required.
In order to meet the need for better-quality photos for the Forest Surveys,
as mentioned in last year's report, two O.S.C. cameras were obtained on loan from
the Royal Canadian Air Force and put into service during the summer. This
camera is fitted with Ross Xpres 12-inch focal length f. 5.6 lens and a Williamson
Kinetric sector shutter and is completely automatic. Over 7,000 exposures were
made with these two cameras, and the results were excellent. The cameras gave
a minimum of trouble mechanically and produced negatives of superlative quality.
Despite the fact that only one aircraft was operational for the greater part of
the season, 426 hours of flying were obtained, and 17,116 photographs covering
over eighty different projects were taken.
A total of 10,745 square miles of l-inch-to-20 chains scale coverage was
obtained for Forest Surveys, 1,460 square miles of which were done on contract
by a commercial company; 841 lineal miles of reconnaissance photography for
Forest Engineering were flown, mainly for road-location and bridge-site study purposes; 2,766 square miles of block cover for mapping and 328 lineal miles of tie
strips for bridging, using the Wild A-7 plotter, were flown for the Topographic
Division; 306 square miles of l-inch-to-20-chains photography, covering four large
areas damaged by forest fires, were flown for the Forest Service district offices; and
1,457 lineal miles were flown and photographed in connection with map revision.
For details of air operations, see table on pages 64 to 66, inclusive.
MAP COMPILATION
The main effort of the mapping sections continued to be concentrated on the
production of air-photo and base-map compilations at a scale of 1 inch to 20 chains
for use by the Forest Surveys and Inventory Division.
Over 20,000 photographs, covering 20,000 square miles, were plotted by the
slotted templet method, and 14,600 square miles of ground surveys were compiled
 CC 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
during the year.   In addition to this, some 1,550 square miles covering thirty-three
sheets of final tracings were produced.
It will be noted that the area for which ground surveys were compiled during
the year amounted to 14,600 square miles, as compared to 6,130 square miles
completed during 1960. The increase in area completed in 1961 was partially due
to the limited amount of cadastral surveys existing in much of the area of interest.
In the area south-west of Prince George, for example, the compilation of base
sheets can be completed in a quarter of the time required to compile a similar
size area in the Trail-Rossland district. The filling of staff vacancies, which had
existed in the early part of 1960, also contributed to the larger area completed
during 1961.
AIR PHOTO LIBRARY
The Air Photo Library again reports a busy year in serving the public as
well as other Government departments. The total reprints handled was some 5,000
less than in 1960, but an increase of over 6,000 prints was noted in the traffic of
the loan service. Nearly 150,000 reprints were handled and some 34,000 prints
were loaned during the year.
A decrease of some 15,000 reprints sold to the public, mostly to the forest
industries and the oil and natural-gas industries, was partially offset by an increase
of some 10,000 reprints supplied to Government departments. The Federal Government, for example, purchased over 4,000 reprints, as compared to 1,845 in 1960.
Toward the end of the year the prices of reprints and enlargements were
increased and are now at the same rate as the prices charged by the National Air
Photo Library in Ottawa.
With the new l-inch-to-20-chains photography it became necessary to use
a larger-scale index map. While the l-inch-to-4-miles sheets for the 40-chain
photography are still in use, 145 l-inch-to-2-miles sheets have been required to
properly index this new photography. A total of some 350 index maps is now in
use, and 3,465 Ozalid copies were distributed during the year.
PROCESSING LABORATORY
Since this Division was first established, the greater amount of reprints produced were made from 5- by 5-inch negatives enlarged to 9- by 9-inch prints. This
year, with the new O.S.C. camera and the R.C. 8 camera, both using a 9- by 9-inch
negative, the production of contact prints has greatly increased. Nearly 23,000
contact prints were made this year, as compared to about 6,000 in 1960. Considering the out-of-date equipment used for film development and contact printing, the
laboratory staff did an excellent job. However, new and up-to-date equipment will
be available for this coming summer's work, when we anticipate a further increase
in the production of contact prints.
INSTRUMENT-SHOP
Considerable effort was expended by the shop personnel on designing and
building a camera hatch in the new Beech aircraft. A new camera mount which
could handle both the R.C. 8 and O.S.C. cameras was built and installed in the
aircraft. A new intervalometer and control system for the cameras is being designed
at present, and we expect to have this in operation for the 1962 flying season.
Development work on a new precision printer, designed to utilize the older
5-inch negatives, is continuing.   Due to other more urgent work, very little progress
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
CC 63
can be reported on the new Logetron printer, but it is hoped that work will again
be started on this equipment during the coming year.
Co-operation with and assistance to other departments can again be reported
from our shop. Modifying snow measuring tubes for the Water Rights Branch,
construction of weather recording instruments for the Forest Service, and calibrating
cruising prisms for the Forest Surveys and Inventory Division are just a few of the
many outside projects taken on by our Instrument-shop.
STATISTICAL TABLES
Orders for Standard Prints (9 by 9 Inches) from
British Columbia Negatives, 1961
Reprints
Loans
Requisitions
Number
Requisitions
Number
Public-
Individuals  —   —
779
41
134
19
52
10
85
321
33
4,999
266
10,966
4,228
1,399
192
7,246
5,228
135
409
26
68
3
22
4
43
129
41
5,785
429
Mining —  	
Oil and natural gas  - —
2,672
79
1,611
28
Commercial air survey	
1,119
1,477
199
Totals --   	
1,474
34,659
745               13,399
Federal Government—■
18
3,208
3
33
Department of Agriculture	
31
2
344
319
1
6
14
50
44
Miscellaneous 	
40      |            626
111
Totals	
91      |          4,497
24
238
Provincial Government—■
238
37
63
15
82
186
16
20
23
20
2
34
22,885
2,289
3,155
63
1,023
77,398
180
1,560
455
1,052
74
530
478
14
77
13
158
200
14
5
103
34
27
203
7,284
214
Water Rights Branch. 	
Lands Branch (miscellaneous)   	
1,002
163
2,128
3,489
194
Department of Agriculture   	
42
3,031
British Columbia Power Commission   	
939
246
2,097
Totals..  .	
736     |      110,664
1,326      |       20,829
Grand totals	
7.301        I        149.R701
9.095        1          34466
1 Includes 9V>- by g^-inch contact prints from R.C. 8 and O.S.C. photography.
 CC 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Production Record, 1961, Air Photo Processing Laboratory
1946-55
1956-60
1961
Grand Total
Processing completed—■
Air films (averaging 117 exposures) -
Air films (averaging 220 exposures)..
Air films (obliques averaging 40 exposures)..
Air films (70-mm. helicopter)	
Air films (test rolls)..
Air films (color, Forest Service fires)— 	
Mountain station films (6 exposures each)	
Printing completed—
Standard prints (5 by 5 inches enlarged to 9 by 9
inches).
Contact prints (5 by 5 inches)	
Contact prints (Wi by 9Vi inches)..
Contact prints (20 by 24 inches)..
Enlargements up to 40 by 60 inches _ _
Mountain station enlargements (11 by 14 inches)
Kelsh and A-7 plates.
Lantern slides (2 by 2 inches)     —
Autopositive films  (various sizes to 30 by 40
inches).
Miscellaneous photographs, copies, etc..
Requisitions completed	
1,855
33
2,510
942,098
42,829
1,271
11,107
13,627
346
4,123
1,102
11,914
854
24
38
1,230
21
3
1,263
710,872
3,188
8,066
1,973
10,082
7,801
265
26
2,870
1,314
11,712
72
57
30
127,043
30
22,777
133
1,345
410
352
635
16
2,627
2,781
81
71
1,234
21
4V4
3,803
1,780,013
46,047
30,843
3,377
22,534
21,838
617
372
7,628
2,432
26,253
Public Loans and Reprints
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
11,059
62,843
8,646
32,131
13,981
45,644
11,840
49,627
13,399
34,659
Totals             .	
73,902
40,777
59,625
61,467
48,058
1961 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects
A
<
3
0
C
M
In*
e°
5 0
2^i
Accomplishment
0
O
£30
C
E
O
X
Q.
rt
y
CD
O cfl
O   Cfl
X O
tn
p
— OT
2 ai
CT~
k5
P3  CI
ca
32
cfl
a
0
55
O
O
3
h
A. Basic vertical cover—Queen Charlotte
Hr.
7
vlin.
50
$1,393.95
$1,393.95
C. Triangulation control identification—
Gulf Islands                   	
3
10
150
45
$20.19
563.51
345.22
908.73
Average cost per square/lineal
mile/station ' 	
D. Forest inventory cover (approximately 20 chains to 1 inch)—
1. New cover—■
21
16
20
3
47
12
10
2
16
05
35
05
00
15
15
55
30
25
1,130
1,340
915
175
4,025
845
510
135
990
1,210
860
$3,751.80
2,951.02
3,573.85
533.85
8,408.20
2,179.90
1,942.63
444.88
2,921.36
2,968.68
$2,600.62
3,083.93
2,105.81
402.75
9,263.27
1,944.71
1,173.73
310.70
2,278.42
3,592.92
$6,352.42
Big Bar
1,190
850
170
4,160
770
540
105
	
	
6,034.95
5,679.66
936.60
17,671.47
4,124.61
	
	
3,116.36
755.58
Yale	
640
1,460
	
5,199.78
Yale commercial contract flying
6,561.60
Sub-totals
150
6
05
00
11,275
220
10,745
$29,676.17
1,067.71
$26,756.86
506.32
$56,433.03
2. Improvement flying, all districts	
	
1,574.03
Totals
156
05
11,495
10,745
$5.40
$30,743.88
$27,263.18
$58,007.06
Average cost per square mile	
	
	
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH CC 65
1961 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects—Continued
u
Ih
<
M
3
O
C
Cfl
cj an
s °
Accomplishment
Cfl
O
O
M
S
'>,
E
cj
c
rt
Xi
GO
O cfl
JS
co
Cfl
o
03  W
3."3
CT>^
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CJ cj
3 a
as
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a
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O
U
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O
H
E. Forest Engineering—
Hr.
1
1
3
3
1
2
5
1
3
5
1
8
4
Min.
55
45
20
15
00
15
00
05
45
55
15
40
55
15
50
00
4
82
50
95
20
35
40
360
3
3
38
147
180
1
$163.12
311.42
237.26
578.35
533.85
222.45
355.90
904.58
133.46
163.12
222.45
652.48
1,052.87
222.45
1,571.90
711.80
$9.21
188.72
115.07
218.64
46.03
80.55
92.06
828.52
6.90
6.90
87.45
338.31
414.26
62.14
230.14
$172.33
Barriere Lakes Forest-development
Road       - -	
70
32
80
25
25
23
350
1
500.14
Hendrix Creek Forest-development
352.33
Kettle River Forest-development
Road                   	
	
796.99
Kingcome Inlet Forest-development
	
579.88
Naver-Ahbau Forest-development
303.00
Nicoamen Forest-development
Road
1
447.96
Parsnip River Forest-development
Road	
1,733.10
Prince George administration build-
140.36
170.02
Swift River Forest-development
25
100
135
309.90
Upper Bowron Forest-development
	
990.79
Wapiti River Forest-development
1,467.13
Willow River Forest-development
Road	
27
100
20
22
284.59
1,802.04
Timber sales, Adams Lake	
711.80
45
10
1,184
886
$9.73
24
$89.35
$8,037.46
$2,724.90
	
$10,762.36
Average cost per square/lineal
mile/station.	
F. Precision Mapping Projects—
3
1
1
2
2
23
50
25
00
30
40
50
105
23
2
95
3
642
225
$682.15
252.10
177.95
444.88
474.54
4,241.16
$241.65
52.93
4.60
218.64
6.90
1,477.53
$923.80
15
305.03
Kamloops Provincial buildings
1
2,750
182.55
100
3
663.52
481.44
Stuart Lake  	
 _....   	
5,718.69
Totals 	
Average cost per square/lineal
mile   _	
35
15
870
2,766
$2.24
328
$6.31
	
$6,272.78
$2,002.25
$8,275.03
G. Special projects—
Water Rights Branch—
Abbotsford  _ _
7
1
3
6
8
4
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
45
00
20
40
05
35
25
50
10
35
00
10
20
25
20
40
40
10
30
45
45
16
215
18
110
12
85
20
45
105
$133.46
1,245.67
237.27
652.48
1,082.55
1,527.42
785.95
504.20
563.51
281.75
177.95
207.61
237.27
252.10
59.31
296.58
118.63
385.56
266.93
311.41
311.41
$36.82
494.81
41.43
253.16
149.59
828.52
375.13
191.02
184.11
80.55
27.62
73.65
41.43
36.82
55.23
41.43
18.41
23.01
48.33
126.58
149.59
$170.28
1,740.48
278.70
	
Fraser River flooding  .
905.64
65
360
163
83
80
35
12
32
18
16
24
18
8
10
21
55
65
	
1,232.14
2,355.94
1 161 08
Fraser Valley dyked area	
300
90
85
75
20
15
10
22
10
11
20
4
3
10
Kamloops Lake revision.	
695.22
	
747 62
362 30
205 57
281.26
278 70
Nanaimo 	
Parksville.     _ 	
	
Prince George	
Quesnel      ___	
114.54
338 01
137.04
408.57
315.26
437.99
Sproat Lake outlet	
Legal Surveys—
Mai akwa-CIanwilli am Highway—
	
40
Revelstoke-Glacier Highway	
 1       43
461.00
 CC 66                            DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
1961 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects—Continued
Cfl
C-i
5 o
Accomplishment
Cfl
Cfl
O
O
ceo
B
'>.
E
u
2
o.
rt
W)
2 w
0 cfl
Si o
S
Cfl
o
U
3
o
H
o
« S
3r^
GTS
25
Cfl
G
o
rt
G. Special projects—Continued
Geographic Division — Columbia-
Kootenay map revision	
Forest Surveys—Cranbrook vicinity
Department of Highways—
Hr. Min.
4 45
1 00
40
2 10
1    00
30
30
45
1 25
5 45
2 15
3 15
240
350
845.27
177.95
118.63
385.56
177.95
88.97
88.97
133.46
252.10
1,023.22
400.40
578.34
552.34
103.56
115.07
13.81
39.12
4.60
4.60
66.74
57.54
529.33
172.61
105.87
1,397.61
281.51
233.70
399.37
217.07
93.57
93.57
200.20
309.64
1,552.55
573.01
684.21
45
50
6
17
2
2
29
25
230
75
46
	
20
15
6
10
1
1
10
5
	
Public Works—Brannen Lake._	
Experimental Station—Mesachie
250
56
	
Capital Region Planning Board—
Ranger School—Central Park,
Burnaby  -	
Forest district burns—
Prince George—Tsus and Grove-
Prince Rupert—Paul, Otto, and
12
	
Kamloops—Cat, Lan, and Rage...
78    10
2,191
306
$6.95
1,457
$11.55
$13,909.84
$5,042.43
$18,952.27
Average cost per square/lineal
H. Miscellaneous flying—
Water Rights Branch—Fraser River
3    00
3 45
2   30
30
1    25
50
40
1    25
45
1    30
1 25
2 50
55
5    35
45    30
16   30
32   40
4 10
60
8
3
9
1
2
35
30
60
20
119
9
54
45
	
45
	
$533.85
667.32
$138.09
$671.94
667.32
463.29
95.88
272.80
150.60
123.23
332.64
202.50
405.03
298.13
778.07
183.83
1,117.84
Department of Highways—adminis-
444.88
88.98
252.09
148.30
118.63
252.09
133.46
266.93
252.10
504.20
163.12
993.56
18.41
6.90
20.71
2.30
4.60
80.55
69.04
138.10
46.03
273.87
20.71
124.28
Department of Mines—Indian River
Internal—
	
2
1
1
8
Burnaby Vocational School	
	
	
8
5
50
6
2
	
Colour test photo  -	
8
Aircraft maintenance! —
741.46
741.46
Totals       	
125    55
455
 |     136
|$47.83
	
$5,560.97|     $943.59
I
$6,504.56
Average cost per square/lineal
Grand totals   	
451    35
16,345
13,817| 2,807
1
69
$66,482.39
$38,321.57
2$104,803.96
i Cost of maintenance and training charged to all projects.
2 Includes cost of contract flying, $5,354.75.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
 Note 3
THE WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which administers the control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water Act.
The main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:—
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all the water at any time
in any stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in right
of the Province. The common-law principle of riparian water right has been
abolished.
(2) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Earlier licences
have priority over licences issued later.
(3) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the water-licence rentals, and observance of the regulations of the
Water Act.
(4) A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land, mine, or
undertaking, and it will pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof.
(5) If it is necessary that a water licensee construct works on another person's land,
he can expropriate the land reasonably required if an amenable agreement
cannot be reached. If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee may
acquire a permit to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to generally supervise and
assist the administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under
the Water Act for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, dyking, street-lighting, providing
financial aid to hospitals, fire protection, and several other purposes. An improvement
district is a self-governing public corporate body administered by elected Trustees. The
undertakings of an improvement district can be financed by Provincially guaranteed
debenture issues.
The third dominant function of the Water Rights Branch is to carry out water-
resource surveys. Basic data are gathered to encourage and guide the future use and
conservation of our water resources, and engineering investigations are carried out pertaining to irrigation- and domestic-water supply, stream erosion, flooding, and other
water problems.
The administration of the Water Act is carried out by the Comptroller of Water
Rights, and his staff are located at a headquarters office in Victoria and district offices
at Victoria, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, Prince George, and Mission City.
Water is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on economic
development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand by the utilizers
of other resources. Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this
Province is associated with the use of British Columbia water. A large number of communities have been incorporated into improvement districts to operate community projects and provide essential amenities.
The Water Rights Branch, therefore, has engineering as well as administrative functions and is called upon by the Government and the public to carry out many and varied
investigations and to assist and direct this expansion in the public interest. The members of the Branch take an active part in a number of important committees and boards
dealing with the disposition of the Province's water resources.
 w*w—
Skeena River—head of Kitselas Canyon.
 CC 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
A. F. Paget, P.Eng., Comptroller
Increasing activities of the Branch produced new high points again in 1961.
Applications for new water licences totalled 1,102, the highest on record, and the
number of active water licences is now nearly 18,000. The general problem of
diminishing water-supplies that could be utilized at a reasonable cost and increased
competition for these supplies were strongly accentuated by the dry summer experienced in the Southern Interior of the Province. Heavy storms at the beginning of
the year in the coastal areas and high snow-melt run-off in some Interior streams
further increased the work of the Branch.
The growing pressure on the man-power of the Branch was temporarily relieved
by the creation of seven additional positions in the establishment. A new district
office for the Lower Mainland at Mission City was opened. Several staff transfers
within the Branch were also involved, as well as new recruitments Concerning
senior positions, Mr. H. D. DeBeck, Kamloops District Engineer, was transferred
to Victoria to replace Mr. G. A. J. Kidd, Project Engineer, who resigned. Mr.
P. G. Odynsky became Kamloops District Engineer. Mr. E. G. Harrison, who
was in charge of the Prince George office, was transferred to the new district office
at Mission City, and Mr. C. K. Harman was recruited to fill the vacancy at Prince
George. Mr. E. Livingston, geological engineer, joined the staff to form the
nucleus of a new section which in time will be dealing with ground-water licensing
as foreseen in the 1960 amendments of the Water Act.
Similarly increased activities also prevailed in the section dealing with community water-supply projects, under the direction of Mr. P. J. Leslie, assisted by
Mr. J. W. Webber, which projects are closely related to our general supervision
over the improvement districts, co-ordinated by the solicitor, Mr. A. K. Sutherland.
During the year a record number of nineteen new improvement districts were
incorporated, bringing the total at the end of 1961 to 270.
With reference to planning and surveys for major rivers, the Branch continued
its co-operation with the Fraser River Board and also continued surveys of the
northern streams. In the Columbia River basin, the three storage projects envisaged
in the Columbia River Treaty are under active study by the British Columbia Power
Commission. Water applications were received for storage dams on the Columbia
River at the Mica Creek site and at the outlet of Lower Arrow Lake and at the
outlet of Duncan Lake in the Kootenay watershed. These applications necessitated
the holding of a number of public hearings by the Comptroller of Water Rights in
the areas affected by the proposed projects.
The recently constituted Crown corporation, the British Columbia Electric
Company, took over the undertaking of the Peace River Development Company,
and at the year's end was actively engaged in the further exploration toward the
planned development of this project.
There was no lessening in the activities in connection with a number of boards,
committees, or organizations dealing with water problems and related matters and
on which the Comptroller or senior staff members participate. Among these
activities are such as the work of the electric load forecast committee of the British
Columbia Energy Board and several other working groups of other committees.
A list of organizations in which the Branch participated includes the following:
Fraser River Board, International Kootenay Lake Board of Control, British Columbia Energy Board, Pollution-control Board, Interdepartmental Committee on
Flooding and Erosion, Federal-Provincial Resources for To-morrow Conference,
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH CC 71
British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, Hydrology Sub-committee of the
National Research Council, Western Snow Conference, and Cowichan River Erosion
and Flooding Committee.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS
There are 270 improvement districts under the supervision of the Water Rights
Branch. These districts are incorporated for various purposes, among which are
to extend financial aid to hospitals; to provide hospitals, irrigation, waterworks,
fire protection, street-lighting, sewage-disposal, garbage collection and disposal,
land protection, dyking, drainage, community halls, ambulance services; the operation and maintenance of cemeteries; and the provision and maintenance of parks
and playgrounds. Nineteen improvement districts were incorporated this year, as
follows: Independent Waterworks District, King Improvement District, Kye Bay
Improvement District, Metchosin Fire Protection District, Nicola Valley Hospital
Improvement District No. 30, Okanagan Mission Waterworks District, Oliver Fire
Protection District, Omineca and Nechako Valley Hospital Improvement District
No. 32, 100 Mile House Fire Protection District, Osoyoos Rural Fire Protection
District, Quinsam Heights Waterworks District, Seagirt Waterworks District, Selma
Park Improvement District, Sicamous Waterworks District, Somerset Waterworks
District, Sunshine Coast Hospital Improvement District No. 31, West Sechelt
Waterworks District, Windermere Improvement District, and Mamquam Sewerage
District.
Pursuant to section 62 of the Water Act, $389,939 was advanced to improvement districts by the Province of British Columbia for 1961 requirements to provide
fire protection, financial aid to hospitals, ambulance services, and street-lighting,
and will be collected by the Province by way of taxes over a period of time from
one to twenty years, depending upon the capability of the area to repay. The tax
levy for 1961 to take care of the aforementioned advances and those of previous
years was $961,968.
Pursuant to the Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act, chapter 38 of
the Statutes of British Columbia, 1945, and amendments thereto, the Province of
British Columbia guaranteed debentures with respect to both principal and interest
in the amount of $686,000. In addition, temporary borrowings with respect to
both principal and interest in the amount of $1,001,785 were guaranteed by the
Province of British Columbia. This Branch recommends the feasibility of the
projects before the Province guarantees temporary borrowings and debentures with
respect thereto, and, further, that the areas can liquidate the debentures as they
become due. Of the total net amount guaranteed as aforesaid, $14,500 was used
for rehabilitating irrigation systems, $237,285 was used for rehabilitating and constructing waterworks systems and sewers, $715,000 was used for constructing new
hospitals, and $35,000 was used for constructing a new fire-hall.
WATER-USERS' COMMUNITIES
There are sixty-two water-users' communities in the Province at the present
time. They are incorporated under the Water Act by certificate of incorporation
issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights and are usually small corporate bodies
of six or more persons holding water licences. A community can install and
operate a water-supply system for its members. Their powers are more restricted
than those of an improvement district, and the administration is carried out by a
manager under the supervision of the Comptroller of Water Rights. Four water-
users' communities were incorporated during 1961.
 CC 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
INTERNATIONAL WATERS—COLUMBIA BASIN
On January 17, 1961, the Columbia River Treaty between the United States
and Canada was signed by President Eisenhower and Prime Minister Diefenbaker.
This was the culmination of sixteen years of investigation and study by the International Joint Commission into the possibilities of a co-operative water-resource
development between the two countries, followed by a year of intensive negotiation
by negotiating teams appointed by the two Governments. The treaty was subsequently ratified by the United States, and will take effect from the date of its
ratification by Canada.
The treaty provides for the building in British Columbia of three major water-
storage projects, which are to be operated so as to achieve optimum generation of
hydro-electric energy in the United States at plants on the Columbia River and its
tributaries. In return for storage in Canada, the United States will deliver to
Canada free of charge a half share of the additional power that results in the United
States from the improved flow regulation provided by the Canadian storage projects.
The United States also undertakes to pay Canada a total sum of $64,000,000 in
consideration of flood damages that will be prevented by these projects.
Another provision in the treaty allows the United States to build a dam on
the Kootenai River near Libby, Montana. This project will provide substantial
benefits in both countries. Canada's financial commitment in this case is the
preparation of the portion of the reservoir which extends north across the International Boundary. In return for this, Canada gains valuable flood-control at Creston
and an estimated potential of 200,000 kilowatts of power on the Kootenay River in
British Columbia.
Details of the Canadian storage projects are as follows:—
{a) A dam on the Columbia River near Mica Creek, British Columbia, with
approximately 7,000,000 acre-feet of storage.
{b) A dam near the outlet of Arrow Lakes, British Columbia, with approximately 7,100,000 acre-feet of storage.
(c) A dam or dams on one or more tributaries of the Kootenay River in
British Columbia down-stream from the Canada-United States Boundary
with storage equivalent in effect to approximately 1,400,000 acre-feet of
storage near Duncan Lake, British Columbia.
Item {a) above is to be completed within nine years of the ratification date and
items {b) and (c) within five years.
It is noted that while the treaty provides for the benefits to accrue to Canada,
the benefits will in actuality accrue to the agency of the Province of British Columbia
that constructs and operates the projects.
The determination of the down-stream power benefits, which the United States
is required to share with Canada, is based on the increased outputs that will occur
at the plants of the " base system " in the United States when the aforementioned
Canadian storage projects become operative. The "base system" consists of the
following hydro-electric projects: Hungry Horse, Kerr, Thompson Falls, Noxon
Rapids, Cabinet Gorge, Albeni Falls, Box Canyon, Grand Coulee, Chief Joseph,
Wells (not under construction at present), Rocky Reach, Chelan Lake, Rock Island,
Wanapum, Priest Rapids, Brownlee, Oxbow, Ice Harbour, McNary, John Day,
The Dalles, Bonneville, Coeur d'Alene Lake, and Kootenay Lake.
Present estimates of the power to be received initially by Canada as a half
share of the down-stream benefits are as follows:—
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
CC 73
Average MW Peak MW
Arrow Lakes  484 785
Duncan     75 110
Mica   204 415
Totals   763 1,310
Although these benefits which Canada will receive under the treaty are substantial, they are a relatively small part of the total benefits which will eventually
result in Canada. In addition to the production of down-stream benefits, the construction of the storage-works will make it economically feasible to develop the vast
hydro-power potential of the Columbia River and its tributaries in Canada.
The British Columbia Power Commission has been designated by the Government of the Province to pursue the development of the treaty projects on behalf of
the Province. A considerable amount of investigation has been carried out during
1961 by consultants for the Power Commission on design for the three Canadian
storage dams, and applications for water licences for the three dams were made by
the Power Commission in June.
FRASER RIVER BASIN
During the year the Branch continued its active participation in the studies and
field investigations for the Fraser River Board. This Board, of which the Comptroller of Water Rights is a member, is engaged in an analysis of flood regulation
and hydro-electric development in the headwater streams of the Fraser system. The
major area annually threatened is the Lower Fraser Valley, and it is in this region
that Water Rights Branch field parties were employed throughout the year. Surveys,
commenced in 1960, on the drainage and dyking systems of the valley between Chilliwack and New Westminster were completed during 1961. Additional work of
the same order was carried out on the estuary islands in the latter part of the season.
The information obtained from this field work is being used in the analysis of storm
flooding throughout the valley and in the evaluation of potential damage from major
spring floods.
The Fraser River Board, in its current analysis, is giving consideration to the
results of flood storage in the Upper Thompson system and the possible effect upon
flood levels in the Kamloops region. This area was also surveyed by Branch field
parties, and, in addition, soundings were completed at the outlet of Kamloops Lake
and west along the Thompson River for several miles in order to ascertain the river
gradient in that area. These field data were obtained to provide the basis for an
assessment of the natural storage created by Kamloops Lake and its effect on the
levels in the region of Kamloops itself.
 CC 74
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
WATER   RIGHTS   BRANCH   - REVENUE   AND   EXPENSES
FISCAL    YEARS    I93E
AND
DISTRIBUTION      DIAGRAM     FOR   Fl
EXPENDITURE
;940 1945 1950 1955
FISCAL    YEARS    (ENDING   MARCH  3IST)
Plate 1.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
CC 75
OPERATIONS DIVISION
M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Chief, Operations Division
Under the Water Act the Comptroller of Water Rights is charged with the
administration of the water resources of the Province. The duties arising out of
processing and investigating applications and supervising and regulating the diversion
and use of water under water licences fall to the Operations Division.
The Chief, Operations Division, is responsible to the Comptroller and Deputy
Comptroller for the enactment and completion of these duties and is assisted by the
following organization:—
(1) General office, under the supervision of Chief Clerk.
(2) Administrative draughting office, under the supervision of Chief Draughtsman.
(3) Six district offices located at Victoria, Mission City, Kamloops, Kelowna,
Nelson, and Prince George, each in the charge of a District Engineer.
Mission City office was opened in 1961.
An applicant for a water licence must fulfil the statutory requirements for
application set out in the Water Act and the regulations thereto. An application is
"cleared" by the administrative draughting-room with reference to other water
licences, reserves, and lands affected. The general office sees that the statutory
requirements are carried out, including posting of the application, notification of
the holders of other licences and owners of lands affected, and the payment of fees.
The application will then be investigated by the respective district office, after which
the issuance of a water licence will be considered.
Because of the fact that the most easily developed sources within economical
reach of areas requiring water are becoming fully licensed, applications for new
licences on these sources require very careful study and existing water licences
require increasingly more administrative attention. District offices have commenced
studies concerning possibilities of augmentation of depleted water-supplies in water-
short areas. Applications for water licences for the year under review totalled 1,102,
an increase of 17.4 per cent over the number received during the preceding year.
The latter part of the summer was very dry in some parts of the Province and
water shortages occurred in many areas, particularly in those districts administered
by the Kamloops and Kelowna offices. This resulted in much of the time of the
District Engineers and staff of these offices being spent on the allocation of available
water-supplies in accordance with the priorities of licences and in adjudicating disputes arising over entitlement to water.
In 1961 a geological engineer was added to the staff in connection with anticipated ground-water licensing in the future. Available information on ground-water
potential and its existing use is being compiled and preparations are being made for
establishment of a ground-water observation network.
The reports of both the Chief Clerk and the Chief Draughtsman show increases
in the volume of work handled by their respective offices during the year.
The separate reports of the general office, administrative draughting office, and
district offices follow.
 CC 76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GENERAL OFFICE
(Period November 1, 1960, to October 31, 1961.)
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
687
32
16
45
590
1,902
211
125
977
16
25
54
298
2,299
257
131
1,038
42
23
75
69
2,364
190
109
939
36
31
115
84
2,293
222
160
1,102
25
31
175
67
2,669
384
184
3,608
4,057
3,910
3,880
4,637
570
364
562
275
850
274
718
228
810
220
934
837
1,124
946
1,030
DRAUGHTING OFFICE
I960 1961
Water applications cleared and plotted on maps  939 1,013
Final- and conditional-licence plats compiled and
traced  1,194 932
New water-rights maps compiled and traced  11 30
Water-rights maps revised  4 42
New improvement districts described and plans prepared  9 19
Improvement districts' descriptions and plans amended 25 37
Reference maps renewed  20 16
Water clearances (change of ownership, apportionments, cancellations, etc.)  2,515 3,109
Land clearances (purchases, Crown grants, leases,
etc.)   5,345 6,232
Land clearances (cancellations)  1,745 1,517
Rights-of-way over Crown land  183 185
During the year many inquiries by the public and other departments were
taken care of. The usual requests for maps and other information by District
Engineers were also attended to during the year.
Considerable time was spent during the year checking petitions and drawing
up legal descriptions for improvement districts.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS ENGINEERING SECTION
The bulk of the work undertaken consisted of the preparation of feasibility
reports for proposed waterworks and irrigation schemes, the review of engineering
reports and plans submitted by improvement districts, and the dispensation of
engineering advice. A summary of major reports and investigations during the
year follows.
East Osoyoos Irrigation District
Pumping-main renewal was carried out in the spring, and because of the
financial difficulties of the district, the complete engineering for the project was
carried out.   The system is now operating satisfactorily.
 water rights branch cc 77
Garden Bay Waterworks District
The community of Garden Bay has for some time obtained its water-supply
from Garden Bay Lake through a pipe-line which was installed over thirty years
ago by the Columbia Coast Mission, and is in an unreliable condition. A survey
of the district was therefore carried out and a report subsequently prepared outlining a new and more comprehensive system to replace the existing one.
Riverview Area near Creston
A study was made of the feasibility of providing a domestic water-supply or,
alternatively, a combined irrigation and domestic water-supply for the Riverview
area near Creston. Consideration was given to pumping from either Floyd Creek
or the Goat River, but the cost of both schemes proved to be high.
Ruckles Addition near Grand Forks
The area known as the Ruckles Addition lies to the immediate south of the
City of Grand Forks. The existing water-supplies, which are obtained from shallow
wells, are in many cases contaminated. A survey of the area was therefore made
to determine the cost of installing a domestic water-supply system, and a report on
this scheme will be issued shortly.
Barkerville Restoration Project
The Parks Branch of the Department of Recreation and Conservation is at
present engaged in the restoration of the historic site of Barkerville. The advice of
the Water Rights Branch was requested regarding the selection of a course of
water-supply to provide fire protection for the museum and buildings at the site.
Accordingly, a visit was made to Barkerville in the spring, and a memorandum was
prepared giving the findings of the investigation.
Cumberland Village
The Village of Cumberland has experienced shortages of water, and at its
request an investigation was made to determine whether the yield of Allen Lake,
from which the village draws part of its supply, could be increased. It was recommended that the storage capacity of the dam be increased.
Jingle Pot Road Area
An investigation was carried out to determine the feasibility of a domestic
water-supply system for the Jingle Pot Road area, immediately to the west of
Nanaimo. The source of supply assumed for the proposed scheme was from the
Greater Nanaimo Water District. A study of the economics of operating the system
indicated rather high annual costs, an inevitable reflection of the widely scattered
pattern of development in the area.
Black Mountain Irrigation District
A comprehensive report on the Black Mountain Irrigation District was
presented to the Trustees. The report was very favourably received, and the district
has requested further guidance in establishing a master plan upon which to base
future system-renewal policy.
 CC 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District
Detailed mapping and site surveys have been completed in preparation for a
study of the system serving the Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District.
The proposed report will contain a system appraisal and recommendations regarding
future system-renewal policy.
Westbank Waterworks District
In response to a request from the Trustees, the Branch prepared a report containing tentative estimates and designs for developing a supplementary source of
supply from Powers Creek and augmenting the existing distribution system. These
proposals are estimated to cost approximately $48,000.
West Bench Irrigation District
The Trustees of the West Bench Irrigation District requested the guidance of
the Water Rights Branch regarding a proposed bulk supply of water to the Baumann
Subdivision, a concentrated housing development bordering the district. In response,
the Water Rights Branch prepared a report which also included specific recommendations to safeguard the district's interests. Another study and report were
made to determine the ability of the existing works to supply irrigation-water to
additional lands, the owners of which had petitioned for inclusion in the district.
Chetwynd Waterworks District
Following previous Water Rights Branch reports on the proposed methods of
securing a domestic water-supply for the Chetwynd Waterworks District, further
field investigations were made regarding the storage possibilities on Windrem Creek.
These surveys confirmed that the Pine River offered the only feasible source of
supply, and the district is currently installing works designed for the future use of
Pine River.
North Saanich Water-supply
The residents of North Saanich have, for many years, been inconvenienced by
the inadequacy and doubtful quality of water obtained from individual wells and
springs. At the request of the Sidney and North Saanich Chamber of Commerce,
a comprehensive study of existing water-supply sources was made.
It was determined that Elk Lake offered a feasible source of water-supply for
North Saanich. As this source is currently used by the Municipality of Central
Saanich, the Branch report recommended that negotiations be entered into with
this authority to supply water in bulk to the North Saanich area. The report included tentative design layouts and cost estimates for the works required to serve
the area, and also outlines the organizational steps necessary to develop the over-all
system described.
Miscellany
A number of schemes of a minor nature were also investigated and reported on
by the section during the year. These included proposed water-supply schemes for
the Minto area near Cumberland, and West Sechelt, together with rehabilitation of
the Walhachin Waterworks, and study of the flooding problems at Western Lake,
Saltspring Island.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
CC 19
VICTORIA DISTRICT OFFICE
C. Errington, P.Eng., District Engineer
The area under the administration of the Victoria District Office was considerably reduced with the establishment of a new district office at Mission City.
The Victoria District Office now administers the Alberni, Nanaimo, and Victoria
Water Districts, which comprise most of Vancouver Island and include the Gulf
Islands and other islands adjacent to Vancouver Island. The office now operates
without an Assistant District Engineer.
Although precipitation records show that, except for the Victoria area, rainfall during the months of June to September was below the long-term average, our
water-supply problems were normal.
During the period under review, November 1, 1960, to October 31, 1961,
some seventeen special investigations, studies, or reports were made.
Summary of Year's Work
Total applications received.
  283
Conditional licences issued  303
Final licences issued  73
Applications refused  11
Licences abandoned or cancelled  108
KELOWNA DISTRICT OFFICE
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kelowna District Office administers an area of approximately 15,000
square miles, comprising the Kettle, Similkameen, and Okanagan drainage-basins,
the Shuswap River drainage-basin from Sicamous to its source, and that part of the
Columbia River drainage-basin from Boat Encampment, the northerly limit of the
Columbia River, to a point about 15 miles south of Arrowhead on the Upper
Arrow Lake.
In 1961 an extremely dry season was experienced. With minimum flows occurring in many of the streams, it was necessary to spend a great deal of time on the
regulation of licensed diversions.
The general water shortage has resulted in a renewed interest in the development of additional storage. During the past year three new dams were constructed
and extensive improvements carried out to several existing dams.
Engineering investigations in the field of domestic water-supply are becoming
an important part of the district office work. This has resulted from continued
urban development and a demand for improved water-supply.
As in previous years, there was a noticeable increase in the routine administration work, particularly in the number of water applications requiring attention. As
the water-supply of many of the streams is already fully recorded, an appreciable
number of applications for new water licences must be refused. At the present time
approximately 250 streams are fully licensed.
Summary of Year's Work
Applications on hand and received  279
Applications investigated and reported on  146
Applications abandoned or cancelled  13
Final-licence survey reports  65
 CC 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Miscellaneous surveys  24
Dam inspections  39
Site inspection, proposed dams  9
Engineering investigations for irrigation and domestic water-supply.^ 67
Investigations for flooding, drainage, river-bank erosion, and miscellaneous problems  118
Meetings with improvement districts and others  55
Engineering Investigations
Engineering investigations of a major nature, requiring preparation of engineering reports including design, cost estimates, financial study, and recommendations, were as follows:-—•
(1) Okanagan Falls Irrigation District—report on replacement of laterals.
(2) Covert Irrigation District—field work completed preliminary to preparing a feasibility report on system replacement.
(3) Rutland Waterworks District—field work completed and report under
preparation on intake rehabilitation necessitated by flood damage.
(4) Bridesville Waterworks District — report on system replacement under
preparation.
Further investigations involving engineering study and giving of engineering
advice to the parties concerned were carried out with respect to the following:
Shuttleworth Creek Irrigation District (study of storage possibilities), Similkameen
River (report on bank erosion), Southern Okanagan Lands Project (flooding of
lands from Lateral 6 spillway), Big Eddy Waterworks District (rehabilitation of
intake works affected by silt), Grandview Waterworks District (study of storage
possibilities), Municipality of Spallumcheen (preparation of plan of existing waterworks system).
In addition to the above, schemes to augment water-supply in deficient areas
are being studied.
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT OFFICE
P. G. Odynsky, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kamloops District Office administers the central section of the Fraser
River drainage-basin, extending from Spuzzum to a point 20 miles north of Quesnel,
containing approximately 57,000 square miles.
Water-supplies were again inadequate in the Dry Belt water districts of Ash-
croft, Kamloops, and Nicola. Many disputes arose among water-users who had
not experienced such critical water shortages before, and much of the irrigation
season was spent in resolving such conflicts.
The diminishing supply of unrecorded water in the more settled areas of the
seven water districts is demanding more time and study in the investigation and
processing of water applications. To deal with the increasing number of applications, other administrative matters have had to be deferred, thereby creating a substantial backlog of work for this office.
There are 4,690 active licences under the administration of the Kamloops
Office, of which 133 conditional licences and thirty-one final licences were added
to our files during the year of review.
Summary of Year's Work
Applications received  237
Applications inspected and reported on     95
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH CC 81
Final-licence survey reports      29
Dam inspections      56
Miscellaneous field investigations and surveys  145
Meetings with improvement districts and others     12
A study was made and report prepared on a proposed system renewal for the
Walhachin Waterworks District.
NELSON DISTRICT OFFICE
J. P. Riley, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Nelson District Office administers Water Rights Branch matters over some
25,000 square miles in the south-eastern part of British Columbia.
The water-supply during the past irrigation season was generally good, with
most streams maintaining a sufficient flow to satisfy licences. The increasing public
interest in water matters was again indicated by the continuing upward trend in
the number of inquiries and calls at our office. In addition, several improvement
districts and water-users' communities took action toward the renewal and expansion
of their systems.
There are more than 4,200 active licences in the Nelson District. During the
year 147 conditional licences and seventy-nine final licences were added to our files.
Summary of Year's Work
New applications received   165
New applications investigated and reported  155
New applications abandoned and cancelled  37
Final-licence and licence-amendment surveys   103
Pollution investigations  6
Flooding investigations  25
Water-use investigations   15
Meetings with improvement districts and water-users' communities 20
Miscellaneous meetings and investigations of non-routine nature___. 24
Routine calls and problems   1,639
Sampling of snow courses  15
Dam inspections  4
Engineering Investigations and Studies
(1) Water-supply for Balfour community.
(2) Water-supply for Wilmer.
(3) Water-supply for King Improvement District at Cranbrook.
(4) Office study of areas with limited water-supplies.
(5) Flooding of Crawford Creek at Crawford Bay.
(6) Flooding of Elk River at Natal.
(7) Flooding of Goat River at Creston.
(8) Flooding of small streams in Creston, Thrums, and other areas.
PRINCE GEORGE DISTRICT OFFICE
C. K. Harman, P.Eng., District Engineer
The area administered from the Prince George District Office includes the
Skeena River drainage, the Peace River drainage within British Columbia, and the
Fraser River drainage up-stream from a point 20 miles north of Quesnel.
 CC 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
An unusually hot and dry July resulted in renewed interest in irrigation, particularly in the Vanderhoof area. Irrigation, however, is still thought to be uneconomic in this area, except in cases where the cost of delivering water to the farm
is low and where high-value crops are grown.
New applications received in 1961 totalled sixty-five, which is an increase of
55 per cent over 1960. The increase occurred mainly in the Fort Fraser and Peace
River Water Districts.   Forty-eight new conditional water licences were issued.
Investigations were completed or were under way during 1961 in connection
with water-supply for proposed improvement districts, for the communities of Port
Edward, Rolla, Fort Fraser, and an area on the John Hart Highway just north of
Prince George.
MISSION CITY DISTRICT OFFICE
E. G. Harrison, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Mission City District Office, which was established in the new B.C. Government Building in June, 1961, administers water-rights matters in the Vancouver
and New Westminster water districts, both of which were formerly within the
administrative area of the Victoria office.
In the six months that this office has been open, there have been 144 applications for water licences received, and thirty-five examined and reported on. Several
miscellaneous jobs were carried out, such as the investigation into the use and control of water in various municipalities and the settling of disputes over water use.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH CC 83
HYDRAULIC INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION
T. A. J. Leach, P.Eng., Chief, Hydraulic Investigations Division
The problems investigated and reported upon by the Hydraulic Investigations
Division have been grouped under the following sections:—
(1) Flooding, Erosion, and Drainage.
(2) Irrigation, Water-supply, and Sewerage.
(3) Hydro-electric Power Surveys.
(4) Snow Surveys.
The two heavy rain-storms early in January, 1961, resulted in flooding at
many of the Coastal points, and the Water Rights Branch was requested to investigate possibilities for flood protection. At the same time a continuing programme
of investigational work was carried out for the Fraser River Board to assist it in
determining the value of flood-control through up-stream storage.
This year also saw the completion of the North Okanagan water-supply investigation. The report selected three areas totalling some 16,000 acres—namely,
north of Vernon, at Lumby, and at Cherryville—as illustrative examples of what
might be developed in the irrigation of new lands in that region. A major domestic
water-supply problem to receive attention on Vancouver Island was in the Campbell
River area, where the village, and waterworks districts of Willow Point and Quinsam
Heights have been considering the formation of a greater water board. A preliminary report was prepared for them, and they are now discussing the legal requirements for incorporation.
Hydro-electric power, in so far as field work is concerned, has been concentrated in completing the mapping of several of our northern rivers, including the
Dease, Stikine, and Liard Rivers.   New photography for these areas was obtained.
Snow surveys have continued to play an increasingly important role in providing the expected total volume run-off from our major rivers during the summer
months. The importance of the background data already obtained will prove valuable in the years to come, particularly in connection with flood-control and hydroelectric power on our major rivers. The use of the Department of Finance's IBM
650 electronic computer has allowed the Snow Survey Section to select the variables,
such as temperature, snow moisture content, etc., which provide the best run-off
correlation for any particular region.
Most of the hydraulic investigations which are described below are covered
in reports, of which there are now over 900 in the Water Rights Branch library.
This total is being added to at the rate of fifty per year, and these are available to
the public at a nominal charge for assembling only. During the year there were
some 245 requests for such information, not including visitors to the Branch or
interdepartmental inquiries.
FLOODING, EROSION, AND DRAINAGE
There has been a steady increase in the number of water-damage problems
which have been brought to the attention of the Branch in the last year. In many
instances, as will be noted below, reports have been prepared containing proposals
for the solution of these hazardous conditions, but generally the costs of such
improvements have been considered by those affected to be beyond their financial
capabilities.
Two separate storms occurring around January 10 and 15, 1961, invaded
Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland areas.   The first storm was felt mostly
 CC 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
in the lower coastal region around Vancouver and the adjacent north side, while
the second storm penetrated the Seymour, Coquitlam, and Alouette watersheds,
extending easterly to Boston Bar. At the same time, southern Vancouver Island
experienced its heaviest rainfall of the season on January 14th. Snow melt also
produced record high flows in June in the Kootenay River basin and on the lower
Columbia River.
Capilano and Seymour Rivers
Maximum discharge through the Cleveland Dam on the Capilano River for
the month of January, 1961, occurred at noon on the fifteenth, when 17,700 cubic
feet per second was measured. The reservoir rose some 8.7 feet during the day,
indicating a maximum inflow of about 20,000 cubic feet per second or about 260
cubic feet per second per square mile of watershed. This is well below the maximum recorded inflow.
On January 15, 1961, a peak discharge of 11,600 cubic feet per second
occurred at the Seymour Falls dam. Within the twenty-four-hour period immediately preceding, almost 14 inches of rainfall were recorded, with the maximum
rate reaching 1 inch per hour at the height of the storm.
Coquitlam River Flooding
In the same period heavy flooding occurred in the lower Coquitlam River,
threatening the Lougheed Highway bridge at Port Coquitlam, the Canadian Pacific
Railway bridge, and in particular the " Red " bridge on Pitt River Road.
Following a request from the City of Port Coquitlam, the Water Rights
Branch undertook to prepare a preliminary report on possible methods of flood-
control for the region. An interim report on channel improvement in the lower
reaches of the river was completed during the summer, and another report on
control of inflow into Coquitlam Lake will follow.
Alouette River Flooding
The average two-hour inflow for the twenty-four-hour period ending at midnight on January 15, 1961, at the Alouette Dam of 17,135 cubic feet per second
was the second highest recorded and only exceeded by the November 3, 1955,
inflow of 19,335 cubic feet per second. The latter represents about 240 cubic feet
per second per square mile.
Cowichan River Flooding
The storm pattern over the Cowichan River watershed as measured by precipitation at Cowichan Lake showed a concentration of over 8 inches in the period
of January 8 to 10, 1961, and a similar total amount in the period January 14th
to 16th.
In the first instance, Cowichan Lake was relatively low (gauge reading of 8.0
feet) and about one-quarter of the maximum daily inflow of 19,060 cubic feet per
second was discharged.
Maximum inflow in the second storm was slightly less at 17,580 cubic feet per
second on January 15th, while outflow on the following day reached 10,900 cubic
feet per second. The lake rose to a maximum recorded level of 14.04 feet, resulting in a portion of the discharge being by-passed around the highway bridge and
through the village. This portion of the flow was unrecorded, so that the discharge
quoted above is low.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH CC 85
Inundation of the low-lying areas down-stream of the Cowichan Lake highway bridge also occurred. In addition, tributary inflow down-stream increased the
maximum recorded river flow at the White Bridge at Duncan to 25,400 cubic feet
per second on January 15th.
The nearest tidal gauge at Fulford Harbour recorded between 4.6 feet (4.55
a.m.) and 5.0 feet (2.20 p.m.), which was the highest level for the last nine years.
These high tides, coupled with heavy run-off, not only carried extensive flooding within the Cowichan River valley itself, but also impeded the outflow of Somenos
Lake and Creek, which in turn inundated a new subdivision in the north-eastern
section of Duncan.
A Water Rights Branch investigation was started immediately, and it was possible through field surveys to obtain the maximum high-water marks throughout
the area.
Since then several meetings have been held with the Cowichan-Koksilah River
Control Committee. This organization, consisting of representatives from the local
municipal governments as well as the Federal Department of Fisheries, has already
obtained a preliminary report from its consulting engineers with respect to local
dyke protection in and around Duncan.
The Water Rights Branch has assisted by supplying basic data to the Committee and arranging for the setting-up of several hydrometric stations on tributary
streams. At the same time, it is continuing its studies with respect to the possibilities
of up-stream regulation, which, if feasible, would benefit the whole watershed.
Pemberton Valley Dyking District
In response to a request from the district, a brief survey and inspection were
carried out with respect to the dyking of about 3 miles of Lillooet River along the
MacKenzie Cut-off. Minimum cost, which would provide protection against all
but a record flood, would run to about $58,000. In order to retain the river against
the maximum recorded flood, a dyke twice as high and costing three times as much
would be required.
Fraser River Basin
The Water Rights Branch is continuing studies for the Fraser River Board.
The Branch has agreed to value flood protection for populated areas, and this has
required an evaluation of existing developments within the valley which would be
inundated should the design flood occur. Through the use of up-to-date enlarged
photographs on which have been plotted spot elevations, it has been possible to prepare elevation-damage curves. Such data, of course, only provide the direct damage
resulting from such a flood at the present time. Indirect damage, such as severance
of transportation lines, disruption of industry, etc., is still to be computed. The
total value of this flood-control, projected some time into the future, will provide
a measure of the contribution that might be credited to up-stream storage for this
purpose.
At the same time, the existing dyking and drainage districts in the Lower
Fraser Valley were examined. These areas are affected not only by the Fraser
River high water, but also by the inflow from the surrounding hills caused by the
fall and winter rains.
Certain up-stream areas, including Prince George, Quesnel, and Kamloops, are
also under examination and study with respect to the benefits to be derived by flood-
control. Kamloops in particular has suffered from previous extreme floods.
Studies were made to determine whether the outlet conditions at Kamloops Lake
could be improved, which in turn would reduce maximum water levels.
 CC 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Maximum Stream Discharge Estimates
A brief study was made for the Department of Highways on Lynn Creek near
Vancouver to indicate the probable maximum flood level at the existing bridge.
Also, an estimate was prepared on the backwater effect caused by the present Peace
Arch Highway bridge and the proposed Deas Tunnel Throughway bridge which
will span the Nicomekl River.
Salmon River and Shuswap Lake
Complaints were received from the Salmon Arm and District Chamber of
Commerce and the Salmon Arm Boat Club regarding silting-up of the access channel to the wharf due to the Salmon River sedimentation.
An investigation was undertaken to determine {a) the effect of dredging at
the outlet of Shuswap Lake on the lake-levels and {b) the effect and practicability
of relocating the mouth of Salmon River. Through the use of air photographs and
soundings, it was possible to draw some tentative conclusion as to modifications in
the existing estuary which should reduce silting around the wharf.
Columbia River Flooding at Athalmer
The inhabitants of Athalmer and those living around Lake Windermere experienced the highest water-levels on record in early June, 1961, although the 1948
and 1956 marks were only a few tenths of a foot lower.
In September, a Water Rights Branch party carried out some limited soundings in the channel from Windermere Lake down-stream for some 20 miles. Certain
proposals for improvements to the river channel have been studied, and a report is
in preparation.
Miscellany
Minor investigations have been carried out concerning the following:—
{a) Parksville Village drainage into Englishman River.
{b) A drainage problem on Gabriola Island.
(c)  Mamquam River control in the Village of Squamish.
Liard River Suspended-sediment Measurements
A brief silt-sampling programme was carried out during the latter part of June
and early July within the watershed. In most instances sampling was done well
above average discharge. Some eighty-six samples were collected, using a P-46
sampler. Samples are being analysed by the British Columbia Research Council,
and information to date shows the following results (the samples on the Sikanni
Chief and Muskwa Rivers near Fort Nelson were taken on the rising stage and represent near maximum conditions):—
River
Total
Suspended
Sediments
(Parts per
Million)
Size Distribution (per Cent of Total)
Sand
Siltl
Silt 2
Clay
1,082
3,772
251
81
31
27
44
30
30
26
21
18
29
18
Muskwa     	
25
1
Toad               	
Note.—Sand particles greater than 0.0625 millimeter;  Silt 1—0.0625 to 0.0156 millimeter;   Silt 2—0.0156 to
0.0039 millimeter; clay particles less than 0.0039 millimeter.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH CC 87
IRRIGATION, WATER-SUPPLY, AND SEWERAGE
North Okanagan Water-supply
An investigational programme conducted during the years 1959 and 1960 was
concluded with the publication of a report in two volumes on " North Okanagan
Irrigation and Domestic Water Supplies." Volume 1 deals with the question of
domestic water-supply, whilst Volume 2 is concerned with irrigation water-supply.
The primary object of the report was to assess the present and future water-supply
position, with a view to establishing whether there is a need for a metropolitan type
of water system to serve the North Okanagan communities, and also the possibilities
for new irrigation in the area.
The areas investigated extend 36 miles north and 44 miles east of the City of
Vernon and include the main Okanagan Valley, the Coldstream, Creighton, Blue
Springs, and White Valleys, and the Hilton-Cherryville area. The Department of
Agriculture soil surveys and land-classification data covered 148,000 acres of land
in these areas. No economic studies were attempted, and the desirability of irrigating these new lands has not been determined.
The studies have demonstrated that no single source of water-supply can be
developed to satisfy the potential irrigation requirements of the area, and that
irrigation proposals in the future will be limited by practical considerations to the
larger areas where a substantial acreage can be developed and local water-supplies
exist. Capital costs are estimated in the region of $600 per acre developed, and
total annual charges are expected to lie between $50 and $70 per acre, exclusive of
farm development.
Domestic and industrial water-supply sources for the North Okanagan population centres are generally adequate in that the presently developed watersheds are
capable of meeting existing demands and readily available sources can be developed
for future need over a forty-year forecast period. The prospect of supplying future
municipal water needs from projected irrigation schemes is unlikely to be of practical importance during the forecast period, and attention is directed to the proper
development of existing and potential local sources of water.
Campbell River Area Water-supply
The Village of Campbell River and Willow Point Waterworks District have
requested engineering assistance in connection with a proposed greater water board
for the area. The investigation included the Village of Campbell River and Willow
Point, North Campbell River, and the proposed Quinsam Heights Waterworks
Districts.
Three alternative joint supply schemes were considered in the report, and in
all cases the estimated cost of installing a joint project to serve the three areas is
less than the combined cost of individual schemes for each area.
Quinsam Heights Area Water-supply
The proposed Quinsam Heights Waterworks District was included in the plan
for a joint water-supply system to serve the area south of Campbell River. A report
was prepared outlining a distribution system to serve the region based on the
assumption that the supply would be obtained from a greater water board scheme.
Since the new gravity supply from the power-plant penstocks appeared to be
favoured by the Village of Campbell River and the District of Willow Point, this
layout was chosen in the design of the Quinsam Heights distribution system.
 cc 88 department of lands and forests
Alert Bay Water-supply
A brief office study was made of the possibility of supplying water to the
Village of Alert Bay on Cormorant Island from streams on adjacent Vancouver
Island. It was found that Thiemer Creek, east of the Nimpkish River, would probably be an adequate source, although a 7,000-foot underwater crossing of Broughton
Strait and a 9,000-foot conduit on shore could make this an expensive project.
Ashcroft Area Irrigation
In response to a request from the Ashcroft and District Board of Trade, a brief
reconnaissance of the region was made with respect to potential irrigable land. The
total area involved, along the north side of the Thompson River between Ashcroft
and Savona, amounts to about 11,000 acres and includes some land which is
presently under irrigation, as well as a considerable area which has, in the past,
been irrigated.
Miscellany
Limited studies have been made as follows:—
{a)  Brannen Lake irrigation storage possibilities, in Millstone Creek watershed, near Nanaimo.
{b) Departure Bay Waterworks District's proposed sewage-disposaL
HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER
In the past few years, most of the hydro-electric power investigations have
been carried out in the northern half of the Province, where very little large-scale
photography or mapping exists. For these reasons, it has been necessary to carry
out some extensive topographic surveys. New maps are just becoming available,
and this, together with recent hydrometric information, will provide the basis for
engineering reports.
Dease-Stikine Hydro-power Investigation
Investigation of the power potential of the Dease-Stikine area was carried
a step further with the completion of 1-inch-to-1,000-feet mapping of much of the
main stem. Storage-capacity curves have been prepared, and with recent photography obtained this year it will be possible to carry this study to completion.
Bowron-Willow Hydro-power Investigation
A previous incomplete study on this project was carried through to report
stage for the Fraser River Board. Four sites were selected on the Bowron River,
the upper site providing the main storage of some 345,000 acre-feet, while the
lower sites were designed as run-of-the-river power-dams.
Similarly on the Willow River two power-dams were located on the lower
reaches, with some tributary storage being obtained at Narrow and Stony Lakes.
Diversions were also given some consideration, but lack of topographic data allow
only tentative conclusions.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
CC 89
Tentatively, the following power potential has been computed:—
Scheme
Prime Power
(MW)
Installed
(MW)
Average
Annual Output (Million
Kwh.)
21.4
9.6
27.0
40.5
39.0
18.3
49.0
73.7
227
Willow                           	
108
287
Willow and diversion of Bowron into Willow and diversion to
Giscome.    ...         	
432
Liard River Hydro-power Investigation
Mapping is being completed for the main stem and several tributaries as the
result of last year's field work. This consists of pondage maps at a scale of 1 inch
to 1,000 feet, and dam-site plans at 1 inch to 500 feet.
SNOW SURVEYS
In British Columbia, precipitation falls mostly as snow. Thus nature provides
in mountain snow a water-storage facility greater than any man-made storage ever
conceived. Foreknowledge of this snow-melt water-supply greatly aids the economy
through better management of water-supplies. To provide this forecast service, the
Water Rights Branch, since 1935, has steadily increased its network of snow courses,
and in the coming sampling season will have 112 courses in active operation.
Of these, sixty-two will be measured free of charge by those co-operating agencies
with a direct interest in the problem of water-supply. All data are processed and
inserted in one of six bulletins published during the snow-accumulation and snow-
melt periods.
During the winter of 1961 nineteen snow courses were visited by our field
representative and sampling instruction provided to the responsible snow surveyors.
During the summer inspection trips, repairs were made to twenty-eight courses.
Also, a reconnaissance trip was made into the Columbia Basin for the purpose of
investigating locations for new snow-course installations in anticipation of the
proposed power development of the Columbia River. With Water Rights Branch
co-operation and participation, the Federal Meteorological Service has embarked
on a snow-survey programme with establishment of low-level snow courses at all
first-order meteorological stations. Data from these sites will be published in the
British Columbia snow bulletins.
Work has progressed with derivation of new multiple correlation forecast procedures by making use of the IBM 650 electronic computer. This involves tabulation of basic data in convenient form prior to card-punching, and then selection
and elimination of variables in order to produce the final forecast equations. In
addition to the usual April 1st forecasts, it is hoped that revised May 1st forecasts
will be issued for the first time in 1962.
The Water Rights Branch has co-operated with the United States Soil Conservation Service in the development of common forecast procedures for three
international gauging-sites; namely, the Columbia at Birchbank, the Kootenay at
Porthill, and the Similkameen at Nighthawk. As a result of this co-operation, the
United States and British Columbia will provide water-users with the forecasts for
these gauging-sites.
 CC 90 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Developed and Undeveloped Water Power (as of December 31, 1960)
Records of hydro-power installations during 1960 and preceding years are
shown graphically on Plates 2 and 3. Plate 2 shows the total of all peak loads, the
average load, and the total installed capacity for the Province in each year. Plate 3
illustrates the breakdown of these figures between the major power-producers.
During 1960 the total amount of electrical energy generated by hydro-electric
plants in British Columbia amounted to 12,638,500,000 kilowatt-hours. This is
7.57 per cent greater than the corresponding use for 1959 and indicates that the
annual use of water for the production of electricity, which in 1959 dropped to
4.75 per cent, is returning to a more healthy position. Much of the increase is due
to a greater output at the Aluminum Company of Canada Limited's smelter at
Kitimat. This is the single largest power-user in British Columbia, and the recent
ups and downs of the aluminum industry reflect strongly on the Provincial power
usage.
Over the last ten years (1950 to 1960) the total annual generation from all
sources in the Province has risen from 4,866 million kilowatt-hours to about 13,600
million kilowatt-hours, an average increase of 10.8 per cent per annum compounded. Slightly over half of the total generation is provided by industries for
their own use, and out of this the Aluminum Company of Canada Limited alone
contributes a half share, or a quarter of the Provincial total.
Installed operating hydro-electric capacities at the end of 1960 totalled
2,528,000 kilowatts, as compared with 2,370,000 kilowatts in 1959. The principal
addition during the year was 124,000 kilowatts at the British Columbia Electric
Company's plant at Bridge River. Other additions were made at the Walter Hard-
man plant, owned by the City of Revelstoke, and at the Big Falls plant, owned by
the Northern B.C. Power Corporation, with added installations of 4,000 kilowatts
and 3,900 kilowatts respectively. As the remaining difference between the total
installed capacity figures for 1960 and 1959 is due to revisions, the total increase
for the year was approximately 132,000 kilowatts or 5.57 per cent.
In the thermal field there were no significant additions to the electrical generating capacity of the Province during 1960. The British Columbia Electric Company is continuing with construction of its plant on Burrard Inlet at loco, and
installation of the first unit of 157,500 kilowatts is now planned for the early part
of 1962.
Apart from planning for the Columbia and Fraser Rivers, which are dealt with
elsewhere, other studies are being made of undeveloped hydro resources. The
latest estimate of the total undeveloped power available is 22,100,000 kilowatts, as
was reported last year.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
CC 91
1000
GOOO
DEVELOPMENT   OF   HYDRO-POWER
IN
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
5000
BRITISH   COLUMBIA    TOTAL
GENERATING   CAPACITY
AND
ANNUAL   LOADS
NOTE :
The peak hods of individual- power plants   rarely
occur at the same time. The   Total of Plant Peak Loads,
thus  exceeds  the highest simultaneous output  of
all B-C hydro plants, though  the  yearly   changes
shown  In the Sraph should be similar in size and
direction.
2000
<0
O
k.
o
10
Q
o
s
doo I-.
1000
300
600
500
400
X0
1320     1315      1330     1335
200
1340      1345      1350      1355
CALENDAR     VEAR
1360     1365     1370      1375
Plate 2.
 CC 92
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
DEVELOPMENT  OF    HYDRO-POWER
IN
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
ANNUAL    PRODUCTION  OF    HYDRO" ELECT.R IC   ENERGY
BY   MAJOR    PRODUCERS
,cr<s
—ALCAIS
^
*r
—CMiS
^
h
>
V
—BCPC
>»
/
r'
<*t ■
r^l
/
f&fxy
-j—
k>
7^
"
i^\
J
t
r-S*
f
4
5
10000
JO
i
i
1000
500
400
300
o
-j
200  5
13ZO     1325      1330      1335      1340     1345      1350     1355      1360     136-5     1970     1375
CALENDAR     YEAR
ALCAN Aluminum   Company of   Canada.
3CB British Columbia Electric   Company 4 Associated Companies.
BCPC British Columbia Fbiter Commission.
CM45 Consolidated Mining 4 Smelting Company / IVest Kootenay Power t* Light  Company.
INSTALLED    GENERATING     CAPACITIES
OF    MAJOR      PRODUCER5
ir
J
.
1
' 1
1 ,
I
_/r
/
__T
ec£/-'
/'
A
/
'
cms/
/
5000
4000
3000
2000
a
?
s
1000
5
1<
0
<r)
is
500
^
<o
400
3
ii
j-
300
K
100
13Z0    1325      1930     1335      1940     1945      1350      1955      I960     1965     1370      1975
CALENDAR    YEAR
Plate 3.
 UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
  UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
CC 95
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
M. E. Ferguson, Project Manager
The general administration of the University Endowment Lands during 1961
was, in the main, similar to average-type municipal management.
With no lots available, there was no activity in residential or apartment property sales. The only activity relative to land was the disposal, on a basis of sale or
lease to be determined when future property is developed, of the balance of the
lots set aside for fraternities and the church-site for the United Church which had
been promised some time earlier.
From a maintenance view-point, it was clearly shown that the annual programme of dragging the sewers is proving very effective, since the year was completed with no sur-charging or other flood effects in spite of record rainfall. At times
several adjoining municipalities encountered rather extensive difficulties.
During the past summer, which was one of the driest in many years, the
administration was able to maintain a fairly good supply of water with the installation of a new pump by the Greater Vancouver and District Water Board. While
pressures did drop during peak periods, it was better than has been experienced in
previous years. There is still a problem to be solved to ensure an adequate supply
to meet the needs of a growing university campus and at the same time provide
ample reserve for potential fire-flghting needs. These problems have been presented
to the Greater Vancouver and District Water Board, and it is currently studying the
situation.
Taxes are always of interest to property-owners, and in this regard it may be
worthy of note that while our general tax rate increased seven-tenths of a mill for
1961, it was still below the rate set for 1959. In essence this means that the 1-mill
reduction for 1960 has, to a fairly large extent, been maintained for the second year.
Several new ideas were incorporated in general maintenance work, such as the
reconditioning of all water-main valves in Unit 2. These valves have been in use
for some thirty-five years, and considerable difficulty was being encountered when
lines had to be shut down. From the results obtained in this year's operation, there
would appear to be every reason to anticipate that this programme will be expanded
to other sections in the near future.
The Fire Department again operated under a special arrangement whereby
assistance of the City of Vancouver was available on a prearranged hourly-cost
basis. A major problem of the Fire Department was greatly improved through the
banning of parking on certain streets and near many buildings.
Number and Value of Building Permits Issued during the Years
Ended December 31, 1959, 1960, and 1961
1959
1960
1961
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
Churches   _ 	
3
25
3
4
2
12
4
1
1
1
1
10
9
$150,000 00
Swimming-pools  	
$17,265.00
$19,800.00
13,000.00
20,000 00
100,530.00
55,831.00
4,200.00
50,000 00
41,650.00
1,550.00
44,450.00
8,400.00
Garages, etc 	
Totals 	
31
$60,465.00
22
$180,361.00
23
$285,850.00
 CC 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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§
 PERSONNEL OFFICE
  PERSONNEL OFFICE CC 99
PERSONNEL OFFICE
J. H. Palmer, B.A., B.Com., Personnel Officer
ESTABLISHMENT AND ORGANIZATION
Consequent upon an amendment to the Water Act in 1960 which provided for
the control of ground-water supplies, a significant expansion of the Department's
establishment occurred in 1961 with the addition of seven permanent positions to
the Water Rights Branch. This permitted the creation of a Ground-water Section
consisting of a geological engineer, a senior clerk, and a draughtsman; the opening
of a district office in Mission City with a District Engineer and stenographer (and
an Assistant District Engineer whose position was transferred from the Victoria
office); and a reorganization of the clerical work in the Operations Division where,
by the addition of a Clerk 3, it is now the practice to route incoming work to sections
dealing with new licences, ground-water, and licence amendments. An Inspector
of Improvement Districts was added to the Improvement Districts Section to assist
with incorporation procedures and administration.
In the Lands Branch three additional casual positions were approved; two of
these, a Clerk 1 and a Clerk-Typist 1. are employed in the general office, and a Clerk
2 is employed in the Land Inspection Division to relieve professional employees of
clerical functions.
In the Topographic Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch, the introduction of the tellurometer, an electronic distance-measuring device, permitted a
reduction in the number of field positions in favour of office draughting and mapping
assistant positions which were required in order to offset the bottleneck in plotting.
The policy of converting field positions to office ones resulted in greater production
without increasing the total of staff employed.
TURNOVER
Separations from the Department in 1961 reached forty-two, compared with
twenty-four in the previous year. Turnover was heaviest in the stenographic field.
There was one retirement—Mr. J. G. Evans, Clerk 1, File Vault. Thirty-eight new
appointments were made and twelve promotions took place within the Department
during the year.  Twenty-two reclassifications were implemented.
TRAINING
Messrs. A. Lukinuk, G. S. Smith, and J. Tomczak, of the Air Division, and
Mr. E. S. W. Andrews, of the Topographic Division, received diplomas in public
administration following the completion of the three-year course sponsored by the
Civil Service Commission. This brings to twelve the total number of graduates in
this course from this Department. Two employees entered the second year of this
course and four began the first year.
Mr. A. Paulsen, the Land Inspector in Kelowna, completed the requirements
for registration as an Accredited Appraiser, Canadian Institute (A.A.C.I.).
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
The Minister's Salary Advisory Committee for the University Endowment
Lands, consisting of the Deputy Minister of Lands, the Chief Personnel Officer of
the Civil Service Commission, and the Lands Service Personnel Officer, was estab-
 CC 100 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
lished to advise the Minister regarding wages and working conditions for the University Endowment Lands. This Committee carried on negotiations with the B.C.
Government Employees Association, which represented the outside staff, and with
the International Association of Fire Fighters, which represented Fire Department
personnel up to and including the rank of captain. Some minor changes in working
conditions were implemented, and an upward revision of salaries was approved by
the Government for nearly all classifications in this division of the Department.
 MAIL AND FILE ROOM
  MAIL and file room
CC 103
MAIL AND FILE ROOM
John A. Grant
Letters received in the Department during 1961 amounted to 237,317, compared to 239,406 in 1960, a decrease of 0.9 per cent. This is the first decrease
recorded since 1954.
There were 9,635 new files created during the year. It is noted that over
96,000 files have been made since 1951, and it can be expected that another
100,000 will be in existence ten years from now. This, of course, brings up the
question of storage. The problem has been solved temporarily by storing closed
sections of files, and other inactive files, in the Topaz Avenue vaults. It is estimated, however, that within a very few years another microfilming programme will
be necessary.
Increased reference to microfilmed files necessitated the acquisition of a third
reader in the File Room during the year.
Letters Inward
Branch
1960
1961
10-year Average
1952-61
42,355
153,503
24,382
19,166
44,552
148,863
24,169
19,733
37,055
Forests .,,,     	
Water Rights                            	
110,052
20,805
16,613
Totals                         	
239,406
237,317
184,525
Letters Outward (Recorded)
Branch
I960
1961
10-year Average
1952-61
15,871
2,612
2,319
16,674
2,296
2,381
12,285
4,979
1,864
Surveys and Mapping     —
Totals —	
20,802
21,351
19,128
Miscellaneous Reports
Designation
1960
1961
10-year Average
1952-61
Forest-fire reports	
Slash-disposal reports. 	
Logging-inspection reports	
Land-classification reports	
Stumpage-adjustment notices..
Totals 	
8,288
560
16,336
3,585
3,465
32,234
9,184
532
14,792
4,075
4,372
32,955
4,958
460
15,767
2,792
23,977
 CC 104
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
New Files Created
Designation
1960
1961
10-year Average
1952-61
"0" files
5,412
1,320
2,845
5,767
1,208
2,660
4,793
1,404
3,437
Tntnlo
9,577
9,635
9,634
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1962
1,060-362-8617

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