Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

REPORT of THE FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1961 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1962

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0363093.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0363093.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0363093-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0363093-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0363093-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0363093-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0363093-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0363093-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0363093-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0363093.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. R. G. WILLISTON, Minister R. G. McKEE, Deputy Minister of Forests
F. S. McKINNON, Chief Forester
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1961
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1962
  1
v.
"i ■    -k
■■ . : .
■■'.;■,■.;.::-' ■
«
o
a
z
3
z
■<
n
o
H
•a -a
<*-t €
0 £ A
©2
o
a «
cs __.
CS
CS J3
&8^ I
=1 I 2 §'
1 —' o w
>. 5?
■a u
»    CO
Mr
•S a 2
8
S
Oi
6
S o
o "
E
I    BO-1
•o
cj
00
cs
60
C
CJ
I a pi
o> 2 to
13   T* O
"* 1 2
1f2
a fl
&  55
l«
a   .
0.0
•a 2
"E 5
M '3 JS e
-§1
u
u
o
■a s
ta  .
g §
1 a
I a
as
3
C
S "3
J5   cs
o
- o o
.a.
>-.p
^   C   c-
CN
J3 -S
cj d
CD
o  .    cj .S3
*H   C   pj   cj
CJ
S   cj
-28
»|
6 Ph
H O
VD 5
<-l jj
M^
•° 3
■- -2 3 «-
1 2Q^
2 >
E cs
vo K
CT\ CJ
E *o
,£>    CS
CS TJ
i C/3   O   tu
—  u
■•li 2,
.J'ilft
i -a cs
5  cj
GO    5
«£
O >y
O
f-   cS
N2
fr E
S^S B-©
g o o J E ©
O         u   » -O
3   0^°.
•ph iL r*~
ffl  60 0 O <-h
  Victoria, B.C., March, 1962.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O, M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service
of the Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1961.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
 The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1961.
R. G. McKEE,
Deputy Minister of Forests.
 CONTENTS
Item
1. Chief Forester's Summary
Page
.   11
2. Forest Surveys and Inventory  17
Introduction  17
Field Programme  17
Forest Classification and Sampling  17
Growth  17
Loss-factor Project  17
Special Projects  18
Office Programme  18
Forest Mapping  18
Area and Volume Summaries  18
Growth  19
Volume-table and Loss-factor Projects  19
Photo Mensuration  19
3. Forest Research  21
Experiment Stations  21
Field Programme  21
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1961  22
Research Publications, 1961  23
4. Reforestation	
Forest Nurseries.
24
24
Seed and Extraction  26
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  27
Planting  27
Plantation Improvement and Maintenance  27
Preparation of Planting-sites  27
Permanent Improvements  28
Co-operation  28
Interdepartmental Rehabilitation and Forestry Programme  28
Working Plans  29
Introduction  29
Public Sustained-yield Units  29
Tree-farm Licences  30
Tree-farm Lands.___  30
Farm Wood-lot Licences  30
7
 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Page
6. Public Information and Education  31
Communication Media  31
Photography and Motion-picture Production  31
Film Library  32
Publications and Printing  32
Radio and Television  33
Press and Periodicals  34
Commercial Theatres  34
Signs and Exhibits  34
School Lecture Programme  35
Library  35
Co-operation and Special Projects  36
7. Forest Management  37
General  37
Administration of Managed Units  39
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  40
Lumber Prices  40
Log Prices  40
Stumpage Prices  41
Sliding-scale Adjustments  41
Stumpage-appraisal Cost Studies  42
Silviculture  42
Scaling  43
8. Grazing .  46
General Conditions  46
Markets and Prices  46
Live-stock Losses  47
Disease of Live Stock  47
Range Management  47
Range Surveys  48
Range Improvements  48
Peace River Pastures  49
Co-operation  49
Administration  50
Legislation  50
Grazing and Hay Permits   51
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees  51
Live-stock Counts  51
Violations and Prosecutions  51
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 9
Item Page
9. Engineering Services  52
Engineering Section  52
Development Engineering  5 3
Road Location  5 3
Construction   54
General Engineering .  55
Mechanical Section  56
Building Design and Construction  58
Marine Design  59
Forest Museum ..  60
Forest Service Marine Station  60
Marine Work  60
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop  61
Machine-shop  61
Radio Section  61
10. Forest Protection  64
Weather  64
Fires  65
Occurrence and Causes  65
Cost of Fire-fighting  65
Damage  66
Fire-control Planning and Research  66
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers  66
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  66
Fuel-moisture Sticks  67
Snag-falling Projects  67
Fire-weather Records and Investigations  67
Fire-suppression Crews  67
Aircraft  68
Roads and Trails  69
Slash-disposal and Snag-failing  69
Fire-law Enforcement  70
Forest Closures  70
11. Ranger School  72
Extra Courses  72
Acknowledgments  73
 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Page
12. Personnel  74
General  74
Communications and Training  74
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  75
Classifications, Salaries, and Working Conditions  76
13. Accounting  78
Fiscal  78
Administration  78
14. Personnel Directory, 1962  80
15. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service  85
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1961
CHIEF FORESTER'S SUMMARY
Introduction and Legislation
The Forest Service was pleased to be associated with and to assist in the
organizing and implementation of the nation-wide "Resources for Tomorrow"
Conference held in Montreal, October 23 to 28, 1961, sponsored jointly by the
Canadian Government and those of each of the ten Provinces. Both the Chief
Forester and the Director of Public Information were chosen to prepare and deliver
lead-off papers at the conference, and the latter was also appointed chairman of
the British Columbia Information Committee for the conference and secretary of
the forty-two-member British Columbia delegation. The Honourable the Minister
of Lands and Forests served as chairman of the British Columbia delegation, as well
as British Columbia representative on the National Steering Committee for this historic conference. Support of the conference by British Columbia industry, labour,
and education was most noteworthy.
Early in the coming year, on February 27, 1962, the British Columbia Forest
Service will be 50 years old, being on that date in 1912 that the original British
Columbia Forest Act received legislative approval. At the end of 1961, plans are
under way to mark this historic occasion in the development of forest administration
in this Province with appropriate informational displays in the Legislative Buildings
and by a series of special occasions to be organized throughout the Province.
There were significant amendments to the Forest Act during 1961. Section 17
of the Act was further amended to extend the provisions for sale of timber by sealed
tender to include sales in fully committed public sustained-yield units. The amendment also clarified the procedure to be followed for sales in both emergency areas
and fully committed public sustained-yield units.
A new section, number 17a, was added to the Act to provide for the establishment of pulp wood harvesting areas east of the Cascades. Under the provisions of
this section, several public sustained-yield units, established on a sawlog basis, can
be combined into one pulpwood harvesting area to provide a source of small wood
to encourage the building of a pulp-mill in the locality concerned. The Minister is
empowered to hold hearings and invite proposals for the harvesting of pulpwood in
such areas. An option to purchase the pulpwood may be granted by the Minister
on the basis of an acceptable proposal being made by any party.
Amendments to clarify the administration were made in section 33 of the
Forest Act, whereby easements may be granted over forest reserves in accordance
with section 70 of the Land Act.
A royalty rate was established for lodgepole pine, poles, piling, and crib-timber.
A very significant amendment was made to section 123, whereby the Minister
may enter into agreements for forest-protection services and can provide for payment of forest-protection tax by municipalities.
The forest district boundaries were revised by placing a large tract of the
Prince George Forest District under the administration of the Prince Rupert Forest
District. This change was desirable because of the access now available to the
Northern Interior from Atlin and Lower Post.
11
 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Since 1947 these Annual Reports have carried submissions on forest insect
and disease conditions in British Columbia, through the courtesy of the Victoria unit
of the Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch of the Federal Government. As
a result of the organization of the Canada Department of Forestry, in the fall of
1960, to which the Entomology and Pathology Branch has been transferred from
the Department of Agriculture, British Columbia Forest Service Reports will no
longer contain these submissions, which will now be found in the Annual Reports
of the new Canada Department of Forestry.
Surveys and Inventory
A programme of intensive management surveys in public sustained-yield units
was instituted during the year, assisted financially by the Government of Canada
through provisions of the Department of Forestry Act.
A total of 6,044 classification sample plots was established in seven public
sustained-yield units by five Interior and one Coastal field party. Private agencies
provided an additional 480 plots under co-operative agreement.
Complete volume records are now available on 1,815 growth-and-yield subplots, and an intensive programme that will consider all aspects of growth and yield
got under way during the year. Special projects involving surveys of timber volumes in all timber berths and inspections of Crown-granted timber land and timber
licences on Vancouver Island started work in the field.
Eight hundred and eighty-five final and interim forest-cover maps were completed, covering twenty-four public sustained-yield units, and 14,506 copies of
cover maps were made available to the public on request.
A complete revision of the 1955 interim standard cubic-foot volume tables
was completed in 1961, and tables for fifteen commercial species have been published.
Forest Research
New accommodation and sewage facilities were constructed at the Aleza Lake
Experiment Station. In addition, several miles of access road were constructed on
the station area and 3 acres were cleared for use as a nursery-site.
In the field, fire destroyed several years' plantation experiments near Buckhorn
Lake. On the credit side, studies on seed production were continued in the Prince
George Forest District and some success was attained in broadcast sowing of spruce
seed on two areas following hot fires.
In the Prince Rupert District a start was made toward a comprehensive study
of lodgepole pine regeneration, and in the Kamloops District planting trials continued. In Nelson good progress continued to be made in the study of site preparation and ponderosa pine planting stock. At all four nurseries, work continued on
fertilizer plot trials.
Reforestation
Burlap bales, formerly used for shipping seedlings, have been replaced by
multi-walled freight-shipping bags. The use of pre-emergence aromatic oil sprays
on nursery seed-beds has reduced cost of weeding by one-third. Mechanical soil-
spreaders designed by the nursery staff and now in general use do a more uniform
job of spreading than can be done by hand.
A total of 8,000,000 trees was distributed during the year. A record total of
2,732 seed-beds was sown, so that nurseries now hold a stock of 21,800,000 seedlings of various age-classes.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 13
What at first appeared to be a good cone-crop deteriorated rapidly, and only
a limited collection of 1,237 bushels was made. Quality of the extracted seed is
not expected to be high. Good response was again secured on seed-production
areas which had been fertilized the previous year to stimulate cone production.
A total of 20,681 acres was planted by all agencies in the Province.
Working Plans
Six new public sustained-yield units were established during the year, contracts were signed for two tree-farm licences awarded in 1960, and one Taxation
Act tree-farm was certified. Thus, at the end of 1961, there are in operation seventy-eight public sustained-yield units, thirty-nine tree-farm licences, thirty-five
Taxation Act tree-farms of which twenty-two are managed as separate entities and
not as part of tree-farm licences, and fifty farm wood-lot licences.
The total area now under working plans amounts to over 53,778,000 acres
of productive forest, with a total allowable annual cut of 860,000,000 cubic feet,
equivalent to 74 per cent of the 1961 Provincial scale.
Public Information and Education
It became possible during this year to establish, for the first time, specially
trained information personnel at the district level in order to assist the field staff in
their public communication activities. It is expected that a certain amount of decentralization of information and education work will be of distinct advantage in
the future.
A new 16-mm. colour, sound motion-picture production, "The High-ball
Logger," dealing with the need for timber-sale operators to follow approved logging plans, was completed and released for circulation primarily to industry and its
associations.
Over 140,000 persons saw films circulated through the facilities of the motion-
picture library, and Service-produced films were shown on various television outlets,
as was a considerable footage of a special nature provided by the Division.
A reissue of 83,000 copies of the school scribbler series was produced, including a new cover design featuring " Bertie Beaver " as a symbol of fire prevention
and good forest management.
The Forest Service calendar, an annual item since 1922, was discontinued
during the year, as was the regular summer-season issuance of forest-protection
bulletins for industry.
The radio, television, and commercial theatre forest-protection publicity campaigns continued as in the past, as did the Service's school lecture programme.
Forest Management
Despite a reduction of 2.8 per cent in the total scale, the estimated value of
forest production showed an increase of $3,557,000 over the revised 1960 figure,
reaching a new record high of $774,870,000. Although the value of lumber production declined by $21,600,000 from the 1960 high, pulp and paper production
showed an increase of $15,475,000. Lumber represented 46 per cent of the total
value, followed by pulp and paper (33 per cent) and plywood (10 per cent). The
balance was accounted for by minor product values.
Douglas fir continued as the principal species cut, with 30 per cent of the total
scale, followed by hemlock (22 per cent), spruce (17 per cent), and cedar (13
per cent). Hemlock retained its leading position on the Coast, while in the Interior,
Douglas fir and spruce respectively were the leading species.
 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Water-borne shipments were up 6.8 per cent over 1960, the most remarkable
increase being in shipments to Japan, which rose from 1,607,000 board-feet in 1960
to 155,550,000 in 1961. World lumber prices declined. Shipments to the sterling
area, which comprise 70 per cent of water shipments from the Province, dropped
by 24 per cent.
Eighty-three per cent of the total scale of forest production came from Crown
land tenures, but only 64 per cent came from tenure on which stumpage is collected.
The seventy-eight public managed units accounted for 39 per cent of the Provincial
scale, while 24 per cent came from tree-farm licences.
The 6,569 active timber sales in existence at the close of the year comprised
a total area of 3,651,000 acres. Ninety-two per cent of the 1,857 sales made during the year were non-competitive, and these accounted for 91 per cent of the total
volume sold.
One hundred and ten million cubic feet of fire-damaged timber was offered
for sale at salvage stumpage rates.
Although the prices paid for Douglas fir logs on the Lower Coast showed a
moderate increase during the year, log and lumber prices continued at a low level.
A new system of stumpage adjustment based on changes in marketing prices
was prepared and presented to the industry for consideration and comment.
Silvicultural activity on 648 timber sales resulted in 132,769 acres being
treated for stand improvement. Ground scarification was carried out on an additional 4,120 acres.
Grazing
As a result of favourable weather during the winter of 1960/61 and fair supplies of hay, the ranching industry enjoyed a generally satisfactory year during 1961.
Weighted average cattle prices for the year were $18.29 per hundredweight,
up more than $1 over the previous year. Live-stock losses due to poisonous weeds
were lower than average, but the control of Vibriosis, a reproductive disease of
cattle, continued to be a troublesome problem from the range administration standpoint.
An adequate level of range management is not being achieved, primarily because of lack of Forest Service range supervisory personnel and an apparent lack
of understanding of management requirements on the part of large segments of the
industry. The impact of multiple land use in the range country is also making it
difficult to maintain a proper level of management, and a co-ordinated land-use
study is now urgently required.
A total of 213,600 acres was covered by range surveys, and some $46,000 was
expended on range improvements. This programme included the sowing of 36,200
pounds of grass and legume seed on burned and logged-over areas. Special pasture-
development work was again carried out in the Peace River District.
Engineering Services
Assisted under the provisions of the Federal-Provincial cost-sharing agreement
for forest roads, 425 miles of development road routes were reconnoitred, 305 miles
located, and 179 miles constructed during the year. In addition, 348 miles of previously constructed haul-road received routine maintenance and repair.
Engineering field crews assisted district staffs during the height of the fire
season by flagging out some 68 miles of protection and fire access road.
The bridge-construction programme kept pace with road production, with six
permanent timber bridges and nine bridges of local material being erected.   Designs
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
15
were completed for pressure-creosoted glue-laminated girder-type bridges for six
new sites, and preliminary designs and estimates were made for bridges in eleven
additional locations.
Building design and construction work continued at a high level of activity.
In the marine section, the new Ranger vessel, " Hecate Ranger," was completed to
the deck-line and evaluation tests continued on the jet-propulsion principle for
Service use.
Sorely needed expansion of the Service radio network continued during the
year, with 231 new units being added.
Forest Protection
The 1961 fire season was one of the three worst on record. A total of 3,102
fires was reported (excluding railway-tie fires), which exceeded the 1958 total of
3,058 fires, exclusive of the railway category.
Forest Service fire-fighting costs as at the end of the year were $4,395,000,
which raises the annual cost of fire-fighting between 1958 and 1961 to $3,647,000.
Under the new, modified statistical system wherein railway-tie fires are excluded from the forest-fire category, the greatest single cause of fire in 1961 was
lightning (46 per cent), followed by smokers (10.8 per cent), miscellaneous known
causes (9.3 per cent), recreationists (8.7 per cent), and other lesser causes.
Again in 1961, as in 1958 and 1960, aircraft of all types were very active in
protection and suppression work. Fixed-wing aircraft flew a total of 4,327 hours
on fire-fighting duties, of which 1,067 hours were on water-bombing operations.
Helicopters continued to play a vital role in reconnaissance and transport work,
logging a total of 3,206 hours. The lack of available aircraft on stand-by again
added to the difficulty and costs of suppression activity.
In the never-ending struggle to improve access on the ground, over 338 miles
of protection roads and trails were constructed during the year and 2,398 miles
were maintained.
As part of the hazard-reduction programme, snag-falling contracts were
awarded over an area of 11,748 acres, with an increasing amount of this work
being done on a cost-sharing basis with industry.
Fire-danger tables developed by the Research Branch of the Canada Department of Forestry were distributed and tested in all forest districts, and preliminary
indications are favourable.
Ranger School
The twelfth class, consisting of twenty enrollees, will complete its nine months
of study in April, 1962.
Consideration is being given to the revision of the Ranger School training procedures in order to keep them in line with Service requirements. If these proposals
are accepted, they will be implemented in September, 1962.
Personnel
The permanent Civil Service establishment of the Forest Service increased by
two positions during the year to a total of 846 positions. Eighty-two employees
received permanent appointments and seventy-four left the Service during 1961,
including eight graduate foresters and one engineer.
Including permanent and full-time casual employees, Forest Service staff turnover averaged 11.9 per cent, down slightly from the previous year. Prince Rupert
District showed the highest turnover rate of 24.1 per cent, and Kamloops District
 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the lowest with 13.9 per cent. Over-all professional staff turnover for the Service
stood at 5 per cent, down slightly from 1960, but technical staff turnover continued
to rise from 4.8 per cent in 1960 to 5.3 per cent this year. More than 80 per cent
of staff turnover was limited to female employees.
Over 700 written applications for employment were received during the year.
This is a new record and is 16 per cent higher than the number received in 1960,
The safety and accident-prevention programme gained momentum during the
year with the appointment of a Safety Co-ordinating Committee to assist the various
district and division committees, and the systematic coding and review of all cases.
Accounting
Reflecting the drop of 2.8 per cent in the volume of timber scaled from the
1960 record, total charges against logging operators declined by 12.2 per cent, to
$28,820,442. Direct Forest Service revenue collected during 1961 totalled
$28,930,072, or 5.2 per cent down from 1960.
The Forest Service became responsible during the year for the safekeeping and
control of " Receipt and Agreement" documents by operators and their banks
relative to timber-sale deposit requirements. Previously, this responsibility had
rested with the Department of Finance.
F. S. McKinnon,
Chief Forester.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 17
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
INTRODUCTION
In 1961 the Division embarked upon a programme of intensive management
surveys in public sustained-yield units. As in the former forest inventory maintenance programme, financial assistance was extended by the Government of Canada
according to the agreement for forest inventory implemented under the Department
of Forestry Act*
The seven public sustained-yield units that received field coverage during the
year were: Westlake (Prince George Forest District), Narcosli (Prince George
Forest District), Smithers (Prince Rupert Forest District), Kitwanga (Prince Rupert
Forest District), Nicola (Kamloops Forest District), Seymour (Vancouver Forest
District), and Windermere (Nelson Forest District).
FIELD PROGRAMME
Forest Classification and Sampling
Five Interior and one Coastal field party classified and sampled seven public
sustained-yield units in 1961. A total of 6,044 sample plots was established in these
areas. In addition, 480 sample plots were provided by private agencies under cooperative agreements.
One Bell 47 G-2 helicopter on a four-month charter and another on a two-
month contract were used to gather field data and transport crews to the more
inaccessible work areas. Approximately 630 hours of helicopter flying were required to complete forest classification and sampling assignments.
The efficient co-ordination of launch and helicopter was essential for the relatively isolated Seymour Sustained-yield Unit project. The use of a 60-foot barge as
a helicopter landing-site was very successful and saved many hours of ferry time.
Growth
Permanent Growth-and-yield Plots
During the year six experimental plots comprising ninety-six sub-plots were
remeasured. All existing experimental plots in the Province, excepting four in the
Kitimat area, now have at least one remeasurement. Complete volume records are
available on these 1,815 sub-plots. Future remeasurements are planned only on
those plots which meet existing standards and which are situated within public
sustained-yield units or on vacant Crown land.
An intensive programme that will consider all aspects of growth and yield,
based on permanent plots, is now under way. Systems of permanent growth plots
in each public sustained-yield unit or groups of units are being planned. A start
was made this year when several J/s-acre circular plots were established in the
Nicola and Narcosli Sustained-yield Units.
General discussions of growth-and-yield programmes were held with private
agencies. In several cases this liaison led to the adoption of a uniform programme
and the mutual exchange of information.
Loss-factor Project
Decay studies were carried out in four areas in the Interior during 1961. The
studies initiated in 1960 in the Kamloops Forest District were continued, with sam-
* Formerly Canada Forestry Act.
2
 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
pie plots being established in the vicinity of Marshall Lake in the Lillooet district
and at McKinley Lake in the Horsefly area. In these two areas a total of 530 trees
was measured. A study of decay in decadent hemlock stands in the Kitwanga and
Hazelton areas was initiated, with a total of 1,600 trees measured.
The objectives of these studies are: (1) To detennine the extent of decay
and related losses in forest stands and to study the factors influencing the incidence
and extent of decay; (2) to determine the external signs of decay and assess their
value as aids to cruising; and (3) to identify and determine the fungi of major
importance.   These studies are being continued.
Special Projects
Timber Berths
A systematic survey of all timber berths was initiated in 1961 to determine the
volume of timber remaining on each berth. This work will continue during 1962,
and it is estimated that a total of five years will be required to complete the investigation.
Taxation Cruises
Early in the year the Division was requested to conduct a number of inspections of Crown-granted timber land and timber licences on Vancouver Island for
the purposes of real-property assessment and taxation. A four-man cruising party
was in the field for approximately four months and reported on areas on both the
west and east coasts of Vancouver Island. It is expected that these investigations
will continue during 1962.
OFFICE PROGRAMME
Forest Mapping
A total of 885 final and interim forest-cover maps, covering 20,000,000 acres,
was completed for the following twenty-four public sustained-yield units: Babine,
Barkley, Big Valley, Bowron, Carp, Chilliwack, Cottonwood, Creston, Crooked,
Kyuquot, Lac la Hache, Longworth, Morice, Naver, Narcosli, Purden Lake, Quesnel Lake, Robson, Sayward, Seymour, Spallumcheen, Stuart, Westlake, and Willow
River.
Three of these units—namely, Narcosli, Seymour, and Westlake—were part
of the 1961 field projects.
During the year 14,506 maps were distributed in response to requests received
from various public and private agencies.
Area and Volume Summaries
Thirty-two requests were received requiring statistical summaries, to be used
mainly for management planning, and access-road development. They involved
a total area of 45,000,000 acres and a net timber volume exceeding 68,000,000,000
cubic feet.
Planimetry of 20-chains-to-l-inch maps alone exceeded 10,000,000 acres.
In addition, over 1,000 map-area statements involving 20,000,000 acres were
printed, resulting in complete area coverage on fourteen public sustained-yield units.
Considerable use was made of the pool I.B.M. 650 computer on volume-table
and sample compilation work. Over 2,000,000 cards went through the computer
on this phase of the work.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961 19
Growth
Empirical Growth Estimates
Net mean annual increments were calculated for major growth types in the
Burns Lake, Creston, and Hecate Sustained-yield Units. Similar information is
now available on thirty-one units. In addition, revisions were completed for the
Babine and Sechelt units incorporating 1959 samples.
During the year thirty-six requests for growth information were received and
processed.
Site Curves
Differences in mean annual increment calculations from experimental plots
and inventory samples resulted in the preparation of revised western hemlock site
curves for the south Coast (Zone 2). Separate site curves now exist for pure
hemlock stands and hemlock mixtures.
Volume-table and Loss-factor Projects
A complete revision of the 1955 interim standard cubic-foot volume tables was
completed in 1961. A total of 34,000 tree measurements of all species was processed, from which 29,600 measurements were used to construct the final volume
tables. Tables for fifteen commercial tree species have been published in 2-inch/
10-foot and 1-inch/ 1-foot versions (sample, Table 1).
Concurrently with the volume-table project, a complete revision of the 1957
loss factors was accomplished. This involved the processing and analysis of some
30,000 tree measurements. Loss factors have been produced for fifteen tree species for application to five diameter limits and three classes of pathological condition. The factors are available in the form of net-volume factors with allowances
for decay, other defect, as well as breakage and utilization losses incurred under
average logging conditions.
During the year, taper curves were completed for all Coast and Interior coniferous tree species and are now available for distribution.
Photo Mensuration
Aerial photo-volume sampling was completed for the Narcosli Sustained-yield
Unit. In this unit, photo-volume estimates were confined to forest types which were
predominantly lodgepole pine or deciduous by volume, since the remainder of the
forest types was too small in area to permit a reliable volume estimate using this
technique. Thirty-four double photo-ground samples were established and were
used to produce local aerial photo stand volume tables for the unit. These volume
tables were in turn used to estimate the volume for an additional 264 mature single
photo samples.
Similar work was started on the Nechako Sustained-yield Unit in preparation
for the 1962 field project.
Further tests with 70-mm. low-elevation photography from helicopters were
completed. A 100-foot square measured on the ground and on the photographs
resulted in an error of area of —4.76 per cent. Five areas were photographed, and
134 trees ranging from 30 to 190 feet were measured for height on the ground and
on the photographs. The average error for the photo measurements was ±7.5 feet.
A total of 144 trees was assessed on the photographs for species identification, of
which eight were incorrectly identified. Prior to photography, plot centres were
marked by raising weather balloons, inflated to 18 inches, through the crown canopy.
 eo o ia-* «*
lo ffl © lo ©     c.-c:ih«
sooiOitpeo.     © cc © tj< oj
b-COOOffl©      rtrtCJCO'*
lOUOOfrt ONffiHO) OHIOH00
IO © IO i-( b- CO Ci IO OJ 00 iOMOOOiO
^loiaov     t-t-aofflcs     Ohmnw
»#0JCliOffl      ©lOiOXCO      OOOXO'f
eocoeoooeo     osiOi-nt--*     ot-^na
-*■*}< IO IO ©      ©t-OQOOffl      OOHNCI
rH rt rH rH iH
flOi'OOCfj      01 00 O ifl ©      OWfiOH
Hiflooo    © ■■■- r- co cs    © oj es © eo
-tf^iiOiO©      © t-t-00 SO      CS©©rtCJ
"■*< b- ~i © © HiOOt-t- OOHKSNO © OJ © rt 00
oeot-—iio cs co oo oj b- ci oo eo ffl io Ht*«o©
ci oj oj co eo     eo "* •*« io »o     © © t- b- go     csoso*-iih
eo eo-maoeort © rt i* os ©
co ffl oj »o cs eo i- h li a >ji
rH     •-< Oj oj oj eo     eo "*'*■* io
CO tJ«       OJClCOb-Cl       fflCOfflrtlO
m i — nft >j «m k-  i «« «i At »_ _j
^■*C0CStr<       HOONlfl
os **•: cs h< ©     eonx-^o
w©©b-co     xcsoso-~(
rt 04 OJ OJ CO
COCO'*'* IO
»o©c©t-1-
GOCOCSffl©
a
•H i-
h oseo©^
coio coco"*
b-OJOOiO^
•*©©"*©
00
St
l>
01 •#
b* OS 04 ©05
CJ ©©•#00
OJ l> rt ©rt
© rt 1— OJ 00
rtr-t
rt rn 04 OJ OJ]
CO CO ^J* ^ ^
IO IO © © b-
b- CO 00 ffl ffl
oi eo©
©b- <* -Jf IO
OO OJ 00 lO "*
■^<© OS CO©
©IO IO© OS
«rt2
e»
©00 T- « b-
© ■>* b- rtlO
fflCOIxOJ©
yH tO y-i © T-A
rtrt04 04 01
eoeo eo-* *<*
Tf IO IO©©
b- b- CO 00 ffl
•
+
o
OJ o © l>
O <t O X N
b- ffl CO CO ■>■}<
rt © ©OJ IO
©■* rt OS00
(0 CO *^ ^
10 N O CN ID
CO rt LO GO OJ
©©t* COOJ
© rt © © IO
M
t- t- OJ OI 01
OJ CO coco-*
■^ lOIOlO©
©b- b-00 00
63
S1"
io ^ © ? i co
CD OJ CO CM CO
t-t-co©-*
ffllO OJ rtrt
OJ-* b-OJb-
2! o\
00 CO ©" CO J"
•* © CO ffl r
CO CO 00 <-H CO
© ffloi©e»
oj©o-*oo
CJ©©iO ffl
Km
t- rt t-OJ 04
OJOJ CO coco
■**•*# loioia
©© b-b-b-
£^
o +
eo
CO© O 00 CO
CSOOJ©*-
N* eoco^
©o^ot-
K)^ TjtiOb-
■* co «t 6 £
-■* IO l> CD ^
OJ lo b- ffl CM
* t-©eo©
fflco«©eo
b- rt IO ffl CO
CO
th rt rt rt CM
CMOJ cocoeo
eo** -^loia
tea © © to t-
«■*©
OJ 01 O 10 o
CO JO OO 3 M
t- 01 ffl© io
rt <2rJ   1
©'©
ojco
rHOJod co'2
•#10 CD 00^
T" eoiO OOO
t- rtT-rtOI
oj to t- © eo
OJOJ OJ coco
« ii ii
.a $>
^8°
eo©-*
hNrWCD
00 CO lOTflO
t-O IO © ©
rtOOb"
rt rtCl
h* CD 04 CO ■*-'
CO ^ CD l*» CO
O CJ ■* ©CO
T- t- rt r-i r-<
© eo io oo ©
OJ oj ojoj eo
<rt c
O rt ..
*j  £ vi
Ci CO 00
t; CO CO r- o
CD ■* rt CD OO
OO C4 rt CO t-
«"3.9
©CO-*
rlHN
•J <rj CD Ci CO
co 3 |0 CD CO
kj rt CO *t C0
SJrtrtT-rt
oo©eoio t-
rt OJ 01 OJ 04
°.- S
IO «It- CO
to O Ifl O lO
CD OJ CO-4-i rt
=a *-
«* os id ci
do'cooi-*
eo <t io cot-
hj © rt CO IO
f2 rHrtrtrt
3^3 J=
OT^<t 00
oiioceor-i
© 00-P es ■»*
60 c Y,
•4*00 CO CD*
h* in «' to* ©
l>0irtplrl
T" 1-
04 co-ono ©
IO t- l> W
00 r- 01 OI CO
eo "^ eo *& b»
2^-ss
eoh'T' N
CO T-" CO co *-"
odcsrt'2'J
© » a
.    Be
uding
deriv
1 per
T» T"
«eo«-*io
.2 o g o
Cj O r r 0)
© CO CO O* «
«t i> t- ■* t-
O* CD eo" H OS
Ht-H
T" T"
OJ   N   «   TfH   T
3 J< 3
Q  rt ST m
00 ID t-10 10
«•* eo co b-
© oi io oo" ei
fc-* 01 CO •#' r-J
*i  ta XI —
i-
rt OJ CJ CO •■*•:
C C.t; eo
03 ■-" B  C
o c j ma
«r 01 05 0]
©CO©
deg «t" co 6
•*'COCO
HHfl
Oo°So
3.B " E u
S7 +- C  3  o
10 tD04« OS
Or* CO 10 l>
WOJCOCJt-
CO CM
©■*
Coastal n
ume of en
sd by mea
mated vol
0.30 per
d*" cj co'io
the
Ivol
tain.
esti
nee:
oj t», ia ^ co
SSSoS
~ o     ^ «
Odrififfl
T3 *3 «   t >c
«* Wb-rt
a collect
le shows
e volum
dard err
regate d
6©'©'rt
Dat
Tab
Tab!
Stan
Agg
OJ «f CC xo
OJ -*<©aO©
O) -* © 00 ©
CJ ^©00 ©
CJ ^ ©00 ©
OJ ■* © CO ©
r4
rH »H rH tH M
OJ OJ OJ OJ CO
CO CO CO CO ^
"«*t ■*'*'* IO
13 IO IO IO ©
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 21
FOREST RESEARCH
Details of the research programme may be found in the Forest Research
Review covering the year ended March, 1961.
EXPERIMENT STATIONS
At the Aleza Lake Experiment Station, an eight-man camp was constructed
and a sewage-disposal system installed for the combined use of the Ranger station
and the new camp.
One mile of new road was constructed and 3 miles of road location finalized.
Three and one-half miles of winter road were constructed on the west boundary of
the station.
Three acres of the new nursery-site were cleared, fenced, and made ready for
seeding in 1962.
Two timber sales were completed during the year in the Long-term Selection
and the Clear-cut Working Circles. Two others are still active, one in each working
circle.
The Cowichan Lake Experiment Station was maintained during the year. The
major effort was directed to clearing additional acreage for planting of experimental
trees.
FIELD PROGRAMME
It is disappointing to record that fire destroyed several years' plantation experiments at Buckhorn Lake, near Prince George. Elsewhere in the district, studies on
seed production were continued. Some success was attained from broadcast sowing
of spruce seed on two areas following hot fires. On a third area, only lightly burned,
broadcast seeding was a failure.
In the Prince Rupert Forest District, a comprehensive study was initiated
dealing with regeneration of a lodgepole pine stand. It will be several years before
any results are available.
In the Kamloops Forest District, planting trials were continued in co-operation
with S. M. Simpson Limited, of Kelowna. Large transplant stock was found to
give better survival than either small transplant stock or seedling stock, all other
conditions being equal. The seeding of grass on burned-over forest land was not
found to have any adverse effect on the germination and survival of Douglas fir
during the first year, but more comprehensive studies will be required to determine
some of the more variable aspects of the problem. The study on grass and tree
seeding produced valuable information on direct seeding of Douglas fir. A problem
analysis on regeneration conditions in Douglas fir cut-over showed a complex of
factors to be responsible for the poor stocking on some areas. These factors will
require further investigation.
A preliminary reconnaissance was made of cut-over cedar-hemlock forests of
the Arrow Lakes, in the Nelson Forest District, with the view to further investigations of seed dissemination of these species. Good progress continued to be made
in the study of site preparation and planting stock in ponderosa pine plantation
trials.   The advantages of large planting stock were convincingly demonstrated.
Ecological investigations in the Interior were continued with site-type investigations in the Kettle Valley and East Kootenay regions. A classification for Christmas-tree sites was made for the Kamloops region.
At all nurseries, work has been continued on fertilizer plot trials. At Duncan
nursery, emphasis has been on .form, and rime of application of nitrogen to first-year
 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
stock. At the East Kootenay nursery, soil acidification has also been attempted
experimentally. Partial soil sterilants have shown promising results in plots at
Quinsam and Duncan. In the laboratory, 250 soil samples have been analysed in
detail and less complete analysis carried out on a further 200.
An experimental soil survey was undertaken at different localities on Vancouver Island to determine improved methods of soil evaluation in relation to tree
growth.
On the west coast, seed-dispersal studies were curtailed due to lack of seed,
and efforts were concentrated on maintaining weather records and preparing for the
anticipated 1961/62 crop. The seedling-survival study was continued and indicated
that approximately 60 per cent of the 1-year-old seedlings had survived during their
second year. Species and spacing trial plots were established at several points in
readiness for planting during the spring of 1962. A preliminary investigation of the
problem of brush in relation to plantation-sites is being carried out.
A study was initiated on the use of different types of Douglas fir planting stock,
including so-called " cull " stock. A set of minimum standards of acceptable planting stock was proposed. Field trials of different types of stock will be planted out
to prove the validity of the proposed standards.
A number of thinning plots were remeasured, and all are being maintained
according to schedule.
The tree-breeding programme continues to concentrate on the selection of
" plus " trees. One hundred and thirty-five " plus " and " almost plus " Douglas
fir have been selected to date from different areas on Vancouver Island and the
Mainland.   The first outplantings of progeny from selected trees have been made.
A phenological survey of pollen-release time in Douglas fir on Vancouver
Island was conducted to investigate its possible application to climatic zonation.
Wind direction and pollen transfer were studied at three potential seed-orchard
sites on Vancouver Island. A preliminary investigation was made concerning the
influence of weather upon seed maturity in Douglas fir on Vancouver Island.
Research continued on studies concerning the effect of climatic factors upon various
altitudinal provenances of Douglas fir. The species trial plots at Ucluelet were
remeasured.
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1961
Experimental
Project No.
Region
226
274
368
428
429
433
442
458
460
463
468
474
478
479
480
482
483
502
505
512
Cone production in immature stands of Douglas Hr_
Cone production in mature stands of Douglas fir	
The adaptability of tree species to forest sites	
Plantation trials  	
Mixed-species spacing trial-
Growth and inventory plots, Aleza Lake-
Planting trials-
Seed production and dispersal under various stand conditions in the spruce-
alpine fir type  ._ 	
Seed production of conifers in relation to climate	
Seed-fall and regeneration study	
Cone-crop studies..
Inbreeding experiments with Douglas fir 	
Phenotypic selection in open-grown Douglas fir	
" Plus " tree selection for Douglas fir seed orchards..
Co-operative seed provenance study of Douglas fir	
Climate and the altitudinal distribution of conifers .
Record of plantations of exotic species throughout British Columbia .
Plantation trials    .	
Planting of white spruce throughout the growing season-
Seeding and planting trials	
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Nelson.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Prince George.
Nelson.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1961— Continued
23
Experimental
Project No.
Title
Region
513
520
524
525
528
529
531
534
537
538
541
543
546
547
550
551
552
553
555
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
576
577
579
580
581
582
584
Planting of exotic conifers for future hybridization.
Experimental seeding of spruce  	
Regeneration on scarified areas   I	
Swamp regeneration project-
Influence of time on the effectiveness of scarified seed-beds in spruce-alpine fir..
Regeneration problems in decadent cedar-hemlock stands	
Anatomical characteristics of selected trees .	
Spacing trial of Douglas fir    -	
Spacing trials of white spruce-
Seed dissemination and the influence of weather conditions-
Natural nurseries   — 	
An ecological classification of stands for Christmas-tree production-
Test of fertilizers on nursery stock-
Test of secondary fertilizers on nursery stock..
A study of methods of planting ponderosa pine (1959)..
A study of methods of planting ponderosa pine (1960)..
Planting trials with ponderosa pine (1960)  	
Ecological investigations of Montane forest region-
Germination and survival of western hemlock and associated species..
A study of methods of planting ponderosa pine (1961) — 	
Continuous spring sowing of Douglas fir-
Major element trials, East Kootenay nursery   	
Shading and covering of spruce-seed beds, Chilliwack nursery..
A study of seed-bed density, Duncan nursery 	
Modification of soil pH, East Kootenay nursery _	
Soil sterilization, Quinsam nursery   —	
A study of compatibility of tree and grass seeding 	
Nitrogen fertilization of Douglas fir    	
A problem analysis on direct seeding    	
Spacing trials, Sitka spruce-
Species and spacing trial, west coast...	
Planting trials with ponderosa pine (1961)	
Planting white spruce throughout the growing season (1960)..
Soil classification       	
Problem analysis, lodgepole pine in South-east British Columbia-
Problem analysis on planting-stock standards...
Site preparation to induce restocking of lodgepole pine sites..
Co-operative planting study of Douglas fir cull stock 	
Planting study of cold storage 2+0 Douglas fir stock-
A problem analysis of regeneration conditions in cut-over Douglas fir stands-
Plus 17 thinning plots        	
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Nelson.
Prince George.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Vancouver.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS,  1961
Forest Research Review for the year ended March, 1961.
Unpublished Manuscript Reports
Arlidge, J. W. C. (1961): An Ecological Classification of Stands for Christmas-tree
Production (E.P. 543).
Clark, M. B. (1961):   Report on Regeneration Conditions in Cut-over Lodgepole
Pine Stands (E.P. 559).
  (1961):  Regeneration Study in Interior Spruce Types.
  (1961):  Seed Dispersal of Douglas Fir in Dry Belt Cariboo Types (E.P.
487).
Ebell, L. E., and Schmidt, R. L. (1961): The Influence of Meteorological Factors
upon Dispersion of Coniferous Pollen on Vancouver Island. Manuscript being
submitted for publication.
Illingworth, K. (1961): Lodgepole Pine in South-east British Columbia—a problem analysis (E.P. 580).
Prochnau, A. E. (1961): Direct Seeding of White Spruce, Alpine Fir, Douglas
Fir and Lodgepole Pine in the Central Interior of B.C. (E.P. 387).
 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
Weather conditions at the Coast followed the usual pattern of a mild, wet
winter and a warm, dry summer. Rainfall for the year was considerably above
average, chiefly due to the heavy precipitation during the first three months of the
year.
Nursery production is always somewhat influenced by weather conditions, and
1961 was no exception. Heavy rains early in the year caused severe flooding for
several days at the Duncan nursery and drainage problems at both Green Timbers
and Campbell River nurseries. Consequently, some winter losses occurred at all
three sites. Although the winter as a whole seemed mild, sufficient frost was experienced at the Chilliwack nursery to cause serious frost-heaving, particularly in
the spruce-beds.
Showery weather and wet soil in the spring so delayed nursery operations that
sowing was not completed until June 5th. Nevertheless, a record total of 2,732
seed-beds was sown, including forty-two experimental beds at Hixon and Telkwa.
A prolonged period of drought during the growing season necessitated heavier
than normal watering for seedlings of all age-classes.
Forest Nursery Stocks as at December 31, 1961
Stock
Total
1-0
2-0
2-1
3-0
3,244,000
5,202,000
6,096,000
926,000
653,000
191,000
14,000
1,727,000
1,356,000
1,494,000
221,000
132,000
46r000
234^00
158,000
2,000
6,000
	
4,971,000
6,598,000
112,000
7,590,000
1,493,000
943,000
193,000
3,000
	
23,000
Total seedlings.—  	
16,326,000
4,933,000
440,000
112,000
21,811,000
Nursery Stock Distributed, 1961
Stock
1-0
2-0
2-1
3-0
30,000
52,000
2,766,000
1,914,000
2,785,000
113,000
180,000
12,000
27,000
24,000
97,000
2,863,000
2,124,000
2,837,000
125,000
27,000
24,000
82,000
7,578,000
243,000
97,000
8,000,000
Note.—1-0, 2-0, 3-0 indicates either 1-, 2-, or 3-year-old non-transplanted stock;
two years in seed-beds and one year in transplant-beds.
2-1 indicates stock grown
An innovation in nursery technique has been the replacement of burlap bales
by multi-walled freight shipping-bags. The trees arrive at the planting-site in better
condition, particularly if they have been held in cold storage for any length of time.
The cost of bags and packing compares favourably with baling, and since the bags
are lighter and easier to handle than bales, freight and handling costs are reduced.
 illllllllliill "I ttmi ii      m\
Soil-spreader developed by nursery staff and now in general use.
Old-style burlap bales and new multi-walled bags now used
for storing and shipping seedlings.
 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A second innovation in nursery procedure has been the application to the seedbeds of a pre-emergence spray of Shell Agricultural Weedkiller No. 1 Special, just
as the seed is beginning to sprout beneath the covering soil. This treatment reduces
the cost of first-year weeding by about one-third compared to the previous practice
of burning off after sowing.
Due to continuing wet weather in the late autumn, it was not possible to sow
all the beds planned for the production of one-year autumn-sown Douglas fir seedlings. However, the scheduled number of autumn-sown Sitka spruce and raised
hemlock beds was sown. The autumn sowing of western hemlock in raised seedbeds, which provide the best possible drainage, permits this species to germinate
very early and acquire sufficient root growth to prevent most of the frost-heaving
so devastating in normal seed-beds. This technique is also being given widespread
trial for the production of both Sitka and the Interior spruces.
There has been a noticeable improvement in the over-all quality of the Douglas
fir seedling planting stock being produced. This improvement can certainly be attributed, to a large extent, to the soil-testing facilities of the Research Division
laboratory and the endeavours of a research forester working full time on nursery-
fertility problems.
Mechanization of nursery work has been furthered by the acquisition of two
new soil-spreaders and a soil-screener for screening covering soil.
SEED AND EXTRACTION
The cone-crop looked fairly promising throughout the Province in the spring,
but deteriorated steadily as the summer progressed. This deterioration was so pronounced and the proportion of insect-infested cones so high by collection-time that
plans to harvest Coastal Douglas fir cones were abandoned.
The only collections made in the Vancouver Forest District were 269 bushels
of cones from two seed-production areas. This was done to recheck the level of
fertilizer treatment necessary to stimulate cone production. An eightfold response
in bushels of cones per acre and a tenfold increase in the yield of seed over the unfertilized control plot resulted from the lowest level—namely, 200 pounds of nitrogen per acre applied before the middle of May. A third plot on a deep sand in the
Chilliwack Valley produced no response, possibly because time of application may
not have been correct. Results to date with seed-production areas have been so
successful that plans are being made to establish several more areas. Apart from
the fact that the seed is of higher quality, the cones are cheaper and easier to collect
and the yield higher than from wild cones.
The only species bearing a collectable cone-crop in the Prince Rupert District
was Sitka spruce; collections in the Bella Coola area totalled 114 bushels. In the
Kamloops District, 233 bushels of Douglas fir and 278 bushels of spruce were collected. In the Nelson District, 146 bushels of Douglas fir, 126 bushels of spruce,
and 41 bushels of larch were collected. The Prince George District yielded 17
bushels of Douglas fir and 12 bushels of spruce. Total collections for the Province
amounted to 1,237 bushels. Considerable difficulty was experienced due to the
prevalence of fires and the fact that the prolonged drought caused cones to open
before the seed was properly mature. Preliminary indications are that the quality
of seed collected this year will not be high.
Extraction of cones has been completed in the plant at Duncan, but cleaning
and testing are still in progress.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 27
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
Detailed surveys were made and maps prepared for seven areas which require
planting. A total of 8,100 acres was examined, 3,400 in the Chilliwack Public
Sustained-yield Unit and 4,700 in the Yale Public Sustained-yield Unit.
A reconnaissance type of examination was made of five areas totalling 1,000
acres in the Nootka Sound region of the Kyuquot Public Sustained-yield Unit, where
plans are under way to plant one of these immediately. Several areas in the Granby
Public Sustained-yield Unit were reconnoitered, subsequently surveyed, and plans
are in progress to plant about 500 acres in that unit.
PLANTING
A small crew commenced planting in the Campbell River area on February
7th, but, as in the past, snow and frozen ground proved to be a considerable hindrance, at times forcing work to be discontinued for several weeks. The last of five
projects finished on May 6th.
In the East Kootenay region, the first of two projects commenced on April
13th. A third project was completed in the Granby Public Sustained-yield Unit,
near Grand Forks, on April 22nd.
In the Kamloops District, planting commenced on the first project on April
6th. A second project experienced difficulty with frozen ground and was not completed until May 4th.   Both of these projects were located in areas burned in 1958.
A large experimental planting trial in the Prince George District was completed
in the period May 3rd to 19th.
In the Interior portion of the Prince Rupert District, planting commenced on
the first of four projects on April 27th and the last was completed on May 15th.
Planting in both northern districts commenced as soon as ground conditions would
permit.
Planting on the Coast during the autumn commenced on the first of four projects on October 23rd. After several interruptions due to snow or frozen ground,
projects were shut down on December 12th.
Autumn planting in the Interior districts was confined to several experimental
trials to further check methods of site preparation. Some of these are showing
promise of considerably increasing the survival of planted ponderosa pine.
The outstanding feature of the year was the evidence of an increasing degree
of co-operation among stand treatment, Attorney-General's Department, reforestation crews, and other sections of the Forest Service, not only on planting, but on
all phases of the task of artificial regeneration.
Total planting for the year by all agencies in the Province amounted to
7,785,000 trees on 20,681 acres (see Table 2 in the Appendix).
Plantation Improvement and Maintenance
The rampart thinning project was extended by a further 97 acres, bringing the
total up to 631 acres. An additional 32 acres were thinned on the East Kootenay
nursery reserve.
Slashing and other maintenance work were done on 10 miles of plantation
roads.
Preparation of Planting-sites
Snags were felled on 2,050 acres on the Coast and on 675 acres in the Interior
districts. These snags were mainly on or adjacent to areas which have been or are
to be planted in the very near future.
I
 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Work was continued on two Coastal Douglas fir seed-orchard sites. The first
area, comprising 13 acres, has been cleared, grubbed and graded, and is now ready
for the planting of root-stock. Rough clearing has been completed on a second
area of approximately 8 acres.
PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS
Drainage was improved on all Coast nurseries. At Duncan, 1,200 feet of
4-inch tile drain was laid. At Green Timbers, considerable ditching was done to
prevent seepage and drainage water from reaching the fields. Deep scarification
(16 to 18 inches) of the field currently in fallow at Green Timbers has broken up
the plough pan and increased the internal drainage considerably. A start was also
made here in bringing new land into production. One small field, comprising 1.3
acres, was cleared and cleaned up in readiness for seed-beds. A total of 3,600
yards of soil was hauled into the nurseries to fill in minor hollows in fields, and in
one case to modify the texture and pH of the existing soil.
New 25- by 50-foot soil-sheds were constructed at Duncan and Campbell
River, which permit the screening and laying-in of supplies of covering soil during
slack periods in favourable weather. This soil must be very clean and dry to run
smoothly and evenly through the new spreading-machines designed by the nursery
staff and now in general use.
CO-OPERATION
The Reforestation Division is playing an active part in Industry-Forest Service co-operation in the Reforestation Sub-committee of the Tree Farm Forestry
Committee. This Sub-committee carries on liaison and testing of various classes of
nursery stock, methods, etc., in an effort to advance the over-all technique of artificial regeneration in all its aspects.
Interdepartmental Rehabilitation and Forestry Programme
The Reforestation Division is charged with the technical supervision of the
forestry phase of a co-operative programme with the Attorney-General's Department and the Department of Lands and Forests concerned with the rehabilitation
of Provincial Gaol inmates and the development and maintenance of the Chilliwack
Public Sustained-yield Unit.
Inmate crews, under direction of Attorney-General's Department personnel,
constructed 7.5 miles of trail, slashed out 9 miles of right-of-way, and maintained
10 miles of main road. These same forestry camp crews cleared 25 acres of
deciduous brush in preparation for planting, cleaned brush from established plantations, pruned 10 acres of young natural conifers, and planted 75 acres with Douglas
fir seedlings.
The nursery phase of this programme is progressing favourably, with inmates
doing the work under the supervision of a resident Forest Service nursery assistant.
One new field was fenced and worked over and beds prepared for sowing in the
early spring. There are now three separate areas suitable for nursery-sites, totalling
some 4.5 acres. During the spring, 150 seed-beds were sown and 227,000 seedlings
were transplanted. Results with the transplanting programme are so encouraging
that this same system is to be tried at the co-operative nursery at the Brannan
Lake School for Boys (operated by the Department of Health and Welfare) in
addition to the twenty-five seed-beds established there in the spring.
Other development work in the Chilliwack nurseries involved hauling in 200
yards of used mushroom compost and installing a gravity irrigation system to the
Slesse No. 1 field. This involved the laying of 1,200 feet of IVi-inch polyethylene
pipe-line.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
29
WORKING PLANS
INTRODUCTION
During 1961, six new public sustained-yield units were established and contracts were signed for two tree-farm licences awarded in 1960. One new Taxation
Act tree-farm was certified, and one new farm wood-lot was awarded. As a result,
there are now in operation seventy-eight public sustained-yield units, thirty-nine
tree-farm licences, thirty-five Taxation Act tree-farms, of which twenty-two are
managed as separate entities and not as integral parts of tree-farm licences, and
fifty farm wood-lot licences.
The total area committed under working plans amounts to slightly over
53,778,000 acres of productive forest, with a total allowable annual cut of
860,023,000 cubic feet, equivalent to 74 per cent of the total Provincial scale for
1961. The following table illustrates the progress made during the year in the
organization of the various forms of units committed to forest management under
working plans for sustained yield:—
Progress of Sustained-yield Programme up to 1961
Type of Unit or Tenure
Number of
Units
Productive Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Annual Cut
(MC.F.)
Public sustained-yield units..
Tree-farm licences 	
Tree-farms (excluding those in tree-farm licences) .
Farm wood-lots  	
Totals.. _ _ _
78
39
22
50
46,203,742
7,017,594
545,164
11,993
189
53,778,493
514,990
324,241
20,472
320
860,023
Tabular summaries of basic data applicable to the four types of management
units are included in Appendix Tables 60 to 63.
PUBLIC SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS
By continuing the establishment of suitable unit boundaries and introducing
regulation of the corresponding allowable annual cuts, six new public sustained-
yield units added operable areas to the sustained-yield programme. These units
were approved to commit to the programme an additional 5,230,516 productive
acres, estimated to be capable of sustaining an annual cut of 44,650 M cubic feet.
Boundary changes to a further twelve established units brought the total productive
acreage of public sustained-yield units to 46,203,742 acres with a total allowable
annual cut of 514,990 M cubic feet.
New units approved were the Adams, Cranbrook, Fernie, Hazelton, Kinbasket,
and Nechako Public Sustained-yield Units.
Established units enlarged through boundary changes were the Big Bar,
Botanie, Canoe, Dean, Hecate, North Thompson, Queen Charlotte, Sayward, Soo,
Spallumcheen, Upper Kootenay, and Yalakom Public Sustained-yield Units.
Part 1 of the Report on the Crooked River Public Working Circle, dealing
with what has happened since the inception of the unit and being an up-to-date
summary of existing conditions, was submitted by the Prince George Forest District.
It is considered the pilot plan for public sustained-yield units. These flexible, written plans will provide needed liaison and co-ordination to control, by means of
 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
periodic revisions, the future efforts of foresters and their crews, to fulfil the various
requirements for sustained-yield forestry in each managed unit.
Liaison with the five forest districts was expedited by reorganizing the work
of the staff so that there would be one forester in the Division who would be continuously associated with the work being done in a forest district. This has enabled
the Division to maintain a closer contact with district and headquarters representatives concerned with planning and development; for example, presentation of road-
development programmes for public sustained-yield units.
TREE-FARM LICENCES
Although awarded in the previous year, two contracts were signed in 1961
establishing the Squamish Tree-farm Licence No. 38 and the Haida Tree-farm
Licence No. 39. Thus, a total of thirty-nine tree-farm licences was in operation
at the end of the year.
Three new working plans for three of the larger tree-farm licences showed
a reduction of approximately 80,000 acres as a result of a more detailed inventory.
The total productive acreage in this classification is now estimated to be 7,017,594
acres, of which 5,592,165 are Crown and 1,425,429 acres are private. The total
annual allowable cut under this tenure is estimated to be 324,241 M cubic feet.
TREE-FARM LANDS
Although one new tree-farm, comprising 32,494 productive acres, was certified
in 1961, there are still only thirty-five tree-farms under the Taxation Act due to the
incorporation of two tree-farms in a third certified tree-farm. The net increase in
this classification was 73,024 productive acres. Thirteen of the thirty-five tree-
farms, with a productive acreage totalling 284,515 acres and allowable cuts totalling
12,876 M cubic feet, are managed as portions of tree-farm licences under the tree-
farm licence legislation, and these statistics are included in the totals for tree-farm
licences. The remaining twenty-two tree-farms commit a further 545,164 productive acres, with a combined allowable annual cut of 20,472 M cubic feet, to the
over-all sustained-yield programme.
FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
Two farm wood-lot licences were added and one cancelled during the year,
bringing the number in good standing to fifty. The acreage of productive forest
land involved in this tenure is 11,993 acres and the allowable annual cut is 320 M
cubic feet per annum.
  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 31
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
It became possible during the year to establish, for the first time, a District
Information Officer in the field. This was accomplished without adding to the total
personnel of the Division by transferring a vacated position to the staff of the District
Forester, Prince George. The position was filled by a specially trained and qualified member of the Divisional staff on August 1, 1961.
The advantages to the Service and public alike by the placing of trained information personnel in the forest districts continue to become more evident as the
work of forest administration and the attendant problems of communication grow
increasingly complex.
The year under review was a busy one for the Division, particularly in press
and radio liaison work and in connection with certain large-scale co-operative undertakings with other agencies. In the fields of still photography, printing, and publications, the work volume dropped below the previous year.
COMMUNICATION MEDIA
Photography and Motion-picture Production
During the year, 6,572 photographic prints of varying sizes were produced.
This represents a drop of some 30 per cent from 1960, attributable to a reduced
number of illustrated press releases being issued by the Division, the elimination of
one major illustrated publication, and the commitment of the photographic staff on
motion-picture production in the field. Production was further curtailed through
a temporary shortage of staff due to hospitalization and a resignation, the latter in
the midst of the field season.
During the year, 100 rolls of black-and-white film were processed by the
laboratory for other divisions of the Forest Service. The photographic staff produced 154 large-format negatives and thirty-seven rolls in black and white, fourteen
large-format negatives and nine rolls in colour. Some 1,064 black-and-white negatives (50 per cent of these from Engineering Services Division), 185 colour negatives, and twenty-one 35-mm. slides were added to file.
A new 16-mm. colour, sound motion-picture production entitled " The Highball Logger," dealing with the need for timber-sale operators to follow approved
logging plans, was completed in the fall of the year and released for circulation.
Also during the year, the shooting script for an instructional film for lookout-
men was completed by the staff of the Forest Ranger School in co-operation with
this Division, and some preliminary location shooting was undertaken. Field work
on this subject will continue in the new year.
A successful effort was made to obtain 16-mm. stock footage and still photographs on modern Coastal logging operations with the active co-operation of the
industry concerned.
Black-and-white prints of a wide variety of 16-mm. footage were supplied on
request for television by CHAN-TV and CBUT, Vancouver, and used for both local
and national transmission.
During the latter part of the year, the sorely needed overhaul of the negative-
filing facilities got under way. This necessitates the transfer of some 14,000 negatives into new, retyped file envelopes, to be indexed and cross-referenced under the
Oxford classification system. A thorough check of all index prints and negatives
is continuing at the same time with a view to placing obsolete and duplicate material
 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
in special storage.    To assist in this laborious task, temporary stenographic help
was hired.
Filmstrips
One coloured filmstrip on reforestation techniques was completed. Copies
were supplied to all districts, and one copy placed in the film circulation library
along with a set of 35-mm. slides on the same subject.
Art Work
Four large mural photographs were produced for local display, and a new set
of large lookout photographs was produced for the permanent display in the British
Columbia Building in Vancouver.
A large-scale topographic model was made for use in the filming of " The
High-ball Logger " to illustrate the results of planned versus unplanned logging.
A total of 212 special drawings, sketches, and layouts was produced for use as
posters, book covers, and illustrations, and as special material for television programmes
Film Library
The library started the year with ninety-five subjects available for loan, and
during the year two subjects were withdrawn and three new subjects added, to give
a year-end total of ninety-six, all of which received circulation.
A total of 776 film loans was made during the year for showing to an audience
of 140,358 persons, including the school-lecture programme audience. The drop
of some 25,000 from the total audience in 1960 is primarily due to the fact only
one lecturer instead of the usual two was in the field for several months as a result
of a resignation from the staff. These total figures do not include circulation given
the seven subjects on permanent loan to British Columbia House, London, England.
(See Table 55 in the Appendix for details of film-stock and circulation records.)
Four Service-produced films were shown over television station CJDC-TV,
Dawson Creek, during the year. Library films were also shown to audiences in
Saskatchewan and Ontario, as well as in California and Minnesota in the United
States.
Four 35-mm. filmstrips and slides produced by the Division and dealing with
reforestation, the principle commercial trees of British Columbia, the duties of the
lookoutman, and the work of the Forest Ranger were added to the library during
the year and are available on loan in the same manner as the motion-picture films.
As part of the general safety education programme, the library undertook in-
Service circulation of the instructional film " That They May Live," dealing with
the mouth-to-mouth resuscitation method. As a result, this was shown to 822
members of the Forest Service in Victoria and throughout the five forest districts.
Not counting school-lecture showings, officers of the Division gave a total of
twenty-one film programmes during the year.
Late in the year, 1,300 copies of a new edition of the library film catalogue
were distributed to the public school system in the Province, which resulted in a
very marked increase in film-loan requests.
Publications and Printing
The volume of work in this category was considerably reduced this year as
a result of the discontinuance of the Forest Service calendar, an annual item since
1922, and of the forest-protection bulletins as a regular series during the fire season.
No Christmas issue of the staff news-letter was produced.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
33
The major printing projects undertaken during the year included the 1960
Annual Report of the Forest Service, the Research Review, as at March, 1961,
and a reissue of special school scribblers for distribution through the Ranger staff.
A new design featuring " Bertie Beaver " as a symbol of fire prevention and good
forest management was added to the scribbler series.
Six lay publications were reprinted during the year to keep up with the public
demand for forestry information, and supplies of three forest-protection decal
transfer designs plus sixteen display-poster designs were reordered and distributed.
Two special booklets were produced in connection with a forest-fire research
conference and a press tour of the Chilliwack Sustained-yield Unit.
Work continued throughout most of the year on the writing of the basic manuscript for a Departmental " Safety Guide." Extensive revisions to B. 28, " Pocket
Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of British Columbia," were completed during the
year, but lack of funds ruled out the printing of the revised edition.
Thirteen new mimeographed items were added to the material distributed
throughout the Service in a continuing programme to provide field staffs with up-to-
date information on forestry developments and policy.
In co-operation with the Canadian Forestry Association (British Columbia
Branch), 1,500 copies of Conservation Topic No. 2, " The Forest," were reprinted
and distributed by this Division throughout the public school system.
Radio and Television
Radio
In an attempt to hold down costs of the annual forest-protection radio campaign without entirely losing its effectiveness, the standard schedule was reduced
some 30 per cent, while the number of special hazard broadcasts available to the
districts was increased by a like percentage. This resulted in a general contract
consisting of eighteen standard fifteen-second " flashes," ten standard one-minute
" spots," plus twenty special hazard " flashes" available over each station as
required. Twenty-six stations carried the campaign, which in total consisted of
254 " spots " and 755 standard and specialized " flashes." All material was written
by the Division.
Due to its flexibility, accessibility, and speed, radio is unquestionably one of
the most efficient media available to the Service, particularly during periods of
extreme fire-hazard. The stations themselves continue, year after year, to offer the
most complete and generous service, far beyond that purchased by the commercial
contract.
Between June 19th and September 30th, Divisional officers had the opportunity to broadcast daily, six days a week, one-minute fire-protection messages over
station CKDA, Victoria. A total of ninety-five of these broadcasts was made, and
they were repeated on tape at a later time each day, making a total of 190 broadcasts. Several other stations assisted greatly by allowing immediate direct broadcasts of forest closure and other vital public information. In addition, staff members
participated in numerous special-event and public service programmes on radio.
Similar facilities were offered district officers throughout the Province whenever
requested.
Television
Paid programming of a special Division-produced twenty-second forest-protection clip was continued over CBUT, Vancouver. A total of twenty-eight transmissions was scheduled, once each Friday and Saturday, during July and August.
During the year, Divisional staff members participated in or arranged for eight
" interview " type television programmes featuring forestry matters;   six special-
3
 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
events programmes for coverage by television cameras; wrote and produced two
one-half-hour programmes; and supplied film footage and special material for other
productions, some with national coverage.
Press and Periodicals
The demand for news and informational press releases, articles, and the supplying of background material to all communication media was at a very high level
throughout the year. Liaison with all media was excellent, assisted materially in
certain cases by the newly established information outlet in the Prince George
District.
During the extreme fire situation in August through September, a special
system for the rapid and accurate dissemination of fire news functioned well.
Extensive coverage was obtained locally, nationally, and even internationally on the
forest fire situation. A senior member of the Division was seconded to the Prince
Rupert District for a three-week period to organize an effective information system
during the height of the fire-hazard in that district.
Between May 1st and October 20th, a total of 109 formal press releases was
made from Victoria on forest-protection matters. This total is made up of sixty-five
daily releases, twenty-five weekly releases, and nineteen special fire releases to do
with forest closures and general conditions of the woods. Some forty-three formal
releases dealing with reforestation, management, research, entomology, engineering,
Christmas trees, etc., were also distributed from Divisional headquarters during the
year.
These formal releases obtained some 18,500 column-inches of highly competitive space in the eight metropolitan dailies checked. In addition, the periodical
press gave generous coverage to these items as well as originating additional material
themselves, as did the daily and weekly press. Also, an indeterminate volume of
material originated in the forest and ranger districts throughout the Province.
Twelve major addresses and (or) articles on a wide variety of forestry matters
were prepared by the Division staff during the year and carried by the daily, weekly,
and periodical press.
Commercial Theatres
A specially produced 35-mm. forest-protection trailer was circulated through
forty-four commercial theatres in the Province, for one week in each theatre,
between July 10th and September 1st, for an audience estimated to be in excess of
100,000 persons. For the metropolitan Vancouver and Victoria areas, a similar
item was scheduled twenty-eight times over television station CBUT, Vancouver,
in lieu of using the theatres in these areas. The television audience for this item
was estimated at 300,000 persons for each transmission.
Signs and Exhibits
Signs
The Division continued to produce and maintain seven specific types of forest-
protection and directional signs.
During the year, thirty " Prevent Forest Fire " signs and forty-two lookout and
Ranger station signs were produced and distributed to the districts. District demands
continued to exceed the supply of these items.
During July and August a five-man crew, under the supervision of a Division
officer, maintained, by repainting, 120 " Keep B.C. Green—Use Your Ashtray "
highway signs.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 35
All " Hazard Rating " signs were recalled in order to revise the wording of
hazard intensity rating in accordance with the new standard forest fire danger
measurement guide issued by the Canada Department of Forestry. The change in
wording on the scale is as follows:—
Old: Low Moderate Average High        Extreme
New:        Nil Low Moderate        High        Extreme
It is anticipated that these signs will be available before the 1962 fire season.
The "Closure Zone Boundary" sign design, erected on a trial basis in the
Vancouver District during 1961, was judged to be too small in its over-all dimensions to attract the attention of speeding motorists.   Alterations will be implemented
during 1962.
Exhibits
The Service's permanent- exhibit in the British Columbia Building, Pacific
National Exhibition, Vancouver, continued to be a major attraction during the year.
Pacific National Exhibition officials estimate that more than 745,000 students,
citizens, and tourists viewed the display in 1961. In the case of the student tours,
appropriate forestry pamphlets were supplied, as well as a brief talk on general
forestry matters.   Plans are currently under way to enlarge and improve this display.
A three-part permanent display featuring the principal commercial tree species,
their fruit, foliage, and commercial uses, was designed and constructed by the
Division and presented to the Kamloops Museum by the District Forester, Kamloops, on behalf of the Forest Service.
The display on forest genetics was exhibited in the Forestry and Geology
Building of the University of British Columbia during an " open house " programme
attended by an estimated 75,000 visitors.
An exhibit featuring " teachers' aid " material available from the Division was
on display for ten days at Victoria University, and two smaller displays were shown
at the Parent-Teacher Convention in Vancouver and at the University of British
Columbia for the information of student-teachers. Also, a special exhibit was
placed in the British Columbia Teachers' Federation Conference at Dawson Creek
by the Prince George Information Officer.
School Lecture Programme
The regular two-man school-lecture team was reduced to one early in the year
due to the resignation of the senior lecturer. As a result, lecturing activity during
the whole of the spring term was below normal.
Schools in the Vancouver, Kamloops, Nelson, and Prince George Forest Districts were visited by lecturers during the year. A total of 214 individual lectures
was given in 127 schools, to a student audience of 19,194. Lecturing in the Prince
George District is carried out by the District Information Officer, the other districts
being covered by the one Division headquarters lecturer (see Table 56 in Appendix).
In addition to their regular school programme, the lecturers also gave sixteen
talk-with-film programmes to non-school audiences totalling 628, composed of service clubs, Parent-Teacher Associations, industrial groups, and so forth.
LIBRARY
In order to alleviate the library's chronic shortage of space, a much more
stringent policy is being observed in selecting that material to be retained permanently. Even so, this policy has only a limited effectiveness. The point is rapidly
being reached when the overcrowded shelves will take no more.   Up to the present
 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
time the Provincial Library has graciously agreed to store old copies of Forest
Library periodicals, but that library is also running short of space.
Inter-library loans have claimed an increasing share of the staff's time, and
during the year 115 items (as against sixty-five in 1960) were borrowed from
twenty different libraries in Canada and the United States.
The library participated in the Commonwealth Translation Exchange Scheme,
and twenty-seven copies of translations done by members of the Forest Service were
dispatched to various parts of the world. Further translations were completed
sporadically at the request of members of the Forest Service.
The librarian visited the Ranger School during the summer and spent several
weeks completely reclassifying and rearranging the Ranger School library. Although
it contains a sizeable collection of books and pamphlets, this was the first time that a
logical system had been introduced.
CO-OPERATION AND SPECIAL PROJECTS
This Service is again greatly indebted to all segments of the communication
media—press, radio, television, and periodicals—for their continued excellent and
generous co-operation in support of the forestry information and education programme.
In connection with the National " Resources for Tomorrow " conference,
sponsored by the Federal and ten Provincial Governments, held in Montreal,
October 23 to 28, 1961, the Director, Public Information, was appointed chairman
of the British Columbia Information Committee in January. Later in the year he
also acted as secretary of the forty-two-man British Columbia delegation to the
conference. Both the Chief Forester and the Director presented lead-off papers
in Montreal.
The Division assisted the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association (Woodlands
Section) in the organization and operation of press facilities at the Forest Fire
Research Conference held in April at Nanaimo. Two members of the Division
also assisted the British Columbia Natural Resources Conference in Victoria with
its press liaison work.
Assistance and counsel were provided the National Film Board in the production of a special 35-mm. film for theatre use entitled " The Water Dwellers " and
dealing, in part, with the community role played by a Coastal Forest Ranger.
The Division co-operated closely with the forest industry and the Canadian
Forestry Association (British Columbia Branch) in the promotion of Forest
Products Week and Forest Conservation Week respectively.
In co-operation with the Corrections Branch of the Department of the Attorney-
General, a special one-day press tour of the Chilliwack Sustained-yield Unit and the
work being done by inmates of the Oakalla Prison Farm was carried out on July
14th. Also, a press tour was arranged for the Slok Creek Forest-development
Road project near Lillooet.
Members of the Division delivered nineteen addresses on forestry matters to a
wide variety of audiences.
For the fourth consecutive year, a member of the Division conducted classes
for the Canadian Girl Guides' Association leading to obtaining of the woodsman's
badge.
Special lectures to the Canadian Army, Work Point Barracks, Victoria, were
provided by one member of the Division on the subject of fire-fighting organization
and techniques.
The continued support of this Service's school lecture programme by the
Department of Education is gratefully acknowledged.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 37
FOREST MANAGEMENT
GENERAL
The forest-management functions of the Forest Service are concerned primarily
with the administration of the public-owned forests and all matters relating to the
cutting and disposition of the timber harvest. These include examining, cruising,
and appraising the stumpage value of Crown timber for sale, approving the cutting
requirements and other conditions of sale, similar duties in connection with issuance
of tree-farm licence cutting permits, administration of log marks assigned for areas
of various tenure status, timber-scaling, administration of all forms of land use in
Provincial forest reserves under special-use permits, and administration of logging-
road rights-of-way under Part VI of the Forest Act.
The scale volume of timber products and their prevailing market prices determine the value of forest production, which in turn has a marked influence on the
economic prosperity and living standard of the people of the Province. The total
estimated value of all forest production, including loading and freight in the Province for 1961, is estimated at $775,000,000, representing a slight increase of
$3,500,000 over 1960, the previous record. The value of lumber production
maintained its leading position, but declined from $380,000,000 in 1960 to $359,-
000,000 in 1961. Both the volume of lumber production and average lumber
prices, f.o.b. mill, declined in 1961. The value of pulp and paper production
increased by $15,000,000 to $258,400,000 for 1961. The value of pulp and paper
production in the Province has doubled in the last ten years, and it is significant
that, in 1961, 48 per cent of the wood required for pulp production and wood-chips
exported came from 2,303,200 units of chips produced from wood residues from
sawmills and other processing plants. The value of plywood production increased
5 per cent to $79,840,000, while shingles declined 10 per cent to $16,800,000.
Furniture and other wood-using industries now contribute $20,000,000, while the
paper-using industries contribute $17,000,000.
The total scale of forest production for 1961 amounted to 1,167 million cubic
feet (6,875 million board-feet), the second highest in our history. Although the
total scale showed a decrease of 33 million cubic feet or 2.8 per cent from the 1960
record, it surpassed the previous 1956 peak by 100 million cubic feet. The total
scale for the Coast declined by 43 million cubic feet. The total scale for the Interior
increased by 10 million cubic feet to establish a record of 508 million cubic feet.
For the Province as a whole, Douglas fir retained its leading position with a
total scale of 357 million cubic feet, followed by hemlock with 256 million cubic
feet, spruce with 202 million cubic feet, cedar with 149 million cubic feet, and
balsam with 110 million cubic feet. On the Coast, hemlock reaffirmed its leading
importance on a volume basis with a total scale of 234 million cubic feet, followed
by fir with 176 million cubic feet and cedar with 126 million cubic feet. This was
the third consecutive year in which the Coastal scale of hemlock exceeded that of
Douglas fir and the second year in which it exceeded Douglas fir in the Vancouver
District. In the Interior, spruce ranked second to Douglas fir, with scale volumes
of 175 and 181 million cubic feet respectively, followed by lodgepole pine with 45
million cubic feet.
The total scale from Crown land tenures amounted to 963 million cubic feet,
or 83 per cent of the total scale. Since the only major classes of tenure from which
stumpage is collected are timber sales and certain otherwise unalienated Crown
lands in tree-farm licences, the scale volume from these tenures is of interest. The
total scale from these stumpage-bearing tenures amounted to approximately 750
 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
million cubic feet, or 64 per cent of that for the entire Province. Since the majority
of the special timber licences and other alienated forms of tenure are situated in the
Vancouver District, the picture for that area is quite different. In the Vancouver
District the total scale from stumpage-bearing tenures approximated 260 million
cubic feet, or 45 per cent of the total scale of 574 million cubic feet.
The total scale of all products from all tenures within tree-farm licences was
279,917,294 cubic feet, or 24 per cent of the total scale for the Province. Half of
this volume or 141 million cubic feet came from stumpage-bearing tenures.
Water-borne lumber shipments during the year were up 6.8 per cent over 1960,
establishing a record volume of 1,789,115 M, board measure, but the increase in
volume was offset by a reported drop of five to seven dollars per M f.b.m. in world
lumber prices. Figures from the Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau showed that
British Columbia was the only region in the Pacific Northwest to register a gain in
volume. By contrast, Washington showed a drop of 14.5 per cent, Oregon 24.2
per cent, and California 24.8 per cent. Sales to the sterling area, which comprise
70 per cent of the Provincial total, were disappointing, with the United Kingdom
sales declining 18 per cent to 422.9 million f.b.m., Australia a decline of 19 per
cent to 91.9 million, and Africa a decline of 47 per cent to 75.1 million. There was
a very significant surge in shipments to Japan, from 1.6 million f.b.m. in 1960 to
155.5 million f.b.m. in 1961. This is expected to drop back to about 80 million
f.b.m. in 1962 due to overloaded lumber-handling facilities and recent Japanese
fiscal restrictions. Water-borne shipments from British Columbia to North American markets were up 17 per cent.
Log exports, which had dwindled in the last few years to 28 million f.b.m. in
1958 and 1959, climbed to 101 million f.b.m. in 1961. This is the largest volume
since 1954, when 141 million f.b.m were exported. During 1961, 31 million f.b.m.
were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege and 70
million f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas.
With the gradually increasing complexities of multiple-use land tenures and
the growing tendency of logging firms to consolidate and secure their positions in the
last few years, there has been an increase in the number of letters of consent to
construct logging-roads on Crown lands. During the year 218 right-of-way permits were issued under Part VI of the Forest Act, compared to 226 permits in 1960
and 153 permits in 1959. These figures are in addition to numerous special-use
permits granted in the many Provincial forest reserves.
During the year 1,892 timber sales were cruised. These comprised 720,144
acres, with a volume of 1,027,243,000 cubic feet and 7,688,000 lineal feet of poles.
The granting of the thirty-nine tree-farm licences now in effect has been partially
responsible for a decline in timber sales because of the substitution of tree-farm
licence cutting permits as the cutting authority documents for this significant
portion of the cut instead of timber-sale contracts. This has been offset to some
extent by the growth of the forest industries. There were 2,139 timber sales
awarded in 1961, including 282 cash sales. These comprised a total indicated
stumpage value of $27,879,000 on the basis of the bid rates. Bids higher than the
upset stumpage rates were submitted on only 142 sales, or 7.8 per cent of the
sales other than cash sales which are not subject to competition. These competitive
sales contained an estimated volume of 77,680 M cubic feet, or 8.9 per cent of the
total volume of 873,533 M cubic feet. A new table is included in the Appendix of
this Report showing a summary of competition on timber sales (Table No. 18).
The year 1961 was marked by a number of major forest fires, for which it
will long be remembered in some regions of the Province.    Some of these fires
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 39
approached disastrous proportions and consumed timber volumes equivalent to
several times the calculated allowable annual sustained-yield harvests of the public-
managed units in which they were located. Of particular significance in this respect
were the "Grove" and "Tsus" fires south-east of Prince George, the "Vunder"
and a series of other fires in the vicinity of Horsefly and Quesnel Lakes, and the
" Otto " and " Paul" fires in the Interior portion of the Prince Rupert Forest
District. In order to facilitate prompt salvage of as much as possible of this
timber, it was incumbent on the Forest Service to offer the timber for sale promptly.
To this end, twenty-six areas were established as salvage-sale areas under section 27
of the Forest Act, and some 110 million cubic feet of timber was offered for sale
at salvage rates. This volume is equivalent to almost one-third of the total annual
cut of all products in the vast Prince George and Kamloops Forest Districts. The
established forest industries in the localities of the fires are to be congratulated for
their co-operation in purchasing more than 80 per cent of the volume offered for
sale and in revising their operating plans to make an immediate start on large-scale
salvage operations.
During the year a start was made toward ultimate recovery and utilization over
the next ten or twelve years of the timber in the flood area of the proposed Peace
River power development, with the cruising and advertising of six initial timber
sales in the area to be flooded by the initial coffer-dam.
In accordance with the 1961 recommendations of the Select Standing Committee on Forests and Fisheries, which were adopted by the Legislative Assembly,
reports were prepared on the Vancouver log market and the operating status of
timber-sale licensees in the public-managed units of the Vancouver Forest District.
ADMINISTRATION OF MANAGED UNITS
It is gratifying to note that 65 per cent of recorded Provincial cut originated
from areas operating under approved annual allowable cuts.
During the year six new public sustained-yield units were established with
licensee priority approved. The cut from the seventy-eight public sustained-yield
areas has reached 454,000 M cubic feet. The cut represents 88 per cent of the
total approved allowable cut for all units, which amounts to 39 per cent of the total
Provincial cut. All the established public sustained-yield units are being administered on the licensee priority system, with the exception of the Hecate, the Ootsa
Block 3, the Queen Charlotte, the Adams Block 2, and the North Thompson units.
The Kitimat unit awaits formal approval decision, about January, 1964, on the
pulp-mill proposal for the area. The Canoe unit is awaiting the removal of the
flood timber before establishing replacement values for the established licensees.
The 1960 amendment to section 17 of the Forest Act, which provided for
units with annual commitments exceeding 150 per cent to be designated emergency
areas by Order in Council for a period of one year, was amended further. In an
emergency area, when sealed-tender procedure is elected by the licensee, sealed
tenders are restricted to those holding a valid and subsisting licence in the unit.
The applicant has the opportunity of acquiring the sale by submitting a further
tender within ten days, containing an offer not lower than the highest offer if other
offers are received; otherwise, the sale will be awarded to the valid and subsisting
licensee submitting the highest offer. The Nicola Lake Sustained-yield Unit was
the only unit designated as an emergency area during 1961.
New legislation was passed under subsection (la) of section 17 of the Forest
Act, which provided for sealed-tender protection for established licensees within
fully committed public sustained-yield units throughout the Province.   The sealed-
 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
tender protection provision will apply when (a) the allowable cut has been fully
sold and all applications proceeding are replacement sales, and (b) the licensee
priority system of administration for the unit has been approved and the application
is from an established licensee (non-established operator applications and Forest
Service sales must be sold at public auction). This procedure allows the applicant
the option of matching the highest bid, but bidding by sealed tender in this case is
not limited to the established operators.
The approved allowable cut from the privately managed tenures now represents approximately 27 per cent of the total Provincial cut. The recorded cut from
the thirty-three tree-farm licences under regulation (Tree-farm Licence No. 2 is
not yet under regulation and Tree-farm Licences Nos. 38 and 39 begin in 1962)
amounted to about 280,000 M cubic feet. This represents an actual overcut of
15 Der cent on the approved allowable cut for these licences as of January 1, 1961.
The general administration of this type of tenure is being streamlined by the licensees
in the commitments and reports being submitted by them.
The aaxninistration of the public sustained-yield units is being made more
effective by improved survey standards, increased forest-development road work,
the periodic review of allowable cuts, and the preparation of plans for over-all
development as indicated in other sections of this Report.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber Prices
The prices that were reported by the co-operating mills in the five stumpage-
appraisal zones confirmed that the lumber industry is still feeling the impact of the
recession in the North American market area. Prices did firm up, however, and,
with the exception of white pine and yellow pine, prices were slightly higher in the
last quarter than for a comparable period in 1960.
Present indications are that the market is improving and there should be a
continuing gradual increase in prices.
1961 Uncorrected Quarterly Average Dressed-lumber Prices (Interior)
Jan.-Mar.
Apr-
Tune
July-Sept.
Oct.-
Dec.
Species
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Fir-larch.  	
145,510
167,165
4,541
5,547
1,371
$52.54
51.47
45.91
92.69
40.65
186,525
231,872
10,110
5,476
5,304
$58.15
55.65
53.84
88.99
54.61
199,026
233,197
9,315
8.392
3,283
$57.30
53.36
56.34
94.29
50.00
161,757
187,463
8,689
4,646
2,885
$54.35
52.03
Cedar	
White pine	
Yellow pine	
50.47
90.22
47.07
Log Prices
The prices being paid for logs in the Vancouver log market, as reported to the
British Columbia Loggers' Association, continued the decline that started in 1960
into the first quarter of 1961. There was a very gradual improvement through the
second and third quarters for all species except balsam, and by the end of the year
the price level was restored to that effective in the last quarter of 1960. Douglas
fir recovered more strongly, however, and at the year's end the price was up approximately $6.50 per thousand over that for a comparable period in 1960. The price
for balsam graded on the market as pulp dropped in the last quarter, reflecting an
oversupply in the market, which may develop into a problem.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
41
The cedar marketing problem is still a matter of concern in the industry, but
cedar log inventories were reduced and supply and demand appear to be approaching equilibrium.
1961 Quarterly Average Log Prices per M B.M. (Lower Coast)
all grades
Species
Jan.-Mar.
Apr-June
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.
Fir   --              	
$57.19
35.62
40.16
36.44
42.91
38.78
$58.63
38.90
42.19
38.52
37.18
43.88
$61.36
38.58
43.01
39.91
40.87
45.52
$63.03
Cedar        	
37.74
42.14
39.12
41.32
46.30
No. :
GRADE
Fir	
$49.02
29.66
38.23
34.98
36.89
33.58
$50.95
31.25
40.65
36.80
34.27
38.60
$51.90
31.34
41.35
37.09
37.13
40.12
$54.00
31.61
40.19
32.56
37.02
41.12
Stumpage Prices
Throughout 1961, stumpage appraisals in all zones were based on relatively
low selling prices. The average stumpage price for all species was $2.53 per hundred
cubic feet. The comparable figures for the years 1957, 1958, 1959, and 1960 are
$2.98, $4.03, $3.88, and $3.55. The rates for all species were lower in 1961 than
in 1960.   (For detailed figures see Table 20 of the Appendix.)
Stumpage prices did show some recovery in the last quarter, reflecting the
gradual strengthening of the market for the product on which the appraisal is based;
that is, dressed lumber in the Interior and logs on the Coast.
Sliding-scale Adjustments
Although selling prices were generally depressed and relatively stable, there
were 3,870 adjustments under provision of the sliding-scale condition of the timber
contracts. This condition provides that the stumpage rate will be adjusted by
formula when the average market value as established by the Chief Forester has
departed by 15 per cent or more from the average market value which formed the
basis on which the existing rates were established. Of the total 3,870 adjustments,
1,438 were upward and 2,432 downward. The anomaly of upward adjustments
during a period of relatively stable low prices can be explained by reference to the
log price and lumber price tables above. The white pine log price in the first quarter
was abnormally depressed; rates were adjusted downward on that basis, then
upward again when the price returned to its level. A similar situation developed
with cedar and yellow pine in the Interior.
A system of stumpage adjustment to replace the sliding scale has been developed and presented to the industry for consideration. This new system will establish
at the auction a schedule of stumpage prices relative to the price level for the
product on which the appraisal is based. It will provide that the stumpage payable
at any time will be consistent with a fair market value regardless of the market level
that was effective at the time that the sale was acquired.  The new system will absorb
 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
to the Crown a significant part of the market risk. The rates payable will fall to the
minimum as prices decline and will rise as prices rise, following the market much
more closely than is possible with the sliding-scale method.
Stumpage-appraisal Cost Studies
The time-study field crew attached to the Appraisal Section completed the field
work on a yarding-skidding project in the Interior Dry Belt. Data derived from this
study are now being analysed.
A study was undertaken in co-operation with the Engineering Services Division
to determine the factors that influence the cost of log and lumber hauls under
Interior conditions.  This project is continuing into 1962.
SILVICULTURE
The programme for 1961 included stand treatment, silvicultural studies, working circle planning, and road location in both sustained-yield units and public
working circles.
The main effort during the past year was centred on stand treatment. All
districts were active in this field, and some 648 timber sales, principally in the
Interior, received stand treatment. This involved the treatment of approximately
132,769 acres.
Stands are generally treated to attain either increment or natural regeneration,
or, in some cases, a combination of both increment and natural regeneration. The
cutting methods which are most frequently employed are single tree selection in the
case of increment, and strips, groups, patches, or single seed-trees in the case of
natural regeneration. Of the 132,769 acres treated, 15,810 were treated under
single tree selection ; 32,047 acres were laid out in blocks, strips, or patches ; and
84,912 acres were marked for either seed-tree groups or single selected seed-trees.
Although natural regeneration is dependent on several interrelated factors, a
satisfactory seed-bed and a suitable seed source can be regarded as prime requisites.
The preparation of a satisfactory seed-bed often requires either burning or scarification. The Forest Service has been employing scarification in certain types of
stands since 1956. During 1961, scarification was carried out on 4,120 acres, work
being carried out in the Nelson, Kamloops, Prince George, and Prince Rupert
Districts. Of the 4,120 acres, 789 acres were scarified as a result of provisions
contained in timber-sale contracts. This is an increase in Forest Service scarification
of 1,490 acres and a decrease in licensee scarification of 564 acres. Continued
experience with scarification techniques has led to improved work performance and
lower costs. Costs have been reduced from $16.62 per acre in 1959 to $10.38 per
acre in 1961, with an increase in the percentage of suitable seed-bed above the 65-
per-cent standard presently in use. The results of the 1959 scarification programme
confirm the earlier promise of this treatment, the average stocking of spruce being
53 per cent stocked quadrats, with an indicated total stocking of 5,000 spruce
germinants per acre based on examination of 485 acres.
In addition to the preparation of seed-bed by scarification, a series of broadcast
burns has been carried out in the Interior decadent cedar-hemlock type; the results
to date have been satisfactory, and this method holds considerable promise in this
type.
In addition to the actual work programme, the evaluation of cutting methods
in the spruce-balsam type of the Northern Interior was completed. This project
has been carried out over a five-year period and covers growth, mortality, and
regeneration following logging.   A report outlining the findings is being prepared.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 43
Evaluation studies will be carried on in the Kamloops and Nelson Districts during
the 1962 field season.
One of the most significant advances in recent years has been the development
of antibiotics to control white pine blister rust. During 1961, 3,579 trees were
sprayed with either Actidione BR or Phyto-Actin, at a cost of 14Yz cents per tree.
It is planned to extend the programme in 1962 to include helicopter spraying. If
the results in British Columbia are comparable to those obtained in Idaho and
Montana, there will be an increasing use of this type of control programme.
Planting was again carried out in the Interior in co-operation with the Reforestation Division. In all, some 320,355 trees were planted, an increase of
254,255 over the previous year. All districts were active in this regard. The 1961
cone-crop was average to good. The cone-crop matured earlier than anticipated,
so that collections were below the anticipated level. Even so, 536 bushels were
obtained, the majority of which was picked by the stand-treatment crews.
SCALING
Coast
The official scaling staff of 121 men scaled 3,235,071,869 f.b.m. and 399,065,-
752 cubic feet in the Vancouver and Prince Rupert Coast Forest Districts. These
figures include approximately 1,328,000,000 f.b.m. of logs scaled in board-feet
only and about 18,000,000 cubic feet scaled in cubic feet only, the remainder having
been dual scaled in both board and cubic feet. The total f.b.m scale decreased by
313,300,604 f.b.m., while the cubic scale showed an increase of 14,747,834 cubic
feet. During the year, 24,007 booms or parcels were scaled, and 327 of these were
rescaled. In addition to checking and coaching the main office staff, the scaling
supervisors made 133 checks at the fourteen permanent scaling-stations. Eight
hundred and ninety-four export inspections were made.
Examinations of candidates for scaling licences were held for Ranger School
students, student-sealers, and members of the public. Examinations were also held
for candidates for Scaler—Grade 1 and 2 positions on the official scaling staff.
Interior
Control and inspection of scaling practices were continued in the Interior
districts by the Inspectors of Licensed Scalers and the Ranger staffs. Further control was provided through mill checks and investigations by the investigators of the
Accounting Division, who work in co-operation with the Inspectors and Rangers.
Recognition of the need for further development and co-ordination of Interior
scaling administration resulted in the appointment of a forester to the Management
Division staff to act as Scaling Co-ordinator.
Examinations of candidates for scaling licences were held at various centres
in all districts by the Inspectors of Licensed Scalers. The percentage of successful
candidates remained low. This trend could lead to a shortage of licensed scalers
if not checked by provision of instruction for persons wishing to obtain a scaling
licence.
In the interests of lower scaling costs without sacrifice of accuracy, sample
scaling procedures were initiated on a trial basis on two operations. One trial is
in progress on pulp-mill logs in the Nelson District and one on a stud-log operation
in the Kamloops District. Experience gained from these trials will guide extension
of sample scale privileges to other operations in the event that modification of
present procedures appears warranted.
 44
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
1     1
133d oieno jo SNonniw n
sswmoA
%       1       I       1
1961
196!
656!
556!
1561
5561
C«l
-
1561
-
tttl
-
2t6l
c
! < c
i >- y
.go
o
LU   I
£   P
- U
of Li
O  t
cc i
LU  3
H  C
^8
^   Q
CC   u
U.   '
tr <
o E
h
5
-
St6l
u
c
a
c
>
1
(Ml
c
u
a
>
1
ltd
<
)
1
656!
»(6I
1(61
9561
556!
tS6l
mi
2561
156!
0561
2
J
,^\
t-
(0
or \
r-
<
-
-
o
u
i
I
1
e    1
LJ           1
2
c
j
_i
*
z
^.1
X
V
>
o
e
CL
/
a.
<
a.
J
C
-
J
>
I
9261
526!
1261
£261
2261
1261
1
The cumulative cut for the 50 years if
converted into boards, represents enough
lumber to build about thirty million average
size homes.
1A
XI X
I
\
6151
5161
1161
9161
5161
t!6l
£161
2161
UN
DM
l
1      "
s       S       §       s       s
VOLUMES   IN  MILLIONS  OF  CUBIC   FEET
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
45
syv~noa do sisiomiiAi
09-6S6I
9W«I
P 1
to   I
9«-s«i
a 1
3 1
K-K6I
{
s
zs-i«r
II!
W-6WI
8WHI
9*-SW
II    E
Zfr-I«!
l*-0V6t
0V-6KI
V   z
io
%     ID
o
a co
1 d
I ^
BWS6I
3   tO
M-SS6I
c
1
2 y
!«
:  u_
0   to
c  ife1
L-   o
CM
22
K-fKI
c
:
zo
Zt-lttl
c
i
a
z
4
K-6Z6I
t
J i
o
z
LU
5
Z
1
a-iza
i f
<¥■ ui
CC
9Z-5Z6I
m
u
cc
E
k
1
K-EZ6I
>
ZZ-IZ6I
\
0Z-6I6I
\
k
BI-1I6I
91-5161
M-£KI
K-ZI6I
sav~noa do snoitiiw
 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GRAZING
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The ranching industry enjoyed generally satisfactory conditions during 1961.
The winter of 1960/61 was exceptionally mild and snowfall light in most range
areas. This, combined with fair hay-supplies, resulted in stock coming through the
winter in excellent condition. Range readiness occurred somewhat earlier than
normal on most low-elevation ranges in 1961. Owing to an intervening cool spell,
particularly in the Nelson Grazing District, some mid-elevation ranges were a little
later than normal. However, turnout of stock on the ranges was not delayed anywhere, with the exception of part of the Peace River area, where a high spring fire-
hazard prevented stock being placed on the range until about two weeks after the
range was actually ready for use.
Light winter snowfall, following the near-drought conditions of 1960, resulted
in critical soil-moisture conditions, particularly on low-elevation ranges in most
areas. Forage production varied from slightly below to considerably below average
on these grassland ranges. Again, an exception was most of the Nelson Grazing
District, where moisture conditions were more favourable. On the other hand,
most forest ranges at higher elevations benefited from periodic summer rains, and
forage production was fairly well sustained, except in the Chilcotin and parts of
the Cariboo and Prince George areas, where summer drought resulted in reduced
forage production on all types of range.
Generally below average precipitation in the range area over the last several
years has resulted in some stock-watering problems. On a few drier ranges, water-
holes dried up later in the summer, making stock distribution difficult, and in a few
cases necessitated the removal of stock from the range before the end of the normal
grazing season.
In spite of generally lower range forage production, stock came off the Crown
ranges in from fair to good condition. Any exceptions appeared to be due as much
to a lack of good range and live-stock management as to range condition.
Although hay-crops were somewhat lighter than normal in dry areas, haying
conditions were ideal during the summer of 1961. This permitted the harvesting
of all hay available, resulting in a generally good hay-crop of high quality. This
is indeed fortunate as heavy early snows considerably curtailed fall grazing. Hay
shortages are not anticipated in spite of the necessity for early feeding.
The trend toward the mechanization of many phases of the ranching business
continues. The seasonal requirements for unskilled labour for such things as haying are now greatiy reduced and easily filled. Unfortunately, there is not yet a
mechanical substitute for competent live-stock handlers, particularly on the range,
and ranch operations continue to suffer from a shortage of qualified labour in this
vital area. The fact that the trend toward improved range management is very slow
is due, at least in part, to this shortage of qualified personnel.
Markets and Prices
Cattle-producers enjoyed very favourable market conditions in 1961. Prices
were fairly steady early in the year and showed a marked strengthening later, during
the peak marketing period. Weighted average prices received by cattlemen through
the British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association were $18.29
per hundredweight in 1961, over $1 above the $17.25 per hundredweight received
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 47
in 1960.   The price for sheep and lambs shipped through the co-operative remained
approximately the same as the previous year.
Live-stock Losses
Loss of stock due to poisonous weeds on the range appeared to be lower than
average in 1961. This is the reverse of what is normally expected in a relatively
dry year. Losses due to highway and railroad accidents did not increase in 1961,
in spite of heavier traffic. This is due to gradually improving stock-management
practices and the installation of more and better fencing in certain critical areas.
Predatory animals took only a light toll of stock. Dangerous mud-holes claimed
more animals than the average in recent years, due to lower water-tables resulting
from below average precipitation over several years. Careless hunters appeared
to be taking an increasing toll of cattle, with several head reported found shot on
the range. Unexplained losses, probably due mainly to straying and theft, were
about average, with one notable exception where approximately 500 sheep out of
a herd of 1,500 disappeared.
Diseases of Live Stock
Many of the measures which are necessary to ensure a high level of live-stock
health profoundly affect range management. The control of Vibriosis, a reproductive disease of cattle, continues to require the greater segregation of breeding herds.
This necessitated the setting-up of numerous individual range allotments and
breeding-pastures during the year, thus considerably disrupting existing range-use
patterns.
The brucellosis- and tuberculosis-control programmes necessitated the withholding of grazing permits in several cases until the herds concerned were cleaned
up. Grazing permits were also withheld for three range sheep flocks infected with
foot-rot until these flocks were finally declared free of this disease.
RANGE MANAGEMENT
Maintenance of the Crown range in the highest possible state of productivity
is of vital importance to the live-stock industry. Watershed protection and wildlife
populations are also directly dependent upon good range conditions. Improper
grazing practices and range depletion may interfere with forest regeneration, result
in soil depletion, and depreciate recreational values. Increased live-stock numbers,
combined with similar increases in these associated land uses, demand a greatly
intensified range-management programme.
(An adequate level of range management is not being achieved, and for several
reasons. Staff limitations do not permit the necessary level of supervision of range
use at the present time. Also, there is a continuing lack of understanding of range-
management requirements on the part of a large proportion of range-users. An
increase in range-management personnel is required to carry out adequate education
and enforcement programmes. The impact of the associated land uses, together with
unplanned land settlement, makes the achievement of the required level of range
management all but impossible in many areas. A co-ordinated land-use study is
now urgently required, on the basis of which the various uses can be integrated to
best advantage and uneconomic settlement avoided.
During 1961, range yield, readiness, and trend studies were continued and
extended to several new areas. Some adjustments in season-of-use and stocking
rates were made where needed.    Efforts were made to achieve better live-stock
 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
distribution in some areas where this was required.   Much more of this sort of work
needs to be done to ensure the maintenance and improvement of range condition.
In the Peace River District, forage-improvement studies were continued to
ascertain the techniques and costs necessary to develop pastures on low-quality
agricultural land.
Range Surveys
Due to a variety of reasons, the range-survey programme was again considerably reduced in 1961.   A total of only 213,600 acres was covered, as follows:—■
Location Acres
Part of Kettle River Stock Range (resurvey)     43,600
Part of Alexandria Stock Range  150,000
Cecil Lake     20,000
Total  213,600
From 1945 to 1961 a total of 9,953,485 acres has been covered by range
surveys or resurveys necessary to keep range-inventory information up to date.
Maps and reports covering field work carried out in previous seasons in several
areas were completed during the year.
Extensive reconnaissances were also carried out in several areas as a basis for
dealing with current range management or administrative problems.
Range Improvements
During the year $46,408.86 was spent from the Range Improvement Fund.
In addition, material to the value of $11,439.90 was on hand at the beginning of
1961. Material valued at $10,019.51 remained on hand and not assigned to
projects at the end of the year. The following projects, chargeable wholly or in
part to the Fund, were completed: Twenty cattle-guards, twenty-nine drift fences,
three experimental plots, one hazard-removal, three holding-grounds, one meadow
improvement, one pasture development, one stock-bridge, nineteen stock-trails,
seventeen water developments, range seeding, and wild-horse disposal.
In addition to the above-noted cost to the Fund, permittees made considerable
contributions of labour to the projects listed. Also, authority was extended to
permittees to construct and maintain, entirely at their own expense, four breeding-
pastures, one corral, eleven drift-fences, three grazing enclosures (general use),
two holding-grounds, one stock-trail, and one water development.
Range seeding was again a major feature of the improvement programme.
A total of 36,200 pounds of grass and legume seed was sown, compared with 34,450
pounds in 1960. Some 15,680 pounds were aerially sown on burned areas, and
the balance, approximately 20,530 pounds, on logged and similarly disturbed areas.
Well over half of the burned areas seeded was the result of 1960 fires which could
not be seeded until early spring, 1961, due to adverse flying conditions the previous
fall. Although fires devastated large areas in 1961, few were considered suitable
for seeding. The dryness of 1961 was not favourable for the establishment of .grass,
and the results of some seedings have been disappointing. However, fall rains
brought on further germination, and it is anticipated initial partial failures will
show improvement in 1962.
Studies are under way, in co-operation with the Canada Range Experimental
Farm at Kamloops, to determine the effect of seeded grasses on forest regeneration
in burned areas. The effect of different seed mixtures on tree regeneration, forage
yield, and grazeability are also being studied on logged areas. This work is very
necessary as knowledge in this field is lacking.
J
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961 49
A wide variety of forest sites have now been seeded to grass for a sufficient
time to make a preliminary assessment of results from the forage standpoint. Forage production has been disappointing on some low-quality sites. In other situations, windfall and heavy brush growth have made any introduced forage unavailable to five stock within three to five years. In general, it appears that only very
temporary forage values can be obtained by seeding burned or logged cedar-hemlock, spruce-balsam, and possibly some fir-larch sites. However, seeding to prevent erosion on these sites might still be worth while under certain conditions. The
seeding of fir, yellow pine, and better lodgepole pine sites results in more sustained
yields of improved forage and appears to be well worth while.
The programme of installing steel decks on cattle-guards was continued.
Unfortunately, certain weaknesses have shown up in the original design, and modifications have proven necessary to withstand heavier traffic loads. This has added
to the cost of this already expensive but indispensable range-management facility.
All of the Kamloops Grazing District and most of the Nelson Grazing District
were closed to horses during the winter of 1960/61 to prevent damaging grazing
during this period. In most areas, horse-owners co-operated, but elsewhere there
was strong resistance to this very necessary range-management procedure. A total
of 118 horses was removed from the Crown range by horse-disposal licensees.
Peace River Pastures
Special funds were again provided in 1961 for pasture-development work in
the Peace River District. The following new work was completed: 11 miles of
fencing, eight stock-watering dugouts, 40Vi miles of fence-line clearing and fireguards, 2 miles of stock-trails, the seeding of 30 acres of previously broken land,
and 18 acres cleared in preparation for breaking and seeding. Most of this work
was done on two newly selected pasture areas lying to the north of the Peace River
in preparation for their use in 1962. Maintenance work was also done on existing
fences and other improvements where required.
CO-OPERATION
The necessary co-operation between grazing permittees and the Forest Service
is achieved mainly through the medium, of local range live-stock associations. There
are now fifty-five such associations approved under the Grazing Act, two new associations being approved during the year and the approval of one inactive association
withdrawn. In addition, one newly incorporated association was in the process of
applying for approval at the close of the year. Relations with these local organizations continued to be good. In dealing with matters relating to the whole industry,
close contact was maintained with the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association and the British Columbia Sheep Breeders' Association.
The British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association, the
producer-owned market agency, continued to supply live-stock price figures necessary for the sliding scale of grazing fees. Without the co-operation of this agency,
it would be difficult to obtain this information.
Forest Service officers attended a total of 146 association meetings during
1961. This represents a considerable increase over previous years. Additional
meetings were held with other live-stock and technical groups during the year to
deal with special problems.
As a result of closer co-ordination required in resource management, close liaison with various other management and research agencies is required.   Numerous
 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
consultations and, where required, field inspections were carried out with representatives of other agencies of this Government. The Canada Range Experimental Farm at Kamloops extended valuable assistance on a variety of technical
matters, and several joint projects were initiated. The Canada Experimental Farm
at Beaverlodge, Alta., continued technical studies on the pilot pasture developments
in the Peace River District. The co-operation of the Indian Affairs Branch, Canada Department of Citizenship and Immigration, was invaluable in dealing with
Indian use of Crown range. Grazing officers participated actively in the American
Society of Range Management.
ADMINISTRATION
As a result of more live stock on Crown range and the continuing diversion of
range to other uses, the administration work load is becoming increasingly heavy
and more complex. This situation resulted in much necessary field work being left
undone and is one of the main reasons for the near-stagnation of the range inventory
programme. All procedures were critically reviewed during the year, and some
modifications made in an effort to deal with this situation.
During 1961, considerable pressure developed for the commencement of range
administration in the area between Prince George and Smithers, and preliminary
investigations were started. Much further work will be required to determine the
availability of suitable Crown range and the feasibility of utilizing any such range
on a sustained-yield basis. However, administration was commenced on a limited
area of Crown range in the vicinity of Fraser Lake. One new area was placed under
reserve for future pasture development in the Peace River District. Administration
was confined to the three pastures south of the river, but development work was
carried out on two areas north of the river in preparation for commencement of
administration on these areas in 1962.
Again, many ranches changed hands during 1961, most being purchased by
parties from outside this Province. This boom in ranch real estate resulted in a
considerable amount of work in connection with the transfer of grazing privileges
and the explanation of grazing regulations and management plans to a large number
of new operators, who were completely unfamiliar with local conditions.
Most ranch operators are striving to increase their live-stock numbers, thus
creating unprecedented competition for Crown range. In view of the already
crowded conditions, each application for increased range use required the most
careful investigation, and many applications had to be refused.
Farm Credit Corporation regulations were modified during the year to permit
Crown range grazing privileges to be considered in the evaluation of ranch properties
as security for loans. This has resulted in a sharp rise in the demand for range by
many small operators who can now qualify for such loans. Liaison procedures with
the corporation with respect to borrower permittees have been developed.
Legislation
Minor amendments were made to the Grazing Act in 1961 to correct several
inadvertent errors in the 1960 revision and to bring the Grazing Act into line with
the Animals Act with respect to the running of bulls on Crown range. The Grazing
Regulations were also amended to provide for a special grazing fee to be charged
for the use of improved Crown ranges in the Peace River District. This was necessary in view of the high cost of improvements required on these ranges.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
51
Grazing and Hay Permits
During the year, 1,825 grazing permits were issued, authorizing the depasturing
of 132,749 cattle, 4,985 horses, and 21,309 sheep on Crown range. This represents
an increase of ninety-nine permits over 1960. Cattle numbers were up 5,601 head,
horses 481 head, and sheep 1,849 head oyer the previous year. Both the number
of permits and the number of cattle are the highest ever recorded. (See Table 58
in Appendix.)
A total of 192 hay-cutting permits was issued, authorizing the harvesting of
2,313 tons of hay from Crown range, an increase of ten permits and 286 tons over
1960. The increase was mainly due to drier conditions prevailing on previously
flooded wild meadows.
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees
Grazing fees per head per month for 1961 were 17 cents for cattle, 3.25 cents
for sheep, and 21.25 cents for horses. These fees are the same as those for the
previous year, except for sheep, which were reduced by 0.25 cent per head per
month.   Hay-cutting fees remained at $1 per ton.
Total billings for grazing and hay-cutting fees were up from the 1960 level, the
increase being due entirely to greater use of Crown range. Collections were the
highest ever recorded, exceeding billings, and reducing " outstandings " at the end
of the year. This situation reflects the buoyant condition of the cattle industry.
(See Table 59 in Appendix.)
Live-stock Counts
The cattle-counting programme was greatly increased in the Kamloops Grazing
District in 1961 to ensure that actual grazing use was in line with permitted use.
This was necessary both to avoid abuse of the range and to protect the large majority
of permittees who make honest returns and comply with permit conditions.
Violations and Prosecutions
A number of violations of grazing regulations and permit conditions occurred
during the year. It was necessary to undertake the seizure of stock in trespass on
three occasions. The imminence of similar action in a number of other instances
resulted in belated compliance with regulations by the owners of the stock concerned.
One seizure brought to light a theft which was successfully prosecuted on the basis
of a complaint laid by the live-stock association concerned. No cases of trespass
were taken to Court during the year.
 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ENGINEERING SERVICES
ENGINEERING SECTION
Forest-development roads again constituted a major portion of the work during
1961, along with an increased engineering and construction programme under the
terms of a Federal-Provincial cost-sharing agreement. In addition to the road
location and construction work directly connected with this agreement, continued
emphasis was placed on development engineering, and extensive field and office
investigations were undertaken to provide the engineering data essential to the
management of the forest resource.
As a result of the expanded construction programme in recent years, road
maintenance is becoming increasingly important, and during 1961 a total of 348
miles of previously constructed haul-road required routine maintenance and
repair work.
Forest-road Programme, 1961
F.D.R.=Forest-development road.
P.A.R.=Protection access road.
P.W.C.=Public working circle.
S.Y.U.=Sustained-yield unit.
V.C.L.rr: Vacant Crown land.
Project
Regulation Unit
Reconnaissance
Location
Construction
Vancouver Forest District
Miles
92
30
40
10
55
100
20
25
15
19
18
26
Miles
1.5
6.8
3.0
1.0
3.0
24.8
2.1
20.2
10.0
2.3
16.5
32.7
46.8
15.0
20.0
7.7
16.5
19.0
14.5
Miles
Chilliwack River F.D.R	
Chilliwack P W C.
3 3
Port Hardy F.D.R   _
Cape Scott P.W.C  :.....
Harrison S.Y.U	
Sayward P.W.C.
6.6
Slollicum Creek P.A.R 	
Menzies Mt. P.A.R	
Mud Lake P.A.R  ...
Sayward P.W.C.
Prince Rupert Forest District
Hazelton S.Y.U	
Morice River F.D.R.
Morice S.Y.U  .-	
Rivers Inlet P.W.C 	
Babine P.W.C 	
32.4
Owikeno Lake F.D.R	
Tahlo Creek F.D.R.           	
Tochcha Lake F.D.R.
Babine P.W.C 	
Smithers P.W.C. and V.C.L......
Babine P.W.C.
13.4
Upper Babine-Suskwa P.A.R — 	
Hazelton S.Y.U. 	
Terrace S.Y.U.
Prince George Forest District
Gregg Creek P.A.R	
Westlake P.W.C	
Naver-Ahbau F.D.R.	
Navet P.W.C. and Big Valley
S.Y.U.            	
9.2
Parsnip S.Y.U.
Tezzeron Creek F.D.R	
Stuart Lake P.W.C 	
8.2
Wapiti River F.D.R.
Nechako S.Y.U. and V.C.L.	
Ootsa S .Y.U 	
Big Bar S.Y.U....  	
Kamloops Forest District
Nehalliston S.Y.U	
Cayoosh Creek F.D.R -	
Yalakom S.Y.U -	
Barriere P.W.C. ... —-
Hendrix Creek F.D.R.
Lac la Hache S.Y.U	
Quesnel Lake P.W.C	
14.0
Barriere P.W.C.      -	
North Thompson S.Y.U....	
North Thompson S.Y.U 	
Raft S.Y.U -	
Slok Creek F D.R.
Yalakom S.Y.U -
35.7
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961
Forest-road Programme, 1961—Continued
53
Project
Regulation Unit
Reconnaissance
Location
Construction
Nelson Forest District
Miles
2
Miles
37.7
4.5
Miles
Kettle River F.D.R	
Kettle P.W.C.     _ _
Flathead S.Y.U.
14.5
Lodgepole F.D.R.
13.3
White River F.D.R 	
Upper Kootenay P.W.C.
28.9
452
2,990
305.6
990.0
179.5
349.6
	
Totals, forest-road programme,
1950-61	
3,442
1,295.6
529.1
Other work connected with the day-to-day operations of the Service included
the operation of marine and highway transport units, assistance to the districts in
the location of fire access roads, and the provision of professional engineering services on various construction problems.
Development Engineering
The need for development engineering on an area concept continued to form
an important part of this phase of the work. Three field crews carried out
area studies and route reconnaissance on eight forest areas, encompassing some
7,361,000 acres of forest land with a current recoverable mature volume of 3V3
billion cubic feet.
In the Prince Rupert District three area investigations were carried out on the
Suskwa drainage, the Owikeno Lake area, and in the region of the confluence of the
Babine and Skeena Rivers. In addition, an evaluation of the Francois-Tahtsa Lake
Road, preliminary reconnaissance of the Upper Kiteen River, and route studies in
the Quatlena River drainage for timber-sale appraisals were completed. An area
study of the West Road River and Chilako River drainages in the Prince George
Forest District was undertaken as a basis for planning primary development. Other
work in this district included an appraisal of possible access to the Peace River dam
flood area via Callazon Creek and Eauclaire Creek. Area studies in the Kamloops
District were carried out in the valleys of the Raft and Blue Rivers, in the valley of
the North Thompson River west of Albreda, and over an area centring on Bonaparte
Lake. Development engineering in the Nelson Forest District included preliminary
studies of the Duncan River valley and investigation of access for timber-sale
development of forest stands west of Damfino Creek.
The 1961 field season saw an increasing use of both fixed- and rotary-winged
aircraft for transportation and area study. On the ground, crew mobility was
increased by the use of light, portable, trail motor-cycles.
Road Location
During the field season 305 miles of road were laid out under the forest-
development road programme. A reconstruction survey, complete with design and
estimates, was run on an additional 38 miles of sub-standard road scheduled for
improvement during the year.
Assistance was also provided by engineering field crews in flagging out some
68 miles of protection and fire access roads. This work was done to assist district
staffs at the time of the heavy fire-fighting load. Field parties were trained,
organized, and provided with special equipment to enable them to give prompt
service on this work when requested.
 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Improvements are still being incorporated into the simplified survey and design
procedures used on the lower-cost roads, and additional programming work on
computers is being investigated with a view to further reducing the cost of this work.
Construction
Under a cost-sharing agreement with the Federal Government, increased funds
were made available for forest-development road construction. Production figures,
far exceeding any previous totals, were attained during 1961. The construction of
179 miles of road involved the clearing of 1,317 acres of right-of-way, the movement of 2,197,000 cubic yards of common excavation and 202,000 cubic yards of
solid rock, the placement of 200,000 tons of crushed surfacing material, and the
installation of 30,700 lineal feet of culvert material. The mileage of road completed
is two and one-half times greater than the 1960 figure, while the volume of excavation is doubled. The proportionately greater increase in road mileage can be
attributed to construction of a larger percentage of single-lane road, requiring less
material movement per mile.
The increased volume of solid rock, approximately eight times the amount
moved in 1960, necessitated the use of larger-capacity heavy-duty equipment on
several jobs. At Port Hardy, where rock ballast was used, nearly 100,000 cubic
yards of quarry rock was drilled with a 4-inch track-mounted drill, powered by
a 600-cubic-feet-per-minute air-compressor. Considerable weathered rock was
encountered in the mountainous terrain traversed by the Slok, Cayoosh, and White
River roads, and much of this material was economically handled with large tractors
equipped with rear-mounted rippers.
The weather was ideal for road construction during the spring and summer
months and was an important factor contributing to the record production figures.
Unfortunately, while it was conducive to road construction, it also produced one
of the worst fire years on record, necessitating the transfer of some construction
personnel and equipment to fire-fighting duties in late August and early September.
For several weeks, construction was suspended on the Horsefly and Morice Roads
as project equipment and personnel contributed to the maximum effort necessary to
bring fires in these two areas under control. Construction personnel also assisted
on fires in the Babine Lake and Prince George areas.
The bridge-construction programme kept pace with the increase in road production. During the year six permanent timber and nine local-material bridges
were erected. The largest was the Kootenay River bridge at Mile 44.8 on the
White Rock Road near Canal Flats. This single-lane, permanent timber bridge
consists of three main spans of 80 feet each, plus approach spans, giving an over-all
length of 286 feet. The two main piers, located in the river, consist of steel H-piles
driven into the rock with concrete caps supporting framed timber bents. Construction of this bridge was delayed until late in the season to take advantage of low
water in the river, and special precautions were necessary to protect the fresh concrete in the piers from freezing and from damage by ice in the river.
Maintenance on 348 miles of previously constructed road was mostly of a
routine nature, but the problem of retaining an acceptable surface on the more
heavily travelled roads is becoming more acute as the developed areas come into
full production. As a first step in the use of stabilizing additives, a 6,000-foot test
section on the Willow River Road was treated with calcium chloride and sodium
chloride.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
55
NEW   AREAS  OF   FOREST   WEALTH
MADE   AVAILABLE BY
FOREST    DEVELOPMENT        ROADS
zooo-
750-
500
FOREST
AREA        250
IN
1000
THOUSANDS
0F         750
ACRES
500-
250-
0-
i     i     r
3280
2870
2460
FOREST
2050
AREA
IN
1640
SQUARE
1230
MILES
820
410
0
1950   1951       1952     1953    1954    1955     1956    1957    1958     1959   I960     1961
TIME    IN   YEARS
General Engineering
Designs were completed for bridges of the pressure-creosoted glue-laminated
girder type for the Tsulquate River on the Port Hardy-Georgie Lake Road, Mor-
rissey Creek on the Lodgepole Road, the Kootenay River up-stream from Canal
Flats, the Tsilcoh River on the Tezzeron Creek Road, Damfino Creek on the Kettle
Road, and Horsefly River on the Horsefly-McKusky Road.
Preliminary designs and estimates were made for bridges on the Chapman
Lake, Kingcome River, Horsethief Creek, McDonnel Lake, Horsefly River, Chilliwack River, Purdon Lake, Cayoosh Creek, Barriere, Parsnip, and Kispiox Forest-
development Road location surveys. Tentative sketches and rough estimates were
made from reconnaissance data for a number of possible stream crossings in the
Kitlope-Kimsquit region.
Other design work included a crib-type retaining-wall of creosoted timber, a
water-tank tower, and assistance in the design of a new warehouse. Soils staff, in
addition to performing routine soil identifications and tests, made studies and recommendations relative to thicknesses of gravel surfacing and its stabilization by
blending with clay.
A portable power soil-auger outfit has been assembled and promises to be of
great value for soil exploration for road, bridge, and building construction. Its
initial trials have been in connection with a drainage study at Green Timbers nursery,
building construction at the Forest Service Marine Station, and a foundation exploration for a bridge on the Horsefly River.
General field survey work included an 8-mile transit traverse for timber-sale
boundary control purposes on Wildhorse Creek, a site plan of Chatham Channel
Ranger Station, layout of a small landing-strip at Boulder Creek, a detailed map of
Mesachie Lake Forest Experiment Station, and ground-water investigations at
Green Timbers.
 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Engineering personnel were also assigned to a number of joint activities, including a study of truck-haul costs with Management Division and work on scarification operations in co-operation with Management Division and the districts.
Job supervision was also provided for the construction of a sewage-disposal system
at Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Station.
MECHANICAL SECTION
An examination of the statistics given in the accompanying mechanical equipment list will reveal a continued increase in the number of four-wheel-drive purchases, which now account for 46 per cent of the total number of motor-vehicles
in use. Specialized fire-fighting tank-trucks have gradually diminished in number
until there are only four left.
The introduction of water-bombing techniques and the improved availability
of heavier and more powerful tractors have caused significant changes in fire-fighting
methods. This became evident during the past severe fire season, particularly on
the larger fires. It is now feasible to construct fire access roads capable of handling
four-wheel-drive truck traffic within reasonable time-limits and to delay the spread
Forest Service Mechanical Equipment
Type
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1961
Removed
from
Service
New
Purchases
Total
Units,
Dec. 31,
1961
Sedans     _ _
Suburbans, station wagons, and sedan deliveries..
Small-type passenger-vehicles  	
Panel deliveries    _
Four-wheel-drive passenger types... 	
Four-wheel drive %-ton pick-ups, etc	
Power-wagons — 	
^-ton pick-ups  .„ —	
34-ton pick-ups..
14,000-24,000 G.V.W. trucks (2, 3, and 4 tons)..
24,000-40,000 G.V.W. trucks (heavy duty)	
Fire-fighting tank-trucks 	
Trail motor-cycles   	
Total vehicles .
Tractors _	
Graders  	
Scrapers—self-propelled 	
Scrapers—not self-propelled..
Shovels—Power 	
Loaders—self-propelled	
Outboard motors.  	
Fire pumps—various 	
Fire pumps—portable tanker.	
Bean fire-fighting units (high pressure)..
Borate mixer pumps 	
Chain saws   	
Lighting plants _
Snow sedan—propeller-driven..
Speeders—railway-
Trailers—low-bed and high-bed 	
Trailers—dwelling, bunk-house, etc—
Trailers—miscellaneous  	
Air-compressors	
Rock drills—gas-powered  	
Muskeg and snow tractors (personnel carriers)..
Yarders   	
Crushing plants _	
Mechanical wheelbarrows.
Welders ..
Cement-mixers  _.
Augers—power, planting .
Fork lift truck—electric.—
40
98
30
64
85
248
20
128
46
53
5
5
822
38
16
4
2
2
1
362
817
35
34
2
375
92
1
20
10
139
177
4
9
8
1
1
22
9
6
3
1
5
7
1
7
15
24
4
22
15
3
4
1
4
12
2
6
20
39
9
13
16
5
2
108
|      132
1
26
38
1
66
4
7
3
5
1
1
38
53
25
26
7
8
25
1
39
103
31
63
90
263
25
118
47
55
3
4
5
846
41
15
4
2
2
1
374
832
59
34
2
333
95
1
14
7
142
201
5
8
10
1
1
22
9
6
4
1
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 57
of the fires by water bombing while this work is proceeding. Improved access permits the use of heavier equipment on the fire-line; for example, pumps need no
longer be of the light-weight two-cycle type.
As a result of these changes, the Forest Service purchased two large " trash "
pumpers of 3-inch discharge to load bentonite into aircraft, six 150-pound fourcycle high-pressure pumps, and eight low-pressure fairly heavy units for filling
tank-trucks.
The Service also purchased two large-capacity high-pressure trailer-mounted
pumping units. Each is powered by a six-cylinder Chrysler engine driving a gear
pump which will keep as many as six hose-lines well supplied. These units are well
suited to fighting troublesome sawdust-pile fires as they can produce a large volume
of water at low pressure, whereas the standard two-cycle high-pressure light-weight
fire-pump is ill suited to such work.
Chain-saw purchases remain light, being confined mostly to the replacement
of old and outdated models.
There is a continuous demand for more outboard motors as cruise and patrol
areas increase in size. Innovations in water-propulsion methods, such as V-drives,
Z-drives, jet drives, and air-screw drives, all continue to receive attention, with the
jet drive apparently offering the greatest possibilities, particularly in shallow-water
conditions such as found in many Interior rivers.
The trail motor-cycle is one new item of transportation interest. These units
have a maximum speed varying from 14 to 18 miles per hour and are very simple
in design. After watching demonstrations of different designs, a selection was made
and five of one type purchased. These motor-cycle units are for trail work only
and will not be licensed for highway travel. They have since been used on reconnaissance, lookout-trail survey work, and for travel between railway speeder and
logging camp where the railway speeder is the only road link. They were received
very well wherever they were used, and requests for more are anticipated.
The Mechanical Section has initiated improved methods of outboard-motor
and fire-pump testing. For the outboard motors, it is hoped eventually to have
test tanks established at suitable locations throughout the Province, and special test
propellers will be used to check the operation of each unit. Results so obtained
can be compared with factory figures that have been compiled under similar test
conditions. Special test instruments will be used by each District Mechanical
Supervisor to check revolutions per minute, fuel-flow, cylinder compression, etc.
For pumps, a testing unit will be used which is designed to show the maximum
pressure at which each pump can deliver a minimum fire-fighting stream. The
difference between the maximum pressure shown on the pump gauge and the 25
pounds per square inch at 8 gallons per minute, which is deemed to constitute a
minimum stream, will be the pump's effective pressure.
The system, it is hoped, will provide information not only to the mechanical
staff, but also, being entered in the tool-box record, will be of value to the Ranger
or pump operator when assessing the value of any particular pump for the job in
hand as the effective pressure represents power to overcome either elevation or
friction loss or any combination of both.
The light-weight portable fire-fighting tank units designed by the Forest Service
have now been in operation for three years. Of the few modifications made, the
latest and perhaps the most popular was the change to a " live " reel. The field staff
appear to be unanimously in approval of the tank and pump in its present form, and
requests have been received for an additional thirty-five units.
 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The mechanical staff give a portion of their time to the promotion of safety
practices in the driving and operation of Forest Service equipment. Twenty-seven
men were given instruction in trailer-handling. Each man received two days in
trailer-towing education.
As in the past, various bulletins and safety instructional literature were circulated from this office, and the Assistant Superintendent continues as the Forest
Service representative on the Accident and Safety Committee.
BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
A significant amount of time was devoted to the redesign of standard Ranger
station buildings, primarily for the purpose of improving accommodation without
increasing costs. A new design for a three-bedroom residence was completed and
one building erected. The design of the flat-roof office constructed at Dawson
Creek last year has been adopted as a standard, and buildings of similar structure
were built at four locations, However, cladding materials varied on the different
buildings. Preliminary drawings for a warehouse to be built in conjunction with
this new-type office have been produced, and on final approval will complete the
redesign project.
A significant portion of the work during the year involved renovations and
extensions to existing buildings and services to provide for the changing operational
needs. The supervision of construction crews employed a considerable part of the
staff's field time, along with the usual contract inspections.
In view of a continuing need for fully portable accommodation, the following
trailers were designed and constructed, or purchased:—
Trailer Type Used by : District or Division
New	
18' living (two) Project crews Kamloops.
18' living Project crews Nelson.
20' living Project crews Research.
Used—
30' bunk-houses (two)____ Survey crews Surveys and Inventory.
30' driver Survey crews Surveys and Inventory.
33' living Survey crews Surveys and Inventory.
31' living Survey crews Surveys and Inventory.
Major projects undertaken by the Section during the year are outlined in the
following table:—
Building Construction Undertaken during 1961
Location
Project
Construction
Agency
Progress
Carry-over of 1960/61
Programme
Aleza Lake	
Aleza Lake .	
Boston Bar_
Chilliwack River-
Duncan	
Kamloops-	
Lund	
Port Hardy	
Ootsa Lake	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Vanderhoof	
Various points-
Residence.	
Bunk-house..
Residence	
Garage-
Soil-shed	
Bunk-house-
Floats	
Trailer camp	
Boat-house and ways-
Water supply-line	
Breakwater .	
Office extension..
Porta-buildings (five)_
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Forest Service	
Forest Service.
Forest Service
Forest Service
Forest Service
Forest Service.	
Forest Service.	
Contract-
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Destroyed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
59
Building Construction Undertaken during 1961—Continued
Location
Project
Construction
Agency
Progress
1961/62 Programme
Aleza Lake..
Aleza Lake..
Beaverdell—
Campbell River..
Cayoosh Creek—
Chetwynd	
Cranbrook.	
Damfino Creek-
Duncan nursery-
Duncan nursery-
Fort Nelson	
Green Timbers	
Green Timbers....
Green Timbers...
Hazelton	
Horsefly..
Lower Post	
Mesachie Lake-
Morice River	
Nanaimo.	
Penticton	
Prince George..
Quesnel	
Tochcha	
Tofino 	
Vancouver....
Vancouver-
Vancouver.—
Vanderhoof-
Various localities-
Various nurseries..
Williams Lake	
Sewage system-
Electrical distribution-
Office building	
Office building-
Construction camp-
Residence	
Cold-storage building-
Construction camp	
Soil-shed	
Cone-shed	
Residence	
Residence (addition)-
Cold-storage building-
Soil-shed 	
Office building-
Construction camp-
Warehouse	
Street-lighting-
Construction camp....
Heating installation-
Office extension	
Heating installation-
Office extension	
Construction camp—
Garage..
Storeage warehouse-
Alterations—prefabricated building, Forest Service Marine Station   	
Dredging, Forest Service Marine Station-
Heating installation.
Wiring distribution system (three)..
Irrigation systems (four)	
Office building	
Forest Service	
Contract	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service-
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service-
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Contract	
Forest Service-
Contract	
Forest Service	
Contract	
Forest Service.	
Forest Service	
Forest Service.	
Forest Service	
Contract-
Contract-
Contract-
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Completed.
Tenders called.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Design proceeding.
Design proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Design completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Design proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Marine Design
Considerable time was spent during the first half of the year in supervision of
the construction of the new Ranger vessel " Hecate Ranger," which has now been
completed to the deck-line, including the installation of the engine.
On completion of the " take apart" raft, mentioned in the 1960 Report and
first used in transporting heavy road-building equipment across Babine Lake, careful loading calculations were carried out to ensure that loads of up to 42 tons would
be accurately placed in order to safeguard personnel and equipment alike. Field-
erection reports indicate that the " building block " features of this design exceeded
expectations as regards assembly time.
The launch " Forest Surveyor" was the subject of inclining and rolling tests
carried out by an independent naval architect to determine the advisability of increasing her accommodation by the addition of a pilot-house above the existing
superstructure.
The launch " Salt Mist," stationed at Prince Rupert, was surveyed by an independent marine surveyor to assess her ability to continue operating in the exposed
waters of Hecate Strait.
Cautious evaluation of the jet-propulsion principle for Forest Service use continued this year with the design and construction of a second 26-foot river-type
boat with jet propulsion. A larger 30-foot river-type boat has been designed to
assist in the location and building of forest roads in the Rocky Mountain Trench.
Following the trend to larger, transom-driven propulsion units, the launch
" Whitesail" is to be re-equipped with a unit capable of absorbing the full power
 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
of her engine, which, alternatively, drives an underwater jet unit when operating in
debris-choked waters along the shores of the Ootsa Lake system.
Two marine units were transferred to the Forest Service by the Department
of Highways after being declared surplus to requirements by that Department. The
wooden shallow-draught tug " Clayhurst" has been taken into reserve pending
clarification of the requirements of several large forest projects now under consideration. The wooden scow formerly used as the Denman Island Ferry was superficially renovated and, as described elsewhere, was towed to Smith Inlet to serve as
a floating Assistant Ranger station.
A large diesel outboard propulsion unit of 165 horse-power was purchased,
in a used condition, to power the Quesnel Lake vehicle-barge " L.C. 9 " as a follow-
up measure to further increase her usefulness.
Forest Museum
Following the retirement of the honorary curator of the Forest Museum, the
Assistant Construction Superintendent was appointed to carry on in the same
capacity.
The museum, which is still in an embryo state, looks forward to the day when
permanent quarters may be found to house its treasures. In the meantime, the
receipt of valuable and interesting artifacts, relics, and documents pertaining to
forest endeavour continues at an encouraging rate, and all such gifts are acknowledged, catalogued, and stored.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION
Repeating the pattern established in 1960, the Marine Station was used as an
assembly and shipping point for fire-fighting equipment and supplies during the
emergency which developed during the summer. As a consequence, the regular
work programme suffered to some extent. However, the advantages derived from
having a well-trained staff and good handling facilities available when the need
arose far outweighed all other considerations.
Marine Work
The marine ways were occupied sixty-eight times during the year. Thirty-nine
major launch overhauls and twenty-nine smaller jobs were completed on other craft.
Seventy outboard cruisers, river-boats, dinghies, and similar small boats were either
repaired or rebuilt. Alterations and repairs were made on the barge " L.C. 6,"
converting the craft from a self-propelled unit to a towed heliport. This conversion
proved very successful, and use of the craft has already increased appreciably the
value of helicopters for Coast survey work.
Increased use of barges and landing-craft appears inevitable as Forest Service
activity accelerates on both coastal and inland waters under the impetus of the
forest-management programme. The Service now has nine barges and landing-
craft, the newest being the " take apart " equipment raft " L.C. 8," which was completed and shipped to Babine Lake to haul road-construction equipment for the
Tochcha Road project. The Quesnel Lake equipment raft, now called the " L.C.
9," was repowered by a diesel-driven Harbourmaster unit during the year to improve her usefulness. A former ferry scow, " L.C. 7," obtained from the Department of Highways, was given extensive repairs and modified to provide a floating
Ranger station for use on Smith Inlet in the Prince Rupert Forest District. This
reconstruction job involved the fabrication of a 24- by 10-foot aluminum storage
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 61
building on the after deck, securing Porta-building No. 65 to the deck to provide
living-quarters, and installing the necessary water, plumbing, and electrical connections.
New boat construction was restricted to one 18-foot outboard cruiser, four
30-foot river-boats, one 26-foot jet craft, and two dinghies. However, supervision
was provided during the construction of the hull for the new 60-foot patrol vessel
which is being built under contract for use in the Prince Rupert Forest District.
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop
The carpenter-shop completed three lookout buildings and five Porta-buildings
during the year. Ten lookout buildings were still under construction at the year's
end. A great number of miscellaneous specialty items were manufactured, including 40 pieces of office furniture, 10 pieces of lookout furniture, 22 test and portable
tanks, 250 tool and equipment boxes, 48 instrument-cases, and 75 pairs of carrying-
handles. A programme of repairs and reconstruction for the older trailers was also
carried out, including three units rebuilt and four units renovated.
Staff from the shop were used for maintenance of the station to a .significant
extent in 1961. Major alterations were made to the carpenter-shop, new storage
bins were built in the machine-shop, and a new building for outboard testing was
constructed.
Machine-shop
The machine-shop had an extremely busy year, resulting from two severe fire
seasons in a row. Many hours of overtime were worked in order to repair and
return to service, with a minimum of delay, badly needed pumping units and outboard motors. In all, 295 pumps, 97 outboard motors, 60 chain saws, and 33
lighting plants were overhauled.
In addition to repair work, the staff tested and shipped 139 new pumps, outboard motors, chain saws, and lighting plants; machined over 2,000 pump fittings;
coupled 40,000 feet of discharge hose and 120 suction hoses; produced 12 hand-
winches;  and built 25 portable pump-tank units.
RADIO SECTION
New radio transmitting units acquired during the year amounted to 248, the
second highest total recorded to date.   These consisted of the following types:—
. , , Radio Purchases and Write-offs, 1961
A.M.—
Portable  39
Fixed station  13
Marine   13
Mobile  4
Total purchases, A.M.     69
F.M.—
Portable  137
Fixed station     17
Mobile     25
Total purchase, F.M  179
Total purchases, all types  248
Written off during year     18
Net increase, 1961  230
 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The net increase of 298 units last year plus those purchased during 1961 did
much to bring the concentration of fire portables to the point where an adequate
number of sets would be available in a favourable fire season.
Several Department of Transport specifications were issued during the year,
of which one vitally affects future Forest Service communications in the F.M. field.
Known as Specification 126, this new ruling confines modulation to one-third of
that now in use and places other stations much closer to our channels than heretofore. The net result will be the modification of all F.M. units in the Province over
the next three to five years.
Equipment innovations during the past twelve months include an F.M. portable containing a completely transistorized receiver and a marine high-power A.M.
unit of 150 watts almost completely transistorized while being nearly double the
power of approved marine sets used to date.
In the Prince Rupert District the fire situation in the Bella Coola Valley,
where communication was at a minimum, necessitated the emergency installation
of a complete F.M. network, which greatly improved fire-fighting facilities in that
area. The multiplicity of fires in the Interior during the summer showed up the
lack of portable units, and a considerable number of these were purchased and used
to good effect. The ever-present uncertainty of radio propagation between Prince
Rupert and outlying stations such as Bella Coola, Atlin, and Dease Lake was still
in evidence throughout the year, though to a lesser extent due to the decline in the
sunspot cycle. The introduction of the new transistorized 150-watt A.M. transmitters and the use of the new Forest Service frequency of 5262 kilocycles also
contributed to a general improvement.
No significant changes in communication occurred in the Prince George District, except that the severe demands of fires necessitated the purchase of additional
fire portables, both A.M. and F.M. On the large fires it was found necessary to
use the A.M. portables almost exclusively as the range of the F.M. units was insufficient. Electric generator-powered units were found to be necessary from fire to
district headquarters on the more distant fires. With the capacity of the entire radio
system extended beyond its limits by fire traffic, it was necessary to adapt the headquarters radio station to meet emergency conditions. In spite of efforts to this end,
a bottleneck was caused by the remoteness of the transmitter-site with respect to
the office, the single operator, and the concentration of all equipment in one room.
As a result of this experience, plans were laid to move the entire station into the
Government Building at the earliest date possible. During the year, Prince George
was connected directly to Victoria by F.M. via a new repeater at Dragon Mountain.
Tabor Mountain repeater was burned out but was quickly replaced in the new lookout building.
In the Kamloops District, Penticton was permanently brought into the F.M.
network by an additional repeater at Okanagan Camp-site, working into a remote
installation on Campbell Mountain. Lytton and Lillooet were again serviced by a
temporary repeater on Botanie Mountain, leaving only Princeton and Merritt still
on A.M. in this area. A survey was carried out from Missezula Mountain, and
preliminary tests indicated that this repeater-site will connect Princeton and perhaps
Merritt with Kamloops via the F.M. circuit. In the north, Alexis Creek was connected to Kamloops via a battery repeater at Alec Graham Lookout, working into
Timothy repeater. No means has so far been found to provide communication
from Kamloops to Clearwater and Blue River. Increased use was made of F.M.
fire-line portables and temporary repeaters, the majority of fires having been provided with communication by V.H.F.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 63
With several extensive sections of the Nelson District still on A.M., surveys
were made of the Slocan-Nakusp areas, Kaslo, Lardeau, and Fernie. No suitable
repeater-site was found for Slocan north to Nakusp, but a probable site was found
for a repeater covering Kaslo, with Lardeau being still out of range. It was determined that a repeater was impractical for Fernie, and plans were made to bury a
remote line up Morrissey Mountain, with all Fernie Ranger Station equipment to
be operated from the summit. This arrangement will provide communication between the lookouts and Fernie by F.M. for the first time. To the west, tests at
Greenwood showed the need for remote control of Greenwood equipment to a
chosen site on high ground nearby, permitting communication to Kettle Valley,
Nelson, and all lookouts in the area. In the field of A.M., the majority of obsolete
P.A.C. units was replaced by Specification 116-approved 25-watt units with good
results. Four-watt F.M. portables were tested under working conditions and were
found to have considerable superiority over standard 1-watt models. The Nelson
network functioned well throughout the year, with extra maintenance being supplied
by two Victoria technicians.
In the Vancouver District, the supply of fire portables was increased considerably, three motor-vessels were supplied with the new 150-watt transistorized marine
units, and three Ranger stations north of Seymour Narrows were equipped with
the same sets designed for A.C. operation. Propagation surveys were conducted
at Mission, Pitt and Stave Lakes, Hope, Pemberton, and at points between Campbell River and Port Hardy. Except at Pemberton, where no adequate repeater-site
could be found, plans have been laid to extend V.H.F. to Hope via a repeater at
Sumas Mountain, to points north-west of Campbell River by means of Newcastle
Mountain repeater, and to Pitt and Stave Lakes by remote control of Mission radio
station to the top of Silver Hill. The use of higher-power generator-operated sets
for communication between fire base camp and Ranger station continued with the
purchase of extra units during the fire season.
The large number of fires occurring simultaneously during the summer and
the essential use of district technicians on fires to organize the communications
caused a complete disruption of radio maintenance in several districts. Additional
maintenance was provided from Victoria throughout the summer, disrupting, in
turn, plans for a number of important V.H.F. propagation surveys. In spite of the
inevitable change of plans, a number of repeater-site tests were carried out by the
Victoria section, though it was necessary to spend less time on each area and to
work well on into September and October, when the information obtained was less
reliable. The experimental establishment, in 1960, of No. 2 F.M. circuit from Victoria through Kamloops to Prince George was made permanent in 1961 and has
been in operation for most of the year. This circuit received a great deal of use
but suffered from unreliability, being vulnerable in any one of five repeaters. It was
planned to place a stand-by unit at each site, tone-controlled from Victoria, but only
one repeater and the control mechanism were completed during the year. Laboratory work for the period included testing of new commercial types, assembly of
modular units into various finished sets to suit the intended use, and prototype
modification of standard equipment to meet the requirements of Specification 126
mentioned earlier in this report.
 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
The 1961 fire season was significant for the intensity of the cumulative drying,
or " build-up," through July and August over all but the Nelson Forest District, with
the most severe conditions developing over the northern part of the Interior plateau.
Frequent lightning-storms and strong gusty winds compounded the problems at
many locations throughout this region.
According to the April 1st Snow Survey Bulletin, high-level snow courses
indicated average or above snow-pack, except for the North Thompson drainage,
which was below normal. However, at lower levels a mild winter resulted in below
average snow cover and a relatively high snow-line.
April was normal in most respects, although the south Coast was deficient in
sunshine. Rainfall was generally deficient along the north Coast, except locally at
Prince Rupert, where 4 inches above normal was reported. As a result, Prince
Rupert Forest District experienced a number of pre-season fires late in the month.
The first two weeks of May were cloudy and cool, followed by one dry week
and one week of unsettled condition, resulting in near normal temperatures and
near normal or slightly deficient sunshine for the month. The rainfall pattern was
complex, with the northern Mainland Coast and Big Bend area receiving less than
50 per cent of normal, while parts of the south Coast and the north Central Interior
received more than 200 per cent of normal.
June rainfall was close to normal in the Prince George Forest District, but
rainfall was deficient elsewhere in the Province, particularly to the east of the Coast
Mountains. Scattered lightning-storms started a number of fires during the second
half of the month along the eastern edge of the Province. Sunshine was generally
close to normal in the northern forest districts and above normal in the south.
Strong winds associated with thunder-storm activity on the 18th and 19th of June
gave trouble in some districts.
Rainfall continued to be deficient in the Vancouver and Kamloops Forest
Districts through July, and the draught extended into the Prince Rupert and Prince
George Districts. Most of the rain that was recorded along the Coast and over the
southern districts fell in one storm on July 5th and 6th. The sunshine pattern was
reversed from June with near normal values in the south and above normal values
to the north. A severe lightning-storm about mid-month was responsible for close
to 200 fires, mostly in the Nelson Forest District. Further lightning-storms were
reported over the Province on eleven of the last sixteen days in the month.
Dry weather continued into August, except for a minor storm about mid-month
and another toward the end of the month. Exceptionally strong winds caused fires
to reach major proportions at Prince George on the 4th and 5th and in the Quesnel
Lake area on the 24th.
Lightning-storms occurred on ten days during August.
The prolonged " build-up " in many areas dried fuels to an unusual depth, and
this resulted in many fires continuing to burn strongly all night, which frequently
combined with night-time down-slope winds to produce abnormal fire behaviour.
Deciduous growth was reported in some sections of the Coast to be completely dried out and, in certain cases, killed.
September was sunny along the northern Coast and near normal elsewhere.
The rainfall pattern was irregular but generally above normal, although there were
extended dry periods, which permitted good slash burns in the Vancouver Forest
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 65
District.   The largest fires in the Kamloops District occurred in the Okanagan area
late this month and in early October.
A return to wetter conditions by mid-October made it possible to end the fire
season by Order in Council at midnight on October 16th.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
During the year, 3,102 fires were recorded, exclusive of railroad-tie fires.
This is a new record, exceeding by forty-four fires the former record year of 1958,
when 3,058 fires were reported, exclusive of the railway category.
A modification in the recording of fire statistics was introduced in 1961.
Those fires which occur on the actual graded area of railways, and do not require
control measures past the ends of the ties, are now classified as " railroad-tie fires."
They are entered separately under this heading in all forest-fire tables and are not
included in any other totals as they are classified generally as non-statistical fires.
This statistical revision alters the pattern of some protection tables. For example,
the former trend indicated that the greatest single cause of fires was from operating
railways, but elimination of railroad-tie fires from statistics now drops fires from
this cause down to fifth place.   (For further details see Table 45 in the Appendix.)
A further example of the effect of this amendment seeking a more realistic
picture is the change in fire occurrence by forest districts. The Vancouver Forest
District formerly led the Province with nearly 40 per cent of the total fires, but it
also had the lion's share of the railroad-tie fires. With these excluded, the Vancouver District is now in third place with less than 20 per cent of the total fires.
Fire Occurrence
during Ten-year Percentage
Forest District Period, 1952-61 of All B.C.
Vancouver1   3,556 19.3
Prince Rupert  1,228 6.7
Prince George  2,563 13.9
Kamloops   7,009 38.0
Nelson  '.  4,080 22.1
Totals   18,436 100.0
l Excludes 6,309 non-statistical railroad-tie fires.
Cost of Fire-fighting
This year's fire-fighting bill of $4,395,000 raises the average annual cost of
fire suppression from 1958 to 1961, inclusive, to $3,647,000. Three factors contribute directly to this high cost of fire-fighting:—
(1) There has been a succession of hot summers with low humidities and high
winds.
(2) The modern tendency to rely on mechanical aid from tractors, transport
tankers, aircraft, etc., to support the fire-fighting labour force has added
materially to the over-all cost of fire-fighting. Actually, fire-suppression
technique is gradually developing into a mechanical project, supported
and aided by man-power if and when necessary. This added cost can be
afforded if the damage to the forests can be reduced through a smaller
burned-over acreage.
 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(3) Fire costs increase through the normal day-to-day inflationary processes,
which keep adding a few cents periodically to the price of materials and
services.
(See Tables 37, 50, and 52a of the Appendix for further details.)
Damage
The one bright spot in the " damage " tables is the relatively light losses to
property other than forests as a result of forest fires. Normally this figure is composed of values placed on forest products cut or manufactured and logging-camp or
mill buildings and equipment destroyed by forest fires. While the losses in 1961 are
12 per cent higher than the average of the past ten years, they are encouragingly low
in spite of the intensity of the hazard and the acreage of burned-over forest land,
which this year, at 1,227,159 acres, is almost three times the ten-year average. Although other factors are involved, some recognition has to be given to increased
awareness and alertness of logging operators to the danger from fire. Even under
the very extreme conditions favourable to fire outbreak and spread, the loss to
property other than forests has been kept within a reasonable figure.
The same extreme weather which accounted for the large area of forest land
burned over resulted in a record net stumpage loss of $5,992,000 and an amount of
$12,821,000 as a figure for total damage to forest-cover. A normal fire season
usually produces a forest-floor condition of dryness in immature, semi-open, or open
timber stands, with a reasonable amount of moisture recovery or retention in the
dense mature types where fires could be held. But the drought winds of 1961
evaporated all moisture, even in the heavily timbered stands, and fires consequently
consumed mature-timber areas as readily as the timber stands of less immediate
market value.   (See Table 49, Parts I and II, of Appendix.)
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers
Fires are currently being plotted on the Provincial Fire Atlas and basic information entered in the fire statistics ledgers. The Provincial Fire Atlas has now been
combined with the Fire Classification Atlas, thereby reducing the plotting work
load and providing a more complete single reference medium. Within the next
year it is planned to catch up on the plotting backlog and be in the position to plot
and enter fire data concurrently as fire reports are received throughout the fire
season, and have all data available for reference by the end of each year.
A start was made this year in entering fire data on summary coding sheets for
mechanical tabulation carding. The summaries for the 1960 fires have been completed this year, and in this programme it is planned to both maintain these summaries concurrently as fire reports are received and to eventually summarize the
previous thirty years' files of available fire reports.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
A very limited three-week programme of field work was carried out during
September in the Kamloops and Prince George Forest Districts. Five points were
examined and visibility-mapped, and panoramic lookout photographs were taken
at four established lookouts.
 report of forest service, 1961 67
Fuel-moisture Sticks
Some 686 sets of fuel-moisture indicator sticks were manufactured in 1961,
with the forest industry absorbing 433 of this number. The use of the kiln and
laboratory facilities and the assistance provided at the Forest Products Laboratory,
Canada Department of Forestry, University of British Columbia, is gratefully
acknowledged.
Snag-falling Projects
As part of the fire-protection programme of reducing the snag hazard in areas
of immature forest and old burn in the Vancouver Forest District, six snag-falling
contracts were awarded in 1961, comprising a total area of 11,748 acres. In this
programme there has been an increasing trend in the acreage of snag-falling done
on a co-operative cost-sharing basis with logging companies, where both private
and Crown lands may be involved.
Fire-weather Records and Investigations
Fire-danger tables developed by the Forest Research Branch, Canada Department of Forestry, were distributed early in the season and tested in all five forest
districts. It has not yet been possible to analyse the effectiveness of the new rating
system, but preliminary indications are favourable, at least for the Coastal tables.
A position for a full-time forest assistant to work on fire weather was established early in the season. Through the co-operation of the Meteorological Branch
of the Canada Department of Transport, a short training period in meteorological
observing has been provided the incumbent.
During the year, work was completed by the Division's meteorologist as chairman of a working group on " Forecasting for Forest Fire Services," for the World
Meteorological Organization, and a draft report prepared for publication by that
organization.
Papers were presented at the Second Canadian Hydrology Symposium on
Evaporation in Toronto, at the Conference of Fire Weather Meteorologists in
Portland, and at the Fourth Forest Fire Research Conference in Nanaimo. Lectures on fire weather were provided at the Forest Service Ranger School and at the
University of British Columbia.
Investigations of the behaviour of local winds are continuing. A detailed study
of the paths taken by fresh maritime air around Vancouver Island has been completed for one particularly interesting situation. One week was spent near Prince
George on the " Grove " fire, obtaining first-hand information on wind effects on
a large fire, and a further week was spent in the field studying the meteorological
aspects of blow-down. Detailed wind summaries have been completed for lookout
fire-weather stations in the Vancouver Forest District.
An attempt was made this season to provide, on request, specialized fire-
weather forecasts for specific areas in the Vancouver Forest District in connection
with accidental fires and slash burns. The limited use that was made of this procedure during the past season was not sufficient to form any firm opinion of the
value of such a service.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
A record total of 335 fires was attended by sixteen suppression crews of ten
men each, located in hazardous areas throughout the Province. Even with the
hazard as critical as experienced this year, 73 per cent of the fires fought by these
crews were held to a size less than 1 acre. Only 7.5 per cent of the fires fought by
suppression crews exceeded 50 acres.
 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities, 1961
Size of Fire when Attacked
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
V4 Acre
or Less
Over Vi
Acre to
1 Acre
Overt
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
Spot (up to Vi acre)	
Over Vi acre and up to 1 acre	
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres	
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres..
Over 50 acres.. 	
Totals .
214
44
38
25
14
198
335
198
11
36
1
8
33
3
17
1
2
8
14
AIRCRAFT
The use of aircraft for protection and fire suppression continued to increase,
although the number of hours flown under the fixed-wing contracts declined slightly.
Pacific Western Airlines, Skyway Air Services, and Okanagan Helicopters all held
contracts for various types of aircraft. This year the Kamloops and Nelson Forest
Districts did not have a helicopter under contract as it was found that machines
were available locally when required.
Contract Flying, Fixed-wing Aircraft, 1961
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Vancouver..	
Vancouver	
Beaver _    __
320
335
956
Kamloops .__   	
Nelson   	
Beaver (2) 	
587
Nelson     	
Beaver 	
494
Total   -	
2,692
Contract Flying, Helicopters, 1961
Forest District
Base                                 Type of Helicopter
Hours Flown
Hitler 12-E	
80
Hiller 12-E 	
Hitler 12-E 	
101
Peace River and Prince
George
Nil
Nil      .	
783
Kamloops  ~ ...
Nil	
Nil	
Nil
Nil
Total
964
The severity of the fire season and the large number of lightning-caused fires
called for an expanded use of aircraft, particularly helicopters. A total of 4,170
hours was logged by helicopters on fire reconnaissance, transporting men and supplies, and for protection administration. The number of hours logged by bombers
dropped by 50 per cent, due mainly to aircraft not being available early in the
season. Very effective use was made of this fire-fighting aid when the machines
were available at the various centres.
An improved bentonite with the addition of a bright-coloured dye improved
the bombing accuracy of successive drops, and also made it possible to better assess
the effectiveness of the bombing. A new thickening agent called " Keflex " was
experimentally used and shows some promise.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
69
Aerial bombing is credited with holding many fires to a very small area. It is
also recognized that the bombing of forest fires is only effective in certain cases,
but when used properly it can be a very good additional tool in fire suppression.
The Husky aircraft was again used successfully in two forest districts where there
are numerous small lakes. The loss of the Martin Mars bomber and the entire
crew of four men was a severe blow to the logging industry on the Coast.
Use of Fixed-wing Aircraft in Fire-fighting, 1961
District
Reconnaissance
Transportation of
Men and Supplies
Water Bombing
Total
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Vancouver   _.	
197
175
510
885
58
$14,895
11,665
16,000
64,032
1,056
160
856
295
124
$13,309
59,567
25,563
9,300
50
484
360
134
39
$5,839
72,262
77,000
40,959
6,473
407
1,515
1,165
1,143
97
$34,043
143,494
118,563
114,291
Nelson  	
1961. 	
I960..	
7,529
Totals,
1,825    |$107,648
1,435
$107,739
1,067    [$202,533
4,327
$417,920
Totals,
729    1  $45,031
696
$53,861
2,126
$366,745
3,551
$465,637
Use of Helicopters in Fire-fighting, 1961
Forest District
Reconnaissance
Transportation of
Men and Supplies
Water Bombing
Total
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
113
24
225
240
53
$12,707
2,487
24,790
27,225
6,095
1,020
$111,952
3
1,133
404
609
737
323
$124,659
377
40.759
324
43,570
384    I    39,362
497         52,325
270    1    31,222
64,152
79,550
37,317
Totals, 1961	
655
214
$73,304
2,548    [$275,620
3
$324
3,206
$349,248
Totals, 1960	
$22,313
1,548    ($184,192
1,762
$206,505
	
ROADS AND TRAILS
Opening up old abandoned roads and the construction of new roads for forest-
protection purposes is continuing, with over 2,200 miles being constructed or maintained during the season. The number of miles of trail continues to show a decrease
as more trails are converted into four-wheel-drive roads.
Construction of Protection Roads and Trails, 1961
light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
48.2
989.6
Miles
120.6
643.8
Miles
111.6
302.6
Miles
280.4
1,936.0
1,037.8
764.4
414.2
2,216.4
9.0
281.2
25.5
103.0
23.7
78.5
58.2
462.7
Total trail construction and maintenance	
290.2
128.5
102.2
520.9
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
Voluntary closures of woods operations during July and compulsory closures
during August over most of the Vancouver Forest District somewhat disrupted slash-
 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
disposal schedules in logging plans. On many operations, logging could not be
completed in time to obtain effective abatement of hazard, resulting in a large carryover of slash with attendant increased fire potential in 1962. However, other
operators who were in a position to take advantage of the excellent slash-burning
conditions obtained satisfactory disposal and maintained their slash-disposal on a
current basis. Statistical data on slash-disposal and snag-falling in Vancouver
District will be found in Tables 39 to 43, inclusive, in the Appendix.
Once again, as shown in Appendix Table 43, the acreage abated by broadcast
burning exceeded that abated by spot burning. To some extent this trend is due
to burning for silvicultural purposes, preparing high-site areas for regeneration and
to delay the invasion of deciduous cover and other undesirable species. It is hoped
that this trend will continue in order to combat the increasing acreage of insufficiently
stocked high-site land.
The large damage figures shown in Appendix Table 43 can be largely attributed to two major slash-burn escapes which resulted from unforeseen high winds
in combination with logging methods wherein inadequate hazard abatement allowed
fire to funnel from one slash area to another, causing very rapid spread of fire and
preventing prompt and adequate counter-actions.
It is of interest to note, from the statistics on accidental fires in Vancouver
Forest District in 1961, that some eight major fires occurred on areas where un-
burned slash contributed considerably to rapid spreading and was a major factor
in delaying control of the fires. In each case, effective control measures could not
be taken until the areas of slash were consumed. These occurrences emphasize
the necessity of sustaining an adequate slash-disposal programme in the Vancouver
District.
In addition to the snag-falling done by the logging industry in Vancouver
District, Protection Division felled 8,058 acres under contracts (1,364 acres of
which were on a cost-sharing basis on private lands), and Reforestation Division
crews felled snags on 2,050 acres in Vancouver District.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
The total number of prosecutions under Part XI of the Forest Act was exactly
equal to the ten-year average of fifty-eight, but there is a change in the trend of the
type of violation. In an extremely heavy fire year such as 1961, when a large
number of fire-fighters are impressed from other industries, a proportionate increase
in the number of prosecutions for failing to render assistance in fire-fighting may be
expected. But one encouraging improvement is the decreasing number of prosecutions for failing to maintain proper fire-protection equipment. Details of prosecutions may be found in Table 53 in the Appendix.
FOREST CLOSURES
Of the twenty-two forest closures ordered to prevent fires starting in recreational areas, twenty-one were in the Nelson Forest District. The other order closed
the Sukunka and Red Willow Rivers, in the Peace River Block, during the last three
weeks in August.
General closures were effective mostly for short periods in six zones in the
Vancouver Forest District, while restricted industrial closures were necessary over
Eastern Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland periodically during August.
For the last three weeks in August, a restricted industrial closure was also in effect
in that part of the Prince George District west of the Rocky Mountains.
In all, thirty closures were imposed.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961
Forest Closures, 1961
71
Area
Forest District
Type of Closure
Effective
Date
Termination
Date
Zones 1,2, 7, 8,9, and 10-
Zona 1—Vancouver Island-
Zone 2—Vancouver Island-
Zones 7, 8,9, and 10—Mainland-
Prince George Forest District west of Rocky
Mountains	
Area No. 11—Tiger, Cambridge, Gorge, Ryan,
McAlister, and Casino Creeks.
Area No. 13—Blueberry, Poupore, Sullivan,
Johnson, Murphy, McNally, Hanna, and
Topping Creeks.
Area No. 16—St. Mary River-
Area No. 29—Boundary Creek-
Area No. 32—Ingram Creek-
Area No. 37—Conkle, Ed James, Johnstone,
and Jolly Creeks  	
Area No. 40—Big Sheep Creek-
Area No.  43—Ladybird  and Norns   (Pass)
Creeks  	
Area No. 50—Area between Westkettle and
Kettle Rivers north of Westbridge.
Area No. 60—Portion of Boundary Creek,
including Norwegian, McCarron, Porter,
Lind, Twin, Providence, Glenside, and Col-
tern Creeks   	
Sukunka and Red Willow Rivers	
Area No. 57—Main Kettle River	
Area No. 1—Sheep Creek 	
Area No. 2—Erie Creek.	
Area No. 6—Hidden Creek	
Area No. 7—Five Mile and Anderson Creeks-
Area No. 8—Porcupine Creek._	
Area No. 12—South Fork of Salmo River-
Area No. 17—Pend-d'Oreille River	
Area No. 20—Champion Lakes and Marsh,
Hudu, and Beavervale Creeks 	
Area No. 58—Smoky, Falls, Garrity, and
Smallwood (Bear) Creeks 	
Area No. 15—Crawford Creek.	
Zone No. 1—Vancouver Island-
Zones No. 6,7, 9, and 10—Mainland	
Zone No. 1—Vancouver Island 	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Prince George-
Nelson	
Nelson-
Nelson..
Nelson..
Nelson..
Nelson..
Nelson.
Nelson..
Nelson..
Nelson..
Prince George-
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson... _
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson..
Nelson..
Nelson..
Vancouver..
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Restricted industrial
General	
General	
General	
Restricted industrial
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational 	
Recreational	
Recreational 	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational 	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational..._ 	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational. 	
Recreational	
Restricted industrial
Restricted industrial
General	
August 3
August 9
August 9
August 9
August  9
August 10
August 10
August 10
August 10
August 10
August 10
August 10
August 10
August 10
August 10
August 11
August 11
August 14
August 14
August 14
August 14
August 14
August 14
August 14
August 14
August 14
August 24
August 17
August 23
August 29
August 9
August 17
August 31
August 17
August 28
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
August 31
 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
RANGER SCHOOL
The twelfth class, consisting of twenty-one men, commenced studies January
9, 1961. Soon after that date, however, one man was returned to his district for
reasons of health.   The present twenty-man class will graduate in April, 1962.
A proposal was put forward and is presently being considered which will
change the training procedure. This proposal makes provision for courses of six
different types—Indoctrination, Basic, Ranger, Special, Refresher, and Study or
Reading. If approved, a start will be made in September, 1962, commencing with
the Basic course.
Subjects covered during the year were as follows:—
First Term, Twelfth Class, Spring, 1961
Subject Days Allotted
Mathematics Review and Survey  14
Fire Law and Protection Procedure  14
Preliminary Fire Organization  10
Scaling  14
Business English  4
Forest Inventory Mapping  2
Examinations, visitors, and field-trips  7
Total days  65
Typing, 4 to 5 p.m., two days per week.
Second Term, Twelfth Class, Fall, 1961
Subject Days Allotted
Mensuration  13
Botany  8
Photogrammetry  3
Pathology  3
Entomology  3
Appraisals  5
Fire Suppression  15
Public Speaking  4
Fire Marshal  3
Vancouver Island trip  4
Examinations, visitors, and field-trips .  6
Total days  67
Typing, 4 to 5 p.m., two days per week.
EXTRA COURSES
A five-day course for lookoutmen followed the spring term. Seven men completed the course and were appointed to stations in the Vancouver Forest District.
School facilities were used for two weeks in April by the Department of Recreation and Conservation for an in-service training course. Average attendance was
thirty-six. The School also catered to a silviculture meeting and a Chief Clerks'
meeting in May.
The instructional staff participated in courses and lectures to various groups.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 73
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to speakers and lecturers provided by the following
agencies: Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch, Canada Department of Forestry; Office of the Fire Marshal; R.C.M.P. Cloverdale Detachment; Magistrate
J. Hunter of Cloverdale; Municipal Prosecutor, Cloverdale; Air Division of the
Department of Lands and Forests; Civil Service Commission; Forest Products
Laboratory, Canada Department of Forestry; McMillan, Bloedel and Powell River
Limited; British Columbia Forest Products Limited; British Columbia Lumber
Manufacturers Association; as well as lecturers from other divisions and districts
of the Forest Service.
British Columbia Forest Products Limited, through many courtesies extended
by Mr. G. Burch, has again been most helpful to the School programme, and we
accordingly express special appreciation for this co-operation.
 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERSONNEL
GENERAL
This was a good year for work production in the Forest Service. With no
major organizational changes nor shifts of senior personnel, the staff was able to
concentrate on the work at hand and give attention to changing needs. Staff turnover was down slightly, and applications for employment were the highest on record.
Apart from the usual functions of personnel administration, the division carried
out three major projects during the year. These involved a complete review of
holiday-leave records and entitlement of all staff following the 1960 changes in the
regulations; the promotion of a Service-wide safety and accident-prevention programme and committee organization; and a major review of sub-professional field-
staff classifications with a view to standardizing the qualification and training
requirements and providing broader career possibilities under a single series of
classifications for technical fieldmen.
In the matter of employee relations, only five grievances or formal complaints
were received from the various employee associations and, after investigation and
negotiation, one was still being actively pursued at the end of the year. Three factors had an adverse influence on morale during the year. Implementation of last
year's increased holiday-leave provisions required bringing all staff to an equal,
current footing for the future, which disrupted 1961 holidays for a large number
of field staff. The Forest Service news-letter, which had been restricted for the
past few years to a single Christmas edition, was finally abandoned, and the popular
Forest Service calendar was cancelled.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
A District Foresters' meeting, the first since 1957, was held in Victoria in
January. Ranger meetings were held in the Vancouver and Kamloops Districts in the
fall. Policy and training matters were discussed at separate Silviculture and Engineering Services Division meetings and, just prior to the field season, Surveys and
Inventory Division held a full-scale safety meeting, with good results evidenced by
a markedly reduced frequency and severity of accidents during the year. Numerous
Forest Service officers besides the Personnel Officers took part in vocation-day
programmes sponsored by various high schools throughout the Province. At least
two requests to address students on safety and accident prevention in the woods
were received.
In the field of training, four men—an engineer, a forester, the personnel
assistant, and a principal clerk—were selected for the sixth class of the Executive
Development Training Plan, sponsored by the Government through the University
of British Columbia. The Director of Public Information, the Superintendent of
Construction, and a Chief Clerk graduated with the third class. Arrangements were
made for limited attendance at other training sessions, such as a motor-vehicle
maintenance course and the British Columbia Safety Council Provincial Safety
Conference. Several employees enrolled in civil defence courses, including a number of advanced training courses involving substantial periods of leave of absence.
The Civil Service Commission held one interdepartmental Personnel Officers' meeting. Various in-service training programmes were continued, such as Lookout and
Assistant Ranger schools, first-aid schools, and field training courses organized by
the districts and divisions concerned. Most noteworthy was the establishment of
a formal two-year training programme for engineers-in-training, involving job rota-
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 75
tion and a series of assignments. One candidate was selected from the graduating
class at the University of British Columbia for this training course. Engineering
Services Division also organized a study course for Hungarian forestry graduates
employed in Engineering to complete their qualifications for membership in the
British Columbia Association of Professional Engineers. A number of Ranger
School graduates are pursuing directed private studies to qualify for registration in
the Association of British Columbia Foresters.
Following a resolution at the District Foresters' meeting, a major study was
undertaken and report prepared by the officers of the Ranger School outlining a
proposed complete training programme for technical fieldmen.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment for the Forest Service at the end
of the 1960/61 fiscal year was 844 positions, and a similar number was approved
for the fiscal year commencing April 1, 1961. Subsequently, this establishment
was increased by Order in Council by the addition of one forester for co-ordinating
scaling practices throughout the Province and later by one scaler for the Nelson
Forest District and a forest assistant to supervise silviculture crews in the Kamloops
District. The electronic computer " programmer " was transferred with his position
from Surveys and Inventory Division to the Mechanical Tabulation Section of the
Finance Department, bringing the total permanent Forest Service establishment to
846 positions. The trend of recent years to stabilize the work force on a year-
round basis continued, with some twenty additional men being kept on a continuous
basis and a decrease of some thirty-five seasonally employed staff. The major
increase in field staff occurred in the Engineering Services Division with an expanded
Federal-Provincial forest road programme. The major decrease was in the Reforestation Division, which, through close co-operation with the districts in the use
of their trained field crews and the latest methods of refrigeration of seedlings, was
able to carry out its cone-collecting and planting programme with 40 per cent less
casual unskilled labour.
During 1961 eighty-two persons received Civil Service appointments and
seventy-four left the permanent service. Seven 25-year service badges were earned.
There were eight retirements during the year. Forty-eight transfers of permanent
staff took place. Eight graduate foresters and one engineer left the Service, and
sixteen foresters and five engineers were hired. All foresters were graduates from
the University of British Columbia, but five were employed at a sub-professional
level.
Turnover of Civil Service appointed staff, including permanent and full-time
casual staff, averaged 11.9 per cent, down slightly from the previous year. Prince
Rupert District again suffered the greatest disruption, with an over-all average of
24.1 per cent and an office staff turnover of 46.8 per cent. Kamloops District was
the lowest, with 13.9 per cent office staff turnover and 7.6 per cent turnover of total
staff. Professional staff turnover at 5 per cent is down from last year, while technical staff turnover continued its upward trend, rising from 4.8 per cent in 1960 to
5.3 per cent. Total office staff turnover was down further from its 1959 peak, but
still remained high at 23.1 per cent. The percentage of female employees remained
much the same as last year, at 59.1 per cent, with this group comprising more than
80 per cent of the office staff turnover. All groups showed an increase in the
number of persons who stated their reason for leaving was for better salary, with
this being the principal reason in the technical and professional groups. There was
a 50-per-cent drop in persons leaving for illness or accident.  Three employees were
 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
lost in fatal accidents on the job. A timber cruiser and an Assistant Ranger were
drowned in separate accidents in the Vancouver District, and the Cruising Supervisor in Prince George District was drowned when a helicopter crashed into the
Fraser River. Two memberships in the Turtle Club and one Prudent Penguin
membership were granted to employees whose lives were saved by hard hats or a
life-jacket. In the matter of discipline amongst permanent staff, or during probationary periods, no releases by Order in Council were necessary, and action was
restricted to one disciplinary suspension for breach of safety regulations and the
withholding of two annual merit increases.
Over 700 written applications for employment, 16 per cent more than 1960
and the highest on record, were handled in the Personnel Office alone, apart from
many others handled through divisional and district offices. In addition to the usual
reclassification examinations, special written examinations were held for five promotional positions, and oral examinations at panel interviews were employed in
filling twelve other positions. The Personnel Officer and assistant also participated
in selections for 221 other Civil Service positions. At the annual spring examination
for Assistant Rangers, a record number of 351 candidates sat, of whom 159 passed.
Since there were only twenty vacancies for Assistant Rangers, this provided an excellent eligibility list for selection of candidates for subsequent vacancies.
CLASSIFICATIONS, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
The only substantial change in classifications during the year resulted from a
reassessment of Mechanical Superintendents' positions, resulting in an upgrading
of the District Mechanical Superintendents, the Engineering Services Division Superintendent, and the raising of the superintendent-in-charge position to a new category
of Equipment Superintendent, Forest Service. New grades were also created for
the Yard Foreman, Forest Service Marine Station, and Captain and Acting-Engineer,
Launch. Minor revisions were made in the specifications for various positions in
line with current practice.
Numerous individual position classification reviews were carried out. Of these,
fifty were submitted to the Civil Service Commission, of which forty-eight were
approved, one rejected, and one was undecided at the end of the year.
General salary rates remained steady throughout the year. Retroactive increases were approved, however, for the Assistant Radio Superintendent and
Assistant Superintendent of Construction as a result of earlier reviews and recommendations. Following the previous year's appeal in the matter of forest agrologists'
rates, the Civil Service Commission appointed a committee to study the matter and
subsequently approved an adjustment of forest agrologists' rates relative to other
agriculturists in the Government service. The Forest Service was also represented
on a Civil Service Commission committee appointed to review draughtsmen specifications throughout the Service.
There were no major changes in working conditions within the Service. An
amendment to the Civil Service Superannuation Act worked an unexpected hardship
on a number of long-service lookoutmen, which the Service was successful in having
alleviated just before the end of the season. Substantial individual adjustments in
holiday leave took place in order to place all staff on a current basis in keeping
with the 1960 revised holiday-leave regulations. This resulted in virtual elimination
of leave carry-over, which had grown to excessive proportions in recent years. The
Civil Service Commission put into effect a new system of obtaining quotations by
moving firms for transfers of personal effects, which greatly facilitated this aspect
of personnel transfers.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
77
The safety and accident-prevention programme gained momentum throughout
the Service with the appointment of a Safety Co-ordinating Committee under the
Assistant Chief Forester, Operations Branch, and the systematic coding and review
of all cases. Safety appeared on the agenda of all major meetings and training sessions throughout the Service, and emphasis was placed on local investigations of
accidents and responsibility for prevention. The accident-frequency rate (cases
involving over three days' time-loss per million man-hours) excluding fire-fighters
was 26.1, and including fire-fighters was 38.2, for the Forest Service in 1961.
 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ACCOUNTING
FISCAL
The financial return from Forest Service business during 1961 did not equal
the high level recorded in 1960, although it was a better year than either 1958 or
1959. Major contributing factors appeared to be continuing low average market
prices for forest products and the adverse effect of another severe fire season.
Reflecting the drop of 2.8 per cent in the total volume of timber scaled from
the record volume scaled in 1960 (see Table 6 to 9 in Appendix), the total of
charges against logging operations declined by 12.2 per cent to $28,820,442 (see
Table 31 in Appendix), the decline being common to all forest districts.
Direct Forest Service revenue collected during the calendar year totalled
$28,930,072 (see Table 30 in Appendix), which was 5.2 per cent less than the
1960 total, but both the total of charges against logging operations and the total
of direct revenue were higher than the respective totals for 1958 and 1959. Timber-
sale stumpage, which accounts for almost 85 per cent of the direct-revenue total,
dropped 6.9 per cent from 1960 to $24,554,147, but the related items of timber-
sale rentals and fees and timber-sale cruising and advertising registered substantial
increases, totalling $480,803 and $377,755 respectively. The increase in cruising
charges collected can be attributed to an upward revision of rates to ensure full
recovery of the cost involved. Timber royalty held practically all the gain recorded
in 1960, declining only 1.5 per cent to $2,245,313. The rentals and fees collected
on timber licences, berths, and leases remained fairly static, as expected, as these
tenures are no longer being issued, and the apparent decrease in lease rental and
fees was largely offset by an increase in 1960 due to advance payment in some
cases. Grazing permits and fees gained 18 per cent, totalling $119,876. Collections of forest-protection tax increased by almost 25 per cent to $569,749, mostly
due to payment of late billings and arrears of the tax on Crown-granted areas.
There was also an increase in the acreage under timber sales subject to payment of
this tax. Miscellaneous revenue collected increased to $134,826, or 11 per cent
higher than 1960.
ADMINISTRATION
Although the decline in revenue was not severe, collection problems continued
to be complicated by operators' financing and marketing difficulties, and close surveillance of accounts was necessary to ensure payment.
A three-day collection and accounting meeting was held at the Ranger School
on May 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, when all phases of these problems received full discussion. The meeting was attended by district Administrative Assistants and Chief
Clerks and headquarters accounting officials, with visits from the Chief Forester,
Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations, and Forest Counsel.
Effective March 31st, the Chief Accountant retired, and was succeeded,
through normal competition, by the Assistant Accountant. The latter position was
discontinued as such, the new incumbent being appointed as Clerk i/c Revenue
Accounting Section, with all section heads reporting directly to the Chief Accountant. The volume of accounting work remained high with the added effect of the
heavy fire season, and the headquarters accounts office was handicapped by shortage
of staff due to delays in replacement appointments. At the year's end the staff was
still not up to full strength.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961 79
District inspection trips by headquarters accounting officials were curtailed
somewhat by the staff shortage, but mill-record checks by investigators of the
Comptroller's office continued on a normal basis.
Effective October 16th, headquarters accounts office assumed responsibility
from the Department of Finance for the safe-keeping and control of " Receipt and
Agreement" documents furnished by operators and their banks in respect of bonds
submitted in lieu of cash as deposits on timber sales.
Log-salvage permits in force totalled 273, which was four less than in 1960.
 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1962
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
R. G. McKee -       -       -       - Deputy Minister of Forests
F. S. McKinnon -       - - .     -      Chief Forester
L. F. Swannell Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations Branch
J. S. Stokes Assistant Chief Forester i/c Planning Branch
Staff Division Heads:
Cooper, C. Forest Counsel
Hicks, W. V. -       -       Departmental Comptroller
Park, S. E.   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -   Director, Public Information
Williams, W. J. -       -       -     Personnel Officer
Operations Branch Division Heads:
Forse, H. B. Forester i/c Protection Division
Greggor, R. D.     -        -        -        -        -        - Forester i/c Engineering Services Division
Hughes, W. G. -       -    Forester i/c Management Division
Pendray, W. C. -       -       -       Director, Grazing Division
Robinson, E. W. Forester i/c Forest Ranger School
Planning Branch Division Heads:
Pogue, H. M. -       - Forester i/c Working Plans Division
Young, W. E. L. Forester i/c Surveys and Inventory Division
Silburn, G. -       - Forester i/c Reforestation Division
Spilsbury, R. H.   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       - Forester i/c Research Division
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver District
I. T. Cameron      _.....----- District Forester
Boulton, L. B. B. Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Carr, W. S. (Chilliwack); McDaniel, R. W. (Hope); Wilson, R. (Harrison Lake); Webster,
J. B. (Mission); Mudge, M. H. (Port Moody); Henderson, J. E. (Squamish); Chamberlin,
L. D. (Sechelt); Thomas, R. W. (Madeira Park); Hollinshead, S. B. (Powell River); Nor-
birg, H. (Lund); Gill, D. E. (Thurston Bay East); Donnelly, R. W. (Thurston Bay West);
Bertram, G. D. (Chatham Channel); Brash, W. E. (Echo Bay); Howard, W. (Alert
Bay); Sykes, S. J. (Port Hardy); Ormond, L. D. D. (Campbell River); Antonelli, M. W.
(Courtenay); Glassford, R. J. (Parksville); Haley, K. (Nanaimo); McKinnon, C. G. (Duncan); Lorentsen, L. H. (Ganges); Jones, R. W. (Langford); Morley, K. A. (Lake Cowichan); Brooks, F. T. (Alberni); McArthur, E. J. (Tofino); Carradice, J. H. (Pemberton).
Prince Rupert District
J. R. Johnston District Forester
Lehrle, L. W. W.       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Brooks, T. (Ocean Falls); Gorley, O. (Queen Charlotte City); Brooks, R. L. (Prince
Rupert); Lindstrom, W. C. (Terrace); Antonenko, J. (Kitwanga); Petty, A. P. (Hazelton);
Mould, J. (Smithers); Clay, W. D. (Telkwa); Berard, R. K. (Houston); Kullander, M. O.
(Pendleton Bay); Mastin, T. J. (Burns Lake); Hawkins, R. M. (Bella Coola); Pement, A.
T. (Southbank); Hamilton, H. D. (Atlin District); Crosby, D. N. (Topley).
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
81
Prince George District
A. H. Dixon -
Bennett, C. E.
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
French, C. L. (McBride); Rohn, C. (Penny); Meents, G. E. (Prince George); Magee, K.
W. (Prince George); Northrup, K. A. (Fort St. James); Mitchell, B. A. (Quesnel); Barbour, H. T. (Dawson Creek); Keefe, R. R. (Aleza Lake); Graham, G. W. (Vanderhoof);
Cosens, A. S. (Fort St. John); Baker, F. M. (Fort Fraser); Waller, T. G. (Summit Lake);
Thornton, S. H. (Quesnel); Flynn, D. M. (Prince George); Hamblin, R. A. (Hixon);
Pearce, F. (Quesnel); Angly, R. B. (Quesnel); McQueen, L. (Chetwynd).
Kamloops District
W. C. Phillips
McRae, N. A.
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Hopkins, H. V. (Lumby); Williams, R. V. (Birch Island); Bailey, J. D. (Barriere); Hill,
A. F. (Kamloops (S.)); Paquette, O. (Chase); Gibson, C. L. (Salmon Arm); Jones, G. G.
(Sicamous); Cameron, A. G. (Lillooet); Kuly, A. (Vernon); Scotte, E. L. (Penticton);
Dearing, J. H. (Princeton); Robertson, C. E. (Clinton); Hamilton, T. J. (Williams Lake);
Monteith, M. E. (Alexis Creek); Hewlett, H. C. (Kelowna); Noble, J. O. (Ashcroft);
DeWitt, D. O. (Merritt); Bodman, G. F. (Blue River); Collins, B. G. (Enderby); Janning,
H. A. W. (100 Mile (N.)); Weinard, J. P. (Kamloops (N.)); Wittner, D. J. (Horsefly);
Ashton, L. (100 Mile (S.)).
Nelson District
P. Young
Bruce, J. B.
District Forester
Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Taft, L. G. (Invermere); Humphrey, J. L. (Fernie); Anderson, S. E. (Golden); Gierl, J. B.
(Cranbrook (E.)); Ross, A. I. (Creston); Stilwell, L. E. (Kaslo); Benwell, W. G.
(Lardeau); Robinson, R. E. (Nelson); Jupp, C. C. (New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Nakusp);
Wood, H. R. (Castlegar); Reid, E. W. (Grand Forks); Uphill, W. T. (Kettle Valley); Cartwright, G. M. (Canal Flats); Allin, G. G. (Arrowhead); Haggart, W. D. (Edgewood);
Hesketh, F. G. (Elko); Reaney, R. J. (Spillimacheen); Bailey, J. F. (Cranbrook (W.));
Ivens, J. H. (Beaverdell); Webster, G. R. (Slocan City); Jackson, R. C. (Revelstoke).
  APPENDIX
  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961 85
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
General
Table No. Page
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1961  88
Reforestation
2. Summary of Planting, 1952-61  89
Forest Management
3. Estimated Value of Production, Including Loading and Freight within the
Province, 1952-61._  90
4. Paper Production (in Tons), 1952-61  90
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.), 1952-61  91
6. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the Years
1960 and 1961:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  92
7. Species Cut, All Products, 1961:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  93
8. Total Scale, All Products, 1961 (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts):  (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  94
9. Timber Scaled by Months and Forest Districts, 1961  95
10. Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty and
Stumpage, 1952-61, in Thousand Cubic Feet  96
11. Number of Acres Operating under Approved Annual Allowable Cuts,
1952-61  97
12. Total Scale of All Products from Areas Operated under Approved Annual
Allowable Cuts, 1952-61  98
13. Logging Inspections, 1961  99
14. Trespasses, 1961  100
15. Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
Land Act, 1961  101
16. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1961  101
17. Timber-sale Record, 1961  101
18. Competition for Timber Sales Awarded, 1961  102
19. Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1961  103
20. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-
timber Sold on Timber Sales in 1961, per C C.F. Log-scale  104
21. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Saw-timber on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits Issued in 1961  105
22. Timber Cut from Timber Sales, 1961  106
23. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1961  107
24. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1961  107
25. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.,
1961  108
26. Summary of Exports of Minor Products, 1961  108
27. Timber Marks Issued, 1952-61  109
 86 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Finance
Table No. Page
28. Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest-protection Tax as Compiled
from Taxation Records, 1952-61  109
29. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  110
30. Forest Revenue  110
31. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1961  111
32. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1960/61  112
33. Forest Revenue:   (A) Fiscal Year 1960/61, (B) Fiscal Years 1951/52 to
1960/61  113
34. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1960/61  114
35. Scaling Fund  114
36. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  114
Forest Protection
37. Forest-protection Expenditure by the Forest Service for Fiscal Year
1960/61  115
38. Reported   Approximate  Expenditure   in  Forest  Protection  by  Other
Agencies, 1961  116
39. Summary of Snag-falling, 1961, Vancouver Forest District  116
40. Summary of Logging Slash Reported, 1961, Vancouver Forest District  116
41. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required,  1961, Vancouver Forest
District  117
42. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1961, Vancouver Forest District— 117
43. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs,  1961, Vancouver Forest
District  118
44. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1961  118
44a. Fire Occurrence by Months for Last Ten Years, Amending Fire Statistics, 1952-61  119
45. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1961  119
46. Number and Percentage of Forest Fires by Causes for Last Ten Years,
Amending Fire Statistics, 1952-61  120
46a. Number and Percentage of Forest Fires by Forest Districts for Last Ten
Years, Amending Fire Statistics, 1952-61  121
47. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1961  122
47a. Fires Classified by Size and Damage for Last Ten Years, Amending Fire
Statistics, 1952-61  123
48. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1961  124
49. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1961—Parts I and II
 124,125
50. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1961 126
51. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  127
52a. Fires Classified by Forest District and Cost per Fire of Fire-fighting, 1961 128
52b. Fire-fighting Cost per Fire for Last Ten Years, Amending Fire Statistics,
1952-61  129
53. Prosecutions, 1961  130
Ranger School
54. Enrolment at Ranger School, 1961  131
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
Public Information and Education
Table No.
55. Motion-picture Library, 1952-61	
56. Summary of Coverage by School Lecturers, 1952—61	
87
Page
  132
  133
57. Forest Service Library, 1952-61    134
Grazing
58. Grazing Permits Issued	
59. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected.
134
134
Working Plans
60. Summary of Basic Data for Public Sustained-yield Units (Crown Land
Only), Comparing Commitment vs. Cut for Years 1959, 1960, and 1961,
and Commitments to December 31, 1961  135
Tree-farm Licences Awarded  138
Farm Wood-lot Licences to December 31, 1961  140
61
62
63
Tree-farms (Excluding Those in Tree-farm Licences) to December 31,
1961	
140
 88
(1)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1961
Personnel
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant
Chief Foresters.	
Division Foresters	
Directors of Grazing and Public Information..
Forest Counsel and Personnel Officers 	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters	
Foresters and Foresters-in-training	
Agrologists and Agrologists-in-training..
Engineers and Engineers-in-training	
Forest Protection Officers.	
Supervisors of Rangers	
Rangers—Grades 1 and 2..
Superintendent of Scaling and Assistants.	
Scalers, Official— 	
Scalers, Official, temporary	
Comptroller, Accountant, and Audit Assistants-
Engineering, Mechanical and Radio..
Technical Forest and Public Information Assistants	
Reforestation, Research, and Survey Assistants
Nursery Superintendents	
Draughtsmen and Mapping Assistants..
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers	
Superintendent and Foremen,  Forest Service
Marine Station	
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians..
Launch Crewmen	
Assistant and Acting Rangers..
Dispatchers..
Cruisers, Compassmen, and Silviculture Crewmen  —~
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators..
Foremen 	
Miscellaneous	
Totals, continuous personnel..
Seasonally Employed
Assistant and Acting Rangers	
Patrolmen 	
Lookoutmen    	
Dispatchers, Radio Operators, and Clerks...
Fire-suppression Crewmen..
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc	
Cruisers and Compassmen	
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators	
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineering Aides 	
Silvicultural Crewmen	
Foremen 	
Miscellaneous  	
Totals, seasonal personnel  _	
Totals, all personnel 	
2
12
3
3
35
11
79
38
6
102
18
33
19
28
4
1
1
405
37
12
66
4
23
567
2
2
16
2
1
1
4
29
6
31
9
33
1
1
2
162
1
1
22
3
2
12
1
1
3
26
3
4
14
5
31
29
11
61
1
2
2
210
8
4
27
3
1
14
1
26
47
73
209
283
2
14
5
1
3
29
3
__
~~4
15
5
29
51
19
60
~1
242
3
34
5
60
~~4
6
118
360
	
8
2
—
3
2
10
94
1
1
29
2
3
3
29
2
	
1
7
4
10
4
22
45
11
24
2
174
1
9
41
10
41
288
75
12
62 !
4
29
114
6
47
4
33
28
573
2
3
10
151
8
29
12
14
135
21
81
40
7
94
65
62
4
53
327
6
49
28
189
69
206
16
37
36
1,766
1 I
160
1
73
153
5
132
525
1,098
27
17
161
34
167
160
6
96
153
3
11
204
1,039
2,805
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
89
I,
g
z
<
o-
O
qoqqooqqqqo
O
lOv^mOCOOOO©   vi   m
<n
ta
Ttvdod©"—iTtvcr-od©rs
vd
i>mr-r*-cSoor^Ttr-.ooft
ftr^Ttmcsr^vDminTto
mc-Tj-oortvi'^-i-'mmrH
*    O
0
sK>y->*Oy—enmasocensoso
oc
S    rH
oo
eSrHoovo_o\eninesr-r->»-^
©
»    ft
vO
<
b\ co" vo" **" r-^ m" ©" ci vo r>" as
00
ri          rH                                   y-<                             C-     W~l
o"
,-,    ,-,    ,_(   ,_<                           ,_   ,_,                          ON
rs
es
cs
es
•a
ta
.al
nriffjxqw^hWOm
Tf
ooesvoftrHt^tnOvomr*   'tt   oo
rH
ri 6 Tt f> m 6 ^ h h ft iri
ci
esvoftftt^cnOooftftm
rHOOVOVOftr^rHOveSCJsOO
S     Tt
vi
Sis
r^,'3,Ttm,fl't—eSTtftr-©
H\Ot«m,tOOlHWOH
V,
n   oo
oo
es
vomoomeSmcovocnrH        c^°X
r-
K o
r-" vo t> K cn ri \o as *n vo rf
00
|
^■" 00
t>
qqqoqqoqqqrn
CJ
o
;oqqqqqqqq q en
©
1
en' cd ** ON *t © vi ©' r- © ■—<
OtflHMxnmofiirir-
r- m ft •-<      r-t rn es      cn ft
,-h"
rn'
iTtoom'vdft'Ttr^TtrH   r-^   oo
Tt
ft
lHrt:rtlr)r*iHrl                  ITt    Tf
©
U
00
rH                                               CS    rH
r»
rt
<
es                                            *-T
vo"
C-
ci
'f-c
Ph
tS
.sf
atHin^ONCCf^rlr-fth
cn
«n
cSTtOvr>csrncnrHoo   Tt   r-;
en
o
TtrHoociinoovdONft'rnTt
ooenOsZDSOt~~Tty-iTtC>in
vi
O
dcs©ft*r>eS©"cnrH  od  e*i
vi
ss
en
rHrHCOmrHrlrH                     OOCS
00
O ^cnrH                «-«fS         CS Tj
ft.
h  h g
Kg
rH                                                                  ri
CO
Tf   rH*
Hfi
6
oqqqqoqqoqvo
vc
qcqqqqqqqq    iqvo
q
1
nn o«JONm»crimOoo
ffl
C^VDTtr-lrrift'cS^r^cS         d   m
rt
OvO'J'PicAa.tNNin^r*
>n
Nrt-HxaooHOt         loom
cs
"2
s
m
SO Tt y-4 *-*         r-rHrn                    ]    O0    Tt
ft
<
Tt \n y-t *— tr- n^ mes M'-1
00
-    ©
Tt
oc
ft
§§
ta
.si
escSrHTtTtftTtooftvqq
*i
rnooftCSVDr-qqqq    jOsoq
«rt
Ttd^vi^vdcnciviqpvo
aNrHrHinr-©ooeNftcn©
i-H *-* vo ft OX ""fr v»_ *-* © vo^ ft
oc
rn* r^rHest^vivdoivies    ir^vd
Tt000000TtOt>00tn             iTt^"
vi
D.
i
o
8»
ft
m
m
CS  rH                           ri                                        !     ft     V)
Tt
Kg
vi" vi" tf ^t es" ^h rs" ri cf <h r>"
©~
ri
in
Hfi
Tf
Tt
© © © ©
9 9 9
O
o
,
I
i 9
©
ifl
oo ft ci od
© © vi
©
es'
j
j
j ci
CO
s*^
U
© as en es
Tt
r-
•  £
©
n S
in cs cj\ rn
i— V) oo
Tf
: *±
m
U h
<
»-i cicici
CS rH
^f
1  t
a o.-.
oli,r)
? co
M rt 0>
.9?
en C; Cj Tl-
in cS in
Orrio
vi
es
3
i    i
!
!   es
1 3
en
en
— ■o
* JS
vd vo r— on
rH  ft  Tt
ft  ©  VO
s
VD
l!
ss
in es vi oo
ft
;      j
;   °i
m
,n O
ft
j   ft"
O ci
he
1
pppc^pppp © © «-<
rH
mo«n>nq©qqoqq *
T    VO
*Cl
£
o
OCoeSviooi-'vivifnOri
<£
Ttt^o\oo*vo'm\dvdi>cioo  t
^   vo"
1
a
r--Hooi-i'*rtcivcoNr-t-
r*mTro\'vr--^-'-'oooor-i
S2
r^«n^->n>~iO\m»-<oo-rtO    c
r-nn vccsrsmocsfT-   v
O     VI
5
*—
d  oo
8|
<
—             rn cn r- (S Tt Tt
00
o
rn                              rr                         U
■s  m
*
h
"
3 o
Uh
O h io in f. ft vo m in in rl
O
0^vnrnvqft_rnr>fncSfti   r
H     rH
©
Ot^vdr^inTtTtvpvivDft*
mminoo©oooo©©mm
Tt
wodr^vicocor^vpTtTtrn"   v
r-ftr-r~vo<S'-'ftooo\oo   c
5    ©'
r-
n   r-
©
§1
mhx wnftHhTj-Mh
C-
mrHr-^r-icSClVClcSrH             U
1   en
r>
ri vi ci Tt "
CrT
r
i" m"
Hfi
r~
cc
ft
u
rt
o
>
1
"a
0
i
;
I
!'1
i
1
CA
§   6
J 1
1   0
S
o-  0
>, H
Sjji   pH     io     nj
c
ft
oc
t-
vC
V
Tt
m
cs
3
.2
*>                               r-
ft
OC
r-
VC
V)
Tt
en
es
O             ^3   ^
VC
no un m in in
m
VI
V)
m
<U                               VD  VD  VI
vi m v-
mmm
m  <u         —i   —
ft
a
o
ft
ft
OS
as
OS
ft
ft
Ph
ft
ft
OS
Os
Os
o-
as
OS
ft
ft
Ph
<
<
 90
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
H
X
O
H
ft<
b
Q
Z
<
0
Z
5
<
o
o
z
M
py?
OS
ZCA
z «
oo
r1 Z
u>
Q *
3^
wig
fei:
wz
g£
o
w
p
Q
W
|
i
ilf
3 >ft
Ifl VO © TT
cn es^c-^es
ciriin"©
Hinf*oo
rH 00 lO VI
tivo^r^ri
© oo vo es
fn rH
q © rn ft cn rs
Tt en m eo es t*
rH OrtO't Cb
ciTt cn vo"cn ft
t-h r> ft co cS vo
Tt rtrl        Tt o
cn" rico"     ri ci
ft 00 ft vo
inmhM
en cs
so ft r-^vo
© cTvioo     ci
CO Tt  t> rH rH
CO cs
S ft © ft m
es © vo *n
ft «n vi c- cs
to ^ vi ft ri
CS cn  C- rH rH
CO cs
en Vi o
tt oo es
© ft *rt
ONTt Tt
es vo r-
ea Os Tf
oo vO cn
oo es Tt
ft rH CO
© OO CS
es in Tt
co cs co
as  co
C-    rH
m  co
vo co
CS  IrH
rH    CN
© es © © ^h
ft ft ©  cn rH
HO\Or> co
Tt es ©* co* oo
VO © © 0O rH
cl ovqv "n
oovo'aoON oo*
T^ ve vo cs
Tt m co ©
es Tt © oo
r^q^in Tt
vi in" en*
VI 00  rH
co O*
ri«"j*
a 2
r> r^ vo vo
© qco r-^
rVoooo vi
00 VO rH CO
m ft ft
Tf" VI
o ft r- vo
oo m r- ft
ft rH r> CS
fie
a «a
ill
C   S;  0
«     S     Q>
*5
•a +■
« 0 rj
8   « Q
17
i-
i
r
expor
otals.
Ill
w  -M   *H
aa-sa H
G ft «
r
o V
8 ,o r* .5'S.« 5 3 I
IJJ.I
a  3
2     E
w ^
C/J
z
8
■3
■B
111
•SgS?
98*
» 2 S3
? I s
TJCO
o s £
o u
spa B
ta *«  O.
3  0  rt
C3   rt    I
I» 8
s „ a
> -o S
•a 9.9
rt  "TJ
S g "o a 3
3  O   3  w w
Ills I
11,a 81
S3 ito n S
■O^  „  "13
3 ° 3 n2
1 s S11
S2a§S
O
D.
H
ta
U
a
P
%
Q
43
O
35
ft.
i
05"
>
UJ
fti
U
<
ta
Oh
a
&
lit
a, >0\
co r>
00 rn
In c
Tf m
VO rH
VO
ft
00 oo
CO Vi
©;WO
II
©
SO
ft
r^ ft
CO  rH
9.rl
riod
©  OO
ft  rH
ft
in
OS
in ft
m r*
CO t
ri Tt"
en rn
OO  CS
CO
m
ft
CO vo
Tt  O
C^Tt
CO O
©o
VO CS
<n
ft
© cs
m r~
OO OO
cn" r-"
co m
in y-*
vo
OH
r» ft
rH ft
C-;CS
ft  rH
»n rH
ON
CO ©
ft  CO
ft oo
©   l-i
VO cs
"O rH
Tt
ft
VO rH
«n vo
VOTt
vo ©
CO rH
fcO rH
CO
m
ft
o oo
riVO
©ON
vo
rs
>n
ft
cn r*
CO t-
co r»
oo ri
CN ft
Tt
s
s
•o
o
It
Ph
c
c
2
U
4,
s
f
C
-
rn VD
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
91
s
z
a
Q
<
05
H
ci
W
ca
2
P
w
z
25
o
05
ck
Hi
H
<
in flr_1
© cn t-
e'
r- r-
O vC
Tf a-
©   Tf  VC
ft a
c
cc
ft
m Tf
VC  CN
oc
m oo
OC
Sgr?
ft in rs ft r^ Tt
\0 r~ rn ft in —
ft es © cn es *c ©
Ttmr-'vs»-Hftr~TtTtTtvovo—■©
t—
ft CO 00        — c
r-minvocoftcncnciooinvo©in
o
^2cn
m  CO          Tt  OS  r-
r-T           oo in
csvorscnftr-iasesoooescnocs
C u^1
es      ft
T-i                      Tf            rH   OC   ft   rH
m
u >*
-t   Tt
cn
H<~
T-I
oo vo    1 in ©
o m —t o    ! r- \c
©
inft©    ir)ftr-©ds©C'l\0
m
es Tt
en o
en r~ vo tt     ! CO vc
f~  OO       !  00  CC
VO
es © rn    ! os Tf oo [- m cc co ©
OO r-<
ft^cn_
CO
CNftm     !cnc-l-Hftft©Ttft
VO
ft
oo" vi
Tf — so    i es cc
©mm     loorn-Hftesoo m th
ft
r-
ft cn
*■*       in    J       t-*            CS en
00
rH       !                                   Tf  CO
r>
*""'
© cn       vo i—
vo •* en cl    l m cs
r-cn^Hcnr-    iftMcrtoovDM
^
oo ft
co cn
vo 3c cc vo    : in t-
VO ft OG <3 ©      ICCrSTT-HftV, OssO
m
©
vo cs
•n ft
vo oo ©    ! r- es
co r- so cn so    i vo © r- Tt © © r- ©
cn
VO
ft
ft"es"
CO ri
cn ft rH     j r- vc
ft-nmrn    | vo r- r- en cc -*t O es
m
Tt
rn rN
j
m r-
s
1—1
rH oo    : m ©
VO         i   Tt
o cn ft
ft^H©in-Hcnesvooooor^©ccm
m
00  ft       ! rH  OO
rH          OO
f- cn vc
©■^CTfOo^-i-Htsr-'Oftr-r-",
ft
Tf >n     j rn ©
rH
rH  V
inmcnooeSTfcsoo — ©eSrHTtcn
NO
m
ft
©" Tf      ! © ^f
CO
cTtj
r~-T-icS'-ivo>ncN©oor~-»noC'—
r-
i— ft      | CO
C!                                 vo —i        NO ft
ci m
ft
■i
—i
es cn    i oo © o
oo o m es    i vo —
nr-vots    ! vo ft
r-csen©ft    ir-envorHONC-eS-H
_^
oo es     ! © ft tj
ft   C- t- VO ft      I ft ft rH Tf oo es ft 00
mrnesmft       rOTtoooooOTtTtvo
<£)
oo
Tt in     ! oo r- c
© rN             'rlC
m
in
ft
v* ft    i co d v
ri cn"         ; cn vc
cn       ^f         loovooo-HvOeScneS
Tf
cn       !  ft  rn
Tt          rH   m  ©  r-.
1
i
en vo
CO
es © cn en m c
rt cn © ft    ! oo eN
ri oo y* o     : vo V
vOoOcn©'-|eS©incnr-TteSincn
f»
© NO  CS  ri  ft  C
mvoTfcn© — cnin©Tfmmccvo
r-
rH in -h <N © rr
Tf rH rn      : vo ir
c)Tfv.oincnTt©intn»-r-Ttocn
ft
Vj
ft
ci t-i      ri vi v-
Tf            ! t- C
r-      mvocSrHrHT4-inoo,<tmexlc-i
ri t}- cS      oo r- rn
oo
CO          00
r~
cn es
©
r- es vd ft oo
l cs -h r- m en c
mvooor-es    ir-r^^awOTtftn
Tf
i—i cn tj- cs ?s
Tf ft r- cs oo ©
r— t-i Tf © in    |ftcoTtcnr>imc\es
VO
VD
ON H —< oo vo
eSTtrso'o    . qoMnmHccmcs
vO
v-t
ft
Tt vi      ft" es*
cn             en c
ri        rienvi     1 ■* H ifl vio M H H
as
Tf      as
:  T-i  Tf   t-i  rH  CS  OC  t-i
00
cn cn
ft
r>r*t »h
ft y— m ci    : m cs
©   t-h   Tf   i-n        .r-H.
ftinvOftcnT-ioooovo©©Tfvocn
ft
en vO tt o rs
© Tf r- Tf ri O oo « m Tt Tf on —i o
•n
m
omvomn
rn cs co r-    i r- ©
crsc-vccnvO-Hinr-c—rHf-toViVO
o
m
ft
cn oo      r- en
Tt es        ; es Tf
Ti h       TtT-tftcScni.nvor~-in©cn
cs
oo      cn
rH   CO            ■rH   O   Tf   t-
vo m
Tf
©   00   ft  Tt   o
tr~ O cn vp r-
m m © >n oo oo c
ftC-ftTfvo     : m r| co rl r- h rl f
vc
r- oo m rH O ft rs
ON ON Cs1 CO -h      !VDftTf©OSOsOr—
Tf
•t
vO rn       Tf (ft
rH  t-I OS          rH  ft  -H
incnencses    iTfTHso-TtCvOOvo
ft
ft
vi vi      in -rf
Tt   CS                         Tf   Tf
cnTfcsescc    lenft       oocnftciTt
ft"
Tf            -1
■ t-i ri            ft © —i
r—
vO <n
m
CO  Tf  VO 00  rH  ft
r- ft es m    : t- t
Tf vp oo ©    i r- cn
es Tt m «-h    i in m
vpinTtTtr-invoooTtcnmcsmo
©ftr-cor-vocnescsvOT-ic-cnes
Tf
© no -- in m vc
1
CO
r- o cn vo ft cn
esvOco©voO©dftinooTteSin
VI
so cn      ft oo
rH               1  r-  Tf
o^voT-tT-iOcnvovocnooescScScn
es      oo
rH                     CS                     TH                     ©  Tf   T-i
ft
m in
cn
i 2
© © cc
vo" ci
r- © cS cn    !Mh
mftoor^es    ! CMn ^ co h on ^t n
ri
"**"
cs m r* r^    j m *-
rHCSftcr.00     !cnTtvocnes©©rH
ftOTVD          loOr-i-HinviooM-c—
C-rH                   !t^oo"cioc"cioNenri
m
(S
ft
CO
es es «-h         i in e>
ri              I ft r-
©
CO
! ""»
cn
r- es
Tf
rH
r- cs
*"*
4>
1H
CO
0
Hh
]    ]
tj
-a
5
e
a
rt
3
1 *d
£
rt
!
ed
!   f
1 <u
rt
c
ta
a
a
rt
rt
u
i
£
<
2
I
u
Eh
O
! rt
2
c c
rt £
oj ■*
N C
S \
i -a
s
0
•a t/
!    Vi      V
C
e
U
B
t
si
<
2
a
<
«
£
<
£
'I
i
(2
2
M
u
rt
E £
Q
9
a
t
cd
>
c
s
B
E
1
0
Is
u ™
!r! «
a> I
OS
•3
c
a
o
S
el
C
0
oc
c
0
B
H
cd
a
C
E
B
a
u
>
c.
C
«
c
0
—
0
s
c
IS
o c
CO Cfl
E
|
—
X
CJ
s g
« s
CJ)    fe
!>  °
c
h
 92
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(6A)
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING YEARS 1960 AND  1961 IN F.B.M.
(All products converted to f.b.m.)
Forest District
Ten-year
Average,
1952-61
1960
1961
Increase
Decrease
Net
Decrease
3,352,007,738
351,099,221
3,714,901,737
494,439,437
3,444,163,621
508,111,879
270,738,116
Prince Rupert (C.) 	
13,672,442
3,703,106,959
4,209,341,174 j  3,952,275,500
257,065,674
Prince Rupert (I.) 	
216,499,433
657,584,116
889,289,201
468,589,212
272.053.975 1      264.893.698
7,160,277
15,865,240
860,650,212
1,136,419,442
596.020.872
844,784,972
1,175,270,448
637.997.472
38,851,006
41,976,600
2,231,961,962
2,865,144,501  j 2,922,946,590
57,802,089
...... ]	
5,935,068,921
7.074.485.675   '.   6.875.222.090
199,263,585
(6B)
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING YEARS 1960 AND  1961 IN CUBIC FEET
(Conversion factor: Coast—6 f.b.m.r=l cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.)
(All products converted to cubic feet.)
Forest District
Ten-year
Average,
1952-61
1960
1961
Increase
Decrease
Net
Decrease
558,667,956
58,516,537
619,150,289
82,406,573
574,027,270
84,685,313
45,123,019
Prince Rupert (C.)
2,278,740
617,184,493
701,556,862
658,712,583
42,844,279
37,652,075
114,362,455
154,658,992
81,493,776
47,313,735
149,678,297
197,638,164
103,655,804
46,068,469
146,919,126
204,394,861
110,956,082
1,245,266
2,759,171
....
6,756,697
7,300,278
388,167,298
498,286,000
508,338,538
10,052.538
1,005,351,791
1,199,842,862
1,167,051,121
32,791,741
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
93
20
Ph'
z
P
Q
O
tA
3
p
CJ
a.
rH
ft.
8
50 r-
OC
(NO©
es r-
as r~ Tf r~-  ft  ft
vo 00
m
SO   ft   Tf  Tf     i.
n  ©
CO
m
m Tt © r-   vo   es
VO   rH
r~
ft oo r» ft   Tt   es
o
ci
oo r— cS ft   as   es
H
|f
ri
t£ Tt* m c* e
vo Tt r- cn   <
S   m"
m
s   t>
Tf m
ft
es co rn so   as   co
CO
»-i        es   vo
oo cn
—
r- r- © r~  -h   es
£"0
m r*
m © vo Tf   f-   oo
© m
SO
m ft co ft   es   co
2 5
© m
tt vo O ©   cn   co
3*
Tt m
ft
cn m so r-   cn   ->
m Tt
ft
r- cn      Tf   vo   vo
corsj
in
ri                  ri oc*
es
ct
es
es rH
CO
en ft so es   ©   cn
ft CO
r»
rH CS © Tt    ft    so
b o
© es
CO
■* co so t>   m   ft
Tf
cN o m rs    i~>   m
r- vo m r-   vO   cn
x%
Tf cn
r^
©^
©r
es m             as   ©
Tt"
Tr*
m
es Tf   v
O    vO
vo m   -
en ft
n   en
■s
ft r~
"- r-
C-   rH
7\    ft
rt
© m
r-S
Tt* cn*
-T    r-*
es ft
Tf    ft
co"
:   cn
n
OO  ft
CO
!    00
u
cn m
!   r-
E
© ft
ft
!    ft
P.
oo es
©
i    ©
K
© cn
Tf
:   "^
U
©"ci
ri
!   ri
en
CO
cn
r-
r-
rH        i   f—   V)
n   O
|J
O     !
©
CO
© m
t> ft
3s   ©
en     !
en
V*l
»   es
SO ft
-t   en
Tf    :
Tt
O n
■o   r^
es   j
es
vo cj.
e ©
vo'c*
■O     Tf"
 cS
■n   en
vO
vo"
©   Tf  m
■*   en
m
m
rH as es
S    00
tt  0
CO
00
Tt  O  ft
■t  es
2.5
rn
cn ft vp
Js   cn
O
©
© es Tt
-*    CO
gs
CO
CO
en © cn
O   ft
oo"
00
en ci i
n"  cn
"H
*""
rH cn
o m
m so
-H
rH   CS   (S   00
7v    3
m  rH
r?
eS cm so co
E
r- ft
vc
©   ft   rH   m
o   cn
cct
Tf as
Tt
oo rs cs -H
*   eft
Tf m
©
ft -h r- cn
«
"H   p-
ft
m es en cn
n   Tf
m
Tf   rH
in
ft   VO   rH   0O
vo es
-/z
Cn  rH   fS  OO
0   >n
Tf
-t
-"   vo	
ON ©
ft"
es Tf oo Tf   c
o   r-
Tf   00
rl
es es en es   <
D   en
M
vo v>
CS
t- es r- rn
C    ©
u
o
oo 00
r-
© es -h as
n    ri
m es
oc
00  Cl  Tf  CO
O  eS
1
es oo
©
ri      m r-
n   so
oo ft
CO
V)           00  rH
n   cn
a
ft ©
©
VO            rH   Tf
S   cn
rH  CS
T£
-i   m
rH*
-i
rH
r- so
CO
ft r^ vO es
S K
as m
m
rH  CO  ©  ft     c
M.2S
•o o-S
o at,
©    Tf
CO Tf © ft    C
o   cn
CO    Tf
cr
vi r-*rivi c
sC es*
es -h
Tf
oo ft m oo   t
i    vO
rH ft
©
t— so oo oo   (
S   es
H
m ©" ri Tt   c
VI  -rf  Tf  y—     l
Js"  ©"
n   vo
n
S    CS
r- m
CS
rHO\H    (
S      Tf
-H    ©
rl
ir-icir)    v
O   oo
rH r|
cn
ft oo es m   v
n  co
8
r+ *"
©
© m m vo   c
O    CO
B
vo 00
<n
©  ©  Tf  rH     s
0      rH
^r
so m Tf ©   i
r* ©
a
CO
$"£
cn
vo
m es m Tf   t
CO OO © CO    c
5  r~
rH
T-"
IflNrl    £
-"    rH
oo ft
__.
o m in n   t
H     00
© cn
Tt
r- oo © m   t
t.
Tt   Tf
X
rH  ©  rl  CO     C
s   ©
OS
no"©
so
•—> oo m rs   r
j'3
•o
rH   ON
©
OO  rH  O  ft    C
a
t>
vo nd_ r- r-   c
-   m
O
©" vi
vi
vo rn r-"in   *
£<*
•n
rH          CS  CO     C
n   oo
r-
i     00
oo O
oc"
Tt^r^ft m  i.
O   cn
rH cn
ft ©
s
m cn Tf r*   t
o eS oo co   c
!■*.
rH r-
CO
m r- cn cs   c
ft   r~
Im
vO ft
in
en © es m   t
h   t—
£
es r^
©
m m m   v
3  vo
oo" oo"
r"
es" © ft* c
s"  ft"
rH  cn
m
© ft Tf    ■-
t   ft
©
©
rH  r-  rH     c
is ©^
ii ri
r*                !
5     |
tr
3      CO
'C
U
rt
O
0
~
5 3
S
M
u
1)
v   m   vv    |
-i  d  u o
3    fH      -j    OJ    £
1   r
3o
o
Ph
0   <u           o   u O  fl
a   CJ             cj   u TJ   P
C  C          C  o  a S
rt
>
£
a. Oh
si
«
h
e*H
w
•
PU
U
w
71
e
o
CO
J2
p
o
S 1
^o
CT\
£
Cfl"
$j
H
u
u
p
II
Q
O
b
d
J3
Ah
r)   1
H
b
O
u
u
cn
m
6
U
w
>
Oh
L0
0
©
cn
CO
ft
SO
_|
cs
CO
^H
r-   rH
00
so tN *0 CO
Tf n 00 ©
CO
es
cs cn
in
m
n
r* vi
cs
0O   ft   Tf  SO
oo
(N OO
SO  rH  ft  »n
m
m
O
O sO^
r-
© ft cn ft
cO
©
H
Tt   Tf
00
SO  so   Tf   ©
Tf   Tf   ©   rH
00
t>
r- oo
VI
©
so
in
vo
rH  CS  rH
m
ri
t
S£
ri"
©
CS   rH   Tf   Tf
vo rs oo ©
Cl
CN
5"a
© m
vq
v© © m^ ft
CS
00
So
cS CA
cl
ri ri ©" n"
VO
00*
^: 9
ON  Tt
©  SO  n  00
m
CO
m r-
CO
cn
Tt
t-
cn
Tf
Tt*
m r-
rT
SO   V")   rH   rH
r0
m
H   Tf
vC
r» cn r- m
ft
m m
©
cn m so vo
cS
CN
TJ*0
Jh °
» o
envi
ft"
r- r- ft es
r-i
so"
r-
r^
Tf   ft            rH
sp
Tt
vO
sO
X)
m es
r-
r-
rH  ON
©
©
J3
t> S\
r*
r-n
o
r- cn
H
CO so
in
m
cl
rH CN
Tt
Tf
•3
Tf*so"
©
©
rt
Cl
es
C- en
ft cn
©
©
cn
cn
ta
en cSb
VO;
WJ
u
Ii
cn oo"
Oh
r-t  00
©
©
>1
© cn
Tf
Tt
o
«•
m'
oo
00
vi
oo     ;
cs    . es Tf
vo
*«
vo
©  T-
©
es
(N
es
ft
es vo
00
©
SI
©"   i
©
r-* vi
CO
Tf
Tf        j
Tf
es m
00
CJ
can.
><*
vo rs
00
ON .
Tfri
vi
vi
en    ;
e^,
'.   t-   O   ri
00
Tf      !
3
so cn es
NO
u
v£>    ]
r* ft Tt
r*
4_* a>
3 c
©   i
©
ri m* vo"
m"
m*
m so oo
O
gpn
©    :
©
CS 00
CJ
es
m    :
CO
cs en
vO
as"
ft en
CN
es ft oo m
Tf
SO
m m
rH  cn  ft  -H
'O
r*
&
Tf so
SO so 00 ©
cs
s
r- vo
Tf'
so ft vo es
ft
,23
m es
00
OO   rH   rl  SO
00
SO
CO NO
ft
oo oo r~ en
r-
r^
m
r" en
©
so es cn m
00
oi
r-
oc
CS
©
»n
oc
r~~
cs
VI o
m © Tt
r~ en
©
r- vo m r>
so
r>
•^
t>  Tf
cs
[— co so vO
ft
o
ft*n*
m cn Tt r-
m      cs vo
CO
© r-
X)
CO
a
t- ft
NO
cn      cs es
CO
m
u
ft   Tf
ft cn
Tf
—i       en r-
vO
a
f^-,
cs
es
© ft
ft"
<n oo Tf op
s~
m 6
en Tf
m
ft es n vO
©
m«JS
5^
r-
f>  r-i  OS  00
r-
Tt
ri ri
cn
rH  OS  rH  00
es m
r-
O so CS OO
r- Tf cn m
00
©
m
es
ft" Tf" oo" ci
vi
(S
Tt
Tf
OS   rH
©
in ft © n
<H>eitN
in
m
rH   O
rs
cn
m cs
t*;
rH CO VO CS
en
O
0
Tt   C-"
o m ft r-
ft"
2
r~ so
Tf
CO © CN ©
es
r-
t>Tf
Cl
oo co r* co
es
Tt
D.
r"os
r~"
•* rn m m
m"
ci
CS
rn o cn CN
t>
©
cS
co m
_
cn so ft vo
Tf""'
~n
so r-
Tt
r* © r- as
ft
H
O©
O   Tf   CN   Tf
r-t
en
n
vo* vi
1HCOO
ci
■o
CO vo
© oo m cS
ft CS oo ft
CJ
r-
u
© CO
ft
as
00
u
© m
m*
es      Tf Tt
d
CO*
CS
CS
Tf
©~rH~
^-~
so so oo vp
ft   Tf   ©   ft
"so"
r^
(S c-
ft
s
en
Tf
©  CO  Tf  rH
m
ss
so"
so r— es as
r-
CS oo O
rs
o
Hh
r^Tt
W   Tf   ©^
CO
ft vo"
vo*
r-"r-* vo"
(>
vo
t~~
n cn CS
X
en
t-     :
o    :
ta
'C   »
at
u "3
- 2
""   o   -i
S
V)
CJ
*j    TJ     w   1
C  j2  Tj S
B  tr   B tH
a £  o. o
a  r-t   3 u
rt   S
H 0
o
rH
o «         <u u o g
cj  cj          y o TJ 0
cfl        d a B £
>
£
a.
Ph
cd
z
 94
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS,  1961, IN F.B.M.  (SEGREGATED BY
(8*) LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
727,588,828
14,677,105
5,428,921
24,647,299
43,784,544
24,109,953
791,479,398
94,183,765
93,781,794
45,977,659
14,179,086
142,941,017
93,781,794
30,672,897
51,124,419
76,650,556
65,303,505
568,792
1,133,527,078
741,312
724,642,381
84,334
903,571,609
35,155
340,336,263
1,429,593
174,504,840
46,731,122
196,325,726
3,472,907,897
46,731,122
56,366,482
397,997,239
37,930,185
56,366,482
121,458,708
17,104,269
58,951,406
1,478,752
45,754,826
12,604,407
52,621,771
9.114.421
157,139,421
3.637.198
833,923,371
81,869,232
Sub-totals, Crown
lands  	
2,602,100,908
12,834,799
728,048,577
38,629,801
14,789,179
47,760,357
441,596,255
433,766
256,755,884
1,466,542
798,420,031
995,468,355
25,599,013
39,296,227
20,707,088
25,718,574
68,481,191
569,042,534
854,280
2,537,143
37,910,890
11,111,936
16,540,689
5,663,383,967
41,188,400
Crown grants—
To 1887	
613,880
382,878
4,341,037
41,027,146
770,495,827
1887-1906      __.
1906-1914 	
7,798,018
7,329,475
50,954,365
41,014
1,747,324
4,882,934
105,469,689
65,037,525
1914 to date	
229,646,682
Totals 	
3,444,163,621
508,111,879
264,893,698
844,784,972
1,175,270,448
637,997,472
6,875,222,090
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS, 1961. IN CUBIC FEET (SEGREGRATED
BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
(SB) (Conversion factor:   Coast—6 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.;   Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
121,264,805
2,552,540
944,160
4,286,487
7,614,703
4,193,036
132,376,208
15,697,294
15,630,299
7,662,943
2,363,181
24,176,817
15,630,299
5,112,149
8,520,737
12,775,092
10,883,918
94,799
188,921,180
128,924
126,024,762
14,667
157,142,889
6,114
59,188,915
244,504
29,084,140
7,788,520
34,143,605
594,505,491
Pulp-timber sales
7,788,520
9,394,414
9,394,414
Tree-farm licences ~
Miscellaneous	
66,332,873
6,321,697
20,243,118
2,850,712
10,252,418
257,174
7,957,361
2,192,071
9,151,612
1,585,117
27,328,595
632,556
141,265,977
13,839,327
Sub-totals, Crown
433,683,485
2,139,133
121,341,429
73,599,376
72,294
44,653,197
255,051
138,855,658
106,762
66,587
754,963
7,135,156
173,124,932
4,452,002
6,834,127
3,601,233
4,472,795
11.909.772
98,963,919
148,570
441,242
6,593,198
1,932,511
2.876.642
962,880,567
7,067,050
Crown grants—
To 1887   	
128,723,560
1887-1906	
1906-1914	
1914 to date 	
6,438,301
2,464,863
7,960,059
1,299,669
1,221,579
8,492,395
7,133
303,882
849,206
18,006,121
11,150,593
39,223,230
Totals	
574,027,270
84,685,313
46,068,469
146,919,126
204,394,861
110,956,082
1,167,051,121
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961
95
e
S
Q
i
as
O
Q
Z
<
i
z
o
n
Q
1
W
PQ
P
ir
rs
cn as
m
es Tf
rs
r~
vo r-
01
r-
f
r-
rs
CO
ft
rt low
©
so
cn
er
© r- m v
cS © t- ©           in in © Tf
tt ^i.m *    :      **! ^ "T. *>
m ft ft ft r-
en © t- cl es
r-rHCJsm                  CSft(NVD                   r.  VO VD  OO O
oo rn cs r--          oo rn <n en          es o\ cs t> rs
ft en Tf vo t-
© 00 cs oo ©
3
©t-ivovo           Tf r" ft"
Os *— en ri cn
oeTftr-en Tt
ci vp*©m"           rioo"rnen           oo"ft © rn t>
© r- en in   i      r- © ft
ft ft ©         ;      cs en oo
© ft CS         rH
ft en co
ft  OO rH          rH
00  ©   rH                               Tf  VO  00   TH
c« m ©                es © cn
© en r- oo es
o
cS oo en
m rn cn
H
Tf vO ©"                 ci ©*
vienci
C-  vi rH
ci vo" wi                © en vo*
Tt*vp*vo
es r- rn               © >n
Tf
m m
Tf r~                      oo ft
rir-M
rn m                    rs
rH
rH   rH
VO CO
rH                               !
r-1
r^TtTtft    i      ft rH © f-
CS rn vo ft
es oo ft en
ft m ft cn
r-cNvom          csrHvooo
ft r- rH rH       ;
u
vo cN c- in    i      ft ft m so
© en m rn
vimhr-
vo en cS t—
r> vp oo en    !
u
rHTtVOC^     !         C5 t£ c* *H
ci oi Tt vi   i     Tt oo ri
rH   t>   rH                  !            rH   ©  m
e> r-^ co        !     ft on
t> SO  Tf
sSOst^
Tf  0O  rH
Sp  ft  rH
vpV'o*
vo r- vp
r- r* oo oo
tt ft"vi
r^o Tt cs
Oscn ri'-i
© es ft
rH  CS  en  rH
ft* co" t-i CO
vp m m
B
m  ©  rH
rn^rH
ft ft^in
t> © en
m ^Os
«
vi co                      ci cn"
en
Tf*oi
cioo"
oo"co"
vp r-T rH*
Q
© cn                    cn
rH                               j
«
m t>
|_J
© © en ©
Ttftmm           csvomftir
Tf oo oo m rJ
r-  ft in  Tf
enmvor-             Ttr-eSoor>
U
C»  Tf  rH CS
© ft cS vo
m m vo m
r- vp Tt m
oo ft 'n vo rr
©ft en      Tt
en vo cs en
vpcjftTt    |      r-m©r-cn
Tt © Tf ft    !      © r* lei t* Tjh
-D
rn in rn cn
|> T?   ft
»n rH <n Tt
g
ci ooft cn
Or-."©
cn* ri Os
rn* OS* VP"         IT
viriTf*
Tt" Tt* oo"               r" Tt" co" vi m*
r- ft vO
SO ft  rH
in Tt cn
rn oo in
r- rH oo
vo © m               oo r- rn
>
Tf Tf in
r4 © en
en vo
VO ©  Tf
es © ©                m ^vp
O
CO* ci ri
© m
cn
envi
ft"en
vooiri                  co"r*ei
2;
es Tf                    cs
rH                                                                       |          VO  t>
r— Tf oo Tt    l      r— co ©
rH  ©  m Tf                  ft  C^  rH
J         00 CS 00 ©
1          CS  CJ  OO  rH
© Tf © r- Tt
T>  Tf  VO  f-  r-i
©©inm    !      ooOTtm           ©cximftTt
TfTtTtr-           vpTtftcs           ftcSencNrH
mmft©    i      rHcnr-in          r-comr-t—
N
CO rH rH  ft                  rH  ft  CS
i-H  Tf  cn  rH
ft Tt oo      r-
J3
O
0O © 00  Tf
en © ft
ass
>0 Tf  rH
cn  rH  rH
oo©r-rH    i      esr-rHrH    !      ftr>enr-
I-  rH CS
© in ft
ft ft r~
enrHm             !         TfOm                       rHVOCS
oo in oo
CN   Tf
OO  rH
Tf^mft                rHvom                »N t*^ V?
CJ
o
VO ft"rH
0*Tf
i           •**
en oo
© oo"                   oioi                   rn cn cn
rn cn
es
rn rH                                                                Vp CO
i                         1     T-'
OO © CO 00                HhO
O ft Tf m sc
!        fS © vo CO T
Tf  rH  Tf ft C»
VO rH m ©
ft VO 00 00
©ftvoen           ftr>r-men
Ttvocoft          r-r-oomrH
tH)
m en rn oo           m in ft
rn m Tf © vp
U
r> cn © es          ft rn m
r* r- en
© VO  m rH  r-
VdHfCuH
r^WrHTf       !          CSrH©rH(S
J3
E
rH rH ft en               CO 00 C-
!         rH CS ©
vo es oo
ft ft ©
CS C- ©                    OHVCiTt
vo m ft               rn m £■
rH  rH  (TJ                          ft ft  ft
rH  rH  Tf                          CS O  rH
VO   rH   OO
Tt oo cn
CS © ©
— tn cn
V
Omn                 m cs
«HH
Tf inm
A
VO C^                      i          OO* Tf
•           ci
m r-T
m ©"
VP  ft                                  JH  Tf rH
u
m cs                    *i
rH  CS
© r>
W
*H^
ftrHTt©           in in m    j    i      cs r- in in C
en en oo rH     :       mvfliH     ■     ;       cN oo in r~ vc
'•i "* fr* c*   :     rs © Tt   ;          "* °1 e*i1-1 *""
Tf  rH  VI ©  r-
r-oooovo     1        rnmOO©
00  C- m  rH  rH
rH  ft V)  r- r-
vpftmen    l       Tfftco©
rn vp m ft r-
h ft cN rs vp
*«
Tf oo in      v~
"" °° P" **   i     "*t "* *T, *
3
00
3
csrivim"   !      coricn"                oi v" oo"
O en 00       rr
ci ft en*                  © ri Tf" rH
en vi Tt* t-i en
cc r- vo         !      vo©eNi!      tnr-o
rt vp ©
© ft rH
vp t— cs          !       oo en V)
vp vo m               r- rS en
ft es oo
©OOm                    rH C rH     |     !        m Tf en
CS Tt ft
<
rH  ©
vo en
vO VO          1     i             CS
en oo
rH m                          vo CO
ft en rn
ft c«.
rH  Tf CS 00
VO CS  tS  rH
Ttr-OrH    i      r- © © cn vc
mvomrH    i      rHininooc?
vp I> ft tr~ ft
HOMnh    i      mmcSen
Tf ©  00 ft  Vi
t> ft rn m es
OO © t> ©  Tf
Cl rH vp ^H CS
C-vprnoo     !       rHvOTfTf
rH©mes    i      ftTtr-v>
r* m m ft
tT, ^\ °°, *H    j      r*i en" vo      t-
rn Tf en rH \c
>,
Tt r> en Ti
Vp*ft*00*                          00"C*vi         r-
© v> r-               Tt Tf Tf
rn vo m       r-
VO  Tf rH                          CN  m VP  rH
t- en ©         :      m rn vp
ft oo rH r-- cn
es 00 vO
00  Tf Vp
vp 00 cs
3
© VO l>
CS   **                                         rH   CS   CS
Tf ft^rH
© cn rn                 co vp en
r- es r-
S3
m l>                              rn CS
cs
env7
m vp               !      oo oo
j
vp en rn
T$ CO
rHCSOr-                   VOftOOVO                  CSrHOSTf  —
© rH Tf 00 CS
cooocovp           oomvooo           m Tt m ft cn
fsjcno          cnvpmr-    j      envpTtftvp
vpTfr^cS           r^rnftc-
ft co © en           m ft oo
© oo cs r^ vc
cn vp r- en ©
cs © m rH oc
rn © fsl r* V
TfTfOOr*                  t—TfTf'-H                  ©0O©rHcn
Q
r- ft Tt rt          m co vo
© © vo
vO ft ft
r-r-Tf                ooftmrH    >,      vpT>cr-r<
rHvor-         i      mr—vo               r-©ft
□
m co cs               oo m vo
m ft en
CJ   rH   CS
3
rH Tf co                  inhn
en rn cn
ft   ©   'T-I
©r-cs         |      ©_rHTt               0„,*rHP.
>-»
C- rH                       i          VO  Tf
ri
CS cs
vi ri                   vi Tf                    ri vp ri
rH  rH                                                                                   C- VO
en Tf                1       rn
rH
y^
es cn in r»    !      ft vo ©
j          i—  ©  ©  OO  V
© CS CS CS cr
ftvp©Tf           ftTfcocs           ©rHvienoo
es m r- m          Tt — ©
!      Tf cn oo oc r-
i      vp r- ft      tj
en oo co rH (n]
©T-nm©    (      -hoovo©           r-oomvpft
Ttooinr.
©, ©.TT
cn vp rH^ cn OC
mvomm          rHcsr-vo          r-rHTtcscs
>Y
© cn vo" vi
O0  V,  Tj-
©cioo"
;      oo cs rn      r~
ri vi o" es"
voftr-                 esftTf                ooenftftoo
01
CJ  00  rH
rH  SO   ft
ft   ft   -H
mesco                 oorHrH                 TfTtvo
c- ft rn                 co m m                vo o oo
s
o SO CO
vo^in rH
j      cs m cs
O^C-rH
r-"r-"
Vo'Tf*
|           ci
OO  Tf"                                  Vi cn                                  ft" «n rH
cs en
m m
rH
rH
Tf en m vo            eS rn
m    i      r- r- vo ©
rn m m ft ©
co vp o r-
VOftVOcn                  COrHCNO©
cn oo r* ©
cn cs
en    !      cn O cn cn
Tf VD rH vo m
rn en cn co
cn es r> rs
oo Tt en m m
r- es r- cn ft
vpcoc-iei
r- en
rH m ©
cs cn «n rn o>
oo r^Tf cn
es Tt ft es
<
t- O vO Tt
CS vo
rlnc
ri m* en
Tf rH ri
ft en VO rH
t- ft vo vp
r- m ©
rH CS
ft ft (N
Tf  m  rH
ft ft m
m m en
r- vp en
Vi vp vp
CO 00 vo
m en
Tf  CS  rH
Tt  CS rH
© vp^cs
rH cs m
00 vo
ON cs
oo so"
©   ri
c~ oo
Tf  ©  rn
CO  CS
es
CS oo
ft cn vp Tf     i       Tt Tf »n     i
Tf  00  C-  rH       !          ©  rH  rH
rtr-t-o
es vp sp m
cn © © cn
O-OOri                  HrlNdi
r~ © en (n
ft CO sp oo
C- CS  CO  rH
ftVOrHOp                  OOr-ftTt
mc-©vp          csr>oo\
JS
Tf cS r> cn    !      es oo vo
oo vo r»
m Tt ft m
m co ft en
u
(SWHTf       j          V0 VO
O   ft   Tf                               CO   Tf
3PS
ft en en
m  rH  rH
ft ft cn         J      coin vo m
H
oo cn Tf
m es r-
Tf Tf VD             i         CS rH es
J3
rn vo m                  en ©
T> rH  CS
C- ft rH
vp oo Tt                m rs Vi
£
Tf cn                      ft cs
K
ftrH
© m
Vi Vp                                  OS t^  rH
CO cs
CS
rH  rH
J          rH  f-
m rn ft rn           en en Q
cn © es m    i      Tf ft as
vo es Tf ft
es r- ft m
ft m vo Tf
m Tf Tt vp
TfrHspio    !      moocsft
b
SLS.3T
oo r- ft r-
rHcscoin    i      TfTten©
©r~©rH       !          inrHinft
in Tf m cS    f      Vi en en
in  t~-  rH  rH
OO  ft  ©  CS
rt
g
-O
© r- es Tt    i      m en co
vo"©"co"
CO © ©
Tf © m
Tf en vp rn             McOm
tH  00  Tf                          m  ft rH
cn Tt Tt               © ft
9P3
eS oo Tf
csr-.cn
m © rs         !      m co oo
CS  rH  rH
Tf r- ci
vo c- vo        ;     Ht-m
«J
ft ©              !      © cs
vi
r-"rH
es (—
vo ft                !       vOr-H
ft
m CS                           y-<
es
rH  rH                                                                                  ft  r-
cs r- ft en    ]       r- cs rn
r- Tt m rn tj
r-o os Tt tc
es en vo es
Tt oo ft m
Tf  rH ft 00
Tfinino           ©ftenooTt
rH op Tt rH    !      vo m eS
Tf cs cS in    i      ft © cS
oo ft oo
00 © ft
cnr-iooen    ;      rHvOcnocn
b
HOOHr
m ft m ct
mftften    i      "ncSrHcSrH
rt
Tf en Tf m             Tf Tf Tf
Tf ft ft         cr
rn cn CO
VO ft  Tf
Tf   ©   l>
vOTtr-
f-Tthri    !      ftTfftoen
3
CO   Tf   0O                               CO   Tf   rH
ft^en vo                 Tt ft rn
oo ft m
© cn ©
vo es m         i      vo m r-
g
cs es es
00 ©  rH
ft Tf f-                    rH Tt \D
rt
vp vi                     vo es"
en
TfTf
©*ri
eic                        en tJ-" ri
»i
rH  rH
;      © in
j
}
h
h
1
I
■
!   t-
tn 4»
S ft
*4H   *•"
!    U
Vi    OJ
2 &
i
00
5
t
«
1
«3 !
1
z
i\
0
I
to
<M  *"
33 3
53 3
CJ
«H   "«
Cfl
Di
o
« 1
«*-!   '*-'
l*H  '•H
1E
8*
3 .5 c
P   fi   r
3 .5   0
> «*!:
U    U   rC
3 .S   Q
CJ
3 .9 c
CJ
£ S1
3.9   3
2 «^
3 S a
i 1 e
•2 2-a
3.S  C
|
CJ
EfcUaU
K-SfeUJU
K .9 Ph O ^ 0
a
•g ft 0 hJ U
PE
SfaOhJU
ffi'SCLi0^4U
Kshuju
pq
>
0-
&H
Ph
X
%
H
 96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
VOLUME OF WOOD REMOVED UNDER RELOGGING AT REDUCED ROYALTY
(10) AND STUMPAGE, 1952-61, IN THOUSAND CUBIC FEET
Year Salvage Wood Year Salvage Wood
(MCu.Ft.) (MCu. Ft.)
1952     732 1957  3,663
1953   1,053 1958  1,427
1954  1,888 1959  1,257
1955  1,209 1960  1,976
1956  1,795 1961   1,813
Ten-year average, 1952-61, 1,681 M cu. ft.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
97
I
xn
H
P
O
vi
CQ
I
O
-I
<
<
p
Z
Z
<
Q
w
>
o
CU
53
pi
a
Q
Z
p
0
z
I
w
PL,
o
w
oi
q
<!
Ph
o
erf
W
CQ
s
p
z
© vc
oc
r-
tJ-
in
Tf
en
er
Ttr-Tfc-r-osmoomft
en
cn
t-oovoesvovDTtr-c-Tt
inTfTfrHf-r-eNenoooo
ftTrvooorH©mr-mt--
© OO CO © Tt ©^ CJ ft^ oo c-_
o
0
CJ
H<
Tf_
cir-"aiTf"voTtco"©"vp*rn
ri
rn cs cn cn Tf Tf m
rs
CJ
ieSftr-©vocncncScs
cn
•o
>
somTfrHr-~asTf©Tf
©
CJ
rn f- TT Tf t> oo m_ cn t-
en
.91
cj cj
!<
as" ft" oo" c-* © as" >p" pi cn*
TtrHcSvocsooom©
vo©cnsooocnvpcscs
Tf
as
ft
09  3
m
3D
m" r-* oi ri co* ri Tf ©" vp
cS*
a,
es es cn cn Tf Tt
es
»2
Ph
I*
iTfoocnr-oo'-i'TfcSco
irScjenTfmvpsOr^r-
if
ta
r-rHftm©ooooftmcn
Tf
>
csr*Ttmesoo©mr-os
SO
■j3 wi
r-m*nTfcnTtrH©cnft
Vi
(J   CJ
Cfl
el
Ttmvoco©cnescjrH
oo
5*9
ei o
Ph
fc o
£
'
Br-
in©mftr-Ttcnoci©
cscscScn'^rminmm
vo
3   5»
1-°
cn
©
vomftcnt--rH©©Ttco
ooenoo©mm©rHcSC-
en
>-M
vo
to
p tf
ft oo vo^ vo Tf vo >n es cs tt
g
3^
"O u
s<
ft.
ai Tf oo" ci vo" © cn" en" ft" vp"
vo"
S*3
Eg
Trvovor-r-ooooooooft
r-
t?   CJ
"CPh
J=
u
is
z*
mcnThftrHcnt-ftTtcs
Ttvot—ocSoor-r-Osoo
en
en
r-irHrHeScScScscsescj
cs
u
CSftV^^rHcnrHQrHTf
©enesooTfftooooovp
rHcS©oo©rHvoesm--H
rH
P s?
ft
u g
3  H
rH   0
1
<4H
cncsrH©rHmftenr--m
csenmvovo©ft©©Tf
OO
V)
cn Tf m m m
rs
£
8
fi
.
Eis
enTtr^©rHinvovotnes
m
-1   u
Z*
rH  rH  rH  rS  CS  CS  CS
CJ
oooocncsvpr-enftvpTf
rHftrHavTfcnr—r—ftas
m
>
m
tj to
ftoocnTfcocsr-ftTfm
r-
rt <h
•IJ
■rHOOOOmOrHCftrHrHt-
C co
r-■moooooor^Tfmooi-H
u  u
co s
Oi—ir—^Ospoocnoo©©
V)
M
ci est ci' Tt Tf Tf m" vi vo r-"
Tt
it
£3
Ph
S u
enTtftencncnr-vot—ft
m
3  8
r-irHi-HrMcScscsencncn
rs
g*
7
cs
m
ft
H
3
i
H
CJ*
oc
a
u
CJ
§
u
ca
<u
>.
c
CJ
H
r-
er-
Tf
V
VC
IS
oc
ft
lC
m v-
m tr
m vo vo
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
a
ft
ft
ft
ft.
Sue
O   C   3
r-"   rt "O
i   3 !§
u -H a>
■a c '3
J3S
o»"
i- aj oo
O ^  u
&32
Csm
'" o 5
•a tS
- P o
■V ft *
u c °
±1 M s
•h u 2
111
 98
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
O
w
►J
<
o
H
O
H
cScjTfcnsoinincor-rH
|
u
TfTtr-cncscjooftcsr-
©CSO  —  00  OO  rH  ©  SO  Tf
en
mt—mmr-rHftmmcn
00
—  -j
cnftmooorH\o©ooen
r-
-1
mmftr-eSrHoomen©
[H.
cn©ocso-Hr-vOrHoscs
en
y
cn cn Tt oo —imcsesmso
m
rHrHrHfncnTfinsor-
cn
;©Ttft'-HTrsor--©©
Tf
CJ
©scrscocnTfco©©
CS
o
©scrSftmcsft©so
©
ft
.5-3
— sp—-encsvpoooft
©
msoftsoftr-Tf©es
5J
r--H©Tfooooocj©
r*
3
U
3r3
ftcmoor-TfcsmTf
©
co©rHco©m-Hoom
cn_j
3 '>
3
1           -HrHrHrSCScncnTt
CS
i»
Tfoocnr-'oo—'Tfcsco
cSeScnTfmspsPr-r-■
sg
Ph
3 to
1-°
«_,
o
o
eSt—OseSTfscvOvOoof-
©
O
—
cnftcnoocSrHftt-vor-
es
CSTfftTf—IrHcnVOrHin
en
TJ
o
'5
r-soTtcsoftmeSTt
rHrsvoftr-m©ftTt
vi
ft
o
3
rH   CS            CS
s
u
rt
momfti>Tfcn©eso
VD
Uh
cscNcscnTtmmmm
en
c
' h/'^
—
fl   «   Cfl
1 cn © © rn m Tf
S
u iO to
©   ©   ©   ft   rH   m
J £ to
Tt in r> vo^ in cs
ft
5 SIS
cn cs cs r- Os rn
ri
CJ
to
ft Tf cs
cs cn en
ft
H
Cfl
rt
§
u. ta
cncsvpftr^vOTfTtr-so
©CCOrHTfOOr~©ftOS
,_,
X> u
.". WH
Z, o
©
co^rHcnTtcscoinvoc-
r^
CO
m r~so"rH © co oo oo vi Tt
'Eh
Jh
ftsces©mft©ftftm
r-
§
to
Oh
rHcsfncnTfTfTfenTfTf
cn
U
B    U
mcnTtft-Hrnr-ftTtcs
en
1*
Ttvcr-©csoor—t—ftoo
en
rHr-T-cScScSCSCSCSCS
CS
^
o©©oo©o©o
o
to
© o o © © o c
qqo^oqqc
© ©
o
to
s© ©
m
,_,
UL
vO ©" Tf ci r> cn oc
"ci ci
CO
§
O
© cn en vp cs ft c
00   Tf
tt rn oo oo m m cr
VO co_
vO
rt
3
sj
rH  rH          m t~~  C
' rir-"
Tf
to
cs cs tr
en rs
CJ
H
I-   I-.
cnTti>©'-imvovoincs
m
1*
ri   ri   ri  CS   CS  rl   H
ta
—
©inrHCSrH.mcn'nftTr
cs
-HTf-HCseSr-Tfrnmas
©
c
£
oor*TfTtrv^HinTtTtcs
m
CJ
eses-Hmoscs©esoi>
Tf
CJ
o
cnTfcn—ivOrsspTfrHrH
mTtsor-oospcsr-Tfft
rJ
3
en
3
m   ©t—  ft *-llnTfOOrHOS
cnTtTfsPcSeS-^rt-Ttt-
CO
s
u
es
rH  t-h  rH  rH  CS  CS
eg
«
g
is
mTfftcncnmc-vOr-ft
m
H
-HrHrHcscscSCScncnen
rs
vp
cs
in
ft
Ih
*-•
rt
to
u
><
M
ca
u
5
tH
rt
u
r*»
3
to
H
CN er
Tf
V
SO
tr
ce
ft
m v
vi m
m m m m vp vo
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
a
ft
ft
as
u
J.
U
CJ
to
p
u
to
s i
o «
I* .
2 a 5
o _
&""
o S
2 3
P M
o
c
M    —     HI
rt w o
VJS
£ll
SOl
||0
« S 0
H  N  rt
 (13)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
LOGGING INSPECTIONS, 1961
99
Type of Tenure Operated
Number of Inspections Made
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Leases, Licences, Crown
Grants,
and Other
Tenures
Total
Timber
Sales
Other
Tenures
Total
Vancouver  	
1,230
762
1,851
2,157
1,088
1,295
182
1,558
1,998
1.430
2,525
944
3,409
4,155
2.518
4,732
2,838
4,415
3,874
2,471
2,861
538
979
603
1,261
7,593
3,376
5,394
Kamloops     	
Nelson    	
4,477
3,732
Totals, 1961	
7,088
6,463
13,551
18,330
6,242
24,572
Totals, 1960   	
7,249
5,120
12,369
(!)
(!)
26,151
Totals, 1959...	
6,273
4,898
11,171
(!)
C1)
26,912
Totals, 1958.	
5,936
4,341
10,277
(!)
(!)
23,802
Totals, 1957	
7,503
5,940
13,443
C1)
(!)
25,253
Totals, 1956	
7,492
5,841
13,333
(l)
(!)
22,038
Totals, 1955	
6,818
4,676
11,494
(!)
(!)
22,355
Totals, 1954	
5,855
4,877
10,732
C1)
C1)
21,011
Totals, 1953 	
5,851
4,862
10,713
(!)
(!)
20,656
Totals, 1952 	
5,822
5,716
11,538
(!)
(!)
20,264
Ten-year average, 1952-61
6,589
5,273
11,862
	
	
23,301
i No breakdown made prior to 1961.
I
 100
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
a «
en so es xf r-
ri
Tf
en
?
ft
Vi
Cl
m
Tt
S 5
oo — vo r- oo
es
vO
vO
00
Tf
l>
£s
CS  ©  rn'  ©  r-1
i%
Tf
r-i
—i
t>
vi
en"
©
©
Tf
vd
cn o
en vo oo ft oo
Tt
ft
ft
m
vO
oo
ri
8
c-
Tf
toQ
oo ft vo r- cs
Tf
ft
©
©
ri
t-^
(>
Cfl^1
Tf ft co in r-
©
©'
©'
ft"
r-1
00
rs
oo"
cfl 3
<-9
ft          rH  -Tf  CS
ft
Tf
CS
rs
00
cc
ft
fS
SO
tr>
Ci
rt
rs
en
Tf
ri
cs
cn
CJ
(S
©
«•
en
cn
in
Tf
t-
Tf
en
©
Number of
Resulting
Seizures
CS       j  CS  T*
•o
to   ,r.
>   P
to  n
oo r~ Tf ft
00
rs
a
,
1
1
N
r- oo © vo
©
CS
CJ  >n  rH
©
t>
ft
cs
SH
rH
ri
cs"
1
1
1
ci
Oh
Tf
tfl
!     ! ©     1 ft
ft
g
ft
m
r-
©
en
ft
cs     : vi
r»
Tf
so'
r*
©
s
ft
cn
o
ft
t~~
CO
VO
t-
ft
©
Ph
f"
cs
CC
in
ft
©'
m'
,-T
ri
ri
cn
*H
Cfl
. CJ
H «-*!
en
Tt
ft
ft
>n
Tf
oc
r-
a V es
vO
vO
rl
sC
vp
VO
SO
VO
■a^«
Tf
Tf
00
cn
ft
ft
cn
en
CI
os
5 rt w
Qr=    W
Tf
TJ
r^"
en
_'
3:
r^
^f
ft
vo"
J>
<n
vp
^C
sp
en
r-i
r-
vo
n
r-
~
*c
~
rs
cfl to cj
GO
ft cs
ft
cc
oc
r-
>e
Tf
|
Tf
Tf
_
Tf
OO
ri cn
en
ft
ft
ft
ft
Cl
s
3
in vo
in cn
CS
ft"
sD
cn
Tf
Tf
ft
Tf
cn
\6
ft.
©
0
<a
—1
ts
f""
rH
~~'
"
"
to
m
en
t—
Cl
m
r-
vo
u
r~
r-
sp
r^
vo
SO
■.-.
en
en
CS
a
1    :   I
Tf
SO
©,
m
ft
©
cn
cs
l>
H
1
m
r-i
rs
rH
in
vo
in
rs"
a
ft
ft
Tt
CO
t-
©
r-
tr
ft
Cfl
oo © «n    ! vo
™-co
en
©
Tf
CS
©
Tt
oo
^
O
*H   rH^       |
cn
en
00
vO
m
en
VO
cl
ft
rH
en
o\
U
cs"   ;
rt
rH
>n
>c
—
—
rs
rH
rs
to
*n vp © © en
t
©
m
r»
C
,_,
vO.
so
vo
©
cn
to
en en ft ci cS
Cl
s
rS
CJ
e*>
Cl
V,
r-,
r^
ft
CO
Ph
ft es r- so cn
ft
Tf
Cl
Tf
00
SO
V-
en
Vi
t- v> © es m
ft
r>
sC
^c
Tf
OC'
so
©
Cl
<
es cs r- c-
Tf
ri
Cl
00
oc
V,
so
a
r-
C
en
m
Tt
Cl
Cl
CS
CL,
^
CO
1
rJ
to
to
to
^
p
CJ
es vo rs rn Tf
m
Tf
cl
00
ft
SO
3
u
<n r- ft cn m
©
cn
CC
SC
©
so
Tf
SC
VO
Ph
vO r-_ r-; vrj vp^
in
ft
q
ft
t>
cc
t-»
en
ft so i^ m co
8
ft
cs
rJ
so"
©   -H   ©   Tf   V)
en
Tt
Tf
ft.
f-
sC
m
t-
-0
co cs vi r- CS
Vi
Tf
X
ft
SC
CS
rn
tT
5
*""
en
en
ri
Tf*
Tf
Vt
Tf
Tf
Tf
Tf
Tt
to
CJ
>
C
^
ca.. i* 23
vo m Tf vp Tf
rn ft cs vo <n
C*l
oo
CS
Tf
CC
©
OC
OC
00
o
Are
Cul
Ove
(Acrs
00
^O
en
rr,
T>
i
vd
CO
SO
fO
cj
*n Tt vi oo un
cs
ft
Tf
TT
VO
vo"
Tf
©
00
f*
ft^
>n
©"
in
vO
s£
B
-q
i <t-i m
•+H
6 ° S
r- Tt vi cs ft
r*
Cl
r-
en
CO
©
ft.
cn
ft
(S
c
=* ft d
es r— © m r-
m
cs
■•o
en
ft.
s
cn
rH             —■   rn
Vi
m
VO
V.
SO
sC
Tf
■*
Tf
Vi
•a
*a
to
M
CJ
4Q
s .
'Z!  ci
M  rt
I|
T
.S   M
rt
_CJ
CS
tt  to
Cfl
m
ft
3
Cfl
to
O
Ph
©
ft'
oc
r-i
vp
Tf
cn
C
to"
DO
rt
u
to
I
SO
ft
vp   V,
ft  ft
ft
in   m
ft   ft
»n
ft
Vt
ft
ft
m
ft
rt
ei
cfl    cfl    cfl
CO
CA      Cfl
ua
Efl
(J
to
•a T)
1 P
t
to
em
•3
3   "
|
«
•a
«
>s
CJ
1
B
«      tH
Sg
0    0    0    0
0   o
o   o
0    O    to
OJ
t_EHHHHHHHHHH
K i
6«
og
2p<
>
nco
nee
nee
d
p
H   N
**H
rt *C 'c  rt
u
>
Q.
0-
*
Z
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
101
AREAS EXAMINED BY THE FOREST SERVICE FOR MISCELLANEOUS
<15) PURPOSES OF THE LAND ACT, 1961
Forest District
Applications for
Foreshore Leases
Applications to
Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number |    Acres
14
23
111
272
2
8
90
141
4
12
205
181
20              406
Prince Rupert  	
43               594
Totals	
37      :      383
1
10
231
16
386
63            1,000
(16)
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES,  1961
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MC.F.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cord-
wood
(Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
etc.
(No.)
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert...
Prince George..
Kamloops...	
Nelson... 	
Totals, 1961..
Totals, I960..
Totals, 1959..
Totals, 1958..
Totals, 1957..
Totals, 1956..
Totals, 1955-
Totals, 1954...
Totals, 1953-
Totals, 1952..
Ten-year average, 1952-61
470
304
468
479
171
92,601
101,459
196,632
239,052
90,400
237,093
187,489
262,799
269,028
70,834
1,892
720,144
1,027,243
2,122
767,351
1,142,479
2,317
j     681,550
877,370
1,922
609,563
890,285
2,582
781,748
1,171,283
3,089
1,095,150
1,273,970
3,354
1,077,986
1,131,521
3,085
|     781,665
697,421
2,579
719,234
561,601
2,340 I 1,029,199 I 1,624,811
233,798
816,577
855,545
2,612,000
3,170,000
8,807,614
7,387,960
8,772,888
16,099,489
13,981,856
9,885,451
10,532,164
12,887,882
40,005,329
2,528 j  826,359 | 1,039,798
13,604,855
1,355
1,548
1,795
10,100
24,000
7,687,920 ;  14,798
29,050
27,753
24,316
39,254
44,287
16,819
76,859
12.328
13,405
24,000
13,809
26,875
34,430
95,209
128,432
145,525
76,310
141,313
989,144
29,887
167,505
112,800
20,000
184,685
7,800
1,070,000
1,395,285
1,405,370
1,124,400
1,146,719
1,149,133
1,916,510
501,820
1,127,346
694,182
518,652
1,097,942
(17)
TIMBER-SALE RECORD, 1961
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest-protection Tax
(Acres)
Total
10-per-cent
Deposit
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert ..
Prince George-
Kami oops	
Nelson	
Totals-
Cash sales	
Total sales..
504
246
413
535
159
616
292
408
547
238
1,736
1,027
1,181
1,886
739
1,857
282
2,101
6,569
2,139
629,808
414,721
711,480
1,249,045
646,253
3,651,307
578,532
387,932
632,302
1,210,122
611,882
3,420,770
$6,236,771.84
1,393,999.37
2,169,649.02
3,508,756.29
1,969,421.36
$15,278,597.8
 102
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
On
Q
W
Q
2
I
<
Vi
8
<
CO
oi
W
ca
S
o
p^
z
o
I
Oh
s
o
o
u
P
rj
cs
o
VO
ft so C* Tf so
in
en
Cl
r^
H|
rs
r- rn m r- t-»
r-
(Kl
en
nn
vo
*
oo
O
t-
VO
JO
r*
m
to
gag
*j w a
US
S3 g
in    : m cs rn
~t
VO
vo
m
m
M
r-
r-
en
rH       i  VO* t>
o
m
in
rH
r-
r-
rH
^
p. Q
rH
*"•
h
U
Tf     ! rn in cS
(N
en
t*
Tt
r—
t~~
m
g
e
3
vo    l oo r- oo
m
rn
es
oo
TlgS
r--_   : cn e»
cs    I in ft
00
r>
rs
©
so
oC
OO
ft"
ft"
so"
>>
■a
o
>
en
r-
cn
in
m
00
o
= 5 S?
«S g
S SB
"° 2 i
&i
cs r- Os Tf vo
© rl cn m" rn
m
00
©
r^
Tf
Ov
vri
Tf
q
ft
VO
ft
r-
Tf
rt
CO
to
"
"
1-1
"
£
3
"o
>
rH
1
^
in ft Tf m rs
vo
$
en
ft
00
5
rH   00   rH   CS   rH
<n
Vi
en
r-p
m
00
o
>
pa
Si? Oi
O0  —1  ft ft  rH
ft.
en
Tf
co'
©
en
ft
CI
Tf
ft
en
5
*»
cs
0
O
SSI
en en vo Tf en
rH
«0
r-
O
vO
Tt
en
r-
o
rH
rH
rH
rH
en
sn
Tf
a
£
CO  ft  OO  00  ft
ft.
t-
t-
OO
r-
r~
00
ft
to
§
3
© en r^ so r-
en
r~
m
^^
ft
*7v
3
r»
Si
A
00
U
© r- cs en Tt
°H
ft
ts
en
©
Tf
m
o
00  rH  ^H  in  ft
ft
©
es
r—
©
a
m
o
>
in -r- y-^ xt so
ft
rn
m
vo
en
rH   r-   CS   CS
r*
v%
m
vo
m
•-•3-S"
to
*o
3
vo so rn rs Tf
ft
GO
©
«n
3
CO
ft
m
Cl
rs
<s
CJ
ri'
es
cn
cn
tN
JH     (A
oj   to
Mm
Ucfl
m
m
Tt m cs m
ft
Tf
©
00
cs
rs
cs
CS
cn
cs
es
es
cs
■^ B rt on
r&        CO
Tf so en in ft
m
vO
8
r>
©
© Tt — m m
CS
3
O
in cs Tf m rn
00
cc
Os
r~
rs
rs
©
VO
ri"
rn
ri
en
VO
cs
m
C to
co    ! VO cS en
WH
so
Tf
Cfl
to
s«8
cn    J Tf en rn
cn
cn
in
m
cs
CS
Tf
cs
rt
Cfl
O.S *H
o
S8S
u
IH
r-:
£
m
vo
a
r-
Tf
r-i
so
m
S
CQj-h
Z
pq
e to
1*8
rH en y* rs ft
vO
Tf
n
oo
Tf
m
m
m
©
u B
t— en en en vo
Tf
vo
r-
m
in
ft
00
so
so
ss^
JHJ
to
lip
E
3
Z
ft
©
en
rs
VO
00
in
m
©
Tf
m
V0
CJ
ft
Tf
CJ
m
a
rn r- cn vo co
ft vo cS en rn
00 ft ft ft ft
g
s
r*
00
s
g
00
r-
00
ft
cs
ft
a
6
u
o
OS  0O  rH  rH  VO
Tf m CO © -^
ft
Tf
m
©
s
U
on
rs
r^
Tt
r-
r-
Ss
3
2
rt
'""'
,"H
cs
cs
cs
rs
es
iiiiii
ci c>i oo r- vo vi tj
en
vovp<n«ninm»n»nin
ftOsftftftOvOvftftv
I-1
S o J
3   O   S
HHHHHHHHH
gPSOg
888~§
>
c
>
c
a
rt "to
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
103
oi
H
03
W
o
><
m
Q
w
2
%
Vi
m
j
(*
W
m
m vo Tf ft ft
m m h q »o
"S«
Os ft en ft oo
£ 3
m m cs rn Tf
rt C
Tt t> vo_ cs ©^
.5 >
ft" cs vo VO* Tt"
CS en ft en ©
*-■ to
en m o ft r—
w<*
vo CS in vO rn
= 8^
|
°'8g
Cs"
zjE*
0 a«
S
r>
cs?
! in en
! vi ©
!©©
i £ °~
o <d g
! © m
ZU£
t **
Cl
o « o
dScH
J5«   S
° )S »
oUm
Z   ts
zu
O  CA
. to
ZH
. u
O O
ZU
oo
;s*
-la
O rt
ZM
tfl
Q
CS CS VD ft ft
—! co vo oo en
CS co en oo vo
CS r-T rn cS rs
Sin oo in oo
rH  t~-  rH  CO
cs <n cS ft ft
rf      en ci
§8883
o vj> in (>C>
O th m" in en"
oo co cn Os Tt
ft  VO_ t> Tf  VO
oo en v7 Tt" ©
VO VO  rH  CS  Tf
©  CO  f-  VO  rH
m cs Tt vo cs
to
;«iO
_j ft oo r— VO v> Tf en eS „
vovoininininininvivi 5
ftOsftftftftftftftft
^ *"1 '"I   „ *"1 '"I    i ""I    -    . H
jfltfltfl^cfl     oj     oj     oTofojcflto
SiCieGei&CiGSCiCieil^
ooo'Soooooo   cj
HHHHHHt-HHHH
>0h
£*iz
 104
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
oo
n
<
tt!
CQ
z
O
3
o
cn
oi
w
«
H
<
eo
Z
O M
h Q
3 O
u g
w 5
Ph g
00 D
PQ
Q
5
00
<
oo
W
o
2
Oh
S
D
H
oo
tq
O
<
W
>
lH
to   ,
8«ta
OOOOO©
m es Tf r- Tt Tf
©
m
o   .
g£ft
3t?E
COO
ft   r-   VO
s
es m Tf en en th
'tt £pU
© O © in >n m
ft ft. ft. C- cs cl
ft So
2aa"""
1
cs
ft rs ft c- es cl
Ph
© © © © O ©
©
n
#«
"to
u
a
Cfl
<
«
©
i
rt
v>
t->
Vi
Vi
cj     tU
(J   lH~
T to f 1
Ph     rj
co i-h oo r- o -h
vO
u     Uh
rn w-i © m m vo
in r. © r-. Tf CJ
m" ci es ci e^i ci
Vi
en
rt
vO ft m cs en m
Vi
ft    o
cS
Vi
to   •
u   .
go.
•n o O in vc rs
Eft.
oo m Tf m os ■^,
ft r— ft t— Tt so
rs in y* vo r- m
Vi
*n
t- r- c- co rn -ct
oo" en" ft" m" Tt" ©"
en
£S
C-
r- r- en en r- r-
-H                           CS    CS
oo
tH
to
J*  &tH
© © ©    : © o
vO en ©     ! © oo
©
vO
It
to   ,
«>&Hh
©OOOOO
rn m © v, © ft
8
t3 opu
© © ©    : m m
ft ft ft    : cs cs
1
© © © «n m m
ft rs Os r- r- r-
A
CS
ta
CS
M
to
O
Ch
OOO     ! © ©
©
.—
Ph
© © o o © ©
©
Vi
Vi
to
a
Vi
(J U~
oo o ft    ! r- ©
©
Q   tH^
VO   ©   CO   Tf   Tf   rH
Tf  VO  ft  rn  rH  m
©
B
at
cJrJr!       !  © rn'
Ih
Ph     q
X
vi              '
Vi
6
Vi
Vi
ift
2U
in vi Vi    i r- o
rs
Eft
ao
Tf -^ vp r- cs in
Tf m -rf © oo r-
CO
8
r^
m
t— Tf en t- ft r-
>s
vo en          i rn
r^ rs
3
tH
to
O P-tL
U o    .
2 °. °. ° © O
O so Tt ft m oc
O
ft
«   .
■c So
ft So
] © ©
j m ©
©
in
vo m Tf cs r- Tf
rs
1 so VO
so
1
«n ft ft r- r~ r-
r-
:    :    i rs r-
r-
M
rH O O © O O
©
A
;    :    ! rs o
s
to
u
B
a
CO
Vi
Vi
to
Vi
rH  Tf
U      tL
U   «H™
A.    (j
CN  m  OO Tf  rH  VO
vo
ft   u
r*
ci cs' es cs i-^ r^
69-
cs"
Vi
ca
H
|    i    (
en rs
Vi
ci
Vi
Eft.
eft.
ao
Tt Tt en Vi ds as
rH   r.   ©   C-   ©^ Tf
CS ft
vo^
! i !
ft   CO
CO
>s
rH  rn  Tf  in  CS
cs
lH
to     .
o o © © o o
©
tH
to     .
©
i   i °2
©
U   rHfi.
.ii  «rs
rs cS Tt rn v> en
O © ©        inif)
ft ft Os        CS CS
cs
I
in
rs
to
«&rH
.1^  "rs
es
A
! 00 VO
oo
A
Tf
Ph
o © ©      o ©
o
PS
rS       i       !       1  t-  rH
rH
rt
to
oj    [£
■r- torj
Ph     rj
i— O vo © CO Os
Tf ft en CS so rn
ft
to      LX<
•C£U
ft    (j
S !  !
r- ■—'
y- O
CS
o
CS   rH   CS   rH   ©   rH
Vi
Vi
£
CS      i
Vi      '       ■
CS cs
cs
Vi
Eft
r—     :     :     : Os en
ft
E*
2U
00
© ft
O   00   rH            SO   ft
m r-~ rn       cS oo"
en r-T
Tf"
>2
r»
u   ,
8?
828
o
VO
u
©   ;   i   : © ©
r-       |       j       !  Tf  VB
s
o^Eh
en vo
ft CO C-
en
-ii urs
o    i         i Tf in
vi
ft rs
t-   ©   rH
(S
1
in
r-
^ 1 ) ]22
A
vo
-b
PS
O  r-  r-
to
OS
*h    ;    ;    | en rs
rH
rH
CO
rt
Vi
Vi
Ph
Vi
W3-
U    r<~
•ego
A.    u
o    el
U   r.^
ft   CJ
*n         i    i vo r-
00
V\ rH       j  CO © ft
VO
2
£
<1              t«3
en     !     !     ! Os ft
o\
o
Q
»              '
w>
6Q.    I     i     i
to
"„•
ift
au
m        1        !        1   rH   00
rs
3U
— so r-
en 00
© ft
VDr-VO
Tf
rs   i   •
cs r-
rs
C-  rH
>2
m
m  rH
es
>S
I |
to
CJ
i    ;
i    i
to
to
C
to
'C
Cfl
r^X
>
■^ ^
o
Uh
Ph
■S3
OH
Ph
0
CtS
Q
t tt &
U
0
i   to  u   t-
u a P. 5 „
u
!h
o
tL.
u
lH
o
rH
to  3  3  to g
8 8 8 S|§
rt
O
H
to  3 3  to g
gPnPSO §
0  to  to to O
O  O  Q   u?
Scene
g
St
1
c c a fi E M
rt
>
V-     U
Ph Pi
C
rt
to
2
rt
>
P- P.
M
z
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
105
2
a!
<
tt,
W
2
H
Z
o
w
aa
|
oo
Z
O
2 3
o2
5 z
H B
oo
3 Q
H 3
to co
CU ffi
a*
-    GO
H
2
LU
Ph
Vi    ,H
nz
b
p
w
g|
W j
g M
2
oo
ffl
to
r^
2
Ph
w
O
<
Oh
2
D
w
0
<
Pi
>
tH
OOOOO
©
u
© © O C
2 o
o
HWWVJN
v .
Os  rH  Cft  0s  CO
ft
ftgu
en cS th ts CS
en"
u 3-b.
o en" Tf r-^ Tf"
("*■
O © in m in
r- vo v~) r- cS
1
m
rS
■cSo
ft So
70-1
60-
55-
75-1
25-1
1
in
«
rH   —
©
to
Oi
r-I  rH       *
o
s
rt
Cfl
*c"3
Vi
Vi
'to
3
C/3
Vi
Vi
ft   u
O o Tf in oo
rH  [-  OS  CS  ©
vo
Os
8^-ft
IS"
m t— Tf in oo
oo co -<t ft cs
ft
PQ
CS  rn'       '  rr"  rn'
CS  rH  rH  rH  rH
rs
Vi
Vi
5
ft   o
tr>
Vi
Eft.
ao
oo es en so **n
Tf
£ft
ao
rH  CS  CS  rH  Tf
o
vo r- co r- rn
en
m vo en rn r-
en
cS t- m Tf m
cs
0\   m   rH    VO^   CO
***
cs'cs"
so"
oo" en oo os" vo
r>
>s
in rn            cl
u
en so
o o
CO  ft
o
en
J-
OOOOO
oc © Tf t- rS
o
rs
■c «u
ft§u
c
f cs
5  ©
es rs
© n
Tf"
1
m
tt ooU
ft So
00- 2.
60- 3.
60- 1.
75- 2.
25- 4.
Tf"
1
m
2
IS C-
eft cl
cs
CO
u
cs
rM
M
rH  rH
©
PS
rs *-"
d
to
o
i
a
V5-
»
to
6r>
y>
o ^ft
rH  CO       t  SO  Tt
Tt
«    tu
en m co vo O
>5
en oo
m r-
*""J
'|aO
rS vo 0s ft en
Tf
CS   rH
cs"
rs
u
ci ci
©
ft   o
Vi
t/>
5
ft   O
Vi
Vi
H
3U
ft    -H
vo ©
vo
Srr"
in © r- m Tf
OS
C-  rH
Tf   SO
m" vo
r- oo
00
1
Tf"
gft
ao
m en in cs co
CS   VO   rH   rH   (S^
ci
3
en
^s
rs
en
^s
to   ,
© o o © o
rn  rH  VO  Tf  ON
o
Tf
to   .
so en
O
en
to P-tL
ftiu
vo" rn cs so" cs'
© o in m m
VO
1
m
uD-Uh
ftlo
Tt vi
© m
in
1
m
Os cc oc t— r-
t-
q r»
r*
OS
rH   rH
o
ss
ri
d
u
Vi
Vi
rC
Vi
V9-
B
o .   ft
en   —I  VO  rn  rn
Tf
to
o^ft
,     ,     ■ rn r—
vO
a
CO
"n ft Tf ft vo
ri  H  r-1  r-' rl
t>
rt
H
XgO
i     i riri
ci
ft   o
Vi
Vi
ft    y
1      '      ' Vi
Vi
•„■
o rn o — en
m~
Wr,'
1  ,-« (-5
,_,
Eft.
ao
O r- o O r-»
© vo ft en ft
Tf
oo
Id
i Os vo
[  Vi   n
in
r*
rn rs m in en
CO
1         CS
rs"
£s
|s
u
© O     ! O ©
©
M
i    i o a
©
O
en rn     I rs Tf
Tf
to
VO 00
00
ft So
eS cs      cn* cn"
AA   dW
CO SO     ; rs cs
en
1
«n
es
to&riH
to to, •
" rtU
! \AA
I    : Tt Tf
ci
i
M
rH rH      | rH
d
B
Ph
Pi
. — ™
rH
|H
rt
Vi
Vi
Vi
Vi
u
O
« . ft
££0
ft   o
ft ft
rH   C;
CS*  rH
00 VD
in so
*.
O
!    i cs m
! © vo
!     i r-i ri
rs
r-
Vi
Vi
*to
Ph    rj
1      '      ' Vi
M-
>
Eft
3U
en oo
Tt r-
SO_ OO
Tf   CC
vo vo
oo
en
m
Tf
Tf
1*
: © Tt
: cs so
Tf
00
£s
"
^S
V
ft      SSvcm
©
Ov
|H
Oil©©
•n    |    i o\ co
©
Ov
u &S,
O        j   Tf   Tt   VI
d
«>nft
vo"        j r-' Tf*
r^
tH
S JfO
ft So
1        Ml
©    ; m m in
es    jieirc
7
Vi
Vi
•cSd
ftSo
1      !nr
©     |     ! en en
A
©
E
Ifl
rt
•a
3
o
Q
es
m*    ;
Vi
d
vi
to
.B
Ph
K
es"    !    i cn ©
Vi                          rH
csi
s^ft
ft    u
m    i © es co
m    i vi m ©
VO      j rH CS CS
Tf
CS
Tt"
u
15
s^ft
?su
t-            ! © vo
cs    !    I © eft
en"     i     i in" rn
OO
q
d
Vi      '
Vi
£
ft   o
Vi      '       '  rH  rH
r-
co
Ift
ao
r-
cs in en
ft   C-   Tf
00
Ift
so
VI       I       [ViC-
rn       I      I          VO
©n
CO
vq a\ vi
rH ci cn
vd
es         i      c-
Os
Ss
£s
to
u
|     j
to
Q
3
a
u
CJ
'u
>
o
>
0
XS
s
Cfl
t
M
CL
o
5
t
CJ
to
CI
(H
0
to
o
H
U
to
>
0
c
c
«
>
C
3
Oh
Q
C
C
'C
PL
0
to
0
to
0
0
w
c
0
c
£
«
a
0
V,
to
z
V]
0
H
u
M
O
tL
Ih
to
>
3
O
(J
c
rt
>
D
3
Ph
W
to
.£
Ih
P-
0
to
0
to
2
3
Z
PL
Q
c
8
E
0
I
"to
z
Cfl
3
s
H
 106
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
oo
ffl
J
<
GO
Oi
ffl
a
2
2
o
P4
ffl
Q
ffl
§
00
Q
Z
<
b
o
oi
ffl
«
2
3 ^
OS
39a
aw
at
g oi u
to .j
!5 to
•S to
r:
^
on
r-»
k
r;
■*
*
r-
1
T.
ft
00
in
c~
ft
Ov
00
O
—
CS
r-
t*.
M
rH
rH
rH
&
m
r-
sr
m
VI
Tt
cS
vp
rs
rs
•O
rN
ft
m
00
©
ri
es
Tt
IO
rs
m
ft
o
r-
Tf
t>
vo
en
3
VI
VI
Tf
Tt
en
■
j
r-
o
m
;
j
Cl
so
o
Tf
cn
ft
OO   VD   O   rH
-h © Tf rs
SO   CO OO H
Tfen Tt «n"
oo IS
vo c>
CS en"
oo f— ft Vi en O
cj vo © m m r-
rH rn so cn r- m
en en cs cs co Tt
t— rn co in rn m
in vO O^ oo^ vo^ en
S" oo os co" vo" in
^h m m r~ vo
Tt m Tt Os rs is
rn  en en
en r-
oo m
en Tt
Tf rs
in en
vo C*
vo vp
rH ft © CS
en o oo cs
rlHinri
en en rs oo"
rs rs Tf
m en Tf
OS rH rH rH © ft  H
O Tf
r- c-
r- t-
© vi
© ©
O rH
rs so
Tf oo
00 ft
ft ft
^
H
^
s
ri
.rs
3
o
O
oo
SO
K
rr,
m
<r>
as
*
VO
m
8
5
8
VP
3
c-
vo
o
VD
©
as
Tf
HL
SL
""_
	
rrL
rS
rr.
oo
ft
SO
rs
Tf
o
rr,
ft
00
©
VI
rs
00
Tf
n-
os
E>
00
*
rj
r—
rH
CJ
in
t-
m
"*
1-1
,_,
no
S
^
O
CO
8
ft
Tf
CS
00
00
g
ns
vp
m
en
m
in
cs
m
no
r—
3
CS
^r;
©
w
Vi
m
cn
Tf
m
o«
s a o
J 3 u
iaJO
00
r»
sO
Vi
Tf
j     i
en   ci
vi
m
m
vi  m
ft
ft.
ft
ft
ft
o o o o o o o
H H H  H H H H
e2(2
Sf Si.
±   00
S a
I e E S
e,ft WZ
 (23)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
SAW AND SHINGLE MILLS OF THE PROVINCE,  1961
107
Operating
Shut Down
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Forest District
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Vancouver-	
191
222
564
559
242
7,963
1,859
7,305
8,211
3,687
52
6
2
881
30
6
63    |          302
80    |           413
199    j        1,580
105    |           627
112               691
2
1
6
23
Prince George...   	
Kamloops	
Nelson.. -.,
5
21
Totals, 1961	
1,778
29,025
60
917
559    |        3,613
9
49
Totals, 1960	
1,938
29,432
44
950
558    |        3,381
17
93
Totals, 1959... . .
2,005
28,280
65
1,138
587    |        3,975
6
23
Totals, 1958-
2,010
27,694
56
1,141
586    |        4,007
9
37
Totals, 1957-    	
2,255
26,752
58
1,390
514    1        3,124
10
121
Totals, 1956	
2,435
29,080
66
1,381
390    |        2,013
8
15
Totals, 1955  ...
2,489
28,016
72
1,804
404    |        2,285
3
19
Totals, 1954-	
2,346
25,602
57
1,108
367    ]        2,281
13
22
Totals, 1953	
2,413
23,300
59
1,121
286    |        2,186
12
47
Totals, 1952 	
2,223
23,433
59
1,173
332    |        2,092
24
117
Ten-year average,
1952-61 _	
2,189
27,061
60
1,212
458    |        2,896
11
54
(24)
EXPORT OF LOGS (IN F.B.M.)  1961
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
i    m .       :•:
Fir
1,924,044
3,542,597
3,375,588
233,014
6,721,498
7,651,330
11,581,720
1,880,836
2,676,345
17,345,406
7,473,439
18,795,103
3,000,086
7,678
16,259
216,363
51,820
15,451
3,462
14,321,973
	
28,547,011
Spruce  —  -
22,447,006
12,188,607
21,125,316
138,957
2,334
4,302
458,189
20,790
1,145,156
553,524
40,543
Cypress  —  —
14,193
1,745,764
14,193
314,107
869,965
Totals, 1961	
9,216,534
28,611,982
48,009,763
12,202,800
3,311,119
101,352,1981
Totals, 1960 	
1,391,803
5,351,398
20,872,330
11,805,419
890,260
40,311,210
Totals, 1959 	
486,685
2,601,653
19,608,208
3,999,901
1,839,030
28,535,477
Totals, 1958	
734,991
3,727,452
16,164,689
3,715,124
3,762,411
28,104,667
Totals, 1957- -   	
524,180
3,987,443
22,016,291
5,625,910
3,421,354
35,575,178
Totals, 1956. 	
183,859
2,933,129
27,433,037
12,929,722
3,530,479
47,010,226
Totals, 1955	
906,141
7,468,949
58,863,477
16,974,165
4,754,796
88,967,528
Totals, 1954	
3,948,345
19,595,544
90,691,771
17,465,267
9,274,995
140,975,922
Totals, 1953 	
5,341,576
15,853,076
74,187,464
18,974,550
5,788,905
120,145,571
Totals, 1952 	
4,732,890
15,944,292
84,757,110
18,400,266
1,161,660
124,996,218
Ten-year average, 1952-61
2,746,700
10,607,492
46,260,414
12,209,312
3,773,501
75,597,419
i Of this total, 31,272,030 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege;
70,080,168 f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas.
 108
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(25)
SHIPMENTS OF POLES, PILING, MINE-PROPS, FENCE-POSTS,
RAILWAY-TIES, ETC., 1961
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
United
States
Canada
Other
Countries
Vancouver—-
Poles	
Piling.
_ lin. ft.
Stakes and sticks -
Fence-posts— pieces
Cedar shakes     „
Christmas trees —     „
Prince Rupert—Poles.  lin. ft.
Prince George—■
Poles _  lin. ft.
Piling   -     „
Poles and piling      ,,
Fence-posts. pieces
Hewn ties      „
Kamloops—■
Poles - _  lin. ft.
Poles and piling      „
Fence-posts — — cords
Christmas trees  pieces
Nelson-^
Poles  _. lin. ft.
Poles and piling     „
Corral-rails..       „
Hop-poles —     ,,
Mine-timbers     ,,
Mine-props  cords
Cordwood       „
Fence-posts
Christmas trees 	
Total value, 1961..
Total value, 1960..
..pieces
5,089,350
6,513,254
310,000
4,190
25,377,643
55,892
3,515,953
198,720
24,372
165,875
64,255
3,907
3,283,710
468,230
948
868,274
487,680
3,940,053
89,460
7,318
225,432
52
17
6,181
1,250,212
$2,069,783.82
1,850,239.69
2,200.00
1,382.70
1,586,092.50
83,838.00
1,336,044.14
73,526.40
6,093.00
40,468.75
16,063.75
5,665.15
1,050,787.20
117,057.50
37,920.00
520,964.40
151,181.00
2,302,292.00
1,789.00
146.00
12,399.00
728.00
184.00
358,498.00
787,634.00
$12,412,978.00
3,406,756
16,821
310,000
1,190
25,337,143
55,892
2,074,672
143,160
1,271,840
58,030
43
857,622
199,080
2,208,850
7,318
1,179
1,025,174
428,335
259,404
1,441,281
55,560
24,372
165,875
64,255
3,907
2,011,870
410,200
905
10,652
288,600
1,731,203
89,460
255,432
52
17
5,002
225,038
$9,938,357.35
1,254,259
6,237,029
40,500
(26)
SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF MINOR PRODUCTS, 1961
Product
Volume
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
 lin. ft.
12,575,413
6,537,626
4,574,158
225,432
310,000
89,460
7,318
2,174,378
25,377,643
68,445
3,907
7,129
52
17
$4,681,322.56
1,856,332.69
2,459,818.25
12,399.00
2,200.00
1,789.00
146.00
1,392,436.40
1,586,092.50
17,446.45
5,665.15
396,418.00
728.00
184.00
37.7131
Piling       „
14.9548
19.8165
0.0999
0.0177
Corral-rails -      „
0.0144
0.0012
Christmas trees	
 pieces
11.2176
12.7777
0.1405
0.0456
3.1936
0.0059
Cordwood     „ -
_      ,,
0.0015
$12,412,978.00
100.0000
 (27)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED, 1952-61
109
Ten-year
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
Average,
1952-61
Old Crown grants	
696
381
528
609
480
320
215
299
315
268
411
Crown grants, 1887-
1906       	
201
134
175
218
207
108
93
103
115
121
148
Crown grants, 1906-
1914  	
204
136
160
171
172
97
93
125
123
121
140
Section 55, Forest Act..
538
409
485
653
655
460
362
524
517
470
507
Stumpage reservations
62
95
69
95
82
59
89
108
116
117
89
Pre-emptions under sec
tions 28 and 29, Land
Act          	
8
7
13
10
3
24
1
1
30
2
10
31
6
10
46
1
7
23
7
9
9
21
1
4
15
3
4
8
3
6
Indian reserves	
22
2,594
2,881
2,786
3,130
2,859
2,239
1,900
1,926
2,136
2,141
2,459
Special   marks   and
rights-of-way	
98
63
44
43
71
74
80
85
113
91
76
Pulp leases —
6
3
1
6
1
1
7
1
1
5
3
1
Totals	
4,428
4,139
4,280
4,968
4,589
3,389
2,855
3,201
3,456
3,349
3,865
Transfers and changes
of marks    	
983
744
780
867
873
615
598
669
794
691
761
CROWN-GRANTED TIMBER LANDS PAYING FOREST-PROTECTION TAX
(28) AS COMPILED FROM TAXATION RECORDS,  1952-61
Year
Acreage
Assessed as
Timber
Land
Coast
Interior
Logged
Timber
Logged
Timber
1961  ..     	
490,061
500,837
502,001
698,470
614,095
723,103
783,517
801,983
757,516
718,284
Acres
145,439
139,651
125,883
133,100
146,535
205,503
221,934
236,350
201,264
203,249
Acres
201,955
213,465
238,285
271,717
288,046
389,396
429,350
429,037
444,014
433,496
Acres
73,275
77,347
71,509
194,640
88,580
64,606
69,822
69,416
27,692
29,418
Acres
69,392
1960	
70,374
1959..	
1958..  	
66,324
99,013
1957 	
90,934
1956	
1955-.     	
1954	
63,598
62,411
67,180
1953  	
84,546
1952
52,121
 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(29)
ACREAGE OF TIMBER LAND BY ASSESSMENT DISTRICTS
District
Alberni .
Acres
  11,255
Comox   88,983
Cowichan   87,844
Cranbrook   4,174
Gulf Islands   1,313
Kamloops   80
Kettle River   752
Lillooet   4,026
Nanaimo    108,891
District Acres
Nelson-Slocan   90,444
Prince George  2,127
Prince Rupert  13,991
Princeton   1,899
Quesnel Forks  40
Vancouver   1,754
Vernon   34,805
Victoria   33,363
Omineca   4,320
(30)
FOREST REVENUE
Twelve
Months
to Dec. 31,
1957
Twelve
Months
to Dec. 31,
1958
Twelve
Months
to Dec. 31,
1959
Twelve
Months
to Dec. 31,
1960
Twelve
Months
to Dec. 31,
1961    '
Ten-year
Average,
1952-61
Timber-licence   rentals
and fees   	
Timber-berth rentals and
fees	
Timber-lease rentals and
fees	
Timber-sale rentals and
fees	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising and
advertising	
Timber royalties	
Grazing permits and fees
Forest-protection tax	
Miscellaneous  —
$365,193.26
19,486.74
70,455.47
380,963.43
26,327,150.06
245,542.40
1,838,162.25
69,041.15
459,312.26
156,060.04
$362,192.71
19,335.48
70,780.38
425,867.87
21,355,873.18
225,790.42
1,719,957.61
73,093.16
500,914.85
132,917.72
$362,825.25
19,910.61
70,094.39
435,589.31
23,092,737.28
252,985.19
1,890,590.96
86,506.29
510,661.47
121,287.96
$363,597.80
18,712.81
76,493.46
452,788.69
26,374,420.04
277,345.73
2,281,028.09
101,240.36
456,491.27
121,461.72
$366,600.53
21,929.03
59,071.23
480,803.23
24,554,147.30
377,755.89
2,245,313.71
119,876.87
569,749.95
134,824.47
$369,794.19
19,998.89
66,746.78
341,257.23
20,845,992.31
230,254.36
2,049,941.12
90,223.69
113,923.82
Totals..
$29,931,367.06
$24,886,723.38 $26,843,188.71
$30,523,579.97
$28,930,072.21
$24,128,132.39
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961
111
m
Z
o
<
O
O
z
0
a
o
j
H
Z
o
<
Q
W
o
tti
«
o
z
p
o
2
<
VO
Tf
fl
DC
r-
00
rt
0>
en
t-
OC
O
WS
t-
VD
rH
© SO 00 -TT OJ
cN
cn
rH
q
r-
o
rt
m
IS
CC'
rt
O   rH  ON   Vi   Vt
cn
ON
VP
d
3
CN
od
S
t^
tr- v, oo o fN
Tf
r-
t->
<N
as
8
00
ri
-O^'tKtN
Tf
SC
r-
in
m
©
m
ts
CN
o
H
r~ rn en « in
o
s
Tf
OS
s
r^.
VO
Tf
CN
r"
•-h ■■* o oo c-
O^ so on rn oo
fN
«
CM
fN
(N
in
rt
00
OO
Os
Tt
r-
rt
Tf
m
00
rn (S rn vo* fN
00
(N
r-
Tf
o
Tf'
OS
as"
oo"
m
fN
rt
r-i
fN
rt
rt
CM
CN
Vi
M
Vi
Vt
fr>
Vi
vt
vi
Vt
in
Vi
Vi
SO  t-  ©  00  Tf
Vi
en
r-~
rt~
on"
tr-
SO
r>
cc
CN
xr-
Forest
Development
Fund
Os rn oo -^ rn
tr-t
Vi
vo
t>
©
Vi
o
rt
rt
Ov
vi *0 © fN 00
rt
rH
so"
rH
Tt
ri
—*
m'
—!
•r-i
rn
t- ri oo so oo
cn q r-so Tt
Tt
ON
cc
VO
00
o
tr-
m
CN
rn
r>
o
rt
m
00
l>
in
Q0
m
f- Tt rH r-T t-
rt*
T)"'
OC
0v"
__'
ri
—r
rl
ri
CC
m
Vi rN O oo oo
m
Os
as
rt
rt
cc
r-
rn
n
«r>
00
rs      m
r»
n
Vt
Vt
«■
Vi
*ft
o^
v>
«■
Vt
rt
3
CO
SO
Vi
T*
so
00
CN
SO
sd
SO
vo
ri
3 u"0
ON
C"
ON
r-
in
so'
©
rt
so
rt
CO
rt
On
oo
sC
S
m
«■
6r>
__"
^*
4A
;
Vi
«■
l
j
;
1
m
Drest
serve
count
mber
|
m
cc
1
I
\
i
ft^<H
I
cn
r>
t>
r-
O
SO
1
1
n
Vt-
CO
Os
„
Tf tr- CN rH OO
as
Rentals,
Cruising,
Advertising
Transfer
Fees
t^   t-   OS   T-   rH
rt
fN
C^
Tf
r-;
Tf
tr-t
Tf
Vi
in os rn r-' l>
rs
Tf
v\
oc
vd
XT-
r^
rt
in
Tt
in
Vi en y* — tr-
o
Tf
o
rn
r-
r-
00
Tf
tN
r-
Tt   rH   rn   0\ rH
r* r- r^ © tN
vi -t y Tt tr-
q
m
rn
m
SO
O
o'
q
Os
CN
in
SO
ON
no"
rt
as
m
so"
m
o
ri
f
rt
CO
Vi
CS
Tf
m  rH   (N   m   rH
CN
o
ON
ON
Os
00
m
T*
Tf
OO
t/3-
^J"
Vi
«r>
Vt
tr>
t«-
6ft
«r>
Vi
Vi
CN
tft
■^i
Tf~
ON
vo
rt
m
^5~
^"
c*
oo r- on m m
oo t> rn © sq
[^
OS
r-
t>
fN
l>
Os
rj
tj;
rn
o
DO
ca
a
O rn cN O cn
©
rt
00
as
t>
©
©'
rt
ri
in
rn
r- Os Os oo Tf
OC
ON
tN
r-
00
t~~
rt
m
Os
t- r- O Tf Os
o
rt
SD
■o
cn
CC
Tf
SO
00
Tt
i
rn so m oo o
rn
Tt"
Os
un
m
00
o*
no'
o
ON
vo o os o as
3.
«
OJ
oo
^o
CN
m
ON
NO
m
o
p
00 O tN 00 Tf
rt
CC
as
a>.
e>
Tt
CO
Os CN cn m CN
rt
r-
m
o
SC
00
ON
Tf
Tf
Tt
Vi
CN
CN
fN
fN
CN
n
(N
Vi
«■
6r>
Vi
«■
Vi
Vi
Vt
Vi
tr>
Vi
C-   rH
CC
ON
fN
rt
s
in
Cl
ON
T
m
00
Os O
a-.
so
U^J
m
rH
rt
rt
CO
vo
00
OS o
$
Tf
r^
as
00
Tf'
ON
in
vo*
C «
"A
o
OS
CN
rt
o
r^
K—
o
rt
fN
"3 w
rt
o
(N
0\
t-
C-;
l>
CN
•a
a
3
oh
Vi  O
vi
Os
rn
00*
g
oC
cn"
s0"
N
m"
vO
ON O
as
cc
r-
m
m
m
•n
oo
CO
OO  rH
Os
fN
q
r*
as
r^
T*
m
m
m
tr-
Ph
Vi
Vi
Vi
V5-
«r>
fcfi-
fir>
«-
w
Vi
00
CN
V\
^5-
cc
rt
VO
r-~
rT
__
x~
O rs
13
OOO
Is
© Tt
Tf
ri
t-
OJ
00
rt
™
CN
rt
CM
(-"  rH
od
©
£
r-*
cn
d
PH
ON
rt
On'
rn
W
2$
3
r^
m
m
OC
CO
r-
*3 *
ot
CN
o
Ift
vO
SC
o
££
Os
ac
CO
ON
CN
vO
SO
2
so'
ON
Tt"
TT
O
SO
r-
fN
00
rH             !      I      !
r»
CN
fN
fN
fN
vi        !   1   !
Vi
Vt
Tf
Vi
On"
Vt
fN
Vt
m
«r>
c
rn
O
Vi
on"
rt
Vi
on in o m ©
vi Tf rn os ©
g;
■ H
»H   CO
CJ  3
(N
NO
rt
00
ri
r-;
■H
CN
rt
O  00  SO  C-  rH
Tf
Tf
-H
C
d
r»
Tf
Tt
rn
as'
Tf
u 5
.J2 u
^t oo r- in Tt
O
CN
(N
oi
rt
o
fN
00
r-
OXHHtN
v.
r-
rt
t-
as
o
q,
sC
r*
•n
2 cs
Tf   Tf   Tf   In   rH
ON
o
o
r^i
m
CN
o
On'
CN
CN
6ft
Vt
""
tft
»
Vt
{^
Tt
w-
Vi
SO
Vi
Os
av
r-l
Vi
(SlriNwO
r-i
IO
rN
SO
OS   O   Tf   m   rH
00
io
Tf
OO
t*J
Tf
ON
rt
Tt
q
>»
Os fN od r-° in"
r-i
©
ON
tN
rt
m
Tf"
OC
rt
—'
—<
o o cn oo r—
o
OI
-t
CN
SO
"2
o
00
Os
rt
en o r- cs rn
Tf
OC
m
q
sq
rt
o
so
o
cn o vt -rt m
in
Tf'
rt
SC
00
rt
0?
Tf
r>
|
Tt Tf 00 Tt CN
rt
00
00
rt
SO
ON
Tf  cn          rH  rH
00
vO
00
CN
fN
o
CN
N
fN
CN
r-i
fN
fN
CN
Vi
'Si
^9-
CA
Vi
Vt
t>9-
lr>
te-
Vi
&e-
W
VO
T
CN
Os
_u
'"T
tH
o
Vi
00
3
m
u
0
>
pH
O
ON
oo  t— vo  in
Tf
rt   cN
«
VO
un
m   m. m   in
m
in   in
rt
ON
ON
Os   ON   Os   0s
ON
On   Os
Efl
ta    ta    vj    vt
ta    ta
rt
Q
rt
rt   cn
m    Si     ft     si
rt
si    ei
c
O
O   O   O   0   o   o   o
O    0    u
0)   3   U   3
tHtMr^^r^r^f^^r.,^^
§«OS
O   0)  4>   O   g
o u u rs O
c c c £ s
>
ft.
rt
u
a
 112
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
oi
<
ffl
>
ffl
•<
O
Vi
ffl
Vt
Z
O
I—(
H
<
oi
ffl
ffl
O
o
z
o
o
o
ffl
H
z
<
Q
ffl
o
<
a
o
v>
H
z
o
a
<
5
H
t.4,
§•§•11
.SSc
lag
a m.S o
rH   fi   WUH   r/]
8 5 £ 2^
PhU^H
m O cn Tf o
-H    1— SO    Tf    fN
l>  ON CN^ rH  ©
CO fN Os"sD rH
so co r* m m
cn r-^ on in Or
Tf cn m so" rn
m — rH © oo
Tt os Tf cn co
cn r— — in en
rn sq r- q rn
rn vd rn sp sp
— Tt m vo vo
h so rn oo in
©   rn' -rf in   rn"
m m oo r- oo
rt th rn CS th
O in rn CN so
© m cn m r—
in Tf oo as o
— cn cn so cn
rn  fN
m cn
©  rH
r- m rn m r-
O SO O Tf rn
oo O m Tf on
Tf CN  rn" CS
CN   Tf   SO   fN   rH
Tt sq oo vq sq
in Os rN as cn
rn oo m sp m
in so so rt ©
—1
00
rs
fls
^
On
Tf
fS
c-
©
00
VO
m
rt
m
tn
rs
>n
Tf
^H
©
rt
rN
T*
00
rjs
rt
r-
as
m
Os
rs
sO
CS
rN
CN
on
_'
,_;
tft
tft
Vt
(ft
tft
tft
tft
Vt
b^
o>
rt
r>
3
m
fN
sO
r^
—i
O
r-
m
SO
m
00
so
m
rn
o
Tt
Tf
rt
a\
rN
r-
ON
fN
00
©
rN
rN
CN
tft
tft
•Vi
b^-
tft
rH
on
&
00
PH
as
r-
©
m
oo
IN
rs
SO
vO
r-
a
fN
Tt
r—
©
00
CN
©
fN
vo
b^
*«■
ift
vt
tft
tft
tft
(ft
ir,
©
or,
r-
r-
6\
r-
r*
VO
r—
rt
©
OS
so
rS
SO
00
■Os
no
fN
O
fN
vo
Tt
m
©
rt
rN
rN
Vi
tft
Vi
tft
(A
tft
tft
tft
tft
ift
u  3
©ONoor-vomTfrneNrH >
sominmininminmin ^
OnOsOsOsOsOsOsOsOsOn
vitavTvitatajataiavi j*
rtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtL
OOOOOOOOOOu
HHHHHhHHHHH
3
9
.5 5
>PhDhh4Z
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
113
(33A)
FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1960/61
Timber-licence rentals and fees
Timber-berth rentals and fees _
Timber-lease rentals and fees __
Timber-sale rentals and fees 	
Timber-sale stumpage
Timber-sale cruising and advertising
Timber royalties Li. .	
Grazing permits and fees 	
Forest-protection tax 	
Miscellaneous  	
$359
18
72
470
25,628
287
2,264.
107
484
124
347.42
940.93
890.50
808.01
,859.50
,759.25
,815.21
,264.40
125.94
484.15
Ten-year Average
$375,815.84
17,793.86
64,298.45
305,866.15
18,676,839.47
200,575.04
2,104,752.89
80,686.85
(!)
102,229.24
Taxation from Crown-granted timber lands {Taxation Act)  : „	
Taxation  collected  under  authority  of Esquimalt
and Nanaimo Railway Belt Land Tax Act	
Taxation collected on forest land (Taxation Act)....
Taxation collected on tree-farm land (Taxation Act)
$29,819,295.31     $21,928,857.79
378,357.76
518,645.45
330,486.90
196,118.86
$31,242,904.28
i Formerly credited to Forest Protection Fund.
2 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last seven fiscal years.
3 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last eight fiscal years.
535,057.26
822,136.98
(2)
(3)
(33B)
FOREST REVENUE BY FISCAL YEARS, 1951/52 TO 1960/61
Fiscal Year
Direct Forest
Revenue
Taxation from
Crown-granted
Lands
Taxation Collected under
Taxation Act
Taxation Collected under
Authority of
E. & N. Railway Belt Land
Tax Act
Total
1960/61-
1959/60-
1958/59-
1957/58-
1956/57-
1955/56..
1954/55..
1953/54-
1952/53-
1951/52-
$29,819,295.31
28,637,417.31
25,081,815.59
29,054,657.56
31,240,260.37
23,867,705.50
19,130,835.31
17,578,625.58
18,016,025.17
13,703,715.41
$378,357.76
402,126.38
516,669.53
597,118.52
675,079.21
681,503.26
621,527.16
612,865.29
588,821.78
484,475.51
$526,605.76
438,717.64
764,224.24
883,674.75
685,611.49
532,010.00
318,648.74
$518,
682.
738,
1,060
1,147,
940
879,
863,
418
972,
357.76
143.15
039.35
884.36
535.38
632.27
822.00
116.21
395.59
156.13
$31,242,616.59
30,160,404.48
27,100,748.71
31,596,335.19
33,748,486.45
26,021,851.03
21,150,833.21
19,054,607.08
19,023,242.54
15,160,347.05
 114 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(34) FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1960/611
Forest District
Salaries
Expenses
Total
Vancouver.	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George-
Kamloops	
Nelson.	
Victoria	
Totals-
$588,042.31
398,411.91
473,601.89
585,596.39
468,082.03
444,910.85
$2,958,645.38"
$181,850.16
130,695.20
136,277.71
145,425.80
102,906.31
341,009.64
$769,892.47
529,107.11
609,879.60
731,022.19
570,988.34
785,920.49
$1,038,164.82
Reforestation and forest nursery-
Forest management	
Forest research	
Public information and education-
Forest Ranger School-
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association-
Office furniture and fixtures	
Silviculture  	
Engineering services-
Forest protection	
Forest surveys-
Grazing Range Improvement Fund2_
Forest-development roads	
Fire suppression-
Peace River community pastures.
$3,996,810.20
423,444.55
566,855.78
182,954.86
103,083.82
101,177.08
10,000.00
30,431.95
1,352,815.37
936,090.64
3,180,708.97
1,077,427.43
52,327.44
1,925,303.50
4,866,608.67
19,974.93
$18,826,015.19
i True gross expenditures.
2 Statement provided elsewhere.
(35)
SCALING FUND
Deficit, April 1, 1960 	
Collections, fiscal year 1960/61
Expenditures, fiscal year 1960/61
Surplus, March 31, 1961  ,	
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1961
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1961
$164,063.50
1,399,718.03
$1,235,654.53
1,181,380.49
$54,274.04
1,012,500.97
$1,066,775.01
897,503.08
Balance, December 31, 1961 (credit)       $169,271.93
(36)
GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Deficit, April 1, 1960	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act)
Expenditures, fiscal year 1960/61
Deficit, March 31, 1961 	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act)
Expenditures, April 1, 1961, to December 31, 1961
Balance, December 31, 1961 (credit) 	
$12,799.41
44,633.07
$31,833.66
52,327.44
$20,493.78
53,632.20
$33,138.42
32,584.54
$553.88
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961
115
vo m
SO
00
Tt
rn © on rn in so
VO
m" cs in vd in rs
r-*-
"«
h rj\co r-O \t
m on vo rn m Tt
cn
P
Tt on oo on on in
t-
H
m t- OO Tf ON
in m rn m p»
o
%
r~
©
»      hW
oo"
Vi
ri 00 ON vo CN CN
00
w
oo vo cn in © q
Tt
o O
on Os t*" <n rn rn
vd
oo Os m On cs vo
©
ca 4>
rn tr- rn cn oo .r>
Si
CN          rH  rH  rH  00
vd*
Vi                     cs
m
VO
t-
t—
©
©
o
VD
£3
o
o
ON
s«
©
o
%
rn
rs
rn
cs
Vi
ffl
c
rH
,_,
>
•a o
In'rj
3
cn
VO
m
vd
ffl
cn
rn
<
ffi «
On"
SO
vp
vi
v>
ffl
r*
xr-
ec    jn
cc
00
0<
O
ffl
C      o
i
I
Tt
m
q,
en
Tt
m
p
cn
ffl
o
>
Ph      BJ
[
Vt
vt
■n © © rn vo ©
OS  00  ON  t— Tt  rH
Tt
jW tj
ON
oi
2*3.2?
r- wi m ^ on i*^
© vo cn © © m
od
vo
ffl
CO
ii S o
CN OO rH^ rH r-^ r-
CN  Tf  VO  rn" ©" O
Vi
m m rn tJ- Tf so
ri
H
co
tfi-          rH
rn
Vi
W
in Tf Tf VO rH so
s
«
00 O rn  Vi  rH  rH
rn t— on Os oo vo"
CS © © tr- en oo
00
o
ffl
m
© CN  VO t-  in  rH
© r* cs" rn oo' vo"
r~"
ffl
t— vo rn on oo tt
ON
Vi       CS
m
3
Vi
H
vo oo © m rn r-
© O rn «n rN tt
tr-
>H
vq
tr- © t> in" vd cn
CO
ffl
f/j
m oo cs vo Tt m
o
cn cs cS rn m —
VD
ffl
£
Tt os m r- © o
ON W) © rH tr- CN
VD
VD
05
*r>           VI   00  CN   rH
OO
5
CS  rH
Tt"
Vi
QJ
vo tr- tr- Vt en «n
en
3
2
§   .2
<n  C-; rn  r~;  V0  rH
CN
a
VO © rH CC vd 00
r-i
V
ca §
cs oo vo Tt r- -rt
Tt
ffl
i
£ 9 2
Tt m OO Tt Tt VD
cs
ffl
o.
.SBg
CS*" rn" (S? f-T Tf  rH
©*
Tt  Tf  NO  in  SO  CS
ON
X
ffl
'3
w
a
s °
«■
cs
2
VO 00 VO r- CS rn
©
m oo oo r^ © cN
o
(A
■s
r" cs vd od vd t>
©  ©   rH   ON   Tt   rH
OS  i-l  ©  rn ©  OO
ON
oo
o
D
o^
o
Z
** rs" vo* ©" rn* r»"
oo"
H
in  ri          Tf
ffl
m
Tt
Vt
H
O
rt
rt <3 rt
oo in cs cS Tj- vp
cs vq cn © t~i c$
"i
Tt* rH Tt Tt pj* jr,
«n cs oo rn o\ Tt
© VO rH © in rH
oC © on in vo «n
© C- © cn cn cn
in
a.
■
H
co
ffl
rt
liii
rn
vo
vo
m rn cs cn m
m
o
ffl
8*1
Tt © oo on r- vp
cs rn Tt cn cn ©
Tt
VD
HI
oo © v] os © rn
vo -rt cs Tt tr- ©
vd
m
Tt r- m vo r- vo
f*
cn rn in rn in rn
m"
Vi
cs
Vi
i 1 1
J o   i
ffl   00    ;
*3
ts
!•
4>   ffl     I
a o J
I
i
CO
o 3  oj ™
rj  o  O 73  v.
rt
3
o
>
£
a
>
L
 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
REPORTED APPROXIMATE EXPENDITURE IN FOREST PROTECTION
(38) BY OTHER AGENCIES,i 1961
Expenditures
Forest District
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
Vancouver  	
$207,798
116,188
41,500
33,250
109,689
$234,420
17,734
12,000
46,400
88,401
$200,385
154,762
51,028
55,767
60,394
$522,336
$53,913
43,202
127,500
158,050
60,091
$696,516
331,886
Prince George	
232,028
293,467
Nelson
318,575
Totals	
$508,425
$398,955
$442,756
$1,872,472
Ten-year average, 1952-61   ...
$304,685
$421,606
$339,603
$287,619
$1,353,513
i Principally forest industry.
(39)    SUMMARY OF SNAG-FALLING, 1961, VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total area logged, 1961   72,264
Logged in small exempted operations 1       481
Assessed for non-compliance, less 985 acres subsequently felled  1,282
     1,763
Balance logged acres snagged, 1961   70,501
Snags felled 1961 by Forest Service Protection Division     8,058
Snags felled 1961 by Forest Service Reforestation Division      2,050
Total area snagged, 1961   80,609
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3) of section 116, Forest Act.
(40)
SUMMARY OF LOGGING SLASH REPORTED IN 1961,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total area logged, 1961 	
Area covered by full hazard reports   38,472
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-disposal1   20,681
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from slash and snag disposal)2        481
Acres
72,264
Slash created and not reported in 1961
i Includes 5,678 acres reported exempt on slash-burn reports.
2 Exemption granted under subsection (3) of section 116, Forest Act.
59,634
12,630
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961
117
(41)
ACREAGE ANALYSIS OF SLASH-DISPOSAL REQUIRED,  1961,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1961 19611 Total
Broadcast burning      7,593 9,558        17,151
Spot burning     10,740        10,581        21,291
Totals
18,333        20,139        38,472
1961 reports not recommending slash-disposal	
1961 slash on very small operations exempted without special examination  	
20,681
481
21,162
Total area of slash dealt with, 1961
59,634
i Does not include the estimated 753 acres (see Table 42) created too late to be dealt with in 1961.
ANALYSIS OF PROGRESS IN SLASH-DISPOSAL, 1961,
(42) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total disposal required (see Table 41)
Type of Disposal
Spring broadcast burning	
Spring spot burning	
Fall broadcast burning 	
Fall spot burning 	
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1961 1961
1,496
197
9,382
6,071
Total burning completed  17,146
Burning by accidental fires	
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc. 	
8,867
9,460
18,327
Acres
38,472
Total
1,496
197
18,249
15,531
35,473
3,958
Total
39,431
Balance reported slash not yet abated
Slash created, 1961—acres assessed _
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1961
Total area of slash carried over to 1962 for disposition1
169
753
922
1 Does not show the acreage instructed in 1961 to be extended or assessed in 1962.
Actual area burned in spring spot burning, 121 acres.
Actual area burned in fall spot burning, 1,191 acres.
The above figures do not include 1960 slash-burn reports received too late for inclusion in 1961 Annual
Report, 753 acres.
 118
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SUMMARY OF SLASH-BURN DAMAGE AND COSTS, 1961,
(43) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1961 	
Net damage to forest-cover	
Net damage to cut products 	
Net damage to equipment and property
Total damage 	
6,735
$122,711.30
24,518.30
7,400.00
$154,629.601
1 Of the total damage shown, $135,423 resulted from two escape slash burns and is in no way indicative of
normal damage.
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Total Cost Acres
(a) Spring broadcast burning   $12,805.21 1,496
(b) Spring spot burning1       7,245.00 197
(c) Fall broadcast burning  109,593.27 18,249
(d) Fall spot burning     24,968.69 15,531
i High cost result of hand-piling and burning Tree-farm Licence No. 26, Mission City.
(a) and (c) based on volume of 40 M b.f. per acre.
(b) and (d) based on volume of 30 M b.f. per acre.
Cost per
MB.F.
$0.21
.12
.15
.05
Cost per
Acre
$8.62
36.77
6.00
1.60
(44)
FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS,  1961
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver  —.
9
21
7
4
35
19
25
4
17
21
62
94
35
98
14
155
245
111
168
78
68
322
259
197
125
188
377
161
65
9
15
46
25
1
3
1
15
3
5501
285
517
1,145
605
17.7
9.2
16.7
36.9
Nelson.. .   -    	
19.5
Totals   	
37
87
229
623
895
1,048
160
23
3,102
100.0
Per cent	
1.2
2.8
7.4
20.1
28.8
33.8
5.2
0.7
100.0
	
Ten-year average
1952-612	
29
79
282
220
539
494
157
44
1,844
	
Per cent	
1.6
4.3
15.3
11.9
29.2
26.8
8.5
2.4
100.0
	
Railroad-tie fires...
	
	
47
956
290
140
56
	
1,489
	
i Excludes 1,489 railroad-tie fires.
2 Excludes average of 630 railroad-tie fires per year.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
119
FIRE OCCURRENCE BY MONTHS FOR LAST TEN YEARS,
(44A) AMENDING FIRE STATISTICS, 1952-61
(Segregating forest fires from railroad-tie fires.)
Year
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Forest
Fires
Total
Tie
Fires
Combined
Total
1952	
1953          	
20
19
24
4
24
12
53
78
23
37
27
30
34
16
92
122
76
174
130
87
225
183
190
132
581
224
625
313
115
229
116
65
70
324
75
190
385
144
208
623
322
269
196
332
455
241
962
441
1,280
895
577
628
170
237
378
203
766
281
656
1,048
270
141
29
192
234
182
151
42
164
160
198
6
2
15
16
75
40
1
59
23
1,755
1,341
715
1,252
1,855
1,249
3,058
1,474
2,635
3,102
159
79
49
132
955
370
1,062
536
1,478
1,489
1,914
1,420
1954              	
764
1955           	
1,384
1956  	
1957 	
1958          	
2,810
1,619
4,120
1959     _	
1960  ,
1961 	
2,010
4,113
4,591
Ten-year totals,
1952-61	
294
788
2,817
2,200
5,393
4,944
1,565
435
18,436
6,309
24,745
1.6
4.3
15.3
11.9
29.2
26.8
8.5
2.4
100.0
	
Railroad-tie fires	
—
	
1,194
1,634
2,292
851
309
29
	
6,309
	
(45)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES, 1961
Forest District
i
3
13 <u
§8
si Cu
*o 5
«•£
O si
a u
ei &
■Ss?
III
|l|
lis
%£ £
O U.&
ana
a o
Ou
"ft* 00
« Oil
p oo
■5 o
Bi-I
o s
« rt
I"
So
o
3 o
£•5
<-. o
S.s
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George .
Kamloops—	
Nelson	
Totals.
Per cent.
93
131
262
501
439
43
51
57
82
36
251
5
17
100
7
131
12
30
112
51
24
12
24
23
3
17
34
127
1
48
15
31
83
17
19
2
14
6
130
32
25
78
25
34
4
11
23
11
550
285
517
1,145
605
17.7
9.2
16.7
36.9
19.5
1,426
269 | 154 | 336
46.0
8.7  5.0 | 10.8
Ten-year average,
1952-61	
Percent 	
2.8
629 | 219 | 1222| 259
84
34.1  | 11.9 ]    6.6 | 14.0 |    4.6
Railroad-tie fires	
„   1,489
179
36
194
49
5.8
1.1
6.2
1.6
71
30
142
31
3.9
1.6
7.7
1.7
290  |      83   ]3,102 1100.0
9.3 I    2.7
100.0
205
52 |1,844 |	
11.1 |    2.8 1100.0
11,489
i Excludes 1,489 railroad-tie fires.
2 Excludes average of 630 railroad-tie fires per year.
 120
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
rnosvoo        vOOs        VO        r»^noo
o
tt t-4 VO Tf          *<fr  rn          -H          r>rHrIrN
d
*rt
0
H
m  rH           —1                                                                   rH
o
OS
o	
cn
vd"
^S
osooi—iOs      cnO      ©      Drtmri
SO
en
s*
<n r- cN m       oot—       cn       Tt m O Cn
Tf
z
vo cs -T cn                                r-T      ri
o
!r! C
Ohqeo     oa<Kl.     **,     ***! S5 **) **":
«
5 g
0<lj
vd oo in o      ri in      r-I      vdrHOsri
d
o
o\
oo
Tt —
g u.
VO Os Tt VO       vO Os       vo       Tf OS © en
rl so m m       oo t-       cn       os Tt os oo
rl
O
3.Q                •^■(N-hc^                —i                       —i         CN
„
W
_^*
en
Vi
Oi
<
cnr-cnoo      t-* en      **      es q rn es
t£ Os Os OS*        cn en        rH        in rN © ri
o
d
s
Ph(J
o
00
Tt-~
rH
is
sp- mr-       rl r-       vo       r^rfrHOs
so Tf t£ in      oooo      cn      en vt tr- vt
rH_CN  CS  tS                                                   rH          cS
m
rH
§
m
sO
es
H
ift^Om      -hqs      ©      oo rn cs cS
o
H
Vi
rinvorf      in cs      ri       rn es t-- cs
c
in
'"'   rH            *-t                     rH                               rH            rH
o
V0
cn —
3
Os
m
&s
M- es oo rH      vi eo      o      •rj-rj-cnm
'^r
oo r- co -h      r-os      tn      © rn m rn
r-
w
H
z*
rH  rH          CN                   rH                          CN
r~ .— ^h
rt
w §
tr- r- cn so       Oscn       vo       O
tr- os m m       en Tr      o      ccnon
d
O _
00
0.Q
m                     rH                                                                              i-H
o
rl
vO
o\
3j5
OvO (Soo       OrH       oo       so cn © Tt
cc
Ph 3
Vi Os so r-        rim        —        Tt m rH Os
in
n  N-hH;          rH rH                          CN          cn
O
Vi ci
Z
rH
m
05 0\
£ §
vo vp 00 vo      csoo      t~-      ^o^00,^
o
2~
TtensoTt      men      cn      oo'-h trin
d
IS
p. tj
CNrH            rH                                                                               rn
o
o
t— - —
cn
is
r» © m rs      moo      vo      r- cN rs in
OV
Or- oo oo      votJ-      -rj-      ON r~ tj-
Ti
>,.G
cn  rH          rH                                                   rH          rH
es
w <
cu S
PhIJ
go in rn N       © m       Os       Os in in Os
o
vo
vt
OS
SOr-*r^in          VO  tS          tn          Os.  rH  rH   cn
CN  rH          rH                                                                   rH
d
o
m
m —
is
r— Tt in y*      at-      en      en t— en m
osrHrnoo      - t      r-      ootNrHr—
m
Os
1-°
Tt CS  rH  CS          rH                                  th          fN
00
fee
CO I—1
-^
W Ph
is c
tJ-VOOstT        OO rl        Os        —;NinO
q
go
5 g
cn in u-i so      en ©      rn      r-n'd^
d
Vi
Vi
Os
A. (j
CT) rH          rH                                                                   rH
c
es
es
|-S
oom-3-so      r-cN      Tr      os m cs ©
—■Osr-O       Tf             es       oOrHcnin
m
Tf  rn          CN                                                                   rH
es
OZ
01
rt
r« c
es q r> oo      oo tJ;      tn      OhOO;
o
<L> u
sdriosvd      oo"o"      rn      os" rl r! ri
d
3*
OS
Ph(J
rH  CS          rn                                                                   rH
o
m
%-
k
vOr*osO       mo      rn      T+tNiovrH
rHinvOeS         VD                rH         VOrHt-CS
z
tH
z
*- c
in  O  00  00          kft VO          r~;          CS  f-# rH  rj
o
m
Os
u a
A. (J
Ttcnr-'es      cno"      o"      vdoooes
Tt rn           ^h
d
o
Os
r-
Q
g u
f-TtmrH      r-r-      o      cnoovoo
Osr-or^      Tt          rn      oorHoes
Tf
Z
\n  rH  —t  rH                                                                   rH
rn
<
—
u C
inOmOs       OOv       O       inrnsoo
O
m
cs
Vi
Os
rMtJ
Ttr-inOs"      oo'o      rn      vd es es* es*
CS  rn          rH                                                                   rH
8
Ov
S
is
rHoospos      om      r*      Ttf-r)vo
cnOsosTt       Tt—>       rn       rHcnrScn
5
z
j?J5
r%
Tf CN         en         rn                              rH         eS
r~-
ii 1
?1      i
rt    !
o .2 °
O Z w
<y    :
wa     !
3
rt
o
88     i
11
a P „
c4     ;
u    :
rt
6
rt   (/
*a
o5
6.5
l&
0 bo
rt 5  aj
S K-S
Oh Ph0=
rt
-, tele
consti
ation:
ti   !
ES   i
O     !
= ta
S
cn
-^
3
si
u
SI
c
Brush-burning
or right-of-wa
Range-burning.
Road and powei
and pipe-line
Industrial   opei
S
laneous k
iwn cause
Ten-ye
ad-tie fire
GQ
■o
3
o
X
W
|
'1
c
2
1
Miscel
Unknc
Railro
H
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961
121
Vi
Oi
<
OI
>H
Z
B
to
rl
M
B
8
Ph
oa
H
CJ  rH
60 os
Pi w
OR
T
en
tr- Os ©
rH
©
JU33 J3<J
os vp en oo es
rH         rn cn (S
8
SO
s
en
vo oo en Os ©
m es so © oo
•n es m o ©
m
VD
jaqumjsi
TT
en rn cS f-' Tt
oo"
p- rj r- os in
©
JU30 J3,I
tr- o\ vd vd os
rH          rH cn rH
8
Os
VO
o\
CN
GO
Tf
© in t— m in
in 00 rH Tt ©
©
jsquinM
m es m rn vp
""J
*H
en
r-; en in Os vp
©
jnab J3a
Tt in es en en
rH          rH Tt CS
©'
©
00
s
Os
****
5
OO © OS l> rH
m
oo Tt es m es
en
jrsqiunN
Cn  rH en  rH SO
so
rT
r- en © cs oo
©
5U33 J3,£
Os en Tt Tt oo
8
Os
Vi
vO
Os
© os tr- rn r-
Tt
m
jsqinnM
os Tt © m tr-
es     rs so es
Tf
©
—
in 00 rH so ©
»noo »$
© od tr en ©
es      rn en es
8
OO
cs
Ov
cc
sO
©
oo on en Tt Tt
jaquinM
(N SO  CN tS  rH
vp es m © vd
©
~
rn"
tn
r> es r-- en rn
©
JU3D «d
in in es in rl
rn      rn cn en
§
m
Os
o
m m Os rn o\
e>
en
jtaqum^j
os vo m Tt oo
rH          rH Tt en
Tf
CS
es rn tr- © ©
c
}U93 J3(£
m Os cn y rn
es      rn cn cs
©
©
VO
•n
Os
m
m
Os
os 0\ en in os
jsquinjvvj
so sp in tr- oo
Tt rn cs m cn
cc
Os Os SO VO ©
©
m
m
Os
JU93 J3J
Tf in ri tN Tt
rn      ^ Tt es
8
es
en
r- Tt oo en ©
es
jsquin^
oo t- m tn ©
rn       rn in en
m
cs.
vo vo en © in
©
?U9D J9J
SO Tf rH SO  r-"
cs       r- en es
§
Tt
Os
Tf
s
© Cn rH f- Tf
m
jaqtun^i
os en oo m in
rH                 CS rH
t-
oo vq Tt oo Tt
©
JU33 J3 J
tr- cn oo es t>
rH                  Tf CS
s
en
m
Os
'"*
Os
ON OO CS Tt CO
jaqum^
cn Tf m r^ vo
CS       rn m en
Tt
en
©
Os in oo cs sp
JU33 J3J
en in ri r~ d
es      rn cn es
8
es
Os
m
Os
o vo Tt eS en
CN Os rs in vp
Tt       cS so en
>n
—
jaqiun^i
m
t-
j
ta
*rt
1
0
u
rt    vi
u
<L)      «
s
a
H '■?
to
3
H
i-
<u
2"   0    r,
d o £
o O o c
C
T3
rt
o
o u o rz
|8| t
I
Ih
0          rt
>
ft.
sw
z
»
 122
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Xt
sr
f*l
OO
m
Os
TT
a
00
rt
OOO'U "ao
m cs >n oo
rl
cc
O
vo
tr
vo"
Os
8
>n
000'IS PUE
t— t- en oo en
CS rH so r^ es
ON
«n
§
00I$U33*]3a
rH
Q
oo
ooi$»pun
oo Tt os oo r-
Tt es en on in
Os
so
es
so
00
*l
00
00
SSBIDSiqxui
Tt vo en rn so
©
|
i
saiij jejox
}0 JU33 J3.I
cn eS en on rn
r-l  rH Tf CS
§
i
gjj
as
JOIJJSIQ UI
rH vo vo tS cn
|
;
1
j
M|j 1EJOX
cn m o m ©
:
;
JO )U33 J3J
i
'•
1
O
f- vo m t— es
r-
©
es
jaqiunfsi
Tf
en
ta
S
SSBQSiqxui
en Tf rn m r-
©
|
1
1
S3JIJ rejox
on © co Tt r-
g
1
<
©
jo ;us3 J3d
1
1
1
joujsia ui
i-< on es vo oo
i
1
B3JIJ 1EJOX
m © vo rn cn
1
1
o
u
JO JU8D 13d
1
l
oo rn rt m m
as
vO
rn
v>
>
O
JsqiunN
cs cn oo m es
OS
cs
Os
o
ssEQsiqxui
r- m on Os © ©
1
1
n
ij
B
S3JId TOOX
JO 1U33 J3J
vo Os r- © in
rH          rH Tf rH
8
t
1
<1
pujsia ui
Tt r- on co ©
1
1
o
ssn.d iejox
Tt vd tr cd ©
!
1
o
s
JO 1U33 J3J
'
1
1
Tf VO Tt OS  rH
m r- Tt es cs
rH          rH cn rn
Tt
Ml
jsquinM
OC
ri
rs
in
00
rs
ssEiosiqxui
co t^ m m m
©
,
1
S3JH iejox
Os oo es rt Tt
s
JO JU33 J3 J
1
1
joujsia oi
Tt co rn Tf Os
:
S
sa-nj TOOX
r» vo m vo m
1
1
•4
JO }U33 J3<T
!
i
•o
rN
Tt
so
rH fS Tt VO OS
jsquiniv!
C- so cn Tt m
en rn cs so tt
oc
©
SO
°
m
aouiAojj ui
r» es i> ov m ©
|
9B
g
E
•a
o
H
S3JIJ IEJOX
JO JU33 J3J
r» os vo vo os
y\          rH cn rH
8
I
jsqranM
c
IT
V
m f- in m
OO rH  Tf ©
cs «n rH \p
g
o
8
CO
©
©
rH  ■
rH   jrH
-
-
»,
rS
•e
OS
3
OJ
s
0
p-
a
Sf
u
t
l
c
u
00
Vh
« o „
R
O
H
V-         fl        »H
«   o   S
CU  H  ft.
S«os
o o © c
0-
c c c t
u
>
ft.
ft.
*
£
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961
123
3
. o
«3S
r-
GO
a.
en
Os
00
es
Tt
>°.
meSrHcsrSenvposTt©
CR
in
,9a
rH         CS         rH rs
Os
u
c-'-o
00
■ i as d ©
oj rt©
cn©0\ooooosTtos©oo
GO
ON
rt
rHmenm©TtrH©Tf©
OO
in
-   -E
g
0
rH                          rH          CS  rH rH  CN
©
OJ©
inmt-^mTtOsincSr*es
t-
r»-
TJ ©
oospinr-esvor--r-Ttos
m
00
12 H
ineNVOrHVOrHincsmvD
en
P
rHrH            H   H  H   (S   "   M   tN
SO
•rJ^
S rt   _
Vi
oj +-i ta
OPS
r^r^TtcNvpcnr^t-jcNrH
1
s5«
0-, O
es ©,© rn m" rn in rn en Tt
1
1
8w
M
X)
r-Oenmr-vpinTtTtr-
CO
es
>
o
S
3
z
Tf  rH           rHSpi-Hf—inCOCN
ON
m"
_
§S<o
052
©
©
ooqcsosrHoscsrsrHso
rnindsdrHOscNrnooN
"1
m
S^E
rH           rs          r-*          rH  rH  rH
O ta
0- 0
2 o
T-<
u
■u
.O
rnr>rnvommTfinvoov
»n
>
g
3
TtsorH-ooocst-osvoos
m
©
O
cs               cs rn en rn rs es
Ov
z
«Jrt
C cu
Vi
sCE
oooooooinenONenr-as
cnOsOsr--r-^^door-°-din
i
j
to
enescsesesesesesenrs
<
©
Ph O
—
	
o
U
V
g
3
TtosrnoorHCseNrS©Tt/
jS
tr-
rf
^osriffi-HM-oono
oc
00*
CN
inencSenmenooTtoooo
ci
z
**,-«
SS  V,
i>invqosooincsoo©Tt
|
H
ovTfOsTtr-'esenin'O©
<
A, 0
Ttvoinvomvoinininvo
1
s
—
 , •
CJ
w
•0
.0
E
3
rHinvomcSr-ir~enines
lfl
VD
c
r*-vorsrHr*oorsrst-r»
ri
5
ooooTfco©r-voooTtoo
so
©*
I—
«n
z
TJ   P
mrHioesinosooTtines
vC
0
inTtrHinmTtmr-m©
cn
S,§
c— cnr-escoes©TtsorH
Tf
s
i
iK
rHrH          rHrHrHenrHCSm
CO
ta
oj
ffl
9J
■o
«
0
tH
H
wi
rt
tH
*«
i-i
rt
1
O
ON
O
en
VO
1    u
K          lH
-a
9
ej    oj
H ft.
*o
r
t*
Tt m
vo r- oc
OS  ©  rH
V)
'C
Vi m
«n m m
in so so
ON
a
Os
OS
OS
Os
OS
Os
a.
Os
 124 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(48) DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS, 19611
Forest District
Forest
Products
Cut, Logs,
Lumber, etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
Vancouver
$101,362.00
$15,275.00
4,100.00
9,400.00
34,750.00
$75,245.00
65,500.00
38,900.00
$1,610.00
450.00
145.00
6,970.00
1,560.00
$193,492.00
4,550.00
86,726.00
81,548.00
2,160.00
52.5
1.3
11,681.00
928.00
600.00
23.5
Kamloops
22.1
0.6
Totals.	
$114,571.00
$63,525.00 | $179,645.00
$10,735.00 [ $368,476.00 |      100.0
31.1    ]             17.2    |            48.8
2.9    |           100.0    |
Ten-year average, 1952-61—
$95,037.00 |    $27,523.00 | $177,022.00
$25,582.00 | $325,164.00 |       	
29.2
8.5
54.4
7.9    1           1000
i Does not include intentional slash burns.    (For this item see page 118.)
(49)
DAMAGE TO FOREST-COVER CAUSED BY FOREST
FIRES,  1961—PART H
Merchantable Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
Net Stumpage
Loss
Net Area
Killed
Present
Value
Vancouver  	
Prince Rupert	
Acres
2,110
33,847
72,935
65,052
1,446
M Cu. Ft.
5,600
56,041
155,002
97,475
1,414
M Cu. Ft.
3,499
12,965
54,410
48,112
237
$
104,561
891,021
3,866,386
1,101,147
29,431
Acres
4,115
34,142
57.049
$
338,184
757,649
1.025.067
Kamloops	
155,990      [   3,180,325
1,429      |        31,800
Totals	
175,390      ]    315,532      |    119,223
5,992,546
252,725      |   5,333,025
14.3                 100.0                   37.8
46.7
20.6      |           41.6
Ten-year average, 1952-61
60,402      |      86,519             28,758
1,290,036
58,926      |   1,172,184
13.0
100.0
33.2
46.4
12.7
42.2
1 Does not include intentional slash burns.    (For this item see page 118.)
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961
125
<
^3
ON
W
p<
o
n
a
m
Vi
M
>
O
CJ
w
P4
o
8
pq
3
a
<
os ri os es ri  Tt   ©
r-
©
00
rt
os q m Tt as  as   w
©_v© en^os vo  vq g
SO
sq
©
©
£
ei
0
w-os" cs" in" t-^ in   ©   t-h
so*
Tt vo rn cS vo  es
r-
m vo es cn        oo
r>
th'sO"-*
N
es
OS
*rt
O
H
&z>
JOnrjVTt    cS   ©
fjr.©Tt©r-rH    cn    ,-!
**] vo^ © ©_ Tt Tt   in   §
OS
in
©
©
©
*o
3 *n vo in r-' rn  in   rn
sd~
c
rt
o
TJ          Vi  Vt OS             rH
00
0
a
©  SO  rH  rH  ^H
M © m rn r- es
Js    ©
vO
o
rt
n   —;
Tt
8
oj
ucsoom^eneN   rn   _*
VO
<
o es in oC Tt in   t*   rn
en
4 en © oo as
^        rH tr c<
N
SO
N
tJ
01
rt
vo © os Os en
vo © os Tt es
<    CM
o
Tr
^
©
O*
Tf  m Tt VO  rH
■g
£
wn"mV*
n
00
Q
rH
N
~
ia
■a
,„ Tf © cn VO —*   Tf   tn
©
en
6
O
rt oj
<jj   rH   Q   in   Tf   ©
S en © r^ r-in
U C
n   i>
s
tr
Z
ffl
Z, *n Tt os es        rs
<          rn  VO                     OS
©"
u
00
rt
£
ei
Q
! os r- oo ©
*    rH    f-
^
■a
1-1 c
! so en © cs
«■         r-  00  CN
5»
en
00
©
P «
rn
-T
OD>J
.5 w
0 8
T3
, rs os es oo vo  i
** ^
Os
vq
rt <u
v>      so ri vo rn  !
m
<u c
£      en os rn Tf
Q       en" es" ©"
io  en
es
fl.
03
o"
rF
<J                rn CS
n
oj
60
rt
E
ra
Tt in vo t- rs
*    rH
tn
Os
73
0O   Tf   Tf   OS  00
n
Os
^ so rn wi »n cs
"i *^
Tf^
1-1
en in Os oo"
en
OJ
m
ii
Q
1-1
8u
*o
„ Tf oo oo rn cn  •
*   r-
rs
OO
u vo cn m oo en  v
°   U
SO
c
o
aj o
h Tt es © en rn
ij!  Tt  ©" OS" Tt  r-T   <
"S rn rl r- en
?'
rs'
Tt
Z
*
m
Tt                    I
n
ri
<u
Tf 00 Tt VD VD
© rH CS rH cn
o   cn
r-
l>
00
a 2
rt
es rn q © © (
©
£
W-tH  in VO VD  Tf    {
s
*o
si
©      oo es
s
Tf
OJ
a
rH            y-l^                       <
n
rs
O
o
Ifl
rH                  ,
,S O a>
. © m m cn e3s
« m os os r- ©
g   ©            OO  CS   rH
W  CS          r-~Tt
s  ©
©
vq
(2
TT
©
so"
in
<J           en rn
*
n
Eh
O
O       Hi
U
rt
*n    *o
„. r-    } r- r- cs
-    CS
oo
cn
1
ooC C
g oo      es © vo
^ rn    } th en
<
sd
tr
©
rt
O « 3
N
tn
kJ     03
o
OOO C
q, oo m cS © m
D   r-
o\
r-
aj Vi tr tr vo cs   c
C   0V   rH   p^ Tt   rH      •
3 en       cn" rn         c
<              vo                s
Js
so
en
cs"
es
>-)     0=
0
VO
es
in
Ov
tn
u
Q
00
rt
£
Ih
<u
>
Ih
o
rt
M-
a
Ih     j.
t
a
5
2 *>   S  S
3 cj   J  3
->      Vh      C      Vh
u.   Dh 0  „
oj 3  oj  ST
t
J     U     OJ     CJ
5«os
o  o o O C
tj o o *3 q
rt *C *C rt  oj
>
s
a.
M
Z
 126
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FIRE CAUSES, AREA BURNED, FOREST SERVICE COST,
(SO) AND TOTAL DAMAGE, 1961
Causes
Fire Causes
Number
Per
Cent
Area Burned
Acres
Per
Cent
Forest Service
Cost
Cost
Per
Cent
Total Damage
Value
Per
Cent
Lightning	
Recreational (campers, etc.)	
Railroads operatingi	
Smokers 	
Brush-burning   (not  railway   or
right-of-way clearing)	
Range-burning	
Road and power-, telephone-, and
pipe-line construction	
Industrial   operations   (logging,
etc.)	
Incendiary.  	
Miscellaneous known causes	
Unknown causes  	
Totals. 	
1,426
269
154
336
86
179
36
194
49
290
83
46.0
8.7
5.0
10.8
2.8
5.8
1.1
6.2
1.6
9.3
2.7
3,102
100.0
727,435
123,829
2,533
7,657
1,611
262,436
566
84,278
10,487
6,037
290
59.3
10.1
0.2
0.6
0.1
21.4
6.9
0.9
0.5
$2,419,721
293,842
71,720
157,694
5,794
191,561
9,302
1,021,353
75,526
131,155
17,332
55.1
6.7
1.6
3.6
0.1
4.4
0.2
23.2
1.7
3.0
0.4
1,227,159
100.0
$4,395,000
100.0
$6,579,072
1,821,012
53,159
220,343
3,089
3,756,372
4,924
571,496
85,070
89,771
4,862
$13,189,170
49.9
13.8
0.4
1.7
28.5
4.3
0.7
0.7
100.0
i Excludes 1,489 railroad-tie fires.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961
127
■
VD Os
r- Tt
CS so
00
Ih
en in
CO  00
t— cn
©
"rt
Tf   Tf
r- m
so vo
cn
"3 w
oo so"
m r-
SO  rH
oo
rn m
VD 00
vo m
VO
Tf"
oo es
t^CS
c— en
©
H
es
en
Vi
tr>
es os
es en
Tf VD
o
© m
m ri
OS C-
r-
in rs
VOTt
VO
ON
cn r-
in os
©"co"
Os
n
(N V0
OO
Cfl
en rH
oo cn
**
es
Vi
en
Vi
m ©
en ©
rn r-
CO
en CS
OS —
vo m
o
vq co
rt ©
cn so
©
vo
es m"
rs ©*
in oC
in
Os
CO
rs Tf
rs os
C?
TH
es
en
©
Tt
Vi
Vi
Tt   rH
rH ©
OS Os
00
r- cn
00 r.
Tt  vd
o\
Tt vq
Tf rH
go m
Tt
m
. th en
oo" es
es'os"
rs"
Os
t-
Tf VD
CS
en oo
Vi
rs
es
Vi
oo cn
OS C*h
v> en
00
m cs
Tf r-
cn ex
00
© ■*
y— Vi
es h
Tt
>n
en in
orjco*
tr co"
m"
Os
s.
m os
rH   ©
es
en
O   Tf
en
cs"
Cn""
tri
00
Vi
OS Tt
00   rH
es Tt
m ©
VO
fH
Tf  CS
r- os
en
es t-
cs cn
© es
Os
th"so
en ©
en
VO
es cn
Vi
es
Vi
•n oo
CS   Tt
Os en
rs
•n Tf
Os vo
so ©
Tf   00
C-
VO
00 VD
ri
m
rn  OS
©   Tf
00 cs
Os
IO
in r-
cn
rH
Tt
Vi
Tt
Vi
es Tt
VO Os
—i en
Tf
m
m os
oo so
tr m
es
cs so
oo es
OS  r-
th
Os
r-'vo"
©"Tf
Vi
Tt
Os SO
Vi
V)
Vi
m os
rn   VO
OS Tt
en
8
rH ©
cn os
es m
oo
t~ en
m rH
cn in
00
©"
en rn
Tf"
Tt cn
Vi
rH m
~ Tt Tf
m ©
00 oo
Xr en
©
cn
cn so
mt*
0\ so
vo
in
Os
inTt"
©"
cn
Vi
vo
es
Vi
in vO
©   Tt
m Tf
Os
in ©
vo es
r- Tt
CS
r-;Tt
Tt in
Spj
m
o\
FHi
rn'rl
VO   rn'
oo" cs
,_T
•n
Tt es
Os Os
OS
Tf   Tt
Os
«r>
Vi
J
•a
CJ
et
rt
B
Ih
S,
o
^
o
■o
4J
O.
41
<w
lH
a
c
c
0
I
0
>
c
!-.
ta
CJ
T3
Ih
CJ
- _fj
3*
cj
S
*~?     V
O    S
5 fi
O
S £
o   g
<P TJ   E
rt   c
■t   «
>   <S
o 3
3tal numb
rea burne<
anding ti
s 2 2 H
cu. ft
moun
amag
amag
E-
<
W
<
c
0
 128
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
is
o
o
0
So
■go
1 2
as
o
u
on d Jad
OOO'OIS "AO 1S03
3JIJ jad 000'01$ oi
OOO'SS J3A0 1S°D
ajtj J3d OOO'SS OJ
OOO'IS^AOISOD
3JId 13d
000'I$OJ001$1S03
3iijl J3d 001$
UEin ss3[ isoo
33UTAOJJ
UI S3JIJ IEJOX
JO JU30 J3J
PIJJSIQ UI
S3JIJ lEwi
JO 1U33 13d
J3quin^[
3DUIAOJJ
UI S3JI.I {bjox
JO }U33 13d
J3IJJSIQ UI
SSJIjJ JElOi
JO JU3Q 13d
jsquinN
(sjEnoa)
ajiji-jsoo aad
sjnjipusdxg
33BJ3AV
JU3Q 13d
SJEIIOQ
S31}d l^lOX
c
B.
^nNnw
Tf
Tt
Tt
c-
rj
en
00
m
o.
Tt
*-*
u~i
©
SO
as
on
SO
Tt
es
Tt
tr-
tn
es eS cs m \o
m t- Tt Tf Tt
es     th Tt rs
© en r- es m
Os Tt cs vd in
■ in  Tt -H  rn
tr Os © C-; ©
cn cs Tt ri Tt
rH SO OO Tf in
vo © en Tf Tt
rn os es as rs
r-t rH en  rH
„
r-
es
i
i
^
en
m
X
c-
so
— in o\ q tt
r^ CO* vd 00 ©
so es m en cs
r~- Tf  rH Tf  f-
co en in tr xr
§g§gg
©_ ©_ ©^ ©_ O
so" ©" r-T oo ©*
© so © r- m
so t— © r- es
© m r- m m
m OO rH Tt ©
m es m •-< <£
.,0.(
8-SOHrlHri
0 c 43
>£ffi:W|2;
CJ   aj
CN   C
cn u
T i rt
aj cs" r-
•-es «
.  « o
CA   O   W
a> ** (!3 T3
u *j hh  aj
U   «   ta
flf.83
'>3 a
00
CJ
rj *j so rt
rt ,3 ^u M
"- &u
«. S£<g
.£ o o _
a w o «
"o as ** "5
x ,°, to 2
WO o S
H«UC
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
129
I
Vi
O
g
H
S
3
E
Q
9
<
VI
oi
I
>
I
■h
35
O
Fh
w
r—I
IX,
Pi
m
Oh
o
o
o
g
I
0
M
u-.
I
IS
So
So K
°<=ft:
o2»
Sgo «
OgSd,
u<»
SggE
U<»    ft
33a
H»ft
«> 5 it
o rt u
o5°-
0£!
ftl O
OOS
ft O
E
s 3 <e »
SSrSl
ID ft
' cn >n en Tt m oo
somTtTtcovoosr-rHr-
rsfrjHHr-HHMOo
cs     es es
rHmcnosencsrsOss
cs©Oooinso©ms
en cs rn       en ™ so es i
ooososOsoor-rHsorsr-
t— tr rHTtoosoosmOsin
soinrsininTfosTtoorH
rHTfrCjcvlTtvOOsSOTtC-;
en'rHr-'csr-'cs'cnsoooes
*ovDTfininmsOinsor-
oocnoocnTtsomTtrHin
©esenm'Oinmenom
rHoomsoovDChoooo^rs
rH r* rn" rn" CS
Ossot—oosOTtrHTtsOen
vdodesr-*rir~vDenrHt-^
encnmTtTfTtenTfcnes
r-oor-c>vr-cnin©Ttr-
tJ-i—ir-OsO\os©TfcnTt
sOmcninr-inrHsooooo
en
ri
vO
m
?
[*;
r^
cn
CS
SO
0\
so"
r-
r-
en
« Tf es en cn in £*•'
es rH"cn es
vef-rH^vOoor-Tf oo©
esooesvOrHr-cnoorHO
-       -   ©   Tt   ©
t -< uu i i w  r-1  i -
Ov CO in © rH  SO
©" cn so" Tf" os tr oo oo"r— in"
corHcnr-'OintsvoosOs
mrHii-icsmosooTfinn
inTtrHminTtmr-cno
r> cnr- rioo^cserjTtsorH
IH   r< rnHHrnTHtsTm
H   Oh   '-V
escnTtinso'i>ooejs<
inminminmininv
OsOvOsOsOsOsOsOsC
 130
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
UA\Ejpqj!A\ S3SE3
, CS     |     j     j
CS
cs
pSSSIUISIQ S3SE3
rH        !   cn   rH       |
m
en
--      i
3DU3JU3S
1   ;   j'th cs
en
es
pspusdsns
joeo ur
!    ! th es    !
en
3DU3JU3S p3AJ3g
1    :             :
© © © ©   i
©
s
Tt r~ in m   i
junouiy
r-     en es
Vi
Tt
*o
cfl
1
Vt
W
. E
asquin>j
th es CS ©     •
CS          rH rH
Tf
©
in
S33U3JJO
CS    ! en    :    1
m
es
1
Sno3UEH3DSIJAI
i       i   i
cs
SJtjI }S3JOiI B
CS    i    !    It
liodsa OJ SUJIfEjJ
1   !   !  .1
»—1
VO
suopEynSs-g ujia\
3DUEPJO03V UI
!     vi
SljqSfj 3AOUI3H
rt I ! i i
•i
T-<
:       Z
pUE S8EUS
O
JJEJ OJ SUIIIEJ
M
H
3^!d
. IP
u,sin3mjxg puE
!   i   j   ;   |
j
CS
n
Vi
%
ftl
jojjuoo oj 8UIIJEd
-
—
jusuidinbg
uoij^sjoid^jij
■   ,   .-.-■.
t-H
C-H,
J3dOJ,I UJEJUIEJM
i   i   i   i
OJ 8UIJIEJ
sansoio jssjoj
Tt   1 es   I es
OO
E 3UIU3ABJJU03
i       i
Suijqgg-sJ!;!
UI 3DUEJSISSV J3p
co es os vo
rs
rH
-us^ oj Sursnjs^
J!U"3<J
Tt CS CS OO     |
sC
©
jnoqjiM Smuing
es
......
PJE7 UOIJEUIJOJUT
es Tt vo Tt es
-    CS        y***-
00
Vi.
00
Vi =..
*t
cs
m
Os
Ti
a
ft>
tu
CJ)
rt
tH
cfl
u
>
s
rt
Ih
ta
ei
O
•u
o
i>>
o
Ph
ex c
-   OJ
)
v
c.
O
H
4>
—\
ancouv
rince R
rince G
amlooj
elson.-.
>DHfe UZ
 (54)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
ENROLMENT AT RANGER SCHOOL, 1961
131
Forest District
Forest
Assistants
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Graduations
2
3
3
2
31
6
....
3
3
4
4
6
Kamloops 	
1
.      —
Attendance, 1961	
3
17
20
—
Attendance, 1960	
4
17
21
21
Attendance, 1959	
4
17
.._
21
—
Attendance, 1959	
21
21
21
Attendance, 1958..... ...
21
21
—
Attendance, 1957	
4
....
26
....
30
30
Attendance, 1956..	
4
_.
26
30
Attendance, 1956 ..
3
18
—
21
21
Attendance, 1955	
3
18
.-
21
Attendance, 1954	
....
20
—.
20
20
Attendance, 1953—	
21
21
—
Attendance, 1953 '
20
20
20
Attendance, 1952.....
....
20
_..
20
Attendance, 1951	
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1950	
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1949	
3
2
16
21
Attendance, 1948	
4
2
12
2
20
20
Attendance, 1947	
8
12
20
20
Attendance, 1946	
2
9
9
—
20
20
1 Started with four Assistant Rangers.   One man returned to district for health reasons.   Class reduced from
twenty-one to twenty accordingly.  Too far advanced to take a replacement.
Note.—Commencing with the class of 1949/50, each class takes one and one-half years to complete the course.
 132
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
) © Os CS (
)  rH  rH OS  C
£
i i
«
o
u
u
5
r-      en © os
&
ibJl.
a> S .°
^xg    I
3" DO tin cj    !
hS|Os
iS1"3 is
e-S   sS-o
:H iS cfl ^ r!
CA    Cfl ^    Cfl    Cfl
B § * 11
ESZEE
1
U
2
o
p
u
3
Tf
so m
SO
vo
oc
Tt     r* oo
OS sO CTs
m
en       r- ©
O cn co
en
en t- Os
O
rH m vo
Tf
H
Tt      Os tr
M»ifl
©
tr         Tf rH
t- m ©
Tf
en      c^ es
CS SO Tf
en
ass
in
VD
H
H
oo      Tt es
Os OS   TH
ON
vo      in es
es es cs
r-
■«t      Tt sq
en Tf Tt
rn" y
[-"■vfr"
en"
rn in m
es
yy
H
Tt      mm
© so 00
VO
©      in r-
en th en
vo       Mh
en cn Os
CS
O os es
VO
TH   SO    Tt
CS
„
.
in      oo vc
en as cn
Tf
m      m in
oo es Tt
cs
Tt      tr o>
OM»n
CO vo CO
00
rn oo en
Tf
.
H
2      Tt |
r-» vo r-
m
en oo oo
r*>
Tf          t- OS
m © in
es_
Tt r- es
oo"
th m Tt
CS
OS       © oc
en Tt O
r^
CS        00 o
•n Tt Tt
en
Tt      es o>
en co en
"1
Tf  rH   rH
t?
rH  cn  Tf
oo
"
"
.
.
es      Tt t»
en en os
m
es      r^ vc
cn rn SO
Tf        Tt vc
en © ©
Tf
TH   fN
cn rs Tt
OO
— © m
VO
H
H
©      eo oc
PfSjOl
h* cS C£v
VO vo ©
t>
t&
Tf          TH  cs
en
th es
es oo en
Tt
nn^t
t^
"**
H
CS          00 Tj
m m eS
VO
OS              TH   VC
in on oo
OS
Tf      es tr
SO  ©   rH
rn
th'cS
en r— os
Tf
th io m
cn
eS
v
e
o
*o
OJ
c
rt
0
E
"3
o
c
0
v—'
1-    Ih
rt si
aj a
i-
>x >s
a
C  g
>
Ci
)
5  =*
T3 "O
c
3
t
1
a S
8 <3
a
61
c
ta
D
a
C
0
•3
c/
O (C
3
rt
c
«
o o^
O
Mh    V
o *-;
■a
TJ
U
ri
r-       W       ^       U,
h   3
X
.8.8 .§.2
U TJ
r0   -f<
JC
t)
s
£ £" E
E "~
3   3         S
3
z
Z
Z
z
u
u
c
u
-3
3
<
8
E
3
z
*e3
C-
.
vo
es
Tt
u
Ih
u
•n
00
VO
3
T3
<
in
*S cfl
343
I"3
Os
in
i
u.
X
]
c
u
c
E
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
133
iS
m © ©
co © in
es os oo
378
430
552
00 00 cs
Tf os vO
Tf in oo
330
351
451
r- vo r-
so tr Os
Vi
th rH ©
m
tr-
Tt
Os
Sin
m
m Tt
es" en
cn Os ©
i
t- co vo
es es t~-
tr-Tt
CS   rH
rH es
V0 C\ Tt
rH Tt OO
rH rH cn
Tf in ©
CS
en m os
vp m
© vo
tN tN
oo tN rt
O VC 00
-*   «-l   O
I
<N
C/2
BJ
5
H
O
w
-
►J
o
o
a
o
05
CL)
O
<
W
>
o
o
o
oi
<
a
C/3
vc t^ vc
r- m ©
-h tN VD
vo r-
t— tn
■* tN
en rH VD
en Tt en
es Tt os
t-
! !
y\ OO
r- vo
es Tt
en es ©
© m vo
cs en r-
en es
© m
es cn
© vo CO
Tf o vo
TH es r-
r- m
en es
cs cn
en vo oo
vo tr- vo
«Hin
©   -HTt
m © oo
TH cs so
rn es ©     so oo
es en vo      en cs
00        Tf Vi
es es in
es es t-
n rn O
Os os es      m cn
TH   rH   O Tf  Tt
so       en cn
Vi
5
1-1
*»  >
.23 "3>
>  ta
— a>
J3 o
ta Jh
gz
eS |b
z<;|z
H      !     I     B
oj     o o y io
i-i 5     m w 5 °* l.
£>^3     .o xi ^ °£
E» I E E 2O §
3 S 1 3-3 Cv' 3
Z< oZZ< 8Z
.2 c
S5
E §
3 C
z<
ioog
-n v- v. b
,§EE|
,  3  3 S
8ZZ<
c
•c
A.
0 3.
O  3
I   0  O
cfl  U   U
■Bit1
a 3 3
 134
(57)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST SERVICE LIBRARY, 1952-61
Classification
Items Catalogued and Indexed
Ten-year
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1952-61
9
122
337
115
2,203
41
484
90
111
66
1,800
62
246
92
124
127
932
55
190
94
136
141
1,090
37
179
170
151
177
1,321
45
266
109
155
214
1,417
48
177
159
133
230
1,139
43
142
165
130
302
1,502
39
123
200
115
274
999
31
92
135
134
375
878
41
Government reports and bulle-
202
Other bulletins and reports
155
130
1,328
i Before 1953, included with periodicals, bulletins, and reports.
(58)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED
District
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,253
443
129
112,759
15,753
4,237
3,486
1,199
300
20,149
1,151
9
Totals, 1961   - .
1,825
132,749
4,985
21,309
Totals, 1960  	
1,726
127,148
4,504
19,460
Totals, 1959... 	
1,683
124,425
4,377
20,604
Totals, 1958     	
1,571
122,489
4,169
20,927
Totals, 1957                     	
1,640
128,978
3,886
20,693
Totals, 1956
1,776
127,182
3,667
22,310
Totals, 1955	
1,705
121,284
3,575
22,560
Totals, 1954              	
1,750
111,767
3,738
24,909
Totals, 1953                  .      -
1,730
108,894
4,133
23,172
Totals, 1952
1,621
104,610
4.040         1         23.565
(59)
GRAZING FEES BILLED AND COLLECTED
Year
Fees Billed
Fees Collected1
Outstanding,
Dec. 31
1961...                       	
1960
$112,700.89
102,631.52
91,636.13
69,986.23
67,593.88
76,155.51
76,061.32
80,191.97
95,088.64
125,495.09
$117,037.37
99,631.52
84,595.04
71,726.71
68,131.94
79,247.61
75,250.32
85,043.96
102,460.00
110,731.32
$17,075.95
21,412.43
1Q59
18,417.62
195R
11,376.53
1957
13,117.01
1956
13,655.07
1955
16,577.24
1954
15,766.24
1051
20,618.23
1952    - :	
27,989.59
i Includes statutory penalties.
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961
135
a
a
o
o
Or.
■7 VO
a <*>
?-
Pw m
Spi
OB
on
.a
rig
*S
*|
OS
*a
ya
^8
pl
sis
*n
ii
g
Pes'
Ph <
o^
Op
o"
T-1
«t«
3>
PQ
tt,
O
Pi
<
a
a
.-. o
O
•a«J    J
Iiiiii
3 ill 3
' 5   S
S£j
H.S.S-3 0S"
„ 3 r u^> k o
r-j rn JO ,h rt r i m
o.3£ 30-Uo
£<"Z
o-s I
3 d coy Vii
|l6  8~
lift
Bill
i vo os r- cn *<
0©v0©inino©©0©0
ininoo©Ttvq©"n©esen©
csin'enenr'osr^cninTtodo"
oo m o h vo vo ri ^ eo MS es       CS r- Tt vo
■ tr en r- CS en Tt
lOTHsOTtrHxtenr-cSeS
my,ienen©rHmcnt-Ttr-in
eSescsesooosincnTtTtooOs
f Tt vp m r- Tt
.j rij wj ui ^r i — OvOenoOTtejs
HvocncsooinTtT-icncnsocS
r- eS fc- vO © Os en Os Os r— t- t-
Ttoo©OscnTtooTt©©t—en
eNcscsesososso'eninTte-*ov
esinencnvDOst-eninTt-rt©
enTtOoovOr-rHOsOTtsOOs
vo©©r-oor-rHri©r^©cn
o\oo©oo©menrHC-^i-^i—r-oo
Tt0^eNeNeneSvp"sp"vo",r^oo"r-^
es © cn c- © en r--Tt in vo os en
cSescnrHinvDcncnenesoorH
STt CS Tt CS Tt rH cn © © Tt rH
ene>cneS©©©ooeninvo
THcnvOsOrHi-Hf-eSrH^tmcS
th Os" Tt y* Os en en xf es vp o\ en
rHr-moorHoooscsoocneSTt
rH©es      Ttsocscsr-mr-cs
cn r- en so
es y- as th
vo oo in en
r-" es" Tt in
© en Tt O
oo o\ r> vo
en in" Tt vo
©©©oooooes©©©©©©©©
©m©00rHoinTten©cn©©vDininTt
odin'owvocSenTtent^e^c^inoo'r^Tt^D
eSOsOsvOinooeSvoinOscnooinTtm©Os
©OscnvpeSesOseSTtoooesr~-mosvovo
oso^©^T^r^©^TtosTtenTt^oor^»cNTtcs
eNO"vD*OOr^rHOOOOinrHvH\Ot^inoo''t-n rt
oorHiScOQsr-OsenoocSC-r-Ttcnt— ©CS
incnOsrHTteSTtTt       Tt       rHrHTHOocSen
oovovovovoost— rH-rj-voooooencnt-T
in©enenOsa\Osr-THinTtvo
vp © t- cs oo cs ovcs oo rn r* es
vo vo oooososooooooocsc-
^inTtenes*'rH"c^OTfTfes''cs*'
Ttt-or-Tj-Ttinr-eocsm©
cnrH       rHtneSr-tcnescnTt
00     !
eS    !
es    :
00     !
vo    ;
es     •
t>
t"7   Tt  CS   TJ    .
Ttin©v0es©cnmvOTj-©so
cSth       rHrrjfN|^-.cSrHrncn
Osr-r^inmenrHmeSrHcnvOOCSVOOin
cn"ncnvOr-sooot-so©OsrH\orHcsmr-
es m tr c? oo in \o oo c^* en c*<o vi> Tt^ ©_ th
oo" vp th cn os" en Tf in rH" Tt in" oo" r- r> in ©" o"
»±or-trivOiHif>vOOr-'*aooinvotSN
cnosO        r^sOeScncnr— 'J- cn co m n r- rs
© 00
Tt   ©
rn cn
trtS
© Tf
CS rH
©
OS
SO 00 o
rH   cn  TH
in th o
oo"©" m
nifim
y->        CS
m vo^so^
cs'oo"
inrHmcSVpooin©enooOsoo©vOcS
©©OenOTtvOeSrHinesinoorHSO-.
cooNcsr^vDooeSTtoocnrHTtvDTtvDooeS
es en Os" ©" cn" vo y Tt" cs" in oo" vp rn" oC Tt" oo" Tt
vpootnincSTtcSfnTtTHT-H© —
t- m m
)0O OO tScNCf
*££ I o o-g-H j 3
sa&ij'|.l If -i'83
« S U D ffi H A $ Si xn t» >
i  u o
: o o
« o cd s fi
! ^i tN cn ii
j ^4 Jd ii S
!  o O  O  rt  V
.   j rt B
S  (BBQQSffi
fl   3   4)   t)
ffi;2
rt.ijrtrtrtg"j3
SOOOOsJal
a
 136
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(J  m
tL,
q
m O
IB
u
3
0
o s 31/3.0-a
as < 3 S w
3 5.5 w -j
t/3     £
■<-u55 L?z !
rto«-3 -rig
S^-z
*
§0©©©cn©©©inTt©©©inooeso©o-H©©ir>o©oosinspo
©inen©invq©Ocnt^eSTtTtininTto©inooinoes©inoenTHTt©
en'cnenTteninencSrHinTOOsinTHcnTHrHrH^rHcrjenr^enTtr^
00
es
cn
m
TH
eS
cSenTtrH^HinOr-TtrH
i cs en c- in Tt en      -y
<TtmmTt©ooinooooencSosin©enrHTto
cncnTtTtcnsoencS       >n 00 Os t-- t
en th ^h T
'enost-enmr—spcscSrH,
j in Os © © vp (
I r-' es in th
iencscnt^Ttenes      th
ior-;voooenesmin'
ienTtcnesrHinoor-'so'
I^HHHHrt
r- cn so r- en es th i
(VDOsmOTHOsvpcs
r>TteNrHmrHcnvp
i m es en oo Tt en
! th rn so es sp cs vo
i © rn in © r-_ en cn
: cn in cn es " m" od
: Tt • in Tt Tt vp Tt Os
i Tt  Tt t> vp cn Tt r~
ooitT^ooomootNOoorioomoci
©©enr-eSTtTtininTt©oinooin©eso*nc
©©©©om©o©mTt©©©>noo
©©inenoenvqo©enr--cSTtTtinin
cnenenTtencncneSrHW-iooosinrHcn
HrHr^rHcnenr^cnTtr^voes'cSr-'.
inencnOsinooinvD©Ooor~ini^rHTtosr^rHTtr~rHONe>Osinoor^ONC?AO
so Tt sp cn Os I
EOSTtrH-rJ-TJ.Tt^H,-|0000.
sOTtTfOencnsOeNcSoo-
enr-rHcsenmrH-
CSOSTtOSTtOSln©00rHrH©'r]-CSrH^HTt00lnTt
OOrHSpTtCNrHO-HSOrHCnt~-rH'rri'-     '   ■   -r     "      '-■■
cs vo" in Tt" ©" en
Osoot-OSTteSc^iTr
HHOtNNOS«^
nrHo-^\DMcnr-r-
is q « * tr m o q^ id
o"en rn vp" oo* oo" od* sp" r-^
wiesooor^ooos©ovpoo\o'
inencSencSO^CJSTtcnvpvOvp
r^rtOsrtcnooeseSdsin
vp^ONO>enOO^"nininencNencN©^o>Ttcnspso^vOr^e»rHcncn
cnvp"co*oo"oo"vp"r^vp"oso^Tt"vD"o"Tt in oo" so" oo" >— in x~- os cS t- -rt
eSTtTtcsinTt©TtTtessoeninr*-OsvoenO>Ttr^THr--incnO
somcnTtvOesomoomcncn h co tf-- m m vo rn
Krt-og.gK
3   C  ffi £ *?  W
S-v.
;2.ig
3£
•5ES-
*<
csmcscsinOsosoo©r-s?rHmos©(S
ooTHvoosmrr-csenmoospoovOinr-vp
10 "l0."." H.ttO OS n h ifl r OS. if) ^ ■ ^     ;
os" en vp" i^" es" Tt" o" en in" eS Tt" vp oo" vo" m" oo" cn" un" Tt" oo" os in in" o" en en" in vo r-*~ Tt" y*
|>t^rHf>TtcnOO©OrHQTtrHt^©OSCnOTtSOOOSDinOsVOO>Osf^TtCn©
rHrHOrHT-ICNininenTtSDVOinrHTt-rfrntn rt M»   H  m   f  "
rHoor-r^r-r-osTtr-r-nr-rs
t-©OseSC©sOl>env0cnTt"^
sDu-iOscnooinTtr-oocnescs
cS Os cn
O 00 OS
es cs
©
oo
! ©
JS
3
oo
00
tr
00
|
OO
vp oo
so cn
ir r-
y es
SO Tt
© Os
i
Tt
1
S8
en
© cs
so
1—1
Tt
00 rH
|
vpint-Osooooe>ON©cs
Os m m en th y ■—   ■-
es en eS in oo ©
en rn sp cn cS en
oo oc rl th oo en
ines©©fnTtsDrHesOsosTt(SCTvTt
r^-r~enoocnir--vOoo©Os,spTHCSsOoo^>N«<i-
iHiHi/lHiHrtinttrorr, ^vOOirtmMlNri
enr)enrHC>vOOTtenoOTtc»QinTtsoeSvO
OsOOXoprHiricSricninensoinTtspOsvp
osrHcSTtoocnrHor--csencosor;,TtTHcn
os es" tj cs" o* o" en >n" tr tr Os es en m"
r— Ttvoi>esrsr^m©cnvOTtcnoo
n i> vo ih rs osm
"*« o
8, m<
l» wv
J I:
§ >
■c -3
a, m
JHCN^
I mm
^tsn      «
: M ■* -* "d .£
18 8 8 gt2f
ipqpqpq |*g
eS en
3,2 y y o"H*N^*"■
wC-S =: = o o o
wWPQ pq PQ o o o
c rt ca .rt ._ ._, PQ PQ PQ 0'
U? C C THrt S3 www a
§3 o
CQ Ph Oh
'E B
ri
MM
MM
O   U   CJ   CJ
innh
«■»    hn  r  3 "    n    ii    n    *i
v- u rt *3 S
moouoou.jSS2ZZZZZZZB<e,B!iy5
rt S s
- o o
o o
£££££
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1961
137
oooypooooo-i
t-; Tt©©©©©©Tte
en      TtrHr-'in'esenes,>eSTt
eseSmesvor^-oenTtvOen
rHinTHcninenvorivo
TtOsOrneSTtcnoooq
eSrtvp'vo"rHcnesrtcs
Tfvflr-oootstsogoo
^©<Sq©.THrtO0TtTt
TtrHodinesOses'rteSrH
Tt©©©©eso©e
esoo©©inoor--qc
in'esincs'vpc'©"en'"
esr-TtesmcninvoeSeneSTtTt
vooorHTj-T-icsr-oor^cnTtr-rt
inr^^wrHOTtONOsvocneo-rt
rnodin"rtcnH*r*TtencnrH-rten
hOMrtOOOrtO
esspsocsininos>n
ensovoeNcneScSTt
mTteSTtesooenrt
cSrHr-oooenesooes
©voeSeSmo\©oomoo
Tt©osOTtcnOi Os en Tt
Ttrtes'inesincscscSrH
© © © O OS rH O
-H in es m v> q e-
r* Tt rH cn rt Tt es
oo©©0©Oin©©inoo
TtooooinrHTj-oesOsoo
odeNineSvO'r'odenTtrH'es
Tt vo tr es rn *-
•n m Tt Tt en cn
es t-* th <s cs" rn
y .vOino\©oommt- ! Os
oo_ |OsTtincsOst--inTt i ©
! th" in es* od r-i in" cs rt    j od
rn : eS Os es en tr es
Os f eS Os
m  Os tj
y    I vo es"
Os vp ; oo vo vp vp Os
oo os | rn in oo so tr
es vo | r-" cn r-i cn Tt
Sin I © © © Tt in
(S> ! CS in in r~. cs
en in i eS* en es en en
rn oo ; cn eS
© r-; i t- ©
in rn" i en" cd
os en
CS 00
•n es
oo Os r- Tt en
© ri Os in r-
cS cn th cn cn
©m©vpo©©©©rHin»nm©0©Q©©©©©0©
h^^pqqqqoTfmcsiNrjcoqqiriHivqtNMfvi
frirHTtrtr^ines'eneSr^eSTtrtes'esin'esvor^©
lnrHr-*00rHrt©0S00rHcSlnCO©t--OSrH'rl-0s(SrHcncnTt
r^vpoo©ineNr^TtTtesOsooTtes©cnosvposchr^rt-ri.Tf
inoNenoo©r^invprtco©cnvoenvpTtr^c»r^rHoc^Trrt
enTte>rHcSTtt^"oo"inTto"os"soes r- t- o\vo"en"oo"rtoo"t~^in"
soosoor~-TtTt©invoriooinencnrl©vDes©Or*eSspcn
y*      es      rHeSrHin      en      en >— ov en cn      eSTtmrHTtcnrt
csr-TtesmeninsoescnesTtTt
eSeSOsesoovprHOoortspr-Os
Or~in©Ttenmoo©oor^cnTt
eses^©_inrt^rtvo^ri^r^vp^TtTt
y •h Os" ©" ©" O" Tt" Os" Os Tt CS ts" ©"
Osrtinminesm©r-OsTtrtin
r~-aoTtejsTtTteS©incnrHTtrH
^flllHinrH^-lflffi^H/f^cOl/)
cnrtOo^inrtO^r^oo^oe^r-eNooo^
es* ©*Tt as Tt Os© <s in" oC cn oo" es
vooocoin©TtTtr-Tt(NTtr-in
TtoospeSessDr-rHcSvpTtcno
Tt m tr- in
©*
rtininOOsensOooOsenTtrtooeS
©r»enTtTtcnrtOcscnoooocscs
en oo vo es a\ os es r-ooeSrHTtoso
es" ©" vo" en Tt" es" in" Tt cs" cS vp" vp" es" in in oo* es" es" Tt" tj ©" in
■~r^r^Tt^in-HeS©TtenrHinTtcnrtOsinspooo
CNso»-HTj-rnr— csn        orJTtr-.-<^-r-sOTtosr-cn
i Osso tr Vi i
m © es
00 vo 00
Tt Os Os
m © Tt vp os
os © o Os tJ- en
5 5 H
Tt tJ OO
oo cn cn
es rn tt m cs
oo vp vp
m vp tr-
en m vo
en rn oo © cn
00    Tt l> SO Tt
y       © -h in
cn
eS  so m th
Ttr^r*TteSrtf^Tt^spr^sOen©enin©inTtrHTH\of-.rr)
r^cnvOrtmincnOsO\roeScnTt©oorto\rtrtooc--r-es©
i^r^invp^or^inso^TtenrtrHoortrHinr^csinTtcnr--rHo\
oort^rHsp"cn"r^en"osesco"envOTtTtr^r^r^enTtes ""
cs m es Os r- cs rn r- Tt m vo m en ■3t
CS CS r-TtrtCnrHTtrHrH
t Tt tr fr tr en
? oo rn rt Os en
3 th rn th ch Tt
— -o vp rn cS o\ cn
r^Tt©en©e>rtvSTtmmor-
cn Os enr^ines©^c>.osr--oor—©
Os Tt" sp* sp" Os* rt Os* oo* Tt vo* oo" oo* en
r^rsr-tSooosrvOvorsooooo
r-oSeSr-Tfvo^        -rt -y en v>
tH
tr-
*
en
r- :
tr    i
CS
Os
OS  !
y
00 Os rt
Os sp VO
VO   s£  rH
cSOsOsrHit--oOTtcnTtenspsDo\
Osoocsinesr-©oooortooTtejs
soc^twesOsrt^Ttr^r^so^i^oOTt
•ytso-rftrtrtnOsintrinenvioo
OSTtOSSp©cSOOr-v-jir,spTt\p
mcSrtineSmcn      cSrHcS-rt
rH cS
O   CO CQ
ta  ta
E 1.
c rt •
°m
•a *o
rt 2
ffi.2
» a-9 o
5 S £ — —
o J3 J=	
< nE C
3 S « a
2 *=13
* M
So
5 £
o
c o
^lilllUIIili.
69 n
rt .=" O   ;■:: ■    £   rt 5 "^
pQpqpqWrt'-zzz'zz aapH 3 « k w w h £ ;*
2«sas§s^|ES
>~  u. i. ~  ^ ^ u-rt rt*~jo
<UUBHOKKZ»S
mi
lH     U
a c
5i
o
■3
£ o
 138
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
9 9 3 3
rl n
3©©©©oo©©©moo©©es
3©m©©TtcSO©eS©i—■omrH
DOsenOTtmes©TtTtTfooTtT-(Os
© oo © © (
© © © o <
C© CS c» oo c __ .
in" Vi eS ■y y Tt" cs" o* l> Tt Tt
TH   es r-
rH es <
: ejs rt cs r-
lOsinesoor^cscsvor-Tt ,
ienTt©ososTti>\oenrlTt©ooTtQOo\Tt
I vo" in oo m" ©* t-" y y Os es oo" t-" es* es vo* Tt" od
TtcsinTtenTt©incScSrHOsinesoovp
i Tt_mrH TteJsooenf-^so ^ ^en c^
I      r-T y en y y      y
os © © cS
cn vo cn vo
Os y so oo
3£
-h Os in r»
cnvoooTtvom©es©©r~-
in m oo so Tt o en vp os^ sp vd
vo on in oo oo"'-**©"cS y esen"
inrHOs©oo cs >n vo
rn vo tr Tt cS vi      so
OseStsr-osOOinTtrtfsjcncSoortosos
OSrHSOin©CSOsOsOs©oO-HTtCSVOso©
f-r\   in   im   r*f"i   .—.   H-   -~~*   tH   Tt   \jh   —4.   r~j-   l/-v   f\r\  <TJ\   i-r\   r-f\
■  -VOin©CSCJsOsOsCOoC
eninooenrH'rj-rH©Ttsoos©,^iooosmoo
vO en t** en en l> v% es en fO-Q\ vo (S ON Tt eNj -t*
— " ^ —■ —■ —■ f-^ Tt r~- oo ©
m tn so
? m r— m cn r— m es cn <
oomincnenoooovO'    .
osenrH      Ttc^rtinmcn
© Tt vo O
en © Tf rn
\D sq rn en
oo Tt irT os
th os so so
vo un es vo
© os © m
VO  m  © rH
eS es es th
© m so m
t- Tt Tt os
cn cn Os th
Tt"r* en" vo
vo os r-. Tt
in  Tt  U  rt
CS" rn"
m_ oO © ©^ <
es" cs es rt" i
en Os m
VD tn en
rt © oo
r- oo tr? as oo ©
os rn Tt os cn cn
in ©_ oo rn cn so
vo" ©" op es" cn od
©   OS   ©   rH   ©   OS
y       CS y y
H<<
rtrnTtsoTtt—©csmOmOs©Ttmmoovo
r^inr-Ttr-©©csesinooesvocsvoosines
cncncSenoocSosTHrtcsvDrioot--rHoovDos
ooTtes TtrHcnenodvoTtcsinr^^oCr^cnr-T
tr- cnvooscSr-oscsmcjvTtrtcnrHinrtO
cn      TtrHTt      TtcnTtvoencn Tt tn m
cOrH»noor-en©THVOoom©enen©vposin
inooTtcnooi>oocsoscSescSrH©o\©csos
in co «n o IN m cn r ■* O m rn h o enr-m-st
©"cn ©"odos ©"r^rti>eNodMvp"©"enod©"rt
00 rHrHTteSVOOSr-lnTtOSrHcnrHCSCOTt
cSenrH rHcnmcSrH cSTt
cnvpinrHQrHcsTtooenTtosososinTt
incSTtOTtTtTninsOrtspcSTtosspi>
Tt m inco^spir^TtTtininsqr~.cSTt mvq
Tto" cS r~* Tt" >-* r-" cs es en" rn t£ cn"
rtcn cSTtr-sor- ©as
y rt cS rt       th
cSrtr^eseses©©TtTtin£:osTtrtr~Ttrt
rHc»osrtTtr^TfooTrr*io©Ttr-Tt©vocs
vooo^©^int,--iint--rHoina\ooTtcSrtcsosoo
encn"vo"r^oor^sD"Tt"cn"©"©"oscn"vo"cs"Tt"os"r-;'
vo       a\00TtrHsOsOcnaO00rHrtCSrHtN.>Tt
•y4 rt rtcNvSHrt ,_, (S)
Os oo cn th
on cs en cn
cn cn © tr
y t- vo en"
SO OS  OS rt
os es » m
o tr rH os
vo en © en
Os o> in os
cs" en" so Os*
en m © oo
r- rt rt Tt
Tt OS Tt OS
es th os 5"
Os es es ©
vo oo tr o
en rH- o Os
© r~ cs o©
th"cs"©" cs
cS y oo cn
tr y-      en
© oo es cn th oo
vo en rn r^ so m
os m os en c» oo
© oo t— en Tt y
rn so th oo en t—
Tt cs oo © m ©
tn en Tt
on cn cs
rn so es
in m cn cn Tt rn
y en Os oo en ires so m © Vi ©
a
I*
rJT3
• a
U   S3
- PQ *"o
24.31
• c cffl
O o  rt    „
UqU c
« 73 u «
35.3)3
rf       «S
ft ^  ° *3
r^&j
o
S3 -
SrJ2
g-   00      .
u '5i)U
Q j |
COO
03    W    Ih
■si*
•g T)  3
E  3  rt
hum
■a "O
3 2
C    .
.2-6
.S3 3
So
►J «
U:
IS
■S  rt
1w *o *i
5"° 3
3 rt M U
3 *o u m
3 *3  3  ^
I* 1|
mfig
c"SO
•Be
3 o .2
Sfe 5
joss
.a*
- S3 3
■-  =5 2-3
Qi-l   . o
•'E3   0   w
p   OO CD to
o.S.5i!
r-    ti    °0   0
gfgft
0  gpi^
0 5     .   «
uSuu
2 B
3.2
^m
S 3"
|S
a o
GvS
33ft.
rii-lta
o    .    .  c
uqq «
^ m m "a>
2 « "u
= « « 2
" § §™
a
rt
J3 aj cj a
I -"s 'a 1
3  O  O «
o rt rt 5
UpSbSS
^ -6 T3
W" w  TH
?S«
F u «
-Q rt
§ ^^
tj u u
<8 •> H
> -3 s
>ViUi
2 n
51
fs-d
3   P *i
gal
5   BQ   £
D- rt rt
-3 u .3
5 s a
CJ   C 3
s a£
So.
a "o
3  3
3 3
Qm
CJ »
•^   3
A jd
O .2 .<£
rt E
Coo
rt"3  oocn  Scj   5<rt-^  3^   PrtT)
HffiWHH<2zSZUZwffi
th   nl
rt   H
« t: s ^ •-
,5 £ S Z K
.^    rt
ts. n
u    rt £    m,2h    1)
"^   »n od Os" ©" r- Tt
*N eS'tn en cn
 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1961
139
© o
oo ©
8
©
©
c
in
•.<:'
o
t-
m
■ © ©
© sp
8SS
©    ©
©    VD
Tt
vq oo © in m en y
©
o cs oo rn m o  vp
CS
y        y CS*              rH*
00
CS rt         y y ©    SO
Tt
en   en
es
•
SO
<r>
1          es Tt m cn Os Os Tt
Os © © -rt rn m   rH
r- es © © cn r—   rn
w
© tr- © Vi rH 00 oo
es
Os
hopviit "* T-nn
tr
oo so Tt t— so eS   m
Os
©" od vp" en" "n" od vo"
os en tJ- es es es Tt
0\
es os r- m rn ©   t-
r-
as
in m rn Tt vo m   oo
Tt    Vp
£
es
Cj	
en
©    :
c*> r-
O
rn m   sp
co   :
t- vo
Oi
rt rt   cs
vO
vn in
en
© r- t>
t-~
es
r- rn   co
Tt      Tf
en   en
Tt
CO
es
vo"
es Tt m cn vo es Tt
so
os © © Tt cs ©  m
r> cn © © es vo   oo
00
cs r- © m Tt cs oo
©
es
m oo m Tt oo vo m
Tt
oo vo Tt r- vp in   t~-
es
Os oo vo en Tt r- vp
l>
es os r- m Tt co   oo
cn
oo en Tt es es cs Tt
OS
in in th Tt m ©   cn
Os
cn
rH    cn
t-^
y    y
in"
m © vo m rn © -rt
cn © m O es rn vo
—,
•n © m © Tt en   ir
,_,
S
es th .-. co os i>  os
Tt
Tt vo r- Tt tr es os
vo © co es es vo   vo
in
m os oo Tt cs es ©
vo y © © co r-   Tt
©
Os th cs oo en es ©
CO
Os rt oo © © en   en
vo
r-
n y       y en m   en
vq
es   en
en"
TH 	
en © Os t— Tt m vo
*t
in © r- vo m th  Tt
Tt
en © vd Tt eS Tf en
. "   vo r- th © en oo cs
m
co en oo m rn vo   en
os
Os
© m r- oo Xr Xr   tr
m
© © cs y y Tt tr
l>
© Os Tt oo r cn   oo
r-
t- Os eN vo en rt os
CO
© co vo cn r> vp   es
vo
rH                           00    es
o
*■£
r-"
CS ©
; © ©
rs
OO    ©
Os
© so
vn co
3\
OS Os   oo
es
tN tN    i
c-
r^Tt   es
Tt
■*
™
cn"vp   ©"
en   Tt
in
eS
1   j
!
"t
1-1
th © os r- Tt m so
en Tt sp t+ tr so cn
m in y © ©_ m eS
es
m © r- vp m rn   Tt
m
sO
co en oo m cs t—   m
so
© m tr oo as es   Tt
Os ©" es y y Tt t>
sp os eS vo en rn Os
sO
© os Tt oo r- r-   co
O oo vp en vp eS   oo
CS
CO
Ov
^O
rn                                   OO     rt
m
1-1
in"
T
|
i
]
i
1
|_
te
•a
j
C
c
H
*rj
*2
T
"C
z
c
c
c
j
a
%
5
:
1
s
«
1
L
c
X
\
P.
;
C
T
C
r
c
1
p
a
s
\
i
0
0
c«
X
0
1
-
tL
£
h
c
V
-
H
1
1
s
c
q
M   r-
oZ
Ih K
U ■-
E &
P    CG
crtK
<u >
° i
3 =
ca   C
J
!
1
Z
0
c
I-
E
y
£
c
>
c
z
V
a
|
|
X
I
•o
S3
rt
coOo. u > t« m
Phpooouo
«*
B
•c
o
a
k.
IS s
°- S
ii
1
1
-
c
c
•5
I
0
s
£
4
c
c
B
I
C
PC
t,
1
(7
«
u
rH
6
E
rt
7s
c
H
Q
to  5
4
<
l
]
c
B
i
!
cc
c
1
a
t
1
<
1
1
; ta
1 «
'h 1
V
C
c
«
1-
c
Os in >o oo CS cn in
en oo -h m Tt en
f
ec
en
CS
OJ
rU
p
t\
c
tM
u
>
<>
11
p
rt
a
01
■s
c
■6
ta
B
S
OJ
u
v
h
4
3
o
X
rt
0
3
CJ
X
&
S
 140 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(62) FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES TO DECEMBER 31,1961
Forest District
Number
of
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Mature
Volume
(Cu. Ft.)
Allowable
Annual Cut
(Cu. Ft.)
Crown
Private
Total
18
2
15
9
6
2,389
496
3,322
2,460
1,009
343
350
678
347
599
2,732
846
4,000
2,807
1,608
4,862,377
578,017
6,265,025
2,077,616
926,980
97,200
16,000
Prince George	
Kamloops _	
Nelson  _.	
123,000
54,300
29,100
50
9,676
2,317
11,993
14,710,015
319,600
TREE-FARMS (EXCLUDING THOSE IN TREE-FARM LICENCES)
(63) TO DECEMBER 31, 1961
Forest District
Number
of Tree-
farms
Productive
Area
(Acres)
Mature
Volume
(MCu. Ft.)
Allowable
Annual Cut
(MCu. Ft.)
17
5
360,495
184,669
1,220,884
127,4921
18,133
2,3392
Totals	
22
545,164
1,348,376
20,472
i Plus 1,640,724 Christmas trees.
2 Plus 386,740 Christmas trees.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1962
1,460-362-8679
    

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0363093/manifest

Comment

Related Items