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BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCIAL MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY and ANTHROPOLOGY REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1960 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1962]

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Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
  To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1960.
Minister of Education.
Office of the Minister of Education,
January, 1961.
 Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology,
Victoria, B.C., January 16th, 1961.
The Honourable L. R. Peterson,
Minister of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The undersigned respectfully submits herewith a report covering the
activities of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the
calendar year 1960.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
The Honourable Leslie Raymond Peterson, LL.B., Q.C., Minister.
J. F. K. English, M.A., Ed.D., Deputy Minister and Superintendent.
G. Clifford Carl, Ph.D., Director.
Charles J. Guiguet, M.A., Curator of Birds and Mammals.
Wilson Duff, M.A., Curator of Anthropology.
Adam F. Szczawinski, Ph.D., Curator of Botany.
Diane MacEachern, B.A., Assistant in Anthropology (to May 31st).
Donald N. Abbott, B.A., Assistant in Anthropology (from August 8th).
Frank L. Beebe, Illustrator and Museum Technician.
Margaret Crummy, B.A., Clerk-Stenographer.
Betty C. Newton, Museum Technician.
Sheila Y. Newnham, Assistant in Museum Technique.
Claude G. Briggs, Attendant.
C. E. Hope, Relief Attendant.
Totem-pole Restoration Programme
Mungo Martin, Chief Carver.
Henry Hunt, Assistant Carver.
(a) To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the
(b) To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the
(c) To obtain information respecting the natural sciences, relating particularly to the natural history of the Province, and to increase and diffuse knowledge
regarding the same.
(Section 4, Provincial Museum Act, Chapter 273, R.S.B.C. 1948.)
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free, on week-days, 9 a.m. to
5 p.m., and on Sunday afternoons, 1 to 5 p.m.
Report of the Director     9
Exhibits      9
Field Work and Out-of-Province Travel     9
Publications  10
Models and Illustrations  11
Library Reorganization  11
Public Relations  11
Attendance .   11
Staff Changes  12
British Columbia Museums Association Seminar  13
Obituaries  13
Report of the Curator of Botany   14
Report of the Curator of Ornithology and Mammalogy  18
Report of the Curator of Anthropology  20
Donations and Accessions  24
" Some Recent Sight Records of European Starling Nesting on New Territory in Western British Columbia," by C. J. Guiguet  29
" The Killer Whale Copper," by Wilson Duff  32
For the Year 1960
The year 1960 was relatively uneventful in so far as Museum activities were
concerned; the usual services were carried out, with the exception of the film shows
for children and adults, which were discontinued because of lack of acceptable accommodation. Progress and accomplishments are outlined in the following sections.
New installations in the anthropology galleries were the outstanding addition
to our exhibition facilities. These consist of showcase-type display-cases incorporated into a false wall in three of the basement rooms. The use of controlled lighting and attractive colours have permitted a much more dramatic and effective
presentation of the Indian material than was previously possible.
A number of new plant replicas created by Miss Susan Taylor, under the
direction of Mr. Beebe, have been added to the botanical exhibit, and two mammal cases have been decorated by Miss Newton. The displays of living plants,
fishes, bees, and reptiles have been maintained as usual.
A display-stand featuring wild-flower conservation was designed and installed
in early spring by the Department of Recreation and Conservation.
A habitat display of bats has almost been completed by Mr. Beebe.
Various staff members spent periods in the field, as follows:-—
Duff: Tour of Interior centres, May 18th to 29th.
Carl and Duff: Prince Rupert, Hazelton area, Barkerville, etc., May 30th
to June 10th.
Guiguet:  Islands in the Tofino area, July 6th to 23rd.
Carl: Long Beach, July 6th to 10th; Bowron Lake Game Reserve, August 29th to September 6th.
Szczawinski:   Smithers area, June 27th to July 5th.
Details of some of these and of other shorter trips are given in the curatorial
We are indebted to the Provincial Department of Mines for accommodation
and transportation provided to Dr. Szczawinski in the Smithers-Hazelton area, and
to the Federal Department of Fisheries for certain services supplied to Mr. Guiguet
while he was working in the Tofino area.
In March Carl made a lecture tour in California under the auspices of the
National Audubon Society and the Audubon Society of Canada. En route, visits
were made to several museums and colleges, including the Scripps Institute of
Oceanography (La Jolla), Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Los Angeles
County Museum and Museum of Science and Industry (Los Angeles), Hopkins
Marine Station (Monterey), and the California Academy of Science (San Francisco).
In May Carl attended the annual meeting of the Canadian Museums Association in Montreal and in September and October Duff attended two conferences on
archaeology—the first in Calgary, sponsored by the Glenbow Foundation, the second
in Toronto under the auspices of the Ontario Government.
The following publications have been produced in 1960:—
By Frank L. Beebe—
" The Marine Peregrines of the Northwest Coast."   Condor, Vol. 62, No.
3, pp. 145-189.
" An Instance of Piracy by the Red-tailed Hawk on the Peregrine Falcon."
Condor, Vol. 62, No. 6, pp. 480-481.
By G. Clifford Carl—
Review of "Africa's Wild Glory"  (Phillip Keller).    Daily Colonist,
January 3rd, p. 7.
" The Stickleback and Other Spiny Fishes."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 16,
No. 5, pp. 54-55.
" Aiiimals around Us."   Series in Victoria Daily Times, July.
"A Fish-eye View of You."    Fin Fare (Victoria Aquarium Society),
February, pp. 3-6.
" Danio Eggs by Order."   Vancouver Aquarist, March.
" Albinistic Killer Whales in British Columbia."  Report of the Provincial
Museum for 1959, pp. 29-36.
" The British Columbia Provincial Museum."   Bull. Canadian Museums
Assn., Vol. 12, Nos. 1 and 2, pp. 6-7.
By Wilson Duff—
" The Mortuary Poles of Ninstints." Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 16, No. 7,
February, p. 65.
By C. J. Guiguet—
" Birds of British Columbia."   Series in Vancouver Province.
" Birds of British Columbia: (7) The Owls." British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 18, December, pp. 1-62.
" The Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominica) Nesting in British Columbia."
Report of the Provincial Museum for 1959, p. 40.
" The Sharp-tailed Grouse." Beautiful British Columbia, Vol. 2, No. 2,
" The Cinnamon Teal." Beautiful British Columbia, Vol. 2, No. 3, fall-
By George A. Hardy—
" On the Life History of Incisalia eryphon (Lycaenidas) on Southern Vancouver Island." Journ. Lepidopterists' Society, Vol. 13, No. 2,
1959, p. 70.
" A Recent Record of Annaphila arvalis (Noctuidae) in British Columbia."   Journ. Lepidopterists' Society, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1959, p. 78.
" Notes on the Life Histories of Two Butterflies and One Moth from Vancouver Island." Proc. Entomol. Soc. British Columbia, Vol. 57,
December 1st, pp. 27-29.
By D. B. Quayle—
" The Intertidal Bivalves of British Columbia." British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 17, July, pp. 1-104.
B 11
By Adam F. Szczawinski—
"Amethyst, Star of the Woods."   Popular Gardening, Vol. 11, No. 1,
January, pp. 41-65.
" New Records of Chamisso's Orchid (Habenaria chorisiana Cham.) for
British Columbia."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 35-36.
In addition to the above, reprints of several numbers in the Handbook series
were published. These include " The Mammals of British Columbia " (in collaboration with the Department of Recreation and Conservation), " The Edible Plants
of British Columbia," " The Amphibians of British Columbia," and " The Reptiles
of British Columbia." Also, the greater part of the text and figures for " The
Heathers of British Columbia " has been completed by Dr. Szczawinski, a start has
been made on a handbook to the Indians of the Province by Wilson Duff, and a
rough draft of a guide to marine life has been prepared.
Mr. Beebe has produced numbers of plant models and a fish model in plastic,
as well as a series of bird illustrations. He has also commenced the construction of
a relief model of the Province for later installation in the Museum entrance-way.
In addition to her regular duties, Miss Newton has prepared a series of detailed
drawings of native heathers to be used as illustrations in a forthcoming handbook.
A series of most life-like plant replicas was completed by Miss Taylor, and
these have been added to the wild-flower display as previously noted.
The reorganization and recataloguing of the Museum reference library was
continued in 1960 under the direction of Miss K. Clark (Chief Cataloguer), Miss
Margaret Hastings, and Mrs. Lorna Sager, all of the Provincial Library staff.
In addition to the usual numbers of public lectures given to organized groups
by various staff members, Carl, Guiguet, and Szczawinski each presented a night
course for adults in their respective fields. The Director has continued to participate in the weekly radio programme " Outdoors with the Experts," sponsored by
the Victoria station CJVI, and he and other staff members have appeared on other
radio and television programmes at various times during the year.
The number of visitors to the Museum in 1960 according to the register is as
January  911
February  1,283
March  1,430
April  2,336
May   3,023
June     8,662 	
July  17,052 Total  56,801
Compared with the 1959 registered attendance, the attendance in 1960 was up
about 8 per cent, probably largely due to increased travel in the summer months.
August   13,587
September  5,052
October   1,991
November  834
December   640
The number of persons registering is not a true measure of attendance as the
proportion of visitors stopping to sign the book varies inversely with crowding. On
two occasions in July, counts were made of signers and non-signers. When the
number of visitors averaged 93 per hour (6 hours), the proportion registering was
42.5 per cent; when the number was 122 per hour (2Y2 hours), the proportion
dropped to 41.4 per cent.
From these data plus records of those persons in school classes and other
organized groups, we estimate that the 1960 attendance was well over 100,000
The July attendance figures have been broken down by Mr. Briggs and Mr.
Hope, as follows:—
Residence Registration Residence Registration
British Columbia  2,650 Washington     2,645
Alberta       725 Oregon     1,360
Saskatchewan       420
Manitoba       230
Ontario       635
California      3,840
Other States     3,962
Quebec   165                Great Britain  .                   175
New Brunswick        35 Other countries        143
Nova Scotia        35 .	
Prince Edward Island ___. 10
Newfoundland   2
Yukon Territory   18
Northwest Territories... 2
Total  12,125
Grand total   17,052
Total  4,927
Compared with figures obtained in previous years, the July attendance reached
an all-time high, exceeding the previous record established in 1957 by over 20 per
cent. Visitors from California continued to outnumber those from other areas,
followed closely by British Columbians and Washingtonians.
The sum of $440.48 was collected by the Museum donation-box during the
year; of this amount, $55.60 was turned over to the World Refugee Year Fund and
the remainder given to the Queen Alexandra Fund for Crippled Children.
At the end of May Miss Diane MacEachern resigned from the position of
Assistant Curator of Anthropology to accept a fellowship at the Australian National
University. Though a member of the staff for less than a year, Miss MacEachern
contributed a great deal by reorganizing the storage of Indian costumes and other
perishable materials and by preparing many of the new Indian exhibits.
In August Mr. Donald N. Abbott took up the duties of Assistant Curator of
Anthropology. Mr. Abbott is a graduate of the University of British Columbia,
with two years of postgraduate training at the University of London Institute of
During the summer months three student assistants were employed—Miss
Gail McKevitt in the general office, Miss Susan Taylor and Mr. William Savale in
the herbarium. Mr. John Nutt has continued to care for the living plant exhibit on
a part-time basis. Mr. Charles Hope has acted as attendant while Mr. Briggs was
on annual leave and on sick leave.
B 13
The annual meetings of the newly formed British Columbia Museums Association were held at Penticton on September 15th, 16th, and 17th.    As in previous
years, the meetings were made possible by a grant from the Leon and Thea Koerner.
Carl, Duff, and Abbott attended the conference as representatives from the
Provincial Museum. Carl and Duff were elected to the offices of president and vice-
president respectively, and Duff was appointed editor of the proceedings. Abbott
gave a demonstration of the restoration and care of basketry.
With regret we record here the passing of several persons who have rendered
services to the Museum and to the Province as a whole.
Mr. Kenneth Racey, widely known amateur ornithologist of Vancouver, B.C.,
and early member of the Pacific Northwest Bird and Mammal Society (May 9th).
Lieut.-Col. Gilbert Howland, executive member and for many years a moving
force in the B.C. Indian Arts and Welfare Society, Victoria, B.C. (May 12th).
Mr. T. W. S. Parsons, former Commissioner of the British Columbia Provincial
Police and ardent student of Indians (July 13th).
Mr. E. F. G. White, one of the founders of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club
and well-known amateur ornithologist (October 31st in his ninety-first year).
Mr. W. A. Newcombe, an active collector and authority in the fields of anthropology and natural history of British Columbia and one-time assistant biologist on
the Museum staff (November 24th).
Mr. T. P. O. Menzies, curator of the Vancouver City Museum and secretary
of the Art, Historical, and Scientific Association for many years up to his retirement
in 1953 (December 8th in his eighty-seventh year).
Recorded accessions for the year 1960 amounted to 1,559 mounted and labelled sheets of phanerogams. The accessions of cryptogams amounted to 275, consisting of collections from Sooke district, Goldstream Park, and a few areas in the
vicinity of Victoria. A number of lichens and liverworts were also collected in the
Smithers area.
The number of phanerogams, stated above, does not present a true picture as
there are approximately 700 plants labelled and mounted for which accession has
to wait until more space is available or some rearrangement of the herbarium is
made. At the moment the cases are overcrowded and cannot accommodate more
material without damage to the present collection. Another problem is accommodation of the phanerogams, which at the moment are kept in packages awaiting
proper herbarium cases.
There is still a certain amount of herbarium material from previous years, and
some progress was made in sorting it and making exchanges with other herbaria.
This material is very important as it constitutes early records taken in the Province.
The collecting scheme for amateurs started in 1956 and supervised by the herbarium was continued and brought a large bulk of material from several new collectors. Space does not permit us to list individual collectors, but we acknowledge
their voluntary work and help with most sincere thanks. It should be mentioned
that all the collectors are supplied with presses, instructions, and other necessary
material from the herbarium, and as a result there is a noticeable improvement in
the quality of collections.
From some of the most remote areas of British Columbia, collections were
received from Mrs. D. H. Calverley, with the assistance of Mrs. G. Knoblauch, Mrs.
Alex. Coutts, and Mrs. R. Sikora (Dawson Creek area); Mr. E. W. Sullivan (trees
and shrubs from Alaska, Yukon, and Northern British Columbia); Mrs. C. J.
Guiguet (Stubbs Island); Mr. A. P. McLaughlin (remote area of Fraser Lake);
Mr. D. A. Barr (Stikine and Barrington River areas); Mr. J. E. Underhill (alpine
flora of Manning Park); Mr. T. R. Ashlee (Saltspring Island); Dr. A. Sutherland-
Brown (Queen Charlotte Islands); and Dr. S. Holland (Smithers-Hazelton area).
We also received specimens from Mr. and Mrs. Howard McDonald (Bamfield)
and Mr. Bud Frost (Camp Woss, Beaver Cove), representing two non-collected
areas of Vancouver Island.
A botanical survey and plant collection were started in the newly established
Francis Provincial Park by Miss Gail Moyer, under the supervision of Mr. Freeman
The Smithsonian Institution continues its collaboration with the herbarium in
the field of studies of cryptogams, and officials there have identified a number of
lichens and mosses. There are constant requests by the Smithsonian Institution,
Swedish Museum of Natural History, University of Washington, University of Delhi,
and University of North Carolina to collect and exchange our material with them.
The above-mentioned institutions send us collections from their regions in advance.
Unfortunately, without additional help and space our contribution to this arrangement is limited. We hope that in the future we will be able to increase this service
of plant exchange and send more British Columbia material to various world herbaria.
Supervision of the technical work in the herbarium was very efficiently attended
to by Mrs. S. Newnham and summer assistant Mr. W. F. Savale, Jr.
Exchange of duplicate British Columbia plant material was continued with
various universities, museums, and government botanical institutions, particularly
University of British Columbia, Vancouver; University of Washington, Seattle;
Science Service, Ottawa; National Museum, Ottawa; and several others.
Field work in 1960 included a botanical survey and plant-collecting trip in the
area from Burns Lake to Telkwa, Smithers, Hazelton, Terrace, Lava Lake, Nass
River, Kitimat, and Prince Rupert. This reconnaissance was made in co-operation
with Dr. Stuart S. Holland, Department of Mines, Victoria, who kindly shared transportation and camping facilities. The Curator would like to acknowledge with
thanks his kindness; without his help this survey would not have been possible.
Several new records were established. A few of the most important were:
Cassiope lycopodioides Don., collected at Hudson Bay Mountain near Smithers
and Telkwa range (second and third record for the Province); Habenaria chorisiana
Cham., collected in the Prince Rupert area (third record for the Province and first
record for the Mainland); and Calla palustris (L.) R. & S., near Smithers. The
total number of plants collected during this survey amounted to approximately 500
sheets of phanerogams and sixty sheets of cryptogams. Several rare liverworts
were collected on Hudson Bay Mountain at the edges of the glacier.
A few short collecting trips on Vancouver Island were made jointly with several
botanists and other visitors interested in the flora of Vancouver Island.
A taxonomic study of the heather family (Ericacem) was continued, which will
lead to the completion of a monographic presentation in the form of a Museum
An analysis of the allerginic pollen in the atmosphere of the Victoria area was
continued at St. Joseph's Hospital to try to assist in the clinical diagnosis of suspected cases of pollinosis and to provide data for reference as to the allerginic
atmospheric pollens to be expected. The main problem in the 1960 research was
to find correlation between the pollen count and metropological conditions. The
particles were identified and recorded, and the data submitted to the research
council of the American Academy of Allergy (Council on Aeroallergens, Pollen
and Moulds Sub-committee) for publication and use of physicians.
It should be mentioned that at the moment this is the only sampling-station
being operated in British Columbia.
A number of lectures illustrated by coloured slides were given to popularize
plant knowledge and encourage interest in botany, with special emphasis on protection and uses of plants. These lectures were presented to agriculture, horticulture,
and conservation groups, as well as to garden clubs and a number of professional
and service clubs, schools, scouts, and other societies in Victoria, Vancouver, and
Washington State.
The Curator was invited to address the Olympia Audubon Society annual meeting, October 20th and 21st, where the topic was " Are the Mushrooms Your Friends
or Enemies? " The following day the Curator led a mushroom foray, organized
jointly by the Olympia Audubon Society and the Portland Mycological Club.
 B 16
A series of lectures entitled " Plant Science of Today " was given at Victoria
University night-school classes. The course, which was very well attended, covered
the following topics: Botany in human affairs, plants in action, plant communities,
fungi—a fascinating group of plants, plant classification, and practical uses of botanical literature for the layman.
A number of appearances in radio and television were made.
Other extension work of the botanical section is covered in the Director's
(British Columbia Government photograph.)
Wildflower models in the botanical exhibit.
During the year new exhibits and changes in existing ones were made. The
credit for this goes to Mr. F. L. Beebe, Miss B. C. Newton, Mrs. S. Newnham, and
summer student Miss S. Taylor. Detailed accounts of these changes are found in
the Director's report.
The collection of mushroom models was enhanced by the addition of ten
ceramic models, which were artistically and accurately reproducted by Mrs. L. O.
Madison, of Port Angeles, Wash. As the mushroom exhibit draws much attention,
it is planned to increase it steadily, preferably by permanent ceramic models.
The exibit of fresh material of native plants was maintained all year round by
Mr. John Nutt. As usual, this exhibit was carefully prepared and well arranged
and is popular with many visitors.
Routine curatorial duties, such as the identification of plant collections, mounting, cataloguing, labelling, and filing plant specimens were performed with the very
able assistance of Mrs. Newnham, and information service was provided for the
general public and various Government departments (that is, Recreation and Conservation, Horticulture, Agriculture, and Forestry of the Provincial Government,
and Forest Pathology Laboratory and Experimental Station, Saanichton, of the
Federal Government).
The service of plant identification was also extended to the head gardener at
Government House and a number of District Agriculturists and Forest Rangers.
The botanical section was able to obtain the help of two student assistants.
Miss S. Taylor, a student at the University of British Columbia, was a great help in
preparation of the dioramic display of native species of spring flora, including the
dogwood, rhododendron, and several orchids. For a very short period we had in
the herbarium Mr. William Savale, a graduate student from Harvard University,
who was of great assistance in identification of the Calverley collection from the
Dawson Creek area.
The botanical section continues its cordial relationship with the following institutions: Department of Biology and Botany, University of British Columbia;
Science Service, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa; National Museum of Canada,
Ottawa; University of Washington, Seattle; Smithsonian Institution, Washington,
D.C; and many other institutions in Canada, the United States, and other countries.
Special thanks are due to Mr. J. W. Eastham and Dr. Mason Hale for checking and identifying our material, and to Dr. V. J. Krajina for constructive criticism
and help in the preparation of the forthcoming book on the heathers of British
We also acknowledge the generous donation of a number of botanical books
by Mr. Eric Sismey, of Penticton.
Finally, we wish to acknowledge in general the voluntary co-operation and
help of those who contributed to botanical collections and knowledge. Unfortunately, space does not permit us to list each one individually, but we intend to
include all of them in a grateful vote of thanks.
During 1960 zoological exploration was continued on islands of the British
Columbia coast. Beck, Felice, Stubbs, Mearnes, Vargas, and Wickaninnish Islands
were investigated during the month of July. The animal influents found occurring
there were recorded, collected, and prepared as scientific study skins and are now
included in the Provincial Museum collections and field records.
This programme of insular field research was initiated in 1948 as a continuation of the earlier work commenced on northern coastal islands by T. T. McCabe,
I. McTaggart Cowan, and R. M. Anderson, of the University of California, University of British Columbia, and the National Museum of Canada respectively. So far
in the course of the Museum programme some forty-three islands have been worked,
including units on the Queen Charlotte Islands, Goose Islands, Scott Islands,
Solander Island, Bunsby Islands, Mission Islands, and islands adjacent to Vancouver Island in the Kyuquot and Tofino Inlet areas. The work has been progressing
southward along the west coast of Vancouver Island, and in due course will be
projected to those islands along the east side.
Field-notes accruing from these and other recent field investigations were
indexed, largely during the current year. These and other bound notes contain
much data, so far unpublished, but available to university students and other recognized workers. Some 18,000 study skins of British Columbia birds and mammals
are available on a temporary loan basis.
This year, series of specimens were taken from four islands in Oak Bay where
white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) from Vancouver Island have been
introduced for a long-term study of speciation. These previously mouse-free islands
are trapped at four-year intervals, and the specimens preserved for comparison with
series to be taken in the future.
A control island receives annual introductions from Vancouver Island; in
September thirty-two white-footed mice were live-trapped and released there.
In November the Curator took part in co-operative waterfowl investigations
with personnel of the Canadian Wildlife Service and the Department of Recreation
and Conservation. Data were collected largely on Canada goose populations which
occur on the west coast of Vancouver Island and which have recently become
accessible to hunters through the opening of a road into the area.
Observations of bird and mammal movements on Southern Vancouver Island
were continued. In this the Natural History Society has contributed many valuable
records during the current year and in the past. Mr. Alan Poynter, of that society,
has compiled a most useful " quick reference " table to migratory movements of
birds in the Victoria area, and Mr. David Sterling has contributed several pertinent
A short period in early June was spent investigating band-tailed pigeon depredations on cherry orchards in Saanich. Hitherto of little or no consequence, the
damage this year was considerable, amounting to total loss of the crop in some
Investigations revealed that although male band-tailed pigeons were in breeding condition, females were not. This may have caused the birds to remain " flocked
up " later than usual. Normally the pigeons pair up and disperse over wide areas
to nest, presumably before the cherries are attractive to them. It was noted also, by
many observers, that there appeared to be more band-tailed pigeons than usual in
B 19
the area this spring.   As increased population and time of fruiting may also have
had a bearing in this case, the investigations will be continued next spring.
These have been reported upon under the Director's report. The revised
edition of " Mammals of British Columbia " and " The Owls of British Columbia "
in the Handbook series, published this year, are now in circulation. Final draft for
a paper dealing with sea-bird nesting rookeries of coastal British Columbia is
nearing completion and will appear shortly as a contribution to the Occasional
Paper series.
Material for several handbooks dealing with birds is on hand in rough draft
and awaits completion as funds and priority permit.
In addition to several short talks given to various organizations within the City
of Victoria, the Curator conducted a ten-week course dealing with British Columbia
birds. The course, part of the Victoria School Board's programme of evening
classes, was given at the Museum, where study specimens were readily available.
It was fully subscribed, with a total of thirty students attending.
Scientific-study specimens were out on loan to several institutions and individual students this year. Some research students visited the Museum study collections
in person.
Curatorial activities, care and maintenance and shipping and receiving of study
collections, handling routine queries, correspondence, identification of material
brought and sent in by the public, indexing, cataloguing of accessions, preparation
of skeletal materials, preparation of manuscripts, lecturing, and the host of minor
but imperative Museum activities combined to completely utilize the Curator's time
in the current year.
We wish to acknowledge the co-operation of citizens and organizations who
contribute annually to our biological collections with services, information, and
specimens. We are indebted to Mr. Gordon Barrie, Federal Fisheries; Mr. Frank
Butler, Director of the British Columbia Fish and Game Branch, and his staff of
biologists, inspectors, and game wardens throughout the Province; Mr. York
Edwards, of the Provincial Parks Branch; Messrs. R. D. Harris and A. Benson, of
the Canadian Wildlife Service; members of the Victoria Natural History Society;
and the many private citizens too numerous to list here.
 B 20
Construction of the new built-in wall cases in three of the basement display-
rooms was completed in January, and the satisfying task of installing new and more
effective exhibits in these rooms was begun. Miss MacEachern worked on exhibits
in the Interior Indian room and completed them in March. The Curator worked in
the rooms devoted to Coast Indians and Indian art, and these, though not entirely
completed, were opened to the public in May. Only minor additions were made
during the summer months, but in the fall Mr. Abbott continued the renewal of the
Coast Indian exhibits.
As an innovation, one show-case in the Coast Salish section has been set aside
for the use of the Victoria and District Archaeology Club. The private collection of
Mrs. W. H. Cross was put on display as the first of a series of exhibits to be prepared
by club members.
(British Columbia Government photograph.)
Portion of Indian exhibit to show new installations.
The Curator's major field-trip of the year was a tour of Interior and northern
parts of the Province between May 19th and June 10th, accompanied after May
30th by the Director. Visits were made to museums in Vancouver, Penticton,
Kelowna, Kamloops, Clinton, Barkerville, and Prince Rupert. At Penticton the
annual meeting of the British Columbia Historical Association was attended.    In
Hazelton the Curator spent several days assisting the staff of the new " Skeena
Treasure House " museum, and on June 4th participated with the Director in its
opening ceremonies.
Several visits were made to Kitwancool to conclude the Museum's agreement
with the tribe by turning over to them the three totem-pole replicas carved for them
in Thunderbird Park last year, and by supervising the installation of suitable steel
and concrete bases. In addition, six historical songs belonging with the Kitwancool
histories published by the Museum last year were recorded on tape.
Brief familiarization visits were made to two coastal Tsimshian villages—
Kitkatla and Port Simpson. The phonetic transcriptions of a large number of
Tsimshian names were checked, and several points of ethnology were clarified. We
wish to acknowledge our gratitude to Mr. William Kelly, the leading hereditary chief
of Port Simpson, for lending the Museum an old hand-written manuscript on the
history of the Tsimshian tribes.   This has been copied and returned.
In August the Curator visited the Kamloops area to examine a prehistoric
burial mound discovered on an Indian reserve near Chase, to photograph the collections from the mound, and to investigate whether it should be legally designated as
an archaeological site. On his recommendation a trained archaeological crew under
the direction of Dr. C. E. Borden, of the University of British Columbia, made
excavations in the mound, and the results are to be reported in an M.A. thesis by
David Sanger.   The legal status of the site is still under review.
Several shorter field-trips were made during the year. Members of the staff
attended several Indian spirit dances in the vicinity of Victoria. Two afternoons
were spent with old Songhees informants, visiting places around Victoria and recording their Indian names. The Curator spent two days with Dr. Borden and his
crew at site DjRi-3 in the Fraser Canyon, the oldest known archaeological site in
Western Canada. Since joining the staff in August, Mr. Abbott has made frequent
week-end excursions to examine local archaeological sites, and he has organized the
site records in the Museum files according to the Borden site designation scheme
published by the Museum a few years ago and now in general use throughout
In the company of the Director, the Curator and Mr. Abbott attended the
annual seminar of the British Columbia Museums Association in Penticton, September 15th to 17th. The Curator contributed a paper on the new Archaeological and
Historic Sites Protection Act, and Mr. Abbott one on the preservation of basketry.
These will be published in the conference proceedings. The Director was elected
president of the association, and the Curator was elected vice-president and named
as editor of the proceedings.
Also in September, the Curator participated in a three-day conference in Calgary on " The Present State of Archaeology in Western Canada," sponsored by the
Glenbow Foundation.
The Curator was a member of British Columbia's delegation to the Conference
on the Development of Historical Resources, in Toronto, October 16th to 18th.
This exploratory conference met on the invitation of the Government of Ontario,
and was attended by delegations from the Federal Government and all the Provincial Governments except Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island. The Honourable W. D. Black, leader of the British Columbia delegation, extended an invitation
to the conference to reconvene in Victoria in October, 1961. The Curator stayed
on an extra day in Toronto and attended an executive meeting of the Canadian
Museums Association at the Royal Ontario Museum, representing the Director.
Anthropology in British Columbia, Memoir 4, " The Histories, Territories, and
Laws of the Kitwancool," was printed and distributed early in the year. In view of
budget limitations it was decided to relegate the Anthropology in British Columbia
series from an annual to an occasional status, and to start issuing publications on
Indian subjects in the Museum's popular Handbook series. Accordingly, the
Curator started intensive work on a handbook dealing with the identification, territories, and populations of the numerous local Indian tribes of the Province.
Some work was also done on the Tsimshian file to incorporate the results of
summer field work. A brief article entitled " Haida " was written for the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and a chapter on the Indians was contributed to a book being
prepared on the history of the Gulf Islands.
During the year some sixteen organized groups, such as school classes, were
given guided tours of the Indian exhibits or Thunderbird Park. The first two of a
series of guest lectures were given to the Anthropology 200 class at Victoria University, and the Curator gave an illustrated address to the Victoria Branch of the
British Columbia Historical Association.
In this connection the formation of the Victoria and District Archaeology Club
may be mentioned. Organized by Mr. Abbott, the club held its inaugural meeting
in the Museum on October 28th. It will operate under the general auspices of the
Museum and has as its main purposes the systematic recording of the archaeological
remains of the area and the improvement of standards of amateur archaeology.
Fourteen persons have become members of the club by signing its code of principles.
The passage by the Legislature in March of the Archaeological and Historic
Sites Protection Act was one of the most significant events of the year, and work on
the preparation and implementation of the Act claimed a major part of the Curator's
time and attention.
In June the Provincial Secretary, who is the Minister responsible for the administration of the new Act, named an Archaeological Sites Advisory Board. The
Curator was named as its Chairman. Its other members are W. E. Ireland, Dr.
R. Lane, and L. J. Wallace, of Victoria; Dr. C. E. Borden, of Vancouver; and
A. C. Milliken, of Yale. The Board met twice to discuss the policies it was to follow and establish the procedures necessary to carry out the intentions of the Act.
Three permits were issued for archaeological work in the Province, and steps were
taken to designate the Fraser Canyon site, DjRi-3, as an " archaeological site " under
the Act.
It was in the capacity of Chairman of this Board that the Curator attended the
conferences in Toronto and Calgary, made the field-trip to Chase, and addressed the
museum convention in Penticton, as described earlier in this Report.
A number of loans of Indian materials were made during the year; for
example, to the University of British Columbia, the Victoria School Board, and
H.M.C.S. " Beacon Hill" (to exhibit at a reception in Yokohama). The largest,
however, was a loan to the Vancouver Maritime Museum, for use in its opening
exhibit " Man and the Sea."
B 23
A large part of the day-by-day work of the staff continues to be made up of
such routine tasks as the conducting of correspondence, the answering of inquiries,
the reception of visitors, and the maintenance of the collections, catalogues, photographs, and library.
The totem-pole carving programme in Thunderbird Park was continued to the
end of the calendar year under the direction of this office. The regular Kwakiutl
carvers, Mungo Martin and Henry Hunt, were employed for all of this period.
The 60-foot totem-pole commissioned last year by the Provincial Council of
the Boy Scouts Association was completed in February and sent to Ottawa, where
it now stands in front of the new national headquarters building. Before the start
of the tourist season, most of the exhibits in Thunderbird Park were treated with
preservative and repainted. Some, however, were not painted, as it was felt that
their appearance would be improved by further weathering.
The main project of the summer was the carving of an additional copy of the
most elaborate of the three poles from Kitwancool. It is intended to erect this in the
park in place of the large Bella Coola house frontal pole, which is an old original
pole and should be preserved indoors. At the request of the Pacific National Exhibition the two carvers and the almost-completed Kitwancool pole were sent to
Vancouver for the period of the exhibition, August 20th to September 5th, and
proved to be a most popular attraction.
Another project was the preparation of the components for a new Thunderbird
Park arch. The carvings on the old arch are not very authentic in style, and it does
not satisfy the constant demand of photographers for a large, colourful, and authentic Thunderbird. Henry Hunt completed a Thunderbird with a 10-foot wing-span
for the top of the arch. The cross-piece which bears the name of the park was also
completed, and we wish to acknowledge the assistance of the Parks Branch staff at
the Langford workshop in carving the name on it. It is intended to use a pair of
Comox Grizzly Bear posts carved some years ago as the uprights of the arch.
As a start on the furnishings of the Kwakiutl house in the park, the carvers
made a large feast dish in the form of a whale. Other smaller projects included the
carving of four masks and two paddles for the Museum collection. Also, Mungo
Martin completed five more water-colour paintings of creatures from Kwakiutl
On August 20th the Kwakiutl house was made available to Mr. George Clutesi,
and he arranged for the performance of an impressive programme of Nootka Indian
dances.   The event was recorded on tape and colour slides were taken.
By the end of the calendar year all of the funds allocated for the programme
had been expended, and it was necessary to lay the carvers off work.
By gift-
Miss Barbara Clowes, Milnes Landing, one live brown bat.
Mrs. E. D. Cox, Mahatla River, Quatsino, nine marten skulls.
A. H. Crawford, Campbell River, one live flying squirrel.
R. Graham, Victoria, one dog skull.
J. P. E. Klaverwyden, Victoria, two mounted water-deer from China.
Dr. Douglas Leechman, Victoria, one fur-seal.
C. E. Loggin, Victoria, one bat.
Dr. D. G. Revell, Victoria, one deer antler (sectioned for demonstration).
Mrs. C. J. Smith, Rocky Point, one muskrat.
L. W. Stephenson, Brentwood, one walrus tusk.
Mrs. Peggy Whittington, Long Beach, V.I., one Dall's porpoise skull.
By the staff, 161.
By gift-
Mrs. Thorvel Anderson, Parksville, one Audubon warbler.
A. Barklay, Victoria, one saw-whet owl.
Mrs. Fred Borden, Victoria, one evening grosbeak.
Harrison Brown, Hornby Island, one quail.
W. J. Cave, Victoria, two mounted red-tailed hawks, one mounted blue heron.
K. Hamblett, Victoria, one Swainson thrush.
G. A. Hardy, Victoria, one house wren.
H. Henderson, Victoria, one Cooper hawk.
M. W. Holdom, Crescent Beach, one hermit thrush.
J. Lenfesty, Victoria, one mountain quail.
T. M. Lowe, Cobble Hill, one barn owl.
Barrie Morgan, Victoria, one golden-crowned kinglet.
Miss B. C. Newton, Victoria, one winter wren.
J. H. C. Palmer, Victoria, two varied thrush, one screech owl.
Theed Pearse, Comox, one hybrid flicker.
D. Pearson, Victoria, one evening grosbeak.
Corporal J. B. Short, Victoria, one killdeer plover.
Miss Carol-Anne Stiles, Victoria, one pheasant.
R. H. Turley, Saanichton, one hummingbird, one savannah sparrow.
Game Warden Vincent, Alberni, one red-throated loon.
Miss Shelly Marie Whitlaw, Penticton, one purple finch.
R. B. Worley, Victoria, one screech owl.
Amphibians and Reptiles
By gift—
T. R. Ashlee, Victoria, one alligator lizard.
R. Dent, Victoria, two eastern box tortoises.
Gary Green, Victoria, one eastern box tortoise.
M. Middler, Victoria, tadpoles.
Dr. D. G. Revell, Victoria, one toad.
A. Watson, Victoria, one garter snake.
By the staff, 11.
By gift—
H. Caldwell, Ganges, egg case of a skate.
E. S. Gilbert, Victoria, one wolf-eel, one sand-fish.
A. Glover, Victoria, one red Irish lord.
G. R. Grossmith, Victoria, one hagfish.
Miss A. Murray, Victoria, one handsaw fish.
G. Squarebriggs, Nanaimo, one blue shark.
Miss Wendy Watson, Victoria, one sculpin.
By gift—
H. Alfalter, Victoria, goose barnacles.
C. Blaikie, Victoria, one click beetle.
Mrs. I. M. Coughtry, Muchalat, one California silk-moth.
W. H. Cross, Deep Cove, V.I., one sponge.
W. R. Fellows, Campbell River, one jumping spider.
Miss M. Gould, Victoria, one banded borer.
D. Hodgson, P. van der Jagt, and R. Senkler, Victoria, velella specimen.
W. Lee, Victoria, one black widow spider.
M. McKinney, Victoria, one hawk-moth.
Miss Elizabeth Meikle, Victoria, one cockchafer.
W. H. Parker, Glen Lake, three spiders.
G. Partington, Metchosin, one spider.
M. N. Preston, Victoria, one eyed hawk-moth.
W. Ray, Victoria, one barnacle.
A. Redmond, one orb-weaver spider.
Barry Spencer, Victoria, one black widow spider.
M. and D. Trowsdale, Victoria, one wasps' nest.
P. and M. Vesey and M. White, Victoria, one deep-sea amphipod.
T. Won, Victoria, one mourning cloak butterfly.
By gift—J. P. E. Klaverwyden, Victoria, collection of stones from Ootsa Lake.
By gift—
The late Mrs. Maude Cameron, Victoria, copies of " Ibis " for ten years and
other bird publications.
W. E. John, Victoria, four photos of starfish attacking oysters.
The Mrs. R. T. MacKay Collection.— (Purchase.) Athapaskan clothing and
other articles originally collected by Mrs. MacKay's late husband's father.
The Mrs. Maxine George Collection.—(Purchase.) Traditional Carrier Indian
manufactures made by Mrs. George.
The Stanley Zayac Archaeological Collection.—(Gift.) A large collection of
stone artifacts and chipping detritus picked up by Mr. Zayac on his property near
Sooke (site DeRwl2).
The Mrs. Ada Davey Collection.—(Gift.) Interior Salish, Nootka, and Tsimshian articles donated from the late Mrs. Davey's estate by her son, the Honourable
Mr. Justice H. W. Davey, Victoria.
Stone hammer-head.   G. Hummel, Victoria.
Stone maul-heads, three.   Mrs. P. H. Snider, New Westminster.
Wooden spoons, four.   In Davey collection.
Hand-maul.   In Davey collection.
Round labret of red stone.   George L. Moody, Trail.
Model totem-pole carved by Charlie James, ca. 1905-10. Ex Provincial
Wooden masks, two.   Made in Thunderbird Park by Mungo Martin.
Wooden masks, two.   Made in Thunderbird Park by Henry Hunt.
Old " broken " copper. Mungo Martin, in honour of his son, the late David
Incised sandstone object.   Miss Carol Wilson, Stuart Island.
Human skull.   Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Campbell River.
Cedar-bark net sinker slings.   Made by Mungo Martin.
Wooden carving of halibut head.   Made by Mungo Martin.
Paddles, two.   Made in Thunderbird Park by Mungo Martin.
Bella Coola
Wooden grave-marker representing eagle. Dr. Walter Sheppe, Annandale-on-
Hudson, N.Y.
Basket.   In Davey collection.
Human skull.   Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ganges.
St. Louis Louisiana Purchase Exposition Medal of 1904, formerly belonging
to Chief Joseph of Opitsit.   George Nicholson, Victoria.
Coast Salish
Human skeleton and associated ground slate point.   Staff.
Hand-maul.   Dr. E. S. Fowles.
Human skull.   P. S. Lomas, Victoria.
Wooden wedge, prehistoric, from midden,   John Sendey, Victoria.
Cannon-bone awl, prehistoric.   John Sendey, Victoria.
Human skeleton.   Staff.
Adze-blade and stone anchor.   Dr. Gwladys Downes, Victoria.
Chipped point.   D. F. Pearson, Royal Oak.
Slate knife or saw fragment.   Arthur Serwiner, Victoria.
Celt.   Master Michael Wagg, Victoria.
Grave-box fragments and human skeleton.   Mrs. E. Vassart, Westview.
Sandstone sinker and adze fragment.   Allan Wayne Young, Victoria.
Ground slate projectile point.   L. A. Prescott, Victoria.
Antler wedge.   D. Birch, Victoria.
Abrasive stones, five.   In Zayac collection.
Stone digging-tool.   In Zayac collection.
Bone awl fragment.   In Zayac collection.
Nephrite adze-blade.   In Zayac collection.
Stone saw.   In Zayac collection.
Chipped scraper.   In Zayac collection.
Chipped scraper fragments, two.   In Zayac collection.
Utilized stone flakes, four.   In Zayac collection.
Chipped knife fragment.   In Zayac collection.
Chipped knife or point.   In Zayac collection.
Chipped projectile points, forty-nine.   In Zayac collection.
Chipped projectile-point fragments, four.   In Zayac collection.
Human skull.   E. W. McMorran, Saanich.
Human skull.   Peter Cartwright, Ganges.
Whalebone club fragment.   G. C. Thornley, Victoria.
Human skull.   Ron Foulds, Nanaimo.
Clay shale disk beads, twenty-five.   Mrs. Anne Dodds, North Vancouver.
Small antler wedge.   Richard Cox, Victoria.
Bone awl.   Richard Cox, Victoria.
Fragment of worked antler.   Richard Cox, Victoria.
Chipped projectile point and chipped scraper.   Richard Cox, Victoria.
Ground stone projectile point.   John L. D. Jervis, Victoria.
Hand-maul fragment.   Sandra Lamont, Victoria.
Abrasive stone fragment.   Staff.
Human skeleton.   Staff.
Chopped-off antler tine.   Staff.
Splinter bone awl.   Staff.
Antler wedge fragment.   Staff.
Rush mats, two.   T. G. Barber, North Burnaby.
Grooved rock.   Richard Elliott, Vancouver.
Prehistoric soapstone object.   Mrs. W. H. Cross, Sidney.
Small hand-maul.   D. J. DeRochie, Sooke.
Ground slate projectile point.   R. F. Pitt, Victoria.
Hand-maul.   John Van Dalen, Victoria.
Hammer stones, two.   John Sendey, Victoria.
Miscellaneous artifacts from East Sooke.   John Sendey and Richard Cox.
Goats'-wool blanket.   Mrs. Lillian Rice, Victoria.    (Purchase.)
Interior Salish
Jadeite chisel fragment.   Les Cook, Barkerville.
Baskets, two.   Mrs. Josephine Wendle, Barkerville.
Chipped basalt knife.   J. L. Turing, Chichester, England.
Chipped basalt scraper.   J. L. Turing, Chichester, England.
Large coiled basket.   In Davey collection.
Basketry tray.   In Davey collection.
Chipped celt or chopper.   Les Cook, Barkerville.
Human skull and other bones.   Coroner C. E. P. Skelton, 100 Mile House.
Antler wedge.   Coroner C. E. P. Skelton, 100 Mile House.
Snowshoes.   In MacKay collection.
Wooden staff.   In MacKay collection.
Deer-hide jacket.   In MacKay collection.
White hide leggings.   In MacKay collection.
Beaded hide pouch.   In MacKay collection.
Beaded blue flannel bag.   In MacKay collection.
Moccasins, three (two unfinished showing stages of manufacture).   In George
Birch-bark baskets, three (two unfinished showing stages of manufacture).
In George collection.
Birch-bark tray.   In George collection.
Birch-bark cups, two.   In George collection.
Wooden spoons, two.   In George collection.
Spruce-bark storage-boxes, two.   In George collection.
Tump-line loom and three tump-lines.   Mrs. B. Grey, New Hazelton.    (Purchase.)
Horn spoons, three.   Les Cook, Barkerville.
Collecting-basket with tump-line.   Probably Kwakiutl or Nootka.   Purchased
in auction.
Colour slides of pictographs.   Mrs. B. A. Ganoung, Chewelah, Wash.
Colour slides of pictographs.   Mrs. F. Vestergaard, Garden Bay P.O.
By C. J. Guiguet, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
The invasion of the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris L.) in Canada is well
documented. Its arrival in British Columbia in 1947 and subsequent spread within
the Province was also recorded by many observers.
These records, together with additional data gathered by M. T. Myres (then a
student at the University of British Columbia), were published by the Provincial
Museum in 1958 (Myres, M. T., The European Starling in British Columbia:
1947-1957, Occasional Papers of the British Columbia Provincial Museum No. 11).
The purpose of this note is to put on record further nestings that have come to
our attention since 1957. We have little doubt that there were many more nestings
than those listed here. However, enough have been reported to indicate a pattern
of establishment of the European starling as a nesting bird in the west-central
Interior, on the Lower Mainland, and on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island—
all areas from which previous nesting records are wanting.
In June, 1952, I traversed the road from Prince Rupert to Prince George on
foot and by motor-vehicle.   I observed no starlings in the area at that time.
During the summer of 1958 Mr. Rudi Drent worked this area and observed no
starlings despite fairly intensive general nesting investigations with the aid of local
In late August, 1959, while passing through Prince George, I observed a flock
of twenty-five to thirty starlings at the airport there.
In 1960 Dr. G. C. Carl recorded the following from these areas:—
Kitwanga, June 2:    Two pairs of European starling nesting in woodpecker holes in totem-poles.
Kispiox, June 3:    Two pairs nesting in totem-poles;  one pair feeding
well-fledged young in a nest under eaves in an abandoned house.
Hazelton, June 4:   Several adults observed carrying food near edge of
town, presumably feeding young.
Moricetown, June 5:  An adult feeding well-fledged young in a nest situated in trestlework on bridge.
Burns Lake, June 7:   Adult seen carrying food, presumably feeding
Quesnel, June 8:   Adult seen carrying food, presumably feeding young.
Dr. Carl observed other individuals and small flocks in the area and noted in
his field journal, " It was my impression that a fairly dense concentration of breeding
birds was in the Hazelton area."
It seems safe to assume that the birds had come into, and began nesting in the
area discussed sometime after Mr. Drent's summer there in 1958.
Nesting records for this area were extracted from files of the University of
British Columbia's Nest Record Scheme. They were made available to us through
the kindness of Dr. I. McTaggart Cowan with the co-operation of Mr. Rudi Drent.
In addition, two records from Vancouver Island were supplied and appear under
that section.   Hereunder the records and comments as supplied by Mr. Drent.
Starling Data, 1960
Nesting Records (in B.C.N.R.S. Files)
Through the efforts of Mr. William Hughes and his mynah bird study group of
the Vancouver Natural History Society, records have accumulated to show that the
European starling is now breeding on the Lower Mainland.
William Hughes' first nesting record: fledglings seen with parents May 18th,
west side of Pitt River (Port Coquitlam district).
Pitt River.   Fledglings observed in the same area June 20th.
Chilliwack. Nesting on Higginson's Farm (Higginson's Road); Mr. Hughes,
who followed up the report on June 4th, learned that the young had left the nest
cavity on June 2nd.   The birds did not nest here in 1960.
Marpole. Corner of Rand Avenue and B.C. Electric tracks: William Merilees
found a nest with young in a broad-leaf maple here May 15th; young fledged successfully May 27th to 30th.
Pitt River (same place as above). Nesting in pilings, where they had replaced
purple martins; adults feeding young in the nest May 29th (first actual nest report
here, William Hughes).
Beach Grove (Point Roberts). In a patch of woods at the north edge of the
village, adults feeding young in the nest May 24th (William Hughes).
Marpole. Two nests found by William Merilees, both in old pilings along
North Arm of the Fraser—one at Angus Drive, the other below Marine Drive Golf
Club. At the time observations were closed (April 10th), nest-building had been
completed.   The three Marpole records lie along a 1-mile stretch of the river.
The European starling was first recorded on Vancouver Island in the winter of
1951/52 (Guiguet 1952, Pearse 1953). In the winter of 1952/53 many unsubstantiated reports were received from the general public, but only a few observations
(those by Museum personnel) were entered in the Museum records. Since that
time the European starling has become commonplace during the winter, particularly
in the Victoria area, but it is also seen regularly from Campbell River south to
Sooke. In the past three years a wintering concentration numbering 2,000 to 3,000
birds has been observed at Beacon Hill Park, Glen Lake, and at the Federal Agricultural Station at Saanichton, and small flocks are seen regularly.
First evidence of nesting was secured at Cadboro Bay in 1953, when a breeding
female was collected and a nest observed at the home of Mr. M. Ball, who stated
two pairs had nested there the previous year. This bird (B.C.P.M. No. 10073) so
far constitutes the only breeding record for Vancouver Island substantiated by a
specimen. All others, including those listed in this paper, are sight records only.
However, all have been made by qualified observers and may be accepted without
B 31
Despite this early record, it seems certain that nesting did not intensify until
1960 in all three areas discussed here. Indications of the beginning of nesting on
the Lower Mainland and on Vancouver Island occurred in 1959, as the sight records
indicate. It is expected that nesting of the European starling will increase greatly
in these areas in the next few years.
Some of the following reports were extracted from records of the Victoria
Natural History Society by Mrs. Eleanore Davidson, to whom we are grateful.
Victoria, April into May, 1959. Young being fed in nesting-hole near 825
Monterey Avenue, reported by Mr. A. R. Davidson, of Victoria Natural History
Victoria, April into May, 1960. Young being fed in same nesting-hole as
reported above by Mr. Davidson. A second nesting-hole containing young at
Wetherby and North Dairy Roads by the same observer.
Metchosin, May 1st, 1960. Young being fed in nesting-hole at Witty's
Lagoon, reported by Mr. T. Briggs, of the Victoria Natural History Society.
Ivy Green Park, May 5th, 1960. A pair, flying in and out of a hole in an alder
stub, observed by Dr. M. D. F. Udvardy, of the University of British Columbia.
Campbell River, May 17th, 1960. A pair nesting in a flicker hole on the property of Mrs. R. Palmer. She reported watching the nest-building activity and noted
three other pairs in the area.
Victoria, May 26th, 1960. Adult feeding fledgling at feeding-tray, reported
by Mrs. A. G. Gosling, 3954 Blenkinsop Road.
Victoria, May 26th, 1960. Adult feeding fledglings at Queen Anne Heights,
reported by Dr. G. C. Carl.
Victoria, June, 1960. Fledglings being fed at three widely separated points,
reported by Mr. Ralph Fryer, of the Victoria Natural History Society (Victoria
Avenue, Uplands Golf Course, and Interurban Road).
Chatham Island, June 7th, 1960. Young being fed in nesting-hole, reported
by Mr. Frank Miller; later observed by C. J. Guiguet out of the nest.
Miracle Beach, June 26th, 1960. A pair apparently nesting in a hole in a dead
maple, from which they had driven a pair of red-breasted sapsucker, observed by
Mr. William Merilees, of the Vancouver Natural History Society.
Nesting records of these birds in 1961 and subsequent years will be of particular interest. Observers are asked to report any such activities to the Provincial
Museum, Victoria, B.C., or to the Department of Zoology, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver 8, B.C.
(A Chief's Memorial to His Son)
By Wilson Duff, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
In December, 1960, Chief Mungo Martin put into the permanent care of the
Provincial Museum his valued " copper " Ma'haynootsi " Great Killer Whale." It
had been his intention to fix it to a stone monument which he had erected in Centennial Park, Courtenay, in memory of his son David, who lost his life by drowning in
September, 1959. However, the suggestion was made to him that it would be safer,
and would make a more meaningful memorial, if it were placed on permanent
exhibit in the Museum.   To that he agreed.
The history of the copper was recorded on tape, with Mrs. Helen Hunt acting
as interpreter. It is the purpose of this brief article to put the story into print, along
with enough introductory information to give it a context. Certain sections are
given verbatim from the tape, as they convey some of the eloquence of the original
Kwakiutl phrasings.
Mungo Martin has risen to a high social position among his people. A member of the " real" Kwakiutl tribe of Fort Rupert, he holds at present the name
Naka'penkum. He is the leading chief of the second-ranking clan of the tribe, and
ranks third in the entire tribe, after Tom Johnson (Tla'kwageela) and James Knox
(Tla'kodlas). At the time he purchased his copper, however, he had not yet
attained such a high position of rank. His older brother, Spruce Martin, preceded
him as leader of the clan and holder of the name Naka'penkum. It wasn't just the
highest chiefs who could own coppers.
" Coppers " were owned by the Indian tribes of the Coast from the Tlingit of
Alaska to the Kwakiutl of Vancouver Island. Their only use, aside from the tiny
ones sometimes used as ornaments on costumes, was as objects of wealth and
prestige. They served, in general, as the currency of highest denomination in the
complicated native systems of high finance. They were bought and sold (for ever-
larger prices), given away, "broken," and even thrown into the sea as the chiefs
who owned them strove for superiority by " fighting each other with property." The
most important coppers had their own names—Mungo remembers the names of
thirty-two others which belonged to various tribes of the southern Kwakiutl—and
their histories and values were widely known.
The origin of the custom of using coppers has not been satisfactorily explained,
nor has their distinctive shape. It is generally believed that coppers were used in
pre-contact times, being made of native copper from sources far to the north, in
Alaska. Native traditions reveal that the metal was held in very high esteem, and
the first explorers to the Coast did find a small amount of it already in use in the
form of weapons and ornaments. However, native copper went out of use very
quickly as the traders flooded the market with sheet copper. We do not know
directly of any existing " copper " which is made of the native metal.
This copper is 26 inches high and was about 13 inches across at its widest
point; its size is not unusual, but its proportions are somewhat more long and narrow than most. It has been " broken " in two places. It was not uncommon for
pieces to be removed from a copper in this way until only the raised T-shaped
central ridge remained, and in fact this copper actually consists of an old central T
B 33
(British Columbia Government photograph.)
The Killer Whale Copper, Ma'haynootsi.
riveted to a new copper-shaped sheet. The arms of the T, as was customary, form
a shallow inverted V in cross-section, although they have been somewhat flattened
out when riveted to the flat sheet below. The upper (larger) part of the copper is
shallowly dished out from behind. The entire surface has been blackened with
some type of lacquer, and a design of a killer whale has been engraved on the front.
Mungo bought Ma'haynootsi from Peter Scow about 1942 for $2,010. He
does not know its earlier history, except that it is an old T on a new copper, and
Peter Scow had it remade in a machine-shop at Alert Bay. Willie Siwid engraved
the design on it.
Most of the money which Mungo used to buy this copper was obtained in
earlier transactions involving another copper. In the late 1930's, when he married
Abaya (the present Mrs. Martin), her " cousin " Willie Siwid gave him many things
as parts of her dowry—money, blankets, pots and pans, a Hamatsa mask and
Hamatsa name, and other privileges (ki'su). In addition, he bought a copper named
Tlaksoo'yala and gave that to Mungo as well. Some years later Mungo sold Tlak-
soo'yala to his brother Spruce for $1,600. He kept the money and later used it to
buy Ma'haynootsi.
Mungo bought Ma'haynootsi with the thought in mind that he didn't want to put up
a potlatch or winter dance without a copper for his children to dance on. Another reason
was that if he died, his son would never be ashamed, but could say, " I have a copper to
dance on, and for my children to dance on, through my father," and nobody could say
The first time Mungo showed the copper in public was at the initiation of his
son David into the Hamatsa " secret society ":—
After Mungo had the copper to use as a shield against anyone who would say anything wrong against his family, after he had this security, then he put on a big winter
dance and brought out Dave as a Hamatsa on that copper. Mungo selected one of the big
chiefs, Harry Mountain, to place the copper in Dave's arms the moment he came back
from being initiated, back to the tribe. Mountain made the motion of having Dave swallow the copper, tail end (small end) first. Then it was placed on the floor. Now it was
said that Dave had had a feast of copper.
The copper was then " broken " for the first time:—
The chiefs of the tribes were then invited to break the copper. Not all chiefs can
break copper—only the chiefs that had the right to break copper were invited. They got
eagle down and put it over the copper, so that it would be perfect, and te'lkw (tender,
soft.) The chiefs all put their hands on it as Harry Mountain broke it. All the chiefs
are said to have broken it because they had their hands on it.
Then they got the piece off (it is the piece off the top of the copper). They gave
Mungo the piece, and he gave it to Frank Walker. In that way he only returned what
Frank Walker had given to his brother Spruce. Frank Walker was a Kwakiutl who had
broken a copper for Spruce. They didn't want to have the name of not returning against
them.   This cleared that.
The next occasion on which the copper was shown in public was during the
performance at Gwayastums, Gilford Island, of one of Mungo's owned ceremonies
(ki'su), which he used to celebrate the coming of age and naming of a young girl in
the family. The ceremony makes use of a very large decorated wooden cradle,
which is hung at the back of the house. The copper was placed in the cradle as a
" comforter " (blanket) for the " baby " concerned. This ceremony was repeated
in Thunderbird Park in 1953, and will be described in more detail below.
The story behind the other piece " broken " from the copper is as follows:—
Mungo got quite angry at Chief Tom Omhid one time about 1944, and made all the
arrangements to break his copper to give to Omhid.   But after he had the piece broken off
he changed his mind, because Omhid didn't have any power to do anything about it if he
did give him the piece.
Omhid had spoken out of hand and said that Dave was a Hamatsa without a copper.
He was a Hamatsa with an empty stomach, he said. He forgot that Dave had already
been filled with the copper, and that is one of the most disgraceful things to say against
any Hamatsa, that he is a Hamatsa on an empty stomach.   That is what angered Mungo.
Mungo disposed of the piece of copper when his brother died:—
So instead of giving it to Omhid (when he changed his mind and didn't want to hurt
anybody with that piece of copper), when Spruce died, to comfort his own sorrow, he
threw it in the water. He didn't want to bring up hard feelings about things that had
happened years before, so he just vanished that piece with his brother. That was at Fort
Rupert, when he invited the tribes to have the sa'la (mourning) for his brother.
The copper was shown again in December, 1953, when it played a very prominent role in the opening ceremonies of Mungo's Kwakiutl house in Thunderbird
Park. First, Mungo went through the motions of financing the event by " selling "
the copper to his wife Abaya for $1,500. The cradle ceremony was performed in
honour of David's daughter Dorothy, with the copper serving as her " comforter "
in the large wooden cradle. The copper also appeared at times during the Hamatsa
dance, carried on the arms of the Hamatsa, David Martin. The following summaries of these events are taken from the complete transcript made at the time, and
now in the Museum files.
The " sale " of the copper took place, with proper speeches and ceremony,
during a rehearsal on the evening before the main performance. The procedure was
that Mungo " took up " (brought out) his valued copper and " sold " it to Abaya
for $1,500, so that he would have money to give away and thus show the extent of
his pride in his new house. In actual fact it was Mungo's own money, and the figure
included expenditures which had already been made in the preparations for the
Tom Omhid, who was Mungo's speaker, took up the copper and said (in
This is what the chief has taken up, this that has a name, the name Ma'haynootsi.
He doesn't want to take up just anything. He comes from a proud tribe. He is proud of
the new house. You will recognize this house, chiefs. . . . It is a copy of the first
house that all you tribes used to gather in, the house that belonged to my chief, the house
of Naka'penkum.   .   .   .   And now I am selling this.   .   .   .   There it is."
Omhid placed the copper on the floor. George Scow, who spoke for Abaya, picked
it up and made a speech: ". . . She will take it, you chiefs. She will buy it. . . ."
He placed the copper down in front of Abaya and took from her a bag of money.
". . . Now we will need your help . . . ," he said, addressing Omhid and
Daniel Cranmer. Mr. Cranmer took the money and he too made a speech, praising
Abaya and Mungo for what they were doing. He passed the money to Omhid, who
spoke again, then handed it to Mungo.
Helen Hunt later explained the speeches:—
They were talking about the copper being brought out. It was given to Mungo by
Abaya in the first place, and now Abaya has brought it back so that Mungo will have
money to distribute to the people, ... so that all the performers will not be ashamed
of themselves. They will have the copper to dance on. That is the value of the dance
that is going to be performed.
The cradle ceremony was performed early on the first day of the opening ceremonies, at a performance to which only Indian guests and anthropologists had been
invited. It followed the set of mourning songs which had opened the performance,
and preceded the dances, which were of the winter ceremonial type. The large
cradle had been suspended prominently in front of the painted screen that closed off
the rear of the house. The main performers grouped themselves in front of the
cradle. There were strange sounds as the voices of spirits were heard from the back
corners of the house. Mungo called out, as though to a baby in the cradle, not to be
afraid. Then the song was sung, there were speeches, and the ceremony ended with
50-cent pieces being distributed to everyone in the house.
Omhid's speech was in the typical figurative language of Kwakiutl speeches,
referring to the copper as a blanket, and to Dorothy as the new-born baby:-—
The blanket to keep this child from getting cold has already been prepared.    This
man with the great name has already bought it.   The softest of all blankets.   Its price is
enough to distribute to all you tribes.   That is why it can never be cold, the new-born
baby, it starts its life by keeping warm.
At other points during the 1953 ceremonies references were made to the copper.   In one speech Omhid pointed to where it rested on the floor:—
This is the work of Naka'penkum. This is proof of his courage, lying right there.
This belongs to the chief, and he can never fail the name of it.
But at some point Omhid must have said something that made Mungo angry, because Mungo renewed his threat to break the copper for Omhid. However, that was
not done.
Mungo brought the copper out once more before David's death.
When Dave decided to marry Robina Feme, of Campbell River, Mungo gave her
father lohnny Ferrie $2,000 and the copper to make the ceremony big enough and
known. Johnny Ferrie couldn't keep the money or the copper; he had to give it to Dave.
That's what Robina carried to her husband, the copper and that money. So then the
copper belonged to Dave.
Mungo didn't want it to go and stay with Dave. He bought it back from him, so
that Dave would have the money to throw a big potlatch. That was the last one that was
at Gilford, that last winter before Dave died. That is how the copper came back to
On the death of his son, the grieving chief determined at first to comfort himself and erase the memory of the old insult by breaking the copper for Omhid.
From this he was soon dissuaded, and decided to use the copper as David's " coffin."
For a while, Mungo wanted to cut off the T and give it to Omhid. It was just to
erase the memory of the name he gave Dave when he said he was an empty stomach
Hamatsa, and he wanted to get that off his mind. But the family said no, because they
didn't want to shame the copper.
The copper was never brought out in public again, but Mungo told different tribes
that it was Dave's coffin. In the old days, he would most likely have used it as a tombstone—as you have seen in some of the old graveyards. In the olden days they placed
them over the graves. It is said to be the coffin. Because it is valuable, not only for the
price that was paid for it, but for the name, and all the things the copper has come
through and covered for the family, and it comes to an awful lot of money. That is why
he used that copper as Dave's coffin.
Earlier in the interview Mungo said that he had always tried his best to use his
copper as he had been taught it should be used.
He said that he had tried to bring it out in any kind of circumstances the way it was
supposed to be brought out, right up to now. And it stopped because he lost his son. It
was as far as the copper can go.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.


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