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REPORT OF THE Department of Recreation and Conservation containing the reports of the FISH AND GAME BRANCH,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1961

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Hon. E. C. Westwood, Minister D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister
REPORT OF THE
Department of Recreation
and Conservation
containing the reports of the
FISH AND GAME BRANCH, PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH,
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU,
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH, AND
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
Year Ended December 31st
1960
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1961
  Victoria, B.C.,
January 18th, 1961.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department
of Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31st, 1960.
E. C. WESTWOOD,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 Victoria, B.C.,
January 18th, 1961.
The Honourable E. C. Westwood,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31st, 1960.
D. B. TURNER,
Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
 CONTENTS
Page
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation     7
Fish and Game Branch  11
Provincial Parks Branch  27
British Columbia Government Travel Bureau  39
Photographic Branch  49
Commercial Fisheries Branch  55
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 Report of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation, 1960
D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister and Commissioner of Fisheries
INTRODUCTION
Steadily mounting pressures on our fish and game resources by a constantly
increasing hunter and fisherman population have presented continuing challenges
to the Department—challenges which are being met by an accelerated lake-
rehabilitation programme and extensive game-management projects.
It is noteworthy that during the past year the Department purchased 317 acres
in the southern portion of the East Kootenay District to protect the vulnerable and
major big-game migration route in that area and to secure a key acreage for game-
management research.
Noteworthy, too, is the 300-per-cent increase in poundage of fish released
for stocking purposes since 1956. Costs of fish production in our hatcheries have
shown a steady decrease, and in 1960 production costs per unit of fish decreased by
30 per cent over 1959 in spite of a record production.
Our Parks Branch continued to engage in the struggle to keep ahead of public
demand for camp and picnic facilities, and visits to our parks reached a new high of
3,100,000 visits, from the 1959 total of 2,700,000. Eight land donations for park
use are greatly appreciated—generous gifts for the present and future use and enjoyment by British Columbians and their guests.
A new and widely acclaimed motion picture, " The Fraser Canyon," was
released during the year by the Photographic Branch and has brought the story of
British Columbia's beauties to uncounted television audiences in both Canada and
the United States.
Of special long-term value to the Department was the inauguration of an in-
service training program for Fish and Game Branch personnel, which has already
proven to be of great value to the Branch. This programme will be continued. A
feature of the school is the inclusion of staff members from other branches in the
Department.
Public acceptance of the magazine " Beautiful British Columbia " has ensured
the success of this popular publication, which is produced by this Department. It
is going to forty-four countries as well as to all parts of Canada, and has generated
hundreds of enthusiastic letters of comment from all parts of the world. It is a
pleasure to acknowledge the help of British Columbians in spreading abroad gift
copies.
The programme of reconstruction of the historic site of Barkerville was continued, and more than 20,000 visitors were recorded, almost twice as many as in
1959.
Interest in British Columbia as a tourist centre was fanned by a continuing
programme of advertising in the United States and Canada, and resulted in a 28-
per-cent increase in mail inquiries received by the British Columbia Government
Travel Bureau. However, there was a slight decrease in estimated tourist revenue
to the Province, which, by estimates, amounted to $100,400,000 in 1960 compared
with $106,000,000 in 1959.
An off-cycle year for sockeye salmon and depleted stocks of other species
caused a gloomy picture for British Columbia's fishing industry during 1960. A
protracted strike of herring-fishermen had a further serious effect on the industry.
  HIGHLIGHTS  OF  1960
Although the work of each branch is fully described in separate submissions,
the following are highlights of 1960.
FISH AND GAME BRANCH
REVENUE
Revenues accrued by the Fish and Game Branch are estimated at $1,619,-
328.85, an approximate increase of $69,328.85 over the 1959/60 returns.
ANGLERS INCREASE
The number of licensed anglers increased from 177,500 in 1959 to 185,000
in 1960, an increase of approximately 4.5 per cent.
HATCHERY PRODUCTION
Hatchery crews travelled more than 60,000 miles by tank-truck, boat, and
aeroplane to stock 336 lakes and streams with some 40,000 pounds of trout (about
5,000,000 fish). Unit costs of fish production were further reduced in 1960 by 30
per cent as compared with 1959 costs.
HUNTING PRESSURES
A total of 125,650 hunting licences were issued during 1960, an increase of
almost 9 per cent over the 115,578 issued in 1959. This is the largest annual
increase in many years.
PERSONNEL SELECTION
A new method of Game Warden recruitment, incorporating personal interviews and examinations in centres throughout the Province, was initiated and has
resulted in improving the quality of candidates for appointments.
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
POPULARITY GROWING
Park " visits " passed the 3 million mark for the first time. In 1948, 113,000
" visits " were recorded.
DONATIONS TO THE CROWN
Gifts of valuable park land continued to rise in importance and value. Eight
such areas were donated in 1960 and totalled 994 acres.
INTERPRETATION
Nature Interpretation.—The nature houses at Miracle Beach and Manning
Park were visited by 37,000 people, an increase of 27 per cent over 1959.
CAMP- AND PICNIC-SITE INCREASE
Ten new camp and picnic sites were developed during the year, and the number of picnic tables was increased 25 per cent from 3,623 in 1959 to 4,547 in 1960.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL PROGRAMMES
Two plans in 1960 financed an effective works scheme in Provincial parks to
the value of $480,000.
9
 O 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU
REVENUE DECREASE
Tourist revenue was estimated at $100,400,000, a slight decrease in line with
the national trend.
INCREASED ACCOMMODATION
The Travel Bureau reported a total of 2,044 establishments providing tourist
accommodation, with an estimated 29,008 rental units (including 124 new registrations.)
CONVENTION STATISTICS
British Columbia was host to more than 200 regional and international conventions registering a total of nearly 50,000 delegates.
INCREASED INTEREST
Mail inquiries at the Travel Bureau's Victoria office totalled 60,110, a 28.36-
per-cent increase over last year's 46,826.
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH
TELEVISION COVERAGE AT NEW HIGH LEVELS
Television screenings of British Columbia Government films totalled 110 on
United States stations and sixty-seven on Canadian stations during 1960, and included a coast-to-coast showing of " Land of the Red Goat." Private showings to
audiences totalling 380,724 were made in the United States and Canada.
NEW RELEASE
The film " The Fraser Canyon " was released during the year and has proven
to be exceptionally popular with the growing audience for Departmental productions.
"BEAUTIFUL BRITISH COLUMBIA"
The Branch actively participated in the production of Beautiful British Columbia magazine and provided 124 colour prints for use in the magazine during
1960.
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
STOCKS AND REVENUE DOWN IN 1960
British Columbia's fisheries showed a marked decrease in revenue due to a
scarcity of fish in the case of the salmon species, and to depressed world markets for
herring oil and meal.
LARGE SPAWNING-CHANNEL OPENED
The largest man-made salmon-spawning area in North America was opened
at Robertson Creek on Vancouver Island by the Honourable J. Angus MacLean,
Federal Minister of Fisheries.
CLAM-DIGGING
Seal Island, in the vicinity of Comox, was opened to clam-digging from November 15th to December 15th, 1960. The area had been reserved previously for the
purpose of clam research.
 FISH and
GAME
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Gathering hunting statistics at Fish and Game Branch game-checking station,
Cache Creek. B.C.
Fisheries biologists gather trout eggs as part of fishery rehabilitation programme.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION O  13
FISH AND GAME BRANCH
Frank R. Butler, Director
ADMINISTRATION
As previously predicted, hunting and fishing pressure has continued to expand,
with the number of hunting licences issued increasing by 9 per cent and anglers'
licences by 4.5 per cent over 1959 figures. Indications are that pressure in game
hunting and sport fishing will continue to increase.
During the year the Enforcement Division was increased by six Game Wardens,
and it is noteworthy that as hunting and fishing pressures continue their upward
swing, so will there be an ever-pressing need to increase personnel in all divisions
of the Branch.
Twenty-one Game Wardens, four Inspectors, two predatory-animal hunters,
fishery-management personnel, and Departmental representatives attended for the
first time an in-service training-school held for some twelve days at the Green
Timbers camp of the British Columbia Forest Service. Plans are under way for
a second school in 1961. Considerable benefits were most evident from this school,
and the aim to increase appreciation of all phases of conservation work and to
provide the knowledge with which conservation officers can contribute to the technical aspects of fish and game management were fully met. This school was
undoubtedly a great success.
As in previous years, many violations of the Game Act, Migratory Birds
Convention Act, and Fisheries Act and regulations were encountered and successfully dealt with in every section of the Province. Final figures will undoubtedly
show an increase in violations over any preceding year. The unsportsmanlike and
cruel method of pit-lamping or night hunting has spread into many sections of the
Province, necessitating many extra night patrols, resulting in a number of prosecutions for this type of violation.
The Cache Creek game-checking station, operated each year, was responsible
again in securing valuable scientific data that will enable the Branch to more efficiently manage the game resources in the Interior of the Province. Spot game-
checking stations were also put into effect in numerous sections of British Columbia
during the past hunting season, and these surprise or spot checks have proven of
utmost importance and will be continued. The Cache Creek station was operated
on a twenty-four-hour basis from September 5th to December 11th, and is probably
the only station of its kind on the North American Continent.
Attention is drawn to the reports of the Game, Fisheries, and Predator Control
Divisions, which are contained herein. These reports are mentioned because it is
felt they contain information on wildlife management that indicate that our most
valuable wildlife resource is being conserved in the true sense of the word. Many
outstanding management techniques have been successfully put into operation which
contribute to the perpetuation of game and sport fish.
Throughout 1960 careful study has been made of all factors responsible for
hunting accidents, and many suggestions have been received to help prevent them.
However, our study of the problem clearly indicates the only way in which to avoid
these accidents, or at least to decrease them, is to carry out a continuing educational
programme. This is being done to the best of our ability. Hunting accidents during
the year increased slightly over 1959, but there was no increase in fatalities due to
the use of firearms. Study of the causes of hunting accidents indicates they can be
laid generally to gross carelessness.
 O 14
BRITISH COLUMBIA
It is to be regretted there is need to report the demise of an old and trusted
employee in the passing of Game Warden R. S. Hayes, and members of the Branch
wish to again extend to Mrs. Hayes and family their heartfelt sympathy in their
bereavement.
The co-operation of the British Columbia Forest Service of the Department of
Lands and Forests in permitting our holding the in-service training-school previously
mentioned, the co-operation of all branches of the Department of Recreation and
Conservation, the kind and splendid help of all Governmental departments, the full
co-operation of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and the help and assistance
of farmers, sportsmen, and other similar organizations is certainly very much
appreciated.
Public understanding of the Branch's aims and ambitions has increased through
our publication Wildlife Review, as well as through the excellent work of all personnel of the Branch.
GAME MANAGEMENT DIVISION
General
The increase of hunting pressure in British Columbia continues at an accelerating rate. In 1960 resident licence sales amounted to approximately 125,650, or
about 10,000 more than in 1959, for an increase of almost 9 per cent. This is
partially responsible for the larger harvest of game animals and birds recorded this
year.
Game Regulations
The format of the game regulations was changed somewhat from preceding
years. Efforts were made to simplify the layout and reduce size by eliminating
non-essential information. The smaller pamphlet, which was printed in two colours,
was enthusiastically received by the hunting public this year.
There were few season changes, other than earlier opening dates on antlerless
deer. For the first time a season on deer of either sex was held in the northern
sections of the Province (Game Management Areas 20 and 21).
Game Harvest
The Cache Creek records indicate a marked increase in the take of many
species of game animals in 1960. The following table shows the comparative
harvest for the various species since 1955:—
Cache Creek Checking-station Totals
Year
Deer
1955
1956	
1
2,296    |
2,397    j
2,245     [
2,344    I
2,732    j
3,295    j
1957 - -
1958	
1959       .     .
1960 ..	
Moose
Bear
Caribou
Elk
Mountain
Goat
Mountain
Sheep
Waterfowl
2,301
2,649
2,799
3,064
82
141
179
113
2,645    I      225
2,919
140
!
|      20
-
|      27
2
48
4
45
3
60
5
j    106
9
63
56
91
82
65
121
26
24
43
23
50
6,568
4,371    |
7,349
7,032    |
8,193
11,027    |
8,985
19,351    |
7,563
7,853    |
6,890
5,701    |
10,966
14,517
14,146
14,763
14,938
17,902
Notable increases occurred for deer, moose, caribou, mountain goat, and
mountain sheep. The harvest of waterfowl was down only slightly, but a considerable drop in grouse occurred. The grouse population appears to be on the
" cyclic " decline. The large increase for caribou confirms reports from the north
that mountain caribou populations have expanded in recent years. This animal is
now greatly underharvested.    Unfortunately, most herds are inaccessible, except
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
O  15
to outfitters and hunters employing aircraft. Similarly, a large increase in the take
of mountain goats was recorded, which points not only to increased pressure on
this species, but also to the favourable population status.
Total harvest data cannot be given for 1960 at the time of writing. The following table summarizes the harvest for the preceding five years, and is based on
the data obtained from the annual hunter questionnaire:—
Kill of Major Game Species from Hunter Sample, 1955-59
Species
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
305,400
186,600
36,800
6,200
1,700
50,900
319,800
188,000
39,400
6,500
2,200
43,000
346,600
304,800
44,600
9,900
1,800
47,400
432,100
554,800
70,000
11,500
3,100
59,700
390,200
365,000
50,700
Moose     	
Elk.     .   ..       	
12,200
2,300
61,400
With increasing pressure it has become necessary to obtain information on the
extent of local game harvests. To achieve this an extensive system of road checks
was set up in all important hunting areas in the Province, especially during the seasons on antlerless animals. Thirteen thousand head of big game were examined
on these temporary checks and over 40,000 hunters interviewed. The information
obtained is an important supplement to that obtained from other sources.
Status of Game Populations
Moose.—Winter and spring mortality for 1959/60 was not as apparent as
during the preceding year and was generally concluded unimportant. Most investigations indicate moose are plentiful and probably in excess of sustained range-
carrying capacity in many districts. In some of the more heavily hunted areas of
the Southern Cariboo, the winter range has shown some recovery in recent years.
Numerous forest fires during the summer of 1960 probably increased the carrying
capacity for moose in portions of the Interior, but only a small percentage of the
fires were so situated as to create a new food-supply for moose.
Deer.—Mule deer are abundant on all the better ranges. The population
reflects a good winter survival for the past several years. Some notable increases
have occurred in the Nechako Valley and surrounding areas, and were responsible
for the antlerless deer season for the north in 1960. It is concluded the present deer
population can only exist under conditions of mild winters and therefore is above
the sustained carrying capacity. More liberal seasons in the Cariboo and Chilcotin
Districts are advisable for 1961. Although weather conditions this year were not
conducive to a satisfactory harvest, the Cache Creek checking-station experienced
the largest take so far recorded.
Other Big Game. — The trend shown over the past few years toward an
increased harvest of the rarer species of big game continued again this year.
Mountain caribou, goat, and sheep populations are probably higher or at least as
high as they have been at any time in recent years. The caribou in particular is
coming to the fore as an increasingly important big-game animal and is attracting
new hunters each year. Although hunter sample figures or checking-station data
do not provide accurate indicators of population status for the rare species, they do,
when combined with reports from conservation officers and from hunters in general,
reveal a trend which in this case appears most favourable. Due to the area of the
Province and the widely scattered nature of so many of the mountain species of
 O 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
big game, detailed inventory of populations is neither possible nor economically
justifiable. We must depend upon information from all sources as a means of
determining the trend in status for these lesser-hunted species.
Game Birds.—Native grouse, with the exception of blue grouse, were down in
numbers for the second consecutive year. This strongly suggests the beginning of
the " cyclic " decline, which has apparently occurred earlier than usual. Good blue
grouse hunting, however, was to be found in the southern districts.
Chukar partridges have continued to increase, and this year provided outstanding sport for a growing number of upland bird enthusiasts during the long
season from September 15th to December 4th.
California quail and Hungarian partridge were again abundant in areas of
suitable habitat. Pheasant-hunting was best in the North Okanagan and the
Thompson Valley, which suggests still further the deleterious effect of toxic sprays
and other orchard practices in the major fruit-growing areas farther south.
The first season on mourning doves in British Columbia was held in 1960.
This bird is plentiful in parts of the Southern Interior and could become as important
a sporting bird as it is in the United States.
Waterfowl.—January aerial counts of waterfowl in the Lower Mainland and
south coastal areas showed some improvement over those for 1959. The count
rose from 56,000 ducks and geese in 1959 to 64,000 this year. The Fraser estuary
and adjacent waters constitute one of the most important waterfowl areas in Canada.
Due to this there is need for a large migratory-waterfowl refuge in the area in order
to maintain and hold the present population of ducks, as well as to create public
interest in waterfowl and to facilitate research and management studies.
Pre-season abundance of both ducks and geese in the Fraser Valley was greater
than for several years. Aerial counts made a few days prior to the season opening
showed some 39,000 birds, compared to 7,500 in 1959.
Access and Public Shooting-grounds
A right-of-way was constructed into the Tofino Waterfowl Management Area,
but final completion of the roadway will not be undertaken until 1961. A habitat-
development project involving marsh-blasting on a portion of the Ladner Marsh is
planned for 1961. This development, it is hoped, will improve the waterfowl
potential of the marsh.
A strategically located 317 acres of deer and elk winter range on the Elk River
near Elko was obtained from private ownership. Purchase was made in order that
the Fish and Game Branch may exercise control over the lands involved and thus
assure the continuance of public hunting in the area.
Habitat Improvement
A pheasant habitat-improvement project was undertaken at Oliver in co-operation with the South Okanagan Sportsmen's Association. Approximately 20 miles
of dyke-top were seeded to a mixture of rye, sweet clover, millet, brome-grass, and
white clover. The project was not wholly successful because of lack of moisture in
July and extremely hot weather, which destroyed a large proportion of the seedling
plants.
Game Propagation
Twenty-four live fisher were obtained for the Montana State Game Department. These were collected from trappers and held at Kamloops until picked up
by Montana State game personnel. The project will continue into 1961 as the
result of a request for fisher from the State of Oregon.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
O  17
Research
The following research projects were carried out in 1960:—
(1) Study into the relationship between deer and sustained-yield forestry at
Northwest Bay (Nanaimo) in co-operation with MacMillan, Bloedel and
Powell River Company.
(2) The effect of whitetail deer on alfalfa production in the East Kootenay
District.
(3) The Game Management Division participated in a bighorn sheep study
in the Ashnola area, undertaken principally by the University of British
Columbia.
Appointments
The vacancy at Prince George for a regional game biologist was filled by
Mr. F. Hartman, formerly with the Parks Branch. The need for a game manager
in the Okanagan and Kettle region prompted the appointment of Mr. W. McLaren
as game biologist for this important section of the Province. At the present time
the Game Management Division comprises nine permanent personnel. Contributing also to the programme of game management are the conservation officers, whose
help is gratefully acknowledged. Without assistance from this group, as well as
from other members of the Branch, many of the activities could not have been
undertaken.
Publications
The following publications or papers were written:—
(1) The Accuracy of Determining Age in Deer by Tooth Replacement and
Wear.   P. J. Bandy.   Mimeo.
(2) Management of Moose in British Columbia. Dr. J. Hatter and P. W.
Martin. Proc. 40th An. Conf. West. Assoc. State Fish and Game Commissioners.
Public Relations
The Game Management Division has been most active in public relations
work, and over 100 meetings of rod and gun clubs and allied interests were
attended. Several television and radio appearances were also made. The main
purpose of this activity is to inform the public of the work of the Fish and Game
Branch and to gain support and understanding for the programme in effect.
SPORT FISHERIES
The management of British Columbia's sport fisheries, together with a well-
balanced basic fisheries research programme, continued to increase in scope. This
growth in management and research closely paralleled steadily increasing fishing
pressures and increased industrial activity. Higher angling pressures tend to reduce
individual catch success, while industrial activities reduce habitat. In order to
maintain the quantity and quality of the sport fishery, management and research
must keep pace with the Province's growth. Approximately 185,000 anglers'
licences were sold in 1960. This compares with 177,500 in 1959, and represents
an increase of slightly more than 4.5 per cent over 1959.
Many features of the 1960 sport-fish programme were exceedingly productive, both in terms of maintaining quality fishing as well as in the creation of new
fishing opportunitnes. The more important highlights of the year's activities are
outlined below.
 o 18 british columbia
Public Access
Public access problems increase in relation to numbers of anglers and their
ever-increasing leisure time. During 1960 access problems involving Stump Lake
(Kamloops area), Alleyene, Crater, and Courtney Lakes (Merritt area), and
Richter Lake (Oliver area) arose. Solutions to each of these have been formulated, and it is possible these problems will be largely resolved in 1961.
Hatchery Operations
The operation of Fish and Game Branch hatcheries continued to expand.
Since many more rehabilitated lakes were brought into production, the emphasis
shifted from production of large trout to the supply of larger numbers of smaller
fish. As a result, the cost per pound of fish remained approximately the same as
for 1959, as more individual lakes were stocked, with consequent increases in
vehicle travel expenses.
Total poundage of trout produced in 1960 was about 6,000 pounds less than
in 1959, but a large increase occurred in the total numbers of public fishing waters
planted.   About forty lakes more were stocked in 1960 than in 1959.
In 1956 the hatchery programme serviced 146 lakes and streams. In 1960,
only five years later, 336 lakes and streams were planted from Branch hatcheries.
Commencing in April, heavy schedules of fish liberations were carried to
completion by October. About 40,000 pounds of trout and steelheads were liberated by hatchery crews, who travelled in excess of 60,000 miles by truck, aeroplane,
and boat. Some of the steelheads and trout released were the largest ever planted
in British Columbia, many of them exceeding 12 inches in length and one-half pound
in weight. Cost per pound of trout for vehicle expenses incurred during fish-planting
activities was decreased about 30 per cent through the use of modified oxygen injection and spray systems on fish-tank trucks.
An interesting highlight of fish planting occurred during trout liberations from
Summerland hatchery. In two trips, slightly over 3,300 pounds of trout were
planted. This exceeded the 1956 total output of trout from Summerland hatchery
by about 10 per cent.
While it is gratifying to observe that costs are still being lowered and production
efficiency improved, it is of great importance to evaluate clearly the contribution
of hatchery trout to the sport fishery. To do this, seven applied research projects
are now under way. Through such research, relative survival rates of various strains
of trout can be established and assessed against their role in the hatchery production
programme. Research also is continuing on the size of planted trout as related to
survival, and on the required stocking densities as related to equivalent numbers
of trout at different sizes. The possibility of successful fish reclamations below
irrigation dams is also to be studied. These and other related applied research
projects to be carried out with the co-operation of regional fisheries biologists will
provide the Branch with important new information necessary to keep abreast of
changing needs in the sport fishery.
Research on the physiological factors involved in the transport of trout has
been carried out at Summerland hatchery by Dr. E. C. Black, Professor of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia. Assisted by the staff
at Summerland hatchery, Dr. Black has now been able to isolate many of the
important sources of stress involved in live-fish transport. As a result of these
researches, capacities of moble fish-tanks have now been more than trebled, while
at the same time mortality of transported fish has been reduced to negligible levels.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION O  19
Fundamental research continues on the steelhead trout (sea-going rainbow
trout). A more complete understanding of their biology is of prime importance to
our knowledge of requirements for management and artificial propagation of these
important sport fish, which are most important to our coast stream fisheries.
During 1960 hatcheries of the Fish and Game Branch extended a considerable
degree of assistance to other fisheries agencies and to the University of British
Columbia by making available fish for research purposes and by providing facilities
for incubation, rearing, and transport of several species not normally handled in our
programme.
Of considerable importance to future plans for hatchery production was the
purchase of land for a new hatchery to serve the Kootenay regions. About 190 acres
of land was acquired near Wardner, 30 miles south-east of Cranbrook. Future plans
call for establishment of modern hatchery facilities, rearing-ponds, and residences
for staff. Design capacity for the new station exceeds by twice the present total
combined output of all Branch hatcheries.
Of special interest were stockings of large catchable trout in children's fishing-
ponds, development of new techniques in air transport of trout, use of new strains
of trout in production programmes, development of new techniques in feeding of
young fish, and experiments with new methods of transporting fish eggs. To a large
degree, the credit for new ideas and improvements must be given the staffs at each
of the several hatcheries. Their continuing efforts, often under adverse conditions,
have been most important in effecting increased output and higher efficiency.
Lake Rehabilitation
Although the total number of lakes chemically treated in 1960 was less than
that in 1959, fourteen lakes as compared to eighteen, the total volume of water
involved was much greater, 164,582 acre-feet as compared to 98,644 acre-feet.
As predicted, management efforts in the future will probably be confined to fewer
but larger lakes as most of the small, easily accessible lakes have already been
treated. The largest lake treated this year was White Lake near Salmon Arm; this
lake has a volume greater than all of the lakes treated last year.
The following lakes were treated in 1960:—
Vancouver Island— AcnSei?
Florence Lake  324
Langford Lake       4,116
Barsby Lake   121
Little Beaver Lake  51
Lower Mainland—Kawkawa Lake       6,217
Okanagan-Kam loops—
Marquette Lake   368
Garcia Lake       1,430
White Lake  106,900
Spectacle Lake  98
Northern—
Dragon Lake     30,900
St. Francis Lake       2,660
St. Mary Lake       9,150
Kootenay—
Hahas Lake       1,575
Boundary Lake (Creston)   672
 O 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Most of the lakes listed above were treated with toxaphene, but Marquette
and Garcia Lakes were treated experimentally with the new chemical thiodan. It is
hoped thiodan will combine some of the beneficial features of toxaphene and rote-
none. Rotenone was used to treat Spectacle and Barsby Lakes since they are small
and could be treated with rotenone economically. Hahas Lake appears on the list
again this year as all of the coarse fish were not killed in the 1959 treatment, and
the lake was accordingly re-treated.
Lake Surveys
During the 1960 season some fifty-five lakes were surveyed by the Fisheries
Management Division. These surveys involve an accurate sounding of the lake in
order that accurate lake volumes could be calculated. Chemical analysis of the
water and sampling of the bottom fauna, plankton, and fish populations were also
undertaken. To date some 490 lakes have been surveyed since 1958. Twelve lakes
were surveyed on Vancouver Island, one on the Lower Mainland, twelve in the
Okanagan District, eight in the Cariboo District, fourteen in the Kootenay District,
and eight in the Prince George District during 1960. A list of all lakes surveyed
to date, with notes as to information available, has been mimeographed and is
available to the public.
Lake and Stream Improvement
The Similkameen River was used as the site of an experimental " put and take "
(planting of legal-size fish) stocking. Only 10 per cent of the fish were taken by
anglers in spite of considerable publicity; nevertheless, the stocking created much
interest amongst tourists and local sportsmen. Lightning Lakes in Manning Park
were surveyed to determine the effects on sport fishing of future damming for park
improvement and development. Introduction of a greater variety of sport fish to
new areas of the Province was undertaken in 1960 through stocking of yellow perch
in Swan Lake (near Dawson Creek), Eastern brook trout into several Southern
Cariboo lakes, and small-mouth bass into a few Vancouver Island lakes. A programme was also initiated to evaluate the survival of various sizes of planted trout.
Steelhead Programme
Hatchery plantings of 2-year-old steelhead smolts have apparently created
a new steelhead fishery in the Coquitlam River. Marked hatchery fish of a distinctive size and shape have returned to the river in large numbers and much earlier in
the year than the natural steelhead population.
Kootenay Lake Study
The Kootenay Lake study was terminated this year following spawning run
counts and other observations on the Lardeau River in the spring. A report on this
three-year study has been prepared and will soon be made available to the public.
Fisheries Statistics
The creel-census programme was expanded in 1960 to cover more of the
Province. In this programme, resort operators and individual anglers, as well as
our own staff, keep records of daily fishing success. This information is absolutely
essential in planning such management programmes as lake rehabilitation work,
fish stocking, and lake and stream improvement work.   It is evident that more
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION O 21
information is needed as to the economic importance of the sport catch in various
areas of the Province, and steps will be taken to obtain this much-needed information.
Public Relations
As in the past, the fisheries staff have been most active in this field. While rod
and gun club meetings and service club meetings are attended to acquaint the membership with work of the Branch in general, emphasis was placed on pollution-
control.
Protection
Two biological surveys relating to hydro-electric power development were
undertaken by this Branch during the past year.
The physical and biological features of the Taseko-Chilko-Tatlayoko lake
system were surveyed to gather material for preparation of a co-operative report
by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, the Department of
Fisheries, and the Fish and Game Branch. This report is designed to outline the
possible harmful effects to commercial and sport fishes within this system if
development for power-generation purposes is to proceed at some future date.
A preliminary survey of the lakes and rivers within the Columbia River system
to be affected by proposed hydro-electric power development was initiated. The
investigation has involved fish sampling and stream surveys within the reservoir
areas.   This project will continue next year.
Pollution-control activities continue to attract much attention from this Branch.
Interest in base-metal mining in the Northern Vancouver Island and Merritt areas
has increased during the past year. In each instance where a mine or milling process
is contemplated near fish-producing streams or lakes, negotiations for the installation of pollution-abatement facilities have been undertaken. Observations of pesticide spray programmes for the control of mosquitoes, black flies, ambrosia beetles,
black-headed budworms, and saddle-back loopers continue. In those instances
where sufficient advance notification of these programmes has been supplied to this
Branch, regulations designed to protect sport and commercial fishes have been
formulated and instituted.
Pollutions resulting from logging practices, food-processing plants, laundromats, and sundry other industrial activities have been averted or alleviated.
The process of investigation by field personnel of water-licence applications
continues to provide beforehand information relating to proposed industrial developments which might adversely affect fish populations.
Engineering
Major engineering projects completed in 1960 included modernization of
Loon Creek trout hatchery, the development of a standard-type fish-barrier dam,
and design of a new water intake which largely eliminates water failures.
The work at Loon Creek included the construction of a supervisor's residence
and new water-system facilities. The residence is a two-bedroom, 640-square-foot,
partly log, partly framed cabin. The new water system is composed of two sources
of supply which can be used either jointly or separately, several hundred feet of
interconnecting pipe, a screening and distribution chamber, and a head tank inlet
system. Loon Creek now has the most advanced hatchery water system in British
Columbia.
A great deal of time was spent on the design of fish barriers, resulting in the
evolution of a standard design.   The design required the following specifications:—
 O 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(1) Prevent the up-stream movement of all fresh-water fish, with the exception of anadromous fish, through a full range of stream-flow and debris
conditions:
(2) Be of the simplest type of construction in order to minimize the cost:
(3) Have a useful life of at least thirty years:
(4) Be particularly adaptable to accommodate various sites and stream-flows
without appreciably altering the fundamental design:
(5) Be designed for the worst possible site conditions; for example, bearing
value, permeability, and frost-heave.
Only one dam of this design was constructed in 1960, and this was located at
Dragon Lake near Quesnel. Another dam, on the outlet stream of Kawkawa Lake,
near Hope, was of similar design, but had to meet the additional requirement of
passing salmon in the fall months. In order to meet this requirement the Kawkawa
barrier was designed to easily convert to a one-pool fishway to allow the free passage
of migrating salmon.
The Cultus Lake hatchery had been plagued with water failures, which resulted
in costly fish losses. These failures always occurred at the water intake due to
debris. In order to combat this problem an additional intake was constructed
below the spillway of the intake dam of the sloping screen type. Both intakes were
joined to the main supply-pipe just below the dam. The system was hydraulically
designed so that under normal conditions the water flowed through the original
intake; however, if this flow should be reduced or stopped due to debris, the water
would start to flow from the new intake. Consequently, the hatchery is now assured
of a continual flow.
The Engineering Division was also called upon to design and prepare contract
documents for a residence-office for the Fort Nelson Detachment. This building
was to have a floor area of 1,700 square feet with a full basement for vehicle and
miscellaneous storage. The design had to meet all the rigid requirements of
a northern climate.
In addition to these major projects, the Division also carried out many other
investigations, such as hydrological studies and dam-site surveys.
Research
The study of the spawning run of suckers to an inlet stream of Baker Lake,
near Quesnel, was undertaken again in the spring by members of the Research
Division. Details of the life-history of these fish indicate possibilities of coarse-fish
control in situations where complete eradication would not be feasible.
Studies on the distribution and spawning migration of kokanee at Nicola Lake
were somewhat curtailed because of unavoidable delays in obtaining scientific
apparatus essential to the programme. A marked increase in both the number and
the average size of kokanee in the 1960 spawning run to Moore Creek was noted.
Intensive year-round sampling was carried out on five Coastal streams as
research work on the life-histories and production of sport fish in these waters
commenced. Already several striking differences have appeared in habitat preference of young trout and salmon which will be of major importance in their future
management.
An evaluation of the effectiveness of diving-gear in census of stream fish populations was conducted on the Similkameen River. Counts of several species of fish,
including rainbow trout and mountain whitefish, repeated several times over thirteen
standard sections (400 feet long and 50 feet wide), by five divers were surprisingly
consistent.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
O 23
Further study is being made of the concentration of dissolved nutrients in
lakes throughout the Province. Previous work of the Research Division has indicated the importance of the total dissolved solid content of a lake water in determining its level of productivity. Sampling of lake water is now being extended to
include Northern British Columbia, Queen Charlotte Islands, and other areas of the
Province where few or no determinations are available.
PREDATOR CONTROL DIVISION
Although predation complaints increased by 13 per cent over 1959, damage
was confined to a low level, with one or two exceptions. The following table is
a breakdown of the complaints received and administered during the year:—
Species Complaints
Bear
Cougar
Coyote
Wolf
Sundry1
Total
163
78
71
51
95
16
19
1
167
110
515
256
Totals  _,_- __	
241
122
111
20
277
771
1 Includes bobcat, dog, racoon, skunk, and fox complaints.
Bear complaints decreased over the majority of the Province, but increased
sharply in some of the built-up areas of the Lower Mainland. The number of bears
taken was considerably lower than in 1959, although the numbers of complaints
were comparable.
Cougar complaints increased in numbers and were accompanied by a corresponding increase in the numbers of animals taken by Fish and Game Branch
personnel. Populations of this species are increasing over the entire range, but
complaints are being handled with little difficulty. One cougar was responsible for
a considerable amount of damage before being destroyed. This animal killed thirty-
eight sheep during a period of several months before he was captured by the use
of a leg-hold snare. Two other cougars destroyed a few head of domestic stock
before capture.
Wolves caused a normal number of complaints, and only two involved actual
damage to domestic-stock animals. The remainder of the complaints originated
from guides, hunters, and stockmen who did not appreciate the presence of wolves
near their stock. The present wolf population of the Province demands only a continuation of the present level of control to keep their numbers in check.
The following table shows a comparison of the numbers of important predators
taken by Fish and Game Branch personnel during 1958, 1959, and 1960:—
Important Predators Taken during 1958, 1959, and 1960
Species
1958
1959
1960
299
46
625
32
62
276
248
91
91
449
71
599
46
79
140
276
124
140
370
127
617
24
131
243
242
139
Skunks  ...    	
183
Totals    	
1,770
1,924
2,076
 O 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cougars, bobcats, and skunks have shown a remarkable increase during the
past three years, as indicated by the increases in the numbers taken. Coyotes,
wolves, foxes, and racoons have shown either no increase or a slow rise in numbers
since 1958. Field observations and reports tend to corroborate this apparent situation. Some species obviously increase at a fairly rapid rate regardless of the type
or the intensity of the control used against them. Past records indicate this very
clearly.
A total of 1,200 poisoned baits were distributed during January, February,
and March for wolf and coyote control. Some 1,002 baits were placed from aircraft, and the remaining 198 baits were distributed by ground crews. All but
forty-one were in the Interior of the Province. Although weather conditions were
not severe enough to force animals to the baits, success was generally very good.
All wild-sheep ranges in the Province were baited rather heavily to reduce
predation losses to a minimum, and the majority of the heavily hunted deer ranges
also received attention. Much of the moose winter range was baited as it is adjacent
to domestic-stock range and controls were in heavy demand by ranchers.
Rodent-control measures were increased during 1960, with a total of 14,759
acres treated for control of groundsquirrels and pocket gophers on agricultural lands.
The operations took place in the East Kootenay, South Okanagan, and North
Thompson River areas. Kills were numerous and resulted in a very high demand
for much-needed control services from many local centres. Experimental surveys
carried out indicated that controls should be expanded to increase efficiency.
The rodent-control fieldmen were engaged in experimental work on other
troublesome species following the rodent season. Magpies, starlings, and bobcats
received the majority of this attention. In addition, these men have handled
predator-control work, such as coyote baiting, within their areas and spent considerable time at hunter road checks, as have all other Predator Control personnel
in the Province.
The help given so freely by other members of the Fish and Game Branch has
been very much appreciated by this Division and is hereby acknowledged.
-J
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
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 PROVINCIAL
PARKS
BRANCH
 Discovering nature, Manning Park.
Formal opening of Sproat Lake Park, June 30th, 1960.
Left to right:   Mr. M. J. Foley and the Honourable Earle C. Westwood.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION      O 29
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
H. G. McWilliams, Director
The unprecedented expansion of the already well-established parks, the preoccupation with marine parks and pleasure-boating, and the search for, and the
acquisition of, much-needed lands in strategic places highlight activities of this
Branch during 1960.
Significantly, although 1960 showed a large increase in the number of Provincial parks, there was no proportionate rise in the total acreage. The following
figures demonstrate this fact: 1959, 147 parks covering 8,421,142 acres; 1960,
163 parks covering 8,423,406 acres, displaying an increase of sixteen parks covering
only 2,264 acres, or an average of 141 acres each.
That the parks have continued to mount in the scale of public use is also
demonstrated by the current " visit " statistics. There appears no deviation from
the trend established several years ago, and, in fact, visit progressions made at that
time are being borne out and even exceeded. In 1959 there were 2,700,000 park
visits; in 1960 there were 3,100,000 park visits. It is interesting to note, for purposes of comparison, that in 1950 the park visit figure was recorded at 236,840
visits.
Land is the raw material of park use and enjoyment, and land acquisition has
continued to pose pressing problems. There are many special needs still remaining
unfulfilled. The popular Lower Mainland urgently requires more good beach areas.
An equally urgent need appears for potential marine-park sites, particularly in the
northern part of the Gulf Island group.
Gifts to the Crown are becoming increasingly important as a source of valuable
recreational property and are more numerous as the public becomes more aware of
the need. Several such splendid donations were made during 1960. As a result of
this generosity, the following parks were established: Beaumont, Bamberton,
Thomas S. Francis, Gabriola Sands, Elk Valley, and Crow's Nest.
The public-spirited action by these people and enterprises is deeply appreciated.
With this in mind, the Department has published a small booklet by which to thank
donors of land for recreational use.
Other valuable regions, especially in the Southern Interior, are being acquired
by purchase. Additions of this type are carefully considered and are necessary for
the proper balancing of the park system.
The marine parks have risen in number to five, displaying a remarkable growth
when set against the single park that existed in 1958. Like their landward counterparts, they are being equipped with standard-pattern facilities.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL PROGRAMME
The year 1960 saw a continued expansion of park facilities, especially along
the Trans-Canada Highway route, under the terms of the Federal-Provincial cost-
sharing agreements. The year saw two distinct agreements assist in the financing of
separate development plans—the Trans-Canada Highway Programme and the
Winter Works Programme.
YOUTH CREWS
The Youth Crew Programme continued to be an unqualified success. This
year 144 high-school students were selected from more than 700 applications to
form twelve crews, working as follows: twenty-four employed at Bear Lake Park in
two crews; thirty-six employed at Manning Park in three crews; thirty-six employed
 O 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
at Champion Lakes Park in three crews; twenty-four employed at Alice Lake Park
in two crews; twenty-four employed at Mount Robson Park in two crews.
The popularity of the programme is attested to by the large percentage of young
men who reapply for a second term with the plan.
The Parks Branch acknowledges the splendid co-operation and assistance of
the following departments in the establishment of new park lands throughout the
Province:  Department of Lands and Forests, Department of Highways, Department
of Agriculture, Department of National Defence, and Department of Transport
(Canada).
PLANNING DIVISION
Land Acquisition and Park Inventory
The most significant land-acquisition factor to emerge in 1960 was the increased public understanding of the need for good park land. This was strongly
expressed in the substantial increase in the number of gifts made for this purpose.
They are listed below.
Mrs. Katherine Lumsden Ridley, of Surrey, England, presented for park purposes an area of 3.05 acres on the West Arm of Kootenay Lake.
The Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company Limited donated two separate areas, both
in the vicinity of Crowsnest. They are to be known as Crow's Nest Park (121
acres) and Elk Valley Park (199 acres).
Mr. Gavin Mouat donated an area of 59.4 acres near Ganges on Saltspring
Island.
The British Columbia Electric Company Limited presented a region in the
vicinity of Browning Lake, to be known as " Murrin Park." It is 40 acres in
extent.
The late Thomas S. Francis donated an area of 162 acres near Thetis Lake,
Victoria, now named after the donor.
Capt. E. G. Beaumont gave 367 acres near Fraser Lake, to be known as
" Beaumont Park."
The Gabriola Sands Company, through Mr. William Coats and Mr. Frank Ney,
donated 3.4 acres on Gabriola Island, now called " Gabriola Sands Park."
Cottonwood Lake Park was also created from a gift made previously. In all,
950 acres were donated to the Crown for park land during 1960. As a matter of
comparison, another 1,242 acres were purchased during the same year. Another
six new parks were created in the lands gained in this manner.
Of major importance, also, was the generous assistance given to the Parks
Branch by other agencies. Through their co-operation it was possible to gain
another four new Class "A" parks, two new Class " C " parks, and to add to the
area of five already established parks, a total of 572 acres. The new parks were
Thunder Hill, Oliver Lake, Allison Lake, and Deadman Lake, all Class "A," and
Pemberton and Roserim Creek, Class " C."
In summary, the area of Class "A" parks increased by 1,552.2 acres and
now totals 1,955,283.9 acres. The area of Class "B " parks totals 6,442,158.5
acres, an increase of 752 acres, and the area of Class " C " parks increased by
367.3 acres, a total now of 27,046.07 acres.
Reconnaissance work was undertaken in all districts of the Province this year
and involved the following studies, in addition to many individual site examinations:
Prince Rupert regional study; shore-line inventory of eleven Cariboo lakes; a
study of travel routes between Sicamous and Revelstoke; the San Juan road along
the south-west coast of Vancouver Island; the Kettle and Granby River roads; and
the Nakusp to Trout Lake road.    A major proposed addition to Kokanee Creek
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION O 31
Park, an initial investigation of the Akamina and Kishinena Valleys, a study of bank
fishing and public access points on the Lower Fraser River, and a search for a
suitable camp-site in the vicinity of Sproat Lake were also undertaken.
The assistance of other Government departments also enabled the reservation
of 164 sites for public recreation. These involved some 36,000 acres and represented many key recreational areas across the Province.
DEVELOPMENT PLANS OFFICE
During the year 1960 the emphasis on regional park planning continued. In
an effort to provide more parks for the densely populated south-western corner of
the Province, Alice Lake near Squamish and Sproat Lake near the Albernis were
planned and developed. There are 165 tables at Sproat Lake Park, making it the
largest single day-use layout in the Province.
Regional planning also continued along the belt between Prince George and
Prince Rupert. Bear Lake and Lakelse Lake received continuing attention. A
start was made at Oliver Lake in the provision of a recreational outlet for the
people of Prince Rupert. It is also intended that Maclure Lake, near Telkwa, will
become a major camp-site to serve the north country. A plan was prepared with
this in mind.
Following, in general, the pattern of recent years, much of the planning for
1960 was therefore concentrated upon the wayside parks. Automobile camping
continues to grow in popularity. Despite a steady programme of development, however, the camp-sites are still thinly scattered along the well-travelled highways of
this Province. Plans were produced for the camp-site developments at Dry Gulch
and Thunder Hill in the East Kootenay and for Allison Lake near Princeton.
Planning was also undertaken for numerous other highway sites, but was not
followed by development action.
Two new marine parks were planned and developed during the year—one on
Keats Island and the other at Rebecca Spit, Quadra Island.
The master plans for Mount Robson and Wells Gray Parks, initially started in
1959, were continued in 1960. A detailed plan for the southern part of Garibaldi
was commenced.
The programme to beautify and improve park entrances was continued
during the year. Carved signs were designed and installed at the following parks:
Bamberton, Lakelse Lake, Sproat Lake, Englishman River Falls, King George VI,
Garibaldi (south), Manning, and Champion Lakes. The plan for a new information-centre shelter was produced as a standard model, and two units were built in
Vancouver Island parks.
Assistance was provided to Class " C " Park Boards and to municipalities in
the planning of non-urban parks. The most outstanding were Hirsch Creek Park
near Kitimat and Silver Star Park, Vernon.
Other work included the location of a main trail in Mount Seymour Park and
a trail system for Champion Lakes Park. A wire fence was planned and erected
around the canyon in Stamp Falls Park as a safeguard to pedestrians. As in other
years, crews were active in various parts of the Province mapping small sites for
planning purposes.
Plans for the following parks were completed in 1960, together with the field
layouts preparatory to construction: Sproat Lake, Dry Gulch, Stamp Falls, Monck,
Lac la Hache, Allison Lake, Thunder Hill, Rebecca Spit, Keats Island, Oliver Lake,
Mara Lake, Okanagan Lake, Browning Lake, Prior, Goldpan, Adams Lake, Wasa
Lake, and Jimsmith Lake.
 O 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Detailed plans have been completed and are available for the development of
the following areas: Maclure Lake, Marl Creek, Cameron Lake, McConnell Lake,
Miracle Beach, Christina Lake, and Paul Lake.
Landscaping
The picnic shelter and the toilet building constructed during the winter of
1959/60 at Englishman River Falls Park were completely landscaped in the spring
of the year.
During the year, advice and supervision on landscaping were given, when
required, on all construction projects.
A landscaping and erosion-control programme was drawn up for Wasa Lake
Park to prevent further erosion in the high-use areas surrounding the lake.
Hydroseeding projects were carried out at Bamberton and Okanagan Lake
Parks and at Alouette Lake in Garibaldi Park. The Branch assisted the Department of Highways and the British Columbia Research Council in some experimental
seeding on sections of the Upper Levels Highway in North Vancouver.
A report on the clean-up and landscaping of the upper portion of Mount
Seymour was completed and the work started.
Interpretation
Two nature houses (Manning Park and Miracle Beach Park) and three nature
trails (two in Manning Park and one in Miracle Beach Park) were open from late
June to early September. Nature houses have served a total of 37,000 people, an
increase of 27 per cent over the total for 1959.
Half of all twenty-six indoor exhibits were replaced or given major revision
for the 1960 season. All Manning Park exhibits were modified or renewed for the
1961 season in the new permanent nature house building. Display furniture for
the new building was designed. A new painted type of outdoor exhibit was tried
in 1960, and three more produced for 1961. About 1,000 nature trail cards were
produced, using about 200 texts. Printed interpretative pamphlets were produced
on trees, alpine flowers, and birds. Three series of outdoor " spot talks " were
conducted in Miracle Beach Park. These involved astronomy, birds, and sea-shore
life.
For the fourth consecutive year the interpretative programme attracted more
park-users to see more and better interpretative material. The success of this
programme continues to be due mainly to the high calibre of staff attracted to this
work.
Barkerville
Work on the rebuilding of the historic site of Barkerville continued, and it
was developed into an increasingly popular tourist attraction.
During the year more than 20,000 visitors toured the area, almost double the
number that visited it in 1959.
Wildlife
The programme of wildlife research and management in Wells Gray Park
continued through its eleventh year. Research concentrated mainly on moose and
caribou problems. The second summer of moose behaviour study terminated with
new understanding of the population and how it can be inventoried. Helicopter
flights clarified the role of the park in containing and managing mountain caribou.
Three semi-popular magazine articles and two scientific papers were published.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION O 33
A record number of hunters (1,540) used the park in 1959. The study on
the long-term influence of hunting upon the moose population continued, in an area
unique for its purpose.
In the past eight years of this programme, requests for scientific information
have been met from over 200 scientists and land managers in nine Canadian Provinces, thirty-five states of the United States, and seven other countries.
Historic Sites
The " stop of interest " sites were given a general renovation treatment by a
mobile two-man crew. One new plaque, " Overlanders of 1862," was erected, and
four more signs were cast for placing in the spring of 1961. Three " local " historic
markers were provided to organized groups.
Two building contracts were let in Barkerville Historic Park. One was for
the construction of the major part of a new museum building and the other completed the Wake-Up-Jake Coffee Saloon.
Several pioneer buildings were furnished and opened for display. A number
of structures were either torn down, remodelled, or moved to fit the restoration plan.
Camping pressure was alleviated to some extent by the construction of an
eighteen-unit camp-ground. Plans for a comprehensive water system were initiated
by building an intake at the portal-mouth of the Shamrock mine. Surveys were
undertaken with a view to establishing a positive form of ground control and locating all improvements.
Despite road-construction difficulties between Quesnel and Barkerville, visitor
attendance almost doubled from the previous year to a figure over 19,000.
The purchase of Cottonwood House, a historic site near Quesnel, was brought
near a conclusion, and further studies were carried out at Fort Steele.
Geographer
The year 1960 saw a change in emphasis in the work of the geographer. A
programme more diversified than in previous years was carried out. Three main
types of studies received the most attention: (a) Regional park planning, (b)
evaluation of park facilities, and (c) wilderness recreation. The consultative assistance to the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board in connection with the
preparation of the park portion of its land-use plan for the Lower Mainland region
continued throughout the year. The regional park situation at Prince Rupert was
analysed and reported upon.
Studies concerned with the evaluation of park facilities were carried out at
Mount Seymour, Cultus Lake, Sproat Lake, and Newcastle Island Parks. Wilderness recreation studies were continued at Wells Gray Park and initiated in the
Black Tusk area of Garibaldi Park. A recreational evaluation was made of the
British Columbia Power Commission's land holdings on the Upper Campbell
reservoir.
The compilation and analysis of attendance at Provincial parks is a continuing
responsibility. Technical papers were completed on park planning and on wilderness recreation. Consultative assistance was given to the Travel Bureau in connection with proposed tourist studies.
PUBLIC INFORMATION
Speakers from the Section addressed a wide range of groups in a variety of
spots on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island.   Amongst these were univer-
 O 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
sity, service, and sports clubs, business associations, P.-T.A. groups, social and night-
school organizations.
The Section attended exhibitions and fairs at Nanaimo, New Westminster, Sidney, Vancouver, and Marpole. It also provided minor exhibits of the " show window " type in several centres.
An interesting sidelight of this particular year was that the Public Information
Officer was called upon to undertake temporary public relations projects for other
Provincial Government organizations. Most notable of these duties was concerned
with the inaugural ceremonies for the new Provincial Government ferry service.
The Section planned, and was involved with, the formal opening of Gabriola
Sands and Sproat Lake Parks.
Park map and single-sheet pamphlet projects continued to be a major preoccupation. This year also saw the provision of the first cast aluminum plaques to mark
special gifts of park lands to the public.
Normal activities have continued. The Section provides park material for
news, radio, and television outlets, for journalists, publishers, and cartographers.
ENGINEERING DIVISION
The increases in basic park facilities for the year ended December 31st, 1960,
are as follows: 542 new camp-sites, a 24-per-cent increase for a total of 2,797;
382 new picnic-sites, a 27.9-per-cent increase for a total of 1,750. Total picnic
tables in use in camp-sites and picnic-sites, 4,547, or a 25.5-per-cent increase over
1959.
Youth Crew Programme
A total of 144 boys were employed in twelve crews of twelve boys each, as
follows: Manning Park, 36; Alice Lake, 24; Champion Lakes, 36; Mount Rob-
son, 24; Bear Lake, 24.
Federal-Provincial Programme
The branch continued to receive funds for park development under the terms
of the Federal-Provincial agreement and the Trans-Canada Highway programme.
The total amount received amounted to approximately $480,000.
List of Projects Undertaken in 1960, by Regions
Vancouver Island Region
Bamberton Park: Fifty camp-sites, thirty-five picnic-sites, toilet-changehouse,
water system.
Rebecca Spit:   Marine park, five camp-sites, eleven picnic-sites.
Sproat Lake:   165-unit picnic-site and swimming-floats.
Stamp Falls: Camp-site expansion to twenty camp-sites and sixteen picnic-
sites, service area.
Prior Park:   Ten-unit camp-site.
Long Beach:  Sanitary facilities.
Mount Seymour Region
Mount Seymour Park:  Completion of waterworks, ski-slope improvements.
Keats Island: Initial development for marine park.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION O 35
Garibaldi Region
Diamond Head Road: Improvements to the jeep access road to Diamond
Head Chalet; installation of new electrical system at Diamond Head Chalet.
Alice Lake Park: Construction of camp- and picnic-site project. Total development will have eighty camp-sites and 105-unit picnic-site.
Alouette Lake:  Water system to picnic-site; toilet-changehouse in picnic-site.
Cultus Lake Region
Cultus Lake Park:  Construction of two swimming-piers.
Green Point Park:  Toilet-changehouse, water system.
Manning Region
Emory Creek:  Water system.
Manning Park:  Interpretation museum.
Allison Lake:   Twenty-four-unit camp-site and fourteen-unit picnic-site.
Okanagan Region
Kelowna Park:  Expansion to twenty-unit camp-site.
Johnstone Creek:   Reconstruction and expansion to fifteen-unit camp-site.
Boundary Creek:   Reconstruction and expansion to twenty-unit picnic-site,
water system.
Oliver and Vaseux camp-sites:  Water system.
Shuswap Region
Monck Park:   Three miles of access road.
Adams Lake:   Boat-launching site and parking-lot.
Shuswap Lake:   Supervisor's residence.
Cariboo Region
Skihist:   Sixty-nine-unit camp-site and twelve-unit picnic-site.
Gold Pan:  Fourteen-unit camp-site.
Lac la Hache: Boat-launching site, picnic-site, reconstruction and expansion
of camp-site to eighty-four units.
Bear Lake Region
Continuation of camp and picnic site at Bear Lake Park.
Lakelse Lake Region
Oliver Lake:  Fifteen-unit picnic-site.
Lakelse Lake: Continuation of general project and expansion to fifty-eight
camp-sites and eighty-nine-unit picnic-site.
Wasa Region
Jimsmith Lake:  Completion of works, expansion to thirty-one camp-sites.
Thunderhill:   Thirty-two-unit camp-site.
Wasa Lake:  Water system, workshop.
Dry Gulch:   Expansion to thirty-unit camp-site.
 O 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Kokanee Region
King George VI:  Picnic shelter.
Kokanee Creek:  Water system.
Langford Workshop
Furniture produced:   791 picnic tables, 664 directional signs, 428 fireplaces,
287 number posts, and all other items required by parks.
Mapping Programme
Carried on in Rebecca Spit, Stamp Falls Park, Davis Lake, Newcastle Island,
and Mount Seymour Park.
Present Inventory of Parks Branch Facilities
Camp-sites, 2,797;   picnic-sites,  1,750;   pit toilets, 931;   fireplaces, 3,009;
water systems, 37; garbage-cans, 3,479; carved signs, 2,265.
The maintenance of the above facilities in the park system was carried out by
a peak staff of 150 men during the high-use period.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
O 37
DISTRIBUTION
OF
CAMPERS  BY  REGION
\ W—WMT-
BRITISH OTHERS
COLUMBIANS
 , N.WT.
ALBERTA
SCALE
CAMPER     DAYS
et   100 000
USA.
1OKANAGAN
MANNING
 O 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
a
z
to <
4,200
4,000
3,800
3,600
3,400
3200
3000
2800
2800
2,400
2,200
2,000
1,800
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
1948    49 50 51    52  53   54 55 56   57   58  59  60   61   62
ANNUAL ATTENDANCE
PROVINCIAL PARKS
 BRITISH   COLUMBIA   GOVERNMENT
TRAVEL
BUREAU
 British Columbia Government Travel Bureau personnel assisting visitors
at the Bureau's permanent reception centre at Douglas, B.C.
The Honourable Earle C. Westwood, Minister of Recreation and Conservation,
addressing delegates to the British Columbia Tourist Advisory Council annual meeting
at Qua'.i.um, B.C., October 21st and 22nd, 1960.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
O 41
BRITISH COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT TRAVEL BUREAU
Ernest Evans, Director
The visitor industry of the Province came through the first year of the new
decade in a strong position despite the temporary effects of several counteracting
influences.
While the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 1960 border-crossing figures are not
available as of date of this report, there would appear to be a slight decrease in
the number of foreign entries. This was partially compensated by an estimated
increase in visitors from the other Canadian Provinces, the result being a negligible
drop in the total revenue value estimated for the year.
Although accurate statistical comparisons with the previous year will not be
possible until October, 1961, due to the revision in October, 1959, of the vehicle
permit system operated by border customs offices, it is estimated that foreign entries
declined 7.5 per cent to approximately 1,500,000 persons, visitors from other
Provinces increased 10 per cent to approximately 550,000, and value of tourist
earnings dropped 5.28 per cent to approximately $100,400,000.
International competition for the United States and Canadian traveller continues to draw off some of the potential for this Province, particularly in the higher-
income category. The flood of foreign advertising throughout our marketing area
is producing increased competition for Provincial promotions. However, the cost
of overseas travel and the once-in-a-lifetime character of such holidays tend to
prevent them from posing a permanent threat to our visitor industry.
British Columbia appeals mainly to the middle-income family group, and additional competition for this class of tourist arose during the past year in the " Visit
U.S.A. 1960 " campaign of the United States Government.
Tourist spending in the Province was undoubtedly influenced by an economic
recession, and it is believed visitor length of stay was affected by the distraction of
the United States Presidential campaign.
Anticipating the possible effect of the above-mentioned factors, the Travel
Bureau broadened its promotional activity at the beginning of 1960 by scheduling
earlier runs for co-operative advertising in American publications and by initiating
joint advertisements with Western Canadian Provinces in Canadian publications.
Success of this policy was reflected in a substantial increase in tourist inquiries and
the 10-per-cent gain in visitors from other Canadian Provinces.
ATTRACTIONS
In view of the strong competition mentioned above, the importance of adding
to the number and quality of tourist attractions in the Province can scarcely be
overestimated. This point has been frequently stressed by the Travel Bureau, and
it is gratifying to report favourable reaction in the continuing improvement of such
major events as the Vancouver International Festival, Kelowna Regatta, Penticton
Peach Festival, Williams Lake Stampede, and Pacific National Exhibition, in the
planning of an elaborate winter carnival at Vernon, and in the action taken by the
British Columbia Tourist Advisory Council to expand development of historic
sites and special events. The Bureau again published a calendar of events in two
editions for widespread distribution.
 O 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ACCOMMODATION
Additional new construction, particularly in the category of urban drive-in
motels, and a continually rising standard of service are the principal trends to be
noted in the development of British Columbia's tourist accommodation facilities
during 1960.
As of December 15th, the Travel Bureau had recorded 124 new registrations,
as against forty-four establishments which closed for various reasons. Change of
ownership remained around 10 per cent.
Major regions of the Province were covered by the Bureau's voluntary star-
rating inspections, and it is encouraging to note that, of 2,044 tourist establishments
comprising some 29,008 rental units, 41.4 per cent of those graded are now four
stars and 26.9 per cent are three stars.
The Bureau's field representatives have assisted this trend toward higher
standards in the accommodation industry through the valuable guidance and consultation service which they provide.
INDUSTRY EDUCATION
The programme of organized industry education, inaugurated in 1959 with the
appointment of Mr. George Seldon as Tourist Services Counsellor under the Department of Education, moved into its first year of operation with a series of management clinics. The Director participated as lecturer on the subject of " Hospitality
to the Tourist." The Bureau is an active member of the Advisory Committee, comprising representatives of the British Columbia Restaurant Association, British Columbia Hotel Association, Hotel Operators and Innkeepers' Society, Auto Courts
and Resorts Association, Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Union, and other interested groups, and, as such, contributes on a continuing basis to the " plant improvement " work, so vital to the development of the Province's tourist services and
facilities.
TRANSPORTATION
Definite moves toward a closer co-operation between tourist-development
groups and the major transportation companies took place during the year. The
Director met with representatives of principal carrier lines, at which time groundwork was laid for co-ordination of advertising programmes, and a subsequent recommendation of the British Columbia Tourist Advisory Council initiated a study of
the means of developing comprehensive package travel plans. It is expected a continuation of the splendid work of the transportation companies in promoting tourism
will set a good example and aid materially in the working-out of these plans.
TOURIST COUNCIL
The annual meeting of the British Columbia Tourist Council was held at Qualicum, September 22nd and 23rd, under the auspices of the Bureau, with Mr. Jack
K. Melville, president, in the chair. This meeting established the group on a new
footing by adopting a constitution and changing the name to British Columbia Tourist Advisory Council, thereby disassociating the organization from the limited thir-
teen-member Tourist Council formerly appointed by the Minister under Statute,
while retaining the Minister as ex officio honorary president and the Director of the
Bureau as an honorary director and member of all committees. Representatives of
all major tourist service industries and associations engaged in panel and open discus-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION O 43
sion, resulting in nineteen recommendations aimed at furthering the development of
the Provincial visitor industry.
ADVERTISING
The Travel Bureau again concentrated its heaviest advertising expenditure in
the Western United States, the area from which comes the largest proportion of visitors to the Province, using such established magazines as Sunset, Motorland, and
Westways. National coverage was obtained through joint advertising with Washington and Oregon in Holiday magazine and by the use of a special section in Coronet
magazine. Joint advertising to reach the Eastern Canadian market was also used,
with the co-operation of Alberta and Saskatchewan, in Maclean's magazine.
In addition to the customary programme of highway bulletins and spot radio
and newspaper advertising in Washington, Oregon, and the Canadian Prairies, the
Bureau this year supported with half-page advertisements a series of co-operative
British Columbia pages in six editions of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Other Provincial advertisers in the tourist field were invited to capitalize on the impact of this
concentrated promotion. It is expected this type of advertising will be repeated and
expanded in the future.
PUBLICITY
In conjunction with the advertising schedule, special articles were written and
promotional material supplied to magazines, newspapers, radio and television stations by the Bureau's Public Relations Officer, who also continued assistance to a
growing list of free-lance writers and travel editors whose British Columbia stories
obtain a great deal of valuable publicity for the Province.
Among the publications supplied with publicity material were Canadian Homes,
Toronto Star, Know Canada, Westways, Sunset, Motorland, Pacific Travel News,
True Magazine, Better Homes and Gardens, Hearst Syndicate, and many other
specialized outlets.
SPECIAL PROMOTIONS
The Bureau's activities in the field of familiarization tours for visiting travel
editors and travel counsellors were considerably increased during the past year.
Bureau personnel conducted three tours for travel counsellors from New York,
Spokane, and Seattle and a special trip for the 1960 winner of the national travel
writing contest jointly sponsored by the Bureau and the magazine Press Journal
(formerly Canadian Journalist and Press Photographer). The Bureau also assisted
in the educational hospitality accorded sixty-one tour guests of the Washington
State Automobile Club, some 100 guests attending the inaugural run of the British
Columbia Toll Authority ferry, and Pacific Northwest Travel Association editors
from Texas, Ohio, and Utah.
INQUIRIES
Effectiveness of the Bureau's advertising campaign was clearly shown by the
total of over 60,000 mail inquiries received, an increase of 33 per cent over the
45,000 last year.
LITERATURE
The Bureau maintained a distribution of over a million pieces of literature
during 1960, comprising sixteen separate publications devoted to different aspects
of the over-all British Columbia picture. Some of these folders, booklets, and
brochures were reprints and revisions of established publications, while others were
new formats, such as 100 Vacation Ideas, Between Alaska-Yukon and U.S. Points,
 O 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and a new map showing increased ferry services between the Mainland and Vancouver Island. The Bureau also assisted in the distribution of back issues and sale
of current issues of the Departmental publication Beautiful British Columbia.
TOURIST INFORMATION CENTRES
Reception centres were in operation at White Rock, Flood, and Cranbrook
during the summer months, the latter two being mobile.
Reports indicated a total of 22,000 cars stopped at these three centres, and
information service given by the staffs is estimated to have resulted in increasing
the planned British Columbia travel mileage of these visitors by some 500,000
miles. Visitors registered from eight of Canada's ten Provinces, forty-eight of the
fifty United States, Great Britain, Northwest Territories, Switzerland, Yukon, and
Germany.
In addition to the above reception centres, a temporary information service
was conducted in Banff on a test basis, and a Bureau representative assisted the
Dawson Creek Chamber of Commerce information office in handling United States
visitors returning from Alaska with a view to encouraging use of the British Columbia return route.
FIELD WORK
In the early part of the year, field promotions by the travel trade representative
maintained in the United States jointly by the British Columbia Travel Bureau and
the Alberta Travel Bureau ranged through twenty-three States. In May, however,
anticipating that the Canadian Government Travel Bureau will establish an office
in San Francisco, this joint representation was discontinued, and Mr. Arthur Peers
returned to the Victoria office.
During the year the Bureau arranged or assisted in British Columbia representation at sport shows in San Francisco, Oakland, Los Angeles, Chicago, Kansas
City, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, and Richmond. Six of these were in association
with the Pacific Northwest Travel Association. The Bureau also sent a representative to the Chicago Trade Fair in co-operation with the Department of Industrial
Development, Trade, and Commerce.
SURVEYS
A limited amount of information is obtained by the Travel Bureau from continuous surveys conducted by its reception centre personnel and star-rating inspectors in the course of their regular duties. However, this in no way fills the great
need which seems to exist throughout the tourist industry for accurate statistical
data on which to base promotional expenditures. During the past year the Bureau
made checks on the progress of the tourist industry within the Province through
questionnaires mailed to Chambers of Commerce.
LIAISON
As in former years, the Bureau sent representation to the Canadian Tourist
Association annual meeting in Toronto and the Federal-Provincial Tourist Conference in Ottawa. It maintained close liaison within the Province with the Greater
Vancouver Tourist Association, the Victoria and Island Publicity Bureau, the Auto
Courts and Resorts Association, the British Columbia Hotel Association, and the
Hotel Operators and Innkeepers' Society. Active support was given the Pacific
Northwest Travel Association and the Okanagan-Cariboo Trail Association, and
the Bureau continued to encourage development of regional tourist associations.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
O 45
The Bureau had representation at two meetings of the new Pacific Trails Association, where preliminary discussion with representatives of California, Oregon,
Washington, Alaska, and the Yukon took place on the proposed promotion of a
scenic highway along the Pacific route.
The Director undertook field trips through the Province and into Alberta,
Washington, and Oregon in order to maintain the close contact and co-operation
regularly enjoyed with Chambers of Commerce and travel trade organizations in
these areas.
A staff member joined the 200-car Caravan 97 on the British Columbia portion of its tour from California to Alaska.
The Bureau acknowledges the co-operation of the Directors and staffs of the
Alberta and Saskatchewan Travel Bureaux, officers and staff of the Canadian Government Travel Bureau, the officers of the Canadian Tourist Association, the directors and members of the British Columbia Tourist Advisory Council, and the officers and personnel of Chambers of Commerce, Boards of Trade, and travel bureaux
throughout the Province.
Representatives of the travel departments of the four Western Provinces met
in Vancouver in February in a continuation of annual discussions designed to promote tourist traffic to and maintain high standards of service in Western Canada
generally.
SETTLEMENT
In line with the increase in specific tourist inquiries, settlement inquiries also
increased this year, reflecting the growing interest in British Columbia throughout
the United States and abroad. The Bureau does not solicit immigration, but provides inquirers with general information and directs them for special information
to the Department of Citizenship and Immigration, the National Employment Service, and the Provincial Departments of Lands and Agriculture, whose assistance
is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
 O 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
TOURIST   REVENUE
1960    ESTIMATE
L°DGIN6      22o/o   *22p88>00°
STOREs
20%
19%
J!Ali-_M_lNT~T%
$ 18.000,000
22.000,000
-$60,400,000
$ 100,400 000   Total
AUTHORITY
AAA.    SURVEY
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
O 47
VISITOR   STOPS   AT   INFORMATION   CENTRES
WITH   ESTIMATED  CAR   MILEAGE   INCREASE
INDUCED    BY   SERVICE
1959-1960 (To Sept.10th)
WHITE   ROCK
CRANBROOK
CARS
000' s
10 —
9 —
8 —
7	
6 —
5 —
4—
3	
2—
1 —
FLOOD
Located   at Huntington
in   1959
MILEAGE
10,000's
V////A EEBZ
'59    '60    '59    '60
59    '60    '59    '60
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
- 5
'59    '60    '59    '60
 O 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
ENQUIRIES    AT   VICTORIA   OFFICE
1959 -1960 (To Nov. 30^)
COUNTER
VISITORS
20-
GENERAL
MAIL
40—
c/l 30"
Q
Z
<
u. 20-
o
I
•" 10-
'59 '60
YEARS
AD.
COUPONS
'59
-40
—30
D
z
-20   5
3
o
I
—10    1-
—o
'60
 PHOTOGRAPHIC
BRANCH
 Wasa Lake, B.C., a photographer's paradise.
■■■   ■  ... ■ ■■.
wm%
/      :'
nrl
0     p-   ■••■-.■ -
p
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. <*» •« «.•%;■•■ •■■»•_(
The British Columbia Legislature, 1960.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION O 51
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH
R. L. Colby, Chief
Comprehensive coverage of the January Legislature opening was the start of
an active year. Official opening of the new Prince George hospital was covered
for Hospital Insurance Department; photographs were taken for Government News;
and extensive colour work was done for the magazine Beautiful British Columbia.
In February the French Ambassador and Minister of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce were photographed. Assignments for progress shots
were completed for Travel Bureau and Civil Defence, together with another of Chief
Mungo Martin completing a new totem-pole for the Provincial Museum. Seasonal
colour photos were taken for future issues of Beautiful British Columbia magazine.
Assignments in March included 35-mm. colour slides of handicrafts for our
own Department, progress shots of Bamberton Park construction, Victoria Law
Courts shots for Public Works, photographs for Highways Soil Testing Laboratory,
and a series on shipping books and other activities for Public Library Commission.
A presentation to Mr. George Warren, retiring Commissioner of Victoria and Island
Publicity Bureau, was covered for the Travel Bureau. Sea trials and acceptance
cruises of M.V. " Sidney " and M.V. " Tsawwassen " were recorded in colour and in
black and white, as were the Legislature and Speaker's procession. The photograph
of the Legislature won the top award for the best colour print at the professional
photographers' annual salon held in April.
Colour photographs of bulb-growing in Saanich were taken in April. The kitchen and dining-room of M.V. " Sidney " were photographed for Toll Ferry Authority publicity purposes. A colour picture story of New Westminster was taken for
Beautiful British Columbia.
Branch work during May included colour picture stories of trout-hatchery
operations for the Fish and Game Branch, rock-hounding at Okanagan Falls, Indian
artifacts in colour for the Provincial Museum, flowering dogwood for Beautiful
British Columbia, and coverage of the visit of the Governor-General of Canada to
Victoria. A field trip was made into East and West Kootenays to obtain new black-
and-white and coloured material.
Field trips were made in June to Port Alberni, Alberni, Long Beach, and on
Highway No. 16 for coloured-picture purposes. Progress shots of Victoria Courthouse and the new Parliament Buildings fountain were taken for Public Works.
Indian relics were photographed in black and white for the Provincial Anthropologist. A story of the Provincial Museum was prepared, inaugural runs of the British
Columbia ferries were covered, and picture and text stories on rock-hounds and
Thanksgiving were completed for Beautiful British Columbia.
Interprovincial convention of Ministers and Deputy Ministers of Agriculture
was covered in July. To replenish Branch black-and-white files and to obtain
colour material for Beautiful British Columbia, the following areas were visited:
West Kootenay from Kingsgate to Nelson-Kaslo, Okanagan Lake Camp-site, Salt-
spring Island, Williams Lake, Lillooet, Kamloops, Shuswap Lake, and Revelstoke.
Official opening of Second Narrows Bridge was recorded in August. Other
assignments consisted of photographing the Cabinet, Port Hardy-bound group for
Lands and Forests, and Government House. Otherwise, and for office file replenishment, Branch photographers made field trips to Bowron Lakes, Barkerville, Fernie
area, and the Alaska Highway from Dawson Creek to Yukon border.
 O 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A Deputy Ministers' farewell dinner for His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor
was among September assignments. Photographs of a retirement presentation ceremony for Department of Highways were taken, also for a Tourist Council meeting
at Qualicum, Indian artifacts for Provincial Museum, Caravan 97 travelling from
Osoyoos to Dawson Creek, at which last-named point both ground and aerial harvest
scenes were recorded.
In addition to assignments for fifteen other departments, the Branch completed
photographic projects for the Deputy Minister of Finance, and produced a series of
slides for the Department of Highways during October. Interior of M.V. " Sidney "
was photographed.
Presentation ceremony made to former Labour Minister Lyle Wicks was recorded. Certificate presentation ceremony to Civil Servants with twenty-five years'
service by the Premier, Civil Defence group at headquarters, and a plaque for Public
Works were among November assignments. Coverage of the Fish and Game
Branch checking-station at Cache Creek was also obtained.
In addition to considerable work completed for several departments, specific
photographic requests were met and completed for the Parks Branch and Department of Commercial Transport in December.
MOTION PICTURES
" Land of the Red Goat," officially released in April, has proved to be one of
the Branch's most popular productions. It was the only Provincially produced film
selected by the National Film Board for showing at the Brussels International and
Folklore Week.
" The Fraser Canyon," second release for the year, has likewise been a favourite with audiences both on television and at direct screenings. The film presents
the story of the development of highway transportation through the Fraser Canyon
from the days of the gold-rush that first provided the stimulus to the modern highway of to-day.
Footage was shot for six televisit subjects for release next year, mainly for
showing in the United States.
A short travelogue type of film of the Kootenay Lake area was taken and is
presently being edited. Further footage was obtained for the big-game film, also
of the construction of the Rogers Pass section of the Trans-Canada Highway. A
television news item of the Fish and Game Branch checking-station at Cache Creek
was taken and released.
" Deas Island Tunnel," a recent Branch production, won an acceptance at the
Vancouver Film Festival.
The Canadian Government Travel Bureau purchased ninety prints of Branch
productions for distribution through its travel film library in the United States, and
an additional fifty-five prints were supplied by the Branch. Eight prints each of
" Tight Lines " and " Date with B.C." were also supplied for television release
through the same library.
GENERAL
A total of 1,205 letters was received and 759 sent out. The number of motion-
picture showings increased again, both in Canada and the United States, and the
recent purchases of additional prints should increase these totals still further.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
O 53
Private showings in Canada totalled 2,254, with audiences of close to 160,000.
In the United States there were 4,200 screenings, with audiences of 220,724. There
were sixty-seven television screenings in Canada during the year, and 110 in the
United States. The film " Land of the Red Goat " was televised coast to coast on
the C.B.C. network in October. During the year sixty-seven shows were screened
in the Branch theatre.
PHOTOGRAPHIC   BRANCH
CHARTS ON   FILM    SHOWINGS
DIRECT   SCREENINGS
4000
3000
2000
1000  s~^
—*-
1957
1958
1959
1960
TELEVISION    SHOWS
120
100
80    **
60
40
20
1957
1958
1959
UNITED   STATES
CANADA
1960
  COMMERCIAL
FISHERIES
BRANCH
 Coho caught by commercial troller.
Mending fishing-nets.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION O 57
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
A. A. Bagattin, Supervisor
The estimated canned-salmon pack for British Columbia in 1960 amounted
to 632,089 cases. This was the smallest pack since 1931. In that year 685,104
cases of salmon were canned. It should be mentioned that the low pack in 1931
was due entirely to lack of demand and was not due to any lack of salmon. The
small pack in 1960 was due to shortage of fish.
While this cyclical year has always been low in production, the unusual drop
can be attributed in part to unsatisfactory spawning results and probably low ocean
survival, causing a shortage of pink, chum, coho, and spring salmon.
It was anticipated 1960 would be an off-year for the salmon-fishery. However,
as the salmon runs were far below expectations, the Federal Department of Fisheries
put into effect the most stringent and restrictive fishing closures on record to ensure
an adequate number of salmon would reach the various spawning-grounds.
Preliminary figures now indicate that the canned-salmon pack for 1960 comprised the following species (48-pound cases): Sockeyes, 226,905; springs, 5,913;
steelheads, 500; cohoes, including bluebacks, 92,447; pinks, 219,624; and chums,
86,800.
BRITISH COLUMBIA CANNING INDUSTRY,  1960
The Branch licensed twenty-four salmon-canneries to operate in the Province,
the same as were licensed in the previous year. The locations of the operating
salmon-canneries were as follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena River, 7;
Central Area, 1; Vancouver Island, 2; Fraser River and the Lower Mainland, 12.
Two new canneries were granted licences to operate—one in Victoria and one
in Vancouver.
Sockeye Salmon
It was predicted the 1960 Skeena River sockeye run would be small, and, with
necessary closures for conservation purposes, only 185,000 sockeye were caught by
the fishermen.
The Fraser River sockeye-salmon fishery, regulated by an International Commission under treaty between Canada and the United States, yielded an estimated
226,905 cases, 29,934 cases less than the previous year and 93,188 cases less than
the cycle-year of 1956. Seventy-five per cent of this catch was of fish spawned in
the Chilko River.
Pink Salmon
The pink-salmon run to the Skeena area in 1960 was the poorest on record.
The total run was not equal to the escapement alone in the poorest year, 1958.
In most areas of British Columbia and South-eastern Alaska the return of pinks
was also poor. Therefore, as a conservation measure, fishing for this species was
also drastically curtailed.
The pink-salmon pack in 1960 was estimated at 219,624 cases, the lowest pack
for this species since 1940, when 213,904 cases were packed.
Coho Salmon
Preliminary figures for the coho-pack for 1960 show 92,447 cases, including
23,456 cases of bluebacks.
 o 58 british columbia
Chum Salmon
The 1960 pack of chum salmon, estimated to be 86,800 cases, was the smallest
pack of chums reported since 1952, when 96,005 cases were canned. The reduction
in the chum-salmon pack in 1952 was partly due to interruptions in fishing caused
by strike action and particularly due to the large quantities of chums which were
exported to the United States for canning.
Spring Salmon
In 1960 the spring-salmon pack amounted to 5,913 cases. This was the smallest pack for this species since 1952, when 9,279 cases were packed.
There are included, in this report, tables showing the total canned-salmon packs
for British Columbia from 1955 to 1959, inclusive.
TUNA
The first commercial catch of tuna off the west coast of Vancouver Island was
made in 1940. Since that time, tuna have proven to be rather variable in abundance
in Canadian waters.
For the first time, British Columbia fishermen equipped several vessels with
seine-nets for the purpose of fishing tuna in the high seas.
Tuna were located off the coast of Oregon and California. The results of their
first attempt at this method of fishing for tuna, using improvised gear and vessels
which had not been built for that specific purpose, was encouraging.
DOGFISH-CONTROL
Under the dogfish subsidy programme, the Federal Government has increased
the rate of 10 cents a pound, paid during the past season, to 12 cents a pound for
1960.
The subsidy paid out of the total of $250,000 appropriated for the 1959 season
amounted to $135,914.
The amount of $200,000 was appropriated by the Federal authority for the
purpose of again subsidizing the fishermen as a conservation measure in 1960.
HALIBUT
The International Pacific Halibut Commission was set up under treaty between
Canada and the United States for the protection and rehabilitation of the halibut-
fishery. For the purpose of regulation, the Pacific Coast is divided into a number
of areas. The 1960 regulatory areas do not differ from those of 1959. They are
as follows:—
Area 1a—South of Heceta Head, Ore., U.S.A.
Area 1b—Between Heceta Head and Willapa Bay, Wash., U.S.A.
Area 2—Between Willapa Bay and Cape Spencer, Alaska.
Area 3a—Between Cape Spencer and Kupreanof Point, near Shumagin
Islands.
Area 3b—All waters west of Area 3a, including the Bering Sea.
The principal areas from a standpoint of production are Areas 2 and 3.   The
catch-limits set by the Commission for the 1960 season were 26,500,000 pounds in
Area 2 and 30,000,000 pounds in Area 3.
The main halibut season for British Columbia fishermen opened May 1st.
Halibut-landings for 1960 are not available for inclusion in this report.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
O 59
HERRING
The drastic decline in world market prices for herring oil and meal made the
operation of the herring-fishery unprofitable for the operators and resulted in
suspension of operations in December, 1959. No fishing was undertaken until
November 20th, 1960, when a new agreement on price was reached between
operators and fishermen.   No figures are available for the herring-fishery at this time.
RED TIDE
The results of the continued laboratory tests from clams revealed a long-range
trend to lower toxicities. Certain areas, which have been closed to all clam-digging
since October 29th, 1957, were reopened on October 27th, 1960.
OYSTER BREEDING
Weather conditions during July and early August caused suitable water-
temperature levels for oyster breeding in 1960, particularly in Pendrell Sound.
The first spawning of magnitude occurred in this area about July 10th, when
the surface water temperature was 68° F. A spatfall was forecast for the last week
of July. The numbers of larva, indicated this would not be a particularly heavy set,
although it reached a maximum of 100 spat per shell.
On July 29th, with surface water temperatures about 74° F., an excellent
spawning occurred and a heavy spatfall was forecast for mid-August. The first
spatting occurred on August 17th, and shells removed on that date at Station 2 held
an average of 30 spat per shell, with the main set yet to come. However, on August
19th, from a level of 67° F., average daily water temperatures fell to 66°, 64°, and
62° on succeeding days. As a consequence of this rather drastic and rapid temperature change, the set was not as heavy as it would have been under other circumstances, and the final result on test strings was only 33 spat per shell, an adequate
commercial set.
About 35,000 shell strings imported from Japan were exposed for this set.
In spite of good water temperature conditions, there was little breeding activity
in Ladysmith Harbour and only very light non-commercial setting occurred, and no
cultch was exposed.
LICENCES ISSUED AND REVENUE COLLECTED
The following table shows the number of licences issued and revenue collected
as of December 15th, 1960:—
Number of
Licences Licences
Salmon-cannery    23
Herring-cannery   1
Herring reduction   8
Tierced salmon  5
Fish cold storage   18
Fish-processing   20
Shell-fish cannery   8
Tuna-fish cannery  2
Fish-offal reduction   7
Fish-liver reduction   3
Fish-buyers'   425
Non-tidal fishing   170
Revenue
$4,600.00
100.00
800.00
500.00
1,800.00
20.00
8.00
2.00
7.00
3.00
10,625.00
171.50
$18,636.50
 O 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REVIEW OF THE FISHERIES PRODUCTION
OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1959
The total marketed value of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1959
amounted to $66,377,000, a decrease from the year previous of $31,847,000, or
approximately 33 per cent less than the record total value of $98,224,000 reported
in 1958.
The principal species, as marketed, were salmon, with a value of $45,140,000;
herring, with a value of $8,843,000; and halibut, with a marketed value of
$6,236,000. The value of the salmon production in 1959 was $30,660,000 less
than in 1958. The value of the herring production showed a slight decrease of
$157,000 from the previous year. The value of the 1959 halibut-catch was
decreased by $454,000.
In 1959 the marketed value of shell-fish amounted to $2,160,000. The value
of the clam production was $310,000; oyster production, $471,000; crab production, $1,085,000; shrimps and prawns landed were valued at $294,000.
Vessels and Boats
The number and value of boats used in catching and landing fish in British
Columbia for 1959 included 1,015 boats in the 10-ton and over class and 7,436
boats in the under 10-ton group, which totalled 8,451 boats, valued at $46,853,000.
Gear and Equipment
The 1959 inventory of fishing-gear, such as 7,436 gill-nets, 516 salmon seine-
nets, and 106 herring purse-seine nets, was valued at $4,759,000.
Wire, cotton, and nylon trolling-lines were valued at $446,000.
Number of Fishermen Licensed
A total of 14,463 fishermen were licensed in British Columbia in 1959, compared with 14,266 licensed in 1958. The number of men employed on fish packers
and collector boats totalled 993.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING
INDUSTRY,  1959
This Branch licensed twenty-four salmon-canneries to operate in 1959. This
was four more than operated during the previous year. The operating canneries in
1959 were located as follows: Queen Charlotte Islands, 1; Skeena River, 6; Central Area, 2; Vancouver Island, 2; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 13.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia, according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by canners licensed to operate in 1959, amounted
to 1,095,822 cases, compared with 1,900,174^ cases packed in 1958. This was
304,201 cases below the average annual pack for the previous five-year period.
The decrease in the canned-salmon pack in 1959 was due mainly to the tie-up
in the middle of the fishing season, from July 25th to August 9th. During that time
the fishermen and shore-workers were on strike, which sharply reduced the salmon-
pack. Also, poor escapement to certain spawning-grounds required stringent
regulatory measures in the interests of conservation.
In the year under review the canned-salmon pack was composed of 256,389
cases of sockeyes, 15,174 cases of springs, 870 cases of steelheads, 225,212V_. cases
of cohoes, 458,756 cases of pinks, and 138,880V_; cases of chums.
 department of recreation and conservation o 61
Sockeye Salmon
The sockeye-pack in 1959 amounted to 256,389 cases, compared with
1,074,303 cases in 1958, which in that year included the very large Adams River
sockeye-pack. The lowest pack for this species since 1943 was 228,452 cases,
in 1957.
Coho Salmon
In 1959 the coho-pack amounted to 225,212^ cases, compared with 131,-
528 V^ cases packed in 1958. The 1959 coho-pack was 32,019 cases above the
average five-year pack. Included with the 1959 pack were 12,107 cases canned
from the 1958 frozen stock.
Pink Salmon
The pink-salmon pack in 1959 amounted to 458,756 cases, compared with
451,802 in 1958. Comparatively, the cycle in 1957 produced a pack of 752,454
cases, while in 1955 the pack was 831,255 cases. The principal producing areas
for pink salmon in 1959 were the Fraser River and the Vancouver Island and
adjacent Mainland areas.
Chum Salmon
The 1959 chum-pack amounted to 138,880Vi cases. This was 91,751 cases
below the 1958 pack, when 230,631 cases were packed, and 50,548 cases below
the average annual pack for the previous five-year period.
Large numbers of chum salmon were used in the fresh and frozen markets.
Included with the 1959 chum-salmon pack are 5,736'/2 cases canned from
1958 frozen stocks.
Spring Salmon
The 1959 spring-salmon pack amounted to 15,714 cases, compared with
10,705Vi cases packed in 1958. This was the largest pack since 1955, when
17,859^ cases were packed. The pack of spring salmon is never indicative of
the size of the catch or run, as a large amount is used in the fresh and frozen market. The amount of 472 Vi cases of spring salmon canned from 1958 frozen stock
is included with the 1959 pack.
Steelhead
In 1959 the steelhead-pack amounted to 870 cases, compared with 1,024
cases in 1958. Steelhead are not salmon, but a few are canned each year, principally those caught incidentally while fishing for other species.
Other Canneries
Herring-canneries.—No herring were canned in British Columbia in 1959.
Pilchard-canneries.—There has been no run of pilchards off the west coast of
Vancouver Island since 1949.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—Three tuna-fish canneries were licensed to operate in
1959, and produced 33,523 cases of 48/4-ounce, 3,324 cases of 24/7-ounce,
84,337 cases of 48/7-ounce, and 25,975 cases of 48/6-ounce.
Shell-fish Canneries.—In 1959 ten shell-fish canneries were licensed to operate
in British Columbia and produced a pack as follows:—
Clams: 9,349 cases of 24/^'s, 29,758 cases of 24/1's, 1,160 cases of 48/1's,
6,088 cases of 48/1 Ws, and 3,446 cases of 6/10-gallon.
Crabs:  9,813 cases of 24/Ws and 52,786 cases of 24/1/2's.
Oysters: 12,701 cases of 24/V/4's and 350 cases of 24/10-ounce and 8,220
cases of 24/10-ounce oyster stew.
L
 o 62 british columbia
Mild-cured Salmon
Six plants were licensed to mild-cure salmon in 1959, and produced a pack
of 604 tierces, containing 4,982 hundredweight. This operation is comparable with
the production of seven plants licensed to operate in 1958, which produced a pack
of 550 tierces, containing 4,380 hundredweight.
Halibut
The 1959 catch quotas set by the International Pacific Halibut Commission for
the different areas were as follows: Area 2, 26,500,000 pounds, and Area 3,
30,000,000 pounds.
Halibut-landings in 1959 (1958 in parentheses) by the combined Canadian
and United States vessels amounted to 71,715,000 (65,213,000) pounds, exceeding
the previous all-time high total of 71,265,000 pounds in 1954.
Average price paid for Canadian landings in Canadian ports was 18.5 cents
per pound.   This was down 2.2 cents per pound from 1958.
The Canadian vessels landed 136,000 pounds of halibut livers and viscera,
with a combined total value of $26,000.
United States vessels landed 68,411 pounds of halibut-livers, valued at
$15,399, and also 16,782 pounds of halibut-viscera, to a value of $1,342.
The figures relating to the halibut-catch are to the nearest thousand pounds.
The statistical information was supplied by the International Halibut Commission
and is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
Fish Oil and Meal
Herring Reduction.—The herring-fishermen were on strike all summer and up
to October 9th, 1959. When fishing was resumed, herring-landings for the year
were the second highest on record, but a decline in unit production prices resulted
in slightly lower returns than the previous year.
In 1959 ten herring plants were licensed to operate. The herring-reduction
plant located at Shingle Bay, North Pender Island, was destroyed by fire. Nine
plants operated and produced 32,559 tons of meal and 4,249,801 gallons of oil.
This production is compared with the previous year when nine plants produced
42,357 tons of meal and 4,545,474 gallons of oil.
Fish-liver Reduction.—Three plants licensed to operate in 1959 processed
1,679,407 pounds of fish-livers and produced 3,474,267 million U.S.P. units of
Vitamin A. In 1958 four plants processed 636,938 pounds of fish-livers and produced 1,821,944 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A.
Miscellaneous Reduction—Fish-offal and Dogfish.—During the 1959 season,
nine plants were licensed to operate, and produced 1,140 tons of meal and 110,977
gallons of oil. This production is compared with 1958, in which year nine plants
produced 2,318 tons of meal and 272,223 gallons of oil.
Whale Reduction.—In British Columbia there is only one shore-based whaling-
station. During 1959 the operations show 869 whales killed, compared with 774
whales killed in 1958.
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters
Under section 73 of the British Columbia Fishery Regulations, fishing with
nets in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under
licence from the Minister of Recreation and Conservation. This fishery is confined
almost exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes in
question.   The table gives the principal catch figures for this fishery.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION O 63
Catch of Fish Taken from Non-tidal Waters, 1959/60
Kind of Licence
Number of
Fish Taken
Approximate
Weight
(Lb.)
Fur-farm
Ordinary
Sturgeon
1
1
2
1
6
1
3
1
1
4
1
6
9
136
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
Cluculz Lake1    	
Chief Lake1	
1,050
699
24
332
Christina Lake.-—	
190
490
174
1,642
Nil
77
291
2
4,061
10,784
Nil
538
1,257
Nulki Lake1 - --	
120
10,371
7,719
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Totals	
         1
1
	
17,410
1
22,501
1 No returns were submitted by licence-holders covering these lakes.
Catch by Species
Species Number of Fish
Kokanee  :  12,299
Lake trout        149
Whitefish      4,308
Ling	
Squawfish
Suckers __.
Sturgeon _
Pike 	
Others
56
74
178
2
224
30
Totals   17,410
Weight (Lb.)
8,085
1,197
10,707
93
102
347
120
1,752
98
22,501
Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia
The total marketed value of each of the principal species taken in British
Columbia for the year 1959 is as follows:—
Kind of Fish
Salmon 	
Herring	
Halibut ______
Grey cod ___
Ling-cod ____
Black cod _
Red cod	
Clams 	
Crabs 	
Value
$45,140,000
8,843,000
6,236,000
630,000
510,000
147,000
57,000
310,000
1,085,000
.
 O 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Kind of Fish
Eulachon _..
Flounders _.
Oysters 	
Perch	
Smelts	
Shrimps and prawns
Skate 	
Soles 	
Sturgeon 	
Livers and viscera ___
Miscellaneous1 	
1
Value
$36,000
8,000
471,000
52,000
18,000
291,000
6,000
552,000
11,000
271,000
,703,000
Total  $66,377,000
1 Includes whales, mink-feed, and fish products, meal and oil, for which no breakdown into species was
available.
Source:   Canadian Department of Fisheries, Vancouver, B.C.
Statement Showing the Quantity of Herring Products Produced
in British Columbia, 1954 to 1960, Inclusive
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Meal
Oil
1954/55..
1955/56..
1956/57-
1957/58..
1958/59..
1959/60..
Cases
25,508
11,728
18,349
10,351
Tons
2,397
249
290
2,645
Tons
28,782
47,097
32,772
13,643
43,527
32,559
Gal.
3,714,924
4,475,536
3,602,937
1,746,227
4,545,474
4,249,801
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st, annually.
Statement Showing the Quantity of Meal, Oil, and Vitamin A Produced
from Sources Other than Herring, 1954 to 1960, Inclusive
Season
From Whales
Whalebone
and Meal
Oil
Oil from
Fish-livers
From Other Sources
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
1954/55....
1955/56—
1956/57—
1957/58—
1958/59—
1959/60—
Tons
2,502
3,411
2,182
3,446
4,226
4,058
Gal.
872,060
759,785
526,584
952,702
908,482
940,455
Units1
4,310,057
4,760,668
2,355,410
3,292,552
1,821,994
3,474,267
Tons
2,361
1,993
1,925
1,570
2,318
1,140
Gal.
265,405
201,690
187,787
170,433
272,223
110,977
1 Million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION                  O 65
Statement Showing the Salmon-pack of British Columbia, 1955 to 1959,
Inclusive (Showing the Origin of Salmon Caught in Each District)
(48-pound cases.)
Sockeyes
Area
1959
1958
1957
1
1956                  1955
1
136,583
20,118I/2
36,592
10,539
14,8251/2
17,810
19,541
162
606,669V_
188,0981/2
98,6731/2
17,3631/2
51,884%
58,303
52,7981/2
512
121,965!/2
26,030
26,3341/2
5,952
10,5521/2
25,428
10,110
2,079!/2
88,132V_
13,970
124,6341/2
36,898
17,967
14,663
22,505
1,323
103,67814
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland
13,192V_
50,7021/2
Smith Inlet 	
28,864
19,648
14,649
13,654V-
433
Cold storage   _  	
Totals   	
218
	
	
256,389      |   1,074,303
1
228,452
320,093
244,8213/i
Springs
4,586i/2
6,706
457
295
1,633
611
9461/2
6V-
472V2
2,709!/2
3,564
674
63
1,421
1,526
735
13
3,126i/2
5,189
373
109
7461/2
5141/2
274
148
2,104
2,873i/2
5,9411/2
419
166
1,364V_
371
536
1
6,8431/2
5,534
813
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland
Smith Inlet	
326
1 864
Skeena River  	
1,430
1,028
16
5
Totals  	
15,714               10,705.4
1
12,5841/2
11,6721/2
17,859!/2
Steelheads
196'/2
14OV2
311/2
1.
181V2
I2OV2
165
?n
4293/e
74
431/2
181/2
2431/2
38314
125
337'/2
251/2
55
33V.
2731/2
312
217
269
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland
63
86
Smith Inlet  _	
20V_
193                   252
246                       795
318V_
97614
46
41/5
175
99
Queen Charlotte Islands  	
5
44 V,
Totals  	
870
1,204V_
1,3173/.
1,254      |           1,882
1
Cohoes
4,336
149,9121/2
3,675
375V_
28,9821/2
8,799
4,396i/2
9,420i/2
3,208
3,203
81,0381/2
3,190i/2
368
27,080
7,555i/2
4,834
4,259
4,836
113,6301/2
4,191
1,654
33,8341/2
6,026i/2
10,547Vi
18,339
12,273V_
118,938
6,601i/2
2,249
40,299
8,265
8,165i/2
7,314i/2
8,0341/2
15,910
101,349
5,31614
1,0141/2
24 846
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland
Skeena River	
14,192
9,356
11,666
2,030
12,170
1       	
17,8361/2
511!/2
225,2121/2
131,5281/2
210,8951/2
212,1401/2
186,19114
 O 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Statement Showing the Salmon-pack of British Columbia,
1955 to 1959, Inclusive—Continued
Pinks
Area
1959
1958
1957
1956
1955
32,67314
303,4161/2
3,116
461
68,101
34,43014
15,307
1,099
1
15014
61214
87,127
12,53914
2,553
158,025
60,9411/2
44,037
85,986!/2
68,96814
423,27514
3,104!4
1,005
58,957
148,04914
38,694
9,556
348
55,0521/2
12,0461/2
1,664
205,658
25,633
44,40214
18,809!4
160,18714
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland
421,35514
8,658
Smith Inlet                     	
2,27514
122,37114
86,788
29,040
Queen Charlotte Islands	
548
31
Cold storage. _
844
Totals -	
458,756
451,802
752,454
363,614
831,255
Chums
8,62714
61,39214
1,815
1,190
26.595
6,4001/2
25,074
2,04314
6
5,73614
9,468
88,40014
4,627
1,173
97,50314
7,80614
19,16714
2,485
5,585
44,08014
2,553
3,000
136,370
6,89814
30,961
10,091
9,989
71,59514
2,92614
1,642
58,60214
6,283
35.588
17,44314
7,35014
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland
40,105
5,588
Smith Inlet	
2,070
45,950
5,47114
8,904
9,420
Cold storage	
5,73414
3,430
Totals	
138,88014
230,631
245,27314
204,070
128,289-
TOTAL PACK BY SPECIES, 1959
Sockeyes....
Springs	
Steelheads,
Cohoes	
Pinks	
Chums	
TotaL
256,389
15,714
870
225,212%
458,756
138,880*4
1,095,822
Note.—10,11314 cases of bluebacks included with cohoes, also 2714 cases of coho and 814 cases of chum
tips and tails.
   Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1961
1,260-1060-9223
   

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