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Department of Agriculture FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 1960 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1961

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
FIFTY-FIFTH
ANNUAL REPORT
i960
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1961
  To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1960.
FRANK RICHTER,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C.
  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF,  1960
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable Frank Richter
Minister's Secretary:
Miss M. Jewell
Deputy Minister:
Wm. MacGillivray
A dministrative:
N. L. Camsusa, Administrative Assistant, Victoria.
J. S. Wells, Accountant, Victoria.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria.
B. K. Oxendale, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria.
Markets and Statistics:
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria.
M. A. Cronkhite, B.S.A., Farm Management Adviser, Victoria.
Horticulture:
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria.
J. A. Smith, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna.
D. A. Allen, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver.
M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon.
I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford.
A. E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria.
W. F. Morton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna.
J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston.
G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, New Westminster.
M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton.
A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland.
R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna.
G. W. Geen, Assistant District Horticulturist, Penticton.
B. A. Hodge, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon.
J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Vancouver.
W. D. Christie, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Greenhouse and Nursery Crop), Abbotsford.
E. M. King, B.S.A., M.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Kelowna.
Apiary:
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Court-house, Vernon.
Plant Pathology:
W. R. Foster, M.Sc., Plant Pathologist, Victoria.
J. A. Moisey, M.Sc., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Kelowna.
Entomology:
C. L. Neilson, M.S.c., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon.
J. C. Arrand, M.Sc., Assistant Entomologist, Vernon.
Live Stock:
A. Kidd, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria.
J. C. Bankier, B.V.Sc., Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Vancouver.
E. V. Langford, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector and Assistant Animal Pathologist, Vancouver.
F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster.
 DD 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Live Stock—Continued
T. Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria.
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Nicola.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops.
R. M. Baker, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake.
P. G. Lawrence, Live Stock Inspector, Vancouver.
S. Munro, Deputy Brand Inspector, Clinton.
I. D. C. Clark, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops.
R. L. Lancaster, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Abbotsford.
J. Mustard, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster.
W. C. Newby, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Abbotsford.
K. H. Thompson, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Prince George.
J. A. Mace, Superintendent, Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Victoria.
H. Johnson, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Abbotsford.
J. R. Hannam, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Chilliwack.
Miss Joyce Flood, B.A., Bacteriologist, Vancouver.
R. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria.
W. H. Burr, Dairy Farm Inspector, Abbotsford.
K. G. Fletcher, Dairy Farm Inspector, Abbotsford.
A. L. Kirkby, Dairy Farm Inspector, Nanaimo.
B. R. Stewart, Dairy Farm Inspector, Chilliwack.
J. J. Comley, Dairy Farm Inspector, Vernon.
Dairy:
G. Patchett, Dairy Commissioner, Victoria.
R. N. Hitchman, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Prince George.
N. H. Ingledew, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson.
G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna.
P. Regehr, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria.
C. Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver.
K. G. Savage, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver.
Poultry:
W. H. Pope, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria.
H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster.
N. J. Supeene, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Abbotsford.
C. W. Wood, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Kelowna.
D. M. Hamilton, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Nanaimo.
R. C. Bentley, Resident Supervisor, Random Sample Poultry Test Station, Abbotsford.
Field Crops:
N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant in Field Crops, New Westminster.
J. H. Neufeld, B.S.A., Soil Analyst, Victoria.
Farmers' Institutes:
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria.
Soil Survey:
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Senior Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
J. Banford, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
C. H. Brownlee, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
A. B. Dawson, B.A., B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
V. E. Osborne, M.Sc., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
V. K. Comar, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
Agricultural Development and Extension:
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Director, Victoria.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria.
G. L. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1960
DD 7
Agricultural Development and Extension—Continued
S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George.
A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek.
J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook.
K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan.
S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay.
G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cloverdale.
P. E. Ewert, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Mission City.
G. Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack.
J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc., District Agriculturist, Grand Forks.
J. C. Ryder, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vernon.
J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm.
R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops.
R. C. Fry, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel.
A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District, Agriculturist, Prince George.
J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers.
R. W. Brown, B.Sc., District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof.
J. E. Hall, B.Sc., District Agriculturist, Abbotsford.
J. E. Piercy, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Fort St. John.
R. C. Bailey, B.S.A., Acting-Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria.
E. M. Soder, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops.
G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria.
K. E. May, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria.
T. A. Windt, B.A.Sc., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria.
H. Barber, Accountant, Land Clearing Division, Victoria.
Land Settlement Board:
Chairman: Wm. MacGillivray, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria.
Director: G. L. Landon, Director, Agricultural Development and Extension, Victoria.
Director: L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria.
Secretary: Miss C. Stephenson, Victoria.
Inspector: I. Spielmans, Nelson.
Dyking Commissioner:
W. R. Meighen, New Westminster.
Deputy Dyking Commissioner:
W. S. Jackson, B.Sc., New Westminster.
Southern Okanagan Lands Project:
F. O. McDonald, Project Manager, Oliver.
  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Report of the Deputy Minister  11
Report of Markets and Statistics Branch  14
Report of Horticultural Branch  17
Report of Plant Pathology Branch  22
Report of Entomology Branch  23
Report of Apiary Branch  25
Report of Live Stock Branch  27
Report of Dairy Branch  34
Report of Poultry Branch  37
Report of Field Crops Branch  39
Report of Farmers' Institutes  41
Report of Women's Institutes  43
Report of Soil Survey Branch  44
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch  47
Report of Southern Okanagan Lands Project  54
Report of Land Settlement Board  55
Report of Dyking and Drainage  56
Appendices—
No. 1. Dairy-farm Inspections under Milk Industry Act  57
No. 2. Breed Averages for 1959  57
No. 3. Cattle and Hide Inspections  57
No. 4. Animal Pathology Specimen Examinations  58
No. 5. Poultry-flock Approval  58
No. 6. Poultry-flock Approval by Breed  58
No. 7. Turkey-flock Approval  59
No. 8. Turkey-flock Approval by Breed    59
No. 9. Poultry Vaccine Distribution  59
No. 10. Random Sample Test Reports. s  59
No. 11. Live-stock and Poultry Population  60
No. 12. Tree-fruit Production, 1959, and Estimate for 1960  60
No. 13. Production of Small Fruits, Grapes, and Filberts for 1959 and Estimate for 1960  60
9
 DD 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Page
Appendices—Continued
No. 14. Vegetable Acreage and Production, 1960 Estimate  61
No. 15. Tree-fruit Nursery-stock Production, 1957-60  61
No. 16. Comparison of Apple-tree Numbers by Variety, 1955 and 1960 ___ 61
No. 17. Comparison of Pear and Soft-fruit Tree Numbers by Variety, 1955
and 1960  62
No. 18. Production of Grass and Legume Seeds, 1959-60  63
No. 19. Production of Grains and Field Crops, 1959-60  63
No. 20. Publications Printed in 1960  64
 Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable Frank Richter,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to present herewith the Fifty-fifth Annual Report of
the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1960.
The Report represents in condensed form a complete review of the activities of
all branches and divisions of the Department during the year. Detailed data are on
file and available for reference.
Generally favourable weather conditions during the growing and harvesting
seasons highlighted the situation in our agriculture in 1960, permitting improved
yields and quality in all major crops as compared to the preceding year. Although
there were price declines in live-stock products, and eggs, these were offset to a
degree by higher returns for fruit, grains, and some vegetables. These factors, combined with increased production in several major crops, enabled British Columbia
farmers to maintain their cash income total at a level very close to that realized in
1959.
The soils of the Similkameen River valley were classified according to their
suitability for irrigation by the Soil Survey Branch during the year. Additional surveys in the Lower Fraser Valley were continued and are now well advanced, with
work in the western sector of the valley now virtually completed.
Also completed was a three-year study of hay yields in relation to soil types
found in the lower reaches of the Fraser Valley, conducted by the Field Crops
Branch. The Branch continued its programme of demonstration trial plots, including fertilizers, herbicides, and forage-crops, throughout the Province. Well over
3,000 soil samples were tested and analysed during the year.
The Horticultural Branch carried out extensive demonstration trials covering
a wide range of crops. These included a most successful demonstration of the value
of improved husbandry on greenhouse tomato production and the use of plastic
materials in place of glass in greenhouse construction. The Branch also continued
its work in tree-fruit nursery-stock inspection and stepped up its activities in codling-
moth and little-cherry disease controls.
A heavier-than-usual incidence of coryneum blight of stone fruits in several
areas was among the problems occupying the attention of the Plant Pathology
Branch this year. In the related field of insect-control, the Entomology Branch reported a marked infestation of mites in Okanagan orchards, as well as a heavy occurrence of leaf hoppers in small fruits.
The Agricultural Development and Extension Branch expanded its extension
programme in 1960, particularly in farm-management activity. This part of the
programme has now become well established in all major phases of agriculture, with
the number of co-operating farmers doubled over the 1959 total.
This Branch's Engineering Division carried out a record number of projects
during the year, including extensive research on potato-sprayers and apple-graders.
The Division also worked out an unusually large number of farm drainage systems
for farms in all sectors of the Province.
11
 DD 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Land Clearing Division reported a total of close to 13,000 acres cleared
and broken this year, a slight decline from the 1959 total. Approximately 550
acres were under-drained.
Membership in 4-H Clubs rose steadily to a record high of 2,966 boys and girls
in 257 clubs, an increase of 13 per cent over 1959.
Increased problems in the poultry industry, including a rise in the incidence of
pullorum disease, created an unusually heavy demand for the services of the Poultry
Branch. At the same time, the construction of additional facilities at the random
sample testing station at Abbotsford made for improved operations in that phase
of the Branch's work.
The Live Stock Branch continued its extensive programme aimed at eradicating
brucellosis from the Province's cattle population. The certification of the brucellosis-control area in the Nicola district this year brought to five the number of such
areas now certified as free of this disease. Nearly 50,000 head of cattle were blood-
tested in the Fraser Valley during the year under this programme. It is now expected that the entire Province will be declared brucellosis-free before the end of
1963.
Two new D.H.I.A. routes were established in 1960, bringing the total to
twenty-six, with nearly 18,000 cows on test, an all-time high for this service.
The Brands Division of this Branch reported a total of 115,660 head of cattle
brand-inspected, an increase of 3,138 over 1959.
A total of over 5,000 grade checks on milk and cream were carried out this
year by the Dairy Branch, which reports a gratifying increase in the general quality
of dairy products produced in British Columbia and a continued acceptance of these
products by the consuming public.
An all-time record production of over 2,000,000 pounds of top-quality honey
was produced from some 20,000 bee colonies this year, according to reports of the
Provincial Apiary Branch. Apart from the obvious effect of favourable weather,
some credit for this achievement is due to the efforts of this Branch in fostering improved bee-culture.
Farmer's and Women's Institutes branches continued to maintain a close liaison
with their respective groups in all parts of the Province. By the year's end there
were 126 of the former and 234 Women's Institutes operating on an active basis.
During the year sixty-three recognized exhibitions were held in British Columbia, of which total one was a Class A show, six Class B, and nine Class C, the
remainder being officially classified as fall fairs. Again, financial assistance for
prize-money awards at these shows was given by the Government.
Summaries of the activities of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project, the Dyking Commissioner, and the Land Settlement Board are included in this Report.
In the broader sphere, your Department has continued to maintain cordial and
effective relations with the Canada Department of Agriculture and the University
of British Columbia. Of particular value has been the close co-ordination of projects in which either or both of these agencies have joined forces with the Department. The Advisory Committee on Beef Cattle affords an excellent example of the
results obtainable through such arrangements.
This year exploratory discussions were held with personnel of the Canada
Department of Agriculture on the subject of regional development of rural areas,
in which broad possibilities for the redevelopment of certain depressed areas now
appear attainable.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960 DD  13
The agricultural economy of the Province again displayed a measure of stability,
reflecting the advantages inherent in an industry that is highly diversified. In this
way sharp fluctuations in production and farm earnings are avoided, losses tending
to be offset by gains in the over-all picture.
Preliminary reports of the dairy industry indicate that milk production showed
a 6-per-cent increase over the preceding year, with consumption maintained at
relatively high levels. There is still room, however, for further increases in our per
capita consumption of fluid milk. It is also obvious that such consumption must be
increased if dairy-farmers are to maintain their present per-unit returns for milk.
In the beef industry, prices were somewhat lower this year but still encouraging
to producers generally. The industry continued to show strong potentials as consumers again displayed a preference for beef in spite of the competition from other
meats. There is a noticeable trend among British Columbia cattlemen to operate
on a cow-calf basis, which appears feasible under existing conditions. To be wholly
acceptable however, ways and means must be found to increase the annual calf-crop
above its present 70 per cent average.
The poultry industry was hampered by lower egg prices during 1960, but still
maintained production, the total egg output for the year being about 2 per cent
above the previous year's total. Turkey production was cut back sharply by 15 per
cent, but the broiler industry again surpassed expectations with a significant gain of
12 per cent. The broiler industry has, in the brief span of ten years, grown to the
point where it now forms a major segment of our total poultry production.
Our tree-fruits industry, the leading source of export dollars in agriculture,
experienced a relatively satisfactory year. Production of all fruits was up substantially from the low levels of 1959, and the market for the greater part remained
firm. By the end of the year, 40 per cent of the Okanagan apple-crop had been
marketed from a total crop of nearly 5,000,000 boxes. This represented a gain of
500,000 boxes over sales at the same date one year ago.
Conditions were variable in the vegetable industry, with relatively good returns
obtained in onions, potatoes, and carrots, but disappointing yields in peas and
tomatoes.
The Peace River District harvested one of the better grain-crops of recent years,
both yield and quality being well above average, despite difficulties encountered at
seeding-time due to abnormally wet weather.
Among the specialty crops produced in British Columbia, the cut-flower
industry suffered lower returns this year, mainly because of the lateness of the
Easter holiday, which is traditionally the top marketing period. Holly-growers, on
the other hand, found a much-improved market than was experienced in 1959.
On balance, British Columbia's agriculture can be said to have recorded a
reasonably satisfactory year at a time when other segments of the economy were
undergoing considerable difficulty. Once again the industry has demonstrated its
adaptability to changing conditions and a basic soundness that augurs well for the
future.
LEGISLATION
For the first time in recent years there was no legislation concerning agriculture
passed this year.
—
 DD 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
STAFF CHANGES
Appointments
W. S. Jackson, Deputy Dyking Commissioner, February 2nd, 1960.
V. E. Osborne, Soil Surveyor, May 16th, 1960.
B. A. Hodge, Assistant District Horticulturist, June 1st, 1960.
V. K. Comar, Soil Surveyor, June 6th, 1960.
S. L. Bertolami, Laboratory Technician, July 1st, 1960.
R. C. Speer, Laboratory Technician, July 18th, 1960.
Superannuation
G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising District Horticulturist, January 31st, 1960.
Miss W. M. Marquart, Clerk-Stenographer, February 29th, 1960.
Miss A. E. Hill, Clerk-Stenographer, September 30th, 1960.
PUBLICATIONS
Appendix No. 25 contains a listing of publications issued in 1960.
W. MacGILLIVRAY,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
MARKETS AND STATISTICS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner
Agricultural production registered a moderate over-all increase over 1959
levels during the year, due in the main to improved weather conditions throughout
the growing and harvesting seasons and to a continued firm market demand for all
major farm products.
The index of farm prices displayed a greater-than-usual tendency to fluctuate
between seasonal highs and lows, while averaging out nearly three points below the
figure of 262.4 (1935-39=100) established in 1959. This decline resulted from
lowered returns in live stock, live stock products, and eggs, offsetting gains in fruit,
grains, and some vegetables.
Because of the increase in total production, cash income from the sale of farm
products was maintained at close to the average of recent years. Preliminary estimates place the total fractionally lower than the figure of $122,700,000 realized in
1959.
FEEDS
Basic live-stock feeds maintained steady price levels until the third quarter of
the year, when declines of $6 per ton in the cost of feed-wheat and oats and $5 per
ton in feed-barley became general. Prepared stock-feeds followed a similar pattern.
Poultry-mash, for example, dropped $5 per ton toward the year's end, while standard
dairy-mashes declined $2.
Hay and fodder prices were generally steady throughout most of the year, firming by late autumn at levels close to those achieved in 1959. The average farm price
for hay over the entire year ranged between $22 and $25 per ton.
J
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1960
DD  15
LIVE STOCK
Cattle and hogs reversed their respective positions in relation to 1959 prices.
Cattle averaged between $2 and $3 below comparable 1959 prices, while hogs
climbed steadily from early spring until by December they were averaging $3.50
above the levels recorded in the same period of the preceding year.
Good steers ranged between $20 and $22 during most of the year in a relatively
steady market. The upward trend which saw hog prices reach $26 at the market
peak brought the cattle-hog ratio to less than 100 for the first time in many months.
The demand for good feeder calves was steady throughout most of the year at an
average of $23.   The top price for the year was $25.50.
Sheep and lamb prices showed very little change from the preceding year, good
lambs again bringing an average of $17 to $18.
An estimated increase of about 4,000 in dairy-cow numbers during the year
contributed to a 3-per-cent increase in the total cow population of the Province,
which by December 1st was placed at 391,000 head. Adding to this was an increased carry-over of calves coupled with a further increase in beef-cow numbers.
At the same time, steers and yearling heifers were sold off to a greater extent than
in 1959.
The United States export market for cattle during the year was weaker than in
1959. Total shipments amounted to 14,423 head, a decline of more than 2,000
from the previous year's figure.
The low prices prevailing in the early months produced a 25-per-cent decline
in hog numbers, leaving a total population of only 51,000 by mid-year. On the
other hand, sheep and lamb numbers remained unchanged, reflecting a steady price
structure. Declines in range-sheep numbers have been approximately equalled by
increases in farm flocks. r
POULTRY AND EGGS
In spite of depressed prices in the early months of the year, egg production
was sustained as total output for the year rose about 2 per cent above the 1959
figure. While prices were firmer in the latter half, the weighted average price per
dozen to the producer for the entire year was only 31.3 cents, 1 cent below the
preceding year's average and a full 2 cents below the comparable figure for 1958.
Depressed prices for turkeys at the first of the year resulted in a drop of 15 per
cent in numbers of birds on farms. This decline boosted prices later in the year to
35 cents per pound to the producer for smaller birds and 31 cents for heavier types.
Poultry-meat production rose significantly to a total of 34,000,000 pounds, a
gain of 13 per cent over 1959. The bulk of this was provided by broilers, which
continued their upward trend in consumer popularity. During the year close to
8,000,000 broiler chicks were purchased in the Province, compared to a total of
7,000,000 one year ago.
DAIRY PRODUCTS
The increased dairy-cow population this year produced an estimated total of
over 880,000,000 pounds of milk, 6 per cent more than in the previous year.
Once again fluid sales failed to keep pace, with the result that production of
creamery butter and other secondary milk products was increased. Butter production for the year totalled just over 5,000,000 pounds, a gain of over 700,000 pounds.
Further increases in public acceptance of cottage cheese and ice-cream were
reflected in new production records for both, the former at 5,830,000 pounds produced during the year, while ice-cream production increased 5 per cent to a total
of nearly 4,500,000 gallons.
 DD 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
FRUIT
Improved weather and a generally steady market demand produced a sharp
improvement in fruit production this year. Although small-fruits output was down,
this was more than offset by gains in all tree fruits, with the exception of prunes.
Apple production was up by about 20 per cent at slightly more than 5,000,000
boxes. With improved quality and a firm market available, apple sales by the year's
end were 500,000 boxes ahead of the same date one year earlier. The United States
market absorbed 552,000 boxes, while 668,000 boxes were shipped to the United
Kingdom.
Some difficulty was encountered in the marketing of the apricot-crop when
heavy supplies matured in a short period of warm weather. This was partially overcome by diverting a substantial tonnage into canned concentrate for later sale.
Meanwhile this product will receive Federal Government price support.
Small-fruits sales were uniformly good at prices comparable to those reached
in 1959. Demand for strawberries, raspberries, and blueberries remained strong,
but raspberry movement indicated that current production of 1,000,000 pounds is
close to the known market potential for that fruit.
VEGETABLES
The vegetable industry experienced generally favourable market conditions,
highlighted by a continued strong demand for onions and greenhouse tomatoes and
cucumbers. With an increase of 37 per cent in acreage seeded, onion production
this year was still insufficient to supply demand.
Greenhouse tomatoes enjoyed similar conditions, with the bulk of the crop
bringing $4.50 per case for No. l's, up 75 cents over the 1959 average. Cucumbers
were in steady demand at a 10-per-cent price increase.
Interior field-tomato production was reduced to less than 900 acres this year
as only two canneries operated to handle the pack. About 6,000 tons were canned,
a total sufficient to service only the local and Calgary markets profitably. For the
second successive year, tomatoes were supported by deficiency payments.
FIELD CROPS
The market for both early and late varieties of potatoes was up from 1959
levels as imports dropped and the quality of the domestic crop proved satisfactory.
Earlies averaged $70, while second earlies and late potatoes ranged from $63 to
$72 per ton. An increased acreage of Kennebecs met with a disappointing market
response as consumers appeared reluctant to accept a variety comparatively new
to this market.
Grain-crops were better than average, particularly in the Peace River District,
where good stands were harvested under excellent weather conditions.
Forage-crop seed production was highlighted by a doubling of creeping red
fescue to over 5,000,000 pounds. Alsike clover production was up 25 per cent
at 1,500,000 pounds, but single-cut red clover and brome seed were down sharply
in the face of reduced demand.    Prices for all major seed-crops declined.
MISCELLANEOUS
Honey production reached an all-time high as 20,741 bee colonies turned out
a record 2,076,646 pounds. Prices remained unchanged at 21 cents per pound
wholesale.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1960 DD 17
The market for ranch mink-pelts continued firm at Vancouver, with a top of
$41 at the December auctions.
Wool production was up fractionally to a total of 374,000 pounds for the
year, with an average fleece weight of 7.8 pounds.
t
ADVERTISING
The Department of Agriculture's 1960 advertising campaign to publicize British Columbia farm products was launched in March and carried through October
at a total cost of $150,000. All available media were used, including television,
radio, and biUboards, in addition to the daily and weekly press.
PUBLICATIONS
New revised regulations pursuant to the Fruit, Vegetables, and Honey Grades
Act were published this year. In view of several new requirements governing
packages and advertising, wide distribution was made to the produce trade.
HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist
Average yields were common in most districts, with few growers attaining
maximum crops. Fortunately no extremely adverse weather occurred in the
1959/60 winter. A November frost in the Kootenays did considerable damage,
particularly to the strawberry-crop, while in the Similkameen a spring frost adversely
affected tree-fruit crops between Keremeos and Cawston. Some orchards lost their
entire crops.
Throughout the Province there was an extremely hot dry spell in July and
early August.
TREE FRUITS
Growers have been more optimistic in 1960 than for several years. This is
attributed to the good over-all crop in most areas, better than average prices for
apples in 1959, and the absence of tree losses from frosts since 1955. The only
part of the industry which does not show a bright picture is apricot production,
which has experienced marketing difficulties.    (See Appendix No. 12.)
Apples.—The apple-crop increased 12 per cent over last year, but maximum
production was not realized. The Creston area crop was light, with less colour and
smaller size than normal. In all areas harvesting was efficiently handled and
every care taken by growers and packing-houses to maintain quality.
Spartan continues to gain favour. Most trees of this variety are not yet bearing, and a big increase in volume is forecast. Mcintosh harvest drop was heavy,
probably 20 per cent of the crop being lost. Water-core was prevalent but not as
serious as last year.
Pears.—The pear-crop in the Interior increased by 30 per cent. Quality was
exceptionally good. Pear decline was not as severe as in 1959, but still evident,
and remains a serious threat.
Prunes.—Prunes showed a decline in production. Difficulty was experienced
in getting size and maturity, particularly from Penticton north.
 DD  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cherries.—The 1960 cherry-crop was about 70 per cent larger than in 1959
and of good quality.
Peaches.—The 1960 peach-crop rose only slightly and would have been materially larger but for losses from split stones, especially on Vees, and a high incidence
of Rhizopus rot, mostly in cannery shipments.
Difficulty was again experienced in maturing Elberta peaches in all districts.
The same problem appeared to some extent with Vees in the later areas. The frequency of delayed maturity in recent years warrants the replacement of some current
varieties with earlier-maturing types.
Apricots.—The apricot yield of generally good quality was almost 50 per cent
greater than in the previous year, despite the fact that many orchards of cannery
varieties were in their off-season.
SMALL FRUITS
The small-fruit industry in British Columbia is more buoyant, particularly in
the Fraser Valley. The greatest increases are in blueberries, cranberries, and strawberries.   Appendix No. 13 shows the 1960 and 1959 production figures.
Strawberries.—Strawberry plantings at the Coast came through the winter of
1959/60 in good condition. Low temperatures prevailing through March and
April curtailed growth. Picking started on June 5th on Vancouver Island and
on June 11th in the Fraser Valley.
Yields on the common strain of British Sovereign were again poor, not averaging more than 2 tons per acre. The new virus-free strain of British Sovereign,
though some ten days later in maturing, produced an average of 4 tons per acre.
Growers partial to British Sovereign are enthusiastic about its possibilities. Siletz
was somewhat disappointing as many plantings succumbed to root-rots and general
plant failure. Northwest is becoming increasingly popular among growers and
processors alike. Agassiz was a high yielder, but there is a problem of maintaining
a strong stand of plants.
There was a strong revival of interest in strawberry planting in the Fraser
Valley, particularly among operators with larger acreages. The reasons include
stable markets with resulting firmer prices, availability of more productive strains
and varieties, accelerated research programme by Agassiz Research Farm, and
leadership provided by this Branch.
Raspberries.—Raspberry plantings on well-drained locations produced very
satisfactory crops of excellent quality that moved freely on the manufacturing
market.
The Willamette is the most popular variety now, with Sumner showing much
promise. The Creston variety continues to do well in the Kootenay but has not
been suitable for commercial plantings on the Coast. Newburgh is the only variety
tolerant of heavier soils.
The Research Centre at Vancouver and the Research Farm at Agassiz have
co-operated with the Province in drawing up a propagation scheme for a raspberry
certification programme. The implementation of the programme is dependent on
the active support of the raspberry industry, and it may be launched in 1961.
Loganberries.—Loganberries on Vancouver Island, the main centre of production, yielded well, though reduction in crop occurred as a result of extremes in
weather. Four carloads were shipped by rail to Prairie points, with excellent
arrivals reported.
Blueberries.—The 1960 crop was similar in volume to 1959. Size and quality
were excellent. Blueberries are enjoying a strong market demand. There should
be 1,000 acres of this crop in the Fraser Valley by 1962.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960 DD  19
Cranberries.—The cranberry industry has just harvested the largest crop in
history, 202,000 pounds. Young plantings are maturing, new ones being set out,
and production should increase.
VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
Coastal Region
Weather conditions resulted in lower than normal yields of many vegetable-
crops.
There is a trend toward increased acreage in vegetables for processing, especially in the eastern half of the Lower Mainland, and toward larger units of production in such crops as peas, corn, beans, cole-crops, and potatoes. Prospects are
bright for 1961, particularly in the three first mentioned.
Interior Region
Vegetable acreage in the Okanagan Valley has declined slowly over the past
decade. This trend can be reversed if recommendations for increases in cucumbers,
tomatoes, and onions are carried out.   The acreage figures are as follows:—
Year Acreage Year Acreage
1951  8,059 1956  7,287
1952  7,514 1957  7,061
1953  7,145 1958  7,397
1954  8,581 1959  7,226
1955  8,538 1960  6,971
In the Okanagan the growing season extended well into October and permitted
satisfactory yields of field tomatoes to be harvested.    Quality was generally good.
Branch efforts have assisted in the development of an onion industry of 5,500
tons, or 1,500 tons greater than 1959. A market is estimated for 12,000 tons of
Okanagan onions.    (See Appendix No. 14 for acreage and production in 1960.)
GREENHOUSE VEGETABLES
Tomatoes.—The spring crop of greenhouse tomatoes on Vancouver Island was
of good size and quality. In the Fraser Valley, yields were lighter than normal.
Grower returns were 75 cents a case higher, giving an approximate price of $4.50.
Cucumbers.—The demand for greenhouse cucumbers was consistently good
throughout 1960, at values 10 per cent over those of the previous year. Production
is expected to increase.    Cucumbers are now grown successfully in plastic houses.
NURSERY CROPS
Tree-fruit Nursery Stock
There is a reduction in tree-fruit nursery-stock plantings. The number of
trees of various kinds produced during the past four seasons is shown in Appendix
No. 15.
The proportion of Mcintosh grown remains high, followed closely by Delicious.
Golden Delicious has dropped sharply. Appendix No. 16 lists the numbers of trees
of each of the important apple varieties grown in 1960.
 DD 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In root-stocks there is a sharp drop in the numbers of trees on East Mailing II
and a corresponding increase in trees on East Mailing VII. Almost all of the seedling apple stock are on the recommended locally grown Mcintosh. There is a great
deal of interest in the Mailing Merton stocks, particularly Mailing Merton 104.
Tree-fruit Nursery-stock Inspections
Variety and condition inspections were carried out on 230,882 trees. A system
of certification would be desirable for co-operating nurseries.
Ornamental Nursery Stock.—Local rose production for outdoor planting is
increasing in spite of the strong competition from the United States, Denmark, and
Holland.    B.C.-grown roses are generally of excellent quality.
There has been a sharp increase in the production of locally grown evergreens.
Professional landscapers are now using fewer coniferous evergreens, and there is
a trend toward more broad-leaved material. Rhododendrons are the most important single plant in this category. Locally grown stock is being bought ahead of
the imported material.
FLOWER-CROPS
Cut Flowers from Bulbs.—On Vancouver Island the production of daffodils,
tulips, and iris as cut flowers is an important industry. The blooms are shipped by
air, many on chartered flights.   The total value of the industry in 1960 was $350,000.
CROP VALUES
An estimate is given here of the gross returns to growers of the major greenhouse crops grown:—
Square Feet
Crop under Glass Value
Tomatoes  2,327,112 $492,000
Cucumbers   298,290 194,800
Carnations   275,000 343,750
Chrysanthemums   950,000 570,000
Roses  149,000 223,500
Flowering pot plants  132,000 231,000
Other crops  615,640 996,600
Totals  4,747,042 $3,051,650
ORCHARD SURVEY
The results of the 1960 tree census show that orchard units are becoming larger
in size and fewer in number. At the time of the 1960 survey there were 3,470
orchard units in the Okanagan and Kootenay extending over 34,560 acres. The
total number of trees of all types and varieties is 2,453,320 with 1,290,303 apple-
trees. This latter number is the highest since 1930. The increase in plantings of
clonal root-stocks in the last five years is noteworthy. Many of these will produce
trees, smaller than standard, but coming into production earlier. This could add
significantly to the total apple production of the Interior within the next five years.
There has been a great reduction in the plantings of apricots and prunes in the
past five years. Many young apricot-trees have been removed, but producing
prune-trees were taken out where growers felt returns did not warrant the valuable
orchard land occupied. Cherries have gained in popularity, and an increase in
production is anticipated very soon.    (See Appendix No. 17 for details.)
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1960 DD 21
CODLING-MOTH CONTROL REGULATIONS
In the Okanagan Valley a programme is in effect to remove from the tree-fruit
area flowering cherry-trees that carry the little-cherry virus.
CHAUTAUQUA
The annual series of Grower Chautauqua meetings was held from February 1 st
to 5th.   The total attendance at twenty meetings was 1,354.
SPRAY CHARTS
Spray charts for vegetable and field crops, Coastal tree fruits, and Interior
tree fruits were revised in 1960.
TELEVISION
The weekly thirty-minute television programme originated by the Horticultural
Branch entitled " Okanagan Farm and Garden " shown over station CHBC-TV has
completed over two and one-half years of service. Surveys indicate 8,000 people
view the show weekly, and many favourable comments are received. Staff members
have made numerous appearance on CBC-TV.
RADIO
All district offices co-operated in providing broadcasts to growers either weekly
or as the need arose.
DEMONSTRATION WORK
Each office of the Horticultural Branch has carried out demonstration work of
a type usually closely connected with the crops grown in the area and the need for
assistance.
On Vancouver Island, greenhouse soil conditions were considered to be one
of the major reasons for low returns on many of the crops grown. In a greenhouse
used for tomato-growing, soil fumigation was carried out and drainage-tile laid.
Other changes in soil management were recommended. This treatment produced
over q\Vt. pounds of tomatoes per plant, compared to 5Vi pounds in untreated
houses. The additional return more than offset the cost and has interested many
greenhouse operators.
For the past two years the New Westminster office has carried out a demonstration with various fertilizers and rates of application on peat soils. Much valuable information has been obtained, and this sound work will be continued.
The Abbotsford office has carried out co-operatively with the Federal Research
Centre in Vancouver demonstrations with raspberries, particularly to see if conditions such as abortive bud development, delayed shoot emergence, and chlorosis on
the foliage are caused by minor element deficiencies and can be corrected.
Variety trials of vegetables for field and greenhouse production have been
carried out in both the Coastal region and in the Interior of the Province. Special
attention is being given to greenhouse tomatoes, field tomatoes, and onions.
The Summerland office has completed its third year of observations on the
sizing of Bartlett pears to determine whether harvest size can be predicted in advance
of picking. This project will be given a limited trial on commercial orchards
in 1961.
Grapes have received considerable attention in the Kelowna area for a number
of years. Fertilizer tests have been carried out annually since 1956. Variety trials
are under way using the New York introductions particularly.
 DD 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Vernon office has carried out herbicide trials on many crops and an evaluation of potato varieties in the Salmon Arm and Armstrong areas.
One of the outstanding projects has been to compare the efficiency of Dichlone
and Cyprex as eradicants and protectants in apple-scab control in co-operation with
the Research Station at Summerland. It has been conclusively demonstrated that
Cyprex is an extremely effective fungicide which will act both as an eradicant and
a protectant against apple-scab and has been included in the 1961 tree-fruit spray
chart.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL FARM LABOUR SERVICE
Your Provincial Horticulturist assumed responsibility for directing the British
Columbia responsibilities in the Federal-Provincial Farm Labour Agreement.
The supply of farm labour was adequate in all areas, although very brief
shortages occurred in the Fraser Valley during the strawberry harvest and in the
Okanagan during the picking of Mcintosh apples. Placements during the year
totalled 37,366, mostly in berry and orchard crops.
PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Provincial Plant Pathologist
The losses from plant diseases have been slight. Some diseases threatened to
cause serious damage during the cool, wet spring but subsided when the weather
changed to warm and dry in July.
DISEASES
Field Crops and Vegetables
Leaf-roll of Potatoes.—The incidence of primary leaf-roll net necrosis in the
Netted Gem variety was slight on Vancouver Island and Northern Okanagan areas
as compared with last year. The incidence for the Fraser Valley was moderate to
high but less than the previous year, the highest on record.
Bacterial Ring-rot of Potatoes.—The Province was virtually free of ring-rot.
It has not been found at the Coast, the major producing area, but has occurred in
trace amounts on one farm at Grand Forks and from slight to high amounts on seven
farms at Smithers.
Anthracnose of Lettuce.—A cool, damp spring favoured development of this
disease in the Lower Fraser Valley.
Downy Mildew of Peas.—The canning variety Plus Perfect appears to be very
susceptible to downy mildew. Practically all the plants of the ten growers of this
variety in the Lower Fraser Valley were affected but not other canning varieties
of peas.
Mosaic, Streak, and Bacterial Canker of Tomato.—All observed in many fields
in the Okanagan.
Onion-smut.—Is increasing at Kelowna. Hexachlorobenzene seems to offer
some hope of control.
TREE FRUITS
Apple-scab.—The control measures appear to have been effective. The wet
weather of the early spring and at the latter part of August favoured its development.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960
DD 23
Powdery Mildew of Apple.—The incidence in the Okanagan was the highest
since 1955.
Coryneum Blight of Stone Fruits.—The incidence was high on cherries and
peaches in the Fraser Valley and caused severe damage in apricots and peaches at
Creston.
Little Cherry.—All varieties of sweet cherries in the West Kootenay were
affected. A high percentage of the fruit produced continues to be unsuitable for
the fresh-fruit trade.
Phytophthora Crown-rot of Fruit-trees.—Continues to be a problem in a number of young orchards throughout the Okanagan. The dwarfing root-stocks Mailing
II and Mailing VII were affected in many cases.
Perennial Canker of Apple.—Appears to be increasing in the Okanagan Valley.
The woolly apple-aphis, which is necessary to produce infection courts for the
disease, appears to be increasing.
Small Fruits
Powdery Mildew of Strawberry.—Incidence was high on Vancouver Island and
slight in the Fraser Valley. The drier weather on Vancouver Island seems to favour
development.
Red-stele, Wilt, and Root-rot of Strawberry.—Were observed on a number of
farms both in the Fraser Valley and on Southern Vancouver Island.
Ornamentals
Bacterial Blight of Lilacs.—Specimens were received from widely scattered
areas at the Coast.
Root-rot of Lawson's Cypress.—Continues to cause considerable damage at
the Coast to evergreens in the Lawson's cypress group.
Anthracnose of Plane Tree.—It was widespread at the Coast and caused defoliation up to 50 per cent on many trees.
Tulip-fire.—The cool, wet spring favoured the development of this disease.
ENTOMOLOGY BRANCH
C. L. Neilson, M.S., Provincial Entomologist
The year 1960 was marked primarily by a noticeable increase in insect resistance to insecticides.
FIELD-CROP AND VEGETABLE INSECTS
Grasshopper populations were low. Red-backed cutworms were mainly a
problem in the Peace River area and in Okanagan asparagus-fields. Green peach-
aphid infestations on potatoes were lower than in 1959, particularly in the early
part of the season. Demonstrations of aphid-control on potatoes were conducted
at Lavington and Salmon Arm, using the recommended drop-pendant type of
sprayer. Tuber flea-beetle and wireworms were of little concern, due to treatments.
There were several cases of resistance to hydrocarbon insecticides by cabbage and
turnip maggot. A combined experiment in turnip-maggot was carried out with
the Kamloops laboratory at Prince George.    Onion-maggot treatments with phos-
 DD 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
phates were adequate. A joint project of investigation into reasons for seed-head
blasting of merion blue and fescue grasses in the Peace River was initiated with
the Entomology Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Kamloops. Wheat-
midge was again a problem in the Kersley area. Miscellaneous inquiries covered
a wide range of insects associated with most field crops and vegetables.
ORCHARD INSECTS
Mites, particularly the European red mite, proved to be the most troublesome
orchard pest during 1960. In many cases, sprays were not applied sufficiently
early, populations built up and miticides failed to provide a fast, efficient kill.
In many cases, miticide dosages had to be increased considerably, applied more
frequently than normal, or combinations of miticides used to effect control.
Dormant sprays for pear psylla did not prove adequate, but early sprays, largely
of Dieldrin and Guthion, kept this insect well in control throughout the season.
Codling-moth control was not difficult, due to cool spring weather. However,
tree development proved a poor criterion for commencement of spraying, as this
was often done ten days too soon for first-brood codling-moth. Aphids, particularly the green apple-aphid, continued to be troublesome on both mature and
young trees. The trapping project for Oriental fruit-moth in the Okanagan Valley
was not carried out by the Canada Department of Agriculture, as no recoveries were
made during the past three seasons. Grower-applied insecticide trials were undertaken with Guthion as a combined codlingmoth-miticide treatment, and with Sevin
as a codling-moth control programme. The Guthion did not provide sufficient mite-
control, and the Sevin appeared to increase mite populations. Both provided good
codling-moth control.
SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS
Small-fruit insects were present as usual, but no major outbreak was experienced. There were slight increases in numbers and distribution of Macropis leaf-
hoppers on loganberries and omnivorous leaf-tier on strawberries. A heavy
infestation of root-weevil in cranberries seems to have been eliminated by a Hep-
tachlor spray in August, 1959. No fruit was harvested from this field. Straw-
berry-aphids required treatment in many fields.
LIVE-STOCK PESTS
Winter ticks were less abundant than in 1959. Paralysis ticks were present as
usual, but few live-stock losses were reported. Paralysis in cattle (two heifers) was
reported for the first time at Cache Creek.
Veterinarians reported the ear-tick in three cattle herds, with one death in the
Salmon Arm-Armstrong area.
The Kamloops Livestock Entomology Laboratory reports a 5- to 10-per-cent
decrease in warble infestations. Work with warbles continued to be a major project
of the Kamloops laboratory. Control experiments with systemic insecticides continued. Noticeable progress was made. Demonstration spraying for warbles was
done on three beef herds totalling approximately 1,000 head in the Keremeos and
Nicola areas.
Lice continued to be of concern on beef cattle.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960 DD 25
OTHER INSECTS
Inquiries for identification and (or) control measures covered a wide range of
insects. Notable among these were black-widow spiders, carpet-beetles, carpenter-
ants, wasps, hornets, and powder post beetles. Other inquiries concerned flowers,
shrubs, bulbs, households, stored products, and gardens.
Considerable time was again devoted to mosquito-control in the Fraser Valley
and with the several mosquito-control districts in Interior British Columbia.
An investigation was made at the request of the Public Health Medical Officer
into the possibility of a " swimmer's itch " being caused by insects at Revelstoke.
EXTENSION AND PUBLICATIONS
At least one visit was made to every district office in British Columbia, and
local problems investigated as needed. Newspaper and circulars were prepared for
distribution on specific problems in several areas. Materials were supplied for
C.B.C. programmes and a U.B.C. teaching demonstration. A special exhibit on
pollination was jointly prepared and staffed with the Apiary Branch for exhibitors
at Prince George, Dawson Creek, North Pine, and Armstrong. Radio and television appearances were made at Vancouver, Kelowna, Vernon, Prince George, and
Dawson Creek. We also participated in the B.C. Fruit Growers' Chautauqua, then-
annual summer field-days, and took an active part in revision of grower insect- and
disease-control calendars. Talks were given to beekeepers and 4-H Clubs on pollination and insecticides.
APIARY BRANCH
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist
The year 1960 has shown a marked increase in colony numbers and honey
production. A total of 20,741 colonies produced an all-time high of 2,076,646
pounds of fine-quality honey, with higher average production in all areas except
the Okanagan Valley.
BEE DISEASES
A total of 267 colonies infected with American foul-brood was located. Of
this number, 185 were destroyed by burning and eighty-two are under supervised
treatment.
The presence of Nosema disease was very noticeable this year. High incidence
of infection was noted in the Lower Fraser Valley area, as well as in the Peace
River Block. This could account for the unusually high percentage of queen loss
experienced in both areas.
The proper use of the antibiotic Terramycin (TM25), coupled with good
inspection, has greatly reduced the incidence of European foul-brood, particularly
in the Peace River. Infection was heaviest in the Lower Mainland area, though
only 132 cases of this disease were diagnosed during 1960, or 3.2 per cent of the
colonies inspected.
 DD 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sac-brood, as usual, is widespread and may be a greater economic factor than
is generally realized.
POLLINATION
A practical demonstration on the use of honeybees in alsike-clover seed production was carried out in the British Columbia Peace River area in co-operation
with the Entomological and Extension staffs. Alsike-seed yield was 500 pounds
per acre with only 7 per cent dockage, compared with the district average of 250
pounds. The Canadian Beekeepers' Council provided the sum of $100 to provide
information on pollination to the beekeepers and seed-growers in British Columbia
through an exhibit shown at the Pacific National Exhibition and the Dawson Creek,
North Pine, and Prince George fall fairs.
Three interviews on pollination were used by radio stations in Dawson Creek,
Vernon, Mission, and Vancouver.
A total of 137 colonies was used for pollination of tree fruits. Blueberry and
cranberry pollination by honeybees is being accepted strongly by growers in the
Lower Fraser Valley area. In all, 195 colonies were used by ten growers, resulting in a significant increase in berry production.
PUBLICATIONS
Apiary Circulars No. 10, " Beehive Construction for Beginners," and No. 13,
" The Use of Antibiotics and Drugs in Controlling Bee Diseases," were revised.
Four issues of the publication " Bee Wise," which has a circulation of 1,400, were
written and published.
HYBRID-QUEEN REARING PROJECT
Under supervision of the Apiary Branch and the Guelph Agricultural College,
a queen-rearing project has been established near Vernon in co-operation with
Mr. L. Fuhr, a commercial beekeeper.
EXTENSION
Educational programmes and short courses were held in Dawson Creek, Fort
St. John, New Westminster, and Salmon Arm. A beemasters' short course was
held at the University of British Columbia. The new microscope makes possible
more accurate laboratory services. Fifty-two samples of disease were examined,
as well as honey classifying and grading.
Work with the 4-H Clubs has been continued. This consists of judging competitions and eliminations. Members of this Branch spoke to beekeepers' meetings,
service clubs, high-school and university classes, as well as radio broadcasts and
television channels. Correspondence at the Vernon office amounted to 1,861
letters in and 1,912 letters out. Nineteen field-days and forty-three meetings were
attended during the year.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960 DD 27
LIVE STOCK BRANCH
A. Kidd, V.S., D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Live Stock Commissioner
and Chief Veterinary Inspector
This presentation includes reports of the Live Stock and Veterinary Division,
the Dairy Herd Improvement Services, the Brands Division, and the Animal
Pathology Laboratory.
ACTS
Animals Act
The Johnstone Creek-James Creek Bull-control Area was established during
the year and the Uncha Valley Bull-control Area was revoked, leaving ten bull-
control areas, thirteen bull districts, and three stallion-control areas within the
Province.
Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act, 1956
The eradication of brucellosis from the cattle population of the Province continues, and progress is exceeding expectations. During the year the Nicola Brucellosis-control Area was declared a certified brucellosis-free area by the Health of
Animals Division of the Canada Department of Agriculture. The five areas so
certified are Pemberton-Sechelt, West Kootenay, McBride, Vancouver Island, and
Nicola.
During the year the British Columbia brucellosis-control areas of Cherryville,
Fraser Valley, and Kamloops-North Okanagan were designated as brucellosis-
control areas under the Canada Animals Contagious Diseases Act. Blood-testing
of the cattle, under the supervision of the Health of Animals Division, in the Fraser
Valley Brucellosis-control Area commenced on June 15th and in the other two
areas on October 25th. Results of the first general brucellosis test in the Fraser
Valley are as follows:—
Herds tested       5,478
Total cattle on premises  108,002
Number of cattle blood-tested     49,351
Number of positives       1,133
Number of suspicious ,        1,606
Infected herds  466
Compensation paid  $79,725
From the aforementioned figures, the following percentages are important:
(1) 8.3 per cent of the herds infected, and (2) 1.0 per cent of the total cattle
infected.
Most of the blood-testing was carried out by the veterinary practitioners under
the supervision of the Veterinary Inspectors of the Health of Animals Division.
Two Veterinary Inspectors of this Department have been seconded to the Health
of Animals Division to assist in the brucellosis testing for a period of six months,
commencing September 12th. Two lay Cattle Inspectors of this Department attended
the weekly auction sales in the Fraser Valley. During the year 4,896 official vaccinates, 1,979 blood-tested cattle, and 1,872 cattle for slaughter were checked
through these auction sales and abattoirs to ensure that cattle sold for slaughter
were so disposed of.
It is expected that all areas of the Province will be under Federal supervision
for brucellosis by 1963, and it is conceivable the whole Province will be certified
completely brucellosis-free soon after the last area is turned over.
 DD 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Calfhood Vaccinations under Joint Policy of Federal-Provincial Brucellosis-control
Brucellosis-control
and Certified Area Total
Period                                                                    Vaccinations Vaccinations
July 15th, 1950, to June 30th, 1951        8,798 18,929
July 1st, 1951, to June 30th, 1952     11,324 24,178
July 1st, 1952, to June 30th, 1953     14,820 29,605
July 1st, 1953, to June 30th, 1954     19,321 34,152
July 1st, 1954, to June 30th, 1955     22,977 36,815
July 1st, 1955, to June 30th, 1956     20,487 36,412
July 1st, 1956, to June 30th, 1957     26,051 39,230
July 1st, 1957, to June 30th, 1958     44,428 47,087
July 1st, 1958, to June 30th, 1959     54,146 58,896
July 1st, 1959, to June 30th, 1960     55,358 59,945
Totals  277,710 385,249
Total calves vaccinated under the Provincial policy during the period from
July 31st, 1941, to July 14th, 1950, was 83,730 head.
Payments to veterinary practitioners for services rendered since the inception
of free calfhood vaccinations on May 1st, 1956, are:—
May 1st, 1956, to June 30th, 1956  $6,157.00
July 1st, 1956, to June 30th, 1957  40,680.00
July 1st, 1957, to June 30th, 1958  49,790.00
July 1st, 1958, to June 30th, 1959  62,424.00
July 1st, 1959, to June 30th, 1960  63,854.00
Total  $222,905.00
Veterinary Inspectors vaccinated a total of 2,485 calves on 399 premises and
blood-tested 1,003 cattle on ninety-nine premises. Brucellosis blood-test results
showed 961 head were negative, 6 head over 36 months of age were positive, and
36 head over 36 months of age were suspicious.
Vibriosis of beef cattle has been a particular problem during the year in the
range areas around Clinton, Kamloops, Princeton, and Rock Creek. Cattle-owners,
with the assistance of Inspectors of this department and of the Health of Animals
Division, have been attempting to cope with the situation through arificial insemination, pasture breeding, and better management practices.
Veterinary Inspectors carried out routine inspections for foot-rot on 6,930
sheep at eighteen sheep-farms before grazing permits were issued allowing sheep on
certain Crown lands.
Several range-cattle deaths were reported in the Vernon-Kamloops area when
cattle were brought from the higher altitudes and pastured on lower-lying land. The
deaths occurred usually within seven days of entry to the pasture. The symptoms
were typical of anaphylactic shock. Veterinary practitioners report good results
from the injection of epinephrine hydrochloride when called soon enough. It is
thought this disease complex is the condition known as " bovine pulmonary emphysema," " skyline disease," or " bog fever " and different to conditions arising from
nitrate poisoning, hemlock poisoning, malignant oedema, or blackleg.
Fur-farm Act
For 1960 a total of 521 fur-farm licences were issued and $6,060 collected.
Inspectors made a total of 162 fur-farm visits.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960
DD 29
During the year three fur-farms were quarantined because of distemper in mink
and eight distemper quarantines lifted; seven of these were carryovers from the
previous year.   Two distemper quarantines remained in effect at the year-end.
Virus enteritis of mink was positively diagnosed on twelve farms in the Fraser
Valey by the Animal Pathology Laboratory. In the three years virus enteritis has
been present in the valley, nineteen farms have had a positive diagnosis. As in
distemper of mink, the virus enteritis vaccine is very effective and widely used.
The Canada Mink Breeders' Association held its annual meeting in Vancouver
during September.
Meat Inspection Act
Establishments operating under this Act and the Inspector assigned to each is
listed as follows:—
Establishment
No.
Establishment and Location
1. Clappison Packers, Haney_.
2. Seed & Pitts Packers, Pitt Meadows_
Inspector
Dr. D. J. Hopkins.
Dr. D. J. Hopkins.
3. Cariboo Meat Packing Co. Ltd., South Fort George-W. R. Munro.
4. Star Meat Co. Ltd., Sumas Dr. B. H. Brewster.
5. Cliff's Meats, Aldergrove Dr. J. G. Fowler.
6. Tommy Hong, Surrey Dr. A. A. McDonald.
Establishments Nos. 4, 5, and 6 commenced operations during the year.
Milk Industry Act, 1956
The inspection of dairy-farms selling raw milk as approved raw-milk dairy-
farms and shipping milk as approved fluid-milk dairy-farms is being efficiently carried out by the Veterinary Inspectors and the Dairy Farm Inspectors. The calibre
of dairy-farms in Central British Columbia and the Peace River Block is improving
as inspection has been intensified to bring the over-all standards of dairy-farms in
these two districts in line with the high levels of sanitation and construction in the
rest of the Province.
It will be noted from Appendix No. 1 the number of approved dairy-farms has
again decreased. More milk is being produced on fewer farms, on which the number
of farm holding-tanks and pipe-line milkers doubled during the year. There are now
about 600 farm holding-tanks and over 100 pipe-line milkers in the Province. This
trend will continue.
Appendix No. 1 contains the totals of dairy-farm inspections carried out, by
districts, by Veterinary Inspectors and Dairy Farm Inspectors under the Milk
Industry Act.
Sheep Protection Act
Compensation paid from Dog Tax Fund for the years 1958, 1959, and 1960
is as follows:—
Goats
Sheep
Poultry
Year
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
1Q.R
1
$30.00
96
242
263
$2,305.00
5,421.00
5,341.00
746
2,278
404
$741.89
1959 	
2,768.10
1960	
665.06
 DD 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
POLICIES
Artificial Insemination Assistance Policy
Grants were made toward the young sire evaluation programme and the frozen-
semen laboratory, both at the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre at
Milner, and under the special grants section to the Dawson Creek District Dairy
Producers Association, the Kamloops Artificial Insemination Club, the Nanaimo-
Cedar Farmers' Institute, the Nechako Valley Dairymen's Association, and to the
Quesnel Artificial Insemination Club.
The Live Stock Inspector continued his regular checking of frozen-semen
ampules stored at the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre as required
by the Joint Dairy Breeds Committee for pure-bred cattle.
Dairy-cattle Placement Policy
Under this policy, a total of 32 head of dairy stock (29 head of young Holstein
heifer calves) was selected by the Live Stock Inspector from Fraser Valley D.H.I.A.
herds and shipment arranged to the Okanagan Valley and the Pemberton Valley.
Assistance was given in locating or expediting shipment of an additional 19
head of dairy stock—15 heifer calves (9 Holsteins, 6 Ayrshires) for 4-H Dairy Calf
Clubs at Dawson Creek and 4 mature Holstein cows for a dairy-farmer at Vanderhoof.
This makes a total of 751 head of dairy cattle selected and shipment arranged
during the eleven-year period since inauguration of this programme.
Live-stock Improvement Policy
Assistance was given to defray freight costs of pure-bred animals into the
Peace River Block.
Pure-bred Sires for Farmers' Institutes Policy
During the year only 3 sires have been purchased—1 Aberdeen Angus and 2
Herefords.
Veterinary Services District Policy
The purpose of this policy is to provide veterinary service in those areas of
British Columbia where the scattered nature of farm settlements and (or) the long
distances between stock farms or ranches have discouraged qualified veterinarians
from establishing residence and practice, and where present and immediate potential
live-stock population warrants such action. The four veterinary service districts are
serviced by veterinarians located at Creston, Dawson Creek, Prince George, and
Williams Lake. During the year the agreement was renewed with Dr. N. Jaksitz, of
Dawson Creek, for a further three years, and Dr. D. Ulmer signed the agreement
and commenced practice at Prince George on July 15th.
ANIMAL PATHOLOGY LABORATORY
(Dr. J. C. Bankier)
Public demand for laboratory diagnosis of diseases affecting live stock and
poultry has continued to increase. Our limited facilities for such work are overtaxed, and are, indeed, quite inadequate to permit carrying out many aspects of the
studies required in this rather complex and highly technical field.
The assistance of other laboratories has been sought from time to time to undertake certain diagnoses.    The co-operation of the Division of Animal Pathology,
J
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960
DD 31
Canada Department of Agriculture; the Ontario Veterinary College; and Connaught
Medical Research Laboratories is gratefully acknowledged.
Numerous meetings of live-stock and poultry owners and meetings relating to
the work of our department were attended, as were four special conferences.
Federal control over brucellosis eradication in the Fraser Valley and North
Okanagan areas has substantially reduced laboratory tests for brucellosis since July.
Exclusive of brucellosis testing, the number of live-stock and poultry owners
serviced totalled 678, compared with 696 last year.
Personal visits to the laboratory by farmers or their representatives in connection with disease problems totalled 942, compared with 899 last year.
Exclusive of blood samples submitted for brucellosis testing, the number of
specimens received for examination totalled 13,471, against 8,135 last year.
Field visits in connection with special disease problems totalled 197.
A breakdown of the specimens examined in the laboratory is shown in Appendix No. 4.
BRANDS DIVISION
(Thomas Moore)
Inspection Service
Brand inspection was carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at
sixty-seven shipping points and by Brand Inspectors and Deputy Brand Inspectors
at twenty-six points.
Brand Inspections
A total of 115,660 head of cattle was inspected, an increase of 3,138 from
1959. Horses inspected numbered 6,530, a decrease of 416. There were 13,989
hides inspected, a decrease from 1959 of 326. Kamloops-Nicola area had 47,279
cattle inspected, an increase of 5,577 head. Cariboo cattle inspections totalled
20,786, a decrease of 4,463.    (See Appendix No. 3.)
Exports to United States
Total cattle exported from British Columbia to the United States from January
1st to December 31st numbered 14,423, of which 14,334 head moved from Interior
points. This is 2,140 less than in 1959, and comprised 302 bulls, 1,029 cows,
8,515 steers, 3,307 heifers, and 2,079 calves. (Figures by courtesy of Canada
Department of Agriculture, Vancouver.)
Flood and Fernie Check-points
Shipments of stock, hides, and dressed beef are checked through these posts
by the Department of Commercial Transport members, who are Deputy Brand
Inspectors.   Shipments checked are as follows:—
Flood  1959
Cattle  8,471
Horses  1,433
Hides   2,652
Dressed beef (quarters)  478
Number of trucks checked  1,364
Fernie—
Cattle    	
Horses    	
Hides 	
Number of trucks checked    	
I960
12,175
2,417
3,376
678
1,617
10,777
311
245
540
 DD 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Brand-book
The 1960 brand-book, showing all brands in good standing, will be issued in
1961.
Enforcement
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police appointed a live-stock investigator this
year, who is stationed at Kamloops. Matters pertaining to the theft of cattle, etc.,
have been investigated, and a number of cases brought to a successful conclusion.
A new Royal Canadian Mounted Police detachment was opened at Giscome,
B.C.
Marketing of Cattle
The marketing of cattle in the Interior through auction sales at Kamloops,
Williams Lake, Quesnel, Okanagan Falls, Dawson Creek, and Fort St. John absorbed a large number, particularly at Kamloops, which draws stock from many
contributors outside that area.
The co-operation of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is appreciated in the
enforcement of this Act, and of the Criminal Code in the stealing of stock.
Stock Brands Act
Thirty convictions were obtained in 1960 under the above Act.
Criminal Code
Seven convictions for the theft of cattle were obtained in 1960 by the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police.
DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT SERVICES
(J. A. Mace)
Operation
Two new D.H.I.A. routes commenced operation during 1960. One, in the
Dewdney-Deroche area, started operating June 1st, and is a third route to an existing
association. A new association in the Quesnel-Prince George area started on August
1st, and it is hoped a full complement of members will avail themselves of the service
in the first year.
As at June 30th, 1960, there were 17,688 cows reported on test, an all-time
high. (The Quesnel route is additional to this.) Actual increase over June 30th,
1959, was 1,091. The additional Dewdney route brought the total number of herds
under test to 559. Average size of D.H.I.A. herds is now 31.4 cows, and the average
route contains 707 cows.
Production
Relatively stable marketing conditions and generally favourable harvest weather
contributed to another production increase, which again saw previous high production averages exceeded.
Completed milking periods for 1959 numbered 14,286, an increase of 1,211;
they averaged 10,576 pounds of milk and 435 pounds of butter-fat, an increase of
246 pounds of milk and 10 pounds of fat over 1938, the previous high year.
A summarized report showing production by breeds is attached as Appendix
No. 2.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1960 DD 33
Ear-tagging
A total of 5,350 D.O.T. ear-tags has been issued to date, an increase of 150.
This has proved to be the chief means of identifying daughters of sires in the A.I.
units, and because of the increasing use being made of artificial insemination by
dairy-farmers in this Province, our ear-tagging programme has assumed an even
greater importance and responsibility than it previously had.
Subsidy
Grants to twenty-six D.H.I.A. routes amounted to $53,525, an increase of
$1,670 over 1959.
Publications
H.I.C. No. 84, the twenty-fourth List of Guernsey Sires; H.I.C. No. 85, the
twenty-fifth List of Holstein Sires; H.I.C. No. 86, an index for Holstein sires; and
H.I.C. No. 87, the lifetime production list, were prepared during 1960. Semi-annual
reports on the performance of the sires in the A.I. units have also been prepared.
Field Work
The Superintendent and two Inspectors carried out the total field work, as
follows:—
Supervisor contacts  146
D.H.I, officials' contacts     68
Member visits  214
Certificates of production brought up to date  244
Other calls      73
Meetings      31
Talks  :     16
Herds check-tested   227
General
Headquarters of one Inspector was moved during the year, from Agassiz to
Abbotsford. The central location of the new office facilitates contact with D.H.I.
supervisors much more readily than the previous location. The availability of
stenographic service has also been helpful.
The preparation and issuance of sire lists showing the production performances
of daughters of all sires used in D.H.I.A. and R.O.P. herds on a daughter-dam basis
has been an important effort of this branch. These lists have undoubtedly played
a part in obtaining the outstanding results obtained by D.H.I.A. herds during the
years. However, with 70 per cent or more of our dairy herds depending entirely on
artificial-insemination units for their sire-selection programmes, the amount of work
and time necessary in the preparation of these lists can no longer be justified. It
was therefore decided to discontinue issuing these reports with the twenty-fifth List
of Holstein Sires. In their place, Dairy Herd Improvement Services will issue more
frequent reports on sires in artificial-insemination units and will also provide a
" parental production summary " service at a reasonable cost to those herd-owners
not using artificial insemination who contemplate the purchase or use of a new bull.
This summary will show the production of:—
(1) All daughters of the sire of the bull in question.
(2) All daughters of the sire's sire and the dam's sire.
(3) Any daughters of the dam.
(4) Any daughters of the sire's dam and the dam's dam, and will give an
accurate resume of the production background of the animal.
 DD 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The importance of continuing active support of the young sire programme in
artificial insemination cannot be overemphasized. It is obviously entirely practical
to have bulls capable of transmitting production at a level 120 to 130 per cent above
the average of the breed carry 80 per cent of the service loads in the units. This
objective can only be attained if sufficient young sires are put through the programme
so that each year will see replacements of this calibre available when the good old
sires are discarded because of age, sterility, or disease.
A list of secretaries and supervisors of all dairy herd improvement associations
is shown in Appendix No. 4.
DAIRY BRANCH
George Patchett, P.Ag., Dairy Commissioner
PRODUCTION
Total milk production and all manufactured milk products show an increase
over last year.
1959 1960 (Estimated)
Milk (total production)  lb. 833,178,000 883,000,000
Manufactured products—
Butter (creamery)  lb. 4,267,041 5,050,326
Cheese (Cheddar)  „ 776,000 921,112
Cheese (cottage)  „ 5,713,000 5,827,000
Ice-cream  gal. 4,245,192 4,450,000
UTILIZATION, 1959
Creamery butter	
Factory cheese 	
Concentrated milk and ice-cream
Fluid sales	
Farm butter	
Farm homes 	
Fed to animals 	
British
Canada     Columbia
(Per Cent) (Per Cent)
32
6
8
42
2
7
3
20
1
7
64
1
4
3
MARKETING
The per capita consumption of fluid milk and cream increased by 90 pounds
in 1959. It is estimated the total consumption of all milk products represents the
use of 847 pounds of milk per capita per annum, with 349 pounds consumed as fluid
milk and cream.
According to Milk Board figures, weighted average prices in areas of production are somewhat lower for qualifying milk than in 1959 due to increased production forcing a larger percentage into the manufacturing channels, as noted under
" manufactured products."
The average farm value of fluid milk in 1959 for the whole Province as reported by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics was $5.66 per hundredweight, compared to $4.69 for all Canada.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960
DD 35
DAIRY PLANTS
Seventy-nine creamery or dairy licences were issued for 1960, nine less than
in 1959. Of these, sixty pasteurize milk, twenty-seven make ice-cream, twelve
butter, three Cheddar cheese, one milk powder, one evaporated milk, and fourteen
cottage cheese.   Four have ceased to operate.
LICENCES, CERTIFICATES, AND PERMITS
Licences
Creamery or dairy
Milk-testers 	
Milk-graders 	
Cream-graders
Special tank-milk graders	
Oleomargarine manufacturers
Oleomargarine wholesalers .___
Issued 1960
.... 79
.... 95
.... 71
.... 18
... 48
..- 4
.... 18
Certificates of Proficiency
Pasteurizer operators—
First class 	
Second class 	
Temporary 	
Ice-cream makers—
First class	
Second class 	
Cheese-makers—second class
Butter-makers—
First class	
Second class 	
Issued 1960
.___ 10
-. 15
_..-    4
Total valid
37
117
10
16
4
3
9
Farm holding-tanks _
Tank-trucks 	
To reconstitute milk
Permits
Issued 1960
___   173
6
.___      3
MILK GRADING
Grades reported by licensed milk-graders indicate a further improvement in
quality over 1959, as follows:—
Number of
Completed
Tests
Number of
Samples Failing
to Qualify
Per Cent
Failing
1959 	
80,132
78,097
3,296
2,792
4.11
1960   	
3.56
 DD 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SUMMARY OF DAIRY BRANCH SERVICES
Number of inspections—
Plant      918
Farm dairies      864
Butter-fat check tests (milk and cream)  2,525
Grade checks (milk and cream)  5,321
Samples taken for ring tests      213
Lactometer and cryoscope tests      266
Other tests  1,286
Reports sent to producers (re tests)      691
Milk-cans condemned       267
Examinations (licences and certificates)      114
Number of H.T.S.T. pasteurizers tested  5
Number of farm holding-tanks certified      173
Number of tank-trucks examined for permit  6
Oleomargarine checks made         34
SHORT COURSE
The new type of dairy short course instituted last year has been continued,
with no changes in its programme. Twenty-seven students enrolled before September 15th for the preliminary lessons by correspondence, and twenty-two have undertaken to complete the course. They will attend a practical course in January and
sit for examination.   Ten well take the Babcock tester's licence course.
COTTAGE CHEESE CLINIC
For the first time in the history of dairying, the first cottage cheese clinic was
held in 1960. Thirty-one samples of cottage cheese from eleven manufacturers
were examined and graded by a specialist, Dr. L. J. Manus, from Washington State
University, Pullman. He delivered two lectures and pointed out defects in ten
samples to illustrate where improvements could be made. The clinic was attended
by sixteen representatives from the industry and by the staff of the Dairy Branch.
SUMMARY
The dairy industry of the Province is in a healthy state, with an increased production of approximately 50,000,000 pounds of milk. The total farm cash value
of all milk could be in the neighbourhood of $7,000,000. The increased production
is reflected in all manufactured products, as well as in the fluid sales. Modern production methods are resulting in higher production per farm with no increase in
labour. More direct methods of handling the product between farm and plant
have resulted in higher-quality products. An estimated total of 568 farm holding-
tanks are now operating, mostly in the Fraser Valley.
OLEOMARGARINE
Consumption of margarine during 1959 was 21,699,602 pounds, or 13.7
pounds per capita.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1960 DD 37
POULTRY BRANCH
W. H. Pope, P.Ag., Poultry Commissioner
Prices for most poultry products were at post-war lows as 1960 opened. The
downward trend in commercial egg prices was accelerated by a change in the Federal support programme. The record production of turkeys and the threat of
surplus supplies resulted in prices lower than were necessary to move this product.
Chick and poult sales were reduced sharply from 1959. This condition continued
until increased demand and evidence of decreasing supplies brought price adjustments early in the second quarter. Only the broiler industry showed strength.
The following table shows price changes from 1956:—
Producer Price
1960 Price
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
of 5-year
Average
Eggs         	
Chicken  	
Fowl -	
t
42.7
25.5
21.5
34.3
t
32.6
25.6
18.2
31.4
t
33.3
25.0
19.4
33.0
i
32.1
22.2
12.8
24.0
t
31.4
21.4
13.9
31.1
91.2
89.4
82.9
Turkey                  	
101.0
COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION
Anticipated surpluses of commercial eggs demoralized the market in January
and February, but the British Columbia market remained from 10 to 15 cents above
the 14 cents a dozen Grade A Large producer price that existed at Prairie points.
While early low prices sharply reduced pullet placement, later reflected in an increase
in undergrade eggs, the wisdom of the trade's policy in British Columbia was demonstrated as supplies were maintained at about the previous year's level. The egg
industry has now become reasonably well adjusted to the market demand.
Gross egg income is approximately $575,000 below that of last year, while
production is up by approximately 2l/i per cent.
" OFF-FLAVOUR " IN COMMERCIAL EGGS
In February and March a fishy flavour in commercial eggs was reported. Supported by a grant for the purpose, an investigation was launched by this Department
and the Department of Poultry Science, University of British Columbia. The cause
of the problem was determined and the condition corrected. Separate reports on
this project are on file and have been published in national journals.
INTERIOR EGG QUALITY
In September a noticeable decline in Interior egg quality was observed.
A research project supported by the British Columbia feed-manufacturers and this
Department has been designed to study this problem in detail. Pathology Laboratory and Poultry Branch staff have completed the initial investigation. Further
field work will be carried out by the Poultry Branch, while the Department of
Poultry Science, University of British Columbia, will undertake the laboratory
phases of the project.
POULTRY MEATS
Broiler Production.—The broiler industry increased its capacity to produce
during 1960, encouraged by a strong demand at generally firm prices, and an in-
 DD 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
crease of 12 per cent was marketed. Many new broiler facilities were not completed
in time to be in production during the period of peak demand, which could have
demoralized the market.
Fowl.—The Leghorn-type bird used for commercial egg production returned
little more than the original chick price when marketed at the end of the laying
period. Some imports of fowl were required to meet the demand at current price
levels.
Turkey.—Turkey poult production paralleled the levels recorded in 1959. The
number of mature birds marketed was down sharply, however, from last year due
to excessive early poult mortality. It has been estimated that mortality levels were
approximately 20 per cent of all poults hatched during the first four months of the
season. These losses coincided with the inclusion in manufactured feeds of grains
alleged to have contained excessive moisture and moulded or mildewed kernels.
Requests for further study of this problem to prevent its recurrence have been made
by feed-manufacturers and the producer organization.
PULLORUM-CONTROL PROGRAMME
The lack of adequate diagnostic facilities made modifications of the control
programme for this important disease necessary. For the first time in many years
there was an increase in the incidence of pullorum disease in breeding stock and in
commercial broiler flocks. AH flocks associated with hatcheries from whose chicks
salmonella pullorum was isolated were retested to a zero tolerance. The present
control programme requires all flocks showing 5 per cent reaction to the first test
to be retested to zero per cent tolerance. Those showing reaction of 5 per cent or
over to the first test may not be used as a hatchery-supply flock.
Meetings of the Federal and Provincial officials concerned were held, and an
amendment to the Federal regulations relative to the disease status of imported
hatching-eggs or chicks has been suggested for the consideration of the Canada
Department of Agriculture.
Inspector H. Gasperdone supervised the field staff, records, and tabulations
necessary under the programme. Because of the amount of retesting required,
four permanent Inspectors and seven temporary Inspectors and testers were assigned
to the Fraser Valley during October and November. Valuable assistance was
received from the Canada Department of Agriculture. (Further information is
presented in tabular form in Appendices Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8.)
RANDOM SAMPLE POULTRY TEST
During the year additional buildings were constructed to complete the facilities
required for this project. In addition to the poultry buildings, the premises now
include two residences, hatchery, office, vehicle  and equipment storage.
During the year two broiler tests and one laying test were completed and
reports published. Dr. David F. Bray, Department of Poultry Science of the
University of British Columbia, supervised all required calculations and statistical
analysis of test data. (A list of test reports appears in Appendix No. 10.) Copies
of all reports are available from the office of the Poultry Commissioner.
GENERAL
The generally unsettled conditions that existed during the year resulted
increased demand for the services of staff members. Over 3,000 farm visits
made by field Inspectors.
The use of avian vaccines is summarized in Appendix No. 9.
in an
were
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960
DD 39
FIELD CROPS BRANCH
Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner
CROP PRODUCTION
Cereals
In general, the past season has been one of the most favourable in the past
number of years for field-crop production throughout the Province. Winter cereals
came through in good condition. Seeding of spring cereals was delayed about
a week beyond normal in most areas. However, there was adequate moisture to
give above average yields, and ideal fall weather provided conditions for harvesting
high-quality grain. There has been an increased movement of feed-grain from the
Peace River this year to the feeding areas of the Cariboo and Fraser Valley.
Hay and Pasture
Earlier growth was delayed a week to ten days, but pastures generally were
good. A dry July and August at the Coast reduced pasture fields somewhat. However, the favourable weather allowed a good tonnage of high-quality hay to be
secured, and most farms and ranches are going into the winter with an ample supply
of forage. One exception to this is the Rock Creek-Bridesville area, where prolonged summer drought materially reduced crop production.
SEED PRODUCTION
The Peace River remains one of the major seed-growing areas. There is
a limited production of inspected crops of oats and some commercial seed of double-
cut red clover in the Fraser Valley. Creston Flats has also increased its production
of registered seed of Selkirk wheat and Rodney oats.
The following table fists the acreage of crops inspected in British Columbia
by the Plant Products Division, Canada Department of Agriculture:—
Crop Acres Crop Acres
Barley       630.50 Flax       250.00
Oats      644.65 Alfalfa       705.00
Wheat   1,278.50 Grasses   1,185.00
Commercial forage-seed production increased again this year. Creeping red
fescue was the major crop. Prices have eased on all major lines. Estimated yields
of forage-crop seeds for 1960, together with the final production figures for 1959,
are shown in Appendix No. 18.
The Annual Seed Fair was held at Fort St. John on February 10th.
POTATOES
The potato acreage was up slightly this year. To date the net necrosis of
Gems has not been serious. However, due to the dry summer many of the Gems
in the Fraser Valley were down-graded because of roughness. Acreage of the
Kennebec variety increased at the expense of Gems.
The main areas of certified-seed production are, with acres inspected in 1960
(1959 acreages in parentheses): Vancouver Island, 275 (180); Lower Mainland,
257 (143); Pemberton, 297 (196); Okanagan, 313 (115); Cariboo, 193 (178);
 DD 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Central British Columbia, 12 (20);  Boundary District, 355  (280);   Kootenays,
400 (346).
Fifty-three seed-potato samples from growers are again being tested at Ocean-
side and in the University of British Columbia greenhouse this winter.
FIELD PEAS
Acreage of field peas was about equal to last year's production. The hot, dry
weather in July reduced yields somewhat.
CROP IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION
During 1960 seventy-three tests were forwarded to members. There was a
slight decrease over last year, but the new alfalfa varieties continued to be popular.
We distributed 500 pounds of elite seed of Cumino sweet clover to twenty-four
growers.
DEMONSTRATIONS AND TRIALS
Demonstration trial plots, including fertilizers, herbicides, and forage-crops,
were laid down in many areas of the Province. Most of these trials are continued
for several years.
SOIL AND FORAGE ANALYSES
The following table indicates the work of our Laboratory this year:—
Type of Material Tested
Determinations or Analysis for—
Number of
Samples
Soils-
Irrigation-water..
Forage  -	
Nitrates, phosphorus, potash, Calcium, pH-
Conductivity (total salts)	
pH and conductivity	
Crude protein, moisture, pH~
Total nitrogen, nitrogen as nitrates..
Prussic acid  	
3,030
250
15
150
10
2
AGRICULTURAL LIME
For the eleven-month period ended November 30th, 1960, 38,785.53 tons
were distributed under the Federal-Provincial Lime Subsidy Policy; less than in
1959, but well above the average.
The following is a five-year summary of movement of agricultural lime and
subvention paid:—
Fiscal Year
Total Number
of Applications
Approved
Total Amount
of Subsidy
Recommended
Total Tonnage
Used
1955/56-
1956/57-
1957/58-
1958/59-
1959/60..
1,130
1,052
1,461
1,288
1,326
$44,070.96
52,784.88
100,588.24
99,942.98
122,473.12
22,712.92
21,528.45
34,404.75
36,529.09
41,298.81
FERTILIZER AND AGRICULTURAL POISONS BOARD
One meeting of the Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board was held. The
following mixes were approved: 0-15-15, 2-15-15, 4-10-10, 6-8-6 (organic),
6-30-15, 8-10-6, 10-20-10, 10-30-10, and 13-16-10.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960
WEED-CONTROL
DD 41
During the past season two Weed Inspectors were employed for the summer
in the Peace River. Wild oats continues as one of the major problems in that area,
but two new weed chemicals seem promising and give hope for effective control.
We have carried on many demonstration and trial projects to assess new weedicides.
The Department of Highways increased its spray programme last year to 2,523
miles of roadsides. In addition, 127 miles of shoulders were treated with temporary soil sterilants.
TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR
A good representation of growers exhibited in the hay and grain section of the
show. There were ten entries of double-cut red clover; Mr. Ralph Gilmore, of
Richmond, placed first, and Mr. L. Beharrel, Ladner, third. Mr. Collins, of Dawson Creek, took second place in the alsike clover class. Ross Brothers, Pemberton,
and Mr. John Pendray, Victoria, placed second and third respectively in the Netted
Gem potato class.
GRAIN SCREENINGS
During the first eleven months, January 1st to November 30th, 1960, thirteen
permits for removal of screenings were issued to elevators and merchants. During
the same period, forty-one feeders' permits were issued.
Six processing plants are licensed to devitalize screenings. The grinding, pressure and steam, as prescribed, has in all cases given excellent devitalization of weed
seeds. Records indicate that 74 per cent of refuse screenings used for local consumption were devitalized, as compared to 30 per cent last year, indicating satisfaction with the devitalized pelleted product.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent
During the year five institutes that in 1959 had been inactive placed themselves
in good standing, which made a total of 134 at the beginning of this year. Of these,
eight have failed to file annual returns with the Department, leaving 126 active
institutes at the close of the year 1960 with a total membership of approximately
5,500.
Despite the gradual decrease in numbers, the purchase of commodities by
active institutes on behalf of their members continues to show a steady increase,
being now approximately $1,500,000, or $200,000 over the previous year.
DISTRICT INSTITUTES
With the exception of District" J " (Peace River), all other districts held annual
meetings during the year. The places and dates of these meetings follow. District
" J " called its meeting for June 21st at Doe River, but owing to weather conditions
there were not sufficient delegates in attendance to form a quorum.
 DD 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA
District
Place
Date
-Vancouver Island-
Bulkley-Skeena-
Central British Columbia.-
Kamloops-
'A"
'B"-
'C-
' D"
•■£"■
■F"-
<G".
■H"
■ I "—East Kootenay.
Lower Fraser Valley-
West Kootenay	
-North Okanagan	
-Cariboo  	
Nanaimo-
Telkwa—
McBride...
Kamloops	
New Westminster-
Nelson	
Salmon Arm-
Roe Lake	
Cranbrook	
Sept.  17
June 13, 14
June 15, 16
Nov.  24
Mar.
Oct.
June
June   11
May   26
4
22
4
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
The forty-third meeting of the Advisory Board was held in the Parliament
Buildings, Victoria, B.C., on October 31st and November 1st and 2nd at the request
of the Minister of Agriculture for the purpose of discussing agricultural conditions
in the various districts of the Province.
The Board considered some seventy resolutions which had been submitted by
the district institutes dealing with such matters as agriculture, education, rural electrification, forestry and grazing, game, highways, lands, motor-vehicles, and taxation.
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS
During the year sixty-three recognized exhibitions and fall fairs were held in
the Province as follows: One Class A exhibition, six Class B exhibitions, nine
Class C exhibitions, and forty-seven fall fairs.
The Vancouver Island Exhibition at Nanaimo was granted Class B status by
the Federal Department of Agriculture this year.
The six Class B exhibitions, nine Class C exhibitions, and forty-seven fall fairs
were located as follows:—
District
Class B
Class C
Fall Fairs
3
2
1
3
3
1
1
1
6
12
10
9
8
2
POUND DISTRICTS
During the year three new pound districts were constituted—Arrow Park,
January 20th; Galiano Island North, May 30th; and Roberts Creek, July 7th.
The boundaries of eight pound districts were extended—Silver Creek, January 22nd;
Cedar, March 3rd; Sooke, April 11th; Sweetwater, April 25th; Riverside, September 20th; Rose Prairie, September 20th; and Sweetwater, September 20th.
Pound-keepers were appointed for nine districts.
GRASSHOPPER-CONTROL AREAS
For the purpose of exterminating and controlling grasshoppers, the following
committees received advances in the amounts shown. In some instances all of the
advance was returned, while others expended only a portion of same.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960
DD 43
Grasshopper-
control Area
Clinton
Nicola _
Oliver-Osoyoos	
Princeton 	
South Riske Creek
Thompson Valleys -
Westbank	
Amount of
Advance
510,000.00
20,000.00
1,000.00
1,000.00
1,000.00
4,000.00
300.00
MISCELLANEOUS
Fence-viewers were appointed for the Cowichan-Newcastle Electoral District,
and 124 licences to sell poisons used exclusively in agriculture were issued.
WOMEN'S INSTITUTES
Continued activity " For Home and Country" marked the work of the
Women's Institutes of British Columbia during 1960. The desire to foster a strong
community spirit and to help raise standards of living, education, and health is
indicated in the work of the different groups. Rural beautification, soil conservation, garden contests, fall fairs and flower shows, and sponsoring 4-H Clubs were
highlights of the work and interest in agriculture.
Study and helping in the work of integration of Indians into the community,
inviting Indian women to W.I. meetings and helping Indian schools, welcoming new
Canadians and participating in citizenship ceremonies, writing village histories, sponsoring youth training courses and programmes, 4-H Clubs, adult education and
education for retarded children, community recreation, building and maintaining
community halls, and helping senior citizens were also carried out as usual.
Women's Institutes continued to take an active interest in the study of home
economics, nutrition, and home canning of fruits, vegetables, meats, and fish. In
addition, they sponsored home-cooking contests, home-cooking sales, teas, bazaars,
and fashion shows and took an active interest in information from the Canadian
Association of Consumers.
Many institutes assisted in child clinics, sponsored travelling dental clinics,
were instrumental in having drinking-water checked, proper garbage-disposal systems started, and school washroom facilities improved. They provided playground
equipment, swimming-pools, and community swimming classes and supplied equipment for hospitals. Two Women's Institutes set up a home nursing service in their
communities, which are working well.
Women's Institute reports show that their desire to understand and to help less
fortunate peoples in other lands has already given impetus to study of and much
help through United Nations relief agencies to many different countries.
The British Columbia Women's Institutes Provincial Conference was held at
the University of British Columbia, May 31st and June 1st and 2nd, with a one-day
British Columbia Women's Institute Leadership Course held prior to the conference.
 DD 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Officers of the Provincial board of directors of the British Columbia Women's
Institutes, elected at the Provincial biennial convention, are:—
President—Mrs. R. Partington, Francois Lake, B.C.
Vice-President—Mrs. R. C. Palmer, R.R. 4, Kelowna, B.C.
Directors—Mrs. E. G. Woodward, R.R. 1, Brentwood Bay, B.C.; Mrs. Clyde
B. White, R.R. 1, Nelson, B.C.; Mrs. Lyle Braden, 908 One Hundred
and Seventh Avenue, Dawson Creek, B.C.; Mrs. J. M. Kirkness, R.R. 4,
Sardis, B.C.; and Mrs. F. Plant, Box 1236, Williams Lake, B.C.
The secretary-treasurer of the Provincial board of directors of the British
Columbia Women's Institutes is Mrs. E. Robinson, R.R. 2, Victoria, B.C.
The Provincial board of the British Columbia Women's Institutes met in Victoria in March and again in October.
Twenty-nine entries in the British Columbia Women's Institute quilt competition were judged in Victoria on May 3rd, 4th, and 5th. The winners were: First,
East Chilliwack, second, Clearwater. Ten consolation prizes were awarded. The
competition was sponsored by the Salada-Shirriff-Horsey Company, and $50, $25,
and ten prizes of $10 each were presented to the winning institutes.
The publication " British Columbia Women's Institute News " was sent out
each month, except July and August. Information and available pamphlets on all
phases of adult education were sent with this paper.
SOIL  SURVEY BRANCH
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Senior Soil Surveyor
The soils of the Similkameen River valley, from the forty-ninth parallel to
Hedley, were classified according to suitability for irrigation. The balance of the
field season was devoted to detailed soil surveys of Chilliwhack Municipality and
Colony Farm, Essondale. Two members of the staff were engaged in extension
work in the Okanagan and Lower Fraser Valleys.
SIMILKAMEEN RIVER VALLEY
The survey was undertaken to provide information on the total irrigation-water
requirement for Canadian use from an international stream, and to help relieve
a critical shortage of irrigation-water with a standard by which present allotments to
irrigated lands could be adjusted. Concurrently, the Canada Department of Agriculture undertook a soil survey in the balance of the watershed.
Total acreages mapped were 27,597 by the Soil Survey Branch and 27,429 by
the Federal soil survey, of which 42,005 acres were classified as irrigable.
The Reclamation Committee assigned farm water requirements to the soil
types mapped within the whole watershed, as reported in Reclamation Committee
Brief 39. An interim soil survey report of the area surveyed by this Branch will
be prepared in 1961.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960 DD 45
CHILLIWHACK MUNICIPALITY
Reclassification of Lower Fraser Valley soils was continued in 1960. On completion of Surrey Municipality, it was decided to survey municipalities composed
chiefly of agricultural lands, with Chilliwhack the next to receive attention.
About 37,000 acres of lowland were classified on a scale of 1,000 feet to an
inch. An additional 7,000 acres were classified on a reconnaissance scale in the
Chilliwack River valley. Work on the remaining parts of the municipality and
adjoining unorganized areas around Cultus Lake and east of Rosedale will be
continued in 1961.
The principal soil-forming deposits of the Chilliwack lowlands are composed
of medium- to fine-textured alluvium deposited by the Fraser River, coarse-textured
alluvium from the Chilliwack and Vedder Rivers, and organic deposits consisting
of peat and muck. The different soil-forming processes which occurred in these
deposits have developed Gleysolic, Regosolic, and Organic soil types. These distinctions are governed chiefly by differences of drainage conditions, each one of
which has an influence on the growth of crops.
In the Chilliwack River valley the main soil-forming deposits are composed
of coarse-textured outwash and fine-textured lacustrine deposits. Soil development
is governed by the age of the deposits, which varies greatly, and their texture. The
soil types in this area were assigned to the Regosolic, Brunisolic, and Podzolic soil
groups.
Samples of the various soil-type profiles will be analysed, and the results
utilized to establish the soil classification and as a guide in the arrangement of a
productivity rating for each soil type.
In the Lower Fraser Valley, crop sampling to obtain yield data has been undertaken in 1958, 1959, and again in 1960 by the Field Crops Branch. This is a
contribution toward the determination of crop productivity ratings for classified
soil types. Samples were collected from the more important soil types in the Pitt
Meadows and Delta Municipalities. A preliminary rating of soils should be possible
after another year of sampling.
COLONY FARM, ESSONDALE
The Colony Farm was surveyed to supply information for soil management.
About 1,000 acres were classified on a scale of 400 feet to an inch.
The location is at the junction of the Coquitlam and Fraser Rivers, and the
soils are derived from a complex mixture of sediments from these sources. The
low position and high water-table have, in the past, developed areas of peat and
muck on the surface. Interstratification of mineral material and peat occurs in
places where exceptional freshets deposited sediments over peat. Excepting minor
areas, there is a need of efficient land drainage.
Eleven soil distinctions were differentiated on the basis of soil development,
texture, and the extent to which organic matter is decomposed. These were assigned
to the Regosolic, Gleysolic, and Organic soil groups. It is noteworthy that substantial subsidence has occurred in the Organic soils since they were first drained
and cultivated about forty years ago. In some of the fields as many as three sets
of wooden drains became exposed and were replaced.
The differentiated soil types were sampled by profile horizons, and composite
samples were taken from two fields to determine fertility levels with present soil
management. These samples will be analysed, and a soil survey report and map
will be prepared in 1961.
 DD 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SOIL CONSERVATION
The testing of soil samples submitted by farmers and district officials was continued. A total of 550 were examined for alkali. Fifteen per cent contained black
alkali in harmful amounts, and 14 per cent had white alkali concentrations too
great for normal plant growth. Twenty-five samples of water intended for irrigation
were tested; thirteen were too alkaline for the purpose.
Around 100 visits were made to farms having land-drainage problems in the
Okanagan Valley. Plans were made for 6,770 feet of drainage-works installed by
December 1st. Plans for a further 2,825 feet of drains are complete, and planning
for six additional proposals and 6,200 feet of drain is in progress. The demand
for advice in land drainage remains active.
In the Lower Fraser Valley about eighty farm visits involving 2,150 acres were
made in connection with drainage problems. The Soil Survey and Agricultural
Engineering Branches co-operated in the planning of 701,400 feet of tile drainage-
works, of which 379,050 feet were installed by December 1st.
As of December, three project areas were established to study soil porosity
and the fluctuation of water-tables. The purpose is to determine the optimum
spacing of tile drains in different soils. This programme will be extended during
the winter to include several additional project areas.
In 1960 there was an increase of advisory assistance in irrigation problems.
About fifty farm visits were devoted to checking sprinkler systems, application rates,
irrigation intervals, and water requirements of soils. Co-operation was continued
with the Research Station, Summerland, and irrigation districts in the control, measurement, screening, and conservation of irrigation-water.
Other duties included preparation of a drainage report for land on the east
side of Osoyoos Lake and participation in Okanagan and Fraser Valley field tours
with farm groups and the Western Canada Reclamation Association. Advisory
assistance was provided to the Water Rights Branch on soil materials for dam construction and farm water requirements related to applications for water rights.
LABORATORY
In keeping with the need for information required by farmers and others, and
for the purpose of soil classification, this Branch is undertaking a laboratory examination of British Columbia soils. This effort is gradually increasing our knowledge
of the chemical constituents and nutrient status of soils in the different climates in
which agriculture has become established.
STATUS OF REPORTS
The report " Soil Survey of the Upper Columbia River Valley " is in process
of publication by the Canada Department of Agriculture. The first draft of the
report " Soil Survey of the Kettle River Valley," also to be published, is complete
except for some work on the soil maps.
Interim soil survey reports are mimeographed for distribution. Such a report,
" Soil Survey of the North Okanagan Valley," was completed in September. A Reclamation Committee meeting to assign irrigation-water requirements to the classified
soils was reported as Reclamation Committee Brief 38. Interim soil survey reports
and maps requiring preparation in 1961 will describe soil classification in Surrey
Municipality and the Similkameen Valley.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960
DD 47
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXTENSION
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., P.Ag., Director
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
Once again the Agricultural Development and Extension Branch had a most
active year, with emphasis on both production and marketing problems.
District Agriculturists averaged almost 500 farm visits during the year and had
about 1,100 visits per office in some areas. The number of farm visits are increasing
annually by 7 to 10 per cent and the number of office contacts by 50 per cent. The
programmes which required the largest proportion of farm and office contacts were
4-H, irrigation and drainage, horticulture, land-clearing, dairying, forage-crops, soils
and fertilizers.
To cope with a changing agriculture, greater use was made of specialists in
poultry, live stock, field crops, horticulture, etc. Detailed reports are submitted
by the specialist divisions.
LOWER MAINLAND AND VANCOUVER ISLAND REGION
The District Agriculturists in this area dealt with many diversified problems,
which included farm drainage, 4-H Club activities, land-clearing, horticulture, farm
management, soils, fertilizers, forage-crops, weeds, dairying, live-stock production,
etc. This region has a large percentage of the farms in the Province and extensive
urban developments which involve problems peculiar to the area.
PEACE RIVER, CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA,
AND CARIBOO REGION
The Extension staff in this area have considerable territory to cover, with a
high percentage of rural people in the Peace River. At Dawson Creek, 4,920 people
visited the office during the year.   The activities vary according to the district.
Land-clearing and 4-H projects take up a great deal of time of the staff, followed by forage and seed production and live-stock problems.
This region has a well-co-ordinated programme, which is evaluated at regional
meetings, usually held twice a year.
SOUTHERN INTERIOR AND KOOTENAY REGION
The District Agriculturists in this area from Kamloops to Cranbrook had a
very comprehensive programme in 1960, including land-clearing, 4-H Club projects, dairying, live-stock production, etc.
The rural population varies a great deal in this area, and the programmes are
developed to deal with the problems in each district. The number of office callers
varies from 300 in one district to 900 in another.
Live-stock production in the Kamloops, Okanagan, Boundary, and East Kootenay Districts is a major source of income, and problems of production, disease-
control, management, etc., are dealt with by the Extension staff assisted by specialists.
IN-SERVICE TRAINING
In order to keep abreast of agricultural development in a rapidly changing
scene, several staff members attended short courses held at the University of British
Columbia, Olds School of Agriculture, and Colorado State University.
 DD 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
STUDENT ASSISTANTS
Nine agricultural students from the University of British Columbia were employed during the summer season to assist District Agriculturists on 4-H projects,
land-clearing, drainage, etc. They were located at Abbotsford, Armstrong, Prince
George, Cloverdale, and Dawson Creek, and did excellent work.
SHORT COURSES
Since subject-matter short courses are an effective extension tool, several were
held during 1960 in the Okanagan, East Kootenay, Boundary, Cariboo, Central
British Columbia, and Peace River. These courses were arranged by the District
Agriculturists, using specialists from the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, Canada Department of Agriculture, and the University of British Columbia.
They are a very effective means of evaluating progress being made by farmers
in a changing agricultural scene.
FARM AND HOME PLANNING
The farm-management programme undertaken in 1958 was continued. Seventy-six farmers and their families co-operated in this project. There were forty dairy-
farmers, twelve beef-growers, eleven poultrymen, ten fruit-growers, and three grain-
growers taking part in this programme.
RURAL DEVELOPMENT
A committee from the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, the Canada
Department of Agriculture, the University Faculty of Agriculture, and the University
Department of Extension made a preliminary study of rural development projects
in Washington State and submitted reports.
LIVE STOCK
While some ranchers have converted to a cow and calf basis, a definite trend
has not yet been established over the entire beef-producing areas. Market requirements and relative values will, with other factors, determine the permanency of any
changes now evident.
Some feeder-buyers are asking for a continuous rather than a seasonal supply
of 400- to 450-pound calves since the feed-lot industry is of a continuing nature to
supply the everyday consumer market. This may call for a closer look at current
production habits wherein nearly all beef calves are born in the spring because of
climatical factors and the extent to which it would be practical to change from
established practices.
A small volume of cattle have been shipped to the Peace River from the Cariboo for finishing, which may mark a new development. Beef cattle are increasing
in the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island. There appears to be a possibility of
attaining a satisfactory grade from Fraser Valley grass on better-doing kinds of
cattle.
Weekly auction sales of commercial cattle have again been successfully conducted at Williams Lake and Kamloops and semi-monthly at Okanagan Falls.
There has been a considerable increase in the number marketed, and the sales
are drawing cattle from farther afield. In all, 16,559 cattle were marketed in Kamloops by auction this year.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1960 DD 49
BEEF CATTLE ADVISORY COMMITTEE
This group has operated now for two years and has carried out considerable
work of an exploratory nature that should be of value in the near future.
BEEF CATTLE IMPROVEMENT
The Kamloops Artificial Insemination Club, organized in 1959, expanded its
operations in 1960, and there was an increase in the number of breeders participating in the performance testing of beef cattle.
THE SHEEP INDUSTRY
The sheep population of British Columbia is approximately at the 38,290
mark now. Numbers are building up in the farm flocks but are declining in the
range bands quite rapidly.
The second annual sheep sale of pure-bred ewes was held at Abbotsford on
November 7th, when 75 ewes of the popular breeds were sold at good prices. Quite
a number moved to the U.S. Pacific Northwest.
Sheep-shearing schools were held in North and South Peace River areas in
May, sponsored by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture. About 100
farmers and their wives attended the demonstrations on shearing, rolling, and tying
fleeces and docking and worming lambs.
HOGS
The Peace River has the potential to be the principal hog-raising area in the
Province. Practically all hogs from that area are now being shipped out by Pacific
Great Eastern Railway to Coast markets.
Hog sales in the Peace River this year were approximately 23,000, as compared
with 28,000 in 1959.
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
(G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, P.Eng., Senior Agricultural Engineer)
The emphasis this past year has been on projects and the group approach. The
only major change in the Division's work resulted from the extension of land-clearing assistance to cover the purchase of drain-tile, which has heavily increased the
demand for the design of farm drainage systems.
Power and Machinery
Projects
1. Potato-sprayer.—The work carried out over the past two years with the
Agricultural Engineering Department and the University of British Columbia was
continued. Sprayer development this year indicated an increase of up to 50 per
cent over the spray coverage which can be obtained with the commercial sprayer,
still utilizing a tractor-mounted sprayer and single boom with drop-heads.
2. Apple-graders.—The work of the Orchard Farm Machinery Committee set
up last year has continued. Packing houses were investigated to locate and assess
damage to apples as they pass through the house. A complete check was made in
twelve houses, with retests in six. A statistical review of data should indicate the
locations and parts of machinery which cause maximum damage and point the
direction for development research.
 DD 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
3. Turnip-harvesting.—Investigations indicate that no one manufactured machine is completely suitable. Trials of components have indicated an approach
utilizing beet-lifter blades, roll conveyor, and positioner, together with a saw topping
device, should provide a low-cost machine.   Development will continue.
4. Tillage Trials, Duncan.—Final report on this work, based on production
records collected by the Field Crops Branch and the tillage work by this Division,
will be available shortly.
5. Strawberry-sprayer Boom.—Developed for the Horticultural Branch but
not tested.
6. Supply-tank Agitation.—Preliminary work on sprayer-tank agitation, utilizing hydraulic by-pass, has commenced.
Tractor-maintenance Courses
Seven courses were given attended by sixty-four persons.
Publications
One new publication, entitled "Potato Sprayers," A.E. 10, has been printed.
Several other mimeographed reports, including one on " Maintenance and Repair
of the Electrical System on Tractors," were prepared.
Meetings and Field-days
Several meetings have been held in conjunction with project work. At five
farm meetings, information on various farm machinery subjects was presented.
Three field-days were attended—two on potato work and one on turnips.
Soil and Water
Drainage
1. Tile Covering.—Test installations were carried out utilizing fibreglass, sawdust, gravel, and no-corode pipe in a flow sand subsoil to determine the most suitable
covering material.
2. Pumping Trials.—Pumping trials have been carried out to assess the efficiency of various propellers to be used for low-head drainage pumps. Indications
are that boat propellers normally used have very low efficiency for this type of installation. Further work will be carried out to determine how commercially manufactured units can best be installed to obtain maximum efficiency.
Design of Systems
Assistance to farmers for financing of tile purchase and installation under the
Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act emphasized the need for well-designed
systems, based on topographical surveys and soil investigations. The Division has
carried out these surveys and tied them to the legal subdivisions to provide a lasting
record of the drainage installed. Detailed topographical surveys for under-drainage
have been carried out on thirty-four farms, covering 1,654 acres, of which approximately 370 acres have been installed. Many include information on open-ditch
improvement and indicate a need for farm pumping. Other partial surveys for open-
ditch improvement were carried out on six farms, covering 26,000 feet of ditch
affecting approximately 916 acres.
One general meeting has been attended on drainage.
A brochure covering minimum specifications for installation of under-drainage
in British Columbia was prepared and distributed for district Extension staffs.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1960 DD 51
Irrigation
The project at Vanderhoof was temporarily deferred.
Individual irrigation systems were designed for six farms, covering approximately 224 acres.
One water-storage dam was designed, and a tour made of irrigation areas in
the Pacific Northwest to obtain information on pumping installations.
An irrigation system was installed at the Random Sample Test Station at
Abbotsford.
Soil Conservation
Three individual erosion problems were examined.
Domestic Water
Advice has been supplied to several farmers on individual domestic water
systems where long pipe-lines are required. Several dugouts have been constructed
in the Peace River under the Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act. Sodium tri-
polyphosphate has been used as a deflocculating agent to assist in sealing clays in
a dugout that failed to hold water.
Farm Structures
Projects
1. Potato-storage Ventilation.—The Division has assisted in the design of a
potato-storage structure, approximately 1,000 tons capacity, and with the installation of the equipment and control for forced ventilation. The project is to demonstrate the effect of forced ventilation on the reduction of shrinkage losses and the
maintenance of quality under proper temperature and humidity control in potato
storage. The testing equipment has been supplied and installed by the Agricultural
Engineering Department, University of British Columbia.
2. Fence-post Trials.—A review of projects carried out four years ago indicates the value of treatment, but insufficient time has elasped to assess the various
chemicals used.
Plans
A new catalogue, entitled " Grain Storage Structures and Equipment," has been
added to the plans available through the Canada Farm Building Plan Service. In
addition, a new catalogue of supplemental plans has been received and will be
distributed shortly. The beef and dairy catalogues are under review by the various
committees and will be revised over the next two years. In all, 4,544 plans have
been distributed.
Individual assistance on farmstead layouts and buildings has been supplied in
ten cases.
Rural Electrification
Very limited work has been carried out in this field, consisting primarily of
assistance to some ten individuals on small hydro-electric systems for the farm.
Farm Safety
This work has been limited this year to collection of data on accident reports
and the distribution of safety material to 4-H Clubs and other interested groups.
Meetings
The staff handled the local arrangements for the Pacific Northwest Section
A.S.A.E. meeting held in Victoria this year.
 DD 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Land Clearing and Development
All land cleared and developed under the terms of the Farmers' Land-clearing
Assistance Act has been done by private contractors working under agreement with
the British Columbia Department of Agriculture. For the most part, the tender
method of hiring equipment was used. In all, fifty-nine contractors, operating a
total of seventy-two crawler-type tractors, three scrapers, ten back-hoes, eight draglines, two well-drilling rigs, and three wheel-type trenchers, were clearing and developing land throughout the Province. Up to November 30th approximately 8,021
acres were cleared and 4,952 acres broken. The figures for the fiscal year 1959
show 9,037 acres cleared and 5,321 acres broken Approximately 550 acres have
been under-drained at an average cost of $100 per acre, including cleaning the
outlet ditches.
Summary of Land Clearing and Development, 1960
Acreage     Average Cost
District Cleared        per Acre
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands      128        $139
Pemberton         44 65
Fraser Valley      544 112
Okanagan and Shuswap      265 78
Boundary and Kootenay—
Clearing      304 36
Breaking         93 10
Kamloops and Similkameen      398 63
Cariboo and Prince George—
Clearing  1,679 34
Piling       102 18
Breaking       839 7
McBride—
Clearing      115 46
Piling          32 17
Breaking        125 11
Vanderhoof and Fort Fraser—
Clearing	
Cutting 	
Piling 	
Breaking	
Smithers—
Clearing 	
Piling 	
Breaking	
South Peace River—
Clearing	
Cutting	
Piling	
Breaking 	
North Peace—
Clearing	
-     Cutting 	
Piling 	
Breaking 	
868
13
30
8
868
19
76
8
71
50
13
43
76
14
150
13
786
9
1,172
14
1,618
10
3
67
2,131
8
2,093
11
1,370
8
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1960 DD 53
4-H CLUB DIVISION
(R. C. Bailey, B.S.A., P.Ag., Acting Supervisor)
Enrolment
In 1960 club membership rose to an all-time high of 257 clubs containing 2,966
members.   This is a 13-per-cent increase in the number of clubs and a 11.2-per-cent
increase in the number of members over 1959.   All live-stock clubs registered an
increase in both number of clubs and members, while garden, grain, and honeybee
clubs showed a decrease.   Largest increase was registered in the beef, dairy, and
tractor clubs.
Project Work
Records show that 4-H members raised 490 beef calves, 979 dairy calves, 40
goats, 3,150 chickens, 384 rabbits, 370 sheep, and 174 swine. The club members
grew 18 acres of grain and 95 acres of gardens. More than 550 girls made over
1,600 articles for their wardrobes or homes, while some seventy boys looked after
and maintained over seventy tractors. Altogether, those members completed over
2,600 projects, valued at more than $230,000.
Leadership Training
Regional Leader Training Workshops were held at Dawson Creek, Vanderhoof,
Kamloops, and Nanaimo, with a total of 135 leaders attending and taking part.
These workshops dealt with such topics as Problems of Leadership, Planning a
Year's Programme, Meetings, Parent Participation, Demonstrations, Community
Service, and Field-days. At the conclusion of each workshop, evaluations were
made to determine their usefulness and to make suggestions for future workshops.
Provincial Club Week
This event was held at Tranquille in July. During the week the 4-H members
were given training in leadership and farm and home planning. Here, also, selections were made for the following awards:—
(1) Canadian National Exhibition Scholarship of $600, awarded to Mr. Doug.
Blair, of Langley.
(2) Award trip to attend the National 4-H Conference in Washington, D.C.,
in April, 1961, to Mr. Bud Burbee, of Dawson Creek.
(3) Award trip to attend National Club Week at Toronto and Ottawa, November, 1960, to Miss Margaret Taylor, Saanich; Miss Karen Cronk, Victoria;
Mr. Ward Bishop, Saanich; Miss Betty Allison, Ladysmith; Mr. Ernie
Dolling, Ladysmith; Miss Irena Olejnick, Aldergrove; Miss Kay McDonnell, Langley; Miss Patricia Hook, Mission; Miss Sandi Wilson, Vinsulla;
Mr. Ed Curylo, Chilliwack; Miss Joyce Tudor, Heffley Creek; Miss
Robin Landon, Armstrong; Mr. Bill Armstrong, Enderby; and Mr. Jim
Thompson, Salmon Arm.
This experiment in training of leadership and farm and home management, as
well as the method of selection, proved very successful, as indicated by evaluations
held at the close of the week's activities.
Other awards:—
(1) Award trip to National 4-H Conference in Washington, D.C., to Miss
Barbara Livingston, of Cloverdale.
(2) Trip to State 4-H Conference in Pullman, Wash., to Mr. Johnnie Kampjes,
Enderby; Miss Dorothy Atkinson, Westbank; Mr. Wayne Marzke,
Creston; and Miss Ann Brower-Borkhoven, Kimberley.
 DD 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Pacific National Exhibition
In co-operation with the 4-H Committee and the Norgan Foundation, twenty-
four boys and girls from Central British Columbia and Peace River were able to
attend 4-H Club Week at the Pacific National Exhibition and take part in competitions.
National 4-H Club Week in Toronto and Ottawa
This event took place in Toronto and Ottawa, November 12th to 17th. Delegates who attended did an outstanding job of representing British Columbia. They
were accompanied by Mr. J. A. Pelter, Smithers, and Mr. R. C. Bailey, Acting-
Supervisor.
National 4-H Club Congress at Chicago, November 27th to
December 1st, 1960
Mr. Ken Kornelson, 4-H Dairy Club member from Mission, was the first British
Columbia member to attend this event. Funds necessary for the trip were raised by
the local 4-H Leaders' Council. National Club Congress is a meeting-place for
outstanding 4-H Club members from all parts of the United States and Canada
annually.
News-letter
Four issues were prepared and distributed to club leaders, sponsors, 4-H
Councils, and farm organizations in British Columbia. Evaluations made early
in the year resulted in some important changes in the type of news-letter and its
frequency of distribution.
Supplies
The following new material has been or is currently being prepared for the club
programme:—
(1) 4-H Garden Record-book.
(2) 4-H Grain Record-book.
(3) Leaders'Manual for Sheep Clubs.
(4) Sheep Club Record-book.
(5) Tractor Club Record-book.
(6) Leaders'Manual for Beef Club.
(7) Handbook for District Agriculturists.
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
F. O. McDonald, Manager
WEATHER
The weather throughout the spring, summer, and fall was unusually warm and
dry. Rainfall amounted to a total of 7.38 inches for the year; snowfall, 10.75
inches. Temperatures during the year ranged from 105° to —6° F., with a mean
average of 51.37° F. Because of the above conditions, water was kept in the main
canal until September 22nd, for a total of 143 days, to supply approximately 5 acre-
feet of water to the heavier soils and 7 acre-feet to the sandier orchards. The
subsoil is very dry and gives cause for concern unless the water-table is replenished
during the winter months.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1960 DD 55
DOMESTIC WATER
Interest in home-building in Oliver was brisk, and because the village proper
is built up, homes, for the most part, were built on subdivided farm land on the
village perimeter. This development, with its demand for domestic water, poses a
problem which is presently receiving Departmental consideration.
Services.—Residential, 546; commercial, 78; industrial, 5; meters in operation, 50; hydrant pressure, 70 to 120 p.s.i.; water temperature, 50° to 60° F.
Pumping Capacity.—Four pumps with a total capacity of 1,600 gallons per
minute or 2,232,000 gallons per day. Service was continuous, with no interruptions
throughout the year.   The water was of good potable quality.
Extensions.—A 4-inch pipe extending into the Community Park, completed
in November, gives added fire protection with one hydrant and also domestic service
to the Community Hall.
Another filler-station for the benefit of farmers was added in the East Oliver
area, making a total of four. These are used for early dormant spray and lessen the
demand by growers to have water in the canal during March and early April.
IRRIGATION SYSTEM
Water was turned into the main canal April 28th, and the pumps turned on
May 2nd until September 22nd.
Due to water temperatures of 70° to 80° F. in July and August, expansion
caused many lateral breaks in concrete piping. Expansion joints are indicated to
prevent recurrences.
Dormant Copper Sulphate Spray.—A new technique involving the spraying of
the ditch walls and bottom with a 50-pounds-to-240-gallons copper sulphate solution proved effective in the retarding of aquatic weed-growth. This treatment,
together with a weekly treatment of the water during the irrigation season, is not too
costly considering the good results.
Screening.—Experimental work was again undertaken by the Federal Research
Farm, Summerland, under direction of Dr. J. C. Wilcox, and because of the success
of the first trial, two more screens were built and will be put under test in 1961.
Winter Water.—Water was turned in on November 21st until November 25th
for the purpose of refilling cisterns.
LAND  SETTLEMENT BOARD
During the year the sales made by the Board amounted to $15,643.   Fifteen
purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and four borrowers paid
up in full and received release of mortgage.
Collections were as follows:—
Loans     $7,490.48
Land sales     23,740.96
Dyking loan refunds, etc       7,708.74
Foreclosed properties and areas, rentals, etc.       6,538.51
Total  $45,478.69
The above figures include collections from the sale and rental of Doukhobor
lands in the amount of $9,790.52.
 DD 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
DYKING AND DRAINAGE
W. R. Meighen, B.Sc, P.Eng., Inspector of Dykes and
Dyking Commissioner
The year just past was quiescent in all dyking districts. The freshet was of
below normal proportions, maximum gauge height at Mission only reaching 18 feet.
No alarm or emergency conditions occurred. Similarly, weather was normal
throughout the year and caused no extreme difficulties. Drainage-ways and pumping facilities proved adequate in all areas to handle the waters reaching them, and
internal flooding of districts was of negligible proportions.
Normal maintenance of dykes and pumps was carried out. Several districts
undertook brush-removal and drainage-improvement work through the Provincial
Federal Winter Works Programme. Matsqui and the East and West Nicomen
Districts carried out what has now become an annual river-bank maintenance programme, costs of which are shared with the Provincial and Federal Governments.
Dykes and other works were inspected in Delta Municipality, Richmond
Municipality, Chilliwack, Agassiz, West Langley, Glen Valley, Surrey Dyking
District, and other areas in the Fraser Valley and Lower Mainland. The Pemberton
area was visited on several occasions.
In general, it was found that these independent areas were carrying out a
satisfactory and adequate degree of maintenance on their dykes and other protective
works.
Richmond, Chilliwack, Agassiz, and Pemberton initiated and carried out fairly
extensive river-bank protection programmes, costs of which were shared with the
senior governments.
The Surrey Dyking District, during the course of an annual inspection of its
Nicomekl Dam, discovered it was badly undermined by water action. Immediate
action to prevent further scouring-out of the base material to this dam and to fill the
existing void areas was taken by the local Commissioners at a cost approaching
$90,000.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960
DD 57
APPENDICES
APPENDIX No. 1
Dairy-farm Inspections under Milk Industry Act
District
Number
of Dairy-
farm
Inspections
Number of Dairy-farms
Issued Notice of Cancellation by Inspectors
Number of Approved
Dairy-farms
Raw
Fluid
Raw
Fluid
103
102
692
369
312
4,058
860
4
23
1
1
9
5
2
4
6
27
16
6
129
24
1
5
12
4
4
7
25
1
3
1
50
35
160
85
148
2,180
287
North Bend            _  	
4
Sandspit 	
Totals             —  -   —	
6,524
17
213
62
2,949
Two hundred and eighty-seven additional "Notice of Cancellation" were mailed out in Milk Board areas
where the dairy-farmer notified the Board of cessation of operations.
Forty-seven visits were made to issue warning where milk was deemed to be sold illegally.
APPENDIX No. 2
Breed Averages for 1959
Breed
Percentage of
Total D.H.I.
Milk
Fat
1958
1959
Per Cent
1959
1958
3.2
3.3
Lb.
9,407
8,920
11,874
7,835
9,937
4.11
4.82
3.76
5.17
4.40
Lb.
387
430
447
405
437
Lb.
378
15.0 13.9
58.5              58.0
17.1 I      1...
421
436
408
Unclassified (cross
-breds, etc.) 	
10.2
9.3
418
1958 figures shown for comparison.
APPENDIX No. 3
Cattle and Hide Inspections, 1960
District
Cattle
Hides
District
Cattle
Hides
Cariboo—
Similkameen—
Quesnel   — -   	
1,420
517
3,954
112
12,500
262
-    3,715
438
Clinton,   Lac   la  Hache,   100   Mile
House,   Graham   Siding,   Bridge
7,669
550
Lake, Lone Butte 	
5,516
60
South-eastern British Columbia—
Lillooet, Pavilion, Bralorne 	
1,350
6
297
197
Bella Coola 	
Nelson, Creston, etc. 	
—    1,935
1,073
Cranbrook, Fernie, etc	
    4,569
646
20,786
845
Invermere, Golden   	
983
54
Kamloops, Nicola, etc.—
Kamloops, Chase      -   —	
26,732
625
7,784
1,970
Merritt                     —         .
12,133
255
Ashcroft, Lytton, etc	
6,164
273
Central British Columbia—
Salmon Arm 	
2,250
812
Prince George, Vanderhoof 	
—    1,392
1,152
1,965
Smithers, Giscome, etc. —	
      978
357
47,279
Burns Lake 	
957
60
Okanagan—
Vernon,  Lumby, Falkland    	
5,875
1,003
3,327
1,569
Armstrong,  F.nHe.rby,   SiCaXQOUS
3,643
345
Peace River—
Kelowna
3,235
740
1,945
56
Fort St. John _	
..   3,420
849
Penticton, Summerland
Dawson Creek 	
—    7,088
2,212
Oliver,  Osoyoos    "
4,814
680
	
10,508
3,061
18,307   4,029
 DD 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 3—Continued
Cattle and Hide Inspections, 1960—Continued
Totals Compared
District
1960
1959
1958
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
20,786
47,279
25,976
7,784
13,835
845
1,965
4,579
1,970
4,630
25,249
41,702
22,572
7,395
15,604
875
1,747
3,789
2,046
5,858
23,777
39,966
22,532
8,615
12,626
966
2,032
4,994
2,048
4,811
Central British Columbia and Peace River	
Totals
115,660
13,989
112,522
14,315
107,516
14,851
APPENDIX No. 4
Animal Pathology Specimen Examinations
Specimens
Chickens
Turkeys
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
Swine
Fur-
bearers
Miscellaneous
Total
Miscellaneous specimens —
Serology specimens
2,781
6,006
1,279
924
436
5,552
34
18
24
238
1,731
6,541
12,482
Totals
8,787'    |    2,203    1    5,988
1                  1
34
18
24
238
1,731
19,023
APPENDIX No. 5
POULTRY-FLOCK APPROVAL
Number
of Flocks
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number
of Birds
per Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
I960
125
184
223,082
275,586
1,784.6
1,497.7
0.093
Five-year average, 1955 to 1959, inclusive 	
0.021
APPENDIX No. 6
Breeds Approved for Egg Production
Breed
Barred Plymouth Rock-
Black Australorp	
California Grey-
Columbia Plymouth Rock„
Hampbar	
Light Sussex-
New Hampshire—
Rhode Island Red -
S.C. White Leghorn-
White Plymouth Rock-
Cross-bred	
Totals..
108,020
Total, 1960
Total, 1959
298
975
1,825
2,363
117
561
63
228
652
2,159
4,174
15,471
14,532
1,197
2,863
80,733
108,790
2,774
4,087
3,154
3,195
142,192
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960
DD 59
APPENDIX No. 7
TURKEY-FLOCK APPROVAL
Number
of Flocks
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number
of Birds
per Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
1960	
Five-year average, 1955 to 1959, inclusive-
13
30
15,232
21,016
1,171.7
700.5
APPENDIX No. 8
TURKEY-FLOCK  APPROVAL  BY  BREED
Breed
1960
1959
Beltsville Small Whites                                              - -    .
12,837
2,297
310
238
2,509
14,417
1,462
218
712
Totals	
15,232
19,318
APPENDIX No. 9
Amount and Kind of Vaccine Distributed
Type of Vaccine
1960
1959
1958
1957
1956
8,829,800
1,816,600
8,747,150
1,851,450
6,171,710
1,986,000
5,149,350
1,628,950
4,385,050
1,683,050
Totals
10,646,400
10,598,600
8,157,710
6,778,300
6,068,100
APPENDIX No.  10
Random Sample Test Reports
First Random Sample Broiler Test Report issued December 23rd, 1958.
Second Random Sample Broiler Test Report issued April 11th, 1959.
Third Random Sample Broiler Test Report issued January 9th, 1960.
Fourth Random Sample Broiler Test Report issued March 15th, 1960.
Fifth Random Sample Broiler Test Report issued January 3rd, 1961.
First Random Sample Production Test Report issued September 21st, 1959.
Second Random Sample Production Test Report issued October 31st, 1960.
 DD 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No.  11
Live-stock and Poultry Population, 1959 and 1960 (as of June 1st)
1959
1960
Hens and chickens-
Turkeys  	
Geese and ducks	
Dairy cows and heifers..
Beef cows and heifers—
Steers	
Calves	
Bulls  	
Sheep and lambs..
Hogs 	
Horses	
1,800,000
458,000
42,000
115,000
136,000
44,000
117,000
8,000
97,000
68,000
23,000
4,740,000
400,000
37,000
120,000
141,500
32,000
125,000
8,500
97,000
51,000
22,500
APPENDIX No.  12
Production of Tree-fruit Crops in British Columbia for 1959 and an Estimate for 1960
1959 Production
1960 Estimate
Fresh
Sales
Processed
Sales
Total
Production
Fresh
Sales
Processed
Sales
Total
Production
Lb.
159,394,000
1,744,000
17,620,000
322,000
9,235,000
Lb.
28,439,000
514,000
6,101,000
53,000
3,143,000
504,000
10,571,000
2,718,000
Lb.
187,833,000
2,258,000
23,721,000
375,000
12,378,000
3,496,000
25,079,000
9,046,000
Lb.
185,059,000
1,662,000
22,869,000
303,000
5,528,000
4,386,000
16,031,000
8,982,000
Lb.
25,294,000
890,000
8,516,000
20,000
2,475,000
769,000
12,854,000
6,352,000
Lb.
210,353,000
2,552 000
31,385,000
323,000
8,003,000
2,992,000
14,508,000
6,328,000
5,115,000
28,885,000
15,334 000
212,143,000
52,043,000
264,186,000
244,820,000
57,170,000
301,990,000
APPENDIX No. 13
Production of Small Fruits, Grapes, and Filberts for 1959 and an Estimate for 1960
1959 Production
1960 Estimate
Fresh
Sales
Processed
Sales
Total
Production
Fresh
Sales
Processed
Sales
Total
Production
Lb.
1,409,000
842,000
104,000
59,000
29,000
27,000
24,000
437,000
1,000
1,031,000
225,000
Lb.
7,900,000
10,823,000
1,113,000
350,000
10,000
12,000
8,000
1,310,000
114,000
1,547,000
	
Lb.
9,309,000
11,665,000
1,217,000
409,000
39,000
39,000
32,000
1,747,000
115,000
2,578,000
225,000
Lb.
1,244,000
677,000
105,000
59,000
33,000
22,000
23,000
457,000
5,000
490,000
136,000
Lb.
5,347,000
9,508,000
941,000
381,000
5,000
12,000
7,000
1,400,000
195,000
822,000
Lb.
6,591,000
10,185,000
1,046,000
440,000
38,000
34,000
30,000
Blueberries    	
Cranberries       	
Grapes 	
Filberts -	
1,857,000
200,000
1,312,000
136,000
Totals -	
4,188,000
23,187,000
27,375,000
3,251,000
18,618,000
21,869,000
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1960
DD 61
APPENDIX No. 14
An Estimate of the Acreage and Production of Selected Vegetable-crops in
British Columbia for 1960
Kind of Vegetable
Asparagus..
Beans	
Beets	
Broccoli	
Brussels sprouts-
Cabbage	
Carrots 	
Cauliflower	
Celery 	
Corn.
Cucumbers, outdoor....
Cucumbers, hothouse-
Lettuce, field-	
Mushrooms 	
Onions 	
Peas  —
Potatoes, early-
Potatoes, late	
Spinach .
Tomatoes, field	
Tomatoes, hothouse-
Turnips _
Other vegetables-
Totals —
Production
Lb.
776,000
7,527,000
2,546,000
841,000
301,000
6,576,000
13,160,000
5,121,000
3,923,000
11,544,000
3,086,000
1,502,000
7,112,000
1,521,000
12,787,000
18,864,000
17,677,000
114,193,000
1,218,000
12,304,000
2,962,000
4,336,000
6,553,000
256,430,000
APPENDIX No.  15
Tree-fruit Nursery-stock Production in British Columbia
1957
1958
1959
1960
382,000
30,000
31,000
9,000
34,000
357,100
59,965
46,875
4,700
12,630
3,410
307,337
48,277
35,083
9,984
44,356
4,245
148,259
27,997
Cherries 	
15,566
8,942
26,857
3,262
Totals _	
486,000
484,680
449,282
230,882
APPENDIX No.  16
A Comparison of the Total Number of Apple-trees by Variety as Recorded in the
1955 and 1960 Orchard Surveys
Variety
1955
Total Trees
Per Cent
1960
Total Trees
Per Cent
Delicious, Red..
Mcintosh	
Spartan...
Winesap  —
Delicious, Common-
Delicious, Golden	
Newtown	
Rome Beauty	
Jonathan _ _.
Wealthy-
Yellow Transparent-
Stayman	
Duchess —	
Tydeman's Red  	
Others (including crab-apples)..
Totals 	
356,917
333,425
27,053
122,712
86,369
14,089
73,557
27,233
40,854
19,901
9,008
20,203
5,508
33,650
30.49
28.49
2.31
10.49
7.38
1.20
6.28
2.33
3.49
1.70
0.77
1.73
0.47
2.87
432,686
344,254
134,237
129,986
64,447
53,340
42,750
15,911
15,867
11,983
9,793
9,681
3,753
1,938
28,857
33.30
26.49
10.33
10.00
4.96
4.11
3.29
1.22
1.22
0.92
0.75
0.75
0.29
0.15
2.22
1,170,479
100.00
1,299,483
100.00
 DD 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No.  17
A Comparison of the Total Number of Pear and Soft-fruit Trees by Variety as
Recorded in the 1955 and 1960 Orchard Surveys (Okanagan and Kootenay)
Kind and Variety
1955
Total Trees        Per Cent
1960
Total Trees        Per Cent
Pears
Bartlett-
D'Anjou..
Flemish Beauty-
Other pears	
Total pears_
Peaches
Red Haven-
Spotlight	
Rochester-
Jubilee	
Vees	
J. H. Hale—
Elberta-
Other peaches-
Total peaches-
Apricots
Wn. Moorpark-
Tilton	
Perfection	
Blenheim	
Riland	
Sun Glow	
Other apricots..
Total apricots-
Cherries
Bing	
Lambert-
Van	
Sam-
Other sweets-
Total sweet cherries-
Total sour cherries—
Prunes
Early-
Late—
Total prunes..
Plums
Peach plum-
Bradshaw	
Greengage-
Other plums..
Total plums.
305,948
61,600
19,699
10,390
397,637
17,288
194,718
24,761
78,551
34,060
125,187
20,339
16,973
10,406
8,092
21,293
202,290
63,676
69,496
25,948
9,006
81,870
97,895
179,765
5,071
1,918
868
3,926
11,783
76.94
15.49
4.96
2.61
100.00
4.95
55.73
7.09
22.48
9.75
349,378 100.00
61.89
10.05
8.39
5.14
4.00
10.53
100.00
37.87
41.34
15.43
5.36
168,126 100.00
I
45.54
54.46
100.00
43.03
16.28
7.37
33.32
100.00
294,448
78,708
10,873
5,504
38,082
4,561
5,903
10,757
177,355
15,908
64,030
10,154
326,750
87,452
17,433
8,601
7,960
6,255
3,276
12,951
143,928
42,990
82,474
30,251
2,069
6,816
3,673
47,981
61,194
109,175
2,295
726
362
1,554
4,937
75.59
20.20
2.80
1.41
389,533 100.00
11.65
1.40
1.80
3.29
54.28
4.87
19.60
3.11
100.00
60.76
12.11
5.97
5.53
4.35
2.28
9.00
100.00
25.55
49.01
17.98
1.23
4.05
2.18
168,273 100.00
11,241 100.00
43.95
56.05
100.00
46.49
14.71
7.33
31.47
100.00
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1960
APPENDIX No.  18
Production of Grass and Legume Seeds
DD 63
Production
(Final), 1959
Estimated Production, 1960
Alfalfa—	
Red clover, single—
Red clover, double..
Alsike clover	
Sweet clover. 	
White Dutch clover-
Timothy..
Timothy-alsike-
Brome 	
Blue-grass, Merion	
Blue-grass, Kentucky-
Crested wheat	
Creeping red fescue-
Meadow fescue—	
Reed canary-grass.—.
Orchard-grass	
Red-top ..
Chewing's fescue..
Birdsfoot trefoil—
Lb.
82,000
650,000
100,000
1,200,000
475,000
4,000
135,000
75,000
400,000
50,000
24,000
16,200
2,000,000
2,000
537
2,000
100
Lb.
80,000
300,000
170,000
1,500,000
300,000
20,000
275,000
35,000
282,000
58,000
32,000
30,000
5,129,000
42,500
1,000
10,500
8,000
1,500
APPENDIX No.  19
Production of Grains and Field Crops. 1959-60
Crop
Area
1959
1960
Production
1959
1960
Wheat-
Oats—.
Barley..
Flaxseed	
Mixed grains-
Dry peas	
Potatoes-
Hay-
Fodder-corn..
Ac.
46,900
89,300
55,200
11,700
3,100
5,600
10,800
374,000
3,100
Ac.
50,500
82,700
53,500
11,000
2,600
5,400
10,900
390,000
3,100
Bu.
1,165,000
4,400,000
1,636,000
111,000
144,000
169,000
Tons
105,200
823,000
52,000
Bu.
1,250,000
3,900,000
1,700,000
97,000
127,000
94,000
Tons
105,000
920,000
50,000
 DD 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 20
Publications Printed in 1960
Reports
Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, 1959.
The Climate of British Columbia. 1959.
Agricultural Statistics, 1959.
Bulletins
Mechanized Onion Production.
Swede Turnip Culture.
Tractor Power Take-off Sprayers.
The Beef Cattle Industry in B.C.
The Fur Farm Industry in B.C.
Dairy Farm Inspection under the Milk Industry Act.
Potato Sprayers.
Radio-active Fallout and Food Sources.
Feeding Beef in B.C.—on the Farm and in the Feed-lot, Fraser Valley Area.
Dairy Herd Improvement Associations in B.C.
Care and Feeding of Dairy Calves.
Raising Dairy Heifers from Six Months to Calving.
Vibriosis in Cattle.
Club Root of Cabbage and other Crucifers.
Root Rot of Cypress.
Mosquito Control.
Charts
Control of Small-fruit Pests and Diseases.
Fertilizer Recommendations for South-eastern British Columbia.
Control of Tree-fruit Pests and Diseases, Interior Districts.
Forage Crop Recommendations for the Lower Mainland.
Fertilizer Recommendations for Vancouver Island.
Forage Crop Recommendations for Peace River.
Fertilizer Recommendations, Okanagan-Main Line Points and South Cariboo.
Poultry Disease Chart.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1961
800-561-1954
  

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