Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

REPORT of the LANDS SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST 1960 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1961]

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0362897.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0362897.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0362897-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0362897-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0362897-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0362897-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0362897-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0362897-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0362897-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0362897.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
REPORT
of the
LANDS SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1960
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1961
 Victoria, B.C., January 31st, 1961.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Lands Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year ended
December 31st, 1960.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
Victoria, B.C., January 31st, 1961.
The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Lands Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the twelve months ended
December 31st, 1960.
E. W. BASSETT,
Deputy Minister of Lands.
   CONTENTS
Page
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Lands       7
Accounting Division     11
Lands Branch—
Superintendent of Lands     18
Land Inspection Division     26
Surveys and Mapping Branch—
Surveyor-General  34
Legal Surveys Division  56
Topographic Division  61
Geographic Division  68
Air Division  73
Water Rights Branch—
Comptroller of Water Rights  82
Operations Division  87
Hydraulic Investigations Division  95
University Endowment Lands   109
Personnel Office  115
Mail and File Room   119
 o np
a*-
IS
n
.1
Ed
U
a
_
*
UJ
«
■
J'
1
r
a)
...
"^
■3
U
3J
G
_h
-1
x
Q
*>
^
I M I.
u
P
>
o
u.
a
vO
Ov
2
2
<■
3
2j
i/J U
§»
<   a
1
z
J|
_
<
s
a
tf
-J
o?
|
0
c
H
Z
u
2
«
H
OS
.*
<
js
ID
a
* a    «h
 le m    o
b lu    -h
« "ft      h
o a
JS g
e       °
o ^
3
a
a
o
..
C ^   «   p., C
-. a rn   . t_
C-     -3 Ih
o   c   fi   c
5 E ° ?
RS[S
V
i
-J f
i
a
i—at
3   S
_   .
II 4
r-   3
*r
•H    •
_
is-
a
&c£a_ia|-gs
S utiSoot-'Bt
S__!
a fa
S8
i ia
i i i i i i i i i i i i
0  o. jC -h a W -t
1w   •wnp
h, h; O O Hj > W        hlOHBX
;d(.rCaao-<^o5it
 Report of the British Columbia Lands Service
E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
The organization chart shown on the foregoing page, together with the note
pages which precede the reports of the Lands, Surveys and Mapping, and Water
Rights Branches present, in condensed form, the wide range of duties for which
the British Columbia Lands Service is responsible.
Below is a brief introduction to the accomplishments of the aforementioned
branches during the year 1960. These achievements are recorded in greater detail
in the following pages of this Annual Report.
The trend in applications for Crown land received by the Lands Branch continued upward through 1960, to reach a total of 5,893 for the year. As an expression of the policy to alienate water-front lands by leasehold, the number of applications to lease received in 1960 totalled 1,498, an increase of 12 per cent over 1959
and 94 per cent over 1958. Applications to purchase and to pre-empt also showed
gains.
It is of significant interest to note that the Lands Branch actively assisted in
subdivision planning of Crown land to aid the orderly expansion of several northern
communities, including Fort Nelson, Wonowon, and Chetwynd and a new townsite
at Bear Lake.    Subdivisions were also planned at Williams Lake and Port Alberni.
Another indication of increasing settlement activity in Northern British Columbia was the division, in November, of the former Peace River Land Recording
District into Fort St. John and Pouce Coupe Land Recording Districts.
Public auction of Crown land by sale and lease continues to be a satisfactory
method of disposing of home-sites where keen interest is shown by the general public.
During 1960 there were fifteen public auctions of leases and thirty-four public
auctions of sales involving 188 and 257 lots respectively. Sales and leases by sealed
tender disposed of a combined total of 109 parcels of Crown land.
In 1960 the staff of the Land Inspection Division of the Lands Branch completed 3,500 inspections, an increase of 227 over 1959. Land Inspectors' duties
are continually widening. In particular, additional effort was required to inspect
improvements on lands sold subject to section 53 (2) of the Land Act and to confirm occupancy of home-site leases held under section 83. Lake-shore reconnaissance studies pertaining to lease applications numbered 62, and subsequently 82
parcels of land were selected for recommendation as public recreational reserves.
The Legal Surveys Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch received 514
field-books from surveyors covering the survey of 870 lots, 858 of which were
surveyed under authority of the Land Act and 12 under the Mineral Act. In respect
of surveys made under the Land Registry Act, 353 plans were received. Field work
undertaken by the Division included the surveying of 140 townsite lots in the
northern communities mentioned above, surveys of public recreational, and special
reserves totalling 268 acres, and reposting of 277 old survey corners. The joint
programme with the Department of Highways of highway surveying was maintained,
and involved five sections of road totalling 68.55 miles.
Continued improvement in transportation methods, instrumentation, and plotting techniques, together with a foundation of well-trained personnel, enabled the
Topographic Division to achieve almost twice as much field survey control as was
possible ten years ago. In 1960 six field crews established ground control for
21^ National Topographic map-sheets, and in addition successfully fixed control
 Y 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
for eight large-scale projects, including dam-sites and pondage areas on six major
lakes and rivers. Another crew made triangulation ties to survey monuments along
the Alaska Highway from Mile 374 to Mile 626.
The Geographic Division issued a very popular six-colour layer tint relief map
(Ijr) of the Province, and in addition published three completely new National
Topographic maps at l-inch-to-2-miles scale. Continuing heavy demand for Provincial maps, showing land status, necessitated the reprinting of eleven map-sheets,
seven of which were extensively revised. Thirty-two topographic manuscripts were
checked for cultural detail and place-names before being sent to Ottawa mapping
agencies for reproduction. Geographic Division sold and distributed 68,518 map-
sheets during 1960, of which almost four-fifths were taken by the general public.
The Air Division of Surveys and Mapping Branch enjoyed the second highest
year on record in terms of flying-hours recorded—540 hours and 25 minutes. Of
this total, 318 hours and 15 minutes were spent on narrow-angle photography for
the Surveys and Inventory Division of the Forest Service at a scale of 1 inch to 20
chains. Special projects at the request of various Government departments took
93 hours and 15 minutes. The balance was made up of photography for the
Forest Engineering Division, precision mapping projects, and miscellaneous flying.
A record 20,215 square miles of photography was presented to the Surveys and
Inventory Division in the form of principal-point lay-downs, and based-lined and
common-pointed photos. More advanced map compilation, involving detailed
plotting, cadastral survey compilation, and finished mapping, embraced a total of
12,710 square miles. In addition, requests for 154,151 reprints and 28,351 loans
of standard 9- by 9-inch photos were handled by the Air Division.
The activities of the Water Rights Branch continued at an undiminished pace
in 1960. In heavily settled southern portions of the Province, the problem of
apportioning available water among various users is becoming increasingly important, and considerable effort and judgment must be exercised in order to solve this
problem. During the year the report of the Peace River Power Development Company concerning plans of this company for the harnessing and transmission of power
from the Peace River was submitted to the Comptroller. As in the previous year,
the Water Rights Branch also participated on a technical and advisory level in
negotiations between Canada and the United States for the development of the
Columbia River. As Deputy Minister of Lands, it was my pleasure to be appointed
as a member of the Canadian negotiating team. At the end of 1960, the Canadian
and United States teams were very close to agreement on the draft of a treaty.
Among the routine accomplishments of the Operations Division of the Water
Rights Branch were the processing of 939 new applications for water licences, compilation and tracing of 1,194 plats for final and conditional licences, and nine major
reports and investigations for proposed waterworks and irrigation schemes. The
Hydraulic Investigations Division completed six investigations on flooding and
erosion, and five on irrigation and water-supply. Also, studies of potential hydroelectric sites were made for the Liard, Skeena, Dease, Stikine, Bowron, and Willow
Rivers. Snow-survey measurement was expanded in the north, with the establishment of four new snow courses on the Peace River drainage basin.
The Accounting Division of the Lands Service reported a substantial increase
in revenue over the previous year. This was largely due to a rise in revenue derived
from land sales, leases, rentals, and fees, which amounted to $390,793.77 more than
in 1959. Total collections for 1960 were 25 per cent higher than the average for
the ten-year period 1951-60.
Detailed reports for each branch of the British Columbia Lands Service follow.
 ACCOUNTING DIVISION
  ACCOUNTING DIVISION
Y 11
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
M. B. MacLean, B.Com., Departmental Comptroller
As indicated by the following statements, Lands Service revenue increased
considerably over previous years. There has been a substantial increase in the
processing of both purchase and lease applications in the Lands Branch, and this
increase has directly affected the work load of the Accounting Division.
In late 1959 all irrigation and waterworks accounts were converted to mechanical billing and brought under control of the Accounting Division. This was
done to consolidate water-licence billing.
Water rental rates were revised in December, 1960, and this should result in
a marked increase in Water Rights revenue in 1961.
Table 1.—Summary of Revenue Collections for the Year Ended
December 31st, 1960
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc. ....
Land sales	
Sale of maps and air photos	
Water rentals and recording fees
Total 	
$842,413.17
806,723.54
65,083.70
1,510,277.86
$3,224,498.27
Table 2.—Comparison of Revenue Collections for Ten-year
Period 1951-60, Inclusive
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
$1,692
2,761
3,705
2,065
2,248
2,518
2,454
2,596
2,687
3,224
,737.85
,152.78
,480.02
,181.52
,293.16
,722.51
,435.40
,050.13
,816.62
498.27
Total   $25,954,368.26
Ten-year average, $2,595,436.82.
Table 3.—Classification of Revenue Collections for the Year
Ended December 31st, 1960
Land sales—
Country lands   $645,023.68
Town lots     159,987.26
Surface rights, mineral claims         1,637.90
Indian reserve cut-off  74.70
$806,723.54
 Y 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc.—
Foreshore leases—
Booming and log storage  $202,045.71
Commercial (marinas, etc.)   238,748.27
Oyster  8,319.50
Miscellaneous   (foreshore protection, etc  345.30
 $449,458.78
Land leases—
Grazing and (or) agriculture  $44,184.11
Quarrying   (limestone,   sand  and
gravel)   29,945.45
Camp-site (lodge, fishing)   4,632.60
Home-site  1,757.19
Miscellaneous (residential, etc.)— 43,598.63
     124,117.98
Land-use permits         1,096.00
Licences of occupation         1,320.25
Royalty collections     165,576.06
Easement collections—
Annual rentals       $3,320.26
Outright considerations         7,035.95
       10,356.21
Fees—
Crown grant  $12,120.00
Assignment   1,345.00
Miscellaneous (lease, search, etc.) 4,960.00
18,425.00
Sundry collections   (occupational, rental,  survey
charges, etc.)       72,062.89
Sale of maps and air photos—
Legal Division  $22,224.05
Geographic Division   19,913.96
Air Division  22,945.69
$842,413.17
65,083.70
Water rentals and recording fees     1,510,277.86
Gross revenue for year  $3,224,498.27
 ACCOUNTING DIVISION
Y 13
Table 4.—Comparison of Land Leases, Rentals, Fees, etc., Revenue for
Ten-year Period 1951-60, Inclusive
  $916,338.98
ggsnoHannnnHH      1,694,073.93
 miMiMimi UMiiMwnn 1,608,773.65
330,397.09
425,595.79
■ 576,331.17
472,415.55
mm 605,229.73
mb 668,367.70
 iii 842,413.17
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
Total.
5,139,936.76
Ten-year average, $813,993.67.
Note.—The years 1951, 1952, and 1953 include coal, petroleum and natural-
gas revenue.
Table 5.—Comparison of Land Sales for Ten-year Period
1951-60, Inclusive
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
Total
$382
619
594
488
605
573
522
677
589
806
,256.61
,263.14
004.08
,303.49
,469.42
,976.49
825.65
,036.15
,975.24
,723.54
Ten-year average, $585,983.38.
$5,859,833.81
Table 6.—Comparison of Water Rentals and Recording Fees Revenue
for Eight-year Period 1953-60, Inclusive
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
$700,289.17
813,413.61
849,980.00
1,081,592.07
1,152,370.05
1,256,004.37
1,363,939.33
1,510,277.86
Note.
Total  $8,727,866.46
Eight-year average, $1,090,983.30.
-Revenue for years previous to 1953 available on fiscal basis only.
  LANDS BRANCH
 Notel
THE LANDS BRANCH
At the time of the Fraser River gold-rush in 1858 the demand for land in British
Columbia was greatly intensified and pre-emptions predated surveys. Within four years
254 pre-emptors had taken up more than 50,000 acres of land. To facilitate the transfer
of real estate and provide for the registration of titles, the Land Registry Act was passed
in 1860. The Government of the Province of British Columbia was now in the real-
estate business in a big way; the more than 366,000 square miles of land and water that
constitutes British Columbia was the real estate in question.
With the entrance of British Columbia into Confederation in 1871, the demand for
land quickened to a rush, and over the next thirty years the land-settler (and the promoter) succeeded the gold-miner in importance. Railroads were built and land grants
passed, cities came into being, and companies became established. Land was at the core
of all developments.
The task of land administration became very heavy and necessitated the formation
of a Department of Lands in 1908. In 1912 a Forest Branch was included in the Department of Lands. To-day the Department of Lands and Forests exercises control of more
than 90 per cent of the surface of British Columbia.
How does the Lands Branch fit into the total organization of the British Columbia
Lands Service of to-day? The relation may be expressed briefly. The Lands Branch
has jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the disposition of Crown land, and is
charged with so administering and disposing of the land that the general welfare,
present and future, of the Province must be protected at all times.
When an individual, or group, desires to purchase or lease Crown land, the application is directed to the Superintendent of Lands, head of the Lands Branch. His authority governs the following matters:—
Sale, lease, and pre-emption of Crown lands for such purposes as agricultural,
industrial, commercial, and home-sites.
Preparation and issuance of Crown grants under the Land Act, the Mineral Act,
and the Taxation Act.
Preparation and issuance of right-of-way easements for power, telephone, pipe
lines, etc.
Reservation of suitable Crown lands and foreshore for national defence, use
and enjoyment of the public, forestry experimentation, fisheries research
work, highways, etc.
Granting railway rights-of-way under various Statutes.
Protection of historic sites from alienation.
Reservation and conveying of Crown lands for such purposes as school-sites,
cemeteries, and fair grounds.
Leasing of land and foreshore for such varied purposes as wharf-sites, booming-
grounds, canneries, oyster and other mollusc fisheries, and for boat-houses,
quarry-sites, cattle-ranching, trappers' cabins, ship-building, and aircraft
bases.
To perform these and other functions efficiently, the Lands Branch works in close
co-operation with a great number of other agencies, such as municipal and city administrations, town-planning authorities, the British Columbia Forest Service, the Branches of
Water Rights and Surveys and Mapping within the British Columbia Lands Service, and
all the departments in the Government of the Province, notably Public Works, Education,
Attorney-General, and now Agriculture.
Outside the Provincial departments there is much business transacted with Federal
departments, such as the Department of National Defence, the Veterans' Land Settlement
Act administration, the Public Works Department, and the Indian Affairs Branch of the
Department of Citizenship and Immigration.
Direct service to the people of British Columbia is the first duty of the Lands Branch
and this takes the bulk of the time of the Lands Branch personnel. Associated with this
prime duty is the important function of the maintenance of the records, which in many
cases are the only ones in British Columbia showing the correct legal status of the surface of the Province.—Reprinted from 1952 Report.
  Y 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LANDS BRANCH
C. T. W. Hyslop, B.S.A., P.Ag., Superintendent of Lands
The year 1960 reflected the general trend established during the past ten years
of increased numbers of applications received and a general increase in the over-all
volume of work processed by the Lands Branch. A total of 5,893 applications of
all types was received during 1960. This is an increase of 152 or 3 per cent over
the previous year. Although the work load continues to increase, the staff of the
Administration Division remains unchanged at thirty-five persons.
Due to the demand for Crown lands near settlement centres, there has been
an increase in the number of parcels of land sold by tender. During the year 1960,
eighty-eight lots were offered in this manner, an increase of 13 per cent over the
previous year. Twenty-one parcels of Crown land were also offered for lease by
tender.
Thirty-four public auction sales of Crown lands were held during the year,
compared with fifteen held during 1959. Total value of lands disposed of in this
manner was $148,390. In addition, fifteen public auctions of leases were held
covering 188 Crown lots. The majority of these lease auctions were for summer-
home sites located on lake-frontage in the Interior of the Province.
The Branch was active in planning subdivisions for permanent residential purposes at Fort Nelson, Wonowon, Chetwynd, Bear Lake, Williams Lake, and Port
Alberni. These projects also involved the construction of the subdivision roads
in co-operation with the Department of Highways. In addition, a large number
of small subdivisions were planned for summer-home site purposes on Crown lands
fronting on lakes. The planning of subdivisions of Crown lands is becoming increasingly more important in that it forms a sound basis for community growth and
ensures that optimum use is made of Crown lands.
The Lands Branch has continued to co-operate with the Aviation Council of
British Columbia with respect to the creation of reserves for the development of
airfields. In addition, the Branch continues to make grants of Crown lands and
to establish reserves for airport purposes to municipalities and the Department of
Transport (Canada).
During the past year the Superintendent of Lands attended a number of meetings of the False Creek Sub-committee in Vancouver.   This group functions as an
advisory body regarding the planning and development of the False Creek area.
The following summary is a brief outline of the highlights of the work carried
out by the various sections of the Administration Division of the Lands Branch.
Lease Section.—There has been a marked increase in the volume of work
processed by this Section.    A total of 1,498 applications to lease was
received during the year as compared with 1,333 in 1959 and 773 in 1958.
Purchase Section.—There has been a steady increase in the number of applications to purchase during the past year.   A total of 2,192 applications
was received, which is an increase of 14 per cent over the previous year.
The complexity of individual applications continues to increase.
Crown Grant Section.—-There was a slight decrease of 5 per cent in the number of Crown grants issued as compared with the previous year—1,399
in 1960 and 1,471 in 1959.    The number of certificates of purchase
issued increased by 12 per cent—1,248 in 1960 and 1,114 in 1959.
Pre-emption and Reserve Section.—There has been a slight increase in the
number of reserve applications processed—554 in 1960 as compared to
519 in 1959.   There has been a 14-per-cent increase in the number of
applications to pre-empt Crown lands—160 in 1960 and 140 in 1959.
 LANDS BRANCH Y 19
Status Section.—The number of parcels of land statused by this Section remains fairly constant at 12,892.    A total of 6,628 register entries was
made, an increase of 17 per cent over the previous year.
Easement Section.—A total of forty-three easements was issued during the
year, of which twelve were for the purpose of constructing natural-gas
pipe-lines.
The increasing interest of the public in acquiring Crown lands is well indicated by the number of letters received in the Branch—18,800 in 1958 and 28,541
in 1960; this is an increase of over 50 per cent in two years.
The following tables indicate in some detail the work carried out by the Administration Division of the Lands Branch. The report of the Inspection Division of
the Lands Branch is submitted separately by the Chief Land Inspector.
Table 1.—Country Land Sales, 1960
Acres
Surveyed  66,079.26
Unsurveyed  20,491.46
Total  86,570.72
Table 2.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1960
Land Recording District Total
Alberni   11
Atlin   4
Cranbrook   20
Fernie   15
Fort Fraser  6 8
Fort George  133
Fort St. John1  27
Golden  18
Kamloops   34
Kaslo   5
Lillooet   92
Nanaimo    46
Nelson   25
New Westminster  38
Osoyoos   9
Pouce Coupe2    337
Prince Rupert   44
Quesnel   43
Revelstoke   13
Similkameen   49
Smithers   57
Telegraph Creek    	
Vancouver  36
Victoria   7
Williams Lake  117
Total  1,248
1 Established November 1st, 1960.
2 Name changed November 1st, I960, when the Peace River Land Recording District was divided into Fort
St. John and Pouce Coupe Land Recording Districts.
 Y 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 3.—Town Lots Sold, 1960
Town
Alberni  	
Atlin	
Barriere	
Beaverdell
Blue River
Carmi  	
Cedar 	
Chetwynd         66
Coalmont 	
Comox 	
Copper River	
Cranbrook 	
Elko 	
Endako 	
Extension 	
Fernie 	
Fort Fraser 	
Fort Neslon	
Gold Bridge 	
Golden 	
Grand Forks 	
Greenwood 	
Hazelton 	
Hedley 	
Hope 	
Houston 	
Huntingdon 	
Jessica 	
Kaleden 	
Keremeos 	
Kimberley 	
Lac la Hache	
Lac la Jeune	
Masset 	
Merritt 	
Midway 	
Nakusp  	
Nanaimo 	
New Denver	
New Hazelton 	
Olalla 	
Pemberton 	
Port Alberni	
Port Clements 	
Port Coquitlam 	
Port Edward 	
Port Hardy	
Prince George 	
Prince Rupert 	
Lots
Value
1
$825.00
5
365.00
3
375.00
12
420.00
2
500.00
10
250.00
3
225.00
66
28,010.00
7
500.00
2
250.00
5
1,250.00
1
200.00
12
4,080.00
5
125.00
5
465.00
4
140.00
21
1,175.00
106
48,630.00
4
560.00
20
450.00
8
300.00
9
420.00
28
1,250.00
2
450.00
6
3,340.00
7
600.00
21
2,200.00
3
150.00
4
332.00
3
325.00
2
200.00
3
1,175.00
2
250.00
6
200.00
6
1,169.00
22
1,500.00
4
1,100.00
195
8,910.00
16
262.00
118
2,055.00
5
165.00
12
5,055.00
1
150.00
8
220.00
3
50.43
13
2,950.00
2
1,150.00
49
26,843.00
10
2,545.00
 LANDS BRANCH
Y 21
Table 3.—Town Lots Sold, 1960—Continued
Town
Qualicum Beach
Revelstoke	
Salmo 	
Sechelt 	
70 Mile House _
Shawnigan Lake
Slocan 	
South Fort George
Smithers 	
Sointula 	
Squamish  	
Stewart 	
Summit Lake	
Tete Jaune	
Tulameen 	
Vananda 	
Vanderhoof 	
Wells 	
Willow River	
Winter Harbour __
Wilmer 	
Yale 	
Miscellaneous 	
Lots
6
2
1
1
8
12
2
4
44
2
1
12
22
2
63
2
12
5
1
3
34
5
2
Table 4,
  1,108
-New Leases Issued, 1960
Number
     17
Totals
Land—
Agriculture
Hay and grazing (pasture and hay-cutting)  280
Quarrying (sand, gravel, limestone, etc.)     12
Home-site (section 83, Land Act)        2
Residential  251
Miscellaneous (resorts, service-stations, campsites, mill-sites, etc.)     40
Foreshore—
Booming, log storage, log-dumping, etc.  105
Oyster and shell-fish     13
Industrial (canneries, mill-sites, wharves, etc.)     10
Quarrying (sand, gravel from river-beds)       6
Commercial  (boat rentals, marinas, marine
service-stations, etc.)     30
Miscellaneous (private wharves, boat-houses,
etc.)      36
Totals  802
Value
$1,350.00
4,000.00
164.00
200.00
1,065.00
3,200.00
60.00
1,250.00
4,750.00
300.00
116.91
2,125.00
4,625.00
200.00
5,652.00
100.00
1,450.00
550.00
30.00
300.00
690.00
590.00
167.00
$187,046.34
Acreage
4,408.56
96,052.42
589.19
30.00
705.63
1,519.68
1,850.25
222.59
1,359.28
309.55
194.25
232.73
107,474.13
Number
Acreage
Table 5.—Temporary Tenure Leases Renewed, 1960
103
15,702.60
 Y 22                              DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 6.—Land-use Permits Issued, 1960
Number          	
21
1.89
13
0.18
236
Acreage            7
Table 7.—Licences of Occupation Issued, 1960
Number           _   	
Acreage         18
Table 8.—Assignments Ap
Leases, land-use permits, licences of occup;
Table 9.—Easements Gn
proved, 1960
ttion 	
inted, 1960
No.
Miles
Acres
Consideration
Annual
Rental
Foreshore
2
1
2
1
0.777
1.280
0.226
2.177
0.861
7.167
1.639
6.230
  	
$69.75
Effluent pipe-lines 	
40.95
$38.18
25.00
Totals                                                	
6
4.460
15.897
$38.18
$135.70
Land
1
12
2
1
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
0.530
96.829
2.257
0.032
2.139
2.659
283.623
16.690
0.096
19.887
$50.00
Natural-gas pipe-lines 	
V.H.F. stations and access roads	
$15,543.45
44.35
68.25
10.00
Water pipe-lines.   — 	
1.00
20.00
10.00
1.110
1.620
47.838
5.578
1.070
0.613
0.970
8.730
4.760
59.890
25.00
0.193
2.656
1.140
65.00
241.43
50.00
25.00
50.00
1.420
40.00
Well-sites (natural gas)    „ .
709.00
2,699.30
	
6.460
Totals    	
Licences of Occupation
34        113.656 | 1,260.394 | $18,977.75
$980.53
2
$145.00
Consent (Mines Right-of-way Act)
1
50.00
43
118.116
1,276.291
$19,015.93!
$1,311.23
1 Included in the above figures is $154.54 paid to the Indian Affairs Branch of the Departmen
ship and Immigration (Canada), representing compensation payable for the crossing of Indian re
lands.
In line with current Departmental policy, forty-one letters of consent for the construction of
were issued during the year.
t of Citizen-
serve cut-off
access roads
 LANDS BRANCH
Y 23
Purchases (town lots).
Pre-emptions .
Total
Table 10.—Crown Grants Issued, 1960
Purchases (country lands)  675
  395
  3 3
  216
  6
  13
  9
  6
  17
  18
  3
  8
Mineral claims (other than reverted).
Mineral claims (reverted)	
Surface rights {Mineral Act)	
Public Schools Act	
Veterans' Land Settlement Act	
Home-site leases	
Pacific Great Eastern Railway	
Supplementary timber grants	
Miscellaneous	
Certified copies of Crown grants issued, 5.
1,399
Table 11.—Crown Grants Issued for Past Ten Years
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
TotaL
Ten-year average, 1,507.
1,740
1,872
1,829
1,276
1,498
1,518
1,426
1,043
1,471
1,399
15,072
Table 12.—Total Area Deeded by Crown Grant, 1960
Acres
Purchases (country lands)  63,223.12
Pre-emptions     4,729.82
Mineral claims (other than reverted).
Mineral claims (reverted)	
Surface rights (Mineral Act) ....
Public Schools Act	
Veterans' Land Settlement Act-
Home-site leases	
Pacific Great Eastern Railway-
Supplementary timber grants __
Miscellaneous	
8,244.03
249.03
451.46
47.48
1,165.00
216.31
749.86
495.40
194.93
Total  79,766.44
 Y 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 13.—Pre-emption Records, 1960
Pre-emptions
Land Recording District
Applications
Received
Applications
Allowed
Cancelled
C.of I.
Issued
5
12
3
3
1
119
ii
t
l
_..
4
1
8
65
"3
--
~i
5
1
3
1
43
2
1
1
"1
Atlin              —    	
Fernie
Fort Fraser (Burns Lake) 	
Fort George (Prince George) 	
Fort St John1
4
2
1
Nanaimo  	
1
15
Quesnel... 	
Revelstoke     	
4
	
Vancouver. —   —
....
Williams Lake  	
—
Totals.       .                        ...   -	
160
77
59
27
1 Fort St. John Land Recording District established November 1st, 1960.
2 Name changed November 1st, 1960.
Table 14.—Reserves, 1960
Use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public..
Applications
Received
.___ 206
British Columbia Department of Highways  (rights-of-
way, gravel-pits, bridge-sites, etc.)_
Federal Government (defence purposes, wharf-sites, etc.)
British Columbia Forest Service (Ranger stations, grazing, radio-sites, reforestation, etc.)	
Miscellaneous   (Game  Branch,   water-power  projects,
118
46
102
garbage-dumps, school-sites, cemeteries, etc.)     78
Reserves
Completed
128
116
38
86
79
Totals  550
447
 LANDS BRANCH
Y 25
>>
>5
s
qoo^NCN
covoinoovDcnoor*      0\Tt
Ih o
o r-^ cs r-^ cs"
CO ^ cN d t~- o\ h i*i        00 ^3
r- in o\ O vo
oor-omc-rH-ctON      o*o
tO Jfl
ih in ^F
rH  OO  Tt  CS                          Tt          Tt  00
rH*.       oo*                                      -*
00
t—          VO                                                  t—
o                                              VO
VD                                                   O
tfl-
r- r— oo on vo
cot— N^fn nirtrt      mr-i
r- cs Tt on vo
Ttvoot-OfN.cn©      tnt>
Cm cn t>
(N  o  00 Tt  r-                  cn                  yj"
o
i-Ti-hoC
rt vo      t-                                cn
vo
t^
O         O                                            rH
ON
$857,
$1,649,
nOs^'H't
Ttcomr-oooor-rH      ct
m m rH r- on
rt  t- rt  f- 00          (SON          TtON
« ^* cs
loC0^.             «     ^°cs
ON
rH On         rH                                            rt
*n
On
oo      in                                cn
as
$669,
$1,258,
on tr- th tn oo
rHOOONCSVDONNOln         Ttm
On vo «r. Tt on
mTtt>rHVD     TtTt     moo
^_o t-^
t4 fl ■* On                <n      Tt ^
00
rH  rH  00
rt cs      r-                             vo
m
vo      tr-                             es
ON
$676,
$1,282,
vo cn rs vo i-^
cscsvooocscsmrH      ooo
VO Tt th xrA o
rH©t-~ot— csmvo      moo
t—
°- "*?. °\
O ^ cs oo                cn      Tt __;
in
th*th on
rt"ON          VO"                                                 rH
ON
00
oo      *n                                Tt
rn"                                                                 O*
rH                                                                   00
m                                          on
in cs «n oo oo
inOTfrHU-ii-Ht-^m      cs t>
m in cn rt o
cnC-voovocSoooo      rs <N
Omo tn
On M- cs cn                t-      Tt ^
VO
^o"
O        rH                                       r-
00
t-      tn                                i-h
On
$546,
$1,140,
CO i-H  Tt OO  ^H
TtvorHmcsmom      r.n
Tt Tt oo On Tt
OOrHrHONVOCSTtVO          OnO
ct*^ON
3 t-t m *"i              *©      cn ^
m
r-Too     p-                           *n
in
vo
Tt       vo                                   o
On
$578,
$1,031,
r- i-h cn vo rn
cn vo vo Tt cs r-m Q      ooo
TtONvovomcscno      Ttm
Os tr- rf t- VD
Tt
O CS Tf
3. oC •*» R            ■■*     * d
HHff|"
rH  00          O                                                  O
ON
r*
on      m                             r-
rH                                                                   OO
ON                                                                             rH
cn                                          oo
&*                                                   Vi-
ro r~- m Ov vo
cnTtmONincoOrH         CSrH
■n t— Tt cs to
TtTtmoor-cSTtvo      cno
m
r-^OTO
[> ^ tn c?               Tt      cn „;
tn
rHT-ToC
rn r-      vo                             r-
On
On
00        Tt                                       vo
m                                          Tt
Tt                                                          -*
C-                                                   On
r- on m cs <s
ON m  rH  O  m  Tt rH  Tt          CSrH
oo vo vo r— o
CSr-OrHr-H^HCSrH            OtC
CS
Tt oo vo
"*„ vd ** *"!. *"          **      ^od
m
TH   TH   00
rt r-     in                           c*
ON
ON
l>          Tt                                                  CS
CS                                          rn
O                                          cs
l>                                                   On
in CS On O VO
o. m o oo
OO CS vo        t— oo
CO  OS (S Tf  rH
cs vo vo t>
rt  m  rH          CS (^
__,
tH  t*" VJ_
rH    • cn c^
os      r.^
th">hV"
rH  VD          00
vo
ON
t>
in      cs
oo
CO          T_l
VD
ON
Tt
m
VO
<^
»
1
j    ! «•-.
J     !  0
xa
o to
« S a
C
T
rt
-•3 u
3
bo
_
co  rt c
C*2 &
O
fl
emc
eral
enjo
OJ
3
xt
Xf
S   cn
a  <n
S tn
-Q
t
^J
T
G
tH
y
a, eas
d min
and
rpose
records i
f improv
f purcha
13
•a
OJ     I
Cj
■O  J_
r.1         X0
tn  a   c
ccupatio
f reverte
for use
other pu
ption
:ates o
:ates o
grant;
creag(
nd sal
rH
■sis8
0      O     WTjrH
<*h  tn C  c   l
rOu3U£S?!nS^
a
OJ
a
u
0-
-H
0
1
c
u
rt  e.
:
Z
>
01
a
CO
R
B
lH
E
<
O
o
T
c
Licence
Cleara
Reservj
Dubli
r.
 Y 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LAND INSPECTION DIVISION
L. D. Fraser, B.S.A., P.Ag., A.A.C.I., Chief Land Inspector
The extent of the Land Inspector's duties is being continually widened, hence
the volume of work for each district is climbing steadily. In 1960 the field staff of
the Land Inspection Division completed 18.8 per cent more examinations than
during 1958.
The increase in the number of requests being forwarded to the field can, in part,
be attributed to Departmental policy. In 1958 the Department's policy relative to
the alienation of water-front property was altered to permit leasing of a limited
amount of frontage rather than allowing alienation by purchase. Furthermore, no
subsequent applications on any of the lakes throughout the Province are being approved until a reconnaissance of the adjoining lake-frontage has been made and
adequate public reserves established. As a result of this policy, the Land Inspectors
have been called upon to reconnoitre many miles of lake-frontage. Last year
sixty-two lake reconnaissance studies were made by the Inspection Division.
A secondary result of the general lake reconnaissance reports has been the
selection of sites for the use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public. In 1960 eight-
two public reserves were recommended by the Land Inspection Division.
The full impact of selling land subject to section 53 (2) of the Land Act is now
being felt by the Inspection Division. Sales under this section require a further
inspection prior to the issuance of the Crown grant in order to ensure that the applicant has completed the required amount of improvements. Most of these sales
allowed the applicant four or five years to make the necessary improvements. Full
application of this section of the Land Act was implemented in 1954-55, hence the
expiry date for completing these improvements has now reached the inspection stage.
Home-site leases issued under section 83 of the Land Act require permanent
occupation and cultivation by the lessee. However, no regular inspection has been
carried out in the past to ensure compliance with these requirements. In 1960 the
Department established a policy of annual inspection of all home-site leases, and
requests to examine approximately 100 of these were issued during the year. As a
result of this programme, a number of home-site leases have been cancelled for
failure on the part of the lessee to comply with residence requirements.
Access to many of the remote inaccessible lakes is becoming a serious problem.
In the northern and central sections of the Province the only method of reaching
certain lakes on which applications have been filed is by aircraft. Because of the
expense of chartering private aircraft to make these trips, this Division has endeavoured to make use of aircraft on charge to other Government agencies wherever
possible. The Air Surveys Division and the Forest Service have been most cooperative in this respect, and we would like to express our appreciation for their
assistance. It is hoped that in the coming year, through arrangements made at headquarters, more use can be made of these facilities for this purpose.
STAFF
The volume of field work has been steadily increasing since 1957 and, although
the number of examinations completed in 1960 is at an all-time high, there were
still 461 outstanding inspections at the end of the year. In 1958 two permanent
fieldmen were hired to replace two part-time summer assistants who had been employed for a four-month period in previous years.
The resignation of one permanent Inspector resulted in one transfer and the
hiring of one man to fill the vacancy.   Mr. G. T. Atamanenko, Land Inspector at
 LANDS BRANCH Y 27
Williams Lake, resigned on September 15th, 1960, to return to the University of
British Columbia for postgraduate study in town planning. The vacancy at Williams Lake was filled by Mr. W. B. Stewart, who was transferred from Fort St. John
on August 20th, 1960. Mr. A. G. Anderson, B.S.A., P.Ag., A.A.C.I., joined the
staff on September 19th, 1960, to fill the vacancy at Fort St. John. Mr. Anderson
had been employed for the past ten years by the Department of Veterans' Affairs.
Land Inspector D. M. Thorn, whose headquarters are at Kamloops, assisted
in the Smithers, Quesnel, Clinton, and Kelowna Districts. Land Inspector F. M.
Cunningham, whose headquarters are at Vancouver, assisted in the New Westminster District, as well as undertaking the examination of a number of outstanding
applications in remote locations on the Queen Charlotte Islands and Coastal points
north of Powell River. Mr. D. E. Goodwin, whose headquarters are at Courtenay,
completed a number of inspections on the north end of Vancouver Island.
TRAINING
In line with the policy of the Land Inspection Division to encourage each
Inspector to become accredited with the Appraisal Institute of Canada, Land Inspectors W. Lowry and H. D. Kent attended Appraisal Course No. 2 at Parksville from
March 7th to 12th, inclusive, 1960. Mr. D. M. Thom wrote the Appraisal 2 examination at Kamloops prior to the scheduled course at Parksville.
During the past year L. D. Fraser, W. R. Redel, and A. F. Smith were successful in fulfilling all requirements for full accreditation in the Appraisal Institute of
Canada.   Mr. F. M. Cunningham was accredited in 1958.
Mr. D. E. Goodwin successfully completed a three-year executive development
and training course and was awarded his diploma from the University of British
Columbia on October 27th, 1960.
DISTRICT PROBLEMS
Many Land Inspectors have reported a sharp increase in the number of land
inquiries made at their offices over the past years. This increase is probably due
to the fact that the duties and responsibilities of the Land Inspector are becoming
familiar to the general public in each district. It has also been noted that, in many
instances, land inquiries made at the Land Commissioner's office are being referred
to the Land Inspector. The time required to deal with these inquiries is generally
well spent, but the problem facing the Land Inspector is to keep these interviews
brief and to the point in order that his field schedule is not disrupted.
More and more subdivisions are being planned by the Land Inspector, particularly in the northern part of the Province where there is a rapid growth in settlement.
This work is time-consuming because of the amount of correspondence exchanged
between Victoria and the district office to clarify details of the proposed plan.
Furthermore, since the Lands Service generally calls upon the Department of Highways to construct the actual roads, preliminary planning must of necessity involve
close liaison between the District Engineer of the Department of Highways and the
Land Inspector. Some of the more important subdivisions recommended by the
Land Inspectors during the past year were at Wonowon, Fort Nelson, Chetwynd,
Williams Lake, Paul Lake, Wasa Lake, and along the Cheakamus River.
Access to remote sections of some districts that are not serviced by roads is a
problem that is becoming more apparent in recent years. Many applicants own
their own aeroplanes and will fly into some remote lake to stake a piece of water-
frontage.    The cost of chartering a private aircraft to reconnoitre the lake-shore
 Y 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
and examine the area staked is, in many instances, prohibitive. Where possible,
the use of Government aircraft operating in the district for other departments is
solicited, but it is not always possible to make use of these aircraft because of their
commitment to other duties. It is hoped that this problem can be solved through
close liaison between the Chief Land Inspector's office and other Government departments at Victoria.
In the East Kootenay the Land Inspector is faced with the problem of balancing the needs of local ranchers for additional range land against the requirements
of proper game management and the hunting rights of local sportsmen. This
problem is becoming more pronounced as the amount of Crown range land decreases and the hunting population increases. In Kamloops, Kelowna, Clinton, and
Williams Lake the same problem has arisen, with the result that a good deal of the
Inspector's time is taken up with investigating conflicting interests in an effort to
work out an equitable solution in the best interests of all concerned. Close liaison
is kept with the game biologists, Grazing Division of the Forest Service, and local
stock associations and Farmers' Institutes in order that the benefit of each of their
opinions may be had prior to making a recommendation for disposition.
The appraisal and valuation of small parcels of Crown land required for industrial and commercial purposes has proved a problem in many districts. During
the past year numerous applications for mill-sites, substation-sites, microwave and
television sites have been processed. The difficulty arises in determining a value
for these properties because of the limited amount of comparable sales information.
Some work is being done at headquarters to compile private sales information on
comparable properties throughout the Province. This information, when available,
will be forwarded to the various districts for their benefit.
HEAD OFFICE PROBLEMS
The complexities of some of the field problems arising require greater personal
liaison between Victoria and each district. Office duties at headquarters are so
onerous, however, that it is becoming increasingly difficult to spend the time desired in the field.
Another problem that must be resolved at headquarters is the compilation of
a Land Inspector's manual. Some preliminary work has already been done in this
matter, but the project will still require considerable time.
There is also a growing need for some research on the appraisal and valuation
of special-purpose properties as well as on the valuation of rights-of-way. It is
hoped that arrangements can be made for this research work to be undertaken in
the near future.
SUMMARY
The year 1960 has been a record one in so far as the number of land inspections examined and reported on by the field staff is concerned. Two hundred and
fifty-three more examinations were made in 1960 than in 1959, but, once again,
the number of outstanding examinations at the end of the year was almost exactly
the same as in 1959 in spite of the increased volume of work completed. The main
problem facing both the headquarters staff and the field staff is the limited staff
for the volume of work being handled.
 LANDS BRANCH
Table 1.—Land Inspection, 1957-60
Y 29
Land Inspection District
Number of Inspections Made in—
Outstanding Inspections at End of—
1957
1958
1959
1960
1957
1958
1959
1960
196
158
279
90
214
143
129
226
305
111
185
174
96
193
173
168
409
189
175
177
149
250
342
123
202
184
116
327
259
187
428
154
216
201
175
304
382
141
243
195
112
276
249
219
435
163
226
245
164
330
395
205
212
257
120
280
48
19
14
90
43
26
37
16
64
23
29
24
14
76
49
31
33
23
34
22
6
11
34
14
57
7
3
24
31
29
52
12
39
54
8
42
66
23
33
12
11
50
28
Courtenay	
F"rt St, Tnhn
40
63
Kamloops    .
10
24
38
2
4
51
Quesnel	
Smithers	
Vancouver	
28
33
16
3
121
Totals 	
2,499
2,984
3,273
3,500
593                  .48
462
461
Table 2,
Purchases—
Agriculture 	
Access (roads, etc.)_
-Types of Inspections, 1960
Commercial (resorts, service-stations, hotels, airfields, etc.).
Community (cemeteries, church-sites, parking areas, etc.)	
Grazing (pasture, range)	
Home-sites (permanent).
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants, etc.)
Summer-home or camp site	
Wood-lots or tree-farms	
Leases—
Land—
Agriculture (other than grazing)	
Commercial (resorts, service-stations, hotels, airfields,
etc.)
Community (parks, cemeteries, dump-sites, etc.)	
Fur-farming 	
Grazing (pasture, range, hay-cutting, etc.)	
Home-sites (section 83 of Land Act)	
Home-sites (permanent, other than section 83 of Land
Act)  	
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants,
etc.)  	
Summer-home or camp site	
Quarrying (sand, gravel, limestone, diatomaceous earth,
etc.)  	
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage or log-dumping	
Commercial  (boat rentals, marine service-station,
wharves, etc.) 	
Industrial (mill-sites, canneries, factory-sites, wharves,
etc.) 	
508
14
65
29
202
366
35
58
5
114
41
9
1
313
47
64
46
118
39
159
118
30
 Y 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 2.—Types of Inspections, 1960—Continued
Leases—Continued
Foreshore—Continued
Quarrying (sand and gravel from river-beds)	
Oyster and shell-fish	
Private (floats, boat-houses)	
Land-use permits	
Licence of occupation	
Easements 	
Miscellaneous inspections—
Delinquent accounts	
Land-use surveys	
Land values (current market values)_.
Protests	
Trespass, land	
Trespass, water	
Lease rental reviews (not recorded above )-
Land	
Foreshore	
Pre-Crown grants—
Section 53 of Land Act	
Section 83 of Land Act	
Section 66 (1) of Land Act	
Property transferred to Crown valuations-
Department of Health and Welfare ___.
Repurchase (section 135 of Land Act)-
Pre-emptions—
Applications	
Annual inspections (including applications for Crown grant)
Subdivisions—
Valuations	
Survey inspection	
Plans cancellation	
Proposals (lake-shore, residential, etc.)	
Reserves—
Grazing	
Gravel-pits	
Recreational 	
Others	
Veterans' Land Act	
Land Settlement Board—
Classification 	
Valuations 	
Doukhobor lands	
Applications under other Acts (Escheats, Quieting Titles, etc)
12
20
13
24
6
25
116
100
36
4
1
13
1
29
82
5
1
7
6
14
62
39
32
13
46
24
29
387
37
5
15
Total  3,585!
1 Included in this figure are 85 examinations completed by the Forest Service and Department of Finance
in remote areas beyond the reach of the local Land Inspector.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
 Note 2
THE SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Because the activities of man are kept orderly through a well-defined system of land
surveys, the Surveys and Mapping Branch is called upon to act as the connecting-link that
binds together many primary operations within departments of government and between
government and the general public.
Specifically, through land surveys, Crown and other lands, including water, are
located and identified accurately on the surface of the Province, and so made ready for
alienation in any of a variety of different ways. Further, a background of suitable maps
and survey data is provided to assist in the intelligent development of lands so acquired,
and in the wise administration of the natural resources associated with them.
In post-war years a great upsurge in the economic development of British Columbia's natural resources has taken place. Each year shows increased activity in the disposition of Crown lands for various purposes, ranging from the smallest individual application for a home-site to industrial requirements involving many square miles of land.
In any of these transactions the Surveys and Mapping Branch plays an important
part, because it has the responsibility of clearing, as to status, all such applications for
Crown lands, whether small or large. This function involves complete record-keeping
of all official survey data by all sources, including a graphic record of all Crown-land
alienations, whether surveyed or unsurveyed.
Equally important, on the other hand, is the responsibility for the establishment,
extension, and recording of mapping control. These basic duties prescribe, among other
things, the preparation of basic triangulation networks and aerial photography at suitable
scales, the making of control traverses, the delineation and maintenance of interprovincial
boundaries, and the production of standard photo-topographic mapping, interim base-
mapping, and cadastral surveys of Crown lands. The data are then condensed and presented in lithograph map form.
The main objectives, then, of the Surveys and Mapping Branch are first to
provide complete, accurate, and readily available maps on adequate scales with
allied data, for administrative control of resources and Crown-land transactions,
and, secondly, to maintain this information up to date by keeping abreast of continuous cultural development.
A survey inventory of such a standard is obviously of primary advantage in encouraging the present development of our natural resources, and further developments which
seem " just around the corner."
A brief summary of the functions of the Branch follows, and the breakdown is provided by Divisions:—
/. Administration.—General co-ordination of the four Divisions of the Branch, being Legal, Geographic, Topographic, and Air; delineation and maintenance of boundaries under the Provincial Boundary Commissioner—namely, (a) Alberta-British Columbia Boundary and (&) British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary.
//. Legal Division.—Regulations for surveys under the various Provincial Acts, such
as Land, Land Registry, Mineral, Petroleum and Natural Gas; instructions to British
Columbia land surveyors regarding surveys of Crown lands and subsequent check of
field-notes and plan returns of same; preparation and custody of official plans; preparation and maintenance of Departmental reference maps, mineral reference maps, and
composite (cadastral) maps; clearance by status of all applications concerning Crown
lands; field surveys and inspections of Crown lands, highway rights-of-way, etc.; preparation of legal descriptions as required;  operation of blue-print and photostat sections.
///. Geographic Division.—Map compilation, drawing and negative engraving, editing, and reproduction; map checking, distribution, geographical naming—Gazetteer of
British Columbia; field and culture surveys for preparation of lands bulletins and map
areas; preparation of legal descriptions for and delineating administrative boundaries;
editing and distribution of annual Lands Report; trigonometric computation and recording of same; general liaison between this Department and Federal and other mapping
agencies on exchange of survey and mapping data.
IV. Topographic Division.—Propagation of field control—namely, triangulation,
traverses, photo-topographic control; compilation and fair drawing of manuscripts for
standard topographic mapping; special field control for composite and multiplex mapping and other special projects.
V. Air Division.—Aerial photographic operations involving maintenance and operation of three aircraft; photographic processing, air-photo distribution, and Provincial airphoto library; compilation of interim aerial base maps, primarily for British Columbia
forest inventory: tri-camera control propagation; multiplex aerial mapping of precise
large-scale detail projects; instrument-shop for repairs, maintenance, and development
of technical equipment.
 /v-vVU-
fl
^
*c3
c
Ih
JO
Ih
O
E
p.
X!
o
OJ
JU
GJO >
U) <D
3TJ
(h
CO
ja
3
u
+J
2
0)
5
N
O)
C-
&0
C
d
.o
OJ
__;
C3
c.
IH
u
o
o
09
£
>,
O
-C
O
3
CO
JD
^>
CO
C
_>
N
8
0.
c.
p.
On
E
E
tH
B
0
tS
OS
X)
h
JU
c
C8
C_>
j/j
._-
ra
E
jJD
a
a.
o
0
-a
_=
g
CO
CO
,*5
u
J-
u
cq
s
j+h
>
o
£
a. A.
E
tH
3
O
s o
c
a
<D
_o
£
tu
>
MH
O
a>
c
0
o
3
T3
U
s^
CO
■~
H
 Y 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.R, P.Eng., B.C.R.F., B.C.L.S., F.R.G.S, Director,
Surveyor-General, and Boundaries Commissioner
A comprehensive review of operations of this Branch for the calendar year
1960 is presented in separate sections for each of four divisions to be found in
subsequent pages.   A few items have been selected for brief mention here.
The Air Division reports an almost record year in air photographic operations
despite a poor start weatherwise. A continuing office problem is the restricted
production of 20-chains-to-l-inch maps from the narrow-angle air photographs of
the same scale, taken in recent years for forest inventory purposes. The conversion from 40 chains per inch to the larger scale has aggravated the problem of
compilation fourfold, so that, except for a small percentage of high-priority areas,
the compromise of plotting only air-photo centres rather than finished mapping
has been the only alternative with the staff available.
As the year was ending, investigations were being made to find suitable replacements for the two Government-owned Anson V photographic aircraft. It has
been evident for some time that these aircraft, of laminated-wood construction,
could not be maintained indefinitely without prohibitively high cost due to exhaustion of ready-made replacement parts.
The Geographic Division's busy year was highlighted by the publication of
Map Ijr showing the Province in relief, an attractive and interesting map which
has already proven to be very popular. Altogether there were fifteen maps of
various scales printed during the year, seven of which were of the 2-miles-to-l-inch
scale showing a wealth of detail, including contours as well as an up-to-date status
of the land. The volume of work performed by the Trigonometric Control Section
has been well maintained, and it is interesting to note, for the first time, the fixing
of a modest number of survey control stations by tellurometer measurement.
The petroleum and natural-gas industry in North-eastern British Columbia
has been assisted during the year by a number of survey ties between the Alaska
Highway right-of-way monuments and the broad triangulation network. Although
such ties are always desirable, and in due time quite necessary, it is seldom that
they can be effected during the highway surveys themselves. The numerous monuments of the Alaska Highway survey can now be co-ordinated on the North American Geodetic Datum of 1927 and thereby will be of much greater value to the oil
industry for many well-site locations having access from the highway. The operation exemplifies useful correlation of the specialized functions of the Geographic,
Topographic, and Legal Surveys Divisions of this Branch.
Although all the field surveys to establish the British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories boundary were completed by 1959, work is still progressing at a
modest rate on the compilation of map-sheets. During the year the final draughting was completed for eleven sheets of this series. These, carrying the signature
of the Boundary Commissioner for British Columbia, were forwarded to Ottawa
for endorsement by the Boundary Commissioner for Canada, following which they
will be lithographed. Sheets 1 to 6 have now been so lithographed, and a modest
stock of a provisional edition of each has been made available to the Province.
Toward the end of the year, work was commenced on the preparation of the final
report covering this last of the Province's boundaries to be surveyed, and in due
course to be confirmed by statutory processes.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
THE 1951-60 DECADE
Y 35
In addition to covering the affairs of the Branch for the year 1960, it is thought
appropriate at this time to review activities and trends of the decade just terminated, and on this basis to anticipate probable requirements in the coming decade
and how best to meet them.
TOTAL   AUTHORIZED   GROSS    EXPENDITURES
SURVEYS   *   MAPPING    BRANCH
DECADE      1951 - I960
BY    FISCAL    YEARS
1400
1/3
a.
<
_i
_i
o
Q
</J
D
Z
<
tn
s
authorized!
STAFF      /
CALENDAR! , ,-.-..
YEARS  f I  ,951
1400
1300
1200
— 1000
-900
800
600
500
00
0.
<
_J
o
D
a
z
<
D
O
I
h
 Y 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The operational scope of this Branch, like other agencies from which services
rather than revenues are expected, is determined by Government policy, reflected
in the size of budget authorized for it each year. The success with which the required services are fulfilled is determined by a combination of material and human
factors, such as direction and organization, leadership, training, skills, ingenuity,
experience, and the adequacy of tools and plant provided. In addition, because
such a large part of the work is outdoors, and otherwise arises from what is done
there, output is subject to the imponderables of weather and other hazards of nature.
A review of the Branch budget for the past decade (see graph) reveals that
in total it has been fairly constant, at an average of just uhder $1,200,000 per
annum. Depreciation of the dollar during the decade was significant. An interesting feature, however, is the steady rise of payroll in proportion to operational
expenses, from 46 per cent of the total at the beginning of the decade to some
71 per cent at the end. This trend does not reflect an increase in staff, which,
in fact, dropped slightly.
Stabilization of the Survey budget and staff during the decade was not due to
any decline in demands for survey and mapping services; rather the pressure and
variety of these have increased. To illustrate this and how these demands have
been met, it is helpful to review first certain statistical data and then to consider
some qualitative aspects.
While the presentation of such data follows generally the pattern of organization of the Branch in its four divisions—Air, Geographic, Legal Surveys, and
Topographic—it is interesting that certain broad aspects are common throughout.
Other basic functions, peculiar to a particular division, are, however, utilized in
turn by the other divisions as essential ingredients to their specialized tasks. For
example, all four divisions employ draughtsmen, since each produces fair drawn
maps of one kind or another. The Air Division is responsible for the interim maps
and air-photo index sheets. The Geographic Division does cartographic draughting
for multi-colour lithography of various series of maps in popular demand. The
Legal Surveys Division produces various types of cadastral maps, the well-known
Departmental reference maps, mineral reference maps, composite maps, and various types of official survey plans. The Topographic Division prepares fair drawn
manuscript sheets of the standard topographic mapping and an increasing number
and variety of special large-scale engineering plans.
The statistical record for the decade is presented in four tables appurtenant
to this part of the Report. Each covers a broad category of activity, and while a
very considerable proportion of Branch operations does not lend itself to such
treatment, these tables do tell a significant story and merit close and thoughtful
study.
Table 1.—Air Photographic Operations
Columns 1 to 5, inclusive, summarize air-photo flying operations. It is noteworthy that the "basic air cover" programme for 1:31,680 scale photography
(column 2) was abandoned after 1957 in favour of 1:15,840 scale narrow-angle
photography for the more intensive second-phase forest inventory programme,
incorporated with many other special large-scale assignments in column 3.
For comparative appreciation of the photo-flying effort through the decade,
the areas in column 3 for 1957 et seq. may be doubled for equating them under
" basic cover " in column 2 since the lineal miles of photo flying varies in direct
proportion to the photo scale. Considered in this way, the equivalent in column 2,
for the years 1957 to 1960, inclusive, would be roughly 31,000, 48,000, 30,000,
and 54,000 square miles respectively.   This bit of mental arithmetic shows more
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Y 37
clearly the remarkably high accomplishment maintained throughout, and especially
in the latter part of the decade. It is interesting to note that 1955 and 1959 were
poor seasons weatherwise, and 1951, 1954, 1958, and 1960 were comparatively
good years.
In addition to the processing of paper prints under columns 6 and 7, the
decade harvest of nearly 180,000 new air-photo negatives under column 5 signifies
developing some 1,800 rolls of air film negatives by the Air Photo Processing
Laboratory. This is very exacting work, done in total darkness, and, during the
flying season, when the new rolls come in from the flying detachments, it takes
priority over printing.
Table 1.—Air Photographic Operations, Decade 1951-60 and Prior
Air Photography (Areas Covered, etc.)
Processing
Production
Provincial Air Photo Library
Years
Photo Scale
(9"x 9")
All
Scales
Total
(Sq. Mi.)
(4)
Number
of Useful
Air-photo
Negatives
Obtained
(5)
Standard
9" x 9"
Prints
(6)
Various
Special
Enlargements
up to
30"x3O"
(7)
Accessions,
Library
Photos
(8)
Number
of
Photos
Lent
(9)
Number
(1)
Basic
Cover
1:31,680
(Sq. Mi.)
(2)
Large
Scale
1:15,840,
(Sq. Mi.)
(3)
of
Reprints
Sold
(10)
1950 and prior 	
179,000!
7,100
186,100
114,119
234,600s
6,3762
307,320
163,811°
183,301s
1951...  ,..	
1952    	
1953	
33.3001
31,800
27,900
33,400
18,500
28,100
10.4006
Nil
Nil
Nil
3,400
2,500*
7,100
2,700
9,200
1,700
10,400°
24,100
14,900
27,000
36,700
34,300
35,000
36,100
27,700
29,800
20,800
24,100
14,900
27,000
20,899
16,344
16,304
17,101
17,457
10,873
13,510
26,168
15,123
24,959
112,435
165,976
151,249
136,342
137,229
137,190
152,556
136,149
138,892
154,151
6,505
5,013
4,245
1,183
1,412
4,450
3,579
2,098
4,000
3,756
46,298
16,675
14,063
17,787
13,144
10,873
13,510
26,168
15,123
24,959
92,026
43,189
37,384
52,349
41,457
29,916
38,638
65,317
31,950
28,351
100,000
140,230
162,023
1954.	
1955	
1956.  .
1957 	
128,668
138,000
137,190
152,556
1958  	
1959  ... .
1960 	
144,457
137,636
154,151
Totals, 1951-60.....
183,400 | 103.00041 286,400 |    178,738
1,422,169«|   36,241
198,600 |460,577 |1,394,911
Totals, all years	
362,400 | 110,100*| 472,500 1   292,857'
1                1                1
1,656,769°
42,6178
505,920» 1624,388 |1,578,21210
1               1
1 Includes " vertical " cover from tricamera photography, 1947 et seq.
2 Records prior to 1947 not readily available.
3 Records not readily available prior to 1948.
* Includes estimated area of special projects formerly reported in lineal miles of photo flying, for years 1952
to 1960, inclusive.
s Major emphasis transferred from 1:31,680 to 1:15,840 photo scale, 1957 et seq.
° Projection prints from 5" x 5" Eagle V air negatives but includes 8,066 " RC 8 " contact prints from years
1958 et seq.
i These negatives all carefully preserved in fireproof film vault and available for reprinting on demand.
8 Includes 21,428 " Mountain Station " enlargements for Topographic Division.
9 Includes 206,293 air-photo prints from National Air Photo Library, Ottawa.
10lncludes 1,183,727 prints supplied gratis to Provincial Government agencies on requisition.
In general, it is evident that output in air photographic operations has been
creditably maintained throughout the period under review. A slight fall-off in airphoto loan traffic (column 9) toward the end of the decade no doubt reflects the
modest recession in business in the Province now generally recognized. On the other
hand, the disposal of reprints (column 10) wound up with a strong note in 1960.
Table 2.—Mapping
Mapping is one of the main functions of the whole Branch, and several
Province-wide series, in which all divisions participate, are summarized in Table 2.
All, except the special large-scale topographic maps (column 7), follow the sheet
layout of the National Topographic Series (N.T.S.), and in time most of these will
cover the entire Province.   For all maps of scale 1:31,680 and 1:50,000 (columns
 Y 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
2, 3, 4, 5, and 10) the sheet unit is 15 minutes of latitude by 30 minutes of longitude
(see Index Maps Nos. 4, 5, and 14, contained in envelope inside back cover of this
Report). The corresponding sheet area varies from 397.6 square miles for the
southernmost tiers (e.g., 92-B-5 (Sooke)) to 301.2 square miles for the northernmost tiers (e.g., 104-P-16 (Lower Post)). The average may be considered as
about 350 square miles (e.g., 93-K-2 (Fraser Lake)). Including part sheets
covering the irregular portions of our boundaries, the Rocky Mountain divide on
the south-east and the Alaska Panhandle on the north-west, and covering territorial
waters on our intricate west coast, which from the cartographic standpoint must be
mapped, and stocked, as full sheets, some 1,150 sheets of this scale category are
required to cover the whole Province. With this figure in mind, the proportion of
the Province completed may be appreciated by the totals (for all years) of the
columns above quoted.
The interim mapping programme (column 2) at a scale of 2 miles per inch,
child of the Air Division, covers some 670 full map-sheets and nearly three-quarters
of the total Provincial area (see Index No. 5). Originally conceived as a base map
for the first-phase forest inventory, this series has proven a sensational " best seller "
for a wide range of other users who need a reasonably accurate but detailed plani-
metric map, with the primary net of cadastral surveys carefully and skilfully plotted
thereon, over large areas not yet served by the standard topographic programme.
Work on this series has tapered off, unfortunately, at the 57th parallel of north
latitude, due to (a) exhaustion of the supply of suitable basic-cover 1:31,680 air
photographs north of that latitude and (b) the compilation staff being wholly preoccupied with the new 1:15,840 scale base mapping for the second-phase forest
inventory initiated in 1958.
The standard topographic mapping programme, fully controlled by field survey
and showing accurately plotted contours at 100-foot interval or less (columns 3, 4,
5, and 10) is considered the primary full-dress mapping programme, on which, in
addition to its own sheets, printed at 1:50,000 scale, all rigorous mapping at smaller
scales, namely, 1:126,720, 1:250,000, 1:500,000, and even the 6, 2, and 1 sheet
maps of the Province are based, by successive integration and condensation of the
original detail, appropriate to scale. The standard topographic programme proceeds,
of course, at a much slower pace than the interim mapping, due to the necessity to
propagate both horizontal and vertical control by field survey, and the rigorous
plotting of planimetry and contours in the multiplex, the Kelsh and the A-7 plotters.
Due to the primary importance of this programme and to present a realistic
picture of progress, the valuable contributions of two Federal mapping agencies—the
Army Survey Establishment of the Department of National Defence and the Surveys
and Mapping Branch of the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys—have been
included (column 4). The resultant aggregate at the end of 1960 indicates a total of
673 full sheets (column 5). Here again more than half of the whole Province has
been covered, but on a more sporadic pattern than in the case of the interim maps
(see Index No. 4), due to the effort through the years being directed to areas of most
active development and interest, current or potential.
Of special significance is the fact that output of this category has been well
maintained in spite of a great upswing in demands for large-scale engineering-type
mapping. Due to an acute bottleneck in the lithographic printing facilities, which
has been experienced in recent years by the Federal agencies mentioned, only just
over half the topographic sheets ready have actually been published (compare aggregates of columns 5 and 10). A recent major improvement in plant facilities for the
two Federal agencies mentioned, in Ottawa, brightens the prospect of catching up on
the map-printing backlog in the near future.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Y 39
"<3
I
VO
I
»».
On
"■■.
.3.
1
Q
s
•S
•+-4
a
_o
C
.to
S
.S
c
a
s
s
o
SZ
[_jox     *°
I.j.psj     v->
IEIOUTAOJjJ
fElOJ,       m
sjutjdaij     £J
M3N     3
x>.
!xl    *a 1.   .
IS--3J.B.      -~-
■g  |8-a  is
&x> •§* _!
w fed.
o £5*e
a «i5. ac
0   u   S
i, rt R ga u> »
g<S o£ u7^ «
Ph th
o.2
'D ? g ft
OJ <D DC D,
uo
jo jaquin^
I
«s
■ooE
£•£ a
a 05 »
_>Ofc£
ww,m2
S    «sa
o ^_    ^
0.2 _i
2'3.2
jjPc
^(JVJ
Si
■SS-&2§
£2 a1" 2
S     .   =
oS boa .
1.—  w
ft.
<__ a__^«H
-      ft
^0\^NHNtdn'
H\oNOoon^firl
nw^noh
lOvcS'-'oom^-cor-
! r-    I'hnh    I el ^J*
i cn cn    : vc cs ^ vo cn
mov*0>-'0\cornr-oo
r»
<n
SO
vr:
on
r-l
cn
rt
tn
\fj
cs
■<t
o
vc
T   S
H H   a
>xnrtTtinsctr-ocO\<0
*n   inmmtnininmtntnso
Os   OsasOsOsOsOsOsOsOsOs
J.
5
s    »
a>      rt
QJ   9
00 6
53 s S.
ft s
o 2   «
m <o X
- em *j
rn
U
<o
d
0
X
tn
>
3
|3<v2
i<_3-
I :
& as  rt\
an"
5 "° §
wjj§:
■a °S
o a-3
■s - a
•a°o
Jpti*
cao
.S'ES
tj >jjj-
3 « °
o-S S
ill
g = B
0
R
u-
«
>
01
•o
3h
n)
a
tea
43
J3
t«
c
i
O
.5
u
a
u
fc
•q
o
0
i
:sh
 Y 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The special large-scale topographic mapping shown in columns 6 and 7 now
absorbs about half the energies of the Topographic Division. This work really
began in 1950, when the first multiplex aerial plotting equipment, purchased in
1949, got into production. After a further period of training and shakedown, the
large-scale programme began rolling about 1952, and since then has steadily gained
momentum. The acquisition of a first-order plotter—the Wild A-7 Autograph in
1959—and a Kelsh plotter (the latter supplied by the Fraser River Board) in 1960
will further accelerate output of these maps in the future. The majority of the
large-scale mapping has been for pondage assessment behind potential dam-sites
under study by the Water Rights Branch and the Fraser River Board. Such areas
naturally follow a dendritic pattern, bounded by the top contour specified, so that
the sheet layouts have been irregular, not conforming to a breakdown of the National
Topographic Series. However, separate indexes are available for all. The scale
for pondages is usually 1,000 feet per inch with 20-foot contours. Special sheets
covering the dam-sites proper are usually 500 feet to the inch with 5- to 10-foot
contour interval. Other large-scale projects are for drainage, flood-control, sewage,
water-supply and irrigation, forest access roads, and Provincial institutional sites.
The two series of cadastral mapping (columns 8 and 9) are specialties of the
Legal Surveys Division. The Departmental reference maps are what the name
implies—the indispensable day-to-day status record of all Provincial lands. They
are essentially compilations of all current and past cadastral survey information.
Due to the high incidence of annotated references to files, official plans, and other
records, to alleviate congestion, and for the sake of legibility, contours are intentionally omitted, even where available. Revision and redrawing is a constant task,
and this explains the total of 216 sheets completed for the decade exceeding the
total number of sheets to cover the entire Province. Due to limited staff, work on
the composite maps (Column 9) had to be put in abeyance for nearly four years,
1956 to 1959, inclusive, in order to concentrate the available staff on the Departmental reference maps, many of which were falling into obsolescence, and disrepair
due to constant handling.
The 2-miles-per-inch lithographed maps (columns 11, 12, and 13) have
received special emphasis by the Geographic Division during the past five years,
since these are designed to replace the old series of pre-emptors maps at 3 and 4
miles per inch. The currently published sheets of this 2-mile series exemplify the
finest achievements in cartographic art and technology.
Including fractional sheets, eighty-four sheets of the 1:250,000 series (4 miles
per inch, approximately) are required to cover the Province (column 16)- It may
be noted that an aggregate of only fifty-six sheets has been completed. This series
received emphasis during the first half of the decade by both Provincial and Federal
agencies. As noted above, the Provincial effort has latterly favoured the 2-miles-
per-inch series, and the Federal agencies appear to have swung over to the basic
topographic mapping at 1:50,000 scale. There is still a sensible need for the
1:250,000 maps in a few areas, especially in the Kootenays.
Reference to Index Maps Nos. 8 and 9 indicates that, in addition to the maps
covered by Table 2, an impressive listing of smaller-scale maps covering the Province in from one to six sheets has been produced during the period under review.
In summary, considering the limitations set by policy, map production during
the decade has been creditably maintained.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Y 41
Table 3.—Computations, Names, and Map Distribution
This tabulation covers office programmes entirely restricted to the Geographic
Division, but, of course, the basic field data stems from each of the other divisions—
Air, Legal Surveys, and Topographic.
Columns 2 to 6 cover the mathematical " least squares " reduction and adjustment of field survey control to the most probable values in terms of geographic
co-ordinates on the North American Geodetic Datum (1927). While in most cases
the average annual output for the recent decade exceeds that for previous years,
there are one or two interesting exceptions. Modern photogrammetric methods of
topographic mapping require a lesser density of fixed control points per unit area
due to the " bridging " potential of modern photogrammetric equipment, and especially of the Wild A-7 first-order autograph. This means that less effort (fewer
people) on field control per square mile of mapping is required. However, it does
place greater emphasis on mobility in the field—to get over the greater distances
between stations established. Fortunately the helicopter, supported by the Beaver
float-plane, has adequately satisfied this mobility requirement.
Another trend of interest is that the number of ties from the geodetic control
network to the cadastral survey structure has fallen off in recent years. This is
because the topographic mapping has been getting farther away from the settled
areas, where the cadastral survey structure is generally more concentrated. Eventually, however, as industrial development and settlement penetrate farther into what
is now wilderness—e.g., tenures under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, grazing,
and tree-farm licences, and other alienations along new highways, such as, for
example, the Cassiar Road, with its inevitable laterals, especially westward to the
Pacific—co-ordination of the resultant cadastral surveys on the North American
Geodetic Datum will be necessary through ties to the over-all control structure-
The grand aggregate of some 30,000 co-ordinated stations (column 6) is made
up of primary stations established by the Canadian Geodetic Survey, secondary and
tertiary stations, mostly Provincial standard, but including also stations established
by the Federal agencies already mentioned, certain international and interprovincial
boundary monuments, and a number of cadastral survey monuments. A new feature
includes stations established by tellurometer. The total represents an average of
one station for each 12 square miles for the whole Province, or an average distance
of about 2iVi miles apart. However, this is not a realistic conception, since the
distribution of these stations is by no means uniform. There are still vast areas
completely unserved by any control (see Index Map No. 19).
Many thousands of ground control points have been pinpointed on air photographs, this being an essential item in the specifications for establishing ground
control for mapping. The majority of these identities have been made as expertly
as possible on existing air-photo cover, by correlation of photo detail, as observed
stereoscopically in relief and under magnification. For moderate scale mapping,
say 1:31,680, a tiny perforation of the photo with a fine needle-point is normally
used to mark the control station. However, even if such a perforation is no larger
than one-tenth of a millimetre in diameter, it represents a " hole " on the ground
of about 10 feet across—a large centering error! To minimize the risk of gross
misidentification, as well as the magnitude of the pointing error, two devices have
been employed in recent years. One is to take special station identification air
photos of all ground stations established on a project after the cairn or beacon
has been built on the site, usually as a routine task prior to leaving the project area
at the end of the season. The flying height for these is set from experience as high
as possible, with the proviso that the cairn or beacon must be actually visible in
 Y 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Qh
■«
C
53
VO
I
ov
__d
■g
o
q
K
■2
3
-t-JJ
g
s
8
I
3
£
o
O
a.
_.
•o
trs
isued to
vernment
i Public,
Sheets
in
HT*mr
rt <zi tr- rt Tt co
>n  0
ft
O
00MP.TfrtOvvDTl-t~--H
rH      CS
rt
2
t-^
vic^t— r-ocN»-""nOin
*       —1
rH
'-"inOcnooCTvmcSoooo   cn   in
rti
■*t,*'t'<tifiinvot~~vD   tt   t-
•a
£bc
CS
«n   t—
JIJ
O rt
1
a.
T3^"
H
a) O tn
00
OsTHSOrtrtrHCAasTtin    rt    (S
©
> O It.
Ov
voooinr-r-0-^cst-~0v   vo   vc
00
.« .__ a)
O
00
fnovTi-rainav'd-omrj-
n   **
T3
<o
u „ .d
00
inmcsr-^fov'-'r-csin   0   ov
*.r
00
,*r-avONOccsoo>-'Ovt^  as   c-
*"•
-_,  _  ,-1          rH     O     fN
■H      rH
"2   •a
Si2 w
tn rt t_>
OS
in
asOsSOr^rtTHTtOSrHrH      ITl      O
p-
tninOanowtvit   00   so
ft_C <0
cn
rH                                                              V.      CJV
<o
i
rt
eSDtQ
%
•o
"rt
o
.on
lis
m
cots^Nvir-vooocsM
•n   00
■<3-
astntnrttnrttot^tr-n
N   VO
00
in
ntSm^rvDNrOMmrn
n  0
2
ft
zzs
w
m"
■n   ov
rt
0
Ph
	
XO
0
■a
22 8
t-
icwN^>0'*,to.Hai
O   cn
<o flj
ooOmoovovoooONcNTj-
Z)   vo
r-
in
vo^rovor-vooovomov
"i ^
0
tN
mvot— h 00 vo 00 ^- vo ^t
jv" --T
e*.
0  0
"3    0 s <*>
"3Sw.2-g
&.2 g rt rt
0 *h 0 Sq
«
vocN'-'csincnt—mcnav
■H     ■<*
e'
r-^voov-j—-ovmr~vo7-i
-     T
vo
en
vO cn in <-* * O vo^ »-< in <*f
O    rf
vd
tt    O"
—   m
xn
0   ,
2 ^?,
VC
amH^^NmccwH
*   O
a
aqS
m
rtTtrtirtrtootrAT—rttn
0   cs
.2
rt -Jr. c-
m
00
Tt  SO  yH  th  r*          rt  rt  rH  c*
-   vo
rt
■_.  w*__!
«-?
<
s ■*
P
ft
£
o
u
w
Mm
CN
aoOOv^OMNOntl-
s  ■*
0
■yr-oo'—Tj-mr-cNCNr-   c
3N   Ov
a
0
■<*
©
CN   —   rH   th                                                  rH
\   O
-«   CS
u
>
CM
»-TtOhOvoo\co«--
M   ^1-
Os
>0   C-
3
cn
tr-
■^■Tj-mmoomvoovoooo
n  1-^
t/3
vo"
rM rt*4                                                                      (
?C vo
5 »53 S3
s.a.3 3
H
^TfOvXWrfr-NNm
n   vo
OV^Od-rHVDVD'*'*
3N      O
CN
00^
vo vo ""tf      mcomwiinw-j
S     rH^
rt
>*
^,
<
V
__,    ai
-_    1-
f S
"     >v
:
<
n   	
h   «
cn   co
0
rt   rt
tH
0    O
ft
I
-1   H
T)
C
rt
O
r
f
Tf
tr
so f
oc
Ov O
m
If
V
IT
*n
m tr
tr
in vo
ON
O-
a
o-
O
Os
a
0-
O-
0
ON
•3 ^.
« ^,
s s
q 3
u   «
a> X
rt 0
&u
■a T3
1- «o
U   :j
u a) u a>
rt
rt
m
a>
<o
q>
^
^
w
>.
3
P
3
g
c
C
I-
-1
3
On as
aj
Ov
1-1
9-1
cr
■""
HH<1-
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Y 43
the photograph. A further device when practicable is, before the survey crew
leave the station, to set down on the ground two or three lead-in strips of white
cotton, \V2 feet wide by 10 to 15 feet long, radiating from the actual point. In
large-scale mapping another device is to actually place a rectangular plaque of
" highway " yellow carefully centred over the ground point prior to the mapping
photography. In most cases these show up sufficiently for the floating mark in the
plotting-machine to be centred with good precision on the point.
All air photos showing ground-control identities, as above, are filed in a
special depository, and the index cards for the control stations are annotated with
the relevant photo reference. Five thousand seven hundred of these control photos
are now on file, including about one thousand two hundred of the special station
identification photos. The matter of air-photo identification of ground survey control is of paramount importance obviously when all mapping is done with the air
photos. There is still a large number of these photo identities to make for existing
control. The experts still debate on the best manner in which to do this task from
the standpoint of practicability, accuracy, and permanence.
The selection and adoption of geographical names by established procedures
leading to authorization by the Canadian Board on Geographical Names, on which
the Chief of the Geographic Division is the accredited member for British Columbia, is a never-ending perennial task. All names on each new map-sheet of all the
National Topographic Series, as well as Provincial regional maps (except for certain provisional editions), must be completely processed for nomenclature. Due
to insufficient staff, this unavoidable task has been a bottleneck for several years,
and indeed is one of the reasons for the large number of standard 1:50,000 sheets
compiled and complete, except for names, waiting to be printed. It may be noted
that the average number of new names processed (column 8) is lower for the recent
decade than for the 1941-50 decade, although the reverse is true of the number of
map-sheets checked. This is due to the fact that sheets of wilderness, unsettled
areas, now our main concern, have comparatively few names.
It is debatable whether a new map-sheet of a wilderness area need be published
in the first edition with every topographic feature named—that is, all rivers, creeks,
lakes, mountains, etc.—or whether only the main features need be, until human
activity or interest in the area engenders, in the course of time, appropriate names for
the smaller features. Probably the latter policy is the better, since it alleviates to
some extent the onerous task of processing names ab initio, and since any unnamed
feature may be easily referenced, if necessary, by suitable co-ordinates of latitude
and longitude.
The general upswing of map issues in response to demand from both government and private sources is conspicuous through the decade. This is no doubt due
to the greatly improved access to all parts of the Province resulting from the expanded road network and air transport by float-plane and helicopter. It also reflects
the need to penetrate farther afield for planning natural-resource development, such
as timber, minerals, petroleum products, and recreation.
The steady preponderance of accessions to map stocks over map issues, which
has characterized the recent decade, may be explained by the fact that as new areas
are mapped it is uneconomic to print and stock only a small number of sheets. And
although the issues are modest, the need for revision of such sheets is low, so that the
stocks held will serve requirements for long periods and will not be wasted due to
obsolescence.
 y 44 department of lands and forests
Table 4.—Legal Surveys Operations
This table shows trends in representative operations of the Legal Surveys Division during the decade. (Other operations of this Division have been already included in Table 2.) Provincial boundary surveys (columns 9 and 10), which are in
fact legal surveys, were carried out by the appropriate Boundary Commissions, and
are pertinent to the eastern boundary of the Province (with Alberta) and the northern
boundary (with the Northwest and Yukon Territories), as distinct from international
boundaries on the south and west (with the United States and Alaska respectively).
Columns 2, 3, and 4 reflect general activity in Crown land surveys under the
Land Act, and include surveys by both staff surveyors and those in private practice.
It will be noted that in all cases the average annual activity for the 1951-60 decade
is distinctly higher than for the 1941-50 decade.
The most conspicuous upswing, however, is indicated in the photostat and blueprint production (columns 5 and 6). This reflects partly the general increase in
activities requiring plans of various kinds and partly the advances in reproductive
techniques which offer a wide variety of dimensionally and chemically stable media,
as well as speedy output. For example, instead of having to type extra copies of
letters, facsimile reflex prints may be produced in minutes at moderate cost. It might
also be asked, with some cynicism, if part of the increased demand may be due to an
upswing in the " paper war." Instead of a single file copy of many documents, a
multiplicity of them seems to be a characteristic requirement of modern business
procedures!
Columns 2 to 7 represent mainly office work, although based on field work.
Columns 8, 9, and 10 indicate field work. Highway right-of-way survey mileages
fisted are those done under direct supervision of the Legal Surveys Division. In the
earlier decade much of this work was assigned to private surveyors, but more recently
it has been confined almost exclusively to staff surveyors. This work comprises
those sections of the main Provincial highway network through relatively unsettled
regions, where the right-of-way survey is intended to serve as a control structure for
anticipated legal surveys for Crown land alienations accessible therefrom. The Highways Department contributes half to three-quarters of the cost, exclusive of staff
salaries. The said Department also assigns considerable mileages of highway right-
of-way surveys directly to private surveyors, but mainly through more congested and
settled areas. However, plans from this latter source are checked for acceptance by
the Legal Surveys Division.
It may be noted that, as of 1953 and 1959, field work on the Alberta-British
Columbia and the British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundaries respectively was completed. These surveys not only established the legal demarcation
of territory under Provincial jurisdiction on the north and east, but also constitute,
like the main highway surveys, a control structure for tying in nearby legal surveys
of Crown lands for various forms of tenure.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Y 45
V_
u
>>
O^rt
mzS
^
CS
;tr-asoot--THXxisort    :   ©   <s
rt
o
cs
(NOvcsi'Ot-mcStS      IOCS
•a
G
3 m
cs
j    -*   vo
<§&
3
__, >
.12 3
M
oco
r^
3
djS
>
o
r-
mr-o    !    1    !    !    :    I    :  cs  on
cn cn m    i    :    i    ]    j
!    th    (N
Ov
m
!     li     ■*
ft.
si
^^
*r_ 0
<3
>.    w
«         CD
hway
of-w;
veys,
IMil
in
csoo^tojoocsmmvooo   oo   cn
vo
cscsr-T-ivoominvovo   "-1   On
00
cn
rH   tH   rH   tH            tH                                          ON      (S
&jj*_ J- rt
a* 3 a
PQ CJOVj C
2   3
c
•§'•8
csrsooocsmov   a
ONmcn^ONONt-O   r-
3    00
"2 S-fl
-  r-
a c tj
r—
^inocncS'-^Tfvo   v(
>   vo
312
th <-h (N CS CS" CS <N CS   si
,   vo
w
..
to (J
flo«
r-
vnvovO'-Hr-r-^J-'-ii-ioo  vr
J  m
'Sal
.2 «~
M   N
«o
VO
(stsor-r-ornmcs^j-   v(
)  cn
VC
©
rtoorHtr-tr-sorttrArtrH   w
.   vo
00
TtooOm^invoovoin   w
.   rt
Tf
ov©©OTj-csvo©ONm  t-
-  cs
■*
HrH>-irtiMrtr.HN    "C
'  °*
tn   r.
cn
oommvocnm©ooov©  v
.    CO
in
Tj-^tfS^cn'-HOvTi-Tj-in   *
•    ON
0 rt |
tn
•-J
^Ovr^^rSTrMinrnTr   c
. ■-*
*a ft fi
in r-" cn w ri on" oo" ** o" in" ot
"  On"
O o£~l
TT
'-HCS^^^fTinin   c
■> r-
X H
c
i  cn
ft, Oh
Ha
rt 2
3-
rtC~}t~-sOTtsO-*trtTtOO    V£
3    O
-J C
cn
mm©'-ioorHr-©voov   r
i    V£>
« rt
■d-
Os
Ti*Ovvooo©cn(SvoT-iO   c
1   CN
"O n
cs---cscsvDiocncs^rTt  u-
> r~
c <u
ON
1   cs
35
■i    CN
m
r_1
VO
oovo^HinTl-vovO'*ONts   *-
h  r^
©
©r-ovoovocnvoin'-'Ov  o
v   Ov
11
cn
t-
TtmmmvocnmTi--7t-'r|-   vf
!, "1
a rt
ri
*<8
-" |>
SO
s
_TJ
•U Stj
ld-boo
aived a
ocesse-
H
(S
vofncnONOOOcoovin-r}-   v
i  r-
©
COVOt-OVOlNOVOVO-'    c
>  ©
cs
00
cs
mmTrcncnmin'*"n»n   c*
"  tr?
<U Q  (h
m
U
1
rt
<o
lH
.2
P.
§
C
VI
jV
o
1
C
_-
j
! £
>   a
V
! a
*rt
!   £3
;   «
o
H
©
rs
rt
tJ- in
VC
tr- oc
ON ©
in
m
tr
m
in in
■n
in V
<n vo
Os
ON
as
ON
CN
Os
a-
o
o-
Oh
Ov
Xi   3
rt  o
3 W
o* a a
rt > T3  "^ O
: <B * S S &
J  c  ri .5  <P
JAW    J)    ftTf"
f" £ I u «
. ° o 255
 Y 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
While many of the quantitative features of the work have been covered in the
foregoing statistical review, certain narrative items remain to be considered, by
years, as hereunder. First, however, some of the earlier landmarks in the background of time should be recalled, for the sake of perspective, before dealing particularly with the past decade, namely:—
1851: The beginning of official survey history in British Columbia, with the
appointment of Joseph Despard Pemberton as Colonial Surveyor (and in
1859, by Royal warrant, Surveyor-General).
1857: Survey of the International Boundary along the 49th parallel initiated.
1858: The celebrated Field Survey Company of the Royal Engineers arrived
at Fort Langley to lay the foundation of surveys on the Mainland.
1860: The first regulations for the surveys of Crown lands on Vancouver's
Island proclaimed by Governor James Douglas.
1861: The Torrens system of land titles registration introduced for the first
time in British North America by the Land Registry Act of British
Columbia.
1871: Surveys for the location of the Canadian Pacific Railway initiated under
terms of union of British Columbia with the Canadian Confederation.
1891: Regulation of the profession of land surveying by the first Land Surveyors Act.
1892: Propagation of survey control by triangulation initiated by Tom Kains,
Surveyor-General, in face of controversy " base lines vs. triangulation,"
which persisted till circa 1920.
1892—93: Topographic mapping by terrestrial photogrammetry (inspired by
E. Deville) introduced to British Columbia by Tom Kains.
1893-95: Terrestrial photogrammetry used in preliminary survey of the
Alaska-Canada Boundary (Panhandle).
1899: Survey initiated of portion of British Columbia-Yukon Boundary pertinent to the Klondike gold-rush.
1912: Geographic Division of the Surveys Branch established to produce
regional maps of British Columbia, as distinct from cadastral survey plans.
1913: Government expenditures on Crown land surveys reached an all-time
high of 6 per cent of the total Provincial budget. (The current proportion
is 0.33 per cent.) Survey of the Alberta-British Columbia Boundary along
the Rocky Mountain divide initiated.
1920: The Topographic Division of the Surveys Branch established.
1929: First extensive aerial photographic survey in British Columbia, in connection with the P.G.E. resources survey.
1930: Introduction of the Swiss-made Wild optical reading theodolites revolutionized triangulation surveys in British Columbia, and provided the coup
de grace for base-line control surveys.
1931: First systematic use of air photos for forest inventory surveys in British
Columbia, in the Niskonlith Forest.
1936: First systematic British Columbia Government air-photo operations
undertaken with chartered aircraft. Government purchase of specialized
air survey camera equipment followed the next year.
1939: Use of portable radio for voice communication in the field first used by
the Topographic Surveys in the Rocky Mountain Trench.
1945: Survey of the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary resumed for the first
time since 1907, following the construction of the Alaska highway.
1946: Acquisition of modern wide-angle Eagle V air survey camera equipment
from War Assets Corporation.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Y 47
1947: Air Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch established. Anson V
aircraft CF-EZI modified for tricamera installation with the 3.4-inch wide-
angle Eagle V cameras. A total of 6,440 lineal miles of tricamera photography flown.
1948: British Columbia first in Canada to charter a helicopter for field transport of survey crews to mountain stations.
1949: Purchase of two Anson V aircraft especially modified for air survey
photography. First multiplex air-photo plotting equipment installed in the
Air Division.
1950: Survey of the Alberta-British Columbia Boundary resumed on the 120th
meridian for the first time since 1924, due to exploration for petroleum and
natural gas in north-eastern British Columbia and north-western Alberta.
First wholly air-borne topographic survey in British Columbia in the vicinity of Bowser Lake, using float-planes and helicopters.
1951
Norman Charles Stewart retired January 31st as Director of Surveys and
Mapping, being succeeded by Frank Ormond Morris, who retained concurrently
the appointment of Surveyor-General. Mr. Morris, in his turn, retired May 31st
and was succeeded in the dual appointment by the writer.
The photographic Anson V aircraft CF-EZI, purchased in 1949, had to be
fitted with an entirely new wing and main spar assembly, the original component
having exhibited serious deterioration from dry rot in the laminated wooden members. This is interesting, apropos of the same trouble having been encountered in
the other Anson aircraft CF-EZN in 1960, which see year 1960.
Grant of right-of-way for the construction of the Trans Mountain pipe-line
across Crown lands imposed new problems in setting up survey requirements and
special precautions for safeguarding the boundary markers against displacement
and loss during construction.
A De Havilland Beaver float-plane, CF-FHF, purchased as salvage from insurance underwriters, to be rebuilt by maintenance staff at Patricia Bay hangar as
off-season work.
1952
Mr. N. C. Stewart resigned as Provincial Commissioner for both the Alberta-
British Columbia and the British Columbia-Yukon and Northwest Territories
Boundaries, and the writer was duly appointed in lieu by Order in Council.
Two professional geographers were taken on strength in the Geographic Division for the purpose of writing a new series of land bulletins, geographic research,
and allied tasks.
The Surveyor-General was elected to the office of President, Canadian Institute of Surveying, and in that capacity represented Canada at the Seventh International Congress of Photogrammetry at Washington, D.C.
1953
Survey of right-of-way of Trans Mountain oil pipe-line practically completed
under special regulations for posting and deposit of plans in the Land Registry
Offices.
The Beaver float-plane CF-FHF certified airworthy and put into service after
reconstruction in the hangar at Patricia Bay.
 Y 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Survey of the Alberta-British Columbia Boundary was completed to the
north-east corner of British Columbia.
Propagation of survey control by triangulation from tower stations built with
local timber in situ over the north-eastern part of British Columbia for anticipated
needs of petroleum and gas exploration.
Publication of the Gazetteer of British Columbia, a completely new edition
replacing the earlier one of 1930. Compilation was done entirely by the Geographic Division; printing and publication were done co-operatively by the Canadian Board on Geographical Names in Ottawa.
1954
Publication of Map 1e, South-eastern British Columbia, at scale of 10 miles
per inch, with unique landform base from painstaking and skilful interpretation of
thousands of air photographs. This was the first of a six-sheet series to cover the
whole Province.
The grid system for tenures (permits and leases) under the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Act, conceived and proposed by the Surveys and Mapping Branch, was
accepted by the Department of Mines and authorized by the Petroleum and Natural
Gas Act, 1954.
The remainder of the right-of-way survey of the Alaska Highway in British
Columbia was completed.
The Surveyor-General presided at a special meeting in Rome of Commission
IV of the International Society of Photogrammetry. This trip afforded a profitable
opportunity to visit celebrated survey organizations abroad—namely, the Ordnance
and Colonial Surveys of Great Britain; l'lnstitut Geographique National, Paris;
and the Federal Topographic and Cadastral Surveys of Switzerland at Bern—and
to fraternize with eminent survey and mapping authorities from other countries.
1955
Appointment of A. H. Raffs, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., as Assistant Director, Surveys
and Mapping Branch, confirmed by the Civil Service Commission.
The Director of Surveys and Mapping appointed to the newly reconstituted
Fraser River Board.
The Alberta-British Columbia Boundary Commission report and survey accepted, and the boundary as surveyed and marked duly confirmed by legislation in
Alberta, British Columbia, and Canada.
Regulation 29 by the Surveyor-General under authority of section 80 of the
Land Registry Act took effect as of February 1st, providing for the inspection of
surveys and plans tendered for deposit in the Land Registry Offices.
W. H. Hutchinson retired as Chief Geographer on statutory superannuation,
svicceeded by W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.
Publication of Map Ik, South-western British Columbia, the second sheet of
the new 10-miles-per-inch landform series.
Triangulation control by the Topographic Division of 30,000 square miles of
wilderness north of the Peace River completed, totalling 184 Provincial secondary
stations tied to twenty-eight primary Federal stations, to monuments of the Alberta-
British Columbia and the British Columbia-Northwest Territories Boundary, and to
right-of-way monuments of the Alaska Highway. This three-year project was a
classic accomplishment, using towers to clear the timber horizon. Transport was
by four-wheel-drive vehicles, float-planes, and helicopters.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Y 49
1956
The new scribing technique on specially coated plastic sheet introduced for
the preparation of plates for map lithography by the Geographic Division, under
supervision of Mr. H. L. E. Hooper, who had been sent to study these methods at
Federal mapping agencies in Ottawa during 1955.
All old permits issued under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1952, originally located by staking with metes and bounds descriptions, were adjusted to the
grid system under authority of section 34 (2) of the Petroleum and Natural Gas
Act, 1954.
Design and subdivision survey of Doukhobor lands for the Land Settlement
Board, under recommendations of the Lord Commission, carried out under direction of the Surveyor-General.
Topographic Division resumed standard topographic mapping programme
after three years preoccupation with triangulation in North-eastern British Columbia.
The Multiplex Section transferred from the Air Division to the Topographic
Division.
The Surveyor-General participated in the Eighth International Congress of
Photogrammetry in Stockholm, as president of Commission IV on Mapping from
Air Photographs. As in 1954, the National Research Council of Canada and the
Canadian Institute of Surveying generously assisted with overseas travel expenses.
At British Columbia House in London a meeting was arranged by the Agent-
General with representatives of Mr. Axel Wenner-Gren to discuss potentialities of
the Rocky Mountain Trench based on the writer's participation in the air survey
of same during 1939, and his address to the Royal Geographic Society in London
on the same subject in March, 1942, published in the Geographical Journal, July,
1942.
1957
Map If, West Central British Columbia, published by the Geographic Division, being the third sheet of the 10-miles-per-inch landform series.
Tellurometer electronic distance-measuring equipment acquired for the Topographic Division, British Columbia being the first Province in Canada to adopt
this revolutionary aid to survey.
Termination of half-mile-per-inch basic-cover air-photo programme due to
switch-over of forest inventory to the second phase at quarter-mile-per-inch scale.
Three helicopters chartered for full season to cope with extra field surveys for
Water Rights Branch, the British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary Commission, and the Fraser River Board, which financed two of the machines.
1958
Acquisition of a first-order precision Wild RC-8 air survey camera by the Air
Division to cope with increased demands for large-scale engineering surveys.
First full season's use of the tellurometer equipment in control surveys.
A record year for air photography due to prolonged clear weather, the main
effort being exclusively devoted to the new quarter-mile-per-inch narrow-angle
forest-inventory photography.
First experiment on application of first-order photogrammetry to cadastral
surveys by virtue of new RC-8 photography and co-operative compilation by a
Vancouver survey firm on its Wild A-7 Autograph.
Right-of-way survey of the John Hart Highway was completed from Prince
George to Dawson Creek.
 Y 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The preliminary report on flood-control and hydro-electric power in the
Fraser River Basin by the Fraser River Board was accepted by the Federal and
Provincial Governments with approval of the main recommendations, which implied
a continuing programme of detail mapping for dam-sites and pondages.
The Director was granted three months' leave of absence to undertake a consulting assignment under the Colombo Plan in South-east Asia to assess and programme survey and mapping requirements for a multi-purpose development scheme
of the Mekong River.
1959
Special maps and air photographs produced for planning and conducting the
Royal tour in British Columbia.
Field surveys on the establishment and retracement of the British Columbia-
Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary completed by A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S.,
who in 1958 set Boundary Monument No. 187, the westernmost survey monument
in British Columbia. Beyond this point an uninterrupted permanent icefield extends to the Canada-Alaska Boundary along the 60th parallel in the vicinity of
Mount Jette.
All statutory regulations of the Surveyor-General were revised and consolidated under the official B.C. Regulations 300/59 and 306/59. A new feature
authorizes expression of lengths in feet rather than in chains for most surveys of
Crown lands. In the case of the Land Act, the former Surveyor-General's regulations had been unrevised since 1922.
Map 1g, East Central British Columbia, the fourth sheet of the 10-miles-per-
inch series, was published with the landform feature.
A Wild A-7 Autograph was installed by the Topographic Division on a lease-
purchase contract. A first-order precision plotter, this instrument now brings the
Surveys and Mapping Branch of British Columbia again into front line as a modern
mapping agency. The primary uses of the A-7 are to propogate survey control by
" bridging," and to do precise detail plotting of contours and planimetry, at plan
scales much larger than the photo scale.
1960
The installation by the Provincial Government of I.B.M. 650 computer equipment provides unprecedented facilities for survey computations of many kinds.
M. Perks, P.R.I.C.S., B.C.L.S., of the Legal Surveys Division, was assigned the task
of programming these, with very creditable results.
The Treasury Board approved final purchase of the Wild A-7 Autograph in the
1961/62 Estimates.
The Anson V photo aircraft CF-EZN became unserviceable by the deterioration of wooden structures, repeating the experience with the sister aircraft CF-EZI
reported in 1951. Exhaustion of ready-made replacement structures and prohibitive cost of custom fabrication of them render an attempt to recondition this aircraft
uneconomic. This situation and the imminent probability of like deterioration in
CF-EZI make it imperative to seek replacement aircraft of more modern and maintainable character.
In summary, the decade has been one of accomplishment. Many developments
conceived or incipient in the 1941-50 period yielded abundantly in the following
decade. The splendid results of the air-photography programme with the two
Anson aircraft and the Eagle V wide-angle cameras fully exploited those remarkable
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Y 51
technical advances in this field during the war years, as well as our pre-war operational experiences in this type of work in the Province. Using the harvest of air
photos, the interim mapping programme really got into high gear and far exceeded
its original purpose as a forest-inventory base map, by making available quickly and
cheaply the geography, hitherto unknown, in great detail and with high relative
accuracy over the whole breadth of the Province, as far north as latitude 57° (see
Index Map No. 5). The air photos themselves, through the Provincial Air Photo
Library and by the supply of reprints, played a paramount role in resource appraisal
and development planning both by government and by private enterprise.
Field surveys—for controlling the rigorous standard topographic mapping
(with contours); for serving the needs of the petroleum and natural-gas exploration; for the demarcation of Provincial boundaries on the east and on the north; for
highway rights-of-way surveys across the south, up the middle, and on through the
north—using triangulation, tellurometer, and precise traverse techniques, have
resulted in an imposing structure of survey control well co-ordinated with the North
American geodetic datum. This provides the framework for integrating all surveys
of the future, topographic, cadastral, and engineering (compare Index Map No. 19 in
this Report with its counterpart facing page 103 of the Annual Report of 1950).
The full benefits of four-wheel-drive vehicles, helicopters, the Beaver float-plane,
improved radio communication, and more recently of the tellurometer are reflected
in this accomplishment.
The procedure for Government inspection of legal surveys set up in 1955 by
Regulation 29 under section 80 of the Land Registry Act, in accordance with exchange of views between the Attorney-General's Department, the Corporation of
British Columbia Land Surveyors, and the Surveyor-General's Office, provided for
the first time an official scrutiny of subdivision surveys and plans tendered for registration, which due to apparent misinterpretation of survey evidence, misclosure, or
other cause, are suspect. A number of inspections by the Surveyor-General's staff
under this regulation have served to clarify certain difficulties for the benefit of the
Registrars, the surveying profession, and the Surveyor-General's office, and have
otherwise exerted a hygienic influence on survey practice in the Province.
By the adoption of the grid system for tenures under the Petroleum and Natural
Gas Act, 1954, with provision for adjusting to it the earlier alienations established
by staking with metes and bounds descriptions, the Province probably took a distinct
lead in enlightened administration of such tenures. The grid system provides a nice
basis for specifying size, shape, location, and precise areas, without risk of excess
or deficiency on the ground between adjacent tenures. The job of locating the features of the grid system, such as well-sites, lease corners, etc., on the ground is a
straightforward survey problem, fully capable of execution by qualified surveyors
working under official regulations and instructions. The triangulation control net
established during the seasons 1953, 1954, and 1955 north of the Peace River, and
in 1956 south of the Peace River, and subsequent operations to more fully coordinate the Alaska Highway and Provincial boundary monuments, provide the basis
for such grid locations on the ground.
Another feature of the decade has been the remarkable advance in graphic arts
and technology as affecting reproduction of manuscript plans and lithographic printing of maps in colour. A long quest for dimensionally and chemically stable media
for map compilations has been successful, so that the old expedient of draughting on
unwieldy opaque metal-mounted sheets has given way to flexible tough translucent
plastics, which may be dressed with a variety of coatings for helio-chemical impres-
 Y 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
sions, etching, or direct scribing, such that recently published maps, like the 10-mile
landform series and the 2-miles-per-inch N.T.S. sheets, may be displayed with pride
among the most sophisticated cartographic critics.
Table 5.—Staff Classifications and Distribution, Surveys and Mapping Branch
Position
(1)
Number of Employees
Administration
(2)
Divisions
Air
(3)
Geographic
(4)
Legal
Surveys
(5)
Topographic
(6)
Total
(7)
Director and Surveyor-General—	
Assistant Director 	
Chief of Division—   —
Assistant Chief of Division— 	
Supervising Surveyor— 	
Surveyor^—2  	
Supervisor, Trigonometric Control 	
Pilot-Mechanic  	
Supervisor, Air Operations 	
Supervisor, Photogrammetric Laboratory-
Air Survey Pilot —	
Supervisor, Air Photo Laboratory  —
Supervisor, Map Production 	
Supervisor, Map Distribution	
Chief Clerk _ 	
Mapping Assistant—6  	
Chief Draughtsman  	
Air Survey Detachment Chief _
Field Survey Assistant—4	
Radio Technician    	
Assistant Supervisor, Air Photo Laboratory.
Assistant Supervisor, Trigonometric Control
Mapping Assistant—5 	
Supervising Draughtsman 	
Technical Draughtsman — 	
Air Survey Technician—2  	
Air Survey Technician.. _  	
Aircraft Mechanic _ 	
Senior Draughtsman  	
Mapping Assistant—4 	
Instrument-maker .'.    —
Supervisor, Blue-print and Photostat	
Field Survey Assistant—3. 	
Mapping Assistant—3    	
Draughtsman—2  	
Air Surveys Photo Technician	
Photostat Operator — 	
Field Survey Assistant—2	
Clerk-Stenographer—4 	
Photographic Assistant   	
Clerk—2   	
Blue-printer's Assistant—2  	
Draughtsman—1  	
Clerk-Stenographer—3 	
Mapping Assistant—2 	
Clerk-Stenographer—2 	
Darkroom Assistant	
Mapping Assistant—1 	
Blue-printer's Assistant—1 	
Clerk-Typist—1- 	
Totals   	
3
2
1
1
2
1
5
11
1
53
I        24
55
41
1
1
4
1
2
17
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
8
1
1
1
4
5
3
1
2
1
25
20
1
1
9
5
17
2
1
3
1
1
4
1
2
3
3
1
1
3
2
1
T76~
One of the most important features of the decade has to do with personnel. The
large expansion in staff which necessarily followed the end of hostilities in 1945
imposed problems of training, specialization, classification, and organization, which,
although continued into the following decade, bore fruit in rewarding measure.   Con-
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Y 53
siderable staff turnover during the earlier part of the decade reflected the quality of
training received in this Service and its high rating in outside employment opportunities. The last two years, however, have been characterized by comparative stability of staff, due, no doubt, to a perceptible quiescence in outside opportunities, and
also reflecting a general condition of job satisfaction in the present staff. The end of
the decade finds the Branch with a total of 176 authorized permanent positions, compared to a maximum of 192 in the year 1952. The distribution by classification is
shown in Table 5.
The array of fifty different job classifications for a total staff of less than 200
may be taken as evidence of the variety and complexity of the work performed by
the Branch. It may also be that some simplification is desirable. In addition to the
176 permanent authorized positions, seven people have been carried on a temporary
continuous basis for several years. Additional seasonal help on field survey parties
varies from thirty to forty persons.
A better appreciation of the nature of the staff may be gained from Table 6,
showing eight functional groups by four classes of competence. Here it will be seen
that approximately one-quarter are in the administrative, professional, specialist, and
supervisory class (column 2). Just less than half are fully trained artisans or journeymen, such as Senior Draughtsman, Mapping Assistant—4, etc. (column 3), and
between one-quarter and one-third are still in training (columns 4 and 5), although
the bulk of these are approaching full competence as journeymen, and of course are
turning out valuable and significant work.
Table 6.—Staff Summary, Surveys and Mapping Branch
Number of Employees
Primary Function
(O
Classification
Professional
Specialist
and
Supervisory
(2)
Journeymen
(3)
Advanced
Trainees
(4)
Elementary
Trainees
(5)
Totals
(6)
1. Administrative	
9
17
3
3
12
2
2
9
6
25
25
6
4
9
8
17
5
3
3
2
3
1
9   (5%)
38 (22%)
9   (5%)
39 (22%)
56(32%)
11 (6%)
12 (7%)
2   (1%)
7. Clerical                                           	
8. Miscellaneous   	
2
Staff totals             	
48
27%
77
44%
39
22%
12
7%
176
(100%)
The largest functional group is draughting, at 32 per cent of total strength, with
field-survey and compilation types paired for second place at 22 per cent each.
However, the fact that field-survey people augment the compilation effort during the
winter season brings the effective effort on compilation up to parity with draughting.
The effect of the temporary seasonal help is, of course, to modify the tabulated ratios
slightly in favour of field surveys.
In earlier paragraphs, mention has been made of certain technicological advances which are having the effect of reducing the proportion of staff required for
field control surveys compared to the effort required for office compilations; that is,
reduction of the field-notes into negotiable products in the form of maps and plans.
 Y 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The helicopter, the float-plane, better roads, and vehicles for speedy deployment to,
in, and out of the work areas; field radio communication for better tactical coordination and weather intelligence; the air photos and interim maps for planning
and appraisal of the various field projects; the tellurometer for speeding up and improving accuracy of distance measurements; and the precise air-photo plotting equipment which yields standard accuracy and detail of mapping, on a greatly reduced
density of fixed ground points—all have combined to reduce the effort required on
field control surveys in proportion to the compilation and drafting of plans. In view
of this trend, there has been some pressure to convert part of the field categories into
compilation categories; for example, Field Survey Assistants—Grades 3 and 4 into
Mapping Assistants of similar grades. However, a better adjustment, instead of
reducing the field survey staff, would be to increase the compilation staff to the point,
at least, where two full shifts could be maintained on the air-photo plotters, the A-7,
the Kelsh, and the multiplex in the Photogrammetry Section of the Topographic
Division. At present there are barely enough operators in the Section to maintain a
single day shift, especially when absences due to holidays and sick leave are
considered.
In addition to the above situation, it should be emphasized that there is a tremendous amount of field survey work crying to be done; namely, restoration of the
earlier cadastral survey structures which have over the years become derelict, despite
undiminished legal importance to the public. There is also an unsatisfied need to
increase operations to co-ordinate the cadastral survey structure with the control
structure, so that all surveys may be integrated on the Geodetic North American
Datum. This accomplishment offers the most effective and cheapest means of coping
with the loss of legal boundary-markers by the ravages of nature, such as fire and
fungus, and the depredations of industry, such as logging and earth-moving equipment. Furthermore, it should be repeated here that all available man-power on field
survey strength of the Topographic Division is facing a crescendo of demands from
Government sources for intensive engineering surveys of all kinds. This trend will
not diminish.
Fortunately, as the decade ended, a few developments give promise to alleviate
the pressure on the draughting and compilation side. Among these are various
photo-mechanical means of reproducing complicated plan and map detail at variable
scale ratios in both directions from unity, such as epidiascopes designed and built in
our own Instrument-shop, the new Barcro photo-mechanical camera in the Legal
Surveys Division, and a wide assortment of highly efficient media for making auto-
positive facsimiles from original copy—all of which obviate the labour of hand-made
copy as well as risk of error. No checking is required on machine-made copy.
Thankfully, the historic labours on the pantograph with proof-reading of hand copy
have largely fallen into obsolescence.
The recent installation of the I.B.M. 650 computer by the Government also
gives great promise to facilitate and expedite a large mass of computing, which is
part and parcel of survey compilations. A co-ordinate printer and tape-punching
accessory to the Wild A-7 Autograph, available but not yet acquired, would enhance
efficiency of this plotter by 40 per cent and eliminate a worrisome source of human
error in reading co-ordinates from micrometer scales and booking them by hand on
the computation sheets.
Prognostications are risky; nevertheless, it is logical and necessary to make a
reasonable assessment of the future.   So, on the basis of this account of the 1951-60
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Y 55
decade, with the experience of a few failures but also of a good measure of success,
it will suffice to re-emphasize certain objectives for the coming ten years.
In addition to maintaining the established functions performed in the past,
greater effort, with appropriate increases in funds and staff, should be directed to the
following items:—
(1) Restoration of the legal survey structure of property-markers to overtake
the serious and costly accumulated dereliction of past decades.
(2) Along with the above, and as a feature of it, to accelerate the co-ordination
of all legal survey markers with a thickening-up of the basic control survey
structure on the North American Geodetic Datum, with amendments to
the Land Registry Act, the Land Act, and other Statutes to legalize specification of property corners by rectangular co-ordinates based on the said
geodetic datum.
(3) A moderate increase in the Mapping Assistant staff in the Photogrammetric Section to provide a fully manned second shift, without penalizing
the field survey staff.
(4) Before the Anson V photo aircraft CF-EZI is retired, to complete the
Eagle V 3 Va -inch tricamera photography of main valleys not yet served by
this type of photo cover, as indicated by Index Map 17, with priority to
areas north of latitude 57°. It is highly unlikely that it will be feasible to
provide the tricamera installation, so effectively made in CF-EZI, in a
replacement aircraft. In other words, the opportunity to complete this
very useful type of photography is likely to be short-lived.
In conclusion, I refer again to the fixed status of budget authorized for Surveys
and Mapping through the past decade. It is believed that what has been done with
this money, as reviewed in foregoing paragraphs, justifies modest pride on the part
of the staff, and could merit a modicum of approval under the critical eye of government and the public, even had the purchasing power of the dollar remained constant
through the period.
 Y 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
D. Pearmain, Chief
The Legal Surveys Division, under the direction of the Surveyor-General, is
responsible for cadastral surveys of all Crown lands of the Province. This entails
the issuing of instructions to the land surveyors engaged to make each survey and
supplying them with copies of the field-notes and plans of adjoining or adjacent
surveys. After the completion of the survey, the returns are forwarded to this
office for checking and plotting. Included in the above returns are all right-of-way
surveys, including those for highways, railways, and transmission-lines. During
the year 709 sets of instructions were issued, this being an increase of 112 over
1959.
In 1960, 514 sets of field-notes covering the survey of 870 lots were received
in this office and duly indexed, checked, and plotted, and official plans prepared
therefrom. Of the above-mentioned surveys, 858 were made under the Land Act
and 12 under the Mineral Act. At the present time there are approximately 96,418
sets of field-notes on record in our vaults.
There were 353 plans received from land surveyors covering surveys made
under the Land Registry Act. These were duly indexed and checked, and certified
copies deposited in the respective Land Registry Offices.
In order that a graphic record may be kept of alienations of both surveyed and
unsurveyed Crown lands together with reserves, a set of reference maps, 210 in
number, covering the whole of the Province, must be maintained. These maps
show all cadastral surveys which are on file in the Department, and are kept up to
date by adding new information as it accrues from day to day. Prints of them are
available to the public. (See Index Maps Nos. 1 and 2, contained in envelope inside
back cover of this Report.)
All applications to purchase or lease Crown lands or foreshore which are
received by the Lands Branch and all applications to purchase Crown timber received by the Forest Service are channelled through this Division for clearance.
The orderly processing of these applications requires that an exhaustive status be
made from the reference maps, official plans, and Land Registry Office plans.
From the reference maps, together with other information and facilities maintained
by this Division, it is possible to give an up-to-the-minute status on any parcel of
Crown land in the Province.
It has been necessary during the year, for status and compilation purposes, to
obtain 938 plans from the various Land Registry Offices. Copies of these have
been made, indexed, and filed as part of the Division's records.
This Division co-operates with the other departments of Government by preparing and checking legal descriptions which they require. Those assisted in this
way were the Attorney-General's Department (descriptions of Small Debts Courts),
the Department of Agriculture (descriptions of disease-free areas and pound districts), the Department of Municipal Affairs (descriptions for the incorporation or
amendment of municipal areas), the Forest Service (descriptions of tree-farm
licences and working circles), and the Lands Branch (descriptions for gazetted
reserves, etc.). During the year, 100 of the above descriptions were prepared, and
this entailed 245 man-hours.
BLUE-PRINT AND PHOTOSTAT SECTION
The Legal Surveys Division, through this Section, continues to supply a service
to all departments of Government and to the public, as well as supplying all the
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Y 57
prints and photostats required by the Surveys and Mapping Branch. The total
number of prints made during the year was 235,148, which was an increase of
38,727 over 1959, while in the preparation of these prints 133,550 yards or 76
miles of paper and linen were used. The number of photostats made was 55,430,
which was an increase of 5,081 over the previous year.
It is interesting to note that of the 235,148 prints made during the year, 74,928
were for the Surveys and Mapping Branch, 66,165 for other branches of the Department of Lands and Forests, 78,877 for other departments of Government, and
15,178 for the public. Likewise of the 55,450 photostats made, 25,077 were for
the Surveys and Mapping Branch, 18,419 for the other branches of the Department
of Lands and Forests, 7,586 for other departments of Government, and 4,368 for
the public.
COMPOSITE MAP SECTION
This Section is responsible for the compilation and tracing of composite maps,
mostly at a scale of 500 feet to 1 inch, of the more thickly subdivided areas of the
Province and especially where they occur in unorganized territory.
The project this year was mapping the area between Nelson and Trail, including West Robson and Fruitvale. This is covered by forty-four sheets, and copies
of same are now available.   (See Index Map No. 3.)
LAND EXAMINATION PLANS SECTION
This Section is responsible for the preparation of plans for the use of the Land
Inspectors in their examination of applications for Crown lands. These plans are
a consolidation of all the information available in this Department and pertinent to
the application requiring inspection. A synopsis of the work accomplished by this
Section during the past six years is as follows:—
Year Plans Prepared Year Plans Prepared
1955  2,030 1958  2,192
1956  2,340 1959  2,473
1957  2,290 1960  2,609
GENERAL
In anticipation of the arrival of the I.B.M. 650 computer, this Division took
steps to prepare for the advantages this machine would make available. Mr.
Michael Perks, one of our staff surveyors, attended a short I.B.M. course prior to
commencing his field season. At the end of the season, in conjunction with his
normal preparation of plans, he took on the task of writing a programme to accommodate the type of calculations presently carried out in this Division in the checking of survey returns. This programme was completely set up when the machine
arrived in December, and the accumulated backlog of work which had been processed on to data cards was put through the machine. It is expected that the increasing use of this machine will add greatiy to the quality of the checking of the
said survey returns and will also speed the operation. This Division is indeed
fortunate in having Mr. Perks available to carry out this important work.
Through the co-operation of the Department of Highways and the Forest
Service, a Barcro camera was ordered for this Division. It is hoped to have this
machine set up sometime after the middle of January, when it will be possible to
increase our service, not only to the two departments mentioned above, but to all
departments of Government.
5
 Y 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The receiving and distribution of survey posts, which are stored at 859 Devonshire Road, has operated smoothly and efficiently. The following synopsis shows
the quantities of posts shipped during the past year and to whom:—
Standard
Pipe
Standard
Rock
B.C.L.S.
Bars
Purchased by private surveyors from headquarters.	
Supplied to Departmental surveyors _
Shipped to Government Agents for resale  —	
513
894
2,875
317
12
843
249
2,593
2,200
Totals 	
4,282
1,172
5,042
Summary of Office Work for the Years 1959 and 1960,
Legal Surveys Division
Number of field-books received
„        lots surveyed	
„        lots plotted	
,,        lots gazetted	
„        lots cancelled	
lots amended	
mineral-claim field-books prepared	
reference maps compiled or renewed...
applications for purchase cleared	
applications for pre-emption cleared.___
applications for lease cleared	
water licences cleared	
timber sales cleared	
Crown-grant applications cleared	
cancellations made	
inquiries cleared	
placer-mining leases plotted on maps.__
letters received and dealt with	
land-examination plans	
Crown-grant and lease tracings made __
miscellaneous tracings made	
photostats made 	
blue-prints made 	
1959
565
613
763
419
43
313
6
2,690
160
1,854
55
6,122
1,545
4,733
1,738
346
6,267
2,473
1,935
16
50,349
196,421
I960
514
858
623
492
11
217
24
18
2,482
147
2,453
14
5,710
1,485
5,521
1,807
417
6,513
2,609
3,719
18
55,450
235,148
FIELD WORK
A little new ground was broken this season in that a special survey over an
area in Alberni, which was predominantly Crown land or had been conveyed by the
Crown, and which had been recommended by the Branch, was carried out by a staff
surveyor. In addition, the usual number of requests from other departments for
surveys and our joint programme of highway surveying with the Location Branch of
the Department of Highways made it a busy year.
Subdivisions of Crown Land
One hundred and forty townsite lots in four new areas of development in the
north half of this Province were laid out in Fort Nelson, Wonowon, Chetwynd, and
the new site at Bear Lake on the John Hart Highway.    Rural roadside home-site
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Y 59
lots in the Cariboo region numbered 111, being located at Puntziville and in the
Williams Lake area. Lake-frontage home-site lease surveys in nine areas produced
249. In the Kamloops area these subdivisions were laid out at Paul, Heffley, and
Shuswap Lakes, at Bridge and Beaver Dam Lakes in the Cariboo, at Sakinaw Lake
on the Sechelt Peninsula, at Murray Lake near Princeton, at White Swan Lake in the
East Kootenay, and at Christina Lake in the Boundary country. Acreage parcels
for industrial and agricultural purposes were surveyed at Fort Nelson, Tree Island,
Vanderhoof, Cascade, and Engen.   Eleven lots totalled 268 acres.
Public Recreational and Special Reserves
In addition to recreational reserves being surveyed as a part of most of the
lake-frontage subdivisions previously mentioned, a 21-acre site at Lac la Hache was
laid out. The total acreage of such reserves was 268, with an additional 27 acres
at five sites for local community use.
Park and Historical Sites
Some private property being acquired for park use required surveying. At
Sproat Lake on Vancouver Island a choice 48-acre site was laid out, and 33 acres
in Bedwell Harbour on South Pender Island were acquired to form the nucleus of a
marine park. A 6-acre site at Weaver Creek near Harrison Lake was surveyed out
of a larger area being acquired. Twenty-one acres surrounding Cottonwood House
on the road to Barkerville were surveyed as a historical site, and two valuable areas
on Fraser Lake comprising 160 acres were laid out for park use.
Forest Service Sites
Sites for Ranger or patrol stations were surveyed at Cedarvale in the Terrace
area, at Dawson Creek, and at White Swan Lake in East Kootenay. At this lake
a foreshore reserve in conjunction with the patrol-station site was surveyed, as well
as a portion of the forest-development road through private land. A radio-tower
site on Fraser Mountain and a right-of-way to it were surveyed in the Fort Fraser
area.
Reposting
There are numerous reasons—dealt with in previous Reports—why re-establishment of surveys, the monuments of which have deteriorated, is more important
work than making new surveys. Our programme of restorations is woefully
inadequate, and most restoration is accomplished in conjunction with ties required
on new surveys. In this manner, 277 old corners were remonumented. Two areas
near Vanderhoof, where difficulty had been experienced by the Department in
locating any evidence of survey, and where a considerable amount of Crown land
was available, were resurveyed and a total of thirty-three section corners replaced.
An unusually large resurvey was required of the boundaries of the Haney Correctional Institution for administration purposes. The area involved was 1,638 acres.
Another large area of 1,385 acres on Lake Windermere was resurveyed as a preliminary to planning a future subdivision of a part of it.
Inspections
In all, eight inspection surveys were carried out, of which four were of a very
minor nature. One district lot at Peachland that the Department had been selling
by aliquot parts was resurveyed, and a large error in the original survey was found.
 Y 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Three surveys involved with registration in the Land Registry Offices were investigated at Nanaimo, North Saanich, and Westbank, and all were found to need
correction, indicating the desirability of maintaining this aspect of our work.
Highways
Work was continued on the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway westward
from Moyie, and the survey was completed to Irishman Creek, a distance of 13
miles. On the Cariboo Road, where the survey was terminated at Stone Creek the
previous year, a newly constructed section of 9 miles to Red Rock was surveyed.
A join was made on the Trans-Canada Highway between previous highway surveys
at Cache Creek and Deadman Creek Indian Reserve. This 17.25-mile link will
provide a co-ordinate route between previous triangulation ties. The new road
between the British Columbia-Alberta Boundary and Pouce Coupe, which was still
under construction when our survey started, was surveyed throughout its 17-mile
length despite a lively contest between surveyors and paving engineers. The old
Provincial section surveys in this area were notably deteriorated, and an unusual
amount of retracement for ties far removed from the right-of-way was necessary.
On the Northern Trans-Provincial Highway a 12.3-mile section through Fort Fraser
and on to Fraser Lake moved the surveys that much farther westward. A cancellation of part of the townsite plan at Fraser Lake was effected as the new highway cuts
through a multitude of small unoccupied lots.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Y 61
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief
The past decade has seen many changes in the Topographic Division. Personnel, methods, and equipment have all been subject to the march of time. There are
only ten of the 1951 staff still with the Division, all key personnel in the present
organization, while, on the other hand, methods have been subject to change, mainly
because of the purchase of new and up-to-date equipment. The use of the helicopter, Beaver aircraft, and four-wheel-drive vehicles have improved transportation
facilities tremendously. Improved plotting techniques, because of the acquisition
of multiplex, the Wild A-7 Autograph and Kelsh plotters, and the use of telluro-
meters in conjunction with precise transits, have widened the horizon of the Division.
From almost exclusive effort on the National Topographic l-mile-to-l-inch series,
we now range all the way from the standard 1:50,000 scale map-sheets to 40-feet-
to-1-inch engineering plans.
124
£T   C   H
123
124°
123°
SCALE
GEODETIC TRIANGULATION ®
PROVINCIAL MAIN TRIANGULATION A
SECONDARY    TRIANGULATION A
TELLUROMETER   STATIONS •_
Fig. 1.
 Y 62
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GEODETIC    TRIANGULATION A
PROVINCIAL   MAIN   TRIANGULATION  1
SECONDARY    TRIANGULATION 4
TELLUROMETER   STATIONS •
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Y 63
Field control obtained during the past field season is a good example of this
change and improvement. Control was completed for 211/i standard National
Topographic map-sheets, covering approximately 8,000 square miles, which
represents two more sheets than the total production ten years ago. In addition,
eight large-scale projects were completed, as well as several covering special areas
at Kamloops, Essondale, and Victoria. These large-scale maps represent nearly half
of the total effort, so that the production of field control due to better equipment and
easier modes of transportation has almost doubled in the past ten years (see Index
Maps Nos. 4 and 6, contained in envelope attached to the back cover of this
Report). Worthy of note also is that the field expense vote of the past year wa.
approximately 17 per cent less than the 1951 appropriation. The inflated dollar of
to-day makes the above figures even more impressive.
Mr. E. S. W. Andrews, B.C.L.S., in his report of the Photogrammetric Section,
shows sixteen completed projects totalling 6,861 square miles, and draws attention
to the fact that almost an equal amount of credit could be taken for several large
projects presently in hand, and more than half completed.
The Chief Draughtsman, Mrs. S. L. Clarke, reports the completion of fifteen
standard topographic manuscripts at the scale of 2 inches to 1 mile, 128 large-scale
mapping plans at various scales, plus eleven large plans at 20 and 40 feet to 1 inch
of the Victoria College and Oakalla Prison Farm. In addition, the plotting of the
cadastral surveys on forty-seven Federal Government 1:50,000 scale manuscripts
was completed.
The Federal Government now has sixty-three of our 1:50,000 scale manuscripts on hand for printing which are in various stages of reproduction.
Copies of the multiplex large-scale mapping and the completed manuscripts as
shown on the indexes following this report are available upon request.
While the services of a chartered Bell G-2 helicopter from the Okanagan group
and our own De Havilland Beaver were utilized on four separate projects, over-all
control of them was maintained by Mr. F. O. Speed, B.C.L.S., during the whole
1960 field season to assure maximum use with minimum duplication. Most of the
month of June was needed to complete the vertical control of nine map-sheets west
and north of Quesnel. During July and August and the first week of September, Mr.
Speed was in charge of a control survey in the vicinity of McKinley and Mitchell
Lakes, the extension and completion of the survey commenced in 1959 (see Fig. 3).
Tellurometers were used exclusively in this rugged section for control traverses, and
again proved to be excellent survey tools. It was recorded that the helicopter made
a routine landing and take-off at an elevation of 9,260 feet in the Raush River area.
While this may not appear outstanding to-day, to the writer it is another indication
of the times, for ten years ago such a landing would not have been attempted.
During the latter part of September, Mr. Speed moved his operations to Fort St.
James and obtained vertical control for the survey party operating there.
Mr. K. M. Bridge, B.C.L.S., with six men controlled nine map-sheets in the
Nazko area south of Prince George and north and west of Quesnel, more particularly
covering map-sheet areas 93 G/2 to G/7 and G/10 to G/12 (see Fig. 1). The
vertical control was completed by the helicopter in June and the horizontal control
by mid-August. It was then decided to disband this crew, due to the bad fire situation in this vicinity and the lack of funds required for a move to commence another
area. The men were distributed among the other parties as required. This was a
difficult area for travel, the back roads up to the end of June being so wet and soft
as to make them almost impassable. By the end of July the woods became explosively dry and water was scarce.   These problems, coupled with heavy tree cover,
 Y 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
made it a complex area to control. Four towers ranging from 20 to 80 feet in height
were built at those stations where clearing would have been impractical.
Four map-sheets, 93 K/7 to K/10, were controlled by Mr. G. New, B.C.L.S., in
the vicinity of Stuart Lake (see Fig. 2). In addition, he obtained control for a
pondage map of Stuart Lake that is to be plotted at the scale of 1,000 feet to 1 inch,
with a 20-foot contour interval, up to the elevation of Trembleur Lake. This was
one of several controlled during the year for the Fraser River Board by this Division.
Mr. A. M. Barber, B.C.L.S., was in charge of the party that completed most of the
others. He commenced his operations on the Olsson Creek pondage assignment,
then moved to Fort St. James to a proposed dam-site across the Stuart River where
it leaves the lake. This map was drawn at 50 feet to 1 inch with a contour interval
of 5 feet. From there the crew moved to Sandy Lake, which is approximately
60 miles due east of Quesnel, and later to the nearby Isaac Lake, where work was
completed for dam-site maps. This party used two Cruson Air rubber boats
powered by 18-horsepower outboard motors to good advantage throughout the
season. While working on the Isaac Lake project, these boats were cached at
McLeary Lake. Upon return to the boats, later, it was a shock to find the rubber
skins torn beyond repair by a bear. This necessitated borrowing a boat from nearby
to ferry their equipment back to Sandy Lake.
In addition to the above, Mr. H. R. Millard completed the field work at a
Clearwater River dam-site, also for the Fraser River Board.
Mr. A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S., was in charge of a six-man crew that made
twenty-eight ties from existing triangulation, both Geodetic and Provincial, to the
Alaska Highway survey monuments. These ties stretched along the said highway at
approximately 10-mile intervals from Mile 374 to Mile 626, where the road crosses
the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary. The purpose was to allow precise coordination of existing Alaska Highway survey monuments, made necessary by the
many requests from oil companies for precise control for well-site and other surveys
in that section of the Province.
Following the completion of this work, the party travelled up the Kechika
River by boat to make four lot surveys. Failure of the boat to return on schedule
due to low-water conditions in the river forced Mr. Swannell and one man to walk
out approximately 140 miles to Lower Post. An aeroplane was then sent in for the
rest of the crew and equipment.
Two hundred and thirty miles of the Liard River and 108 miles of its main
tributaries were controlled for the Water Rights Branch by Mr. A. D. Wight,
B.C.L.S., for a topographic map at 1,000-feet-to-l-inch scale of the river basin. In
addition, control was extended to seven proposed dam-sites, the detailed survey of
which was being undertaken by Water Rights personnel at the same time. These two
parties and Mr. Swannell assisted each other whenever possible. A helicopter from
the Okanagan group was chartered for parts of June and July in this area, and Mr.
Swannell was able to use 13Vi hours of this service in June to complete his most
difficult section.
 r
surveys and mapping branch
List of Large-scale Mapping
(See Index 6.)
Y 65
No.
Name
Available
Scale
Contour
Interval
No. of
Sheets
Date
XI
S.P. 1
S.P. 2
Goldfields   —-	
Richmond 	
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yi:s
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1"=800', 900',
1,000', 1,320'
l"=20O', 600'
1"=1,000'
1"= 1,000'
1"=20 ch.
_"_= 5S(y
l"=10ch.
l"=10ch.
l"=10ch.
1"= 1,300'
l"j=13ch.
1"=   100'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   100'
1"=.1,0C0'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=1,320'
1"=   200'
1"—   200'
1"=   400'
1"=   400'
1"=1,320'
l"z=   400'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"= 1,320'
V—   500'
l"=r   500'
1"=   500'
1"=1,000'
1"= 1,000'
1"_=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"j__   500'
1"j=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
l"j=   500'
1"=   500'
1"_=   500'
1"=   300'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   400'
1"=   200'
V—   500'
1"= 1,000'
l"=l,00O'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   600'
1"=_1,000'
1"=   600'
1"= 1,320'
1"=   200'
_"_=   200'
1"=   500'
1"=2,640'
1"=   500'
100'
Mosaic
5'-50' then 50'
5'-50' then 50'
20'
20'
100'
50'
50'
50'
500'
5'
50'
20'-40'
5'
50'
10'-20'
20'-40'
50'
5'
Spot heights
5'-10'-25'
5'-10'-20'
100'
20'-100'
20'-4O'
20'-40'
50'
50'
20'-40'
20'-40'
20'-40'
50'
20'
20'
50'
20'-40'
10'
10'
10'
20'
5'-10'-15'
20'-40'
10'
5'-10'-20'
20'
10'
Planimetric
10'-20'
20'-40'
20'-40/
20'-40'
20'
10'
10'-2(y
20'
20'
20'
50'
5'
5'
50'
100'
20'
18
20
(])
13
1
1
38
8
6
13
28
73
2
7
(7)
11
12
8
6
6
1
1
26
3
39
8
23
11
5
2
7
7
20
8
11
2
4
2
4
5
3
9
16
40
7
3
10
2
8
17
1
10
1957
S.P. 3
1958
1
1952
2
1951/52
3
1950
4
1951/52
5
1951
6
7
8
Kemano.	
Mount Farrow 	
1952/53
1951
1951/52
9
10
11
Salmo	
Moran Pondage— _	
1952
1952
1952
13
1953
14
15
16
Fraser Pondage	
Fraser Pondage 	
Gulf Islands     	
1951
1953
1953
17
18
Agassiz.  	
1953
1953/54
19
Doukhobor Lands—
1953/54
20
21
24
28
Krestova-Raspberry, Brilliant, etc..  	
Brooks Peninsula	
Agassiz (Extension)...	
Moran Pondage  	
1953/54
1953/54
1954
M2
1954/55
M3
M4
Naver Creek.	
1955
1955
M5
1955
M6
1955
M7
1955/56
M8
1956
M9
1956
M 11
1955
M 12
1955
M 13
1954
M14
M15
M 16
Kelowna   .
Westbank	
1954
1954
1956
M 17
1954
M21
1955
M24
1956
M26
M27
1958
M29
1956
M30
1956
M34
1957
M 36
1957
M 37
1956/57
M38
1956/57
M 39
1956/57
(1957)
M39
(1958)
M39
Dease-Stikine Dam-sites
1959
1960
(1960)
M40
M41
M42
M43
Chilliwack River	
Summit Lake Diversion	
Peace River Dam-site 	
Alert Bay. 	
1956
1958
1957
1956
M44
1958
M45
1958
M52
1959
M 54
Big Bar.      .
1957
M 56
1958
One (Map 5e).
■ See No. 17.
 Y 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
List of Large-scale Mapping—Continued
No.
Name
Available
Scale
Contour
Interval
No. of
Sheets
Date
M59
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
1"=1,320'
1"=   500'
1"=1,320'
1"=   400'
1"=   400'
1"=1,320'
1"=1,320'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   200'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=1,000'
1"=1,000'
1"=   400'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=     20'
1"=     20'
1"=     40'
1"=     40'
20'
10'
20'-2,600' then 50'
10'
10'
20"
25'
20'
10'
10'
10' and 20'
10' and 20'
20'
20'
5'
20'
5'
10'
2'
2' and 5'
2'
2'
2
2
633
10
4
3
10
43
5
1
25
20
"5
14
"4
2
5
2
4
1958
M62
1958
M63
M66
M67
M68
Parsnip River Pondage	
Glen Lake   -	
Chemainus River— 	
1958
1958
1958
1958
M70
M73
Courtenay-Comox _ 	
1958
1959
M73
M 74
North Okanagan  	
1959
1959
M75
1959
M76
1960
M77
M88
M 89
1960
M 89
1960
M90
M 98
1960
Government House Grounds
Victoria University Campus ..
Victoria University, Gordon
Head..                       	
1959
1960
1960
1960
1 South area.
List of British Columbia Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed
w.
Sheet
82 F/3 ..
82 F/4 ..
82 K/ll,
82 K/12
82 L/7	
82 L/10 	
82 M/13	
83 D/4	
83 D/5 	
83 D/12	
83 D/13, W.
92 B/5	
92 B/6, W. _
92 B/ll, W.
92 B/12 	
92 B/13 	
92 B/14 _.
92 C/8
92 C/9
Date
..1951, 1960
..1944, 1947
 1952
 1952
 1958
 1958
 1959
.1959
.1959
.1959,1960
..I960
-.1937, 1938,1955
.1955
.1955
92 C/10
92 C/ll
92 C/13
92 C/14
92 C/15
92 C/16
92 E/l ..
92 E/7 ..
92 E/8 ..
92 E/9 ...
92 E/10 .
92 E/14 .
92 E/16 .
92 F/l ...
92 F/2 ...
92 F/3 ...
92 F/4 ...
92 F/5 ..
92 F/6 ...
92 F/7 ..
92 F/8  .
92 F/9 ...
92 F/10
92 F/ll
92 F/12 .
92 F/13
 1938,1955
..1942, 1943, 1951
..1951
-1937, 1938
.1937, 1938
..1937, 1938
 1938
 1938
..1938
 1937, 1938
-1937,1938, 1942
 1942
 1946
,1946
..1943,
-.1938, 1946, 1947
 1947
 1948
 1947
..1942
-1938, 1940,1942
.1938, 1940,1941
..1942
 1937, 1938, 1943
1937, 1940,1941, 1943
 1942,1943
 1942,1943,1950
  1950
 1950, 1953
 1934, 1935
.1936, 1937, 1938
 1935, 1936
part .
Sheet
92 F/l4 	
92 F/15, part
92 F/16, part
92 G/4 -	
92 G/5 	
92 G/7, part ...
92 G/10, part
92 G/ll —	
92 G/12 -
92 G/13  —
92 G/14 -	
92 H/l 	
92 H/2	
92 H/3 	
92 H/4	
92 1/12 	
92 1/13	
92 J/15 	
92 J/16 	
92 K/l,
92 K/3
92 K/4 ...
92 K/5 ...
92 K/6 ...
92 L/l
92 L/2 -j
92 L/3 ...
92 L/4 ....
92 L/6 ...
92 L/7 ....
92 L/8 ....
92 L/10 .
92 L/ll ..
92 L/12 „
92 L/13 ..
92 M/3 ..
92 M/4 ...
92 M/5 -
92 N/1 -.
92 N/7 _.
92 N/8 .
92 N/9 -
92 N/10 .
92 N/15 .
92 O/l ...
Date
—.1935
 1950
 1950
.1942, 1943
-1950, 1952
 1940
 1940
 1952
..1950, 1952
-1950,1952
.....1952
..1920, 1923, 1949
 1923, 1949
1924, 1931,1948, 1949
  1948, 1956
   1958
   1958
.1948, 1949
.1948, 1949
 1950
 1949
 1949
 1949
  1949
 1932
.1931, 1932
 1948
 1948
..1931, 1934
  1931
 1932
.1935,
1931, 1940, 1956
  1940
,1936
.1936
.1957
-1957
..1957
.1958
-1958
.1958
-1958
-1958
-.1958
-1950
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Y 67
List of British Columbia Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed—Continued
Sheet
92 0/2 	
92 0/3 	
92 0/4 	
92 0/5 	
92 0/6 	
92 0/7 	
92 0/8 -. -
92 0/9 	
92 O/10
92 O/ll  -
92 0/12 	
92 0/16  -
92 P/2	
92 P/3 	
92 P/4	
92 P/5	
92 P/6	
92 P/7	
92 P/10 -	
92 P/ll 	
92 P/12 	
92 P/13 	
92 P/14 	
92 P/15 	
92 P/16 	
93 A/1 	
93 A/2	
93 A/3 	
93 A/4 	
93 A/5 	
93 A/6 	
93 A/7 _	
93 A/8 —	
93 A/9 -	
93 A/10 „--
93 A/11 —...
93 A/12	
93 A/13 	
93 A/14  -
93 A/15	
93 A/16 .—
93 B/l	
93 B/8	
93 B/9	
93 B/16 	
93 C/5	
93 D/7, E. ...
93 D/8	
93 G/2 __	
93 G/3 	
93 G/4	
93 G/5 ._	
93 G/6 —	
93 Q/7 -	
93 G/10	
93 G/ll _	
93 G/12 	
93 G/14	
93 1/8	
93 1/9 .
Date
 1947
 1958
— 1958
—.1958
—1958
..1950, 1958
 1950
 1951
 1958
 1958
 1958
 1951
 1959
 1959
 1958
 1958
 1959
 1959
 1959
 1959
— 1958
 1958
 1959
- 1959
 1959
 1959
-1936, 1959,1960
 —I960
   1959
 1935
 - 1935
1936, 1959, 1960
  1959
  -1959, 1960
  1934, 1960
 1933, 1934
..1931, 1933, 1934
  1934
 1933, 1934
  1934, 1960
 1960
 1951
  1952
 1950
 1950
 -1959
 - 1958
93 1/10 	
93 1/11 	
93 1/12 	
93 1/13
93 1/14 	
93 1/15 	
93 1/16 	
98 J/2	
93 J/3	
93 K/l .....
93 K/2 -...
93 K/7 	
93 K/8 	
93 K/9	
93 K/10 ...
93 L/2 .	
..1958, 1959
-1933, 1960
  1960
   1960
 1960
 1960
.1933, 1960
  1960
 — I960
 1960
 1948
 1956
 1956
 1956
 1959
 1959
 1959
 1959
- — 1956
 1956
 -1949
 1949
 1946
 1946
 1960
 1960
„- -I960
 1960
  1951
Sheet
93 L/7	
Date
  1951
93 L/8  	
  1951
93 L/9  -	
  1951
93 L/10 	
        1950, 1951
93 L/ll --	
 1950
93 L/14 	
  1950
93 M/5 —
     1949
93 M/12  -	
   .1949
93 O/l	
- ...  1957
93 0/6   —.
  1957
93 0/8   -
 1957
93 O/ll 	
          1957
93 0/12 	
1957
93 0/13	
  1957
93 0/14	
   1957
93 P/l   —
        1956
93 P/2 . —
 1956
93 P/3	
1957
93 P/4 .— -	
    1957
93 P/5 -   -
    1957
93 P/6  	
  1957
93 P/7 	
1956
93 P/8	
 1956
94 B/4 	
1939, 1957
94 C, part	
 1939
94 E, part	
   1939
94 F, part 	
  1939
94 L, part —  	
 1940, 1941
94 M, part —	
 1941
102 1/8 	
1935, 1937
102 1/9    	
 1935, 1936, 1937
102 1/15 	
    1937
102 1/16 	
 1936, 1937
103 1/2	
         .  1949
103 1/7	
          ... 1948
103 1/10 —	
 1947
103 P/9  ..
              1949
103 P/10, E —	
  1950
103 P/14, E 	
   1950
103 P/15 	
1950
104 A/2, W -	
 1950
104 A/3   —
 1950
104 A/5, E	
  1950
104 A/6  	
  1950
104 A/11, W	
 1951
104 A/12 —	
   1951
104 A/13, W	
1951
104 B/16  	
—      1951
104 G/l  	
   1951
104 G/8   -
 1951
104 G/9 —-	
      1951
104 G/14   	
 — 1951
104 G/15 	
        1951
104 G/16	
 1951
104 H/12, W. ..
 1951
104 H/13, W	
    .  1951
104 J/2, W	
        1952
104 J/3 —	
  .1952
104 J/4  -
 1952
104 J/5	
        ...1952
104 J/12 	
  1952
104 J/13 	
 1952
104 K/16, E	
  1952, 1953
104 N/1  	
  1952,1953
104 N/2  	
  1953
104 N/3, E 	
   -1953
104 N/5	
 -1952
104 N/6  	
104 N/7, part -
 - - 1952, 1953
 1953
104 N/11, W.  	
104 N/12  -
 1952
 1952
104 N/13  -
 1952
104 P, part  	
 —  .1941
104 P/15	
 1941
104 P/16, part —
 - 1941
 Y 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
W. R. Young, B.C.L.S., Chief, and Provincial Representative on
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
The accomplishments of the Geographic Division during 1960 were highlighted
by the publication of Map-sheet Ijr, a six-colour layer tint relief map of the
Province. This map, at a scale of 1 inch to 30 miles, shows, with great clarity and
accuracy, the main topographic features and has been enthusiastically received by
industry, educational institutions, and the general public. The Provincial mapping
programme, although adding four completely new maps, also necessitated the
reprinting of eleven others, of which seven required extensive revision. This diversion of effort into the reprinting of existing maps is the direct result of a continuing
heavy demand for Provincial land-status maps. In order to devote a greater share
of the cartographic programme to the production of new maps, it will be necessary
to acquire a sizeable amount of additional space for the storage, in bulk form, of
a sufficient stock of each published map to offset their present rapid rate of depletion. A new Miehle offset press recently acquired by the Queen's Printer will
enable the handling of map-sheets up to 36 by 50 inches size and give the Division
a much greater flexibility of map production. Further details of the Division's
activities follow.
Unlike the previous year, when there were several staff changes, the establishment of the Division remained in balance during 1960, there being only one resignation and one replacement. The volume of correspondence handled continued to
grow, with 6,929 letters being received and attended to.
Using geodetic triangulation as a base, survey ties have been completed by
Provincial triangulation and traverse between Mile 374 (west of Fort Nelson) and
Mile 620 (Lower Post) on the Alaska Highway. (For control surveys in British
Columbia, see Index Map No. 19, in envelope attached to the back cover of this
Report.) On the basis of work finished during 1960 and in progress at the end of
the year, the Trigonometric Control Section will shortly be able to supply the positions of survey monuments from Mile 64 near Charlie Lake to Mile 620 at Lower
Post along the highway. A statistical summary of computations done by the Trigonometric Control Section may be found at the end of this report. Note that the
number of stations fixed by tellurometer measurement in 1960 is shown in the
statistical tables for the first time.
The Research Assistant was engaged in a variety of projects. Work was completed on the manuscript of a new Land Series bulletin, " How to Acquire Crown
Lands in British Columbia." Although this bulletin has not yet been published, a
new map-sheet (lex) showing an index to published land-status maps and the
boundaries of land recording districts was prepared to accompany it. Separates of
Map lex are now being distributed. The manuscript of another Land Series bulletin, "Atlin Bulletin Area (No. 9)," was well in hand by the end of the year. In
connection with the forthcoming revision of the Peace River District Land Series
Bulletin (No. 10), the Research Assistant and another member of the staff undertook a 2,656-mile field-trip to the Peace River region during August. Besides the
above work, minor revision was made to Kamloops Land Series Bulletin (No. 6)
for reprinting purposes. Bulletins reprinted with no revision included Fort Fraser-
Fort George (No. 7) and Peace River District (No. 10).
In connection with maps produced by Federal Government agencies and the
Province, forty-one map-sheets and charts were checked for nomenclature. The
number of new place-names added to files was 322.    Sometimes considerable re-
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Y 69
search is necessary to determine the position and authenticity of a place-name before
it can be accepted for official use by the Canadian Board on Geographical Names.
Two staff members made a field culture check in the Creston-Fernie area, the
results of which will be integrated into the forthcoming Provincial editions of Maps
82 F/SE, 82 G/SW, and 82 G/SE. When printed, these sheets will complete the
replacement of Map 4b (now out of print) and parts of 4c (out of print) and 4d.
In advance of the programme planned for 1961, the field check of cultural detail
was also extended to embrace the west halves of Maps 82 G/NE and 82 J/SE.
As mentioned previously, the new edition of Map Ijr gives promise of becoming one of the most popular maps reproduced and printed by the Geographic
Division. Among the new National Topographic Series maps at l-inch-to-2-miles
scale released in 1960 were Shuswap Lake 82 L/NW, Vancouver 92 G/SW, and
Kamloops Lake 92 I/NE. The staff of the Cartographic Section also made substantial revision to seven reprints of existing Provincial maps, while four maps were
reprinted without revision. At the end of the year an additional fourteen maps were
in various stages of preparation, including two regional 1-inch-to-10-miles sheets—
North-western British Columbia (1b) and North-eastern British Columbia (Id).
It is expected that Map Id will be published early in 1961. Compilation is in progress for Map 1b, the sixth and final sheet of this series.
Thirty-two topographic manuscripts were checked for cultural detail and place-
names before being sent to Ottawa mapping agencies for reproduction. Commencing in 1960, provisional prints at 1:50,000 scale are made available for these manuscripts.   (See Index 14 in the envelope attached to the back cover of this Report.)
In return for the co-operation given by the Surveys and Mapping Branch in the
preparation of the above topographic manuscripts and in checking colour proofs,
stocks of eighteen full-colour National Topographic maps at 1:50,000 scale were
supplied to this Division. Additional maps of British Columbia published by
Ottawa agencies numbered fifty, of which major stocks were obtained for twenty-one
maps at 1:50,000 scale and three at 1:250,000 scale.
The Federal programme of provisional mapping was altered early in 1960.
Because of the backlog of mapping at 1:50,000 scale, it was decided henceforth to
publish permanent provisional maps in two colours only for wilderness areas. A
total of fourteen provisional sheets was released by the Department of Mines and
Technical Surveys and two by the Army Survey Establishment. The former agency
has now taken over the full provisional mapping programme.
During 1960, 68,518 map-sheets with a total value of $24,378.25 were distributed, of which a large proportion (four-fifths) were taken by the general public and
the remainder by various Government departments. Maps received into stock, of
which there were 175,495 in 1960, are transferred to temporary storage facilities,
which are inadequate for present use. On the basis of the scheduled mapping programme for the 1961/62 fiscal year (during which an estimated 201,000 Provincial
and Federal Government maps will be received into stock), coupled with the need
for bulk storage of the present stock of maps, it is expected that existing storage
facilities will be severely overtaxed.
Besides the assembling, editing, and distributing of the Lands Service Annual
Report, the Division completed eighteen miscellaneous geographical tasks having a
work value of $1,370 for Government departments (other than the Department of
Lands and Forests) and for private firms. As in previous years, assistance was
given in the preparation of descriptions for various administrative boundaries such
as polling divisions, land recording and assessment districts, and county courts.
 Y 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A statistical summary of work completed by various sections of the Geographic
Division may be found in the following tables. Indexes to Published Maps (Nos. 8
to 14, inclusive), together with information regarding prices, scales, dates of publication, and other facts, may be found in the envelope attached to the back cover of
this Report.
STATISTICAL
Computations
Least-square Triangulation Adjustments Completed
Net
Locality
Type of
Bearings
Number of
Triangles
Involved
Provincial Main-
Provincial Main-
Provincial Main-
Provincial Main-
Provincial Main-
Provincial Secondary -	
Provincial Secondary —
Provincial Secondary	
Provincial Secondary	
Canadian Hydrographic Service-
Canadian Hydrographic Service.
Canadian Hydrographic Service.
Anahim Lake .
Bridge Lake
British Columbia-Yukon Boundary .
Merritt-Lower Arrow Lake	
Pine and Peace Rivers	
Tahsis Canal-Hecate and Esperanza Inlets
Similkameen 	
Port Eliza  	
West Road and Chilako Rivers area .
Return-Johnson Channels	
Caamano Sound and vicinity	
Otter Passage-Estevan Sound 	
True
True
True
True
True
Grid
Grid
Grid
Grid
Grid
Grid
Grid
43
45
21
125
51
116
10
13
9
50
36
24
The following tables give comparison with the previous five-year period:—
Computations
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
518
810
814
536
32
82
1,093
888
24,652
461
567
669
562
918
542
806
543
Stations calculated from rectangular co-ordinates	
891
73
49
239
1,415
576
23,559
378
70
325
1,637
613
26,289
403
22
378
1,173
1,297
27,462
397
24
133
1,563
945
29,025
383
174
251
Index cards—
1,419
551
30,444
Requests for control attended to  _
349
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
Number of map-sheets or charts checked..
Number of names checked. 	
Number of new names recorded-
83
5,766
655
61
6,664
247
54
:,884
306
49
4,698
278
51
6,321
372
41
4,949
322
Map Stock and Distribution
Maps issued to departments and public-
Maps received into stock	
Total value of maps issued	
48,043
84,573
$18,995
59,290
129,901
$20,523
55,167
181,412
$20,441
62,544
117,729
$21,911
78,074
92,374
$27,117.50
68,518
175,495
$24,378.25
Geographical Work for Other Departments and Public
Total number of items _
Total value of work	
60
$1,990
84
$2,687
86
$2,654
55
$1,447
20
$2,754
18
$1,370
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Letters
Y 71
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
5,783
5,419
5,516
6,545
6,865
6,929
Maps Published during 1960
Maps Reproduced and Printed by the Geographic Division, Victoria
Map No.
Name
Scale
Remarks
Ijr
2a
3a
3e
92g
92k
92p
1031
82 E/SW
82 E/NW
82L/NW
92 G/SW
92 H/SW
92 I/NE
92 I/SE
Relief Map of British Columbia
Vancouver Island—Southerly
Fort George  	
Peace River   	
Vancouver (first status edition) ._ 	
Bute Inlet (second status edition)	
Bonaparte River (second status edition)
Terrace (first status edition)..
Penticton (second status edition) 	
Kelowna (second status edition) 	
Shuswap Lake (first status edition) ..
Vancouver (first status edition) 	
Chilliwack (second status edition) 	
Kamloops Lake (first status edition)
Merritt (first status edition) 	
1 in. to 30 mi.
1 in. to 4 mi.
1 in. to 3 mi.
1 in. to 4 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
New edition.
Reprint, no revision.
Status and minor revision.
Status and minor revision.
Reprint, no revision.
Complete revision contoured.
Complete revision contoured.
Reprint, no revision.
Complete revision.
Complete revision.
New, six colours, contoured.
New, six colours, contoured.
Complete revision.
New, six colours, contoured.
Status overprint, no revision.
Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Produced and Printed at 1:50,000
Scale by the Canadian Government, Ottawa
Map No.
Name
Map No.
Name
92 B/5, E. & W.
92 B/6, W.
92B/11, W.
92B/12, E. &W.
92 G/14, E. & W.
Sooke (second edition).
Victoria (second edition).
Sidney (second edition).
Shawnigan (second edition).
Cheakamus River (first edition).
92 H/1, E. & W.
92 H/2, E. & W.
92 L/4, E. & W.
93 B/8, E. & W.
104 J/5, E. & W.
Ashnola (first edition).
Manning Park (first edition).
Brooks Peninsula (first edition).
Soda Creek (first edition).
Ketchum Lake (first edition).
Maps in Course of Reproduction
Maps Being Reproduced by the Geographic Division, Victoria
Map No.
Name
Scale
Remarks
1b
Id
92B/C
92e
92f
92g
92o
103 I/J
82 F/NE
82 F/NW
82 F/SE
82 G/SE
82 G/SW
82 K/SW
North-western British Columbia	
North-eastern British Columbia _
Victoria (first status edition) —
Nootka Sound (first status edition)..
Alberni (second status edition)	
Vancouver (second status edition)...
Taseko Lakes (first status edition)...
Prince Rupert (first status edition)..
Kaslo (first status edition)	
Slocan (first status edition). _	
Creston (first status edition)	
Flathead (first status edition) 	
Elko (first status edition)  	
Nakusp (first status edition) 	
in. to 10 mi,
in. to 10 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
In compilation.
Draughting complete.
In draughting.
Draughting complete.
In draughting.
In compilation.
Draughting complete.
In compilation.
Draughting complete.
In draughting.
In compilation.
In compilation.
In compilation.
Draughting complete.
 Y 72
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Provincial Government Manuscripts Being Reproduced by the Canadian
Government, Ottawa, at 1:50,000 Scale
Map No.
Name
Map No.
Name
82K/11.W.
Trout Lake (first edition).
93 P/4, E.&W.
Sukunka Creek (first edition).
82K/12, E. &W.
Beaton (first edition).
93 P/5, E.&W.
Burnt River (first edition).
92J/15, E. &W.
Bralorne (first edition).
93 P/6, E. & W.
Gwiliim Lake (first edition).
92 J/16, E. &W.
Bridge River (first edition).
93 P/7, E.&W.
Sundown Creek (first edition).
92L/10, E. &W.
Alert Bay (first edition).
93P/8, E. &W.
Tupper Creek (first edition).
92M/3, E. &W.
Belize Inlet (first edition).
104 A/2, W.
Kwinageese River (first edition).
92M/4, E. &W.
Cape Caution (first edition).
104 A/5, W.
Bowser Lake (first edition).
92M/5.E. &W.
Goose Bay (first edition).
104 A/6, E.&W.
Bell-Irving River (first edition).
92 0/1.E. &W.
Yalakom River (first edition).
104 A/11, W.
Taft Creek (first edition).
92 0/8, E. &W.
Empire Valley (first edition).
104 A/12, E.&W.
Delta Peak (first edition).
92 0/9.E. &W.
Dog Creek (first edition).
104 A/13, W.
Mount Alger (first edition).
93 1/8, E.&W.
Narraway River (first edition).
104 B/16, E.&W.
Bob Quinn Lake (first edition).
93 1/9, E. & W.
Belcourt Creek (first edition).
104H/12, W.
Kluea River (first edition).
93 1/10, E.&W.
Wapiti Lake (first edition).
104H/13, W.
Ealue Lake (first edition).
93 1/15, E.&W.
Kinuseo Creek (first edition).
104 K/16, E.
Nahlin River (first edition).
93 1/16, E.&W.
Redwillow River (first edition).
104 N/1, E.&W.
Nakina Lake (first edition).
93 P/l. E. &W.
Kiskatinaw River (first edition).
104 N/2, E.&W.
Nakina (first edition).
93 P/2, E.&W.
Flatbed Creek (first edition).
104 N/3, E.
Sloko River (first edition).
93 P/3, E.&W.
Sundown Creek (first edition).
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Y 73
AIR DIVISION
W. Hall, P.Eng., B.C.R.F.
The year 1960, despite very poor weather in the spring, developed into an
excellent year for air photography. A total of 540 hours and 25 minutes of flying-
time was logged by the two aircraft, which was the highest of any year except 1958.
Of this total, 318 hours were spent on l-inch-to-20-chains narrow-angle photography for the Forest Surveys and Inventory Division, while the remainder was
utilized in obtaining special photography at various scales catering to other Government department requirements.
Photo coverage at the l-inch-to-20-chains scale was obtained for areas in the
five forest districts and covered a total of 20,215 square miles. This constitutes
a record accomplishment.
The Mapping Sections were primarily occupied with the production of 1-inch-
to-20-chains scale compilations of the photos taken for Forest Surveys. Because
of our limited staff, it is impossible to produce completed maps of the 15,000 to
20,000 square miles required each year, so our main effort is directed to produce
accurate plots of photo centres for the areas that are needed. Duplicate sets of
photos showing the base lines and common points used in the original compilation
are also prepared. With these data, Forest Surveys is able to carry out its programme.
The compilation of the detailed finished map proceeds at a much slower rate,
only 1,420 square miles being completed during the year.
Details of the Air Division's activities and accomplishments during the year are
given in the following reports, tables, and maps.
AIR OPERATIONS
Although suitable weather for air photography did not develop until later than
usual in the season, the pattern of good weather after June 4th was exactly right for
the particular areas for which photographs were required. As a result, a total of
20,215 square miles of l-inch-to-20-chains photography was obtained, a record
accomplishment. (See Index Maps Nos. 15 to 18, contained in envelope attached
to the back cover of this Report.)
Many special projects were completed, including photography for control strips
and general mapping for the Topographic Division in connection with mapping projects for various Government departments, map revision in the East Kootenay area
for the Geographic Division, road location for Forest Engineering and the Highways
Department, foreshore and booming-ground leases for the Lands Branch, transmission-lines and new land development for the Surveyor of Taxes, and potential ski
areas for the Parks Branch.
The maintenance organization at Victoria International Airport has proved to
be most successful, and a minimum of unserviceability has been experienced. However, it must be realized that the two Anson V aircraft have now been in operation
with the Division for fourteen years, during which time they have each flown over
3,000 hours, or about 450,000 miles.
Because of the fact that this type of aircraft has been out of production since
the war, the situation has developed where there are no longer any replacement parts
available for the airframe.
This means that any structures that deteriorate through rot or separation of the
glued members can only be made serviceable by rebuilding rather than replacement.
This could be a very involved and costly procedure.
 Y 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
For this reason, and because the various Government departments will continue
to require air photos for a long time to come, we must seriously consider obtaining
suitable replacements.   This matter is presently being investigated.
Also, as the work of the Forest Surveys is now being more and more concentrated on forest management rather than forest inventory, higher-quality photos are
required in order that a maximum of detail can be obtained. The air cameras presently in use for this work, while suitable for general interpretation, do fall short of
the requirement. The purchase of more suitable up-to-date camera equipment is
therefore indicated.   This matter is also being investigated.
MAP COMPILATION
The Division is organized to plot the air photos, compile control and cadastral
surveys, plot detail from the photos, and produce finished tracings for the 1-inch-to-
20-chains photography as it is obtained.
Because of limitations in staff, it is impossible to fully complete into finished
map form the 15,000 to 20,000 square miles of photography that the Forest Surveys
and Inventory Division requires each year, and it is necessary therefore to concentrate on the work that is currently required.
The main effort therefore is directed toward the assembly of the air photos and
the production of principal-point lay-downs. The entire photo accomplishment of
the flying season is compiled, and the lay-downs, together with sets of base-lined
and common-pointed photos, are handed to the Forest Surveys as they are completed.
This gives the Forest Surveys the basic material needed in its programme of field
sampling and typing and office compilation. A total of 20,215 square miles of this
work was done during 1960.
The plotting of detail from the photos and the compilation of finished tracings,
which include all cadastral surveys, proceeds at a much slower pace, only 5,160
square miles of detail plotting, 6,130 square miles of cadastral survey compilation,
and 1,420 square miles of finished maps being produced. (See Index Maps Nos. 5
and 7, contained in envelope attached to the back cover of this Report.)
PROCESSING LABORATORY
A total of 251 rolls of air film, 242 rolls of topographic film, and 1,230 feet of
70-mm. film exposed during helicopter flights was processed, and a total of 159,100
prints was produced. Of the latter, 148,155 were standard 9- by 9-inch enlargements. This constitutes something of a record for over-all production. (For details
of Processing Laboratory production see table following.)
 surveys and mapping branch y 75
Production Record, 1960, Air Photo Processing Laboratory
1946-55
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
Grand
Total
Processing completed—
Air films (averaging 117 exposures)
Air films (averaging 220 exposures)	
Air films (obliques averaging 40 expo-
1,855
111
148
238
5
11
129
5
11
228
14
2,709
24
33
10
6
71
Air films (70-mm., helicopter)	
1,230 ft.
5V_
3
242
148,155
504
5,996
403
2,699
1,057
265
1,230 ft.
9
6
20i/_
Air films (colour, Forest Service fires)..
Mountain   station   films   (6   exposures
each)  	
Printing completed—
Standard prints (5 by 5 inches enlarged
3
2,510
942,098
42,829
387
137,190
731
278
152,556
1,172
183
135,326
423
823
453
1,190
908
173
137,645
358
1,247
270
2,651
1,349
3,773
|1,652,970
46,017
Contact prints (91/. by 9Vi inches)	
8,066
1,271
11,107
13,627
346
4,123
1,102
11,914
384
1,524
2,926
463
2,018
1,561
3,244
Enlargements up to 40 by 60 inches
Mountain station enlargements (11 by
21,189
21,428
265
22
593
338
2,270
4
340
248
1,934
372
Autopositive films (various sizes to 30
980
538
2.526
344
180
2,433
613
10
2,549
6,993
Miscellaneous photographs, copies, etc._
2,416
23,626
Orders for Standard Prints (9 by 9 Inches) from
British Columbia Negatives, 1960
Reprints
Loans
Requisitions
Number
Requisitions
Number
Public—
Individuals   	
602
3.874
291
56
61
22
19
3,430
96                   713
942
94
83
43
9
51
362
22
6,372
21,038
2,356
113
2,009
12,974
178
2,450
409
445
Commercial air survey  	
25
161
93
645
2,880
Real estate    	
639
Totals 	
1,362      |        49,627
728
11,840
Federal Government—
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys	
9
1,148
3
65
58
639
1
36
6
294
Totals—	
77                  1,845
37
300
Provincial Government—
178
45
16
119
69
202
69
1
19
16
4
21
1
11,261
2,566
821
848
1,709
80,369
3,610
1
571
579
8
327
9
369
18
64
5
166
153
51
8
32
39
19
199
17
6,895
172
848
6
Department of Highways	
2,407
1,369
962
Department of Agriculture	
105
580
British Columbia Power Commission	
796
192
1,760
119
Totals...   	
760             102,679
1,140
16,211
9 199        I        1541511
1,905
28,351
'
1 Includes 9V_- by 9V_-inch contact prints from R.C. 8 photography.
 Y 76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Public Loans and Reprints
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
12,054
38,450
11,059
62,843
8,646
32,131
13,981
45,644
11,840
49,627
Totals  	
50,504
73,902
40,777
59,625
61,467
1960 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects
4*
2
u
<
Ih
3
O
e
WJ
«-J-a
5B
e°
a o
KB.
Accomplishment
s
o
U
DO
.g
E
u
3
a
M
2a
O m
■JO O
B.O
m
g
rt w
g.-a
"rt wj
OJ V
qa
xn
a
o
«
v_
O
U
(2
A. Basic vertical cover—Queen Charlotte
Hr.
11
Min.
00
$1,287.51
$1,287.51
C. Triangulation control identification	
D. Forest inventory cover (approximately
20 chains/inch)—
1. New cover—■
3
3
21
3
40
8
7
8
30
46
4
3
16
7
29
40
22
7
4
05
55
30
25
25
45
00
00
30
15
20
50
35
40
20
25
00
25
05
lio
1,720
225
2,720
530
450
540
2,150
2,835
350
285
1,150
475
1,450
2,835
1,085
570
230
120
$360.88
458.41
2,516.43
399.90
4,730.49
1,024.13
819.30
936.35
3,569.81
5,413.28
507.19
448.66
1,940.96
897.33
3,433.26
4,730.49
2,574.95
868.07
477.92
$360.88
$192.82
3,014.99
394.40
4,767.90
929.04
788.81
946.57
3,768.74
4,969.48
613.52
499.58
2,015.84
832.63
2,541.71
4,969.48
1,901.90
999.15
403.17
651 23
2,200
280
3,300
5,531.42
794.30
Prince Rupert District Sub-zone
902                 	
Prince Rupert District Sub-zone
920
9,498.39
1,953.17
1,608.11
1,882.92
7,338.55
10,382.76
1,120.71
Prince Rupert District Sub-zone
948
450
400
650
2,200
2,900
385
Prince Rupert District Sub-zone
949                           	
Prince Rupert District Sub-zone
950                              .          	
Prince George District, Sub-zone
937      --     -	
Prince George District, Sub-zone
939                                	
	
	
Prince George District, Sub-zone
940
Prince George District, Sub-zone
941                     	
325
1,065
Prince George District, Sub-zone
945 -   	
3,956.80
1,729 96
Prince George District, Sub-zone
949                  	
450
1,250
2,465
5,974.97
Kamloops District, Sub-zone 962
9,699.97
4,476.85
1,867.22
1,000
530
245
Nelson District, Sub-zone 978	
881 09
308
9
30
45
19,710
340
20,215
$36,107.81
1,141.17
$34,549.73
595.99
$70,657.54
2. Improvement flying—All districts
for 1960
1,737.16
Totals         	
318
15
20,050
20,215
$3.58
$37,248.98
	
$35,145.72
$72,394.70
Average cost per square mile
E. Forest engineering—
1
5
2
1
3
1
35
15
15
00
00
00
15
20
135
96
23
12
63
15
17
128
15
3
	
$185.31
614.53
263.35
117.04
351.13
117.04
29.26
$35.06
236.64
168.28
40.32
340.06
31.55
15.78
$220.37
Cayoosh  Creek   Forest-development
851.17
	
431.63
Kakweiken River Forest-development
157.36
Kimsquit-Kitlope Forest-development
194
18
9
691.19
Kingcome Forest-development Road...
	
148.59
45.04
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
1960 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects—Continued
Y 77
2i_
0 a
•sl
1 o
S-a
Za,
Accomplishment
05
O
u
60
a
'>.
E
u
3
o,
rt
§
2 a
O oj
_?,9
c_
q)
rt w
toS
CJ)   -J
32
in
|
rt
0.
O
u
o
H
E. Forest engineering—Continued
Kwoiek Creek Forest-development
Road                             	
Hr. Min.
2    35
1    00
1    30
1    10
45
1 00
2 00
1    30
1    05
3 50
1    30
1    30
30
30
25
90
40
33
15
145
65
68
155
60
53
23
24
16
55
29
17
5
85
40
45
103
65
36
15
$302.36
117.04
175.56
136.55
87.78
117.04
234.08
175.56
126.80
448.66
175.56
175.56
58.52
$52.59
43.82
157.76
70.12
57.85
26.29
254.17
113.94
119.20
271.70
105.17
92.90
40.32
$354.95
Lodgepole Forest-development Road...
160.86
333.32
Mo rice   River   Forest-development
Road                                       	
206.67
145.63
Pine River bridge-sites	
143.33
Seymore   River   Forest-development
Road 	
488.25
Shovel-Henrietta Forest-development
Road          	
289.50
Slok Creek Forest-development Road
246.00
720.36
Upper   Bowron   Forest-development
Road 	
280.73
White    River    Forest-development
Road  	
268.46
Williams   Creek   Forest-development
Road                                	
98.84
Totals           	
34    15
1,297
	
788
$4,008.73
$2,273.52
$6,282.25
Average cost per lineal mile..
$7.97
F. Precision mapping projects—
Topographic Division—
7    40
2    25
1 45
2 20
4    30
2   00
2   25
35
360
92
12
8
83
3.
28
2
1,050
$897.36
282.85
204.82
273.10
526.69
234.08
282.85
68.27
$631.04
161.27
21.03
14.02
145.49
52.59
49.08
3.51
$1,528.40
444.12
110
6
5
57
42
15
1
225.85
287.12
Water Rights Branch—
672.18
286.67
Tranquille water-supply	
331.93
71.78
Totals  	
23    40
615
1,050
$1.46
236
$9.83
	
$2,770.02
$1,078.03
$3,848.05
Average   cost   per   square
mile or lineal mile	
G. Special projects—
Water Rights Branch—
3 00
1 00
4 30
2 15
1    40
1 10
2 10
16   00
1    00
15
15
3 50
30
1 35
3    35
55
2 10
3 40
50
58
41
172
225
11
48
453
11
1
6
126
40
45
140
20
85
280
80
17
30
140
$351.13
117.04
526.69
263.35
195.07
136.55
253.59
1,872.69
117.04
29.26
29.26
448.66
58.52
185.32
419.40
107.28
253.59
429.15
$87.64
101.67
71.87
301.50
394.40
19.28
84.14
794.07
19.28
1.75
10.52
220.87
70.12
78.88
245.41
35.06
149.00
490.81
$438.77
Vedder and Chilliwack Rivers	
218.71
Kootenay River to U.S. Border	
Fraser Valley dyked area	
	
	
598.56
564.85
South Thompson-Shuswap	
70
589.47
4
30
500
155.83
337.73
Geographic   Division   map   revision—-
2,666.76
Tsawwassen Beach jetty and road
16
2
3
180
25
25
200
12
136.32
31.01
39.78
Topographic Division—Trig. Identification,    Ashcroft-Tatlayoko
Lake	
Legal Surveys Division—
Highway, Fort Fraser to Endako
669.53
128.64
Highway survey, Alberta Border
264.20
Air Division map revision—
P.G.E.,  Pine  Pass  to  Fort St.
664.81
142.34
Department  of  Highways — Silver
and Skagit Rivers 	
55
215
402.59
Forest  Surveys—Redonda  Public
Working Circle (R.C. 8)—	
919.96
 Y 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
1960 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects—Continued
gg
It
p
Accomplishment
o
U
OJJ
c
'>.
E
u
a.
CS
-0
O oj
So
OJ
o
rt m
3 IZ
in£.
<a <o
3S
s
o
cS
O
0
*rt
o
H
G. Special projects—Continued
Lands general—
Hr. Min.
2    00
35
1    05
5 00
1    30
6 10
5    20
1    00
30
1    25
1    00
18    10
6
4
18
76
33
122
171
30
3
6
13
*235
4
1
4
59
54
168
$234.08
68.27
126.80
585.22
175.56
721.77
624.23
117.04
58.52
165.81
117.04
2,126.34
$10.52
7.00
31.55
133.22
57.85
213.85
299.75
52.59
5.26
10.52
22.79
2696.08
$244.60
75.27
158 35
Lower Vancouver Island boom-
ing-grounds	
Surveyor of Taxes—
	
718.44
233 41
790
36
935.62
923 98
Forest Research—East Thurlow
Island.	
169.63
Attorney-General's   Department—
3
2
13
63 78
Parks Branch—
176.33
	
139.83
Forest   Management—Kamloops
District burns (28 areas)	
120
22,822.42
Totals   	
93    15
2,529
946
$4.14
1,912
$6.13
$10,914.27
$4,717.25
$15,631.52
Average cost per square mile
or lineal mile- - 	
H, Miscellaneous flying—
Travel   Bureau — Photo   recce.,
1    45
12   45
1    30
7   50
6   40
29    30
$204.82
1,492.26
159.67
833.50
710.02
3,140.27
$204.82
Internal—
1,492.26
*20
193
57.04
335.43
216.71
1,168.93
Training.   , -	
 710.02
3,140.27
Totals                           .    ~
60   00
213
 | |	
$1,697.08|	
$1,697.08
540   25
24,959
22,211
2,936
$57,926.59
$43,214.52
$101,141.11
1 Photos duplicated in colour.
2 Includes $284.15 cost of colour photography.
Figures in italic:   Cost of tests and maintenance charged to all projects.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
 Note 3
THE WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which administers the control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water Act.
The main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:—
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all the water at any time
in any stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in right
of the Province. The common-law principle of riparian water right has been
abolished.
(2) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Earlier licences
have priority over licences issued later.
(3) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the water-licence rentals, and observance of the regulations of the
Water Act.
(4) A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land, mine, or
undertaking, and it will pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof.
(5) If it is necessary that a water licensee construct works on another person's land,
he can expropriate the land reasonably required if an amenable agreement
cannot be reached. If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee may
acquire a permit to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to generally supervise and
assist the administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under
the Water Act for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, dyking, street-lighting, providing
financial aid to hospitals, fire protection, and several other purposes. An improvement
district is a self-governing public corporate body administered by elected Trustees. The
undertakings of an improvement district can be financed by Provincially guaranteed
debenture issues.
The third dominant function of the Water Rights Branch is to carry out water-
resource surveys. Basic data are gathered to encourage and guide the future use and
conservation of our water resources, and engineering investigations are carried out pertaining to irrigation- and domestic-water supply, stream erosion, flooding, and other
water problems.
The administration of the Water Act is carried out by the Comptroller of Water
Rights, and his staff are located at a headquarters office in Victoria and district offices
at Victoria, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, Prince George, and Mission.
Water is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on economic
development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand by the utilizers
of other resources. Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this
Province is associated with the use of British Columbia water. A large number of communities have been incorporated into improvement districts to operate community projects and provide essential amenities.
The Water Rights Branch, therefore, has engineering as well as administrative functions and is called upon by the Government and the public to carry out many and varied
investigations and to assist and direct this expansion in the public interest. The members of the Branch take an active part in a number of important committees and boards
dealing with the disposition of the Province's water resources.
 Tributary to Liard River, above Hades Gate.
 Y 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
A. F. Paget, P.Eng., Comptroller
There has not been any lessening of the activities of the Water Rights Branch
and its staff in 1960. The diminishing availability of unrecorded water in the
settled areas increases the problems of licensing each year. In addition, there is a
greater conflict between the several resources depending on water for their exploitation. It is therefore taking more time and effort to complete the necessary work on
every aspect of water administration. The number of applications remains relatively
constant each year, and there is no indication these will slacken off in the future. So
much effort is needed to deal with applications that many other administrative
matters regarding water licences, such as cancellations, apportionments, and extensions of time, are falling behind. The number of active licences is increasing annually, which, of course, adds to the work of the Branch. The number of improvement
districts under the Water Act is also increasing annually and requires an ever-
increasing amount of attention from senior members of the Branch.
The last session of the Legislature enacted several amendments to the Water
Act which should permit more direct and efficient administration in the future. The
Regulations and Tariff of Fees, Rentals, and Charges under the Water Act, which
had been in effect for many years with minor amendments from time to time, were
cancelled and by Order in Council No. 2771, approved December 5th, 1960, and
new regulations and tariff were issued. As the water rentals under the new tariff
were substantially altered, a considerable amount of work was necessary to bring
the forthcoming 1961 accounts billings up to date. The regulations are now up to
date and in agreement with present procedures and should prove to be a more
workable document for the future.
Eleven recruitments were made during the year to replace personnel who
retired, resigned, or died. Two retirements, Mr. George Ford and Miss Hilda
Hinder, were of staff members with over forty years' service each. It is regretted
that an ex-Comptroller, Mr. J. E. Lane, passed away on September 17th.
The work of the section dealing with local-area water-supply problems for
waterworks or irrigation has been carried forward under the direction of Mr. P. J.
Leslie, assisted by Mr. W. Webber. There is a growing demand all over the Province
for central water-supplies. The work of the section is very useful in establishing
engineering feasibility and economic justification for the many proposals that have
been made. This section works in close relationship to the activities of the solicitor,
Mr. A. K. Sutherland, who co-ordinates much of the work relating to the formation
of improvement districts and their administration and financing.
Of unusual moment this year was the submission of the report of the Peace
River Power Development Company dealing with that company's plans for the construction of hydro-electric facilities on the Peace River and the transmission of power
to British Columbia load centres. The Comptroller reported to the Government on
March 31st with respect to the feasibility of this report. Additional studies have
been made through the year to reach agreement between the company and the
Comptroller on aspects where some reservations had been expressed in the March
31st report to the Government.
Additional negotiations with reference to a Columbia River treaty between
Canada and the United States proceeded during the year, with active Branch participation on the technical and advisory levels. Discussions between Canada and British
Columbia concerning Columbia River power development took place to develop an
agreement to implement in British Columbia the Canada-United States treaty when
this became realized.   Again the Branch actively participated in these meetings.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Y 83
The Comptroller appeared before the House of Commons Committee on Mines,
Forests, and Water on June 14th with reference to the activities in British Columbia
in the related fields of hydrology and meteorology. Since then there have been
informal discussions with the interested Federal agencies with the objective of improving co-operative arrangements in these fields.
The Comptroller or senior staff members continued to participate on a number
of boards, committees, or organizations dealing with water and related matter, as
follows:—
Columbia River—
Canada-British Columbia Policy Liaison Committee.
Canada-British Columbia Technical Liaison Committee.
International Working Group.
International Kootenay Lake Board of Control.
Fraser River Board.
Pollution-control Board.
Interdepartmental Committee on Flooding and Erosion.
Cowichan River Erosion and Flooding Committee.
Vedder River Erosion and Flooding Committee.
Western Snow Conference.
Hydrology Sub-committee on the National Research Council.
British Columbia Energy Board.
British Columbia Natural Resources Conference.
National Resources Conference.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS
There are 251 improvement districts under the supervision of the Water Rights
Branch. These districts are incorporated for various purposes, among which are to
extend financial aid to hospitals; to provide hospitals, irrigation, waterworks, fire
protection, street-lighting, sewage-disposal, garbage collection and disposal, land
protection, dyking, drainage, community halls, ambulance services; the operation
and maintenance of cemeteries; and the provision and maintenance of parks and
playgrounds. Eleven improvement districts were incorporated this year, as follows:
South Quadra Fire Protection District, Union Bay Waterworks District, Sandwick
Waterworks District, Dodge Cove Improvement District, Thompson Valleys Hospital Improvement District No. 27, South Pender Harbour Waterworks District, 100
Mile House Hospital Improvement District No. 28, Cranberry Fire Protection District, Boundary Hospital Improvement District No. 29, Queenswood Sewerage District, and Garden Bay Waterworks District. Six districts were dissolved, namely:
Lumby Waterworks District, Upper Terrace Waterworks District, Central Waterworks District, Highland Waterworks District, Somenos Drainage District, and
Lumby Fire Protection District.
Pursuant to section 58 of the Water Act, $605,022.10 was advanced to improvement districts by the Province of British Columbia for 1960 requirements to
provide fire protection, financial aid to hospitals, and street-lighting, and will be collected by the Province by way of taxes over a period of time from one to twenty years,
depending on the capability of the area to repay. The tax levy for 1960 to take care
of the aforementioned advances and those of previous years was $841,767.98.
Pursuant to the Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act, chapter 38 of the
Statutes of British Columbia, 1945, and amendments thereto, the Province of British
Columbia guaranteed debentures with respect to both principal and interest in the
amount of $1,371,500.    In addition, temporary borrowings with respect to both
 Y 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
principal and interest in the amount of $1,184,000 were guaranteed by the Province
of British Columbia. Of this amount of temporary borrowings, $483,000 was liquidated from funds received from the sale of debentures as aforesaid. This Branch
recommends the feasibility of the projects before the Province guarantees temporary
borrowings and debentures with respect thereto, and, further, that the areas can
liquidate the debentures as they become due. Of the total net amount guaranteed as
aforesaid, $19,000 was used for rehabilitating irrigation systems, $1,378,500 was
used for rehabilitating and constructing waterworks systems and sewers, and
$720,000 was used for constructing new hospitals.
WATER-USERS' COMMUNITIES
There are fifty-eight water-users' communities in the Province at the present
time. They are incorporated by certificate of incorporation issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights and are usually small corporate bodies of six or more persons
holding water licences. Their powers are more restricted than those of an improvement district, and the administration is carried out by a manager under the supervision of the Comptroller of Water Rights. Four water-users' communities were
incorporated during 1960 and one was dissolved.
INTERNATIONAL WATERS—COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN
The past year has been momentous from the view-point of progress toward
international agreement, between Canada and the United States, for co-operative
development of the Columbia River. The International Joint Commission had
been directed early in 1959 by the two Governments to recommend principles to
be used in determining the benefits resulting from the co-operative use of storage
of water and electrical interconnection in the Columbia River system, and the apportionment between the two countries of such benefits particularly in regard to
electrical generation and flood-control. This report was submitted on December
29th of that year, and, on January 25th, 1960, the Governments of Canada and
the United States appointed delegations to represent their respective Governments
in negotiations looking toward the formulation of an agreement covering co-operative development of the water resources of the Columbia River basin for the mutual
benefit of both countries.
The Deputy Minister of Lands was appointed member of the Canadian delegation, and senior officials of the Water Rights Branch and the British Columbia
Power Commission participated as advisers to the Canadian delegation and as
members of the International Work Group which was established to facilitate the
work of the delegations. Also, the Deputy Attorney-General provided advice during the later stages of the negotiations and participated in the treaty drafting.
The delegations met nine times during the year, alternating between Ottawa
and Washington. A series of discussions also took place between the technical
advisers on the International Work Group.
Following last year's establishment by the Governments of Canada and British
Columbia of committees and concurrent with the international negotiations, frequent meetings of the British Columbia-Canada Policy Liaison Committee, composed of responsible Ministers and senior officials of the two Governments, were
held to assess the various alternatives being considered by the negotiators and to
establish agreed policy that could be mutually supported. The Committee was
assisted in its deliberations by a Technical Liaison Committee with membership
from the technical staffs of both Governments.   This Committee carried out engj-
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Y 85
neering and economic studies and provided reports to guide the Policy Committee
in its decisions in arriving at a plan for optimum development of the Columbia
River basin in Canada.
At the end of the seventh negotiating meeting, the two delegations were substantially in agreement on the principal points to be decided and submitted a progress report to the Governments dated September 28th, 1960, recommending the
basic terms of an agreement for development of storage projects and for sharing of
the resulting down-stream power and flood-control benefits. The delegations further recommended that the agreement should be in the form of a treaty with appropriate annexes. Upon acceptance of the progress report by the two Governments,
the delegations proceeded to final negotiation of terms and the drafting of a treaty.
At the ninth meeting, the last to be held in 1960, the delegations had approached very close to an agreement on a treaty that could be recommended to
the Governments, and it is anticipated that negotiations would be completed and
a treaty finalized at the tenth meeting to take place early in January of 1961.
FRASER RIVER BASIN
The Comptroller of Water Rights, as one of the four Fraser River Board
members, once again made available the facilities of the Water Rights Branch.
The Branch accepted the task of investigating and reporting upon the problem of
flooding from severe winter storms in the low-lying dyked and undyked lands of
the Fraser Valley between Hope and New Westminster. To this end, additional
hydrometric and meteorologic gauging-stations were established throughout the
valley with the co-operation of the Federal agencies. In addition, two survey parties from the Branch spent the summer obtaining data for mapping and for aerial
photographic analysis of the low-lying areas. The two parties covered some 100,-
000 acres during the summer season, and will complete the remaining 55,000 acres
early in 1961. Information on the present condition of the dykes and drainage-
works was also collected in order that their capabilities may be evaluated. This
work is a necessary part of the Fraser River Board's studies in which consideration
must be given to the probable river-levels in the Lower Fraser Valley if reservoirs
are created in the headwater streams of the Fraser system for flood-control and
hydro-electric power.
 Y 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
WATER RIGHTS  BRANCH -  REVENUE AND  EXPENSES
FISCAL  YEARS   1935-1960
DISTRIBUTION   DIAGRAM   FOR FISCAL YEAR  1959-1960
..I..:..   I T
I       I       I
EXPENDITURE
FISCAL   YEARS   (ENDING  MARCH  31st)
Plate I.
 -
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Y 87
OPERATIONS  DIVISION
M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Chief, Operations Division
The Operations Division is responsible to the Comptroller and Deputy Comptroller for carrying out the administrative duties arising out of the Water Act and
the regulations issued thereunder. The organization of the Operations Division is
as follows:—
(1) General office, supervised by Chief Clerk.
(2) Administrative draughting office, under supervision of Chief Draughtsman.
(3) Five district offices, each supervised by a District Engineer.
(4) Improvement District Engineering Section.
(5) Audit accountant.
Limited engineering assistance, assistance in accounting, and advice on administration are offered the improvement districts and water-users' communities
incorporated under the Water Act.
The district offices investigate and submit their recommendations in respect
of applications for water licences and applications for amendment of the existing
licences. They also investigate and report on many problems involving disputes,
flooding, and erosion, and have prepared engineering reports covering the design
and feasibility of water-supply for irrigation or waterworks purposes to improvement districts or to groups proposing to form an improvement district.
There are now approximately 17,000 active water licences on our records,
with 939 new applications for water licences received during 1960.
Statusing work on land clearances in connection with applications under the
Land Act and timber sales continues to demand a substantial portion of our draughting office time. Apart from the routine work of preparing water-rights maps and
plats to accompany water licences, the draughting office is also> required to review
all petitions for incorporation of new improvement districts and to prepare maps
showing each new improvement district.
The Improvement District Engineering Section has continued its investigations
and preparation of feasibility reports covering water-supply projects for new areas.
It has also conducted several studies of the existing works of established districts
in connection with proposed rehabilitation or modification.
Regarding the work of our audit accountant, progress was made this year in
standardizing the accounting procedures employed by the improvement districts
and their auditors, with special emphasis on the desirability of establishing a
standardized annual financial statement.
The separate reports of the various sections under the Operations Division
follow.
 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GENERAL OFFICE
(Period November 1st to October 31st.)
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
747
25
11
17
632
794
111
93
687
32
16
45
590
1,902
211
125
977
16
25
54
298
2,299
257
131
1,038
42
23
75
69
2,364
190
109
939
36
31
115
84
2,293
222
160
Totals                 	
2,430
3,608
4,057
3,910
3,880
Conditional licences issued     	
508
324
570
364
562
275
850
274
718
228
Total licences issued	
832
934
837
1,124
946
DRAUGHTING OFFICE
Water applications cleared and plotted on maps
939
Final- and conditional-licence plats compiled and traced   1,194
New water-rights maps compiled and traced 	
Water-rights maps revised	
New improvement districts described and plans prepared	
Improvement district amended descriptions and plans amended..
Reference maps renewed
11
4
9
25
20
Water clearances (change of ownership, cancellation, apportionment, etc.)   2,515
Land clearances (purchases, Crown grants, leases, timber sales,
etc.)   5,345
Land clearances (cancellations)    1,745
Rights-of-way over Crown land      183
During the year many inquiries by the public and by other departments were
taken care of. The usual requests for maps and other information by our District
Engineers were also attended to during the year.
Considerable time was spent checking petitions and drawing up legal descriptions for improvement districts.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS AUDIT ACCOUNTANT
Analysis was made of the annual financial statements furnished by improvement districts as these were received throughout the year. In the case of some
small districts, the returns submitted were not adequate to disclose the district's
financial position, and additional information was sought and statements prepared
therefrom.
Visits were made to forty-two districts during the year, and assistance given
in financial and administrative matters. In particular, an attempt was made to visit
all newly formed districts and those districts which had recently obtained funds
through the issue of debentures guaranteed by the Province of British Columbia
pursuant to the Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS ENGINEERING SECTION
An unusually large number of engineering reports submitted by improvement
districts for proposed waterworks and irrigation schemes were reviewed with respect
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 89
to both financing and design. Engineering advice was also given to a number of
irrigation districts that had requested such assistance.
Some progress was made with the programme for determining the renewal
reserve requirements of irrigation districts.
It was interesting to note that two schemes completed during 1960—namely,
Naramata Irrigation District rehabilitation and North Cedar waterworks—were
constructed along substantially the same lines as advised by this Section, and are
now operating satisfactorily.
A summary of major reports and investigations during the year follows.
Glenmore Irrigation District
A comprehensive report was completed covering the district's distribution
system renewal policy. The report contained a recommended master plan, replacement schedule, and cost estimates.
In general, the district was advised to forego its previous intention of complete
pressurization and to adopt a policy designed to obtain the maximum useful life
from the existing open-ditch components.
Lakeview Irrigation District
A hydraulic survey of the distribution system supplying the Lakeview Irrigation District was completed. The object was to determine the effect of the district's
proposals to extend service to include certain adjacent areas which are to be subdivided for domestic development.
Area West of the Village of Sechelt
An office study was made of a scheme to provide this area with a domestic
water system, and a scheme was found to be economically feasible by which a bulk
water-supply could be obtained from Sechelt Waterworks Ltd.
Storm-water Drainage, Village of Sidney
Certain proposals made by the Village of Sidney to alleviate storm-water flooding of low-lying areas in the village were reviewed, and later a field survey and
inspection was made of the areas concerned. The results of this investigation and
recommendations for remedial works were embodied in a report.
East Osoyoos Irrigation District
Due to the deteriorated condition of the East Osoyoos Irrigation District's
main pumping-line, an investigation was made to determine the feasibility of integrating the district's pumping plant with that of the neighbouring Osoyoos Irrigation District. It was found, however, that replacement of the 16-inch pumping-
main with a new 12-inch pipe would prove more economical than combining the
pumping plants, and it is understood that the district intends to proceed with the
work as recommended.
Pemberton Valley
Reclamation works carried out in the Pemberton Valley by the P.F.R.A. between 1946 and 1953 included the construction of a series of cut-off channels to
eliminate bends in the Lillooet River. Recently the question of responsibility for
carrying out the legal surveys for the cut-off channel easements arose, and in this
 Y 90 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
connection an inspection of the river was made to determine the degree of development and stability of the channels. Generally speaking, stable conditions were found
to exist, and a memorandum was prepared describing these findings.
Keremeos Irrigation District
The Keremeos Irrigation District at present diverts water from the Ashnola
River and conveys it through a system of open ditches, flumes, and siphons for a
distance of some 7 miles. Replacement of several of the main hydraulic structures
will shortly be necessary, and in order to examine the economics of replacing the
long gravity system with a pumped supply from the Similkameen River, a field investigation was made during the summer. Large-scale maps of the district are at
present being prepared by the Surveys and Mapping Branch, and the study will be
continued when these maps become available.
Mill Bay Area Water-supply
The Mill Bay area lies on the west shore of Saanich Inlet, Vancouver Island.
In response to a request by a committee of residents of the area, an investigation
was made to determine the feasibility of providing a domestic water-supply for the
area. A pumped supply from Shawnigan Creek is being considered, and a report
will be issued shortly.
Black Mountain Irrigation District
A survey of the existing works was carried out in order to determine annual
renewal reserve requirements of this district.   A report is under preparation.
Review of Plans Prepared by Consulting Engineers
During the year thirteen reports on proposed construction of new water-supply
systems or additions to the existing systems operated by the improvement districts
were examined with respect to engineering standards and economic feasibility of
these proposals. Several alterations were recommended, and a few projects were
considered to be uneconomical at the present time.
Over ten proposals to install waterworks systems for residential subdivisions
under a water licence were examined, and several changes were recommended in
order to protect the public interest.
Miscellaneous
In addition to the foregoing, this Engineering Section collaborated with the
Kelowna District Office in preparation of the following reports: Sicamous Area
Waterworks System, East Princeton Waterworks District's System, and Okanagan
Falls Irrigation District's System Improvements.
VICTORIA DISTRICT OFFICE
C. Errington, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Victoria District Office administers water-rights matters throughout an area
of approximately 50,000 square miles and includes the relatively thickly populated
and rapidly developing Lower Fraser Valley, the Sechelt Peninsula, and Vancouver
Island. It is divided into five water districts—namely, Victoria, Nanaimo, Alberni,
New Westminster, and Vancouver. The last named extends from Vancouver up the
coast for some 350 miles.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Y91
During the year, June, July, and the first half of August precipitation records
show that the whole area was particularly dry as compared to the long-term average.
Our normal dry-weather problems were relieved by an abnormally wet period during
the latter half of August.
During the period under review, some forty-four special studies, investigations,
and reports were made. These covered such subjects as disputes over drainage and
flooding, obstructions in streams and illegal diversions, advice to licensees regarding
dugouts, reports covering water users' communities and improvement districts, etc.
Summary of routine work carried out during the year November 1st, 1959, to
October 31st, 1960, is as follows:—
Total applications received  345
Conditional licences issued  246
_.,Final licences issued     98
Applications refused       8
Licences abandoned or cancelled     76
KELOWNA DISTRICT OFFICE
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kelowna District Office, administering an area of approximately 15,000
square miles, comprises the Kettle, Similkameen, and Okanagan drainage-basins, the
Shuswap River drainage-basin from Sicamous to its source, and that part of the
Columbia River drainage-basin from Boat Encampment, the northerly limit of the
Columbia River, to a point about 15 miles south of Arrowhead on the Upper Arrow
Lake.
General
The water-supply during 1960 was generally adequate. An extremely hot and
dry period during the month of July resulted in an early use of storage, which in some
instances was not sufficient for the full irrigation season.
There was a record number of storage-dams improved or reconstructed to bring
them up to acceptable standards during 1960. Of particular interest was the conversion from the old-type vertical gate to the inclined gate, which is now being
carried out on many of the major dams. This type of gate is easier to maintain and
is not subject to ice damage.
Engineering investigations are becoming an important part of the district office
work, principally the preparation of feasibility reports in the field of irrigation and
domestic water-supply.
Again there was a noticeable increase in routine administration work, particularly in the number of water applications received and inspected. As the water-
supply of many of the streams is becoming fully recorded, considerably more applications are being recommended to be refused.
There have been two staff changes in the Kelowna office staff during the past
year, as follows: Mr. R. S. Sorokoski succeeded Mr. B. S. Harvey as Assistant District Engineer, and Mrs. M. Kane succeeded Mrs. N. Sherlock as clerk-stenographer.
Summary of Year's Work
Applications on hand and received  252
Applications investigated and reported on  141
Applications abandoned or cancelled  22
Final-licence survey reports  46
Miscellaneous licence survey reports  17
 Y 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Dam inspections  59
Proposed dam-sites inspected  5
Engineering investigations for irrigation and domestic water-supply— 29
Investigations for flooding, drainage, river-bank erosion, and miscellaneous  26
Meetings with improvement districts and others  89
Engineering Investigations
Engineering investigations of a major nature, requiring the preparation of engineering reports containing design, cost estimates, financial study, and recommendations, were as follows:— "    -*"•
(1) Proposed Sicamous area water-supply system.
(2) Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District—report on possibility
of chlorination and silt-removal.
(3) Covert Irrigation District—report on system rehabilitation under preparation.
(4) Shuttleworth Creek Irrigation District—report on feasibility of replacing
storage dams under preparation.
In addition to the above, investigations of a minor nature, involving engineering
study and giving of engineering advice to the principals concerned, were carried out
for the following: Big Eddy Waterworks District, Department of Highways (Mill
Creek relocation), Otter Lake Waterworks District, Ellison Irrigation District, East
Princeton Waterworks District, East Osoyoos Irrigation District, and Okanagan Falls
Irrigation District.
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT OFFICE
H. D. DeBeck, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kamloops District Office serves the central portion of the Fraser River
drainage-basin from Spuzzum to a point 20 miles north of Quesnel.
During the past summer the most serious water shortage for many years was
experienced in the irrigation streams in the area south and west of Kamloops. Conflicts arising from this shortage resulted in many requests for the regulation of diversions by the district office. On the other hand, the water-supply was above average
in the rest of the district, and a number of problems concerning high lake-levels were
referred to this office.
Summary of Year's Work
The following is a summary of work carried out by the staff of the Kamloops
office for the period from November 1st, 1959, to October 31st, 1960:—
New applications investigated and reported on  133
Conditional licences inspected     56
Final-licence surveys made     45
Final-licence reports submitted     37
Dam inspections     89
Miscellaneous field investigations and surveys  115
Meetings attended     19
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 93
NELSON DISTRICT OFFICE
J. P. Riley, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Nelson District Office administers Water Rights Branch matters over some
25,000 square miles in the south-eastern part of British Columbia, comprising all the
Kootenay Land District, excepting the Revelstoke area.
The water-supply in this area during the past irrigation season was generally
good, except during the latter part of June and the whole of July. During this period,
unusually high temperatures created an abnormally high demand for water, and, in
many instances, systems were not capable of supplying the requirements of the
licensees.   Streams generally held up well even under this increased demand.
The sustained interest in water matters was indicated by the large number of
routine inquiries and calls at our office. Further, there was action taken by several
improvement districts toward the renewal and expansion of their systems.
An increasing trend to develop ground-water sources has been noted. The
Castlegar Airport, Castlegar, Beaver Falls, and certain sections of the East Kootenay,
such as Galloway, Elko, and Grasmere, are a few of the areas where deep wells are
either proposed or have recently been drilled.
There are more than 5,000 active licences in the Nelson District. During the
year of review, 150 conditional licences and 46 final licences were added to our files.
Summary of Year's Work
New applications received      127
New applications investigated and reported      111
New applications abandoned and cancelled        15
Final licences and amendment surveys        94
Pollution investigations  6
Flooding investigations        13
Meetings with improvement districts and water-users' communities       31
Miscellaneous meetings and investigations of a non-routine nature..       49
Routine calls and problems  1,516
Sampling of Snow Courses Nos. 7, 17, 19        11
Dam inspections  5
The following engineering investigations were undertaken:—
(1) Water-supply for Balfour community.
(2) Flooding of small streams in Thrums area.
(3) System renewal, Wilmer Waterworks District.
(4) System renewal, Malcolm Horie Irrigation District.
(5) New reservoir, East Creston Irrigation District.
(6) Johnston-Draw Creek mud-slide, flooding and pollution.
(7) Joint water system, Invermere Village and Westside Improvement District.
PRINCE GEORGE DISTRICT OFFICE
E. G. Harrison, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Prince George District Office administers the Water Act in five water
districts in the northern part of British Columbia, the districts being Prince George,
Peace River, Hazelton, Prince Rupert, and Fort Fraser.
In the short time this office has been established in Prince George, there has
not been a shortage of water, as is sometimes experienced in other parts of the
Province, but rather an excess of water, which created flooding and erosion prob-
 Y 94
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
lems.    Generally, the majority of water-users are located adjacent to the larger
streams, and availability of water has not therefore been a problem.
Forty applications were examined during the year, and several investigations
of a miscellaneous nature were carried out. Twenty-seven conditional licences
were added to the files, and twenty were cancelled or abandoned. Most of the
cancelled licences were for railway steam-locomotive watering-stops, which are
now unnecessary with the present diesel equipment.
.<•-
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Y 95
HYDRAULIC INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION
T. A. J. Leach, P.Eng., Chief, Hydraulic Investigations Division
Many hydraulic engineering problems received the attention of the staff during the past year, but broadly the investigations or studies carried out may be
divided into four main headings, as follows:—
(1) Flooding and Erosion.
(2) Irrigation and Water-supply.
(3) Hydro-electric Power Surveys.
(4) Snow Surveys.
Basic to all these fields of engineering is the continuing need for large-scale
topographic and geological maps as well as adequate hydrometric data.
Undoubtedly, up-to-date photogrammetric and survey equipment now used
by the Air Survey and Topographic Divisions, including the RC-8 camera, the A-7
plotter, the tellurometer, and the helicopter, have provided a much faster and more
accurate method of obtaining maps of projects under investigation. In fact, it is
estimated that the Liard River survey, consisting of some 450 line miles of photography, completed this summer, would have taken not less than five seasons under
the methods in vogue in the early fifties.
Unfortunately, the same cannot be said about the equally important field of
hydrology, where there is no substitute for long-term records. Ideally, hydrometric
stations, where stream discharges are measured, should be in operation well in
advance of a water-resource development proposal, but practically this is not usually possible. The network of hydrometric stations, operated by the Federal Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources in co-operation with the
Province, is gradually being expanded and revised to cover the present and future
needs for hydrologic information.
Similar conditions exist in connection with meteorological data where precipitation and other meteorological records are limited to the valley-bottom. This
particular problem was recognized by the Water Rights Branch in 1935, when the
first snow courses were started within the mountain ranges of the Columbia River
watershed. Throughout the years the network of courses has been gradually extended, until to-day there is a total of 109 snow courses within the Province between
the International Border and the Peace River. Since by far the largest percentage
of Interior stream run-off originates as snow-melt during the spring and early summer, snow moisture measurements during the winter months provide a ready index
for estimating the following summer's discharge of many of the main rivers and
tributaries.
The interpretation of basic hydrologic data into a form that is useful to the
hydraulic engineer and hydrologist may require many hours of manipulation and
calculation. Time and man-power usually limit the number of variables or alternatives that may be introduced, and in some instances this precludes the solution
of the more complex relationships.
However, recent developments such as the I.B.M. 650 computer, which is
presently being installed by the Department of Finance, will allow a much more
thorough processing of hydrological data and save many hours of tedious computation. It is expected that the Snow Survey Section will be among the first to use
the machine as this field readily lends itself to such an application.
These and other specialized techniques are the tools of the hydraulic engineer
and his assistants, as well as the meteorologist, and have been used in varying degrees in the investigations that are described in the following pages.
 Y 96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FLOODING AND EROSION
Flooding and erosion continue to receive considerable attention by the Division, reflecting the tendency for population centres to more fully occupy the flood-
plains of the rivers.
Kootenay River Erosion near Creston
In 1959 the Kootenay River channel between the International Border and
Kootenay Lake was sounded immediately after high water in an effort to determine
the erosion characteristics and sand-bar movements along this dyked reach of the
stream. A brief report on the findings was prepared for the Kootenay Valley
Associated Drainage Districts, who, in turn, have retained the services of a consulting engineer to advise them on erosion and flooding problems.
In 1959 the work was somewhat hampered by lack of up-to-date air photographs, but this was remedied through new photography obtained in June and
July, 1960. A few months later in September, field work was resumed, which
practically duplicated the soundings of last year, thereby providing by comparison
an indication of shifting river conditions. All field details are now being plotted
up, and the completion of a brief summary report is under way to supplement the
interim report of last year.
Lower Fraser Valley Winter Flooding
The Branch continued its participation in the work of the Fraser River Board,
and one of its assignments has been an investigation of winter flooding which occurs
within the Lower Fraser Valley down-stream of Hope.
This is a drainage problem caused by the intense winter rains sometimes in
combination with wet snow, which create heavy local run-off along the lower dyked
reaches of the Fraser River. In the higher valley regions this excess water can be
discharged by gravity, but in a number of instances the level of the Fraser River
itself precludes this and the run-off must be pumped over the dykes.
A further complication of this problem is the tidal effect which becomes increasingly important as we move down-stream, and, in fact, is considered to be
the controlling factor below New Westminster in so far as Fraser River water-levels
are concerned. For these reasons, the investigation has been limited to the Hope-
New Westminster reach of the river.
The problem then breaks down into existing drainage conditions under varying storm intensities and the probable future conditions with a regulated winter
discharge of the Fraser resulting from up-stream flood-control regulation.
In assessing the run-off below Hope, it is necessary to break the problem down
according to tributary watersheds. The available hydrometric and meteorological
data were not considered sufficient to provide these incremental run-offs, so that,
through the services of the Water Resources Branch and the Meteorological Division of the Federal Government, a system of winter stream gauges and precipitation stations was established.
At the same time an up-to-date inventory of existing drainage and dyking
conditions, including pumping records, within the valley was carried out, and this
is over half completed. Time and money limitations have forced short cuts in
mapping the various districts, and a method of showing spot elevations on enlarged
paper photographs is being used, which shows promising results.
In conjunction with this work, an office study has been carried out of past
winter water-level records in the Lower Fraser Valley in an effort to obtain the
maximum and average water profiles that have occurred in the past with varying
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 97
flows at Hope. The duration of these different levels, particularly when gravity
outlets are restricted or completely submerged, is an indication of the amount of
pumping that is required for any particular dyked area.
Mabel Lake Flood-control Storage
A further investigation for the Fraser River Board was a study of the effect of
Mabel Lake storage on flood flows of the Thompson River at Kamloops. The
hydraulic conditions are somewhat complicated by the existence of the large Shuswap
Lake system (82,000 acres), through which the flood flows must be routed.
In order to obtain some idea of the control sections along the South Thompson
from Shuswap Lake to Kamloops, a new set of air photographs was obtained in July,
1960, when the discharges were comparatively high.
The present report is nearing completion, and while Mabel Lake storage itself
would not be sufficient, it could, in combination with North Thompson River storage
projects, provide flood protection for Kamloops.
It has also been suggested that with extreme flood conditions at Kamloops,
back-water may exist right up to Shuswap Lake. However, our present studies
would indicate that a high water profile still shows a drop of about 10 feet between
the two points.
Studies of Okanagan Flood-control Project Operation
Construction of the Okanagan flood-control project was completed in 1953.
Since only moderate flows have been experienced to date, the Water Rights Branch
was requested to test the improved channel of Okanagan River in 1958. This test
was discontinued when discharges reached 75 per cent of the design capacity and the
C.P.R. Mclntyre Bridge was made temporarily unserviceable.
In 1960 the Branch made a brief inspection of the new channel. Bank erosion
was evident in many reaches. It is not known whether the new channel will withstand the full design capacity for a sustained period without suffering erosion damage.
A hydrologic study was made based on recorded highest (1948) and lowest
(1928-32) water-supply records. This study indicates that the level of Okanagan
Lake could be maintained within the prescribed control range during both extreme
flood and drought of the record without exceeding the design capacity of the new
Okanagan River channel. Under the 1948 flood condition, the channel would carry
its design capacity for three months. The 1928-32 drought conditions would not
allow the release of sufficient water from the lake during the autumn and winter as
required for the optimum propagation of salmon north of Oliver.
Maximum Stream-discharge Estimates
In response to requests received from the Department of Highways, brief hydro-
logic studies were made in order to determine maximum discharge of the Nicomekl
River at the new Trans-Canada Highway crossing and Rogers Creek at the Island
Highway crossing.
A similar study was made for an estimate of the maximum discharge of Cranberry Creek at the City of Revelstoke power diversion dam.
Bella Coola River Erosion
At the request of the Federal Department of Indian Affairs and the Department
of Highways, a reconnaissance report of erosion conditions along the Lower Bella
Coola River was made following a brief trip to the area.   In conjunction with this
 Y 98 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
investigation, new air photographs were also obtained, which, on comparison with
previous ones, show clearly the movement of the river-banks and in particular the
change in the large meander in the vicinity of Bella Coola.
Gabriola Island Drainage
One of the Division's engineers was appointed by the Minister of Lands and
Forests to serve as an engineer under the Ditches and Watercourses Act to apportion
the work of improving a drainage-ditch on the southern portion of Gabriola Island
amongst the owners of the adjoining properties.
IRRIGATION AND WATER-SUPPLY
North Okanagan Water-supfly
This project, initiated in 1958, is concerned with future water-supply for both
irrigation and municipal use in an area approximately 44 miles in an east-west direction by 36 miles north and south, and includes the main Okanagan Valley north of
Oyama, the Coldstream, Blue Spring, Creighton, and White Valleys, the Hilton-
Cherryville area, most of the Shuswap drainage below Sugar Lake, and a portion of
the Salmon River watershed west of Armstrong.
The main issues with which the investigation is concerned are: (1) Whether
or not a metropolitan water-supply system to serve the North Okanagan communities
is economically feasible at some future date, and (2) what are the possibilities for
irrigation of the irrigable lands contained within the area.
Basic requirements in the way of mapping, soil surveys, and inventories of
existing water use were started in 1958 and carried through 1959 and into 1960 by
the Air Survey and Topographic Divisions, the Department of Agriculture, and the
Water Rights Branch. A committee comprising members of the latter two was set
up to co-ordinate the agricultural and engineering investigations and to provide the
broad approach needed for such a problem.
This year's work marked the completion of all field surveys and forward planning for future hydrometric and climatic data observations. Major contributions to
the work in hand have been the production of fifty-six topographic map-sheets at a
scale of 1,000 feet to the inch and the completion of a soil survey report covering
nearly 150,000 acres or 220 square miles which has been broken down into five soil
classifications.
Water requirements for the various soil types were established at a meeting of
the Reclamation Committee, and, with these basic data, sources of water-supply and
distribution systems are now under investigation. Initial studies include the areas
surrounding the Village of Lumby, extending from Lavington in the west, to Blue
Spring Valley, Creighton Valley, and Shuswap Falls in the east.
It has become evident, as the study progressed, that much of the poorer land
would have to be eliminated in the first analysis, due mainly to either topographic
isolation or physical difficulties as regards to supply.
In order to apply the soil-survey and water-duty data to a comprehensive irrigation plan, it has been necessary to break down the total acreage into manageable
components suitably related to either topography or water sources. Time will not
allow a complete study of all available alternatives for both pumping and gravity
schemes, but the more obvious and apparently reasonable possibilities are being
studied.
A similar approach, although somewhat more detailed, is also being applied to
municipal water-supply systems where a development pattern is already evident.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Y 99
Kalamalka Lake Inflow
A hydrologic study was made in 1960 to determine the inflow into Kalamalka
Lake and the possibilities of further water use. Though this lake has supplied the
Vernon area for close to a century, data from which to determine net inflow have
only been kept since April, 1959.
Tranquille Sanatorium Water-supply
The Branch assisted the Department of Public Works in surveying and preparing plans of Jackson and Tranquille Lakes storage dams and a diversion dam on
Tranquille Creek. The plans were subsequently used by a consulting firm to prepare
recommendations regarding the necessary repairs to these structures.
Brannen Lake Storage Possibilities
A report based on an inspection of Brannen Lake indicates that some 500
acre-feet of storage within 1.5 feet on the lake could be developed on the lake.
This volume is too small for an effective flood-control, but would serve to make
additional water available from Millstone River during low-flow periods in summer.
Comox-Courtenay Valley Water-supply
In 1958 a preliminary report was prepared on a proposed greater water district for the Courtenay, Comox, Royston, and Cumberland areas. This year, this
proposal was revived and the report was amended to include a suggestion that the
scheme be broken down into stages, and that an initial development of the northern
portion of the area, including Comox, Courtenay, Arden, and Sandwick, might be
economically feasible.
HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER INVESTIGATIONS
With the exception of the Branch's contribution to the Columbia and Fraser
River Board's work, the main effort in potential hydro-power investigation has
been in the northern half of the Province.
Liard River Hydro-electric Power
The Liard River, which flows in a southern loop across the northern part of
the Province, originates in the Yukon and has its confluence with the Mackenzie
at Fort Simpson in the Northwest Territories. Out of a total length of 640 miles,
almost one-half is contained within the Province. Its mean annual discharge at
Liard Crossing of 36,000 c.f.s. is about equal to the Peace River at Hudson Hope.
The more feasible opportunities for hydro-power developments would appear
to be in the upper half of the river, up-stream of its confluence with the Beaver
River. Office studies of available maps and R.C.A.F. photography indicated at
least seven potential dam-sites from 35 miles up-stream of Nelson Forks to the
Yukon Border near Watson Lake.    (See Plate 2.)
At the start of the season this portion of the river and its tributaries were flown
and arrangements made with the topographic division to carry out the necessary
field control for 1"= 1,000 feet topographic mapping using the helicopter and
tellurometer.
Actual dam-site detail was obtained by a Water Rights Branch party, which
also provided boat transportation for both parties. This section of the river is fast
and treacherous, and there has been little travel along it since the turn of the century, when it was abandoned as too dangerous by the Hudson's Bay Company.
 Y 100
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
<A_   >\.
lis
.==»   ^-—r-»\ .
r                           2
fa
(T
£3:5
OO  ii
^       ^/                           -'-Cv     ^
f>.—r
£
K
fy
<~^°*er 7 3K                                                v.
i
i
i
^.                    5
\      I
!
3
1
8
I
is
"cc
____?
DI
fi-    '<^)l /*          v \
/.A                 r^^Ws
vT>*j^_
£J~^
'/A                   Ir
V-^K
///
i                                                     /   f/•       ^
\        -       =__=                       ■/&"                         ^-°^
o                                'A\             e^Ti
z
0
_
u                              _i>\ \_=*. _^T         *
Tr     -^y——~^-~# / j                                    .
■'&   Vjru/s L^/7/    J
wi
§h I              ji^^
c   M$                   \                                     f^
•■j1     3K!rTB_"\    n         1                            r
c°^%H,jrl%^   \     sty
"^^/^ vy^
.<!>
" L^^^
l/Jt /        ^r  ""N^ /               3                                           »-/      —^"^ ^^*?"»*
%: .
JP=>
V
■    p.   t>°r~
*/~^^
k    ,*»\.                                                           ^._^?                                      ~
N\. ^ \
\ ~^v>                          k
J4o J\                     5
#//SAytt*f /                  *
>
J
1
* if
e_t .
nt   ^\^              i
!y
' 5 i        V *
• 1          ^_-                  L
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Y 101
Nevertheless, experienced personnel, using designed river-boats, traversed within
16 miles of Liard River Crossing, where further navigation was blocked by a rock
chute and a series of very rough rapids.
The supply-line from Fort Nelson varied from 120 river miles to Camp No. 1
(on an island 5 miles above the Beaver River) to 180 miles at Camp No. 2 at the
mouth of Crusty Creek. It was over this long route that gasoline had to be freighted
for two large twin-engined motor-boats and a speed-boat, as well as all food-
supplies. Much time and effort were also required to maintain the outboard motors,
particularly the water-pumps, which were subject to excessive wear because of the
heavy load of sharp silt in the river.
A brief summary of the various sites surveyed is shown below, and it will be
noted that our examination to date has been limited to the main stem of the river.
It is probable that tributary storage will add to this potential.
With the exception of Site A, all locations were examined by a Department of
Mines geologist, who has prepared a brief report of foundation conditions. It is
understood that some additional work was also carried out in the Yukon by the
Water Resources Branch of the Department of Northern Affairs and National
Resources.
Tentative Estimate of Liard River Water Power Based on Average Stream Flow
Site
Name
Average Power
(Kw.)
Remarks
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Rocky Ridge-
Hades Gate	
Barricade Mountain..
Grosse Roche.	
Devils Portage	
Whirlpool Canyon	
Mountain Portage	
597,000
864,000
1,210,000
1,156,000
1,022,000
585,000
568,000
Alternate to B.
Alternate to B.
Alternate to E and G.
Maximum development:  A+C+E-|-G=3,397,000 kilowatts.
Minimum development:  A+B-f-F=2,046,000 kilowatts.
Skeena River Hydro-electric Power
Last year most of the field work for this project was completed, but at that
time adequate photographs were not available to carry out survey identification
on air photographs.
New photography was obtained this year in August, and a short survey was
carried out to provide the necessary air-photo control.
The average discharge of the Skeena River at Usk (near Terrace) is 31,200
c.f.s., and it is estimated that with three main dam-sites at Kitselas Canyon, Wilson
Creek, and Tenas Hill, with heads of 15, 250, and 400 feet, a total potential of
1,400,000 average horse-power (1,040,000 kilowatts) is indicated.
Dease-Stikine Hydro-electric Power
Although no field work was undertaken in this watershed this year, an analysis
has been made of the hydrometric data while awaiting the completion of the
mapping-sheets.
Flow data for the Stikine River are meagre, being available only for the open
water season at Telegraph Creek from 1954 and at " above Grand Canyon " from
1957.   These records were extended by correlation with the Skeena River at Usk,
 Y 102 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
giving a mean discharge at Telegraph Creek and Grand Canyon of 12,335 and
8,950 c.f.s. respectively. Mass and flow duration curves were drawn for the two
sites, and 1942/43 was found to be the critical year.
At present, storage capacities for the main river dam-sites are not yet available, but assuming at least 1,000,000 acre-feet of storage, it would appear that our
previous estimate of 790,000 prime kilowatts based on a total head of 1,650 feet
is approximately correct.
Bowron-Willow Hydro-electric Power
Although these sites are not under investigation at present, it was thought
desirable to bring previous Water Rights reports up to date, particularly since some
hydrometric stations had been initiated by the Fraser River Board in this area.
The study is not yet complete, but it would appear that the following potential
might be realized:—
Prime Power
Scheme CKw.)
Bowron   22,000
Willow   10,000
Diversion, Willow to Bowron  27,000
Diversion, Bowron to Willow  44,000
From incomplete cost estimates, none of these schemes appear to be economically feasible, and in the case of the diversion scheme no geological survey has been
made.
SNOW SURVEYS
At present 109 snow courses are scheduled for measurement at specified sampling dates in the winter of 1961, an increase of nine over that of last year. Of these
new measuring sites, four were located on Peace River basin, three on Fraser River
basin, and one each on Kootenay and Vancouver Island drainages, and all at the
request of co-operating agencies.
About eighty snow surveyors are involved in the programme, employed by the
Province, power and telephone utilities, municipalities, irrigation districts, and many
other local and private agencies. Although snow courses are measured by both
co-operator and Government personnel, all information is forwarded to the Snow
Survey Office of the Water Rights Branch, where the data are assembled for publication and forecasts of run-off are prepared.
In addition to publication of the six regular editions of the snow bulletin at
February 1st, March 1st, April 1st, May 1st, May 15th, and June 1st, a summary
of snow-survey measurements, covering the period 1953 to 1959, inclusive, was
published and distributed to interested agencies. This summary was prepared to
supplement the original summary, which tabulated measurements for the years 1935
and 1952.
A very important part of the snow-survey work is to ensure a high degree of
snow-measurement accuracy. To achieve this, our representative accompanies the
snow surveyors on their snow-survey instruction. During the winter of 1960, this
man made fifteen trips to mountain sampling-sites. Also important is the maintenance of snow courses during the snow-free or summer months. This past summer,
repairs were completed at twenty-six snow courses.
The never-ending task of developing new statistical forecast procedures and the
improvement of existing ones continues. Work is progressing with regard to preparation of hydrological, hydrometric, and meteorological data for insertion in the
electronic computer, so that the laborious task of the mathematical computations
involved in multiple correlation analysis will be eliminated.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Y 103
In January the engineering assistant attached to the programme spent a week
at the United States Department of Agriculture snow-survey training-school at
Mount Hood, Portland, Oregon. In April the meteorologist in charge of the section
attended the Columbia River forecast meeting in Portland and the Western Snow
Conference in Santa Fe, New Mexico. He also attended a three-day computer
laboratory session relating to stream-flow forecasting at Bozeman, Montana.
DEVELOPED AND UNDEVELOPED WATER POWER
Records of hydro-power installations during 1959 and preceding years have
been shown graphically on Plates 3 and 4. The 1959 generation of electricity by
British Columbia's hydro-electric stations was more than 11.75 billion kilowatt-
hours, which is an increase of 4.75 per cent over the previous year. Plant capacities
were correspondingly increased to a total of more than 2,370,000 kilowatts.
This increase in total hydro generation is considerably less than the 10.4-percent increase in 1958 or the ten-year average increase of 11.35 per cent. Major
utilities, however, continued to progress at about the same rate as before, marking an
increase of 10.7 per cent in 1959, compared with the ten-year average increment of
11.58 per cent. The special industry load of the Aluminum Company of Canada
was slightly less than the two preceding years, and this showed its influence on the
over-all percentages. The 1960 production is expected to show a growth rate of 8
or 9 per cent, which will compare more favourably with previous years.
The British Columbia Electric Company completed major construction at its
Bridge River complex in 1960. The new Mission Dam was finished, and the four
62,000-kilowatt units of the Bridge River No. 2 power-house were commissioned on
September 8th, 1960. The City of Revelstoke has completed the first stage of the
new hydro plant at Cranberry Creek; one 4,000-kilowatt unit is now in operation.
The Northern British Columbia Power Company is adding a second turbine to its
Big Falls plant south of Prince Rupert. The plant capacity will become 6,400 kilowatts when the addition is completed. There is provision for a future increase in
capacity by raising the height of the storage dam.
The recent investigations and studies of major river systems in the Province
allow for a revision of the estimated undeveloped hydro-power resources. An
undeveloped prime-power potential of 22,100,000 kilowatts is indicated. To take
care of peak load conditions, full development of the Province's hydro potential
would require a total installed capacity of at least 34,000,000 kilowatts, with a
corresponding turbine rating approximating 46,000,000 horse-power.
 Y 104
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
7000
6000
DEVELOPMENT  OF   HYDRO-POWER
IN
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
5000
3000
BRITISH   COLUMBIA    TOTAL
GENERATING    CAPACITY
AND
ANNUAL   LOAD5
The peak hods of individual power plants   rarely
occur at the same time. The Total of Plant Peak Loads
thus exceeds  the highest simultaneous output of
all B-C- hydro plants, though  the  yearly   changes
shown in the graph should be similar in size and
direction.
2000
W
i
o
Q
:-.
3
300 <,
%
800 V-
1000
700
500
400
300
     200
1920    B25      1330     '335
1340     1345      1350      1355
CALENDAR     YEAR
1360     1365     1370       1375
Plate 3.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Y 105
DEVELOPMENT  OF    HYDRO-POWER
IN
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
ANNUAL    PRODUCTION   OF   HYDRO-ELECTRIC   ENERGY
BY    MAJOR    PRODUCERS
f^~-
BCE
ALCAN
^
f-
CMtS
^
"^
^
V
BCPC
s
. /
r
w
/
ft^'v/
__/
X
iy
f
3
-J
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000   X
500
400
300
o
o
-J
200   5
I3ZO     1325      1330      1335
1340     1345      1350      1355      1360      1365      1970      1375
CALENDAR     YEAR
ALCAN Aluminum   Company of   Canada.
BCE British Columbia Electric   Company 4 Associated Companies
BCPC British   Columbia   FbiYer  Commission.
CM45 Consolidated Mining .   JmeltinS Company 4 West Kootenay Power / Light  Company.
INSTALLED    GENERATING.    CAPACITIES
OF     MAJOR      PRODUCERS
/-
ece
Ir'
ALCAN
J
-J^_
'    1
1-
BCPC
 ,
ll
l—J-
/
/
BCEjT-*
/ .
^J
m
_£/ __!
/
s-
CM4S/
I
5000
4000
500
400
300
•^1
1
3
1320     1325      1330      1335       1340      1945      1350      1355       1360     1365     1370      1375
CALENDAR    YEAR
Plate 4.
  UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
  UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
Y 109
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
M. E. Ferguson, Project Manager
What had been anticipated as our year of progress did not materialize. This
was attributable to the fact the proposed legislation setting up a new administrative
entity was not presented to the Legislature. As a result, our activities were of a
rather normal operational nature.
During the early months of 1960 the Department of Highways decided to take
on maintenance of University Boulevard and Chancellor Boulevard, which we had
been doing on a small annual reimbursement basis. As might be expected in such
a change-over, a considerable amount of time was spent between our staff and the
new one on familiarization and outlining the problems that were likely to occur
during the year. This arrangement is only on a trial basis and subject to review
next year.
In order to reduce annual maintenance costs for repairs, grading, etc., in the
lanes, we raised the manholes and put down a 2-inch asphalt recap in the lanes.
The driveway entrances were then paved to meet the new grade and their existing
driveways. It is felt that this will not only produce a saving in maintenance of the
lanes, but will give an added incentive to home-owners to refrain from placing
rubbish, etc., in the lanes.  To date the experiment appears to be successful.
One new problem arose in September when the University inaugurated a new
parking plan on the campus. This was the first step toward creation of a " walking
campus," and naturally was not too well received by many students, particularly
those who had grown accustomed to parking near each building. To suddenly find
one must park at the extreme end of the campus and walk from building to building
was not too readily accepted by many. In addition, the new parking-lots were completed rather hurriedly, and, as a result, the drainage was not too good in some locations, which were gravelled with no asphalt cover or binder. The net result of
this was that students immediately started parking throughout the residential area
where they had easy access and pavement to walk on from their cars to the buildings.
In order to keep the residential streets accessible for normal deliveries and for use of
any emergency vehicles such as fire, police, or ambulance, it became necessary to
post the streets with " No Parking " signs on one side of most streets and " One Hour
Parking " signs on the other. In all, a total of almost 200 such signs were erected in
order to solve this unexpected problem.
Probably the most unusual event during the past year was a reduction of 1 mill
in the general tax rate, while most areas were experiencing a substantial increase.
Should present plans materialize and the proposed new legislation become a
reality next year, we could then anticipate a substantial increase in interest and
activity.
The following tables again reflect the average normal-type year for 1960 as
compared to previous recent years.
 Y 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Number and Value of Building Permits Issued during the Years
Ended December 3 1st, 1958, 1959, and 1960
1958
1959
1960
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
1
8
13
$4,500.00
3
25
3
$17,265.00
4
2
12
4
$19,800.00
100,530.00
16,350.00
8,650.00
41,650.00
1,550.00
55,831.00
4,200.00
Totals	
22
$29,500.00
31
$60,465.00
22
$180,361.00
■*
 UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
Y 111
o
SO
ON
OS
W
CQ
§
W
o
w
p
o
H
co
<
W
z
w
H
-<
Ph
BJ
DC
H
O
Z
2
3
Q
Q
W
>
3
u
w
0.
w
z
>
w
Ih
Ch
O
<
§
D
tn
CN *-< O r-
m r^ sc sc o os
h-
^m-omn^'OhrtW
Ov
ONda^sorHcoTtosTtso
d
M^O\nf<.NaHt'-1
Tt
"c
a\osmhOv.o\vD,t|n
C
r-CNOsr-cnO'si^inOCN
CO
no\ — wONOi^oof-"
O
<n cn —■                              <-<
cn
t-*>
&■_-
o
MCOa^Ttfi.V.t^-^
m
Ct:
-J2
incNOsO\0\msooN'-- oo
so
rt c
rn"cdincncN'TtcNrn''tr-'
t^
^ n
'p
fTnno\moOiNOC)
82
^■hco^tfiTi-mMwm
Ph
w C
WH^^fVOCOO^^'-',",
CN
sc
i-h  IT.  i-H                           rH
CN
cn
i^
«■
•c
oocsrHcnmcnm r,n
00
>. c
09
OOTrOMfN>OiN*
Tt
i "
D
lO^rtrHTH^ttOO^ri
CN
3 v
rt
h-l
cNOsocorHr-sosomcN
a +-
o^MMafimiDh^q
Os
3 C
oo" co" ©" d r-^ r-" '-h' cn so* so"
&i           l-H  rH.                     rH  t-H            -rH
o"
o
€/=-
Mn^hcoO'-nnc'*
o
Oor-cnr-CNCNrHCNQC'-1
tj
3
O
o
u
ma\0-H«iHv.ah^
CN
^n^Dln^OOKHCt
00
rt
^MtNHOtnncocn
in
i*
r-T rn ri ri cn" cn cn r-" d cn"
t£
<
mcncncNTtsososor-oo
&<_-
o
&e-
cn m r^- so cn ©    : © o ©
rt
i-
>n h in cn >n rn
Tt
rt a.
^
oc! ** ^t SO H 00
so SO VO
_>i «
00\0   Hh-   VD-H
Tt    Tt   Tf
SO
c
oo m ct\ os m oo
Os
OM—
i-Ti-T
so
0\
*y_-
de-
sohoo\oos    i o o    ;
p
O; rn Tt rn fN     ! © in
Tt
o
cn in* od so r-.    I tri cn
so cn so o --h     ! rn Os
m"
o
u
0\ m co i-h tt    ; ,__,
o\
to
a
-ifS
&e
tfy
*rt
W
•o
c
rt
ONor-tsmooo    !    i
rH
rt
i><Ni>p'*oqq
CN
M
.&
sddcNcNTtin'd©
(Novii-iTj-r-oo
mmsosoinm©©
■**
&
HtshHInHHCI
OO
<n t- cn rn r-<
Os
&9-
(&
Hi>(NMO\nn»mr~
Tt
55
cnt*:qrioor;,*r4oO
r-
r^cNsosodcncNTtiosd
Tt
Ih
mMSO^HNTrrfSO
o
U
m^Di-OOOr-Oi/'KN'-1
o
3
■<t cn cn cn cn cn *—
as
fjy
CN
Q
«•
rt
O
i»3\^OaOi^COMX
oo
rt
rHTfinsqcnossocNTtoc
Tt
momTtmascor-'rHcn
CO
'£
ooosm>nOr->csoun(N
a
(Nr-mdinr-o\oO'-1
o
'C
oinOi-HincomrHiom
r-
Ph
rn          —-  (N                           ri
00
t/_-
(ry
ttN'^-ONQOTi-t-r-Ta-'-'
Q
oo>-;iooNr-ja;r-a;riO;
sc
0)
U
rloodtsvd^sdKvdc
yHt
Ih
coinOOCNCNcnrH      tN
t~~
jg
CN          ri           .-t
r-
u
C
6«-
V*
2 8
D. __!
NiniHtfiv.inovmo\»
rH
rt
cnincnrHcnTr<N>ncol>
SO
"rt
c
sdin<NrNOt~~ONfNoo(N
H
u
ooo\socn»ncorHtnir.m
r-
o
B
Ttr-t-^mcNtcooor-cn
o
.-J
"G
r- r-^doCrn t-Tr^oosot-
in
P-,
«■         rH          rH
oo
tie
r-  I—  CN  rH  o
,    ,    .
__
•a
U3
t> en r- Tt so
j                      |
00
d I-* Tt* r-* so
SO
ti
oo cs so ©
oc
u
Tt
jp
u_ _£>
C
&<_-
*e
O  n
pi. o
m  Ih
»hC.Ot     !
q in oo r- so    i
CN
t!pH
"rt
OO
O"
ft
hVoodri    j
in
o
'u
r- o a\ m cn    !
Tf
rt
a
qo oo Tt irj     i
OS
</3
'2
iHfH
m"
&,
«■
6e
w_
Ih
fl
j   "rt
! o
rH  CJ
c^
T*
<n so i> oo
»9
in «n
in
«r
m m «n in
in ^
a-
a-
Oi
O
a-
o-
a-
a--
o
o^
  PERSONNEL OFFICE
  PERSONNEL OFFICE Y 115
PERSONNEL OFFICE
J. H. Palmer, B.A., B.Com., Personnel Officer
ESTABLISHMENT
Departmental establishment was unchanged numerically this year, although
two internal changes of a minor nature were made. In addition, following Departmental submissions, the Civil Service Commission recommended an increase of
seven positions for the Water Rights Branch, but these are awaiting formal approval
at the year's end.
GENERAL DUTIES
A large part of the work of this office was devoted to investigations with
respect to the above and in connection with requisitions for staff replacements or
additional temporary help. A review of the work situation in the Lands Branch
was performed. Considerable time was spent in studying classification problems
and in preparing submissions with respect thereto to the Civil Service Commission.
Negotiations with the firemen and outside staff at the University Endowment Lands
were more protracted than usual this year. Routine personnel activities were on
a reduced scale, there being only twenty-four resignations and ten promotions
within the permanent staff. Twenty-three reclassifications were implemented, the
bulk of these being in technical grades.
RETIREMENTS
During the year two Departmental employees who had each served for over
forty years retired on pension. Mr. G. R. Ford, Chief Clerk, Hydraulic Investigations Division, and Miss H. F. Hinder, Clerk—Grade 2, in the Operations Division,
both retired from the Water Rights Branch.
DEATHS
It is with regret that the death of two employees during 1960 must be reported.
Mr. Joseph Cullie, of the Topographic Division, and Mr. F. E. Reid, of the University Endowment Lands Fire Department, both died unexpectedly at early ages.
They will be greatly missed by their many friends in the Department.
TRAINING
Mr. A. H. Ralfs, Assistant Director of Surveys and Mapping; Mr. D. E.
Goodwin, Land Inspector; and Mr. L. D. Hall, Mapping Assistant, were awarded
diplomas in public administration following their completion of the three-year
course sponsored by the Civil Service Commission. Four other employees completed the second year of this course, and three more enrolled for the first year of
training.
Following the completion last year of courses in appraisal, several members of
the Lands Branch and the Inspection Division completed the requirements for
registration as Accredited Appraiser Canadian Institute (A.A.C.I.). These were
Mr. D. Borthwick, Assistant Superintendent of Lands; Mr. L. D. Fraser, Chief
Land Inspector; Mr. W. R. Redel, Assistant Chief Land Inspector; and Mr. A. F.
Smith, Land Inspector. Another Land Inspector, Mr. F. M. Cunningham, in
1958 had become the first Civil Servant in British Columbia to gain this distinction.
    MAIL AND FILE ROOM
Y 119
MAIL AND FILE ROOM
John A. Grant
Letters received in the Department during 1960 amounted to 239,406, compared to 228,468 in 1959, an increase of 4.8 per cent.
The Department of Lands and Forests mail-box in the Parliament Buildings
post office is cleared several times each morning and afternoon, and the mail is
sorted for delivery to the Forest Branch, Lands Branch, Surveys and Mapping
Branch, and the Water Rights Branch.   All letters and communications are recorded
on cards before being forwarded to the respective offices.
During the intervals between morning and afternoon clearances,
are filed, new files made up, and copies of letters outward recorded.
record cards
No letters are forwarded to the offices in the afternoons, except where immediate attention is indicated.    Tenders  and special-delivery letters are processed
immediately.
The delivery of files to the various offices and their return to the filing-cabinets
are the responsibility of the Lands Vault staff, together with the filing of charge
slips, the constant repair of files, and the ever-present task of locating lost files.
Letters Inward
Branch
1959
1960
10-year Average,
1951-60
41,646
141,924
26,912
17,986
42,355
153,503
24,382
19,166
35,813
103,216
19,333
15,838
Water Rights Branch __	
Surveys and Mapping ,. ,	
Totals	
228,468
239,406
174,200
Letters Outward (Recorded)
Branch
1959
1960
10-year Average,
1951-60
12,232
2,029
1,930
15,871
2,612
2,319
13,190
6,723
2,342
	
Water Rights Branch...	
Surveys and Mapping	
Totals.	
16,191
20,802
22,255
Miscellaneous Reports
Designation
1959
1960
10-year Average,
1951-60
4,025
320
17,094
3,332
5,096
8,288
560
16,336
3,585
3,465
4,234
432
15,889
2,578
Slash-disposal reports.  	
Stumpage-adjustment notices
Totals	
29,867
32,234
23,133
 Y 120
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
New Files Created
Designation
1959
1960
10-year Average,
1951-60
" 0 " files  	
5,552
1,275
3,600
5,412
1,320
2,845
4,806
1,512
3,492
Totals —.          .  --   	
10,427
9,577
9,810
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1961
1,060-261-44

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0362897/manifest

Comment

Related Items