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REPORT of THE FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST 1959 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1960

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   Victoria, B.C., March, 1960.
To Group Captain the Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service
of the Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1959.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands and Forests.  CONTENTS
-TOM PaGE
1. Chief Forester's Summary  11
2. Forest Surveys and Inventory  17
Introduction  17
Operations  17
Forest Classification  17
Forest Mapping  18
Forest Sampling  18
Provincial Inventory Maintenance  18
Regeneration Surveys  18
Sampling of Marked Forest Stands  18
Photo Mensuration  19
Growth  19
Volume Tables, Loss Factor and Depletion Projects  20
Surveys in Crown Forest Units  21
Continuous Forest Inventory  22
Computations of Statistics  22
Liaison Work  23
3. Forest Research  24
Cowichan Lake Experiment Station  24
Aleza Lake Experiment Station  24
Field Programme  24
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1959  25
Research Publications, 1959  26
4. Reforestation  27
Forest Nurseries  27
Seed and Extraction  27
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  28
Planting  29
Plantation Improvement and Maintenance  29
Preparation of Planting-sites  29
Permanent Improvements  30
5. Working Plans  31
Introduction  31
Sustained-yield Units  31
5 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Page
5. Working Plans—Continued
Tree-farm Licences  33
Tree-farm Lands  34
Farm Wood-lot Licences  34
6. Public Information and Education  35
Introduction  35
Photography and Motion Pictures  35
Filmstrips  36
Commercial Theatres  3 6
Film Library  36
Publications and Printing  36
Radio and Television  3 7
News Media Liaison  3 7
Signs and Exhibits  3 8
School Lectures  39
Library  40
Co-operation  40
7. Forest Management  41
General  41
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  42
Lumber Prices  42
Log Prices  43
Stumpage Prices  43
Sliding-scale Adjustments  43
Stumpage-appraisal Cost Studies  43
Administration of Managed Units  43
Silviculture  44
Scaling  44
8. Grazing  46
General Conditions  46
Markets and Prices  46
Live-stock Losses  46
Range Management  47
Range Surveys  47
Range Improvements  47
Range Research  49   The highlight of 1959 was the heaviest Coastal seed-crop in twenty-two years and a
bumper crop throughout the rest of the Province, with a seed yield averaging over 0.60
pound per bushel.    REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 13
Twenty new sites were added to the " Keep B.C. Green—Use Your Ashtray "
highway sign coverage. There are now 225 of these signs on the black-topped
highways throughout the Province.
Forest Management
Despite the ten-week strike in the Coastal industry during the summer, the
total value of all forest products set a new record high of $637,715,000 during
1959, over $6,000,000 more than the previous record year of 1955, and $94,927,-
573 over 1958. Lumber, at $291,500,000, continued to lead in the individual
value categories, followed by pulp and paper with $234,529,000 and plywood at
$75,500,000.
Compared with 1958, lumber value was up $65,873,139; pulp and paper,
up $43,778,583; and plywood value, down $14,500,000, although production of
plywood was down less than 1 per cent.
A measure of the degree of industrial recovery over the depressed years of
1957 and 1958 is shown by an increased weighted average price of $5.34 per thousand board-feet over 1958 for all species shipped by the Interior. A decline was
noted, however, in the last quarter of the year.
The 1959 total cut of 1,049,145,125 cubic feet was up 15 per cent over 1958
and only 2 per cent less than the record-cut year of 1956. Of the total scale,
574,451,278 cubic feet originated on the Coast and 474,693,847 cubic feet from
the Interior. This was a new record high for the Interior, exceeding its previous
high in 1956 by 54,000,000 cubic feet.
Douglas fir's 369,832,059 cubic feet maintained it as the principal species cut,
followed by hemlock (201,225,091 cubic feet), spruce (182,481,529 cubic feet),
and cedar (140,110,952 cubic feet). It is significant, however, that the Coastal
hemlock cut exceeded that of Coastal Douglas fir by over 7,500,000 cubic feet.
Water-borne lumber shipments amounted to 1,197,653,000 board-feet, down
116,708,000 board-feet from 1958. Shipments to the United Kingdom were the
lowest since 1950. Fifty per cent of all water-borne lumber volume went to the
United States.
Competitive bidding on timber sales was the most active on record, with 243
sales being bid over the upset price. At the end of 1959 there were 7,139 timber
sales active, a reduction of 444 from 1958. Security deposits held by the Service
amounted to $15,150,213, some $400,000 more than at the end of the previous
year.
Silvicultural activity increased noticeably during the year, with 823 timber
sales receiving stand treatment over an area of 207,528 acres, some 66,000 acres
more than in 1958.
Scaling supervision in the Interior was intensified, with scaling examinations
being held in forty-seven centres and 1,058 candidates participating, of which 394
were successful in passing the exams.
Grazing
A dry spring, following the drought conditions of 1958, resulted in poor forage
production in the north. In the south, forage production ranged from average to
above average.
The drop in the number of sheep using Crown range is a reflection of the
rising costs and inadequate returns which are forcing many sheep-ranchers out of
business.   16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Personnel
A major change in Forest Service organization became effective on April 1st,
with the appointment of Mr. F. S. McKinnon as Chief Forester and the formal
division of responsibilities between the Deputy Minister and the Chief Forester.
All five forest districts changed District Foresters during the year, and two new
Ranger districts were set up at Chetwynd and Bella Coola.
An increase of fifteen personnel in the establishment of the Service brought
the total to 832 positions, twently-eight less than in 1957. Permanent-staff turnover
averaged 10.3 per cent, ranging from 29.1 per cent at Prince George to 2.6 per
cent at Nelson.
A general salary revision averaging 8 per cent was granted, effective April 1st.
F. S. McKinnon,
Chief Forester.  18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST MAPPING
In 1959, plotting of forest-cover and topographic detail from aerial photographs on to maps provided a total of 275 completely checked large-scale maps.
A further 151 maps were plotted, and are currently undergoing final checking.
In the maintenance inventory-mapping programme, forty-three maps of the new
1-inch-to-1-mile forest-cover series were completed.
A particularly significant achievement was the completion of very intensive
forest-cover mapping of the Cape Scott Public Working Circle, where a complete
set of 1-inch-to-1-mile forest-cover maps was published. As an experiment in the
production of coloured lithographed maps, a set of the Cape Scott maps was coloured by means of transparent zipatone, cut out to fit the map detail. These sheets
are currently being photographed, using a colour separation process, after which
metal master plates will be made and coloured map-prints produced on an offset
press.
During the year, 13,382 maps were distributed at the request of various public
and private agencies. This was an increase of 7 per cent over the 1958 volume
of maps distributed.
FOREST SAMPLING
Provincial Inventory Maintenance
In the second year of Provincial inventory maintenance, 4,476 sample plots
were established in the programme to provide more reliable estimates of forest area
and volume throughout Crown forests. Sampling crews achieved good coverage
with the aid of helicopters and a Beaver float-plane, in which a total of 145 hours
were flown.
Regeneration Surveys
Reconnaissance surveys were carried out over 46,960 acres of logged, burned,
and logged-and-burned land. The purpose of this work was to investigate the adequacy of restocking on designated areas.
In the Yale Sustained-yield Unit, 22,660 acres of productive forest land were
examined, bringing the total area examined in a two-year study of this unit up to
36,590 acres. Analysis of the data showed that 58 per cent of all quadrats examined were not stocked. When these data were interpreted in the light of the Reforestation Division standards, it was estimated that 16,460 acres were not satisfactorily stocked out of the total area of 36,590 acres.
Examination of 22,829 acres of disturbed forest land in the Babine Public
Working Circle indicated that 15,492 acres were not satisfactorily stocked. A regeneration survey in the Giscome burned area, east of Prince George, was terminated before completion due to lack of funds and time. Data collected in this
project provided an assessment of 2,300 acres.
In the Sechelt Public Working Circle, an examination was made of the Brittain
River burned area.   The results of this work are currently being analysed.
Sampling of Marked Forest Stands
Seven timber-sale areas, on which the timber was marked for selective cutting,
were sampled systematically before logging commenced. On these areas, totalling
2,120 acres, 261 plots were established. Remeasurement of the plots will be carried out subsequent to logging.
Fourteen timber-sale areas, in which the marked trees had been felled and
removed, were sampled systematically. A total of 1,039 plots was examined in a
total timber-sale area of 4,975 acres during the course of this project.   REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959 21
volume table and approximately 26,000 for the cull factors. Modern data-processing equipment has facilitated an otherwise laborious process. It is expected that
the revised volume tables and cull factors will be available for distribution by 1961.
The new volume tables will include tables for yellow cedar and broadleaf maple,
heretofore excluded for lack of sufficient data.
During the year, taper curves were prepared for the following Coast species:
Douglas fir, western red cedar, balsam, and Sitka spruce. These curves show average diameters inside bark at various points above ground for trees in each 2-inch
d.b.h. class and 10-foot-height class. The curves were drawn to meet an increasing
demand from forest officers and industrial foresters for taper information throughout the entire length of the tree. With the increasing interest in quality cruising,
taper tables provide the basis for estimates of log volume for specified grades.
A sample of a set of taper curves for Douglas fir in the 100-foot-height class is
shown on page 20. Taper curves for other commercial tree species will be prepared as time permits.
Logging Studies
Logging studies were continued during the 1959 field season. These studies
were carried out on typical Coast and Interior logging operations to provide realistic
reduction factors applicable to gross volume summaries, to account for losses attributed to defect, breakage, and utilization practices. In addition, estimates of the
volume and condition of logging residues were made and appraisals of the damage
to residual stands were obtained. The field procedure for these studies involved a
detailed 100-per-cent cruise of a sample area equalling approximately one-half the
area of the logging setting; the measurement of all felled and bucked trees to determine gross, net, and breakage volumes; the measurement of all breakage incurred
in the cold-decking, yarding, and loading operation; and, finally, a re-examination
of the sample area to determine the volume and condition of logging residues and
the condition of residual stems. During the 1959 field season, four studies were
carried out—one on the South Coast and three in the Southern Interior. Compilation of the data gathered is proceeding, and the results obtained will be incorporated in the revised cull factors.
Forest Depletion
To provide the estimates of annual forest depletion necessary for continuous
inventory, estimates of annual cut, disease losses, and fire losses were prepared for
each sub-zone, region, and compartment.
As in previous years, a number of requests for information and advice with
regard to cull factors and volume tables were answered. Liaison was also maintained
with the Western International Forest Disease Work Conference.
SURVEYS IN CROWN FOREST UNITS
Continued efforts were made to bring surveys of all Crown forest units up to
an acceptable standard. Due to financial limitations, only two units—Sechelt and
Chilliwack Public Working Circles—received the required additional field work to
bring them up to a management survey standard. In the Sechelt unit, this work
involved the establishment of 174 samples, while in the Chilliwack unit the entire
area was reclassified, or " retyped," using l:15,840-scale aerial photographs, taken
in 1959. The latest forest-cover maps and statistics for these units will be issued
in due course.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 23
LIAISON WORK
The Forest Service Work Committee continued to provide useful liaison
between this Division and other public agencies. In addition, several projects were
completed, as follows:—
(1) Fire-hazard and fuel-type maps were prepared for six Crown forest units.
(2) Cutting priority analyses were made in six Crown forest units.
(3) A key map was prepared, showing the latest information on status within
the boundaries of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Grant.
(4) Operational maps showing the nature and location of the field projects of
six Government agencies were made for forest district use.
(5) Key maps were prepared depicting the current 8-inch focal length aerial-
photography programme in an area totalling 28,000 square miles. 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RESEARCH
Technical details of research projects are published annually in the Forest
Research Review, hence this is a very brief statement of the activities of the Division
during 1959.
COWICHAN LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
During the past year, 20 acres were logged. The slash and debris are now
being piled and burned prior to using the area for the planting of select genetic
stock. A thinning in 30 acres of 47-year-old Douglas fir was completed. A number of sample plots in areas previously thinned were remeasured.
During March, research officers met at the station for a three-day discussion
of current projects and the co-ordination of future programmes.
ALEZA LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
The Aleza Lake Station was opened in May and remained in operation until
the end of the year. The facilities were again used for a period of a week for the
training of district silvicultural crews. There was an unusually high number of
visitors this year, due to the annual meeting of the Canadian Institute of Forestry
being held at Prince George.
As in previous years, the main emphasis was on developing access to different
parts of the station. On the West Branch Road, a further three-quarters of a mile
of rough grade was constructed. This extends the grade to the nursery-site. Unfortunately, the summer was extremely wet and it was impossible to gravel any of the
new construction. During the winter, 3 miles of right-of-way of the East Branch
Road were logged and 1 mile was cleared. Logging was restricted to cleaning up
previously awarded sales. A new sale in the Long-term Selection Working Circle
is being prepared for auctioning this winter.
FIELD PROGRAMME
Possibly as a result of 1958's dry summer, there was a good cone-crop in
most species throughout the Province. Douglas fir cone production on the Coast
was the largest in twenty-two years of record. This fact enabled studies on cone-
crops and seed to be actively pursued, and plans are being made to study next year
the natural regeneration resulting from this seed-fall. One of these studies was
initiated on the west coast of Vancouver Island to determine seed-fall distance and
direction in relation to weather conditions and seedling survival on a variety of sites
and seed-beds. Another study was concerned with methods of determining seed
maturity so that timing of cone-collecting may be most effective. A third study
concentrated on the problems associated with the storing of cones and the extraction
of seed. Some very interesting information on pollen dispersion was gathered this
year. This was a result of developing equipment for sampling and recording pollen
dispersion on a continuous basis.
Thinning on the East Thurlow Island experiment forest was renewed and,
currently, 160 acres in a 60-year-old hemlock stand is being thinned as a commercial venture. A number of sample plots previously thinned to various densities
were remeasured.
The selection of " plus " trees for the high-elevation seed-orchard occupied
much of the year. The work was greatly assisted by the Plus-tree Board, a subcommittee of the Tree Farm Forestry Committee, which promoted industrial cooperation in the search for outstanding trees.    28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In the Chilliwack Public Working Circle, an excellent job of collecting was
done by inmate crews of the Attorney-General's Department, who secured nearly
1,800 bushels of cones. In the Vancouver Forest District, 8,919 bushels of Douglas
fir and 92 bushels of other species were collected. In the other forest districts,
collections were made or supervised by members of the stand-treatment crews.
In the Kamloops District, the cool, damp, late summer so retarded spruce cone
development that collections were not made until after the first snowfall. In the
Prince George and Prince Rupert Districts, spruce cones were heavily infected by
a seed-destroying cone-rust, Chrysomyxa pyrolata Winter. In spite of these difficulties, 425 bushels of spruce and 139 bushels of Douglas fir were collected in
districts other than Vancouver. In all, the Forest Service collected 9,575 bushels
of cones. Approximately 5,000 bushels were collected by the forest industry and
an estimated 100,000 bushels by commercial tree-seed dealers.
All Forest Service cones are extracted in the remodelled seed-extraction plant
at the Duncan nursery. The new oil-fired hot-water-heated Moore kiln worked
well, processing 300 bushels of wet cones in forty-eight hours.
In the past, it has always been the practice of the Service to either sun-dry
Douglas fir cones before sacking or to store green cones in well-ventilated trays
3 to 5 inches deep. In 1959 the practice of leaving green cones in sacks was used
extensively. Due to a cool, wet fall, cones from sacks were still extremely wet when
extraction commenced (95 per cent moisture content in some cases). While most
lots were quite mouldy, it was found that this mould was mostly superficial. On the
whole, seed yield was very good from sack-stored cones, averaging over 0.60 pound
per bushel. The average yield of all Coast Douglas fir collections since 1944 was
0.44 pound per bushel of dried cones. This increase can be attributed partly to
easier and more complete extraction and partly to careful examination of cones for
filled-seed count and selection of only well-formed stands with a high percentage of
filled seeds.
Germination tests on some of the first lots extracted were completed before the
end of the year. These averaged approximately 90 per cent. In all, over eighty
routine germination tests were carried out during the year.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
Reconnaissance and survey work were kept to a minimum on the Coast during
the 1959 field season. Early in the spring, it was evident that a bumper cone-crop
was on the way, and personnel ordinarily employed on regeneration surveys were
switched to cone-crop reconnaissance, supervision of collections, etc. One reconnaissance, covering 2,000 acres, was carried out in the Sechelt Peninsula, and a very
small survey covered 260 acres on the Gordon River area, Vancouver Island.
For the third year, a reforestation crew under the supervision of the Forest
Surveys and Inventory Division conducted fairly general surveys to secure basic
information on restocking in certain areas. Work begun the previous year in the
Yale Sustained-yield Unit was completed with the survey of 27,660 acres. An
analysis of figures for the complete survey covering 36,590 acres of larger cut-over
types indicates 16,460 acres (46 per cent) not satisfactorily restocked. Natural
restocking is expected to take place eventually on 53 per cent of this. Of the
balance, 4,051 acres (25 per cent) is plantable and 3,656 acres (22 per cent) not
plantable, due to unfavourable surface conditions. This party spent the latter part
of the season in the Prince Rupert District, where 22,000 acres were examined in
the Babine Public Working Circle. The season was finished doing a more intensive
survey of 2,300 acres of the Giscome burn in the Prince George District.   REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 31
WORKING PLANS
INTRODUCTION
There are now in operation, thirty-six tree-farm licences, sixty-four sustained-
yield units*, thirty-six tree-farms (under the Taxation Act), and fifty farm wood-lot
licences. The combined productive area of these management units, committed to
continuous forest production, is 41,212,700 acres. Their total current allowable
cut of 677,540,000 cubic feet is equivalent to 64.5 per cent of the total 1959
Provincial scale.   The future potential of these lands is much greater than this.
As a result of present Government policy, the award of further tree-farm
licences will be confined to a relatively few special cases. This will permit personnel
of this Division to devote the greater part of their time to work related to the
initiation of new sustained-yield units and management planning on units already
established.
Of particular interest during the year was the preparation, by Working Plans
staff, of a stand-treatment plan for the immature stands and inadequately restocked
cut-over lands in the Chilliwack Public Working Circle. The available working
force of prisoners from the Provincial gaol at Oakalla will make it possible to carry
out the plan at minimum cost to the Government. The lessons in practical forestry
learned here will be of immeasurable value in the development of workable plans
for the many other sustained-yield units in the Province.
SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS*
New units approved during the year were the Granby, Kitimat, and Monkman.
Five existing units—the Lac la Hache, Longworth, Nicola, Parsnip, and Quesnel
Lake—were enlarged and allowable annual cuts revised. Improved inventory data
also permitted allowable-cut reviews for a number of other units.
There are now sixty-four approved sustained-yield units in operation, comprising a total productive forest area of 34,606,543 acres and a combined allowable
annual cut of 418,620,000 cubic feet.   They are listed below by forest districts.
Vancouver Forest District
Productive Area Annual Allowable
Name of Sustained-yield Unit (Acres) Cut (M C.F.)
Barclay  47,665 2,500
Broughton   355,421 13,000
Cape Scott  104,873 2,250
Chilliwack   73,023 3,000
Harrison   164,653 6,400
Kyuquot   362,635 19,650
Redonda  257,099 17,000
Sayward  111,876 3,500
Sechelt  304,881 15,000
Seymour  224,815 4,200
Soo   214,799 8,300
Yale .  402,726 20,000
Totals  2,624,466 114,800
* Forests, including public working circles, which are managed by the Forest Service. 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Prince Rupert Forest District
Name of Sustained-yield Unit
Babine 	
Burns Lake	
Productive Area
(Acres)
  1,010,961
  1,024,791
Graham Island _.       585,882
Hecate       862,782
Kitimat      305,875
Kitwanga      529,416
Morice      778,957
Ootsa  1,720,969
Rivers Inlet      374,041
Smithers      506,810
Terrace      220,175
Annual Allowable
Cut (MC.F.)
6,900
5,500
8,600
15,500
4,400
3,000
7,000
9,300
7,500
4,500
6,400
Totals  7,920,659
78,600
Prince George Forest District
Productive Area
Name of Sustained-yield Unit (Acres)
Big Valley      353,179
Bowron      376,247
Carp   1,237,389
Cottonwood      412,367
Crooked River        604,231
Longworth	
Monkman	
Narcosli	
Naver 	
  646,247
  581,575
  1,136,526
  302,217
Parsnip ..        980,922
Purden Lake  154,562
Robson  581,466
Stuart Lake  723,847
Westlake  595,570
Willow  259,446
Annual Allowable
Cut (M C.F.)
6,000
8,000
6,600
5,350
8,740
9,200
4,950
4,000
6,720
7,000
2,500
7,000
7,500
6,000
7,000
Totals  8,945,791
96,560
Kamloops Forest District
Name of Sustained-yield Unit
B arriere 	
Big Bar	
Botanie	
Eagle 	
Lac la Hache	
Nehalliston 	
Nicola	
Niskonlith	
North Thompson	
Quesnel 	
Salmon Arm	
Productive Area
(Acres)
Annual Allowable
Cut (M C.F.)
137,830
1,800
1,488,311
12,000
462,852
5,600
228,862
2,600
1,492,729
13,000
355,529
2,000
714,060
7,000
219,700
2,350
219,975
3,000
1,249,189
14,900
85,311
1,760    REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 35
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
INTRODUCTION
The demand for forestry information by the news media, schools, industry, and
the general public continued on a high level. The ability of the Division to meet
this demand satisfactorily was hampered by lack of funds and field personnel.
Every effort was made with the resources available to meet the need, principally by
greatly expanding the duties and responsibilities of the school lecturers and certain
clerical staff.
The Service's prime need in its information programme continues to be the
establishment of information officers at the forest district headquarters level. In
addition, assistance in the editorial and writing phases of the work is becoming a
serious requirement.
PHOTOGRAPHY AND MOTION PICTURES
The photographic laboratory processed and printed 180 rolls of black-and-
white film for other divisions of the Forest Service during the year. A certain
amount of negative colour material is also now being used by some divisions. The
photographic staff took a total of 656 black-and-white and 81 colour negatives, and
over 2,500 black-and-white negatives and 200 35-mm. colour slides were added to
the files. This represents a 100-per-cent increase over last year, and the encroachment of storage space on the studio working area, which has long been a problem,
is now reaching an acute stage.
In the early summer, several visits were made to logging settings to increase
the variety and up-date the selection of logging photographs. Due to the industrial
strike, however, this project was not completed. Complete coverage was provided
by a photographer-writer team for an experimental burn conducted in the Kamloops
Forest District. A set of colour slides was also taken for the Kamloops protection
section to illustrate sawmill waste-disposal methods.
Over 2,548 8- by 10-inch photographic prints were produced, an increase of
over 1,000 over 1958. Approximately 1,500 of these prints were supplied to the
press and periodicals for use with news and feature articles. With the steady
increase of this type of work, existing equipment is rapidly becoming inadequate
and breakdowns are more frequent.
In April the Division's 16-mm. sound, colour production "Mark of Progress"
was shown for the first time at a public " forestry forum " held in Prince George and
attended by over 800 members of the public. The film is now receiving good circulation through the film library.
Primarily due to shortage of funds and writing staff, new motion-picture footage this year was limited to coverage of a helicopter air-lift of a prefabricated lookout
to Mount Artaban, in the Vancouver Forest District.
Some new projects were undertaken this year. A total of 157 metalphotos
were made for use as placards in exhibits and for the use of Engineering Services
Division. The bulk were required for the newly designed Christmas-tree scaling-
stick.
Several Forest Service exhibits were supplied with design layouts and photographs, the most notable being the mobile trailer exhibit which toured fall fairs
in the Nelson and Kamloops Forest Districts. Thirty-eight large exhibition prints
were provided in various sizes, including a 30- by 30-inch colour print to the Surveys
and Inventory Division. There is a need for the precision photographic equipment
to be brought up to date in order to meet the growing demand for quality work.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959 37
for forestry lay and technical printed information far outstrips the supply and the
Division's resources available to meet the demand. As in the past few years, more
and more funds are being devoted to purely maintaining the supply of existing
material, leaving no margin for development of sorely needed new media.
The Division distributed Survey Note No. 2, " Helicopter Use in Forest
Surveys," maintained the supply of display posters, decals, and minor materials,
and produced and distributed a personnel directory for use in the field.
To assist in the dissemination of factual up-to-date forest policy and general
forestry information throughout the Service field staffs, a new medium of mimeographed information items was distributed from time to time during the year to all
Rangers, the Ranger School, and district headquarters staffs. This programme
appears to be filling a real need if reactions from the field are to be any guide.
RADIO AND TELEVISION
The annual forest-protection and educational radio campaign was maintained
during the year. With the exception of radio stations CBU (Vancouver) and
CFPR (Prince Rupert), all stations in the Province carried thirty-two 15-second
flash announcements and sixteen 1-minute spot announcements for a period of
eight weeks during the 1959 fire season. A pattern of twenty-four 45-second spot
announcements was broadcast on C.B.C. stations at Vancouver and Prince Rupert
and over thirty-one repeater stations.
It was noted that greater use was made by most forest districts of the special
hazard flashes available to each District Forester or Forest Ranger over local
stations during periods of serious fire-hazard.
All copy for the radio series was written and scheduled by members of the
Division.
Members of the Division also participated in and arranged for several special
radio programmes dealing with such items as the school lecture programme and
general forestry matters. Radio station CKDA (Victoria), with the co-operation
of this Division, broadcast four 15-minute programmes on reforestation and forest
research.
No funds were available for commercial use of television. However, the
Division did participate in several public service programmes and supplied the
stations with video material.
NEWS MEDIA LIAISON
The volume of news and informational press releases, articles, and the supplying of background material to daily and weekly press, radio, television, and trade
journals remained at a high level.
The school lecture staff participated in this work for the first time this year and
with satisfactory results. While working in the various districts, they acted, in part,
as district information personnel and worked to assist in liaison with local news
media.
For the first time, a record was maintained of the results of the Division news
and information releases. This record, from March to December only and covering
but eight daily newspapers, showed that the sixty-two individual press releases
made by the Division during the period resulted in 6,150 column inches of space
in these principal dailies. No record was kept of trade journal, radio, or television
coverage. Considerably better coverage could have been obtained had the staff
been available to produce it. 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Two special press tours were arranged by the Division during the year.
A group including both press representatives and cattlemen was conducted on a
visit to planting areas in the East Kootenay region. During the early part of the
fire season, a tour was made of Forest Service and industrial protection and research
facilities on Vancouver Island for a group of press and radio representatives.
_-^*^*^^7ARD RAT"
^ErcT FIRE HA#»V ^^
\H0
RA'NfiE
New forest fire hazard rating sign.
SIGNS AND EXHIBITS
With the exception of Scotchlite " Prevent Forest Fires " design, all sign
requirements were filled through the services of the Forest Service Marine Station.
The demand for Scotchlite " Prevent Forest Fires " signs again far exceeded the
supply. The design and production of this sign were revamped during the year to
use facilities of the Department of Public Works sign-shop, and the results were very
worth while.    Eight pilot models were distributed throughout the Province.
Sixty fire-hazard rating signs were constructed and erected at various Ranger
stations throughout the Province as a public information media indicating the
degree of fire-hazard existing in each locality.
The placement and repainting of the " Keep B.C. Green—Use Your Ashtray "
signs was continued. To date, 225 such signs have been placed on black-topped
highways.
During the year, an attempt was made to meet the demand from exhibition
organizations for this Service to enter displays in their fall fairs and conventions.
With this in mind, the new highway sign-crew trailer was designed so as to be
suitable for conversion into a mobile display unit. The interior of the trailer contained material depicting the major phases of Forest Service work.    In addition, REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
39
provisions were made for the showing of motion-picture films to an audience
gathered under a large awning extending from the roof of the trailer. The unit
visited fairs at Chase, Grand Forks, Nelson, Creston, and Castlegar. Records
show that approximately 12,000 people visited the unit.
Special exhibits were placed in Teacher Federation conventions at Prince
George, Fort St. John, and Courtenay.
The permanent Forest Service exhibit located in the British Columbia Building, Pacific National Exhibition grounds, Vancouver, was completely redesigned.
Surveys and Engineering Sections of the mobile trailer unit exhibit.
SCHOOL LECTURES
Two school lecturers were active during the school terms January to June and
September to December. For the third time since its inception, the lecture programme covered all five forest districts in one calendar year. Coverage in the
districts was as follows:—
Forest District
Number of
Schools
Visited
Number of
Lectures
Attendance
Vancouver	
108
47
76
21
62
162
49
82
25
75
35,082
5,420
5,600
5,135
9,972
Totals 	
314
393
61,209   42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ments to the United States accounted for 595,170,000 f.b.m., being almost equal to
the 1958 volume and accounting for 50 per cent of all water-borne shipments.
Awarded during 1959 were 2,160 timber sales, containing a total estimated
volume of 739,347,750 cubic feet of saw-timber. Comparable figures for 1958
were 2,145 sales with 682,221,469 cubic feet. The total estimated revenue from
1959 sales is $29,823,289.07; this value is 45 per cent greater than the 1958 total,
reflecting higher stumpage rates as a result of improved market conditions, but is
considerably lower than the record value of 1956 sales. The decline in the number
of timber sales in the last few years may be attributed to several factors: a more
liberal policy in granting extensions of time to existing contracts, resulting in fewer
resales; a trend toward larger sales; the existence of tree-farm licences where timber
is sold on a cutting-permit basis rather than by timber sale; and regulation of cut
in fully committed sustained-yield units where the volume of timber sold is limited
to the allowable cut.
Competitive bidding on timber sales offered for public auction showed a
marked increase in 1959, surpassing the 1956 record. Stumpage rates higher than
the upset prices were bid on 243 sales, or 12.6 per cent of all sales other than cash
sales. These competitive sales comprised 28.3 per cent of the total sawlog volume.
In the case of 104 sales containing 13.6 per cent of the total volume, the final
stumpage rates bid were more than double the upset rates. Most of the competitive
bidding occurred in the Nelson and Vancouver Forest Districts.
At the end of 1959, there were 7,139 timber-sale contracts in existence, the
number having been reduced by 444 during the year. The total amount of security
deposits held under timber-sale contracts increased to $15,150,213 from the
$14,710,518 held at the close of the previous year.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber Prices
The Department relies upon the Interior dressed-lumber shippers to provide
data regarding their sales and, as in previous years, co-operation has been excellent.
These prices are necessary to determine stumpage rates and also provide the basis
of stumpage adjustments under sliding scale. Three-month average prices f.o.b.
car are used, as in past years, as well as seasonal corrections to fir-larch and spruce
prices. There are now five lumber-price zones in effect since the Peace River Zone
has been included in the Prince George-Blue River Zone.
The seasonally corrected fir-larch price and the cedar and yellow pine prices
rose during the first half of the year and fell in the second half. The seasonally
corrected spruce price and the white pine price were relatively stable. Uncorrected
quarterly average prices for the Interior are shown below.
1959 Uncorrected Quarterly Average Dressed-lumber Prices (Interior)
Jan.-Mar.
Apr.-
Tune
July-Sept.
Oct.-
Dec.
Species
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis.
MB.M.
Average
Price
146,229
164,044
5,398
3,698
2,034
$57.87
58.93
54.70
93.41
60.27
200.078
226,122
8,280
6,524
7,479
$65.99
64.71
60.83
97.33
66.17
200,500
247,541
6,713
7,238
5,810
$64.26
62.10
65.86
96.53
62.28
145,929
177,584
5,309
3,522
2,046
$55.77
Spruce	
Cedar 	
57.92
58.28
99.21
Yellow  pine	
61.99  44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Work is progressing on plans to bring the publicly managed units on to the established licensee priority system for administrative purposes. This system is based on
the premise that applications for further timber will be accepted only from the
licensees of expiring timber sales. It has been found necessary to insert restrictive-
cut clauses in timber sales to allow this system to work effectively.
SILVICULTURE
The programme implemented during 1959 included stand treatment, silvi-
cultural studies, working-circle planning, and road location in public working circles
and sustained-yield units.
The main effort during the year was centred on stand treatment. The Interior
districts were again active in this field, and some 823 timber sales received stand
treatment. This involved treating some 207,528 acres, as compared with 141,577
acres in 1958. For the most part, sales are treated to attain either increment or
natural regeneration. The methods most commonly employed are single-tree selection in the case where increment is the objective and strips, blocks, patches, or
single seed-trees where natural regeneration is desired. Of the 207,528 acres
treated in 1959, 24,936 were marked under single-tree selection; 62,961 were laid
out in blocks, strips, or patches; and 119,631 acres were marked for either single
or groups of selected seed-trees.
Where natural regeneration is desired, it is often necessary to prepare a satisfactory seed-bed. This is often accomplished by either burning or scarification.
Since 1956 the Forest Service has been developing a scarification programme as a
means of obtaining natural regeneration in certain types of stands. In 1959 some
twenty-two timber sales were scarified, involving approximately 1,757 acres.
In the 1958 Report, mention was made of the proposed developments in
respect to planting. Planting was carried out during 1959 in all Interior districts.
Altogether, some 200,000 trees were planted, which included the following species:
Larch, yellow pine, spruce, and Douglas fir.
In order to develop the planting programme, considerable effort was expended
in collecting suitable seed. This will be needed for future planting stock and also
in connection with the direct-seeding programme which will be developed in the
near future. In 1959, some 350 bushels of cones were collected and shipped to
the Reforestation Division for extraction.
In addition to the cone-collecting programme, the stand-treatment crews, in
conjunction with Reforestation Division, developed and maintained a number of
small nurseries at different locations throughout the Interior, principally at Telkwa,
Hixon, and Creston.
Of the many technical problems on which work was carried out during the
year, the most significant was the preliminary work done in connection with second-
growth management on the Lower Coast. Co-operative studies were also undertaken with several different agencies. Among the more noteworthy were the logging
damage survey in the Prince George District and the Douglas fir bark-beetle survey
of the damage to selected seed sources in the Cariboo.
SCALING
Scaling supervision in all Interior forest districts was intensified during the
year, with field time apportioned among check scaling and investigations, instructional classes in preparing candidates for scaling examinations, and holding examinations.    Scaling examinations were held at forty-seven centres throughout the REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
45
Interior, with 1,058 candidates sitting for the examinations. Three hundred and
ninety-four candidates were successful in passing. In preparation for the examination, 193 instructional classes in scaling were held, each class being of two hours'
duration.
Mill checks and investigations carried out during the year resulted in twenty-
five prosecutions under Part VIII of the Forest Act. It was also necessary to
suspend the licences of fifteen scalers because of scaling irregularities.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959
RANGE MANAGEMENT
47
Range-management plans must be revised to meet constantly changing conditions. During 1959, special attention was given to minimize any possible effects
of the yellow pine planting programme on grazing interests in the East Kootenay
Valley.
Forage-yield studies were intensified to determine the productive capacity of
various sites. A variety of range-improvement techniques were also applied on
a trial basis to find ways of increasing forage production.
Studies were also continued to determine the type of management required to
maintain and improve forage production on suitable areas in the Peace River
District. These lands revert to brush, and ultimately, if untreated, to a forest type
without under-story forage. Special techniques, including the use of fire, herbicides,
and rough cultivation, appear to be necessary.
Range Surveys
Range inventories provide the resource manager with information which
enables him to develop a range-management programme which will lead to the best
use of the forage. In 1959, a total of 440,720 acres were covered by grazing
surveys, as follows:-—
Acres
Fernie and Elk Valley Stock Ranges  38,240
Hawkins Creek unit of Creston Stock Range  80,480
Upper Cache Creek Stock Range  100,000
Westwold Stock Range  202,000
Total  420,720
From 1945 to 1959, a total of 9,399, 885 acres have been covered by range
surveys and resurveys. The resurveys are necessary to keep the range inventory
information up to date.
Range Improvements
During the year, $48,760.70 was spent from the Range Improvement Fund.
In addition, material to the value of $1,428.72 on hand at the end of 1958, was
assigned to projects during 1959.   The following work was completed:—
One stock-bridge      $200.00
Fourteen cattle-guards      6,170.01
Thirty-one drift-fences   10,514.38
Seven experimental plots        185.32
One hazard-removal   17.15
Four holding-grounds         374.62
Two mud-hole fences        850.00
One hundred and twenty-one range seedings     5,593.67
Twenty-eight stock-trails     8,090.43
Nineteen water developments     2,031.00
Wild-horse disposal         453.50
Machinery and equipment (purchase)        225.61
Maintenance and operation of equipment     1,009.48
Material purchased but not assigned to projects     3,188.70
Supervision, surveys, and technical studies  11,285.55 r
48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In addition to the costs charged to the Range Improvement Fund, range-users
made considerable contributions of labour to a number of the above projects.
Also, a number of these projects were constructed or repaired by fire-suppression
crews and other Forest Service personnel without cost to the Range Improvement
Fund.
Authority was also extended to permittees to construct and maintain, at their
own expense, one breeding-pasture, two cattle-guards, five corrals, twelve drift-
fences, two grazing-enclosures, one holding-ground, two horse pastures, one stock-
trail, and two water developments.
Range seeding was reduced in 1959, due mainly to the fact that no major
fires occurred which were suitable for seeding. Some 17,150 pounds of seed were
used in 1959, compared to 21,615 pounds in 1958. The seeding of logged forest
range and other similarly disturbed areas was at about the same level as the previous year. Fall seeding was curtailed due to unsuitable weather conditions. One
prescribed burn in the Peace River area was seeded from the air. The costs
reported previously covered only the cost of seed and other supplies. Labour, which
is a major cost in seeding, was supplied by stockmen and Forest Service personnel.
Steel-rail decks were installed on ten cattle-guards on heavily used roads.
Experience to date indicates that maintenance costs for this type of deck should be
considerably less than that for wooden decks. One painted cattle-guard was
installed across an asphalt highway in 1959, and preliminary results indicate that
this new type of guard was relatively successful in holding cattle. Trials with
electric cattle-guards were continued, but these guards do not appear to be entirely
satisfactory in remote areas where maintenance is difficult.
Seeding grass on logging-roads has produced forage for live stock. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 49
All of the Kamloops Grazing District and the major part of the Nelson Grazing
District were closed to horses during the winter of 1958/59. Forty-eight horse-
disposal licences were issued and sixty horses were cleared for shipment. Bounties
remained at $5 on mares and geldings and $7.50 on stallions. The problem of
horses on Crown range is now largely under control. High prices being paid for
horses has encouraged horse-owners to take better care of their animals and to
round up and ship their own excess horses. However, it is considered necessary to
continue horse closures to further ensure that large numbers of useless horses do not
again accumulate on Crown range.
During the year, studies were continued on the biological control of goat-weed
(Hypericum perforatum). The two species of Chrysoline beetles, which were first
introduced a number of years ago, are still disappointingly ineffective. However,
the beetles continue to survive. The release of Chrysolina varians, made in 1958,
showed some promise, but it is still too soon to draw conclusions as to the effectiveness of this species.
Range Research
The Canada Ranee Experimental Farm at Kamloops is responsible for basic
range research in British Columbia. Studies were continued on a number of
problems of special interest to the Forest Service, including range seeding, timber
milk-vetch poisoning, range carrying capacities, and weight gains on forest range.
Valuable assistance was obtained from the farm during the year on a wide variety
of subjects, including technical guidance in connection with much of the work being
done in the East Kootenay area.
Co-operation
Local live-stock associations are the media through which much of the cooperation between ranchers and the Forest Service is achieved. There are now
fifty-three such associations approved under the Grazing Act. Three new associations were incorporated in 1959. One of these has already been recognized under
the Grazing Act, and negotiations with the other two are under way. Meetings were
held with the North Okanagan ranchers in 1959 to organize local live-stock associations, but no associations have been formed to date. Several recently inactive
live-stock associations were reactivated in 1959.
The British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association and the British
Columbia Sheep Breeders' Association were active, and several matters of general
concern to the industry were referred to them for their consideration.
A total of 124 association meetings were reported, and Forest Service officers
attended 115 of these. Fifteen meetings were held with other live-stock and technical groups during the year.
A co-operative arrangement was entered into between the United States and
British Columbia Forest Services and affected permittees for the fencing of a part
of the International Boundary on Pasayten Mountain where intermingling of stock
had become a problem.
Grazing personnel assisted in organizing and participated in several technical
meetings during the year. At the instigation of the Forest Service, a short course
in range management was arranged by the University. This course was held at the
Range Experimental Farm in June and was attended by technical personnel from
various agencies interested in range use. Early in the year, the Director of Grazing
was appointed to the Beef Cattle Advisory Committee, set up to advise the Government on matters affecting the industry generally.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
51
horses 208 head over the previous year. Sheep numbers were slightly reduced,
being at the lowest level since 1928.   (See Table 58 in Appendix.)
A total of 164 hay-cutting permits were issued authorizing the harvesting of
1,415 tons of hay and rushes from Crown range. Unfortunately, much of this hay
could not be harvested owing to extremely wet weather, and many permits were
cancelled.   Such hay as could be harvested was of low quality.
A number of special-use permits for hay-cutting and for fenced pastures were
issued under the Provincial Forest Regulations.
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees
Grazing fees are on a sliding scale, based on live-stock prices received by the
producers the previous year. Fees per head per month for 1959 were 15 cents for
cattle, 18.5 cents for horses, and 3 cents for sheep.
This represents an increase of 3 cents per head per month for cattle and 3%
cents per head per month for horses, reflecting the considerably higher prices
received by stockmen in 1958. Sheep fees remained constant from 1958 to 1959.
Hay-cutting fees, which are not on a sliding scale, remained at $1 per ton for wild
hay and 70 cents per ton for rushes.
Total billings for grazing and hay-cutting fees were up from the 1958 level
due to both increased fees and the larger numbers of stock on the Crown range.
Billings exceeded collections, resulting in larger " outstandings " at the end of the
year.   (See Table 59 in Appendix.)
Live-stock Counts
Cattle counts were carried out in four areas where management problems had
arisen. Accurate knowledge of the number of stock owned by ranchers is necessary
to ensure actual grazing use is in line with permitted use and also as a basis for
equitable allocation of Crown range.
Violations and Prosecutions
Several cases of serious violations of grazing permit conditions occurred during
the year. Some stock were seized under the provisions of section 17 of the Grazing
Act for too early turnout on spring range.     56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
one less than last year, but one 35,000 G.V.W. (6 to 8 tons) heavy-duty unit was
provided for tractor transport and road gravelling in the Prince Rupert District,
replacing a truck-lowbed combination.
Other major expenditures included two heavy-duty (D-8 and D-9) tractors for
the Engineering Section and ten dwelling trailers for crew housing in various districts
and divisions.
Ten 100-gallon-capacity, light-weight, portable tank and pump units designed
by the Mechanical Section and constructed at the Forest Service Marine Station
were put into service and given a thorough test. These proved most acceptable to
the districts and, with minor modifications, should become a standard piece of fire-
fighting equipment.
Forest Service Mechanical Equipment
Type
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1959
Removed
from
Service
New
Purchases
Total
Units,
Dec. 31,
1959
62
83
25
49
65
233
22
155
38
51
8
10
19
7
3
5
9
23
2
22
6
1
4
1
5
13
3
20
14
27
1
9
8
4
....
48
89
25
64
Four-wheel-drive passenger types—   __ 	
70
237
21
142
40
14,000-24,000 G.V.W. trucks (2, 3 and 4 tons)	
54
25,000-40,000 G.V.W. trucks (H.D.)    _
I
801
102
105
804
38
16
4
2
1
348
751
8
34
354
83
1
17
10
115
145
4
6
4
1
1
22
9
6
3
3
1
20
39
29
3
2
1
2
1
::::
3
1
::::
...
22
3
2
2
39
9
3
1
10
18
1
1
38
16
4
2
1
350
715
10
34
2
364
89
1
20
9
124
161
4
6
5
1
1
Mechanical wheelbarrows  _	
22
9
6
3
General supervision and inspection of mechanical units followed approximately
the procedures developed in past years, with each piece of equipment receiving
at least one check-over. In the case of major units (cars, trucks, etc.), two
recorded inspections were completed. Maintenance generally has improved
throughout the years and is now of a comparatively high standard.
Surveys and Inventory Division continues to operate mobile inspection and
repair crews during the field season and a repair-shop during the winter months.
This has resulted in a definite lowering of repair costs to the Division.    Engineer-  58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Construction at various points throughout the Province which involved design
and building supervision by the Section are detailed in the following table:—
Building and Construction Undertaken during 1959
Location
Project
Construction
Agency
Stage of
Construction
Carry-over from 1958/59
Cranbrook  	
Duncan _	
Mesachie Lake  	
Vancouver  	
Various points 	
Programme for 1959/60
Aleza Lake 	
Courtenay 	
Cranbrook. 	
Cranbrook  	
Ch etwy nd 	
Duncan  	
Duncan	
Duncan	
Duncan   	
Duncan   _
Echo Bay	
Likely 	
Slocan City.	
Smithers	
Various points..
Irr.gation pumping system-
Extension, seed-extraction plant _
Fire-protection system_
Retaining-works and derrick..
Porta-buildings (six)	
Experimental-station development-
Office extension    	
Office extension 	
Paving-
Office and stores building	
Freezer and cold-storage building..
Pile foundations — 	
Roofing for freezer building. 	
Refrigeration for freezer building -
Electrical for freezer building.	
Floats and wharf	
Boat-house, ways and tool-cache..
Thre e-c ar garage	
Headquarters warehouse__
Porta-buildings (seven) —
Forest Service..	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service _
Forest Service..	
Forest Service 	
Contract 	
Forest Service— _
Forest Service.-	
Contract.	
Contract	
Contract ._ _
Contract __	
Contract	
Forest Service _.
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service.—	
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Design proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Design proceeding.
Design proceeding.
Tenders called.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Design completed.
Completed.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION
Marine Work
The marine ways were occupied fifty-eight times during the year. Launch
overhauls totalled sixty-four, forty-one of which were major overhauls. Ninety
small craft, comprised of dinghies, rowboats, outboard cruisers, and river-boats,
were repaired, reconditioned, and in some cases rebuilt. Extensive repairs and
remodelling were carried out on the 36-foot landing-craft "L.C. 2," and a similar
programme has been started on the 50-foot "L.C. 5."
Alterations to and repowering of the "Conifer," started in late 1958, were
completed early in the year. The "B.C. Scaler" was repowered with a pair of
heavy-duty diesels of 225 horse-power each.
A portion of the crew has been on new construction throughout the year.
The 45-foot " Whitesail," designed for Ootsa Lake and started in 1958, was finished
and placed in operation. A new 40-foot Ranger vessel is 60 per cent complete.
One 23-foot outboard cruiser and eight 30-foot river-boats were built. Four
moulded-plywood unfinished hulls were assembled and superstructure completed,
and a similar 27-foot hull is 30 per cent complete.
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop
The major undertaking of the Subsection has been the prefabrication of the
new 100-foot float, gangway, and approach ramp which will be installed at the Echo
Bay Ranger Station after the structural members have been pressure-treated with
preservative. Other important jobs were the construction of four Porta-buildings
and a refrigerated seedling-carrier, partial completion of three other Porta-buildings,
prefabrication of twelve lookout buildings, and the rebuilding of four old dwelling
trailers.  60
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
set forward to April 1st, 1960, with a three-year amortization period, thus reducing
to a small extent the urgency for replacement of present types of A.M. equipment.
All lookout stations appear to fall in the Specification 116 category and, as a solution to this replacement problem, the Model B portable has been specification-
approved with one small modification, units complete with modification being
already available from at least one manufacturer. Replacement of nine marine units
brought complete modernization closer but, at the present rate of replacement, it is
unlikely that the entire fleet will be refitted in time for the expiry of Specification
112.
An important regulation is now being enforced requiring the operator of a
Coastal motor-vessel to obtain his radiotelephone operator's restricted certificate.
This affects the sea-going Ranger and (or) his engineer, and preliminary steps have
been taken to ensure the certification of those concerned.
Although the main point-to-point communication continues to be handled by
A.M., a start has been made in the Prince Rupert District to convert the Ranger
station-to-lookout circuits to F.M., and results on a small scale have been excellent.
Testing was carried out during the summer for a repeater at Smithers, to connect
Smithers. Telkwa, and Houston. Plans were also completed for the conversion to
F.M. of fourteen lookouts, eieht Ranger stations, and one Assistant Ranger station.
A second repeater at Burns Lake is at present being tested by commercial interests
and is entirely suitable for Forest Service use.
At Prince George, the shortage of fire portables, which was so much in evidence
during the 1958 season, has been partly corrected. The F.M. network was completely overhauled in the spring after gradually weakening circuits between repeaters
had virtually wiped out normal communications. While operation was restored and
has been maintained, the entire F.M. system must be considered as being on a
temporary basis while only two repeater sites with power are available. A power-
line up Fraser Mountain, planned for the spring of 1959, with four services sharing
the cost, failed to materialize, but is still an active project, with a building and
equipment in hand for the third repeater out of the five required.
The Vancouver District maintained the status quo with the majority of Ranger
stations on Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland being served by the F.M. network with almost 100 per cent continuity. Through the new repeater on Mount
Bruce, two more voice circuits were added—one to Green Timbers and the Marine
Station, and the other between Civil Defence headquarters at Victoria and Abbotsford. A.M. transmission to launches and stations north of Seymour Narrows and
to Pemberton proved to be unsatisfactory a good deal of the time, the district
frequency being too low for this distance at the present peak of sunspot activity.
Tests are being carried out using 5915 kilocycles and three of the older transmitters
have been replaced. While the changes have apparently corrected the situation,
it must be considered a temporary solution until transmission during the hot weather
has been proven.
In the Kamloops District, the year saw extension of the F.M. network to
Williams Lake, Horsefly, and Ashcroft, and Protection F.M. to Barriere, Clinton,
100 Mile, and Alexis Creek. Only five Ranger districts are now dependent on
A.M., and one of these is in the process of conversion. Silver Star repeater, the
key station for the entire area, remains on generator power, but a new power plant
and automatic change-over have made this repeater more reliable. Timothy and
Greenstone repeater buildings were completed in the late autumn, and the former
has now replaced Begbie repeater, with greatly extended range, while at Greenstone
adequate space and heating facilities ensure proper operation and improved maintenance. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
61
To complete the F.M. network from the western end of the Nelson District,
Red Mountain repeater was set up on a temporary basis in the spring but proved
unsatisfactory. All attempts to construct the Santa Rosa repeater in time for
summer use were defeated by the industry strike. Both Santa Rosa and the new
repeater building at Red Mountain were finally completed in the late autumn and,
through the repeater chain, Phoenix-Santa Rosa-Red Mountain-Beasley, the western
end of the district was connected with Nelson. In the east, Fernie not included,
F.M. reaches to Invermere, with plans already in hand for extension to Golden.
Due to the broken terrain throughout the Kootenays, the A.M. portable remained
the source of communication for fires. Such F.M. portables as were available were
found invaluable on lookouts, aircraft, and for internal use only on large fires.
The Victoria staff, following a complete overhaul and maintenance tour in
the Prince George area, constructed the foundations and power wiring at Santa
Rosa and Red Mountain during the summer, returning later to complete the buildings and installation of equipment. Extensive propagation testing continued between Mount Bruce and Blackwall Mountain in Manning Park, with the object of
further proving the F.M. circuit between Victoria, Kamloops, and Prince George.
Tests proved successful, but further information must be obtained before the circuit
can be completed. Laboratory work included the almost continuous assembly and
modification of F.M. Ranger station units and repeaters, mass production of beam
and other types of antenna;, research into inexpensive methods of remote control,
and transistorization of the Model B receiver. Maintenance of all installations on
Vancouver Island was again a Victoria responsibility, and no significant outage
occurred during the year.    REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
65
to the Vancouver public weather office, which provided special forecasts on the
basis of these observations. Although burning conditions were anything but favorable, the experience gained should be helpful in planning future operations of this
type. Several days were also spent at the Forest Service Marine Station making
individual calibrations of the fuel-moisture balance manufactured there this season.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Sixteen suppression crews, averaging ten men each, were again employed
during the summer for approximately 100 days each. They attended 164 fires, of
which 80 per cent were held to a size of 5 acres or less.
The crews at Castlegar and Alexis Creek proved extremely valuable in controlling numerous incendiary and unauthorized range fires in those areas.
Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
Size of Fire When Attacked
Vi Acre
or Less
Over Vi
Acre to
1 Acre
Over 1
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
96
20
25
21
92
2
16
2
3
15
.
Over Vi acre and up to 1 acre - —	
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres     	
1        |        _
4                   6
13                     8
Over 50 acres	
2
....
...
....        |        ...        |          2
Totals 	
164         1         92
18         1         20
18
16
AIRCRAFT
Protection flying was continued under contract with Pacific Western Airlines
Limited, who supplied six float-planes. A total of 2,469 flying-hours were logged
throughout the Province during the period April 15th to November 15th under the
contract, as follows:—
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Vancouver	
Lakelse Lake  —	
Prince George..—	
Beaver  _	
341
343
Prince George	
Kamloops ,    _
Beaver  	
Beaver (2)     —
Beaver	
592
677
Nelson.. —	
Nelson    ._ 	
516
2,469
One helicopter, under a four months' contract, was used for a total of 382
flying-hours.   It was used in cargo-hauling, reconnaissance, ferrying, and fire patrol.
In addition to these machines under contract, limited use was made of both
fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters on fire-suppression work. Two hundred and
eighty-seven hours were logged on fixed-wing and 158 hours on helicopters in
addition to the contracts.
Water bombing was carried out on only a few fires this year, as these specially
fitted aircraft were not always available when they could have been used to advantage. The water bombing that was done was effective because pilots are gaining
in experience, and the Junkers and Avengers aircraft proved most suitable.
Helicopters were not used to water-bomb fires as no large types were available.      REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 71
Forest District). During 1959, a study was initiated to assess the importance of
logging scars in Douglas fir (Kamloops Forest District) as avenues of entrance for
wood-destroying and wood-staining fungi. A preliminary analysis of data indicates
considerable differences in the incidence of infection between different localities.
Volumes of decay were negligible in scars of the oldest age sampled, namely, 8 years.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 73
ACCOUNTING
FISCAL
This Division experienced another very active year during 1959. Unlike 1958,
when the record fire season and depressed lumber-market prices curtailed woods
operations, there were no forest closures in 1959 and lumber prices improved substantially.
In spite of a strike lasting forty-nine working-days in the Coast forest industry,
the total Provincial scale of forest products was greater by 15.2 per cent than that of
1958. As a result, total Forest Service charges against logging operations increased
by 13.8 per cent, to a value of $27,464,756.19 and, of this total, direct Forest
Service collections increased 7.8 per cent to $26,843,188.71. These were the third
highest totals of these items on record, being exceeded only in 1956 and 1957.
Detailed tables of these and other accounting items appear in the Appendix (Tables
28 to 36, inclusive). It is interesting to note that the Coast forest districts contributed materially to the increase in charges in spite of the loss in man-hours due
to the strike.
Timber-sale stumpage, the largest single revenue class, was up 8.1 per cent to
$23,092,737.28, with increases also being recorded in the related items of timber-
sale rental and fees, and cruising and advertising charges. Timber royalty increased
somewhat surprisingly by 9.9 per cent to $1,890,590.96, reversing a steady decline
since 1955. Rentals and fees on timber licences, berths, and leases remained
almost static, which was to be expected, as these tenures are no longer issued and
are gradually dwindling as they become fully logged. Grazing permits and fees
increased 18.3 per cent, to $86,506.29, due to an increase in fees, and the only
decrease of consequence in any revenue class occurred in miscellaneous collections,
which, at $121,287.96, totalled 8.7 per cent less than in 1958.
Tables of forest revenue and expenditure for the fiscal year 1958/59 are to
be found in the Appendix (Tables 30. 33, and 34), and details of the latter will
be found in the Public Accounts, published annually by the Department of Finance.
ADMINISTRATION
Some changes in staff took place in the Division during the year due to
retirement, resignations, and transfer.
With the backlog of accounting for 1958 fire-suppression costs liquidated early
in the year, activities in the Expenditure Section of the Headquarters Accounts
Office returned to normal. By some revision of procedures and reorganization, it
was possible to eliminate two positions in this Section, with casual help to be provided should the fire situation in any year cause undue pressure.
The increased volume of revenue accounting kept the Revenue and Cashier's
Section and Timber Sales Records Section fully occupied, with the latter being
affected by continued activity in sliding-scale stumpage adjustments due to the
improvement in lumber-market prices.
Visits to the district offices for internal audit and procedure inspection by the
Chief Accountant and Assistant Accountant were somewhat curtailed due to illness,
but these will be resumed on schedule in the future.
In addition to the normal checking of mill records and collection of lumber
prices, investigators from the Comptroller's Office assisted the Forest Management   76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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a REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 77
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
The only Ranger meeting of the year was held in the spring at Prince Rupert.
Partly because of the complete change of District Foresters and partly for reasons
of economy, no District Forester, Protection, Management, or Silviculture meetings
were held during the year.
The Civil Service Commission called three interdepartmental meetings of personnel Officers during the year. The meetings are intended primarily for instruction
and discussion of new or amended policies. At one meeting the Personnel Officer
was called on to present a paper on " Morale in the Public Service."
In the field of training, eight members of the Forest Service, representing
foresters and protection officers in district administration, were selected for the
fourth class of the Executive Development Training Plan sponsored by the Government through the University of British Columbia. The course this year was made
available to staffs outside the Vancouver-Victoria area, with instruction to take
place at Kamloops for one week in the fall and the spring, followed by two weeks
at the University of British Columbia in May. Each of the northern and Interior
districts were represented. A Forest Service engineer and a forester were among
the first graduating class this year. Arrangements were made for two foresters to
take part in a two-day Camp Management Training Conference sponsored by the
British Columbia Loggers' Association, and for the Forest Service representative
on the Provincial Government Safety Committee to attend and report on the British
Columbia Safety Council's Fourth Annual Provincial Conference. Twenty-three
forest officers attended a one-day training seminar in Human Relations, Communications, Leadership, and Accident Prevention sponsored at several centres
throughout the Province by the British Columbia Safety Council and the Department
of Extension of the University of British Columbia. The Vancouver and Kamloops
Districts set up formal Safety and Accident Prevention Committees. Various in-
service training programmes were continued, such as Lookout and Assistant Ranger
schools, first-aid courses and field training courses organized by the districts and
divisions concerned.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment approved for the Forest Service by
the Legislative Assembly for the fiscal year commencing April 1st, 1959, was 832,
an increase over the previous year of fifteen, but still twenty-eight less than the
1957 total of 860. The fifteen new positions were for Rangers—Grade 1, newly
graduated from the Ranger School. Nevertheless, in view of the increasing costs of
salaries and expenses, the total number of continuously employed staff (see Table 1
in Appendix) dropped by sixteen positions, notably in the engineering, survey, and
marking crew categories. The number of seasonally employed personnel rose quite
sharply, largely due to the employment of some 120 additional reforestation labourers engaged in cone collection and planting.
During 1959, 120 persons received Civil Service appointments and eighty-five
left the permanent Service. One 25-year service badge was earned. There were
seven retirements during the year. Sixty-three transfers of permanent staff took
place. Permanent-staff turnover for the year averaged 10.3 per cent, unchanged
from the previous year. This year there were extreme differences between locations,
however, ranging from 29.1 per cent at Prince George and 18.6 per cent at Vancouver to only 2.6 per cent at Nelson. Professional-staff turnover was 4 per cent,
only one-third of the previous year, and the permanent technical-staff turnover
remained steady at 3.1 per cent.   The reason for leaving given most frequently by 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the professional and technical groups was for better salary. Amongst the office
staff, better salary was the reason given by 26.9 per cent, and personal reasons
accounted for over 50 per cent. Clerical-, stenographic- and draughting-staff turnover rose somewhat to an average of 22.8 per cent, with Prince George suffering an
unprecedented 77.8 per cent turnover of its permanent office staff, followed by
Vancouver with 34.2 per cent. Ten graduate foresters and seven engineers left fhe
Service, and fifteen foresters and ten engineers were hired, including eleven forestry
graduates from the University of British Columbia.
Some 535 applications for employment, down 6 per cent from last year, were
handled by correspondence in the Personnel Office alone, apart from many others
handled through divisional and district offices. Written examinations were held for
fifteen promotional positions, and oral examinations and panel interviews were employed in filling sixteen other positions. The Personnel Officer and Assistant also
participated in making selections for 103 other Civil Service positions.
At the annual spring examinations for Assistant Rangers, 272 candidates sat,
of whom 129 passed. As there were only twenty-three vacancies for Assistant
Rangers, there was no problem in securing qualified men.
There were no fatal accidents involving Forest Service employees in 1959.
CLASSIFICATIONS, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Changes were made in the Civil Service classification system affecting eight
groups of employees. The classification of Chief Forester was established and, due
to resulting organizational changes and the elevation of the Reforestation Division
to Forester 6 status, the position specifications were revised for all grades of forester
above Grade 3. The specifications for various positions and grades were rewritten
in line with current practice.
Numerous individual position classification reviews were carried out. Of the
sixty-one which were submitted to the Civil Service Commission, fifty-one were
approved, six rejected, and four were undecided at the end of the year.
Effective April 1st, a general salary revision averaging an 8-per-cent increase
was granted. Some anomalies occurred affecting Marine Station tradesmen,
Assistant Radio Superintendent, Ranger Supervisors, and the various Forest
Agrologist categories. Adjustments were made to the Marine Station group, and
agreement was reached for future amendment of the other groups, with the exception
of Forest Agrologists, whose rates were still under discussion with the Civil Service
Commission at the end of the year. Numerous cases of individual salary interpretation and adjustment were settled as they occurred.
There was an increasing concentration and activity on accident prevention
following receipt of accident statistics from the Workmen's Compensation Board.
Recommendations were placed before the Civil Service Commission for changes
in sick- and vacation-leave regulations, special living allowances in northern areas,
and a policy of assisting with removal expenses on recruitment when qualified
candidates are not available locally. The qualifications for Ranger School entrance
were modified, with the addition of a Forest Service general knowledge examination
to supplement the mathematics test. A small experimental survey of employee
attitudes regarding supervisory attributes was carried out in one Victoria division.
Good use was made by Forest Service employees of the facilities provided through
the Employee's Occupational Health Office in Victoria for receiving inoculations
and vaccinations against the common diseases likely to be contracted in field work.
The policy was continued of restricting the employment or re-employment of
persons over 65 years of age to a few cases individually approved by Order in
Council. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 79
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1960
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
R. G. McKee Deputy Minister of Forests.
F. S. McKinnon    Chief Forester.
L. F. Swannell Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations Branch.
J. S. Stokes Assistant Chief Forester i/c Planning Branch.
Staff Division Heads:
Cooper, C.   -        Forest Counsel.
Hicks, W. V. Department Comptroller.
Monk, D. R. -       - Director, Public Information.
Williams, W. J. -    Personnel Officer.
Operations Branch Division Heads:
Forse, H. B. Forester i/c Protection Division.
Greggor, R. D. -        -        -        -        -      Forester i/c Engineering Services Division.
Hughes, W. G.      - Forester i/c Management Division.
Pendray, W. C. Director, Graz;ng Division.
Robinson, E. W. -        - Forester i/c Forest Ranger School.
Planning Branch Division Heads:
Pogue, H. M. Forester i/c Working Plans Division.
Young, W. E. L. Forester i/c Surveys and Inventory Division.
Silburn, G. Forester i/c Reforestation Division.
Spilsbury, R. H.   -        -        -        -        -        -        -       Forester i/c Research Division.
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver District
I. T. Cameron ...,'-       District Forester.
Boulton, L. B. B. -       -       -      Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Carr, W. S. (Chilliwack); McDaniel, R. W. (Hope); Wilson, R. (Harrison Lake); Webster, J. B. (Mission); Mudge, M. H. (Port Moody); Henderson, J. E. (Squamish); Cham-
berlin, L. C. (Sechelt); McKinnon, C. G. (Madeira Park); Hollinshead, S. B. (Powell
River); Norbirg, H. (Lund); Gill, D. E. (Thurston Bay East); (vacant) (Thurston Bay
West); Bertram, G. D. (Chatham Channel); Thomas, R. W. (Echo Bay); Howard, W.
(Alert Bay); Sykes, S. J. (Port Hardy); Ormond, L. D. (Campbell River); Antonelli,
M. W. (Courtenay); Glassford, R. J. (Parksville); Haley, K. (Nanaimo); Bell, P. A.
(Duncan); Lorentsen, L. H. (Ganges); Jones, R. W. (Langford); Morley, K. A. (Lake
Cowichan); Brooks, F. T. (Alberni); McArthur, E. J. (Tofino); Carradice, J. H. (Pem-
berton).
Prince Rupert District
J. R. Johnston -       -       -       -       -       District Forester.
Lehrle, L. W. W. - -      Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Berard, R. K. (Ocean Falls); Crosby, D. K. (Queen Charlotte City); Brooks, R. L. (Prince
Rupert); Lindstrom, W. C. (Terrace); Antonenko, J. (Kitwanga); Petty, A. P. (Hazelton);
Mould, J. (Smithers); Clay, W. D. (Telkwa); Keefe, J. J. (Houston); Kullander, M. O.
(Pendleton Bay); Mastin, T. (Burns Lake); Hawkins, R. M. (Bella Coola); Pement, A. R.
(Southbank); Morris, D. S. (Atlin).
Prince George District
A. H. Dixon  -- --       District Forester.
Bennett, C. E.     -       - Assistant District Forester. 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Rangers:
French, C. L. (McBride); Rohn, K. (Penny); Meents, G. E. (Prince George); Pearce, F.
(Prince George); Northrup, K. A. (Fort St. James); Kuly, A. (Quesnel (S.)); Barbour,
H. T. (Pouce Coupe); Hamblin, R. A. (Aleza Lake); Graham, G. W. (Vanderhoof);
Cosens, A. S. (Fort St. John); Baker, F. M. (Fort Fraser); Waller, T. (Summit Lake);
Thornton, S. H. (Quesnel); Flynn, D. (Prince George); Anderson, O. J. (Hixon); Mitchell,
B. A. (Quesnel (E.)); Angly, R. B. (Quesnel (N.));  McQueen, L. (Chetwynd).
Kamloops District
W. C. Phillips       ----- District Forester.
McRae, N. A.      --------        -      Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Specht, G. H. (Lumby); Williams, R. V. (Birch Island); Bailey, J. D. (Barriere); Hill,
A. F. (Kamloops (S.)); Paquette, O. (Chase); Gibson, C. L. (Salmon Arm); Jones, G. G.
(Sicamous); Cameron, A. G. (Lillooet); Johnson, M. A. (Vernon); Scott, E. L. (Pentic-
ton); Dearing, J. H. (Princeton); Robertson, C. E. (Clinton); Cawston, J. B. (Williams
Lake); Bodman, G. F. (Alexis Creek); Hewlett, H. C. (Kelowna); Noble, J. O. (Ashcroft); DeWitt, D. O. (Merritt); Monteith, M. E. (Blue River); Collins, B. G. (Enderby);
Janning, H. A. W. (110 Mile (N.)); Weinard, J. P. (Kamloops (N.)); Wittner, D. J.
(Horsefly);  Hamilton, T. J. (100 Mile (S.)).
Nelson District
P. Young       -----------       District Forester.
Bruce, J. B. Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Hopkins, H. V. (Invermere); Humphrey, J. L. (Fernie); (vacant) (Golden); Gierl
J. B. (Cranbrook (E.)); Ross, A. I. (Creston); Stilwell, L. E. (Kaslo); Benwell, W. G
(Lardeau); Robinson, R. E. (Nelson); Jupp, C. C. (New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Nakusp)
Wood, H. R. (Castlegar); Reid, E. W. (Grand Forks); Uphill, W. T. (Kettle Valley)
Cartwright, G. M. (Canal Flats); (vacant) (Arrowhead); Haggart, W. D. (Edgewood)
Hesketh, F. G. (Elko); Reaney, R. J. (Spillimacheen); Bailey, J. F. (Cranbrook (W.))
Ivens, J. H. (Beaverdell); Webster, G. R. (Slocan City); Jackson, R. C. (Revelstoke).    84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table No. Page
29. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  104
30. Forest Revenue  105
31. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1959  106
32. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1958/59  107
33. Forest Revenue:  (A) Fiscal Year 1958/59, (B) Fiscal Years 1949/50 to
1958/59 .  108
34. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1958/59  109
35. Seating Fund  109
36. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  109
Forest Protection
37. Forest-protection Expenditure for Twelve Months Ended March 31st,
1959, by the Forest Service  110
38. Reported  Approximate   Expenditure   in  Forest  Protection   by   Other
Agencies, 1959  111
39. Summary of Snag-falling, 1959, Vancouver Forest District  111
40. Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1959, Vancouver Forest District  111
41. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1959, Vancouver Forest
District  112
42. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1959, Vancouver Forest District  112
43. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs,  1959, Vancouver Forest
District  113
44. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1959  113
45. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1959  113
46. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  114
47. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1959 ■  115
48. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1959  116
49. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1959—Parts I and II
 116,117
50. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1959 118
51. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  119
52. Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of
Fire-fighting, 1959  119
53. Prosecutions, 1959  120
Ranger School
54. Enrolment at Ranger School, 1959  121
Public Information and Education
55. Motion-picture Library, 1950-59  122
56. Summary of Coverage by School Lectures, 1950-59  123
57. Forest Service Library, 1950-59  124
Grazing
58. Grazing Permits Issued  124
59. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected  124
Forest Surveys and Inventory
60. Area Classification by Ownership^  125
61. Sound-wood Volume in Commercial Forests of All Ages by Ownership
and Species  126 (1)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1959
85
Personnel
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant
Chief Foresters— 	
2
11
3
3
32
11
74
38
4
7
6
103
18
37
17
22
1
2
9
2
2
18
2
2
2
7
4
29
6
26
8
33
1
2
2
11
1
1
3
26
3
4
6
1
5
29
4
30
10
58
4
1
1
2
13
5
1
3
31
3
3
4
14
5
31
44
17
50
2
9
2
2
3
28
2
4
8
3
22
42
8
23
3
2
4
8
2
3
82
3
26
3
7
67
10
77
4
27
114
6
38
3
8
15
20
4
8
Directors of Grazing and Public Information	
2
3
District Foresters and Assistant District For-
10
135
Agrologists and Agrologists-in-Training	
Engineers and Engineers-in-Training	
11
26
12
14
135
21
Scalers, Official	
76
41
Comptroller, Accountant, and Audit Assistants
7
85
Technical Forest and Public Information Assistants	
Reforestation, Research, and Survey Assistants
52
78
4
50
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers	
Superintendent  and  Foremen,   Forest  Service
328
6
42
27
179
60
Cruisers, Compassmen, and Silviculture Crew-
186
16
16
Miscellaneous	
26
389
19
36
8
58
4
8
11
155
6
4
22
3
4
1
8
200
4
4
22
2
2
10
226
7
3
34
5
54
5
....
6
163
14
41
12
32
4
5
10
527
9
370
31
121
15
96
1,660
Seasonally Employed
Assistant and Acting Rangers -
36
25
155
39
144
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc	
370
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators
Student and Survey Assistants  and Engineer-
ing Aides _.	
48
121
37
Miscellaneous  	
141
144
48
44
120
118
642
1,116
533
203
244
346
281
1,169
2,776 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
3.9
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z REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
91
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS,  1959, IN F.B.M.  (SEGREGATED BY
<8A) LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
669,812,585
104,743,242
83,465,978
15,511,963
19,231,302
271,429
565,378
998,803,613
1,903,351
8,227,702
10,808,460
21,890,859
12,423,755
701,834,497
127,975,457
83,465,978
9,679,961
43,105,474
42,315
25,191,924
62,336,776
Hand-loggers' licences	
313,744
203,728
760,294,997
256,122
892,628,666
355,566,716
1,025,228
120,263,162
21,959,167
153,469,501
3,281,026,655
21,959,167
68,937,397
231,552,088
10,875,122
68,937,397
66,244,033
4,792,384
62,273,514
1,262,670
18,953,432
15,511,965
35,010,744
8,777,785
58,413,584
4,723,015
472,447,395
Miscellaneous	
45,942,941
Sub-totals, Crown
lands	
2,203,770,097
16,879,256
754,093,480
73,570,268
20.825.599
266,086,496
277,129
217,005,685
95,194
796,867,473
955,709,479
18,021,795
39,707,827
18,625,360
31,928,235
66,763,445
453,017,929
1,623,223
2,321,152
46,134,350
11,918,192
17,723,464
4,892,457,159
36,896,597
Crown grants—
To 1887 	
340,032
231,475
4,315,422
37,906,704
796,462,491
1887 1906        	
13,084,447
6.146.636
95,630
2,198,779
6,938,776
151,741,530
1906-1914        _
77,332,863
1914 to date         	
73,953,043| 18,021,217
221,306,649
Totals
3.143,091,743
303,615,925
226,334,064
839,661,106
1.130.756.1411512.738.310
6 176,197,289
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS,  1959, IN CUBIC FEET (SEGREGATED
BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
(8B) (Conversion factor:   Coast—6 f.b.m. = l cu. ft., Interior—5.75 f.b.m. = l cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
111,635,431
17,457,207
13,910,996
2,585,327
3,205,217
45,238
94,230
331,017
1,430,905
1,879,732
3,807,106
2,160,653
117,204,459
21,499,592
13,910,996
1,613,327
7,184,246
7,052
 	
4,196,654
10,389,463
52,290
35,431
132,225,217
44,543
155,239,768
174,204
166,467,296
20,043,860
3,659,861
26,690,348
61,837,690
562,504,152
3,659,861
11,489,566
38,592,015
1,812,520
11,489,566
11,040,672| 10,830,176
798,731|       219,595
3,296,249
2,697,733
6,088,825
1,526,571
10,158,884
821,394
80,006,821
Miscellaneous	
7,876,544
Sub-totals, Crown
lands	
367,295,016
2,813,209
125,568,247
12,261,712
3.470.933
44,347,749
46,188
37,740,119
16,556
138,585,647
166,210,344
3,134,225
6,905,709
3,239,193
5.557 717
78,785,727
282,299
403,679
8,023,365
2,072,729
3,082,342
832,964,602
6,292,477
Crown grants—
To 1887	
59,136
40,257
750.508
133,050,771
25,761,899
13,253,743
37,821,633
1887-1906	
1906-1914	
2,180,741
1 074 440
16,631
382,396
1,206,744
1914 to date	
12,325,507|    3,003,536
6,592,470|     11,611,034
Totals	
523,848,624
50 607 6541   10 167 446
IdfimSOISI     1QSfi5l 7/17
92,650,141
1,049,145,125     96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
AREAS EXAMINED BY THE FOREST SERVICE FOR MISCELLANEOUS
(13) PURPOSES OF THE LAND ACT,  1959
Forest District
Applications
for Hay and
Grazing Leases
Applications
for Foreshore
Leases
Applications
to Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
NbUe?i    Acres
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
1
1    i      2,562
1
26    j         591
10    i           60
3    j        242
5
8
32
815
4
11
128
531
35    |         751
30    j      3,968
3    I         242
Totals
1    |      2,562
1
39    I         893
13    |         847
1
15
659
68    |      4,961
CLASSIFICATION OF AREAS EXAMINED BY THE FOREST
(16) SERVICE, 1959
Forest District
Total Area
Agricultural
Land
Non-
agricultural
Land
Merchantable-
timber
Land
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable-
timber Land
Acres
751
3,968
242
Acres
5
286
67
Acres
746
3,682
175
Acres
138
315
90
MF.B.M.
468
Prince Rupert	
7,993
316
Totals     -	
4,961
358
4,603
543
8,777
(17)
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES,  1959
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cord-
wood
(Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes.
Posts,
Shakes,
etc.
(No.)
Saw-
timber
(M C.F.)
750
305
465
545
252
99,197
78,850
141,355
259,449
102.699
348,247
1,896,823
1,610,420
1,512,300
2.020.170
6,133
2,609
3,800
12,456
2.755
1,000
25,875
234,167
3,600
103,770
75,350
941.680
121,781
203,145
Kamloops	
240,028
78.249
Totals, 1959 —
2,317
681,550
7,387,960
27,753
26,875
1,124,400
877,370
Totals, 1958	
1,922
609,563
8,772,888
24,316
34,430
1,146,719
890,285
Totals, 1957	
2,582
781,748
16,099,489
39,254
95,209
1,149,133
1,171,283
Totals, 1956	
3,089
1,095,150
 	
13,981,856
44,287
128,432
1,916,510
1,273,970
Totals, 1955 	
3,354
1,077,986
9,885,451
16,819
145,525
501,820
1,131,521
Totals, 1954	
3,085
781,665
10,532,164
76,859
76,310
1,127,346
697,421
Totals 1953
2,579
719,234
12,887,882
12,328
141,313
694,182
561,601
Totals, 1952	
2,340
1,029,199
2,543,890
40,005,329
13,405
989,144
518,652
1,188,361
Totals 1951
2,704
934,475
6,577,298
20,674,280
25,630
316,954
432,000
2,196
333,435
1,777,025
7,388,875
24,522
123,091
352,440
Ten-year average,
1950-59	
2,617
804,400
3,632,738
14,761,617
30,517
207,728
896,320
973,976
M B.M.—three-year average; M c.f.—eight-year average. (IS)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
TIMBER-SALE RECORD, 1959
97
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest-protection Tax
(Acres)
Total
10-per-cent
Deposits
650
254
355
434
233
662
393
500
549
267
1,916
1,118
1,301
1,992
812
607,517
377,812
653,992
1,179,187
603,513
559,324
366,162
602,333
1,168,227
592,594
$6,274,490.19
1,294,745.92
2,126,246.43
Kamloops 	
3,573,623.95
1,881,106.26
Totals..	
1,926      |      2,371
7,139             3,422,021
3,288,640      |    $15,150,212.75
Cash sales	
234             	
-    -      1      	
       1            	
2,160
	     102
(23)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SAW AND SHINGLE MILLS,  1959
Operating
Shut Down
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Sa
wmills
Shingle-mills
Forest District
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Vancouver     	
211
271
648
580
295
8,125
1,821
7,667
7,036
3,631
60
2
3
1,122
8
8
70
131
197
104
85
273
758
1,600
746
598
2
1
3
6
Kamloops 	
Nelson	
3
14
Totals, 1959	
2,005
28,280
65
1,138
587
3,975
6
23
Totals, 1958	
2,010
27,694
56
1,141
586
4,007
9
37
Totals, 1957.	
2,255
26,752
58
1,390
514
3,124
10
121
Totals, 1956
2,435
29,080
66
1,381
390
2,013
8
15
Totals, 1955 	
2,489
28,016
72
1,804
404
2,285
3
19
Totals, 1954	
2,346
25,602
57
1,108
367
2,281
13
22
Totals, 1953	
2,413
23,300
59
1,121
286
2,186
12
47
Totals, 1952	
2,223
23,433
59
1,173
332
2,092
24
117
Totals, 1951....-	
2,100
21,748
60
1,169
294
1,474
16
78
Totals, 1950	
1,826
19,143
65
1,234
234
1,462
11
25
Ten-year average,
1950-59
2,210
25,305
62
1,266
399
2,490
11
50
(24)
EXPORT OF LOGS (IN F.B.M.), 1959
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir               	
395,464
1,042,982
12,356
929,371
539,812
5,076,803
204,014
13,287,651
1,838,183
68
2,773,459
6,289,225
169,372
216,370
125,533
	
	
617
36
126
14,343,172
3,997,287
3,997,323
720
220,760
3,533
449,363
47,032
4,379
Cypress	
191,780
861,90'
	
2,614
2,614
Cottonwood - -
     ,
47,032
Totals, 1959       	
486,685
2,601,653
19,608,208
3,999,901
1,839,030
28,535,4771
Totals, 1958 	
734,991
3,727,452
16,164,689
3,715,124
3,762,411
28,104,667
Totals, 1957         	
524,180
3,987,443
22,016,291
5,625,910
3,421,354
35,575,178
Totals, 1956...
183,859
2,933,129
27,433,037
12,929,722
3,530,479
47,010,226
Totals, 1955
906,141
7,468,949
58,863,477
16,974,165
4,754,796
88,967,528
Tntsl«, 1054
3,948,345
19,595,544
90,691,771
17,465,267
9,274,995
140,975,922
Totals, 1953   	
5,341,576
15,853,076
74,187,464
18,974,550
5,788,905
120,145,571
Totals, 1952	
4,732,890
15,944,292
84,757,110
18,400,266
1,161,660 |
124,996,218
Totals, 1951      	
5,901,140
12,229,159
51,699,605
10,202,844
2,224,693
82,257,441
Totals 1950
8,659,552
21,625,295
88,031,088
19,210,615
137,526,550
Ten-year average, 1950-59
3,141,936
10,596,599
53,345,274
12,749,836-
3,575,832
83,409,478
1 Of this total, 20,137,157 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege;
8,398,320 f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas.  104
(27)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED,  1950-59
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
Ten-year
Average
1950-59
Old Crown grants	
Crown grants, 1887-1906
Crown grants, 1906-1914
Section 55, Forest Act	
Stumpage reservations _
Pre-emptions   under   sections 28 and 29, Land
Act..  	
Timber berths	
Indian reserves _.. 	
Timber sales —
Hand-loggers- -
Special marks and rights-
of-way	
Pulp leases 	
Pulp licences 	
Totals	
Tranfers and changes of
marks  	
549
169
165
505
69
1,062
269
218
714
108
3
6
32   41
2,591 | 2,962
33
4
4
73
4,134 | 5,458
752
1,086
696
201
204
538
62
7
13
2,594
98
6
1
983
381
134
136
409
95
10
3
24
2,881
528
175
160
485
69
1
1
30
2,786
609
218
171
653
95
2
10
31
3,130
480
207
172
655
82
6
10
46
2,859
320
108
97
460
59
1
7
23
2,239
44
1
43 |  71 |  74
6|   1 I   1
-  I   I 	
4,139 | 4,280
4,968 I 4,589 I 3,389
744
780
867
873
615
215
93
93
362
89
7
9
1,900
299
103
125
524
108 |
2,855
598
669
514
168
154
530
84
I
  | 4
9 j 7
21 I 27
1,926 | 2,587
66
3
3,201 |  4,144
797
CROWN-GRANTED TIMBER LANDS PAYING FOREST-PROTECTION TAX
(28) AS COMPILED FROM TAXATION RECORDS,  1950-59
Year
Acreage
Assessed as
Timber
Land
Coast
m 1        J        >        1
Interior
Logged
Timber
Logged
Timber
1959                                                    	
502,001
698,470
614,095
723,103
783,517
801,983
757,516
718,284
682,746
631.967
Acres
125,883
133,100
146,535
205,503
221,934
236,350
201,264
203,249
191,435
207,308
Acres
238,285
271,717
288,046
389,396
429,350
429,037
444,014
433,496
410,037
378,985
Acres
71,509
194,640
88,580
64,606
69,822
69,416
27,692
29,418
31,333
8,635
Acres
66,324
1958        - _	
99,013
1957                                                    -    	
90,934
1956	
63,598
1955 -	
1954.	
1953 	
62,411
67,180
84,546
1952                   	
52,121
1951        	
1950  	
49,941
37,039
(29)
ACREAGE OF TIMBER LAND BY ASSESSMENT DISTRICTS
District Acres
Alberni   13,858
Comox    94,540
Cowichan   92,391
Cranbrook   ..
Gulf Islands.
Kamloops   —
Kettle River
Lillooet   	
  5,011
  1,312
  160
  445
  4,026
Nanaimo    110,779
District Acres
Nelson-Slocan     90,171
Prince George   800
Prince Rupert   11,796
Princeton     2,887
Quesnel Forks   40
Revelstoke     ___ 33,654
Vancouver     4,032
Vernon    639
Victoria   35,460  106
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(33A) FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR  1958/59
Timber-licence rentals and fees  $357,213.39
Timber-berth rentals and fees  19,244.08
Timber-lease rentals and fees   69,364.69
Timber-sale rentals and fees  423,430.93
Timber-sale stumpage   21,529,804.34
Timber-sale cruising and advertising  225,693.62
Timber  royalties    1,754,344.26
Grazing permits  and  fees  71,919.21
Forest-protection  tax    512,614.84
Miscellaneous   118,186.23
Ten-year
Average
$378,577.09
17,971.37
60,008.88
235,909.35
14,820,807.05
155,446.36
2,198,680.84
71,468.27
(i)
83,959.47
Taxation from Crown - granted timber
lands   	
Taxation collected under authority of Es-
quimalt and Nanaimo Railway Belt
Land Tax Act	
Taxation collected on forest land (section
32a, Taxation Act) 	
Taxation collected on tree-farm land (section 33a, Taxation Act)	
$25,081,815.59    $18,022,828.68
516,669.53
738,039.352
609,136.453
155,087.79*
545,593.43
$27,100,748.71
1 Formerly credited to Forest Protection Fund.
2 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last nine fiscal years.
3 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last five fiscal years.
4 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last six fiscal years.
(33B)
FOREST REVENUE BY FISCAL YEARS,   1949/50 TO   1958/59
Fiscal Year
Direct Forest
Revenue
Taxation from
Crown-granted
Lands
Taxation Collected under
Sees. 32a and
33a of Taxation Act
Taxation Collected under
Author'^ "f
E. & N. Railway Belt Land
Tax Act
Total
1958/59...
1957/58-
1956/57-
1955/56...
1954/55...
1953/54.
1952/53..
1951/52-
1950/51-
1949/50.
$25,081,
29,054.
31,240.
23,867
19,130,
17,578
18,016
13,703.
10,089
8,331
815.59
.657.56
.260.37
.705.50
835.31
,625.58
,025.17
,715.41
,884.69
,497.19
$516,669.53
597,118.52
675,079.21
681,503.26
621,527.16
612,865.29
588,821.78
484,475.51
440,213.07
445,632.68
$764,224.24
883,674.75
685,611.49
532,010.00
518,648.74
$738,039.35
1,060,884.36
1,147,535.38
940,632.27
879,822.00
863,116.21
418,395.59
972,156.13
345,220.16
$27,100,748.71
31,596,335.19
33,748,486.45
26,021,851.03
21,150,833.21
19,054,607.08
19,023,242.54
15,160,347.05
10,875,317.92
8,777,129.87 (34)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959 109
FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1958/591
Forest District
Salaries
Expenses
Total
$522,387.31
337,181.65
390,131.36
505,278.69
406,563.38
259,188.86
$167,865.24
110,507.59
119,881.89
129,32L02
101,504.17
299,421.09
$690,252.55
447,689.24
510,013.25
634,599.71
Nelson               	
508,067.55
558,609.95
Totals     _	
$2,420,731.25
$928,501.00
$3,349,232.25
450,105.23
Forest management -	
420,240.37
166,868.01
93,545.69
93,147.74
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association..  	
10,000.00
27,551.57
1,255,862.24
898,488.88
Forest protection  	
2,497,702.98
1,078,517.85
55,838.31
1,897,497.62
4,913,670.17
26,767.64
$17,235,036.55
1 True gross expenditures.
2 Separate statement provided in this Report.
(35)
SCALING FUND
$209,492.79
Balance for April 1st, 1958 (debit)	
Collections, fiscal year 1958/59  1,031,227.78
$821,734.99
Expenditures, fiscal year 1958/59  $1,080,698.87
Less refunds     1,015.15
 — 1,079,683.72
Deficit, March 31st, 1959 (debit)    $257,948.73
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1959      962,094.56
$704,145.83
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1959       880,476.13
Balance, December 31st, 1959 (debit).
$176,330.30
(36) GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Balance, April 1st, 1958 (credit)  __ _     $28,679.60
Government contribution (section 14, Grazing Act)        34,888.93
Expenditures, fiscal year 1958/59  $55,858.31
Less refunds  37.50
$63,568.53
Balance, March 31st, 1959 (credit)	
Government contribution (section 14, Grazing Act).
Expenditures, April 1st, 1959, to December 31st, 1959.
Balance, December 31st, 1959 (credit)	
55,820.81
$7,747.72
35,959.60
$43,707.32
34,008.20
$9,699.12  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
111
REPORTED APPROXIMATE EXPENDITURE IN FOREST PROTECTION
(38) BY OTHER AGENCIES,  1959
Forest District
Expenditures
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals..
Ten-year average, 1950-59
$126,425
24,400
32,000
32,500
18,900
$248,760
47,765
12,000
170,000
49,668
$41,245
898
20,120
10,166
26,581
$234,225
$528,193
$99,010
$277,874
$381,626
$345,478
$196,800
67,300
120,000
611,000
22,954
$1,018,054
$212,457
$613,230
140,363
184,120
823,666
118,103
$1,879,482
$1,217,435
(39) SUMMARY OF SNAG-FALLING, 1959, VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total area logged, 1959    _.. 72,392
Logged in small exempted operations1  __     308
Assessed for non-compliance, less 833 acres subsequently felled 1,350
■ ■    1,658
Balance logged acres snagged, 1959—-     70,734
Snags felled in 1959 by Forest Service Protection Division     5,388
Snags felled in 1959 by Forest Service Reforestation Division     1,077
Total area snagged, 1959_
77,199
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, Forest Act.
SUMMARY OF LOGGING SLASH CREATED,  1959, VANCOUVER
CO) FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total area logged, 1959    72,392
Area covered by full hazard reports  34,222
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-disposal  26,571
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from slash and
snag-disposal)r        308
  61,101
Slash created and not reported in 1959—   11,291
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, Forest Act. 112 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ACREAGE ANALYSIS OF SLASH-DISPOSAL REQUIRED, 1959,
CD                                       VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1959         19591 Total Acres
Broadcast burning     5,440            4,718 10,158
Spot burning — .   ..    9,570          14,494 24,064
Totals  15,010 19,212 34,222
1959 reports not recommending slash-disposal  26,571
1959 slash on very small operations exempted without special
examination          308
  26,879
Total area of slash dealt with, 1959  61,101
1 Above table does not include the estimated 11,291 acres (see Table 42) created too late to be dealt with
in 1959.
ANALYSIS OF PROGRESS IN SLASH-DISPOSAL,  1959,
(*i) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres.
Total disposal required (see Table 41)  34,222
Type of Disposal Prior to 1959       1959 Total Acres
Spring broadcast burning        541   541
Spring spot burning     1,176   1,176
Fall broadcast burning     2,502 4,013 6,515
Fall spot burning      8,633 9,437 18,070
Total burning completed._. 12,852 13,450 26,302
Burning by accidental fires        566
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc.    	
Total _„— 26,868
Balance reported slash not yet abated     7,354
Slash created, 1959—acres assessed    	
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1959  11,291
Total area of slash carried over to 1960 for disposition1— 18,645
1 Does not show the acreage instructed in 1959 to be extended or assessed in 1960.
Actual area burned in spring spot burning, 78 acres.
Actual area burned in fall spot burning, 1,928 acres.
The above figures do not include 1958 slash-burn reports received too late for inclusion in 1959 Annual
Report, 1,052 acres. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
113
(43)
SUMMARY OF SLASH-BURN DAMAGE AND COSTS, 1959,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1959
Net damage to forest-cover
Nil
Nil
Net damage to cut products        $850.00
Net damage to equipment and property     3,580.00
Total damage     $4,430.00
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Total Cost Acres
(a) Spring broadcast burning  $1,843.85 541
(b) Spring spot burning .     1,798.00 1,176
(c) Fall broadcast burning  33,139.68 6,515
(d) Fall spot burning  41,160.59 18,070
(a) and (c) based on volume of 40 M b.f. per acre.
(b) and (d) based on volume of 30 M b.f. per acre.
Cost per
MB.F.
$0.09
.05
.13
.08
Cost per
Acre
$3.39
1,53
5.09
2.22
(44)
FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS, 1959
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver	
17
61
29
6
13
105
21
140
18
89
154
23
191
12
24
59
18
316
7
45
182
113
128
6
18
74
98
21
1
16
4
1
826
49
207
651
277
41.1
2.4
10.3
Kamloops	
Nelson	
32.4
13.8
Totals	
78
174
424
304
663
324
42
1
2,010
100.0
Per cent	
3.9
8.7
21.1
15.1
33.0
16.1
2.1
. ...    | 100.0    |
Ten-year average, 1950-59
24
77
388
238
543
450
191
37
1,948
1.2
4.0
19.9
12.2
27.9
23.1
9.8
1.9
100.0
(45)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES, 1959
U          G
■x
vs
Forest District
a
S
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34
6
33
10
548
I
65
7
16
3
13
1
17
7
1
86
12
14
1
826
49
41.1
2.4
46
39
7
12
22
4
32
42
3
207
10.3
Kamloops	
26
71
31
81
18
6
126
4
278
10
651
32.4
Nelson _	
72
19
37
46
16
6
22
29
25
5
277
13.8
Totals	
184
172
624
211
75
30
204
34
443
33
2,010
100.0
Per cent	
9.2
8.6
31.0
10.5
3.7
1.5
10.2
1.7
22.0
1.6
100.0
-
Ten-year average,
1950-59 —-
462
216
456
264
87
27
132
25
233
46
1,948
	
23.7
11.1
23.4
13.5
4.5
1.4
6.8
1.3
12.0
2.3
100.0
1 Uncontrolled range-burning fires.
8 114
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(46)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE
LAST TEN YEARS
Causes
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
Total
Lightning-
Campers .
Railways operating.
Smokers..
Brush-burning (not railway-
clearing)  	
Road and power- and telephone-
line construction 	
Industrial operations 	
Incendiarism-
Miscellaneous (known causes)..
Unknown causes.. 	
Totals-
342
251
197
291
77
25
94
7
196
35
1,515
574
228
211
354
128
20
133
28
205
42
1,923
431
298
255
349
140
17
114
37
237
36
597
174
184
171
47
10
83
10
116
28
116
157
118
120
63
11
64
12
82
21
418
195
206
206
47
24
89
15
134
50
497
214
1,090
281
112
73
183
27
260
73
307
170
455
182
65
46
107
22
220
45
1,150
296
1,224
478
120
18
246
53
441
94
184
172
624
211
75
30
204
34
4431
33
4,616
2,155
4,564
2,643
874
274
1,317
245
2,334
457
1,914
1,420
764
1,384
2,810
1,619
4,120   2,010
19,479
1 Uncontrolled range-burning fires in 1959. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959                                        1 15
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
ENROLMENT AT RANGER SCHOOL,  1959
121
Forest District
Forest
Assistants
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Graduations
Vancouver 	
4
....
4
2
2
5
4
--
4
2
6
5
4
Kamloops	
Nelson	
--
Attendance, 1959	
4        |        -        |        --
17
21
—
Attendance, 1959	
.-        |        ....        |        -
21
21
21
Attendance, 1958	
--        |        ....
21
21
—
Attendance, 1957	
4        |        -.
—
26
30
30
Attendance, 1956	
4        1        -
.._
26
30
_..
Attendance, 1956	
3        |        .-
18
21
21
Attendance, 1955	
3        |        ....
18
21
Attendance, 1954	
|
20
20
20
Attendance, 1953	
_        |        ....
—
21
21
—
Attendance, 1953-	
-        |        -
„_
20
20
20
Attendance, 1952	
....        |        -
20
20
.._
Attendance, 1951	
|          3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1950	
-        |          3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1949	
....        |          3
2
16
21
.._
Attendance, 1948	
-        |         4
2
12
2
20
20
Attendance, 1947	
....        |          8
12
20
20
Attendance, 1946	
2
9        1         9
20
20
Note.—Commencing with the class of 1949-50, each class takes one and one-half years to complete the course. 122
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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125
(60)
AREA CLASSIFICATION BY OWNERSHIP
Coast
Area Classification
Crown
Crown
Granted
Licences and
Leases
Canada
Control
Total
Forest land—
Commercial forest—
Acres
8,507,862
378,222
1,970,913
Acres
905,948
74,129
1,014,220
Acres
1,508,601
40,942
262,340
Acres
61,347
5,731
44,600
Acres
10,983,758
499,024
Young immature	
3,292,073
Total, commercial forest.
Selectively logged forest— 	
Not satisfactorily restocked forest
Non-commercial forest 	
10,856,997
1,272
306,637
1,319,643
1,994,297
384
280,245
170,409
1,811,883
1,169
228,778
56,939
111,678
124
8,416
32,566
14,774,855
2,949
824,076
1,579,557
Total, all forest land	
12,484,549
2,445,335
2,098,769
152,784
17,181,437
Non-forest land—
11,960,510
172,587
576,540
14,915
  _	
9,597,448
22,322,000
	
Water—Lakes and rivers 	
     1     -     1    	
     |      1,022,693
|    ....
40,526,130
Interior
Forest land—
Commercial forest—
Mature	
Acres
43,498,844
11,170.663
Acres
857,761
292,896
Acres
224,267
32.105
Acres
284,720
84,843
Acres
44,865,592
11.580,507
Young immature 	
44,227,859    |      2,059,509    |           65,661
351,789    |    46,704,818
Total, commercial forest
98,897,366    |      3,210,166    |         322,033
207.930    1           75.649                 8.733
721,352    |  103,150.917
4,675    j         296,987
Not satisfactorily restocked forests
Non-commercial forest - -	
5,372,339    [         195,977
9,582,190    |         667,957
11,178
13,375
30,720    |      5,610,214
179,245    |    10,442.767
Total, all forest land	
114,059,825    |      4,149,749    [         355,319
935,992    [ 119.500,885
Non-forest land—
38,052,164
2,643,724
-
	
862,890
	
2,420,394
25,008,464
	
Total, all non-forest land.	
      I         |    	
     I    68,987,636
     |          |    	
5,100,680
     1         1
193,589,201
Province
Forest land—
Commercial forest—
Mature	
Acres
52,006,706
11,548,885
46,198,772
Acres
1,763,709
367,025
3,073,729
Acres
1,732,868
73,047
328,001
Acres
346,067
90,574
396,389
Acres
55,849,350
12,079.531
Young immature. 	
49,996,891
Total, commercial forest	
Selectively logged forest	
Not satisfactorily restocked forest
109,754,363
209,202
5,678,976
10,901,833
5,204,463
76,033
476,222
838,366
2,133,916
9,902
239,956
70,314
833,030
4,799
39,136
211,811
117,925,772
299 936
6,434,290
12,022.324
Total, all forest land	
126,544,374
6,595,084
2,454,088
1,088,776
136,682,322
Non-forest land—
50,012 674
2,816,311
1,439,430
2,435,309
34,605,912
	
91.309 636
______
6,123,373
234,115.331 126
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SOUND-WOOD VOLUME IN COMMERCIAL FORESTS OF ALL AGES,
(61) BY OWNERSHIP AND SPECIES
(Gross volumes reduced for decay, at a close utilization standard, in thousands of cubic feet.)
Coast
Species and D.B.H.
Limits
Crown
Crown
Granted
Licences and
Leases
Canada
Control
Total
 4-9"
337,026
6.523,744
559,264
15,895,966
2,442,074
26,634,596
587,180
10,586,052
67,376
5,114,733
180,004
1,996,120
18,177
257,810
145,123
306,290
709
3,922
203,814
3,175,979
93,364
1,289,288
297,883
2,684,164
46,175
950,480
7,515
392,445
11,283
116,136
16,839
185,872
34,998
48,760
26
277
31,406
1,330,799
102,759
2,743,230
330,147
4,457,746
85,479
1,903,786
7,770
766,778
35,607
345,770
2,735
38,110
19,080
39,378
13
105
7,356
80,289
8,783
124,787
24,779
194,259
3,817
51,015
2,683
63,660
1,920
12,739
365
2,993
3,321
6,208
18
150
579,602
  ____  10"+
11,110,811
Red cedar -	
4-9"
 10"+
764,170
20,053,271
 4-9"
3,094,883
  10"+
33,970,765
Balsam (true firs)	
4-9"
10"+
 4-9"
722,651
13,491,333
85,344
  10"4-
6,337,616
4-9"
228,814
2,470,765
  _____ 10"+
 4-9"
38,116
..10"+
 4-9"
484,785
202,522
     10" +
400,636
Yellow pine	
4-9"
 10"+
766
4,454
____ 4-9"
     ____     __10"+
 4-9"
1,784
265,833
99,653
384,028
3,999
64,955
20,574
59,528
169
12,054
1,126
36,184
65,799
161,103
1,408
23,017
11,016
24,007
11
459
380
37,169
14,221
50,084
677
18,283
7,270
11,200
11
3,162
128
7,726
4,214
10,922
104
1,190
363
672
2
434
3,418
             10"-_-
346,912
AlHcr
4-9"
183,887
      10"+
606,137
Maple (broadleaf) _—
4-9"
 10"+
6,188
107,445
Birch  —
 4-9"
39,223
      ___    10"4-
95,407
.... 4-9"
193
     ____      ______10"+
16,109
4-9"
      10"+
Totals, all species
4.463,112
68,105,631
791,257
9,088,171
637,555
11,745,600
57,853
557,044
5,949,777
89,496,446
Interior
Douglas fir-
Red cedar ....
Hemlock—
Balsam (true firs)..
Spruces	
Yellow cedar
White pine __
Lodgepole pine.
Yellow pine .
Larch	
Cottonwood .
Alder"	
Maple (broadleaf)
Birch  	
Aspen	
Totals, all species
.4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
.10"+
.4-9"
.10"+
..4-9"
-.10"+
.4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
..10"+
..4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
__10"+
..4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
.10"+
.4-9"
.10"+
..4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
.-10"+
2,111,469
17,327,364
681,824
7,087,162
2,254,727
20,941,594
7,559,358
21,293,082
20,029,289
84,692,856
216,321
1,007,249
24,220,742
39,682,833
51,787
1,724,266
369,987
1,655,205
462,210
3,104,304
7,030
44,844
1,886,236
2,531,612
2,674,012
6,997,262
62,524,992
208,089,633
242,135
1,584,286
50,593
388,380
56,429
452,045
220,557
270,393
195,957
1,157,236
25,152
91,940
598,570
768,357
17,346
592,565
42,805
157,824
19,987
78,941
29
604
52,724
114,459
94,780
229,394
1,617,064
5,886,424
15,225
142,762
16,299
274,344
22,465
324,449
22,483
94,803
14,882
263,932
4,186
30,222
21,288
42,288
227
14,733
2,429
26,479
185
2,573
1
10
4,836
12,119
1,118
4,379
125,624
1,233,093
50,000
398,372
13,028
122,952
19,932
197,431
53,060
131,098
50,801
373,276
4,340
22,034
124,174
188,189
9,398
137,410
5,686
36,282
789
7,469
23
588
6,608
14,267
6,663
21,968
344,502
1,651,336
2,418,829
19,452,784
761,744
7,872,838
2,353,553
21,915,519
7,855,458
21,789,376
20,290,929
86,487,300
249,999
1,151,445
24,964,774
40,681,667
78,758
2,468,974
420,907
1,875,790
483,171
3,193,287
7,083
46,046
1,950,404
2,672,457
2,776,573
7,253,003
64,612,182
216,860,486 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
127
SOUND-WOOD VOLUME IN COMMERCIAL FORESTS OF ALL AGES,
(61) BY OWNERSHIP AND SPECIES— Continued
(Gross volumes reduced for decay, at a close utilization standard, in thousands of cubic feet.)
Province
Species and D.B.H. Limits
Crown
Crown
Granted
Licences and
Leases
Canada
Control
Total
Douglas fir _ 4-9"
  _.  10"+
Red cedar _ — 4-9"
 __ 10"+
Hemlock   4-9"
 _  10"+
Balsam (true firs) 4-9"
 _ 10"+
Spruces _ 4-9"
 _ 10"+
Yellow cedar 4-9"
 10"+
White pine 4-9"
 10"+
Lodgepole pine 4-9"
 _ _....10"+
Yellow pine  	
Larch..
Cottonwood.
.4-9"
10"+
.4-9"
10"+
.4-9"
 _ _.... 10"+
Alder _ 4-9"
   10"+
Maple (broadleaf)  _.. 4-9"
  10"+
Birch  _ 4-9"
 _.. _ _....10"+
Aspen 4-9"
  10"+
Totals, all species 4-9"
„        10"+
2,448,495
23,851,108
1,241,088
22,983,128
4,696,801
47,576,190
8,146,538
31,879,134
20,096,665
89,807,589
180,000
1,996,120
234,496
1,265,059
24,365,871
39,989,123
52,496
1,728,188
369,987
1,655,205
463,991
3,370,137
106,686
428,872
3,998
64,955
1,906,811
2,591,140
2,674,181
7,009,316
66,988,104
276,195,264
445,949
4,760,265
143,957
1,677,668
354,312
3,136,209
266,732
1,220,873
203,472
1,549,681
11,283
116,136
41,991
277,812
633,568
817,117
17,372
592,842
42,805
157,824
21,113
115,125
65,828
161,707
1,408
23,017
63,740
138,466
94,791
229,853
2,408,321
14,974,595
46,631
1,473,561
119,058
3,017,574
352,612
4,782,195
107,962
1,998,589
22,652
1,030,710
35,611
345,770
6,923
68,332
40,362
81.666
240
14,838
2,429
26,479
568
39,742
14,219
50,094
678
18,283
12,105
23,319
1,129
7,541
763,179
12,978,693
57,356
478,661
21,811
247,739
44,711
391,690
56,877
182,113
53,484
436,936
1,920
12,739
4,705
25,027
127,495
194,397
9,416
137,560
5,686
36,282
917
15,195
4,237
11,510
104
1,190
6,971
14,939
6,665
22,402
402,355
2,208,380
2,998,431
30,563,595
1,525,914
27,926,109
5,448,436
55,886,284
8,578,109
35,280,709
20,376,273
92,824,916
228,814
2,470,765
288,115
1,636,230
25,167,296
41,082,303
79,524
2,473,428
420,907
1,875,790
486,589
3,540,199
190,970
652,183
6,188
107,445
1,989,627
2,767,864
2,776,766
7,269,112
70,561,959
306,356,932
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1960
1,360-260-2542 

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