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REPORT of THE FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST 1959 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1960]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. R. G. WIIXISTON, Minister R. G. McKEE, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1959
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1960  Victoria, B.C., March, 1960.
To Group Captain the Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service
of the Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1959.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands and Forests. The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the
Forest Service during the calendar year 1959.
R. G. McKEE,
Deputy Minister of Forests. CONTENTS
-TOM PaGE
1. Chief Forester's Summary  11
2. Forest Surveys and Inventory  17
Introduction  17
Operations  17
Forest Classification  17
Forest Mapping  18
Forest Sampling  18
Provincial Inventory Maintenance  18
Regeneration Surveys  18
Sampling of Marked Forest Stands  18
Photo Mensuration  19
Growth  19
Volume Tables, Loss Factor and Depletion Projects  20
Surveys in Crown Forest Units  21
Continuous Forest Inventory  22
Computations of Statistics  22
Liaison Work  23
3. Forest Research  24
Cowichan Lake Experiment Station  24
Aleza Lake Experiment Station  24
Field Programme  24
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1959  25
Research Publications, 1959  26
4. Reforestation  27
Forest Nurseries  27
Seed and Extraction  27
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  28
Planting  29
Plantation Improvement and Maintenance  29
Preparation of Planting-sites  29
Permanent Improvements  30
5. Working Plans  31
Introduction  31
Sustained-yield Units  31
5 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Page
5. Working Plans—Continued
Tree-farm Licences  33
Tree-farm Lands  34
Farm Wood-lot Licences  34
6. Public Information and Education  35
Introduction  35
Photography and Motion Pictures  35
Filmstrips  36
Commercial Theatres  3 6
Film Library  36
Publications and Printing  36
Radio and Television  3 7
News Media Liaison  3 7
Signs and Exhibits  3 8
School Lectures  39
Library  40
Co-operation  40
7. Forest Management  41
General  41
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  42
Lumber Prices  42
Log Prices  43
Stumpage Prices  43
Sliding-scale Adjustments  43
Stumpage-appraisal Cost Studies  43
Administration of Managed Units  43
Silviculture  44
Scaling  44
8. Grazing  46
General Conditions  46
Markets and Prices  46
Live-stock Losses  46
Range Management  47
Range Surveys  47
Range Improvements  47
Range Research  49 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959 7
Item                                                                                                                                                                        Page
8. Grazing—Continued
Co-operation  49
Administration  50
Grazing and Hay Permits  50
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees  51
Live-stock Counts  51
Violations and Prosecutions  51
9. Engineering Services  52
Engineering Section  52
Development Planning  53
Road Location  53
Construction  54
General Engineering  54
Mechanical Section  55
Building Design and Construction and Marine Design  57
Forest Service Marine Station  58
Marine Work  5 8
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop  58
Machine-shop  59
Radio Section  59
10. Forest Protection  62
Weather  62
Fires  62
Occurrence and Causes  62
Cost of Fire-fighting  63
Damage  63
Fire-control Planning and Research  63
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers  63
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  63
Fuel-moisture Sticks  63
Protection Planning in Public Working Circles and Sustained-
yield Units  63
Air-photo Mosaics  64
Fire-weather Records and Investigations  64
Fire-suppression Crews  65
Aircraft  65
Roads and Trails  66
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  66 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Page
10. Forest Protection—Continued
Fire-law Enforcement  66
Forest Closures  66
11. Forest Biology Division  67
Accommodation and Facilities  67
Forest-insect Investigations  67
Forest-insect Survey  67
Projects  68
Forest-disease Investigations  69
Forest-disease Survey  69
Diseases of Immature Forests  70
Diseases of Mature Forests  70
12. Forest Ranger School  72
Extra Courses  72
Acknowledgments  72
13. Accounting  73
Fiscal  73
Administration  73
14. Personnel  75
Organization  75
Services  75
Communications and Training  77
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  77
Classifications, Salaries, and Working Conditions  78
15. Personnel Directory, 1960  79
16. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service  81 The highlight of 1959 was the heaviest Coastal seed-crop in twenty-two years and a
bumper crop throughout the rest of the Province, with a seed yield averaging over 0.60
pound per bushel.  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1959
CHIEF FORESTER'S  SUMMARY
Introduction and Legislation
Although the 1959 amendments to the Forest Act were of an incidental nature,
there were three phases of the legislation of public significance.
The section dealing with farm wood-lot licences—that is, section 19—was
amended to require that the sum of $100 be deposited, and the former scheme of
depositing $50 and then collecting an amount with the stumpage for the deposit
was discontinued.
On the death of the Honourable Mr. Sloan, the section dealing with tree-farm
licences was amended to permit the Minister to hold hearings and consider proposals
which would have been considered by the Forest Adviser as part of the procedure
on the application for a tree-farm licence.
The part of the Act dealing with forest protection was amended to allow
equipment required for forest-fire suppression to be requisitioned by any officer of
the Forest Service. The rates to be paid for the use of such equipment are to be
fixed by regulation.
Provision for the charging of forest-protection tax was amended to provide for
computing the rates on the certification of a tree-farm under the Taxation Act where
the product grown is Christmas trees.
Early in the year, all regulations under the Forest Act and the Grazing Act
were revised and published in one issue of The British Columbia Gazette under
the Regulations Act.
Surveys and Inventory
The Division completed the second of the ten-year maintenance inventory
programme with continued financial assistance from the Government of Canada
under provisions of the Canada Forestry Act. Forest classification and sampling
crews covered 25,715,954 acres during the year, with over 50 per cent of the work
being concentrated in the Prince Rupert Forest District.
Increased use of modern radio facilities improved communications between
field parties and headquarters. Of the 1,111 hours of flying-time logged by survey
crews, 85 per cent of it was in helicopters.
An intensive forest-cover mapping of the Cape Scott Public Working Circle
was completed, and one set of these maps was produced in colour, on an experimental basis.   Over 13,300 maps were distributed to the public during the year.
Sample plots were established on 4,476 sites, and reconnaissance surveys
covered 46,960 acres of logged and burned land. In the Yale Sustained-yield Unit,
22,660 acres of productive forest land were examined, as were 22,829 acres in the
Babine Public Working Circle.
Work continued in the fields of photo mensuration, growth studies, volume
tables, loss factors, and depletion projects. Efforts to bring surveys of all Crown
forest units up to an acceptable standard were limited due to lack of funds.
Forest Research
Three major studies were instituted during the year as a result of the opportunity afforded by the record Coastal cone production—the biggest in twenty-two
years.
11 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The selection of " plus " trees for a high-elevation seed-orchard was greatly
assisted by the Plus-tree Board, a sub-committee of the Tree Farm Forestry Committee, which promoted industrial co-operation in the search for outstanding trees.
This marked the first full year in which a permanent Research Officer operated
in the Prince Rupert Forest District, and several projects were initiated there as
a result.
A comprehensive report on the work of the Division is to be found in the
Forest Research Review, published annually.
Reforestation
The year was marked by the heaviest Coastal seed-crop in twenty-two years
and a bumper crop throughout the Province. The Service collected 9,575 bushels
of cones; the forest industry, 5,000 bushels; and an estimated 100,000 bushels
were harvested by commercial seed-dealers.
The remodelled seed-extraction plant at the Duncan nursery worked well,
processing 300 bushels of wet cones in forty-eight hours.
Although heavy spring rains caused severe losses of one-year stock in the Green
Timbers and East Kootenay nurseries, total production of field planting stock from
all Forest Service nurseries amounted to 8,250,700 seedlings during the year.
The total area planted throughout the Province by all agencies using seedlings
raised in Service nurseries amounted to 18,607 acres.
Pilot tests on costs of brush-clearing were carried out in the Robertson River
valley, with interesting results.
Working Plans
Three new sustained-yield units and nine tree-farm licences were approved or
awarded during the year. As a result, there are now in operation thirty-six tree-
farm licences, sixty-four sustained-yield units (including public working circles),
thirty-six Taxation Act tree-farms, and fifty farm wood-lot licences.
Total area now under management amounts to 41,212,700 acres, with a total
allowable annual cut of 677,540,000 cubic feet, equivalent to 64.5 per cent of the
total Provincial scale for 1959.
Public Information and Education
The facilities of the Division were tested severely to meet the continued high
public demand for forestry information. Staff and financial limitations of the Division became increasingly noticeable.
The volume of still photographic production by the Division rose 100 per cent
over the previous year, and more than 1,500 prints were supplied to the press, trade
journals, and television stations. There was also an increase in specialized photography of all types.
A total of 123,179 persons saw films from the Divisional Film Library, and
the commercial-theatre audience seeing the special protection trailer was estimated
at 305,000.
The publication, editorial, and printing volume was maintained to the limit of
facilities available, as was the regular radio flash campaign during the fire season.
The school lecture programme was active in all forest districts and covered 314
schools, with 394 lectures to 58,507 students.
A mobile exhibit was designed and circulated throughout various fall fairs in
the Interior with good results. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 13
Twenty new sites were added to the " Keep B.C. Green—Use Your Ashtray "
highway sign coverage. There are now 225 of these signs on the black-topped
highways throughout the Province.
Forest Management
Despite the ten-week strike in the Coastal industry during the summer, the
total value of all forest products set a new record high of $637,715,000 during
1959, over $6,000,000 more than the previous record year of 1955, and $94,927,-
573 over 1958. Lumber, at $291,500,000, continued to lead in the individual
value categories, followed by pulp and paper with $234,529,000 and plywood at
$75,500,000.
Compared with 1958, lumber value was up $65,873,139; pulp and paper,
up $43,778,583; and plywood value, down $14,500,000, although production of
plywood was down less than 1 per cent.
A measure of the degree of industrial recovery over the depressed years of
1957 and 1958 is shown by an increased weighted average price of $5.34 per thousand board-feet over 1958 for all species shipped by the Interior. A decline was
noted, however, in the last quarter of the year.
The 1959 total cut of 1,049,145,125 cubic feet was up 15 per cent over 1958
and only 2 per cent less than the record-cut year of 1956. Of the total scale,
574,451,278 cubic feet originated on the Coast and 474,693,847 cubic feet from
the Interior. This was a new record high for the Interior, exceeding its previous
high in 1956 by 54,000,000 cubic feet.
Douglas fir's 369,832,059 cubic feet maintained it as the principal species cut,
followed by hemlock (201,225,091 cubic feet), spruce (182,481,529 cubic feet),
and cedar (140,110,952 cubic feet). It is significant, however, that the Coastal
hemlock cut exceeded that of Coastal Douglas fir by over 7,500,000 cubic feet.
Water-borne lumber shipments amounted to 1,197,653,000 board-feet, down
116,708,000 board-feet from 1958. Shipments to the United Kingdom were the
lowest since 1950. Fifty per cent of all water-borne lumber volume went to the
United States.
Competitive bidding on timber sales was the most active on record, with 243
sales being bid over the upset price. At the end of 1959 there were 7,139 timber
sales active, a reduction of 444 from 1958. Security deposits held by the Service
amounted to $15,150,213, some $400,000 more than at the end of the previous
year.
Silvicultural activity increased noticeably during the year, with 823 timber
sales receiving stand treatment over an area of 207,528 acres, some 66,000 acres
more than in 1958.
Scaling supervision in the Interior was intensified, with scaling examinations
being held in forty-seven centres and 1,058 candidates participating, of which 394
were successful in passing the exams.
Grazing
A dry spring, following the drought conditions of 1958, resulted in poor forage
production in the north. In the south, forage production ranged from average to
above average.
The drop in the number of sheep using Crown range is a reflection of the
rising costs and inadequate returns which are forcing many sheep-ranchers out of
business. r
14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Weighted average prices for cattle were $17.52 per hundredweight, as against
$19.57 in 1958. Lamb prices were also down, but total shipments of cattle were
up 4.5 per cent over the previous year.
Live-stock losses were higher than normal, with hunting accidents and suspected theft in a number of cases contributing seriously toward losses.
A total of 420,720 acres were covered by range surveys during the year, and
some $49,000 was spent on various range improvements.
Close co-operation continued during the year between the Forest Service and
the fifty-three livestock associations approved under the Grazing Act.
Although the grazing personnel establishment was brought up to full strength
for the first time in two years, the continually increasing work load resulted in much
necessary field work remaining undone.
This year, 1,683 grazing permits were issued for the depasturing of 124,425
cattle, 4,377 horses, and 20,604 sheep on Crown range—an increase in all categories but sheep, now at their lowest number since 1928.
Engineering Services
Forest-development road work continued, with a high level of activity in such
aspects as engineering investigations, route reconnaissance, location, and construction. Considerable work was done on forest-protection access-road construction,
assisted in part by the Federal-Provincial agreement for cost-sharing.
During 1959 a total of 604 miles of reconnaissance survey was carried out on
all types of forest roads; 237.4 miles of potential road was located; and 68 miles
of new road constructed.
Designs were completed for six creosoted " glue-lam " girder bridges, one of
which is the first designed for Coastal loading conditions. The construction of two
" glue-lam " bridges in the Chilliwack Public Working Circle was completed, and
they contain the largest glue-laminated wood girders ever constructed in Canada.
Motor-vehicle purchases amounted to 105 units, of which 102 were replacements for worn-out units. Eight light-weight portable tank-and-pump protection
units were built and tested, with good results.
The major building construction undertaken during the year was the erection
of the new seed-extraction plant at the Duncan nursery. A matter of interest was
the testing of two Fiberglas protection lookout cupolas obtained from the Alberta
Forest Service.
A total of sixty-four marine overhauls were completed during the year, and
considerable repowering of operational craft was carried out. One outboard cruiser
and eight river-boats were built, and the prefabrication of a new 100-foot float and
ramp for the Echo Bay Ranger Station continued.
Radio field work continued apace. One hundred and thirty-eight new units,
A.M. and F.M., were purchased throughout the year, and sixty-two sets were written
off, leaving a net increase of seventy-six serviceable units.
Forest Protection
Fire occurrence was above normal for the first half of the 1959 fire season
but below normal for the last half.
A total of 2,010 forest fires burned over 273,631 acres and caused damage
estimated at $1,342,849.   Forest Service fire-fighting costs amounted to $768,084.
Although operating railways continued to be the principal cause of fires (31
per cent of the total), they burned over only 243 acres, cost the Forest Service
$1,057, and did $1,470 damage.   Camper- and smoker-caused fires burned over REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 15
36,678 acres, cost the Forest Service $81,912, and did $254,090 damage. Even
so, the heaviest fire-suppression cost (54.5 per cent of the total cost) was attributable to range-burning activities in the Cariboo and Peace River areas, costing
$418,360 and causing $955,062 damage.
The Canada Forestry Branch, Fire Research Section, completed field studies
for the development of a fire-danger rating system for the Province. In co-operation
with this Service, trials were carried out in various parts of the Province.
Experiments with various chemical fire-retardants continued during the year.
Forest Biology
After five years of heavy defoliating activity in the Lillooet and Fraser Valley
areas, the outbreak of one-year-cycle spruce budworm collapsed during the year.
Early counts indicated that the two-year-cycle budworm larva, population at
Babine Lake was as heavy as any previously recorded, and that defoliation of the
current year's growth averaged about 75 per cent.
The black-headed budworm outbreak on the Queen Charlotte Islands increased
to heavy proportions, and the known range of the balsam woolly aphid spread
significantly during the year.
The Douglas fir bark-beetle is currently the most serious insect pest of that tree
species in the Interior of the Province.
Needle-blight of pine continued at a high level in the Kamloops, Clinton, and
Merritt areas, and the incidence of Douglas fir needle-blight north of Cranbrook
was responsible for considerable depreciation of Christmas-tree stock.
Severe die-back and top-kill of pole-sized to mature Douglas fir, as a result of
1958 drought conditions, was observed on Vancouver Island and in lodgepole pine
near Prince George and Vanderhoof. Yellow pine near Clinton and western red
cedar throughout the Interior Wet Belt were also affected.
A disease study within a 15-year-old Douglas fir plantation on Vancouver
Island shows 25 per cent of the trees were infected with root-rot, the most severely
infected fir plantations yet encountered in sampling.
Forest Ranger School
During the year the tenth Ranger School class graduated in the spring and the
eleventh class was enrolled in September. This latter class of twenty-one men will
graduate in December, 1960.
There were no major changes in the curriculum, but the constant revision of
the subject-matter of the courses continued in order to keep pace with changes of
Service policy.
Accounting
Due to the increase over the previous year in the total Provincial scale of all
forest products, Forest Service billings against logging operations were up 13.8 per
cent to $27,464,756.19 and direct Forest Service collections were up 7.8 per cent
to $26,843,188.71. Despite the Coast industry strike during the summer, the
Coastal forest districts contributed considerably to these increases.
Timber-sale stumpage, the largest single revenue class, was up 8.1 per cent,
and timber royalty increased by 9.9 per cent. Grazing revenue from permits and
fees was up 18.3 per cent, primarily due to an increase in fees, but miscellaneous
collections were off 8.7 per cent from 1958.
There were 279 active log-salvage permits in effect at the end of 1959, five
more than in 1958. 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Personnel
A major change in Forest Service organization became effective on April 1st,
with the appointment of Mr. F. S. McKinnon as Chief Forester and the formal
division of responsibilities between the Deputy Minister and the Chief Forester.
All five forest districts changed District Foresters during the year, and two new
Ranger districts were set up at Chetwynd and Bella Coola.
An increase of fifteen personnel in the establishment of the Service brought
the total to 832 positions, twently-eight less than in 1957. Permanent-staff turnover
averaged 10.3 per cent, ranging from 29.1 per cent at Prince George to 2.6 per
cent at Nelson.
A general salary revision averaging 8 per cent was granted, effective April 1st.
F. S. McKinnon,
Chief Forester. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 17
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
INTRODUCTION
The Division completed the second year of the ten-year maintenance inventory
programme. Financial assistance was continued by the Government of Canada
according to the agreement for inventory implemented under the Canada Forestry
Act. This assistance is limited to surveys at the Provincial inventory level, and it is
becoming increasingly evident that further assistance is required to facilitate the
carrying-out of intensive management surveys in Crown forest units. Sustained-
yield forestry practice is highly dependent on the availability of reliable information
concerning the lands and forests within public and private sustained-yield units.
Intensive management surveys are required to provide this information.
Forest classification and sampling were carried out over an area of 25,715,954
acres in the five forest districts, as detailed below:—
Forest District Acres
Vancouver      3,301,562
Prince Rupert  13,972,634
Prince George      4,199,057
Kamloops      2,831,358
Nelson      1,411,343
Total   25,715,954
OPERATIONS
As in previous years, the work of survey crews was supervised from field headquarters in each forest district. A modern radio network between crews and headquarters provided rapid communication and essential control of the work. Radio
equipment included 59 S.P.F. units, 11 Model B sets, 14 Mobile sets, 3 marine
radios, and 12 L.R.T. units. Two new Marconi CM 85 transmitters were installed
on forest survey launches.
Two specially designed field-office trailers, equipped with radio units, proved
invaluable to forest classification crews working with helicopters over large regions.
Two field-kitchen trailers, constructed from portable buildings, were used extensively in conjunction with the office trailers. Three forest survey launches provided
bases for numerous crews working on the west and east coasts of Vancouver Island
and on the Mainland.
During the year, forest survey crews flew a total of 1,111 hours, of which 85
per cent was in helicopters.
Two "trouble-shooting" mechanics travelled 17,000 miles carrying out inspections and repairs on vehicles and other units in use by survey crews throughout
the Province.
FOREST CLASSIFICATION
During the year, 10,500,000 acres were examined and classified by two parties of foresters using two Bell helicopters and one party using one De Haviland
Beaver aircraft. The amount of flying-time logged in the helicopters and Beaver
aircraft was, respectively, 853 and 113 hours. Sixteen hours of this were used in
assisting forest districts and the Engineering Services Division. In this work the
crews recorded detailed observations of forest and land, with the aid of tape recorders, at 15,403 individual locations throughout the Province. The cost for this
aerial classification averaged 2 cents per acre in the areas intensively examined.
2 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST MAPPING
In 1959, plotting of forest-cover and topographic detail from aerial photographs on to maps provided a total of 275 completely checked large-scale maps.
A further 151 maps were plotted, and are currently undergoing final checking.
In the maintenance inventory-mapping programme, forty-three maps of the new
1-inch-to-1-mile forest-cover series were completed.
A particularly significant achievement was the completion of very intensive
forest-cover mapping of the Cape Scott Public Working Circle, where a complete
set of 1-inch-to-1-mile forest-cover maps was published. As an experiment in the
production of coloured lithographed maps, a set of the Cape Scott maps was coloured by means of transparent zipatone, cut out to fit the map detail. These sheets
are currently being photographed, using a colour separation process, after which
metal master plates will be made and coloured map-prints produced on an offset
press.
During the year, 13,382 maps were distributed at the request of various public
and private agencies. This was an increase of 7 per cent over the 1958 volume
of maps distributed.
FOREST SAMPLING
Provincial Inventory Maintenance
In the second year of Provincial inventory maintenance, 4,476 sample plots
were established in the programme to provide more reliable estimates of forest area
and volume throughout Crown forests. Sampling crews achieved good coverage
with the aid of helicopters and a Beaver float-plane, in which a total of 145 hours
were flown.
Regeneration Surveys
Reconnaissance surveys were carried out over 46,960 acres of logged, burned,
and logged-and-burned land. The purpose of this work was to investigate the adequacy of restocking on designated areas.
In the Yale Sustained-yield Unit, 22,660 acres of productive forest land were
examined, bringing the total area examined in a two-year study of this unit up to
36,590 acres. Analysis of the data showed that 58 per cent of all quadrats examined were not stocked. When these data were interpreted in the light of the Reforestation Division standards, it was estimated that 16,460 acres were not satisfactorily stocked out of the total area of 36,590 acres.
Examination of 22,829 acres of disturbed forest land in the Babine Public
Working Circle indicated that 15,492 acres were not satisfactorily stocked. A regeneration survey in the Giscome burned area, east of Prince George, was terminated before completion due to lack of funds and time. Data collected in this
project provided an assessment of 2,300 acres.
In the Sechelt Public Working Circle, an examination was made of the Brittain
River burned area.   The results of this work are currently being analysed.
Sampling of Marked Forest Stands
Seven timber-sale areas, on which the timber was marked for selective cutting,
were sampled systematically before logging commenced. On these areas, totalling
2,120 acres, 261 plots were established. Remeasurement of the plots will be carried out subsequent to logging.
Fourteen timber-sale areas, in which the marked trees had been felled and
removed, were sampled systematically. A total of 1,039 plots was examined in a
total timber-sale area of 4,975 acres during the course of this project. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
19
Data collected in the twenty-one timber sales are currently being analysed
and a report will be issued early in 1960.
Photo Mensuration
An aerial-photo stand volume table was developed for South Central British
Columbia (Zone 5).    This table was constructed by least-squares solution of a
linear regression of the form—
V]1=_>0 + _.lH-f_72D
where—
Vu is gross cubic-foot volume per acre, close utilization standard, live
merchantable trees 11.1 inches d.b.h. and over.    Determined by
ground sampling.
H is average height of dominants, measured with a parallax bar on aerial
photographs.
D is crown density, expressed as a percentage of ground covered by tree
crowns, as determined from aerial photographs in comparison with
a crown density " scale."
b0, bj, and b2 are coefficients derived from the data by the least-squares
method.
Values of the regression coefficients and other pertinent statistics concerning
this work are shown in the following table:—
Zone 5 (South Central Interior)
Mature
Coniferous
Immature
Coniferous
Lodgepole Pine
and Deciduous
Species
Regression constant, bo	
Coefficient of height, b\.—	
Coefficient of density, 62	
Multiple correlation coefficient, RyHD
Number of double samples. 	
-1,144
+31.98
+ 10.88
.48
42
-1,988
+35.38
+ 8.01
.56
28
—2,112
+39.16
+4.88
.84
27
The new aerial-photo stand volume table was used to determine volume estimates on 1,570 photo samples established in twenty-three compartments of Sub-
zone 965, Zone 5 (South Central Interior). Five hundred and twenty-eight samples were also established in Sub-zone 971, Zone 6 (South-east Interior). An
L.G.P. 30 computer programme developed to compute the volume of a photo
sample was invaluable in these projects.
Growth
Permanent Growth and Yield Plots
Stand tables were constructed for 1,599 permanent plots. All existing data
on these plots, many of which have been established for twenty years or more, were
recompiled by use of the latest standard cubic-foot volume tables.
During the year, fifty-four permanent plots were remeasured in Lower Coastal
areas.
Empirical Growth Estimates
The empirical growth estimates published in the report, " Continuous Forest
Inventory of British Columbia—Initial Phase, 1957," were revised, with the exception of those for Zone 3 (North-west Interior). The revised estimates will be published in due course. 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Volume Tables, Loss Factor, and Depletion Projects
Volume Tables
During the year, emphasis was placed on recompiling the tree measurement
data on file, with the object of producing revised standard cubic-foot volume tables
and cull factors for the commercial tree species of British Columbia. A close reexamination of all data available netted 32,105 tree measurements suitable for the
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(S3HDNI) XMV8    IQiSNi    a_u3nvia REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959 21
volume table and approximately 26,000 for the cull factors. Modern data-processing equipment has facilitated an otherwise laborious process. It is expected that
the revised volume tables and cull factors will be available for distribution by 1961.
The new volume tables will include tables for yellow cedar and broadleaf maple,
heretofore excluded for lack of sufficient data.
During the year, taper curves were prepared for the following Coast species:
Douglas fir, western red cedar, balsam, and Sitka spruce. These curves show average diameters inside bark at various points above ground for trees in each 2-inch
d.b.h. class and 10-foot-height class. The curves were drawn to meet an increasing
demand from forest officers and industrial foresters for taper information throughout the entire length of the tree. With the increasing interest in quality cruising,
taper tables provide the basis for estimates of log volume for specified grades.
A sample of a set of taper curves for Douglas fir in the 100-foot-height class is
shown on page 20. Taper curves for other commercial tree species will be prepared as time permits.
Logging Studies
Logging studies were continued during the 1959 field season. These studies
were carried out on typical Coast and Interior logging operations to provide realistic
reduction factors applicable to gross volume summaries, to account for losses attributed to defect, breakage, and utilization practices. In addition, estimates of the
volume and condition of logging residues were made and appraisals of the damage
to residual stands were obtained. The field procedure for these studies involved a
detailed 100-per-cent cruise of a sample area equalling approximately one-half the
area of the logging setting; the measurement of all felled and bucked trees to determine gross, net, and breakage volumes; the measurement of all breakage incurred
in the cold-decking, yarding, and loading operation; and, finally, a re-examination
of the sample area to determine the volume and condition of logging residues and
the condition of residual stems. During the 1959 field season, four studies were
carried out—one on the South Coast and three in the Southern Interior. Compilation of the data gathered is proceeding, and the results obtained will be incorporated in the revised cull factors.
Forest Depletion
To provide the estimates of annual forest depletion necessary for continuous
inventory, estimates of annual cut, disease losses, and fire losses were prepared for
each sub-zone, region, and compartment.
As in previous years, a number of requests for information and advice with
regard to cull factors and volume tables were answered. Liaison was also maintained
with the Western International Forest Disease Work Conference.
SURVEYS IN CROWN FOREST UNITS
Continued efforts were made to bring surveys of all Crown forest units up to
an acceptable standard. Due to financial limitations, only two units—Sechelt and
Chilliwack Public Working Circles—received the required additional field work to
bring them up to a management survey standard. In the Sechelt unit, this work
involved the establishment of 174 samples, while in the Chilliwack unit the entire
area was reclassified, or " retyped," using l:15,840-scale aerial photographs, taken
in 1959. The latest forest-cover maps and statistics for these units will be issued
in due course. 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Resources Bulletins, which, with the exception of Bulletin No. 12, were
based on Provincial inventory data, were issued for the following units during
1959:—
Bulletin No. 12—Cape Scott.
Bulletin No. 20—Quesnel Lake.
Bulletin No. 21—Similkameen.
Bulletin No. 22—Nicola Lake.
Bulletin No. 24—Big Bar.
Bulletin No. 26—Salmon Arm.
Bulletin No. 29—West Lake.
Bulletin Nos. 24, 38, and 51 were first issues for the units concerned,
the remaining bulletins were amendments to previously issued reports.
Bulletin No. 34—Williams Lake.
Bulletin No. 38—Lac la Hache.
Bulletin No. 42—Upper Kootenay.
Bulletin No. 45—Babine Lake.
Bulletin No. 46—Stuart Lake.
Bulletin No. 51—Burns Lake.
while
CONTINUOUS FOREST INVENTORY
The comprehensive report " Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia—Initial Phase, 1957," provided a datum for Provincial forest statistics at the
start of the second phase of continuous inventory in 1958. Maintenance inventory
work carried out in the second phase is providing the basis for revising the existing
forest statistics. Revised statistics for six sub-zones examined in 1958 were compiled during 1959.
A set of statistical tables supplementing the " Continuous Forest Inventory of
British Columbia" report was published. These tables, known as the V-18 series,
present sound-wood cubic-foot volumes reduced for waste and breakage to a rough
utilization standard by species, age-class, accessibility, and three d.b.h. limits. These
statistics apply to all commercial forests regardless of site, and are broken down
by major geographic divisions, known as " zones." Two other series of tables, V-19
and V-20, were completed during the year and are currently being printed.
COMPUTATIONS OF STATISTICS
Fifty-four requests were received for statistical summaries on designated areas.
These summaries were mostly utilized for management planning and the development of access roads in key areas. The speed at which compilations were completed is evidenced by the fact that the requests involved a total area of 27 million
acres, mature forest area of 10 million acres, and timber volume of more than
33 billion cubic feet.
Late in the year, an L.G.P. 30 electronic computer and supplementary processing equipment became available for use in solving a variety of complex analyses of
data. It is quite clear that equipment of this nature is essential to meet the continuing demand for rapid and detailed answers on forest resources. The trend for
several years has been that increasingly intensive forest management has necessitated
increasingly reliable and detailed statements of forest resources in specified areas.
Without high-speed computing equipment, the demand cannot be satisfied.
Numerous requests were received for a further breakdown of statistics presented in the report " Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia—Initial
Phase, 1957." One of these requests involved a presentation of cedar-pole resources by forest districts, and another a summary of the forest resources of the
Prince Rupert Forest District.
A paper entitled " Forestry in the North " was prepared for the Twelfth
Natural Resources Conference. The statistics compiled for this paper provided
some interesting information on the potential sustained productive capacity of the
northern half of the Province. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 23
LIAISON WORK
The Forest Service Work Committee continued to provide useful liaison
between this Division and other public agencies. In addition, several projects were
completed, as follows:—
(1) Fire-hazard and fuel-type maps were prepared for six Crown forest units.
(2) Cutting priority analyses were made in six Crown forest units.
(3) A key map was prepared, showing the latest information on status within
the boundaries of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Grant.
(4) Operational maps showing the nature and location of the field projects of
six Government agencies were made for forest district use.
(5) Key maps were prepared depicting the current 8-inch focal length aerial-
photography programme in an area totalling 28,000 square miles. 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RESEARCH
Technical details of research projects are published annually in the Forest
Research Review, hence this is a very brief statement of the activities of the Division
during 1959.
COWICHAN LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
During the past year, 20 acres were logged. The slash and debris are now
being piled and burned prior to using the area for the planting of select genetic
stock. A thinning in 30 acres of 47-year-old Douglas fir was completed. A number of sample plots in areas previously thinned were remeasured.
During March, research officers met at the station for a three-day discussion
of current projects and the co-ordination of future programmes.
ALEZA LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
The Aleza Lake Station was opened in May and remained in operation until
the end of the year. The facilities were again used for a period of a week for the
training of district silvicultural crews. There was an unusually high number of
visitors this year, due to the annual meeting of the Canadian Institute of Forestry
being held at Prince George.
As in previous years, the main emphasis was on developing access to different
parts of the station. On the West Branch Road, a further three-quarters of a mile
of rough grade was constructed. This extends the grade to the nursery-site. Unfortunately, the summer was extremely wet and it was impossible to gravel any of the
new construction. During the winter, 3 miles of right-of-way of the East Branch
Road were logged and 1 mile was cleared. Logging was restricted to cleaning up
previously awarded sales. A new sale in the Long-term Selection Working Circle
is being prepared for auctioning this winter.
FIELD PROGRAMME
Possibly as a result of 1958's dry summer, there was a good cone-crop in
most species throughout the Province. Douglas fir cone production on the Coast
was the largest in twenty-two years of record. This fact enabled studies on cone-
crops and seed to be actively pursued, and plans are being made to study next year
the natural regeneration resulting from this seed-fall. One of these studies was
initiated on the west coast of Vancouver Island to determine seed-fall distance and
direction in relation to weather conditions and seedling survival on a variety of sites
and seed-beds. Another study was concerned with methods of determining seed
maturity so that timing of cone-collecting may be most effective. A third study
concentrated on the problems associated with the storing of cones and the extraction
of seed. Some very interesting information on pollen dispersion was gathered this
year. This was a result of developing equipment for sampling and recording pollen
dispersion on a continuous basis.
Thinning on the East Thurlow Island experiment forest was renewed and,
currently, 160 acres in a 60-year-old hemlock stand is being thinned as a commercial venture. A number of sample plots previously thinned to various densities
were remeasured.
The selection of " plus " trees for the high-elevation seed-orchard occupied
much of the year. The work was greatly assisted by the Plus-tree Board, a subcommittee of the Tree Farm Forestry Committee, which promoted industrial cooperation in the search for outstanding trees. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
25
In the Kamloops Forest District, a number of studies were maintained but no
new ones initiated. It is disappointing to find that regeneration of logged spruce-
alpine fir types in a number of cases is still unsatisfactory, seven years after logging.
It is, of course, too soon to evaluate the current seed-fall in terms of stocking.
The most interesting development in the research programme in the Nelson
Forest District is the effect of peat-moss dressings on the rate of " damping off "
in the East Kootenay nursery. Dressings of peat-moss applied to the " beds " at
the time of sowing resulted in both increased germination and decreased mortality.
This was the first full year in which a Research Officer has been assigned to
the Prince Rupert Forest District. A number of projects were started. A plantation of white spruce, Douglas fir, and European larch was established at Tachek
Creek. Adjoining this, spacing trials with white spruce were established. Initial
spacings of 4' x 4', 8' x 8', 12' x 12', and 16' x 16' were made.
An ecological study of lodgepole pine site types was extended from the Southern Interior to the Bulkley Valley. A new site type, Pinus contorta-Lathyrus, was
distinguished, as were possible other sub-types of those previously defined.
In Prince George, ecological studies of cone production and seed of northern
conifers were continued. New trials of direct seeding to obtain regeneration were
made. Several plantations of white spruce were established—one to determine the
feasibility of planting throughout the whole of the growing season, and another
consisting of a spacing trial. Ten additional scarification trials were conducted and
a detailed study of scarified seed-beds continued.
The following is a tabulation of projects active in 1959:—
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1959
Experimental
Project No.
Title
Region
226
274
296
297,298
368
370
373
384,385
388
392
418
428
435
438
442
449
458
459
460
463
465
467
468
474
477
478
479
480
482
483
Cone production in immature stands of Douglas fir.
Cone production in mature stands of Douglas fir.
Effect of selective logging on wind-throw, growth, and reproduction in
spruce-alpine fir _     	
Effect of selective logging on wind-throw, growth, and reproduction in ponde-
rosa pine-Douglas fir.  	
The adaptability of tree species to forest sites    	
Partial cutting study, Interior Wet Belt.
Ecological investigations in spruce-alpine fir forests..
Lodgepole pine thinning _
Commercial thinning in hemlock 	
Field survival of experimentally treated nursery stock-
Douglas fir thinning in plantations .... 	
Plantation trials  . 	
Yellow pine thinning   	
Effects of slash-burning on forest soils and tree growth.
Planting trials 	
Yellow pine thinning
Seed production and dispersal under various stand conditions in the spruce-
alpine fir type
Seed production of spruce in relation to its morphological characteristics in
the spruce-alpine fir type
Seed production of conifers in relation to climate.
Seed-fall and regeneration study...
Plantation of exotic species in the Southern Interor.
Regeneration studies in the spruce-alpine fir type	
Cone-crop studies   _ _
Inbreeding experiments with Douglas fir	
Study of phenotypes in Douglas fir-
Phenotypic selection in open-grown Douglas fir  	
Plus-tree selection for Douglas fir seed-orchards 	
Co-operative seed provenance study of Douglas fir   	
Climate and the altitudinal distribution of conifers	
Record of plantations of exotic species throughout British Columbia .
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Prince George.
Nelson.
Thurlow Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Nelson.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Nelson.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island. 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1959—Continued
Experimental
Project No.
Title
Region
485
487
497
501
502
505
506
510
511
512
513
516
517
521
522
523
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
533
537
538
539
540
541
544
Classification of lodgepole pine sites on an ecological basis.
Studies on seed-dispersal of Douglas fir 	
Experimental thinning in spruce .
Comparative study of scarification equipment.
Plantation trials... 	
Planting of white spruce throughout the growing season  _	
A study of microclimate and soil conditions in a thinned and unthinned stand
of Douglas fir.   _	
Planting-stock trials    ._ 	
Crop-tree thinning in western larch	
Seeding and planting trials
Planting of exotic conifers for future hybridization.
Direct seeding of Douglas fir...	
Experimental thinning in ponderosa pine 	
Experimental seeding of spruce   	
Experimental direct seeding  _ _	
Seed-bed soil amendment trials  _ 	
Swamp regeneration project.
Fertilizing a plantation of juvenile Douglas fir. —
Fertilizing a Douglas fir plantation on a recent slash-burned area... 	
Influence of time on the effectiveness of scarified seed-beds in spruce-alpine fir-
Regeneration problems in decadent cedar-hemlock stands..	
Morphological characteristics of selected trees and their progeny.
Anatomical characteristics of selected trees  	
Scarification trials in spruce-alpine fir _ _ _	
Spacing trials .
Seed dissemination and the influence of weather conditions	
Studies in the improvement of cone-handling and seed-processing.
Cone maturity and seed-ripening study  	
Natural nurseries  -	
Spacing and growth studies of white spruce  ._	
Central Interior.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Prince George.
Prince Rupert.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Nelson.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Nelson.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS,  1959
Forest Research Review for the year ending March, 1959.
Warrack, G. C.:   Forecast of Yield Related to Thinning Regimes in Douglas Fir.
B.C. Forest Service Technical Publication T 51, 1959.
Warrack, G. C:   Crown Dimension, Initial Diameter, and Diameter Growth in a
Juvenile Stand.   Forestry Chronicle, Vol. 35, p. 150, 1959.
Orr-Ewing, A. L., and Prideaux, D. C:   Grafting Methods for the Douglas Fir.
Forestry Chronicle, Vol. 35, p. 192, 1959, reprinted as B.C. Forest Service
Technical Publication T 52. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 27
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
Heavy rains in the early spring, followed by clear, frosty nights, caused severe
losses in one-year seedlings at Green Timbers and East Kootenay nurseries. Seedlings were either " heaved out" or, where roots were too well developed to permit
heaving, the bark at the root-collar stripped. The bark of large numbers of two-
year-old seedlings was lacerated at the root-collar by ice crystals in the surface soil
or winter mulch. The root systems of numerous other seedlings were severely
deformed by partial frost heaving. At Duncan, cool, moist spring weather caused
an outbreak of grey mould twig-blight (Botrytis cinerea Fries), which killed or
damaged 10 per cent of the second-year seedlings before the onset of dry, warm
weather stopped the disease. Treatment with 4-4-50 Bordeaux solution appeared
to have little effect.
The three Coast nurseries shipped out 6,797,050 two-year seedlings and
803,925 other classes. The East Kootenay nursery produced 649,725 seedlings,
mainly two-year-olds. Total production of field planting stock was 8,250,700
seedlings. An additional 781,125 seedlings were transplanted at Duncan, Green
Timbers, East Kootenay, Hixon, Telkwa, and Okanagan Mission. Two-year spruce,
growing at Green Timbers, did not reach plantable size and will be held over for
a third year, when a sufficiently high percentage should be of good size.
A very wet spring delayed completion of sowing at some nurseries until June
18th. A total of 1,925 50-foot seed-beds were sown, including seventy-seven beds
of Interior spruce at Green Timbers. The use of raised beds seems to have promise
in preventing frost-heaving in this species. A new type of sprinkler, which throws
a finer spray in a rectangular pattern, has also given good results.
Preliminary trials of fall-sown Douglas fir for the purpose of producing a better
class of one-year planting stock have indicated that a much sturdier seedling can be
produced. Fall sowing of hemlock in raised beds has also given encouraging results,
and little frost-heaving is evident to date.
This year's seed-beds now contain an estimated 13,000,000 seedlings, most of
which are destined to be planted out as two-year root-pruned seedlings. This total
is made up of seventy different seed-lots.
SEED AND EXTRACTION
The highlight of the year was the bumper cone-crop over the whole of the
Province for most commercial species, with the possible exception of ponderosa
pine. On the Coast the cone-crop on Douglas fir was the best since 1937, and crops
of well-filled cones occurred up to the top elevation-range of the species. Cool
damp weather from September on prevented cones from drying out and dropping
their seed. Samples of Douglas fir collected at the end of the year contained up to
one-half pound of seed per bushel of cones, which augurs well for a good catch of
reproduction in the spring. Similar conditions existed throughout the Interior
forest districts.
In the collection of cones, the principles of the tree-seed improvement programme were adhered to as closely as possible. On the Coast, many young stands
which, due to age and stocking, were deemed good potential cone-producers were
examined for cone yield and stand quality and periodically for seed count and
development. Actual picking on Vancouver Island was done by high-school
students under supervision of Reforestation Division staff. 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In the Chilliwack Public Working Circle, an excellent job of collecting was
done by inmate crews of the Attorney-General's Department, who secured nearly
1,800 bushels of cones. In the Vancouver Forest District, 8,919 bushels of Douglas
fir and 92 bushels of other species were collected. In the other forest districts,
collections were made or supervised by members of the stand-treatment crews.
In the Kamloops District, the cool, damp, late summer so retarded spruce cone
development that collections were not made until after the first snowfall. In the
Prince George and Prince Rupert Districts, spruce cones were heavily infected by
a seed-destroying cone-rust, Chrysomyxa pyrolata Winter. In spite of these difficulties, 425 bushels of spruce and 139 bushels of Douglas fir were collected in
districts other than Vancouver. In all, the Forest Service collected 9,575 bushels
of cones. Approximately 5,000 bushels were collected by the forest industry and
an estimated 100,000 bushels by commercial tree-seed dealers.
All Forest Service cones are extracted in the remodelled seed-extraction plant
at the Duncan nursery. The new oil-fired hot-water-heated Moore kiln worked
well, processing 300 bushels of wet cones in forty-eight hours.
In the past, it has always been the practice of the Service to either sun-dry
Douglas fir cones before sacking or to store green cones in well-ventilated trays
3 to 5 inches deep. In 1959 the practice of leaving green cones in sacks was used
extensively. Due to a cool, wet fall, cones from sacks were still extremely wet when
extraction commenced (95 per cent moisture content in some cases). While most
lots were quite mouldy, it was found that this mould was mostly superficial. On the
whole, seed yield was very good from sack-stored cones, averaging over 0.60 pound
per bushel. The average yield of all Coast Douglas fir collections since 1944 was
0.44 pound per bushel of dried cones. This increase can be attributed partly to
easier and more complete extraction and partly to careful examination of cones for
filled-seed count and selection of only well-formed stands with a high percentage of
filled seeds.
Germination tests on some of the first lots extracted were completed before the
end of the year. These averaged approximately 90 per cent. In all, over eighty
routine germination tests were carried out during the year.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
Reconnaissance and survey work were kept to a minimum on the Coast during
the 1959 field season. Early in the spring, it was evident that a bumper cone-crop
was on the way, and personnel ordinarily employed on regeneration surveys were
switched to cone-crop reconnaissance, supervision of collections, etc. One reconnaissance, covering 2,000 acres, was carried out in the Sechelt Peninsula, and a very
small survey covered 260 acres on the Gordon River area, Vancouver Island.
For the third year, a reforestation crew under the supervision of the Forest
Surveys and Inventory Division conducted fairly general surveys to secure basic
information on restocking in certain areas. Work begun the previous year in the
Yale Sustained-yield Unit was completed with the survey of 27,660 acres. An
analysis of figures for the complete survey covering 36,590 acres of larger cut-over
types indicates 16,460 acres (46 per cent) not satisfactorily restocked. Natural
restocking is expected to take place eventually on 53 per cent of this. Of the
balance, 4,051 acres (25 per cent) is plantable and 3,656 acres (22 per cent) not
plantable, due to unfavourable surface conditions. This party spent the latter part
of the season in the Prince Rupert District, where 22,000 acres were examined in
the Babine Public Working Circle. The season was finished doing a more intensive
survey of 2,300 acres of the Giscome burn in the Prince George District. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 29
In the East Kootenay, site classification of not satisfactorily stocked pine sites
continued. Of thirteen examined, a total of six, covering 10,000 acres, were
assessed as having an apparent site index over 65. These will be given first priority
in planting plans.
A preliminary reconnaissance was carried out on two areas in the Kootenays,
totalling 4,500 acres. These will be mapped in detail later as the greater part of the
acreage involved requires restocking.
PLANTING
Planting commenced at lower elevations on the southern part of Vancouver
Island in mid-January and was somewhat hampered by snow. At higher elevations,
planting commenced in mid-February and crews had to fight snow throughout the
operation. In the Campbell River area, planting was started on February 2nd, but,
after three days, heavy snow forced crews to discontinue until February 23rd.
During the spring, Reforestation Division crews planted 1,246 acres of Crown land
and 3,016 acres of private lands under contracts mainly required under section 167
of the Forest Act. The forest industry and others planted 7,754 acres, mainly on
tree-farm licences.
In the fall, the Division completed one project of 266 acres on the Coast.
Industry planted a total of 4,880 acres.
In the Southern Interior, Reforestation crews planted 625 acres in the East
Kootenay and 436 in the Christina Lake region, near Grand Forks. Stand-treatment
crews planted another 10 acres in the Nelson District and 15 in the Kamloops
District. Spruce seedlings grown at the Green Timbers nursery were planted on
110 acres in the Prince George District and 49 acres in the Prince Rupert District.
In the Southern Interior, two companies planted 72 acres on their tree-farm
licences. Several companies also undertook pilot-scale plantings on 24 acres in the
northern districts.
The Forest Service carried out only one small project of approximately 12
acres in the Kamloops District during the autumn.
Total planting in the Province for the year by all agencies amounted to
8,250,700 trees on 18,607 acres {see Table 2 of Appendix for statistics of planting
over the past ten years).
Periodic plantings to test the feasibility of cold storage of seedlings and use of
one-year seedlings were repeated with promising results. Since 1959 was a comparative cool, moist year, results cannot be deemed conclusive, and tests are to be
repeated for several years.
Plantation Improvement and Maintenance
The cultural practice of removing competing brush and weeds from young
plantations was carried on at Green Timbers during the slack season. Approximately 10 acres were cleaned during the year. The programme of road maintenance
in plantations was continued. A total of 160 miles of road was graded and, where
necessary, ditches were improved and brush cut out.
In the East Kootenay, a further 66 acres of young overstocked ponderosa pine
stands were thinned during the winter months, to bring the total area thus treated
to 377 acres.
Preparation of Planting-sites
In line with the policy of carrying on pilot-scale tests of various means of brush
eradication to secure information on feasibility and costs, a 10-acre block of vine 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
maple in the Robertson Valley was cleared, using Rowco Brushking saws. Deciduous cover was classed as heavy to medium (60 to 80 per cent of area covered).
It was found that this type of stand, with stems from 1 to 3 inches in diameter, could
be cut down for $14.80 per acre. However, the accumulation of slash on the ground
was too dense to permit planting, and windrowing this material by hand raised the
cost to $93.59 per acre. Tests carried out by other agencies indicate that caterpillar
tractors of the D-8 class or better with the right equipment can do this same job for
$20 to $25 per acre.
Inmate crews from the Attorney-General's Department hand-cleared the brush
from 10 acres in preparation for planting.
Reforestation crews felled snags on 4,184 acres which are to be planted or are
adjacent to planting sites.
PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS
Remodelling of the seed-extraction plant was completed. A new pump-house
was built at Mesachie Lake, and an electric pump and underground pipes were
installed for a permanent fire-protection system. A new pump-house was built and
an electric pump installed for nursery irrigation at the Campbell River nursery.
Similarly, at the East Kootenay nursery a new electric pumping system was installed
to bring irrigation-water from Perry Creek. Eight acres were also cleared on the
upper field, which is of a better soil type. At the Duncan nursery, grading of some
land which was formerly too low lying for seed-beds has reclaimed sufficient area
to sow 100 additional beds. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 31
WORKING PLANS
INTRODUCTION
There are now in operation, thirty-six tree-farm licences, sixty-four sustained-
yield units*, thirty-six tree-farms (under the Taxation Act), and fifty farm wood-lot
licences. The combined productive area of these management units, committed to
continuous forest production, is 41,212,700 acres. Their total current allowable
cut of 677,540,000 cubic feet is equivalent to 64.5 per cent of the total 1959
Provincial scale.   The future potential of these lands is much greater than this.
As a result of present Government policy, the award of further tree-farm
licences will be confined to a relatively few special cases. This will permit personnel
of this Division to devote the greater part of their time to work related to the
initiation of new sustained-yield units and management planning on units already
established.
Of particular interest during the year was the preparation, by Working Plans
staff, of a stand-treatment plan for the immature stands and inadequately restocked
cut-over lands in the Chilliwack Public Working Circle. The available working
force of prisoners from the Provincial gaol at Oakalla will make it possible to carry
out the plan at minimum cost to the Government. The lessons in practical forestry
learned here will be of immeasurable value in the development of workable plans
for the many other sustained-yield units in the Province.
SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS*
New units approved during the year were the Granby, Kitimat, and Monkman.
Five existing units—the Lac la Hache, Longworth, Nicola, Parsnip, and Quesnel
Lake—were enlarged and allowable annual cuts revised. Improved inventory data
also permitted allowable-cut reviews for a number of other units.
There are now sixty-four approved sustained-yield units in operation, comprising a total productive forest area of 34,606,543 acres and a combined allowable
annual cut of 418,620,000 cubic feet.   They are listed below by forest districts.
Vancouver Forest District
Productive Area Annual Allowable
Name of Sustained-yield Unit (Acres) Cut (M C.F.)
Barclay  47,665 2,500
Broughton   355,421 13,000
Cape Scott  104,873 2,250
Chilliwack   73,023 3,000
Harrison   164,653 6,400
Kyuquot   362,635 19,650
Redonda  257,099 17,000
Sayward  111,876 3,500
Sechelt  304,881 15,000
Seymour  224,815 4,200
Soo   214,799 8,300
Yale .  402,726 20,000
Totals  2,624,466 114,800
* Forests, including public working circles, which are managed by the Forest Service. 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Prince Rupert Forest District
Name of Sustained-yield Unit
Babine 	
Burns Lake	
Productive Area
(Acres)
  1,010,961
  1,024,791
Graham Island _.       585,882
Hecate       862,782
Kitimat      305,875
Kitwanga      529,416
Morice      778,957
Ootsa  1,720,969
Rivers Inlet      374,041
Smithers      506,810
Terrace      220,175
Annual Allowable
Cut (MC.F.)
6,900
5,500
8,600
15,500
4,400
3,000
7,000
9,300
7,500
4,500
6,400
Totals  7,920,659
78,600
Prince George Forest District
Productive Area
Name of Sustained-yield Unit (Acres)
Big Valley      353,179
Bowron      376,247
Carp   1,237,389
Cottonwood      412,367
Crooked River        604,231
Longworth	
Monkman	
Narcosli	
Naver 	
  646,247
  581,575
  1,136,526
  302,217
Parsnip ..        980,922
Purden Lake  154,562
Robson  581,466
Stuart Lake  723,847
Westlake  595,570
Willow  259,446
Annual Allowable
Cut (M C.F.)
6,000
8,000
6,600
5,350
8,740
9,200
4,950
4,000
6,720
7,000
2,500
7,000
7,500
6,000
7,000
Totals  8,945,791
96,560
Kamloops Forest District
Name of Sustained-yield Unit
B arriere 	
Big Bar	
Botanie	
Eagle 	
Lac la Hache	
Nehalliston 	
Nicola	
Niskonlith	
North Thompson	
Quesnel 	
Salmon Arm	
Productive Area
(Acres)
Annual Allowable
Cut (M C.F.)
137,830
1,800
1,488,311
12,000
462,852
5,600
228,862
2,600
1,492,729
13,000
355,529
2,000
714,060
7,000
219,700
2,350
219,975
3,000
1,249,189
14,900
85,311
1,760 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
Kamloops Forest District—Continued
33
Name of Sustained-yield Unit
Similkameen	
Spallumcheen
Productive Area
(Acres)
      706,403
      561,428
Stum        994,430
Taseko  2,006,885
Williams Lake      741,645
Yalakom      425,515
Totals.
.12,090,654
Annual Allowable
Cut (M C.F.)
3,000
9,700
3,000
4,200
6,300
3,000
95,210
Nelson Forest District
Productive Area
Name of Sustained-yield Unit (Acres)
Arrowhead  129,072
Creston  568,018
Edgewood  214,205
Granby   491,290
Kettle   679,011
Nakusp         64,946
Slocan   188,852
Upper Kootenay    186,506
Windermere  503,073
Totals .
3,024,973
Annual Allowable
Cut (MC.F.)
2,000
6,000
2,800
3,000
5,750
2,200
2,500
4,700
4,500
Grand totals 34,606,543
33,450
418,620
TREE-FARM LICENCES
Nine tree-farm licences were awarded during the year, bringing the total
number in operation to thirty-six. One existing licence, No. 13 (Bull River), was
extended. The new licences and the extension were recommended for award by
the late Commissioner Sloan in his 1956 Report. Listed below are the licences
awarded in 1959:—
Tree-farm Licences Awarded, 1959
T.F.L.
No.
Forest District
Name of Licence
Licensee
Productive
Forest
Area
(Acres)
Annual
Allowable Cut
(Mc.f.)
13
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
Nelson	
Prince George
Prince George
Prince George
Prince George
Kamloops	
Kamloops	
Prince George
Kamloops	
Vancouver	
Bull River1	
Shelley _
Eagle Lake	
Sinclair.  	
McGregor	
Bolean	
Sicamous	
Seebach	
Jamieson Creek
Cordero 	
Galloway Lumber Co. Ltd	
Shelley Development Ltd __
Eagle Lake Sawmills Ltd...	
Sinclair Spruce Lumber Co. Ltd.
Upper Fraser Spruce Mills Ltd—
Vernon Box & Pine Co. Ltd	
Shuswap Timbers Ltd	
Church Sawmill Ltd	
B.C. Interior Sawmills Ltd	
F. & R. Logging Co. Ltd 	
38,860
81,270
96,820
71,090
42,530
31,320
14,840
42,070
97,240
13,390
1,100
2,800
2,000
1,073
1,038
550
385
822
1,170
870
1 Amended to include extension area.
The thirty-six tree-farm licences in operation have a combined productive
forest area of 5,851,980 acres and a total allowable annual cut of 226,140,000
cubic feet.
3 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TREE-FARM LANDS
No new tree-farms under the Taxation Act were certified in 1959, although
approximately 4,000 acres were certified for addition to existing tree-farms, bringing the total productive area under this classification to 742,120 acres with a combined allowable cut of 32,460,000 cubic feet plus 387,000 Christmas trees.
FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
The processing of farm wood-lot licence applications, including the preparation
of working plans, is now the responsibility of the districts rather than the Working
Plans Division. This Division will continue to receive and recommend for approval
those plans submitted by district staff and will be responsible for the preparation of
licence documents.
Only one new wood-lot licence was awarded during the year, and, as one was
also cancelled, the number in good standing remains at fifty. However, thirty-one
new applications were received in 1959, and, even allowing for a number of the
applicants not having the necessary qualifications, this represents a considerable
increase in interest over the preceding year.
Due to the greater priority of work related to the establishment and management of sustained-yield units, the activities of wood-lot personnel have had to be
redirected, in part, to this phase of the Division's work.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 35
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
INTRODUCTION
The demand for forestry information by the news media, schools, industry, and
the general public continued on a high level. The ability of the Division to meet
this demand satisfactorily was hampered by lack of funds and field personnel.
Every effort was made with the resources available to meet the need, principally by
greatly expanding the duties and responsibilities of the school lecturers and certain
clerical staff.
The Service's prime need in its information programme continues to be the
establishment of information officers at the forest district headquarters level. In
addition, assistance in the editorial and writing phases of the work is becoming a
serious requirement.
PHOTOGRAPHY AND MOTION PICTURES
The photographic laboratory processed and printed 180 rolls of black-and-
white film for other divisions of the Forest Service during the year. A certain
amount of negative colour material is also now being used by some divisions. The
photographic staff took a total of 656 black-and-white and 81 colour negatives, and
over 2,500 black-and-white negatives and 200 35-mm. colour slides were added to
the files. This represents a 100-per-cent increase over last year, and the encroachment of storage space on the studio working area, which has long been a problem,
is now reaching an acute stage.
In the early summer, several visits were made to logging settings to increase
the variety and up-date the selection of logging photographs. Due to the industrial
strike, however, this project was not completed. Complete coverage was provided
by a photographer-writer team for an experimental burn conducted in the Kamloops
Forest District. A set of colour slides was also taken for the Kamloops protection
section to illustrate sawmill waste-disposal methods.
Over 2,548 8- by 10-inch photographic prints were produced, an increase of
over 1,000 over 1958. Approximately 1,500 of these prints were supplied to the
press and periodicals for use with news and feature articles. With the steady
increase of this type of work, existing equipment is rapidly becoming inadequate
and breakdowns are more frequent.
In April the Division's 16-mm. sound, colour production "Mark of Progress"
was shown for the first time at a public " forestry forum " held in Prince George and
attended by over 800 members of the public. The film is now receiving good circulation through the film library.
Primarily due to shortage of funds and writing staff, new motion-picture footage this year was limited to coverage of a helicopter air-lift of a prefabricated lookout
to Mount Artaban, in the Vancouver Forest District.
Some new projects were undertaken this year. A total of 157 metalphotos
were made for use as placards in exhibits and for the use of Engineering Services
Division. The bulk were required for the newly designed Christmas-tree scaling-
stick.
Several Forest Service exhibits were supplied with design layouts and photographs, the most notable being the mobile trailer exhibit which toured fall fairs
in the Nelson and Kamloops Forest Districts. Thirty-eight large exhibition prints
were provided in various sizes, including a 30- by 30-inch colour print to the Surveys
and Inventory Division. There is a need for the precision photographic equipment
to be brought up to date in order to meet the growing demand for quality work. 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FlLMSTRIPS
A copy of each of the three filmstrips produced last year has been placed with
the Canadian Forestry Association, and copies have also been placed with both
Victoria and Vancouver visual education departments for circulation through the
schools.
A colour filmstrip on cone collection, seed extraction, and planting is being
produced for the Reforestation Division. To date, forty colour photographs have
been taken, and it is hoped to have the strip completed by late spring.
Art work for filmstrips and exhibit displays required 137 individual drawings
to be made.
Commercial Theatres
For the fifth consecutive year a 35-mm. forest-protection trailer was circulated
through the commercial theatres in the Province. Exterior shooting was carried
out by Divisional photographers. This trailer was shown for one week in each of
seventy-one theatres during July and August, to a total estimated audience of
305,000.
FILM LIBRARY
During the year, a total of 123,179 individuals viewed Forest Service films.
This figure includes attendances of schools serviced by the Division's lecturers. The
film library started the year with eighty-three individual subjects; ten were withdrawn during the year; and nineteen new subjects were added, making a total of
ninety-two subjects available at the year's end (see Table 55 of Appendix).
Television use of library films is steadily increasing, and loans were extended
to organizations in many parts of the world. British Columbia House, London,
England, continues to make good use of Service films on deposit there.
Amongst the more interesting additions to the library was a series of four
films devoted to the proper use of fire-fighting hand tools, produced co-operatively
by this Service and a United States agency.
During the year, seventy-seven special evening programmes were given by
Division staff members. The demand for this type of showing has greatly increased
during the past two years.
Greater use of Divisional motion-picture equipment was made by other
members of the Service. A total of 103 individual loans to authorized personnel
were made. This increase was a contributing factor in the greater cost of operation and maintenance of these units.
PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTING
The 1958 Annual Report of the Forest Service was edited, synopsized, its
printing supervised, and distributed. Other major printing projects included
76,000 school scribblers, 31,000 calendars for 1960, two issues of Protection bulletins, the 1959 " Research Review," and two technical publications—T.51 " Forecast of Yield in Relation to Thinning Regimes in Douglas Fir," by G. C. Warrack,
of the Research Division, and T. 52 " Grafting Methods for Douglas Fir," by A. L.
Orr-Ewing and D. C. Prideaux, Research Division, reprinted from The Forestry
Chronicle, September, 1959. A special Christmas edition of the Forest Service
news-letter was authorized this year and distributed throughout the Service.
Eight publications were reprinted during the year in order to keep up with the
demand, but is was not possible to reprint one major item because no funds were
available.   Three lay bulletins were reprinted twice during the year.   The demand REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959 37
for forestry lay and technical printed information far outstrips the supply and the
Division's resources available to meet the demand. As in the past few years, more
and more funds are being devoted to purely maintaining the supply of existing
material, leaving no margin for development of sorely needed new media.
The Division distributed Survey Note No. 2, " Helicopter Use in Forest
Surveys," maintained the supply of display posters, decals, and minor materials,
and produced and distributed a personnel directory for use in the field.
To assist in the dissemination of factual up-to-date forest policy and general
forestry information throughout the Service field staffs, a new medium of mimeographed information items was distributed from time to time during the year to all
Rangers, the Ranger School, and district headquarters staffs. This programme
appears to be filling a real need if reactions from the field are to be any guide.
RADIO AND TELEVISION
The annual forest-protection and educational radio campaign was maintained
during the year. With the exception of radio stations CBU (Vancouver) and
CFPR (Prince Rupert), all stations in the Province carried thirty-two 15-second
flash announcements and sixteen 1-minute spot announcements for a period of
eight weeks during the 1959 fire season. A pattern of twenty-four 45-second spot
announcements was broadcast on C.B.C. stations at Vancouver and Prince Rupert
and over thirty-one repeater stations.
It was noted that greater use was made by most forest districts of the special
hazard flashes available to each District Forester or Forest Ranger over local
stations during periods of serious fire-hazard.
All copy for the radio series was written and scheduled by members of the
Division.
Members of the Division also participated in and arranged for several special
radio programmes dealing with such items as the school lecture programme and
general forestry matters. Radio station CKDA (Victoria), with the co-operation
of this Division, broadcast four 15-minute programmes on reforestation and forest
research.
No funds were available for commercial use of television. However, the
Division did participate in several public service programmes and supplied the
stations with video material.
NEWS MEDIA LIAISON
The volume of news and informational press releases, articles, and the supplying of background material to daily and weekly press, radio, television, and trade
journals remained at a high level.
The school lecture staff participated in this work for the first time this year and
with satisfactory results. While working in the various districts, they acted, in part,
as district information personnel and worked to assist in liaison with local news
media.
For the first time, a record was maintained of the results of the Division news
and information releases. This record, from March to December only and covering
but eight daily newspapers, showed that the sixty-two individual press releases
made by the Division during the period resulted in 6,150 column inches of space
in these principal dailies. No record was kept of trade journal, radio, or television
coverage. Considerably better coverage could have been obtained had the staff
been available to produce it. 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Two special press tours were arranged by the Division during the year.
A group including both press representatives and cattlemen was conducted on a
visit to planting areas in the East Kootenay region. During the early part of the
fire season, a tour was made of Forest Service and industrial protection and research
facilities on Vancouver Island for a group of press and radio representatives.
_-^*^*^^7ARD RAT"
^ErcT FIRE HA#»V ^^
\H0
RA'NfiE
New forest fire hazard rating sign.
SIGNS AND EXHIBITS
With the exception of Scotchlite " Prevent Forest Fires " design, all sign
requirements were filled through the services of the Forest Service Marine Station.
The demand for Scotchlite " Prevent Forest Fires " signs again far exceeded the
supply. The design and production of this sign were revamped during the year to
use facilities of the Department of Public Works sign-shop, and the results were very
worth while.    Eight pilot models were distributed throughout the Province.
Sixty fire-hazard rating signs were constructed and erected at various Ranger
stations throughout the Province as a public information media indicating the
degree of fire-hazard existing in each locality.
The placement and repainting of the " Keep B.C. Green—Use Your Ashtray "
signs was continued. To date, 225 such signs have been placed on black-topped
highways.
During the year, an attempt was made to meet the demand from exhibition
organizations for this Service to enter displays in their fall fairs and conventions.
With this in mind, the new highway sign-crew trailer was designed so as to be
suitable for conversion into a mobile display unit. The interior of the trailer contained material depicting the major phases of Forest Service work.    In addition, REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
39
provisions were made for the showing of motion-picture films to an audience
gathered under a large awning extending from the roof of the trailer. The unit
visited fairs at Chase, Grand Forks, Nelson, Creston, and Castlegar. Records
show that approximately 12,000 people visited the unit.
Special exhibits were placed in Teacher Federation conventions at Prince
George, Fort St. John, and Courtenay.
The permanent Forest Service exhibit located in the British Columbia Building, Pacific National Exhibition grounds, Vancouver, was completely redesigned.
Surveys and Engineering Sections of the mobile trailer unit exhibit.
SCHOOL LECTURES
Two school lecturers were active during the school terms January to June and
September to December. For the third time since its inception, the lecture programme covered all five forest districts in one calendar year. Coverage in the
districts was as follows:—
Forest District
Number of
Schools
Visited
Number of
Lectures
Attendance
Vancouver	
108
47
76
21
62
162
49
82
25
75
35,082
5,420
5,600
5,135
9,972
Totals 	
314
393
61,209 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LIBRARY
The forest library experienced a year marked by staff changes. In May the
librarian for the past seven years resigned, and the present librarian did not assume
her duties until September. During this four-month hiatus, the library was administered by the first assistant.
In addition, a reorganization of functions in the library and throughout the
Division permitted the library staff to be reduced by one clerical position late in the
year.
Each month, 321 accession lists, which give a complete record of all publications entering the library, are circulated throughout the Forest Service. An average
of 110 titles per month were circulated within and without the Service during the
year.
The domestic-subject catalogue was closed down at the end of 1958, and
information is now traced by subject through cards classified according to the Oxford
decimal classification (ODC) and which are prepared and distributed from Oxford.
A collection of books in the Reforestation Division was classified according to
the ODC and indexed by subject and author.
A limited (Russian and German) translation service for technical titles is now
available through the library, and a considerable amount of use was made of this
service during the last four months of the year.
CO-OPERATION
The commercial radio and television stations, and their agencies, and all
segments of the press continued to offer a high degree of co-operation. Their
support of the Service's information programme is again gratefully acknowledged.
The Department of Education continued its active support, for the eighth
consecutive year, of the Service school lecture programme.
The Division and the Service as a whole continued to co-operate closely with
the Canadian Forestry Association (British Columbia Branch) in the organizing
of Forest Conservation Week and the Annual Fire Control Courses.
A member of the Division co-operated with the Girl Guide Association headquarters in presenting three six-week courses leading to qualification for the Guides'
woodsman's badge.   A total of 132 Guides participated.
A Division lecturer, on request, presented a week-long series of forest fire-
fighting lectures to the regular forces of the Canadian Army at Work Point Barracks,
Victoria. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 41
FOREST MANAGEMENT
GENERAL
Despite the ten-week strike which curbed production on the Coast from
July 6th to September 13th, the total estimated value of production of all forest
products reached $637,715,000, surpassing the previous peak year of 1955 by over
$6,000,000.
The value of lumber products maintained its leading position, accounting for
$291,500,000, 46 per cent of the total value. Pulp and paper products valued at
$234,529,000, comprised 37 per cent of the total, while plywood and shingles
accounted for 12 and 3 per cent of the total value respectively. The value of pulp
and paper production represented a 23-per-cent increase over 1958, while total
pulp production of 1,875,236 tons showed an increase of 32 per cent over the
previous year. It is estimated that one-third of the total pulp production came
from 1,457,015 units of wood-chips made from mill residues. In addition, 260,529
units of chips were exported from the Province. Comparable figures for 1958 were
1,816,753 units with 404,049 units exported. Plywood production was down by
less than 1 per cent, but lower prices reduced its total value to $75,500,000 from
the $90,000,000 estimated for 1958.
On the whole, the industry had a good year, with the weighted average lumber
price for all species shipped from the Interior of the Province about $5.34 per
thousand board measure higher than that for 1958, but the decline in prices in the
fourth quarter may portend a more difficult year in 1960.
The total cut for the Province amounted to 1,049,145,125 cubic feet. This
showed an increase of 15 per cent over 1958, but was almost 2 per cent less than
the record volume cut in 1956. Of this scaled volume, 574,451,278 cubic feet was
cut from the Coast region, while 474,693,847 cubic feet originated in the Interior.
The Coast scale of all products was 72,000,000 cubic feet higher than the 1958
total, but was still 81,000,000 cubic feet lower than in 1955. By contrast, the total
Interior scale attained a new record, surpassing the 1956 peak by 54,000,000 cubic
feet.
For the Province as a whole, Douglas fir still ranked first, with a total cut of
369,832,059 cubic feet. It is of major significance, however, that, for the first time,
the volume of hemlock cut on the Coast exceeded that of Douglas fir. The total
volume of hemlock scaled on the Coast was 182,881,206 cubic feet, compared with
175,376,885 cubic feet for Douglas fir. The scale of fir has been diminishing on
the Coast since 1953, while the hemlock production has fluctuated from year to
year. In the Interior, the scale of spruce continues to rank second to that of Douglas
fir. The order of volume scaled for the entire Province continues to be Dougals fir,
hemlock, spruce, and cedar, with these four species accounting for 85 per cent of
the total cut.
On the basis of land tenures of origin, 832,964,602 cubic feet, or 79 per cent,
came from Crown lands and, of this total, 562,504,152 cubic feet, or 68 per cent,
came from timber sales, while 80,006,821 cubic feet, or 10 per cent, originated on
the portions of tree-farm licences not previously alienated under some other form
of tenure.
Water-borne lumber shipments for 1959 amounted to 1,197,653,000 f.b.m.
This volume was almost equal to the average for the last ten years but was
116,708,000 f.b.m. lower than the 1958 total. Shipments to the United Kingdom
declined to 267,363,000 f.b.m., the lowest volume since 1950.   Water-borne ship-
I 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ments to the United States accounted for 595,170,000 f.b.m., being almost equal to
the 1958 volume and accounting for 50 per cent of all water-borne shipments.
Awarded during 1959 were 2,160 timber sales, containing a total estimated
volume of 739,347,750 cubic feet of saw-timber. Comparable figures for 1958
were 2,145 sales with 682,221,469 cubic feet. The total estimated revenue from
1959 sales is $29,823,289.07; this value is 45 per cent greater than the 1958 total,
reflecting higher stumpage rates as a result of improved market conditions, but is
considerably lower than the record value of 1956 sales. The decline in the number
of timber sales in the last few years may be attributed to several factors: a more
liberal policy in granting extensions of time to existing contracts, resulting in fewer
resales; a trend toward larger sales; the existence of tree-farm licences where timber
is sold on a cutting-permit basis rather than by timber sale; and regulation of cut
in fully committed sustained-yield units where the volume of timber sold is limited
to the allowable cut.
Competitive bidding on timber sales offered for public auction showed a
marked increase in 1959, surpassing the 1956 record. Stumpage rates higher than
the upset prices were bid on 243 sales, or 12.6 per cent of all sales other than cash
sales. These competitive sales comprised 28.3 per cent of the total sawlog volume.
In the case of 104 sales containing 13.6 per cent of the total volume, the final
stumpage rates bid were more than double the upset rates. Most of the competitive
bidding occurred in the Nelson and Vancouver Forest Districts.
At the end of 1959, there were 7,139 timber-sale contracts in existence, the
number having been reduced by 444 during the year. The total amount of security
deposits held under timber-sale contracts increased to $15,150,213 from the
$14,710,518 held at the close of the previous year.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber Prices
The Department relies upon the Interior dressed-lumber shippers to provide
data regarding their sales and, as in previous years, co-operation has been excellent.
These prices are necessary to determine stumpage rates and also provide the basis
of stumpage adjustments under sliding scale. Three-month average prices f.o.b.
car are used, as in past years, as well as seasonal corrections to fir-larch and spruce
prices. There are now five lumber-price zones in effect since the Peace River Zone
has been included in the Prince George-Blue River Zone.
The seasonally corrected fir-larch price and the cedar and yellow pine prices
rose during the first half of the year and fell in the second half. The seasonally
corrected spruce price and the white pine price were relatively stable. Uncorrected
quarterly average prices for the Interior are shown below.
1959 Uncorrected Quarterly Average Dressed-lumber Prices (Interior)
Jan.-Mar.
Apr.-
Tune
July-Sept.
Oct.-
Dec.
Species
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis.
MB.M.
Average
Price
146,229
164,044
5,398
3,698
2,034
$57.87
58.93
54.70
93.41
60.27
200.078
226,122
8,280
6,524
7,479
$65.99
64.71
60.83
97.33
66.17
200,500
247,541
6,713
7,238
5,810
$64.26
62.10
65.86
96.53
62.28
145,929
177,584
5,309
3,522
2,046
$55.77
Spruce	
Cedar 	
57.92
58.28
99.21
Yellow  pine	
61.99 report of forest service, 1959
Log Prices
43
With the exception of hemlock and balsam prices, which remained at the low
1958 level, log prices generally were moderately higher during 1959. Fir and
spruce prices rose throughout the year, whereas cedar and white pine prices rose
and fell again toward the end of the year. Quarterly average prices for log sales
reported to the British Columbia Loggers' Association are shown below.
1959 Quarterly Average Log Prices per M B.M.   (Lower Coast)
Species
Jan.-Mar.
Apr-June
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.
Fir      	
$58.01
48.28
38.67
36.88
40.93
53.22
$59.96
51.30
40.57
36.94
42.51
60.29
$63.53
50.03
42.21
39.69
43.60
58.56
$64.46
47.10
Hemlock   	
42.92
39.23
45.90
White pine...        	
58.46
Stumpage Prices
Stumpage rates for timber on unalienatd land, or on land not held under
other tenure within tree-farm licences, are determined by Forest Service appraisal.
Timber-sale stumpage rates are established by bid, and the bid rates may not be
less than the appraised rates. A brief description of the general appraisal method
is contained in the 1957 Report of the Forest Service.
Stumpage rates for fir, larch, and spruce were higher than in 1958. The rates
for cedar, hemlock, balsam, and yellow pine were the same, or only slightly higher,
than their 1958 values. White pine stumpage was lower. These figures reflect
improved log and lumber prices for the year.
The average bid prices for all species was $3.88 per hundred cubic feet for
1957, $2.98 for 1958, and $4.03 for 1959. For detailed figures see Tables 20 and
21 of the Appendix to this Report.
Sliding-scale Adjustments
There were 6,400 sliding-scale adjustments of stumpage rates during 1959.
Most of these resulted in stumpage increases. This compares to 3,877 adjustments,
mostly downwards, in 1958. The general application of the sliding-scale method
to timber sales, without the option of reappraisal, was made in 1958.
All tree-farm licence cutting permits issued after January 1st, 1959, were made
subject to stumpage-rate adjustment under sliding scale during the periods between
the normal reappraisal of stumpage values. Previously, sliding scale had been included at the option of the licensee when each permit was issued.
Stumpage-appraisal Cost Studies
The field party with headquarters at Vernon completed time studies on five
logging operations, four sawmilling operations, and one planer-mill operation.
Lumber recovery studies were undertaken at three sawmills.
ADMINISTRATION OF MANAGED UNITS
Three new sustained-yield units were set up, to bring the totals to thirty-two
public working circles and thirty-two sustained-yield units, or a total of sixty-four
publicly managed areas, from which a cut of 310,000,000 cubic feet was recorded. 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Work is progressing on plans to bring the publicly managed units on to the established licensee priority system for administrative purposes. This system is based on
the premise that applications for further timber will be accepted only from the
licensees of expiring timber sales. It has been found necessary to insert restrictive-
cut clauses in timber sales to allow this system to work effectively.
SILVICULTURE
The programme implemented during 1959 included stand treatment, silvi-
cultural studies, working-circle planning, and road location in public working circles
and sustained-yield units.
The main effort during the year was centred on stand treatment. The Interior
districts were again active in this field, and some 823 timber sales received stand
treatment. This involved treating some 207,528 acres, as compared with 141,577
acres in 1958. For the most part, sales are treated to attain either increment or
natural regeneration. The methods most commonly employed are single-tree selection in the case where increment is the objective and strips, blocks, patches, or
single seed-trees where natural regeneration is desired. Of the 207,528 acres
treated in 1959, 24,936 were marked under single-tree selection; 62,961 were laid
out in blocks, strips, or patches; and 119,631 acres were marked for either single
or groups of selected seed-trees.
Where natural regeneration is desired, it is often necessary to prepare a satisfactory seed-bed. This is often accomplished by either burning or scarification.
Since 1956 the Forest Service has been developing a scarification programme as a
means of obtaining natural regeneration in certain types of stands. In 1959 some
twenty-two timber sales were scarified, involving approximately 1,757 acres.
In the 1958 Report, mention was made of the proposed developments in
respect to planting. Planting was carried out during 1959 in all Interior districts.
Altogether, some 200,000 trees were planted, which included the following species:
Larch, yellow pine, spruce, and Douglas fir.
In order to develop the planting programme, considerable effort was expended
in collecting suitable seed. This will be needed for future planting stock and also
in connection with the direct-seeding programme which will be developed in the
near future. In 1959, some 350 bushels of cones were collected and shipped to
the Reforestation Division for extraction.
In addition to the cone-collecting programme, the stand-treatment crews, in
conjunction with Reforestation Division, developed and maintained a number of
small nurseries at different locations throughout the Interior, principally at Telkwa,
Hixon, and Creston.
Of the many technical problems on which work was carried out during the
year, the most significant was the preliminary work done in connection with second-
growth management on the Lower Coast. Co-operative studies were also undertaken with several different agencies. Among the more noteworthy were the logging
damage survey in the Prince George District and the Douglas fir bark-beetle survey
of the damage to selected seed sources in the Cariboo.
SCALING
Scaling supervision in all Interior forest districts was intensified during the
year, with field time apportioned among check scaling and investigations, instructional classes in preparing candidates for scaling examinations, and holding examinations.    Scaling examinations were held at forty-seven centres throughout the REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
45
Interior, with 1,058 candidates sitting for the examinations. Three hundred and
ninety-four candidates were successful in passing. In preparation for the examination, 193 instructional classes in scaling were held, each class being of two hours'
duration.
Mill checks and investigations carried out during the year resulted in twenty-
five prosecutions under Part VIII of the Forest Act. It was also necessary to
suspend the licences of fifteen scalers because of scaling irregularities. 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GRAZING
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The winter of 1958/59 was mild, with snowfall lighter than usual in the
northern areas and about average in the south. At low elevations, snow melted
early in the spring but subsequent cool weather retarded plant growth, and the range
was not ready for use until considerably later than normal. Supplies of hay were
generally good, and there was no undue hardship caused by the late forage development.
With the exception of the south-easterly portion of the range country, drought
conditions prevailed until early August. Thereafter, precipitation was extremely
heavy throughout.
The dry spring, following the drought conditions of 1958, resulted in poor
forage production on both grassland and forest ranges in the north. Ranges in this
area did not respond to the late summer rains due to relatively low temperatures
and the advanced stage of growth which had been reached before the rains came.
In the south, and particularly the south-east, forage production ranged from average
to far above normal.   Stock came off the range in generally good condition.
Hay production was light in many areas due to dry, cool conditions early in
the growing season and also as the result of severe kill of alfalfa due to late winter
icing conditions. Following the onset of heavy rains in August, haying conditions
became extremely difficult. In many areas very little hay could be harvested, and
much is of very poor quality. There is a general shortage of hay throughout most
of the ranching area. This, combined with the early onset of winter conditions in
all except the south part of the Kamloops District, has forced many stockmen to
reduce their herds.
Rising costs and inadequate returns are causing many sheep-ranchers to go
out of business or convert to cattle. This is reflected in the drop of sheep numbers
on Crown range.
The trend toward the sale of calves and yearlings, rather than 2-year-olds,
continues. This is resulting in a higher percentage of mature cows on the Crown
range. Thus, forage demands are also increasing apart from the influence of stock
numbers.
Markets and Prices
Cattle prices remained relatively steady until early in October, when some
weakness in the market developed due to heavy shipments and a reduced demand
on the part of the United States buyers. Weighted average prices received by cattlemen through the British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association
were $17.52 per hundredweight, compared to $19.57 in 1958. Lamb prices were
also lower than the previous year. Total shipments of cattle were 4.5 per cent
higher than in 1958.
Live-stock Losses
Losses of stock on the range appeared to be higher than normal in 1959.
Although natural causes, such as poisonous plants, predatory animals, and severe
weather conditions in the late fall, took their toll, artificial hazards were more
important. Hunting accidents were particularly serious, and theft was suspected
in a number of cases of unexplained loss. Losses due to highway traffic and rail
traffic were also reported. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959
RANGE MANAGEMENT
47
Range-management plans must be revised to meet constantly changing conditions. During 1959, special attention was given to minimize any possible effects
of the yellow pine planting programme on grazing interests in the East Kootenay
Valley.
Forage-yield studies were intensified to determine the productive capacity of
various sites. A variety of range-improvement techniques were also applied on
a trial basis to find ways of increasing forage production.
Studies were also continued to determine the type of management required to
maintain and improve forage production on suitable areas in the Peace River
District. These lands revert to brush, and ultimately, if untreated, to a forest type
without under-story forage. Special techniques, including the use of fire, herbicides,
and rough cultivation, appear to be necessary.
Range Surveys
Range inventories provide the resource manager with information which
enables him to develop a range-management programme which will lead to the best
use of the forage. In 1959, a total of 440,720 acres were covered by grazing
surveys, as follows:-—
Acres
Fernie and Elk Valley Stock Ranges  38,240
Hawkins Creek unit of Creston Stock Range  80,480
Upper Cache Creek Stock Range  100,000
Westwold Stock Range  202,000
Total  420,720
From 1945 to 1959, a total of 9,399, 885 acres have been covered by range
surveys and resurveys. The resurveys are necessary to keep the range inventory
information up to date.
Range Improvements
During the year, $48,760.70 was spent from the Range Improvement Fund.
In addition, material to the value of $1,428.72 on hand at the end of 1958, was
assigned to projects during 1959.   The following work was completed:—
One stock-bridge      $200.00
Fourteen cattle-guards      6,170.01
Thirty-one drift-fences   10,514.38
Seven experimental plots        185.32
One hazard-removal   17.15
Four holding-grounds         374.62
Two mud-hole fences        850.00
One hundred and twenty-one range seedings     5,593.67
Twenty-eight stock-trails     8,090.43
Nineteen water developments     2,031.00
Wild-horse disposal         453.50
Machinery and equipment (purchase)        225.61
Maintenance and operation of equipment     1,009.48
Material purchased but not assigned to projects     3,188.70
Supervision, surveys, and technical studies  11,285.55 r
48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In addition to the costs charged to the Range Improvement Fund, range-users
made considerable contributions of labour to a number of the above projects.
Also, a number of these projects were constructed or repaired by fire-suppression
crews and other Forest Service personnel without cost to the Range Improvement
Fund.
Authority was also extended to permittees to construct and maintain, at their
own expense, one breeding-pasture, two cattle-guards, five corrals, twelve drift-
fences, two grazing-enclosures, one holding-ground, two horse pastures, one stock-
trail, and two water developments.
Range seeding was reduced in 1959, due mainly to the fact that no major
fires occurred which were suitable for seeding. Some 17,150 pounds of seed were
used in 1959, compared to 21,615 pounds in 1958. The seeding of logged forest
range and other similarly disturbed areas was at about the same level as the previous year. Fall seeding was curtailed due to unsuitable weather conditions. One
prescribed burn in the Peace River area was seeded from the air. The costs
reported previously covered only the cost of seed and other supplies. Labour, which
is a major cost in seeding, was supplied by stockmen and Forest Service personnel.
Steel-rail decks were installed on ten cattle-guards on heavily used roads.
Experience to date indicates that maintenance costs for this type of deck should be
considerably less than that for wooden decks. One painted cattle-guard was
installed across an asphalt highway in 1959, and preliminary results indicate that
this new type of guard was relatively successful in holding cattle. Trials with
electric cattle-guards were continued, but these guards do not appear to be entirely
satisfactory in remote areas where maintenance is difficult.
Seeding grass on logging-roads has produced forage for live stock. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 49
All of the Kamloops Grazing District and the major part of the Nelson Grazing
District were closed to horses during the winter of 1958/59. Forty-eight horse-
disposal licences were issued and sixty horses were cleared for shipment. Bounties
remained at $5 on mares and geldings and $7.50 on stallions. The problem of
horses on Crown range is now largely under control. High prices being paid for
horses has encouraged horse-owners to take better care of their animals and to
round up and ship their own excess horses. However, it is considered necessary to
continue horse closures to further ensure that large numbers of useless horses do not
again accumulate on Crown range.
During the year, studies were continued on the biological control of goat-weed
(Hypericum perforatum). The two species of Chrysoline beetles, which were first
introduced a number of years ago, are still disappointingly ineffective. However,
the beetles continue to survive. The release of Chrysolina varians, made in 1958,
showed some promise, but it is still too soon to draw conclusions as to the effectiveness of this species.
Range Research
The Canada Ranee Experimental Farm at Kamloops is responsible for basic
range research in British Columbia. Studies were continued on a number of
problems of special interest to the Forest Service, including range seeding, timber
milk-vetch poisoning, range carrying capacities, and weight gains on forest range.
Valuable assistance was obtained from the farm during the year on a wide variety
of subjects, including technical guidance in connection with much of the work being
done in the East Kootenay area.
Co-operation
Local live-stock associations are the media through which much of the cooperation between ranchers and the Forest Service is achieved. There are now
fifty-three such associations approved under the Grazing Act. Three new associations were incorporated in 1959. One of these has already been recognized under
the Grazing Act, and negotiations with the other two are under way. Meetings were
held with the North Okanagan ranchers in 1959 to organize local live-stock associations, but no associations have been formed to date. Several recently inactive
live-stock associations were reactivated in 1959.
The British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association and the British
Columbia Sheep Breeders' Association were active, and several matters of general
concern to the industry were referred to them for their consideration.
A total of 124 association meetings were reported, and Forest Service officers
attended 115 of these. Fifteen meetings were held with other live-stock and technical groups during the year.
A co-operative arrangement was entered into between the United States and
British Columbia Forest Services and affected permittees for the fencing of a part
of the International Boundary on Pasayten Mountain where intermingling of stock
had become a problem.
Grazing personnel assisted in organizing and participated in several technical
meetings during the year. At the instigation of the Forest Service, a short course
in range management was arranged by the University. This course was held at the
Range Experimental Farm in June and was attended by technical personnel from
various agencies interested in range use. Early in the year, the Director of Grazing
was appointed to the Beef Cattle Advisory Committee, set up to advise the Government on matters affecting the industry generally. 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ADMINISTRATION
For the first time in over two years, the grazing personnel establishment was
brought up to full strength, the last vacant position being suitably filled in May.
Also, owing to the lighter fire season, the Ranger staff was able to give more
attention to grazing work than during the previous year. However, in spite of this
more favourable situation, the continually increasing work load resulted in much
necessary field work remaining undone.
In 1959, two minor amendments were made to the Grazing Act to simplify
administration and clarify the application of the Act to certain lands. Revised
grazing regulations were published early in the year to meet the requirements of the
Regulations Act. Grazing district boundaries were also revised to coincide with
altered forest district boundaries.
For a number of years, grazing fees have been on a sliding scale, reflecting livestock prices on the Vancouver market, as reported by the Canada Department of
Agriculture. At the end of May, the public stockyards in Vancouver were closed
and price reporting on the Vancouver market discontinued. It therefore became
necessary to find a new basis for the sliding scale. After considerable research, it
was finally determined that live-stock price information available from the British
Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association would be the most suitable
basis for the sliding scale.
Although the character of the problem did not change, the pressure of other
land uses in the range country continued to grow during the year. Increased efforts
were required to minimize conflict between grazing and these other uses. Further,
land diverted to home-site, commercial, industrial, and recreational uses results in
increased grazing pressure on the remaining range lands. More intensive management is thus required even to maintain total grazing use at its present level without
damage to the range.
Logging on forest ranges continued to result in some conflict with grazing.
However, this problem is not as acute as it was due to careful supervision by the
Forest Service and growing co-operation between the logging and ranching industries.
In some cases, Indians have not been complying with the provisions of the
Grazing Act in the use of Crown range. This has made proper management of the
range difficult and, from time to time, has led to conflict with legitimate grazing
permittees, both white and Indian. Special attention was given to these matters
during the year and some progress was made.
During the year, a large number of ranches changed hands. This involved a
considerable amount of work in connection with the transfer of grazing privileges
and the explanation of grazing regulations and management plans to the new operators, many of whom were completely unfamiliar with range practices in this Province.
The growing importance of beef production in the Prince George District,
particularly in the Peace River area, necessitated assignment of a Grazing Officer
to that district for six and one-half months in 1959. The necessity of administration
and range development in additional areas throughout the Peace River area was
carefully investigated. Administration was commenced in the Sunset Prairie area.
There are now three stock ranges in the Peace River District being managed under
the provisions of the Grazing Act.
Grazing and Hay Permits
This year, 1,683 grazing permits were issued authorizing the depasturing of
124,425 cattle, 4,377 horses, and 20,604 sheep on Crown range. This represents
an increase of 112 permits over 1958.   Cattle numbers were up 1,936 head and REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
51
horses 208 head over the previous year. Sheep numbers were slightly reduced,
being at the lowest level since 1928.   (See Table 58 in Appendix.)
A total of 164 hay-cutting permits were issued authorizing the harvesting of
1,415 tons of hay and rushes from Crown range. Unfortunately, much of this hay
could not be harvested owing to extremely wet weather, and many permits were
cancelled.   Such hay as could be harvested was of low quality.
A number of special-use permits for hay-cutting and for fenced pastures were
issued under the Provincial Forest Regulations.
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees
Grazing fees are on a sliding scale, based on live-stock prices received by the
producers the previous year. Fees per head per month for 1959 were 15 cents for
cattle, 18.5 cents for horses, and 3 cents for sheep.
This represents an increase of 3 cents per head per month for cattle and 3%
cents per head per month for horses, reflecting the considerably higher prices
received by stockmen in 1958. Sheep fees remained constant from 1958 to 1959.
Hay-cutting fees, which are not on a sliding scale, remained at $1 per ton for wild
hay and 70 cents per ton for rushes.
Total billings for grazing and hay-cutting fees were up from the 1958 level
due to both increased fees and the larger numbers of stock on the Crown range.
Billings exceeded collections, resulting in larger " outstandings " at the end of the
year.   (See Table 59 in Appendix.)
Live-stock Counts
Cattle counts were carried out in four areas where management problems had
arisen. Accurate knowledge of the number of stock owned by ranchers is necessary
to ensure actual grazing use is in line with permitted use and also as a basis for
equitable allocation of Crown range.
Violations and Prosecutions
Several cases of serious violations of grazing permit conditions occurred during
the year. Some stock were seized under the provisions of section 17 of the Grazing
Act for too early turnout on spring range. 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ENGINEERING SERVICES
ENGINEERING SECTION
Work continued on forest-development roads with an extensive programme of
engineering investigations, route reconnaissance, location, and construction. In
addition, work was carried out on a number of access roads required primarily for
fire-protection and administrative purposes. Much of this work was undertaken
as part of a winter work programme under a Federal-Provincial agreement for
sharing the cost of constructing forest roads built during the first six months of
1959. Despite severe winter conditions, both location and construction crews
maintained a high level of production during this period. Construction work was
scheduled so that right-of-way clearing, rock work, bridge construction, and other
operations least affected by winter conditions, proceeded during the worst weather.
F.D.R.=Forest-development road.
P.W.C.=Public working circle.
S.Y.U.=Sustained-yield unit.
T.S.=Timber Sale.
Forest-road Programme,
1959
Project
Regulation Unit
Reconnaissance
Location
Construction
Vancouver Forest District
Crawfish Lake T.S.X71949.     	
Chilliwack River F.D.R..
Kyuquot P.W.C.              	
Chilliwack P.W.C	
Miles
14
7
4
13
13
13
68
15
4
20
60
22
20
100
16
56
3
24
22
40
22
8
40
Miles
9.8
21.7
0.5
4.6
9.3
1.1
16.2
2.9
3.7
3.4
10.7
20.6
6.7
34.4
22.2
20.0
30.4
19.8
Miles
5.0
Handy Creek  	
Barclay P.W.C. .   	
Broughton P.W.C	
11.0
0.5
Port Hardy F.D.R.
Cape Scott P.W.C	
2.5
Yale P.W.C 	
Sechelt P.W.C	
Soo River F.D.R	
Soo S.Y.U.	
Broughton P.W.C	
Barclay P.W.C. 	
Prince Rupert Forest District
Morice S.Y.U.. 	
06
Babine P.W.C.	
Babine P.W.C	
Prince George Forest District
West Lake P.W.C	
Hasler Creek F.D.R	
McGregor River  	
Longworth S.Y.U 	
Mountain Creek F.D.R...
Naver-Ahbau F.D.R	
Naver P.W.C. and Big Valley
S.Y.U 	
1 5
Swift River F.D.R	
Cottonwood P.W.C	
Narcosli P.W.C        ...
8.0
Willow River F.D.R...	
Willow P.W.C 	
Yalakom S.Y.U	
3.0
Kamloops Forest District
Hendrix Creek F.D.R	
Lac la Hache S.Y.U	
Similkameen P.W.C  	
16.5
Lawless Creek F.D.R.
0.5
Botanie S.Y.U 	
Slok Creek	
Yalakom S.Y.U 	
Nelson Forest District
Damfino Creek F.D.R                  .  .
Kettle P.W.C	
Granby S.Y.U	
Horsethief F.D.R. „
Windermere P.W.C	
0.4
Lodgepole F.D.R.	
Flathead S.Y.U	
6.0
White River F.D.R	
Upper Kootenay P.W.C	
12 5
Total 1959 programme 	
604
1,635
237.4
474.0
68 0
214.3
Totals, forest-road programme,
1950-59.	
2,239        |
711.4        |
282.3 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
53
Other activities of the Engineering Section included maintaining 207 miles of
previously constructed road; operating highway transport units for moving heavy
equipment, Porta-buildings, and other materials to Forest Service installations
throughout the Province; and providing professional engineering assistance on
problems encountered in the day-to-day operations of the Service.
Development Planning
Development planning continued as an important phase of the Engineering
Services programme. Engineering investigations and route reconnaissance in fifteen
forest areas encompassing some 2,815,000 acres of productive forest lands, with a
current recoverable mature volume of 3 billion cubic feet, were undertaken during
the year.
This work was accomplished by three field crews utilizing both the old and the
new in personnel transport. During the field season, helicopters were used on a
limited basis to check their application to route investigation. General use was
made of fixed-wing aircraft, vehicles, boats, and foot in traversing the diversified
terrain encountered by the field crews.
In the Prince Rupert Forest District, the proposed developments of the Kispiox
River valley and the Morrison Lake area of the Babine Public Working Circle were
investigated. Primary field investigations of the Sukunka, Hasler, and Mountain
Creek drainages, the McGregor River drainage, and the Morkill River drainage, all
in the Prince George Forest District, were completed. Development studies were
undertaken for areas in the Quesnel Lake Public Working Circle and the Yalakom
and Botanie Sustained-yield Units in the Kamloops Forest District. In the Vancouver Forest District, drainages were studied in the Kyuquot, Broughton, and Barclay
Public Working Circles and the Yale Sustained-yield Unit.
Road Location
During the 1959 field season, engineering location was completed on 237.4
miles of forest roads. This programme included the initiation of location work on
several new forest-development roads, the extension of existing road systems, and
the compilation of road designs and estimates. The analysis of the use of survey
data during construction has been continued. The result of these studies is a more
flexible application of surveying procedures to the various road classes and design
requirements.
Location work was initiated on the Soo River and Stakawus Creek Forest-
development Roads, and the Chilliwack and Kingcome River road systems were
extended. All these developments were in the Vancouver Forest District. Location
work in the Prince Rupert Forest District included the completion of the Fire Mountain Lookout Road and the commencement of the Tochcha Lake road system. In
the Prince George Forest District, the Swift River road system was extended, and
location of the Hasler Creek and the Mountain Creek roads began. The Hendrix
Creek road system in the Kamloops Forest District was extended with the location
of both primary and secondary roads. In the Nelson Forest District, the Lodgepole
and the Horsethief road systems were extended, and the Damfino Creek Forest
Road was initiated.
A note of interest in this year's programme has been the work done on roads
required primarily for forest administration and protection. Projects in this classification are the Gregg Creek Road, the Tzenzaicut Road, and the Hutchison Mountain Road in the Prince George Forest District. 54 department of lands and forests
Construction
Favourable weather during April, May, and June made possible the attainment
of record production figures despite unusually poor weather during the fall. Sixty-
eight miles of road was constructed during 1959. This was up 25 per cent from
the previous year, and involved the movement of 1,110,000 cubic yards of common
material, an increase of 48 per cent over the 1958 figure. Production during the
1959 construction programme also included the clearing and grubbing of 680 acres
of right-of-way, movement of 42,000 cubic yards of solid rock, installation of
11,400 lineal feet of culvert pipe, stock-piling of 100,000 tons of crushed surfacing
material, and the erection of six creosoted timber bridges.
Two noteworthy, two-lane, almost identical bridges were built over the Chilliwack River in the Chilliwack Public Working Circle. The glued-laminated wood
girders in the main spans are 101 feet 9 inches long, 12Vi inches wide, and 65 inches
deep. They are the largest ever laminated in Canada and rest on reinforced-concrete
piers, with 27-foot approach spans from each road embankment.
Another accomplishment was the construction of the Kingcome River Bridge
in the Broughton Public Working Circle. Erected in an area accessible only by sea,
its 340-foot length is the longest of any Forest Service bridge. The piers are of
creosoted fir piling and are protected from debris and ice by pile dolphins and
sheathing of wood and steel.
The decks of these and the other three bridges built in 1959 are of the laminated
type, consisting of 2-inch planks laid on edge, nailed to each other, and anchored to
the girders at intervals by cast aluminum brackets of Forest Service design.
Erection procedures have been designed to reduce to a minimum the number
of specialized trades involved, and to use the type of heavy equipment normally
available in woods operations. The main girders of the Chilliwack bridges were
placed with a logging-arch, logging-donkey, tractors, and truck-mounted cranes.
The Kingcome Bridge was erected using a skid-mounted pile-driver on the falsework
and permanent piers, with a crawler tractor providing assistance in placing the main
girders.
The initiation of construction on the Kingcome River Forest Development
Road presented an interesting transportation problem. Access to the job was only
possible by boat or aircraft. Two Forest Service self-propelled landing-barges, one
of five tons and the other of 25 tons capacity, were used to transport construction
supplies and light construction equipment. Heavy construction equipment and
supplies were handled by commercial towing companies. A total of over 850 tons
of equipment and supplies were moved to the job.
Recent developments in crawler-tractor attachments received considerable
study, and both replacement tractors purchased this year were equipped with
hydraulic tilting U-blades. By eliminating time-consuming manual blade changes,
a considerable increase in productivity may be obtained with these units. One of
these machines was also equipped with a hydraulic-controlled ripper, which has
been used successfully to break up material which would otherwise have required
blasting.
General Engineering
Designs were completed during the year for six creosoted " glue-lam " girder
bridges for crossings of Fontaine Creek, Little Swift River, and Swift River on the
Swift River Forest Development Road, Boss Creek on the Hendrix Creek Forest
Development Road, Willow River on the Naver-Ahbau Forest Development Road,
and Kingcome River on the Kingcome River Forest Development Road.    The REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
55
latter is the largest Forest Service bridge to date, having three main spans of 84 feet
each, and 44 feet of approach trestle at each end. This bridge is also the first
designed for Forest Service " coastal loading," which consists of frequent crossings
of an 83-ton logging-truck or occasional crossings of a 115-ton low-bed vehicle
representing a low-bed semi-trailer truck carrying a 2.5-cubic-yard shovel. Preliminary designs and estimates were also prepared for bridges over Morrissey Creek
on the Lodgepole Forest Development Road and Atlatzi River on the Kingcome
River Forest Development Road.
A soils technician with a trailer laboratory was maintained in the field during
the summer to assist the road location and construction crews with soil problems,
and laboratory classification tests were carried out on 360 soil samples.
Other work included a pile-foundation design for a freezer building at the
Duncan nursery, a field investigation to determine the feasibility of using piling for
a wharf and float at Echo Bay, and an analysis of possibilities for improving the
performance of the small hydro-electric installation at Thurston Bay.
Hundred-gallon-capacity light-weight portable tank and pump unit used in fire-fighting.
MECHANICAL SECTION
Motor-vehicle purchases were somewhat higher in number than in the previous
year, there being 102 replacements and three additions to the fleet. The increased
number of replacements was due in part to deterioration of units during the extremely heavy fire season in 1958. Purchases of four-wheel-drive units fell slightly as
more two-wheel-drive, limited-slip differential types were put in service. The number of replacement trucks in the 14,000 to 24,000 G.V.W. (2 to 4 tons) class was 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
one less than last year, but one 35,000 G.V.W. (6 to 8 tons) heavy-duty unit was
provided for tractor transport and road gravelling in the Prince Rupert District,
replacing a truck-lowbed combination.
Other major expenditures included two heavy-duty (D-8 and D-9) tractors for
the Engineering Section and ten dwelling trailers for crew housing in various districts
and divisions.
Ten 100-gallon-capacity, light-weight, portable tank and pump units designed
by the Mechanical Section and constructed at the Forest Service Marine Station
were put into service and given a thorough test. These proved most acceptable to
the districts and, with minor modifications, should become a standard piece of fire-
fighting equipment.
Forest Service Mechanical Equipment
Type
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1959
Removed
from
Service
New
Purchases
Total
Units,
Dec. 31,
1959
62
83
25
49
65
233
22
155
38
51
8
10
19
7
3
5
9
23
2
22
6
1
4
1
5
13
3
20
14
27
1
9
8
4
....
48
89
25
64
Four-wheel-drive passenger types—   __ 	
70
237
21
142
40
14,000-24,000 G.V.W. trucks (2, 3 and 4 tons)	
54
25,000-40,000 G.V.W. trucks (H.D.)    _
I
801
102
105
804
38
16
4
2
1
348
751
8
34
354
83
1
17
10
115
145
4
6
4
1
1
22
9
6
3
3
1
20
39
29
3
2
1
2
1
::::
3
1
::::
...
22
3
2
2
39
9
3
1
10
18
1
1
38
16
4
2
1
350
715
10
34
2
364
89
1
20
9
124
161
4
6
5
1
1
Mechanical wheelbarrows  _	
22
9
6
3
General supervision and inspection of mechanical units followed approximately
the procedures developed in past years, with each piece of equipment receiving
at least one check-over. In the case of major units (cars, trucks, etc.), two
recorded inspections were completed. Maintenance generally has improved
throughout the years and is now of a comparatively high standard.
Surveys and Inventory Division continues to operate mobile inspection and
repair crews during the field season and a repair-shop during the winter months.
This has resulted in a definite lowering of repair costs to the Division.    Engineer- REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 57
ing Division set up a small workshop in Victoria and employed four mechanics
through the 1958/59 winter months, with satisfactory results.
Short courses in the operation and maintenance of equipment were again held
in Victoria for Departmental personnel, and two weeks' theoretical and practical
instruction were given at the Ranger School.
Repair costs and time-losses resulting from road accidents are a significant
item of expense for the Forest Service fleet each year. Consequently, safety and
accident prevention were given special attention in an effort to reduce the accident
rate through driver education.
BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION AND MARINE DESIGN
The major undertaking of the Section during the year was the design and building of the seed-extraction plant at the Duncan nursery. The plant has now been in
operation since the first of October, and at the end of the year was in full production at a daily rate of 220 bushels. Due to the coincidence of a very heavy cone
year and poor pre-drying weather for cones, the plant will be operating well into
the new year to extract the seed available. In conjunction with the seed-extraction
plant, a combination freezer and cold-stora"e building is under construction on the
same site to (a) hold the surplus seed at 0° F. until needed and (b) to hold seedlings grown at Duncan at 34° F. for shipment to northern sites when weather
permits. The building is expected to be completed in time to receive the bulk of
the seed extracted.
Another undertaking of some consequence was an initial survey of the housing
needs of the Aleza Lake Experimental Station, and preliminary plans of all phases
have been prepared.
This year, two octagonal Fiberglas lookout cupolas were obtained from the
Alberta Forest Service for experimental purposes. First reports indicate low erection and transportation costs, but the building is somewhat cramped for space.
Currently, an investigation is beine made relative to different types of lookouts, with
particular emphasis on the suitability of new materials now on the market from the
standpoint of both construction and maintenance costs.
Design of specialized trailers required a significant share of the staff time
available. Seven such units came off the drawing-boards, together with a modified
design for the residential type of Porta-building.
It was rather a quiet year in regard to marine design. Some modifications
were made to the design of the high-speed 40-foot Ranger launch. A second craft
of the same type as the " Western Hemlock," but powered by a pair of four-cylinder
turbo-charged diesel engines instead of a pair of six-cylinder naturally aspirated
diesel engines, is destined for service in the Vancouver District.
The problem of providing adequate transportation facilities for road-construction projects located at isolated points on the Coast and large inland lakes received
considerable attention. The landing-craft " L.C. 5," which was originally built for
military use during World War II and has since spent much of her time on the beach
at Great Central Lake, was successfully moved to salt water and utilized for carrying
supplies and equipment during construction of the Kingcome Forest Development
Road. Modifications to both hull and superstructure should make this craft of even
greater use in the future. In addition, tentative design of a scow has been completed
which will be capable of transporting a 40-ton bulldozer and can be disassembled
into units small enough to be transported by truck and trailer without too much
difficulty over secondary roads. 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Construction at various points throughout the Province which involved design
and building supervision by the Section are detailed in the following table:—
Building and Construction Undertaken during 1959
Location
Project
Construction
Agency
Stage of
Construction
Carry-over from 1958/59
Cranbrook  	
Duncan _	
Mesachie Lake  	
Vancouver  	
Various points 	
Programme for 1959/60
Aleza Lake 	
Courtenay 	
Cranbrook. 	
Cranbrook  	
Ch etwy nd 	
Duncan  	
Duncan	
Duncan	
Duncan   	
Duncan   _
Echo Bay	
Likely 	
Slocan City.	
Smithers	
Various points..
Irr.gation pumping system-
Extension, seed-extraction plant _
Fire-protection system_
Retaining-works and derrick..
Porta-buildings (six)	
Experimental-station development-
Office extension    	
Office extension 	
Paving-
Office and stores building	
Freezer and cold-storage building..
Pile foundations — 	
Roofing for freezer building. 	
Refrigeration for freezer building -
Electrical for freezer building.	
Floats and wharf	
Boat-house, ways and tool-cache..
Thre e-c ar garage	
Headquarters warehouse__
Porta-buildings (seven) —
Forest Service..	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service _
Forest Service..	
Forest Service 	
Contract 	
Forest Service— _
Forest Service.-	
Contract.	
Contract	
Contract ._ _
Contract __	
Contract	
Forest Service _.
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Forest Service.—	
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Design proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Design proceeding.
Design proceeding.
Tenders called.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Design completed.
Completed.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION
Marine Work
The marine ways were occupied fifty-eight times during the year. Launch
overhauls totalled sixty-four, forty-one of which were major overhauls. Ninety
small craft, comprised of dinghies, rowboats, outboard cruisers, and river-boats,
were repaired, reconditioned, and in some cases rebuilt. Extensive repairs and
remodelling were carried out on the 36-foot landing-craft "L.C. 2," and a similar
programme has been started on the 50-foot "L.C. 5."
Alterations to and repowering of the "Conifer," started in late 1958, were
completed early in the year. The "B.C. Scaler" was repowered with a pair of
heavy-duty diesels of 225 horse-power each.
A portion of the crew has been on new construction throughout the year.
The 45-foot " Whitesail," designed for Ootsa Lake and started in 1958, was finished
and placed in operation. A new 40-foot Ranger vessel is 60 per cent complete.
One 23-foot outboard cruiser and eight 30-foot river-boats were built. Four
moulded-plywood unfinished hulls were assembled and superstructure completed,
and a similar 27-foot hull is 30 per cent complete.
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop
The major undertaking of the Subsection has been the prefabrication of the
new 100-foot float, gangway, and approach ramp which will be installed at the Echo
Bay Ranger Station after the structural members have been pressure-treated with
preservative. Other important jobs were the construction of four Porta-buildings
and a refrigerated seedling-carrier, partial completion of three other Porta-buildings,
prefabrication of twelve lookout buildings, and the rebuilding of four old dwelling
trailers. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 59
In addition to these major jobs, the carpenter-shop produced many specialty
items, such as lookout furniture, fire-finder stands, epidiascope cabinets, fuel-
moisture balance boxes, survey rods, and a new instrument—the Christmas-tree
scaling-stick. Construction of crates and boxes for pumps, outboard motors, chain-
saws, and other small units also absorbed a fair share of the productive time.
Machine-shop
The machine-shop completed 450 overhauls on pumps, outboards, chain-saws,
and lighting plants. Sixty-five new units were tested and numbered prior to shipment to the field. Over 1,500 pieces of pump and hose accessories were machined.
Ten fire-finders and forty-five epidiascopes were completed. In addition, numerous
pieces of marine hardware were machined and sixteen sets of lookout lightning-
arrestor equipment made up.
A new feature was the development of a unit known as the "B.P.T.," which is
a light-weight portable 100-gallon tank and pump unit for carrying on the half-ton
vehicles. It produces low-density fog, and a trial run of ten units in the field proved
very successful.
RADIO SECTION
This year, radio field work was aided by favourable weather and started earlier
than usual. Progress was badly delayed later on, however, by the non-delivery of
prefabricated repeater buildings as a result of the Coast forest industry strike.
Equipment purchases were applied to the completion of frequency-modulated repeaters in the Kootenay area, to replacement of units made obsolete by Federal
specification, and to the building-up of depleted stocks of fire and other portable
equipment.
New transmitting units purchased during the year totalled 138, and sixty-two
sets were written off during the same period.
Radio Purchases and Write-offs, 1959
Model B portable  32
Ranger station, 80-watt, A.M    7
Ranger station, 50-watt, A.M    2
Ranger station, 25-watt, A.M  2
Marine, 80-watt, A.M    9
Marine (lake launch), 25-watt, A.M  1
Mobile, A.M.   3
Total purchases, A.M.       56
Ranger station and repeater, 30-60-watt, F.M    15
Lookout and fire portables, F.M  67
Total purchases, F.M     82
Total purchases, all types  138
Written off during year       62
Net increase      76
Department of Transport regulations continue to increase, but some relief from
Specification 116 has been obtained as a result of a protest made by the Western
Canada Telecommunications Council.   The previous implementation date has been 60
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
set forward to April 1st, 1960, with a three-year amortization period, thus reducing
to a small extent the urgency for replacement of present types of A.M. equipment.
All lookout stations appear to fall in the Specification 116 category and, as a solution to this replacement problem, the Model B portable has been specification-
approved with one small modification, units complete with modification being
already available from at least one manufacturer. Replacement of nine marine units
brought complete modernization closer but, at the present rate of replacement, it is
unlikely that the entire fleet will be refitted in time for the expiry of Specification
112.
An important regulation is now being enforced requiring the operator of a
Coastal motor-vessel to obtain his radiotelephone operator's restricted certificate.
This affects the sea-going Ranger and (or) his engineer, and preliminary steps have
been taken to ensure the certification of those concerned.
Although the main point-to-point communication continues to be handled by
A.M., a start has been made in the Prince Rupert District to convert the Ranger
station-to-lookout circuits to F.M., and results on a small scale have been excellent.
Testing was carried out during the summer for a repeater at Smithers, to connect
Smithers. Telkwa, and Houston. Plans were also completed for the conversion to
F.M. of fourteen lookouts, eieht Ranger stations, and one Assistant Ranger station.
A second repeater at Burns Lake is at present being tested by commercial interests
and is entirely suitable for Forest Service use.
At Prince George, the shortage of fire portables, which was so much in evidence
during the 1958 season, has been partly corrected. The F.M. network was completely overhauled in the spring after gradually weakening circuits between repeaters
had virtually wiped out normal communications. While operation was restored and
has been maintained, the entire F.M. system must be considered as being on a
temporary basis while only two repeater sites with power are available. A power-
line up Fraser Mountain, planned for the spring of 1959, with four services sharing
the cost, failed to materialize, but is still an active project, with a building and
equipment in hand for the third repeater out of the five required.
The Vancouver District maintained the status quo with the majority of Ranger
stations on Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland being served by the F.M. network with almost 100 per cent continuity. Through the new repeater on Mount
Bruce, two more voice circuits were added—one to Green Timbers and the Marine
Station, and the other between Civil Defence headquarters at Victoria and Abbotsford. A.M. transmission to launches and stations north of Seymour Narrows and
to Pemberton proved to be unsatisfactory a good deal of the time, the district
frequency being too low for this distance at the present peak of sunspot activity.
Tests are being carried out using 5915 kilocycles and three of the older transmitters
have been replaced. While the changes have apparently corrected the situation,
it must be considered a temporary solution until transmission during the hot weather
has been proven.
In the Kamloops District, the year saw extension of the F.M. network to
Williams Lake, Horsefly, and Ashcroft, and Protection F.M. to Barriere, Clinton,
100 Mile, and Alexis Creek. Only five Ranger districts are now dependent on
A.M., and one of these is in the process of conversion. Silver Star repeater, the
key station for the entire area, remains on generator power, but a new power plant
and automatic change-over have made this repeater more reliable. Timothy and
Greenstone repeater buildings were completed in the late autumn, and the former
has now replaced Begbie repeater, with greatly extended range, while at Greenstone
adequate space and heating facilities ensure proper operation and improved maintenance. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
61
To complete the F.M. network from the western end of the Nelson District,
Red Mountain repeater was set up on a temporary basis in the spring but proved
unsatisfactory. All attempts to construct the Santa Rosa repeater in time for
summer use were defeated by the industry strike. Both Santa Rosa and the new
repeater building at Red Mountain were finally completed in the late autumn and,
through the repeater chain, Phoenix-Santa Rosa-Red Mountain-Beasley, the western
end of the district was connected with Nelson. In the east, Fernie not included,
F.M. reaches to Invermere, with plans already in hand for extension to Golden.
Due to the broken terrain throughout the Kootenays, the A.M. portable remained
the source of communication for fires. Such F.M. portables as were available were
found invaluable on lookouts, aircraft, and for internal use only on large fires.
The Victoria staff, following a complete overhaul and maintenance tour in
the Prince George area, constructed the foundations and power wiring at Santa
Rosa and Red Mountain during the summer, returning later to complete the buildings and installation of equipment. Extensive propagation testing continued between Mount Bruce and Blackwall Mountain in Manning Park, with the object of
further proving the F.M. circuit between Victoria, Kamloops, and Prince George.
Tests proved successful, but further information must be obtained before the circuit
can be completed. Laboratory work included the almost continuous assembly and
modification of F.M. Ranger station units and repeaters, mass production of beam
and other types of antenna;, research into inexpensive methods of remote control,
and transistorization of the Model B receiver. Maintenance of all installations on
Vancouver Island was again a Victoria responsibility, and no significant outage
occurred during the year. 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
At the beginning of the fire season, the accumulation of snow was about normal
at the higher elevations throughout most of the Province, although snowfalls had
been deficient over the Southern Coast and over the north-east corner of the
Province.
There was more than normal sunshine over the entire Province during April.
However, rainfall, occurring mostly during the last week of that month, resulted in
an extremely varied precipitation pattern. Marked deficiencies and excesses were
reported in each of the forest districts, with the most pronounced deficiencies
occurring in the Kamloops District and adjacent sections of the Nelson District.
Conditions in May were generally close to normal, although the Queen
Charlotte Islands and west coast of Vancouver Island generally received less than
half the normal rainfall, while parts of the Nelson District received more than twice
the normal amount. Early initiation of green growth almost eliminated the early
spring hazard, except in the Peace River area and on the Fraser Plateau, where
growth was delayed until late in the month.
Sunshine was not far from normal for June, except in the Prince Rupert
District, where it was below normal. Rainfall was generally below normal over the
three Interior forest districts, but only the western sections of the Kamloops District
were without rain for more than one week at a time. On the Coast, rainfall was
above normal, with more than twice the long-term average reported in some areas.
Sunshine was again deficient during July in the Prince Rupert District only.
Dry conditions over the whole Province during the last three weeks resulted from
below normal rainfall, with some sections of the southern forest districts reporting
as little as 10 to 20 per cent of the long-term average.
Over the two northern districts and the exposed Southern Coast, the dry spell
was ended with general rains early in August, but it continued until the middle of
the second week throughout the southern part of the Province. By the end of the
month, above average rainfall had been accumulated over most of the Province and
sunshine was well below normal. A uniformly dull, wet September made it possible
to end the closed season by Order in Council on September 30th.
What lightning there was during the fire season was accompanied by rain or, at
least, occurred when the fuels were wet; thus, lightning fires were not a serious
problem.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
The number of fires was less than 1 per cent greater than the ten-year average,
but still there were less than half the number of fires of the record 1958 season.
Fire occurrence was above normal for the first three months of the fire season and
below normal for the last three months. These conditions follow the general
weather pattern for the Province as previously described.
Fire Occurrence
during Ten-year Percentage
Forest District Period 1950-59 of All B.C.
Vancouver  7,009 36.0
Prince Rupert  1,000 5.1
Prince George  2,084 10.7
Kamloops   5,820 29.9
Nelson   3,566 18.3
Totals  19,479 100.0 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 63
For the fourth consecutive year the principal cause of fires was railway operations, which accounted for 31 per cent of the fires, a slightly higher percentage than
last year. Twenty-two per cent of the 1959 fires fell into the " miscellaneous known
causes " classification, which includes " range burning."
Cost of Fire-fighting
The cost of fire-fighting in 1959 totalled $768,084, or slightly less than the
ten-year average. Further details are available from Tables 37, 50, and 52 in the
Appendix.
This year the heaviest fire-suppression cost (54.5 per cent) resulted from
range-burning activities in the Cariboo and Peace River areas. Lightning fires
dropped from 75 per cent of the total suppression cost in 1958 to 23 per cent in
1959.
Damage
The 273,631 acres burned over in 1959 was 62 per cent of the average burned
area for the past ten years. This contrasts with a damage figure of $1,342,849 for
1959, which is almost identical with the average of the past ten years (see Table 49
in the Appendix).
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers
The Provincial Fire Atlas has been brought up to date, and fire statistics
ledgers and fire classification atlas are currently being brought up to date.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
Work was concentrated on lookout photography in 1959. Photographs were
taken at forty-one lookouts, and fourteen of these photographs were taken on behalf
of the National Parks Service.
Fuel-moisture Sticks
Approximately 680 sets of fuel-moisture sticks, or " hazard sticks," were distributed in 1959, with the forest industry absorbing 430 of this number. The cost
of preparation of these sets for this season is calculated at $3.79 per set. There has
been a steadily increasing demand for these sticks over the past few years, as
indicated by a 50-per-cent increase in production from five years ago.
Protection Planning in Public Working Circles and
Sustained-yield Units
Preliminary field work, preparatory to drawing up protection plans, was carried
out in Arrowhead and Willow Public Working Circles and Eagle and Nicola Sustained-yield Units.
A more intensive examination was made in Hixon Ranger District (Naver
Public Working Circle), with a view to preparing a standard outline for more
detailed protection plans on such areas.
In the fire-protection access-road programme, work was continued in the Yahk
River area in Nelson Forest District. Some 20.5 miles of access road was constructed, and 2 miles of old fire road regraded as part of the road system. 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Air-photo Mosaics
The balance of available high-level R.C.A.F. photographs was utilized to
increase the coverage in Prince George Forest District.
In order to obtain mosaic coverage of Vancouver Island, B.C. photographs are
being utilized at contact size to obtain the standard 1-inch-to-1-mile scale.
FIRE-WEATHER RECORDS AND INVESTIGATIONS
The two field parties from the Canada Forestry Branch Fire Research Section
have completed field studies necessary for the development of a fire-danger rating
system in the fuel types under investigation. Preliminary trials were made during
the latter half of the fire season in the Vancouver Forest District using interim
tables and in the north-eastern corner of the Prince George Forest District using
the tables developed for Northern Alberta.
Measurement of the moisture content of 3-inch logs was continued by cooperative industrial observers and at one Forest Service lookout on Vancouver
Island.
Employment of a student assistant during the summer months made it possible
to summarize rainfall and moisture measurements to date in the Vancouver Forest
District.   This information is available in mimeographed form.
Three years of records of the Model 8 Burning Index rating system from the
Nelson District were analysed in terms of fire occurrence and behaviour. The
following table gives the rate of occurrence of fires which reached one-quarter acre
or more, expressed as number of fires per hundred days per 10,000 square miles,
based on 133 man-caused fires and 204 lightning fires which reached this size. The
percentage of all fires started by lightning which reached one-quarter acre or more
is given in terms of the danger class on the day the fire started.
Danger Class
Low
Moderate     Average
High
Extreme
Man-caused fires
Lightning fires.
1_J KMLUUlg   Ml 1.3	
Percentage of all lightning fires reaching !4 acre.
0.8
1.1
12
2.5
3.5
29
8.7
11.1
34
15.6
19.8
40
Complete results of this analysis are available in mimeographed form.
During the current year, the meteorologist seconded from the Canadian Meteorological Branch has been acting as chairman of an international working group
of the World Meteorological Organization charged with the responsibility of summarizing the methods and techniques being used by those countries currently
providing specialized fire-weather services. Information has been received from
approximately forty countries or territories, about one-third of which provide some
form of specialized fire-weather service. Most of the work of the group has been
done by correspondence, although it was possible to arrange a meeting in Toronto
with the Australian member of the group, Mr. J. W. Lillywhite, during October.
Lectures in fire weather were given at the Northern Interior Fire Control
Course at Prince George, and to forestry students at the University of British
Columbia. A popular article on the meteorological features of the 1958 fire season
has been prepared for publication in the British magazine " Weather."
This year, in addition to his regular duties in the Vancouver Forest District,
the weather-instrument checker was able to make a brief trip through the Prince
George Forest District. He also spent several days in the Kamloops District setting
up weather stations in connection with a sanitation burn and relaying observations REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
65
to the Vancouver public weather office, which provided special forecasts on the
basis of these observations. Although burning conditions were anything but favorable, the experience gained should be helpful in planning future operations of this
type. Several days were also spent at the Forest Service Marine Station making
individual calibrations of the fuel-moisture balance manufactured there this season.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Sixteen suppression crews, averaging ten men each, were again employed
during the summer for approximately 100 days each. They attended 164 fires, of
which 80 per cent were held to a size of 5 acres or less.
The crews at Castlegar and Alexis Creek proved extremely valuable in controlling numerous incendiary and unauthorized range fires in those areas.
Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
Size of Fire When Attacked
Vi Acre
or Less
Over Vi
Acre to
1 Acre
Over 1
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
96
20
25
21
92
2
16
2
3
15
.
Over Vi acre and up to 1 acre - —	
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres     	
1        |        _
4                   6
13                     8
Over 50 acres	
2
....
...
....        |        ...        |          2
Totals 	
164         1         92
18         1         20
18
16
AIRCRAFT
Protection flying was continued under contract with Pacific Western Airlines
Limited, who supplied six float-planes. A total of 2,469 flying-hours were logged
throughout the Province during the period April 15th to November 15th under the
contract, as follows:—
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Vancouver	
Lakelse Lake  —	
Prince George..—	
Beaver  _	
341
343
Prince George	
Kamloops ,    _
Beaver  	
Beaver (2)     —
Beaver	
592
677
Nelson.. —	
Nelson    ._ 	
516
2,469
One helicopter, under a four months' contract, was used for a total of 382
flying-hours.   It was used in cargo-hauling, reconnaissance, ferrying, and fire patrol.
In addition to these machines under contract, limited use was made of both
fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters on fire-suppression work. Two hundred and
eighty-seven hours were logged on fixed-wing and 158 hours on helicopters in
addition to the contracts.
Water bombing was carried out on only a few fires this year, as these specially
fitted aircraft were not always available when they could have been used to advantage. The water bombing that was done was effective because pilots are gaining
in experience, and the Junkers and Avengers aircraft proved most suitable.
Helicopters were not used to water-bomb fires as no large types were available. 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Sodium calcium borate was used in limited quantities only. A sanitation burn
was carried out in the Kamloops District, using the borate, but the weather was not
conducive to good burning, with the result that the experiment was only considered
a limited success. It is proposed to continue experiments with borate and a substance
called " bentonite " during the coming year. Both of these products have apparent
merits, but the difficulties of mixing and applying will tend to limit their use in fire
suppression.
ROADS AND TRAILS
The Service continued to maintain and add to the network of roads and trails
throughout the Province, as shown in the table below:—
Construction of Protection Roads and Trails
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
72.0
816.0
Miles
87.0
508.0
Miles
55.5
105.5
Miles
214.5
1,429.5
888.0
595.0
161.0
1,644.0
94.5
387.0
39.5
208.0
37.0
71.5
171.0
666.5
481.5
247.5
108.5
837.5
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
The summer of 1959 was marked by a ten-week strike in the logging industry,
ending in early September. There was a heavier than average September rainfall,
which meant that if slash-burning was not attempted by early September, it became
almost impossible to obtain satisfactory results later.
In spite of these limiting conditions, many operators took advantage of every
opportunity to burn early, with the result that the net total was surprisingly adequate.
Snag-falling has proceeded satisfactorily over the whole of the Vancouver
Forest District since the elimination of the former " exempt zones."
For statistical data on slash-disposal and snag-falling in Vancouver District,
see Tables 39 to 43, inclusive, in the Appendix.
In addition to the snag-falling done by the logging industry, Protection Division
felled 3,355 acres of snags under contract in 1959, and provided funds for 2,033
acres felled by Reforestation Division snag-falling crews. In addition, Reforestation
Division felled snags on 2,151 acres, including a 517-acre area in Nelson Forest
District, a 512-acre area in Manning Park, and a smaller area in Prince George
Forest District.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
Information was laid in a total of thirty-two cases. Two were withdrawn and
thirty convictions with fines were obtained. This is far below the ten-year average
of fifty-three convictions per season.
FOREST CLOSURES
No regional forest closures were imposed in any section of the Province during
the 1959 fire season. Under section 162, subsection (3) of the Forest Act, the
Horsefly-Quesnel Lake Road was closed on April 5th, 1959, and closure was lifted
December 3rd, 1959. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959 67
FOREST BIOLOGY DIVISION*
ACCOMMODATION AND FACILITIES
Construction of a new field laboratory for use by the Forest Biology Division,
Canada Department of Agriculture, and the Forestry Branch, Department of
Northern Affairs and National Resources, was started in December, 1959, at the
Cowichan Lake Experiment Station. The building will contain seven private offices,
a large laboratory, and basement storage and workshop areas.
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS f
Forest-insect Survey
The outbreak of the one-year-cycle spruce budworm in the Lillooet and Fraser
River valleys collapsed in 1959, after causing heavy defoliation annually since 1954.
Tree recovery appeared to be good. Top-killing was evident, but no tree mortality
was recorded.
The two-year-cycle budworm outbreak at Babine Lake was not mapped in
1959 as this was the first year of the cycle and, normally, defoliation is not heavy
enough to be detected from the air. Early counts indicated that the larval population was as heavy as any recorded to date. Defoliation of the current year's growth
averaged about 75 per cent. There was a small increase in populations in the
southern portion of the Prince George Forest District. Moderate to heavy populations were present at Genevieve Lake, Willow River, Strathnaver, Manson Creek
Road, Takla Lake, Tudyah Lake, and Silver Sands Creek.
The black-headed budworm on the Queen Charlotte Islands increased to heavy
outbreak proportions in 1959. The heaviest defoliation occurred from Cumshewa
Inlet south to Jedway. Some hemlock stands have not recovered from the previous
black-headed budworm outbreak, which subsided in 1955. Control operations are
planned for 1960 on three blocks of timber between Skidegate and Cumshewa
Inlets, totalling about 31,000 acres.
The known range of the balsam woolly aphid increased in 1959. Groups of
heavily attacked amabilis fir were observed at Dakota Creek, Rainy River, and
Potlatch Creek, on the west side of Howe Sound. The insect was also found attacking grand fir in Thetis Lake Park and in Beacon Hill Park, Victoria. A total of
3,900 dead and dying trees was recorded in the Howe Sound, West and North
Vancouver areas.
The Douglas fir beetle persisted in the Cariboo region at about the same level
as in 1958.    Elsewhere in the Province there was an apparent decline.
The mountain pine beetle continued to kill white, ponderosa, and lodgepole
pine in parts of the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts. A new infestation on
lodgepole pine was discovered along a new roadway in the Kettle River valley
between Damfino and Winnifred Creeks. The severe outbreak in lodgepole pine
along the east shore of Babine Lake and eastward to Takla Lake continued to
decline in intensity.
The Engelmann spruce beetle persisted at low levels throughout the sub-alpine
forests of the Nelson and Kamloops Forest Districts.
A usually innocuous insect, the western cedar bark-beetle was very conspicuous
in cedar stands of the Vancouver Forest District in 1959. Attacks were observed
from Cultus Lake northward as far as Lund on the Mainland, on Texada Island,
* Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture.
t Prepared by R. R. Lejeune, Forest Biology Laboratory, Victoria, B.C. \
68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
and Southern Vancouver Island.   Numerous dead trees and heavy top-kill resulted
from the attacks.
Although no serious infestations developed in 1959, hemlock looper larva,
were present in Coastal hemlock stands as far north as the Bella Coola Valley.
The looper increased in the Interior, but the population is still at a low level. Populations in Stanley Park, Vancouver, were not heavy enough to cause tree mortality,
but the aesthetic value of the mature and overmature hemlock warranted control
action to prevent possible top-kill. Aircraft sprayed about 550 acres of parkland
with DDT on July 23rd.
Projects
The Douglas fir bark-beetle is the most serious insect pest of Douglas fir in
the Interior of British Columbia. For several years, intensive studies of attack-
patterns, flight behaviour, and factors regulating the insect's population have been
in progress in order to explain how and why infestations develop, and to gather
information for developing control methods.
It has been demonstrated that four to eight beetle attacks per square foot of
cambial surface produce the largest number of progeny per square foot. Below this
density, percentage survival of progeny is higher, but total productivity lower.
Above this density, both percentage survival and total productivity decrease. At
attack densities of twelve to sixteen per square foot, the percentage of progeny
surviving about equals the original parent population. Beyond that density, the
population begins to decline. In the field, variable attack densities ranging as high
as twenty-four per square foot are encountered. Under conditions of continuous
logging in time and place, Douglas fir beetle infestations seldom develop. It is
believed that beetles tend to remain in the logged areas, being attracted by the green
slash, which they attack in densities high enough to prevent population increase.
Douglas fir beetles prefer to attack freshly felled trees. However, overflow
populations drawn to this material may attack and kill near-by green trees. This
characteristic of their behaviour was used in a co-operative pilot control project
near Quesnel. In an area heavily infested with beetles, freshly felled " attractor "
trees were placed in strategic accessible locations in the spring of 1959 before beetle
attacks took place. Supplementary measures involved the removal of the beetle-
infested trees and cull logs of 1958 and the peeling of stumps during the winter of
1958/59. When the 1959 attack flights took place, beetles were drawn to the
" attractor " trees and to adjacent green trees. All the infested material was then
removed and utilized to destroy the beetle broods. Comparison with a near-by
untreated area indicated that the control measures reduced the loss from an estimated 4,000,000 to 41,000 cubic feet.
Experiments were carried out in 1959 to determine if the spraying with insecticides of logs in the woods by helicopter could prevent attacks by ambrosia-beetles.
This was a co-operative project between the British Columbia Loggers' Association,
British Columbia Forest Service, and Forest Biology Division. The results were not
particularly encouraging, mainly because the spray did not reach the undersides of
the logs, which is the area most susceptible to attack. Experiments conducted by
the British Columbia Loggers' Association using a helicopter to spray logs in booms
were promising, and this technique may be used on an operational basis in 1960.
Biological studies carried out in association with the helicopter spraying tests in the
woods are expected to yield much more extensive information than hitherto available on the over-wintering sites of the beetles.
Light infestations of Douglas fir by cone and seed insects were anticipated in
1959. This was because the heavy cone-crop of 1959, following a light seed year,
was expected to dilute the insect population.    As anticipated, infestation by the REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 69
Douglas fir cone-moth was very light, but infestation by the Douglas fir cone-midge
was surprisingly heavy, comparing in intensity with the severe damage of 1958.
Studies were started on the biology of the poplar and willow borer, Sterno-
chetus lapathi (L.). The preferred hosts of this long-established, introduced pest
are native willows and black cottonwoods but, in recent years, infestations of exotic
poplar plantations in the Fraser Valley have been reported. This borer occurs
throughout the Lower Mainland and Southern Interior.
FOREST-DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS*
Publications distributed during the year included the following:—
Bloomberg, W. J.:   Root formation of black cottonwood cuttings in relation
to region of parent shoot.   For. Chron. 35 (1):   13-17.   1959.
Molnar, A. C, and Silver, G. T.:   Build-up of Pullularia pullulans (deBary)
Berkhout within a severe spruce budworm infestation at Babine Lake,
British Columbia.   For. Chron. 35 (3):   227-231.    1959.
Parker, A. K.:   An unexplained decline in vigor of lodgepole pine.    For.
Chron. 35(4):   298-303.    1959.
Ziller, W. G.:   Studies of western tree rusts.    IV, Uredinopsis hashiokai and
and U. pteridis causing perennial needle rust of fir.   Can. J. Bot. 37 (1):
93-107.    1959.
Ziller, W. G.:   Studies of western tree rusts.   V, The rusts of hemlock and fir
caused by Melampsora epitea.   Can. J. Bot. 37 (1):   109-119.    1959.
In addition, six multigraphed reports were prepared for regional distribution.
These reports referred to forest-disease sampling studies in Douglas fir plantations,
observations of a condition of sun-scald in Douglas fir, methods of fungus and
bacterial isolation from tree roots, a condition of die-back and canker on young
Douglas fir following low-temperature injury, and the collection of forest fungi in
the Victoria herbarium.   Contributions to the bi-monthly progress report dealt with
observations on pole blight and climate, the appraisal of nematodes in some forest
and nursery soils, high-temperature damage to Douglas fir seedlings, and a study of
canker disease in native and exotic poplar.
A co-operative study to prepare an ecological classification for white pine
forests in the Interior region of British Columbia was continued. This study, sponsored by the Forest Biology Division, was carried out under the direction of Dr. V. J.
Krajina, Department of Biology and Botany, University of British Columbia.
Forest-disease Survey
Collections of forest-disease specimens submitted during 1959 by co-operators,
Forest Biology Rangers, and other laboratory personnel totalled 2,419. Included in
this number were eight fungi listed for the first time in the forest-disease herbarium
and six fungi recognized as having a more extensive host range or geographical
distribution than previously believed.
Needle-blight of pine, caused by Elytroderma deformans (Weir) Darker, continued at a high level of infection in yellow and lodgepole pine in the Kamloops,
Clinton, and Merritt areas. Several new areas of moderate to severe infection were
noted. Mortality of lower branches in heavily infected stands was common and
small trees showed a marked decline in vigour. The incidence of Douglas fir needle-
blight, caused by Rhabdocline pseudotsueae Syd., continued at a high level in the
East Kootenay region north of Cranbrook and was responsible for considerable
depreciation of Christmas-tree stock.
* Prepared by R. E. Foster, Forest Biology Laboratory, Victoria, B.C. 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Further observations were made of a condition of decline in vigour with
attendant mortality in Douglas fir in Interior Wet Belt forests.
Damage resulting from the 1958 summer drought was reported from several
regions of the Province. Severe die-back was observed in western hemlock reproduction on Vancouver Island. Die-back and top-kill of pole-sized and mature
Douglas fir were observed on Lower Vancouver Island and near Lillooet, in lodgepole pine near Prince George and Vanderhoof, in yellow pine near Clinton, and in
western red cedar generally throughout the Interior Wet Belt region. Hail injury
was reported in the Prince George Forest District; in one local area, alder and aspen
suffered 80 per cent defoliation.
Thirty-nine additional plantations, of exotic forest tree species were brought to
the attention of the laboratory during the year, bringing the total number registered
to 157. Infection centres of the root-rot fungus Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.)
Quel, were recorded in plantations of European larch, Scots pine, and red pine on
Vancouver Island. Yellow leaf-blister, caused by Taphrina populina Fr., was
reported for the first time on two varieties of hybrid poplar.
Diseases of Immature Forests
Damage from damping-off remained at endemic levels at the Cranbrook, Green
Timbers, and Duncan nurseries. Late damping-off was moderately severe at Quin-
sam, where up to 25 per cent of 1-0 stock in some beds was damaged. Grey mould
blight, caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., resulted in slight damage within the
more densely stocked beds of 2-0 fir at Green Timbers and in losses of up to 14 per
cent at Duncan.
Studies of the distribution of disease within Douglas fir plantations were continued on Vancouver Island, with the total enumeration of a 15-year-old population
of 3,670 trees on 4.32 acres near Buckley Bay. Conditions encountered, in
descending order of their frequency of occurrence, were sun-scald, root-rot, frost
lesions, and terminal leader injury. Approximately 25 per cent of the fir were
infected with root-rot caused by Armillaria mellea. This latter condition is noteworthy in that it constitutes the most severely infected Douglas fir plantation yet to
be encountered in sampling.
Studies of Poria root-rot of Douglas fir were postponed pending the return
from educational leave of the research officer responsible for this phase of the
laboratory programme.
Investigations of pole blight of western white pine were continued. Permanent
plots in the Arrow Lakes region were remeasured and further evidence of partial
recovery recorded. Bioclimatological studies were undertaken to assess the temperature and drought tolerance of pine and associated species, and a survey of the
incidence and severity of pole blight in relation to an ecological site classification
was continued.
Investigations of a canker disease in native and exotic Populus spp. were continued. These studies, largely confined to the Lower Fraser Valley area, have
demonstrated a correlation between susceptibility to this disease and moisture status
of the host. Anatomical differences have been noted between certain species and
hybrids that may serve to explain differences in water economy and thus differences
in resistance.
Diseases of Mature Forests
Preliminary analysis of data was carried out on two projects, field sampling of
which was completed in 1958—deterioration of wind-damaged spruce and alpine
fir (Prince George Forest District) and deterioration of killed Douglas fir (Kamloops REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 71
Forest District). During 1959, a study was initiated to assess the importance of
logging scars in Douglas fir (Kamloops Forest District) as avenues of entrance for
wood-destroying and wood-staining fungi. A preliminary analysis of data indicates
considerable differences in the incidence of infection between different localities.
Volumes of decay were negligible in scars of the oldest age sampled, namely, 8 years. 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL
The tenth class, consisting of twenty-one men, graduated in April, 1959. The
eleventh class, also made up of twenty-one, was enrolled in September, 1959, and
is due to graduate in December, 1960.
While there were no major changes in the curriculum, the work of revising the
subject-matter of various courses was continued in order to keep pace with changes
in policy and technical developments throughout the Forest Service.
Subjects given during the year were as follows:—
Third Term, Tenth Class, Spring Term, 1959
Subject Days Allotted
Management Policy and Procedures  16
Ranger District Organization _  8
Silviculture   9
Mechanical Course   11
Stumpage Appraisal    6
Public Speaking   4
Written Expression (Business English)  4
Fire Marshal   3
Examinations, visitors, and field-trips  10
Total days   71
Typing, 4 to 5 p.m., two days per week.
First Term, Eleventh Class, Fall Term, 1959
Subject Days Allotted
Construction (Road, Trail, Telephone)     5.5
Survey and Mathematics Review  15
Fire Marshal      3
Forest Protection Policies and Procedures  15
Botany-Dendrology-Wood Technology      6
Public Speaking      4
Pathology       3.5
Entomology       3.5
Ranger District (Organization) Mapping     2
National Film Board (Projectors)     1
Civil Defence      0.5
Examinations, visitors, and field-trips     5
Total days   64
EXTRA COURSES
A five-day course for lookoutmen followed the spring term. Fourteen men
completed the course and were appointed to stations in the Vancouver Forest
District.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thanks are due to speakers and lecturers provided by the following agencies:
National Film Board; Forest Biology Laboratory; Canada Department of Agriculture; Office of the Fire Marshal; R.C.M.P. Cloverdale Detachment; Magistrate
of Cloverdale; Municipal Prosecutor, Cloverdale; Lumber Manufacturers' Association; Superannuation Commissioner; as well as lecturers from other divisions and
districts of the Forest Service.
A field-trip was arranged through the co-operation of Canadian Forest Products Limited. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 73
ACCOUNTING
FISCAL
This Division experienced another very active year during 1959. Unlike 1958,
when the record fire season and depressed lumber-market prices curtailed woods
operations, there were no forest closures in 1959 and lumber prices improved substantially.
In spite of a strike lasting forty-nine working-days in the Coast forest industry,
the total Provincial scale of forest products was greater by 15.2 per cent than that of
1958. As a result, total Forest Service charges against logging operations increased
by 13.8 per cent, to a value of $27,464,756.19 and, of this total, direct Forest
Service collections increased 7.8 per cent to $26,843,188.71. These were the third
highest totals of these items on record, being exceeded only in 1956 and 1957.
Detailed tables of these and other accounting items appear in the Appendix (Tables
28 to 36, inclusive). It is interesting to note that the Coast forest districts contributed materially to the increase in charges in spite of the loss in man-hours due
to the strike.
Timber-sale stumpage, the largest single revenue class, was up 8.1 per cent to
$23,092,737.28, with increases also being recorded in the related items of timber-
sale rental and fees, and cruising and advertising charges. Timber royalty increased
somewhat surprisingly by 9.9 per cent to $1,890,590.96, reversing a steady decline
since 1955. Rentals and fees on timber licences, berths, and leases remained
almost static, which was to be expected, as these tenures are no longer issued and
are gradually dwindling as they become fully logged. Grazing permits and fees
increased 18.3 per cent, to $86,506.29, due to an increase in fees, and the only
decrease of consequence in any revenue class occurred in miscellaneous collections,
which, at $121,287.96, totalled 8.7 per cent less than in 1958.
Tables of forest revenue and expenditure for the fiscal year 1958/59 are to
be found in the Appendix (Tables 30. 33, and 34), and details of the latter will
be found in the Public Accounts, published annually by the Department of Finance.
ADMINISTRATION
Some changes in staff took place in the Division during the year due to
retirement, resignations, and transfer.
With the backlog of accounting for 1958 fire-suppression costs liquidated early
in the year, activities in the Expenditure Section of the Headquarters Accounts
Office returned to normal. By some revision of procedures and reorganization, it
was possible to eliminate two positions in this Section, with casual help to be provided should the fire situation in any year cause undue pressure.
The increased volume of revenue accounting kept the Revenue and Cashier's
Section and Timber Sales Records Section fully occupied, with the latter being
affected by continued activity in sliding-scale stumpage adjustments due to the
improvement in lumber-market prices.
Visits to the district offices for internal audit and procedure inspection by the
Chief Accountant and Assistant Accountant were somewhat curtailed due to illness,
but these will be resumed on schedule in the future.
In addition to the normal checking of mill records and collection of lumber
prices, investigators from the Comptroller's Office assisted the Forest Management 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Division in special projects and also collected data for the Grazing Division as a
basis for establishing grazing fees.
The improved conditions in the industry contributed to some easing in the
collection picture, although continued " tight" financing made close surveillance
essential. District office accounting sections continued to be hampered by staff turnover and replacement problems, but reports to headquarters were maintained on a
current basis.
Activity in log-salvage permits remained fairly constant, with the 279 active
permits as at December 31st being only five more than at the end of 1958. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 75
PERSONNEL
ORGANIZATION
A major change in Forest Service organization became effective on April 1st,
with the appointment of Mr. F. S. McKinnon as Chief Forester and the formal
division of responsibilities between Deputy Minister and Chief Forester. Under
this new organization, the Deputy Minister is responsible to the Minister for the
over-all results of Forest Service activities. He is the liaison between the Minister
and the Service. In addition, he is the chief liaison between the industry, the
public, and the Service. The Chief Forester is responsible for the operation of the
Service. The organization chart (see page 76) shows the new lines of district
and divisional responsibility and the delegation of authority. One of the major
changes is that the District Foresters are now responsible directly to the Chief
Forester in all matters of general policy. This change in organization, together
with numerous organizational and promotional transfers, resulted in a number
of senior staff changes. All five forest districts changed District Foresters and two
Assistant District Foresters as well. In Victoria, a change took place in the positions of head of the Protection and Management Divisions. At the end of the
year, postings were still continuing at the intermediate levels, resulting in the most
complete reorganization of personnel since 1952.
A new Ranger district was created with headquarters at Chetwynd and another
at Bella Coola by splitting the former Pouce Coupe and Ocean Falls Ranger Districts. Both of the new headquarters had previously been staffed on a full-time
basis by Deputy Rangers. The Atlin District was vacated late in the fall and will be
staffed for the summer months only until the work load requires a full-time Ranger.
At the Forest Service Marine Station, a Shipwright Foreman position was
established, somewhat parallel to the Carpenter and Prefab Shop Foreman, to
improve efficiency and allow more general supervision by the General Foreman in
charge of the boat repairs and construction, woodworking, and maintenance branches
of the station. In Victoria, all Forest Protection staff personnel files, records, and
general administration were turned over by the Protection Division to the Personnel
Office at the end of the fire season. This completed the centralization of all personnel records and general administration at the Personnel Office.
SERVICES
Records kept in the newly reclassified position of Personnel Assistant indicated
that during the first six months of the year the incumbent conducted 419 interviews,
of which 268 were with applicants for employment and 150 were for more general
employment inquiries. During the same period, 231 letters of application were
answered. Incoming telephone calls to the Personnel Assistant averaged fifteen
per day.
It is gratifying to note that during the year no formal grievances were presented
by the Government Employees' Association. Employees and supervisory staff alike,
at all levels, are to be congratulated on this fine record for settling problems at the
first-line level.
The Personnel Officer served on a committee, under the Chairman of the Civil
Service Commission, studying various proposals for changes in the sick- and vacation-leave regulations. Numerous Forest Service officers also took part in the
vocation day programmes at high schools throughout the Province. 76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
The only Ranger meeting of the year was held in the spring at Prince Rupert.
Partly because of the complete change of District Foresters and partly for reasons
of economy, no District Forester, Protection, Management, or Silviculture meetings
were held during the year.
The Civil Service Commission called three interdepartmental meetings of personnel Officers during the year. The meetings are intended primarily for instruction
and discussion of new or amended policies. At one meeting the Personnel Officer
was called on to present a paper on " Morale in the Public Service."
In the field of training, eight members of the Forest Service, representing
foresters and protection officers in district administration, were selected for the
fourth class of the Executive Development Training Plan sponsored by the Government through the University of British Columbia. The course this year was made
available to staffs outside the Vancouver-Victoria area, with instruction to take
place at Kamloops for one week in the fall and the spring, followed by two weeks
at the University of British Columbia in May. Each of the northern and Interior
districts were represented. A Forest Service engineer and a forester were among
the first graduating class this year. Arrangements were made for two foresters to
take part in a two-day Camp Management Training Conference sponsored by the
British Columbia Loggers' Association, and for the Forest Service representative
on the Provincial Government Safety Committee to attend and report on the British
Columbia Safety Council's Fourth Annual Provincial Conference. Twenty-three
forest officers attended a one-day training seminar in Human Relations, Communications, Leadership, and Accident Prevention sponsored at several centres
throughout the Province by the British Columbia Safety Council and the Department
of Extension of the University of British Columbia. The Vancouver and Kamloops
Districts set up formal Safety and Accident Prevention Committees. Various in-
service training programmes were continued, such as Lookout and Assistant Ranger
schools, first-aid courses and field training courses organized by the districts and
divisions concerned.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment approved for the Forest Service by
the Legislative Assembly for the fiscal year commencing April 1st, 1959, was 832,
an increase over the previous year of fifteen, but still twenty-eight less than the
1957 total of 860. The fifteen new positions were for Rangers—Grade 1, newly
graduated from the Ranger School. Nevertheless, in view of the increasing costs of
salaries and expenses, the total number of continuously employed staff (see Table 1
in Appendix) dropped by sixteen positions, notably in the engineering, survey, and
marking crew categories. The number of seasonally employed personnel rose quite
sharply, largely due to the employment of some 120 additional reforestation labourers engaged in cone collection and planting.
During 1959, 120 persons received Civil Service appointments and eighty-five
left the permanent Service. One 25-year service badge was earned. There were
seven retirements during the year. Sixty-three transfers of permanent staff took
place. Permanent-staff turnover for the year averaged 10.3 per cent, unchanged
from the previous year. This year there were extreme differences between locations,
however, ranging from 29.1 per cent at Prince George and 18.6 per cent at Vancouver to only 2.6 per cent at Nelson. Professional-staff turnover was 4 per cent,
only one-third of the previous year, and the permanent technical-staff turnover
remained steady at 3.1 per cent.   The reason for leaving given most frequently by 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the professional and technical groups was for better salary. Amongst the office
staff, better salary was the reason given by 26.9 per cent, and personal reasons
accounted for over 50 per cent. Clerical-, stenographic- and draughting-staff turnover rose somewhat to an average of 22.8 per cent, with Prince George suffering an
unprecedented 77.8 per cent turnover of its permanent office staff, followed by
Vancouver with 34.2 per cent. Ten graduate foresters and seven engineers left fhe
Service, and fifteen foresters and ten engineers were hired, including eleven forestry
graduates from the University of British Columbia.
Some 535 applications for employment, down 6 per cent from last year, were
handled by correspondence in the Personnel Office alone, apart from many others
handled through divisional and district offices. Written examinations were held for
fifteen promotional positions, and oral examinations and panel interviews were employed in filling sixteen other positions. The Personnel Officer and Assistant also
participated in making selections for 103 other Civil Service positions.
At the annual spring examinations for Assistant Rangers, 272 candidates sat,
of whom 129 passed. As there were only twenty-three vacancies for Assistant
Rangers, there was no problem in securing qualified men.
There were no fatal accidents involving Forest Service employees in 1959.
CLASSIFICATIONS, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Changes were made in the Civil Service classification system affecting eight
groups of employees. The classification of Chief Forester was established and, due
to resulting organizational changes and the elevation of the Reforestation Division
to Forester 6 status, the position specifications were revised for all grades of forester
above Grade 3. The specifications for various positions and grades were rewritten
in line with current practice.
Numerous individual position classification reviews were carried out. Of the
sixty-one which were submitted to the Civil Service Commission, fifty-one were
approved, six rejected, and four were undecided at the end of the year.
Effective April 1st, a general salary revision averaging an 8-per-cent increase
was granted. Some anomalies occurred affecting Marine Station tradesmen,
Assistant Radio Superintendent, Ranger Supervisors, and the various Forest
Agrologist categories. Adjustments were made to the Marine Station group, and
agreement was reached for future amendment of the other groups, with the exception
of Forest Agrologists, whose rates were still under discussion with the Civil Service
Commission at the end of the year. Numerous cases of individual salary interpretation and adjustment were settled as they occurred.
There was an increasing concentration and activity on accident prevention
following receipt of accident statistics from the Workmen's Compensation Board.
Recommendations were placed before the Civil Service Commission for changes
in sick- and vacation-leave regulations, special living allowances in northern areas,
and a policy of assisting with removal expenses on recruitment when qualified
candidates are not available locally. The qualifications for Ranger School entrance
were modified, with the addition of a Forest Service general knowledge examination
to supplement the mathematics test. A small experimental survey of employee
attitudes regarding supervisory attributes was carried out in one Victoria division.
Good use was made by Forest Service employees of the facilities provided through
the Employee's Occupational Health Office in Victoria for receiving inoculations
and vaccinations against the common diseases likely to be contracted in field work.
The policy was continued of restricting the employment or re-employment of
persons over 65 years of age to a few cases individually approved by Order in
Council. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 79
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1960
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
R. G. McKee Deputy Minister of Forests.
F. S. McKinnon    Chief Forester.
L. F. Swannell Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations Branch.
J. S. Stokes Assistant Chief Forester i/c Planning Branch.
Staff Division Heads:
Cooper, C.   -        Forest Counsel.
Hicks, W. V. Department Comptroller.
Monk, D. R. -       - Director, Public Information.
Williams, W. J. -    Personnel Officer.
Operations Branch Division Heads:
Forse, H. B. Forester i/c Protection Division.
Greggor, R. D. -        -        -        -        -      Forester i/c Engineering Services Division.
Hughes, W. G.      - Forester i/c Management Division.
Pendray, W. C. Director, Graz;ng Division.
Robinson, E. W. -        - Forester i/c Forest Ranger School.
Planning Branch Division Heads:
Pogue, H. M. Forester i/c Working Plans Division.
Young, W. E. L. Forester i/c Surveys and Inventory Division.
Silburn, G. Forester i/c Reforestation Division.
Spilsbury, R. H.   -        -        -        -        -        -        -       Forester i/c Research Division.
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver District
I. T. Cameron ...,'-       District Forester.
Boulton, L. B. B. -       -       -      Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Carr, W. S. (Chilliwack); McDaniel, R. W. (Hope); Wilson, R. (Harrison Lake); Webster, J. B. (Mission); Mudge, M. H. (Port Moody); Henderson, J. E. (Squamish); Cham-
berlin, L. C. (Sechelt); McKinnon, C. G. (Madeira Park); Hollinshead, S. B. (Powell
River); Norbirg, H. (Lund); Gill, D. E. (Thurston Bay East); (vacant) (Thurston Bay
West); Bertram, G. D. (Chatham Channel); Thomas, R. W. (Echo Bay); Howard, W.
(Alert Bay); Sykes, S. J. (Port Hardy); Ormond, L. D. (Campbell River); Antonelli,
M. W. (Courtenay); Glassford, R. J. (Parksville); Haley, K. (Nanaimo); Bell, P. A.
(Duncan); Lorentsen, L. H. (Ganges); Jones, R. W. (Langford); Morley, K. A. (Lake
Cowichan); Brooks, F. T. (Alberni); McArthur, E. J. (Tofino); Carradice, J. H. (Pem-
berton).
Prince Rupert District
J. R. Johnston -       -       -       -       -       District Forester.
Lehrle, L. W. W. - -      Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Berard, R. K. (Ocean Falls); Crosby, D. K. (Queen Charlotte City); Brooks, R. L. (Prince
Rupert); Lindstrom, W. C. (Terrace); Antonenko, J. (Kitwanga); Petty, A. P. (Hazelton);
Mould, J. (Smithers); Clay, W. D. (Telkwa); Keefe, J. J. (Houston); Kullander, M. O.
(Pendleton Bay); Mastin, T. (Burns Lake); Hawkins, R. M. (Bella Coola); Pement, A. R.
(Southbank); Morris, D. S. (Atlin).
Prince George District
A. H. Dixon  -- --       District Forester.
Bennett, C. E.     -       - Assistant District Forester. 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Rangers:
French, C. L. (McBride); Rohn, K. (Penny); Meents, G. E. (Prince George); Pearce, F.
(Prince George); Northrup, K. A. (Fort St. James); Kuly, A. (Quesnel (S.)); Barbour,
H. T. (Pouce Coupe); Hamblin, R. A. (Aleza Lake); Graham, G. W. (Vanderhoof);
Cosens, A. S. (Fort St. John); Baker, F. M. (Fort Fraser); Waller, T. (Summit Lake);
Thornton, S. H. (Quesnel); Flynn, D. (Prince George); Anderson, O. J. (Hixon); Mitchell,
B. A. (Quesnel (E.)); Angly, R. B. (Quesnel (N.));  McQueen, L. (Chetwynd).
Kamloops District
W. C. Phillips       ----- District Forester.
McRae, N. A.      --------        -      Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Specht, G. H. (Lumby); Williams, R. V. (Birch Island); Bailey, J. D. (Barriere); Hill,
A. F. (Kamloops (S.)); Paquette, O. (Chase); Gibson, C. L. (Salmon Arm); Jones, G. G.
(Sicamous); Cameron, A. G. (Lillooet); Johnson, M. A. (Vernon); Scott, E. L. (Pentic-
ton); Dearing, J. H. (Princeton); Robertson, C. E. (Clinton); Cawston, J. B. (Williams
Lake); Bodman, G. F. (Alexis Creek); Hewlett, H. C. (Kelowna); Noble, J. O. (Ashcroft); DeWitt, D. O. (Merritt); Monteith, M. E. (Blue River); Collins, B. G. (Enderby);
Janning, H. A. W. (110 Mile (N.)); Weinard, J. P. (Kamloops (N.)); Wittner, D. J.
(Horsefly);  Hamilton, T. J. (100 Mile (S.)).
Nelson District
P. Young       -----------       District Forester.
Bruce, J. B. Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Hopkins, H. V. (Invermere); Humphrey, J. L. (Fernie); (vacant) (Golden); Gierl
J. B. (Cranbrook (E.)); Ross, A. I. (Creston); Stilwell, L. E. (Kaslo); Benwell, W. G
(Lardeau); Robinson, R. E. (Nelson); Jupp, C. C. (New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Nakusp)
Wood, H. R. (Castlegar); Reid, E. W. (Grand Forks); Uphill, W. T. (Kettle Valley)
Cartwright, G. M. (Canal Flats); (vacant) (Arrowhead); Haggart, W. D. (Edgewood)
Hesketh, F. G. (Elko); Reaney, R. J. (Spillimacheen); Bailey, J. F. (Cranbrook (W.))
Ivens, J. H. (Beaverdell); Webster, G. R. (Slocan City); Jackson, R. C. (Revelstoke).   REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959 83
TABULATED DETAILED  STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
General
Table No. Page
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1959     85
Reforestation
2. Summary of Planting, 1950-59     86
Forest Management
3. Estimated Value of Production, Including Loading and Freight within
the Province, 1950-59  87
4. Paper Production (in Tons), 1950-59  87
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.), 1950-59  88
6. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the Years
1958 and 1959:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet.......„  89
7. Species Cut, All Products, 1959:  (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  90
8. Total Scale of All Products, 1959 (Segregated by Land Status and Forest Districts:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  91
9. Timber Scaled in British Columbia in 1959 (by Months and Forest Districts)  92
10. Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty and
Stumpage, 1950-59, in Thousand Cubic Feet  93
11. Number of Acres Managed and Operated under Approved Working Plans,
1950-59  93
12. Total Scale of All Products from Managed Lands, 1950-59  93
13. Logging Inspections, 1959  94
14. Trespasses, 1959  95
15. Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
Land Act, 1959  96
16. Classification of Areas Examined by the Forest Service, 1959   96
17. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1959  96
18. Timber-sale Record, 1959  97
19. Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1959  98
20. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Saw-timber Sold on Timber Sales in 1959, per C C.F. Log-scale  99
21. Average Appraised Stumpage Prices, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Saw-timber on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits Issued in 1959  100
22. Timber Cut from Timber Sales, 1959  101
23. Saw and Shingle Mills, 1959          102
24. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1959  102
25. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.,
1959 .  103
26. Summary of Exports, Minor Products, 1959  103
27. Timber Marks Issued, 1950-59  104
Forest Finance
28. Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest-protection Tax as Compiled
from Taxation Records, 1950-59 :  104 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table No. Page
29. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  104
30. Forest Revenue  105
31. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1959  106
32. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1958/59  107
33. Forest Revenue:  (A) Fiscal Year 1958/59, (B) Fiscal Years 1949/50 to
1958/59 .  108
34. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1958/59  109
35. Seating Fund  109
36. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  109
Forest Protection
37. Forest-protection Expenditure for Twelve Months Ended March 31st,
1959, by the Forest Service  110
38. Reported  Approximate   Expenditure   in  Forest  Protection   by   Other
Agencies, 1959  111
39. Summary of Snag-falling, 1959, Vancouver Forest District  111
40. Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1959, Vancouver Forest District  111
41. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1959, Vancouver Forest
District  112
42. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1959, Vancouver Forest District  112
43. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs,  1959, Vancouver Forest
District  113
44. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1959  113
45. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1959  113
46. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  114
47. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1959 ■  115
48. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1959  116
49. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1959—Parts I and II
 116,117
50. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1959 118
51. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  119
52. Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of
Fire-fighting, 1959  119
53. Prosecutions, 1959  120
Ranger School
54. Enrolment at Ranger School, 1959  121
Public Information and Education
55. Motion-picture Library, 1950-59  122
56. Summary of Coverage by School Lectures, 1950-59  123
57. Forest Service Library, 1950-59  124
Grazing
58. Grazing Permits Issued  124
59. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected  124
Forest Surveys and Inventory
60. Area Classification by Ownership^  125
61. Sound-wood Volume in Commercial Forests of All Ages by Ownership
and Species  126 (1)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1959
85
Personnel
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant
Chief Foresters— 	
2
11
3
3
32
11
74
38
4
7
6
103
18
37
17
22
1
2
9
2
2
18
2
2
2
7
4
29
6
26
8
33
1
2
2
11
1
1
3
26
3
4
6
1
5
29
4
30
10
58
4
1
1
2
13
5
1
3
31
3
3
4
14
5
31
44
17
50
2
9
2
2
3
28
2
4
8
3
22
42
8
23
3
2
4
8
2
3
82
3
26
3
7
67
10
77
4
27
114
6
38
3
8
15
20
4
8
Directors of Grazing and Public Information	
2
3
District Foresters and Assistant District For-
10
135
Agrologists and Agrologists-in-Training	
Engineers and Engineers-in-Training	
11
26
12
14
135
21
Scalers, Official	
76
41
Comptroller, Accountant, and Audit Assistants
7
85
Technical Forest and Public Information Assistants	
Reforestation, Research, and Survey Assistants
52
78
4
50
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers	
Superintendent  and  Foremen,   Forest  Service
328
6
42
27
179
60
Cruisers, Compassmen, and Silviculture Crew-
186
16
16
Miscellaneous	
26
389
19
36
8
58
4
8
11
155
6
4
22
3
4
1
8
200
4
4
22
2
2
10
226
7
3
34
5
54
5
....
6
163
14
41
12
32
4
5
10
527
9
370
31
121
15
96
1,660
Seasonally Employed
Assistant and Acting Rangers -
36
25
155
39
144
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc	
370
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators
Student and Survey Assistants  and Engineer-
ing Aides _.	
48
121
37
Miscellaneous  	
141
144
48
44
120
118
642
1,116
533
203
244
346
281
1,169
2,776 86
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89
(6A)
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING YEARS 1958 AND 1959 IN F.B.M.
(All products converted to f.b.m.)
Forest District
1958
1959
Gain
Vancouver.   	
Prince Rupert (C).	
2,745,804,238
271,497,350
3,143,091,743
303,615;925
397,287,505
32,118,575
Totals, Coast         	
3,017,301,588
3,446,707,668
429,406,080
206,677,534
661,169,290
972,550,354
491,808,784
226,334,064
839,661,106
1,130,756,141
532,738,310
19,656,530
178,491,816
158,205,787
Nelson 	
40,929,526
Totals, Interior. 	
2,332,205,962
2,729,489,621
397,283,659
5,349,507,550
6,176,197,289
826,689,739
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING YEARS 1958 AND  1959 IN CUBIC FEET
(6B> (Conversion factor:  Coast—6 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.;  Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.)
(All products converted to cubic feet.)
Forest District
1958
1959
Gain
457,634,040
45,249,558
523,848,624
50,602,654
66,214,584
5,353,096
Totals, Coast    	
502,883,598    |       574,451,278    |         71,567,680
35,943,919
114,985,963
169,139,192
85,531,962
39,362,446
146,028,018
196,653,242
92,650,141
3,418,527
Prince George.   	
31,042,055
27,514,050
7,118,179
405,601,036    |       474,693,847    |         69,092,811
908,484,634
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z REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
91
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS,  1959, IN F.B.M.  (SEGREGATED BY
<8A) LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
669,812,585
104,743,242
83,465,978
15,511,963
19,231,302
271,429
565,378
998,803,613
1,903,351
8,227,702
10,808,460
21,890,859
12,423,755
701,834,497
127,975,457
83,465,978
9,679,961
43,105,474
42,315
25,191,924
62,336,776
Hand-loggers' licences	
313,744
203,728
760,294,997
256,122
892,628,666
355,566,716
1,025,228
120,263,162
21,959,167
153,469,501
3,281,026,655
21,959,167
68,937,397
231,552,088
10,875,122
68,937,397
66,244,033
4,792,384
62,273,514
1,262,670
18,953,432
15,511,965
35,010,744
8,777,785
58,413,584
4,723,015
472,447,395
Miscellaneous	
45,942,941
Sub-totals, Crown
lands	
2,203,770,097
16,879,256
754,093,480
73,570,268
20.825.599
266,086,496
277,129
217,005,685
95,194
796,867,473
955,709,479
18,021,795
39,707,827
18,625,360
31,928,235
66,763,445
453,017,929
1,623,223
2,321,152
46,134,350
11,918,192
17,723,464
4,892,457,159
36,896,597
Crown grants—
To 1887 	
340,032
231,475
4,315,422
37,906,704
796,462,491
1887 1906        	
13,084,447
6.146.636
95,630
2,198,779
6,938,776
151,741,530
1906-1914        _
77,332,863
1914 to date         	
73,953,043| 18,021,217
221,306,649
Totals
3.143,091,743
303,615,925
226,334,064
839,661,106
1.130.756.1411512.738.310
6 176,197,289
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS,  1959, IN CUBIC FEET (SEGREGATED
BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
(8B) (Conversion factor:   Coast—6 f.b.m. = l cu. ft., Interior—5.75 f.b.m. = l cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
111,635,431
17,457,207
13,910,996
2,585,327
3,205,217
45,238
94,230
331,017
1,430,905
1,879,732
3,807,106
2,160,653
117,204,459
21,499,592
13,910,996
1,613,327
7,184,246
7,052
 	
4,196,654
10,389,463
52,290
35,431
132,225,217
44,543
155,239,768
174,204
166,467,296
20,043,860
3,659,861
26,690,348
61,837,690
562,504,152
3,659,861
11,489,566
38,592,015
1,812,520
11,489,566
11,040,672| 10,830,176
798,731|       219,595
3,296,249
2,697,733
6,088,825
1,526,571
10,158,884
821,394
80,006,821
Miscellaneous	
7,876,544
Sub-totals, Crown
lands	
367,295,016
2,813,209
125,568,247
12,261,712
3.470.933
44,347,749
46,188
37,740,119
16,556
138,585,647
166,210,344
3,134,225
6,905,709
3,239,193
5.557 717
78,785,727
282,299
403,679
8,023,365
2,072,729
3,082,342
832,964,602
6,292,477
Crown grants—
To 1887	
59,136
40,257
750.508
133,050,771
25,761,899
13,253,743
37,821,633
1887-1906	
1906-1914	
2,180,741
1 074 440
16,631
382,396
1,206,744
1914 to date	
12,325,507|    3,003,536
6,592,470|     11,611,034
Totals	
523,848,624
50 607 6541   10 167 446
IdfimSOISI     1QSfi5l 7/17
92,650,141
1,049,145,125 92
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M Z H REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
93
VOLUME OF WOOD REMOVED UNDER RELOGGING AT REDUCED ROYALTY
(10) AND STUMPAGE,  1950-59, IN THOUSAND CUBIC FEET
Year
1950..
195L.
1952-
1953..
1954..
Salvage Wood
(M C.F.)
..,     324
.in-ry 420.
- 732'
... 1,053
_   1,888
Year
1955..
1956..
1957.
1958.
Salvage Wood
(M C.F.)
  1,209
  1,795
  3,663
.- --- 1,427
1959  1,257
Ten-year average. 1950-59, 1,377.
NUMBER OF ACRES MANAGED AND OPERATED UNDER APPROVED
(11) WORKING PLANS, 1950-59
Year
Tree-farm
Licences
Christmas-tree
Permits      I
Farm
Wood-lots
Public Working
Circles and Sustained-yield Units1
Total
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
Acres
1950
7
10
13
14
19
23
23
23
27
36
19
1,668,663
1,953,754
2,071,918
2,158,898
2,788,313
4,685,492
4,680,846
4,871,237
5,349,773
5,851,979
3,608,087
129
135
145
163
174
209
221
283
277
279
201
45,360
47,250
49.986
64,835
68,689
72,603
76,457
80,651
83,500
83,210
67,254
3
5
20
25
29
37
44
53
50
27
~24
28
33
47
58
61
64
31
1,714,023
2,001,456
2,122,631
7,877,466
9,882,310
14,092,997
26,433,033
33,783,152
37,836,274
40,553,791
17,629,713
1951	
1952
1953
1954	
1955	
1956	
1957	
1958
1959
Ten-year
average,
1950-59
452
727
4,571
5,549
6,455
8,320
10,488
13,108
12,059
6,173
5,649,162
7,019,759
9,328,447
21,667,410
28,820,776
32,389,893
34,606,543
13,948,199
1 Approved public working circles and sustained-yield units.
(12)   TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS FROM MANAGED LANDS, 1950-59
(In Table 8B, " tree-farm licences " includes only the cut from Crown lands within tree-farm licences.
The cut from " other tenures " is shown under appropriate headings. In this table, all the cut from managed
lands under regulation is combined.)
Year
Tree-farm
Licences
Christmas-tree
Permits
Farm
Wood-lots
Public Working
Circles and Sustained-yield Units
Total
Number
Cubic
Feet
Number
Number
of Trees
Number
Cubic
Feet
Number
Cubic
Feet
Number
of Christmas Trees
Cubic
Feet
1950
7
10
13
14
19
23
23
23
27
36
19
129
135
145
163
174
209
221
283
277
279
201
174,609
175,755
195,803
267,182
326,106
301,319
430,447
498,286
408,874
398,504
317,688
~~3
5
20
25
29
37
44
53
50
27
	
~24
28
33
47
58
61
64
31
174,609
175,755
195,803
267,182
326,106
301,319
433,8501
500,786s
411.5744
404,249°
319,123
1951
27,440,866
33,532,810
40,442,745
47,631,411
69,715,422
121,869,721
125,622,175
144,260,543
178,742,435
78,925,813
27,440,866
33,533,042
130,191,242
147,825,014
184,871,133
310,425,826"
333,584,825
1952. .
232
17,497
26,939
64,482
92,124
70,116
139,396
205,676
61,646
1953	
1954
1955	
1956	
1957   .
89,731,000
100,166,664
115,091,229
188,455,411
207,892,534
254,809,622
312,048,987
126,819,545
1958	
1959
Ten-year
average,
1950-59.
399,276,185=
490,997,098
205,814,523
1 Includes 3,403 Christmas trees cut on tree-farm licences and farm wood-lots.
2 Includes 8,570 cubic feet cut from Christmas-tree permits.
3 Includes 2,500 Christmas trees cut on tree-farm licences.
* Includes 2,700 Christmas trees cut on tree-farm licences.
5 Includes 66,624 cubic feet cut from Christmas-tree permits.
a Includes 5,402 Christmas trees cut from tree-farm licences and 343 trees cut from farm wood-lots. 94
(13)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LOGGING INSPECTIONS,  1959
Type of Tenure Operated
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Hand-
loggers'
Licences
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions
Total
Number of
Inspections
1,332
795
1,804
1,706
636
1
1
1,168
189
1,307
1,472
760
2,501
985
3,111
3,178
1,396
8,382
2,929
6,610
5,459
3,532
Totals, 1959.	
6,273
2
4,896
11,171
26,912
Totals  1958
5,936
2
4,339
10,257
23,802
Totals, 1957
7,503
3
5,937
13,443
25,253
Totals 1°'"'
7,492
3
5,838
13,333
22,038
Totals, 1955
6,818
3
4,673
11,494
22,355
Totals, 1954     ....
5,855
3
4,874
10,732
21,011
Totals, 1953
5,851
3
4,859
10,713
20,656
Totals, 1952.  _	
5,822
6
5,710
11,538
20,264
Totals, 1951
5,448
6
4,766
10,220
17,754
Totals 1<"0
5.189
6
3,812
9,007        j
16,221
Ten-year average, 1950-59.	
6,217
4
4,970
11,191
21,577 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
95
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
AREAS EXAMINED BY THE FOREST SERVICE FOR MISCELLANEOUS
(13) PURPOSES OF THE LAND ACT,  1959
Forest District
Applications
for Hay and
Grazing Leases
Applications
for Foreshore
Leases
Applications
to Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
NbUe?i    Acres
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
1
1    i      2,562
1
26    j         591
10    i           60
3    j        242
5
8
32
815
4
11
128
531
35    |         751
30    j      3,968
3    I         242
Totals
1    |      2,562
1
39    I         893
13    |         847
1
15
659
68    |      4,961
CLASSIFICATION OF AREAS EXAMINED BY THE FOREST
(16) SERVICE, 1959
Forest District
Total Area
Agricultural
Land
Non-
agricultural
Land
Merchantable-
timber
Land
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable-
timber Land
Acres
751
3,968
242
Acres
5
286
67
Acres
746
3,682
175
Acres
138
315
90
MF.B.M.
468
Prince Rupert	
7,993
316
Totals     -	
4,961
358
4,603
543
8,777
(17)
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES,  1959
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cord-
wood
(Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes.
Posts,
Shakes,
etc.
(No.)
Saw-
timber
(M C.F.)
750
305
465
545
252
99,197
78,850
141,355
259,449
102.699
348,247
1,896,823
1,610,420
1,512,300
2.020.170
6,133
2,609
3,800
12,456
2.755
1,000
25,875
234,167
3,600
103,770
75,350
941.680
121,781
203,145
Kamloops	
240,028
78.249
Totals, 1959 —
2,317
681,550
7,387,960
27,753
26,875
1,124,400
877,370
Totals, 1958	
1,922
609,563
8,772,888
24,316
34,430
1,146,719
890,285
Totals, 1957	
2,582
781,748
16,099,489
39,254
95,209
1,149,133
1,171,283
Totals, 1956	
3,089
1,095,150
 	
13,981,856
44,287
128,432
1,916,510
1,273,970
Totals, 1955 	
3,354
1,077,986
9,885,451
16,819
145,525
501,820
1,131,521
Totals, 1954	
3,085
781,665
10,532,164
76,859
76,310
1,127,346
697,421
Totals 1953
2,579
719,234
12,887,882
12,328
141,313
694,182
561,601
Totals, 1952	
2,340
1,029,199
2,543,890
40,005,329
13,405
989,144
518,652
1,188,361
Totals 1951
2,704
934,475
6,577,298
20,674,280
25,630
316,954
432,000
2,196
333,435
1,777,025
7,388,875
24,522
123,091
352,440
Ten-year average,
1950-59	
2,617
804,400
3,632,738
14,761,617
30,517
207,728
896,320
973,976
M B.M.—three-year average; M c.f.—eight-year average. (IS)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
TIMBER-SALE RECORD, 1959
97
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest-protection Tax
(Acres)
Total
10-per-cent
Deposits
650
254
355
434
233
662
393
500
549
267
1,916
1,118
1,301
1,992
812
607,517
377,812
653,992
1,179,187
603,513
559,324
366,162
602,333
1,168,227
592,594
$6,274,490.19
1,294,745.92
2,126,246.43
Kamloops 	
3,573,623.95
1,881,106.26
Totals..	
1,926      |      2,371
7,139             3,422,021
3,288,640      |    $15,150,212.75
Cash sales	
234             	
-    -      1      	
       1            	
2,160
	 98
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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(23)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SAW AND SHINGLE MILLS,  1959
Operating
Shut Down
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Sa
wmills
Shingle-mills
Forest District
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Vancouver     	
211
271
648
580
295
8,125
1,821
7,667
7,036
3,631
60
2
3
1,122
8
8
70
131
197
104
85
273
758
1,600
746
598
2
1
3
6
Kamloops 	
Nelson	
3
14
Totals, 1959	
2,005
28,280
65
1,138
587
3,975
6
23
Totals, 1958	
2,010
27,694
56
1,141
586
4,007
9
37
Totals, 1957.	
2,255
26,752
58
1,390
514
3,124
10
121
Totals, 1956
2,435
29,080
66
1,381
390
2,013
8
15
Totals, 1955 	
2,489
28,016
72
1,804
404
2,285
3
19
Totals, 1954	
2,346
25,602
57
1,108
367
2,281
13
22
Totals, 1953	
2,413
23,300
59
1,121
286
2,186
12
47
Totals, 1952	
2,223
23,433
59
1,173
332
2,092
24
117
Totals, 1951....-	
2,100
21,748
60
1,169
294
1,474
16
78
Totals, 1950	
1,826
19,143
65
1,234
234
1,462
11
25
Ten-year average,
1950-59
2,210
25,305
62
1,266
399
2,490
11
50
(24)
EXPORT OF LOGS (IN F.B.M.), 1959
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir               	
395,464
1,042,982
12,356
929,371
539,812
5,076,803
204,014
13,287,651
1,838,183
68
2,773,459
6,289,225
169,372
216,370
125,533
	
	
617
36
126
14,343,172
3,997,287
3,997,323
720
220,760
3,533
449,363
47,032
4,379
Cypress	
191,780
861,90'
	
2,614
2,614
Cottonwood - -
     ,
47,032
Totals, 1959       	
486,685
2,601,653
19,608,208
3,999,901
1,839,030
28,535,4771
Totals, 1958 	
734,991
3,727,452
16,164,689
3,715,124
3,762,411
28,104,667
Totals, 1957         	
524,180
3,987,443
22,016,291
5,625,910
3,421,354
35,575,178
Totals, 1956...
183,859
2,933,129
27,433,037
12,929,722
3,530,479
47,010,226
Totals, 1955
906,141
7,468,949
58,863,477
16,974,165
4,754,796
88,967,528
Tntsl«, 1054
3,948,345
19,595,544
90,691,771
17,465,267
9,274,995
140,975,922
Totals, 1953   	
5,341,576
15,853,076
74,187,464
18,974,550
5,788,905
120,145,571
Totals, 1952	
4,732,890
15,944,292
84,757,110
18,400,266
1,161,660 |
124,996,218
Totals, 1951      	
5,901,140
12,229,159
51,699,605
10,202,844
2,224,693
82,257,441
Totals 1950
8,659,552
21,625,295
88,031,088
19,210,615
137,526,550
Ten-year average, 1950-59
3,141,936
10,596,599
53,345,274
12,749,836-
3,575,832
83,409,478
1 Of this total, 20,137,157 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege;
8,398,320 f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
103
(25)
SHIPMENTS OF POLES, PILING, MINE-PROPS, FENCE-POSTS,
RAILWAY-TIES, ETC., 1959
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Where Exported
United
States
Canada
Other
Countries
Vancouver-
Poles 	
Poling- 	
Stakes and sticks-
Fence-posts	
Cedar shakes	
Christmas trees	
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling ...
Ties	
. lin. ft.
..pieces
—    »t
.lin. ft.
.pieces
Prince George—
Poles	
Ties	
Fence-posts —
Cordwood	
Kamloops—
Poles	
..lin. ft.
- cords
..lin. ft.
Poles and piling      „
Fence-posts  —. cords
Christmas trees  pieces
Nelson—
Poles and piling - lin. ft.
Corral-rails -      „
Orchard-props -.      ,,
Mine-timbers      „
Mine-props   cords
Cedar shakes        „
Cordwood - _      „
Fence-posts      „
Ties   pieces
Christmas trees-
Total value, 1959..
Total value, 1958..
3,397,922
928,624
189,070
22,976
19,688,069
62,861
1,832,940
49,354
I
641,760    |
65,654    1
92,361    |
239    |
3.039,775
816,130
2,030
707,619
2,452,270
123,990
24,000
240,714
230
138
45
6,744
3,218
1,434,521
$1,160,196.37
268,892.92
1,460.50
5,744.00
1,257,847.00
18,858.30
692,616.66
76,992.24
180,200.00
110.000.00
23,100.00
3,350.00
607,955.00
106,096.90
81,480.00
212,285.70
1,130,037.00
1,488.00
312.00
9,219.00
3,635.00
1,932.00
635.00
282,627.00
5,825.00
832,022.00
$7,074,807.59
2,985,896
14,150
189,070
19,587,989
62,861
1,099,764
94,940
251
24,000
105
1,331
1,328,353
1,485,040
423.185
298
707,619    |
I
1,409,245 |
286,021
380,849
22,976
19,080
733,176
49,354
546,820
65,403
92,361
239
1,554,735
392,945
1,732
1,043,025
123,990
240,714
230
33
45
5,413
3,218
106,168
$6,307,059.25
126,005
533,625
81,000
(26)
SUMMARY OF EXPORTS, MINOR PRODUCTS, 1959
Product
Volume
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
Poles - - lin. ft.
Piling                                                                             ii
7,079,457
928,624
5,101,340
240,714
123,990
189,070
24,000
115,337
19,688,069
2,205,001
118,226
284
8,774
230
138
$1,948,351.37
268,892.92
1,928,750.56
9,219.00
1,488.00
1,460.50
312.00
28,844.00
1,257,847.00
1,063.166.00
192,817.24
3,985.00
364,107.00
3,635.00
1,932.00
27.5393
3.8007
27.2622
0.1303
0.0210
0.0207
0.0044
0.4077
17.7793
15.0275
2.7254
Cordwood                                                              Cords
0.0563
5.1465
Mine-props                                                                               „
0.0514
0.0273
Total value      	
$7,074,807.59
100.0000 104
(27)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED,  1950-59
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
Ten-year
Average
1950-59
Old Crown grants	
Crown grants, 1887-1906
Crown grants, 1906-1914
Section 55, Forest Act	
Stumpage reservations _
Pre-emptions   under   sections 28 and 29, Land
Act..  	
Timber berths	
Indian reserves _.. 	
Timber sales —
Hand-loggers- -
Special marks and rights-
of-way	
Pulp leases 	
Pulp licences 	
Totals	
Tranfers and changes of
marks  	
549
169
165
505
69
1,062
269
218
714
108
3
6
32   41
2,591 | 2,962
33
4
4
73
4,134 | 5,458
752
1,086
696
201
204
538
62
7
13
2,594
98
6
1
983
381
134
136
409
95
10
3
24
2,881
528
175
160
485
69
1
1
30
2,786
609
218
171
653
95
2
10
31
3,130
480
207
172
655
82
6
10
46
2,859
320
108
97
460
59
1
7
23
2,239
44
1
43 |  71 |  74
6|   1 I   1
-  I   I 	
4,139 | 4,280
4,968 I 4,589 I 3,389
744
780
867
873
615
215
93
93
362
89
7
9
1,900
299
103
125
524
108 |
2,855
598
669
514
168
154
530
84
I
  | 4
9 j 7
21 I 27
1,926 | 2,587
66
3
3,201 |  4,144
797
CROWN-GRANTED TIMBER LANDS PAYING FOREST-PROTECTION TAX
(28) AS COMPILED FROM TAXATION RECORDS,  1950-59
Year
Acreage
Assessed as
Timber
Land
Coast
m 1        J        >        1
Interior
Logged
Timber
Logged
Timber
1959                                                    	
502,001
698,470
614,095
723,103
783,517
801,983
757,516
718,284
682,746
631.967
Acres
125,883
133,100
146,535
205,503
221,934
236,350
201,264
203,249
191,435
207,308
Acres
238,285
271,717
288,046
389,396
429,350
429,037
444,014
433,496
410,037
378,985
Acres
71,509
194,640
88,580
64,606
69,822
69,416
27,692
29,418
31,333
8,635
Acres
66,324
1958        - _	
99,013
1957                                                    -    	
90,934
1956	
63,598
1955 -	
1954.	
1953 	
62,411
67,180
84,546
1952                   	
52,121
1951        	
1950  	
49,941
37,039
(29)
ACREAGE OF TIMBER LAND BY ASSESSMENT DISTRICTS
District Acres
Alberni   13,858
Comox    94,540
Cowichan   92,391
Cranbrook   ..
Gulf Islands.
Kamloops   —
Kettle River
Lillooet   	
  5,011
  1,312
  160
  445
  4,026
Nanaimo    110,779
District Acres
Nelson-Slocan     90,171
Prince George   800
Prince Rupert   11,796
Princeton     2,887
Quesnel Forks   40
Revelstoke     ___ 33,654
Vancouver     4,032
Vernon    639
Victoria   35,460 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
105
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(33A) FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR  1958/59
Timber-licence rentals and fees  $357,213.39
Timber-berth rentals and fees  19,244.08
Timber-lease rentals and fees   69,364.69
Timber-sale rentals and fees  423,430.93
Timber-sale stumpage   21,529,804.34
Timber-sale cruising and advertising  225,693.62
Timber  royalties    1,754,344.26
Grazing permits  and  fees  71,919.21
Forest-protection  tax    512,614.84
Miscellaneous   118,186.23
Ten-year
Average
$378,577.09
17,971.37
60,008.88
235,909.35
14,820,807.05
155,446.36
2,198,680.84
71,468.27
(i)
83,959.47
Taxation from Crown - granted timber
lands   	
Taxation collected under authority of Es-
quimalt and Nanaimo Railway Belt
Land Tax Act	
Taxation collected on forest land (section
32a, Taxation Act) 	
Taxation collected on tree-farm land (section 33a, Taxation Act)	
$25,081,815.59    $18,022,828.68
516,669.53
738,039.352
609,136.453
155,087.79*
545,593.43
$27,100,748.71
1 Formerly credited to Forest Protection Fund.
2 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last nine fiscal years.
3 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last five fiscal years.
4 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last six fiscal years.
(33B)
FOREST REVENUE BY FISCAL YEARS,   1949/50 TO   1958/59
Fiscal Year
Direct Forest
Revenue
Taxation from
Crown-granted
Lands
Taxation Collected under
Sees. 32a and
33a of Taxation Act
Taxation Collected under
Author'^ "f
E. & N. Railway Belt Land
Tax Act
Total
1958/59...
1957/58-
1956/57-
1955/56...
1954/55...
1953/54.
1952/53..
1951/52-
1950/51-
1949/50.
$25,081,
29,054.
31,240.
23,867
19,130,
17,578
18,016
13,703.
10,089
8,331
815.59
.657.56
.260.37
.705.50
835.31
,625.58
,025.17
,715.41
,884.69
,497.19
$516,669.53
597,118.52
675,079.21
681,503.26
621,527.16
612,865.29
588,821.78
484,475.51
440,213.07
445,632.68
$764,224.24
883,674.75
685,611.49
532,010.00
518,648.74
$738,039.35
1,060,884.36
1,147,535.38
940,632.27
879,822.00
863,116.21
418,395.59
972,156.13
345,220.16
$27,100,748.71
31,596,335.19
33,748,486.45
26,021,851.03
21,150,833.21
19,054,607.08
19,023,242.54
15,160,347.05
10,875,317.92
8,777,129.87 (34)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959 109
FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1958/591
Forest District
Salaries
Expenses
Total
$522,387.31
337,181.65
390,131.36
505,278.69
406,563.38
259,188.86
$167,865.24
110,507.59
119,881.89
129,32L02
101,504.17
299,421.09
$690,252.55
447,689.24
510,013.25
634,599.71
Nelson               	
508,067.55
558,609.95
Totals     _	
$2,420,731.25
$928,501.00
$3,349,232.25
450,105.23
Forest management -	
420,240.37
166,868.01
93,545.69
93,147.74
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association..  	
10,000.00
27,551.57
1,255,862.24
898,488.88
Forest protection  	
2,497,702.98
1,078,517.85
55,838.31
1,897,497.62
4,913,670.17
26,767.64
$17,235,036.55
1 True gross expenditures.
2 Separate statement provided in this Report.
(35)
SCALING FUND
$209,492.79
Balance for April 1st, 1958 (debit)	
Collections, fiscal year 1958/59  1,031,227.78
$821,734.99
Expenditures, fiscal year 1958/59  $1,080,698.87
Less refunds     1,015.15
 — 1,079,683.72
Deficit, March 31st, 1959 (debit)    $257,948.73
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1959      962,094.56
$704,145.83
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1959       880,476.13
Balance, December 31st, 1959 (debit).
$176,330.30
(36) GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Balance, April 1st, 1958 (credit)  __ _     $28,679.60
Government contribution (section 14, Grazing Act)        34,888.93
Expenditures, fiscal year 1958/59  $55,858.31
Less refunds  37.50
$63,568.53
Balance, March 31st, 1959 (credit)	
Government contribution (section 14, Grazing Act).
Expenditures, April 1st, 1959, to December 31st, 1959.
Balance, December 31st, 1959 (credit)	
55,820.81
$7,747.72
35,959.60
$43,707.32
34,008.20
$9,699.12 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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111
REPORTED APPROXIMATE EXPENDITURE IN FOREST PROTECTION
(38) BY OTHER AGENCIES,  1959
Forest District
Expenditures
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals..
Ten-year average, 1950-59
$126,425
24,400
32,000
32,500
18,900
$248,760
47,765
12,000
170,000
49,668
$41,245
898
20,120
10,166
26,581
$234,225
$528,193
$99,010
$277,874
$381,626
$345,478
$196,800
67,300
120,000
611,000
22,954
$1,018,054
$212,457
$613,230
140,363
184,120
823,666
118,103
$1,879,482
$1,217,435
(39) SUMMARY OF SNAG-FALLING, 1959, VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total area logged, 1959    _.. 72,392
Logged in small exempted operations1  __     308
Assessed for non-compliance, less 833 acres subsequently felled 1,350
■ ■    1,658
Balance logged acres snagged, 1959—-     70,734
Snags felled in 1959 by Forest Service Protection Division     5,388
Snags felled in 1959 by Forest Service Reforestation Division     1,077
Total area snagged, 1959_
77,199
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, Forest Act.
SUMMARY OF LOGGING SLASH CREATED,  1959, VANCOUVER
CO) FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total area logged, 1959    72,392
Area covered by full hazard reports  34,222
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-disposal  26,571
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from slash and
snag-disposal)r        308
  61,101
Slash created and not reported in 1959—   11,291
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, Forest Act. 112 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ACREAGE ANALYSIS OF SLASH-DISPOSAL REQUIRED, 1959,
CD                                       VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1959         19591 Total Acres
Broadcast burning     5,440            4,718 10,158
Spot burning — .   ..    9,570          14,494 24,064
Totals  15,010 19,212 34,222
1959 reports not recommending slash-disposal  26,571
1959 slash on very small operations exempted without special
examination          308
  26,879
Total area of slash dealt with, 1959  61,101
1 Above table does not include the estimated 11,291 acres (see Table 42) created too late to be dealt with
in 1959.
ANALYSIS OF PROGRESS IN SLASH-DISPOSAL,  1959,
(*i) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres.
Total disposal required (see Table 41)  34,222
Type of Disposal Prior to 1959       1959 Total Acres
Spring broadcast burning        541   541
Spring spot burning     1,176   1,176
Fall broadcast burning     2,502 4,013 6,515
Fall spot burning      8,633 9,437 18,070
Total burning completed._. 12,852 13,450 26,302
Burning by accidental fires        566
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc.    	
Total _„— 26,868
Balance reported slash not yet abated     7,354
Slash created, 1959—acres assessed    	
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1959  11,291
Total area of slash carried over to 1960 for disposition1— 18,645
1 Does not show the acreage instructed in 1959 to be extended or assessed in 1960.
Actual area burned in spring spot burning, 78 acres.
Actual area burned in fall spot burning, 1,928 acres.
The above figures do not include 1958 slash-burn reports received too late for inclusion in 1959 Annual
Report, 1,052 acres. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
113
(43)
SUMMARY OF SLASH-BURN DAMAGE AND COSTS, 1959,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1959
Net damage to forest-cover
Nil
Nil
Net damage to cut products        $850.00
Net damage to equipment and property     3,580.00
Total damage     $4,430.00
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Total Cost Acres
(a) Spring broadcast burning  $1,843.85 541
(b) Spring spot burning .     1,798.00 1,176
(c) Fall broadcast burning  33,139.68 6,515
(d) Fall spot burning  41,160.59 18,070
(a) and (c) based on volume of 40 M b.f. per acre.
(b) and (d) based on volume of 30 M b.f. per acre.
Cost per
MB.F.
$0.09
.05
.13
.08
Cost per
Acre
$3.39
1,53
5.09
2.22
(44)
FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS, 1959
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver	
17
61
29
6
13
105
21
140
18
89
154
23
191
12
24
59
18
316
7
45
182
113
128
6
18
74
98
21
1
16
4
1
826
49
207
651
277
41.1
2.4
10.3
Kamloops	
Nelson	
32.4
13.8
Totals	
78
174
424
304
663
324
42
1
2,010
100.0
Per cent	
3.9
8.7
21.1
15.1
33.0
16.1
2.1
. ...    | 100.0    |
Ten-year average, 1950-59
24
77
388
238
543
450
191
37
1,948
1.2
4.0
19.9
12.2
27.9
23.1
9.8
1.9
100.0
(45)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES, 1959
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34
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33
10
548
I
65
7
16
3
13
1
17
7
1
86
12
14
1
826
49
41.1
2.4
46
39
7
12
22
4
32
42
3
207
10.3
Kamloops	
26
71
31
81
18
6
126
4
278
10
651
32.4
Nelson _	
72
19
37
46
16
6
22
29
25
5
277
13.8
Totals	
184
172
624
211
75
30
204
34
443
33
2,010
100.0
Per cent	
9.2
8.6
31.0
10.5
3.7
1.5
10.2
1.7
22.0
1.6
100.0
-
Ten-year average,
1950-59 —-
462
216
456
264
87
27
132
25
233
46
1,948
	
23.7
11.1
23.4
13.5
4.5
1.4
6.8
1.3
12.0
2.3
100.0
1 Uncontrolled range-burning fires.
8 114
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(46)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE
LAST TEN YEARS
Causes
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
Total
Lightning-
Campers .
Railways operating.
Smokers..
Brush-burning (not railway-
clearing)  	
Road and power- and telephone-
line construction 	
Industrial operations 	
Incendiarism-
Miscellaneous (known causes)..
Unknown causes.. 	
Totals-
342
251
197
291
77
25
94
7
196
35
1,515
574
228
211
354
128
20
133
28
205
42
1,923
431
298
255
349
140
17
114
37
237
36
597
174
184
171
47
10
83
10
116
28
116
157
118
120
63
11
64
12
82
21
418
195
206
206
47
24
89
15
134
50
497
214
1,090
281
112
73
183
27
260
73
307
170
455
182
65
46
107
22
220
45
1,150
296
1,224
478
120
18
246
53
441
94
184
172
624
211
75
30
204
34
4431
33
4,616
2,155
4,564
2,643
874
274
1,317
245
2,334
457
1,914
1,420
764
1,384
2,810
1,619
4,120   2,010
19,479
1 Uncontrolled range-burning fires in 1959. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959                                        1 15
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(48) DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS, 19591
Forest District
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture
Buildings
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George-
Kamloops	
Nelson  -
Totals  	
Per cent— 	
Ten-year average, 1950-59_
Per cent —-	
$22,600.00
89.00
59,900.00
100.00
$3,000.00
5,300.00
2,000.00
40,300.00
2,075.00
$82,689.00 j
$52,675.00
$712,860.00
9.5
6.1
82.0
$150,436.00 j
$28,742.00
$242,902.00
6.3
$172,550.00
500,000.00
20,310.00
20,000.00
$885.00
1,500.00
18,960.00
$199,035.00
505,300.00
23,899.00
139,160.00
2,175.00
$21,345.00
2.4
$31,102.00
6.8
$869,569.00
100.0
$453,182.00
100.0
22.9
58.1
2.7
16.0
0.3
100.0
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 112.)
(49)
DAMAGE TO FOREST-COVER CAUSED BY FOREST
FIRES,  1959—PART Ii
Accessible Merchantable Timber
Inaccessible Merchantable
Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
rt
Id"
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Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
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Acres
72
303
265
6,326
678
MB.F.
772
604
498
44,595
3,763
MB.F.
359
$
3,712
1,224
4,004
100,064
22,997
Acres
17
MB.F.
200
$
4
Acres
168
406
15,264
50,073
1,974
$
14,721
8,155
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson 	
43
12,082
175
277,722
694,931
234
455
59
52,714
Totals	
7,644
50,232
12,659
132,001
251
655
63
67,885
1,048,243
Per cent	
2.8
98.7
25.2
9.8
0.1
1.3
0.0
24.8
78.1
Ten-year average,
1950-59.	
19,196
217,551
96,515
498,797
18,417
70,201
13,353
45,771
627,156
4.4
75.6
44.4
38.4
4.2
24.4
1.0
10.4
48.2
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 112.) REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1959
117
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(50)
FIRE CAUSES, AREA BURNED, FOREST SERVICE COST,
AND TOTAL DAMAGE,  1959
Causes
Fire Causes
Number
Per
Cent
Area Burned
Acres
Per
Cent
Forest Service
Cost
Cost
Per
Cent
Total Damage
Damage
Per
Cent
Lightning-
Campers-
Railways operating..
Smokers-
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing) .
Road and power- and telephone-
line construction	
Industrial operations  	
Incendiarism-
Miscellaneous (known causes )i-
Unknown causes- _ 	
184
172
624
211
75
30
204
34
443
33
9.2
8.6
31.0
10.5
3.7
1.5
10.2
1.7
22.0
1.6
93,754
35,754
243
924
39,087
1,895
1,678
227
108,944
125
34.3
13.1
0.1
0.3
11.0
0.7
0.6
0.1
39.8
0.0
$178,182
25,122
1,057
56,790
11,496
14,294
40,134
20,802
418,360
1,847
23.2
3.3
0.1
7.4
1.5
1.9
5.2
2.7
54.5
0.2
Totals..
2,010
100.0
273,631  | 100.0
I
$768,084
100.0
$56,845
234,840
1,470
19,250
14,038
28,170
894,533
1,910
955,062
6,300
2.6
10.6
0.1
0.9
0.6
1.3
40.4
0.1
43.1
0.3
$2,212,418 | 100.0
i Uncontrolled range-burning fires. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,
1959                                      119
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
ENROLMENT AT RANGER SCHOOL,  1959
121
Forest District
Forest
Assistants
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Graduations
Vancouver 	
4
....
4
2
2
5
4
--
4
2
6
5
4
Kamloops	
Nelson	
--
Attendance, 1959	
4        |        -        |        --
17
21
—
Attendance, 1959	
.-        |        ....        |        -
21
21
21
Attendance, 1958	
--        |        ....
21
21
—
Attendance, 1957	
4        |        -.
—
26
30
30
Attendance, 1956	
4        1        -
.._
26
30
_..
Attendance, 1956	
3        |        .-
18
21
21
Attendance, 1955	
3        |        ....
18
21
Attendance, 1954	
|
20
20
20
Attendance, 1953	
_        |        ....
—
21
21
—
Attendance, 1953-	
-        |        -
„_
20
20
20
Attendance, 1952	
....        |        -
20
20
.._
Attendance, 1951	
|          3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1950	
-        |          3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1949	
....        |          3
2
16
21
.._
Attendance, 1948	
-        |         4
2
12
2
20
20
Attendance, 1947	
....        |          8
12
20
20
Attendance, 1946	
2
9        1         9
20
20
Note.—Commencing with the class of 1949-50, each class takes one and one-half years to complete the course. 122
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Number of
Number of
Attendance
Ison—          1
Number of
Number of
Attendance
nee George-
Number of
Number of
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nee Rupert-
Number of
Number of
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< 124
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(57)
FOREST SERVICE LIBRARY,  1950-59
Classification
Items Catalogued and Indexed
Ten-year
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1950-59
27
62
140
102
1,960
23
109
152
110
2,650
9
122
337
115
2,203
41
484
90
111
66
1,800
62
246
92
124
127
932
55
190
94
136
141
1,090
37
179
170
151
177
1,321
45
266
109
155
214
1,417
48
177
159
133
230
1,139
43
142
165
130
362
1,502
39
Government  reports  and  bulletins 	
Other bulletins and reports
198
151
127
References indexed 	
1,601
1 Previous to 1953, included with periodicals, bulletins, and reports.
(58)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED
District
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,170
423
90
106,815
14,048
3,562
3,112
1,065
200
19,482
1,100
Prince George..
22
Totals,
1959	
1,683
124,425
4,377
20,604
1958 _   .
1957    	
1956  '    	
Totals
1,571
122,489
4,169
20,927
Totals
1.640
128,978
3,886
20,693
Totals
1,776
127,182
3,667
22,310
Totals
1955 	
1,705
121,284
3,575
22,560
Totals,
1954	
1953  	
1952                  	
1,750
111,767
3,738
24,909
Totals,
1,730
108,894
4,133
23,172
1,621
104,610
4,040
23,565
1951     	
1950 	
Totals,
1,561
100,082
4,350
22,282
Totals,
1,562
98,484
4,650
23,100
NB.—Some of the figures in this table for the years 1950 and 1951 have been revised and differ from those
shown in previous Reports. Past tables have shown net figures for some years and gross figures for others. This
table shows the total number of permits issued and the net number of live stock covered for each of the years
listed.
(59)
GRAZING FEES BILLED AND COLLECTED
Year
Fees Billed
Fees Collectedi
Outstanding
1959   	
1958                   	
$91,636.13
$69,986.23
67,593.88
76,155.51
76,061.32
80,191.97
95,088.64
125,495.09
108,400.14
80,178.43
$84,595.04
$71,726.71
68,131.94
79,247.61
75,250.32
85,043.96
102,460.00
110,731.32
106,161.36
74,305.08
$18,417.62
$11,376 53
1957                      	
13,117.01
1956	
1955	
1954
13,655.07
16,577.24
15,766 24
1953 .	
20,618.23
1952                   - -	
27,989.59
13,225.82
10,986.74
1951                                          .   -   - -	
T950
1 Includes statutory penalties. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
125
(60)
AREA CLASSIFICATION BY OWNERSHIP
Coast
Area Classification
Crown
Crown
Granted
Licences and
Leases
Canada
Control
Total
Forest land—
Commercial forest—
Acres
8,507,862
378,222
1,970,913
Acres
905,948
74,129
1,014,220
Acres
1,508,601
40,942
262,340
Acres
61,347
5,731
44,600
Acres
10,983,758
499,024
Young immature	
3,292,073
Total, commercial forest.
Selectively logged forest— 	
Not satisfactorily restocked forest
Non-commercial forest 	
10,856,997
1,272
306,637
1,319,643
1,994,297
384
280,245
170,409
1,811,883
1,169
228,778
56,939
111,678
124
8,416
32,566
14,774,855
2,949
824,076
1,579,557
Total, all forest land	
12,484,549
2,445,335
2,098,769
152,784
17,181,437
Non-forest land—
11,960,510
172,587
576,540
14,915
  _	
9,597,448
22,322,000
	
Water—Lakes and rivers 	
     1     -     1    	
     |      1,022,693
|    ....
40,526,130
Interior
Forest land—
Commercial forest—
Mature	
Acres
43,498,844
11,170.663
Acres
857,761
292,896
Acres
224,267
32.105
Acres
284,720
84,843
Acres
44,865,592
11.580,507
Young immature 	
44,227,859    |      2,059,509    |           65,661
351,789    |    46,704,818
Total, commercial forest
98,897,366    |      3,210,166    |         322,033
207.930    1           75.649                 8.733
721,352    |  103,150.917
4,675    j         296,987
Not satisfactorily restocked forests
Non-commercial forest - -	
5,372,339    [         195,977
9,582,190    |         667,957
11,178
13,375
30,720    |      5,610,214
179,245    |    10,442.767
Total, all forest land	
114,059,825    |      4,149,749    [         355,319
935,992    [ 119.500,885
Non-forest land—
38,052,164
2,643,724
-
	
862,890
	
2,420,394
25,008,464
	
Total, all non-forest land.	
      I         |    	
     I    68,987,636
     |          |    	
5,100,680
     1         1
193,589,201
Province
Forest land—
Commercial forest—
Mature	
Acres
52,006,706
11,548,885
46,198,772
Acres
1,763,709
367,025
3,073,729
Acres
1,732,868
73,047
328,001
Acres
346,067
90,574
396,389
Acres
55,849,350
12,079.531
Young immature. 	
49,996,891
Total, commercial forest	
Selectively logged forest	
Not satisfactorily restocked forest
109,754,363
209,202
5,678,976
10,901,833
5,204,463
76,033
476,222
838,366
2,133,916
9,902
239,956
70,314
833,030
4,799
39,136
211,811
117,925,772
299 936
6,434,290
12,022.324
Total, all forest land	
126,544,374
6,595,084
2,454,088
1,088,776
136,682,322
Non-forest land—
50,012 674
2,816,311
1,439,430
2,435,309
34,605,912
	
91.309 636
______
6,123,373
234,115.331 126
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SOUND-WOOD VOLUME IN COMMERCIAL FORESTS OF ALL AGES,
(61) BY OWNERSHIP AND SPECIES
(Gross volumes reduced for decay, at a close utilization standard, in thousands of cubic feet.)
Coast
Species and D.B.H.
Limits
Crown
Crown
Granted
Licences and
Leases
Canada
Control
Total
 4-9"
337,026
6.523,744
559,264
15,895,966
2,442,074
26,634,596
587,180
10,586,052
67,376
5,114,733
180,004
1,996,120
18,177
257,810
145,123
306,290
709
3,922
203,814
3,175,979
93,364
1,289,288
297,883
2,684,164
46,175
950,480
7,515
392,445
11,283
116,136
16,839
185,872
34,998
48,760
26
277
31,406
1,330,799
102,759
2,743,230
330,147
4,457,746
85,479
1,903,786
7,770
766,778
35,607
345,770
2,735
38,110
19,080
39,378
13
105
7,356
80,289
8,783
124,787
24,779
194,259
3,817
51,015
2,683
63,660
1,920
12,739
365
2,993
3,321
6,208
18
150
579,602
  ____  10"+
11,110,811
Red cedar -	
4-9"
 10"+
764,170
20,053,271
 4-9"
3,094,883
  10"+
33,970,765
Balsam (true firs)	
4-9"
10"+
 4-9"
722,651
13,491,333
85,344
  10"4-
6,337,616
4-9"
228,814
2,470,765
  _____ 10"+
 4-9"
38,116
..10"+
 4-9"
484,785
202,522
     10" +
400,636
Yellow pine	
4-9"
 10"+
766
4,454
____ 4-9"
     ____     __10"+
 4-9"
1,784
265,833
99,653
384,028
3,999
64,955
20,574
59,528
169
12,054
1,126
36,184
65,799
161,103
1,408
23,017
11,016
24,007
11
459
380
37,169
14,221
50,084
677
18,283
7,270
11,200
11
3,162
128
7,726
4,214
10,922
104
1,190
363
672
2
434
3,418
             10"-_-
346,912
AlHcr
4-9"
183,887
      10"+
606,137
Maple (broadleaf) _—
4-9"
 10"+
6,188
107,445
Birch  —
 4-9"
39,223
      ___    10"4-
95,407
.... 4-9"
193
     ____      ______10"+
16,109
4-9"
      10"+
Totals, all species
4.463,112
68,105,631
791,257
9,088,171
637,555
11,745,600
57,853
557,044
5,949,777
89,496,446
Interior
Douglas fir-
Red cedar ....
Hemlock—
Balsam (true firs)..
Spruces	
Yellow cedar
White pine __
Lodgepole pine.
Yellow pine .
Larch	
Cottonwood .
Alder"	
Maple (broadleaf)
Birch  	
Aspen	
Totals, all species
.4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
.10"+
.4-9"
.10"+
..4-9"
-.10"+
.4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
..10"+
..4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
__10"+
..4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
.10"+
.4-9"
.10"+
..4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
.-10"+
2,111,469
17,327,364
681,824
7,087,162
2,254,727
20,941,594
7,559,358
21,293,082
20,029,289
84,692,856
216,321
1,007,249
24,220,742
39,682,833
51,787
1,724,266
369,987
1,655,205
462,210
3,104,304
7,030
44,844
1,886,236
2,531,612
2,674,012
6,997,262
62,524,992
208,089,633
242,135
1,584,286
50,593
388,380
56,429
452,045
220,557
270,393
195,957
1,157,236
25,152
91,940
598,570
768,357
17,346
592,565
42,805
157,824
19,987
78,941
29
604
52,724
114,459
94,780
229,394
1,617,064
5,886,424
15,225
142,762
16,299
274,344
22,465
324,449
22,483
94,803
14,882
263,932
4,186
30,222
21,288
42,288
227
14,733
2,429
26,479
185
2,573
1
10
4,836
12,119
1,118
4,379
125,624
1,233,093
50,000
398,372
13,028
122,952
19,932
197,431
53,060
131,098
50,801
373,276
4,340
22,034
124,174
188,189
9,398
137,410
5,686
36,282
789
7,469
23
588
6,608
14,267
6,663
21,968
344,502
1,651,336
2,418,829
19,452,784
761,744
7,872,838
2,353,553
21,915,519
7,855,458
21,789,376
20,290,929
86,487,300
249,999
1,151,445
24,964,774
40,681,667
78,758
2,468,974
420,907
1,875,790
483,171
3,193,287
7,083
46,046
1,950,404
2,672,457
2,776,573
7,253,003
64,612,182
216,860,486 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1959
127
SOUND-WOOD VOLUME IN COMMERCIAL FORESTS OF ALL AGES,
(61) BY OWNERSHIP AND SPECIES— Continued
(Gross volumes reduced for decay, at a close utilization standard, in thousands of cubic feet.)
Province
Species and D.B.H. Limits
Crown
Crown
Granted
Licences and
Leases
Canada
Control
Total
Douglas fir _ 4-9"
  _.  10"+
Red cedar _ — 4-9"
 __ 10"+
Hemlock   4-9"
 _  10"+
Balsam (true firs) 4-9"
 _ 10"+
Spruces _ 4-9"
 _ 10"+
Yellow cedar 4-9"
 10"+
White pine 4-9"
 10"+
Lodgepole pine 4-9"
 _ _....10"+
Yellow pine  	
Larch..
Cottonwood.
.4-9"
10"+
.4-9"
10"+
.4-9"
 _ _.... 10"+
Alder _ 4-9"
   10"+
Maple (broadleaf)  _.. 4-9"
  10"+
Birch  _ 4-9"
 _.. _ _....10"+
Aspen 4-9"
  10"+
Totals, all species 4-9"
„        10"+
2,448,495
23,851,108
1,241,088
22,983,128
4,696,801
47,576,190
8,146,538
31,879,134
20,096,665
89,807,589
180,000
1,996,120
234,496
1,265,059
24,365,871
39,989,123
52,496
1,728,188
369,987
1,655,205
463,991
3,370,137
106,686
428,872
3,998
64,955
1,906,811
2,591,140
2,674,181
7,009,316
66,988,104
276,195,264
445,949
4,760,265
143,957
1,677,668
354,312
3,136,209
266,732
1,220,873
203,472
1,549,681
11,283
116,136
41,991
277,812
633,568
817,117
17,372
592,842
42,805
157,824
21,113
115,125
65,828
161,707
1,408
23,017
63,740
138,466
94,791
229,853
2,408,321
14,974,595
46,631
1,473,561
119,058
3,017,574
352,612
4,782,195
107,962
1,998,589
22,652
1,030,710
35,611
345,770
6,923
68,332
40,362
81.666
240
14,838
2,429
26,479
568
39,742
14,219
50,094
678
18,283
12,105
23,319
1,129
7,541
763,179
12,978,693
57,356
478,661
21,811
247,739
44,711
391,690
56,877
182,113
53,484
436,936
1,920
12,739
4,705
25,027
127,495
194,397
9,416
137,560
5,686
36,282
917
15,195
4,237
11,510
104
1,190
6,971
14,939
6,665
22,402
402,355
2,208,380
2,998,431
30,563,595
1,525,914
27,926,109
5,448,436
55,886,284
8,578,109
35,280,709
20,376,273
92,824,916
228,814
2,470,765
288,115
1,636,230
25,167,296
41,082,303
79,524
2,473,428
420,907
1,875,790
486,589
3,540,199
190,970
652,183
6,188
107,445
1,989,627
2,767,864
2,776,766
7,269,112
70,561,959
306,356,932
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1960
1,360-260-2542 

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