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PROVINCIAL MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY and ANTHROPOLOGY REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1958 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1960

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
of NATURAL HISTORY
and ANTHROPOLOGY
REPORT FOR THE YEAR  1958
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1959  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1958.
L. R. PETERSON,
Minister of Education.
Office of the Minister of Education,
January, 1959. Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology,
Victoria, B.C., January 19th, 1959.
The Honourable L. R. Peterson,
Minister of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The undersigned respectfully submits herewith a report covering the activities
of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the calendar year
1958.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
G. CLIFFORD CARL,
Director. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
The Honourable Leslie Raymond Peterson, LL.B., Minister.
J. F. K. English, M.A., Ed.D., Deputy Minister and Superintendent.
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
Staff
G. Clifford Carl, Ph.D., Director.
Charles J. Guiguet, M.A., Curator of Birds and Mammals.
Wilson Duff, M.A., Curator of Anthropology.
Adam F. Szczawinski, Ph.D., Curator of Botany.
J. E. Michael Kew, B.A., Assistant in Anthropology.
Frank L. Beebe, Illustrator and Museum Technician.
Margaret Crummy, B.A., Senior Stenographer.
Betty C. Newton, Museum Technician.
Sheila Y. Newnham, Assistant in Museum Technique.
Eleanore McGavin, Clerk (to May 25th).
George A. Hardy, Curator of Entomology (part time).
Claude G. Briggs, Attendant.
Totem-pole Restoration Programme
Mungo Martin, Chief Carver.
Henry Hunt, Assistant Carver. PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY
Objects
(a) To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the Province.
(b) To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the
Province.
(c) To obtain information respecting the natural sciences, relating particularly to
the natural history of the Province, and to increase and diffuse knowledge regarding the
same.
(Section 4, " Provincial Museum Act," chapter 273, R.S.B.C. 1948.)
Admission
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free, on week-days, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.,
and on Sunday afternoons, 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. CONTENTS
Page
Report of the Director  9
New Displays and Special Exhibits  9
Field Work and Out-of-Province Travel  9
Museum Film Programmes  10
Other Lectures and Demonstrations  10
Seminar for Museum Persons  11
Models and Illustrations  11
Radio and Television  11
Publications   11
Attendance  13
Staff Changes  14
Library Reorganization 1  14
Obituaries _.  14
Report of the Curator of Botany  15
Report of the Curator of Birds and Mammals  18
Report of the Curator of Entomology  19
Report of the Curator of Anthropology  21
Donations and Accessions  26
A New Distributional Record for Oceanic Crabs  30 (Photograph by Westview Studios Limited.)
School-children examining Centennial Caravan exhibits.
1
.,;;-,   ■
■
(Photograph by Westview Studios Limited.)
One of the two Centennial Caravans carrying Provincial Museum and Archives
exhibits throughout the Province in 1958. 	
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
FOR THE YEAR 1958
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
NEW DISPLAYS AND SPECIAL EXHIBITS
Relatively few new displays were installed during the year 1958. These included
a temporary exhibit of models of local wild flowers created by Mr. Beebe, models of the
rare water ferns (Azolla and Marsillea), rearranged displays in the Indian rooms, and
two new habitat groups of small mammals. Most notable among the new additions to
the anthropological section are manikins for the display of costumes, the combined work
of Miss Newton and Mr. Kew. Also new are background sketches by Miss Newton to
demonstrate the use of tools and various other Indian activities. The two habitat groups
consist of adults and young of field-mice (Microtus) and a hoary marmot in alpine setting.
Taxidermy in the case of the mice is by C. J. Guiguet; backgrounds and accessories for
both are by F. L. Beebe.
The biggest project under the heading of Special Exhibits was the organization of
a display to be installed in each of two large trailers which were provided by the British
Columbia Centennial Committee. They were designed as travelling exhibits to visit most
of the Province during the Centennial Year. Exhibition material for both trailers was
provided jointly by the Provincial Archives and the Provincial Museum. Our contribution consisted of choice examples of Indian arts and crafts representing various tribes, as
well as an exhibit of sea-otter and beaver skins, showing their role in the history of the
Province, and a replica of flowering dogwood, floral emblem for British Columbia. The
material in each trailer was more or less Identical.
The caravans were on the road from early May to early October, each on a different
itinerary, so that between them they called at almost every town or settlement in the
Province. Wherever possible, schools were visited in each community and at night films
were shown. The numbers of persons viewing the combined exhibits and the movies
were as follows: Adults, 77,356; students, 55,946; film show, 13,417; grand total,
156,719.
A demonstration hive of honeybees was again installed and maintained in the
Museum by Mr. G. V. Wilkinson, of the Victoria Beekeepers Association. It continues
to be our most memorable single exhibit.
FIELD WORK AND OUT-OF-PROVINCE TRAVEL
Three major biological field-trips were made in 1958. From June 25th to July 10th,
Carl, Guiguet, and Szczawinski, of the Museum staff, together with Dr. William Newton
and Dr. T. M. C. Taylor, of the Department of Botany and Biology, University of
British Columbia, visited the Kyuquot area to collect plants and animals as part of our
long-range Island survey programme. Transportation up the west coast of Vancouver
Island from Victoria to Kyuquot was kindly provided by the Federal Fisheries Department on board the Fisheries patrol craft " Laurier," under command of Capt. A. D. N.
Jamieson. We are grateful to Mr. A. J. Whitmore for this service and to Captain
Jamieson and the ship's crew for many courtesies.
During most of the first week in September, Guiguet and Szczawinski worked in
Garibaldi Park along with personnel of the Department of Recreation and Conservation
on a short survey to determine park potentialities as a recreational area. C  10
BRITISH COLUMBIA
In mid-June, Beebe visited Langara Island (Queen Charlotte Islands) to survey
falcon aeries in this area and to collect more data for a study of the peregrine falcons of
British Columbia. While in the district, he also packed the R. M. Stewart collection of
bird-skins and arranged for its shipment to Victoria.
In addition to the above, a number of shorter trips were made by various staff members to other areas, such as Miracle Beach Park (to make an inventory of plants and
animals for the Department of Recreation and Conservation), Port Renfrew, Gulf Islands,
Friday Harbor, and islands off Oak Bay.
In the anthropological field, Duff and Kew drove to the Upper Skeena River to
arrange for the transport of certain totem-poles from some of the villages to Victoria for
copying. Details of the trip are in a later section. In August, Kew and student assistant
John Sendey exposed a profile of a midden at the Canal site on North Pender Island, the
same site in which a test-pit was dug in 1957.
For three weeks in March, Carl made a lecture tour through a number of the
northern States under the auspices of the National Audubon Society and the Audubon
Society of Canada. En route, visits were made to the Joslyn Memorial Art Museum
(Omaha, Nebr.), St. Joseph Museum (St. Joseph, Mo.), Missouri Resources Museum
(Jefferson City, Mo.), and Minnesota Museum of Natural History (Minneapolis, Minn.).
In May, Carl attended the annual meetings of the Canadian Museums Association
held in Windsor, Ont., and Detroit, Mich. Inspection visits were made to the Hiram
Walker Historical Museum (Windsor), Detroit Historical Museum, Detroit Museum of
Art, Cranbrook Institute of Science, and General Motors Research Center (Detroit).
MUSEUM FILM PROGRAMMES
For the sixteenth consecutive year a series of Saturday morning programmes was
given for school-children of the Greater Victoria area, as follows:—
Date
Topic
Attendance
427
March 8th    __      	
504
March 15th  _ 	
489
389
March 29th         	
399
As in past years, we are indebted to the Audio-Visual Education Branch of the
Greater Victoria School Board for distributing the free tickets to the various schools and
to the British Columbia Electric Company for granting special travel privileges to schoolchildren attending the lectures.
A similar series of films was presented to the general public on Sunday afternoons
during the same period. The attendance was 698 persons. We are again indebted to
the Public Information Department of the British Columbia Electric Company for loan
of certain films used on these programmes.
OTHER LECTURES AND DEMONSTRATIONS
During the year the Director gave lectures and film shows to forty organizations,
not including eighteen made on the tour through the States. Several short instructional
courses to Cubs and Girl Guides were also given, as well as four field-trips for children's
playground groups.
Many other lectures and class demonstrations were given by other staff members,
as noted in other sections of this Report. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM,  1958 C  11
SEMINAR FOR   MUSEUM PERSONS
A three-day seminar for museum people was held in Victoria from September 11th
to 13th, 1958, sponsored by the Provincial Archives and Provincial Museum and aided
by a grant from the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation.
Previous to the meeting date, all persons known to be connected with or interested
in museums throughout the Province were sent a preliminary announcement followed by
a programme and registration form. In response, twenty-six persons representing twenty-
four institutions or organizations registered.
The programme consisted largely of discussions and demonstrations along practical
lines, scheduled as follows:—
Thursday, September 11th:   Registration;   Problems of the Small Museum;
Problems in Display;   Complimentary Dinner;   Lecture by Dr. Douglas
Leechman.
Friday, September 12th:   Problems with Archival Materials;   Visits to Local
Museums; Restoration of Historic Sites.
Saturday, September 13th: Museum Round-up; Business Session.
The visits to local museums included five institutions, each of a different type.
Special speakers were Mr. Raymond O. Harrison (Vancouver, B.C.), Mr. Cliff Routledge
(T. Eaton Co. of Canada, Victoria), Dr. Douglas Leechman (Fort Langley restoration
project), and Mr. C. P. Lyons (B.C. Parks Service, Victoria). Mr. Willard Ireland and
Dr. Clifford Carl acted as co-chairmen.
MODELS AND ILLUSTRATIONS
During the spring season Mr. Beebe modelled a number of local wild flowers, using
latex, feather-shafts, various plastics, and other materials. The results are extremely
life-like.
Enlarged models of the water ferns Azolla and Marsillea were constructed by Miss
Anne Hassen, student assistant, and some of the enlarged models of insects made several
years ago were repaired by Miss Betty Newton.
In the field of illustrations for publications, Mr. Beebe turned out several black-
and-white drawings of fresh-water fishes, a series of univalve molluscs, and a number of
birds. In addition, he created and installed accessories and painted the background in
two small-mammal display-cases now set up on the main floor.
RADIO AND TELEVISION
Except for a few occasions, the Director has appeared with Inspector George Stevenson, formerly of the old British Columbia Game Commission, in a weekly radio programme " Outdoors with the Experts," sponsored by the Victoria station CJVI. The
programme has continued to receive enthusiastic response, judging by fan mail and
personal comments.
Staff members have also made short appearances on television programmes from
time to time. Most noteworthy was Dr. Szczawinski's contribution to a CBUT programme on mushrooms and other fungi in the fall season.
PUBLICATIONS
Publishing material on natural history and anthropology of the Province is still one
of the important activities of the Museum, and considerable time is spent in this field.
In addition to the Annual Report, two numbers in the Handbook series and one in the
Occasional Paper series were published in 1958—namely, "Alien Animals in British
Columbia," "The Birds of British Columbia:    (6)  Waterfowl," and "The European C  12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Starling in British Columbia "—and several manuscripts were prepared for future use.
Among these was " The Orchids of British Columbia," a revision of " The Fresh-water
Fishes of British Columbia," and " The Peregrine Falcon in British Columbia."   Manuscripts on a number of other topics are in various stages of preparation.
The following publications have been produced during the year:—
By G. Clifford Carl—
" Why Not a Marine Tank? "   Vancouver Aquarist, January, 1958, pp. 3-4.
" Salamander Sallies."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 30-32.
" How's Your Nature Study? "   The B.C. Teacher, Vol. 38, Nos. 1, 2, and 3.
By G. Clifford Carl and C. J. Guiguet—
"Alien Animals in British Columbia."   Provincial Museum Handbook No. 14,
pp. 1-94.
By Wilson Duff and Michael Kew—
"Anthony Island, a Home of the Haidas."   Report of the Provincial Museum
for 1957, pp. 37-64.
By C. J. Guiguet—
" The Mink."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 14, No. 7, p. 81.
" The Birds of British Columbia:   (6) Waterfowl."   Provincial Museum Handbook No. 15, pp. 1-84.
By G. A. Hardy—
"Wings and No-wings."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 14, No. 7, pp. 81-85.
" Bunchberry or Dwarf Cornel."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 14, No. 9, p. 105.
" Bird Notes from Saanich."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 15, No. 2, p. 21; No. 3,
pp. 33-34.
" Notes on the Life-histories of Five Species of Lepidoptera Occurring on Vancouver Island."   Report of the Provincial Museum for 1957, pp. 30-36.
By J. E. Michael Kew—
" The First Horses in British Columbia."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 14, No. 9,
p. 114.
" The Problem of Indian Tobacco in British Columbia."   Victoria Naturalist,
Vol. 14, No. 10, pp. 118-119.
By J. A. Munro—
" The Birds and Mammals of the Creston Region, British Columbia:   A Supplement."   Report of the Provincial Museum for 1957, pp. 65-82.
By M. T. Myres—
" The European Starling in British Columbia."   Occasional Papers of the Provincial Museum, No. 11, March, pp. 1-60.
By A. F. Szczawinski—
" Survey of Airborne Pollen and Fungus Spores of Victoria, British Columbia."
American Academy of Allergy, Report for 1958.
" Dogwoods."    The Canadian Primula and Alpine Society, Nos. 9 and 10,
1958.
" Madrona."   The Canadian Primula and Alpine Society, No. 11, 1958.
" Common Reed (Phragmites communis Trin)."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 14,
No. 8, p. 93. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM,  1958 C  13
ATTENDANCE
The number of visitors to the Museum in 1958 is summarized as follows:—
January   810 August   16,507
February   1,233 September   4,784
March   1,323 October   1,659
April   2,315 November   927
May   2,101 December   811
June  l_l 3,692                                                  	
July   9,176                       Total  45,338
The total registered attendance figure is about 1,800 less than in 1957, a reduction
of almost 4 per cent, probably as a result of the transportation strike in early summer.
That the strike was the cause is borne out by the fact that in August, after normal ship
service was resumed, the attendance climbed to an all-time high of 16,507 registrations.
These figures are derived from counts of signatures in the visitors' register and are
therefore not a true measure of attendance since all persons do not register. From previous experience we know that the proportion of people who register varies with the
number of persons who happen to be in the entrance hall. When few are present, all
are likely to sign; when the place is crowded, many pass up the register. No actual
counts of visitors were made this year to determine the ratio of signers to non-signers,
but, based on counts in previous years, we estimate the 1958 attendance to be about
65,000 persons.
To this estimated total there should be added 2,906 persons attending the spring
film programmes and 1,458 persons attending as school classes or organized groups,
making a grand estimated total of 69,364.
As an interesting record for purposes of comparison, the attendance for the month
of July has been analysed each year for a number of years. Accordingly, the attendance
record for July, 1958, has been broken down by Mr. Briggs as follows:—
Residence Registration Residence Registration
British Columbia _   _ 2,662                 Washington   1,149
Oregon   714
California    2,024
Other States   1,338
Alaska   3
Great Britain   121
Other countries  61
Alberta   ■ _.        	
309
Saskatchewan 	
Manitoba -   .   	
229
103
Ontario      _    .	
331
Quebec 	
New Brunswick	
77
21
Nova Scotia 	
28
Prince Edward Island
Newfoundland 	
Yukon Territory
2
3
1
Total	
3,766
Total  5,410
Grand total  9,176
Compared with figures for July, 1957, the total attendance is down, apparently for
the reason mentioned before, but the attendance from out-of-Province points, particularly
the United States, is a bit higher in proportion. This small increase may be credited to
the Centennial attractions of the year.
A notable visitor in 1958 was Princess Margaret, who made an unscheduled tour
of the main floor of the Museum on July 14th during her visit to the Legislative Buildings.
The sum of $465.33 collected by the Solarium donation-box during the year was
turned over to the Queen Alexandra Fund for Crippled Children. C 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
STAFF CHANGES
Mrs. E. McGavin, a member of our staff for some years, was transferred to another
branch on May 26th as part of a Government economy measure introduced in 1958.
Mr. Wilson Duff, Curator of Anthropology, obtained leave of absence for one year
commencing July 1st, 1958, in order to conduct a study of Tsimshian ethnology in collaboration with Dr. Marius Barbeau at the National Museum, Ottawa. The research
is partly financed by a grant from the Canada Council.
As student assistants during the summer months we were pleased to have the help
of Anne Hassen in the botanical office and John Sendey in anthropology. In addition,
Mr. John Nutt has been employed on a part-time basis to care for the living plant exhibit
and to do certain typing.
LIBRARY REORGANIZATION
Over the years the Museum reference library has grown considerably; it includes
standard reference books, periodicals, and numerous separates, mainly in the fields of
natural history, anthropology, and museum technique. During the early phase of its
history, publications were filed under the Dewey decimal system, but since about 1937
a simple numerical system was followed which proved fairly satisfactory for a time. However, it lately became obvious that the current system could not continue to be serviceable
indefinitely, and, moreover, since space was severely limited, it would be necessary to
discard publications which were of little or no use.
Early in 1958 we accepted the offer of Mr. Willard Ireland, Provincial Librarian,
to have members of his staff recatalogue our library. This would not only bring it into
line with the modern system, but would also permit a duplicate set of reference cards to
be prepared for the main library file. In addition, considerable shelving space would be
gained by elimination of little-used books. By the end of the year, fair progress had been
made through the combined efforts of Miss K. Clark, Chief Cataloguer, Mrs. Alice
Mooney, and Miss Margaret Hastings, and later by Miss Hastings. We are grateful for
this help.
OBITUARIES
We regretfully record here the passing of two eminent ornithologists—Mr. R. M.
Stewart on May 3rd and Mr. J. A. Munro on September 29th.
Mr. Ron Stewart was an ardent bird student and collector. During his long career
in the service of the British Columbia Police he resided in several parts of the Province,
finally at Masset in the Queen Charlotte Islands, where he retired and lived until his death.
His bird collection, now housed in this Museum, contains many valuable specimens, particularly adding to our knowledge of birds of the Queen Charlotte Islands and of the Atlin
district in the northern section of the Province.
For many years Mr. Jim Munro was in the Federal Wildlife Service as migratory
bird officer, first for the western Provinces and then in British Columbia alone. Being
an active fieldman, he spent the summers observing and collecting birds and mammals in
various sections of the Province, particularly in the Central Interior. The data he
gathered appeared later in publications, which form a most impressive list and contain
many contributions of great value. A few of his publications have been put out by the
Provincial Museum. His " Review of the Bird Fauna of British Columbia," written in
collaboration with I. McTaggart Cowan, is still the bird student's guide for this Province
and will continue to be so for many years to come. The J. A. Munro bird collection is
now in the Royal Ontario Museum at Toronto. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM,  1958 C 15
REPORT OF THE CURATOR OF BOTANY
HERBARIUM
The principal effort of the botanical section is the maintenance of its growing
herbarium despite the time-consuming nature of the duties in connection with it.
Recorded accessions for the year 1958 amounted to 2,505 sheets of phanerogams,
bringing the total to 32,914 phanerogams. The accession of cryptogams amounted to
920, consisting mainly of material collected on Vancouver Island and in Northern British
Columbia.
A great deal of time was spent in mounting, labelling, and identifying material
collected in previous years. This was considered a job of primary importance as the
material consisted of the collections of our earliest botanists, hitherto uncatalogued and
therefore not available for others to study. This work, started in 1956 and carried on
throughout 1958, incorporated the remaining extensive collection of J. R. Anderson,
W. B. Anderson, J. Fletcher, C. F. Newcombe, C. Tice, J. W. Eastham, G. A. Hardy,
and many others.
In 1956 the herbarium started to operate a supervising-collecting scheme, offering
volunteers detailed instructions and material needed for field work. As a result of this
scheme, a few extensive and valuable collections and several smaller ones were received.
Two of them deserve special mention. Flora of Dawson Creek area, collected by a group
of local naturalists from Dawson Creek headed by Mrs. Dorthea H. Calverley, is a most
valuable addition to our herbarium as it covers a not previously explored area. It is our
pleasure and duty to acknowledge this collection, giving credit not only to Mrs. Calverley,
but also to Howard C. Calverley, Roderick K. Calverley, Mr. James Bullen, Mr. Lee
Andrews, and Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Paul. Flora of Manning Park, collected by Mr. J. E.
Underhill, added to the herbarium several new records from that area, and is a valuable
addition. Space does not permit us to list all the other collectors and localities, but we
wish to acknowledge their work with thanks.
A start was made in organizing a new division in our herbarium of British Columbia
cryptogams. We were encouraged by the Smithsonian Institution, the University of
Washington, and the Michigan State University as the above institutions urgently require
British Columbia collections for studies. The Smithsonian Institution offered to identify
all our collections and to exchange with us British Columbia material in their possession.
There is, therefore, an urgent need to build up the herbarium and to collect our cryptogams in future, but unfortunately this requires additional space, and for the time being
the material has to be kept in storage.
In 1958, 255 lichens and mosses were exchanged and distributed among herbaria
in the United States.
Plants collected by the University of British Columbia survey party, headed by
Mr. M. Bell and Mr. J. Davidson, were incorporated into the herbarium, and a complete
list of 1,075 specimens was prepared by Dr. T. M. C. Taylor (phanerogams) and Dr.
A. F. Szczawinski (lichens). Most of the phanerogams were identified by Mr. J. W.
Eastham, and some of the lichens were identified and checked by Dr. Mason E. Hale
(Smithsonian Institution).   We acknowledge their help with thanks.
PLANT EXCHANGE
Exchange of duplicates was carried out and increased considerably. Two thousand
nine hundred and seventy-five British Columbia plants were exchanged with various universities and government botanical institutions. Most of the material was exchanged
with Science Service, Ottawa (1,300); University of British Columbia (1,100); National
Museum, Ottawa (375); and University of Washington (200). C 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HERBARIUM HELP
The herbarium was able to obtain the help of one student assistant, Miss Ann Hassen,
during the summer. She was a great help in the herbarium and also in preparing models.
Technical and artistic supervision of models was efficiently carried out by Miss B. Newton.
Supervision of technical and routine work in the herbarium was carefully carried out by
Mrs. S. Newnham.
EXTENSION WORK
A series of lectures (forty-two) was given to popularize a botanical knowledge of
our Province. The lecture topics were " West Coast of Vancouver Island," " Garibaldi
Park," " Thetis Park Nature Sanctuary," " Flora of Northern British Columbia," "Along
Alaska Highway," " 5,000 Miles in British Columbia with a Camera," and " British
Columbia Natural Rock Garden." All the above were illustrated by a series of coloured
slides. This service was at the disposal of agricultural and horticultural associations,
garden clubs, Parent-Teacher Associations, church groups, and other professional and
social clubs.
A lecture and laboratory demonstration on morphology, taxonomy, and ecology of
lichens was given to botany students at Victoria College.
Other extension work of the botanical section is covered in the Director's report.
OTHER ACTIVITIES
The exhibit of native plants was maintained all year round very successfully by
Mr. John Nutt.   As usual, this exhibit was both educational and popular with tourists.
Other curatorial duties were the identification of plant collections, providing service
for the general public and also for various government departments, mainly Forest
Pathology Laboratory and Experimental Station at Saanichton for the Federal Government, and Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, and Recreation and Conservation Departments for the Provincial Government.
SPECIAL EXHIBITS
The work on new modelling technique was started by Mr. F. L. Beebe, who successfully reproduced an exhibit of spring flora of Vancouver Island. Water ferns were
modelled by Miss Ann Hassen under the efficient supervision of Miss B. Newton.
FIELD WORK
Field work in 1958 included botanical survey and collecting parties as follows:—■
Botanical survey of Miracle Beach Park (April 22nd and 23rd) jointly with Dr.
G. C. Carl and Mr. J. E. Underhill. The above survey was requested by the Department
of Recreation and Conservation, Parks Branch.
Biological survey of the Kyuquot Sound area and offshore islands (June 25th to
July 11th) jointly with Drs. G. C. Carl, T. M. C. Taylor, W. Newton, and Charles
Guiguet.    (See Director's report.)
East Coast of Vancouver Island (July 28th to 31st) with Dr. T. M. C. Taylor to
survey route of field-trip on Vancouver Island to be attended by the members of the
International Botanical Congress in 1959.
Biological reconnaissance of Garibaldi Park in co-operation with the Department
of Recreation and Conservation in connection with the proposed development and management of the park with a view to preserving its natural biological resources. This survey
party was made up of Lloyd Brooks and York Edwards from the Parks Branch and
Charles Guiguet and Curator of Botany from the Museum. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1958 C  17
SPECIAL RESEARCH
A survey of air-borne pollen and fungus spores of Victoria, British Columbia, was
carried out in co-operation with Dr. S. S. Avren in 1958. The Durham sampler, a device
approved by the Pollen Survey Committee of the Research Council of the American
Academy of Allergy, was operated at St. Joseph's Hospital to determine the abundance
of various microscopic organic particles in the air. The sampler was in operation from
January 1st to November 15th, 1958. The particles that were caught, identified, and
recorded were mainly pollen grains and fungus spores, and a report was submitted to
the Research Council of the American Academy of Allergy (Council on Aeroallergens
Pollen and Moulds Sub-committee) for publication.
The primary purpose of this survey is to furnish information of value in studies on
pollinosis (hay fever). Although it is designed for use by patients and physicians who
need to know what, where, and when organic particles are in the air in sufficient quantities
to cause medical concern, the presentation and discussion is from a botanical standpoint
only.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We wish to acknowledge the voluntary co-operation and help of those who contribute to botanical collections and knowledge. Space does not permit us to list everyone
who helped, as we have done in previous years, but we intend to include all of them in
a grateful vote of thanks.
The botanical section continues its cordial relationship with the Department of
Biology and Botany at the University of British Columbia; Science Service, Department
of Agriculture, Ottawa; National Museum of Canada, Ottawa; University of Washington,
Seattle; Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; and is indebted to them for their
interest and help in the field of botanical research. C  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF THE CURATOR OF BIRDS AND MAMMALS
Field work in 1958 was confined largely to short explorations on Vancouver Island.
West coast insular work was continued in the Kyuquot Sound area, where additional
islands were surveyed biologically. On this expedition, Drs. T. M. C. Taylor, A. F.
Szczawinski, and William Newton carried out the botanical work. Dr. G. C. Carl worked
marine invertebrates, fish, insects, and photography, and the Curator worked birds and
mammals. Much information and many specimens were gathered in the period June
25th to July 11th. Areas worked included Walters Island, Grassy Island, Hohoae Island,
Moketas Island, the Markale Peninsula, and other adjacent points on Vancouver Island.
In late September the Curator joined a National Museum field expedition on the east
coast of Vancouver Island. Dr. Austin Cameron, leader of the expedition, was collecting
data on mammals and mammal habitats for the proposed publication " Mammals of
Canada." The Provincial Museum was happy to lend assistance and the benefit of local
experience to this endeavour.
In an advisory capacity on birds and mammals, the Curator participated in two short
expeditions to Miracle Beach and Garibaldi Provincial Parks for the Department of
Recreation and Conservation. Three short sorties, totalling seven days, were made to
Miracle Beach in the latter part of August, and four days were spent working in the
Black Tusk and Diamond Head areas at Garibaldi during early September. In November
two short familiarization sorties were made to mountains north of the Nanaimo Lakes,
with a view to collecting mammals in this zoologically unexplored area. Much of this
high country is accessible through logging-roads.
Research in speciation of the white-footed mouse introduced to islands in the Oak
Bay area was continued. Series of scientific study skins were taken from Discovery, North
Trial, and the two Chatham Islands in December of last year. The accidental introduction of Norway rats (source unknown) to the Discovery Island group two or three years
ago is expected to have a decimating effect upon the introduced mouse populations.
Investigations carried out this fall indicate that so far appreciable numbers of mice are
still present on all four islands. Additional series of mice will be collected at four-year
intervals.
Routine curatorial activities dealing with nearly 17,000 scientific study skins of birds
and mammals, specimen preparation and identification, preparation and rearrangement
of exhibits, publications (see Director's report), and the host of minor activities associated
with museum work completely utilized the Curator's time during the Centennial Year.
We wish to acknowledge the co-operation of the many citizens of this Province who
contribute annually to our biological collections and knowledge, especially members of
the Canada Department of Fisheries—Mr. A. J. Whitmore, Mr. H. E. Palmer, and
Inspector J. Embelton; Mr. Frank R. Butler, Director of the British Columbia Fish and
Game Branch, and his staff of biologists, inspectors, and game wardens throughout the
Province; Mr. R. H. Mackay, of the Canada Wildlife Service; the Royal Canadian Navy;
and the many private citizens too numerous to list here. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM,  1958 C 19
REPORT OF THE CURATOR OF ENTOMOLOGY
The usual routine of caring for the collections has been maintained; the acquisition
of two large storage cases has now made it possible to place all the important material
contained in storage boxes into quarters safer from pest hazards than when the boxes were
on open shelves.
The assembly of classified series of the lepidoptera is making progress in spite of
delays caused by lack of cabinet space.
Requests for information on common insects of home and garden have been received
as frequently as in past years. These chiefly concern economic kinds, such as carpet-
beetles, fleas, spiders, grubs, and such like—all unwelcome intruders in our way of life.
The carpet-beetle has cropped up rather more than usual this season. To enable
a ready identification, a small exhibit showing the beetle, together with illustrations of
the larva, was set up in one of the table cases on the second floor.
Miss B. C. Newton has continued to make colour illustrations from time to time of
the caterpillar of some of our more interesting butterflies and moths.
Several papers on the life-history of certain butterflies and moths have been prepared
for future publication. The task of gathering material for a handbook on the butterflies
of British Columbia is well under way.
The following moths are listed here as of interest either as recent records of uncommon species or as range extensions within the Province, particularly with reference to
Vancouver Island.
As these are my personal records, no claim is made as to their being the only recent
ones.   Jones's list (1951) has been my chief reference.
I would greatly appreciate hearing from students of the group who may have had
recent experience with any of the moths listed here.
I am indebted to Professor G. J. Spencer, Entomologist at the University of British
Columbia, for checking the collection of that institution in regard to the following species,
and also to Mr. R. Guppy, of Wellington, B.C., for information regarding them in his
experience.   Where applicable, reference is made under the species.
Sombre Dart.   Euxoa perfusca Grt.
Saanich, Vancouver Island, August 28th, 1954, and July 31st, 1957. Jones records
it from Stuart Lake, Creston, and Shuswap Lake.
Cockle's Dart.   Euxoa perfusca cocklei Sm.
Forbidden Plateau, Vancouver Island, August 3rd, 1957. Also from Kootenay,
Salmon Arm, and Lillooet according to Jones.
Oregon Dart.   Euxoa colata Grt.
Forbidden Plateau, Vancouver Island, 2,100 feet. Also from Mount McLean and
Sandon (Jones).
Sordid Dart.   Chlorizagrotis thanatologia Dyar.
Saanich, Vancouver Island, August 21st, 1949. Jones records various Mainland
localities under its several forms.
Brown-winged Polia.    Polia segregata negussa Sm.
Royal Oak, Saanich, Vancouver Island, April 19th and 30th, 1956. This form of
segregata lacks the black markings. It was first recorded from British Columbia by
Danby at Rossland in 1898. Jones lists other British Columbia localities as Southern
Interior and Brilliant, but none from Vancouver Island. R. Guppy has taken it at
Wellington, Vancouver Island.   For an illustration see Blackmore (1919), Plate I. C 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Rosy Penman.   Sideridis rosea Harv.
Royal Oak, Saanich, Vancouver Island, one specimen, May 30th, 1957. Another
specimen in the Museum collection comes from Maple Bay, Vancouver Island, May 15th
1933, collected by J. J. Taylor. Other British Columbia localities are listed as the
Kootenays, Vernon, and Shuswap Lake, but Vancouver Island has not been previously
mentioned anywhere to my knowledge.   An illustration is in Blackmore (1918), Plate I.
Scarce Penman.   Orthosia mys Dyar.
Royal Oak, Saanich, Vancouver Island. Eight specimens—one very dark, four
pale, and three grading toward the dark form.   October, 1956, 1957, and 1958.
O. mys is described by Dyar (List of North American Lepidoptera, 1902, p. 168)
as a dark purple-brown. The form caloramica B. & McD., according to Blackmore
(Report of the Provincial Museum for 1924, p. 20), was described from an Arizona
specimen, also as a dark form.
A pale specimen from Royal Oak is referred to mys by authorities at Ottawa. I have
not seen a reference to the pale form.
In a Check List of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the United States of America,
1938, McDunnough lists the species as:—
myas Dyar
a caloramica B. & McD.
agravens B. & McD. (as a synonym of caloramica).
On the face of available literature it would seem that mys and caloramica are one
and the same thing, with the pale form not designated.
Jones records mys from Saanichton, Shawnigan District, and Wellington, both pale
and dark forms.
There are three of the pale forms in the Hanham collection from Duncan.
Speckled Gray.   Mniotype ducta Grt.
Forbidden Plateau, Vancouver Island, August 2nd, 1957. I can find no other
reference to this species as occurring in British Columbia.
Field Midget.   Annaphila arvalis Hy. Edw.
Saanich, Vancouver Island, March 10th, 1958. This has already been reported by
Hardy (1958). It appears to be the first record for British Columbia since 1903.
Formerly listed as Brephos fletcheri Sm.
Scroll Pug.   Euphithecia multiscripta Hist.
Saanich, Vancouver Island, June 24th, 1955; May 29th, 1956; May 14th, 1957.
So far listed only from Brilliant, according to records available to me.
Seton Granite.   Semiothisa setonana McD.
Saanich, Vancouver Island, May 31st, 1956. Jones lists it from Seton Lake, from
which locality it was collected and described by J. McDunnough. (See Canadian Entomologist, 1927, p. 245.)
Pacific Underwing.   Catocala nevadensis Bent.
Forbidden Plateau, July 12th, 1957. So far as I am aware, not hitherto recorded
from Vancouver Island. On the Mainland it is recorded from Lillooet, Soda Creek,
Robson, and Southern Interior in general.
I am greatly indebted to the officials at the Science Service, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, for identifications. In particular, I would like to mention Dr. T. N. Freeman, Dr. D. F. Hardwick, and Dr. E. G. Munroe for their kindness in this respect. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM,  1958 C 21
REFERENCES
Blackmore, E. H.    1918.   Rept. B.C. Prov. Museum for 1917.
  1919.   Rept. B.C. Prov. Museum for 1918.
Hardy, G. A. 1958. A New Record of Annaphila arvalis Hy. Edw. in British Columbia. Proc. Ent. Soc. B.C., Vol. 55, p. 35.
Jones, J. R. J. Llewellyn. 1951. An Annotated Check List of the Macrolepidoptera
of British Columbia.   Ent. Soc. B.C., Occ. Paper I.
McDunnough, J. 1927. The Lepidoptera of the Seton Lake Region, British Columbia.
Can. Ent, Vol. 59, p. 245. C 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF THE CURATOR OF ANTHROPOLOGY
A major event in the course of the year was a research programme which the Curator,
Mr. Duff, has been enabled to undertake at the National Museum, Ottawa. It is felt that
his work there will be of great importance to the advancement of studies on the Tsimshian
Indians, one of British Columbia's important Coast tribes. Mr. Duff obtained leave of
absence from his position in the Museum for one year commencing July 1st. A progress
report is included in a following section.
We were fortunate in obtaining the services of a student assistant, John Sendey,
during the months of July and August. He assisted in the routine duties of the Museum
and was a valuable participant in a brief archaeological field-trip.
FIELD WORK AND TRAVEL
The major field project, as in past years, was concerned with totem-pole salvage.
Negotiations were begun last year with the Indians of Kitwancool village for permission
to remove some of their poles. In April, Mr. Duff and Mr. Kew travelled in the Museum
truck to Kitwancool, where a week was spent completing arrangements, removing three
totem-poles, and gathering incidental ethnographic data. A grant from an anonymous
private source enabled us to arrange for the recording of certain legends and historical
data pertinent to the three poles removed. For this project the services of Mrs. Constance
Cox, White Rock, B.C., were secured. Mrs. Cox is a fluent speaker of the Gitksan
language and, in October, spent two weeks at the village translating and recording information supplied by the chiefs of the Wolf and Frog clans. Further details regarding
these totem-poles are given in a following section of this report.
In early May, Mr. Duff and Mr. Kew attended the Northwest Anthropological
Conference at the State College of Washington. Delegates took part in presenting scientific papers and in discussing recent developments in research in the fields of anthropology
and archaeology.
During the latter half of August, Mr. Kew and Mr. Sendey conducted an archaeological excavation on Pender Island. This was planned as a continuation of the investigation begun in 1957. A 15-foot section of the midden was exposed, some very important
artifacts were recovered, and drawings of the stratigraphy of the site were obtained. We
now have sufficient information to plan a more extensive excavation of this site. The
evidence gives strong indications that the site contains an early horizon similar to that
discovered by Dr. C. E. Borden, of the University of British Columbia, at Locarno Beach
in Vancouver. This consisted of an early maritime culture existing some 2,400 years
before the present.
In September, Mr. Kew accompanied Dr. C. E. Borden on a brief tour and examination of several sites on the southern part of Vancouver Island. These included a mound
site near Courtenay, which was being excavated by Miss Kathleen Capes, of the National
Museum, Ottawa.
In addition to the numerous short trips required for routine Museum business, the
staff attended several Indian spirit dances and Shaker Church meetings on Southern
Vancouver Island.
EDUCATION
Numerous classes of school-children visited the Museum and were given demonstrations or guided tours of the anthropological section. The Director's report contains
further information on visits of school groups. A series of lectures on the Indians of
British Columbia was given at Victoria College to a class of anthropology students. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1958 C 23
Lectures or film showings were given to the following groups: British Columbia
Indian Arts and Welfare Society (two), Margaret Jenkins P.-T.A., View Royal High
School P.-T.A., St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church Young Peoples Group, Women's
Canadian Club, and Victoria Y.M.C.A. Men's Club.
EXHIBITS
The major portion of the anthropological display rooms has now been reorganized.
Exhibition space is inadequate for complete coverage of all phases of life of British
Columbia's many Indian groups, and facilities and space are inadequate for the realization
of the full value of the material in the Museum's collection. However, we have attempted
to arrange the new exhibits in a way which is both pleasing and instructive. This necessitated decreasing the amount of material on display. In consequence, our storage rooms
are severely overcrowded, and this problem will become more acute each year since our
collection is continuing to grow.
LOANS
The Museum has continued to lend, on a temporary basis, selected material to other
institutions for exhibition and scientific study. This year eight such loans were made.
The Vancouver Art Gallery displayed some of our finest examples of Northwest Coast
Indian art in its exhibition " One Hundred Years of B.C. Art." Staff members selected
and planned two duplicate exhibits which were installed in the mobile Centennial Caravans sponsored by the British Columbia Centennial Committee. This was one of the few
opportunities our institution has had to extend the range of its visual contact, with the
people of the Province, beyond the large urban areas of Victoria and Vancouver.
A set of educational exhibits was prepared and loaned to the Victoria School Board
for use in elementary schools of this district. Two other museums also borrowed material
to augment their own collections for special displays—the Anthropological Museum,
University of British Columbia, and the Hudson's Bay Company Historical Museum in
Winnipeg.
Other loans were made to the Photographic Branch, Department of Recreation and
Conservation; the Parks Division, Department of Recreation and Conservation; and Dr.
C. E. Borden, Archaeologist, University of British Columbia.
MISCELLANEOUS
Much of our time continues to be devoted to routine office work, such as answering
inquiries, handling correspondence, accessioning and caring for the anthropological
collection, maintaining photographic and archaeological site-survey files.
In the previous year, colour moving pictures were made of the Gitksan village of
Kitwancool, with special attention given to the remarkable display of totem-poles. Additional footage was obtained during our stay at the village in April of this year, and a
half-hour silent movie was compiled. This has been used in educational lectures and
has received favourable comment. Colour photographs were taken during the archaeological excavation on Pender Island, and a series of slides illustrating the methods of
modern archaeology has been prepared.
INTERIM REPORT ON OTTAWA RESEARCH PROGRAMME
On July 1st the Curator started on a year's leave of absence to undertake a special
project at the National Museum of Canada. This was made possible by the grant of a
Canada Council Senior Fellowship. The trip to Ottawa was made by car, and a large
number of museums, both in Canada and the United States, were visited. In Ottawa,
facilities have been generously provided by the National Museum, and work on the project
has been carried on as planned. C 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The project is a study of the social organization and traditional history of the Tsim-
shian Indians of the Skeena and Nass Rivers. It is based on voluminous materials on file,
assembled over many years by Dr. Marius Barbeau. These include original field-notes
made by Dr. Barbeau during several seasons of work with the Tsimshian between 1915
and 1939, and also a large volume of information and traditional narratives collected by
Dr. Barbeau's Tsimshian assistant, William Beynon, between 1915 and his death in 1957.
Because of Dr. Barbeau's advanced age, it was important that another scholar should
become familiar with these data and help prepare them for publication.
The immediate objective of producing a definitive report on Tsimshian social organization involves two steps. First, the information must be extracted from the original
handwritten field-notes (which are partly in Dr. Barbeau's unique shorthand) and compiled in an orderly system. Second, it must be analysed and rewritten for publication.
By the end of the year the first step had been completed, and a start made on the second,
for fifteen of the twenty-six tribes of the Tsimshian nation. These are the ten Lower
Skeena tribes of " Tsimshian proper," the Kitkatla, Kitkahta, and Kitisoo of the sea-coast,
and the Kitselas and Kitsumkalum of the Skeena Canyon. The material on the Upper
Skeena (Gitksan) tribes and the Nass River tribes has not yet been studied.
The information has been arranged in a number of categories, which include:—
(1) Tribal Structure.—The basic kinship units are the " houses " (lineages),
and each tribe consists of from twelve to forty-five houses arranged in
order of rank. The houses fall into four phratries and two marked social
classes.
(2) Names.—Each house owns hereditary personal names, more than 2,500
of which have been translated and analysed. Abstracts have been made
of the traditional origins of many names, and progress has been made on
the analysis of the complex naming system.
(3) Crests.—Each house also owns a number of crests which it displays on
totem-poles and in a great variety of other forms. These have been listed
and described, and the crest system has been analysed for the information
it yields on the historical relationships among the houses.
(4) Territories.—The hunting territories and village sites of the tribes and
houses have been listed and mapped.
(5) Traditions.—The traditions owned by each house explain its history, the
origin of its names and crests, and its rights to territories. They also
reveal most clearly the structure and growth of the tribes. Most of these
historical narratives will be published in separate works under preparation
by Dr. Barbeau, but abstracts have been made of a large number which
bear directly on social organization, for use in the present study.
Some time has been spent collaborating with Dr. Barbeau in the
preparation of these related publications.
Quite apart from the Tsimshian study, the Curator has been privileged to participate
in staff discussions on all phases of museum policy and in the planning of new exhibit
halls.   The result has been an improved knowledge and appreciation of general museum
problems.
TOTEM-POLE RESTORATION PROGRAMME
As in past years, considerable time has been devoted to the task of salvaging totem-
poles and directing the carving programme at Thunderbird Park. From January to
mid-July the carvers, Mr. Mungo Martin and Mr. Henry Hunt, were engaged in completing the two Centennial totem-poles. These were described in the Annual Report of
1957. The Royal totem-pole, produced jointly by this department and the British
Columbia Centennial Committee, was completed first and shipped from Victoria early in
May after a dedication ceremony before the main entrance to the Parliament Buildings. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1958 C 25
The pole arrived safely in England, was erected in Great Windsor Park and accepted by
Her Majesty the Queen Mother on behalf of Queen Elizabeth II. The pole has been
acclaimed a magnificent gift and an appropriate commemoration of British Columbia's
first centenary.
Mr. Martin and his granddaughter Mrs. Henry Hunt travelled to London to be
present at the ceremony and were well received during their week-long stay. The expenses
of their journey were provided partly by the Centennial Committee and by a donation
from Mr. and Mrs. J. G. Nordal, of Victoria.
The carving of the Vancouver Centennial pole, sponsored jointly by the Vancouver
Centennial Committee and the British Columbia Centennial Committee, had progressed
simultaneously with that of the Royal pole, and on July 10th the completed pole was
transported to Vancouver. It was officially erected at the site of the Centennial Maritime
Museum in Haddon Park on October 15th. The ceremony was attended by Mr. and
Mrs. Mungo Martin and Mr. and Mrs. Henry Hunt.
Following the completion of the Centennial poles, the Museum was able to resume
its programme of restoring old totem-poles. In the past this has involved buying and
removing decaying originals from Indian villages and making new copies to be erected
in outdoor locations. The originals are being held in storage until such time as facilities
are provided for indoor exhibition. A representative sample of Haida and Kwakiutl
poles has been compiled in recent years, but, because of a reluctance on the part of the
Tsimshian Indians to sell their poles, the collection was conspicuously short of this style
of pole, which is most distinctive and of high artistic merit.
In April the staff was pleased to complete an arrangement with the people of
Kitwancool village whereby three of their poles were obtained for permanent preservation.
Still unwilling to relinquish outright the ownership of their poles, which are important
symbols of family rank and the right to the use of traditional land areas, the people of the
village acceded to the following proposal offered by the Museum. The Museum would
remove three of the totem-poles to Victoria, where new copies of them would be carved.
The new copies would be returned to Kitwancool and re-erected on their original locations, and the originals would be retained by the Museum.
The poles obtained are of outstanding quality and have been judged among the finest
ever produced by the Tsimshian Indians. The tallest pole is known as "Split Person"
and consists of the following figures, from the bottom up: A human figure; two human
females side by side, each holding a child; a large human figure surmounted by two small
human figures. This pole is the hereditary property of Chief Wiha, the leading chief of
the Wolf clan of Kitwancool. According to Marius Barbeau, this is one of the oldest
Kitwancool poles, having been erected circa 1870. (Barbeau, Totem Poles of the
Gitksan, National Museum, 1929, p. 120.)
The second pole is also the traditional property of Chief Wiha. It is the most
elaborate of the three, consisting of two large eagle figures, each surmounted by a band
of small delicately carved human figures.
The third pole is owned by Chief Guno, the head of the Frog clan. It has three
frog figures topped by a human figure, and is the smallest of the three.
These poles were lowered and crated, then trucked to Prince Rupert, where they
were loaded on H.M.C.S. " Sussexvale " and brought to Victoria.
Mr. Martin and Mr. Hunt began the task of copying these poles in July; by the end
of the year, Chief Guno's pole had been copied and more than half the work on the tallest
of Chief Wiha's pole had been done. When the three copies will have been completed
in the spring of 1959, they will be returned to Kitwancool and re-erected.
The costs of labour, equipment, and materials involved in the removal of these poles
and the costs of the return and re-erection are being generously borne by a private source
wishing to remain anonymous. C 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In August an 8-foot totem-pole was carved by Mr. Martin and Mr. Hunt. It was
an original design by Mr. Martin in the Kwakiutl style and featured two figures—the
thunderbird and the sea-otter. Prepared as a gift from the Province of British Columbia
to the Canadian Tourist Association, the carving was financed by the Department of
Recreation and Conservation. The pole was shipped to Quebec City for the Canadian
Tourist Association convention in the latter part of September. Mr. Martin, accompanied
by his great-granddaughter, Miss Shirley Hunt, attended the convention. Mr. Martin
demonstrated his carving techniques and Miss Hunt served as his interpreter.
Other incidental carving accomplished during the year includes three copies of old
fragile Kwakiutl masks in the Museum collection. The new copies are intended for use
in demonstration and for loan to other institutions.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The encouragement and co-operation offered by various individuals and groups
throughout the Province have been most gratifying. We wish particularly to express our
indebtedness to the following: Mrs. Constance Cox, White Rock, for recording ethnographic data on the Kitwancool totem-poles; Mr. and Mrs. B. W. McKilvington, Kitwancool, for the hospitality of their home and services in recording ethnographic data; the
chiefs and band councillors of Kitwancool for their generous help and co-operation; the
officers and men of H.M.C.S. " Sussexvale," and all other Navy personnel who helped in
transporting the Kitwancool totem-poles to Victoria; Lady R. Lake and Mrs. Constance
Kelly for their generous permission to camp and excavate on their Pender Island property;
British Columbia Forest Products Limited and MacMillan & Bloedel Limited for the
donation of cedar logs used in the totem-pole carving programme. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1958 C 27
DONATIONS AND ACCESSIONS
ZOOLOGICAL
_,     .. Mammals
By gift-
British Columbia Game Office, Victoria, two mink, two elk skulls.
Michael Easton and Jean Masters, Victoria, one skull of dog.
David Hancock, Victoria, one fur-seal.
Reuben Randell, Saanich, one black rat.
George Ruck, Victoria, one whale embryo.
Lome Woodley, Victoria, one big-eared bat.
By the staff, sixty-three.
t,     -ca Birds
By gift-
Mrs. Grace Bell, Victoria, one towhee.
Chris Burton and Danny Curtis, Victoria, one murre.
George H. Dawson, Saanich, one barn-owl.
Miss Norah DeLisle, Cadboro Bay, one rail.
Mrs. A. Fontaine, Victoria, one varied thrush.
S. Gibson, Saanich, one goshawk.
A. O. Hayes, Victoria, one Swainson thrush.
Miss Hilda Hinder, Victoria, one hermit thrush.
Canon M. W. Holdom, Crescent Beach, one golden-crowned sparrow.
J. A. Ingram, Victoria, one sharp-shinned hawk.
J. Lenfesty, Victoria, one screech-owl.
Mrs. E. McGavin, Victoria, one quail chick, one rufous hummingbird, one
pine siskin.
H. McKeever, Victoria, one yellow warbler.
J. McLaren, Victoria, one yellow warbler.
Mrs. M. I. Newton, Victoria, one Oregon junco, one Steller jay.
K. Richmond, Victoria, one nest of bush-tit.
J. B. Short, Victoria, one Seattle wren's nest with three eggs, one California
quail.
Mrs. E. Sylvester, Victoria, one cedar waxwing, one red-breasted sapsucker.
Mrs. W. L. Taylor, Saanich, one cowbird, one cedar waxwing.
R. H. Turley, Saanichton, eighty-seven goldfinches,  twelve purple finches,
three robins, one pipit, one Audubon warbler.
Mrs. W. G. Ziller, Cordova Bay, one sharp-shinned hawk.
Crew of weather ship " Stonetown," Victoria, one wandering tattler.
By the staff, six.
_     ... Amphibians and Reptiles
By gift—
G. C. Bugg, Victoria, one horned toad.
David Evans, Victoria, salamander eggs.
Mrs. E. Stephen Price, Victoria, one box-turtle.
G. Stace Smith, Creston, one skink.
_     .,. Fish
By gift-
Captain Barnes, Brentwood, one sailor-fish.
Danny Normandeau, Victoria, one bracketed blenny.
Harry Watkins, Victoria, two unidentified fish. c 28 british columbia
Invertebrates
By gift—
R. G. Alcock, Canoe Cove, collection of West Indian shells.
R. Buckell, Salmon Arm, collection of land snails.
I. E. Cornwall, Victoria, one California mussel.
A. D. Crease, Victoria, one wasp's nest.
Gary Elliott, Victoria, one wolf-spider, one black widow spider.
Brian Inglis, Victoria, goose-barnacles.
D. A. Lamont, Victoria, chrysalis of butterfly.
Miss E. Lemon, Victoria, one jumping spider.
D. C. McDevitt, Whaletown, specimens of nudibranch and egg-mass of
a mollusc.
Robert Mathews, Victoria, one starfish.
Ricky Matthews, Victoria, one banded borer.
Mrs. G. E. Mortimore, Langford, one leech.
A. W. Patenaude, Victoria, one black widow spider.
E. Rahn, Victoria, one giant chiton.
Mrs. Buchanan Simpson, Lake Cowichan, large collection of shells.
Joseph Siscoe, Victoria, one hair-worm.
Robert Stewart, Victoria, one Polyphemus moth.
Daryl Wakelyn, Victoria, caterpillar of tiger-moth.
Frank White, Victoria, one turtle-crab.
Miscellaneous
By gift-
William A. Cooil, Ladysmith, two walking-sticks made from whalebone.
Stephen Jones, Victoria, July, 1958, copy of " Du " magazine.
George Ruck, Victoria, three publications—" The Sei Whale," " The California Gray Whale," " Notes on External and Internal Anatomy of Balama
glaciates "—and samples of tanned shark-skin.
Mrs. Buchanan Simpson, Lake Cowichan, nineteen volumes of Bent's " Life
Histories of Birds " and other books.
Mrs. G. M. Stewart, West Vancouver, three water-colours of fungi by Henry
A. C. Jackson.
b)   ANTHROPOLOGICAL      c
The Robert H. Nichols Collection.—(Purchase.) An extensive collection of Coast
Salish implements and ceremonial paraphernalia, purchased from R. H. Nichols,
Victoria.
Tsimshian
Bone soul-catcher.   Mr. Schroeder, Kitwanga.
Kwakiutl
Human skulls, five, Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Human skeleton with fragments of cedar-bark matting. Royal Canadian Mounted
Police.
Nootka
Button blankets, two.   Nichols collection.
Objects of grass basketry, four.   H. Brown, Victoria.  -
Human skulls, ten.   George Kinney, Victoria. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM,  1958 C 29
Coast Salish
Human skull.   John Sendey and Richard Cox, Victoria.
Stone fish-hook.   Mrs. M. G. Sember, Victoria.
Antler object.   Mrs. M. G. Sember, Victoria.
Stone atlatl weight.   Mrs. M. G. Sember, Victoria.
Stone hammers, two.   R. A. Willing, Victoria.
Ground stone blade.   Robert Coates, Gibsons Landing.
Stone sinker.   E. Watson, Victoria.
Chipped stone object.   R. Dunn, Victoria.
Human skull.   Alan Jones, Victoria.
Human skull.   Alan Orr-Ewing, Victoria.
Human skeleton.   J. Kemp, Victoria.
Cedar-bark towel.   Nichols collection.
Cedar-bark head-dress.   Nichols collection.
Fur head-piece.   Nichols collection.
Novice dancers' costumes, four.   Nichols collection.
Novice dancers' staffs, six.   Nichols collection.
Beaded vest.   Nichols collection.
Beaded dance shirt.   Nichols collection.
Wool sashes, two.   Nichols collection.
Goat-wool blanket.   Nichols collection.
Carved cane.   Nichols collection.
Reed mats, two.   Nichols collection.
Cradle spring-poles, two.   Nichols collection.
Spinning-machine.   Nichols collection.
Wool-winding reel.   Nichols collection.
Canoe paddles, three.   Nichols collection.
Blanket looms, two.   Nichols collection.
Uprights for blanket looms, one pair.   Nichols collection.
Clam-drying sticks.   Nichols collection.
Fish-roasting sticks.   Nichols collection.
Herring-drying sticks.   Nichols collection.
Chipped stone points, nine.   Staff.
Chipped stone objects, twelve.   Staff.
Ground slate objects, sixteen.   Staff.
Bone objects, twenty-four.   Staff.
Antler objects, nine.   Staff.
Abrasive stones, twelve.   Staff.
Shell rattle fragments, two.   Staff.
Soapstone objects, seven.   Staff.
Human skeletons, two.   Staff.
Interior Salish
Chipped stone objects, four.   Nelson Museum, via Peter Eastham, Mines Branch.
Chipped stone points, three.   Nelson Museum, via Peter Eastham, Mines Branch.
Stone pipe.   E. J. Klohn, Vancouver.
Coiled basket.   Mrs. E. Cridge, Victoria.
Coiled baskets, three. William Downes, Victoria.
Coiled basket.   Mrs. E. Tait, Maple Bay.
Coiled basketry tray.   H. Brown, Victoria.
Coiled baskets, two.   H. Brown, Victoria. c 30 british columbia
Athapaskan
Loon-skin bag.   Miss E. Melville, Victoria.
Obsidian scraper.   Niels Knudsen, Victoria.
Birch-bark basket.   Morley Shier, North Burnaby.
Beaded moccasin tongue.   T. W. S. Parsons, Victoria.
Beaded skin gloves, three pairs.   T. W. S. Parsons, Victoria.
Shaman's drum and drumstick.   Mrs. Donald Gray, Hagwilgate.    (Purchase.)
Shaman's rattle.   Mrs. Donald Gray, Hagwilgate.   (Purchase.)
Shaman's paint-bag.   Mrs. Donald Gray, Hagwilgate.    (Purchase.)
Shaman's head-dress.   Mrs. Donald Gray, Hagwilgate.    (Purchase.)
Shaman's feather dusters.   Mrs. Donald Gray, Hagwilgate.   (Purchase.)
Shaman's amulet.   Mrs. Donald Gray, Hagwilgate.    (Purchase.)
Woven tump-line.    Mrs. Donald Gray, Hagwilgate.    (Purchase.)
Miscellaneous
Skin purses, four, Eskimo.   Mrs. J. M. Henderson, Victoria
Ivory model of kayak, Eskimo.   Major D. L. McKeand, Victoria.
Ivory model of steamship, Eskimo.   Major D. L. McKeand, Victoria.
Human skulls, two, Blackfoot.   George Kinney, Victoria.
Small twined basketry bag, unknown origin.   Parks Branch, Department of Recreation and Conservation. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM,  1958 C 31
A NEW DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORD FOR OCEANIC CRABS
By Josephine F. L. Hart, Volunteer Assistant,
Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
A collection of small crabs found clinging to the netting and barnacles of a large
Japanese glass float are a rarely taken species of oceanic crab, Pachygrapsus marinus
(Rathbun). These were obtained March 28th, 1958, by the "Pacific Queen" from
latitude 48° N., longitude 126° W., which is some 60 miles south-west of Vancouver
Island, and given to the author through the kindness of Mr. Paul Parizeau, of Victoria,
and Dr. Gordon Bell, of the Biological Station, Nanaimo.
This crab is closely allied to the so-called Columbus's crab (Planes minutus (Linnaeus)), found on sargassum weed and believed to be the species that gave Columbus
faith that they were near land. Actually these crabs are ocean dwellers, living on floating
objects, such as logs, seaweeds, and even sea-turtles, and are only found near land when
carried there by wind or tide.
Pachygrapsus marinus (Rathbun) was first described in 1914 from specimens taken
west of Baja California (latitude 23° 49' N., longitude 127° 50' W.), and not seen again
until 1947, when four were found clinging to a Japanese mine which drifted onto Lincoln
Beach, Oregon. They have also been found in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands
(Chace, Fenner A., Jr., 1951: The oceanic crabs of the Genus Planes and Pachygrapsus,
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 101, pp. 65-103). Thus the locality off Vancouver Island
constitutes a considerable extension of range.
These crabs are superficially like the yellow shore-crab (Hemigrapsus oregonensis
(Dana)) but differ in having striations on the carapace, more swollen leg joints, and
a dense growth of hair and spines on the ends of the walking-legs. They are predominately brown in colour, ranging from light, to reddish, to a rich chocolate, with mottlings
of white or grey, and some pink on the tubercles of the carpus of the cheliped.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia
1959
1,560-559-8552 

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