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REPORT of THE FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST 1960 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1961

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. R. G. WILLISTON, Minister R. G. McKEE, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
Of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1960
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1961  Victoria, B.C., March, 1961.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service
of the Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1960.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands and Forests. The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the
Forest Service during the calendar year 1960.
R. G. McKEE,
Deputy Minister of Forests- CONTENTS
Item Page
1. Chief Forester's Summary   11
2. Forest Surveys and Inventory   16
Introduction  16
Field Programme  16
Operations  16
Forest Classification and Sampling  16
Regeneration Surveys  16
Volume-table and Loss-factor Projects  17
Office Programme  17
Photo Mensuration  17
Growth   18
Forest Mapping   19
Computation of Statistics   19
3. Forest Research    20
Cowichan Lake Experiment Station  20
Aleza Lake Experiment Station  20
Field Programme  20
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1960  22
Research Publications, 1960  22
4. Reforestation  23
Forest Nurseries  23
Seed and Extraction  23
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  23
Planting  24
Plantation Improvement and Maintenance   24
Preparation of Planting-sites  24
Permanent Improvements  24
5. Working Plans  25
Introduction  25
Public Sustained-yield Units  25
Tree-farm Licences  27
Tree-farm Lands  28
Farm Wood-lot Licences   28
5 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Pace
6. Public Information and Education  29
Communication Media  29
Photography and Motion-picture Production  29
Film Library  30
Publications and Printing  30
Radio and Television  31
Press and Periodicals  31
Signs and Exhibits  32
School Lectures  32
Library  32
Co-operation  33
7. Forest Management  34
General  34
Administration of Managed Units  35
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  36
Lumber Prices  36
Log Prices  37
Stumpage Prices  37
Sliding-scale Adjustments  37
Stumpage-appraisal Cost Studies  38
Silviculture  38
Scaling  39
8. Grazing  40
General Conditions  40
Markets and Prices  40
Live-stock Losses and Diseases  41
Range Management  41
Range Surveys  41
Range Improvements  41
Peace River Pastures  42
Co-operation  43
Administration  43
Grazing and Hay Permits  44
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees  44
Live-stock Counts  44 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 7
Item Page
9. Engineering Services  45
Engineering Section  45
Development Planning  46
Road Location  46
Construction  47
General Engineering  47
Mechanical Section  47
Building Design and Construction  50
Marine Design  51
Forest Service Marine Station  52
Marine Work  52
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop  53
Machine-shop  53
Radio Section  53
10. Forest Protection
56
Weather  56
Fires  57
Occurrence and Causes  57
Cost of Fire-fighting  57
Damage  57
Fire-control Planning and Research  57
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers  57
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  59
Fuel-moisture Sticks  59
Protection Access Roads  59
Snag-falling Projects  59
Air-photo Mosaics  59
Card Recording of Fire Data  59
Fire-weather Records and Investigations  59
Fire-suppression Crews  60
Aircraft  61
Roads and Trails  62
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  62
Fire-law Enforcement  63
Forest Closures  63 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Page
11. Ranger School  65
General  65
Extra Courses  65
Acknowledgments  66
12. Personnel  67
Organization  67
Services  67
Communications and Training  67
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  68
Classifications, Salaries, and Working Conditions  69
13. Accounting  71
Fiscal  71
Administration  71
14. Forest Entomology and Pathology (Canada Department of Forestry)  72
Forest Insect and Disease Conditions  72
Control Operations and Experiments  74
Research Projects  75
Insects  75
Diseases of Immature Forests  75
Diseases of Mature Forests   75
Publications  75
15. Personnel Directory, 1961  77
16. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest Service  81 Lightning—the prime 1960 enemy.   In one three-hour period on July 13th lightning caused 407 forest fires
over a 14,000-square-mile area in the central Kamloops District.  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1960
CHIEF FORESTER'S SUMMARY
Introduction and Legislation
Amendments to the Forest Act during 1960 include one important addition
in the form of a new subsection to section 17 which designates a sustained-yield unit
being overcut by 150 per cent or more of its capacity as an emergency area and
provides for new procedures in the granting of timber sales within that area. The
purpose of the amendment is to protect established operators in the unit from outside competition for timber supplies necessary to carry them over the current cut-
adjustment period.
Among the other amendments was one giving the right to the Crown to seize
a vehicle transporting timber out of the Province without a permit and one extending liability to the principal to a contract for violation of the Act by his contractors.
Log-salvage regulations were amended for the sake of clarity. The Grazing
Act was also amended to simplify procedures for establishing grazing districts and
the grazing regulations were amended to provide a new basis for the computation
of grazing fees.
The Deputy Minister acted as Chairman of the B.C. Sub-committee of the
Canadian National Committee for the Fifth World Forestry Congress held in
Seattle, Wash. Subsequent to the Congress proper, thirty-six delegates, representing twenty different countries, visited the Province from September 12th to 16th,
inclusive. The considerable assistance given by many segments of the industry,
the Federal Government, the University of British Columbia, and the Canadian
Institute of Forestry did much to make this study tour a success.
Through the courtesy of the Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch, Canada
Department of Forestry, this Report again contains submissions from the Victoria
unit of that organization on forest-insect and forest-disease conditions in British
Columbia.
Surveys and Inventory
Financial assistance by the Federal Government continued under the Canada
Forestry Act and was expanded by agreement during the year to include assistance
toward the implementing of intensive management surveys in Crown forest units.
Survey and Inventory field crews were active in all five forest districts, covering an area of 19,418,254 acres for purposes of forest classification, sampling,
regeneration surveys, and studies of volume-table and loss-factor projects.
Various studies of air-photo interpretation techniques were carried out, and
the Division has developed a method of obtaining flying heights above the ground
using two cameras mounted on booms beneath a helicopter.
Forest Research
Technical details of the research programme for the year will be published in
the annual Research Review, available in the fall of 1961.
General maintenance and improvement work was carried on at the Cowichan
Lake and Aleza Lake Experiment Stations. Due to a drop in the market for small
wood, the thinning programme being carried out at Thurlow Island and the Cowichan Lake Station was inactive during the year.   The energetic programme directed
11 r
12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
toward the selection of " plus " trees for use in seed orchards continued with significant assistance from industry.
Fertility studies started in 1958 were continued with mineral fertilizer and
organic amendment trials at the Duncan, Quinsam, Green Timbers, and East
Kootenay nurseries.
Reforestation
Weather conditions both on the Coast and in the Kootenays resulted in considerable damage to nursery stock. Damping-off reached a high average of 12 per
cent at the Duncan Nursery.
Some 7,000,000 seedlings were shipped by the nurseries during the year.
Total planting throughout the Province by all agencies, public and private, using
Forest Service stock, amounted to 6,732,475 seedlings on 18,185 acres.
A new nursery is being established in the Chilliwack Public Working Circle,
with crews from the Attorney-General's Department doing much of the work.
In less than five months these crews cleared, fenced, and sowed 178 seed-beds,
using hand-labour for the most part.
Working Plans
At the end of 1960 almost 48,000,000 acres of productive forest land with a
total annual allowable cut of 783,721 M cubic feet, equivalent to 65 per cent of
the total Provincial scale, were under regulatory working plans.
Seven new public sustained-yield units were approved during the year, and
one new tree-farm licence, No. 37, went into operation, and two additional licences
were awarded.
Of the total area under regulation, 40,257,302 acres are within seventy-two
public sustained-yield units (annual allowable cut, 464,620 M cubic feet) and
7,099,111 acres are within thirty-nine tree-farm licences (annual allowable cut,
296,695 M cubic feet).
Public Information and Education
In nearly all categories the work of this Division increased over the previous
year. Some 11,000 photographic prints were produced for the press and other
organizations. Special motion-picture footage and still photos were obtained of
water-bombing activities and the general fire situation in the Kamloops and Vancouver Districts. Location filming of a new subject on logging damage was completed.
Film library subjects were seen by 165,340 persons.
Information activities on radio and television increased markedly during the
year. School lecturers covered 202 schools and gave 260 lectures to 40,000
students.
There was a general increase in the production of special articles for periodicals and in the level of news media liaison activities.
Forest Management
Despite the continuing trend to lower log and lumber prices carried over from
last year, 1960 recorded a new high value of $738,360,000 for all forest products
and a new high total cut of 1,199,843 M cubic feet. The 1960 value was up
$68,245,000 over the revised 1959 value figure and the cut was up 150,698 M
cubic feet over the previous year.
Of the total value, lumber represented $380,600,000 (52 per cent) and pulp
and paper, $242,925,000 (33 per cent). The remainder was accounted for by
plywood at $75,760,000, plus minor-product values. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 13
All five forest districts showed a gain in total scale over 1959, but the most
significant was that of Prince Rupert District (Coast), up 63 per cent over the
previous year. The principal species cut according to volume were Douglas fir
(32 per cent of total), hemlock (23 per cent), spruce (17 per cent), and red cedar
(13 per cent). Fir was the leading species cut in the Interior, and hemlock on
the Coast.
Improvement in water-borne shipments accounted for a goodly portion of
the increased cut. Total overseas shipments were up nearly 600,000 M f.b.m. to
1,675,351 M f.b.m. for the year, with the greatest increases going to the United
Kingdom, United States, Africa, and Australia, in that order.
At the end of 1960 there were 6,815 active timber sales in existence with a
total area of 3,476,000 acres. Of the 1,843 sales auctioned during the year,
90 per cent were non-competitive and accounted for 78.6 per cent of the total
volume sold.
The year saw the first operation in the Interior to provide pulp-chips from
sawmill waste and the first pulp-mill to be established anywhere in the Interior,
at Castlegar.
The seventy-two public sustained-yield units in the Province actually recorded
a cut of 385,000 M cubic feet during the year, which represents 83 per cent of
their combined allowable annual cut and 32 per cent of the total Provincial scale.
By the end of the year, the selling prices for lumber appeared to have stabilized at a lower level than the previous year and log prices, for all but spruce and
fir, declined steadily during the year. The most significant decline in log prices
was for cedar, which ended up some $10 per thousand below 1959.
Reflecting the price trend, the Service made 5,372 downward adjustments in
stumpage rates during the year, as against only 383 upward adjustments.
Intensification of scaling supervision was continued in the Interior during
the year, with greater emphasis being placed on check scaling.
Various stand-treatment techniques were applied to some 600 timber sales,
involving approximately 188,480 acres. Also, 3,194 acres were scarified, an
increase of 1,437 acres over the 1959 programme.
Grazing
1960 was a good year for the ranching industry. Forage production in the
northerly part of the range country was phenomenal and all hay harvested was put
up in good condition.
Cattle prices strengthened toward the end of the year and reached a weighted
average of $17.25 per hundredweight by the fall.
Range surveys were interrupted by the demands on staff of the heavy fire
season, but 340,000 acres were covered, bringing the total surveyed acreage since
1945 to almost 10,000,000 acres. Range seeding was a major feature of the
improvement programme, and 35,450 pounds of grass and legume seed were sown
on severely burned areas.
Satisfactory progress was made in this first year of special pasture-development work in the Peace River area.
Engineering Services
Work continued on Forest Service roads with an extensive programme of
engineering investigations, route reconnaissance, location, and construction. During 1960, road routes totalling 751 miles were reconnoitred and 278 miles of previously constructed haul-road were maintained. 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The major building construction undertaken during the year was the erection
of Dawson Creek Ranger Station buildings and the Smithers office and warehouse
building. In both instances the accommodation incorporates a headquarters cache
for reserve fire-fighting equipment. The design of a new 60-foot Ranger boat
for the Queen Charlottes was completed, and tenders have been called for the
construction of the hull.
Radio expansion continued, particularly in forest-protection communication
equipment, with a net increase of 298 units added during the year.
Forest Protection
After a slow start in hazard build-up, the fire season hit its peak in July,
when 50 per cent of the season's total of 4,113 fires occurred, only seven less fires
than the record year of 1958. Fire-fighting costs for the Forest Service and damage to forest-cover reached $7,797,418, representing a loss in stumpage value only
of $3,725,316, well over twice the ten-year average damage value. Lightning-
caused fires accounted for 68 per cent of the total fire-fighting cost and for 69 per
cent of the 285,820 acres of forest land burned over.
Aircraft, both fixed wing and helicopters, played a vital role in fire-fighting
during 1960. A total of 3,551 hours of flying-time was logged by fixed-wing aircraft in strictly protection operations, of which 2,126 hours were on water bombing.
Helicopters on fire duty ran up a total of 1,762 hours of flying-time.
Throughout the Province, forest-protection roads now exceed 2,000 miles,
of which 254 miles were constructed during 1960. Eight hundred and fifteen
miles of protection trail now exist, of which 166 miles were constructed during
the year.
Considerable new work was done on the important investigations leading to
the establishment of standard fire-danger ratings for the Province, and close liaison
was maintained with the Federal fire research agency with this end in view.
The extremely hazardous conditions necessitated the imposition of sixty-six
forest closures of differing types throughout the Province.
Ranger School
The eleventh class, consisting of twenty-one enrollees, graduated in December,  1960.
Although there were no major changes in the curriculum, a new two-day trial
course in the operation of launches was conducted at the Marine Station.
The school facilities were used during April for an in-service training course
arranged by the Department of Recreation and Conservation, with thirty-six in
attendance.
Personnel
In order to assist in the greatly increased load of sustained-yield administration and research requirements in the districts, seven graduate foresters were added
to the permanent establishment of the Service, which now stands at 839 permanent
employees of all classifications. Ten graduate foresters and four engineers left the
Service, and fourteen foresters and four engineers were hired during the year.
Turnover rate for the Service, including permanent and full-time casual employees, averaged 13.4 per cent, up slightly over 1959. Prince Rupert District
had the highest rate of turnover, with an over-all average of 22.9 per cent and
a high of 51.4 per cent in the office staff. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1960
15
A marked increase in safety-training activity was evidenced during the year,
with committees being set up in all forest districts and Victoria headquarters.
Accounting
The record timber scale of 1960 resulted in charges against logging operations
reaching $32,964,679, the highest since 1956 and 20 per cent above the 1959
figure. Prince Rupert District showed the largest increase, being 48 per cent up
over the previous year.
Direct Forest Service collections rose to a record calendar-year total of
$30,523,729, of which $26,374,420 were stumpage fees and $2,281,028 royalty
payments.
Forest Biology
The Forest Biology Division of the Canadian Government is reporting this
year for the first time as a part of the newly formed Canada Forestry Department.
The year was marked by a large number of defoliating insect outbreaks on
the Coast and a generally low level of such activity in the Interior.
Severe infestations of western hemlock by the green-striped forest looper over
an area of 26,000 acres on the west coast of Vancouver Island were recorded
during the year. An intense outbreak of saddle-backed looper occurred on some
14,000 acres of hemlock and balsam in the Kitimat area, and this is expected to
continue into 1961. Many other diverse outbreaks of varying size and intensities
were investigated during the year.
Assessments of the effects of aerial spraying by the forest industry of 30,000
acres of the Queen Charlotte Islands infested with black-headed budworm indicated that the weakened solution of DDT (reduced to one-quarter pound from
1 pound per acre) gave adequate control of the" budworm and yet produced no
harmful side effects to fish-life.
F. S. McKinnon,
Chief Forester. 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
INTRODUCTION
During 1960 the Division completed the third year of the maintenance inventory programme. Financial assistance was continued by the Government of
Canada according to the agreement for forest inventory implemented under the
Canada Foresty Act. A significant step was made during the year when the
Government of Canada agreed to extend its financial assistance to include intensive
management surveys in Crown forest units. This long-term programme will commence in 1961.
Field work covered an area of 19,418,254 acres in the five forest districts,
as detailed below:—
Forest District Acres
Vancouver  3,060,745
Prince Rupert  1,977,159
Prince George  10,006,907
Kamloops  4,097,258
Nelson  276,18 5
Total  19,418,254
FIELD PROGRAMME
Operations
Field supervisors again directed forest inventory projects from field headquarters located at Smithers, Prince George, and Kamloops. Coast projects were
conducted from three launches.
Radio communications were invaluable in co-ordinating far-flung activities
of field crews, launches, and contract helicopters. Tape recorders carried in helicopters once more proved to be useful in recording forest-type data during low-
level observation along predetermined flight plans.
Two Bell 47 G-2 helicopters on a four months' charter were used by forest
classification crews to collect forest-type information and by sampling crews to
provide rapid transport to ground samples located in the more remote areas. Owing
to frequent diversions of the machines for fire-protection work in the Kamloops and
Prince George Forest Districts during the month of July, the contract was extended
for an additional month. Nine hundred and seventy-five hours were flown on
forest inventory projects throughout the Province during 1960 and an additional
200 hours on forest-protection work in the Kamloops and Prince George Forest
Districts.
The services of the Division's mobile mechanics were again in great demand
by field crews throughout the Province.
Forest Classification and Sampling
Two parties of foresters using Bell helicopters examined and classified approximately 12,500,000 acres.
Three Interior and two Coastal sampling parties covered an area in excess of
19,000,000 acres and established 4,924 sample plots. An additional 816 sample
plots were provided by a private firm under a co-operative agreement.
Regeneration Surveys
An intensive regeneration survey was completed for the Crooked River Public
Working Circle during 1960.    While the greater emphasis was placed on the REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 17
logged-over areas, valuable information was obtained on the older and more recent
burned-over areas. The following summary shows that portion of the burned and
logged-over areas that was covered by the survey:—
Acres
Logged-over areas     8,721
Burned-over areas (prior to 1958)  31,300
1958 burned-over areas     2,050
Total  42,071
The information obtained by this survey, along with detailed information
obtained on the single-tree selection areas over the past three years, provides a very
complete regeneration picture for this management unit. The compilation and
analysis of the basic data are proceeding at the present time.
Volume-table and Loss-factor Projects
Volume Tables
During 1960 work continued on revision of the 1955 interim standard cubic-
foot volume tables for the commercial tree species of British Columbia. The
revised tables will be published during 1961.
Log-position-volume tables for Coast Douglas fir, western red cedar, western
hemlock, balsam, and Sitka spruce (Forest Survey Note No. 4) were published
and distributed.
Loss Factors
A study of decay and related losses in spruce, balsam, and lodgepole pine was
initiated in the Kamloops Forest District. Objectives of the study are to determine
the extent of decay in forest stands; to determine the external signs of decay and
to assess their value as aids to cruising; and to identify the fungi of major importance. A local-volume table study is being carried out concurrently with the decay
study. During the summer a total of 700 trees was measured in detail in the
Hendrix Creek area. These studies are being carried out in co-operation with the
cruising staff of the Kamloops Forest District.
Studies of logging breakage were carried out on three operations on the west
coast of Vancouver Island. The objective of these studies is to provide realistic
reduction factors for defect, breakage, and utilization losses occurring in all phases
of the logging operation.
A complete revision of the Interim Diameter-class Loss Factors for the Commercial Tree Species of British Columbia (1957) is in progress. The new factors
will incorporate all data collected to date and will provide more realistic allowances
for waste and breakage.
The work on taper curves, commenced last year to provide curves for five
Coast species, was extended to include the Interior species of major importance.
It is hoped to have this information published for distribution at a later date.
OFFICE PROGRAMME
Photo Mensuration
Following a number of years of investigation in the application of photo-
mensuration techniques, details of practical use were published in Forest Survey
Note No. 5, entitled " Timber Volume Estimates from Aerial Photographs."
2 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Measurements of stand height and crown density made on aerial photographs
were used, in conjunction with a zonal photo stand-volume table, to obtain an estimate of gross cubic volume per acre for a 10,000-acre mature spruce-lodgepole pine
stratum in the Babine Public Working Circle. Double ground-photo sampling was
used to adjust the estimate for local conditions.
The photo volume estimate of 3,850±525 gross cubic feet per acre at a probability of .95 (±14 per cent error) required twenty man-days. To attain comparable accuracy by ground sampling only would have required sixty-five man-days.
Another study was carried out in connection with photo stand-volume tables
for lodgepole pine and (or) deciduous types in Subzone 940, Zone 4 (Central Interior), where a total of 1,295 photo samples were measured. These samples covered
140 strata (species-age-height) for which volume estimates were calculated. The
conclusion reached was that, for these types, a local table will provide volume estimates of greater reliability than will a regional table adjusted to local conditions.
The Division has developed a method of obtaining flying height above ground
from the photo-measured base length of two cameras, mounted one at each end
of a 15-foot boom suspended beneath a helicopter. Results show that flying height
can be estimated from such measurements to a considerable degree of accuracy.
At a flying height of 250 feet the standard error of estimate of flying height is
±4.4 feet or 1.76 per cent. Tree heights have been measured on these photographs, and results are encouraging. The average error of measurement of thirty-
four trees on several pairs of photographs was ±6 feet. Studies are under way
to determine the accuracy of estimating plot size, number of trees per plot, species
of each tree, height of each tree, crown diameter of each tree, and condition of
each tree.
A 70-mm. low-elevation helicopter stereogram of balsam-spruce type; heights variable
from 90 to 130 feet; flying height, 383 feet.
Growth
Permanent Growth and Yield Plots
The Division is responsible for the remeasurement of 120 experimental plots,
made up of 709 sub-plots. During the year fourteen experimental plots (fifty-five
sub-plots) were remeasured in current work areas.   To date, gross close cubic-foot REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
19
volume statements to four diameter limits are available on 1,708 plot remeasure-
ments. For the forest types concerned, periodic and mean annual increments may
be readily obtained from this data.
Empirical Growth Estimates
Preparation of Forest Survey Note No. 6, entitled " Empirical Yield Tables,"
was completed during the year. These revised Provincial growth estimates were
based on a total of 13,371 samples, each consisting of four or more plots, established during the six-year period 1953 to 1958. All the major growth types within
the Province were represented, excluding those for Zone 3 (North-west Interior).
Additional growth estimates have been calculated for twenty-eight Crown
management units, and net mean annual increments are now available for major
growth types in the following areas: Arrowhead, Babine, Cottonwood, Crooked,
Edgewood, Kettle, Kyuquot, Nakusp, Narcosli, Naver, Niskonlith, Purden, Quesnel,
Sechelt, Similkameen, Slocan, Smithers, Stuart, Upper Kootenay, Westlake, Williams Lake, Willow River, Carp, Big Bar, Lac la Hache, Morice, Nicola, and Stum
management units.
Forest Mapping
Final forest-cover maps were draughted for the Sechelt and Williams Lake
management units. Additional units that were partially completed at the year's
end were the Lac la Hache, Quesnel Lake, and Chilliwack areas. In addition, an
interim forest-cover mapping programme designed to accelerate the publication of
all plotted field data has completed portions of the Babine, Creston, and Robson
units.
During the year, 11,678 maps were distributed at the request of various public
and private agencies.
Computation of Statistics
Seventy requests were received requiring statistical summaries to be used
mainly for management planning and access-road development. They involved
a total area of 30,000,000 acres and a net timber volume exceeding 46 billion
cubic feet.
Forest-resources bulletins, which, with the exception of Bulletin No. 34, were
based on Provincial inventory data, were issued for the following units during
1960: Bulletin No. 14, Rivers Inlet (amendment); Bulletin No. 34, Williams
Lake (amendment); Bulletin No. 52, Kyuquot (first issue).
Increased use was made of punched-card data processing equipment and an
L.G.P. 30 electronic computer in meeting various divisional needs. Such efficient
equipment will always be essential for species projects and for local and Provincial
surveys. 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RESEARCH
As in previous years, technical details of research projects are published in
the Forest Research Review, hence the following is but a brief account of the highlights of the year.
A number of research officers were privileged to attend the Fifth World
Forestry Congress held at Seattle during September, where they had the opportunity
of hearing and meeting outstanding forest scientists in various fields of work.
Subsequently, a number of Congress delegates visited British Columbia and some
useful personal contacts were established.
COWICHAN LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
Fifty acres on the station cleared for special exotic and genetic plantings were
fenced against deer. A number of seedlings and graftings were set out in the tree
bank for " plus " tree candidates.
The camp facilities were again used for field-days, the British Columbia Forest
Service Ranger School, the Committee on Forest Tree Breeding in Canada, and
senior forestry students from the University of British Columbia each spent two
days at the station.
ALEZA LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
The Aleza Lake Experiment Station was open for eight months, housing crews
of from six to thirty men mainly engaged in road construction and maintenance.
The West Branch Road has been completed. On the East Branch, 1 mile
of clearing was completed during the winter and 1 mile constructed, including
access to a gravel deposit and a new nursery-site. On the main road, 1V_ miles of
ditching, gravelling, and grading completed the maintenance work.
No logging took place last year; however, three new timber sales have been
prepared, including 830 acres in the Long-term Selection Working Circle, 67 acres
in the Clear-cut Working Circle, and 8 acres for nursery development.
FIELD PROGRAMME
Due to personnel changes, the field season was slightly less active as new men
became oriented.
It is disappointing to report that the thinning programme at Thurlow Island
and Cowichan Lake Experiment Station is currently inactive due to poor markets
for small wood. A number of sample plots in different thinning experiments have
been remeasured but not enumerated in the table below.
The tree-breeding programme continues to be mainly concerned with selecting
" plus " trees of superior quality for use in seed orchards. The interest and cooperation of the forest industry in this work are both significant and appreciated.
Ecological studies included a trial of seven species on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Douglas fir shows the most vigorous initial growth, with an average
height of 55 inches and a maximum height of 8 feet in three years. In a study of
climatic factors controlling the limits of Douglas fir on the Coast, a reciprocal plantation from different altitudinal provenances was established, and already some
differences are showing up with respect to late-spring frost damage.
Aspects of the work on nursery fertility started in 1958 at Green Timbers are
being followed up by mineral fertilizer and organic amendment trials at Duncan, REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 21
Green Timbers, and Quinsam nurseries. Growth of outplanted stock from
the initial Green Timbers experiment was followed up at five sites on Vancouver
Island. At the East Kootenay nursery, the value of different organic soil amendments is being assessed.
On the west coast of Vancouver Island, studies on seed-fall distance and direction and on seed germination and seedling survival were continued.
A new regional research officer was appointed in the Prince Rupert District,
and a certain amount of time was spent in becoming familiar with studies already
initiated. Five plantations have now been established to test different kinds of
stock. The two original plantations have a two-year survival for white spruce of
50 to 65 per cent. A trial of the Dunemann nursery bed, established in 1959, has
been very successful. With the aid of fertilizers 250 vigorous seedling per square
foot have been raised, averaging over 3 inches in height. Two scarification trials
were undertaken in the Babine Lake area, and a preliminary examination indicates
one-hour-per-acre scarification with an Allis Chalmers H.D. 16 or International
T.D. 14 may be all that is required.
Prince George studies on planting white spruce throughout the growing season
were repeated. Survival and growth studies on areas scarified in 1956 were completed. Experiments in direct seeding of spruce were carried out on 160 acres in
which Endrin-treated seed was compared with untreated seed. Another study is
concerned with the rate of deterioration of scarified seed-beds. There is some
indication that invading vegetation after three growing seasons prevents the establishment of spruce seedlings.
In the Kamloops region a number of projects were maintained dealing with
seed-dispersal of Douglas fir, effect of burning on the regeneration of cedar-hemlock
stands, and scarification in spruce-alpine fir stands. Comprehensive planting trials
with ponderosa pine have been carried out with the S. M. Simpson Company, of
Kelowna. Shading was not found to be a major factor in survival, whereas site
preparation which influences soil moisture and plant competition was found to be
signifiant. In view of the current practice of seeding logged areas to grass, an examination was made to determine the influence upon tree regeneration. The results
are inconclusive, and a more detailed study has been initiated to compare the effect
of grass seeding upon Douglas fir germination and survival.
In the Nelson region the research officer spent considerable time familiarizing
himself with the problems and projects under study. Comprehensive trials with
planting ponderosa pine were carried out, and again the beneficial effect of soil
preparation was noted. Preliminary investigations of the site types in the Montane
forest region were begun, and a classification for Christmas-tree production based
upon site types was compiled. 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1960
Experimental
Project No.
226
274
368
370
388
392
428
429
439
442
458
460
463
465
467
468
474
478
479
480
482
483
487
502
505
510
512
513
520
523
524
525
528
529
531
533
534
537
538
539
540
541
543
544
546
547
548
551
553
555
558
Title
Cone production in immature stands of Douglas fir..
Cone production in mature stands of Douglas fir..	
The adaptability of tree species to forest sites	
Partial cutting study, Interior Wet Belt	
Commercial thinning in hemlock..
Field survival of experimentally treated nursery stock-
Plantation trials.   	
Mixed species spacing trial-
A preliminary study of growth and development of some Douglas fir-ponderosa
pine types    	
Planting trials
Seed production and dispersal under various stand conditions in the spruce-
alpine fir type.
Seed production of conifers in relation to climate_
Seed-fall and regeneration study...
Plantation of exotic species in the Southern Interior...
Regeneration studies in the spruce-alpine fir type	
Cone-crop studies.
Inbreeding experiments with Douglas fir. 	
Phenotypic selection in open-grown Douglas fir	
" Plus" tree selection for Douglas fir seed orchards..
Co-operative seed provenance study of Douglas fir....
Climate and the altitudinal distribution of conifers—
Record of plantations of exotic species throughout British Columbia-
Studies on seed-dispersal of Douglas fir	
Plantation trials  	
Planting of white spruce throughout the growing season..
Planting-stock trials _   	
Seeding and planting trials-
Planting of exotic conifers for future hybridization-
Experimental seeding of spruce 	
Seed-bed soil-amendment trials  	
Regeneration on scarified areas— 	
Swamp regeneration project-
Influence of time on the effectiveness of scarified seed-beds in spruce-alpine fir-
Regeneration problems in decadent cedar-hemlock stands.	
Anatomical characteristics of selected trees  _
Scarification trials in spruce-alpine fir.   _	
Spacing trial of Douglas fir    	
Spacing trials.
Seed dissemination and the influence of weather conditions	
Studies in the improvement of cone-handling and seed-processing..
Cone maturity and seed-ripening study 	
Natural nurseries—    	
An ecological classification of stands for Christmas-tree production-
Spacing and growth studies of white spruce 	
Test of fertilizers on nursery stock _
Test of secondary fertilizers on nursery stock-
Test of organic amendments on nursery stock..
A study of methods of planting ponderosa pine (1960)-
Ecological investigations of Montane forest region-
Germination and survival of western hemlock and associated species..
Scarification trials  _ 	
Region
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Thurlow Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Nelson.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Prince Rupert.
Prince George.
Nelson.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Nelson.
Prince George.
Nelson.
Prince George.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Nelson.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS,  1960
Forest Research Review for the year ending March, 1960.
Illingworth, K., and Arlidge, J. W. C: Interim Report on Some Forest Site Types
in Lodgepole Pine and Spruce-Alpine Fir Stands. B.C. Forest Service Research Note No. 35, 1960.
Decie, T. P., and Fraser, A. R.: Miscellaneous Notes on Scarification Trials, Prince
George Forest District, 1956 to 1959. B.C. Forest Service Research Note
No. 36, 1960.
Schmidt, R. L.: Factors Controlling the Distribution of Douglas Fir in Coastal
British Columbia.   Quarterly Journal of Forestry, Vol. LIV (2)  156, 1960.
Schmidt, R. L., and Marshall, J. R.: A Wind-direction Recorder for Remote
Stations.   Ecology, Vol. 41 (3) 541, 1960. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 23
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
The climate pattern during the winter was similar to the previous year.
Considerable damage was done to seedlings in several nurseries. Damaged seedlings managed to survive the summer but had to be culled during lifting in the fall.
Many seedlings had the bark almost completely stripped from the root collar, and
although this had partially calloused over, they were not of plantable quality.
Weather conditions in the East Kootenay were not favourable to growth, and a large
proportion of the ponderosa pine will have to be held over an extra year in order
to reach optimum size for field planting. Late-type damping-off reachd serious
proportions at Duncan, averaging 12 per cent but reaching 35 per cent in some
seed-lots.
During the year, nurseries shipped out some 7,000,000 seedlings, of which
75,000 were transplanted. At the end of the year, a total of 5,625,000 trees was
available for immediate planting. During the spring, 1,712 beds were sown throughout the Province. These, together with some small two-year stock, total some
11,250,000 seedlings. A new nursery is being established in the Chilliwack Public
Working Circle with the assistance of the Attorney-General's Department. An
outstanding achievement here was the clearing, fencing, working-up, and sowing of
178 seed-beds in less than five months, mostly with hand-labour. In all, some 6.5
acres were cleared and prepared for nursery seed-beds.
Autumn sowing of seed-beds appears to be the answer to growing western
hemlock and also produces high-quality Douglas fir seedlings. A total of 306 beds
was sown in the autumn. At one nursery, sowing could not be completed because
of unfavourable weather and ground conditions. It is hoped that the superior root
system and sturdiness of autumn-sown seedlings will produce good-quality one-year
seedlings suitable for planting certain clean sites and a two-year seedling which will
compare well with transplants for restocking brushy areas.
SEED AND EXTRACTION
The extraction of the bumper crop of cones collected in 1959 was completed
in the early part of this year. Careful attention to collection and extraction have
proven well worth while. Yields were higher than in former years, and several
Coastal Douglas fir lots had a germinative capacity of 94 per cent. At the end of
the year, there were some 427 seed-lots totalling 5,965 kilograms (13,100 pounds)
in cold storage at 8 per cent moisture content and a temperature of 0° F. In order
to facilitate record-keeping and the calculation of nursery sowing rates, all records
concerned with tree-seed weights are kept in the metric system.
There being practically no cone-crop anywhere in the Province this year, no
cones were collected.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
This type of work was kept to a minimum on the Coast during 1960. Some
work was done late in the season by a reforestation crew which carried out detailed
regeneration surveys over 10,000 acres. An additional 14,000 acres were covered
by reconnaissance.
In the Crooked River Public Working Circle a reforestation crew under the
supervision of the Forest Surveys and Inventory Division intensively examined 8,700 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
acres of old timber sales cut under the diameter-limit system.    A more extensive
survey was conducted over 37,000 acres of old and new burns.
PLANTING
Forest Service planting commenced in the Campbell River area on February
24th but had to close down for one week at the end of the month due to frozen
ground. In the Cowichan Valley, planters commenced on April 7th but, after
fighting snow for two weeks, had to shut down completely for a further fifteen days.
Planting was not completed in this district until May 26th. Reforestation Division
crews planted a total of 1,899 acres, mainly of private land under section 167 of
the Forest Act. The forest industry and others planted 8,387 acres on tree-farm
licences, etc. In the fall, reforestation and Attorney-General's Department crews
planted 711 acres on four small projects. Industry planted 6,793 acres on tree-farm
licences.
During the spring season, reforestation and stand-treatment crews planted 273
acres in the East Kootenay. Stand-treatment crews planted 20 acres in the Kamloops District and 35 acres in the Prince George District. The forest industry
planted 24 acres in the Southern Interior.
Planting in the Interior during the fall was limited to 28 acres in the Prince
Rupert District.
Total planting in the Province for the year by all agencies amounted to
6,732,475 trees on 18,185 acres (see Table 2 of Appendix for statistics of planting
over the past ten years).
Plantation Improvement and Maintenance
Thirty-four acres of Douglas fir plantation were pruned at Campbell River.
During the winter 157 acres of overstocked ponderosa pine stands were thinned
near Rampart in the East Kootenay. A total of 534 acres has now been thinned
in this area.
Fencing of the Green Timbers plantations to prevent Christmas-tree poaching
was continued. In the Robertson River valley, 8,000 feet of deer-proof fence was
constructed to protect valuable experimental plantations. Ten miles of plantation
roads were brushed out.
Preparation of Planting-sites
Near the Campbell River nursery two seed-orchard sites totalling 12 acres
were cleared in preparation for the planting of root stocks. In the Chilliwack Public
Working Circle 36 acres of deciduous brush were slashed by Attorney-General's
Department crews in preparation for planting. Reforestation Division crews felled
snags on 6,306 acres which are to be planted or are adjacent to planting-sites.
PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS
At the Duncan nursery, a 32- by 3 8-foot seed cold-storage building with a
capacity of 13,000 kilograms of seed was completed. Adjoining this, a 31- by 34-
by 14-foot seedling cold-store with a capacity of approximately 3,000,000 seedlings
was constructed.   An 8- by 16-foot baling-shed was added to the implement-shed.
At the Cowichan Lake camp, a 16- by 40-foot workshop and a 16- by 22-foot
vehicle-inspection shed were constructed.
A new irrigation system at the Campbell River nursery involved the installation
of 1,700 feet of 4-inch plastic pipe. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
25
WORKING PLANS
INTRODUCTION
During 1960 seven new public sustained-yield units and three new tree-farm
licences were approved or awarded. One of the tree-farm licences, to Canadian
Forest Products Limited, in the Nimpkish drainage, was formally ratified by the
signing of a contract. As a result, there are now in operation seventy-two public
sustained-yield units and thirty-seven tree-farm licences. Two additional tree-farm
licences were awarded during the year. In addition, there are twenty-four (out of
a total of thirty-six) Taxation Act tree-farms which are not managed as an integral
part of the tree-farm licences, and also forty-nine farm wood-lot licences.
The total area now committed under working plans amounts to 47,874,997
acres of productive forest, with a total allowable annual cut of 783,721,000 cubic
feet, equivalent to 65 per cent of the total Provincial scale for 1960. The following
table illustrates the progress made to 1960 in the organization of the various forms
of units committed to forest management under working plans for sustained yield:—
Progress to 1960 of Sustained-yield Programme
Type of Unit or Tenure
Number of
Units
Productive Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Annual Cut
(MC.F.)
Publicly managed units  	
Tree-farm licences operating and awarded	
Tree-farms (excluding those in tree-farm licences).
Farm wood-iots.   	
Totals  	
72
39
24
49
40,257,302
7,099,111
506,922
11,662
184
47,874,997
464,620
296,695
22,095
311
783,721
PUBLIC SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS*
Work on public sustained-yield units was devoted mainly to bringing additional
developed, operable areas into the sustained-yield programme through the establishment of suitable unit boundaries and systems of regulation of the allowable annual
cut. Seven new units were approved to commit an additional 4,718,802 productive
acres, estimated to be capable of an annual cut of 36,360 M cubic feet, to the programme. Also, boundary changes to nine units and changes made as a result of
obtaining improved inventory for a further nine units affected certain established
units, with the result that the total productive acreage in this classification is now
40,257,302 acres with a total allowable annual cut of 464,620 M cubic feet.
New units approved during the year were the Dean, Blueberry, Moberly,
Barton Hill, Raft, Shuswap, and Salmo.
The seventy-two approved public sustained-yield units in operation are listed
below, by forest districts:—•
Vancouver Forest District
Name of
Sustained-yield Unit
Barkley 	
Broughton	
Cape Scott	
Chilliwack 	
Productive Area
(Acres)
Annual Allowable
Cut (M CF.)
47,665
2,500
355,431
13,000
104,873
3,800
73,023
3,000
Forests, including public working circles, which are managed by the Forest Service. 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Vancouver Forest District-
Name of
Sustained-yield Unit
Harrison 	
Kyuquot
Redonda
Sayward
Sechelt __
Seymour
Soo  	
Yale	
-Continued
Productive Area
(Acres)
142,989
341,929
257,099
111,876
304,881
224,815
214,799
402,726
Totals   2,582,106
Prince Rupert Forest District
Name of
Sustained-yield Unit
Babine	
Productive Area
(Acres)
     1,248,239
Burns Lake      1,024,791
Dean 	
Graham _
Hecate	
Kitimat __
Kitwanga
Morice __.
Ootsa   	
Rivers Inlet
Smithers _____
Terrace 	
711,141
585,882
862,782
305,875
529,416
778,957
1,720,969
374,041
506,810
220,175
Totals   8,869,078
Name of
Sustained-yield Unit
Big Valley	
Prince George Forest District
Productive Area
(Acres)
        353,179
Blueberry      1,016,997
340,128
202,270
1,390,074
412,367
604,231
646,247
Moberly   1,518,682
Monkman         581,575
Narcosli      1,136,526
Bowron 	
Canoe 	
Carp 	
Cottonwood
Crooked River
Longworth 	
Naver  	
Parsnip 	
Purden 	
Robson	
Stuart Lake
Westlake ___.
Willow __._..
  3 02,217
  980,922
  190,681
  363,165
  723,847
  595,570
  259,446
Totals    11,618,124
Annual Allowable
Cut (M CF.)
6,400
19,650
17,000
3,500
15,000
4,200
8,300
20,000
116,350
Annual Allowable
Cut (MC.F.)
8,000
5,500
11,800
8,600
15,500
4,400
3,000
7,000
9,300
7,500
4,500
6,400
91,500
Annual Allowable
Cut fM CF.)
6,000
3,500
7,300
3,000
6,600
5,350
8,740
9,200
5,000
4,950
4,000
6,720
7,000
3,250
4,000
7,500
6,000
7,000
105,110 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
27
Kamloops Forest District
Name of
Sustained-yield Unit
Barriere 	
Barton Hill
Big Bar _____
Botanie _
Eagle
Productive Area
(Acres)
  262,777
  150,590
  1,488,311
  462,852
  228,862
Lac la Hache ._     1,492,729
NehaUiston    355,529
Nicola   714,060
Niskonlith   222,301
North Thompson  219,975
Quesnel   1,249,189
Raft  455,933
Salmon Arm   145,216
Shuswap    438,708
Similkameen   712,829
Spallumcheen   561,428
Stum   1,454,184
Taseko  2,006,8 8 5
Williams Lake  741,645
Yalakom   425,515
Totals
Name of
Sustained-yield Unit
Arrowhead 	
Creston 	
Edgewood 	
Granby 	
Kettle 	
Nakusp 	
Salmo 	
Slocan 	
Upper Kootenay
Windermere 	
Nelson Forest District
Productive Area
(Acres)
119,374
511,934
226,739
491,290
679,011
64,946
426,751
188,852
186,506
503,073
Totals   3,398,476
Annual Allowable
Cut (MC.F.)
4,400
1,060
12,000
5,600
2,600
13,000
2,000
7,000
2,350
3,000
14,900
5,000
2,000
6,500
7,100
9,700
3,000
4,200
6,300
3,000
13,789,518        114,710
Annual Allowable
Cut (M CF.)
2,000
5,000
2,800
3,000
5,750
2,200
3,500
2,500
4,700
4,500
Grand totals   40,257,302
35,950
464,620
TREE-FARM LICENCES
During the year a tree-farm licence in the Squamish area was awarded following
the hearings conducted in 1958 by the late Honourable Gordon McG. Sloan, Forest
Adviser, and, in 1959, by Judge C. W. Morrow, who was appointed a Commissioner
on this matter when the untimely death of the Forest Adviser prevented his advising
the Government.
Also this year, two tree-farm licences, the last of those recommended for
approval in the Royal Commission report of 1956, were awarded following hearings
conducted by the Minister under authority of the then section 33 of the Forest Act. 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
One of these was established, late in the year, as the Nimpkish Tree-farm Licence,
No. 37.
Thus the total of tree-farm licences in operation was increased by one during
the year, to thirty-seven. Processing of the two awarded licences continues, and it
is expected that this will be completed during the coming year. The award of these
three tree-farm licences has committed an additional 1,250,000 productive acres,
estimated to be capable of an annual cut of 68,154 M cubic feet, to the forest-
management programme under this form of tenure. The total productive acreage
in this classification is now estimated to be 7,099,111 acres, of which 5,683,795
acres are Crown and 1,415,316 acres are private. The total annual allowable cut
under this tenure is estimated to be 296,695 M cubic feet.
TREE-FARM LANDS
There are still thirty-six tree-farms under the Taxation Act, although one new
tree-farm, comprising 837 productive acres, was certified in 1960. One tree-farm
of 518 productive acres was decertified. Additions totalling 14,032 productive
acres were made to six of the previously existing tree-farms. The net increase in
acreage under this classification was 14,351 acres. Twelve of the thirty-six tree-
farms, with a productive acreage totalling 249,733 acres and allowable cuts totalling
10,906 M cubic feet, are managed under the tree-farm licence legislation, and these
statistics are included in the totals for tree-farm licences. The remaining twenty-
four tree-farms commit a further 506,922 productive acres, with a combined allowable annual cut of 22,095 M cubic feet, to the over-all sustained-yield programme.
FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
One farm wood-lot licence was added and two cancelled during the year,
bringing the number in good standing to forty-nine. The acreage of productive
forest land involved in this phase is 11,662 acres and the allowable cut is 311 M
cubic feet.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 29
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
The extreme fire situation in the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts during
the summer climaxed a busy and productive year for the Division.
In all categories of work except in the field of printing, activities increased over
the previous year in an attempt to meet the rising demand for forestry information
from all segments of the public.
COMMUNICATION MEDIA
Photography and Motion-picture Production
During the year the laboratory processed and printed 173 black-and-white rolls
for other divisions. The photographic staff produced 387 large-format negatives and
79 rolls in black-and-white, 53 large-format negatives and 23 rolls in colour. Eight
hundred and forty-six black-and-white negatives, 143 colour negatives, and 94
colour slides were added to file.
A total of 10,846 black-and-white prints was produced, an increase of 1,157
over 1959. Approximately 2,500 of these prints were supplied to the press and
periodicals for use with news and feature articles, an increase of 1,000 over 1959.
Seven hundred and fifty-one prints were supplied on request to delegates on the post
Fifth World Forestry Congress tour in British Columbia.
Colour motion-picture footage, 35-mm. slides, plus colour and black-and-white
negatives were obtained of aircraft water-bombing demonstrations at Vancouver,
Cassidy, and Kamloops airports. Later, complete photographic coverage was given
to early tests of the Martin Mars flying tanker, involving some 400 feet of colour
movie film and numerous still photographs.
Photographic coverage was provided at the peak of the fire season in the
Kamloops Forest District. As a direct result, 141 black-and-white and 68 colour
negatives were added to file. During this coverage, field processing was used on
some occasions to rush newsworthy pictures to metropolitan newspapers and local
press. A special 300 feet of black-and-white 16-mm. motion-picture film was shot
for CBUT, Vancouver, and used extensively in newscasts. Over 800 feet of 16-mm.
colour footage was shot for stock footage and use in future Forest Service productions. The Ontario Forestry Association requested prints on all phases of the fire
situation for distribution to eastern television stations, and were consequently supplied with ninety-seven Balops.
In motion-picture production, 3,000 feet of 16-mm. colour film was shot mainly
in September and October, to be used in a film on logging damage. Work continues
on this film at year's end.
Early in the year, 500 feet of colour film was obtained of seed-processing at the
Duncan nursery seed extractory.
Art Work
This year eighty-eight exhibit or mural-size photographs were produced. Art
work, which totalled 157 drawings, paintings, or layouts, was supplied for twenty-
one major projects, including a display featuring a large relief map of British Columbia for use at the Fifth World Forestry Congress in Seattle. New covers were
designed for several Forest Service publications and final layout done on two new
fire-prevention decals. Title cards and art work were supplied for two motion-
picture and four television productions. A combination of art work and photographs
was supplied on request to Life magazine. 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Filmstrips
No filmstrips were produced during 1960, but 276 black-and-white 35-mm.
slides were made from material in three strips produced earlier. A colour filmstrip
for the Reforestation Division neared completion at the end of the year.
Commercial Theatres
For the sixth consecutive year a 35-mm. forest-protection trailer was produced
by the section and circulated throughout commercial theatres in the Province outside
of the general Vancouver City and Vancouver Island areas, which were covered by
a similar item on television.
Film Library
During the year the film library made 749 individual film loans, with a total
viewing audience of 165,340 persons, an increase of some 42,000 over 1959.
Besides the usual loans to various parts of Canada, films were sent as far south as
Mexico City and as far east in the United States as Illinois. In addition, the five
subjects on continuous loan to British Columbia House, London, England, received
good circulation.
Loans were extended to two television stations, reporting a total viewing audience of 26,000.
The library started the year with ninety-two individual titles; two were withdrawn during the year and five new subjects added, making a total of ninety-five
films available for loan at the end of 1960 (see Table 55 of Appendix).
Divisional officers presented forty-five film-lecture programmes to organizations within the Province during the year, not counting school tour activities. Forest
Service personnel used video projecting equipment on charge to the Division on 166
different occasions.
As a part of an in-service training programme, sixteen films from the library
were shown to a total of 250 staff members during noon hours.
Publications and Printing
The 1959 Annual Report of the Forest Service was edited, synopsized, its printing supervised, and distributed.
The 1961 Forest Service calendar was redesigned to a new, more modern
format featuring the theme " Integrated Use " in Harmony and distributed as usual
to the forest industry and its associations, outdoor organizations, schools, and so
forth. There is little doubt, from the reactions received, that the calendar is the
most effective printed public relations medium available to the Service.
Other major printing projects during the year included the Research Review,
to March, 1960, four issues of the Forest Protection Bulletin series, and two Research Notes (Nos. 35 and 36). A special Christmas edition of the Forest Service
Newsletter was authorized and distributed throughout the Service. Two Forest
Survey Notes (Nos. 4 and 5) were distributed through the facilities of this Division.
Eight new mimeographed items of broad informational value were produced
and distributed throughout the Service in the programme to provide the field staffs
with up-to-date factual information on forestry developments and policy.
Ten publications were reprinted during the year in order to keep up with the
demand for forestry information. Thus funds for sorely needed new publications
were not available. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
31
A special booklet was issued for distribution to the delegates from the Fifth
World Forestry Congress who visited British Columbia for a forestry information
tour from September 12th to 16th, 1960.
Two new protection designs featuring the " Bertie Beaver" character, used
extensively in Alberta, were added to the display-poster series during the year.
Radio and Television
Paid programming over television stations in the Province was introduced, on
a trial basis, for the first time. Two stations—CBUT, Vancouver, and CFCR-TV,
Kamloops—were selected to carry a twenty-second film short produced by the Division emphasizing the need for care with fire in the woods. In the Vancouver experiment, twenty-eight announcements were broadcast during the peak viewing period
on Fridays and Saturdays. Each of the announcements had a reported viewing
audience of more than 350,000 persons. In Kamloops twenty-six announcements
were made at peak viewing time on Thursdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, each with a
reported viewing audience of 6,600 individuals. Unquestionably, television supplies
an increasingly important avenue for reaching a large segment of the public that
would be otherwise overlooked.
The Division co-operated with television stations to a greater extent than ever
before in the production of special programmes. Staff members participated in, or
arranged for, more than twenty special-event programmes which had a total viewing
time of 315 minutes. Video material such as photographs, 16-mm. film, and exhibits
were also supplied in quantity to the various stations.
The standard radio forestry educational programme was carried over twenty-
three radio stations. The series consisted of 715 fifteen-second standard flashes, 369
one-minute spot announcements, and 131 special fifteen-second hazard flashes. The
material broadcast carried a forest fire-prevention theme and was written and scheduled by the Division.
Press and Periodicals
The demand for news and informational press releases, articles, and the supplying of background material to all communication media reached a level as high as
1958. Unquestionably the severity of the fire season during July and August was
the principal cause.
Members of the Division were seconded to the Kamloops District at different
times during the extreme situation in order to assist the District Forester in his
relations with the news media. Extensive coverage on local, national, and international levels was obtained, with features appearing in such journals as Time
and Life magazines.
Twenty-six formal weekly press releases on the fire situation were distributed
from Victoria during the fire season, plus an indeterminate number of daily and
twice-daily summaries of a more informal sort, both from Victoria and the district
offices. Almost 23,000 column inches of highly competitive newspaper space were
devoted to these releases in the eight daily newspapers checked. Many times this
amount was produced by the newspapers themselves.
Radio and television featured the fire situation daily, both locally and nationally, and Divisional personnel took part in many of these programmes. The shortage
of Divisional staff trained in news-media liaison work became particularly evident
during this period.
In addition, the demand for special articles for periodicals on non-fire subjects
reached its highest point for several years. 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Signs and Exhibits
With the recent establishment of forest-closure zones in the Vancouver Forest
District, an experimental sign was designed for erection where the zone boundaries
cross public highways in the hope that such signs would assist in the administration
of forest-closure regulations. Twelve test signs were constructed and placed in
strategic locations throughout the district.
The demand for the Scotchlite " Prevent Forest Fires " sign still far exceeds
production capabilities due to fund restrictions.
During the summer 114 locations of the roadway sign "Keep B.C. Green—
Use Your Ashtray " were maintained. Coverage by this sign has been reduced to
include only the prime sites on the paved highways of the Province.
The displaying of a special exhibit on forest genetics at five fall fairs, in the
rotunda of the main Legislative Buildings, the Pacific National Exhibition, and the
Western Forestry and Conservation Convention in Victoria brought favourable
comments from the general public.
Numerous requests were received from Ranger personnel for ideas and materials regarding exhibits.
The Service's permanent exhibit at the Pacific National Exhibition was maintained with minor alterations.
A special display was designed and produced for use at the Fifth World Forestry Congress held in Seattle, Wash., in the fall. In addition, smaller displays of
special interest to teachers were exhibited in various Teachers' Federation and
Parent-Teacher conventions throughout the Province.
School Lectures
With the continued co-operation of the Department of Education, Divisional
school lecturers, for the ninth consecutive year, were active. All forest districts,
with the exception of the Prince Rupert District, received coverage (see Table 56
in Appendix). The total school audience of 41,497 was down 19,711 from the
previous year, due, in part, to the growing diversity in the duties of the school lecturers. The school lecturers are now undertaking more and more district information activities each year.
The Service's standard school lecture programme is comprised of a twenty-
minute talk dealing with the importance of the forest resources of the Province,
followed by forty minutes of appropriate film subjects.
In addition, school lecturers presented thirty special programmes to such
organizations as the Parent-Teacher Associations, career guidance sessions, and
various service clubs.
LIBRARY
As the library is constantly expanding, it is finding lack of space an ever-greater
problem. It has thus become necessary to be more selective about retaining publications. For example, the number of items placed in the section for discard after
circulation shows a manifold increase over the last few years.
Books and pamphlets on subjects other than forestry—for example, geology,
chemistry, photography—formerly grouped together by author, have now been
classified by subject according to the Dewey decimal system.
The catalogue of books and reports in the Management Division was overhauled and a card index, both by author and subject, provided.
During the summer the librarian visited the Kamloops District library to review
its development for the first time since it was set up. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1960
33
Details of library work over the past ten years can be found in Table 57 in the
Appendix.
CO-OPERATION
An outstanding degree of co-operation was received from all segments of the
communication media—press, radio, television, periodicals, and so forth. Their
support of the Service's information programme is again gratefully acknowledged.
The Department of Education's continued support of the school lecture tour
has made this programme one of the more effective sponsored by the Service.
The Division, and the Service as a whole, continued to offer assistance to the
Canadian Forestry Association (British Columbia Branch) in the organizing and
implementation of Forest Conservation Week and the Annual Fire Control Courses.
For the third consecutive year a member of the Division conducted classes for
the Canadian Girl Guide Association and assisted 175 Guides to obtain their woodsman's badge.
The Director assisted the Pacific Logging Congress and the Western Forestry
and Conservation Association in the organization and operation of their press facilities during their annual conventions. 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST MANAGEMENT
GENERAL
The decline of log and lumber prices which began in the latter part of 1959
continued throughout 1960, with some stability apparently established at the end
of the year.
Despite this situation, the total value of forest production reached $738,-
360,000, thus setting a new high and exceeding the 1959 figure by $68,245,000.*
Of this increase in value, lumber accounted for $56,700,000. Total lumber value
was $380,600,000, representing 52 per cent of the total value of forest production.
Pulp and paper products were next with a value of $242,925,000, or 33 per cent of
total value. Plywood showed practically no change. The most significant change
of value in the minor products was in poles and piling, for which the value, inclusive of minor quantities of mine-timbers, was $8,352,000, an increase of 72 per
cent over the 1959 figure. This was the result of a heavy demand for these products during the year.
The total cut for the Province was 1,199,843 M cubic feet, or 7,074,486 M
board-feet. All forest districts showed gains over the 1959 figures, but the increases
for Kamloops and Prince George were relatively small. The most significant increase
was shown by the Prince Rupert District. The cut for the Prince Rupert Coast was
63 per cent greater than in 1959, compared to a total Coast increase of 22 per cent.
Volume increases for the Vancouver and Prince Rupert Coast Districts were
95,302 M cubic feet and 31,804 M cubic feet respectively. Total gain for the
Interior districts combined was 23,592 M cubic feet or only 5 per cent.
A large part of the increased cut was due to the improvement in water-borne
shipments, which were up from 1,197,653 M f.b.m. in 1959 to 1,675,351 M f.b.m.
in 1960. The greatest increases in shipments were to the United Kingdom, United
States, Africa, and Australia, in that order. They accounted for a volume of
1,491,653 M f.b.m., representing 89 per cent of total water-borne shipments and
accounting for 95 per cent of the total increase in such shipments.
Douglas fir, hemlock, spruce, and cedar supplied 32, 23, 17, and 13 per cent
of the total cut for the Province respectively. Douglas fir continued to be the leading
species in the Interior, as did hemlock on the Coast.
The total cut from Crown lands amounted to 974,229 M cubic feet, or 81
per cent of the total cut for the Province. Of this, 598,251 M cubic feet or 61
per cent came from timber sales and 127,618 M cubic feet or 13 per cent from the
Crown land portions of tree-farm licences. There was a significant increase in the
proportion of the total cut taken from temporary private tenures other than timber
sales (timber and pulp licences and leases), no doubt due to softening markets and
the relatively low cost of such timber in comparison with stumpage on many
timber sales.
During the year, 2,122 timber sales with a combined area of 767,351 acres
and volume of 1,142,479 M cubic feet of saw-timber were cruised. While the
number of sales declined in comparison with 1959, the total area and volume
increased. This is partially the result of an increasing number of timber sales in the
Interior being managed on a partial-cut basis. Also in the Interior, there is a trend
toward somewhat longer-term sales, up to ten years in many sustained-yield units
and public working circles. There were 2,138 timber sales awarded in 1960, having
* Using adjusted 1959 figure based on improved conversion factors {see Table 3 footnote in Appendix). REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 35
a total estimated value of $24,872,000. This is a decline of almost $5,000,000
from the 1959 figure, and unless general conditions improve substantially it will be
reflected in reduced revenues for 1961.
Since 1953 the percentage of sales awarded with no competition has ranged
from 87.4 per cent to 92.6 per cent. By sawlog volume, the range is from 71.7 per
cent to 94.0 per cent. Of 1,843 auction sales in 1960, 90 per cent were noncompetitive, compared to 87.4 per cent in 1959. By volume, they accounted for
78.6 per cent of the total sold, compared to 71.7 per cent in 1959.
At the year's end there were 6,815 active timber sales with a total area of
3,476,000 acres. There was a total of $15,284,000 held in security deposits, compared with $15,150,000 in 1959.
Of particular import during 1960 were two events in the Interior of the
Province. First there was the establishment of a company by a group of sawmill
operators in the Kamloops area for the purpose of providing chips from sawmill
waste for use in a Coast pulp-mill. Substantial shipments of chips were made
during the year. The second event was the first shipment of pulp in the month of
December by the pulp-mill built at Castlegar by Celgar Limited. It is interesting
to note that a large part of the increased cut from the Nelson District was the result
of stock-piling pulpwood for this mill.
ADMINISTRATION OF MANAGED UNITS
The Province's sustained-yield management plans continued to develop with
the approval and establishment of seven new public sustained-yield units.*
There are now seventy-two such areas managed by the Forest Service. In
1960 they provided a recorded cut of 385,000 M cubic feet, representing 83 per
cent of their combined allowable annual cut and 32 per cent of the total cut for the
Province.
Fifty-three of these units are now administered under the licensee priority
system, which was referred to in last year's Report. Essentially this means that
timber-sale applications in each managed area are accepted only from timber-sale
licensees established in that area, and then only to replace expiring sales held by
them. The objective is to achieve greater stabilty of operations within such areas.
Under present timber-sale policy there is, of course, the possibility that the applicant
may be outbid for the timber covered by his application.
An amendment to section 17 of the Forest Act, approved during the 1960 sitting of the Legislature, reduced the probability of competition on certain areas which,
when approved for sustained-yield management, were seriously overcommitted.
Under this legislation where the existing timber sales in a management unit
have a combined annual commitment exceeding 150 per cent of the allowable
annual cut for the unit, it may be designated an emergency area by Order in Council
for a period of one year.
In an emergency area the licensee of a timber sale having a replacement volume
under the licensee priority system—that is, a valid and subsisting licence—has the
option of electing sealed tender on timber-sale applications submitted by him and
considered for award during the emergency period.
When sealed-tender procedure is elected and more than one tender is received,
the applicant will have the opportunity of acquiring the sale by submitting a further
tender within ten days, containing an offer not lower than the highest offer and
* Previously referred to as sustained-yield units and public working-circles. 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
matching the rate bid for each species or product on the highest tender submitted
by any other holder of a valid and subsisting licence in the emergency area. If such
further tender is not received from the applicant within ten days, the sale will be
awarded to the party who submitted the highest offer.
When submitting applications for sealed-tender sales, the applicant is advised
that the period of sale is limited to not more than four years, and the Forest Service
reserves the right to keep the number of sales within reasonable limits. Any applications for periods greater than four years are disposed of by public auction. Also,
if no request is received for sealed tender, disposal is by public auction and the
foregoing procedure will not apply.
Soon after the legislation was approved, the Williams Lake Public Working
Circle and the Lac la Hache Sustained-yield Unit were designated as emergency
areas on April 14th, 1960, by Orders in Council. The Nicola Lake Sustained-yield
Unit was designated an emergency area June 1st, 1960. All emergency areas to
date have been in the Kamloops Forest District.
Of the forty-four timber sales sold in emergency areas during the year, twenty-
three were by sealed tender and twenty-one by public auction. Of these, there was
competition on one of the auction sales only. Indications are that this system has
given established licensees an added measure of protection, thus providing greater
stability of operations during the transition period leading to sustained yield.
One of the prerequisites of sustained-yield management is the sale of the
allowable cut each year. It is also essential that the timber sold must be logged and
not withheld from production indefinitely by one operator when others are anxious
to acquire more timber. For this reason, it has been necessary to include minimum
cut requirements in timber sales. A number of sales located in managed areas were
cancelled during the year for non-compliance with minimum cut requirements of
their contracts.
The continued construction of Forest Service roads into previously inaccessible
areas of some managed units is enabling the Forest Service to disperse operators
into high-priority stands—that is, stands which, because of their age and condition,
should be harvested in preference to other younger and healthier stands in the region.
In review, a definite trend has been noted in most units toward consolidation
of operations and more positive planning by individual operators in an effort to
place their operations on a basis compatible with sustained-yield forest management.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber Prices
The selling price of dressed lumber f.o.b. car is compiled by the Department
for five appraisal zones from data voluntarily supplied by co-operating mills. The
downward price trend which started in mid-1959 continued. The market appeared
to strengthen in the spring, but the seasonal price increase was not significant, and
by midsummer its effect was lost. Selling prices now appear to have stabilized, but
at a level sufficiently low that all but the most efficient operations must be close to
the margin.
I REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 37
1960 Uncorrected Quarterly Average Dressed-lumber Prices (Interior)
Jan.-Mar.
Apr.-
une
July-Sept.
Oct.-
Dec.
Species
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis,
MB.M.
Average
Price
119,983
160,530
5,312
6,069
1,572
$56.36
59.72
57.15
93.37
52.02
142,064
205,218
8,029
5,251
4,138
$58.07
59.39
57.25
94.82
53.53
167,079
203,236
5,985
5,658
5,364
$55.42
53.48
56.40
89.85
49.20
144,706
185,821
4,451
5,328
2,044
$51.29
Spruce 	
50.72
49.70
White pine 	
Yellow pine 	
92.39
49.93
Log Prices
Log prices reported by the British Columbia Loggers' Association were generally lower than those being paid in the last quarter of 1959. The prices for all
species except spruce and fir declined steadily throughout the year. The most significant price decline was for cedar, when the average price in 1960 last quarter was
approximately $10 per thousand lower than that paid in the last quarter of 1959.
Although cedar log prices are subject to violent fluctuation, the situation at year-end,
with supply exceeding any effective open market demand, was the cause of a considerable amount of concern in the industry.
Spruce and fir prices increased, but by the last quarter had fallen below the last
quarter 1959 level.
7960 Quarterly Average Log Prices per M B.M. (Lower Coast)
Species
Jan.-Mar.
Apr.-June
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.
Fir	
Cedar	
Hemlock-
Balsam	
Spruce	
White pine..
$63.96
45.38
42.09
39.85
43.96
59.50
$64.71
42.77
42.22
39.01
45.85
57.33
$61.15
41.19
42.39
39.07
49.86
54.13
$56.55
37.54
40.49
36.73
43.95
48.92
Stumpage Prices
The average bid price for all species was $3.55 per hundred cubic feet. The
comparable figures for the years 1957, 1958, and 1959 are $2.98, $4.03, and $3.88.
The decrease relative to 1959 does not appear to reflect the decrease in average
market value for logs and dressed lumber. Although the average price bid for all
species except hemlock (which was unchanged) was lower in 1960 than in 1959,
the full effect of the decline in selling-price levels has not yet been reflected into
average stumpage. The decline in log prices did not occur until the third quarter,
and average Coast stumpage rates reflect this to the extent that they are generally
higher than in 1959. This tends to counter the effect of the more significant bid
stumpage reduction for all Interior species.
For detailed figures see Tables 20 and 21 of the Appendix.
Sliding-scale Adjustments
The sliding-scale method of stumpage adjustment is now incorporated into all
new timber-sale contracts, and all licensees have been given an opportunity to have
provision for this method incorporated into their contracts.   There were 383 upward 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
adjustments, which resulted from increase in the spruce and fir log prices, and 5,372
downward adjustments, which affected all species in all zones.
The sliding scale was designed to react to a market break such as has been
experienced, and there is no question but that it has been a factor in making operation possible at present price levels.
Stumpage-appraisal Cost Studies
The field party attached to the Appraisals Section completed a mill study to
review the conversion factor for cedar lumber, and their report, with its recommendation, that the average recovery for appraisal purposes be reduced from 7.0 to 6.4
board-feet lumber tally from 1 cubic foot log scale was approved.
A yarding-skidding time study is continuing on operations in the Interior Dry
Belt.
A lumber-manufacturing cost survey was completed for the Southern Interior
selling-price zone, and a similar study was started in the Prince George appraisal
zone.
SILVICULTURE
The programme for 1960 included stand treatment, silvicultural studies,
working-circle planning, and road location in both sustained-yield units and public
working circles.
The main effort during the past year was centred on stand treatment. All
districts were active in this field, and some 600 timber sales, principally in the
Interior, received stand treatment. This involved the treatment of approximately
188,480 acres. This is a decrease of 19,048 acres from the previous year's production and is due to the severe nature of the 1960 fire season.
Stands are generally treated to attain either increment or natural regeneration
or, in some cases, a combination of both increment and natural regeneration. The
cutting methods which are most frequently employed are single-tree selection in the
case of increment, and strips, groups, patches, or single seed-trees in the case of
natural regeneration. Of the 188,480 acres treated, 19,834 were treated under
single-tree selection; 98,285 acres were laid out in blocks, strips, or patches; and
70,361 acres were marked for either seed-tree groups or single selected seed-trees.
Although natural regeneration is dependent on several interrelated factors, a
satisfactory seed-bed and a suitable seed source can be regarded as prime requisites.
The preparation of a satisfactory seed-bed often requires either burning or scarification. The Forest Service has been employing scarification in certain types of stands
since 1956. During 1960, scarification was carried out on 3,194 acres, an increase
of 1,437 acres over the 1959 programme. This is due to work being initiated in the
Nelson, Kamloops, and Prince Rupert Districts. Of the 3,194 acres, 1,353 acres
were scarified as a result of provisions contained in timber-sale contracts.
Planting was again carried out in the Interior districts in co-operation with the
Reforestation Division; however, a lack of suitable stock greatly hampered total
production. In all, some 66,100 trees were planted, which is far below the 200,000
planted in 1959. Unfortunately, the 1960 cone-crop was for the most part a disappointment and only a small amount of cones was collected. Development of the
small nurseries at Hixon, Telkwa, and Creston continued.
Among the many problems facing the silviculturist are the effects of utilization
and logging on the prescribed treatment. These are continuing problems. However, a short motion-picture film is being produced on the effect of logging damage,
which should assist in improving present damage levels.   In this regard, the logging- REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 39
damage survey mentioned in the 1959 Report has been completed and is presently
being analysed.
Continued progress has been made on the Lower Coast, both as regards
second-growth management and improved stand treatment.
SCALING
Intensification of scaling supervision was continued in the Interior forest
districts during the year, with greater emphasis being placed on check scaling.
Without adequate control of scaling practice, there is certain to be a significant
loss of revenue to the public.
Scaling examinations were held in all forest districts, and of 1,061 candidates,
only 289 or 27 per cent were successful, which suggests the need for more instructional classes.
Mill checks and investigations resulted in several prosecutions under Part VIII
of the Forest Act.   Nine scaling licences were suspended and one licence cancelled.
With the initiation of pulp production in the Interior, it has become necessary
to review scaling methods as they apply to small wood and other wood of low value.
Apart from the relatively high cost of measuring this type of material, there are
physical limitations which will require some modification to present procedures.
A study of these problems is presently under way. 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GRAZING
GENERAL CONDITIONS
In general, 1960 was a good year for the ranching industry. The winter of
1959/60 was mild, which was fortunate in view of the short hay-supply available,
and only a few isolated distress situations developed, necessitating turnout before
range was ready to use in the spring. Range readiness occurred at about the normal
date in 1960, except in the southerly part of the Kamloops Grazing (Forest) District and the Peace River area, where ranges were about two weeks later than usual.
Abundant fall precipitation in 1959, followed by heavy winter snowfall and
good growing conditions in 1960, resulted in a phenomenal forage production on
all types of range throughout most of the northerly half of the range area. In
contrast, the southerly part of the range country suffered from a light snow-pack,
dry spring, and extreme heat and drought during July and August. This had an
adverse effect on forage production, particularly on low-elevation ranges. In some
parts of the south, numerous lakes and springs dried up, making stock distribution
difficult, and in a few cases stock had to be removed from the range because of a
shortage of water. The forage situation would have been considerably worse in the
south had it not been for a good carry-over of soil moisture from the previous fall.
Stock came off the Crown range in the fall in generally good condition, even
in the south. The only exceptions appeared to be where good live-stock and range
management had not been practised.
Hay-crops varied from good in the north to fight in the south. However, only
in a few local areas which are totally dependent on dry farming does a serious shortage of hay exist, and hay is available for shipment in to these areas at fairly reasonable cost.   Virtually all hay harvested was put up in good condition.
Ranch labour was in good supply, although often inexperienced. The chief
difficulty was the shortage of capable stock-handlers and range-riders. The growing
mechanization on ranches is reducing seasonal requirements considerably for unskilled labour for such activities as haying.
The devastating fire situation in the southerly part of the range country was of
great concern to ranchers using forest range, but operations were not too seriously
disrupted. In the Nicola Valley, considerable areas of open grassland were burned,
which resulted in the loss of fall feed. These open ranges will recover quickly and
permanently. However, the severe fires which occurred on forest ranges will have
serious long-term effects.
Markets and Prices
Cattle prices were somewhat lower during most of 1960 than they were in
1959. However, prices strengthened considerably later in the year, during the heavy
shipping period. This is the reverse of the usual situation. Weighted average prices
received by cattlemen through the British Columbia Livestock Producers' Cooperative Association were $17.25 per hundredweight in 1960, only slightly below
the $17.52 received in 1959. The prices for sheep and lambs shipped through the
co-operative were also lower than the previous year.
Unlike two years ago, very few feeder cattle were shipped from British Columbia to the United States during 1960. The fact that the loss of this market has
not affected prices more adversely is a matter of considerable satisfaction. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 41
Live-stock Losses and Diseases
Poisonous range plants, particularly water hemlock and death camas, were
responsible for some losses of cattle and sheep, respectively. Timber milk vetch
caused some trouble in certain areas. Some losses of both sheep and cattle were
attributed to bears. Highway and hunting accidents continued to take their toll of
stock.    However, losses on railroads appeared to be less than in recent years.
Vibriosis, a reproductive disease of cattle, is resulting in a growing demand for
individual range allotments and breeding pastures, as well as other adjustments in
range-use patterns. This situation is greatly complicating the allocation and management of Crown range in some areas.
RANGE MANAGEMENT
As grazing and other uses of the range lands increase, more intensive management is required. Otherwise, this valuable resource will become depleted, to the
detriment of the live-stock industry, game populations, watershed values, and recreational features alike.
During 1960 further progress was made in several areas toward bringing range
turnout dates more in line with range readiness. Range-readiness studies were commenced in two Ranger districts where basic information is lacking.
Range-productivity studies were intensified and extended. Further vegetation-
control techniques were also applied on a trial basis to find ways of improving forage
production. The Canada Range Experimental Farm at Kamloops provided technical
direction and laboratory services required for this work, as well as taking an active
part in the field.
Plans were completed for the establishment of a multiple-use demonstration
area involving some 5,000 acres of typical forest range in the East Kootenay Valley.
Preparations for fencing and the application of intensive forest- and range-management techniques are well advanced.
In the Peace River District, forage-improvement work was commenced on a
modest scale on two areas. This work involved mainly clearing, breaking, and
seeding.   Some spraying trials were also carried out.
Range Surveys
Due mainly to the heavy fire season, the range survey programme was considerably reduced in 1960.   A total of 340,000 acres was covered, as follows:—
Location Acres
Kettle River Stock Range (resurvey)  140,000
Alexandria Stock Range  200,000
Total  340,000
From 1945 to 1960 a total of 9,739,885 acres has been covered by range
surveys or resurveys necessary to keep range inventory information up to date.
Extensive reconnaissances were also carried out in several areas, the largest
covering 169,000 acres in the Peace River District as a basis for selecting additional
areas for pasture development.
Range Improvements
During the year $56,549.32 was spent from the Range Improvement Fund.
In addition, material to the value of $3,188.70 was on hand at the commencement
of 1960. The following work was completed:— 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Two stock-bridges  $450.00
Eleven cattle-guards  2,315.67
Twenty-two drift-fences  9,433.43
Three experimental plots  137.36
Five holding-grounds  610.79
Two meadow improvements  275.00
One mud-hole fence  200.00
One pasture development  1,338.48
Thirty stock-trails  8,542.50
Twenty-four water developments  2,063.19
Range seeding  10,326.76
Wild-horse disposal  147.50
Machinery and equipment (purchase)  211.93
Maintenance and operation of equipment  703.79
Material on hand but not assigned to projects  11,439.90
Supervision, surveys, and technical studies  11,541.72
In addition to these costs, considerable contributions of labour were made by
permittees to a number of the projects involved. Authority was also extended to
permittees to construct and maintain, entirely at their own expense, five breeding-
pastures, two cattle-guards, five corrals, fifteen drift-fences, two holding-grounds,
one horse pasture, and one stock-trail.
Range seeding was a major feature of the improvement programme in 1960.
A total of 35,450 pounds of grass and legume seed was sown, compared to 17,150
pounds in 1959. Seeding of logged areas was at about the same level as the previous
year. The large increase was used on areas devastated by forest fires. The seeding
of grass on fire access roads, guards, and severely burned areas is necessary to help
control erosion and inhibit the invasion of undesirable weeds and brush, as well as
restore forage values. The 1960 fire situation resulted in extremely large areas
requiring seeding. Unfortunately, a shortage of funds available for this vital
rehabilitation work, combined with adverse flying conditions during the proper fall
seeding season, resulted in only a part of the necessary work being completed.
However, some of the most critical areas received attention, and additional seed
has been placed in storage to extend the programme immediately weather conditions
permit next spring.
Steel-rail decks installed on cattle-guards on a trial basis in 1958 and 1959
have proven successful, and a regular programme of installing steel decks was
therefore instituted in 1960.
All of the Kamloops Grazing District and most of the Nelson Grazing District
were closed to horses during the winter of 1959/60 to prevent damaging grazing.
Most horse-owners co-operated, and only forty animals were removed from Crown
range by horse-disposal licensees. Only a few wild horses remain on the Crown
range at the present time.
Peace River Pastures
For the first time, special funds were voted by the Legislature in 1960 for
pasture-development work in the Peace River District. The work completed
included 20 miles of fencing, eleven stock-watering dugouts, and 28 miles of
combined fire-guards and trails. In addition, 88 acres were cleared, broken, and
seeded. Another 73 acres were brushed out and piled preparatory to breaking
and seeding. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
43
CO-OPERATION
There are now fifty-four live-stock associations approved under the Grazing
Act, one new association being approved during the year. Relations with these
organizations were excellent. Close contact was also maintained with the British
Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association and the British Columbia Sheep Breeders' Co-operative Association in matters relating to the whole industry.
Excellent co-operation was also received from the British Columbia Livestock
Producers' Co-operative Association, the producer-owned marketing agency, in
supplying live-stock price figures necessary for the sliding scale of grazing fees.
A total of 124 association meetings was reported, and Forest Service officers
attended 117 of these. Twelve meetings were held with other live-stock and
technical groups during the year.
Close liaison was maintained with other Provincial Government agencies
dealing with matters pertaining to the Crown range. The Canada Range Experimental Farm at Kamloops, which is responsible for basic range research in British
Columbia, extended valuable assistance on a variety of technical matters. The
Canada Experimental Farm at Beaverlodge, Alta., also undertook technical studies
on the pilot pasture developments in the Peace River District, The Indian Affairs
Branch, Canada Department of Citizenship and Immigration, assisted greatly in
dealing with Indian use of Crown range.
ADMINISTRATION
The drastic fire situation which occurred over a major part of the range country
interfered with range administration to a considerable extent. Rangers in the
affected areas could give little attention to grazing work during the critical period.
In addition, grazing personnel had to be diverted from their normal work at the
height of the emergency. This situation, combined with the continually increasing
work load, resulted in much necessary field work being postponed. The range
survey programme suffered most in this respect.
The increased pasture-development programme in the Peace River area,
together with the growing need for range administration in other parts of the Prince
George Grazing (Forest) District, necessitated the full-time assignment of a Grazing
Officer to that district in 1960. The need for the establishment of further pastures
in the Peace River area was carefully examined, and five areas were selected and
placed under reserve for future development.
The native Indian people are showing a growing awareness of the need for
range management and the value of protecting their grazing privileges through
compliance with the Grazing Act. During the year many Indians obtained grazing
permits for the first time. Indian participation in live-stock association affairs also
increased.
Continuing the trend of the last few years, a large number of ranches changed
hands during 1960. The fact that most of the purchasers are from outside this
Province and are completely unfamiliar with our physical conditions and range
practices adds considerably to the administrative problem. Also, in many cases
the new owners do not take up full-time residence, making contacts difficult.
Continuing land alienations in the range country are greatly complicating
range administration. Not only is land withdrawn from use as Crown range, but,
in many cases, range units become completely unmanageable owing to the development of complicated ownership patterns. To the extent that land alienations result
in higher land use, they are justified.   However, in many cases marginal-quality 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
land acquired for farming and grazing purposes remains unfenced and undeveloped.
From the range-management standpoint at least, careful over-all land-use planning
is a growing necessity.
Grazing and Hay Permits
This year, 1,726 grazing permits were issued, authorizing the depasturing of
127,148 cattle, 4,504 horses, and 19,460 sheep on Crown range. This represents
an increase of forty-three permits over 1959. Cattle numbers were up 2,723 head
and horses 127 head over the previous year. Sheep numbers declined by 1,144
head.   (See Table 58 in Appendix.)
A total of 182 hay-cutting permits was issued authorizing the harvesting of
2,027.5 tons of hay from Crown range, an increase of eighteen permits and 612.5
tons over 1959.
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees
Grazing fees per head per month for 1960 were 17 cents for cattle, 3.5 cents
for sheep, and 21.25 cents for horses. This represents an increase of 2 cents per
head per month for cattle, .5 cent per head per month for sheep, and 2.5 cents per
head per month for horses.   Hay-cutting fees remained at $1 per ton.
Total billings for grazing and hay-cutting fees were up from the 1959 level due
to both increased fees and the larger numbers of stock on Crown range. Billings
exceeded collections, resulting in larger " outstandings " at the end of the year.
(See Table 59 in Appendix.)
Live-stock Counts
To ensure that actual grazing use was in line with permitted use, an extensive
cattle counting programme was carried out in the Kamloops Grazing District during
the winter months at the beginning of the year. Also, a large-scale count of cattle
being moved from spring to summer range was undertaken in one area. These
counts revealed a number of discrepancies, which were corrected by appropriate
action. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
45
ENGINEERING SERVICES
ENGINEERING SECTION
In addition to route reconnaissance, road location and construction, the 1960
engineering programme included work on many projects connected with the day-
to-day operations of the Service. This work involved the maintenance of 259 miles
of previously constructed road, the operation of highway and marine transport
units moving Porta-buildings, heavy equipment, and other materials to Forest Service
installations throughout the Province and, when requested, providing general professional engineering assistance for other branches of the Service.
Continued emphasis was placed on development planning, and extensive field
and office investigations were undertaken to provide engineering data essential to
the management of several large forest areas.
Work proceeded on the forest-development road system, and location surveys
were carried out on a number of roads required primarily for fire protection and
administrative purposes.
Forest-road Programme, 1960
Project
Regulation Unit
Reconnaissance
Location
Construction
Vancouver Forest District
Kyuquot P.W.C -	
Miles
9
85
45
11
25
250
60
90
22
.—.
	
55
35
Miles
"ITi
4.5
23.6
16.9
18.6
11.8
12.9
33.2
25.1
10.3
19.6
15.8
22.5
	
24.5
Miles
1
Chilliwack River F.D.R	
Chilliwack P.W.C	
Broughton P.W.C .—	
2.0
Kingcome River F.D.R 	
Port Hardy F.D.R —	
Soo River F.D.R  	
2.5
Cape Scott P.W.C	
1.5
Soo S.Y.U 	
Prince Rupert Forest District
Smithers P.W.C.
Dean S.Y.U. and V.C.L	
i
Morice River F.D.R	
Morice S.Y.U	
Smithers P.W.C.
McDonell Lake F.D.R 	
Babine P.W.C.    .
Kitimat S.Y.U	
Terrace S.Y.U.   .
Prince George Forest District
Aleza Lake F.D.R	
Aleza Lake Experiment Station
Moberly S.Y.U	
Naver-Ahbau F.D.R  	
Naver P.W.C. and Big Valley
S.Y.U	
Purden Lake F.D.R	
Purden    Lake    P.W.C.    and
Longworth S.Y.U 	
Cottonwood P.W.C	
Swift River F.D.R.
Narcosli S.Y.U.  	
Upper Bowron River F.D.R	
Longworth S.Y.U	
Willow River F.D.R	
Willow River P.W.C	
Kamloops Forest District
Quesnel Lake P.W.C.
Barriere P.W.C	
Lac la Hache S.Y.U  ..
Hendrix Creek F.D.R.
8.7
Horsefly River F.D.R.   .
Quesnel Lake P.W.C	
Kwoiek Creek F.D.R	
Botanie S.Y.U	
McGillivray Lake F.D.R	
Niskonlith P.W.C	
Barriere P.W.C	
Slok Creek F.D.R	
Yalakom S.Y.U..
2.0
F.D.R.=_Forest-development road.
P.W.C.-=:Public working circle.
S.Y.U.=Sustained-yield unit.
V.C.L._=Vacant Crown land. 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest-road Programme, 1960—Continued
Project
Regulation Unit
Reconnaissance
Location
Construction
Nelson Forest District
Arrowhead P.W.C  ...
Miles
25
22
17
	
Miles
11.6
18.1
Miles
Edgewood P.W.C	
Horsethief Creek F.D.R "•
Windermere P.W.C 	
Flathead S.Y.U 	
Lodgepole F.D.R.
7.5
West Slocan	
Slocan P.W.C _	
Upper Kootenay P.W.C	
White River F.D.R	
17.3
751
2,239
278.6
711.4
67.3
282.3
Totals, forest-road programme,
1950/60	
2,990
990.0
349.6
F.D.R.—Forest-development road.
P.W.C.-rPublic working circle.
S.Y.U.=Sustained-yield unit.
V.C.L.—Vacant Crown land.
Development Planning
During 1960 increasing emphasis was placed on area study and the analyses
of broad development requirements. Four field crews carried out area studies and
route reconnaissance in fourteen forest areas encompassing some 3,460,000 acres
of productive forest lands with current recoverable mature volume of 2 billion cubic
feet.
The 1960 field season was highlighted by the use of a Forest Service launch as
mobile crew accommodation and the use of a " jet boat" for transportation on the
turbulent Coast rivers. This craft, a modified river-boat hull powered by a Dowty
turbo-jet propulsion unit, proved very successful on this type of operation.
In the Vancouver Forest District the development of the Artlish River valley
was investigated. In the Prince Rupert District the valleys of Williams Creek,
Kimsquit River, Kitlope River, and an area tributary to the northerly end of Babine
Lake were studied. Initial investigations in the drainage of the Wapiti River system
and tributary areas and a route reconnaissance of the Tzenzaicut Forest Road were
completed in the Prince George District. The drainages of the East Barriere River,
North Barriere River, Cariboo and Mitchell Rivers, Seymour River, and the Ashnola
River, all in the Kamloops District, were reconnoitred. In the Nelson District,
drainages in the Slocan, Edgewood, and Arrowhead Public Working Circles were
studied.
Road Location
Road location was completed on 278 miles of forest road during the 1960 field
season. Some additional engineering was undertaken during the fire season to provide access routes to major fires.
In the Vancouver Forest District, the Kingcome River and Soo River road
locations were extended. Location work in the Prince Rupert Forest District included the completion of the Morice-Owen Forest Road and the start of the Chapman Lake and McDonell Lake road systems. The Upper Kitimat River Forest Road
was located to the Kite Burn for operator construction. Location work was initiated
on the Upper Bowron and Purden Lake Forest Roads, and the Mountain Creek and
Tzenzaicut Road locations were extended in the Prince George Forest District. In
the Kamloops Forest District, the Horsefly Lake and McGillivray Lake road systems
were extended, and the Slok Creek and Kwoiek Creek Forest Roads were located.
The Horsethief and White-Rock Creek roads in the Nelson Forest District were
extended.
Simplified survey and design procedures were again used on roads required
primarily for forest administration and protection.   These procedures, which pro- REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 47
vide minimum ground and map controls, have resulted in an increase in mileage of
location within the funds allotted.
Construction
Unusually fine construction weather prevailed during June and July, and,
despite a deterioration of conditions during the latter half of the construction season,
the 1959 record production figures were very nearly equalled. During 1960, 67
miles of road were constructed, involving clearing 331 acres, grubbing 500 acres,
the movement of 1,100,000 cubic yards of common excavation and 22,500 cubic
yards of solid rock, and the installation of 12,200 lineal feet of culvert pipe.
Initial construction requirements were completed on the Willow River, Swift
River, Hendrix Creek, and Kingcome River Forest-development Roads, while work
continued on the Naver-Ahbau, Aleza Lake, White River, Lodgepole, Chilliwack
River, and Port Hardy projects. In November, construction started on the Slok
Creek Forest-development Road.
Although the bridge-construction programme was considerably reduced from
the previous year, two permanent timber bridges and two local-material bridges of
significant size were built. One permanent bridge over Slesse Creek on the Chilliwack Forest-development Road has a two-lane deck with 72-foot glue-laminated
girders resting on concrete piers. The other permanent bridge is a single-lane 40-foot
span on pile bents crossing the Swift River in the Cottonwood Public Working Circle.
The two local-material bridges, crossing the Atlatzi River and Meers Creek on the
Kingcome River Forest-development Road, consist of log spans resting on pile bents
and rock-filled cribs.
General Engineering
Bridge designs were completed for crossings of Slesse Creek on the Chilliwack
Forest-development Road, Quatse River on the Port Hardy Forest-development
Road, White River on the White River Forest-development Road, and Willow
River on the Naver-Ahbau Forest-development Road, all of the creosoted glue-
laminated girder type. Log bridges were designed for Atlatzi River and Meers
Creek on the Kingcome River Forest-development Road and North Lodgepole
Creek on the Lodgepole Forest-development Road. The latter design was also
adapted to a crossing of the East White River.
Preliminary designs and estimates were made for two crossings of the Soo River
on the Soo River Forest-development Road, the Tsulquate River on the Port Hardy
Forest-development Road, and several smaller streams. A study of log-dump and
booming-ground facilities was undertaken to determine the most suitable types of
installation for Forest Service haul-roads terminating at tidewater.
The soils technicians handled a record volume of laboratory classification tests,
made some auger borings and penetration soundings of a problem slide area and
some frost-boil areas, and carried out several gravel-pit investigations.
Experimental work was also undertaken with portable seismic equipment for
determination of depth to rock.
Among other projects undertaken were the preliminary design of a pressure-
treated prefabricated wood lookout tower, contract supervision on the construction
of docking facilities at Echo Bay Ranger Station, and the design of a free-standing
pile breakwater at the Forest Service Marine Station.
MECHANICAL SECTION
A check of the table following will show that standard passenger-car purchases
continue to decrease in number, whereas there is an increase in the purchase of
small cars, which includes a few of the compact class. 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Since a number of the small cars have been in service for three years, it can
now be reported that their operation to date has been satisfactory, and experience
has shown that they do negotiate inferior roads and adverse grades just as well as
the larger or standard models.
The acquisition of a number of half-ton trucks equipped with heavy-duty
rear bumper and step-plate combinations, 6.50x16 tube-type tires, four-speed
transmissions, and limited-slip differentials has reduced transportation problems
in many areas. However, as logging operations penetrate to higher elevations and
into areas more difficult of access, the need for more four-wheel-drive equipment
continues.
The ten light-weight portable tankers mentioned in the 1959 Report were
augmented by another twenty-five this year. Very satisfactory reports have been
received concerning their usefulness, and they are rapidly displacing the older type
of pumper unit which was permanently mounted on a 1-ton truck.
The 1960 season provided a severe test of fire-fighting equipment, especially
in the Kamloops and Nelson Districts. All equipment generally performed well,
and, in particular, the latest types of high-pressure centrifugal pumps received
praise from all concerned. The use of a tandem arrangement for reaching high
elevations was reported from one area only. In that particular case a four-stage
relay using some of the older lower-pressure displacement pumps was replaced by
two modern high-pressure medium-volume centrifugal pumps which operated with
less supervision and gave a much more reliable performance.
One of two muskeg tractors purchased for use in cruising and fire-fighting duties
in the Peace River District. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
49
Two Calgary-built muskeg tractors were put into operation in the Peace
River District and gave a good account of themselves during fire-fighting periods
in otherwise inaccessible areas. They were also useful for timber cruising in areas
which were beyond the limits of four-wheel-drive trucks.
It is rarely possible to obtain road-grading machinery on a rental basis, and
for this reason the problem of maintaining the ever-increasing mileage of access
roads was met in the Nelson District by the addition of an all-wheel-drive, all-
wheel-steer, tandem-axle grader in the 100-horsepower class and a smaller single-
axle maintainer of approximately 50 horsepower rating.
The Engineering Section added two of the larger modern tractors, and two
tractors of lesser horse-power were acquired for forest-protection purposes in the
Prince George and Kamloops Districts.
One out-of-the-ordinary piece of equipment acquired during the year was a
used electric (battery-powered) fork lift-truck which was obtained from the
Queen's Printer. The unit was sent to the Forest Service Marine Station and arrived
just in time to be of valuable assistance during the busy days of the fire season.
This unit saved many hours of manual labour in loading and unloading trucks
and in moving and stacking equipment as it entered and left the premises.
Forest Service Mechanical Equipment
Type
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1960
Removed
from
Service
New
Purchases
Total
Units,
Dec. 31,
1960
Sedans    ._. 	
Suburbans, station wagons, and sedan deliveries .
Small-type passenger-vehicles 	
Panel deliveries  - 	
Four-wheel-drive passenger types _ 	
Four-wheel-drive 34-ton pick-ups, etc.—	
Power-wagons  - 	
i_-ton pick-ups-_
%-ton pick-ups_
14,000-24,000 G.V.W. trucks (2, 3, and 4 tons).
25,000-40,000 G.V.W. trucks (heavy duty)	
Fire-fighting tank-trucks. 	
Total vehicles  	
Tractors  	
Graders   .  	
Scrapers—self-propelled _
Shovels—power 	
Loaders—self-propelled—
Outboard motors	
Fire-pumps—all types	
Fire-pumps—portable tanker 	
High-pressure Bean fire-fighting units .
Borate mixer pumps ... 	
Chain saws	
Lighting plants...
Snow-sedan—propeller-driven	
Speeders—railway _ —
Trailers—low-bed and high-bed	
Trailers—dwelling, bunk-house, etc.
Trailers—miscellaneous -	
Air-compressors  	
Rock drills—gas-powered .
Muskeg and snow tractors (personnel carriers )_
Yarders...   	
Crushing plants-
Mechanical wheeIbarrows_
Welders  _...
Cement-mixers  	
Augers—power, planting-
Fork lift-truck—electric	
25
64
70
237
21
142
40
54
5
9
S04
38
16
4
2
1
350
715
10
34
2
364
89
1
20
9
124
161
4
6
5
1
1
22
9
6
3
5
3
5
10
27
2
21
8
2
1
4
5
25
38
1
7
14
1
1
96
26
3
38
2
38
105
25
49
5
1
16
17
3
3
40
98
30
64
85
248
20
128
46
53
5
5
|      114        |      822
38
16
4
2
1
362
817
35
34
2
375
92
1
20
10
139
177
4
9
8
1
1
22
9
6
3
1 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Preventive maintenance practices advocated and followed by the Mechanical
Section, together with the various phases of instructional work carried out by the
mechanical supervisors, gave evidence of its value during the past summer when
equipment was tested to ultimate limits. Verbal reports from Ranger staffs and
district headquarters showed satisfaction with the general use and availability of
their mechanical equipment, and the fall inspections showed vehicles, pumps, outboard motors, etc., to be in good average condition.
Lectures on the subject of fire-pumps and fire-hose on behalf of the Canadian
Forestry Association were given at Vancouver and Penticton by the Assistant
Mechanical Superintendent and the Mechanical Superintendent respectively.
BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
The major projects undertaken this year were the construction of the Smithers
warehouse and the design and construction of the Ranger Station buildings at
Dawson Creek. The accommodation in both instances was designed for multi-use
purposes. At Dawson Creek the main-floor office is used by the Ranger and staff,
and the lower floor is available for cruising-crew use or other functions. The
warehouse accommodation consists of a district headquarters fire-fighting reserve,
as well as the Ranger's cache and heated two-stall garage. Loft space is also available for both Ranger and district storage. The Smithers warehouse was modified
during construction to provide office accommodation, and now houses the Ranger
staff and warehouse, silvicultural staff and warehouse, carpenter-shop and headquarters fire-fighting tool reserve. In both locations the materials used to finish
the interiors and exteriors of the buildings will do much to minimize maintenance
costs and still present a pleasing and distinctive appearance.
A start was made on a proposed development for the Research Division at the
Aleza Lake Ranger Station. Foundations were poured for an eight-man bunk-
house, and erection of a prefabricated simulated-log building is proceeding. The
deviation from ordinary frame construction will blend well with the setting in a
forest, and some of the problems and costs associated with building at a remote site
will be avoided. The design of water-supply and electrical distribution systems for
this site are also being undertaken.
A significant number of the projects handled during the year can be classified
as improvements and renovations to existing facilities. Modernization of older
buildings and some enlargement to provide for staff increases must keep pace with
increasing emphasis on forest management and protection.
The two fibreglass lookouts erected in 1959 have proven to be quite satisfactory as far as cost, durability, and liveability are concerned. Serious consideration is now being given to adopting this type, with slight modifications, for use on
towers. Further, the construction of larger buildings with fibreglass panels is being
investigated, with a view to using this material when access to the building-site
is costly.
A number of buildings of standard Ranger station design were constructed
during the year, and a list of these, showing the construction agency and progress,
is appended. The usual number of miscellaneous-design jobs were completed for
various divisions. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
51
The following trailers were designed and (or) constructed during the year:
Trailer Type For Use by— Forest District
28'bunk-house Project crew Vancouver.
14' living     „ „    Prince Rupert.
18' living	
18'living	
22' graderman's.
14'silviculture...
Kamloops.
.Nelson.
Prince George.
.Nelson.
Building Construction Undertaken during 1960
Location
Project
Construction
Agency
Stage of
Construction
Carry-over from 1959/60
Aleza Lake _ 	
Chetwynd _.	
Duncan  	
Echo Bay   	
Likely  	
Smithers— 	
Programme for 1960/61
Smithers Landing	
Tofino—   _._ _
Prince George-
Golden 	
Lardeau	
Vancouver	
Lillooet.. _.
Port Hardy	
Various points.
Lund 	
Nukko Lake	
Vanderhoof—.
Summit Lake..
Ootsa Lake _
Aleza Lake-
Red Willow....
Kamloops _
Vancouver	
Cowichan Lake—
Duncan _	
Chilliwack River-
Boston Bar 	
Chilliwack River-
Prince Rupert	
Mesachie Lake	
Aleza Lake 	
Dawson Creek...
Development plan  	
Office and stores building	
Freezer and cold-storage building-
Floats and wharf	
Boat-house and ways 	
Office and warehouse  	
Boat-house and ways-
Office building-
Carpenter-shop and storage building..
Four-car garage 	
Four-car garage  _	
Ranger School domestic-water line.	
Trailer camp  	
Trailer camp  	
Porta-buildings (five)	
Float addition	
Moving and renovations to residence and
office   	
Addition to office-
Sewage lagoon-
Boat-house and ways_
Residence 	
Residence and office warehouse..
Bunk-house	
Breakwater at Forest Service Marine Station   	
Workshop	
Soil-shed	
Four-car garage-
Residence	
Irrigation systems-
Additions to headquarters office-
Electrical distribution system	
Eight-man bunk-house. _	
Office and warehouse —
Forest Service-
Forest Service.
Forest Service _
Contract	
Forest Service..
Forest Service _
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Service-
Service—
Service-
Service....
Service-
Service—
Service	
Service-
Service....
Service—
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Forest Service.
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Contract	
Forest Service _
Forest Service .
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Design completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proc.eding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Design completed.
Completed.
Design completed.
Design completed.
Design proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Marine Design
The major effort of the year was the planning of the 60-ton 66-foot vessel
" Hecate Ranger " as a replacement for one of the older Coastal work boats. The
design of this wooden vessel, the hull of which will be built under contract, incorporates many up-to-date uses of forest products, including glue lamination, plywood, and pressure preservative treatment to demonstrate the continuing advantages
of wood as a boat- and ship-building material.
A 40-ton-capacity equipment raft was designed for the transportation of the
heaviest equipment used in the construction of forest-development roads. The
" bolt-together " feature of this unusual craft will facilitate transportation and
initial assembly in the field following pressure preservative treatment of the components, in addition to making its transportation to inland lakes possible. 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In answer to the continuing need for reliable shallow-draught river-boat transportation, no time has been lost in applying the newly available hydraulic jet
reaction propulsion system to the familiar 30-foot river-boat. A modified 26-foot
version was used with convincing effect on a forest-development road reconnaissance during the late summer when, despite falling river-levels, it was possible for
the crew to penetrate far beyond the navigable limits imposed by an outboard
motor's underwater appendages.
Small wooden-craft design and selection continued on a replacement basis,
with some aluminum, plastic, and inflatable types being chosen for special applications, such as air-lifting, car-top transport, or where acute maintenance problems
exist.
As a result of close liaison between this Section and the Attorney-General's
Department, a number of fibreglass boats varying from 10 to 15 feet in length were
built to Forest Service requirements by the inmates of Oakalla Prison Farm under
the direction of that Department's Correction Division as part of its rehabilitation
programme.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION
At the height of the fire season the Forest Service Marine Station was used as
an assembly point for materials being shipped to the districts. Seventeen truck-
loads were dispatched from the station. Trucks varied from the 5-ton type,
though the van type, to full semi-trailer. Three of the latter were used. Engineering Services trucks hauled eight loads to Kamloops.
Major items dispatched were 206,500 feet of 1.5-inch hose, 43,800 feet of
1-inch hose, 85 fire-pumps, 200 tents and flies, 800 ground sheets, 2,300 blankets,
1,300 safety-hats, 350 "jerry" cans, 900 back-pack tanks, hundreds of axes,
shovels, Pulaskis, mess kits, first-aid kits, and a host of other articles.
The emergency effort mentioned above delayed to some extent the regular
programme of work. Nevertheless, production was maintained at a normal level
for the year.
Marine Work
The marine ways were occupied sixty-two times during the year. Sixty launch
overhauls were completed, of which thirty-two were of a major nature. Ninety
small craft, comprised of outboard cruisers, river-boats, rowboats, and ships' dinghies, were repaired or rebuilt. The 50-foot landing-craft L.C. No. 5 was rebuilt
and repowered. The prefabricated float and gangway, together with materials for
the approach ramp to be installed at the Echo Bay Ranger Station, were parcelled
and dispatched to the building-site via scow towed by the M.V. " Forest Surveyor."
A portion of the crew was assigned to new construction throughout the year.
The 40-foot Ranger launch " Forest Dispatcher " was completed and formally
launched on June 22nd. The 27-foot " Sylva " was also completed and will be
put into operation on Babine Lake after the spring break-up. The 46- by 22-foot
take-apart equipment raft mentioned under " Marine Design " was built and will
be ready for the 1961 road-construction season. Thirteen river-boats of conventional design and a 26-foot jet-propelled craft for use on particularly fast shallow
rivers were constructed. Finally, ten fibreglass boats, ranging up to 16 feet in
length and produced under arrangement at Oakalla Prison, were fitted out, numbered, and shipped from the Marine Station to scattered destinations throughout
the Province. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 53
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop
Principal production of the subsection consisted of nineteen lookout buildings,
which were prefabricated, together with eighteen sets of furniture to be used therein.
Fifty-eight pieces of standard office furniture and ten special-design units were also
constructed. Other items manufactured included over 100 signs of various types
and more than 400 boxes and crates for pumps, outboard motors, power-saws, etc.
The trailer construction and repair programme commenced a few years ago
was continued. Five trailers and Porta-buildings were renovated, and five new
38-foot Porta-buildings are presently under construction.
Machine-shop
The machine-shop completed over 350 overhauls on pumps, outboards,
power-saws, lighting plants, and other equipment. Two hundred and twenty-five
new units were tested, numbered, crated, and shipped to various points. Over
3,000 pieces of pump and hose accessories and various marine fittings were machined. Twenty-five new portable tanker units were assembled and shipped.
Eighteen fire-finders were built.
RADIO SECTION
The purchase of radio equipment during the year reached an all-time high
due to the number of extra portables needed for fire-fighting in the Kamloops and
Nelson Districts. While the fire season interfered badly with propagation surveys,
several important repeaters were completed, and the Coast very high frequency
(V.H.F.) system is now connected through to Kamloops.
New transmitting units purchased during 1960 totalled 307, and nine were
written off during the same period, making a net increase of 298 units.
Radio Purchases and Write-offs, 1960
Model B A.M. portable  70
Ranger station 80-watt A.M.  3
Marine 80-watt A.M.   1
Mobile A.M.   8
Total purchases, A.M.      82
Model H23-10 F.M. portable  157
Ranger station 60-watt F.M.     29
Ranger station 30-watt F.M.      11
Repeaters 50-watt F.M.        9
Mobile F.M.      19
Total purchases, F.M.   225
Total purchases, all types  307
Written off during year       9
Net increase, 1960  298
The Department of Transport regulation requiring Forest Service personnel
in charge of motor-vessels to qualify for the restricted radio-telephone certificate
is being more rigidly enforced.   Several of these certificates were issued to Forest 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Service staff during 1960, but represent only a small percentage of those required
to qualify.
In the Prince Rupert District no V.H.F. repeaters were established, and,
therefore, the signal path between Prince Rupert and Burns Lake remains entirely
dependent on atmospheric conditions. A start was made toward connecting the
above points with V.H.F. by the purchase of sufficient equipment to supply all
Ranger stations lying along the main route. These units were installed and are
ready to supply greatly improved communication to some eighteen lookouts in the
spring. At the same time, the Department of Highways commenced construction
of the Houston repeater in the late autumn, and this site will be shared by the
Forest Service and will connect Smithers to Burns Lake, a first step in completing
the connection to Prince Rupert. Atmospheric conditions generally during the year
were average, with bad sun-spot blackout occurring on the district frequency sufficiently often to underline the need for a higher frequency to be used in conjunction
with the present channel.
In the Prince George area, V.H.F. was established as the main means of communication from Quesnel to Fort St. John, and east to west between Aleza Lake
and Fort Fraser, this being accomplished by tying Forest Service units into the
Pacific Great Eastern microwave chain. Microwave now carries all north and south
radio traffic, with Forest Service units tapping the microwave chain to disseminate
signals to Prince George and all Ranger stations within range. East-west communication is not within range and is therefore carried by Forest Service repeaters, the
two networks being tied together at Prince George. The construction of the Fraser
Mountain repeater in the spring was a joint effort of this Service, the Department
of Highways, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and the British Columbia Power
Commission, from the initial clearing of a right-of-way to the completed power-line,
the site now being shared by all agencies. While the traditional uncertainty of A.M.
transmission in the northern areas has been largely overcome by the new V.H.F.
system, there remain isolated locations, and fires occur far beyond the reach of
V.H.F. which must continue to rely on A.M. Fire communication during the past
summer was adequate due to the addition of a good supply of A.M. portables, but
it was evident that insufficient units were on hand for a really severe fire season in
this district.
The extreme fire situation in the Kamloops District created the need for emergency expansion of forest-protection communication. While A.M. performed well
within its limits of overcrowded frequencies and the uncertainty of transmitting conditions, the trend was toward the use of V.H.F., particularly on large fires. V.H.F.
portables were found to be invaluable for ground-to-ground contact within a fire
area, and particularly from air to ground for the guidance of water bombers and
" bird dog " aircraft. The technique of establishing temporary battery-operated
repeaters to suit the needs of a particular fire was used successfully on several occasions and will almost certainly be an important feature of fire-fighting in the future.
With all Ranger stations except five now on the V.H.F. circuit, Lytton was connected to Kamloops headquarters by a battery repeater during the latter half of
the fire season. Attempts to expand the administrative network by bringing the
remaining A.M. Ranger stations within the reach of V.H.F. repeaters were unsuccessful, but experimental work with repeaters during the autumn make it probable
that the remaining Ranger districts will be using V.H.F. within the next two years.
Fire portables were acquired in greatly increased numbers to meet the Nelson
fire emergency, and some fixed station equipment, both V.H.F. and A.M., was
purchased for installation in Ranger stations not previously equipped with V.H.F.
or still using the obsolete P.A.C. unit.   V.H.F. portables were used for fire com- REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
55
munication to a greater extent than in the past, but due to the mountainous nature
of the country the A.M. portable is still the main fire communication tool. Preliminary surveys were carried out with the object of bringing into the main V.H.F.
circuit those locations previously out of range, and it is hoped that Kaslo, Lardeau,
Slocan City, and New Denver will be in operation in the near future. A new repeater at Brisco completed during the summer provided V.H.F. reliability to Spillimacheen and Golden for the first time.
In the Vancouver District, the area between Hope and Boston Bar was provided with two new repeaters, and good communication between these points and
from lookouts and V.H.F. mobiles was obtained for the first time, A.M. having
proved useless over the distances concerned. The new repeaters are at present
temporary and for use during the period of hazard only, but permanence will be
achieved before the next fire season. Port Moody and Mission Ranger Stations,
previously out of range of the Mount Bruce repeater, were brought into normal
operation late in the year. Special attention was given to fire communication, and
a considerable improvement noted as the result of closer supervision given to fire-
base station installation. Experimental use of 25-watt generator-powered fire-base
stations proved successful in difficult locations where the low-powered portable
proved insufficient. Purchase of several 25-watt units for fire use only was planned
for the next fire season.
The Victoria technical staff early in the spring completed Fraser Mountain
repeater and installed the units which now work into the Pacific Great Eastern
microwave system between Quesnel and Fort St. John. Temporary installation of
a second repeater at Timothy Mountain was made with the object of testing the
proposed V.H.F. circuit between Victoria and Prince George, a permanent set-up
being impossible due to lack of sufficient power at Timothy. While the test proved
successful, interference problems at Timothy must be eliminated before the Victoria-
Prince George circuit is put into operation. During the period of extreme hazard,
Victoria technicians assisted with district maintenance, but later constructed the
new repeater at Blackwell Mountain in Manning Park, completing V.H.F. connections to Kamloops. The success of the faster, more reliable circuit was very marked
in that Kamloops, which at one time was the worst A.M. circuit in British Columbia,
can now be contacted instantly and with no variation of the signal induced by
atmospheric disturbances. Other Victoria work included the Hope-Boston Bar
and Brisco V.H.F. installations, improvement of unsatisfactory circuits, location-
testing for repeater coverage, laboratory experimental construction, and maintenance of both V.H.F. and A.M. on Vancouver Island. 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
The outstanding feature of the weather during the 1960 fire season was the
rapid build-up of fire danger throughout the southern districts during the first
half of July as a result of deficient rainfall during the previous month. This rainfall
deficiency was most marked in the south-western section of the Kamloops District,
where total amounts for the seven-month period April to October came to less
than 3 inches, or something less than half of the normal amount for this period.
The snow cover at the beginning of the fire season was generally less than
normal throughout British Columbia, with near-record minimum water content
reported from the Okanagan snow courses.
Weather throughout April was generally unsettled, except for brief periods of
sunny weather near the beginning and end of the month, resulting in above normal
rainfall along the outer Coast and below normal values elsewhere. Temperatures
and sunshine were close to normal, and the only spring hazard occurred late in the
month over the Prince Rupert District and that section of the Prince George District
east of the Continental Divide.
Cool Pacific air throughout May kept temperatures near or below normal,
with deficient sunshine everywhere. Rainfall was heavy except over the southwestern part of the Kamloops District and over the northern part of the Prince
Rupert District, where the spacing of even light rains prevented the development
of any degree of fire danger. A late fall of wet snow at the end of the third week
of May along the east slopes of the Continental Divide was from 1 to 3 feet deep
in some areas.
In June the storm track across the northern half of the Province brought above
normal rains to the west slopes of the Coast Mountains and eastern part of the
Kamloops and Prince George Districts, with much below normal rainfall reported
elsewhere. Again, favourable spacing of light rains and normal temperature and
sunshine prevented the development of any serious fire danger even with rainfall in
some areas less than 10 per cent of normal.
By July the effect of the Pacific storms was confined to the extreme northern
Coast. Over most of the Province rainfall was less than 50 per cent of normal,
with many stations in the southern part of the Vancouver and Kamloops Districts
reporting no rain during the month. Warm sunny weather combined with deficient
rainfall earlier in the season to give an unusually rapid build-up of fire danger in
most areas throughout the first half of the month. An electrical storm over the
Nelson District and eastern section of the Kamloops District on July 13th and 14th
found even the slow-drying fuels in an extremely inflammable state, setting some
600 fires. Fire danger continued to increase throughout the Province, reaching a
peak about the end of the month which was well into the extreme range over the
Southern Interior districts.
Fire danger moderated somewhat about the beginning of August, but there
was no major relief until an abrupt change in the weather pattern about mid-
month brought widespread rains. Electrical storms over the two northern districts
at intervals throughout the first half of August found fuels there much less inflammable, although trouble was experienced locally in the Babine Lake-Stuart Lake
area and in the Chetwynd region. Rainfall during the last half of the month
brought the totals for August to above normal values everywhere except in the
south-western part of the Kamloops District. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 57
A return to drier conditions in September over the southern half of the Province gave ideal slash-burning conditions in the Vancouver District, and maintained
the fire danger at a serious level throughout parts of the Southern Interior until
mid-October.
FIRES
Occurence and Causes
The total of 4,113 forest fires in 1960 was only seven fires less than the record
year of 1958. Fire occurrence reached its peak during July, when 50 per cent of
the total number of fires occurred, compared to the ten-year average of 32 per cent
occurrence during that month.
Relating fire causes to the ten-year average shows the 14-per-cent increase in
fires caused by operating railways as the greatest increase of any category during
1960. Lightning-caused fires were up 3.8 per cent over the ten-year average, while
encouraging decreases of 5.6 and 3 per cent were registered by smoker- and
industrial-caused fires respectively.    (See Table 45 in Appendix.)
Fire Occurrence
during Ten-year Percentage
Forest District Period 1951-60 of All B.C.
Vancouver    8,485 38.4
Prince Rupert   1,087 4.9
Prince George  2,248 10.2
Kamloops   6,446 29.2
Nelson   3,811 17.3
Totals   22,077 100.0
Cost of Fire-fighting
Fire-suppression activities cost $4,797,418, which is very close to the final
cost of the record year of 1958. The extreme hazard conditions in the Nelson,
Kamloops, and Prince George Districts, as described in the foregoing weather report,
provided a ready tinder-box for the July and August lightning fires which started in
the inaccessible parts of these districts. This unfortunate combination of circumstances resulted in large fires which accounted for 69 per cent of the burned-over
acreage and 68 per cent of total fire-fighting costs. (See Tables 37, 50, and 52 of
the Appendix for further details.)
Damage
Although the 285,820 acres burned over in 1960 were 25 per cent less than
the ten-year average, the value of damage sustained by forest-cover was 230 per
cent above the average of $3,725,361. Almost twice the average area of merchantable timber was burned, which, together with a higher unit value of stumpage
destroyed, accounted for the large increase in the damage figure. (See Table 49,
Parts I and II, of the Appendix.)
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers
The Provincial fire atlas has been brought up to date, and the fire statistics
ledgers and fire classification atlas are currently being brought up to date. With
suitable base maps now available, the fire classification atlas has been put on a
standard 2-mile map base, using the standard reference-map index. 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FORESTRY-HOSE SLEEVE-MENDER
Picture A
Picture B
C'::?;v-' .^l-fr"^
Picture C
Picture D
A break or split in fire-hose at a critical moment can be the cause of a serious loss in damage to the forest and excessive, additional fire-suppression costs. For many years the Forest
Service equipped pump tool-boxes with electric tape for emergency repairs of hose in the field.
This is no longer necessary. The metal sleeve-mender developed by the Ontario Forest Service
has become standard equipment in British Columbia and has proven very satisfactory. Splits
up to 1.5 inches in length are successfully mended with a 3.5-inch sleeve.
Pictures above illustrate: A. Approximately ..-inch break in hose. B. Pressure released
and sleeve-mender placed over break. C. Sleeve-mender in position. D. Repair job completed,
hose under pressure.
After the fire is over, hose leaks are marked for permanent repair during the winter. This
is done by vulcanizing a patch over the break, a method developed in the Vancouver Forest
District. One district reports having salvaged 22,700 feet and another, 12,000 feet of hose in
one season by the vulcanizing method. report of forest service, 1960
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
59
Thirteen points were visibility-mapped, of which eight were recommended as
primary lookout points and two recommended as secondaries.
Standard panoramic lookout photographs were taken on forty points—ten at
new lookout sites and thirty at established lookout points—as part of the sustained
programme of keeping these photograph sets periodically renewed.
A helicopter was made available to the two-man crew in the Peace River
area and was found very applicable to this type of work. It saved considerable
travel-time and permitted quick action to take advantage of breaks in the weather,
thus proving more economical in the long run.
Fuel-moisture Sticks
A total of 672 sets of these " hazard sticks " were distributed in 1960, with the
forest industry absorbing 434 of this number. Acknowledgment is made of the kiln
and weighing facilities and assistance provided by the Forest Products Laboratory
at the University of British Columbia.
Protection Access Roads
Approximately 23 miles of fire-protection " ridge " access road was constructed between Arrow Creek and Hallmark Creek, in the Creston Ranger District.
Connection was made to a logging-road at the south end of the ridge. Work will be
continued in this area next year, extending west to Duck Creek roads. Further
investigation is planned of possibilities of extending to the north toward the west
fork of the Upper Goat River.
Snag-falling Projects
Three snag-falling contracts, comprising a total area of 4,925 acres, were
awarded in 1960, all in Vancouver Forest District.
Air-photo Mosaics
The 1960 programme was essentially concerned with further extension of air-
mosaic coverage of Vancouver Island, using contact-size B.C. Land Service air
photographs.
With new high-level R.C.A.F. photos now available for the formerly void area
between 118°-121° west and 49°-50° north, additional mosaics can now be prepared for this area.
Card Recording of Fire Data
Coincident with the 1960 revision of fire report forms, pertinent forest-fire data
will henceforth be recorded on mechanical tabulation cards for reference and
research purposes.
FIRE-WEATHER RECORDS AND INVESTIGATIONS
A basic fire-weather network of twelve representative stations has been set up
in the Kamloops Forest District. The weather-instrument checker spent ten days
in that district.
The fire-danger tables developed for Northern Alberta were tested in three
adjacent Ranger districts of the Prince George Forest District and were found to
give very satisfactory results.   Experimental use of the Alberta East Slope tables 60
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
in the Vancouver Forest District was less successful. New tables based on field
work during the previous three seasons are being developed by the Federal Forest
Research Division and are expected to be available next season. With the establishment of a Federal fire research group at Victoria, co-ordination in the field
of fire-weather studies is being developed.
The relationship between build-up class as indicated at Mount Benson Lookout
and fires on Vancouver Island for the ten-year period 1950 to 1959 is given in the
following table:—
Build-up Class
Nil
Low
Moderate
High
Extreme
a.m. wind speed at Mount Benson less than 15
m.p.h.—
Days in class -	
Fires in class. _ _	
Fires reaching 10 acres..
a.m. wind speed at Mount Benson 15 m.p.h. or
more—■
Days in class  - _ _
Fires in class    	
Fires reaching 10 acres.  ...
137
53 (39)
0(0)
66
27(41)
0(0)
236
183 (78)
8 (3)
105
71 (68)
3 (3)
214
235 (110)
10(5)
97
134(138)
13 (13)
174
286 (164)
12(7)
47
99 (210)
9(19)
102
207 (203)
12 (12)
18
46 (256)
5 (28)
Figures in parentheses give the number of fires to be expected per hundred days in each build-up class.
During 1960, lectures on fire weather were presented at the Forest Service
Ranger School, the University of British Columbia, and the Southern Interior Fire
Control Course at Penticton. The Division's meteorologist participated in the
course on Forestry Meteorology presented by the Federal Forestry Research Division at Petawawa. A paper on the application of evaporation to forestry has been
prepared for presentation at the forthcoming symposium on evaporation.
The usually abrupt ending of periods of intense drying over the southern
Coastal area is of particular significance. A number of these cases occurring during
the past decade are being investigated in relation to the location of the " thermal
trough " and other observed features of the daily weather map which are associated
with the sudden eastward motion of this trough.
During the peak of the fire season in the Kamloops Forest District, it was
possible to spend one week in the area, mostly on the Dean fire in the Merritt
Ranger District, in order to study the problems of getting maximum use of weather
information in the suppression of large fires. As a result of subsequent investigations of the behaviour of this and other fires, it appears that much of the work that
has been done in the field of aviation meteorology on the subject of air-flow over
mountains can be applied with good results, if it can be made available to the fire
superintendent.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
A total of 253 fires was attended by sixteen suppression crews of ten men
each located in hazardous areas throughout the Province. Even with the hazard
as critical as experienced in 1960, 77 per cent of the fires fought by these crews
were held to a size less than 1 acre. Only 6 per cent of the fires they fought exceeded 50 acres. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities, 1960
61
Size of Fire When Attacked
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
V. Acre
or Less
Over Va
Acre to
1 Acre
Over 1
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
Spot (up to Vi acre)  	
Over _. acre and up to 1 acre-
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres.—
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres-
Over 50 acres	
Totals.
171
34
32
12
4
161
5
28
4
6
19
10
4
253
161
33
29
15
3
8
_4
T5"
AIRCRAFT
Protection and fire-suppression flying was expanded considerably over past
years. Under the continuing contract with Pacific Western Airlines Limited, and
under a new contract with Cariboo Air Charter Limited, a total flying-time of
2,822 hours for fixed-wing aircraft was logged.
Three helicopters logged a total of 874 hours of contract flying. Of this total,
444 hours were expended in the vast inaccessible timbered areas of the Peace River
region.
Contract Flying, Fixed-wing Aircraft, 1960
Forest District
Base
■ Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert. ._   . 	
Prince George 	
Kamloops. 	
Nelson   	
Beaver  	
Beaver      	
344
377
1,034
Beaver (2)	
544
523
Total.. 	
2,822
Contract Flying, Helicopters, 1960
Forest District
Base
Type of Helicopter
Hours Flown
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George.
Kamloops..
Nelson	
Total-
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert —
Peace River and Prince
George
Kamloops 	
Nil  	
Hiller 12-E	
Hiller 12-E  	
Bell G-2 and Hiller 12-E
Hiller 12-E  	
_v;.	
64
132
444
234
Nil
The severity of the 1960 fire season and the large number of resulting lightning-
caused fires called for an expanded use of aircraft, both fixed and rotary wing, in
strictly fire-suppression roles. For this purpose, a total of 3,551 hours of fixed-wing
flying was utilized, including 696 hours spent in transportation of fire-fighters, supplies, and equipment, and 2,126 hours water bombing. Helicopters on fire duty
logged 214 hours on fire reconnaissance and 1,548 hours transporting men and
supplies, for a total of 1,762 hours.
More than half of the water-bombing time was devoted to dropping bentonite
slurry. This additive to the water dropped on fires reduces the evaporation rate of
water and, of course, increases the effective life of water as a fire-control agent.
However, the addition of bentonite reduces the pay load of water by about 10 to 15 62
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
per cent. There are other additives now being marketed which are being proven to
be more effective than either bentonite or borate, and which do not reduce the
effective volume of water that can be transported.
Use of Fixed-
wing Aircraft in Fire-fighting, 1960
forest District
Reconnaissance
Transportation of
Men and Supplies
Water Bombing
Total
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Vancouver..	
6
21
207
259
236
$297
1,562
11,970
19,909
11,293
15
91
299
176
115
$766
7,000
21,038
13,607
11,450
7
119
1,497
503
$6,162
17,129
230,162
113,292
28
112
625
1,932
854
$7,225
8,562
50,137
263,678
136,035
Kamloops..— —
Nelson  	
Totals  	
729
$45,031
696
$53,861
7 17-     I-3-. 74 .
3,551
$465,637
Use of Helicopters in Fire-fighting, 1960
Forest District
Reconnaissance
Transportation of
Men and Supplies
Water Bombing
Total
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
12
1
39
56
106
$1,269
84
4,233
4,280
12,447
161
26
261
449
651
$16,936
2,720
33,700
53,950
76,886
173
27
300
505
757
$18,205
2,804
37,933
58,230
Nelson —	
89,333
Totals -	
214
$22,313
1,548
$184,192
1,762
$206,505
ROADS AND TRAILS
All classes of road constructed and maintained for forest-protection purposes
now exceed 2,000 miles for the entire Province. Trail access is diminishing slightly
as some trails are converted into four-wheel-drive roads.
Construction of Protection Roads and Trails, 1960
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
15.1
949.0
Miles
68.6
611.0
Miles
170.6
189.8
Miles
254.3
1,749.8
964.1             679.6
360.4
2,004.1
3.5
379.7
81.5
210.6
81.0
58.7
166.0
649.0
383.2
292.1
139.7
815.0
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
This proved to be an advantageous year for slash-burning in the Vancouver
District. Since there were no extended interruptions to logging, as had been the
case in 1958 and 1959, operators were able to carry out plans more or less according to schedule, and thereby were able to have designated areas ready for slash-
burning at the first favourable break in the weather.
In late August over 4 inches of rain were recorded in Vancouver and the
Fraser Valley, with like amounts over the rest of the Vancouver Forest District. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
63
Slash-burning was started immediately thereafter, and weather conditions were such
that slash-burning could be continued over a much longer period than usual, with a
consequently greater than average area burned over.
In addition to slash-disposal on current logging, the increased acreage burned
is partly due to cleaning up 1958 and 1959 slash which could not be disposed of at
that time, and is also partly due to slash-burning requirements in areas previously
exempt.
One significant statistic is that the acreage broadcast-burned exceeds the
acreage spot-burned. This is partly due to the current practices on some tree-farm
licences of broadcast burning to ensure prompt natural regeneration in pulp-salvage
areas. Experience seems to indicate that broadcast burning is necessary to keep
many such areas productive, and to prevent invasion by brush and non-commercial
cover. (For statistical data on slash-disposal and snag-falling in Vancouver District, see Tables 39 to 43, inclusive, in the Appendix.)
In addition to the snag-falling done by the logging industry, Protection Division
felled 6,145 acres of snags under contract in the Vancouver Forest District, and
Reforestation Division crews felled snags on 6,306 acres, of which 2,581 acres were
in Southern Interior areas.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
In spite of a very heavy fire season, information was laid in only forty-two
instances, as compared with a ten-year average of sixty. Thirty-five convictions
were obtained, against two cases dismissed. Five cases were still pending disposal
at year's end. As a rare event in the history of the Forest Service, two arson convictions were secured.    Further information is given in Table 53 of the Appendix.
FOREST CLOSURES
The prolonged rainless period in the southern portion of the Province precipitated sixty-six forest closures. General closures were ordered in the Bella Coola
area of the Prince Rupert Forest District and in five zones of the Vancouver Forest
District. In the Prince George Forest District, one recreational closure was ordered
in the southern portion of the Peace River area, while six recreational and one
restricted-travel closure was ordered in the Kamloops Forest District. The remaining fifty-two closures were recreational, in the Nelson Forest District.
Forest Closures, 1960
Area
Forest District
Type of Closure
Effective
Date
Termination
Date
Ryan,
Horsefly Lake-Quesnel Lake Road	
Area No. 10—Little Slocan River  _.
Area No.  11—Tiger, Cambridge, Gorge,
McAlister, and Casino Creeks  _	
Area . No. 13 — Blueberry, Poupore, Sullivan,
Johnson, Murphy, McNally, Hanna, and Topping Creeks '.	
Area No. 28—Arrowpark Creek	
Area No. 38—Slewiskin Creek	
Area No. 40—Big Sheep Creek-
Area No. 43—Ladybird and Norns (Pass) Creeks
Area No. 46—Kuskanax Creek.  	
Area No. 47—Nakusp and Fitzstubbs Creeks.
Area No. 48—Caribou and Burton Creeks	
Area No. 26—Wilson Creek 	
Kamloops
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Restricted travel
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
April 7
July   7
July 14
July 14
July 14
July 14
July 14
July 14
July 14
July 14
July 14
July 15
August 19
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Closures, 1960—Continued
Area
Forest District
Type of Closure
Effective
Date
Termination
Date
Area No. 29—Boundary Creek	
Area No. 32—Ingram Creek  _ 	
Area No. 37—Conkle, Ed James, Johnstone, and
Jolly Creeks 	
Area   No.   50—Between   Westkettle   and   Kettle
Rivers north of Westbridge..
Area No. K 1—Nashwhite (Siwash) Creek-
Area No. K 2—Whiteman Creek	
Area No. K 3—Shorts Creek _
Area No. K A—Lambly Creek—	
Area No. 3—Lamb Creek  	
Area No. 16—St. Mary River	
Area No. 41—Spillimacheen River	
Area No. 9—Lemon Creek 	
Area No. 44—Whatshan River _	
Area No. 53—Perry Creek  _ _	
Area No. 57—Main Kettle River 	
Area No. 7—Five Mile and Anderson Creeks	
Area No. 14—Granby River — 	
Area No. 23—Alexander Creek	
Area No. 31—Wild Horse Creek	
Area No. 36—Bull River.  _ 	
Area No. 52—Moyie River	
Area No. 15—Crawford Creek  	
Area No. 19—Big and Little Sand Creeks	
Area No. 21—Woodbury, Krao, Cedar, and Len-
drum Creeks  _ 	
Area No. 24—Hartley Creek. _  	
Area No. 25—Elk and Fording Rivers	
Area No. 30—Boundary Creek (Creston Ranger
District)  _   _..	
Area   No.   33 — Stony,   Sundown,   and   Sunrise
Creeks, and part of Yahk River _._	
Area No. 39—Gray Creek 	
Area No. 54—Gold Creek 	
Area No. 55—Wigwam River 	
Area No. 56—Flathead River 	
Area No. 1—Sheep Creek- 	
Area No. 2—Erie Creek   	
Area No. 6—Hidden Creek  —
Area No. 12—South Fork ot Salmo River-
Area No. 22—Hawkins Creek	
Area No. 17—Pend d'Oreille River	
Area No. 58—Smokey, Falls, Garrity, and Small-
wood (Bear) Creeks— _	
Area No. 27—Goat River- 	
Area No. 35—Hazel Creek 	
Area No. 42—Sullivan Creek _ _.„
Area No. 59—Kid Creek 	
Area No. K 10—Oyama Creek-
Area No. 45—Sanca Creek watershed	
Area No. 60—Boundary Creek  	
Area No. K 11—Penticton and Ellis Creeks..
Zone 1—Vancouver Island—	
Zone 9—Vancouver Mainland — _
Bella Coola and Necleetsconnay Rivers..
South portion of Peace River District	
Zone 7—Mainland 	
Zone 8—Mainland	
Zone 10—Mainland  	
Nelson..
Nelson..
Nelson..
Nelson	
Kamloops
Kamloops
Kamloops
Kamloops.
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson.	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson.	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson 	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson 	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson 	
Nelson	
Nelson 	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson 	
Nelson	
Nelson _.
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Kamloops	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Pr. Rupert	
Pr. George	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Vancouver-
Recreational
Recreational.
Recreational
Recreational
Recreational
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational
Recreational
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational
Recreational
Recreational
Recreational..
Recreational..
Recreational..
Recreational
Recreational.
Recreational..
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational-
Recreational.
Recreational.
Recreational..
Recreational..
Recreational..
Recreational .
Recreational-
General 	
General	
General	
Recreational-
General	
General.	
General	
July 15
July 15
July 15
July 15
July 15
July 15
July 15
July 15
July 18
July 18
July 18
July 18
July 18
July 18
July 18
July 18
July 18
July 18
July 18
July 18
July 18
July 20
July 20
July 20
July 20
July 20
July 20
July 20
July 20
July 20
July 20
July 20
July 22
July 22
July 22
July 22
July 22
July 22
July 22
July 26
July 26
July 26
July 26
July 26
July 29
July 29
July 30
August   9
August   9
August 10
August 11
August 11
August 11
August 11
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 4
August 4
August 4
August 4
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 22
August 4
August 22
August 22
August 4
August 15
August 15
August 15
August 24
August 15
August 15
August 15 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 65
RANGER SCHOOL
GENERAL
The eleventh class, consisting of twenty-one men, graduated in December,
1960.   The twelfth class will commence January 9th, 1961.
A two-day trial course at the Marine Station in the operation of launches was
conducted in December. There were no major changes in the curriculum, but the
work of revising courses was continued.
Subjects covered during the year were as follows:—
Second Term, Eleventh Class, Spring, 1960
Subject Days Allotted
Management Policies and Procedure  15
Preliminary Fire Organization  10
Scaling   14
Construction  3
Appraisals   5
Public Speaking     3
Mechanical Course  10
Public Relations  1
Game Commission  0.5
Examinations, visitors, and field-trips  5.5
Total days      67
Typing, 4 to 5 p.m. two days per week.
Third Term, Eleventh Class, Fall, 1960
Subject Days Allotted
Fire Suppression   14
Mensuration     15
Vancouver Island trip      4
Photogrammetry      3
Business English     4
Silviculture      9
Ranger District Organization     7
Personnel Management      1
Grazing     1
Examinations, visitors, and field-trips      5
Total days   63
Typing, 4 to 5 p.m. two days per week.
First aid, 8 to 10 p.m. one evening per week.
EXTRA COURSES
A five-day course for lookoutmen followed the spring term. Eight men- completed the course and were appointed to stations in the Vancouver Forest District.
School facilities were used for two weeks in April by the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for an in-service training course. There was an
average of thirty-six in attendance. 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The instructional staff also participated in the Forest Protection Committee
courses sponsored by the Canadian Forestry Association and in lectures at the
University of British Columbia and to other groups.
Assistance was also given the Kamloops Forest District in conducting a course
for lookoutmen in that district.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thanks are due to speakers and lecturers provided by the following agencies:
Department of Recreation and Conservation; Air Division of the British Columbia
Land Service; Civil Service Commission; University of British Columbia; Forests
Products Laboratory; MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River Ltd.; Forestal Forestry
and Engineering; British Columbia Forest Products Limited; as well as lecturers
from other divisions and districts of the Forest Service.
To British Columbia Forest Products Limited, particularly Mr. G. Burch, go
sincere thanks for the co-operation shown the school at all times in the interests of
good forestry. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 67
PERSONNEL
ORGANIZATION
Following the major organizational changes of the previous year, no further
changes were made in 1960. At the same time, the need for greater emphasis on
certain aspects of the work was recognized. The increasing number of public
sustained-yield units requiring administrative supervision called for the addition of
a forester to the appropriate section in each of the five district offices. Two foresters
were added to the Research Division to strengthen the forest genetics research
programme. In the Interior districts, a junior assistant was added to the Scaling
Section to permit increased field instruction and inspection by the Inspectors of
Licensed Scalers.
SERVICES
There was a marked increase in volume of the usual functions of personnel
administration carried out by the Personnel Office. A record number of applications for employment were handled. Substantial changes in the Sick and Holiday
Leave Regulations and the introduction of a group life insurance policy required
implementation, and an increasing proportion of time was devoted to matters of
organizing for safety and accident prevention.
The high standard of employee relations within the Forest Service continued,
as evidenced by the fact that only one formal grievance was presented during the
year. Two new associations of specialized employees representing the B.C. Government group of professional agrologists and of professional foresters announced
their formation. This brought to five the number of associations involving Forest
Service personnel, the earlier three being the comprehensive B.C. Government
Employees' Association, the B.C. Official Scalers' Association, and the Society of
British Columbia Forest Officers representing, primarily, Forest Rangers in the
Vancouver Forest District. The Personnel Office maintained co-operative relations
with these groups through meetings, correspondence, and review of briefs submitted.
Vocation day programmes are becoming increasingly popular at high schools
throughout the Province, and numerous Forest Service officers took part.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
Ranger meetings were held in the spring at Prince George and Prince Rupert.
The Personnel Officer attended both meetings and, in total, spent 21 per cent of
his time in field contacts away from Victoria headquarters. The District Foresters'
meeting planned for January was cancelled for reasons of economy, but a Management meeting and Scaling meeting were held, followed by a meeting of Protection
Officers after the very heavy fire season.
With respect to employee morale, there is still a lack of communication and
information at the field-staff level aggravated by the widely scattered and sometimes
isolated location of personnel. The Forest Service news-letter, formerly a monthly
bulletin, served a very useful personnel function in carrying news and information
of divisional and district activities related both to forestry and personnel, but was
again restricted this year to a single Christmas edition. Nevertheless, this lack was
partly alleviated when the Civil Service Commission commenced publishing a
monthly Civil Service news-letter.
The Civil Service Commission called two interdepartmental meetings of Personnel Officers during the year.   The meetings were intended for instruction and 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
discussion of new or amended policies and proved a worth-while sounding-board
for departmental opinions on such things as new leave regulations, recruitment
problems, entrance examinations, and promotional panels.
In the field of training, two members of the Forest Service, an engineer and
a principal clerk from the Victoria offices, were selected for the fifth class of the
Executive Development Training Plan sponsored by the Government through
the University of British Columbia. An engineer, a forester, and the Personnel
Officer graduated with the second class. Arrangements were made for limited
attendance at training sessions, such as the Camp Management Training Conference of the British Columbia Loggers' Association, the Industrial First Aid
Attendants' Conference, the Workmen's Compensation Board " Project Igniter "
lecture demonstrations on fire, the British Columbia Safety Council Provincial
Safety Conference. Forest Service officers instructed at the Canadian Forestry
Association Fire Control Course, a Right-of-way Agents' meeting of the Department
of Highways, and numerous locally organized programmes. A Lands Department
surveys officer conducted an instruction tour on aerial photographs through the
Prince Rupert Ranger districts. The Prince George, Prince Rupert, and Nelson
Forest Districts and the Surveys and Engineering Services Divisions set up formal
safety and accident-prevention committees. Various in-service training programmes
were continued, such as Lookout and Assistant Ranger schools, first-aid schools, and
field training courses organized by the districts and divisions concerned. In Victoria,
during the winter, a series of noon movies on forestry and related subjects were
shown primarily for the information of office staffs.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment approved for the Forest Service by
the Legislative Assembly for the fiscal year commencing April 1st, 1960, was 832,
equal to the previous year. Early in the year this was increased by Order in Council
to 839 by the addition of seven foresters for Working Circle administration and
Research. Reflecting the increased forest activity in the Province during the year,
sufficient additional funds were also made available to increase the number of
continuously employed field staff, primarily Assistant Rangers, cruising and silviculture crewmen, by some eighty-four. At the same time the number of seasonally
employed personnel dropped by forty.
During 1960 seventy-one persons received Civil Service appointments and
seventy-five left the permanent service. One twenty-five-year service badge was
earned. There were five retirements during the year. Forty-eight transfers of
permanent staff took place. Ten graduate foresters and four engineers left the
Service, and fourteen foresters and four engineers were hired, including eight
forestry graduates from the University of British Columbia.
Turnover of Civil Service appointed staff, including permanent and full-time
casual staff, averaged 13.4 per cent, up slightly over the previous year. Prince
Rupert District suffered the greatest disruption, with a 51.4-per-cent turnover of
office staff and an over-all average of 22.9 per cent. Nelson was the lowest, with
10 per cent office staff turnover and 6 per cent turnover of total staff. Amongst
professional employees, there was a 6.7-per-cent turnover, which is 75 per cent
higher than last year, while technical staff turnover rose from 3.1 per cent in 1959
to 4.8 per cent in 1960. Total office staff turnover was down but still remained at
the high figure of 25.6 per cent. Sixty per cent of the office staff are female, but this
group comprises 85 per cent of the office turnover. There was a reduction in all
groups of the number of persons who stated their reason for leaving was for better REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 69
salary and over half indicated personal and other miscellaneous reasons, such as
further education. Seven men were lost in fatal accidents on the job. A survey
party of four drowned in a boating accident, two fire-fighters were killed by falling
snags on the fire-line, and a water-bomber pilot died when his plane crashed. In the
matter of discipline amongst permanent staff or during probationary periods, no
releases by Order in Council were necessary, and action was restricted to one disciplinary suspension for breach of safety regulations and withholding of six annual
merit increases.
Over 600 written applications for employment, the highest on record, were
handled in the Personnel Office alone, apart from many others handled through
divisional and district offices. In addition to the usual reclassification examinations,
special written examinations were held for one promotional position, and oral
examinations at panel interviews were employed in filling seven other positions.
The Personnel Officer and Assistant also participated in making selections for 156
other Civil Service positions. At the annual spring examinations for Assistant
Rangers, 150 candidates sat, of whom thirty-one passed. As there were only seventeen vacancies for Assistant Rangers and there were a large number of previously
qualified men still in the service at lesser classifications, the examinations were held
in the Vancouver, Prince George, and Prince Rupert Districts only. At the end of
December twenty-one trained men graduated from the Forest Service Ranger
School and occupied positions throughout the Province as Deputy Rangers, Stand
Examination Officers, and Cruising Supervisor.
CLASSIFICATIONS, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
No important changes were made during the year in the Civil Service classification system affecting Forest Service employees. Minor revisions were made in
the specifications for various positions in line with current practice.
Numerous individual position classification reviews were carried out. Of the
sixty submitted to the Civil Service Commission, forty-four were approved, fourteen
rejected, and two were undecided at the end of the year.
Effective April 1 st, a salary revision with increases from 4 to 7 per cent was
granted, affecting professional grades up to the Assistant Chief Forester level.
Adjustments for the Ranger Supervisors' group and Assistant Radio Superintendent,
reported as agreed upon in last year's Report, did not materialize. Toward the year-
end a submission was made to the Civil Service Commission concerning a number
of categories that were most obviously falling out of line. For the first time in over
ten years, the Forest Service carried an appeal to a final hearing of the Civil Service
Commission. The appeal was with respect to the salary rating of Forest Agrologists
relative to other Agriculturists in the Government Service, and was lost.
The major changes in working conditions were the revision in Sick Leave
Regulations, cancelling sick leave with pay entitlement during the first six months
of employment, but increasing the rate of accumulation of sick-leave credits thereafter, and the increases in holiday-leave benefits after five, fifteen, and twenty years
of service. The introduction of a Government group life insurance scheme covering most full-time employees was well received. At the same time, unemployment
insurance coverage was restricted to day-rate and non-continuous staff. Within
the Forest Service, restrictions in budget required a drastic curtailment of the issuing
and replacement of uniforms and a restriction of their use. Similarly, there was
a restriction in conditions governing transfers of employees and the limits of
expenses and assistance which could be granted.
There was a marked increase in concern and activity for safety and accident
prevention throughout the Service.   The accident-frequency rate (cases involving 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
over three days' time-loss per million man-hours) excluding fire-fighters was 16.1
and including fire-fighters was 20.2 for the Forest Service. Safety committees
became active in all forest districts and at Victoria headquarters. Tests were
conducted on various types of life-jackets in use in the Service, and the least
efficient were discarded. Marine safety equipment inspection reports were devised
for Mechanical Superintendents inspecting watercraft. Surveys of accident causes
were begun, and safety bulletins, suggestions, and revised instructions increased in
circulation. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
71
ACCOUNTING
FISCAL
The financial tables included in the Appendix to this Report reveal a substantial increase in Forest Service business during 1960. The increases in some phases
are remarkable, considering the unfavourable market conditions reportedly experienced by the industry during most of the year and the hampering effect of yet
another record fire season.
A record volume of timber was scaled (see Tables 6 to 9 in Appendix), and
this was reflected in the total of charges against logging operations (see Table 31),
which increased by 20 per cent to $32,964,679, the highest total since 1956.
Although all forest districts showed some increase in charges, the Vancouver and
Prince Rupert Districts accounted for almost 75 per cent of the over-all Provincial
increase, with the latter topping its 1959 total by 48 per cent.
Direct Forest Service revenue collections increased to $30,523,579, a record
calendar-year total and 13.7 per cent greater than that of 1959. Timber-sale
stumpage, which comprises the bulk of the revenue, was $26,374,420, up 14.2 per
cent, and the other timber-sales items of rentals and fees, cruising, and advertising
increased accordingly. Timber royalty continued an upward trend begun in 1959
and the total of $2,281,028 represented an increase of 20.6 per cent. This was
apparently due to a larger volume of cutting on royalty-bearing lands in the Prince
Rupert District (Coast). Rentals and fees on timber licences, berths, and leases
showed little change, except for an increase of 9 per cent in the latter. These
tenures are no longer issued and terminate as they become fully logged. Grazing
permits and fees again increased substantially, being up 17 per cent to $101,240,
due to a further increase in fees, which are based on live-stock prices received by
the producers the previous year. Collections of forest-protection tax totalled
$456,491, a drop of 10.6 per cent from the previous year. This was due to late
billing of the tax on Crown-granted areas, and payments of these accounts should
be received early in the new calendar year. The total of miscellaneous revenue
collected was almost identical with that for 1959, at $121,461.
ADMINISTRATION
In the headquarters Accounts Office, the effect of the record fire season was
felt in the Expenditure Section, and accounting for fire-suppression expenditures
was not fully completed by the end of the year. The growth in normal business
kept the other sections fully occupied with sliding-scale stumpage price adjustments,
due to lumber-market price fluctuations, continuing to be a major part of the work
of the Timber Sales Records Section.
Internal audit and procedural inspection visits to district offices were carried
out on a normal basis, and investigators from the Comptroller's office maintained
a full schedule of mill-records checks, as well as undertaking cost studies for Management Division.
In spite of the increase in total revenue, the collection situation was influenced
by the continued " tight money " financing problems of marginal operators and slow
liquidation of inventories in some sections of the industry. Lumber prices declined
toward the latter half of the year, and the lumber-market outlook was uncertain at
the year's end.
Log-salvage activity was unchanged from 1959, there being 277 active permits
as at December 31st. 72
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY*
As of October, 1960, the staff of the Forest Biology Division officially became
the Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch of the new Canada Department of
Forestry. The organization of the Branch in British Columbia remains unchanged
for the time being.
During the year, construction of a new field laboratory was completed at the
Cowichan Lake Experiment Station. The building is designed for use by the
Forest Research Branch and Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch, Canada
Department of Forestry.
Interior view of new field laboratory at Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station.
A co-operative study to prepare an ecological classification for white pine
forests in the Interior was continued. This study, sponsored by the Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch, was carried out under the direction of Mr. V. J.
Krajina, Department of Biology and Botany, University of British Columbia.
FOREST INSECT AND DISEASE CONDITIONS
The year was characterized by a large number of outbreaks of defoliating
insects on the Coast, some of them of an unusual nature, and a generally low level
of insect activity in the Interior. Collections of forest-disease specimens during
1960 totalled 2,049.   Included in the number were eight fungi listed for the first
* Prepared by R. R. Lejeune, Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch, Victoria, B.C., Canada Department
of Forestry. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 73
time in the forest-disease herbarium and three fungi recognized as having a more
extensive host range or geographical distribution than previously recorded. Under
the weather conditions encountered, foliage diseases flourished and were reported
generally at above average infection levels.
The one-year-cycle spruce budworm remained at a low level in the Vancouver
District. The population increased in the area between Kitimat and Terrace, but
the outlook for 1961 indicates decreased activity there.
The current two-year-cycle spruce budworm outbreak is the most extensive
recorded to date in Central British Columbia. Its focal point is the Babine Lake
area, and from there it extends east, west, and north into the Prince George and
Prince Rupert Forest Districts. The area affected now exceeds 7,600,000 acres,
but a decline in the population is expected in 1961.
The black-headed budworm decreased to a low level on the Queen Charlotte
Islands during midsummer of 1960. The general outlook for 1961 is for low
populations on the Queen Charlotte Islands, Vancouver Island, and the Coastal
Mainland.
An unusually intense outbreak of the saddle-backed looper occurred on some
14,000 acres of hemlock and balsam at Kitimat in 1960. Surveys indicate that
there is a potential for a high population in 1961.
The green-striped forest looper has not been regarded as a threat to western
hemlock but, in 1960, no less than thirty-seven severe infestations, ranging in size
from 35 to 6,300 acres each and totalling about 26,000 acres in all, were detected
on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Surveys indicate that defoliation probably
will not be as severe in 1961.
The known range of the balsam woolly aphid was again extended in the Howe
Sound-North Vancouver area. Four foreign species of predators were released,
and further introductions are planned for 1961.
Fairly heavy larval populations of the pine butterfly were present in MacMillan
Park and surrounding stands. About a twofold increase in numbers is predicted
for 1961. This is not expected to cause severe damage to second-growth stands,
but any weakening of trees in about 1,700 acres of overmature decadent stands may
predispose them to attack by bark-beetles and wood-borers.
The western hemlock looper was more abundant than usual in the Coastal
forests, but defoliation was light and is not expected to be severe in 1961. In the
Interior, populations increased along the Big Bend Highway and North Thompson
River.
The great number of red-topped Douglas fir appearing in the Interior in 1960
indicated that an upsurge of the Douglas fir beetle had taken place in 1959. In the
most heavily attacked areas there was a four-to six-fold increase in red-topped trees
in 1960 compared with 1959.
The mountain pine beetle continued to attack lodgepole, white, and ponderosa
pine in most areas infested in 1959 but, in general, populations were not epidemic.
However, heavy white pine mortality was observed on the Lower Mainland and
Vancouver Island.
Needle-blight of pine, caused by Elytroderma deformans, continued to intensify in yellow pine stands for the third consecutive year, and mortality in the
suppressed crown classes was noted on permanent sample-plots. The incidence of
Douglas fir needle-cast, caused by Rhabdocline pseudotsugai, continued at outbreak
level in the Canal Flats-Invermere Christmas-tree holdings. Ink-spot disease of
trembling aspen, caused by Ciboronia seaveri, reached epidemic proportions in
Tweedsmuir Park and near Prince George. Needle-cast of larch, caused by Hypo-
dermella laricis, was severe in the Kettle Valley and Upper Arrow Lake regions. 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A Melamspora rust, believed to be an introduced species, was found on ponderosa pine seedlings in an experimental seed-bed in the Prince Rupert Forest District.
All infected seedlings were destroyed. Willow blight, an introduced disease caused
by Fusicladium saliciperdum, was reported in Vancouver. This is the first record
of reoccurrence of the disease since 1941.
Twenty additional plantations of exotic forest tree species were brought to the
attention of the laboratory during the year, and observations on nine plantations
were discontinued. This brings the total number registered and under periodic
observation to 168. White mottled rot, caused by Ganoderma applanatum, was
reported for the first time on Scots pine, and a high incidence of Armillaria mellea
root-rot was reported in several hybrid poplar plantations.
Late damping-off developed to endemic levels at Quinsam and Green Timbers
forest nurseries. At Duncan, however, the situation was more serious, with losses
averaging approximately 30 per cent.
CONTROL OPERATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS
Studies were initiated in forest-disease control with the assignment of a research
officer to this field. Initial studies have been directed to an appraisal of the translocation and persistence of several anti-fungal antibiotics in Douglas fir and to the
experimental control of Douglas fir needle-cast.
The Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch was responsible for assessing
several insect-control operations during 1960. The largest was the spraying of some
30,000 acres of forest land for control of the black-headed budworm on the Queen
Charlotte Islands. This project was undertaken by the British Columbia Loggers'
Association, with financial assistance from the British Columbia Government. An
innovation was the use of a weaker solution of DDT (one-quarter pound per acre),
which reduced harmful side effects to fish and fish-food organisms but at the same
time appeared to give adequate control of the budworm.
Field experiments conducted with a bacterial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis,
against the black-headed budworm were of particular interest. The 1960 trials
included both small-scale hand-spraying experiments and spray applied by aircraft
over selected plots. They demonstrated that black-headed budworm can be killed
with B. thuringiensis dosages that are within the range of practicability for aerial
spraying. It is anticipated that the usefulness of the material can be improved
with better formulation and application techniques. If it can be developed for
commercial application, it could find wide use in areas sensitive to the adverse side
effects of conventional insecticides.
About 1,800 acres of forest around Kitimat were sprayed with DDT for control of the saddle-backed looper. Although the spraying apparently did not kill
many insects, observations indicate that a considerable amount of foliage was saved
by slowing down their feeding.
The British Columbia Forest Service treated about 250,000 cubic feet of logs
to eliminate a hazard presented by large populations of the Alaska spruce beetle,
near Hay Lake in the Central Interior. The treatments were judged to be successful.
A new development, pioneered by the British Columbia Loggers' Association,
is the spraying of log-booms by helicopter for their protection from ambrosia beetle
attack. A considerable volume of logs on Cowichan Lake was successfully treated
during 1960. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960 75
RESEARCH PROJECTS
Insects
Research was continued on the following: Ambrosia-beetles, Douglas fir
beetle, Douglas fir needle-miners, cone and seed insects, insect bioclimatology,
insect diseases, wood-borers in fire-killed timber, timber-infesting insects, the poplar
and willow borer, and life-histories of important defoliating insects. New work
was started on the Sitka spruce weevil, aimed essentially at determining the seriousness of the problem under various site conditions and developing methods of control.
New problems brought to the attention of the laboratory were terminal damage to
leaders of young Douglas fir on Vancouver Island and Sitka spruce on the Queen
Charlotte Islands. These are being investigated. While some of the damage can
be attributed to insects, it is suspected that other factors may be more important.
Diseases of Immature Forests
Studies of the distribution of disease within Douglas fir plantations were continued on Vancouver Island, with a re-examination of plots in the Robertson River
area and with a further analysis of data from the three study areas enumerated to
date. Studies of Poria root-rot of Douglas fir were reopened; major emphasis
during the year was placed on the evaluation of the susceptibility of western hemlock and on the development of a satisfactory method of artificial tree infection.
A preliminary survey was initiated to develop sampling methods appropriate to the
appraisal of Douglas fir root-rot. Investigations of pole blight of western white
pine were continued. Major emphasis during the year was placed on an evaluation
of the occurrence and severity of pole blight in relation to ecological conditions.
Preliminary analyses were completed on seventy-five plots. Artificial drought shelters and weather records were maintained in experimental areas in the Arrow Lakes
region. Investigation of a canker disease in native and exotic Populus spp. was
continued, and factors affecting adventitious rooting were examined.
Diseases of Mature Forests
A study initiated in 1959 to assess the importance of logging scars in Douglas
fir as avenues of entrance for wood-destroying and wood-staining fungi was continued. Sample areas were established in the Cariboo, Okanagan, and East Kootenay drainage systems. Data derived from an earlier study of deterioration in
wind-damaged spruce-balsam forests were analysed and a report prepared for
publication.
v PUBLICATIONS
Publications distributed during the year included:—
Chapman, J. A., and E. D. A. Dyer:  Seasonal Flight Activity of the Ambrosia
Beetle Trypodendron lineatum (Oliv.), for 1959, near Parksville, B.C.
Proc. Ent. Soc. B.C. 57:30-34.    1960.
Molnar, A. C, and R. G. McMinn:   The Origin of Basal Scars in the British
Columbia Interior White Pine Type.   For. Chron. 36(1) :50-60.    1960.
McBride, C. F., and J. M. Kinghorn:  Lumber Degrade Caused by Ambrosia
Beetles.   B.C. Lumberman 44(7) :40-52.    1960.
Ross, D. A.:   Damage by Long-horned Wood Borers in Fire-killed White
Spruce, Central British Columbia.   For. Chron. 36:355-361.    1960.
Parker, A. K., and A. L. S. Johnson:  Decay Associated with Logging Injury
to Spruce and Balsam in the Prince George Region of British Columbia.
For. Chron. 36:30-45.    1960. 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In addition, five multigraphed reports were prepared for regional distribution.
These refer to forest-disease sampling studies on Douglas fir plantations; to a
programme of blister-rust resistance testing of western white pine; to fungi associated with previously unrecorded frost damage; to the collection of fungi in the
Victoria herbarium; and to the development of a population sampling method for
the two-year-cycle spruce budworm. Several articles of local or topical interest
were published in the Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch bi-monthly progress
report. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
77
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1961
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
R. G. McKee --------- Deputy Minister of Forests.
F. S. McKinnon Chief Forester.
L. F. Swannell Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations Branch.
J. S. Stokes Assistant Chief Forester i/c Planning Branch.
Staff Division Heads:
Cooper, C. - -       -       -Forest Counsel.
Hicks, W. V.  Departmental Comptroller.
Monk, D. R.  Director, Public Information.
Williams, W. J.   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        - -        -      Personnel Officer.
Operations Branch Division Heads:
Forse, H. B. Forester i/c Protection Division.
Greggor, R. D.    -        -        -        -        - Forester i/c Engineering Services Division.
Hughes, W. G.    -        -        -        -        -        - Forester i/c Management Division.
Pendray, W. C.   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        Director, Grazing Division.
Robinson, E. W. -        -        -        -        -        - Forester i/c Forest Ranger School.
Planning Branch Division Heads:
Pogue, H. M.      - - - - - - Forester i/c Working Plans Division.
Young, W. E. L. - - - - - Forester i/c Surveys and Inventory Division.
Silburn, G. -        - - - - - -        -    Forester i/c Reforestation Division.
Spilsbury, R. H.  - - - - - -        - Forester i/c Research Division.
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver District
I. T. Cameron
Boulton, L. B. B.
- District Forester.
Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Carr, W. S. (Chilliwack); McDaniel, R. W. (Hope); Wilson, R. (Harrison Lake); Webster,
J. B. (Mission); Mudge, M. H. (Port Moody); Henderson, J. E. (Squamish); Chamberlin,
L. D. (Sechelt); Thomas, R. W. (Madeira Park); Hollinshead, S. B. (Powell River); Norbirg,
H. (Lund); Gill, D. E. (Thurston Bay East); Donnelly, R. W. (Thurston Bay West); Bertram, G. D. (Chatham Channel); pending appointment (Echo Bay); Howard, W. (Alert Bay);
Sykes, S. J. (Port Hardy); Ormond, L. D. D. (Campbell River); Antonelli, M. W. (Courtenay); Glassford, R. J. (Parksville); Haley, K. (Nanaimo); McKinnon, C. G. (Duncan);
Lorentsen, L. H. (Ganges); Jones, R. W. (Langford); Morley, K. A. (Lake Cowichan);
Brooks, F. T. (Alberni); McArthur, E. J. (Tofino); Carradice, J. H. (Pemberton).
Prince Rupert District
J. R. Johnston
Lehrle, L. W. W.
Forest Rangers:
District Forester.
Assistant District Forester.
Brooks, T. (Ocean Falls); Gorley, O. (Queen Charlotte City); Brooks, R. L. (Prince
Rupert); Lindstrom, W. C. (Terrace); Antonenko, J. (Kitwanga); Petty, A. P. (Hazelton);
Mould, J. (Smithers); Clay, W. D. (Telkwa); Berard, R. K. (Houston); Kullander, M. O.
(Pendleton Bay); Mastin, T. J. (Burns Lake); Hawkins, R. M. (Bella Coola); Pement, A. T.
(Southbank); Hamilton, H. D. (Atlin); Crosby, D. N. (Topley). 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Prince George District
A. H. Dixon ----------- District Forester.
Bennett, C. E. Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
French, C. L. (McBride); Rohn, C. (Penny); Meents, G. E. (Prince George); Magee, K. W.
(Prince George); Northrup, K. A. (Fort St. James); Mitchell, B. A. (Quesnel); Barbour,
H. T. (Dawson Creek); Keefe, R. R. (Aleza Lake); Graham, G. W. (Vanderhoof); Cosens,
A. S. (Fort St. John); Baker, F. M. (Fort Fraser); Waller, T. G. (Summit Lake); Thornton,
S. H. (Quesnel); Flynn, D. M. (Prince George); Hamblin, R. A. (Hixon); Pearce, F.
(Quesnel); Angly, R. B. (Quesnel); McQueen, L. (Chetwynd).
Kamloops District
W. C. Phillips      ---------- District Forester.
McRae, N. A.    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        - Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Hopkins, H. V. (Lumby); Williams, R. V. (Birch Island); Bailey, J. D. (Barriere); Hill
A. F. (Kamloops (S.)); Paquette, O. (Chase); Gibson, C. L. (Salmon Arm); Jones, G. G
(Sicamous); Cameron, A. G. (Lillooet); Kuly, A. (Vernon); Scotte, E. L. (Penticton)
Dearing, J. H. (Princeton); Robertson, C- E. (Clinton); Hamilton, T. J. (Williams Lake)
Monteith, M. E. (Alexis Creek); Hewlett, H. C. (Kelowna); Noble, J. O. (Ashcroft)
DeWitt, D. O. (Merritt); Bodman, G. F. (Blue River); Collins, B. G. (Enderby); Janning
H. A. W. (100 Mile (N.)); Weinard, J. P. (Kamloops (N.)); Wittner, D. J. (Horsefly)
Ashton,L. (100Mile(S.)).
Nelson District
P. Young District Forester.
Bruce, J. B. --------- Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Taft, L. G. (Invermere); Humphrey, J. L. (Fernie); Anderson, S. E. (Golden); Gierl, J. B.
(Cranbrook (E.)); Ross, A. I. (Creston); Stilwell, L. E. (Kaslo); Benwell, W. G. (Lardeau);
Robinson, R. E. (Nelson); Jupp, C. C. (New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Nakusp); Wood, H. R.
(Castlegar); Reid, E. W. (Grand Forks); Uphill, W. T. (Kettle Valley); Cartwright, G. M.
(Canal Flats); Allin, G. G. (Arrowhead); Haggart, W. D. (Edgewood); Hesketh, F. G.
(Elko); Reaney, R. J. (Spillimacheen); Bailey, J. F. (Cranbrook (W.)); Ivens, J. H.
(Beaverdell); Webster, G. R. (Slocan City); Jackson, R. C. (Revelstoke).   REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
81
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
General
Table No.
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1960
Pace
83
Reforestation
2. Summary of Planting, 1951-60	
84
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Forest Management
Estimated Value of Production, Including Loading and Freight within
the Province, 1951-60     85
Paper Production (in Tons), 1951-60     85
Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.), 1951-60     86
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the Years
1959 and 1960:  (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet     87
Species Cut, All Products, 1960:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet     88
Total Scale, All Products, 1960 (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet     89
Timber Scaled by Months and Forest Districts, 1960     90
Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty and
Stumpage, 1951-60 in Thousand Cubic Feet     91
Number of Acres Managed and Operated under Approved Working Plans
1951-60	
Total Scale of All Products from Managed Lands, 1951-60
Logging Inspections, 1960	
Trespasses, 1960
91
92
92
93
94
Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
Land Act, 1960	
Classification of Areas Examined by the Forest Service, 1960  94
Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1960  94
Timber-sale Record, 1960  95
Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1960  96
Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-
timber Sold on Timber Sales in 1960, per C CF. Log-scale  97
Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Saw-timber on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits Issued in 1960  98
Timber Cut from Timber Sales, 1960  99
Saw and Shingle Mills, 1960  100
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1960  100
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.,
1960  101
Summary of Exports, Minor Products, 1960  101
Timber Marks Issued, 1951-60.  102 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Finance
Table No. Page
28. Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest-protection Tax as Compiled
from Taxation Records, 1951-60  102
29. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  103
30. Forest Revenue  103
31. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1960  104
32. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1959/60  105
33. Forest Revenue:  (A) Fiscal Year 1959/60, (B) Fiscal Years 1950/51 to
1959/60  106
34. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1959/60  107
3 5. Scaling Fund  107
36. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  107
Forest Protection
37. Forest-protection Expenditure by the Forest Service for Twelve Months
Ended March 31st, 1960  108
38. Reported  Approximate  Expenditure  in  Forest  Protection   by   Other
Agencies, 1960  109
39. Summary of Snag-falling, 1960, Vancouver Forest District  109
40. Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1960, Vancouver Forest District  109
41. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1960, Vancouver Forest
District  110
42. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1960, Vancouver Forest District— 110
43. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs,   1960, Vancouver Forest
District  111
44. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1960  111
45. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1960  111
46. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  112
47. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1960  113
48. Damage to Property Other than Forests, I960  114
49. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1960—Parts I and II
 114,115
50. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1960    116
51. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  117
52. Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of
Fire-fighting, 1960  117
53. Prosecutions, 1960  118
Ranger School
54. Enrolment at Ranger School, 1960  119
Public Information and Education
55. Motion-picture Library, 1951-60  120
56. Summary of Coverage by School Lecturers, 1951-60  121
57. Forest Service Library, 1951-60  122
Grazing
58. Grazing Permits Issued  122
59. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected  122 (1)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1960
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1960
83
Personnel
Van
Prince
couver
Rupert
2
2
12
9
3
2
3
2
33
18
11
2
72
1
43
4
3
6
8
1
6
5
103
29
18
5
36
31
18
9
27
32
1
1
2
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant
Chief Foresters.   _ 	
Division Foresters  - 	
Directors of Grazing and Public Information	
Forest Counsel and Personnel Officers _
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters	
Foresters and Foresters-in-training-
Agrologists and Agrologists-in-training..
Engineers and Engineers-in-training	
Forest Protection Officers	
Supervisors of Rangers.. -
Rangers—Grades 1 and 2  	
Superintendent of Scaling and Assistants..
Scalers, Official-
Sealers, Official, temporary   	
Comptroller, Accountant, and Audit Assistants-
Engineering, Mechanical and Radio 	
Technical Forest and Public Information Assistants  	
Reforestation, Research, and Survey Assistants
Nursery Superintendents-
Draughtsmen and Mapping Assistants..
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers-
Superintendent   and   Foremen,   Forest   Service
Marine Station  	
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians-
Launch Crewmen  	
Assistant and Acting Rangers  	
Dispatchers-
Cruisers, Compassmen, and Silviculture Crewmen  —  	
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment OperatorS-
Foremen	
Miscellaneous      	
Totals, continuous personnel-
Seasonally Employed
Assistant and Acting Rangers-
Patrolmen   _.
Lookoutmen 	
Dispatchers, Radio Operators, and Clerks..
Fire-suppression Crewmen-
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc.
Cruisers and Compassmen_
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators 	
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineering
Aides	
Silviculture Crewmen 	
Foremen  _  „
Miscellaneous..
398 |
17
37
7
60
13
24
Totals, seasonal personnel-
Totals, all personnel 	
560
4
1
19
2
3
16
2
12
1
2
13
5
1
3
26
3
1
3
29
3
2
10
2
2
3
26
2
92
2
30
3
2
4
14
5
32
37
11
68
4
3
3
5
30
4
22
47
18
61
46
10
20
2
7
66
12
81
4
28
113
6
39
4
7
14
30
238
166 |  555
49 |
211
3
28
3
4
5
3
34
3
60
1
24_
~73~
 2
_13~~
298
351
287
266
~34
127
13
118
2
3
10
148
10
30
12
14
132
21
73
45
7
85
55
82
4
53
329
6
43
27
197
66
208
14
17
39
1,744
34
19
159
26
158
266
3
57
127
34
193
558 | 1,076
1,113 | 2,820 84
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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87
(6A)
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING YEARS 1959 AND  1960 IN F.B.M.
(All products converted to f.b.m.)
Forest District
1959
1960
Gain
3,143,091,743
303,615,925
3,714,901,737
494,439,437
571,809,994
190,823,512
3,446,707,668
4,209,341,174
762,633,506
226,334,064
839,661,106
1,130,756,141
532,738,310
272,053,975
860,650,212
1,136,419,442
596,020,872
45,719,911
20,989,106
5,663,301
63,282,562
Totals, Interior   _	
2,729,489,621
2,865,144,501
135,654,880
6,176,197,289
7,074,485,675
898,288,386
(SB)
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING YEARS 1959 AND  1960 IN CUBIC FEET
(Conversion factor: Coast—6 f.b.m._=1 cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.)
(All products converted to cubic feet.)
Forest District
1959
1960
Gain
Vancouver _.	
Prince Rupert (Coast)	
Totals, Coast	
Prince Rupert (Interior ).
Prince George	
Kamloops 	
Nelson  	
523,848,624
50,602,654
574,451,278
39,362,446
146,028,018
196,653,242
92,650,141
Totals, Interior-
Grand totals	
474,693,847
1,049,145,125
619,150,289
82,406,573
47,313,735
149,678,297
197,638,164
103,655,804
498,286,000
1,199,842,862
95,301,665
31,803,919
701,556,862 |  127,105,584
7,951,289
3,650,279
984,922
11,005,663
23,592,153
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2
z REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
89
(8A)
TOTAL SCALE, ALL PRODUCTS,  1960, IN F.B.M.  (SEGREGATED BY
LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
830,599,800
7,776,109
4,662,495
18,849,512
43,474,222
22,452,300
886,512,626
114,515,543
155,817,355
114,310,612
114,310,612
45,310,644
18,372,975
289,982
1,169,980,604
26,226,138
71,536,787
76,636,027
95,009,007
221,845
184,116,073
173,620
729,735,233
49,824
884,607,543
500
338,016,645
735,771
190,159,452
21,219,860
3,496,615,550
21,219,860
97,610,153
97,610,153
353,121,225
4,806,207
123,253,908
7,607,968
75,627,711
2,646,010
59,138,008
14,588,582
39,283,908
8.075.324
103,227,018
4.158.247
753,651,778
41,882,338
Sub-totals, Crown
lands 	
2,748,917,745
20,591,760
793,106,898
59,311,275
19,361,903
73.612.156
445,103,353
782,289
74,459
9,997,922
6,335,233
32.146.181
262,611,639
2,325,683
811,411,552
955,528,606
27,946,129
37,358,594
15,873,622
28,396,070
71.316.421
511,328,932
3,303,859
2,676,045
43.762.468
5,734,901,827
54,949,720
Crown grants—
To 1887               	
762,555
781,132
5,442,012
42.252.961
833,978,551
1887-1906          	
122,710
1,437,686
5,556,257
129.849.129
1906-1914	
1914 to date
11,581,116      72,554,020
23,368,452]   248,252,428
Totals
...714.901.7371494.439.437
272,053,975
860.650.21211.136.419.442
596.020.87217.074.485.675
[SB)
TOTAL SCALE, ALL PRODUCTS, 1960, IN CUBIC FEET (SEGREGATED
BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
(Conversion factor: Coast—6 f.b.m.__l cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m._:l cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
138,433,300
19,085,924
19,051,769
7,551,774
3,062,163
48,330
194,996,767
1,352,367
810,869
3,278,176
7,560,734
3,904,748
148,157,270
26,268,848
19,051,769
4,371,023
11,922,797
12,772,671
31,693,242
3,536,643
15,834,834
38,582
32,020,186
30,195
126,910,475
8,665
153,844,790
87
58,785,503
125,859
598,250,963
3,536,643
16,268,359
58,853,537
801,034
16,268,359
Tree-farm licences	
Miscellaneous. —
20,542,318
1,267,995
13,152,645
460,176
10,284,871
2,537,144
6,831,984
1,404,404
17,952,525
723,174
127,617,880
7,193,927
Sub-totals, Crown
458,152,957
3,431,960
132,184,483
9,885,212
3,226,984
12,268,693
74,183,892
130,382
12.410
45,671,589
404,467
141,115,052
132,618
135,849
946,437
7,348,341
166,178,888
4,860,196
6,497,147
2,760,630
4,938,447
12,402,856
88,926,771
574,584
465,399
7,610,864
2,014,107
4,064,079
974,229,149
9,401,589
Crown grants—
To 1887    ..           	
139,292,057
1887-1906	
1,666,320         21,341
1,055,872        250,032
5,357,697|       966,306
22,080,216
1906-1914-	
1914 to date	
12,431,879
42,407,972
Totals	
619.150 7891  87 406.573
47,313,735
149,678,297
197,638,164
103,655,804
1,199,842,862 90
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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P. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
91
VOLUME OF WOOD REMOVED UNDER RELOGGING AT REDUCED ROYALTY
(10) AND STUMPAGE, 1951-60, IN THOUSAND CUBIC FEET
Year
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
Salvage Wood
(M Cu. Ft.)
... 420
... 732
... 1,053
._ 1,888
... 1,209
Year
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
Salvage Wood
(MCu. Ft.)
.. 1,795
.. 3,663
._ 1,427
_ 1,257
_ 1,976
Ten-year average, 1951-60, 1,542 M cu. ft.
NUMBER OF ACRES MANAGED AND OPERATED UNDER APPROVED
UD WORKING PLANS, 1951-60
Year
Tree-farm
Licences
Christmas-tree
Permits
Farm
Wood-lots
Public Working
Circles and Sustained-yield Units1
Total
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
1951	
10
13
14
19
23
23
23
27
36
37
23
1,953,754
2,071,918
2,158,898
2,788,313
4,685,492
4,680,846
4,871,237
5,349,773
5,851,979
6,081,496
4,049,371
135
145
163
174
209
221
283
277
279
294
218
47,250
49,986
64,835
68,689
72,603
76,457
80,651
83,500
83,210
89,224
71,641
3
5
20
25
29
37
44
53
50
52
32
452
727
4,571
5,549
6,455
8,320
10,488
13,108
12,059
12,375
7,410
~24
28
33
47
58
61
64
72
39
2,001,456
1952
2,122,631
1953
1954.	
1955	
1956	
1957
5,649,162
7,019,759
9,328,447
21,667,410
28,820,776
32,389,893
34,606,543
40,257,302
17,973,929
7,877,466
9,882,310
14,092,997
26,433,033
33,783,152
1958	
1959    	
37,836,274
40,553,791
1960
Ten-year
average.
1951-60
46,440,397
22,102,351
1 Approved public working circles and sustained-yield units. 92
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(12)    TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS FROM MANAGED LANDS, 1951-60
(In Table 8B, " tree-farm licences " includes only the cut from Crown lands within tree-farm licences. The
cut from " other tenures " is shown under appropriate headings. In this table, all the cut from managed lands
under regulation is combined.)
Year
Tree-farm
Licences
Number
Cubic
Feet
Christmas-tree
Permits
Number
Number
of Trees
Farm
Wood-lots
Number
Cubic
Feet
Public Working
Circles and Sustained-yield Units
Number
Cubic
Feet
Total
Number
of Christmas Trees
Cubic
Feet
1951	
1952	
1953	
1954	
1955	
1956	
1957	
1958	
1959	
1960	
Ten-year
average.
1951-60
10
13
14
19
23
23
23
27
36
37
23
27,440,866
135
33,532,810
145
40,442,745
163
47,631,411
174
69,715,422
209
121,869,721
221
125,622,175
283
144,260,543
277
178,742,435
279
241,410,459
294
103,066,859
218
175,755
195,803
267,182
326,106
301,319
430,447
498,286
408,874
398,504
495,697
349,797
3
5
20
25
29
37
44
53
50
52
32
232
17,497
24
26,939
28
64,482
33
92,124
47
70,116
58
139,396
61
205,676
64
92,168
72
70,863
39
89,731,000
100,166,664
115,091,229
188,455,411
207,892,534
254,809,622
312,048,987
385,200,000
165,339,545
175,755
195,803
267,182
326,106
301,319
433.8501
500.7863
411,574*
404,249"
501,752'
351,838
27,440,866
33,533,042
130,191,242
147,825,014
184,871,133
310,425,8262
333,584,825
399,276,185=
490,997,098
626,702,627
268,484,786
1 Includes 3,403 Christmas trees cut on tree-farm licences and farm wood-lots.
2 Includes 8,570 cubic feet cut from Christmas-tree permits.
3 Includes 2,500 Christmas trees cut on tree-farm licences.
4 Includes 2,700 Christmas trees cut on tree-farm licences.
5 Includes 66,624 cubic feet cut from Christmas-tree permits.
6 Includes 5,402 Christmas trees cut from tree-farm licences and 343 trees cut from farm wood-lots.
"' Includes 6,055 Christmas trees cut from tree-farm licences.
(13)
LOGGING INSPECTIONS, 1960
Type of Tenure Operated
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Hand-
loggers'
Licences
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions
Total
Number of
Inspections
1,288
802
1,879
2,118
1,162
1
1
1,313
299
1,493
1.411
2,602
1,101
3,372
3.579
8,192
3 935
5,572
4,858
Nelson	
602                1,764
3,594
Totals, I960...	
7,249
2
5,118        |      12,368
26,151
Totals, 1959-	
6,273
2
4,896               11,171
26,912
Totals, 1958.	
5,936
2
4,339        [      10,257
23,802
Totals, 1957	
7,503
3
5,937        |      13,443
25,253
Totals, 1956	
7,492
3
5,838        |      13,333
22,038
Totals, 1955	
6,818
3
4,673        |      11,494
22,355
Totals, 1954	
5,855
3
4,874        ]      10,732
21,011
Totals, 1953     	
5,851
3
4,859        |      10,713
20,656
Totals, 1952     .
5,822
6
5,710        |      11,538
20,264
Totals, 1951
5,448
6
4,766        |      10,220
17,754
Ten-year average, 1951-60	
6,425
3
5,101        |      11,527
1
22,620 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
AREAS EXAMINED BY THE FOREST SERVICE FOR MISCELLANEOUS
(15) PURPOSES OF THE LAND ACT,  1960
Forest District
Applications
for Hay and
Grazing Leases
Applications
for Foreshore
Leases
Applications
to Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
29
15
541
718
9
9
36
472
4
12
143
247
1
42    ]         720
Prince Rupert —
3
1,216
39    1      2,653
Totals
3
1,216
44
1,259
18    I         508
16
390
81
3,373
{16)
CLASSIFICATION OF AREAS EXAMINED BY THE FOREST
SERVICE, 1960
Forest District
Total Area
Agricultural
Land
Non-
agricultural
Land
Merchantable-
timber
Land
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable-
timber Land
Vancouver.	
Acres
720
2,653
Acres
95
182
Acres
625
2,471
Acres
6
97
M F.B.M.
20
973
Totals 	
3,373
277
3,096
103
993
(17)
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES,  1960
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cord-
wood
(Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes.
Posts,
Shakes,
etc.
(No.)
Saw-
timber
(M CF.)
625
272
467
532
226
110,367
67,178
166,445
279,048
144,313
	
118,200
2,687,412
744,700
531,000
4,726,302
2,947
3,434
20,214
1,855
600
284,250
21,490
75,900
255,205
768,525
291,095
13,809
110,966
301,063
312,868
126,487
Totals 1960
2,122
767,351
8,807,614
29,050
13,809
1,405,370
1,142,479
Totals, 1959
2,317
681,550
7,387,960
27,753
26,875
1,124,400
877,370
Totals, 1958
1,922
609,563
8,772,888
24,316
34,430
1,146,719
890,285
Totals, 1957	
2,582
781,748
16,099,489
39,254
95,209
1,149,133
1,171,283
3,089
1,095,150
13,981,856
44,287
128,432
1,916,510
1,273,970
Totals, 1955	
3,354
1,077,986
— 	
9,885,451
16,819
145,525
501,820
1,131,521
3,085
781,665
10,532,164
76,859
76,310
1,127,346
697,421
Totals, 1953	
2,579
719,234
.   	
12,887,882
12,328
141,313
694,182
561,601
Totals, 1952	
2,340
1,029,199
2,543,890
40,005,329
13,405
989,144
518,652
1,188,361
Totals 1951
2,704
934,475
6,577,298
20,674,280
25,630
316,954
432,000
Ten-year average,
1951-60	
2,609    |     847,792
4,560,594
14,903,491  1    30,970
196,800
1,001,613
992,699
M B.M.—two-year average; M CF.—nine-year average. (18)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
TIMBER-SALE RECORD, 1960
95
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest-protection Tax
(Acres)
Total
10-per-cent
Deposits
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George-
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals-
Cash sales	
Total sales..
571
288
367
375
242
637
334
491
469
236
1,850
1,072
1,177
1,898
818
612,073
390,507
643,816
1,182,367
647,609
1,843
2,167
6,815
3,476,372
295
2,138
I  	
568,199
369,287
582,917
1,159,422
621,749
$6,289,368.31
1,334,906.31
2,061,265.70
3,573,669.06
2,024,701.61
3,301,574  | $15,283,910.99
I 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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(23)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SAW AND SHINGLE MILLS OF THE PROVINCE, 1960
Operating
Shut Down
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Sa
wi-ills
Shingle-mills
Forest District
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Vancouver  —
206
269
621
574
268
8,107
1,978
7,856
7,817
3,674
37
3
4
923
80
144
160
72
102
378
835
1,102
413
653
12
2
3
69
Kamloops   —
16
11
11
13
Totals, 1960	
1,938
29,432
44
950
558
3,381
17
93
Totals, 1959_	
2,005
28,280
65
1,138
587
3,975
6
23
Totals, 1958	
2,010
27,694
56
1,141
586
4,007
9
37
Totals, 1957   	
2,255
26,752
58
1,390
514
3,124
10
121
Totals, 1956_	
2,435
29,080
66
1,381
390
2,013
8
15
Totals, 1955-	
2,489
28,016
72
1,804
404
2,285
3
19
Totals, 1954.	
2,346
25,602
57
1,108
367
2,281
13
22
Totals, 1953. 	
2,413
23,300
59
1,121
286
2,186
12
47
Totals, 1952-	
2,223
23,433
59
1,173
332
2,092
24
117
Totals, 1951	
2,100
21,748
60
1,169
294
1,474
16
78
Ten-year average,
1951-60	
2,221
26,334
60
1,237
432
2,682
12
57
(24)
EXPORT OF LOGS (IN F.B.M.),  1960
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir
536,018
528,498
111,383
2,833,863
961,266
29,843
1,127,117
1,219,482
1,749,118
261,660
16,270,577
	
758,869
5,348,232
3,238,882
Spruce-	
Hemlock    —
~ 147735
116,656
291,503
11,805,282
17,523,812
11,921,938
576
200,640
1,026
281,969
3,908
704,878
5,510
1,187,487
137
137
14,688
116,314
662,707'
793,709
Totals, 1960  	
1,391,803
5,351,398
20,872,330
11,805,419
890,260
40,311,210!
Totals, 1959
486,685
2,601,653
19,608,208
3,999,901
1,839,030
28,535,477
Totals, 1958 	
734,991
3,727,452
16,164,689
3,715,124
3,762,411
28,104,667
Totals, 1957 	
524,180
3,987,443
22,016,291
5,625,910
3,421,354
35,575,178
Totals, 1956   	
183,859
2,933,129
27,433,037
12,929,722
3,530,479
47,010,226
Totals, 1955  -
906,141
7,468,949
58,863,477
16,974,165
4,754,796
88,967,528
Totals, 1954 - 	
3,948,345
19,595,544
90,691,771
17,465,267
9,274,995
140,975,922
Totals, 1953      	
5,341,576
15,853,076
74,187,464
18,974,550
5,788,905
120,145,571
Totals, 1952	
4,732,890
15,944,292
84,757,110
18,400,266
1,161,660
124,996,218
Totals, 1951	
5,901,140
12,229,159
51,699,605
10,202,844
2,224,693
82,257,441
Ten-year average, 1951-60
2,415,161
8,969,210
46,629,398
12,009,317
3,664,858
73,687,944
1 Of this total, 28,299,271 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege;
12,011,939 f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
101
(25)
SHIPMENTS OF POLES, PILING, MINE-PROPS, FENCE-POSTS,
RAILWAY-TIES, ETC.,  1960
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
United
States
Canada
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles    Jin. ft.
Piling       „
Stakes and sticks     „
Fence-posts  pieces
Cedar shakes    ,,
Christmas trees       „
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling lin. ft.
Boom-sticks_   f.b.m.
Prince George—
Poles  lin. ft.
Piling     „
Fence-posts pieces
Hewn ties     „
Kamloops—
Poles  -Jin. ft.
Poles and piling     „
Fence-posts cords
Christmas trees. —— -.pieces
Nelson—
Poles  —lin. ft.
Poles and piling       ,,
Corral-rails .       ,,
Orchard-props     „
Mine-timbers     ,,
Mine-props cords
Cordwood     „
Fence-posts       „
Hewn ties  - pieces
Christmas trees    „
Total value, 1960	
Total value, 1959 	
4,955,336
2,525,501
388,474
6,188
23,939,259
42,216
2,539,307
236,799
392,450
31,235
58,958
45,852
3,433,695
520,879
1,447
919,487
71,790
2,632,010
116,770
210,600
134,761
401
39
5,555
1,300
1,483,804
$1,867,337.43
587,470.84
11,654.22
2,005.69
1,595,940.00
12,664.80
962,202.26
9,471.96
112,766.75
7,808.75
14,739.50
75,655.80
1,098,782.40
130,219.75
57,880.00
551,692.20
22,255.00
1,538,621.00
2,335.00
4,212.00
7,409.00
5,614.00
422.00
322,190.00
2,210.00
934,797.00
4,238,304
12,630
388,474
2,553
23,716,100
42,216
1,523,584
36,675
248
1,556,400
151,804
919,144
11,945
1,540,485
210,600
1,368
1,330,973
437,279
491,075
3,635
112,909
1,015,723
236,799
355,775
31,235
58,958
45,604
1,877,295
369,075
1,447
343
59,845
1,091,525
116,770
134,761
401
39
4,187
1,300
152,831
279,753
2,021,796
110,250
|    $9,938,357.35
7,074,807.59
(26)
SUMMARY OF EXPORT OF MINOR PRODUCTS,  1960
Product
Volume
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
Poles                                                                        lin. ft.
Piling.    _. __
8,853,271
2,556,736
5,692,196
134,761
116,700
388,474
210,600
236,799
65,146
23,939,259
2,445,507
47,152
39
7,002
401
$3,101,141.58
595,279.59
2,631,043.01
7,409.00
2,335.00
11,654.22
4,212.00
9,471.96
16,745.19
1,595,940.00
1,499,154.00
77,865.80
422.00
380,070.00
5,614.00
31.2038
5.9897
26.4736
0745
Corral-rails     .  _      ,,
.0235
.1173
0424
Boom-sticks                                                                  f.b.m.
.0953
1685
16 0584
15 0845
7835
Cordwood      - cords
.0042
3 8243
Mine-props   -      „
.0565
$9,938,357.35
100 0000 102
(27)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED,  1951-60
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
Ten-year
Average,
1951-60
1,062
269
218
714
108
3
6
41
2,962
73
2
696
201
204
538
62
8
7
13
2,594
98
6
1
381
134
136
409
95
10
3
24
2,881
63
_
528
175
160
485
69
1
1
30
2,786
44
1
609
218
171
653
95
2
10
31
3,130
43
6
480
207
172
655
82
6
10
46
2,859
71
1
320
108
97
460
59
1
7
23
2,239
74
1
215
93
93
362
89
7
9
1,900
80
7
299
103
125
524
108
9
21
1,926
85
1
315
115
123
517
116
1
4
15
2,136
113
1
491
Crown grants, 1887-
1906 	
162
Crown grants, 1906-
1914- 	
Section 55, Forest Act-
Stumpage reservations.
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, Land
150
532
88
J
6
Indian reserves	
25
2,541
Special   marks   and
74
3
Pulp licences	
5,458
4,428
4,139
4,280
4,968
4,589
3,389
2,855
3,201
3,456
4,076
Transfers and changes
1,086
983
744
780
867
873
615
598
669
794
801
CROWN-GRANTED TIMBER LANDS PAYING FOREST-PROTECTION TAX
(28) AS COMPILED FROM TAXATION RECORDS, 1951-60
Year
Acreage
Assessed as
Timber
Land
Coast
Interior
Logged
Timber
Logged
Timber
1960                        	
500,837
502,001
698,470
614,095
723,103
783,517
801.983
757,516
718,284
682,746
Acres
139,651
125,883
133,100
146,535
205,503
221,934
236,350
201,264
203,249
191,435
Acres
213,465
238,285
271,717
288,046
389,396
429,350
429,037
444,014
433,496
410,037
Acres
77,347
71,509
194,640
88,580
64,606
69,822
69,416
27,692
29,418
31,333
Acres
70,374
1959	
66,324
19.8
99,013
1957
90,934
1956
63,598
1955     ..  .
1954   .
1953  —
1952     	
62,411
67,180
84,546
52,121
1951 ■    	
49,941 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1960
103
(29) ACREAGE OF TIMBER LAND BY ASSESSMENT DISTRICTS
District                                              Acres                         District Acres
Alberni      11,613 Nelson-Slocan   93,265
Comox  .     90,282 Prince George   640
Cowichan     90,306 Prince Rupert   10,823
Cranbrook       5,006 Princeton   2,887
Gulf Islands       1,313 Quesnel Forks  40
Kamloops           80 Revelstoke   33,653
Kettle River         752 Vancouver   4,004
Lillooet       9,309 Vernon  2,089
Nanaimo  110,333 Victoria   34,442
(30)
FOREST REVENUE
Twelve
Months
to Dec. 31,
1956
Twelve
Months
to Dec. 31,
1957
Twelve
Months
to Dec. 31,
1958
Twelve
Months
to Dec. 31,
1959
Twelve
Months
to Dec. 31,
1960
Ten-year
Average,
1951-60
Timber-licence   rentals
and fees	
Timber-berth rentals and
fees	
Timber-lease rentals and
fees. 	
Timber-sale rentals and
fees	
Timber-sale stumpage—
Timber-sale cruising and
advertising	
Timber royalties	
Grazing permits and fees
Forest-protection tax	
Miscellaneous  	
Totals.. 	
$369,821.07
20,245.13
72,036.75
379,821.98
26,335,715.53
255,916.89
2,069,424.19
79,247.61
364,388.20
141,478.
$365,193.26
19,486.74
70,455.47
380,963.43
26,327,150.06
245,542.40
1,838,162.25
69,041.15
459,312.26
156,060.04
$362,192.71
19,335.48
70,780.38
425,867.87
21,355,873.18
225,790.42
1,719,957.61
73,093.16
500,914.85
132,917.72
$362,825.25
19,910.61
70,094.39
435,589.31
23,092,737.28
252,985.19
1,890,590.96
86,506.29
510,661.47
121,287.96
$363,597.80
18,712.81
76,493.46
452,788.69
26,374,420.04
277,345.73
2,281,028.09
101,240.36
456,491.27
121,461.72
$30,088,096.23
$29,931,367.06
$24,886,723.38
$26,843,188.71
$30,523,579.97
$372,078.77
19,869.62
65,735.42
306,692.53
19,303,018.73
203,487.46
2,053,546.65
88,854.11
104,982.08
$22,518,265.37 104
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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(33 A)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1959/60
Timber-licence rentals and fees
Timber-berth rentals and fees _
Timber-lease rentals and fees
Timber-sale rentals and fees ...
Timber-sale stumpage
Timber-sale cruising and advertising
Timber royalties 	
Grazing permits and fees 	
Forest-protection tax 	
Miscellaneous 	
Taxation from Crown-granted timber lands (Taxation Act) 	
Taxation collected under authority of Esquimalt
and Nanaimo Railway Belt Land Tax Act	
Taxation collected on forest land (Taxation Act)...
Taxation collected on tree-farm land (Taxation Act)
$375,363.14
19,910.61
72,261.04
429,771.97
24,759,105.35
262,980.20
2,010,667.56
89,266.13
490,913.68
127,177.63
$28,637,417.31
402,126.38
682,143.15
303,730.78
134,986.86
$30,160,404.48
1 Formerly credited to Forest Protection Fund.
2 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last six fiscal years.
3 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last seven fiscal years.
Ten-year
Average
$377,623.77
18,259.01
62,298.60
269,324.81
16,791,994.06
178,114.73
2,135,328.82
77,709.89
C1)
93,675.63
$20,004,329.32
541,242.80
804,794.46
(2)
(3)
(33B)
FOREST REVENUE BY FISCAL YEARS,  1950/51 TO  1959/60
Fiscal Year
Direct Forest
Revenue
Taxation from
Crown-granted
Lands
Taxation Collected under
Taxation Act
Taxation Collected under
Authority of
E. & N. Railway Belt Land
Tax Act
Total
1959/60...
1958/59-
1957/58-
1956/57..
1955/56-
1954/55-
1953/54-
1952/53-
1951/52-
1950/51-
$28,637,
25,081.
29,054
31,240.
23,867
19,130
17,578
18,016
13,703
10,089
417.31
.815.59
,657.56
,260.37
,705.50
835.31
,625.58
,025.17
,715.41
,884.69
$402,126.38
516,669.53
597,118.52
675,079.21
681,503.26
621,527.16
612,865.29
588,821.78
484,475.51
440,213.07
$438,717.64
764,224.24
883,674.75
685,611.49
532,010.00
518,648.74
$682,
738.
1,060.
1,147,
940,
879,
863,
418.
972.
345,
143.15
039.35
884.36
535.38
632.27
822.00
116.21
395.59
156.13
220.16
I
$30,160,404.48
27,100,748.71
31,596,335.19
33,748,486.45
26,021,851.03
21,150,833.21
19,054,607.08
19,023,242.54
15,160,347.05
10,875,317.92 (34)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR  1959/601
107
Forest District
Salaries
Expenses
Total
Vancouver.  	
$581,062.51
387,043.94
454,602.12
578,823.11
469,291.12
229,276.50
$180,560.89
112,153.18
117,228.66
133,016.38
97,164.75
330,388.25
$761,623.40
499,197.12
571,830.78
711,839.49
566,455.87
Victoria  ~   	
559,664.75
Totals        ...           	
$2,700,099.30
$970,512.11
$3,670,611.41
445,935.33
468,789.06
175,952.37
102,570.84
97,971.26
10,000.00
28,129.98
1,342,268.45
892,791.67
2,812,740.44
1,017,297.66
56,506.73
2,118,674.90
861,176.46
Forestry administration buildings and property    	
77,284.37
$14,178,700.93
1 True gross expenditures.
2 Statement provided in Table 36.
(35)
SCALING FUND
Deficit, April 1st, 1959	
Collections, fiscal year 1959/60
      $257,948.73
     1,284,798.23
$1,026,849.50
     1,190,913.00
      $164,063.50
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1960     1,105,588.10
Expenditures, fiscal year 1959/60
Deficit, March 31st, 1960	
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1960
Balance, December 31st, 1960 (credit) 	
$941,524.60
914,937.63
$26,586.97
(36)
GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Balance, April 1st, 1959 (credit) 	
Government contribution (section 14, Grazing Act)
Expenditures, fiscal year 1959/60	
Deficit, March 31st, 1960	
Government contribution (section 14, Grazing Act)
$7,747.72
35,959.60
$43,707.32
56,506.73
$12,799.41
44,633.07
$31,833.66
Expenditures, April 1st, 1960, to December 31st, 1960    38,503.12
Deficit, December 31st, 1960
$6,669.46 108
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109
REPORTED APPROXIMATE EXPENDITURE IN FOREST PROTECTION
(38) BY OTHER AGENCIES,  1960
Forest District
Expenditures
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
Vancouver  _ 	
Prince Rupert- - _
Prince George	
Kamloops    	
Nelson    	
Totals  -	
Ten-year average, 1951-60
$108,697
50,469
32,000
57,341
40,000
$421,747
31,530
13,000
49,605
53,800
$165,698
14,985
12,420
61,903
227,700
$288,507
$569,682
$482,706
$287,073
$418,864
$374,200
$69,972
47,400
140,000
123,000
27,140
$407,512
$249,732
$766,114
144,384
197,420
291,849
348,640
$1,748,407
$1,329,869
(39)     SUMMARY OF SNAG-FALLING,  1960, VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total area logged, 1960  76,958
Logged in small exempted operations x  637
Assessed for non-compliance, less 1,028 acres subsequently felled  900
Balance logged acres snagged, 1960
Snags felled 1960 by Forest Service Protection Division	
Snags felled 1960 by Forest Service Reforestation Division
Total area snagged, 1960	
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3) of section 113, Forest Act.
1,537
... 75,421
.. 6,145
..    6,306
87,872
(40)
SUMMARY OF LOGGING SLASH CREATED, 1960,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total area logged, 1960 	
Area covered by full hazard reports  42,552
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-disposal1  29,694
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from slash and snag disposal) 2        637
Acres
76,958
Slash created and not reported in 1960
72,883
4,075
1 Includes 4,323 acres reported exempt on slash-burn reports.
2 Exemption granted under subsection (3) of section 113, Forest Act. 110 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ACREAGE ANALYSIS OF SLASH-DISPOSAL REQUIRED,  1960,
(41) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1960            I9601 Total
Broadcast burning      7,860            8,404 16,264
Spot burning  13,197          13,091 26,288
Totals   21,057 21,495 42,552
1960 reports not recommending slash-disposal  29,694
1960 slash on very small operations exempted without special examination        637
  30,331
Total area of slash dealt with, 1960  72,883
1 Above table does not include the estimated 4,075 acres (see Table 42) created too late to be dealt with in
1960.
(42)
ANALYSIS OF PROGRESS IN SLASH-DISPOSAL, 1960,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total disposal required (see Table 41)
Type of Disposal
Spring broadcast burning
Spring spot burning
Fall broadcast burning
Fall spot burning 	
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1960 1960
228 161
811 	
_  14,699 11,326
... 14,451 7,087
Total burning completed  30,189
Burning by accidental fires	
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc.	
18,574
Acres
42,552
Total
389
811
26,025
21,538
48,763
782
Total
49,545
Balance reported slash not yet abated
Slash created, 1960—acres assessed
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1960
4,075
Total area of slash carried over to 1961 for disposition1
4,075
1 Does not show the acreage instructed in 1960 to be extended or assessed in 1961.
Actual area burned in spring spot burning, 27 acres.
Actual area burned in fall spot burning, 2,166 acres.
The above figures do not include 1959 slash-burn reports received too late for inclusion in 1960 Annual
Report, 991 acres. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
111
(43)
SUMMARY OF SLASH-BURN DAMAGE AND COSTS, 1960,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1960
Net damage to forest-cover	
Net damage to cut products	
Net damage to equipment and property.
Total damage	
487
$13,330.50
8,488.00
Nil
$21,818.50
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Total Cost per Cost per
Cost Acres MB.F. Acre
(a) Spring broadcast burning     $3,264.70 389 $0.21 $8.39
(b) Spring spot burning        1,615.00 811 .06 1.99
(c) Fall broadcast burning   139,073.30 26,025 .13 5.34
(d) Fall spot burning      88,829,63 21,538 .14 4.12
(a) and (c) based on volume of 40 M b.f. per acre.
(_) and (d) based on volume of 30 M b.f. per acre.
(44)
FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS,  1960
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
1
11
5
6
4
24
45
48
9
64
15
34
39
11
256
3
17
83
51
918
15
72
700
349
391
76
143
185
146
198
7
5
65
29
34
2
32
20
1,866
140
329
1,157
621
45.4
3.4
8.0
28.1
Nelson      	
15.1
Totals   	
23
130
163
410
2,054
941
304
88
4,113
100.0
Per cent 	
0.5
3.2
4.0
10.0
49.9
22.9
7.4
2.1
100.0
Ten-year average,
1951-60.	
26
89
388
248
704
520
189
44
2,208
1.2
4.0
17.6
11.2
31.9
23.5
8.6
2.0
100.0
	
(45)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES,  1960
Forest District
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257
82
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271
59
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1.3
6.6
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Ten-year average,
1951-60	
544
215
609
261
88
55
28
136
29
195
48
2,208
24.6
9.7
27.6
11.8
4.0
2.5
1.3
6.2
1.3
8.8
2.2
100.0 112 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(46) NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE
LAST TEN YEARS
Causes
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
Total
574
228
211
354
128
19
20
133
28
186
42
431
298
255
349
140
15
17
114
37
222
36
597
174
184
171
47
7
10
83
10
109
28
116
157
118
120
63
3
11
64
12
79
21
418
195
206
206
47
2
24
89
15
132
50
497
214
1,090
281
112
47
73
183
27
213
73
307
170
455
182
65
48
46
107
22
172
45
1,150
296
1,224
478
120
131
18
246
53
310
94
184
172
624
211
75
190
30
204
34
253
33
1,166
241
1,723
257
82
87
36
137
54
271
59
5,440
Recreational   (campers,   hunt-
2,145
6,090
Smokers	
Brush-burning  (not railway or
right-of-way clearing)	
2,609
879
549
Road  and  power-, telephone-,
and pipe-line construction	
Industrial operations  (logging,
etc.)	
285
1,360
Incendiary...  	
Miscellaneous known causes	
Unknown causes	
292
1,947
481
Totals   	
1,923
1,914
1,420
764
1,384
2,810
1,619
4,120
2,010
4,113
22,077 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
113
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_c 114 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(48) DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS,  19601
Forest District
Forest
Products
Cut, Logs,
Lumber, etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
$44,784.00
6,200.00
1,260.00
2,149.00
$6,870.00
7,175.00
1,625.00
6,460.00
15,250.00
$96,645.00
55,930.00
10,350.00
$9,339.00
3,000.00
$157,638.00
72,305.00
2,885.00
20,605.00
46,224.00
52.6
24.1
1.0
1,646.00
30,974.00
6.9
15.4
Totals	
$54,393.00
$37,380.00
$162,925.00
$44,959.00
$299,657.00
100.0
18.1
12.5
54.4
15.0
100.0
Ten-year average, 1951-60—
$144,447.00
$30,593.00
$234,990.00
$31,798.00
$441,828.00
32.7
6.9
53.2
7.2
100.0
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.   (For this item see page 110.)
(49)
DAMAGE TO FOREST-COVER CAUSED BY FOREST
FIRES, 1960—PART I1
Merchantable Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
Net Stumpage
Loss
Net Area
Killed
Present
Value
Vancouver... 	
Prince Rupert  	
Prince George 	
Kamloops- _. 	
Nelson  _
Totals  	
Per cent	
Ten-year average, 1951-60.
Per cent 	
Acres
1,198
119
37,946
32,756
18,100
M Cu. Ft.
296
180
53,882
39,852
28,083
M Cu. Ft.
71
44
8,482
16,040
15,373
12,512
3,927
1,504,020
650,571
318,976
Acres
462
556
10,539
9,720
23,909
90,119
122,293 40,010
2,490,006
45,186
31.5
100.0
32.7
66.8 15.8
46,074
59,890
19,957
757,700
44,191
12.0
100.0      ! 33.3
46.3
11.6
$
63,810
14,408
223,384
152,824
427,058
881,484
23.7
701,294
42.8
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 110.) REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
115
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ft. 116 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(50) FIRE CAUSES, AREA BURNED, FOREST SERVICE COST,
AND TOTAL DAMAGE, 1960
Causes
Fire Causes
Number
Per
Cent
Area Burned
Acres
Per
Cent
Forest Service
Cost
Cost
Per
Cent
Total Damage
Value
Per
Cent
Lightning  —
Recreational (campers, hunters,
fishermen, etc.)	
Railroads operating	
Smokers _	
Brush-burning   (not  railway  or
right-of-way clearing) _
Range-burning   _	
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and pipe-line construction	
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etc.) 	
Incendiary  	
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Unknown causes	
Totals. 	
1,166
241
1,723
257
82
87
36
137
54
271
59
28.4
5.9
41.9
6.2
2.0
2.1
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1.3
6.6
1.4
100.0
197,080
9,912
3,312
4,926
11,522
13,749
1,863
29,923
876
9,040
3,617
68.9
3.5
1.2
1.7
4.0
4.8
0.6
10.5
0.3
3.2
1.3
$3,244,898
112,925
107,556
135,965
262,187
12,962
21,001
662,643
51,164
140,164
45,953
285,820
100.0
$4,797,418    100.0
67.6
2.4
2.2
2.8
5.5
0.3
0.4
13.8
1.1
2.9
1.0
$2,808,611
243,314
22,292
60,654
20,960
3,790
30,182
589,534
28,638
188,501
28,542
69.8
6.0
0.6
1.5
0.5
0.1
0.8
14.6
0.7
4.7
0.7
$4,025,018 I  100.0 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1960
ENROLMENT AT RANGER SCHOOL,  1960
119
Forest District
Forest
Assistants
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Graduations
" 4
—
....
4
2
2
5
4
—
4
2
6
Prince Rupert— 	
—
<
4        |
Attendance, 1960	
4
17
—
21                  21
Attendance, 1959    .
4
17
21
—
Attendance, 1959  ..
—
—
21
21
21
Attendance, 1958
—
21
21
Attendance, 1957	
4
26
30
30
Attendance, 1956	
4
26
30
Attendance, 1956	
3
18
—
21
21
Attendance, 1955- _.
3
18
21
—
20
20
20
Attendance, 1953	
21
21
—
Attendance, 1953 .
20
20
20
Attendance, 1952	
20
20
Attendance, 1951-	
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1950	
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1949	
—
3
2
16
21
Attendance, 1948	
4
2
12
2
20
20
Attendance, 1947	
8
12
20
20
—
2
9
9
—
90          1          90
Note.—Commencing with the class of 1949/50, each class takes one and one-half years to complete the course. 120
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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(57)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST SERVICE LIBRARY, 1951-60
Classification
Items Catalogued and Indexed
Ten-year
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
Average,
1951-60
23
101
152
110
2,650
9
122
337
115
2,203
41
484
90
111
66
1,800
62
246
92
124
127
932
55
190
94
136
141
1,090
37
179
170
151
177
1,321
45
266
109
155
214
1,417
48
177
159
133
230
1,139
43
142
165
130
302
1,502
39
123
200
115
274
999
40
204
157
128
Government   reports   and
bulletins	
Other bulletins and reports	
1,505
1 Before 1953, included with periodicals, bulletins, and reports.
(58)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED
District
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,168
445
113
108,847
15,005
3,296
3,134
1,146
224
18,165
1,295
Totals, 1960    .
1,726
127,148
4,504
19,460
Totals, 1959 	
1,683
124,425
4,377
20,604
Totals, 1958
1,571
122,489
4,169
20,927
Totals, 1957	
1,640
128,978
3,886
20,693
Totals, 1956 —	
1,776
127,182
3,667
22,310
Totals, 1955 _  .
1,705
121,284
3,575
22,560
Totals, 1954 _      .
1,750
111,767
3,738
24,909
Totals, 1953   	
1,730
108,894
4,133
23,172
Totals, 1952               	
1,621
104,610
4,040
23,565
Totals, 1951 —  .
1,561
100,082
4,350
22,282
(59)                             GRAZING FEES BILLED AND COLLECTED
Year
Fees Billed
Fees Collected1
Outstanding,
Dec. 31
10^0
$102,631.52
91,636.13
69,986.23
67,593.88
76,155.51
76,061.32
80,191.97
95,088.64
125,495.09
108,400.14
$99,636.71
84,595.04
71,726.71
68,131.94
79,247.61
75,250.32
85,043.96
102,460.00
110,731.32
106,161.36
$21,412.43
19.9
18,417.62
1958                                             — 	
11,376.53
1957                     	
1956                   -
19 .5
13,117.01
13,655.07
16,577.24
19 .4
15,766.24
1953  .	
1952     	
20,618.23
27,989.59
1951
13,225.82
Includes statutory penalties.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1961
1,360-161-9607  

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