Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

Department of Agriculture FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 1959 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1960

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0355717.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0355717.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0355717-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0355717-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0355717-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0355717-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0355717-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0355717-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0355717-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0355717.ris

Full Text

 >K°vmcB op BRmsH C0LUMB]A
De
prtment of Agriculture
FIFTY-FOURTH
ANNUAL REPORT
1959
tinted by Don McD.arm.d Prinlcr,    ,
inri8ht°f^P-£"^:S-^,,entMajesty  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor oj the Province oj British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1959.
NEWTON P. STEACY,
Minister oj Agriculture.
Department oj Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C.,  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF,  1959
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable Newton P. Steacy.
Minister's Secretary:
Miss M. Jewell
Deputy Minister:
Wm. MacGillivray.
A dministrative:
N. L. Camsusa, Administrative Assistant, Victoria.
J. S. Wells, Accountant, Victoria.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria.
B. K. Oxendale, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria.
Markets and Statistics:
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria.
M. A. Cronkhite, B.S.A., Farm Management Adviser.
Horticulture:
A. C Carter, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford.
J. A. Smith, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna.
D. A. Allen, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver.
W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon.
I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford.
A. E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria.
W. F. Morton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna.
J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston.
G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, New Westminster.
M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton.
A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland.
R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna.
G. W. Geen, Assistant District Horticulturist, Penticton.
M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon.
J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Seed Production), 501 West Twelfth Avenue,
Vancouver 9.
W. D. Christie, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Greenhouse and Nursery Crops), Abbotsford.
E. M. King, B.S.A., M.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Kelowna.
Apiary:
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Court-house, Vernon.
Plant Pathology:
W. R. Foster, M.Sc., Plant Pathologist, Victoria.
J. A. Moisey, M.Sc, Assistant Plant Pathologist, 501 West Twelfth Avenue, Vancouver 9.
Entomology:
C. L. Neilson, M.Sc, Provincial Entomologist, Vernon.
J. C. Arrand, M.Sc, Assistant Entomologist, Vernon.
Live Stock:
A. Kidd, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria.
J. C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Vancouver. DD 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Live Stock—Continued
E. V. Langford, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector and Assistant Animal
Pathologist, Vancouver.
F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster.
T. Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria.
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Nicola.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops.
R. M. Baker, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake.
P. G. Lawrence, Beef Grading Inspector, Vancouver,
S. Munro, Deputy Brand Inspector, Clinton.
I. D. C. Clark, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops.
R. L. Lancaster, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Abbotsford.
C. F. Morris, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster.
J. Mustard, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver.
W. C. Newby, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Abbotsford.
K. H. Thompson, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Prince George.
J. A. Mace, Superintendent, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria.
H. Johnson, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Abbotsford.
J. R. Hannam, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Chilliwack.
Miss Joyce Flood, Laboratory Technician, Vancouver.
R. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria.
W. H. Burr, Dairy Farm Inspector, Abbotsford.
R. J. McDonald, Dairy Farm Inspector, Abbotsford.
K. G. Fletcher, Dairy Farm Inspector, Abbotsford.
A. L. Kirkby, Dairy Farm Inspector, Nanaimo.
B. R. Stewart, Dairy Farm Inspector, Chilliwack.
Dairy:
G. Patchett, Dairy Commissioner, Victoria.
R. N. Hitchman, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Prince George.
N. H. Ingledew, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson.
G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna.
P. Regehr, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria.
C. Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver.
K. G. Savage, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver.
Poultry:
W. H. Pope, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria.
H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster.
N. J. Supeene, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Abbotsford.
C. W. Wood, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Kelowna.
D. M. Hamilton, B.S.A., Poutry Inspector, Nanaimo.
R. C. Bentley, Resident Supervisor, Random Sample Poultry Test Station, Abbotsford.
Field Crops:
N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
J. H. Neufeld, B.S.A., Soil Analyst, Victoria.
Farmers' Institutes:
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria.
Soil Survey:
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
Dr. J. Baker, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
C. H. Brownlee, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
A. B. Dawson, B.A., B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
J. Banford, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959 DD 7
Agricultural Development and Extension:
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Director, Victoria.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria.
G. L. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops.
S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George.
A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Nelson.
J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook.
K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan.
S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay.
G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cloverdale.
P. E. Ewert, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Mission City.
J. V. Zacharias, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Abbotsford.
G. Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack.
J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks.
J. C Ryder, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vernon.
J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm.
R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops.
R. C Fry, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel.
A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George.
J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers.
R. W. Brown, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof.
J. E. Hall, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek.
J. E. Piercy, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Fort St. John.
Miss E. L. R. Lidster, M.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria.
R. C. Bailey, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Victoria.
E. M. Soder, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops.
G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria.
K. E. May, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria.
T. A. Windt, B.A.Sc, Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria.
H. Barber, Accountant, Land Clearing Division, Victoria.
Land Settlement Board:
Chairman: Wm. MacGillivray, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria.
Director: G. L. Landon, Director, Agricultural Development and Extension, Victoria.
Director: L. W. Johnson, Superintendent, Farmers' Institutes, Victoria.
Secretary: Miss C. Stephenson, Victoria.
Inspector: I. Spielmans, Nelson.
Dyking Commissioner:
W. R. Meighen, New Westminster.
Southern Okanagan Lands Project:
F. O. McDonald, Project Manager, Oliver.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Paoe
Report of Deputy Minister  11
Report of Markets Branch  15
Report of Horticultural Branch  17
Report of Plant Pathology Branch  24
Report of Entomology Branch  25
Report of Apiary Branch  26
Report of Live Stock Branch  27
Report of Dairy Branch  34
Report of Poultry Branch  36
Report of Field Crops Branch  40
Report of Farmers' Institutes  43
Report of Women's Institutes  45
Report of Soil Survey Branch  47
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch  50
Report of Southern Okanagan Lands Project    58
Report of Land Settlement Board  59
Report of Dyking and Drainage  59
Appendices—
No. 1. Dairy-farm Inspections under Milk Industry Act  62
No. 2. Breed Averages for 1958  62
No. 3. Cattle and Hide Inspections, 1959  62
No. 4. Miscellaneous Specimens Examined in Laboratory  63
No. 5. British Columbia Egg Production (through Registered Stations)  63
No. 6. British Columbia Weighted Egg Price to Producers  64
No. 7. Poultry in Pounds through Registered Stations in British Columbia 64
No. 8.  1959 Average Monthly Producer Price for Live Poultry (Vancouver  64
No. 9. Poultry-flock Approval  65
No. 10. Poultry-flock Approval by Breed  65
No. 11. Turkey-flock Approval  65
No. 12. Turkey-flock Approval by Breed  65
No. 13. Amount and Kind of Vaccine Distributed  66
No. 14. Registrations and Inspections  66
9 DD 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Appendices—Continued
Page
No. 15. Production of Tree-fruit Crops in British Columbia for 1958 and
an Estimate for 1959  66
No. 16. Small-fruit Acreages in British Columbia in 1957 and 1959  67
No. 17. Production of Small Fruits, Grapes, and Filberts for 1958 and an
Estimate for 1959  67
No. 18. An Estimate of the Acreage and Production of Selected Vegetable-
crops in British Columbia for 1959  67
No. 19. The 1959 Acreage of Bulb-crops in British Columbia  68
No. 20. Tree-fruit Nursery-stock Production in British Columbia  68
No. 21. Apple Varieties  68
No. 22. Honey-crop Report  69
No. 23. Summary of Movement of Screenings from British Columbia
Elevators, January 1st to December 31st, 1959  69
No. 24. Summary of Movement of Grain Screenings from British Columbia Merchants, January 1st to December 31st, 1959  70
No. 25. Production of Grass and Legume Seeds  70
No. 26. Publications Printed in 1959  71
No. 27. General Agricultural Statistics  72 Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable Newton P. Steacy,
Minister oj Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to present herewith the Fifty-fourth Annual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1959.
The Report presents a condensed, yet comprehensive, review of the work
carried out by all branches and divisions of the Department during the year.
Detailed reports prepared by administrative and field staffs have been filed and are
available for reference.
Cool, moist conditions during the summer and early autumn months caused
considerable damage and reduced yields, notably in horticultural and field crops.
The apple-crop was the smallest since 1931. These declines were offset by gains
in live-stock and poultry production to the extent that total farm cash income for
the year was held very close to the 1958 level.
The Soil Survey Branch continued its intensive survey of Fraser Valley soils
for the third successive year and now has this project well in hand. Additional
special studies were also carried out in co-operation with the Water Rights Branch
in the North Okanagan.
Field test and demonstration projects, including seed-potato tests in California and the University of British Columbia greenhouses, were again conducted
by the Field Crops Branch. The Branch also continued its programme of weed-
control and fertilizer tests in the field of cereal grains, grasses, and legumes. Further
study of crop yields in relation to soil type in the Fraser Valley was made on 180
plots in collaboration with the University.
Similar testing and demonstration work in horticultural crops, with emphasis
on improved soil husbandry and variety selection, highlighted the projects undertaken by the Horticultural Branch. A more detailed five-year orchard survey was
commenced, the results of which are expected to provide a useful basis upon which
future Branch activity can be more efficiently projected.
Entomology and Plant Pathology personnel were actively concerned with a
heavier than usual incidence of net necrosis in potatoes and the pear psylla in
Interior orchards in addition to the various pests and diseases that normally occur
in any year.
Advisory services provided by the Agricultural Development and Extension
Branch were further expanded this year with the enlargement of the farm-management programme to include farm operations in the dairy, beef, poultry, vegetables,
and tree- and small-fruit industries.
Working closely with our field staffs, the Agricultural Engineering Division
again made valuable contributions to the industry through research and demonstration work in all sections of the Province. The Division this year enlarged the
scope of its operations to undertake research into mechanization problems encountered in tree-fruit packing-houses.
Despite the extension of land clearing and development credit to include the
cost of drainage tile, the Land Clearing Division reports a slight decline in clearing DD  12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
projects this year. This can be attributed mainly to unusually wet weather during
the summer and autumn months.
The Poultry Branch recorded a successful year in assistance rendered poultry-
producers in a difficult period of diminishing returns and relatively high costs. In
working with producers, the Branch has been able to draw upon increased information obtained from results of tests made at the random sample testing station at
Abbotsford.
Further progress was achieved by the Live Stock Branch in its programme
of brucellosis-control in cattle, giving rise to increased hope for an early conclusion
to this problem. With the acceptance of three more control areas by the Canada
Department of Agriculture, close to 50 per cent of the Province's cattle population
is now under Federal administration in seven areas.
Through the combined efforts of Departmental Veterinary Inspectors and
private veterinarians, a total of nearly 59,000 calves were vaccinated during the year.
Two Advisory Committees on Beef Cattle and Artificial Breeding of Dairy
Cattle, respectively, made worth-while contributions to the industry during the year.
Of particular note was the increased interest displayed in the beef record of
performance programme.
In dairying, preliminary estimates based on dairy herd improvement associations' records indicate continued gains in milk production by cows on test. This
is particularly significant in view of the addition of two new test routes in the
preceding year, which would normally be expected to produce an over-all decline
in average production records.
The Dairy Branch reports a slight increase in total milk production for the
year, amounting to an estimated gain of about 5 per cent over the all-time record
established in 1958. A substantial carry-over of good-quality forage from the 1958
crop combined with better than average pasture conditions throughout most of the
Province this year were contributing factors.
Elsewhere in the live-stock industry the marketings of beef cattle held up well
despite a sharp decline in exports to the United States. Total exports were less than
one-half the 1958 figure of nearly 36,000 head. Beef prices held firm, reflecting
strong consumer demand. Hog and sheep production increased over levels of the
preceding year, but heavy production in other Provinces exerted a downward pressure on farmers' prices. Large imports of lamb from New Zealand further depressed
the domestic market.
Of considerable assistance to live-stock producers in the Cariboo were freight
tariff concessions made by the Pacific Great Eastern Railway on car-lot shipments
of hay from Peace River points and pelleted screenings from Vancouver. The
provision of a meat inspection and grading service at Prince George should also
assist materially in stabilizing the market for live-stock producers in that area.
In spite of a decline in production caused by unfavourable weather, beekeeping had increased interest this year, particularly in the Peace River District, where
the potential is gaining wider recognition.
The completion of a new potato-storage warehouse for the B.C. Coast Vegetable Co-operative Association brings to seven the number of such buildings erected
with Government assistance in the Province since this programme was launched
three years ago. These warehouses represent a total capital investment of close to
$1,000,000.
Financial assistance was given by the Government for prize-money awards at
sixty-four fall fairs held during the year. Included were one Class A and five Class
B exhibitions. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD  13
The 4-H Club movement has increased in strength of objective and volume
of membership. In addition, the programme has had a much greater measure of
interest and support from the public and the press.
The excellent relationship maintained by your Department with Farmers'
Institutes, Women's Institutes, the Federation of Agriculture, exhibition associations, agricultural societies, commodity groups, and other farm organizations has
made it possible to keep closely in touch with farmer thinking on the problems
that from time to time cause concern for the well-being of the industry.
It is gratifying to observe the increasing value of the Pacific Great Eastern
Railway to the farmers of the Peace River particularly, but also to those in Central
British Columbia and the Cariboo, in the marketing of live stock at Vancouver
and in the movement of grain to the Coast and to intermediate points from Dawson
Creek to Fort St. John.
It is reported that in the current year 476 cars of grain and 927 cars of live
stock were moved to the Coast over the railway.
It is gratifying to report the substanially larger tonnage of lime used by Lower
Mainland farmers this year. An access road has been provided to permit McBride
district farmers to take advantage of a lime deposit there.
The Cabinet committee on river-bank and stream erosion, consisting of yourself as chairman and the Honourable P. A. Gaglardi, Minister of Highways, and
the Honourable R. G. Williston, Minister of Lands and Forests, appointed a subcommittee of the writer, as chairman, along with Messrs. Bassett and Miard, Deputy
Ministers of Lands and of Highways respectively, and Mr. A. F. Paget, Comptroller
of Water Rights.
The sub-committee has had several meetings, and early in 1960 will have
before it a reasonably complete report of the working committee of engineers that
has examined the specific cases of erosion and flooding reported, many of which
have been under consideration for some years.
In too many instances the cost of corrective measures is beyond the financial
competence of the Province to assume, let alone that of individual land-owners or
local authorities. It is evident further representations must be made to secure
Federal participation in meeting the cost of work that will protect our limited
acreages of good farm lands adjoining rivers and streams from erosion.
The continually rising costs of the goods and services for which farmers must
pay in the course of their operations is of major concern to Departments of Agriculture as it is to the land-owners. The increased costs in 1959 will, it appears,
reduce net farm income some million dollars below the 1958 figure.
There is evident a definite trend toward larger farm holdings in all phases of
agriculture, a situation common to all countries in the Western Hemisphere and
resulting from a realization that the farm must have the productive potential to be
an economic unit for the use of land, labour, and capital and for the provision of
net returns adequate to maintain an acceptable standard of living. This trend need
not mean the end of the family farm. The latter, when geared to present-day
standards and properly managed, can produce as effectively and efficiently as the
superfarm, of which so much is written and spoken.
Your Department, acting on your direction, is adjusting personnel and activities
to meet present-day needs of farmers.
Satisfactory progress is reported in the preparation of the inventory and
evaluation of our agriculture and its resources. Completion is expected in the fall
of 1960.
The economic study of beef-cattle ranching is being processed now following
the field survey work this past summer. DD  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
I am very happy to report substantial progress in carrying out your wishes that
we develop maximum co-operation with the various agencies of the Canada Department of Agriculture and with the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of British
Columbia. An excellent relationship exists at all levels and will be strengthened
when your intention to establish a technical advisory committee on agriculture has
been implemented early in 1960.
The recommendations of the proposed committee will be of major assistance
to you in determining agricultural policy and in developing practical programmes
and projects that will be of the greatest benefit to farmers. This will be true in the
fields of teaching, research, extension, and regulation as the value of the closer
collaboration intended will not be limited to your Department, but will also be of
advantage to the Federal Department and to the University.
I regret very much to report the death of Mr. John L. MacDonald, Dyking
Commissioner in your Department, whose very sudden and unexpected death in
October deprived British Columbia of an extremely loyal and capable official with
an unequalled knowledge of the intricate problems relating to the dyking and drainage of the Province.
I also regret that Mr. George Stewart, who retired recently from the position
of Statistician after more than forty years in the public service, and Mr. V. Thor-
geirson, formerly Apiary Inspector in the Lower Mainland, both passed away during
the year.
LEGISLATION
New legislation dealing with agriculture as passed at the Third Session of the
Twenty-fifth Parliament of British Columbia consisted of an Act to amend the
Apiaries Act, an Act to amend the Stock-brands Act, an Act to amend the Land
Settlement and Development Act, an Act to amend the Natural Products Marketing
(British Columbia) Act, and an Act to amend the Pound District Act. The following Acts were repealed: Eggs Marks Act, Horse-breeders' Registration and Lien
Act, and the Stock-breeders' Protection Act.
STAFF CHANGES
Appointments
E. M. Soder, Assistant District Agriculturist, January 19th, 1959.
G. W. Geen, Assistant District Horticulturist, May 4th, 1959.
Dr. J. Baker, Soil Surveyor, May 29th, 1959.
M. A. Cronkhite, Research Assistant, June 29th, 1959.
D. H. Oldershaw, Apiary Inspector, September 28th, 1959.
W. R. Meighen, Dyking Commissioner, November 1st, 1959.
J. Banford, Soil Surveyor, November 1st, 1959.
O. V. Friesen, Assistant Supervisor, Random Sample Poultry Test Station,
December 1st, 1959.
Superannuation
Dr. J. J. Carney, Veterinary Inspector, August 31st, 1959.
W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, December 31st, 1959.
PUBLICATIONS
Appendix No. 25 contains the publications printed in 1959.
W. MacGILLIVRAY,
Deputy Minister oj Agriculture. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD  15
MARKETS AND STATISTICS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner
Over-all production was up slightly over the 1958 total, gains in live stock and
poultry offsetting declines in field and horticultural crops.
The farm prices index remained slightly higher than in 1958, reflecting a
generally firm market tone. Similarly, the wholesale price index for farm products
displayed a comparatively steady trend, showing somewhat less fluctuation than that
of the preceding year.
Farm cash income for the year amounted to an estimated $120,000,000,
virtually unchanged from the 1958 figure. Again, net income returns indicated a
further increase in the cost of goods and services used by farmers. Preliminary
estimates place the net income figure at $52,000,000.
FEED-GRAIN MOVEMENTS
Feed-grain shipments under the Federal Freight Assistance Policy totalled
nearly 204,000 tons in the last fiscal year, a gain of 10,000 tons over the preceding
twelve-month period. The average rate per ton paid in assistance under this policy
now stands at slightly over $7.
There were no changes in car-lot freight rates during the year, the basic
domestic rate from Calgary to Vancouver remaining at $14 per ton, on which the
assistance is $8.60.
FEEDS
Basic feeds tended to fluctuate at slightly higher levels than those recorded in
1958, particularly oats, which climbed from $55 per ton at Vancouver to $62 by
late autumn. No. 5 wheat was steady at $63 during most of the year after rising
$2 in March. Barley rose from $54 to $56 per ton early in the year, dropping to
$53 in late summer and returning to $54 in December.
Dairy mash followed a similar pattern, climbing $3 per ton in mid-year then
dropping to $66 by November. Laying-mash ranged between $79 and $82 during
the first six months, holding at $81 in the latter half of the year.
Hay prices firmed toward the year's end, reflecting a decline in stocks in most
areas.
LIVE STOCK
Higher prices for beef and lower prices for pork featured the marketing pattern
in 1959. Good steers were $1.50 to $2 per hundredweight higher on an average
than during most of 1958, with other classes following suit. Heavy selling by
producers taking advantage of buoyant market conditions showed up in a reduction
of 4,000 head of steers and 3,000 beef heifers on farms as of June 1st, as compared
to numbers enumerated one year earlier. Further evidence of a decline in net
marketings was revealed in the 25-per-cent decline in exports of cattle to the United
States.
Hog prices were relatively steady during the first nine months of the year,
weakening after the October 1st downward revision of support levels from $25 to
$23.65 per hundredweight for Grade A hogs, basis Toronto. On an average, prices
were down between $4.50 and $5 from 1958 levels.
During the past decade the price of a hundredweight of good steer has been
close to the price of the same weight of live B 1 hog, exclusive of the quality
premium.   By September of this year the price of good steers averaged over 40 per DD 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
cent higher than that of B 1 hogs, pointing up a drastic change in the long-established
relationship between cattle and hog prices.
Lamb and mutton marketings remained close to the levels established in recent
years, although there was further evidence of an increasing consumer interest in this
meat. Average market prices of good lambs were about $1 below 1958 averages
during most of the year.
The weekly live-stock auction conducted by the British Columbia Beef
Growers' Co-operative Association at Vancouver was discontinued in May, association auctions now being centred in Kamloops.
POULTRY AND EGGS
Sharp increases in broiler and turkey production highlighted the poultry industry during 1959. Broiler output rose by 26 per cent over 1958 volume; turkeys
by 32 per cent.   Smaller increases were registered in laying flocks of chickens.
Volume of eggs handled through registered grading-stations was up about 5 per
cent, while poultry-meat receipts jumped over 30 per cent.
Similar increases in poultry and egg production elsewhere exerted a downward
pressure on prices. The weighted average producer price for all eggs was just over
32 cents per dozen, 1 cent below the 1958 figure. Broiler prices were down about
1 cent also, while turkeys at times were as much as 8 cents under the preceding year.
Fortunately for British Columbia turkey-growers, the bulk of their offerings were
moved at prices fairly close to late 1958 levels.
DAIRY PRODUCTS
Preliminary estimates of milk production indicate an increase of over 4 per
cent for the year from the 1958 total of 804,800,000 pounds. With dairy-cattle
numbers virtually unchanged, this increase can be attributed to the generally good
pasture conditions prevailing this year, and to the ample supplies of quality roughage
available in all parts of the Province.
Fluid sales did not keep pace with this increase, resulting in a rise in production of butter and other by-products. Ice-cream manufacture again exceeded
4,000,000 gallons for the second consecutive year. Creamery butter production
was again higher than in the preceding year, totalling an estimated 3,500,000
pounds.
FRUIT
Adverse weather conditions during both spring and summer effectively reduced
production of most varieties of fruit to levels below those reached in 1958. Apples
were down 30 per cent as the Okanagan experienced its lightest crop of recent years.
Among tree fruits, only peaches and apricots showed gains over the preceding
year, while loganberries and blueberries were the only small fruits registering higher
production.
Weather conditions also influenced the marketing process for most fruits,
delayed maturity resulting in later than usual marketing periods. In spite of this,
price levels were slightly higher on an average than those set in the preceding year.
Exports of tree fruits maintained a moderate but steady pace at levels below
those of 1958.
VEGETABLES
Total acreage of vegetables, including potatoes, were unchanged from 1958,
amounting to approximately 26,000 acres.   Yields of early varieties were generally DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1959
DD  17
good, but later-maturing crops, particularly tomatoes and late potatoes, showed
declines in marketable production and quality.
The 1959 tomato-crop was the poorest in years, a considerable portion being
left unharvested because of failure to ripen. Late potatoes, on the other hand,
showed generally heavy sets of tubers, but in many instances the crop failed to size
satisfactorily. Coast potatoes were further affected by an unusually heavy incidence
of necrosis.
The cool, moist summer produced excellent yields of high-quality canning peas
and carrots, however.
Prices were little changed from the previous year.
MISCELLANEOUS
Honey production declined nearly 30 per cent this year to an estimated
1,550,000 pounds. The number of bee colonies was down by 700 to a total of
17,200.
Although the average fleece weight was fractionally lower, an increase of 3,000
in the number of shearings brought the total to 363,000 pounds of wool, a gain of
4 per cent over the 1958 clip.
Once again a steady demand for mink pelts dominated the fur auction market,
bringing gross returns of close to $4,000,000 in the fur-ranching industry.
LEGISLATION
Amendments to the Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act permitting commodity marketing boards established under this Act to conduct pools,
delegate their powers, and promote any phase of the marketing process were enacted
by the Legislature in 1959.
HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., P.Ag., Provincial Horticulturist
Adverse weather throughout most of the year depressed the yield and lowered
quality of horticultural crops in most areas of the Province. Vancouver Island
alone enjoyed more normal conditions.
The mild weather to the end of 1958 caused many crops on the Coast to start
growing. A cold-air mass moved in with the New Year and caused considerable
damage in all areas. The spring was cool and wet. Planting was delayed and crops
developed slowly. The following table submitted by the Vernon office of the Horticultural Branch gives a comparison of precipitation and hours of sunshine from
November 1st, 1956, to October 31st, 1959:—
Nov. 1,1958, to
Oct. 31,1959
Nov. 1, 1957, to
Oct. 31, 1958
Nov. 1, 1956, to
Oct. 31, 1957
Rain	
Snow     	
Total precipitation   	
 inches
 inches
.    inches
7.83
68.00
14.60
1,935.0
10.00
26.00
12.60
2,000.0
10.82
56.80
16.50
1,829.5 DD 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Blossom dates as reported from Vernon for the years 1955 to 1959 indicate
the lateness of the season:—
Year
Duchess
Wealthy
Mcintosh
Delicious
Italian Prunes
1955     	
May 10
May 1
May 2
May 2
May 9
May 23
May 7
May 3
May 2
May 14
May 20
May 5
May 3
May 5
May 13
May 26
May 10
May 5
May 1
May 15
May 16
1956   	
1957	
May 5
1958	
May 3
1959	
Similar conditions prevailed throughout the Province.
Spring frosts in the Okanagan caught apricots and cherries in full bloom,
peaches and prunes in the pink stage, and apples in the cluster bud stage. Crops
were damaged in almost all districts and wiped out in the flat areas and in frost
pockets.
Daffodil blooms were available in early fields for shipment on March 18th,
with the peak in the week prior to Easter. Growers had an excellent year, with
800,000 dozen blooms shipped at reasonable prices.
The small-fruit crop was harvested in conditions better than those of 1958.
A brief spell of hot weather in July brought crops on quickly. Cherries, apricots,
and early peaches were an excellent crop, except in districts with special problems.
August temperatures were below normal and skies overcast; September and
October were cool and wet. Peaches harvested late were of poor quality. Tomatoes
did not ripen. The apple-harvest was interrupted by intermittent rainy weather.
Vegetables were also harvested with difficulty, especially the onion-crop.
Fortunately tree fruits entered dormancy earlier than usual because a cold
spell commenced on November 11th and lasted for more than a week. Little
damage has been reported.
TREE FRUITS
Grower optimism early in the year was premature. Recurring freezes, insect
and disease problems, followed by low yields in practically every commodity were
responsible for some discouragement, especially among the small operators.
More subdivision of orchards has been evident. There is, however, a trend
also toward the consolidation of orchard acreage into fewer hands, mainly by rental.
Uneconomic small orchard lots are becoming residential or abandoned, while the
owners of productive smaller acreages are renting to larger full-scale orchardists.
Appendix No. 15 indicates production for 1958 and an estimate of the 1959
crop.
Apples.—The 1959 apple-crop of 4,008,000 boxes in the Okanagan and
Kootenay area was the lightest since 1931. In many orchards, fruit buds failed to
develop. Spring frost took a heavy toll where they did. The pre-harvest drop was
heavier than usual.
The cool growing season produced a crop with poor colour in most districts.
Water-core was common, especially in Delicious. Fruit size was variable. Although
prices were good, these conditions have made marketing the 1959 crop difficult.
Growers who did produce a satisfactory crop of apples should receive considerably
better prices than the 1958 crop realized.
Pears.—The pear-crop, estimated at just over 25,300,000 pounds, is almost
6,000,000 pounds less than last year. Severe infestations of pear psylla may have
been responsible for smaller sizes. Many growers had to wash their fruit prior to
delivering to the packing-house because of the resulting sooty fungus. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD  19
Prunes.—Early strains of Italian prunes were of good quality and size. The
old or late strains were satisfactory from Penticton south, but north of that area
trouble was encountered in attaining maturity, and some were not picked.
Cherries.—Frost damage reduced the cherry-crop to about half that of 1958.
In the most favoured weather locations, cherries were of excellent quality and size.
The price to growers was high. In the Kootenay, however, little-cherry symptoms
were very severe, particularly on Lamberts. Some growers have commenced a tree-
removal programme.
Peaches.—Winter temperatures killed peach buds in many areas. April frosts
caused further losses. Fruit size was excellent. The quality of the crop was good
until the end of August. Cool, wet weather caused the late fruit to deteriorate.
Marketing difficulties arose, and in the end a substantial tonnage, especially of
Elbertas, was left on the trees.   The early pool should provide satisfactory returns.
Apricots.—Apricots produced a crop in only the most favoured locations,
especially on the bud-hardy cannery varieties. The fruit sized well, was of excellent
quality, and produced a heavier crop than estimated.
SMALL FRUITS
Strawberries.—The strawberry-crop was lighter than 1958 because of drought
in 1958 and frost damage to plants.   There was a slight decrease in acreage.
There is an increasing resistance on the fresh market to the British Sovereign
variety. However, plants from the virus-free British Sovereign show a marked
improvement in plant characteristics. Yields will be checked in 1960. The trend
is toward varieties such as Northwest, Puget Beauty, and Siletz. If a strawberry is
grown suitable for the fresh-market trade that has greater keeping qualities than the
British Sovereign, the Prairie market could again be important for sales, especially
from Vancouver Island.   This year only one car was shipped, against four last year.
Appendix No. 16 gives small-fruit acreages in British Columbia in 1957 and
1959.
Raspberries.—Total production was reduced slightly in the Lower Mainland
for these reasons: (a) The drought of 1958 affected vigour into 1959, (b) the
sudden dry hot period in July shortened the season, and (c) reduced acreages due
to poor prices. The price for raspberries has been relatively low during the past
two seasons, with Newburgh bringing the least return and being used mainly for
jam.   The Willamette and Creston brought the higher prices for canning quality.
In the Creston area, frost injury and severe boron deficiency in many patches
reduced the crop by at least 20 per cent. Sixty per cent of the area is planted to
Creston, 25 per cent to Newburgh, and the remainder to other varieties. Little
difficulty was experienced in marketing the 1959 raspberry-crop from the Creston
area.
Loganberries.—The 1959 crop was heavier than normal. Canes grew well the
previous summer. Hot weather prior to harvest, however, prevented many of the
berries from reaching full size. Prices were slightly better than last year. Vancouver Island is the main loganberry production area.
Appendix No. 17 gives production figures of small fruits, grapes, and filberts
for 1958 and an estimate for 1959.
Blueberries.—The total blueberry yield was slightly lower than 1958 production because of frost at blossom-time, disease known as twig-blight, and poor pollination due to lack of insects and wet, cool weather at blossom-time.
The blueberry industry in the Lower Mainland is in a very healthy economic
state.   Demand exceeds supply.   The United States consumer market demands a DD 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
moderate-sized berry, with a preference for the British Columbia product. Berries
may be graded for size. The fruit this year was particularly large because of the
thinning by adverse weather.
Cranberries.—The cranberry acreage in the Fraser Valley is approximately
150 acres and increasing. The 1959 production at 184,000 pounds was more than
double that of 1958, with quality and size excellent.
VEGETABLE-CROPS
Coast Region
In the Fraser Valley, spring operations were late. Some early crops, such as
lettuce, carrots, and spinach, were lost from flooding, requiring reseeding.
A dry period in the summer reduced crop prospects on various mid-season
crops. However, heavy rainfall in September greatly benefited potatoes, corn,
turnips, cabbage, and late-crop vegetables. These same rains caused splitting and
blight damage to tomatoes, affected drying and curing of onions, rotted lettuce and
various tender crops.
There is an increasing interest in vegetable-crops for canning and freezing,
particularly in the districts of Matsqui, Sumas, and Chilliwack. Pitt Meadows, Pitt
Poulder, Dewdney, and Kent districts will also be of increasing importance for these
crops.
Interior Region
The vegetable acreage in the Okanagan dropped sharply in 1959 to 4,642
acres. The acreages of early potatoes, onions, cabbage, parsnips, and spinach were
higher, while those of late potatoes, cucumbers, asparagus, carrots, beans, peppers,
and tomatoes were reduced. Tomatoes at 996 acres were down 255 acres, the
lowest point in fifteen years.
Cold and wet harvesting weather in the Interior from August on caused
vegetable-growers serious financial losses.
Onions.—This Department has taken a leading part in promoting the development of a larger onion industry. Present production of 4,000 tons is not adequate
to supply the demand. Growers have been urged to increase production to 12,000
tons annually. A $30 per ton tariff against United States onion imports has stimulated interest. It appears Okanagan growers will increase acreage again in 1960.
Mechanization of onion harvesting will also help increase production.
Asparagus.—Yields were reduced by spring frosts, and total production lower
by about 50 acres.   Prices were substantially lower, with no new plantings.
Beans.—Green and wax bean acreage declined from 432 acres in 1958 to 322
acres. Most of this decline resulted from the closure of one of the main bean-
processors in the Interior. There is a trend toward bush beans because picking-
machines lower production costs.
Swede Turnips.—Swede turnips grew well in all areas. The crop in North
Central British Columbia totalled 105 acres and yielded about 12 tons per acre.
The industry can expand if quality is maintained at the 1959 level.
Appendix No. 18 contains an estimate of the acreage and production of selected
vegetable-crops in British Columbia for 1959.
GREENHOUSE CROPS
Tomatoes.—Crops in the Fraser Valley were light because of unfavourable
weather. Prices were about 20 per cent below the 1958 level, with an average of
$3.75 per crate to the grower.   The crop on Vancouver Island was generally of good DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 21
quality and made good arrivals. The fall crop, however, has been disappointing
because of low yields, disease, and insect pests.
Cucumbers.—The long English-type cucumber production in the Lower Fraser
Valley was up 10 per cent over last year, with a good demand and steady prices.
A slight increase in production is anticipated. The white spine type grown on Vancouver Island produced well with few troubles, and here again growers found a
steady market at a moderate price.
Chrysanthemums.—The price for this year's crop is good. Spray 'mums,
which comprised the largest portion of the crop, brought $1.25 a bunch. The total
crop is about equal to last year, but the volume is spread more evenly over the
season. Some growers are now producing a year-round crop of chysanthemums by
the use of shading and lighting. It is anticipated that this type of culture will
increase.
Roses.—The rose-crop has increased by about 15 per cent in the last year.
The market has been able to absorb the increase satisfactorily. Mildew has been
particularly serious with the dull weather during the fall. Mites have become
resistant to the spray materials normally used, although the problem is not serious
at present.
Carnations.—Production is increasing, with several new growers now in the
business and many inquiries about this crop. The dull weather during September
and October has caused stems to be weaker than is desired.
Other Cut Flowers.—Limited quantities of stocks, snapdragons, and freezias
were produced. Supplies of gardenias and orchids have been adequate for the
market this year, and no increase in production is anticipated.
Potted Plants.—There is a trend toward smaller, cheaper potted plants which
lend themselves to mass marketing. Azaleas have been successfully grown for this
purpose, with about 30,000 produced in the Lower Mainland in 1959.
BULB SURVEY
The 1959 bulb survey report shows a breakdown of acreage into three categories: (1) Dry bulb production, (2) bulbs grown for cut flowers, and (3) bulbs
grown for sale as bulbs or cut flowers.
The 1959 acreage of bulb-crops in British Columbia is given in Appendix
No. 19.
ORNAMENTAL NURSERY STOCK
Roses. — The market for roses has expanded, and local production has
increased. There is strong competition from the United States. Growers are
encouraged to reduce costs by chemical weed-control, insect pest and disease control.
Conijerous Evergreens.—Several large new plantings were made during the
past two years. This will increase the volume of locally grown stock. Much
British Columbia stock was formerly propagated in Holland and imported as liners
for growing on. Stock will continue to be imported, but items can now be propagated in British Columbia more economically. Several growers are developing the
high degree of specialization necessary to produce rooted cuttings and liners for the
trade.   Assistance has been given in the improvement of propagating systems.
Broad-leaved Evergreens.—The principal shrubs in this category are rhododendrons and evergreen azaleas. In the past, almost all rhododendrons have been
imported from Holland as the time and hand-labour involved in producing these
plants appeared to make it uneconomical here. Recent advances in propagation
methods have made it practical to propagate many difficult plants, including rhododendrons, from cuttings.   One Mainland grower is now specializing in this work on DD 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
a full-time basis. The market for this type of material is good, and as more interest
in landscaping develops there should be an increase in the market for larger
specimen plants.
Deciduous Shrubs.—Large numbers of deciduous shrubs are handled by the
nursery trade. This material is very cheaply imported, and although a proportion
is also grown locally, the crop is not important enough to warrant specialization.
TREE-FRUIT NURSERY-STOCK VARIETY INSPECTIONS
Tree-fruit variety inspections were carried out in July and August. The number of variety mixes were as follows: Apples, 3,839 trees; pears, 805 trees; cherries,
535 trees; and apricots, 9 trees.
TREE-FRUIT NURSERY STOCKS
Production of tree-fruit nursery stock was slightly less than in 1958, but the
carry-over from last year, in addition to the present year's crop, has resulted in an
increase of 20 per cent in the total tree-fruit nursery stock on hand. The market
does not appear particularly promising, and a surplus of stock unsold next spring
is likely. Fewer trees were budded this summer, and the crop of one-year trees for
1960 should be at least 30 per cent less than this year's crop. Fewer apple, pear,
and cherry trees were produced than in 1958. Peaches, however, increased sharply.
The number of trees of various kinds produced during the past three seasons is
shown in Appendix No. 20.
Apple-trees comprised the biggest proportion of stock grown, and there have
been some considerable differences in the numbers of varieties produced. A comparison of the most important of the apple varieties is shown in Appendix No. 21.
Apple Root-stocks.—There has been a large increase in the number of East
Mailing and Malling-Merton root-stocks produced in British Columbia. Most of
this production must be sold in the United States, and the market for the amount of
stock now on hand appears to be very uncertain. There have been some changes
in the types of apple root-stocks being used locally. There is now very little imported United States seedling root-stock being used, and most of the seedlings are
now produced locally from Mcintosh seed. This year 40 per cent of the apple-trees
grown were on seedling roots and only 26 per cent were on EM II, as compared to
38 per cent on EM II in 1958. The number of other East Mailing stocks has
increased, particularly EM VII. Although the Malling-Merton stocks show promise, they are still being used only on a trial basis.
Several nurserymen have used a Swedish stock, A II, which was purchased in
error as EM II. The suitability of this stock for British Columbia conditions is.
unknown. A comparison of the apple root-stocks used to produce the 1959 crop
of trees is shown in Appendix No. 21, together with the corresponding figures
for 1958.
Hardy Framework Trees.—Although there have been fewer Mcintosh trees
produced this year, there is an increase in the number of Canada Baldwins. Most
of the Canada Baldwin trees are worked on to a Hibernal stem piece. Haralson
and Antonovka are also being produced in large numbers.
DORMANT TREE-FRUIT NURSERY-STOCK INSPECTIONS
The Horticultural Branch inspects tree-fruit nursery stock at digging-time.
Stock was well matured and should not be damaged by ordinary cold weather.
At the Coast, only stock for fall sales was dug, with the balance to be dug and
inspected in the spring.
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1959
DD 23
MacPHEE report
On January 5th, 1959, the Honourable Newton P. Steacy released the report
of the Royal Commission on the Tree-fruit Industry of British Columbia to the
tree-fruit industry and the public. The report is now known as the MacPhee Report,
after the Commissioner, Dean E. D. MacPhee, of the Faculty of Commerce and
Business Administration at the University of British Columbia.
Every phase of the tree-fruit industry has reviewed operations since the release
of the report. Many of the recommended changes were made by B.C. Tree Fruits
in handling the 1959 crop. Packing-houses have been considering the possibility
of amalgamation, especially in the Penticton and Kelowna areas. Growers appear
to be making changes in their plantings, and it will be possible to observe these after
the orchard survey for 1960 has been completed.
EXTENSION
All district offices of the Horticultural Branch reported an increased use of
radio. The programme prepared and presented over CKOK (Penticton) on tree-
fruit production is now in its second year. This talk was taped and carried once
a week, but there has been sufficient interest to increase the schedule to twice a week.
The weekly half-hour television programme " Okanagan Farm and Garden,"
produced by the Horticultural Branch over CHBC-TV, is now in its second year.
Extensive use is made of newspapers and magazines in all areas, but more
particularly if radio and television facilities are limited, such as at Creston. Twenty-
two newspaper reports were published in the various Kootenay papers as a public
service.   A monthly column appears in Country Life in B.C.
A two-day short course was held at Abbotsford last January covering the
production of beans, cole-crops, strawberries, and raspberries. Attendance for each
session was close to 100. The grower Chautauqua series of winter meetings was
held at ten points from Osoyoos to Vernon. Two meetings were held in each area.
Attendance in 1959 was 1,527. A similar series is planned commencing February
1st, 1960.
Field-days for raspberry and strawberry growers were held in the Fraser Valley.
The newly opened Canada Department of Agriculture small-fruit substation at
Abbotsford has been most helpful to growers and personnel of this Branch.
Numerous vegetable-grower meetings were addressed. A short course was
given at two of the Summerland schools, with ninety students participating.
A turnip-growers' field-day was held at Prince George, with fifty-two present. Field
demonstrations on vegetable-growing were given on four Indian reservations, with
eighty in attendance.
The third annual series of orchard tours was held in co-operation with British
Columbia Fruit Growers' Association locals. Five tours were held, with an
attendance of 166. In Salmon Arm a strawberry-growers' field-day attracted
forty-three.
Three demonstrations to show proper cannery apricot maturity were held at
Oliver, Naramata, and Oyama. B.C. Tree Fruits and Canada Department of
Agriculture officials co-operated with the Horticultural Branch in arranging these
meetings.   Total attendance was seventy-four.
All pear-producing areas were visited toward harvest-time to determine picking
maturity of pears, particularly Bartletts and Anjous.
Apple-picking dates were set for all commercial varieties by District Horticulturists. A check on the consistency of dates between districts was made and picking
bulletins prepared for the Okanagan Federated Shippers, who distributed the information to its members. DD 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A start was made on farm-management studies in 1959. The wide range of
crops grown on most farms makes it practical to carry out a study on an individual
crop only.   This programme will continue in 1960.
Liaison with the various branches of the Canada Department of Agriculture
in the Coastal area has been improved as a result of the activities of the Horticultural
Advisory Committee for the Coastal area. The Interior continues to. have a satisfactory programme of co-operation between the services through the Okanagan
Agricultural Club.
Statistics on the production and estimated value of various horticultural crops
have been prepared for the 1958 year, as well as estimates for 1959. Lists of fruit
and vegetable shippers and packers, fruit and vegetable manufacturing plants, nurserymen and agents, bulb-growers, and horticultural societies continue to be
prepared by this Branch.
DEMONSTRATION WORK
Staff members carried out fifty-seven demonstration projects in disease-control
fertilizer applications, herbicide insect-control, soil fumigation, variety trials, and
in miscellaneous phases of horticulture and vegetable production.
PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, and J. A. Moisey, M.Sc.
Primary leaf-roll net necrosis of potato is the only major outbreak of any
disease in any crop. Bacterial canker of tomato was widespread and caused moderate losses in the Okanagan.
DISEASES
Field Crops and Vegetables
Leaj-roll oj Potatoes.—The incidence of primary leaf-roll net necrosis was the
highest it has ever been, particularly in the Fraser Valley. Mild weather of the last
two winters has resulted in a heavy infestation of aphids, the vectors which spread
the virus.
Club-root oj Crucijera.—This disease continues to spread in the Lower Mainland. A club-root resistant strain of cabbage, CR. 1922-L, proved satisfactory on
twenty-four farms in the Fraser Valley.
Bacterial Canker oj Tomato.—This was widespread in the Okanagan and
caused moderate damage.
Dwarj-bunt oj Winter Wheat.—-An outbreak occurred both in the Creston
Valley and Northern Okanagan. A new resistant variety called Westmount is
recommended for the Creston Valley. There is need for a suitable resistant variety
for the Northern Okanagan.
Bacterial Ring-rot oj Potatoes.—Losses continue to be only a trace. There
was a moderate outbreak in the Northern Okanagan and a slight outbreak in Grand
Forks and the Fraser Valley.
Tree Fruits
Apple-scab.—Losses were slight in both the Kootenays and Okanagan.
Cyprex at the rate of 3 pounds per acre in concentrate sprays, and one-half pound
per 100 gallons of water in dilute sprays, is recommended for the first time in the
following stages:  Pink, calyx, and two covers. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1959
DD 25
Little Cherry.—The Japanese flowering cherry is a threat to sweet-cherry
plantings in the Okanagan and elsewhere. It is a symptomless carrier of the little-
cherry virus, which caused serious losses in the Kootenays. There is considerable
circumstantial evidence to suggest that the virus rarely spreads from the flowering
cherry to sweet cherry. Japanese flowering-cherry trees for a number of years have
been growing in the vicinity of sweet-cherry orchards in many locations without any
apparent spread. However, United States workers in 1959 reported an instance
when a number of sweet-cherry trees in an experimental plot adjacent to flowering-
cherry trees became naturally infected with the little-cherry disease. It is likely
that the little-cherry disease of the Kootenays was introduced by flowering-cherry
trees. We recommend that the few Japanese flowering-cherry trees grown in the
Okanagan be destroyed and replaced with new planting stock known to be free of
the virus.
Small Fruits
Die-back or Blind-bud in Raspberry.—This condition has been corrected in
the Creston area by the use of boron.
Godronia Canker oj Blueberry.—A better conrtol is needed.
ENTOMOLOGY BRANCH
C. L. Neilson, M.S., and J. C. Arrand, M.Sc.
The year 1959 was an average insect year, except for a major outbreak of pear
psylla.
FIELD-CROP AND VEGETABLE INSECTS
Grasshopper populations were markedly reduced. Red-backed cutworms
were mainly of importance in the Peace River. Green peach aphid, although not
unusually numerous in many areas, caused widespread infection of potato leaf-roll
disease in potatoes. Tuber flea-beetle damage to potatoes was greatly reduced by
treatment on Vancouver Island; however, it made its first appearance in the Creston
area. Aphid-control on cole-crops continued to be a problem in the Fraser Valley.
Onion-maggot continued to be a problem in untreated fields at both Interior and
Coast areas. Turnip-maggot control in Central British Columbia improved due to
increased demonstrations and heed of our advice. Thistle butterfly was non-existent
after its heavy 1958 outbreak. Symphilid damage occurred at two locations on
Vancouver Island. Demonstrations of increasing seed yields of alfalfa, alsike, and
red clover were undertaken with insecticides and honeybees in the Peace River area.
Miscellaneous inquiries covered the usual range of insects associated with these
crops.
ORCHARD INSECTS
Control of some orchard insects proved difficult in 1959. This was particularly
true of pear psylla. Recommended and substitute control measures often failed to
give control. Higher costs and lower yields resulted. There was increased evidence
of resistance to phosphates by mites, particularly the European red mite. Codling-
moth activity was greatly curtailed by adverse weather. Legislation dealing with
codling-moth control in abandoned orchards was passed. Continued trapping for
Oriental fruit-moth in the Okanagan Valley by the Canada Department of Agriculture again showed no moth. A certain amount of difficulty was experienced in May
when large numbers of honeybees were killed in orchards by an insecticide which DD 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
was extremely toxic to them.   A change in 1960 recommendations should remedy
this problem.   Aphids, in general, were more numerous than in 1958,
SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS
There was no major insect outbreak on small fruits. Root-weevils continue to
be the primary pest of strawberries. Extension methods were aimed at getting
strawberry-growers to adopt and follow a combined preventive insect- and disease-
control programme. A new insecticide control was introduced for raspberry root-
borer by the Canada Department of Agriculture insect laboratory, Victoria. Two
additional strawberry-fields at Creston were found infested with cyclamen mite.
LIVE-STOCK PESTS
Paralysis ticks were of minor concern. Winter ticks were again abundant in
Central British Columbia and the Cariboo. Warbles were as abundant as usual.
Research and demonstration of warble-fly control with systemic insecticides continued. The demonstration experiment of warble-fly control at Empire Valley
continued for the third year. Spraying tests with systemics for warbles and lice
were initiated. Warble-control continues to be a major project of the Canada
Department of Agriculture at Kamloops.
OTHER INSECTS
Inquiries covering a wide range of insects were received concerning flowers,
shrubs, trees, bulbs, household and stored products. However, these were routine
and none appeared as major outbreaks. Considerable time was devoted to the
organization and technical assistance of mosquito-control zones in the Fraser Valley
and Interior British Columbia.
EXTENSION AND PUBLICATIONS
At least one visit was made to every district office in British Columbia. Farmer
visits, meetings, etc., were made with the district officer concerned. Newspaper
releases and circulars or leaflets were prepared for distribution in each area as
needed. Radio and television appearances were made. Several Provincial circulars
were revised.
APIARY BRANCH
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist
There was a noticeable decrease in honey production during 1959. The total
1959 honey-crop of 1,360,101 pounds was considerably below the 1958 crop of
1,913,717 pounds. Inclement weather and winter injury to nectar-secreting legumes
were the chief reasons. Throughout the Okanagan, injury to honeybee colonies by
insecticides helped to reduce the total honey-crop.
The market for honey remains steady and the demand firm. The Vancouver
market is highly competitive, and much Alberta honey is sold there. Price to producers at packing plants is approximately 13Vi to 14 cents per pound. Wholesale
price to producers is calculated to be 22 cents per pound. Price of beeswax is weak
at 43 cents per pound.
For statistical details of honey-crop see Appendix No. 22. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959 DD 27
INSPECTION
Inspection staff during 1959 consisted of V. E. Thorgeirson, J. Boone, H.
Boone, J. Stann, L. Truscott, G. V. Wilkinson, H. Gibbs, and D. K. Oldershaw.
DISEASE
A total of 177 colonies infected with American foul-brood were burned, and
eighty-eight colonies are at present being treated under supervision of our Inspectors. Fourty-four samples and smears were received for analysis. Samples of live
bees were sent to Dr. J. E. Eckert for examination. The mite Acarapis dorsalis
was found on honeybees from all areas of the Province. Sac-brood, American foul-
brood, European foul-brood, nosema, and septicaemia were all present in honeybee
colonies throughout the Province. Some colonies on Vancouver Island and in the
Thompson Valley appeared to be suffering from bee paralysis. European foul-
brood was much less severe in the Peace River area. Ultra-violet light is being
used with success to locate disease in combs.
POLLINATION
A total of 1,047 colonies were used for pollination of tree fruits, small fruits,
greenhouse cucumbers, and blueberries. Average price paid for colony rental was
$6.72. A large number of colonies were used for pollination of alsike, altasweet,
and sweet clover in exchange for apiary-sites.
EXTENSION
Short courses on beekeeping were held in Dawson Creek, Fort St. John, and
Penticton. Three additional 4-H Honeybee Clubs were organized in Salmon Arm,
Langley, and Mission, to bring the total to six. Beekeeping information displays
were set up at the Armstrong and Salmon Arm fairs. Laboratory service supplied
to the beekeeper includes microscopic disease analysis, honey classifying, and
moisture determination.
Assistance was given to the 4-H branch with eliminations and judging competitions of 4-H Honeybee Clubs.
Talks were given to service clubs and other organizations. Correspondence
consisted of 1,796 letters in and 1,968 letters out. Six talks were recorded for
rebroadcast.
MEETINGS
Twenty-one field-days, forty-nine meetings, and twelve fairs and exhibitions
were attended. Honey was judged at the Pacific National Exhibition, Armstrong
fair, and nine local fairs and exhibitions.
LIVE STOCK BRANCH
A. Kidd, V.S., D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Live Stock Commissioner and
Chief Veterinary Inspector
This presentation includes reports of the Live Stock and Veterinary Division,
the Dairy Herd Improvement Services, the Brands Division, and the Animal Pathology Laboratory. DD 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ACTS
Animals Act
There are ten bull-control areas, thirteen bull districts, and three stallion-
control areas in the Province.
Beef Grading Act
The regulation (B.C. Reg. 307/59) pursuant to the British Columbia Beej
Grading Act was revised to conform with the new grading regulations and schedules
set up by the Canada Department of Agriculture. The inspection of retail meat
establishments in the Cities of New Westminster, North Vancouver, and Vancouver,
the Municipalities of Burnaby and West Vancouver, and the District of North
Vancouver was discontinued as of November 20th.
A considerable quantity of Australian and New Zealand beef continues to be
sold, most of it being Choice grade.
Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act, 1956
The eradication of brucellosis from the cattle population of the Province continues to be a main objective.   The programme is progressing very satisfactorily.
Problems with reference to a few diseases are outlined.
1. Specific Diseases.—Cattle Ticks: In the Kettle Valley district seventeen
range cattle were infected with wood-ticks (Dermacentor andersoni).
In the Adams Lake district five cattle died from spinose ear-tick (Ornithodoros
megnini) infection, and one calf at Princeton.
Foot-rot in Sheep: Veterinary Inspectors carried out routine inspections on
8,100 sheep before grazing permits were issued allowing sheep on certain Crown
lands.
Vibriosis of Cattle: This disease continues to be of major concern. The main
need is rapid and simple methods of diagnosis through laboratory procedures; progress here could permit effective measures for control and eradication of a serious
disease that can be a cause of heavy economic losses to cattlemen.
2. Non-specific Diseases.—Faulty Management: Veterinary Inspectors report
instances of deaths due to simple bloat from feeding mouldy sweet-clover hay and
silage, breeding animals too young, coccidious, tetanus, parasitism, and consuming
pine-needles.
Malnutrition: Nutritional abortions, particularly evident in the early spring
when cattle-owners are short of winter feed, cause heavy losses annually. This is
accompanied by Vitamin A deficiency, particularly present where ruminants are
improperly fed.
3. Brucellosis Eradication in Cattle.-—During the year Vancouver Island was
declared a certified brucellosis-free area by the Health of Animals Division of the
Canada Department of Agriculture. The four areas so certified are Pemberton-
Sechelt, West Kootenay, McBride, and Vancouver Island.
On April 8th a Ministerial order designating the Districts of East Kootenay,
South Okanagan, and Nicola as brucellosis-control areas was published in the
Canada Gazette. The Health of Animals Division is now testing cattle in these
three areas.   They should be certified brucellosis-free in the reasonably near future.
Approximately one-half of the total cattle population of the Province is now
under supervision of the Health of Animals Division for brucellosis eradication.
The Minister of Agriculture announced, effective November 9th, that the
entire costs of calfhood vaccination will be paid in brucellosis-control areas for a DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 29
minimum period of two years after they come under Federal administration. The
policy will be reviewed at the end of that two-year period. It is clearly stipulated
this is not to be considered as an indication that the Government of this Province
will continue to pay the cost of calfhood vaccination in perpetuity.
Total calfhood vaccinations under the joint Federal-Provincial brucellosis-
control programme and the Provincial Department payments to veterinary practitioners for services rendered since the inception of free vaccinations are: Year
ended Jue 30th, 1957, 39, 230 calves at cost of $40,680; year ended June 30th,
1958, 47,087 calves at cost of $49,790; and year ended June 30th, 1959, 58,896
calves at cost of $62,424.
A total of 21,197 calves were vaccinated in the Fraser Valley Brucellosis-
control Area for the year ending June 30th, last, an increase of over 10,00p in two
years.
The continued increase in the total vaccinations in the Province is due to
greater publicity by this Department and more coverage through veterinary practitioners as a result of the Provincial policy to pay all costs, including those locating
in the more remote districts through the Veterinary Service District Policy.
In order to assist in the issuing of live-stock transportation permits and the
testing of cattle where required, four veterinary practitioners have been appointed as
Deputy Inspectors under the Act. These are Dr. R. E. Earnshaw, Penticton;
Dr. L. Greenaway, Kamloops; Dr. J. A. Roberts, Williams Lake; and Dr. R. J.
Steffens, Merritt.
One successful prosecution was carried out where cattle were transported into
the Cariboo Brucellosis-control Area without the necessary live-stock transportation
permit.
Veterinary Inspectors vaccinated a total of 2,449 calves on 330 premises and
blood-tested 4,368 cattle on 344 premises. Brucellosis agglutination blood-test
results showed 4,164 head were negative, 74 head over 36 months of age were positive, and 95 head over 36 months of age were suspicious.
Fur-farm Act
For the licence-year of 1959, a total of 581 fur-farm licences were issued.
Inspectors made a total 349 fur-farm visits on various matters.
Virus enteritis was positively diagnosed on five additional fur-farms through
the facilities of our Animal Pathology Laboratory.
As a result of the new regulation (B.C. Reg. 310/59) under the Fur-jarm
Act, it is no longer necessary for fur-farmers to obtain a fur-farm transportation
permit before moving fur-bearing animals on to or off a fur-farm, and it is no longer
necessary to obtain a permit to bring biologies on to a fur-farm for vaccination purposes. It is felt that the removal of these two restrictions will assist the fur-farmer
in his operations.
Meat Inspection Act
The Cariboo Meat Packing Company Limited at Prince George was licensed
under the Meat Inspection Service of this Department. Inspection services commenced at Cariboo Meat Packing Company Limited on November 16th. Meat-
grading service in this abattoir under the Production and Marketing Branch of the
Canada Department of Agriculture has been applied for and the implementation
is pending. DD 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Clappison Packers at Haney and Seed & Pitts Packers at Pitt Meadows continue under the British Columbia Meat Inspection Service, and the meat-grading
service of the Federal Production and Marketing Branch.
Milk Industry Act, 1956
Co-operation from dairy farmers and dairy operators is gratifying. Excellent
integration exists between the Dairy Branch and its Inspectors, the Milk Board and
its Inspectors, and the various public health units and their Inspectors.
A survey of approved raw- and fluid-milk dairy-farms (total, 3,117) revealed
fifty-three pipe-line milking systems and 272 farm holding-tanks in use.
Mastitis Examinations by Veterinary Inspectors
Number of premises  65
Number of cows examined  898
Number clinical   146
Number to treat  113
Number to eliminate  33
Appendix No. 1 contains the totals of dairy-farm inspections carried out, by
districts, by Veterinary Inspectors and Dairy-farm Inspectors under the Milk
Industry Act.
Sheep Protection Act
Compensation paid from Dog Tax Fund for the years 1957, 1958, and 1959:—
Goats
Sheep
Poultry
Year
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
1957  	
1958  ...
1959 .
1
$30.00
121
96
242
$2,303.50
2,305.00
5,421.00
543
746
2,278
$595.00
741.89
2,768.10
POLICIES
Artificial Insemination Assistance Policy
Grants were made toward the young sire evaluation programme, the frozen-
semen laboratory, and to the Armstrong-Salmon Arm Sub-unit, and to the Nanaimo-
Cedar Farmers' Institute to assist those groups in establishing artificial-insemination
services.
For the calendar year 1959, a close check was made regularly by the Live Stock
Inspector on ampules of frozen semen stored at the British Columbia Artificial
Insemination Centre as required by the Joint Dairy Breeds Committee for pure-bred
cattle.   A total of 6,882 ampules of semen were frozen.
Dairy-cattle Placement Policy
A total of 48 head of dairy stock were selected from D.H.I.A. herds in the
Fraser Valley and shipped in to the Okanagan Valley, Edgewood, Quesnel, and
Queen Charlotte Islands.
During the ten-year period since inauguration of this policy, from 1950 through
to 1959, a total of 719 head of dairy cattle have been selected and shipped. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959 DD 31
Veterinary Service District Policy
This policy provides veterinary services in those areas of British Columbia
where the scattered nature of farm settlements and (or) the long distances between
stock farms or ranches have discouraged qualified veterinarians from establishing
residence and practice, and where present and immediate potential live-stock population warrants such action. Four veterinary service districts are serviced by
registered veterinarians located at Creston, Dawson Creek, Prince George, and
Williams Lake.
BRANDS DIVISION
(Thomas Moore, Recorder of Brands)
Brand inspection was carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at
seventy shipping points and by Brand Inspectors and Deputy Brand Inspectors
at thirty-one shipping points.
Brand Inspections
A total of 112,522 head of cattle were brand-inspected, an increase of 5,006
from 1958.
Horses inspected for brands number 6,946, an increase of 576 from the
previous year.
There were 14,315 hides inspected, a decrease from 1958 of 536.
Kamloops-Nicola area had 41,702 cattle inspected, an increase of 7,736 head.
Cariboo cattle inspections totalled 25,249, an increase of 1,472 (see Appendix
No. 3).
Exports to United States
Total cattle exported from British Columbia to the United States from January
1st to December 31st numbered 16,563, of which 16,038 head moved from Interior
points. This is 19,516 less than the record figure of 36,139 in 1958, and comprised
225 bulls, 1,351 cows, 9,707 steers, 1,547 heifers, 3,733 calves. (Figures courtesy
of Canada Department of Agriculture, Vancouver.)
Flood Check-point
The Department of Commercial Transport now operates this post. The staff,
who are Deputy Brand Inspectors, co-operated in enforcement of the Stock-brands
Act and checked stock, hides, and dressed beef, as shown below:—
Cattle 	
Horses	
Hides  	
Dressed beef (quarters) 	
Number of trucks checked
1958
1959
4,889
8,471
1,612
1,433
3,075
2,652
448
478
1,283
1,364
Stock-brands Act
A number of amendments were made to this Act at the 1959 sitting of the
Legislature.   Two of these follow.
All stock-dealers are now required to secure a $5,000 bond before a licence
can be issued. In the case of a partnership, a company, or a corporation, a $10,000
bond is required, but this covers persons hired as agents to deal in stock.
" Carrier " now includes an aeroplane or other implement for transportation
by air, to comply with section 40.
A new check-point is located at Fernie.
L DD 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The annual supplement, No. 3, to the brand book, showing all brands issued
in 1959, will be available early in 1960.
Marketing of Cattle
Cattle in the Interior are now marketed mainly through sales held twice a
month and in some cases weekly at Kamloops, Williams Lake, Quesnel, Okanagan
Falls, Merritt, Dawson Creek, and Fort St. John during the heavier shipping season.
The co-operation of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is appreciated in the
enforcement of these Acts, and of the Criminal Code in the stealing of stock,
ANIMAL PATHOLOGY LABORATORY
(John C. Bankier, B.V.Sc.)
The services of this laboratory are being used to an increasing extent each year
by live-stock and poultry producers, and in connection with Departmental policies.
Frequent assistance and co-operation were secured from the Division of Animal
Pathology, Canada Department of Agriculture; Ontario Veterinary College; and
Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, which is gratefully acknowledged.
Laboratory Services
Exclusive of brucellosis testing, the number of live-stock and poultry owners
receiving service from the laboratory during the year totalled 696 and is an increase
of 7.6 per cent over 1958.
Personal visits to the laboratory by farmers or their representatives in connection with disease problems totalled 899, an increase of 58.8 per cent over the 1958
total of 566.
Specimens received for diagnosis increased 28 per cent over the 1958 figure.
Field visits in connection with special disease problems totalled 116.
This year, infections transmissible from animals or birds to man have been
encountered quite frequently in specimens submitted for diagnosis. These include
erysipelas, paratyphoid, listeriosis, pseudo-tuberculosis, aspergillosis, and psittacosis.
A breakdown of the specimens examined in the laboratory is shown in
Appendix No. 4.
DAIRY-HERD IMPROVEMENT SERVICES
(J. A. Mace)
Operation
Increases in cows on test and in production continue to highlight activities in
D.H.I.A. The 1958 average production reached a new all-time high of 10,330
pounds of milk and 425 pounds of fat, an increase of 571 pounds of milk and
21 pounds of fat over 1957. There were 13,075 completed milking periods, again
an all-time high and an increase over 1957 of 1,059 periods.
Cows on test increased from 15,558 to 16,597, with the same number of herds
under test as in 1957. This resulted in increases in average herd and route size to
30.1 and 691 respectively.
A summarized report showing production by breeds is attached as Appendix
No. 2.
Calf-tagging
During the year an estimated 5,200 D.O.T. ear-tags will be issued. This
increase of 2,100 tags in two years is attributable to compulsory tagging and is of
great value in our sire list work. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 33
Departmental Subsidy
Grants to twenty-four D.H.I.A. routes were approximately the same as 1958,
$51,955.
R.O.P.-D.H.I.A. Combined Service
Under this arrangement with the Federal Department, thirty herds have R.O.P.
reports prepared by D.H.I, supervisors. Minimum requirement for this service is
a minimum of 10 per cent grade and a maximum of 20 registered cows in a herd.
Field Work
The Superintendent and two Inspectors carried out the total field work, as
follows:—
Supervisor Contacts   136
D.H.I, officials' contacts  41
Member visits   350
C.O.P.'s brought up to date1  272
Other calls   87
Meetings    39
Talks    17
Herds check-tested  214
1 Certificates of Production.
Both Inspectors worked in the Victoria office for periods during the year.
Dairy Sire Lists and Publications
H.I.C. No. 82, the twenty-fourth List of Ayrshire Sires, was prepared and
issued.
Periodic reports were distributed on the performance of sires in artificial
insemination centres. These were made available to the two centres, semen-
purchasing clubs, the Advisory Committee members, and D.H.I, supervisors.
Miscellaneous
The following ruling became effective July 1st, 1959, and has eliminated
duplication between R.O.P. and D.H.I.A.:—
"No herd can be on D.H.I.A. and R.O.P. at the same time unless (1) the
herd contains more than ten (10) grade cows, or (2) the herd can be tested under
the terms of the combined service, or (3) there are not enough other herds in an
area to keep a D.H.I.A. supervisor fully employed."
The Canada Department of Agriculture is now using British Columbia's
D.H.I.A. records for sire proof work. In order to co-operate in this move, it was
necessary to repunch all record information back to September 1st, 1956, and
supply a copy of the punch-card. That Department issues proofs on a contemporary comparison basis taking into account seasonal and environmental differences,
but using 2-year-old records only. Preliminary reports seem to indicate that a
much more informative and valuable proof would be secured by using all contemporaries rather than 2-year-olds. DD 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
DAIRY BRANCH
George Patchett, P.Ag., Dairy Commissioner
PRODUCTION
All dairy products under report show an increase over last year, as follows:—
1958 1959 (Estimated)
Milk (total production)  lb. 804,811,000 830,000,000
Manufactured products—
Butter (creamery)  „ 3,258,000 4,200,000
Cheese (Cheddar)  „ 789,000 776,000
Cheese (cottage)  „ 4,526,000 6,000,000
Ice-cream  gal. 4,236,000 4,242,000
UTILIZATION, 1958
British
Canada    Columbia
(Per Cent) (Per Cent)
Creamery butter	
Cheddar cheese 	
Concentrated milk and ice-cream.
Fluid milk and cream	
Used on farms	
44
6
8
30
12
9
2
24
57
Per capita consumption of fluid milk in 1958, as reported by Dr. L. E. Drayton, Economics Division, Canada Department of Agriculture, was as follows:—
Lb.
Lb.
Canada   338
Prince Edward Island  466
Nova Scotia   293
New Brunswick   303
Quebec   346
Ontario   338
Manitoba   390
Saskatchewan   498
Alberta    372
British Columbia   259
These figures show there is a good potential for increased sales of fluid milk
in this Province to meet the per capita consumption of other Provinces.
MARKETING
The Milk Board reports a substantial increase in the average price paid to
producers for fluid milk in the Vancouver Island and Kamloops areas of production
but only a very slight upward change in the Vancouver area.
Retail prices have remained static. Farm value of milk and its products should
be close to $38,000,000 this year, or an increase of $1,000,000 over 1958.
DAIRY PLANTS
Eighty-eight dairy plants were licensed. Of these, sixty-five pasteurize milk,
twenty-nine make ice-cream, ten manufacture butter, two make Cheddar cheese,
thirteen make cottage cheese, one makes powdered milk, and one makes evaporated
milk.    Many of these are combined plants putting out two or more products.
DAIRY LICENCES AND CERTIFICATES
The following licences and certificates have been issued in 1959:- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1959
DD 35
Licences
  88
  104
  71
  19
  40
Oleomargarine manufacturers  4
Oleomargarine wholesalers  15
Creamery or dairy
Milk-testers	
Milk-graders_
Cream-graders	
Special tank-milk graders.
Certificates of Proficiency
Pasteurizer operators-
First class	
Second class	
Temporary.
Issued This
Year
._      7
._   10
_ 12
Ice-cream makers—
First class	
Second class	
Cheese-makers—second class.
Butter-makers—
First class	
Second class	
Permits to reconstitute milk.
Total Valid
27
102
12
10
16
4
2
8
3
MILK GRADING (TWELVE-MONTH SUMMARY)
Number of completed tests.
Number failing to qualify..
80,132
3,296
Percentage failing to qualify       4.11
SUMMARY OF DAIRY BRANCH SERVICES PERFORMED
Number of dairy-plant inspections and visits  739
Visits to farms   510
Butter-fat tests on milk and cream  2,417
Milk and cream grades checked  4,104
Samples taken for ring test  400
Lactometer and cryoscope tests  323
Reports sent to producers on butter-fat tests  470
Milk-cans condemned   61
Examinations for licences and certificates  60
Sediment tests, Whitesides and analysis  1,569
Tests on oleomargarine  10
All H.T.S.T. pasteurizers have been tested and all farm holding-tanks checked
for calibration.
SHORT COURSE
The dairy short course conducted annually by the Dairy Branch personnel,
the Faculty of Agriculture (Dairy and Animal Husbandry Departments), University of British Columbia, and the University Extension Department has been altered
to include pre-instruction of the candidates by means of lessons and questions by
mail. This will reduce the length of the course at the University from two weeks
to one week. It will also result in screening out, prior to the final week, those applicants who are unable to assimilate the necessary knowledge to complete the course. DD 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Those qualifying in the final examinations will be eligible for pasteurizer operators'
certificates after completing the necessary time in practical operation.
SUMMARY
Production of milk for the first nine months of the year was above normal,
but some parts of the Cariboo and Peace River will be short of winter feed due to
wet weather in the Cariboo and early snows in the Peace.
With the exception of certain areas in the Kootenays, the dairy industry is
enjoying prosperity and the future looks very promising. A fear of competition
from one firm in Alberta is causing farmers in the East Kootenay some concern,
and consequently they hesitate to increase milk production. This has caused a
shortage of milk in that area. There is also a shortage of milk in the Castlegar
area.
Prospects for 1960 are for a continuing increase in dairying. Larger herds
and greater production per cow will continue.   Bulk tanks will increase in number.
POULTRY BRANCH
W. H. Pope, P.Ag., Poultry Commissioner
Canadian eggs were sold on an open market on October 1st for the first time in
almost twenty years. The " guarantee of purchase " support programme of the
Canada Department of Agriculture was replaced by a deficiency-payment support
to be paid directly to the producer if the average Canadian price for shell eggs drops
below 80 per cent of the average price for the last ten years. In British Columbia
less than 20 per cent of the estimated number of the producers have registered as
required by the Federal Government. This lack of interest is due to the severe
restriction placed on the quantity (4,000 dozen A Large in one calendar year) on
which payment will be made. Many of British Columbia's specialized producers
will exceed this maximum with less than one week's production. While this new
programme is designed to give maximum support benefits to flocks of 400 birds or
less, there is a strong Provincial trend toward larger, highly specialized producers
who can meet the specification requirements of large retail outlets.
The average farm price of poultry products in British Columbia during the last
five years has declined faster than the average producer has been able to apply
advanced production methods. The result of this is evident in the sharp increase
of debt and interest charges. Production methods that were satisfactory a few years
ago are submarginal at the price levels existing and anticipated. With few exceptions, the cost of supplies and equipment used in the production of all forms of
poultry has increased while the producer price for all products has reached new low
levels. The following table indicates the change that has taken place in producer
prices since 1955:—
Producer Price
1959 as
Percentage
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
of 5-Year
Average
t
42.1
28.0
20.6
31.4
t
42.7
25.5
21.5
34.3
t
32.6
25.6
18.2
31.4
t
33.3
25.0
17.4
33.0
t
32.1
22.2
12.8
24.0
87.5
87.8
70.8
Turkey        	
77.8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 37
COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION
General
Larger flocks, fewer producers, greater production per bird and per unit of
labour with increased capitalization have been the feature noted in this phase of
poultry production during the year. Capital for increasing the efficiency and output
has, in most instances, been supplied by feed companies and equipment-manufacturers. This change to larger and more efficient production units, required by the
market and more highly competitive conditions, is, in part, responsible for the sharp
increase in credit being extended by feed-manufacturers.
Regional
Fraser Valley
This area produced approximately 75 per cent of the Provincial total of commercial eggs, the greatest concentration being in the Matsqui, Sumas, and Abbotsford Municipalities. While prices have been marginal for even the better producers,
there has been a marked effort to assure a continued demand for local production
by the use of production methods which assure continuity of quality and quantity.
During the seasonal surplus period, 12,000 cases of Grade A Large were
purchased by the Special Product Board, but for most of the year limited supplies
from other areas and for a short time imports from the United States were necessary to meet the requirements of the market.
Due to the uncertainty brought about by the change in the support programme
and the resultant widely fluctuating and depressed Prairie egg price, Fraser Valley
producers are hesitant to order replacement stock. This will be reflected in decreased supplies of eggs during the summer of 1960.
Vancouver Island
The market is almost entirely supplied by local producers, mostly wholesaling
their own production. The three producer marketing groups have continued to
function successfully and are supplying a larger percentage of the demand. Small
surpluses seriously depressed prices during several periods of the year as producers
sought to gain outlets for increased production.
Okanagan
The trend toward larger specialized production units is also evident in this
area as producers attempt to gain a level of efficiency that will allow them to remain
competitive. One large warehouse on trackage, formerly used for fruit-packing,
has been converted for the production of eggs. The total output from this plant
will move to the Coast.
A surplus developed during the spring months and was moved to the Coast
at about 3 cents below Vancouver market price.
The producer marketing group formed last year has functioned with reasonable
success and has extended its market to Trail-Castlegar. The additional supplies
required are being obtained from producers outside the group. (For production
and prices see Appendices Nos. 5 and 6.)
POULTRY MEATS
Broilers have continued to dominate the poultry market, with production again
showing a sharp increase.   The demand has been good to strong, but supplies from DD 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
depressed areas have exerted a downward pressure on prices. While there is an
interrelation between producer, feed-supplier, and processor, integrated operations
such as are common in other broiler-producing areas do not exist to any significant
degree. However, with average producer price remaining close to, and occasionally
below, production cost, the climate in which vertical integration can rapidly develop
is being established. The trend in broiler production is also toward larger and
fewer production units, with efficient methods increasing the output per unit of
labour. Three processing plants handle the bulk of the production and exert a
strong influence on price levels.
Fowl.—The almost complete change-over to a Leghorn-type bird for egg production has put fowl at a disadvantage to broilers. This has been reflected in prices
that have made the disposal of layers merely a salvage operation. The market for
this product at prevailing prices is quite strong, and a limited quantity of live fowl
has moved into the Vancouver market from Washington to meet the demand.
Turkey.—The year 1959 established records for turkey production in Canada
and British Columbia and low prices during most of the year. It is evident now
that prices were lower than necessary to move even this record crop. While storage
stocks are fractionally lower than in 1958, the supply at slightly firmer prices is
adequate to meet the strong demand. Approximately 140,000 birds out of a record
total of 750,000 were produced in the Ashcroft, Cache Creek, and Okanagan areas.
This is an increase of almost 50 per cent over previous production figures. Most
of this production was made possible by multiple financing or variations of integration.    (For production and prices see Appendices Nos. 7 and 8.)
PULLORUM-CONTROL PROGRAMME*
The Hatchery Regulations under the Poultry and Poultry Products Act, Revised Statutes of British Columbia, 1948, were revised and approved by Order in
Council No. 2122, dated September 22nd, 1959. Under these new regulations the
poultry-breeder is no longer required to pullorum-test those birds maintained for
commercial egg production as long as they are housed separately from the breeding
flock. This relaxation has been made possible by the continued low incidence of
pullorum reactors in the annual testing programme. This policy change will reduce
the number of birds tested and the total cost of the programme. The number of
hatchery supply and breeder flocks has decreased substantially during the last
several years, as is shown in Appendix No. 9. In the same period the number of
chicks produced has increased due to the increased egg production of breeding stock
and the extended breeding season. While the fall and winter are the peak seasons
for pullorum testing, some is done throughout the year. Further information is
presented in tabular form in Appendices Nos. 9, 10, 11, and 12.
RANDOM SAMPLE POULTRY TEST
Since this station was opened in the spring of 1958, a total of 24,000 birds
have been or are being tested. The following tests have been completed or are
being carried out at the present time:—
First egg production test (20 entries):   April 15th, 1958, to August 15th,
1959.
First broiler test (10 entries):   September 15th, 1958, to November 23rd,
1958.
Second broiler test (8 entries):  December 9th, 1958, to February 16th, 1959.
* Formerly " Flock Approval." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 39
Second egg production test (20 entries):   April 15th, 1959, to August 15th,
1960.
Third broiler test (10 entries):   September 15th, 1959, to November 18th,
1959.
Fourth broiler test (9 entries):   December 18th, 1959, to February 25th,
1960.
Separate reports have been prepared and distributed for each test completed.
Copies of these reports may be obtained from the office of the Poultry Commissioner.
POULTRY-FARM RECORDS
The conditions that presently prevail in the production of poultry products
require detailed and accurate records. In order to become familiar with the type
of record and the amount of detail necessary, a pilot study consisting of two farms
in each of the four geographical divisions was established during 1959. Because
of the amount of time required to supervise the maintenance of these individual
farm records, two groups of producers have been organized and will begin their
yearly records on January 1st, 1960. These .groups will be assisted by Inspectors
of this Branch.
NEWCASTLE STUDY
A record of each incidence of Newcastle disease and vaccination procedures in
the Abbotsford and Clearbrook areas was obtained and submitted to the Animal
Pathologist. These records will be used in an attempt to determine the reasons for
the apparent failure of recommended vaccination procedures to prevent the recurrence of their problem.
Under the amended conditions set forth in Schedule B, Part I, subsection 30,
of the Pharmacy Act, registered hatcheries and, in certain cases, poultry-feed distributers are now allowed to distribute vaccines for the control of Newcastle disease
and infectious bronchitis. Ten permits were issued to hatcheries which had complied
with the requirements for storage and stock-control during the year. (For comparative figures on vaccine distribution see Appendix No. 13.)
POULTRY CONFERENCE
The Fourth Annual Poultry Conference was held in Abbotsford on July 8th,
9th, and 10th. Speakers of national prominence discussed topics related to the
general theme " Production Efficiency."
GENERAL
Field work and other extension activities that cannot be classified under separate
headings occupy the major portion of the time of the field staff. During the first
ten months of 1959 over 2,000 farm visits were made to advise producers on subjects pertaining to all aspects of improved methods of production and marketing.
The demand for this type of assistance becomes greater as the gap between production cost and selling price narrows. (A summarized list of official inspection activities is shown as Appendix No. 14.) DD 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
FIELD CROPS BRANCH
Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc., Field Crops Commissioner
C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner
CROP PRODUCTION
Cereals
Spring was late in all areas of the Province. The estimated yield in the Peace
River region was reduced by 25 per cent by a prolonged drought in most districts.
Elsewhere cereal-crops were above average, but in all areas wet weather into the
fall made harvesting difficult and lowered grade and quality. About 20 per cent
of the grain in the Peace River remains unharvested and considerable in Central
British Columbia and the North Cariboo.
Hay and Pasture
The cool spring delayed pasture growth, but summer conditions favoured production of all forage-crops. Excess rains in many areas hindered haying operations,
with a general reduction in quality. The Cariboo region suffered most severely as
ranchers were not able to harvest native-hay meadows nor tame hays in many
cases.
Hay Yield Data, Fraser Valley.—In co-operation with the Soil Survey Division,
this Branch continued the study on hay yields as related to soil type in the Fraser
Valley soils on 180 plots. Dry weights were taken and average yields determined.
The Plant Science Department of the University of British Columbia assisted.
Production of Registered and Certified Seed
The bulk of inspected seed is produced in the Peace River. The following
acreages were inspected by the Plant Products Division, Canada Department of
Agriculture:—
Crop Acres Crop Acres
Barley       321.0 Flax         266.0
Oats         881.3 Alfalfa         594.0
Wheat  .      750.0 Grasses   1,150.0
Commercial Forage-crop Seed
The Peace River still remains the major area of forage-seed production, with
creeping red fescue the largest single crop. The cold winter caused some damage
to legumes and the dry season reduced yields. The wet fall prevented harvesting
of some crops.
Estimated yields of forage-crop seeds for 1959, together with the final production figures for 1958, are shown in Appendix No. 25.
The Agronomy Department of the University of British Columbia again produced foundation-stock seeds, which were distributed to growers through this
Branch.
Potatoes
The potato acreage dropped slightly to 10,800 acres. Yields were reduced
and percentage culls increased by the delayed planting due to the late spring.
Diseases and pests were also particularly bad in the main growing districts. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 41
Acreage in seed-potatoes dropped considerably. Incidence of disease and
insect pests will reduce the total approved. A total of 1,460.17 acres were inspected,
Netted Gem predominating.
The main areas of production, with approximate acres inspected, in 1959
were (1958 acreages in parentheses): Vancouver Island, 180 (206); Lower Mainland, 143 (395); Pemberton, 196 (269); Okanagan, 115 (311); Cariboo, 178
(185); Central British Columbia, 20 (50); Boundary District, 280 (532); East
and West Kootenays, 346 (294).
Oceanside Test-plots
Sixty-six seed-potato samples were forwarded to Oceanside, Calif., for testing.
Duplicate samples have been planted in greenhouses at the University of British
Columbia and Saanichton Experimental Farm.
Field Peas
Acreage in field peas increased slightly, particularly in the Creston area.
Yields have been above average.
Crop Improvement Association
The following eighty-three test samples were forwarded to members: Rambler
alfalfa, 27; Vernal alfalfa, 22; Altaswede clover, 3; Climax timothy, 4; reed
canary-grass, 12; Manchar brome-grass, 10; Lasalle red clover, 2; hybrid corn, 2;
Summit crested wheat, 1. This is an increase over last year. The most popular
tests were the two new alfalfa varieties.
Demonstrations and Trials
During the past year the Branch has co-operated with district officials and
experimental farm service personnel in continuing and establishing trials on forage-
crops; fertilizers for hay, pasture, and cereals; potatoes; and weed-control. These
are primarily designed to demonstrate better practices in various regions of the
Province.
Forage-crop Programme
In 1957 some ninety-two display-cases were distributed through the District
Agriculturists to feed-stores and other agricultural suppliers throughout the Province in relation to an improved forage-crop programme. In the course of three
years, ten display-cards were prepared for use in these boxes, as well as ten posters
dealing with the same theme of improved grass production. Several letters were
forwarded to the farmers, and in addition many short pamphlets were written or
revised in relation to the different phases of grassland production. Newspaper
articles were prepared monthly for some eighteen months. Two television shows
were planned around the same theme. The Branch will continue to promote good
grassland production. The programme appears to have been successful in promoting the use of recommended varieties of grasses, legumes, and fertilizers in the
different regions of the Province.
FARM MANAGEMENT
The Branch completed a land capability survey of three farms on Vancouver
Island under the above programme, and assistance was given to District Agriculturists in other regions of the Province in surveying project farms to assess fertility
and cropping practices. DD 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA
SOIL AND FORAGE ANALYSES
The number of soil samples increased this year to 2,800, and 150 silage
samples were analysed. A few irrigation-waters were examined for total salts, and
some 200 greenhouse soils were checked for toxic salt concentration.
AGRICULTURAL LIME
For the eleven-month period in 1959, 39,765.69 tons were distributed under
the Federal-Provincial Lime Subsidy Policy; less than in 1958, but well over the
average.
The following is a five-year summary of movement of agricultural lime and
subvention paid:—
Fiscal Year
Total Number     Total Amount
of Applications '    of Subsidy
Approved       Recommended
Total Tonnage
Used
1954/55..
1955/56..
1956/57..
1957/58..
1958/59.-
$48,503.42
44,070.96
52,784.88
100,588.24
99,942.98
24,702.45
22,712.92
21,528.45
34,404.75
36,529.09
FERTILIZER AND AGRICULTURAL POISONS BOARD
One meeting of the Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board was held. The
following mixes were approved: 0-15-15, 2-15-15, 4-10-10, 6-8-6 (organic),
6-30-15, 8-10-6, 10-20-10, 10-30-10, and 13-16-10.
WEED-CONTROL
During the past season two Weed Inspectors were employed in the Peace
River District. We have again co-operated and advised wherever possible with
the Department of Highways, which has increased the miles of roadside sprayed
with chemicals for weed and brush control again this year to slightly over 2,200
miles.
GRAIN SCREENINGS
In compliance with the regulations under the Noxious Weeds Act, grain screenings of uncleaned and refuse categories are moved within the Province under
Removal of Screenings Permit from elevator to elevator or to merchant, and under
Feeder's Permit from elevator to feed-lot operator.
During the first eleven months, January 1st to November 30th, 1959, nine
permits for removal of screenings were issued to elevators and merchants—three
to Victoria merchants, one to Cloverdale, and the remainder to merchants in the
Greater Vancouver area. During the same period fifty Feeders' Permits were
issued. Inspections were made prior to issuance of Feeders' Permits to new applicants, and periodic checks are made of feed-lots in the Fraser Valley. One inspection tour was made to Sandspit and Prince Rupert, another to Kamloops, Clinton,
and other Interior points for the purpose of checking feed-lot operations. Most
permit-holders have been very conscientious in keeping well within the regulations.
Present demand for refuse screenings is very heavy, with elevators unable to
supply these needs. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1959
DD 43
FARMERS' INSTITUTES
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent
At the start of the year 1959 there were 129 active Farmers' Institutes in the
Province, with a total membership of 5,355. Of the 148 institutes on the active list
in 1958, nineteen failed to file returns, and consequently were placed on the inactive
list. Despite a decrease in the number of active institutes, membership increased
by 512, while purchase of commodities on behalf of members increased $114,562
(from $1,154,417 to $1,268,979).
DISTRICT INSTITUTES
All districts again held annual meetings during the year,
these meetings were as follows:—
Places and dates of
District
Place
Date
" A "—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands                ... ....
Nanaimo  	
Sept. 19
June 19, 20
Nov. 27
Jan. 9
Nelson  _    	
Winfield  	
Nov. 21
Nov. 14
May 28
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
The forty-first annual meeting of the Advisory Board was held in Victoria on
February 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, at which time ninety-four resolutions submitted by
district institutes were considered, sixty-seven being endorsed, thirteen withdrawn,
ten defeated, and two tabled.
On February 4th the Advisory Board met with the Select Standing Committee
on Agriculture and presented seven resolutions, as follows:—
(1) Bangs disease:
(2) Resolutions:
(3 ) Veterinary services:
(4) School taxes:
(5) Expropriation Act:
(6) Rural electrification:
(7) Milk.
The report of the Chairman of the Select Standing Committee to the Legislature is as follows:—
Legislative Committee Room, February 20th, 1959.
Mr. Speaker:
Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture begs leave to report as follows:—
Your Committee held three meetings to organize and hear the submissions of the Farmers'
Institute Advisory Board and to give consideration to the submissions presented to the Committee and recommends as follows:—
(1) That the Provincial Government be requested to retain an active interest, financially
and otherwise, in the brucellosis programme after the Federal Government has taken
over the brucellosis-free areas:
(2) That Resolution No. 2, that reads as follows, " Be it Resolved, That all resolutions
presented to the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture by the Advisory Board and DD 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
approved by them be voted upon by the Legislature," if adopted, would, in the opinion
of the Committee, be contrary to Standing Orders, and your Committee therefore has
not approved this resolution:
(3) That the Department of Agriculture be requested to subsidize effectively the travelling
charges of veterinarians in outlying areas; further, in view of the shortage of adequate
veterinary services in many areas, it is recommended that the Provincial Government
sponsor short courses in veterinary work for suitable applicants from each district in
the Province:
(4) That the levying of a tax for education purposes on farm land does not result in an
equitable distribution of school costs; it is recommended that a review be made of
present methods of taxation for school purposes with a view to finding a more equitable
method than that in practice with special attention being given to removal of school
taxation from farm land:
(5) That, in view of the fact that the present legislation allows expropriation for the use
of power companies' highway and gas pipe-line rights-of-way without giving the owner
any right of appeal as to location, we recommend that the Provincial Government
draw up a Bill for one comprehensive Expropriation Act which would apply to all
types of expropriation, giving the same powers and protection to all:
(6) That, in the best interests of all the people of the Province, the development of large-
scale electric projects and the associated transmission systems be undertaken on
behalf of and by the people of this Province, through its publicly owned utility, the
British Columbia Power Commission, and that section 107 of the " Electric Power
Act" be instituted in such areas; it is further submitted that this Committee recognize
the extreme importance of this question of private and public power and recognize the
fact that a question such as this requires a great deal of study which is outside the
powers of this Committee and, as there is a commission sitting at this time on costs
and other matters affecting the Power Commission, therefore we recommend that this
commission be empowered to study the particular aspects of power development, both
public and private:
(7) That, where it has been alleged that large stores have used milk as a loss leader, the
product being procured from outside areas to accomplish this, thus displacing local
production to a degree that the local product is forced into processing channels, therefore we recommend that the Minister of Agriculture take the necessary steps to see
that section 57 of the British Columbia " Dairy Act " is fully enforced.
Respectfully submitted.
Frank Richter, Chairman.
The forty-second meeting of the Advisory Board was held in the Parliament
Buildings, Victoria, B.C., on November 3rd and 4th, at the call of the Minister of
Agriculture, for the purpose of discussing with Board members the future of
Farmers' Institutes in the Province, and the Board members reported to the Minister on conditions in their respective districts.
Departmental branch heads reviewed the activities over which they exercised
supervision, and the Honourable Mr. Steacy covered in a general way agricultural
conditions of British Columbia and various policies of his Department.
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS
One Class A exhibition, five Class B exhibitions, nine Class C exhibitions, and
forty-nine fall fairs were held in the Province during the 1959 fair season, being an
increase of one Class B exhibition and a decrease of two fall fairs.
POUND DISTRICTS
Pound districts constituted in unorganized territory during the year were as
follows: Lindell, April 30th; Gibsons, May 6th; Export (Lake Cowichan), October
20th; and Sandspit, November 17th.
During the year the boundaries of nine pound districts were extended: Celista-
Scotch Creek, January 15th; Colwood-Happy Valley, March 24th; Golata Creek
(Alces), April 23rd; Blind Bay, June 11th; Rose Prairie, August 14th; Pine View, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959 DD 45
August 14th; West Bench, September 8th; Campbell River, November 23rd;  and
North Wellington, November 27th.
Pound-keepers were appointed for eleven districts, while extension of the
boundaries of the Sooke Pound District was held in abeyance until April 1st, 1960.
GRASSHOPPER-CONTROL AREAS
The following Grasshopper-control Committees  received  advances  in  the
amounts shown for the purpose of exterminating and controlling grasshoppers:—
Grasshopper-control Area Amount of Advance
Clinton  $ 10,000.00
Nicola  20,000.00
Oliver-Osoyoos  1,000.00
Princeton  1,000.00
South Riske Creek  2,000.00
Thompson Valleys  4,000.00
Westbank  300.00
Total  $38,300.00
MISCELLANEOUS
Fence-viewers were appointed for the unorganized territory in the North
Okanagan, Kamloops, and Comox Electoral Districts, and 128 licences to sell poisons used exclusively in agriculture were issued.
WOMEN'S INSTITUTES
Since the resignation of the Superintendent, valuable service has been rendered
by the Provincial president, Mrs. J. O. Decker, and by members of the Provincial
Board, not only by undertaking many of the duties formerly performed by the
Superintendent, but by attendance and guidance at all the district conventions held
during the year.
The Honourable Newton P. Steacy, Minister of Agriculture, called a meeting
of the Provincial Board and presidents of district institutes in Victoria during the
latter part of October to discuss the best means of strengthening the Women's
Institute movement in the Province and to plan for the future. This meeting proved
very satisfactory. The Provincial Board and district presidents were very grateful
for the opportunity of meeting with the Minister.
There are 232 active Women's Institutes, with a membership of 4,752. Three
new Women's Institutes were organized in the Peace River District—Golata Creek,
Briar Ridge, and Hudson Hope—and one in the Kettle River District—Christian
Valley.
There is an associate Women's Institute in the Yukon Territory—Haines Junction Women's Institute.
All seventeen districts held annual district meetings. The places and dates of
these meetings were as follows:—
April 2nd—North Fraser District at Hammond.
April 7th—Hopeline District at Hope.
April 8th—Douglas District at Cloverdale.
April 14th—North Vancouver Island District at Qualicum. DD 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
May 9th—North Thompson at Chu Chua.
May 9th—North Okanagan and Salmon Arm at Sicamous.
May 11th—South Okanagan and Similkameen at Summerland.
May 13th—Kettle River at Grand Forks.
May 16th—Arrow Lakes-Slocan at New Denver.
May 19th—West Kootenay at Nelson.
May 20th—East Kootenay at Wynndel.
June 13th—Cariboo District at Bouchie Lake.
June 17th—Peace River at Fort St. John.
June 19th—Central Interior at Vanderhoof.
June 22nd—Bulkley-Tweedsmuir at Burns Lake.
September 26th—Kamloops District at Knutsford.
September 30th—South Vancouver Island at Cedar.
Four international gatherings were held, with the British Columbia Women's
Institutes joining in Border picnics with Homemakers' Clubs in the United States.
These were held as follows:—
June 9th—South Okanagan and Similkameen District met the Okanogan
County Homemakers' Clubs at Summerland Experimental Station, Summerland.
July 10th—Fraser Valley Women's Institutes met the Homemakers' Clubs at
the Peace Arch, on the American side.
July 19th—The West Kootenay District Women's Institutes met the Home-
makers' Clubs at lone, Wash.
July 29th—South Vancouver Island Women's Institutes met the Clallam
County Homemakers' Clubs at Port Angeles. Also visiting for the day
were members from Bellingham clubs and a group of Peace Arch
Women's Institute members from British Columbia.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
Mrs. A. A. Shaw was in charge of the Women's Institute section of the Home
Arts display again this year. Twenty-seven Women's Institutes competed, with
Summerland winning most points again this year and gaining permanent possession
of the Women's Institute cup for the most points in the Women's Institute section
of the Home Arts display. Kaslo Women's Institute came next, with Penticton
Women's Institute in third place.
FALL FAIRS
Many Women's Institutes co-operate in district fall fairs and sponsor Flower
Shows.
In the Women's Institute sponsored Province-wide handicraft project " Grandmothers' Quilt Blocks " competition, Patricia Women's Institute, in the Douglas
District, received first prize; Alexandria Women's Institute, in the Cariboo District,
second prize; and Brentwood Women's Institute, in the South Vancouver Island
District, third prize.
NEWS-LETTER
The Women's Institute Provincial publication the " British Columbia Women's
Institute News Letter " was sent out each month, except July and August, to the
secretaries and the presidents of Women's Institutes, Provincial and district board
officers, Provincial conveners, District Agriculturists, and extra mailing-list, as
Women's Institute executive officers in other Provinces, etc. Information and
available pamphlets on all phases of adult education are sent with the news-letter. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959 DD 47
PROVINCIAL BOARD MEETING
The Provincial Board Meeting of British Columbia Women's Institutes was
held October 26th, 27th, 28th and 29th, with the district board presidents meeting
with the Provincial Board on the 26th and 27th.
Women's Institutes reports received during the year of meetings held each
month and Women's Institutes annual reports received to date indicate much
activity and interest in all phases of Women's Institute work.
SOIL SURVEY BRANCH
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor
Field surveys were undertaken in the North Okanagan Valley, the Waby Lake
Drainage District, and Surrey Municipality during 1959. One member of the staff
was engaged on extension work in the Okanagan region.
A preliminary report and soil map for Delta Municipality was completed and
distributed. A soil-survey report covering the Upper Columbia River valley was
edited, revised, and returned for publication. Progress was made with the Kettle
River valley soil-survey report.
SOIL SURVEY OF THE NORTH OKANAGAN VALLEY
A combined field survey was undertaken in the North Okanagan Valley in
which the soils were classified as to their genetic development and as to their
suitability for irrigation, the latter at the request of the Water Rights Branch,
Department of Lands and Forests. The areas mapped lie within the region bounded
on the north and south by Mara and Kalamalka Lakes and on the east and west by
Sugar Lake and Glenemma.   The classified area embraces a total of 173,000 acres.
The survey will determine if water can be supplied economically to the soils
in the Vernon, Armstrong, and Enderby areas. The data obtained are necessary
in assessing the amount of water required.
A variety of soil development exists, due to a wide range of climate and native
vegetation. There is also a variety of soil parent materials. Glacial till is widespread on the valley-sides. The valley-bottoms are covered by glacio-lacustrine silts
and clays, sandy and gravelly outwash, and fan and organic deposits.
Soils are irrigated in the vicinity of Vernon. Aside from irrigated areas, there
are areas dry-farmed to grain, alfalfa, peas, and hay. Owing to limited rainfall, dry
farming chiefly is confined to heavy-textured soils having high moisture-holding
capacities. Irrigation would be necessary to increase production in the dry-farmed
areas.
Preliminary maps showing soil classification and the classification of soils
according to their suitability for irrigation have been supplied to the Water Rights
Branch. A report is in progress. The Waby Lake Drainage District, within the
classified area, received a detailed soil survey.
SOIL SURVEY OF SURREY MUNICIPALITY
A soil survey of Surrey Municipality in the Lower Fraser Valley began in
1958 and was completed in 1959. The lowland area, 6,200 acres, received a
detailed soil survey at a scale of 400 feet to an inch.   Areas of the upland, not zoned DD 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
for subdivision, totalling 24,300 acres, were mapped on a broader scale. The
broader scale of mapping was used in sections having little or no importance for
agriculture.
The lowland soils were derived from post-glacial deposits laid down by the
Fraser, Serpentine, and Nikomekl rivers, and from those of organic origin. All of
the lowland soils are Gleysolic and Organic types, with the common feature of
restricted drainage.
The soils of the uplands are much older than those of the lowland. They
were derived from till and glacio-marine deposits, and from subsequent gravelly
and sandy marine beaches, and sandy offshore deposits. In upland soils, the well-
drained phase exhibits Brunisolic development, and the poorly drained positions
have Gleysolic soils.
Most of the agriculture is confined to the lowland, where the land is used
for potato, vegetable, hay, and pasture production. In lowland and upland,
restricted drainage limits crop yields and the number of crop varieties that can be
grown.
In co-operation with the soil survey, the Field Crops Branch continued hay
yield trials in Pitt Meadows and Delta Municipalities. The data will be used in the
establishment of crop productivity ratings for different soil types. A soil-survey
report and map covering Surrey Municipality is being prepared.
During the year, rural land assessors were schooled in the use of soil maps and
reports by means of lectures and a field-trip.
SOIL CONSERVATION
About 120 visits to farms were made in connection with land-drainage problems. Plans were prepared for 7,020 feet of drainage-works, which were installed
by November 1st. Plans for a further 1,400 feet of drains are complete. Investigation and planning of 4,350 feet of drainage covering seven proposals is in progress.
The demand for land-drainage advice continues to increase.
More than sixty farm visits were made on request to check engineering of
sprinkler irrigation systems, application rates, frequencies of application, and water
requirements of soil types. Two hundred and eighty soil samples supplied by
farmers and others were examined for alkali. Twenty-four samples of water
intended for irrigation were also tested. A bulletin, " Sprinkler Irrigation Requirements for Tree Fruits in the Okanagan Valley," which was co-authored during the
year with staff of the Experimental Farm, Summerland, will be published.
Miscellaneous duties included talks to Penticton and Westbank high-school
students on soils and water conservation, participation in a Department of Agriculture television programme, an irrigation field tour in the Okanagan Valley, and
examination of the Lillooet area. Laboratory tests were made for the Water,Rights
Branch as to suitability of certain soil materials for dam construction. Estimates
of water requirements of lands in relation to applications for water rights were also
undertaken for the Water Rights Branch.
LABORATORY
The importance of the laboratory is increasing. Laboratory work is undertaken at Kelowna and at the Department of Soil Science, University of British
Columbia. Chemical and physical analyses of selected soil-type samples are carried
out to assist soil classification and soil-fertility studies.
Soil analyses for the Kettle River valley soil-survey report are completed.
Additional study of the soils of this area is under way to determine the place of a DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 49
new group of soils in the national system of soil classification. Soil samples collected in 1959 during the North Okanagan and Lower Fraser Valley surveys will be
processed this winter, and at the same time an assignment will be undertaken for the
Fish and Game Branch, Department of Recreation and Conservation.
REPORT COVERING ACTIVITIES OF THE SOIL SURVEY UNIT,
CANADA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, RESEARCH BRANCH,
VANCOUVER.
Reorganization
In the recent reorganization of the Canada Department of Agriculture, soil
science constitutes one of the five broad sections in the Research Branch in a category with animals and plants in its importance to agriculture in Canada.
The administration of the Soil Survey Unit will be transferred to the Vancouver
research station on April 1st, 1960, from the Soils Research Institute at Ottawa.
Over-all planning and co-ordination remain the responsibility of the soils programme
directorate in Ottawa. No changes have been made, or are likely to be made, which
might adversely affect the existing co-operative soil-survey organization of the
Province.
Soil Survey of the Princeton Sheet
The soil survey of the Princeton Sheet in the Southern Interior was the main
project studied in 1959. The co-operating agencies include the British Columbia
Soil Survey, Kamloops Experimental Station and the University of British Columbia.
The rapid growth of this Province is making great demands on its natural
resources. The need for range land, forestry products, wildlife habitat, outdoor
recreation areas, and water storage point to an increasing need for efficient use and
intensive management of all the land.
The Princeton area, in common with the rest of the Province, is complex in
soil, geology, topography, vegetation, and climate. The various managers of land,
therefore, need to know the existing conditions of each parcel in order to make the
most of its productive capacity.
With the exception of the alpine area, the Princeton Sheet has been completed.
It is hoped that the 1960 appropriations will provide sufficient funds to permit the
use of a helicopter to gain access to the alpine grazing areas.
The soil map now in preparation shows the variation of soils with physiography, geology, and vegetation. The main soil categories include Chernozemic,
Podzolic, Alpine, and Regosolic. The valleys and uplands below the high plateau
are dominantly Chernozemic (grassland) soils with minor amounts of Podzolic and
miscellaneous soils such as the Organic and Regosolic. The topographically suitable valley soils are surveyed and mapped in detail for the purposes of irrigation.
The high plateau areas are dominantly Podzolic soil. In the high mountain areas,
Alpine soils are found. These consist mainly of meadow soil, organic soil, and bare
rock. Frequently snow and ice fields are encountered and mapped at the higher
elevations.
This project is now being prepared for publication.
Publications
The following projects are completed and awaiting publication:—
Soil Survey of the Peace River.
Soil Survey of the Upper Fraser River (Giscome, McBride, Tete Jaune area).
Soil Survey of Vancouver Island. DD 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXTENSION
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Director
The Agricultural Development and Extension Branch had a very active year.
Attention was given to both production and marketing problems.
District Agriculturists attended many meetings during the year, averaged over
470 farm visits, and approximately 550 office callers were dealt with.
It must be kept in mind that the District Agriculturist is, in the main, the
official most closely associated with and carrying out most of the work of the Department at the farm level in relation to field-crop production, live-stock production,
poultry production, 4-H Clubs, land-clearing, grasshopper-control committees,
drainage, some phases of horticulture, of entomology, and plant and animal pathology. The degree of his responsibility on those and other fields of Departmental
activities, while varying, is usually of major importance. In addition, he is required
to spend considerable time on preliminary investigations and reports on river-bank
erosion, drainage and flooding, as well as, in some areas, in determining whether
proposed placer-mining will affect agricultural land adversely.
Specialist branches and divisions of the Department report on all of those
matters. Consequently there is no sound reason for repeating the material in this
section.
It is necessary, however, to point out the major place and the great influence
of the District Agriculturist over a very broad field that covers approximately 75
per cent of British Columbia's agricultural production and the well-being of probably
65 per cent of its farm population.
These paragraphs are intended to indicate that the major role of the Agriculturist is not to be measured by the report of this Branch, but is reflected to a greater
or lesser extent in the reports of most other branches.
The Development and Extension Branch, as the previous paragraphs indicate,
provides advice and guidance in the production of a greater diversity of farm commodities than does any other section of the Department. Marketing problems are
of increasing concern.
These complex responsibilities entail the wide use of all available extension
methods and approaches, too detailed for outline in this report but requiring constant reappraisal and change to achieve maximum results.
PUBLICITY AND PUBLIC RELATIONS
Four agricultural students from the University of British Columbia were
employed during the summer season to assist the District Agriculturists in 4-H
projects, land-clearing, etc. They were located at Abbotsford, Armstrong, Prince
George, and Dawson Creek and did excellent work.
FARM AND HOME PLANNING
The farm-management programme undertaken in 1958 with seven farms was
extended during 1959 to include most districts in the Province. The staffs of the
Agricultural Development and Extension Branch together with the staffs of the
Horticulture and Poultry Branches had thirty-one farmers and their families cooperating in the programme—fourteen dairy-farms, two mixed farms, two beef
enterprises, two tree fruits, five small-fruit and vegetable farms, and six poultry-
farms.
Co-operation has been received from the Faculty of Agriculture, University of
British Columbia and Division of Agricultural Economics, Canada Department of
Agriculture. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 51
Much information of value to farmers and to the Department is expected from
this study.
This programme is an exacting one and requires considerable time of the
District Agriculturists, but it is expected to provide basic information so necessary
in developing economic farm units.
LIVE-STOCK EXTENSION PROGRAMME
Trends appear to indicate more beef-producers are converting to a cow and
calf basis, making the best use of the range resources and the type of feed-supplies
best adapted to the soil and climate. Some observers feel the natural market for
the Southern Interior calves will be the Columbia basin, where the feed-production
potential is high and concentrates reasonably priced for cattle-finishing. With the
industrial expansion of the Peace River and its potential feed production, Cariboo
calves should find a home there. The Fraser Valley might support a limited feeding
industry.
Weekly auction sales of commercial cattle were successfully operated at Williams Lake, Quesnel, and Kamloops during varying periods.
Number of cattle sold to December 1st, 1959, at each point under auction was
as follows:—
Point of Sale Number of Head
Williams Lake and Quesnel  12,105
Kamloops  12,648
Okanagan Falls      3,150
Total.
17,903
There is an obvious trend toward this system of marketing.
BEEF CATTLE ADVISORY COMMITTEE
A committee comprised of all segments of the beef-cattle industry was appointed by the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture early in the year, with wide
terms of reference. Its function was to examine the Federal-Provincial Record of
Performance for Beef Cattle Programme for British Columbia to assess the practicability of its operation and to examine also any aspect of the beef-cattle industry
in the Province in the fields of breeding, nutrition, disease-control, and marketing
and to report to the Minister thereon recommending policies, programmes, and
projects, including research. The committee, known as the " Beef Cattle Advisory
Committee," was set up on January 12th, 1959, in Victoria with representations
from each of the breed associations, Beef Cattle Growers Association, and all the
services—University, Federal, and Provincial. Four meetings were held in 1959
and five sub-committees were set up—namely, Cattle Identification, Cattle Finishing
and Marketing, Range Management, Coldstream Project, and a special sub-committee. Study and investigation are proceeding on all projects, and progress has
been reported. A public meeting on vibrosis, by Dr. P. L. Stovell, Animal Pathologist, on November 12th was sponsored by the Committee.
BEEF CATTLE IMPROVEMENT
Artificial Insemination
The dairymen and some producers of beef in the Kamloops area organized
an Artificial Insemination Club. Many small producers intend to use this service.
Some of the larger operators plan to secure, through the club, frozen semen from DD 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
some outstanding sire with high gainability and type to service selected cows and
raise their own bull replacements. This procedure, if properly undertaken, would
promote rapid improvement within the herds.
Record of Performance
Nine pure-bred Hereford and two Aberdeen Angus breeders, with a total of
262 head, participated and completed the 1958/59 programme under the Federal-
Provincial policy for R.O.P. testing in beef cattle. The records for the 1959/60
season received up to the time of writing indicate six Angus herds, a gain of four,
and ten Hereford herds, a gain of one, with a total of sixteen herds against eleven
for 1958/59. As more breeders become aware of the merits of the programme and
its purpose, a greater interest is developing in testing.
In commercial testing, seven herds had been enrolled with 687 head, as against
456 in 1958/59. Considerable interest is being shown in testing of commercial
herds; more so since British Columbia's most important market has become the
feeder outlet and buyers are looking for " good doing " cattle for feed-lot operations. More attention is being directed toward the choice of bulls to be used in
commercial production.
The availability of fast-gaining bulls to match or, better, to improve the
genetic quality of the cow herd poses quite a problem for the pilot herds. Some
operators are considering retaining bulls from their top producing females with
proven repeatability for fast-gaining calves and having good conformation.
SHEEP
Because of the continued importation of New Zealand lamb to Canada, the
sheep industry has declined further. Lamb prices during the mid-fall season were
at a low level that required the western floor price for lambs to be effective in
Vancouver.
There is a slight expansion in farm flocks through the Southern Interior and
Fraser Valley. Meetings on sheep production and marketing were held at McBride
and Prince George. Low lamb prices do not encourage expansion. Better management practices are necessary in all flocks to ensure that lambs carry the finish
required to secure top prices. In many cases, creep feeding of grain must be
resorted to as early as lambs will eat it. This is particularly the case in Central
British Columbia, where sheep are maintained on rough pasture surrounding the
farmstead.
A pure-bred ewe sale was held in Abbotsford on November 16th when 82
head, made up of eight breeds, sold at an average price of $60.09.
A few more sheep were introduced into Central British Columbia. The services of a sheep-shearer were utilized by a majority of the sheepmen during the past
summer. The British Columbia Sheep Breeders' Association assembled a car of
wool at Prince George.
No significant interest in sheep is reported from the Peace, although there
appear to be areas there offering distinct advantages.
HOGS
Peace River area remains the principal hog-raising area.
Marketings to the Coast were substantially higher over the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.   Production in North Okanagan continued about average. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1959 DD 53
EXTENSION AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
(G. L. Calver, P.Eng., Senior Engineer)
Projects
Demonstrational and investigational projects are used to obtain data and also
give visual evidence of the results.   Those carried out or in active progress are:—
(1) Turnip Production and Harvesting.—The emphasis this year was on harvesting equipment, a continuing project.
(2) Apple-tree Props.—Investigation culminated with the location of a suitable machine and the preparation of a plan for a purchaseable shaper-
head.
(3) Vertical Mulching.—Observation of results obtained with the vertical
mulching equipment, a continuing project.
(4) Potato-sprayer.—This project was continued from last year and is a joint
project between the Agricultural Engineering Department of the University of British Columbia and the Agricultural Engineering Division. Some
preliminary results will be obtained on the Slosser boom and the conventional boom, but this is also a continuing project.
(5) Gutter-cleaner for Cage-type Poultry-houses. — A co-operative project
with the Poultry Branch and the University of British Columbia culminating in the construction of a satisfactory motorized cleaner, with plan
material yet to be completed.
(6) Fruit-grading and Packing-house Equipment.—A committee was formed
of representatives from the fruit industry, the Canada Department of
Agriculture, and this Division. It has started research and investigation
of fruit-handling equipment with the intent to eventually provide information on improved, reasonably priced equipment to reduce fruit damage.
(7) Demonstration of Leafy-spurge Control.—Co-operation with the Field
Crops Branch to show both chemical and tillage control operations.
Farm Safety
Association was continued with the Western Farm Safety Committee and with
the British Columbia Safety Council. In conjunction with the latter organization,
Farm Safety Week was emphasized. Assistance was also provided with news items
and with television programmes. This Division's Farm Accident Report form was
revised, and information and safety kits sent out as requested. Related to this farm
safety were two fire-extinguisher demonstrations for fire prevention.
Farm Structures
Work in farm structures has been closely related to the distribution and
assistance in the review of plans provided through the Canadian Farm Building
Plan Service, to which was added a new catalogue entitled " Special Structures and
Equipment." New plans prepared by the Division have included a revision of the
bulk-tank milk-house plan, a self-feeding trailer, a vacuum door-closing unit, four
plans for nailed roof trusses, a modification of a New Zealand milking-room plan,
and plans for a checking-corral. Approximately 4,000 plans were distributed
through this office, with modification as required.
Talks were given on " Loose Housing," " Poultry-house Ventilation," " Dairy
Building Obsolescence," and other related subjects. A paper on " Farm Structure
Needs " was prepared for magazine publication. DD 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Soil and Water
Irrigation
Information was collected for twenty-two sprinkler irrigation systems, most of
which have been designed. Added to this has been the planning for three storage-
dams and several small dugouts for irrigation-water. Survey assistance was given
in laying out AV2 miles of supply-ditches. The Division printed and distributed
the bulletin entitled " Screening Irrigation Water," prepared jointly by Canada
Department of Agriculture staff and that of the University of British Columbia.
One television programme was prepared and presented on irrigation. Applications
for irrigation-water from Black Creek and the Coldwater River were investigated
and effective reports submitted. The irrigation demonstration at Vanderhoof was
continued.
Drainage
Assistance in drainage has been largely through individual drainage plans.
When planning work has been completed, drainage assistance will have been given
on twenty farms, with four additional visits made. A report setting out the minimum design recommendations for drainage systems for British Columbia is available to be used in conjunction with drainage work carried out under the terms of
the Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act and administered by this Division.
Erosion and Flooding
Meetings of the Working Committee of the Ministerial Committee, River and
Stream Bank Erosion have been attended. A summary of the problem as it affects
agricultural land in British Columbia has been prepared. One meeting of the
Vedder River Erosion-control Committee was attended. Reports were prepared on
the agricultural potential of the Cowichan flood-plain for the Cowichan River
Erosion-control Committee and on flooding of Meadow Creek in the Lardeau area.
Rural Electrification
Work in the electrification field has been limited to providing information on
the application of electricity to machinery and structure installations and on small
hydro-electric installations.
Domestic Water
Assistance in the development of domestic-water supplies has been provided
with the supervision of construction of nine dugouts in the Peace River and one well
at Vanderhoof.
Land-clearing
During the 1959 Session of the Legislative Assembly, the Government approved
and amended land-clearing policy. Under the new policy the farmers' borrowing
power has been increased from $750 to a maximum of $5,000. The loan may now
be repaid by making annual payments extended over a period of fifteen years for an
established farmer and twenty years for a new farmer; interest rate is 4 per cent.
In the latter part of the season, assistance was extended to cover the purchase and
laying of agricultural drain-tile; approximately $20,000 worth of this work has
been completed.
For the second year all land cleared and developed under the terms of the
Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act has been done by private contractors working
under agreement with the British Columbia Department of Agriculture.   Approved DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 55
contractors are located in all major agricultural areas in the Province. The field
operations of these contractors are supervised by this Division.
This season forty-nine contractors operated a total of fifty-nine tractors, eleven
backhoes or draglines, three scrapers, three trenchers, and one well-drilling rig.
With the exception of one or two small tractors for special jobs, all tractors are
80 draw-bar horse-power or over. Experience has shown the larger tractor will do
the most economical work.
The estimated total value of land-clearing for the season ended November
30th, 1959, is $320,000, as compared to $360,000 on November 30th, 1958.
Total land-clearing for 1958 was valued at $457,601.75. The decrease this year
was caused by extremely wet conditions experienced throughout most of the
northern part of the Province. Approximately 8,244 acres of land was cleared
and 4,491 acres broken.
Summary of Land-clearing, 1959
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands
Pemberton 	
Fraser Valley 	
Shuswap and North Okanagan	
Boundary and Kootenay—
Clearing 	
Breaking 	
Similkameen, Kamloops, and Ashcroft.
Quesnel 	
Prince George—
Clearing 	
Piling 	
McBride—
Clearing 	
Breaking  	
Vanderhoof—
Clearing  	
Breaking  	
Smithers 	
South Peace River—
Clearing 	
Piling  	
Cutting 	
Breaking 	
North Peace River—
Piling 	
Cutting 	
Breaking
Acreage
Cleared
140
98
413
81
Average Cost
per Acre
$99.60
56.00
109.00
46.00
91
39
70.50
14.50
359
43.60
62
37.60
287
20
28.60
10.00
279
357
39.40
10.50
355
150
24.60
8.75
132
42.00
420
1,195
1,341
1,596
20.20
18.00
9.10
9.75
4,190
3,878
2,388
11.70
5.70
8.55
Levelling, road-building, moving charges, and other work amounted to a value
of $36,000. DD 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA
4-H CLUB DIVISION
(Miss Echo Lidster, B.S.A., M.S.A., P.Ag., Supervisor)
The club enrolment was substantially higher this year, as follows:—
Project
Clubs
Members
1958
1959
1958
1959
Beef        '            .. __
Community.       _  .   ..
Hairy Calf
28
16
40
16
1
2
34
3
1
8
1
12
5
2
21
35
21
51
17
1
3
42
7
1
10
2
13
6
2
17
339
219
483
207
20
24
439
39
13
105
8
143
66
23
139
436
268
575
Oarrlffn
Goat
189
35
28
521
Honeybee    	
Potato   	
Poultry  _    	
Rabbit                       •   .
86
15
92
23
Sheep      ..          .. ..
140
80
Tractor          	
Yearling—Dairy 	
22
124
Tntals
170
228
1,991
2,634
Short Courses
Short courses were held in four different centres for 4-H Club leaders in 1959.
These twenty-four workshops were conducted by members of the British Columbia
Department of Agriculture Extension staff and took place at Dawson Creek, Prince
George, and Kamloops in February and Nanaimo in March. About 150 leaders
took part.
Provincial Advisory Council on 4-H Clubs
This Council met in Victoria on April 8th and with the 4-H Club Committee
of the Pacific National Exhibition in Vancouver on April 9th.
Provincial 4-H Club Week
Delegates from 4-H Clubs throughout the Province were brought to the
University of British Columbia on August 20th, 21st, and 22nd, the only period
during which Acadia Camp was available. A total of seventy-eight delegates
enrolled. The basis for selection involved judging ability and knowledge of project
subject-matter, achievement records covering all the years in 4-H Club work, personality, character, and general knowledge. Two club members per project from each
District Agriculturist's district were selected to compete, resulting in selection of the
following:—
Beef—Richard Aylard, Sidney, and Joy Wooiley, Langley.
Dairy—Clara Taylor, Saanich, and Arthur Jackson, Aldergrove.
Garden—Neil Bosomworth, Armstrong.
Grain—Juste Hendricks, Dawson Creek.
Homecraft—Maureen Collis, Armstrong, and Karen Unruh, Mission.
Honeybee—Howard Hill, Armstrong.
Poultry—Richard Landon, Armstrong.
Sheep—Linda Winnis*. Courtenay, and Ann Freeman, Vernon.
Swine—Dave McKechnie, Armstrong.
Tractor—Peter Jones, Chilliwack. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959 DD 57
The programme of selection required the two-day assistance of forty-five men
and women from Provincial and Canada Departments of Agriculture and the
University of British Columbia.
Eaton Watches
The T. Eaton Company again awarded gold watches to the highest-scoring
individual on each project at Provincial 4-H Club Week, as follows:—
Beef—Joy Woolley, Langley.
Dairy—Clara Taylor, Saanich.
Garden—Neil Bosomworth, Armstrong.
Goat—Rose Couling, Sooke.
Grain—Juste Hendricks, Dawson Creek.
Honeybee—Leonette Leduc, Armstrong.
Homecraft—Maureen Collis, Armstrong.
Poultry—Richard Landon, Armstrong.
Sheep—Anne Freeman, Vernon.
Swine—Dave McKechnie, Armstrong.
Tractor—Peter Jones, Chilliwack.
National 4-H Club Week
The above-named (Provincial 4-H Club Week) young people represented
British Columbia at National 4-H Club Week, which took place in Toronto and
Ottawa, November 14th to 19th, 1959. They were accompanied by John Zacharias,
Abbotsford, and Miss Echo Lidster, Supervisor.
Farm and Home Safety
Farm and home safety is receiving greater emphasis throughout Canada. The
Canadian Council on 4-H Clubs conducted, through the 4-H Clubs, a nation-wide
survey on the incidence and seriousness of farm accidents in Canada. About 10
per cent of British Columbia club members returned completed questionnaires,
which were forwarded to the National office in Ottawa for analysis.
British Columbia Federal-Provincial Farm Labour Service
Another successful season was experienced by the Federal-Provincial Farm
Labour Service, supervised by B. G. White and G. L. Landon.
National Employment Service officers handled the programme in Victoria,
Vancouver, New Westminster, Mission, Chilliwack, Princeton, Vernon, Kelowna,
and Penticton.
Farm placement officers provided service at Sidney, Abbotsford, Salmon Arm,
Oyama, Winfield, Rutland, West Summerland, Keremeos, Oliver, Osoyoos, and
Creston.
Fullest co-operation was received from the Saanich Fruit Growers' Association, British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association, and other farm groups.
Reports show 45,007 placements during the year—621 to dairy-farms, 41,820
to fruit-growers, and 2,566 general. DD 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
F. O. McDonald, Manager
WEATHER
Rainfall amounted to a total for the year of 8.15 inches; snowfall, total for
year, 26.8 inches. Maximum temperature recorded during the year was on July
22nd, 103 ° F. Minimum temperature recorded during the year was on January 4th,
—6° F. Mean average temperature during the year was 48.2° F. An uneventful
year was experienced as far as the weather was concerned.
WATER TEMPERATURES
Taken at the intake, water temperatures were as follows: May 1st, 50° F.; June
1st, 60° F.; July 1st, 67° F.; August 1st, 73° F.; September 1st, 64° F. Temperature pick-up throughout the system is 7°; thus water temperature in August reached
80° at the International Border.
DISTRICT ECONOMY
A light to medium crop of tree fruits was produced in the Oliver-Osoyoos
districts due to spring frosts.
IRRIGATION SYSTEM
Statistics—Number of growers, 722; total acreage irrigated, 4,841; number
of pumps, 11, totalling 424 horse-power; pump capacity, 13,882 gallons per
minute.
Season.—Water was turned into the main canal on April 24th, and turned
out on September 24th.
Spillway Renewal.—Two spillways on " G " and " N " laterals were completely renewed.   Operation was successful throughout the season.
Pipe Replacement.—The main pipe-lines serving Lots 808, 809, 810, 811,
and 816 were replaced with cement asbestos pipe, the wood-stave pipe originally
installed in 1948 having perished due to dry-rot.
Screening of Irrigation-water.—The Project co-operated with Dr. J. Wilcox
and Professor L. Coulthard in placing and trying out new screen types. For further
information see Bulletin No. A.E. 6. Acknowledgment of the value of these experiments where the use of sprinklers demands water free from foreign matter is
recorded.
Waterproofing Canal.—An extensive programme (2,500 feet) of waterproofing
with Fibreglas and hot asphalt was completed. Last season's work has stood up
very well and very few repairs were necessary. Adhesion remains satisfactory after
two full years' exposure. Heaving of the concrete slabs is apparently greatly
reduced where waterproofing was used.
IRRIGATION DISTRICTS
General.—The Osoyoos, East Osoyoos, and Black Sage Irrigation Districts
were again operated by the Project on a cost basis.
DOMESTIC WATER
Services.—Residential, 533, an increase of 13; commercial, 78; industrial, 5;
meters in operation, 47; hydrant pressure, 70 to 120 p.s.i.; water temperature, 55°
to 64° F. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1959 DD 59
Additional Capacity.—A fourth unit of 500 gallons per minute capacity was
installed, giving a combined capacity of 1,600 gallons per minute, which should be
sufficient to care for normal population expansion for the next ten to fifteen years.
Alga; Growth in Reservoir.—This problem recurred during the winter of
1958/59 and was solved by filling in the reservoir with boulders, heavy broken rock,
and gravel. Yield from the reservoir, which is excavated well into the water-table,
did not diminish to any appreciable extent.
Interruptions.—Service was continuous. No sprinkling regulations had to be
imposed.
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD
The Land Settlement Board was formed in the year 1917 under the provisions
of the Land Settlement and Development Act, superseding the Agricultural Credit
Commission. It was empowered to advance money by way of loans secured by
mortgage, to purchase, develop, and colonize lands considered suitable for settlement, and to declare settlement areas, having for its main purpose the promotion
of increased agricultural production.
Settlement areas were established in Central British Columbia—namely, in
the Bulkley Valley, Nechako Valley, Francois Lake district, and the Upper Fraser
River valley.
Development areas were established at Merville on Vancouver Island, Lister,
Fernie, and Kelowna.
The Board has also under its jurisdiction the administration of the former
Doukhobor lands, which were acquired by the Government under authority of the
Doukhobor Lands Acquisition Act of 1939. These lands are largely occupied by
Doukhobors on a rental basis. A survey and subdivision of 18,000 acres (875
parcels) has been carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the
Honourable Mr. Justice Arthur E. Lord, Commissioner under the Doukhobor Lands
Allotment Inquiry Act. A valuation of these lands has also been made. They are
now being offered for sale to Doukhobors.
The Board also holds over 4,300 acres scattered through the various parts of
the Province, representing properties on which it held mortgages and to which it
obtained title through tax-sale proceedings. Several of these properties were sold
this year.
The Board's balance-sheets will appear in the Public Accounts of the Province
as in the past.
DYKING AND DRAINAGE
W. R. Meighen, B.Sc, P.Eng., Inspector of Dykes and
Dyking Commissioner
GENERAL
The year just passed was a year of generally routine operation in most of the
forty-odd dyking districts coming under the administrative or supervisory jurisdiction of this office. The Fraser River freshet was prolonged but did not reach
extreme proportions, and no major threat developed in any district during this year's
freshet. DD 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
MAINTENANCE
Several districts carried out extensive brush-removal programmes on dykes,
main ditches, and drainage channels in co-operation with the Federal Government's
winter work programme. This was followed by chemical spraying of most dykes,
with excellent results. Dykes and other works of the districts have been improved
in appearance and accessibility as a result of this and other maintenance carried
out during the year.
FINANCIAL
Pumping costs in several districts were sharply up over previous years due to
a combination of three factors:—
(1) Weather—this year was wetter than normal during the pumping season.
(2) Freshet—the freshet was of longer duration than usual, thus extending
the pumping season.
(3) Increase in power rates—the full year's effect of an increase in rates put
into effect in July, 1958, was felt for the first time this year.
Several districts where the cost of pumping is the major cost of the district
operated in the red this year. The increase in rates was the largest single factor in
these higher costs of pumping, and thus some increase in revenue will be needed for
these districts in future years.
RIVER-BANK PROTECTION
River-bank protection work was carried out in several districts where erosion
by the river constitutes a threat to the dykes. In some districts this was a continuation of what has now become an annual yearly programme of gradually extending
this type of protection. This work is initiated and carried out by the individual
districts, which also contribute 25 per cent of the cost. The Provincial and Federal
Governments each contribute 37Vi per cent of the cost.
This year work was carried out as follows:—
Agassiz Dyking District, Kent Municipality     $18,000.00
Harrison Mills Dyking District, Kent Municipality       12,000.00
Silverdale Dyking District, Mission Municipality       45,000.00
Chilliwack Dyking District, Chilliwack Municipality       13,000.00
Matsqui Dyking District, Matsqui Municipality       14,100.00
1895 Dyking District, Delta Municipality       14,400.00
Westham Island Dyking District, Delta Municipality         6,700.00
Tilbury Island Dyking District, Delta Municipality         7,000.00
Nicomen Island Dyking District, unorganized territory       10,500.00
Total  $ 140,700.00
DRAINAGE IMPROVEMENT
The Maple Ridge Dyking District carried out a major cleaning and deepening
of Katsie Slough, the main drainage channel for the area, working the new % -yard
Northwest dragline purchased late the previous year almost continually throughout
the year. Considerable benefit to the area is most obvious in the greater storage
capacity and faster run-off now given by this slough. This work, which cost
approximately $9,000, was financed by an increase in taxes of $1 per acre, put into
effect the previous year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1959 DD 61
The Dewdney Dyking District also carried out extensive drainage improvement
work in various parts of the district, at a cost of approximately $8,000, financed
from the renewal reserve funds of the district.
Coquitlam, Matsqui, Sumas, and other districts carried out drainage improvement work in lesser amounts during the year.
MAJOR PROTECTIVE OR PRECAUTIONARY WORKS
In the Sumas Dyking District approximately one-half mile of the Vedder River
where it enters the canal was cleared of snags and gravel-bars, which had diverted
the main stream against the erodable west bank. The river was diverted back to a
more central channel. Cost of this work was $14,000, which was shared equally by
the district and the Department of Highways.
Also in the Sumas District, a major storm during the week of November 22nd
caused the Fraser and its tributary the Sumas River to rise very considerably. Gale-
force winds caused wave action of such magnitude that serious erosion of the Sumas
River dyke occurred, which threatened failure of a portion. Emergency repair and
strengthening of this dyke was undertaken immediately at a cost of approximately
$4,000.
NEW EQUIPMENT
The Sumas District purchased a new Smith 21, %-yard dragline as a replacement for its worn-out Buckeye. Delivery of this machine, which cost approximately
$35,000, was taken in October. It was financed from the district renewal reserve
fund.
PUMP RENEWALS AND REPAIRS
The wiring and switch-box equipment in the old pump station of the Maple
Ridge District was entirely renewed, at a cost exceeding $4,000. DD 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDICES
APPENDIX No. 1
Dairy-farm Inspections under Milk Industry Act
District
Number
of Dairy-
farm
Inspections
Number of Dairy-
farms Issued Notice
of Cancellation
Raw
Fluid
Number of Approved
Dairy-farms
Raw
Fluid
East Kootenay 	
North Central British Columbia..
Fraser Valley	
North Okanagan	
South Okanagan	
West Kootenay	
Vancouver Island	
North Bend	
Pemberton-Sechelt.
Sandspit	
Totals..
54
296
4,265
680
369
77
812
4
29
2
6,588
11
5
25
248
24
10
6
13
331
6
47
6
151
2,253
5
158
3
87
16
40
31
303
1
2
7
1
	
71
3,046
APPENDIX No. 2
Breed Averages for 1958
Breed
Percentage
of Total
D.H.I.
Records
Milk, Lb.
Fat
Per Cent
Lb.
Ayshire.	
Guernsey..
Holstein...
Jersey-
Unclassified (cross-breds, etc.)..
3.2
15.0
54.5
17.1
10.2
9,192
8,870
11,692
7,936
9,584
4.11
4.75
3.73
5.14
4.36
378
421
436
408
418
APPENDIX No. 3
Cattle and Hide Inspections, 1959
District
Cariboo—•
Quesnel
Cattle  Hides
      2,932 320
Williams   Lake,   Alexis  Creek  16,544 379
Clinton,   Lac   la   Hache,   100  Mile
House,   Graham   Siding,   Bridge
Lake,  Lone  Butte      4,745 138
Lillooet,  Pavilion,  Bralorne  _  1,028 3
Bella Coola         35
25,249      875
Kamloops, Nicola, etc.—
Kamloops,   Chase   	
Merritt     	
Ashcroft, Lytton,
Salmon Arm 	
24,026
10,053
5,974
1,649
593
512
16
626
41,702    1,747
Okanagan—
Vernon, Lumby, Falkland 	
Armstrong,   Enderby,   Sicamous
Kelowna   _.   	
Penticton,   Summerland   	
Oliver,  Osoyoos   _	
4,690
3,760
2,237
652
5,113
804
196
1,754
81
409
District                                                 Cattle Hides
Similkameen—■
Princeton, Keremeos, etc     3,301 58
Grand   Forks,   Greenwood    2,819 487
6,120 545
South-eastern British Columbia—
Rossland,   Crescent  Valley          161 589
Nelson,  Creston,  etc.        1,214 589
Cranbrook, Fernie, etc    2,897 462
Invermere,   Golden    ._     3,123 406
7,395 2,046
Central British Columbia—
Prince  George,  Vanderhoof     1,866 1,169
Smithers,   etc.   _         809 1,286
Burns Lake    _       612 297
3,287   2,752
_     5,678       841
Dawson Creek    6,639   2,265
Peace River—
Fort St. John
12,317    3,106
16,452   3,244 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 63
APPENDIX No. 3—Continued
Cattle and Hide Inspections, 1959—Continued
Totals Compared
1959
1958
1957
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
25,249
41,702
22,572
7,395
15,604
875
1,747
3,789
2,046
5,858
23,777
39,966
22,532
8,615
12,626
966
2,032
4,994
2,048
4,811
28,148
35,450
21,038
6,364
9,201
1,141
3,135
6,241
2,547
Central British Columbia and Peace River	
6,098
Totals     	
112,522
14,315
107,516
14,851
100,201
19,162
APPENDIX No. 4
Animal Pathology Specimen Examinations
Specimens
Chickens
Turkeys
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
Swine
Fur-
bearers
Miscellaneous
Total
Miscellaneous specimens ..	
3,097
2,752
878
319
29
14,547
48
14
29
275
454
an
5,024
17.648
Totals
5,849
1,197
14,576
48
14
29
275
484    | 22,672
1
APPENDIX No. 5
British Columbia Egg Production (through Registered Stations)
Grade
AEL
AM
AS        APW
CRAX
Estimated
Total,
1959
Total,
1958
January...
February-
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August.
September-
October	
November-
December.-
Totals .
Cases
1,114
1,113
1,106
1,444
1,403
1,233
1,295
1,080
1,281
986
1,018
1,288
Cases
29,014
30,995
31,992
39,994
31,793
31,051
35,803
26,792
30,706
26,902
28,125
38,330
14,361
381,497
Cases
13,025
11,114
9,833
12,371
10,464
11,512
14,655
13,500
17,886
15,248
15,592
18,226
163,426
Cases
2,038
1,717
1,839
2,532
2,246
2,373
4,069
4,666
5,989
3,691
3,117
3,195
37,472
Cases
93
92
112
179
164
254
495
445
586
261
205
196
Cases
1,469
1,448
1,349
1,858
1,684
1,963
2,825
1,970
1,898
1,268
1,237
1,610
3,082 | 20,579
Cases
381
335
274
519
266
268
644
542
470
312
315
336
4,662
Cases
2,163
2,252
2,178
2,767
2,507
2,731
3,600
2,810
3,101
2,342
2,391
2,974
31,816
Cases
49,297
49,066
48,683
61,655
50,527
51,385
63,386
51,805
63,917
51,010
52,000
66,155
Cases
55,516
50,704
47,397
56,934
47,152
48,237
57,699
48,219
59,100
42,864
42,930
55,192
658,886 1 611,944 DD 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 6
British Columbia Weighted Egg Price to Producers
(Average paying price weighted by grade.)
Month
1959
1958
1957
Canada, 1959
January.—
February-
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September-
October	
November-
December—
Yearly average-
Cents
31.7
33.0
33.0
32.8
32.8
31.6
29.9
26.6
33.2
34.6
30.2
26.2
32.1
Cents
29.0
29.1
29.6
35.7
35.6
31.9
33.7
33.1
35.7
38.8
36.0
35.3
33.3
Cents
35.0
36.5
36.5
32.1
28.7
30.9
37.7
34.5
30.2
30.7
29.5
30.1
32.6
Cents
29.3
31.6
31.9
28.7
26.7
25.8
28.6
28.6
31.2
33.1
24.4
19.1
29.2
APPENDIX No. 7
Poultry in Pounds through Registered Stations in British Columbia
Month
Chicken
Fowl
Turkeys
Ducks
Geese
Monthly
Total,
1959
5-year
Average,
1954-58
January	
February—
March	
April	
May 	
June	
July	
August	
September-
October	
November-
December—
Yearly totals_
915,055
957,013
1,037,655
1,595,387
1,619,464
1,439,177
1,399,124
1,411,795
1,718,722
1,188,843
1,452,072
1,259,662
289,415
294,644
278,646
346,490
329,797
339,673
407,494
409,815
697,291
472,920
529,868
463,507
15,993,969
4,859,560
256,910
82,922
112,000
216,866
293,037
319,403
481,059
1,022,485
1,456,484
1,140,621
| 1,514,404
j 1,928,434
ni7824,625"
I
9,552
10,412
12,468
16,339
26,369
74,297
15,633
54,151
41,655
27,489
19,574
25,343
59
77
3,185
19
1,485
333,282 |    4,825
1,470,991
1,344,991
1,440,846
2,175,082
2,271,852
2,172,550
2,303,310
2,898,246
3,914,152
2,829,892
3,515,918
3,678,431
30,016,261
1,096,114
752,533
814,459
895,466
1,221,376
1,068,497
1,190,923
1,534,355
1,743,322
2,149,611
1,828,903
2,553,316
16,848,960
APPENDIX No. 8
1959 Average Monthly Producer Price for Live Poultry (Vancouver)
Chicken
Fowl
Young Turkey
Month
Broilers
and
Fryers
4-5
Over
Under
4-5
Over
Under
10-20
Over
Lb.
5 Lb.
4 Lb.
Lb.
5 Lb.
10 Lb.
Lb.
20 Lb.
January 	
23
23
26
14
15
17
26
26
February   	
23
23
25
14
16
18
	
	
March  —	
23
23
25
14
16
18
30
	
21
22
22
21
22
22
23
23
23
14
13
13
16
15
15
18
18
18
30
28
27
._.
June  	
July  	
23
23
25
10
11
13
27
25
23
August	
23
25
27
11
11
14
28
24
19
September - 	
22
22
24
11
11
14
28
25
20
October. 	
21
21
24
11
12
12
24
20
November..   	
21
21
22
11
11
15
28
25
22
December	
21
21
22
11
11
15
29
29
26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 65
APPENDIX No. 9
Poultry-flock Approval
Number
of Flocks
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number
of Birds
per Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
1959	
143
321
253,884
295,111
1,775.4
1,332.9
0.0136
Five-year average, 1954-58.   	
0.2029
APPENDIX No.  10
Poultry-flock Approval by Breed
Breed
Total, 1959
Total, 1958
Barred Plymouth Rock-
Black Australorp	
California Grey-
Columbia Plymouth Rock..
Hampbar	
Light Sussex-
New Hampshire—
Rhode Island Red~
S.C. White Leghorn-
White Plymouth Rock-
Cross-bred	
Totals-
975
2,363
561
652
4,174
14,532
2,863
108,790
4,087
3,195
142,192
1,950
2,491
232
2,799
4,684
19,282
1,507
104,161
894
1,352
139,352
APPENDIX No.  11
Turkey-flock Approval
Number
of Flocks
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number
of Birds
per Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
22
32
19,318
21,508
878.1
663.8
Five-year average, 1954—58 - 	
APPENDIX No.  12
Turkey-flock Approval by Breed
Breed
Jan.-June
July-Dec.
Total, 1959
Total, 1958
Beltsville Small Whites-
Broad Breasted Bronze-
Broad Whites	
Jersey Buff 	
Medium Whites	
Totals 	
2,509
5,235
1,462
9,206
9,182
218
712
2,509
14,417
1,462
218
712
10,112
19,318
4,895
8,929
335
14,159 DD 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 13
Amount and Kind of Vaccine Distributed
Type of Vaccine
1959
1958
1957
1956
1955
Newcastle disease
Infectious bronchitis
8,747,150
1,851,450
6,171,710
1,986,000
5,149,350
1,628,950
4,385,050
1,683,050
2,152,600
600,500
Totals  	
10,598,600
8,157,710
6,778,300
6,068,100
2,753,100
APPENDIX No.  14
Registrations and Inspections
Registration of egg-grading stations     64
Registration of poultry processing, grading, and eviscerating stations, also producer-
graders      98
Registered egg-grading station check inspections and producer-vendors  649
Registered poultry-station check inspections and producer-vendors    496
Retail-store check inspections—
Eggs-
Consolidated Retail Inspection Unit     2,359
Poultry   Division         843
Poultry—
Consolidated Retail Inspection Unit    775
Poultry Division     312
Egg inspections   — —      108
Poultry inspections   _      26
Grade A 1 producer checks   ~  9
Live-poultry crate checks        71
Frozen-egg   inspections         118
Total pounds egg broken  __      716,845
Samples drilled         1,038
Samples  analysed           1,038
Registration of frozen-egg breaking plants   5
Inspections of imported eggs and poultry—
Eggs       -  cases 1,327
Poultry         .lb. 1,182,808
Inspections of exported eggs and poultry—■
Eggs     cases 8,350
Poultry            lb. 84
APPENDIX No.  15
Production of Tree-fruit Crops in British Columbia for 1958 and an Estimate for 1959
1958 Production
1959 Estimate
Fresh
Sales
Processed
Sales
Total
Production
Fresh
Sales
Processed
Sales
Total
Production
Lb.
217,569,000
2,391,000
26,891,000
474,000
6,664,000
5,467,000
16,346,000
6,249,000
Lb.
53,174,000
620,000
4,322,000
86,000
3,825,000
566,000
6,403,000
5,305,000
Lb.
270,743,000
3,011,000
31,213,000
560,000
10,489,000
6,033,000
22,749,000
11,554,000
Lb.
139,210,000
1,983,000
19,228,000
436,000
9,086,000
2,807,000
14,357,000
5,732,000
Lb.
29,110,000
Lb.
168,320,000
1,983,000
Pears   —
6,075,000
40,000
2,700,000
536,000
9,488,000
3,000,000
25,303,000
476,000
11,786,000
3,343,000
23,845,000
8,732,000
Totals —   .  —
282,051,000
74,301,000
356,352,000
192,839,000
50,949,000
243,788,000 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 67
APPENDIX No.  16
Small-fruit Acreages in British Columbia in 1957 and 1959
1959 Survey
Strawberries	
Raspberries	
Loganberries	
Boysenberries.-
Blackberries—
Black currants .
Red currants —
Gooseberries.	
Blueberries	
Cranberries —
1,669
1,405
237
10
59
II
5
5
631
150
APPENDIX No.  17
Production of Small Fruits, Grapes, and Filberts for 1958 and an Estimate for 1959
1958 Production
Fresh
Sales
Processed
Sales
Total
Production
1959 Estimate
Fresh
Sales
Processed
Sales
Total
Production
Strawberries	
Raspberries	
Loganberries	
Blackberries	
Black currants..
Red currants	
Gooseberries —
Blueberries	
Cranberries	
Grapes	
Filberts 	
Lb.
1,147,000
899,000
127,000
105,000
28,000
24,000
37,000
502,000
3,000
963,000 |
90,000 I
Lb.
9,008,000
10,510,000
767,000
283,000
11,000
7,000
13,000
1,420,000
79,000
1,385,000
Lb.
10,115,000
11,409,000
894,000
388,000
39,000
31,000
50,000
1,922,000
82,000
2,348,000
90,000
Totals.
3,925,000 | 23,483,000 | 27,408,000
Lb.
1,455,000
865,000
104,000
59,000
29,000
27,000
24,000
502,000
4,000
1,072,000
125,000
4,266,000
Lb.
7,133,000
9,200,000
1,159,000
361,000
9,000
10,000
17,000
1,200,000
160,000
1,556,000
Lb.
8,588,000
10,065,000
1,263,000
420,000
38,000
37,000
41,000
1,702,000
164,000
2,628,000
125,000
20,805,000 | 25,071,000
APPENDIX No.  18
An Estimate of the Acreage and Production of Selected Vegetable-crops in
British Columbia for 1959
Kind of Vegetable
Acreage
Production
Asparagus-
Beans	
Beets	
Broccoli	
Brussels sprouts..
Cabbage	
Carrots	
Cauliflower	
Celery	
Corn	
Cucumbers, outdoor	
Cucumbers, hothouse-
Lettuce, field	
Mushrooms	
Onions	
Peas  	
Potatoes, early  _.
Potatoes, late	
Spinach 	
Tomatoes, field	
Tomatoes, hothouse..
Turnips	
Other vegetables	
Totals.
458
1,771
344
231
52
597
626
293
188
2,633
368
562
524
10,328
2,979
7,279
147
1,032
274
696
31,382
10,
4,
1,
7.
10,
4,
4,
14,
4,
7.
1,
10.
19.
32,
111
1
11.
2.
5.
7.
Lb.
818,000
.636,000
,951,000
,295,000
464,000
775,000
721,000
328,000
056,000
,946,000
,918.000
500,000
,154,000
694,000
,246,000
941,000
927,000
,250,000
,330,000
921.000
,286,000
,209,000
,318,000
276,702,000 DD 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 19
The 1959 Acreage of Bulb-crops in British Columbia
Acreage
Total
Acreage
Kind of Bulb
Dry Bulbs
Cut Flowers
Dry Bulbs and
Cut Flowers
18.0
14.0
15.0
4.0
4.0
2.7
1.0
0.5
0.1
154.0
14.0
36.0
8.0
0.2
1.3
129.0
87.0
16.0
14.0
1.0
7.0
7.5
0.3
	
	
301.0
(".lariinli
115.0
Tulips
67 0
14 0
Iris—
13.0
Other
11.0
7.7
2.7
2.6
05
Other bulbs               	
0.1
Tntals
59.3
213.5
261.8
534.6
APPENDIX No. 20
Tree-fruit Nursery-stock Production in British Columbia
1957
1958
1959
382,000
30,000
31,000
9,000
34,000
357,100
59,965
46,875
4,700
12,630
3,410
307,337
48,277
35 083
Plums and prunes                                                                  -
Peaches—               —     .. .         	
9,584
44,356
4,245
486,000
484,680
449,282
APPENDIX No. 21
Apple Varieties
Variety
Number
1958
1959
90,277
72,520
37,120
29,010
14,455
5,480
13,250
10,730
3,990
44,663
47,524
39,783
39,096
14.212
2,954
16,167
8,319
10,157
22,253
7,610 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 69
APPENDIX No. 22
Honey-crop Report
District
Beekeepers
Colonies
Crop
Average
321
1,452
799
166
80
35
82
2,051
5,207
5,045
1,131
1,921
253
3,058
46
36
81
90
68
48
140
94,346
186,452
408,645
101,790
130,628
10,120
428,120
Totals                           —- —	
2,935
18,666
70
1,360,101
APPENDIX No. 23
Summary of Movement of Screenings from British Columbia Elevators,
Ianuary 1st to December 31st, 1959
Month
Consumed in British Columbia
No. 1 Feed
No. 2
Feed
Raw Refuse
Processed
Refuse
M.F.O.
Flax
Screenings
January	
February-
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August 	
September-
October 	
November „
December-
Totals .
Tons
1,071
184
641
1,873
1,616
2,019
1,964
1,221
1,504
1,234
979
946
Lb.
700
1,200
400
1,820
420
1,100
700
500
260
1,600
600
Tons
40
30
Tons
1,380
1,221
881
837
434
549
877
644
517
790
1,079
1,272
Lb.
690
600
40
1,020
1,000
1,500
1,000
500
1,000
1,000
500
15,256    1,300
70
10,485       850
Tons Lb.
253     	
55 1,000
320    	
44     	
112     	
144     	
120    	
159    	
268     	
458 1,000
602 1,000
676 1,000
3,213     	
Tons
55
50
Lb.
1,100
1,000
62 100
52 1,750
41 1,800
400
299
7
17
57
13
11
600
200
667      950
Tons
30
30
Month
Exported
No. 1 Feed
Raw Refuse
Processed
Refuse
M.F.O.
Flax
Screenings
Rape
Screenings
Total
January	
February-
March	
April 	
May	
June	
July- -
August	
September
October ...
November-
December
Totals
Tons Lb.
506     	
503 1,000
919     	
1,581     	
1,728     	
757 1,000
124 1,000
378 1,000
148 1,000
20	
151     	
6,817    1,000
Tons Lb.
2,657     	
2,898     	
2,348 1,000
4,221 1,000
3,173     	
2,382     	
1,596     	
653     	
1,265 1,860
1,306 720
1,475 940
1,607 70
25,583 1,590
Tons
1,740
991
1,270
3,027
1,435
1,436
572
849
1,523
1,064
645
1,059
Lb.
1,100
1,580
1,110
1,700
300
300
400
120
660
15,614    1,260
Tons Lb.
354    	
120    	
202     	
341     	
181     	
163 1,000
101     	
314     	
58     	
1,834 1,000
Tons Lb.
695    	
981     	
955     	
722    	
890    	
834     	
30     	
267     	
362    	
586     	
520    	
356 80
418
Tons
8,358
6,422
6,919
12,061
9,415
9,367
6,557
4,106
5,999
6,163
5,649
6,167
Lb.
1,590
1,380
440
1,040
870
700
1,400
500
1,480
980
740
910
7,198
80
418      |87,189
I
30 DD 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 24
Summary of Movement of Grain Screenings from British Columbia Merchants,
Ianuary 1st to December 31st, 1959
Month
Consumed in British Columbia
No. 1 Feed
Raw
Refuse
Processed
Refuse
Exported
(Processed
Refuse)
Total
January	
February-
March	
April	
May  _
June	
July	
August	
September-
October	
November-
December...
Totals-
Tons
2
2
2
1
1
2
10
2
2
3
5
Lb.
200
1,400
300
1,600
1,700
100
300
300
200
1,400
1,400
Tons
36      900
Tons
314
264
105
291
278
177
45
56
58
75
162
365
Lb.
1,350
885
1,875
970
335
445
1,645
1,245
775
1,460
1,520
740
2,196    1,245
Tons     Lb.
12     	
59    1,400
Tons
316
267
108
305
280
238
55
58
61
77
166
370
71    1,400
Lb.
1,550
285
175
570
35
1,945
1,945
1,545
975
860
920
740
2,306    1,545
APPENDIX No. 25
Production of Grass and Legume Seeds
Production
(Final),
1958
Estimated
Production,
1959
Alfalfa-
Red clover, single—
Red clover, double..
Alsike clover	
Sweet clover	
White Dutch clover..
Timothy-
Timothy-alsike	
Alsike-altaswede..
Brome	
Blue-grass, Merion strain-
Blue-grass, Kentucky	
Crested wheat	
Creeping red fescue-
Meadow fescue	
Reed canary-grass.	
Orchard-grass	
Russian wild rye	
Red-top..
Annual rye-grass..
Lb.
195,000
950,000
265,000
2,350,000
597,000
4,000
194,000
50,000
40,000
76,000
90,000
40,000
21,000
2,259,000
25,000
3,600
3,600
10,000
Lb.
147,000
100,000
100,000
725,000
570,000
93^606
75,000
8,456
580,000
50,000
24,000
16,200
1,760,000
5,000
2,000
537
3,600
2,000
4,000 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959 DD 71
APPENDIX No. 26
Publications Printed in 1959
Reports
Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, 1958.
The Climate of British Columbia, 1958.
Agricultural Statistics, 1956 to 1958.
Bulletins
The Use of Drugs and Antibiotics in Controlling Bee Diseases.
Highbush Blueberry Culture in B.C.
A Guide to Broiler Raising.
Brooding Baby Chicks.
Control of Brown-rot in B.C.
Couch, Quack or Scutch Grass.
Dairy Farm Management Manual.
Forced Rhubarb.
Goat Raising in B.C.
Indoor Planting Areas.
Insect Pest Control for the Home Gardener.
Insects and Legume Seed Production.
List of Publications.
Livestock Pests.
Mechanical Feeding of Silage.
Mineral Deficiencies and Other Disorders of Fruit Trees.
Outdoor Planters.
Establishing and Managing Pastures in B.C.
Peat and Muck Soils.
Control of Potato Leafroll.
Poultry Feeds and Feeding in Central and Northern B.C.
Practical Rabbit Raising.
Silos and Silage.
Strawberry Root Weevil.
Women's Work in Fair Exhibits.
Toadflax and Leafy Spurge.
Charts
Fertilizer Recommendations Charts—
Vancouver Island, Zone 1.
Okanagan-Main Line Points-South Cariboo, Zone 3.
North Central Interior, Zone 5.
Peace River District, Zone 6.
Forage-crop Recommendations Charts—
Vancouver Island, Zone 1.
The Lower Mainland, Zone 2.
Okanagan-Main Line Points-South Cariboo, Zone 3.
Control of Tree-fruit Pests and Diseases Spray Charts—
Interior Districts.
Coastal Districts.
Control of Small-fruit Pests and Diseases Spray Chart.
Control of Vegetable and Field Crop Pests and Diseases Spray Chart.
Chemical Weed Control. DD 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 27
General Agricultural Statistics, 1958/59
Grains, etc.
Crop
Area
Production
1958
1959
1958
1959
Wheat	
Acres
41,000
88,200
58,400
1,100
9,700
4,200
5,000
11,500
367,000
2,300
Acres
46,900
89,300
55,200
1,200
11,700
3,100
5,600
10,800
374,000
3,100
Bu.
1,000,000
4,000,000
1,700,000
30,000
110,000
170,000
128,000
1,898,000
Tons
734,000
34,000
Bu.
1,200.000
Oats.. — 	
4,400,000
1,700,000
Rye 	
39,000
116,000
144,000
Dry peas -  	
148,000
2,056,000
Hay           . -	
Tons
850,000
49,000
Fodder-corn.  .,   	
Fruit
Production
1958
1959
Lb.
270,282,000
31,208,000
22,750,000
11,554,000
5,731,000
8,454,000
Lb.
168,320,000
25,303,000
Peaches   ~ —  	
23,845,000
8,732,000
3,343,000
11,786,000
Poultry Products
 —   doz.
23,829,000
8,279,000
4,336,000
24,799,000
  lb.
14,307,000
5,566,000
Small Fruits
Strawberries-
Raspberries—
Blueberries—
Loganberries-
Lb.
10,155,000
11,409,000
1,920,000
893,000
Lb.
8,588,000
10,065,000
1,702,000
1,263,000
Dairy Products (to September 30th)
Milk..
Creamery butter-
Cheese 	
Ice-cream	
Wool  -
Honey- —
Hops 	
Lb.
510,564,000
1,830,000
570,000
3,256,000
350,000
2,166,000
1,435,000
Lb.
528,000,000
2,548,000
581,000
3,248,000
368,000
2,000,000
1,220,000 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1959
DD 73
APPENDIX No. 27—Continued
General Agricultural Statistics, 1958/59—Continued
Live-stock Population (as of June 1st)
1959
Hens and chickens..
Turkeys..
Geese and ducks	
Dairy cows and heifers..
Beef cows and heifers ...
Steers .	
Calves	
Sheep and lambs..
Hogs 	
Horses  	
4,711,000
325,000
41,000
112,000
132,000
48,500
100,000
90,000
52,000
24,000
4,800,000
458,000
42,000
115,000
136,000
44,000
117,000
97,000
68,000
23,000
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1960
860-360-3675   

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0355717/manifest

Comment

Related Items