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REPORT of the LANDS SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST 1959 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1960

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
REPORT
of the
LANDS SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1959
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1960 Victoria, B.C., January 31st, 1960.
To the Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Lands Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year ended
December 31st, 1959.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
Victoria, B.C., January 31st, 1960.
The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Lands Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the twelve months
ended December 31st, 1959.
E. W. BASSETT,
Deputy Minister of Lands. Peace River Canyon looking west (Hudson Hope area).  CONTENTS
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Lands	
Accounting Division	
Lands Branch—
Superintendent of Lands	
Paoe
_    7
. 11
17
Land Inspection Division  25
Surveys and Mapping Branch-
Surveyor-General	
Legal Surveys Division....
Topographic Division	
Geographic Division	
33
36
41
48
Air Division  53
Water Rights Branch—
Comptroller of Water Rights	
Operations Division	
Hydraulic Investigations Division.
University Endowment Lands	
Personnel Office	
61
66
__ 75
- 87
__ 91
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+>3B^8o©_So^H™E C .u J3 J5 REPORT OF THE
BRITISH COLUMBIA LANDS SERVICE
E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
While achievement cannot be evaluated on the basis of statistics alone, it is
significant that the over-all trend of accomplishments of the British Columbia Lands
Service, as indicated in this Report, is upward. It is apparent also that staff duties
are becoming more complex as new techniques are developed to increase the range
of technical and administrative skills. Although more detailed information is contained in the respective portions of this Report which follow, a few highlights of
the achievements of the Lands, Surveys and Mapping, and Water Rights Branches
should be noted in this introduction.
Lands Service revenue was greater in 1959 than during the previous year.
Applications of all types received by the Lands Branch were 31.7 per cent higher
than in 1958. Lease applications totalled 1,333 in 1959, compared to 773 the
previous year. Substantial gains were also recorded in applications for reserves
and for pre-emptions. In 1959 seventy-four lots were sold by tender, for which
166 bids were received. Public auction sales disposed of another 277 lots, and
there were five public auctions of property for leasehold involving a total of sixty-
nine water-front lots.
An important function of the Lands Branch continued to be subdivision planning in areas of expanding urban settlement. In co-operation with the Department
of Highways, road access was provided in eight Crown subdivisions during 1959.
The Land Inspection Division of the Lands Branch established a record of
3,273 field inspections during the past year. A land-inspection technique employed
for the first time in 1959 involved an application to lease 156,000 acres in the
Peace River-Pine River region. A basic map compiled from aerial photographs
was spot-checked on the ground using helicopter transport. The helicopter reconnaissance proved to be successful.
An appraisal course begun the previous year for Land Inspectors was continued in 1959, with twelve Inspectors entered as second-year students and four as
first-year students. Eight Inspectors also participated in a four-day range-management course held at Kamloops.
The Legal Surveys Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch issued 597
sets of instructions to surveyors in 1959, while 2,473 land-examination plans were
prepared for use by Land Inspectors. Field work included the surveying of 460
residential lots, 31 home-sites along main highways, 170 water-front home-sites,
and 90 acreage lots. In conjunction with Topographic and Air Divisions, 5 miles
of highway survey between Savona and Cherry Creek were selected as a test survey
for the Wild A-7 precision autograph plotter, newly acquired by the Topographic
Division. Legal Surveys Division carried out precise levelling, and targeted eight
centre-line control points and twenty-one section corners. The strip was flown by
the Air Division using a Wild RC-8 aerial camera.
In the Topographic Division, the Multiplex Section was completely reorganized, received additional equipment, and was renamed Photogrammetric Plotting
Centre. A new Wild A-7 precision autograph plotter and a Kelsh plotter were
installed in the Centre, and these, coupled with existing multiplex facilities, have
greatly broadened the scope of work now possible. For example, the fine degree
of accuracy of the A-7 plotter has enabled mapping to be extended into areas having very sparse ground control. BB
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The Geographic Division reproduced and printed thirteen maps, including
the fourth regional map-sheet at 1-inch-to-10-miles scale. Coverage in this very
popular series is now complete for the southern two-thirds of the Province. Geographic Division also continued to extend co-operation to Government of Canada
agencies engaged in the preparation of maps of the National Topographic Series.
Major stocks of twenty-three maps were received in return for checking, colour-
proving, and other forms of assistance. Map distribution rose to a new record in
1959, totalling 78,074 sheets. Distribution to the general public, particularly during the summer months, accounted for most of the 25-per-cent increase over 1958.
In spite of the lowest number of flying-hours on record, the Air Division produced a total of 13,222 aerial photographs, covering 12,215 square miles, for forest
inventory purposes, and an additional 1,903 photographs for other purposes.
Except for minor revision, interim-map coverage at l-inch-to-40-chains scale for
the Forest Service was essentially completed, and efforts shifted to the preparation
of l-inch-to-20-chains interim maps from aerial photographs at the same scale.
An interesting experiment conducted by the Air Division in 1959 involved
photography from a helicopter. Two cameras were mounted on a 15-foot boom,
which, in turn, was fastened to the fuselage of the helicopter. Basic stereoscopic
photographs were obtained. This technique is currently being applied to the determination of tree heights and species identification for forest inventory purposes.
The Water Rights Branch of the Department likewise enjoyed a very active
year in 1959. The Comptroller of Water Rights was appointed to the newly
organized British Columbia Energy Board. Other committees, boards, and organizations on which the Comptroller or other senior staff members served numbered
thirteen.
In the Operations Division of the Water Rights Branch, applications for new
water licences exceeded 1,000 for the first time in 1959, totalling 1,038 for the
year. Sixteen new improvement districts were incorporated and six were dissolved.
The Improvement District Engineering Division prepared engineering reports on
behalf of eighteen existing and potential improvement districts.
Office and field staff of the Hydraulic Investigations Division were engaged in
twenty-two projects. Flooding and erosion studies numbered seven projects, five
were for mapping control, four for water-supply, and three each for drainage and
water power. On the basis of more detailed hydro-electric investigations, particularly in northern regions, and the inclusion of feasible development systems on the
Fraser and Columbia Rivers, the estimate of prime power potential for British Columbia was revised upwards to 20,604,900 kilowatts (27,600,000 horse-power).
During 1959 several new snow courses were established, making a total of
100 active courses in operation in British Columbia watersheds. The Water Rights
Branch also installed its first soil-moisture measurement station near Osprey Lake.
Ultimately, readings from this station will provide soil-moisture values for use in
computing inflow and melt-water into Okanagan Lake.
Detailed reports for each branch of the British Columbia Lands Service may
be found on the following pages. ACCOUNTING DIVISION  ACCOUNTING DIVISION
BB  11
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
M. B. Maclean, B.Com., Departmental Comptroller
An examination of Table 2 indicates clearly that Lands Service revenue is
consistently increasing each year.
The increased lease revenue is the result of the continued policy of adjusting
rentals to relate closer to current market values for those leases in which the revision period fell due in 1959, and also because of a substantial increase in royalty
collections from quarrying and sand and gravel operations.
While the collection on accounts receivable in land sales has remained normal
during the past year, the reduction in revenue is explained by the fact that during
1958 three fairly large cash sales were completed which brought land sales revenue
well above average for previous years.
The increase in water rights revenue is attributable to the fact that power
generation under existing licences was larger in 1959 than in the previous year.
No new large power licences were issued in 1959.
Table 1.—Summary of Revenue Collections for the Year Ended
December 31st, 1959
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc.  $668,367.70
Land sales  589,975.24
Sale of maps and air photos  65,534.35
Water rentals and recording fees  1,363,939.33
Total   $2,687,816.62
Table 2.—Comparison of Revenue Collections for Ten-year
Period 1950-59, Inclusive
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
$1,159,988.86
1,692,737.85
2,761,152.78
l 3,705,480.02
2,065,181.52
2,248,293.16
2,518,722.51
2,454,435.40
2,596,050.13
2,687,816.62
Total   $23,889,858.85
Ten-year average, $2,388,985.88.
Table 3.—Classification of Revenue Collections for the Year
Ended December 31st, 1959
Land sales—
Country lands   $459,668.41
Town lots     127,236.14
Surface rights, mineral claims         2,748.08
Indian reserve cut-off  322.61
      $589,975.24 BB  12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 3.—Classification of Revenue Collections for the Year
Ended December 31st, 1959—Continued
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc.—
Foreshore leases—
Booming and log storage   $185,490.59
Commercial (marinas, etc.)      228,038.17
Oyster          7,785.80
Miscellaneous   (foreshore protection, etc.)          1,239.48
  $422,554.04
Land leases—
Grazing and (or) agriculture      $37,476.99
Quarrying   (limestone,   sand   and
gravel)         32,323.86
Camp-site (lodge, fishing)          2,063.90
Home-site           2,536.22
Miscellaneous (residential, etc.).__      28,749.96
     103,150.93
Land-use permits   989.00
Licences of occupation          2,473.08
Royalty collections       71,431.71
Easement collections—
Annual rentals       $2,860.51
Outright considerations  153.98
         3,014.49
Fees—
Crown grant     $21,345.00
Assignment          1,340.00
Miscellaneous (lease, search, etc.)        5,063.31
       27,748.31
Sundry  collections   (occupational   rental,   survey
charges, etc.)        37,006.14
      $668,367.70
Sale of maps and air photos-—
Legal Division     $23,572.63
Geographic Division       21,583.19
Air Division       20,378.53
■ —  65,534.35
Water rentals and recording fees     1,363,939.33
Gross revenue for year  $2,687,816.62 ACCOUNTING DIVISION
BB  13
Table 4,
1950 i
1951 I
1952 i
1953 i
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
-Comparison of Land Leases, Rentals, Fees, etc., Revenue for
Ten-year Period 1950-59, Inclusive
$387
916
1,694
1,608
330
425
576
472
605
668
,435.19
,338.98
,073.93
773.65
,397.09
,595.79
,331.17
,415.55
,229.73
,367.70
Total   $7,684,958.78
Ten-year average, $768,495.88.
Note.—The years 1951, 1952, and 1953 include coal, petroleum and natural-
gas revenue.
Table 5.—Comparison of Land Sales for Ten-year Period 1950-59, Inclusive
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
$366
382
619
594
488
605
573
522
677
589
,458.62
,256.61
,263.14
,004.08
,303.49
,469.42
,976.49
,825.65
,036.15
,975.24
Total   $5,419,568.89
Ten-year average, $541,956.89.
Table 6.—Comparison of Water Rentals and Recording Fees Revenue for
Seven-year Period 1953-59, Inclusive
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
$700,289.17
813,413.61
849,980.00
1,081,592.07
1,152,370.05
1,256,004.37
1,363,939.33
Total   $7,217,588.60
Seven-year average, $1,031,084.09.
Note.—Revenue for years previous to 1953 available on fiscal basis only.  LANBS BRANCH Notel
THE LANDS BRANCH
At the time of the Fraser River gold-rush in 1858 the demand for land in British
Columbia was greatly intensified and pre-emptions predated surveys. Within four years
254 pre-emptors had taken up more than 50,000 acres of land. To facilitate the transfer
of real estate and provide for the registration of titles, the Land Registry Act was passed
in 1860. The Government of the Province of British Columbia was now in the real-
estate business in a big way; the more than 366,000 square miles of land and water that
constitutes British Columbia was the real estate in question.
With the entrance of British Columbia into Confederation in 1871, the demand for
land quickened to a rush, and over the next thirty years the land-settler (and the promoter) succeeded the gold-miner in importance. Railroads were built and land grants
passed, cities came into being, and companies became established. Land was at the core
of all developments.
The task of land administration became very heavy and necessitated the formation
of a Department of Lands in 1908. In 1912 a Forest Branch was included in the Department of Lands. To-day the Department of Lands and Forests exercises control of more
than 90 per cent of the surface of British Columbia.
How does the Lands Branch fit into the total organization of the British Columbia
Lands Service of to-day? The relation may be expressed briefly. The Lands Branch
has jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the disposition of Crown land, and is
charged with so administering and disposing of the land that the general welfare,
present and future, of the Province must be protected at all times.
When an individual, or group, desires to purchase or lease Crown land, the application is directed to the Superintendent of Lands, head of the Lands Branch. His authority governs the following matters: —
Sale, lease, and pre-emption of Crown lands for such purposes as agricultural,
industrial, commercial, and home-sites.
Preparation and issuance of Crown grants under the Land Act, the Mineral Act,
and the Taxation Act.
Preparation and issuance of right-of-way easements for power, telephone, pipe
lines, etc.
Reservation of suitable Crown lands and foreshore for national defence, use
and enjoyment of the public, forestry experimentation, fisheries research
work, highways, etc.
Granting railway rights-of-way under various Statutes.
Protection of historic sites from alienation.
Reservation and conveying of Crown lands for such purposes as school-sites,
cemeteries, and fair grounds.
Leasing of land and foreshore for such varied purposes as wharf-sites, booming-
grounds, canneries, oyster and other mollusc fisheries, and for boat-houses,
quarry-sites,  cattle-ranching,  trappers' cabins,  ship-building,  and  aircraft
bases.
To perform these and other functions efficiently, the Lands Branch works in close
co-operation with a great number of other agencies, such as municipal and city administrations, town-planning authorities, the British Columbia Forest Service, the Branches of
Water Rights and Surveys and Mapping within the British Columbia Lands Service, and
all the departments in the Government of the Province, notably Public Works, Education,
Attorney-General, and now Agriculture.
Outside the Provincial departments there is much business transacted with Federal
departments, such as the Department of National Defence, the Veterans' Land Settlement
Act administration, the Public Works Department, and the Indian Affairs Branch of the
Department of Citizenship and Immigration.
Direct service to the people of British Columbia is the first duty of the Lands Branch
and this takes the bulk of the time of the Lands Branch personnel. Associated with this
prime duty is the important function of the maintenance of the records, which in many
cases are the only ones in British Columbia showing the correct legal status of the surface of the Province.—Reprinted from 1952 Report. LANDS BRANCH
BB  17
LANDS BRANCH
C. T. W. Hyslop, B.S.A., P.Ac, Superintendent of Lands
There was a marked increase in the volume of work carried out by the Lands
Branch in 1959. A total of 5,741 applications of all kinds were received during
the year, as contrasted with 4,375 received during 1958. This is an increase of
31.7 per cent. In spite of the marked increase in the activities of the Administration
Division of the Lands Branch, the total number of staff remains the same at
thirty-five.
The practice of offering lands for sale by public tender is becoming more
prevalent as a result of conflicting demands for Crown lands, particularly those
located near urban centres. In 1959 seventy-four lots were sold by tender, for
which 166 bids were received. This is an increase of approximately 50 per cent
over the 1958 figure.
During the year fifteen public auction sales of Crown lands were held at various centres throughout the Province, and 277 lots were sold in this manner. In
addition, there were five public auctions of leaseholds, at which sixty-nine lots were
acquired by lease.
The Department is being called upon to deal with an increasing number of
problems involving accreted lands and petitions made in furtherance of the Quieting
Titles Act. These problems are particularly prevalent in the delta lands of the
Fraser Valley and along the shore of Okanagan Lake. In most instances such matters are very intricate and require close liaison with the Legal Surveys Division and
the Department of the Attorney-General.
Two new Land Series bulletins—Kootenay District (No. 1) and Prince Rupert-
Smithers District (No. 8)—were published during 1959. This series will be completed in 1960 with the publication of Atlin District and a bulletin entitled "Acquisition of Crown Lands." Printing costs of bulletins have increased considerably
over the past few years, and the demand for these bulletins by the general public
has been accentuated by the publishing, in nationally distributed magazines, of
articles on settlement and the acquisition of summer-home sites in British Columbia.
Each such article results in several hundred letters requesting information on settlement and land tenure in the Province.
During the year the Lands Branch, in co-operation with the Department of
Highways, arranged for the construction of roads in eight Crown subdivisions in
various parts of the Province. The largest of these subdivisions were at Fort Nelson
and Chetwynd and involved the expenditure of $67,000 for roads. The planning
of subdivisions of Crown lands is an important function of the Branch, particularly
with respect to those lands where conditions indicate a trend toward urban development.
The over-all work load of the various sections of the Administration Division
of the Lands Branch has increased during the past year. A brief outline of the
accomplishments of each division follows:—
Lease Section.—A total of 1,333 applications to lease was received during
the year, as compared with 773 in 1958, an increase of 72 per cent, and
1,225 applications were processed during the year, an increase of 12
per cent over the previous year.
Purchase Section.—There was very little change in the number of applications
to purchase lands received during the year—1,930 being received in 1959
and 1,944 in 1958. The number of applications processed by the Section
also remained fairly constant at 2,437. The complexity of work in this
Section is, however, continually increasing.
2 BB  18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Crown Grant Section.—The number of Crown grants issued increased by 57
per cent over the previous year—1,598 in 1959 and 1,012 in 1958.   The
number of certificates of purchase issued remained fairly constant—1,138
in 1959 and 1,182 in 1958.
Pre-emption and Reserve Section.—There has been a 41-per-cent increase in
applications for reserves over the previous year, but an 11-per-cent decrease in the number of applications processed—579 in 1959 as compared to 606 in 1958.   This has been caused by the unprecedented number of general inquiries that have been received as a result of magazine
and newspaper articles previously mentioned, and difficulties resulting
from complexity in reserve applications.   The number of applications to
pre-empt has increased by 60 per cent—from 88 in 1958 to 140 in 1959.
Status Section.—There has been a slight increase in the number of parcels of
land statused—13,351 in 1959 and 13,281 in 1958.   There has been a
9-per-cent increase in the number of register entries made.   This Section
has been under considerable pressure to keep pace with special lake statuses required to examine the recreational potential of lake-frontage lands.
An analysis of the foregoing will disclose that most sections have had a considerable increase in work volume.   The accelerated public interest in Crown lands
is indicated in the number of status inquiries received and in the number of letters
received.   The former item shows an increase of 44 per cent, while the latter item
also shows a very marked increase—18,800 letters in 1958 and 22,995 letters in
1959.
Table 1.—Country Land Sales, 1959
Acres
Surveyed   68,220.90
Unsurveyed      9,103.30
Total   77,324.20
Table 2.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1959
Land Recording District
Alberni	
Total
                  9
Atlin          __...  ...
Cranbrook 	
    _.                           16
Fernie  	
               13
Fort Fraser      	
        55
Fort George        . 	
      _     136
Golden    .          ...   ....    .   	
___                _.             16
Kamloops               	
              37
Kaslo       -•                 	
          4
Lillooet    .   .       .
        94
Nanaimo                .     ....
          _       22
Nelson
                   7
New Westminster            ...        ...
...              34
Osoyoos
  _         5
Peace River
                 237
Prince Rupert 	
Quesnel                                        •
        51
...                 33
Revelstoke
11
Similkameen
              61
Smithers 	
      108 LANDS BRANCH
BB  19
Table 2.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1959—Continued
Land Recording District
Total
Vancouver
        50
Victoria . ..
        14
Williams Lake ...
      101
Total _
  1,114
Town
Alberni  	
Table 3.—Town Lots Sold, 1959
Lots
      116
Value
$2,340.00
Anaconda 	
Athalmer	
Barriere _.
          3
        13
.               3
150.00
1,470.00
300.00
Beaverdell 	
Bralorne .
        23
          1
980.00
150.00
Burnaby
          2
20.00
Burns Lake ..
        _             5
710.00
Carmi    ...
                3
75.00
Cedar
          1
75.00
Celista ..    ....
          3
400.00
Clinton
.   ... .             1
350.00
Coalmont 	
Cranbrook
          7
.             8
350.00
1,445.00
Elko 	
        50
1,175.00
Endako    _
              4
110.00
Extension 	
Fernie  	
Fort Fraser
          7
          2
        11
630.00
120.00
930.00
Fort George	
Fort Nelson
        24
        74
9,906.00
37,660.00
Fraser Lake
          2
50.00
Gold Bridge
Golden   .
          5
        34
320.00
1,120.00
Grand Forks	
           4
100.00
Hazelton 	
        23
670.00
Hope
          5
1,450.00
Houston	
Huntington
          6
        35
375.00
2,140.00
Invermere 	
Kaslo 	
          2
            48
294.00
60.00
Kitchener
          5
125.00
Little Prairie .
        32
9,785.00
Lower Post
          1
200.00
Masset
.             4
130.00
Merritt _. ... .. .
                30
4,524.00
Midway _. _.   ...
....      ...   .. _.              2
150.00
Montrose	
          2
25.00
Nakusp	
New Denver
          2
        10
500.00
540.00
New Hazelton ....
      123
1,546.00 BB 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 3.—Town Lots Sold, 1959—Continued
Town
Parksville Junction
Phoenix 	
Port Coquitlam ____
Port Edward 	
Princeton	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Qualicum Beach	
Queen Charlotte .__.
Quesnel 	
Revelstoke	
Savona 	
Sechelt	
Shawnigan Lake	
Smithers 	
Squamish	
Stewart 	
Telegraph Creek _..
Telkwa 	
Tete Jaune	
Terrace 	
Tulameen 	
Vananda 	
Vanderhoof 	
Victoria 	
Walhachin 	
Wellington	
Wells 	
Wilmer 	
Windermere	
Yahk 	
Yale	
Miscellaneous
Lots
14
436
12
20
2
19
61
3
5
1
16
3
5
27
338
1
12
3
2
8
1
20
4
12
2
5
2
1
9
10
1
2
19
Totals   1,812
Value
$525.00
1,200.00
590.00
2,015.00
125.00
10,001.00
37,130.00
500.00
85.00
100.00
2,350.00
200.00
1,035.00
1,905.00
18,050.00
500.00
1,355.00
255.00
60.00
825.00
300.00
2,366.00
280.00
875.00
5.00
500.40
150.00
125.00
300.00
990.00
120.00
480.00
1,080.00
$169,827.40
Table 4.—New Leases Issued, 1959
Land                                                                                                      Number Acreage
Agriculture   15 2,283.00
Hay and grazing (pasture and hay-cutting).... 191 45,809.98
Quarrying (sand, gravel, limestone, etc.)  8 972.73
Home-site (section 83, Land Act)  9 101.50
Residential   113 217.56
Miscellaneous (resorts, service-stations, campsites, mill-sites, etc.)  20 216.02
Foreshore—
Booming, log storage, log-dumping, etc  70 1,252.38
Oyster and shell-fish  18 516.60
Industrial (canneries, mill-sites, wharves, etc.) 27 119.38 LANDS BRANCH BB 21
Table 4.—New Leases Issued, 1959—Continued
Foreshore Continued Number Acreage
Quarrying (sand, gravel from river-beds)       5 169.59
Commercial (boat rentals, marinas, marine
service-stations, etc.)      27 79.60
Miscellaneous (private wharves, boat-houses,
etc.)       10 39.44
Totals   513 51,777.78
Table 5.—Temporary Tenure Leases Renewed, 1959
Number  88
Acreage   6,571.98
Table 6.—Land-use Permits Issued, 1959
Number  8
Acreage        32.87
Table 7.—Licences of Occupation Issued, 1959
Number  5
Acreage   3,557.72
Table 8.—Assignments Approved, 1959
Leases, land-use permits, licences of occupation  221
Table 9.—Easements Granted, 1959
Number
Miles
Acres
Fees
Consideration
Annual
Rental
Foreshore
1
t
1
1
0.068
0.044
0.037
0.037
0.750
0.030
0.460
0.300
	
$10.00
1.00
	
10.00
25.00
Totals	
4
0.186
1.540
$46.00
Land
2
1
1
3
1
1
8
1.038
0.500
5.000
1.288
0.020
0.227
11.087
3.327
18.000
181.000
3.391
0.149
1.049
84.276
$682.69
Chair lift                 ...                                 —   -
	
25 00
125.00
$25.00
1,943.93
87.60
10 00
Natural-gas pipe-line 	
Totals   	
17
19.160
291.192
$1,968.93
$930.29
Licence of Occupation
1
3.030
$25.00
22
19.346
295.762
$1,968.93
$1,001.29
Total moneys received, $2,970.22. BB 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 10.—Crown Grants Issued, 1959
Purchases (country lands)   644
  357
  42
  291
  66
  14
  6
12
  18
  4
  1
  16
Purchases (town lots) 	
Pre-emptions    	
Mineral claims (other than reverted)
Mineral claims (reverted) 	
Surface rights (Mineral Act) 	
Public Schools Act 	
Veterans' Land Settlement Act	
Home-site leases 	
Pacific Great Eastern Railway	
Supplementary timber grants 	
Miscellaneous 	
Total 	
1,471
Certified copies of Crown grants issued, 2.
Table 11.—Crown Grants Issued for Past Ten Years
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1,580
1,740
1,872
1,829
1,276
1,498
1,518
1,426
1,043
1,471
Total    15,253
Ten-year average, 1,525.
Table 12.—Total Area Deeded by Crown Grant, 1959
Acres
Purchases (country lands)   68,164.91
Pre-emptions   6,300.66
Mineral claims (other than reverted)   11,423.26
Mineral claims (reverted)   2,416.04
Surface rights (Mineral Act)   445.72
Public Schools Act  37.39
Veterans' Land Settlement Act  1,579.31
Home-site leases  298.13
Pacific Great Eastern Railway  163.47
Supplementary timber grants  120.00
Miscellaneous  345.66
Total   91,294.55 LANDS BRANCH
Table 13.—Pre-emption Records, 1959
BB 23
Pre-emptions
C.of I.
issued
Land Recording District
Applications
Received
Applications
Allowed
Pre-emptions
Cancelled
11
3
1
109
15
2
1
1
1
49
1
1
1
1
2
6
3
1
65
1
7
1
1
2
Atlin _	
Fort George (Prince George)  	
1
1
1
Nelson    	
3
23
6
Similkameen (Penticton)     	
Vancouver      ...
4
Totals	
143
53
90
39
Table 14.—Reserves, 1959
Applications
Received
Use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public  243
British Columbia Department of Highways  (rights-of-
way, gravel-pits, etc.)   109
Federal Government (defence purposes, wharf-sites, etc.)    83
British Columbia Forest Service (Ranger stations, grazing, radio-sites, reforestation, etc.)    137
Miscellaneous   (Game Commission, water-power projects, garbage-dumps, school-sites, cemeteries, etc.)    68
Totals  640
Reserves
Completed
158
64
50
100
45
417 BB 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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LAND INSPECTION DIVISION
L. D. Fraser, B.Sc.A., P.Ag., Chief Land Inspector
The increased interest in Crown land that has been in evidence during the past
few years was once again reflected in the number of land examinations completed
by the Land Inspection Division in 1959. The field staff completed 289 more
inspections in 1959 than in 1958 and 774 more than in 1957. A late spring and
early fall rains prevented an even better showing. However, the Land Inspection
Division did have a full complement of Inspectors throughout the whole year, and
hence a maximum effort was exerted in each district. It is significant to note, however, that in spite of the increased number of examinations completed in 1959, the
number of outstanding requests at the end of 1959 is 114 more than at the end
of 1958.
FIELD-WORK ANALYSIS
The change in Government policy in connection with the disposition of Crown
water-front lands, announced in 1958, has increased the field work of the Land
Inspection Division. When an application for lake-front land is received, the lake
is reconnoitred to determine recreational values and to ascertain if public recreational requirements have already been provided in the form of established reserves.
In the case of very large lakes, the water-frontage for several miles on each side of
an application is inspected. As a result of these lake reconnaissance examinations,
104 new reserves for the use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public were recommended in 1959 by the Division.
Reference is made to Table 1, which sets out in detail the work accomplished
in each district for the past three years. It is realized that the number of inspections
made is not a fair comparison from district to district, but it is a fairly accurate
estimate of the increase or decrease of the work load within the district itself as the
type of examinations is fairly consistent from year to year.
Part-time assistance was provided for the Smithers, Clinton, and Kamloops
Districts in 1959. The Nelson District was increased in size during the year to
include an area around Grand Forks that had formerly been handled from Kelowna.
Completion of the new Paulsen-Blueberry Road will make Grand Forks much more
accessible from Nelson than from Kelowna. In the Peace River District the number
of applications is still on the increase. It is expected that if the proposed power
development scheduled for the Peace River becomes a reality, the interest will be
further stimulated.
SPECIAL DISTRICT PROBLEMS
In the Pouce Coupe District the Land Inspector was called upon to examine
and report on a large tract of land in the Peace-Pine triangle. Some 156,000 acres
were under application to lease for an integrated farming operation, with emphasis
on seed-growing and beef cattle. Because of the size of the application, it could
not be dealt with in the usual manner as the length of time to inspect an area of this
size on foot would be prohibitive. Under the circumstances, the Land Inspector
compiled a map from aerial photos, making use of all other available reconnaissance
information on cover, soil, and topography. The information on the map was then
spot-checked on the ground with the aid of a helicopter. This was the first time
a helicopter was used for general inspection work of this nature by the Land
Inspection Division and proved to be quite successful.
A preliminary study of immature forest values in so far as they affect the
market value of Crown land was undertaken by the three foresters in the employ BB 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
of the Land Inspection Division. The recommendations contained in their reports
are still under study, but it is hoped a definite policy in this regard will be forthcoming in the near future.
Summer home-site subdivisions on lakes, the continued expansion of small
communities, such as Chetwynd and Fort Nelson, and development along main and
secondary highways in the vicinity of established communities have made subdivision planning an important part of the Land Inspector's work. This work is not
confined to the actual mechanics of making a preliminary plan of the proposed
subdivision, but also includes reconnaissance and advanced planning so that the
most desirable site is selected for subdivision purposes.
Many Inspectors are reporting encroachment and trespass use of Crown foreshore by adjacent property-owners. This use varies from unauthorized fills to
dredged boat channels, for private purposes, and from wharfage and booming to
marina sites, for industrial and commercial purposes.
The Inspector in the Kelowna District spent approximately one month of his
time appraising lands for the Southern Okanagan Lands Project. Several Inspectors
in other districts have been called upon to do appraisal work of a special nature for
other departments in the past year.
An examination and appraisal of some 16 acres of tidal lands was undertaken
by the Inspector at Courtenay. The Inspector was called upon to fix a value for the
property prior to the filling of same for development as a commercial site contiguous
to the Village of Campbell River.
Several potential subdivision properties in various districts throughout the
Province have been appraised in line with standard appraisal practice in order to
arrive at a value for the raw acreage.
TRAINING
Following along with this Division's desire to eventually have all Land Inspectors trained as fully accredited appraisers, twelve Inspectors who had completed
Appraisal I the previous year were given a one-week concentrated training course
at Parksville from February 23rd to February 28th, 1959. Four Inspectors who
had not yet completed the Appraisal I course were given two weeks of instruction
at Parksville from May 4th to May 15th, 1959. To date, all but four Land
Inspectors have successfully completed examinations in both Appraisal I and II.
These people are now in the process of compiling demonstration appraisals for
submission to the Appraisal Institute of Canada, to complete the institute's requirements preparatory to accreditation.
In addition to the appraisal training, eight Land Inspectors working in districts
in the central part of the Province, where grazing forms an important aspect of their
work, were given the opportunity to attend a Range Management Course held at the
Range Experimental Station, Kamloops, from June 8th to 11th, 1959, inclusive.
This course was well received by all the Land Inspectors attending and should
prove beneficial in dealing with grazing lands under application to purchase and
lease.
HEADQUARTERS PROBLEMS
Research is required on commercial and industrial land lease rentals and
values. More time must be spent co-ordinating and aligning various approaches
to land values now being proposed from the field. There is a growing need for
revision of the Land Inspector's Manual. A study should be made of the present
method of setting grazing lease rentals with a view to setting them on the basis of
the carrying capacity of the soil. LANDS BRANCH
BB 27
STAFF
During 1959 there were no changes in the permanent fie.d staff of the Land
Inspection Division. At the present time there are seventeen fieldmen as well as
the Chief and Assistant Chief Land Inspectors at Victoria. There have, however,
been several changes in stenographic help in some of the field offices.
SUMMARY
In 1959 more land examinations were completed than ever before in the
history of the Division. However, in spite of this effort there were still 462
outstanding inspections at the end of the year.
During the past year excellent co-operation and assistance have been extended
to this Division by personnel of the Forest Service and the Department of Recreation
and Conservation. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the Rangers,
Foresters, Parks Officers, Game Wardens, and Game and Fish Biologists for the
assistance given the Land Inspection field staff.
Table 1.—Land Inspection, 1957—59
Number of Inspections
Made in—
Outstanding Inspections
at End of—
1957
1958
1959
1957
1958
1959
196
158
279
90
214
143
129
226
305
111
185
174
96
193
173
168
409
189
175
177
149
250
342
123
202
184
116
327
259
187
428
154
216
201
175
304
382
141
243
195
112
276
48
19
14
90
43
26
37
16
64
23
29
24
14
76
49
31
33
23
34
22
6
11
34
14
57
7
3
24
31
Courtenay	
Fort St. John1....	
29
52
12
39
Nelson... 	
54
8
42
Prince George1 	
Quesnel	
Smithers	
Vancouver 	
66
23
33
12
11
Williams Lake1  .
50
Totals 	
2,499
2,984
3,273
523
348
462
' Two Inspectors.
Table 2.—Types of Inspections, 1959
Purchases—
Agriculture   412
Access (roads, etc.)  9
Commercial (resorts, service-stations, hotels, airfields, etc.) _ 78
Community (cemeteries, church-sites, parking areas, etc.)  19
Grazing (pasture, range)  173
Home-sites (permanent)   409
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants, etc.) 36
Summer-home or camp site  101
Wood-lots or tree-farms  11
Improvements (buildings, hulks, wharves, etc.)  2
Leases—
Land—
Agriculture (other than grazing)  108
Commercial (resorts, service-stations, hotels, airfields,
etc.)   32 BB 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 2.—Types of Inspections, 1959—Continued
Leases—Continued
Land—Continued
Community (parks, cemeteries, dump-sites, etc.)        19
Fur-farming       	
Grazing (pasture, range, hay-cutting, etc.)      265
Home-sites (section 83 of Land Act)  8
Home-sites (permanent, other than section 83 of Land
Act)         31
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants,
etc.)          27
Summer-home or camp site      114
Quarrying (sand, gravel, limestone, diatomaceous earth,
etc.)         35
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage or log-dumping      123
Commercial (boat rentals, marine service-stations,
wharves, etc.)         67
Industrial (mill-sites, canneries, factory-sites, wharves,
etc.)
Quarrying (sand and gravel from river-beds)
Oyster and shell-fish
Private (floats, boat-houses).
Land-use permits
Licence of occupation
Easements
Pre-emptions—
Applications       103
Annual inspections (including applications for Crown grant)      135
Subdivisions—
Valuations         3 2
Survey inspection  8
Plans cancellation   2
Proposals (lake-shore, residential, etc.)         16
Reserves—
Grazing   1
Gravel-pits  1
Recreational       104
Others (state purpose)         17
Veterans' Land Act        12
Land Settlement Board—
Classification   9
Valuations         11
Doukhobor lands       	
Miscellaneous inspections—
Delinquent accounts        14
Land-use surveys        68
Land values (current market values)         57
Protests         26
Trespass, land        18
Trespass, water        40 LANDS BRANCH BB 29
Table 2.—Types of Inspections, 7959—Continued
Lease rental reviews (not recorded above)—
Land   53
Foreshore   44
Pre-Crown grants—
Section 53 of Land Act  328
Section 83 of Land Act  3
Section 66 (1) of Land Act  2
Property transferred to Crown valuations—
Department of Health and Welfare  2
Repurchase (section 135 of Land Act)   2
Applications under other Acts (Escheats, Quieting Titles, etc.) 32
Total   3,3 3 2]
1 Included in this figure are 59 examinations completed by the Forest Service and Department of Finance.  SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Note 2
THE SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Because the activities of man are kept orderly through a well-defined system of land
surveys, the Surveys and Mapping Branch is called upon to act as the connecting-link that
binds together many primary operations within departments of government and between
government and the general public.
Specifically, through land surveys, Crown and other lands, including water, are
located and identified accurately on the surface of the Province, and so made ready for
alienation in any of a variety of different ways. Further, a background of suitable maps
and survey data is provided to assist in the intelligent development of lands so acquired,
and in the wise administration of the natural resources associated with them.
In post-war years a great upsurge in the economic development of British Columbia's natural resources has taken place. Each year shows increased activity in the disposition of Crown lands for various purposes, ranging from the smallest individual application for a home-site to industrial requirements involving many square miles of land.
In any of these transactions the Surveys and Mapping Branch plays an important
part, because it has the responsibility of clearing, as to status, all such applications for
Crown lands, whether small or large. This function involves complete record-keeping
of all official survey data by all sources, including a graphic record of all Crown-land
alienations, whether surveyed or unsurveyed.
Equally important, on the other hand, is the responsibility for the establishment,
extension, and recording of mapping control. These basic duties prescribe, among other
things, the preparation of basic triangulation networks and aerial photography at suitable
scales, the making of control traverses, the delineation and maintenance of interprovincial
boundaries, and the production of standard photo-topographic mapping, interim base-
mapping, and cadastral surveys of Crown lands. The data are then condensed and presented in lithograph map form.
The main objectives, then, of the Survevs and Mapping Branch are first to
provide complete, accurate, and readily available maps on adequate scales with
allied data, for administrative control of resources and Crown-land transactions,
and, secondly, to maintain this information up to date by keeping abreast of continuous cultural development.
A survey inventory of such a standard is obviously of primary advantage in encouraging the present development of our natural resources, and further developments which
seem " just around the corner."
A brief summary of the functions of the Branch follows, and the breakdown is provided by Divisions:—
/. Administration.—General co-ordination of the four Divisions of the Branch, being Legal, Geographic, Topographic, and Air; delineation and maintenance of boundaries under the Provincial Boundary Commissioner—namely, (a) Alberta-British Columbia Boundary and (b) British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary.
//. Legal Division.—Regulations for surveys under the various Provincial Acts, such
as Land, Land Registry, Mineral, Petroleum and Natural Gas; instructions to British
Columbia land surveyors regarding surveys of Crown lands and subsequent check of
field-notes and plan returns of same; preparation and custody of official plans; preparation and maintenance of Departmental reference maps, mineral reference maps, and
composite (cadastral) maps; clearance by status of all applications concerning Crown
lands; field surveys and inspections of Crown lands, highway rights-of-way, etc.; preparation of legal descriptions as required;  operation of blue-print and photostat sections.
///. Geographic Division.—Map compilation, drawing and negative engraving, edit-
ine, and reproduction; map checking, distribution, geographical naming—Gazetteer of
British Columbia; field and culture surveys for preparation of lands bulletins and map
areas; preparation of legal descriptions for and delineating administrative boundaries;
editing and distribution of annual Lands Report; trigonometric computation and record-
ins of same; general liaison between this Department and Federal and other mapping
agencies on exchange of survey and mapping data.
IV. Topographic Division.—Propagation of field control—namely, triangulation,
traverses, photo-topographic control; compilation and fair drawing of manuscripts for
standard topographic mapping; special field control for composite and multiplex mapping and other special projects.
V. Air Division.—Aerial photographic operations involving maintenance and operation of three aircraft; photographic processing, air-photo distribution, and Provincial airphoto library; compilation of interim aerial base maps, primarily for British Columbia
forest inventory: tri-camera control propagation; multiplex aerial mapping of precise
large-scale detail projects; instrument-shop for repairs, maintenance, and development
of technical equipment. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 33
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., B.C.L.S., F.R.G.S.,
Director, Surveyor-General, and Boundaries Commissioner
Headlines of British Columbia newspapers did not lack for sensational and
historic material during 1959, and although surveys and mapping, as such, did not
feature among these, it is a fact that the underlying but mute basis for much of the
dynamic news of to-day was indeed the result of fundamental survey services of
various kinds.
In connection with the visit of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, the Geographic Division prepared and supplied special maps upon which the important
details of the Royal itinerary were assessed and finalized. Tactical details of the
ceremonies at the Provincial Parliament Buildings in Victoria were worked out
effectively on the basis of large-scale detail vertical air photographs especially taken
for the purpose by the Air Division. Similarly, from air negatives held by the same
Division, special photo enlargements of the Pennask Lake locality were promptly
produced, under strict security, to assist those responsible for the week-end of quiet
rest and recreation for Her Majesty and party in that beautiful sylvan retreat.
In connection with sensational hydro-electric power proposals now at issue
in British Columbia, and so prominent in the news, it should be remembered that
no firm estimate of power at any site or for any system of sites is possible without
accurate detailed topographic surveys of the terrain at and behind each proposed
dam, for determination of water storage and pondage potential, and for installation
design. Accurate elevation data are essential for estimating the potential " head "
and " draw-down " at each dam. The Topographic Division, using air photos
obtained by the Air Division, has done the field control surveys and the compilation of detail topographic maps for much of this type of work on the Fraser,
Homathko, Peace, Stikine, Liard, and other British Columbia river systems, at the
request of the Comptroller of Water Rights, the Fraser River Board, and the British
Columbia Power Commission.
The stock-taking, management, and fire protection of our forests, tree-farm
licences, public working circles, access roads, always front page news in British
Columbia, depend on maps and air photos for the effective resolution of decisions
concerning them.
Provincial revenues have been handsomely fattened by the disposal from time
to time at public auction of petroleum and natural-gas rights on Crown lands, especially in the vast north-east triangle of British Columbia. The effective smooth-
working administration of these tenures is based on a unique grid system of permits
and leases, based on geographic co-ordinates, which was conceived and worked
out in detail by the Surveys and Mapping Branch. The smallest units of this grid
system vary in area from some 200 acres near the 49th parallel in the south to
approximately 160 acres at the 60th parallel in the north.
To translate the descriptive elegance of the above-mentioned grid system, for
precisely specifying the location and area of each permit or lease, into practical
reality on the ground, it was, of course, necessary to propagate over this tremendous
area a network of control survey stations whose position by geographic co-ordinates
has been precisely determined. This task was indeed carried out by the Topographic Division, using triangulation methods, over a period of three years north of
the Peace River and another of two years south of that river. This network of
triangulation control has been augmented by co-ordinating with it all survey monuments marking the right-of-way of the Alaska Highway established under the direc- r
BB 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
tion of the Legal Surveys Division, and all Provincial boundary survey monuments
established by the relevant boundary commissions.
Returning now to the " fish vs. power " feature of current British Columbia
news, in addition to the survey services supplied to the hydro-power aspects already
mentioned, the experimental, operational, and consultative services have been
sought by, and freely given to, the various fisheries agencies, particularly in the
applications of air photography for spawning studies of herring on the Coast and
salmon in the up-country streams.
And so, when the spotlight of prominence illuminates those connected with
the big business of British Columbia—forestry, hydro-power, flood-control, fisheries, transportation, etc.—in the press, radio, and television, it should be remembered that among the fact-finders behind the scenes a vital and indispensable part
has been played by those concerned with surveys and mapping, without prejudice,
fear, or favour.
Continued compliance with the perennial directive of recent years, requiring
a 5-per-cent reduction on over-all expenditure compared to each previous year,
has not favoured the spectacular. Nevertheless, by loyal efforts of an experienced
and competent staff, and by judicious allocation of moneys which have been authorized, it is gratifying to report that 1959 was a year of good progress in the
operations of this Branch.
The significant proportion of the total effort which takes place out-of-doors
was adversely affected by poor weather during the field season. Cloud-free skies
are required for effective air-photo operations and cloud-free mountain-tops for
mapping-control surveys. Legal surveys, at lower elevations, along and near highways, were least impeded by the poor weather.
Mapping control was established by triangulation and tellurometer for seventeen and one-half standard map-sheets, mostly north-east of Clinton and extending
well into Wells Gray Provincial Park. The low yield of 20-chain forest-inventory
air photography tended to neutralize the extra accomplishment in the good weather
season of 1958. Some fifty-five legal survey projects sporadically distributed over
the Province, as far north as Fort Nelson, were completed. These were mostly
Crown land surveys, subdivisions, inspections, rehabilitation, and highway rights-of-
way surveys.
Field work on the British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary
was confined to checking distances and bearings between boundary monuments
established by survey some fifty years ago between Monument 166 at the westernmost crossing of the Tatshenshini River west of the Haines Road and Monument
132 on the Blanchard River east of the Haines Road. Due to the prevalence of
bad weather and to limited funds, it was not possible to carry this retracement
operation through to Monument 120, a distance of about 12 miles. All of the
50-year-old boundary to the east of Monument 120 to Teslin Lake had been thoroughly retraced in the years 1956 and 1957. Mr. A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S., was
again in charge of the field work, under the direction of the Boundary Commission.
Office work reflected some increases in demands, especially for maps, photostats, air photos, general inquiries by mail, and special large-scale topographic
mapping for engineering studies.
The installation of a Swiss-made Wild A-7 autograph plotter in the Photo-
grammetric Section of the Topographic Division was a major step in the modernization of B.C. Government surveys and mapping potential. This is a stereo-plotter
of first-order precision, of world-wide renown, capable of bridging through a series
of air-photo overlaps  across unsurveyed country between initial and terminal SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 35
ground survey control nets, such that any required density of photo identified
ground points over the bridged track may be accurately co-ordinated for horizontal
and vertical position. Detail plotting of contours and map features may then be
plotted in cheaper equipment, such as Kelsh and multiplex plotters, which we have.
This saves a significant proportion of the costly field control surveys, and facilitates
standard mapping of the most rugged areas, difficult of access, which make up
much of British Columbia that remains to be mapped.
The A-7 autograph is also capable of doing accurate large-scale detail mapping
itself for very special jobs, from relatively small-scale air photography. It represents a capital investment of some $50,000, but is presently leased on contract,
featuring an attractive rent-purchase option.
The loan and reprint traffic of the Air Photo Library service administered by
the Air Division experienced an increase of 45 per cent over the 1958 traffic,
although not an all-time record.
The Legal Surveys Division revived its composite-map programme, which had
been in abeyance for three years due to pressure of other urgent work with limited
staff. A major highlight was the revision and recapitulation of all legal survey regulations in The British Columbia Gazette, Part II, Volume 2, No. 20, of November
12th, 1959. This comprised ninety pages of diagrams and closely packed text, and
replaced some regulations dating back as far as May, 1922.
In addition to reprinting six map-sheets, the Geographic Division published
seven completely new maps, of which two have been best sellers—namely, Map 1g
(East Central British Columbia), 10 miles per inch, and Map 92b/NW & SW
(Victoria), 2 miles per inch. Two new Land Series bulletins were published and
well received—No. 8 (Prince Rupert-Smithers) and No. 1 (Kootenay). Map
distribution in response to demands from public and Government agencies rose
from 62,000 in 1958 to 78,000 in 1959—some 25 per cent.
Detailed reports of the four divisions of the Branch follow. BB 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
D. Pearmain, Chief
The Legal Surveys Division, under the direction of the Surveyor-General, is
responsible for cadastral surveys of all Crown lands of the Province. This entails
the issuing of instructions to the land surveyors engaged to make each survey and
supplying them with copies of the field-notes and plans of adjoining or adjacent
surveys. After the completion of the survey, the returns are forwarded to this
office for checking and plotting. Included in the above returns are all right-of-way
surveys, including those for highways, railways, and transmission-lines. During
the year 597 sets of instructions were issued.
In 1959, 565 sets of field-notes covering the survey of 613 lots were received
in this office and duly indexed, checked, and plotted, and official plans prepared
therefrom. Of the above-mentioned surveys, 453 were made under the Land Act
and 160 under the Mineral Act. At the present time there are approximately
95,094 sets of field-notes on record in our vaults.
There were 349 plans received from land surveyors covering surveys made
under the Land Registry Act. These were duly checked and indexed, and certified
copies were deposited in the respective Land Registry Offices.
In order that a graphic record may be kept of alienations of both surveyed
and unsurveyed Crown lands and reserves, a set of reference maps, 210 in number,
covering the whole of the Province, must be maintained. These maps show all
cadastral surveys which are on file in the Department, and are kept up to date by
adding new information as it accrues from day to day. Prints of them are available
to the public. (See Indexes 1 and 2, contained in envelope inside back cover of this
Report.)
All applications to purchase or lease Crown lands or foreshore which are
received by the Lands Branch and all applications to purchase Crown timber received by the Forest Service are channelled through this Division for clearance.
The orderly processing of these applications requires that an exhaustive status be
made from the reference maps, official plans, and Land Registry Office plans. From
the reference maps, together with other information and facilities maintained by
this Division, it is possible to give an up-to-the-minute status on any parcel of
Crown land in the Province.
It has been necessary during the year, for status and compilation purposes,
to obtain 1,174 plans from the various Land Registry Offices; copies of these have
been made, indexed, and filed as part of the Division's records.
This Division co-operates with the other departments of Government by preparing and checking legal descriptions which they require. Those assisted in this
way were the Attorney-General's Department (descriptions of Small Debts Courts),
the Department of Agriculture (descriptions of disease-free areas and pound districts), the Department of Municipal Affairs (descriptions for the incorporation or
amendment of municipal areas), the Forest Service (descriptions of tree-farm
licences and working circles), and the Lands Branch (descriptions of gazetted
reserves, etc.). This year it has taken 310 man-hours to prepare the descriptions
referred to above.
BLUE-PRINT AND PHOTOSTAT SECTION
The Legal Surveys Division, through this Section, continues to supply a service to all departments of Government, as well as supplying all the prints and
photostats required by the Surveys and Mapping Branch.    The total number of SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 37
prints made during the year was 196,421, in the preparation of which 114,330
yards, or 65 miles, of paper and linen were used. The total number of photostats
made was 50,349, which was an increase of 5,801 over the year 1958.
It is interesting to note that of the 196,421 prints made during the year, 64,169
were for the Surveys and Mapping Branch, 68,960 for other branches of the Department of Lands and Forests, 51,148 for other departments of Government, and
12,144 for the public. Likewise, of the 50,349 photostats made, 20,138 were for
the Surveys and Mapping Branch, 17,554 for the other branches of the Department of Lands and Forests, 6,262 for other departments of Government, and 6,395
for the public.
COMPOSITE MAP SECTION
This Section is responsible for the compilation and tracing of composite maps,
mostly at a scale of 500 feet to 1 inch, of the more thickly subdivided areas of the
Province, and especially in unorganized territory.    (See Index 3.)
The revision of all existing composite maps, which was three years overdue,
was finally resumed during the past year and was completed in October. The
project now in hand is the compilation of composite maps covering the area from
Nelson to Trail. It is hoped to speed uo this project by eliminating one step—
namely, the tracing by hand of the compilation manuscript. This can be overcome
mechanically by the preparation from the manuscript of a film positive, which will
then be used as our master tracing.
LAND EXAMINATION PLANS SECTION
This Section is responsible for the preparation of plans for the use of the Land
Inspectors in their examination of applications for Crown lands. These plans are
a consolidation of all the information available in this Department and pertinent
to the application requiring inspection. This includes field-notes, Land Registry
plans, triangulation information, etc. A synopsis of the work accomplished by this
Section during the past six years is as follows:—
Year Plans Prepared
1954  1,552
1955 2,030
1956 2,340
Year Plans Prepared
1957 2,290
1958  2,192
1959  2,473
GENERAL
Under the Regulations Act passed at the 1958 Session of the Legislature, it is
mandatory that all regulations and instructions be published in Part II of The British Columbia Gazette. All regulations presently in effect were required to be published prior to December 31st, 1959. This directive applied to all the instructions
and regulations issued by the Surveyor-General under the authority of the Land
Act, Land Registry Act, Mineral Act, Placer-mining Act, and Pipe-lines Act.
It was felt that this was an opportune time to revise and consolidate the Surveyor-General's instructions. Quite a number of changes were therefore made,
and the more significant ones are discussed below.
Under the Land Act, surveys shall now, for the most part, be made in feet
and decimals rather than chains and links, as has been the case for the past 100
years. This is consistent with surveys made under the Mineral Act and Land Registry Act. In certain instances the returns to the Department which heretofore had
been in the form of field-notes and plan have now been incorporated in a plan only.
Symbols and abbreviations for field-note and plan returns have been set up so that BB 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
they are uniform for surveys made under the Land Act, Mineral Act, and Land
Registry Act.
In the Mineral Act survey instructions, the type of post was changed to the
standard bar post from the angle-iron post previously used. Clarification has been
given to the land surveyor in the interpretation of a corner of a mineral claim where
a group of location posts for adjoining claims have been set in close proximity to
each other.
It is now permissible to include up to four mineral claims in one field-book.
Under the Land Registry Act instructions a minimum size has been set for
plans. In these new instructions and those of highway rights-of-way, railway rights-
of-way, and general rights-of-way a great deal more uniformity has been achieved.
The receiving and distribution of survey-posts, which are stored at 859 Devonshire Road, has operated smoothly and efficiently. The following synopsis shows
the quantities of posts shipped during the past year and to whom:—
Standard
Pipe
Standard
Rock
B.C.L.S.
Bars
Purchased by private surveyors from headquarters..
Supplied to Departmental surveyors 	
Shipped to Government Agents for resale __
Totals - _	
246
885
2,745
3,876
202
46
582
830
313
3,310
9,800
13,423
Summary of Office Work for the Years 1958 and 1959,
Legal Surveys Division
1958 1959
Number of field-books received  469 565
„         lots surveyed   501 613
lots plotted   566 763
,,          lots gazetted   454 419
„          lots cancelled  15 43
„         mineral-claim field-books prepared -__ 155 313
„         reference maps compiled or renewed... 52 6
„         applications for purchase cleared  2,582 2,690
„         applications for pre-emption cleared __ 174 160
„         applications for lease cleared  1,236 1,854
,,         coal licences cleared   Nil Nil
„         water licences cleared  59 55
„         timber sales cleared  5,450 6,122
„         Crown-grant applications cleared  1,078 1,545
„         cancellations made   5,554 4,733
„         inquiries cleared  2,025 1,738
„         placer-mining leases plotted on maps 271 346
„         letters received and dealt with  5,477 6,267
„         land-examination plans   2,192 2,473
„         Crown-grant and lease tracings made 2,145 1,935
„         miscellaneous tracings made  43 16
„         photostats made  44,548 50,349
blue-prints made   200,251 196,421
„         documents consulted and filed in vault 140,347 80,732 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 39
FIELD WORK
The field programme carried out by this Division stems from requests for surveys of all types, from various departments of Government, but mainly, of course,
from the Lands Department. In addition, a considerable amount of highway surveying is carried out on a cost-sharing basis with the Department of Highways.
Subdivisions of Crown Land
Town lots were surveyed at Chetwynd, Fort Nelson, New Denver, Alberni,
and Victoria, producing 460 residential lots. Home-sites along main highways at
Williams Lake and Salmo numbered thirty-one lots. Water-front home-site parcels
at One Island Lake in the Peace River District, at McKinley, Sheridan, Pressy,
Rail, and Fletcher Lakes in the Cariboo region, Seymour Lake near Smithers, and
at Bella Bella on the coast totalled 170 sites. Acreage lots numbering ninety units
at Athalmer, Babine Lake, Okanagan Falls, Ladner, Edgewood, Bella Bella, Port
Alberni, and Fort Nelson rounded out the subdivision work.
Public Recreational and Special Reserves, Lands Department
In most areas being subdivided by the Department and in other areas of
interest, land is reserved for public recreation, stock-watering, and industrial use.
Fifteen such areas were surveyed at One Island, Sheridan, McKinley, Pressy, Rail,
and Felker Lakes, at Athalmer, Ladner, and Beach Grove-Boundary Bay.
Park-sites, Department of Recreation and Conservation
Five park-sites, totalling 496 acres, were surveyed at the following locations:
Moberly Lake, 13 acres; John Dean Park extension, 258 acres; Rock Creek, 4
acres; Bull River, 190 acres; and Saltspring Island, 31 acres. These were all
privately owned lands being acquired for public use.
Forest Service Sites
A site for a future Ranger station on One Island Lake, a boat-landing foreshore reserve at Prince George and reposting of the upland property, an addition
to the existing Ranger station at Telkwa, and a new location at Nukko Lake, north
of Prince George, completed the four commitments to the Forest Service.
Highways
In all, a total of 70.7 miles of highway was surveyed over several locations,
widely dispersed throughout the Province. In the East Kootenay area a start was
made westward from previous Departmental surveys, coming from Cranbrook to
Lumberton. Twelve miles of highway were surveyed through numerous Crown-
granted mineral claims and in the vicinity of rail- and power-line rights-of-way,
making the progress of the work somewhat less than straightforward. Continuing
on from last year's survey of part of the Okanagan Highway, an additional 6.1
miles were surveyed into Peachland. Reconstruction of old surveys was again the
biggest factor affecting progress of work. On the Trans-Canada Highway 13 miles
between Canoe and Sicamous were completed. In this section, which was fairly
rugged in parts, the disagreement with subdivision surveys, which in general were
of a very low order, was notable, and presented more than a fair share of problems.
Another 8.3 miles of Trans-Canada Highway, between Savona and Cherry Creek
through sections posted with Dominion-style iron pins, went very well, with practically all old evidence readily found. However, the remaining section of 3 miles
of Trans-Canada Highway on Vancouver Island at Dougan Lake was again affected
L BB 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
by old surveys being difficult to reconstruct. On the Cariboo Highway, 22.5 miles,
in the area from Hixon to Stone Creek, made a sizeable contribution to our total.
A very unfortunate, quite serious accident occurred in this area to one of our
instrumentmen working on the centre line, who was struck by a motorist at a high
rate of speed. Usually it is found that the local traffic respects and obeys the
" Survey Party Working " signs and slows down. General through traffic, especially heavy-truck traffic, which does not want to gear down, with exceptions, is
the menace on the road to surveyors. If the answer is that flagmen must be employed on survey crews, the cost will rise again. A further 5.9 miles of the Northern Trans-Provincial Highway west of Engen toward Fort Fraser completes the
total accomplished. In this area, of course, it is well known that old surveys have
been destroyed by fire, necessitating the running of exceedingly long tie lines.
Inspections
Only two inspection surveys were carried out this season, one at the request
of a Registrar of a land registration district. The survey being questioned was
found to be quite accurate, and obviously the request was formed from erroneous
information being supplied by the owners. The second inspection was prompted
by the desire of this Division to check on surveys of Crown land in a remote area.
The results were most gratifying, indicating that the survey was of a good order.
Reposting
Although the accent, in fitting appropriations to work needing to be done,
must always be given to surveys of importance at the moment, such as those subdivisions, park-sites, highways, etc., previously reported on, it is realized that
basically, from a broad survey outlook, these are not the important things. These
are surveys to get more people settled on the land, provide for their recreation, and
compensate them for land taken for highway purposes, and, although basic needs
which cannot be done without, they do not alleviate the seriousness of the continuing problem, which is the deterioration of old surveys. This is the big problem
that some authority must face. Through fire, logging, clearing, road construction,
flood, and the casual attitude of some of the public, there are areas where no survey-
posts exist for miles. Surveyed land in areas such as these, and it goes without
saying that the Crown is a majority owner in these places, is more of a liability
than if it had never been surveyed. An attempt, which merely scratches the surface
of the problem, is made every year, in conjunction with other surveys, to repost
some of the missing corners. In two old townsites—at Beaverdell and Coalmont—
a total of 152 corners of blocks, mostly street intersections, were replaced to aid
in the location of more sales of Crown lands and to assist local surveys. In conjunction with other Departmental surveys of all kinds, a total of 185 corners of
section and district lots were replaced by standard bronze-capped monuments.
New Methods
In conjunction with other divisions of this Branch, 5 miles of highway survey
between Savona and Cherry Creek, being conducted by normal methods, were set
up for survey using the Wild A-7 autograph. This Division targeted the eight
centre-line control points as well as twenty-one section corners and carried out the
17 miles of precise levels necessary for vertical control. The area is practically
treeless, and with Provincial triangulation in the vicinity, it was considered that
maximum comparative results could be obtained here with a minimum of effort,
fully realizing that normal areas for survey by photogrammetric methods would
present more problems. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 41
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief
Highlighting the activities of this past year was the reorganization of the Multiplex Section as a Photogrammetric Plotting Centre. The addition and changes to
the building were completed early in the spring, allowing us for the first time to
bring all our multiplex equipment into production. The second major development
was the acquisition, by lease from Wild of Canada Limited, of a Wild A-7 precision
autograph plotter. This first-order instrument opens up an entire new field of operation in photogrammetric mapping, and is expected, in combination with the Wild
RC-8 air camera, to achieve marked economies in photography and field control
in future mapping projects.
Recently the Fraser River Board purchased a Kelsh plotter for use in meeting
its mapping requirements. This machine, together with an operator, has been
installed in the Plotting Centre, and a heavy schedule of work is anticipated. Sixteen men are now employed in this Centre.
With eleven Multiplex tables, an A-7 and a Kelsh available, the scope of work
now possible ranges from standard topographic mapping with a contour interval of
100 feet to 20-feet-to-l-inch plans with a vertical interval as low as 1 foot.
Our field parties completed control for seventeen and one-half standard National
Topographic map-sheets, covering approximately 6,650 square miles. In addition,
four large-scale projects were completed, as well as several special areas in Victoria
and New Westminster. It was also found that credit can now be taken for an additional seven map-sheets or approximately 2,600 square miles simply by having
acquired the A-7. Control which previously was too sparse for the multiplex is
sufficient for the A-7.    But of far greater significance is the fact that these seven
MAIN    TRIANGULATION ®
SECONDARY TRIANGULATION    A
Fig. 1. BB 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
map-sheets cover two areas which we had been forced to abandon—namely, the
Hook Lake area for two consecutive years because of bad weather, and the
Homathko icefields because of hazardous flying conditions. We expect further
bonuses from the same source, as our mapping programme extends into more of
these areas of high relief bordering completed map-sheets.
Mr. K. M. Bridge, B.C.L.S., commenced operation in the Wells Gray Park
area using a Bell G-2 helicopter chartered from Pacific Helicopters Limited and
our own aircraft, the De Haviland Beaver, for transportation. He used three
Tellurometer units—one master and two remotes. Mr. Bridge was replaced by
Mr. F. O. Speed, B.C.L.S., on August 1st in this section and returned to Victoria
to take charge of several special projects. Relieving the party chief in mid-season
was tried on an experimental basis, in an endeavour to cut down on the tension
built up over a full season on a fully air-borne operation. It is interesting to note
that both party chiefs, although admitting the success of the experiment, agreed
that they would prefer to operate on a four-month basis.
Fig. 2. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 43
Fig. 3. BB 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Mr. G. New, B.C.L.S., completed an area he commenced in 1958 in the Bella
Coola district (see Fig. 1), joining up to Federal Government control in the vicinity
of Anahim Lake. This very rugged section was completed after a great amount of
physical effort, there being no helicopter or aeroplane transport available. Climbs
of over 9,000 feet from the valley-floor were made during the year. Horses were
used to advantage once the Interior Plateau was reached. This plateau, which
averages about 4,000 feet, also heralds a change in topography, for here the mountains, while still between 7,000 and 8,000 feet in altitude, are of a different configuration, having long slopes and fewer glaciers.
Mr. A. D. Wight, B.C.L.S., operating in the vicinity of Bridge Lake, east of
the Cariboo Highway, from Clinton north to 143 Mile House, was responsible for
half of the map-sheet total (see Fig. 2). The main portion of this area is forest-
covered rolling hills and not economically suitable for a helicopter operation. It
was by-passed the previous year for that reason. Transportation was by four-
wheel-drive Land Rovers over a fairly well distributed network of secondary and
private roads. The helicopter was used for two four-day periods in inaccessible
mountainous sections and proved very effective. The vertical control over these
ten map-sheets was done by barometric heighting with the helicopter by Mr. Bridge.
Mr. A. M. Barber, B.C.L.S., completed four large-scale projects—namely,
South Okanagan, Salmon River (which is an addition to the North Okanagan),
Similkameen, and Savona-Cherry Creek (see Fig. 3). The first three were requested
by the Water Rights Branch, and the fourth in conjunction with the Legal Division
was designated a test project for the A-7 personnel.
Mr. E. S. W. Andrews, B.C.L.S., in his report of the Photogrammetric Plotting
Centre, shows five completed projects totalling 1,211 square miles. Fifteen and
a half standard topographic map-sheets were set up in the multiplex and are ready
for plotting, and a strip 17 miles long and 3 miles wide was plotted for the British
Columbia-Yukon Boundary Commission.
Mr. S. L. Clarke, Chief Draughtsman, reports the completion of eighteen
standard topographic manuscripts at the scale of 2 inches to 1 mile, ninety-one
large-scale mapping plans at various scales, and the plotting of the cadastral surveys
on fifty-two Federal Government 1:50,000 manuscripts.
The Federal Government now has thirty-seven 1:50,000 scale manuscripts on
hand for printing, which are in various stages of lithography.
Copies of the multiplex large-scale mapping and the completed manuscripts
as shown on the following indexes are available upon request.
List of British Columbia Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed
(See Index 4.)
Sheet                           Date Sheet                           Date
82 F/3  - 1951     92 C/14     1938
82 F/4 --.1944, 1947     92 C/15 1937, 1938
82 K/U, W 1952     92 C/16  1937, 1938, 1942
82 K/12    1952     92 E/l - ~~  1942
82 L/7   1958     92 E/7     1946
82 L/10   1958     92 E/8 _  1943,1946
82 M/13   1959     92 E/9 1938, 1946, 1947
83 D/4 1959     92 E/10 1947
83 D/5    1959     92 E/14 _ 1948
92 B/5    1937, 1938, 1955     92 E/16       1947
92 B/6, W 1955     92 F/l  —    1942
92 B/ll, W 1955     92 F/2 ~~ - 1938, 1940, 1942
92 B/12     1938, 1955     92 F/3   1938, 1940, 1941
92 B/13    1942, 1943, 1951     92 F/4   1942
92 B/14   _   1951     92 F/5     1937, 1938, 1943
92 C/8 _   1937, 1938     92 F/6  _ 1937, 1940, 1941, 1943
92 C/9  1937, 1938     92 F/7    1942, 1943
92 C/10   1937, 1938     92 F/8 ~~   1942, 1943, 1950
92 C/ll      ... 1938     92 F/9  _   1950
92 C/13    1938     92 F/10  - ...1950, 1953 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 45
List of British Columbia Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed—Continued
Sheet
92 F/ll	
92 F/12	
92 F/13 	
92 F/14 	
92 F/15, part
92 F/16, part
92 G/4	
92 G/5 	
92 G/7, part _
92 G/10, part
92 G/ll
Date
 1934, 1935
.1936, 1937, 1938
 1935,1936
 1935
  1950
 1950
 .1942, 1943
 1950, 1952
 1940
 1940
  1952
92 G/12   1950, 1952
92 G/13   1950, 1952
92 G/14  1952
92 H/l .1920, 1923, 1949
92 H/2  1923, 1949
92 H/3 .1924, 1931,1948, 1949
92 H/4 .1948, 1956
92 1/12   1958
92 1/13      1958
92 J/15  _  1948, 1949
92 J/16 _ 1948, 1949
92 K/l, part  1950
92 K/3  1949
92 K/4 1949
92 K/5 1949
92 K/6 1949
92 L/l   1932
92 L/2   1931, 1932
92 L/3  1948
92 L/4    .1948
92 L/6   1931, 1934
92 L/7    _ 1931
92 L/8 ...1932
92 L/10  1931, 1940, 1956
92 L/ll  _ ...   1940
92 L/12 1935, 1936
92 L/13   _ ....1936
92M/3  1957
92 M/4   ...1957
92 M/5  _  1957
92 N/1   1958
92 N/7  _ 1958
92 N/8 _ ...1958
92 N/9  - 1958
92 N/10 .1958
92 N/15 1958
92 O/l  _ 1950
92 0/2  1947
92 0/3  _ 1958
92 0/4 ....   1958
92 0/5 ._ -.1958
92 0/6  _ 1958
92 0/7  1950, 1958
92 0/8 _ _1950
92 0/9 _ 1951
92 O/10  1958
92 O/ll ....1958
92 0/12  1958
92 0/16 _    1951
92 P/2 _ 1959
92 P/3   1959
92 P/4  _ _.1958
92 P/5  _...1958
92 P/6  1959
92 P/7 _ _ 1959
92 P/10    _ 1959
92 P/ll _ 1959
92 P/12  _ 1958
92 P/13  1958
92 P/14    1959
92 P/15    1959
92 P/16  _ 1959
93 A/1 _ _   1959
93 A/2, part    1936
93 A/4  _  1959
93 A/5  _  1935
93 A/6 .1935
Sheet
93 A/7, part	
Date
 1936
93 A/8	
  1959
93 A/10, part	
 ...1934
93 A/11	
 1933,1934
93 A/12  	
1931, 1933, 1934
93 A/13	
  1934
93 A/14	
 1933, 1934
93 A/15, part 	
1934
93 B/l	
      1951
93 B/8	
 1952
93 B/9    	
 1950
93 B/16  	
   ...1950
93 C/5	
 1959
93 D/7, E	
 1958
93 D/8       	
  1958, 1959
93 G/2 part
 1933
 1933
93 G/14 -	
 1948
93 1/8      	
 1956
93 1/9    	
 1956
93 1/10    	
 1956
93 1/11	
  1959
93 1/12
 1959
93 1/13  	
    1959
93 1/14
  1959
93 1/15  —	
  1956
93 1/16  -	
   1956
93 J/2    	
 1949
93 J/3
. 1949
93 K/l  	
 1946
93 K/2
 1946
93 L/2 -... 	
 1951
93 L/7 	
 1951
93 L/8	
 1951
93 L/9   	
 1951
93 L/10 	
 1950, 1951
93 L/l1  	
  1950
93 L/14  - .
 1950
93 M/5
1949
93 M/12	
   1949
93 O/l	
 1957
93 0/6 	
....  1957
93 0/8 	
 1957
93 O/ll	
 1957
93 0/12	
 1957
93 O/l3 ....	
 1957
93 O/l4	
 1957
93 P/l	
 1956
93 P/2	
 1956
93 P/3	
 1957
93 P/4 	
... 1957
93 P/5	
 1957
93 P/6  	
 ...1957
93 P/7 	
  1956
93 P/8 	
 1956
94 B/4	
  1939, 1957
94 C, part 	
   ... 1939
94 E, part	
     1939
94 F, part	
 1939
94 L, part 	
   1940, 1941
94 M, part  ..	
 1941
102 1/8	
   1935, 1937
102 1/9  	
 1935, 1936, 1937
102 1/15	
 1937
102 1/16	
 1936, 1937
103 1/2	
              1949
103 1/7 	
1948
103 1/10	
1947
103 P/9	
   1949
103 P/10, E.  	
            1950
103 P/14, E	
      1950
103 P/15  	
             1950
104 A/2, W	
 ....1950
104 A/3	
      1950
104 A/5, E	
 1950
104 A/6	
      1950
104 A/11, W	
           1951
104 A/12  	
 1951 BB 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
List of British Columbia Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed—Continued
Sheet
104 A/13, W.
104 B/16 ......
104 G/l	
104 G/8 	
104 G/9 	
104 G/14 	
104 G/15
Date
.......1951
 1951
 .195!
 1951
 1951
 1951
 1951
104 G/16    _ ...1951
104 H/12, W.   - 1951
104 H/13, W.   — 1951
104 J/2, W   .1952
104 J/3   1952
104 J/4     1952
104 J/5  --   1952
104 J/12  .-   .1952
Sheet
104 J/13  _	
Date
 - 1952
104 K/16, E. 	
 - 1952, 1953
104 N/1   	
 ....1952, 1953
104 N/2	
             1953
104 N/3, E.  	
   1953
104 N/5	
 1952
104 N/6	
            1952, 1953
104 N/7, part	
                  . 1953
104 N/11, W	
 1952
104 N/12  	
 __ 1952
104 N/13 .-- -	
 1952
104 P, part -- -	
            ..   1941
104 P/15 -- -	
 1941
104 P/16, part  -	
 1941
List of Large-scale Mapping
(See Index 6.)
No.
Name
Available
Scale
Contour
Interval
No. of
Sheets
Date
XI
S.P. 1
Goldfields	
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1"=800', 900',
1,000', 1,320'
1"=200', 600'
1"=1,000'
1"=_ 1,000'
1"=20 ch.
1"=   550'
1"=10 ch.
1"=10 ch.
1"=10 ch.
1"=1,300'
1"=13 ch.
1"=   100'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   100'
1"=1,000'
V—   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,320'
1"=   200'
1"=   200'
1"=   400'
1"=   400'
1"=1,320'
1"=   400'
1"=   500'
1"_=   500'
1"=   100'
1"= 1,320'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   300'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   400'
1"_=   200'
1"=   500'
100'
Mosaic
5'-50' then 50'
5'-50' then 50'
20'
20'
100'
50'
so-
so'
500'
5'
50'
20'-40'
5'
50'
10'-20'
20--40'
50'
5'
Spot heights
5'-10'-25'
5'-10'-20'
100'
20'-100'
20'-40'
20'-40'
50'
50'
2O'-40'
20'-40'
20'-40'
50'
20'
20'
50'
20'-40'
10'
10'
10'
20'
5'-10'-15'
20'-40'
10'
5'-10'-20'
20'
10'
Planimetric
10'-20'
18
20
C1)
13
1
1
38
8
6
13
28
73
2
7
(2)
11
12
8
6
6
1
1
26
3
39
8
23
11
5
2
7
7
20
8
11
2
4
2
S P. 2
1957
S.P. 3
1958
1
1952
2
1951/52
3
1950
4
1951/52
5
1951
6
1952/53
7
1951
8
1951/52
9
10
Salmo  	
1952
1952
11
1952
1953
14
1951
1953
16
1953
1953
1953/54
19
Doukhobor Lands—■
1953/54
20
Krestova, Raspberry,
Brilliant, etc 	
1953/54
1953/54
21
1954
24
28
M 2
Moran Pondage	
Clearwater 	
1954/55
M3
1955
M 4
1955
M 5
1955
M6
1955
M7
1955/56
M 8
1956
M9
1956
M 11
1955
M 12
1955
M 13
1954
M 14
1954
M 15
1954
M 16
1956
M17
M21
Creston 	
Clearwater	
1954
1955
1956
M26
M27
1958
M29
M 30
Naramala	
1956
1956
M34
1957
1 One (Map 5e).
- See No. 17. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
List of Large-scale Mapping—Continued
BB 47
No.
Name
Available
Scale
Contour
Interval
No. of
Sheets
Date
M36
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
!--
1"= 1,000'
1"=1,000'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   600'
1"=1,000'
1"=   600'
1"=1,320'
1"=   200'
1"=   200'
1"=   500'
1"=2,640'
1"=   500'
1"=1,320'
1"=   500'
1"=1,320'
1"=   400'
1"=   400'
1"=1,320'
1"=1,320'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   200'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"=     40'
1"=   400'
1"=1,000'
20-40'
2(K-40'
2O'-40'
20'
10'
20'
20'
20'
50'
5'
5'
50'
100'
20'
20'
10'
20'-2,600' then 50'
10'
10'
20'
25'
20'
10'
10'
10' and 20'
10' and 20'
20'
2'
5'
20'
4
5
3
9
7
3
10
2
8
17
1
10
2
2
63s
10
4
3
10
43
5
1
25
1957
M37
1956/57
M38
1956/57
M39
1956-57
(1957)
M39
(1958)
M39
(1959)
M40
Dease-Stikine Dam-sites	
Dease-Stikine Dam-sites	
1956
M41
1958
M42
1957
M43
Alert Bay	
1956
M44
1958
M45
1958
M52
1959
M 54
Big Bar
1957
M56
1958
M59
1958
M62
M63
M 66
Alberni.—_ -	
Parsnip River Pondage	
1958
1958
1958
M67
1958
M68
1958
M70
1958
M73
1959
M73
1959
M74
M75
Glinz Lake	
1959
1959
M76
M77
Nanaimo - -	
M83
Oakalla	
M89
3 South area. BB 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
W. R. Young, B.C.L.S., Chief, and Provincial Representative on
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
The general level of activity in the Geographic Division during 1959 balanced
that of the preceding year, the most notable exceptions being an increase in number of map-sheets distributed and a continuing upward trend in the volume of correspondence attended to. Public reception of new maps produced by the Division
has continued to be very gratifying. Seven new maps were released during 1959.
However, it was necessary to divert part of the effort of the mapping programme
to the reprinting of six maps, the stock of which had been unexpectedly depleted
by heavy demand. The number of triangulation adjustments completed by Trigonometric Control Section was slightly lower than for the previous year, while the
number of map-sheets checked and new names recorded were both higher than
in 1958.
More detailed reports for each section of the Geographic Division follow.
There were several resignations during 1959, but, fortunately, good replacements
were obtained for all vacancies; nevertheless, our establishment is still below that
of the early 1950's, and a backlog of name and map checking has resulted from
this shortage. One facet of administration of the Division—that is, the volume
of correspondence—has risen steadily during the last five years. As shown in the
statistical tables, the number of letters received and attended to grew almost one-
fifth during the period 1955-59.
Trigonometric Control Section continued to work primarily in connection
with topographic field parties. Major control was undertaken for the Wells Gray
Park, Bridge River, and Anahim Lake-Bella Coola regions, and along the boundary
separating British Columbia from the Yukon and Northwest Territories. Smaller
projects involved the Southern Okanagan, Kamloops, Stikine River, and Keremeos
areas. Work was completed on the final positions of over 600 survey monuments
along the northern boundary of British Columbia from the extreme north-eastern
corner westward to the vicinity of Bennett Lake. Tables of least-square triangulation adjustments completed and of other duties accomplished by Trigonometric
Control Section may be found in the statistical tables of this report.
The research assistant carried on the programme of replacing the old series
of land bulletins written twenty or more years ago with a new and completely
revised series. Two new bulletins were distributed—No. 8 (Prince Rupert-Smithers)
and No. 1 (Kootenay), the former early in the year and the latter in December.
Demand has been so large that it was necessary to reprint (with minor revision)
five bulletins of the new series—No. 3 (Lower Coast), No. 4 (Vancouver Island),
No. 5 (Quesnel-Lillooet), No. 7 (Fort Fraser-Fort George), and No. 10 (Peace
River). The research assistant also compiled a small-scale map of precipitation
which will be inset into the forthcoming 1JR (relief) map of the Province.
The Geographic Division is responsible for the official representation of to-
ponomy on all published maps of British Columbia. In this connection, thirty-
eight map-sheets produced by the Federal Departments of National Defence and
of Mines and Technical Surveys were checked for nomenclature during 1959. In
addition, 372 new place-names were recorded, and research was continued into
the origin of established names.
Two staff members undertook a field culture check in the Nakusp-Kaslo area
of the West Kootenay. The results of this work will be integrated into new Provincial editions of Maps 82 F/NW and 82 K/SW and the west halves of Maps SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 49
82 G/NE and 82 K/SE. These editions, when published, will replace portions of
the following Provincial Degree Series maps: 4a (first issued in 1927), 4b (now
out of print), and 4f. Also, nine Topographic Division manuscripts were checked
for cultural detail before being sent to Ottawa for reproduction.
The most popular new maps produced and printed by Geographic Division
during 1959 were Regional Map 1g (East Central British Columbia), at a scale of
1 inch to 10 miles, and National Topographic Map 92 B/NW & SW (parts of),
at 1 inch to 2 miles. With the production of Map 1g, the southern two-thirds of
the Province is now completely covered by 10-mile regional maps. Like others in
the series, Map 1g was printed in three variations—planimetric, grey overprint,
and brown landforms. The Victoria map, 92 B/NW & SW (parts of), has enjoyed
the greatest initial popularity of what is, as a whole, a very popular series. This
sheet, which covers the south-eastern corner of Vancouver Island, was heavily
requested by the general public. In the first six weeks following its release, 1,808
copies of this map were distributed.
The Cartographic Section published a total of thirteen maps (seven new and
six reprintings), while work progressed on fourteen others. Besides the three variations of Map 1g and Sheet 92 B/NW & SW (parts of), both of which have been
mentioned previously, two additional sheets of the l-inch-to-2-miles National Topographic Series appeared in 1959. These were Grand Forks (82 E/SE) and Trail
(82 F/SW). It was also necessary to reprint five l-inch-to-2-miles sheets—namely,
Kelowna (82 E/NW), Penticton (82 E/SW), Chilliwack Lake (92 H/SW), Tula-
meen (92 H/NE), and Princeton (92 H/SE). The Cartographic Section also
statused and produced one new National Topographic map at 1:250,000 scale,
this being Anahim Lake (93c). Bonaparte River (92p), also at the same scale,
was reprinted.
Army Survey Establishment, Ottawa, printed twenty-five topographic manuscripts for British Columbia in 1959, including six maps converted from a scale of
1 inch to 1 mile to 1:50,000. The Division co-operated in the preparation of the
manuscripts and checked colour proofs of the finished maps, in return for which
major stocks of all but two of these maps were received. The Army Survey Establishment continued to make its manuscript mapping available to the public in
"provisional" form. In 1959 five provisional sheets were made available at
1:250,000 scale, and forty-one sheets at 1:50,000 scale. Additional maps of
British Columbia released by Ottawa agencies consisted of thirty-one full-colour
sheets at 1:50,000 scale.
Once again, map distribution climbed to new levels in 1959, when 78,074
maps with a value of $27,117.50 were distributed. Requests from the general
public made up the largest part of the increase of 15,530 sheets over 1958. Particularly outstanding was the demand for National Topographic Sheet Victoria,
92 B/NW & SW (parts of). Similar to previous years, the summer months marked
the heaviest demand for maps. In July alone, 10,237 sheets were taken by the
general public and by Government departments.
In addition to the usual assembling, editing, and distributing of the Lands
Service Annual Report, the Division undertook many draughting and miscellaneous
tasks for other departments—the total being twenty, comprising 1,082 man-hours
for a work value of $2,754. Again the usual assistance was given in the preparation of descriptions for administrative boundaries, such as electoral districts, polling
divisions, and school districts.
The following statistical tables are a numerical summary of achievements by
the various sections of the Geographic Division.    Indexes to Published Maps BB 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(Nos. 8 to 14, inclusive), together with information regarding prices, scales, dates
of publication, and other facts, may be found in an envelope attached to the back
cover of this Report.
STATISTICAL
Computations
Least-square Triangulation Adjustments Completed
Net
Locality
Type of
Bearings
Number of
Triangles
Involved
British Columbia-Yukon Boundary, non-closure final
British Columbia-Yukon Boundary, final closure
Chilko Lake and vicinity (revision) 	
True
True
Grid
Grid
Grid
Grid
129
241
Provincial Secondary -	
Canadian Hydrographic Service-
31
48
21
72
The following tables give comparisons with the previous five-year period:
Computations
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
28
537
114
143
1,192
830
22,144
314
518
810
49
239
1,415
576
23,559
378
814
536
32
82
1,093
888
24,652
461
567
669
70
325
1,637
613
26,289
403
562
918
22
378
1,173
1,297
27,462
397
542
Stations calculated from rectangular co-ordinates ...
Ties to cadastral surveys	
806
24
133
Index cards—
1,563
945
29,025
383
Old (rewritten)	
Requests for control attended to   -	
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
Number of map-sheets or charts checked-
Number of names checked 	
Number of new names recorded	
102 |
83
61
54
49
51
11,683  |
8,766
6,664
8,884
4,698
6,321
442 |
1
655
247
306
278
372
Map Stock and Distribution
Maps issued to departments and public.
Maps received into stock—	
Total value of maps issued.	
43,741  |    48,043  |    59,290
97,274 |    84,573 | 129,901
$17,382 I $18,995 | $20,525
I
55,167 62,544 |  78,074
181,412 117,729 j  92,374
$20,441 | $21,911 |$27,117.50
I
Geographical Work
for Other Departments
and Public
1
68 |           60
$1,361  !    S1.990
84
S2.687
1
86 |           55
$2,654 |    $1,447
1
20
$2,754
1                 1
Letters
1                 1
7.356   I       5 783   1       5 419
5,516
6,545
6,865
I SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Maps Published during 1959
Maps Reproduced and Printed by the Geographic Division, Victoria
BB 51
Map No.
Name
Scale
Remarks
lo
Igl
lGLS
92P
93c
82 E/NW
82 E/SW
82 E/SE
82 F/SW
92 H/SW
92 H/NE
92 H/SE
92 B/NW & SW
East Central British Columbia, planimetric
East Central British Columbia, iandforms..
East Central British Columbia, landforms in brown..
Bonaparte River (first status edition) 	
Anahim Lake (first status edition) _ —	
Kelowna (first status edition)	
Penticton (first status edition)..
Grand Forks (first status edition)	
Trail (first status edition) 	
Chilliwack Lake (first status edition)..
Tulameen (second status edition)..	
Princeton (second status edition)	
Victoria (first status edition) _.
in. to 10 mi.
in. to 10 mi.
in. to 10 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
Reprint, no revision.
Six colours, contoured.
Status overprint, no revision.
Status overprint, no revision.
Six colours, contoured.
Six colours, contoured.
Status overprint, no revision.
Six colours, contoured.
Six colours, contoured.
Six colours, contoured.
Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Reproduced and Printed
at 1:50,000 Scale by the Canadian Government, Ottawa
Map No.
Name
Map No.
Name
92 G/7, E. & W.
Coquitlam (second edition).
104 G/14, E.&W.
Telegraph Creek (first edition).
92G/12.E. &W.
Sechelt Inlet (first edition).
104G/16, E. &W.
Klastline River (first edition).
92 H/4, E. & W.
Chilliwack (fourth edition).
104 J/2, W.
Classy Creek (first edition).
92 L/2, E. & W.
Woss Lake (second edition).
104 J/3, E.&W.
Tahltan River (first edition).
92 L/3, E. & W.
Kyuquot (first edition).
104 J/12, E.&W.
Dudidontu River (first edition).
92 0/16, E. &W.
Springhouse (first edition).
104 J/13, E.&W.
Prairie Lake (first edition).
93B/1.E. &W.
Williams Lake (first edition).
Maps in Course of Reproduction
Maps Being Reproduced by the Geographic Division, Victoria
Map No.
Name
Scale
ljR
Id
92f
92g
92k
92o
92p
82 E/NW
82 F/NE
82 F/NW
82 K/SW
82 L/NW
92 I/NE
92 G/SW
British Columbia relief map___	
North-eastern British Columbia	
Alberni-Nanaimo (second status edition)-
Vancouver (second status edition) _.
Bute Inlet (second status edition)	
Taseko Lake (first status edition)	
Bonaparte River (second status edition) ....
Kelowna (second status edition)	
Kaslo (first status edition)—	
Slocan (first status edition) _	
Nakusp (first status edition)	
Shuswap (first status edition)..
Kamloops Lake (first status edition)..
Vancouver (first status edition)	
in. to 30 mi.
in. to 10 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
in. to 2 mi.
In draughting.
In draughting.
In compilation.
In compilation.
Draughting complete.
In draughting.
In draughting.
In draughting.
In compilation.
In compilation.
In compilation.
Draught:ng complete.
Draught'ng complete.
In draughting. BB 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Provincial Government Manuscripts Being Reproduced by the Canadian
Government, Ottawa, at 1:50,000 Scale
Map No.
Name
Map No.
Name
82K/11.W.
Trout Lake (first edition).
93B/8, E. &W.
Soda Creek (first edition).
82 K/12, E. & W.
Beaton (first edition).
104 A/2, W.
Kwinageese River (first edition).
92B/5, E. &W.
Sooke (second edition).
104 A/5, E.
Bowser Lake (first edition).
92 B/6, W.
Victoria (second edition).
104 A/6, E.&W.
Bell-Irving River (first edition).
92B/11.W.
Sidney (second edition).
104 A/11, W.
Taft Creek (first edition).
92B/12, E. &W.
Shawnigan (second edition).
104 A/12, E.&W.
Delta Peak (first edition).
92 G/14, E.&W.
Cheakamus River (first edition).
104 A/13, W.
Mount Alger (first edition).
92H/1.E. &W.
Ashnola (first edition).
104 B/16, E.&W.
Bob Quinn Lake (first edition).
92 H/2, E. & W.
Manning Park (first edition).
104H/12, W.
Kluea River (first edition).
92 J/15, E.&W.
Bralorne (first edition).
104H/13, W.
Ealue Lake (first edition).
92 J/16, E.&W.
Bridge River (first edition).
104 J/5, E.&W.
Ketchum Lake (first edition).
92 L/4, E. & W.
Brooks Peninsula (first edition).
104 K/16, E.
Nahlin River (first edition).
92 L/10, E.&W.
Alert Bay (first edition).
104 N/1, E.&W.
NakinaLake (first edition).
92 O/l, E.&W.
Yalakom River (first edition).
104 N/2, E. & W.
Nakina (first edition).
92 0/8, E. & W.
Empire Valley (first edition).
104 N/3, E.
Sloko River (first edition).
92 0/9, E. & W.
Dog Creek (first edition). SURVEYS AND MAPPING  BRANCH
BB 53
AIR DIVISION
W. Hall, P.Eng., B.C.R.F.
Activities of the Air Division during the year 1959 followed the same general
pattern that has been established over the years, the only change being that the major
effort is now concentrated on l-inch-to-20-chain photography and mapping rather
than the l-inch-to-40-chain.
This photography and mapping are initially being concentrated along the main
transportation routes to cater to the immediate pressing requirements of the various
Government agencies administering the affairs of the Province.
The Forest Service is by far the major customer, and, therefore, the efforts of
the Division are concentrated on areas of importance to them, and the major portion
of the productive efforts of the Division is allocated to their requirements.
The photos and maps produced are, of course, available to all other interested
agencies, both Government and private, and are proving of great value.
Some experiments were made at the end of the year with photography from a
helicopter. A fabricated boom 15 feet long was fastened to the fuselage of the helicopter in a fore and aft direction. Two F-24 cameras, operated from a single control,
were mounted, one at each end of the boom. With this arrangement of cameras and
control it was possible to obtain simultaneous exposures of the two cameras and
hence obtain stereoscopic pairs with a precisely known base.
The results to date are very encouraging and have shown that perfectly acceptable photography can be obtained by this method. Work is presently proceeding
on tree heighting and species identification.
It is hoped that further experiments can be conducted in the coming spring,
when light conditions are more favourable.
Details of the Air Division's accomplishments during the year are given in the
following reports, tables, and maps by the various sections.
AIR OPERATIONS
In contrast to 1958, which was the most favourable year for photographic
weather that we have experienced, 1959 turned out to be the worst. As compared
to 612 flying-hours obtained in 1958, only 350 hours were obtained in 1959, the
lowest since the Air Division began functioning in 1946.
Despite this fact, 13,220 photos covering 12,215 square miles were obtained
for forest-inventory purposes, and an additional 1,379 lineal miles were covered by
photography for various other branches of the Government.
A total of 15,123 photos were obtained. (For detail of accomplishments see
tabulation of projects, pages 57 and 58, and Indexes 15 to 18, contained in pocket
inside the back cover of this Report.)
At the end of 1958 Pacific Western Airlines vacated the Government-owned
hangar at the Victoria International Airport, and it was necessary to reorganize our
maintenance procedure.
This was done in close co-operation with the Department of Highways and has
resulted in a most favourable working arrangement under which the available services
are pooled. The engine-shop was retained, which means that we can do all our
major engine overhauls, so that, with the exception of repairs to radios and component parts such as carburettors and magnetos and navigating instruments, all maintenance work can be done during the winter months by our own staff. BB 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
MAP COMPILATION
A total of twenty-six standard sheets and one half-sheet, totalling 7,659 square
miles, of 40-chains-to-l-inch interim maps were revised and 568 square miles of
new mapping completed during the year.
Apart from possible further revisions of sheets in areas where new ground
control is established, this completes the 40-chains-to-l-inch interim mapping programme, and the efforts of the mapping sections are now concentrated on the 1-inch-
to-20-chains scale mapping programme.
Principal-point lay-downs of the l-inch-to-20-chains scale photos have been
completed, covering a total of approximately 12,200 square miles, contained in 290
complete and partial sheets.
Only two sheets have been brought to the final map stage, but basic control,
including cadastral, highway, railway, and pipe-line surveys, has been plotted for an
area of 5,110 square miles contained in 110 separate map-sheets, and manuscripts
of twenty-four sheets have been compiled from the photos. (See Indexes 5 and 7,
contained in envelope inside back cover of this Report.)
PROCESSING LABORATORY
Mr. T. H. Bell, who had been in charge of the Processing Laboratory since
its inception in 1946, and who was directly responsible for the outstanding quality
and quantity of work produced by this section, retired from the Service in July of
this year. He was succeeded by Mr. E. B. Hackett, who has been working with him
since 1947.
A total of 146,119 prints of all kinds were produced and 324 rolls of film
developed. Of the prints, 137,645 were the standard 10- by 10-inch enlargements
from the 5- by 5-inch negatives, a slight increase over 1958. Of these, the Forest
Surveys received 67,500.
The new enlarger, incorporating the Log Etron automatic dodger, was given a
thorough test and proved most satisfactory, except for the exposure time required.
In order to obtain a sharp image, equivalent to that obtained using the concentrated
arc, it was necessary to reduce the lens aperture to f. 11, and at that aperture an
exposure time of 50 to 60 seconds was necessary to obtain a satisfactory print. The
possibility of incorporating a stronger light source is presently being investigated.
It is of interest to note that the following quantities of chemicals were used
during the year: Developing fluid, 62,520 gallons; hypo fixer, 1,500 gallons; and
number of rolls of film handled, 6,864.
AIR PHOTO LIBRARY
In addition to the 137,645 photos produced by the Processing Laboratory, of
which 45,644 were for private companies and the general public, a total of 31,950
photos were issued on loan from the Air Photo Library; 13,981 of these were for
private companies and the general public.
Records show that over the years there has been a steady increase in the demand
for reprints and loans from users other than Provincial Government agencies, which
no doubt reflects the general increasing tempo of activity in the Province.
INSTRUMENT-SHOP
Work is proceeding on the design and construction of a precision fixed-focus
enlarger which will be used to produce 9- by 9-inch plates from our standard 5- by
5-inch negatives obtained by the Williamson Eagle V camera. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 55
Provision is being made to incorporate a compensating plate into the optical
system that will equalize the distortion inherent in the lens of the taking camera,
and hence result in distortion-free plates that can be used in the plotting instruments
used by the Topographic Division.
STATISTICAL TABLES
Orders for Standard Prints (9 by 9 Inches) from
British Columbia Negatives, 1959
Reprints
Requisitions       Number
Loans
Requisitions       Number
Private—
Individuals-
Companies and organizations-
Mining..
Oil and natural gas	
Schools and universities-
Towns and cities	
Commercial air survey.—
Forest industries..	
Real estate	
Totals-
Federal Government—
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys-
Department of National Defence..	
Department of Agriculture   —
Department of Fisheries 	
Miscellaneous	
Totals—	
Provincial Government—
Surveys and Mapping Branch-
Land Inspectors .
Water Rights Branch	
Lands Branch (miscellaneous)..
Department of Highways	
Forest Surveys-
Department of Finance	
Department of Agriculture-
Department of Mines-
British Columbia Power Commission-
Regional Planning..
Department of Recreation and Conservation-
Pacific Great Eastern Railway 	
Totals-
Grand totals .
727
92
87
35
34
10
133
237
26
1,381
14
4
2
4
27
205
35
42
27
42
140
30
8
21
20
1
11
582
2,014
5,679
1,588
4,902
14,720
973
129
12,699
4,820
134
45,644
3,868
322
7
555
300
5,052
10,647
4,109
813
234
1,658
67,500
800
77
767
244
22
78
86,940
137,645
331
77
66
2
15
1
125
160
89
866
7
17
24
416
8
92
16
110
216
24
6
37
48
34
178
1
1,186
2,076
4,604
1,274
1,528
28
277
35
3,047
2,645
543
13,981
289
190
479
7,128
38
1,253
93
1,762
2,626
397
82
670
871
547
1,998
25
17,490
31,950
Public Loans and Reprints
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
18,308
30,669
12,054
38,450
11,059
62,843
8,646
32,131
13,981
45,644
48,977
50,504
73,902
40,777
59,625 bb 56 department of lands and forests
Production Record, 1959, Air Photo Processing Laboratory
1946-55
1956
1957
1958
Grand
Total
Processing completed—
Air films (averaging 117 exposures)  _	
Air films (averaging 220 exposures) __ 	
Air films (obliques averaging 40 exposures) 	
Air films (test rolls)    	
Mountain station films (6 exposures each)	
Printing completed—■
Standard prints (5 by 5 inches enlarged to 9 by 9 inches)
Contact prints (5 by 5 inches) 	
Contact prints (9Vi. by 9'/4 inches) 	
Contact prints (20 by 24 inches) _
Enlargements to 30 by 30 inches  __ 	
Mountain station enlargements (11 by 14 inches)	
Lantern slides (2 by 2 inches) 	
Autopositive films (various sizes to 30 by 40 inches)	
Miscellaneous photographs, copies and Kelsh plates	
Requisitions completed— _ —	
1,855
33
2,510
942,098
42,829
1,271
11,107
13,627
346
4,123
1,102
11,914
111
10
137,190
731
384
1,524
2,926
980
538
2,526
148
6
278
152,556
1,172
463
2,018
1,561
22
593
338
2,270
238
5
11
9
183
135,326
423
823
453
1,190
908
4
340
248
1,934
129
5
11
6
173
137,645
358
1,247
270
2,651
1,349
344
180 j
2,433 j
2,481
10
71
15
3,531
1,504,815
45,513
2,070
2,841
18,490
20,371
372
6,380
2,406
21,077
I SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
1959 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects
BB 57
2s
■«*
i-
Is
Accomplishment
n
o
U
ao
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E
a
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U
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it
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1
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A. Basic vertical cover—Queen Charlotte
Hr. Min.
5    50
1    30
28
i
i
$968.75
249.12
$968.75
 	
$71.00
C. Triangulation Control Identification—
Kamloops District. -	
 1         5
320.12
Average cost per station	
.._     |	
 .„„ |$64.02
1                  1	
D. Forest inventory cover—
1. New Cover—
1
2   25 j       71
4   05 !     250
90
225
635
330
$408.64
690.31
2,254.21
1,408.86
1,916.07
1,169.46
1,563.90
3,423.66
4,480.36
1,817.50
1,310.30
2,578.32
1,451.13
915.85
4,875.32
2,761.42
2.042.87
958.12
$184.60
650.00
1,794.00
618.80
1,664.00
1,118.00
1,648.40
4,163.70
4,162.00
2,054.00
1,690.00
2,249.00
1,211.60
681.20
3,736.20
2,737.80
i 4S1 sn
$593.24
1,340.31
Vancouver District, Sub-zone 917
13    20
8 20
11    20
6    55
9 15
20    15
26   30
10   45
690
238
640
430
634
1,600
1,599
790
—
4,048.21
2,027.66
490
400
590
1,310
1,350
680
560
860
590
265
1,585
1,030
975
250
3,580.07
Kamloops District, Sub-zone 932—
2,287.46
3,212.30
Kamloops District, Sub-zone 963 _..
7,587.36
8,642.36
3,871.50
7    45 |     650
\
15    15 1     865
3,000.30
Prince George District, Sub-zone
937   ■  	
4,827.32
2,662.73
Prince George District, Sub-zone
940 -- - 	
8    35
5   25
28    50
16   20
466
262
1,437
1.053
Prince George District, Sub-zone
041     - -	
1,597.05
8,611.52
Prince George District, Sub-zone
945        _	
Prince Rupert District, Sub-zone
948	
5,499.22
Prince Rupert District, Sub-zone
949       .    -           	
12    05  j     943
5    40 |     275
1
    1	
1
4 4QA 67
Nelson District, Sub-zone 977	
715.00]       1,673.12
213    05
3    501
12,893
327
12,215
I
$36,026.30
1636.58
«13 530.101   tfi9 556 40
2. Improvement flying — All districts
for 1959 __	
^829.27
216    55
13,220
12,215
$5.69
|
$36,026.30
$33,530.10
$69,556.40
Average costs, square mile	
. 1	
E. Forest Engineering—
Willow River Forest-development
Road   	
—    35
1 50
....    30
2 10
....    30
3 30
....    30
30
25
16
79
7
97
1
1
20|......	
201	
$96.82
304.45
83.04
359.90
83.04
581.28
83.04
$76.08
63.40
40.58
200.35
17.75
246.00
-
$172.90
367.85
Lawless Creek Forest-development
Road 	
Swift   River    Forest-development
Road _ 	
12    	
123 62
Weedon River Forest-development
Road	
63
560 25
Naver Creek Forest-development
Road ___	
6
58
Damfino Creek Forest-development
Road -.   	
827 28
Lodgepole    Forest-development
Road   	
83.04
Totals. _
i)    15
954
17QI
$1,591.57
Average cost, lineal mile	
$12.49
	
Cost of improvement flying charged to all forest districts. BB 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
1959 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects—Continued
CB
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O
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8 M
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1°
Accomplishment
fl
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1
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u
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F. Precision mapping projects—
Water Rights Branch—
Okanagan extension	
Hr.
9
1
1
1
2
15
2
3
Min.
15
15
15
05
00
15
45
35
00
45
30
125
47
24
55
48
125
30
9
12
3
2
	
194
82
12
37
75
120
25
14
1
$1,536.24
207.60
207.60
179.87
332.16
2,532.72
124.56
429.00
498.24
124.56
83.04
$317.00
119.20
60.86
139.48
121.73
317.00
76.08
22.83
30.43
7.61
5.07
$1,853.24
326.80
7
268.46
319.35
453.89
2,849.72
Oyama, Dee, Aberdeen, and Pos-
200.64
451.83
Topographic Division—
Savona to Cherry Creek	
528.67
132.17
Gordon Head university site	
1
	
88.11
37
40
480
569|         7
$12.16|$78.S0
$6,255.59
$1,217.29
$7,472.88
Average   cost,   lineal   mile
G. Special projects—
Water Rights Branch-
2
1
3
2
1
7
1
3
00
25
05
40
20
30
30
00
15
35
50
55
66
33
83
70
43
220
52
46
	
17
70
45
45
$332.16
235.34
512.03
110.77
387.47
83.04
249.12
1,162.56
207.60
595.07
$126.80
139.48
167.38
83.69
210.49
177.52
109.05
557.92
131.87
116.66
$458.96
374.82
Water Rights test-hole recce. (5)
Legal Surveys Division—
Highway, Canoe to Sicamous	
Highway, Cherry Creek to Cache
679.41
194.46
597.96
Highway, Hixon to Red Rock—
Highway, Engen to Fort Fraser-
Geographic Division—■
35] -	
20]	
2601
381	
260.56
358.17
1,720.48
Reforestation Division—
339.47
Fraser River Board—
Fraser River low water	
-  |       801	
711.73
Totals                         	
23
20
718
625!
$3,875,161 $1,820.86
$5,696.01
$9.11
H. Miscellaneous flying—
Fisheries Research Board—
1
1
1
1
3
10
4
5
3
21
05
20
40
55
25
40
45
20
05
00
40
$179.87
221.38
276.80
318.38
567.50
1,771.53
2112.16
=647.96
"760.11
'448.62
=3,240.08
$179.87
Department of Highways—
221.38
Travel Bureau—
276.80
Internal—>
90
$228.24
=19.84
=310.00
=248.00
=248.00
546.62
567.50
Administration flying  	
8
125
100
100
61	
1,771.53
Training  ,, 	
	
	
Totals   	
54
55
423
6|   	
$3,335.46
$228.24
$3,563.70
Grand totals  	
349
45
15,123
12,215
1,3791       12
$52,301.95|$37,511.65| $89,813.60
1                  1
2 Cost of tests and maintenance charged lo all projects. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Note 3
THE WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which administers the control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water Act.
The main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:—
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all the water at any time
in any stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in right
of the Province. The common-law principle of riparian water right has been
abolished.
(2) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Earlier licences
have priority over licences issued later.
(3) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the water-licence rentals, and observance of the regulations of the
Water Act.
(4) A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land, mine, or
undertaking, and it will pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof.
(5) If it is necessary that a water licensee construct works on another person's land,
he can expropriate the land reasonably required if an amenable agreement
cannot be reached. If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee may
acquire a permit to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to generally supervise and
assist the administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under
the Water Act for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, dyking, street-lighting, providing
financial aid to hospitals, Are protection, and several other purposes. An improvement
district is a self-governing public corporate body administered by elected Trustees. The
undertakings of an improvement district can be financed by Provincially guaranteed
debenture issues.
The third dominant function of the Water Rights Branch is to carry out water-
resource surveys. Basic data are gathered to encourage and guide the future use and
conservation of our water resources, and engineering investigations are carried out pertaining to irrigation- and domestic-water supply, stream erosion, flooding, and other
water problems.
The administration of the Water Act is carried out by the Comptroller of Water
Rights, and his staff are located at a headquarters office in Victoria and district offices
at Victoria, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, and Prince George.
Water is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on economic
development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand by the utilizers
of other resources. Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this
Province is associated with the use of British Columbia water. A large number of communities have been incorporated into improvement districts to operate community projects and provide essential amenities.
The Water Rights Branch, therefore, has engineering as well as administrative functions and is called upon by the Government and the public to carry out many and varied
investigations and to assist and direct this expansion in the public interest. The members of the Branch take an active part in a number of important committees and boards
dealing with the disposition of the Province's water resources. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
BB 61
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
A. F. Paget, P.Eng., Comptroller
The use of water continued to expand during 1959, and the demands on the
resources of the Water Rights Branch again became heavier. It must be expected
that with increasing population and industrialization of the Province, the amount of
water used and the diversity of use will continue to grow. As the water resource
remains constant, it is evident that increased contention is one of the consequences
to the development of its residual water resource in many areas. Licensing of water
and matters of a statutory nature reached an all-time high this year.
While the graph on Plate 1 shows a decrease in revenue for the year 1959 as
compared to 1958, it must be pointed out that the revenue reported is actually for
the fiscal year which ended in 1959. Owing to a decision by a power company to
pay annual rentals prior to the 1959 fiscal year, this sum was consequently shown as
1958 revenue. For the calendar year 1959 now completed, the actual revenue
received was approximately $1,360,000, which indicates a continued upward trend
for water rentals. The general office has been hard pressed to cope with the additional work, and at the same time a 45-per-cent turnover in staff added to the difficulties of this group.
The interest of areas in providing themselves with water has continued, and the
Branch has developed a small section to deal with problems relative to the engineering and economic feasibility of these projects. Recent large-scale subdivision of
lands has accentuated the need for water-supply systems. Mr. A. S. Goodyear
headed this section until his resignation late in the year, assisted by Mr. W. Webber.
This section also commenced the reassessment of the system property of the irrigation
districts in order that the renewal reserves of these districts could be placed on a
realistic basis.
The number of improvement districts is noted as 246, and the work in connection with administration of these districts is becoming heavier and more complex.
Much of the burden of looking after improvement districts rests with the solicitor,
Mr. A. K. Sutherland, who is now assisted by Mr. E. J. Folwell, accountant. It has
been found that Mr. FolwelPs work has been most helpful in developing proper
financial programmes for those districts where Government guarantees are involved.
The Comptroller was appointed to the British Columbia Energy Board in 1959.
Work on the Fraser River Board was commenced during the year, with the
Comptroller as Chairman of the Board. Committees, boards, or organizations in
which the Comptroller or senior staff members participated are as follows:—
Columbia River:
Canada-British Columbia Policy Liaison Committee.
Canada-British Columbia Technical Liaison Committee.
International Working Group.
International Kootenay Lake Board of Control.
Fraser River Board.
Pollution-control Board.
Interdepartmental Committee on Flooding and Erosion.
Cowichan River Erosion and Flooding Committee.
Vedder River Erosion and Flooding Committee.
Western Snow Conference.
Hydrology Sub-committee of the National Research Council.
British Columbia Energy Board.
British Columbia Natural Resources Conference. BB 62
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Work of the Branch has been seriously handicapped this year by the resignations of a large number of clerks and engineers, and replacements have not yet been
obtained for several of these vacancies. It is likely that next year's efforts will be
inhibited by this comparatively large turnover.
WATER   RIGHTS   BRANCH  -   REVENUE   AND   EXPENSES
FISCAL  YEARS   1935-1959
DISTRIBUTION   DIAGRAM    FOR   FISCAL YEAR   1958-1959
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500     Q
I
I-
FISCAL   YEARS   (ENDING MARCH  31st)
Plate WATER RIGHTS BRANCH BB 63
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS
There are 246 improvement districts under the supervision of the Water Rights
Branch. These districts are incorporated for various purposes, among which are to
extend financial aid to hospitals; irrigation; waterworks; fire protection; street-
lighting; sewage-disposal; garbage collection and disposal; land protection; dyking;
drainage; the operation and maintenance of cemeteries; the provision and maintenance of parks and playgrounds; and the operation and maintenance of airports.
Sixteen improvement districts were incorporated this year, as follows: Red Bluff
Drainage District, Garibaldi Hospital Improvement District No. 23, Lake Cowichan
Hospital Improvement District No. 24, Beaver Creek Improvement District, Glen-
dale Improvement District, Winfield Fire Protection District, Oyama Fire Protection
District, East Princeton Waterworks District, Vernon and District Hospital Improvement District No. 25, Pemberton North Improvement District, Sunshine Valley Improvement District, Revelstoke Hospital Improvement District No. 26, Beaver Falls
Waterworks District, One and One-quarter Mile Creek Waterworks District, Salt-
spring Island Fire Protection District, and North Cedar Waterworks District. Six
districts were dissolved—namely, Golden Fire Protection District, Central Waterworks District, Red Rock Waterworks District, Lillooet Waterworks District, Roberts
Creek Waterworks District, and North Ashcroft Waterworks District.
Pursuant to section 58 of the Water Act, $470,195.35 was advanced to improvement districts by the Province of British Columbia in 1959 to provide fire protection, financial aid to hospitals, and street-lighting, and will be collected by the
Province by way of taxes over a period of time from one to twenty years, depending
on the capability of the area to repay. The tax levy for 1959 to take care of the
aforementioned advances and those of previous years was $590,914.74.
Pursuant to the Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act, chapter 38 of the
Statutes of British Columbia, 1945, and amendments thereto, the Province of British
Columbia guaranteed debentures with respect to both principal and interest in the
amount of $2,217,000. In addition, temporary borrowings with respect to both
principal and interest in the amount of $2,397,000 were guaranteed by the Province.
Of this amount of temporary borrowings, $678,000 was liquidated from funds
received from the sale of debentures as aforesaid. This Branch recommends the
feasibility of the projects before the Province guarantees temporary borrowings and
debentures with respect thereto and, further, that the areas can liquidate the debentures as they become due. Of the total net amount guaranteed as aforesaid, $321,000
was used for rehabilitating irrigation systems, $1,007,000 was used for rehabilitating
and constructing waterworks systems, and $2,608,000 was used for constructing new
hospitals.
WATER-USERS' COMMUNITIES
There are fifty-five water-users' communities in the Province at the present time.
They are incorporated by certificate of incorporation issued by the Comptroller of
Water Rights and are usually small corporate bodies of six or more persons holding
water licences. Their powers are more restricted than those of an improvement
district, and the administration is carried out by a manager under the supervision of
the Comptroller of Water Rights. Six water-users' communities were dissolved in
1959.
INTERNATIONAL WATERS
Columbia River Basin
As outlined in previous issues of the Lands Service Annual Reports, many
agencies have been involved in the planning activities associated with the potential BB 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
development of the Columbia River. These activities have ranged from studies by
individual organizations to studies by engineering committees and work groups both
at the Federal-Provincial level and at the international level. This planning phase,
which has continued in varying degrees of intensity over the past decade, is now
reaching a stage of culmination with the completion during the past year of significant
official engineering and economic reports. As a result, progress is now being made
in a more advanced stage, which was started with the initiation of international
negotiations during the past year.
Progress during the year on the more significant aspects, in which members
of the Water Rights Branch have participated directly, are reviewed briefly in the
following paragraphs.
(a) International Columbia River Engineering Committee
Under the joint reference of 1944 from the Governments of Canada and the
United States, the International Joint Commission was directed to conduct studies
and investigations to determine, from an international point of view, what might be
the ultimate plans of development of the water resources of the Columbia River.
The International Columbia River Engineering Board and Committee were formed
to carry out the necessary studies and prepare reports for submission to the International Joint Commission. British Columbia was granted representation on the
Committee.
The main report, entitled " Water Resources of the Columbia River Basin,"
was completed early in the year and formally presented to the International Joint
Commission in Chicago in March, 1959, by the members of the Board and Committee. The report sets forth three plans for ultimate development, based on the
assumption that all elements of each plan will be part of an international system with
fully co-ordinated operation. The plans of development differ in the degree of
diversion of Kootenay River flows to the Columbia River. The non-diversion plan
would develop the Kootenay River in its own channel with no diversion of flows.
The Copper Creek diversion plan considers all of the flow of the Kootenay River at
the Copper Creek site (3,600 c.f.s. average) to be diverted to the Columbia River.
The Dorr diversion plan considers diversion to the Columbia of nearly all of the
Kootenay River flow at Newsgate (8,000 c.f.s. average). The amount of diversion
thus determines the extent of development of projects on the Kootenay River.
The report presents a preliminary design and costing for each project included in
the plans, together with summaries of the detailed system power studies that were
carried out.   Power and flood-control benefits are shown on a system basis.
The report was accompanied by an appendix entitled " Economic Studies."
The remainder of the appendices giving general coverage of the main sub-basins,
together with the details of projects included in each sub-basin, are still under
preparation and will be finished early in 1960.
While the main report was tendered to the Commission in March, the Commission has not yet brought its recommendations to the Governments.
( b )  The Canada-British Columbia Policy Liaison and
Technical Liaison Committees
In identical letters to the International Joint Commission, dated January 28th,
1959, and January 29th, 1959, the United States and Canada, respectively, requested
the International Joint Commission to report specially, at an early date, its recommendations concerning the principles to be applied in determining "(a) the benefits
which will result from the co-operative use of storage of waters and electrical interconnection within the Columbia River system," and "(b) the apportionment between WATER RIGHTS BRANCH BB 65
the two countries of such benefits more particularly in regard to electrical generation
and flood-control."
The International Joint Commission immediately started consideration of its
new reference, and preliminary negotiation on principles to cover co-operative international development was commenced.
Recognizing the need for a united front in the coming phase of negotiations, the
Governments of Canada and British Columbia established the Canada-British Columbia Technical Liaison Committee, composed of senior technical representatives
from both Governments, to determine an optimum plan of development for the
Columbia basin in Canada that could be mutually supported by the two Governments. To provide direction to the Technical Committee and to establish a unified
Canadian policy, a senior committee, called the " Canada-British Columbia Policy
Liaison Committee on the Columbia River," was also formed. This Committee was
composed of the Minister of Lands and Forests, the Attorney-General and Minister
of Industrial Development, Trade, and Industry, and senior officials of the British
Columbia Government, together with the Minister of Northern Affairs and National
Resources, the Minister of External Affairs, and senior officials of the Canadian
Government.
These Committees met a number of times during the year to consider matters
of particular significance relative to the negotiations on principles being carried out
by the International Joint Commission. Complete unanimity of opinion was reached.
(c)  The International Joint Commission Columbia River Work Group
To assist the International Joint Commission in its aforementioned deliberations on principles for the determination and apportionment of benefits to result
from co-operative international development of the Columbia River, the above-
mentioned Work Group was formed. With representation from United States
Federal agencies, together with Canadian and British Columbia Government agencies, the Work Group was given the task of determining the power benefits and
costs that might be associated with specific projects.
The Work Group reported to the International Joint Commission during the
year and has remained inactive since that time.
FRASER RIVER BASIN
With the submission of a preliminary report to the Governments of Canada
and British Columbia in October, 1958, the Fraser River Board wound up its
affairs on March 31st, 1959, in accordance with the terms of reference. In this
report the Fraser River Board had strongly recommended that further investigations be conducted into the possibility of a limited development of the upper Fraser
and its major tributaries because initial studies had indicated that flood-control
and some measure of power development might be attained without creating extensive fishery problems.
In view of the recommendations in the report, the Governments of Canada
and British Columbia re-established the Fraser River Board as of April 1st, 1959,
for the express purpose of investigating and reporting upon the feasibility of a limited
development of the Fraser River system for hydro-electric power and flood-control.
Exploratory work commenced in November with a drilling programme at
sites east of Prince George, and similar plans will be continued throughout the next
two years until all potential dam-sites in the scheme have been investigated. At the
completion of the field investigations and the subsequent office studies, the Fraser
River Board will compile and submit to the two Governments late in 1963 a final
report on this aspect of the potential of the Fraser River basin. BB 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
OPERATIONS DIVISION
M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Chief, Operations Division
The Operations Division is responsible to the Comptroller and Deputy Comptroller for carrying out the administrative duties arising from the Water Act and
regulations issued thereunder. Provision is also made for giving limited engineering
assistance, accounting assistance, and advice on administration to the improvement
districts and water-users' communities incorporated under the Water Act and for
assisting and advising individual licensees. The organization of the Operations
Division is as follows:—
(1) General office, supervised by Chief Clerk.
(2) Administrative draughting office, under supervision of Chief Draughtsman.
(3) Five district offices, each supervised by a District Engineer.
(4) Improvement Districts Engineering Section.
(5) Audit accountant.
The number of active water licences now on our registers is 16,696, representing an increase of 934 over the number reported last year. The number of
applications for new licences received is, as reported by our general office, in excess
of 1,000 for the first time in Branch history. Our district offices, with their limited
staff, experienced difficulty in keeping abreast of applications, and a considerable
backlog has developed in some areas.
Of particular interest is the amount of statusing work done by our draughting
office on land clearances in connection with purchases, Crown grants, leases, timber
sales, etc. The 5,797 items mentioned under this heading represent a tremendous
amount of time expended. Apart from the routine work of preparing water rights
maps, licence plats, etc., the draughting office also reviews all petitions for incorporations of new improvement districts and prepares a map showing the boundaries
of, and all properties within, each new improvement district.
The Improvement District Engineering Section has continued its investigations
and preparation of feasibility reports covering water-supply projects for new areas
as well as providing considerable engineering assistance to established improvement
districts. A creditable start was also made in preparing system inventories covering the works of certain improvement districts still paying off loans to the Conservation Fund under the 1949 Clement Report adjustment. This was particularly
required in determining the renewal requirements of these districts.
The work of our audit accountant has been of invaluable assistance in setting
up accounting systems for newly established improvement districts, in assisting districts in their accounting and budgeting for their annual requirements, and in advising the Comptroller and other interested personnel of the financial status of the
districts.
The separate reports of the various sections under the Operations Division
follow. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
GENERAL OFFICE
BB 67
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
635
48
30
27
544
618
205
108
747
25
11
17
632
794
111
93
687
32
16
45
590
1,902
211
125
977
16
25
54
298
2,299
257
131
1,038
42
23
75
69
Change of ownership, address, etc	
2,364
190
109
Totals	
2.215
2,430
3,608
4,057
3,910
528
347
508
324
570
364
562
275
850
274
875
832
934
837
1,124
DRAUGHTING OFFICE
Water applications cleared and plotted on maps  1,038
Conditional-licence plats compiled and traced      850
Final-licence plats compiled and traced      274
New water-rights maps compiled and traced        30
Water-rights maps revised  7
New improvement districts described and plans prepared         18
Improvement district amended descriptions and plans amended ...       31
Reference maps renewed  6
Water clearances (change of ownership, cancellation, apportionments, etc.)   2,694
Land clearances (cancellations)  1,281
Land clearances (purchases, Crown grants, leases, timber sales,
etc.)   5,797
Rights-of-way over Crown land         109
During the year many inquiries by the public and other departments were
taken care of.   The usual requests for maps and other information by our District
Engineers were also attended to during the year.
Considerable time was spent during the year checking petitions and drawing
up legal descriptions for improvement districts.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS AUDIT ACCOUNTANT
A complete analysis of all financial returns rendered by improvement districts
was made as these returns were received during the year. In the case of small
districts, attempts were continued to obtain standard returns in a form adequate
to disclose the district's true financial position.
Efforts were directed toward the setting-up and operation of renewal reserves
and renewal reserve funds by all irrigation districts, in accordance with the requirements of section 85 of the Water Act.
A number of districts were visited during the year, and assistance given in
financial and administrative matters. In particular, an attempt was made to visit
those districts whose debentures had been guaranteed by the Province of British
Columbia pursuant to the Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS ENGINEERING SECTION
The preparation of feasibility reports for proposed waterworks projects was
an important phase of the work, as was the review of the proposals of consulting BB 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
engineers for improvement districts. A number of schemes considered by this
Section in previous years were constructed in 1959.
It was particularly gratifying to make progress in determining the renewal
reserve requirements of irrigation districts, laid down by section 85 of the Water Act.
This work, which was with irrigation districts principally, also included a number
of other investigations of an engineering nature.
During the year the Section was assisted in its work with irrigation districts
by the loan of an engineer from the British Columbia Power Commission and an
engineer from our Hydraulic Investigation Division.
Major reports prepared during the year follow.
Fernwood Point Water-supply
In this area of Saltspring Island there are twenty-two residences. A feasibility
report was prepared, proposing that the existing inadequate private system be
rehabilitated. The source of supply is St. Mary Lake. Because of the comparatively high cost of an adequate system, it is doubtful whether local support for the
scheme will be forthcoming.
Airport Hill Improvement District
A number of alternatives for a water-supply to this district were examined,
the best being one with a supply from the City of Prince George. It was found
that at the present stage of development the district could afford little more than
the distribution system within its own area. It appears, because of the costs involved, that no scheme is likely to proceed unless as a part of an over-all supply
to all consumers in the area east of the Fraser River.
Osoyoos and East Osoyoos Irrigation Districts
Reports and memoranda were prepared to describe the situation within these
two districts and the advisability of integrating their distribution systems.
Glenmore Irrigation District
During the year field investigations were carried out and a report begun on a
master plan for the renewal of the district works, such that water will be available
from the laterals at pressure sufficient for sprinkler irrigation. Consideration is
also being given to the renewal reserve requirements of the district and the possibility of increased storage.
Naramata Irrigation District
A report was prepared on the feasibility of further rehabilitation of the district
system. An increase in irrigation rates will be necessary to meet the expenses for
renewals required immediately and those that can be foreseen in the future.
Grand Forks Irrigation District
Field investigations were made and a report prepared regarding the renewal
reserve requirements of this district. In addition to these recommendations, it was
suggested that the district revise its boundaries and institute a system of taxation.
East Creston Irrigation District
During the year there has been a settlement of the dispute with the Village of
Creston regarding the joint use of the district works.   A report was later prepared WATER RIGHTS BRANCH BB 69
to show the renewal reserve requirements of the district, both for the joint works
and the distribution system within the district.
South-east Kelowna Irrigation District
During the year field investigations of the district system were carried out and
information gathered on system properties. A memorandum was prepared regarding the renewal reserve requirements of the district.
WlNFIELD AND OKANAGAN CENTRE IRRIGATION DISTRICT
An investigation of the district was carried out and a report on the condition
of the system properties was prepared. This information will be useful to the
Branch in determining renewal reserve requirements and to the district as a record
of their properties.
Oyama Irrigation District
An investigation on the renewal reserve requirements of this district was carried out and a report completed. It appears that an increase in irrigation rates will
be necessary to meet these requirements. The district has a pumped supply from
Woods and Kalamalka Lakes.
Black Mountain Irrigation District
An investigation to determine the renewal reserve requirements of this large
district was initiated toward the end of the year. The distribution system is complex, with conduits of many types and sizes, and a large amount of work will be
involved.
Fruitvale Water-supply
A field investigation was made and a report was prepared regarding the possibility of a community water-supply for a small area in the Village of Fruitvale
adjacent to the Fruitvale Waterworks District. Various alternatives were proposed
in the report, but it is not yet certain which will be adopted.
Madeira Park Water-supply
A feasibility report was prepared, showing that a community water-supply
for about 170 existing residences was possible if there was sufficient local support.
Paq Lake was recommended as the initial supply, with Haslam Creek being used
later when financially feasible. It appears likely that the scheme will proceed once
a district has been formed.
North Cedar Water-supply
An investigation and report on the North Cedar area, near Nanaimo, showed
that a water-supply to about 100 existing homes was feasible. A district has been
incorporated and the project is likely to proceed in the near future. A well adjacent to the Nanaimo River is proposed as the source of supply.
Okanagan Mission Irrigation District
This district has experienced operating difficulties, due to poor materials and
inadequate initial planning. Fruit-growing has become less important as residential development of the area has proceeded. A report was prepared reviewing the
situation of the district and making recommendations regarding future policy. BB 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Okanagan Mission Water-supply
A report was prepared showing that a domestic water-supply system from
Okanagan Lake was feasible for the Okanagan Mission area if there was sufficient
local support. At the time of the survey there were 156 potential consumers, and
it is expected that residential development of the locality will be steady. It is probable that the scheme will proceed.
Chetwynd Waterworks District
A memorandum was prepared regarding the advisability of the district taking
over the existing private system. Because of the inadequacy of the source of supply for this system, it was recommended that the district plan to use the Pine River,
possibly using parts of the existing distribution system.
University Endowment Lands
A survey was carried out regarding the operating difficulties of the water-
supply system. It was found that there was a very large amount of water used for
garden watering, one property requiring as much as 170 gallons per minute for
its system. A memorandum was prepared containing suggestions for improvements
in the supply.
VICTORIA DISTRICT OFFICE
C. Errington, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Victoria District office administers the Water Act in an area of approximately 50,000 square miles, which includes the relatively thickly populated and
rapidly developing Lower Fraser Valley, the Sechelt Peninsula, Vancouver Island,
and the Gulf Islands.   It extends from Vancouver up the coast for some 350 miles.
Owing to the very wet conditions prevailing throughout the Coastal area during both May and June this year, the usual dry weather and water-shortage problems were kept to a minimum. For instance, through the months of June to September at Chilliwack the total precipitation was 22.28 inches, as compared to a
long-term average of 13.41 inches, an increase of 66 per cent above normal.
During the period November 1st, 1958, to October 31st, 1959, some twenty-
three special studies, investigations, and miscellaneous reports were made. Three
hundred and sixty-eight applications were received, of which thirty-one were recommended to be refused. During the year 443 conditional licences and 137 final
licences were issued in the Victoria District. Forty-nine licences were abandoned
or cancelled.
KELOWNA DISTRICT OFFICE
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kelowna District office, administering an area of approximately 15,000
square miles, comprises the Kettle, Similkameen, and Okanagan drainage-basins,
the Shuswap River drainage-basin from Sicamous to its source, and that part of
the Columbia River drainage-basin from Boat Encampment, the northerly limit of
the Columbia River, to a point about 15 miles south of Arrowhead on the Upper
Arrow Lake.
General
Water-supply during 1959 was generally plentiful as a result of above normal
precipitation. Several irrigation districts throughout the area ended the season
with surplus storage. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH BB 71
Improvements or reconstruction has been necessary on many of the older
storage-dams, which are mainly earth fill, to bring them up to present standards.
During the past year extensive work was carried out on three of the major dams.
In addition, inspections were made on several proposed dam-sites.
Engineering investigations have now become an important part of the district
office work, principally in the preparation of feasibility reports in the field of water-
supply.
As in previous years, there was a noticeable increase in the routine administrative work, particularly in the number of water applications being received. As
the water-supply of many of the streams is becoming limited, considerably more
time is required on inspections before recommendations can be made.
Summary of Year's Work
Applications received  156
Applications investigated  112
Applications abandoned or cancelled   10
Final-licence reports   43
Amendments to water licences  72
Dam inspections  26
Proposed dam-sites inspected  8
Engineering investigations for irrigation- and domestic-water supply 41
Investigations for flooding, drainage, river-bank erosion, and miscellaneous   44
Meetings with improvement districts and others  97
Major Engineering Investigations
Similkameen Improvement District Water Use
A report was prepared for the purpose of estimating the quantity of water
required to supplement the natural flow of the Similkameen River to provide a
full season's irrigation for the lands within the district.
Waby Lake Drainage District
This district, which lies between Enderby and Salmon Arm, was incorporated
for the purpose of draining swamp and marsh land. Following extensive surveys
by both the Water Rights Branch and the Department of Agriculture, a feasibility
report, entitled " Waby Lake Drainage," was prepared by our Branch.
Similkameen Valley Soil Survey
In connection with a soil survey being carried out by the Canada Department
of Agriculture in the Similkameen Valley, representatives of the Department of
Agriculture and this office carried out a field inspection for the purpose of assessing
those lands that were accessible to water-supply.
Storage-reservoirs
In 1959 Penticton Creek Reservoir No. 1, a major source of storage water for
the City of Penticton, was reconstructed. In addition, extensive repairs were carried out to Canyon Lake dam, one of the many storage reservoirs held by the
Municipality of Summerland.
Of the several storage-sites investigated, the principal ones were the proposed
storage of Lightning Lakes in Manning Park for recreation purposes, and the pro- BB 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
posed storage of Cranberry Creek water for the development of additional power
for the City of Revelstoke.
Kelowna (Mill) Creek Diversion, Ellison Airfield
In connection with improvements being carried out to the Ellison Airfield,
it was necessary to relocate 6,000 feet of Mill Creek. In view of the estimated
critical velocity for the soils in that area, an investigation was carried out by this
office for the purpose of recommending minimum design requirements.
Otter Lake Irrigation District
In response to a request from the district in April, 1959, this office is preparing a feasibility report on the replacement of the main pipe-line.
Osoyoos Irrigation District
In December, 1958, assistance was provided by this office in re-establishing
the grade of the diversion flume from Haynes Creek.
Big Eddy Waterworks District
As a result of considerable development taking place in the area, the district
has requested advice on proposed extensions. As a preliminary step, a plan of
the existing system has been prepared and suggestions will be made with regard to
size and location of new extensions.
Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District
Following advice from the Health Department that its water-supply was subject to contamination, this office was requested to prepare an estimate of cost on
chlorination. A plan of the existing system has now been prepared and a study
of water requirements carried out.   The report is due for completion early in 1960.
East Princeton Waterworks District
The district was incorporated in July, 1959, following presentation of a feasibility report. Final engineering plans were approved. However, as it appeared
that the district would not have sufficient revenue, the request for a Government
guarantee of their debenture was refused. As an alternative, the residents have
installed a temporary system.
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT OFFICE
H. D. DeBeck, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kamloops office covers the middle section of the Fraser River drainage-
basin from Spuzzum to a point 20 miles north of Quesnel.
The availability of water-supply during the summer of 1959 varied widely
within the district. In most of the Kamloops and Nicola Water Districts, the supply
was average or above average. In the Cariboo District, deficient snowfall resulted
in serious water shortage in most streams throughout the irrigation season. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH BB 73
Summary of Year's Work
The following is a summary of work carried out by the staff of the Kamloops
office for the period from November 1st, 1958, to October 31st, 1959:—
New applications investigated and reported on  151
Conditional licences inspected     72
Final-licence surveys made     51
Final-licence reports submitted     49
Dam inspections     82
Miscellaneous field investigations and surveys     96
Meetings attended     11
NELSON DISTRICT OFFICE
J. P. Riley, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Nelson District office administers Water Rights Branch matters over some
25,000 square miles in the south-eastern part of British Columbia, comprising all
of the Kootenay Land District, excepting the Revelstoke area.
The water-supply in this area during the past summer season was generally
very good, and this likely accounts for a slight decline in the number of water
applications received when compared with the 1958 total of 206. There was, however, no decrease in the number of other problems that required investigation and
settlement by this office. There are approximately 5,000 licences in the Nelson
District. During the period of review, 125 conditional licences and forty-five final
licences were added to our files.
Work Summary
New applications received      163
New applications investigated and reported      200
New applications abandoned and cancelled        22
Final-licence and amendment survey reports        24
Applications received for amendments to licences        50
Investigations, flooding, pollution        21
Meetings with improvement districts and water-users' communities        25
Miscellaneous meetings and investigations of a non-routine nature       47
Routine calls and problems  1,400
Dam inspections  6
Proposed dam-sites inspected  7
Four major investigations were carried out, as follows: Water-supply for
Windermere community, flooding on the Moyie River at Yahk, water-supply for
the Riverview Heights area at Creston, and water-supply in Joseph Creek at
Cranbrook.
PRINCE GEORGE DISTRICT OFFICE
E. G. Harrison, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Prince George office administers the Water Act in five water districts in
the northern part of British Columbia, the districts being Prince George, Peace
River, Hazelton, Prince Rupert, and Fort Fraser.
This is the second year only of operation of the Prince George office, and
since there is no provision for final-licence surveys to be made from this office,
the routine work carried out consisted mainly of the investigations of new water
applications, dam-site inspections, and other miscellaneous work.   Forty applica- BB 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
tions were examined during the year, several dam inspections were made, and many
investigations of a miscellaneous nature were carried out, such as a flooding problem at Terrace and an investigation into the beneficial use of the Lakelse Hotsprings.
An ever-present problem in the planning of the office field work is to schedule
the work to suit the long travelling distance involved in this large district as well as
fitting the work to suit the various road conditions and extremes of weather. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH BB 75
HYDRAULIC INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION
T. A. J. Leach, P.Eng., Chief, Hydraulic Investigations Division
Indicative of the many and varied types of water use and of the problems
resulting therein is evident through the existence of some 810 engineering reports
available in the Water Rights Branch library to-day. This inventory of water-
resource use is growing at the rate of about one report each week and includes
broadly the fields of hydrology, hydro-electric engineering, flooding and erosion,
and irrigation and water-supply.
While a continuing programme of hydro-electric investigations has been carried out by the Division within the northern watersheds, such as the Liard, Dease,
and Skeena, there has also been a growing demand for a solution to flooding and
erosion in the more settled regions of the Province.
Communication routes, of necessity, have been located near the valley-bottoms,
and these, in turn, set the pattern for future population concentrations within what
may be termed the flood-plain of the river. On the West Coast, these built-up areas,
such as Squamish, Alberni, and Bilston Creek (near Victoria), suffer from time to
time from heavy rain floods which occur during the late fall and winter. The
Interior streams, which are snow-fed, can cause damage during the spring run-off,
when a large percentage of the total annual flow occurs.
Unfortunately it is not easy to measure the hydrologic conditions which occur
in nature, particularly during extreme weather conditions. Such details as maximum rainfall intensity, snow-melt rate, and temperatures, as well as river flood-
levels and discharges, are needed to plan adequate protection. A considerable portion of these basic data is obtained by the Federal Water Resources Branch of the
Department of Northern Affairs, which is assisted financially through a Provincial
grant each year.
However, since snow plays such a dominant role in Interior watershed run-off,
the Water Rights Branch in 1935 introduced a programme of snow-survey sampling.
This work was first carried out within the Columbia basin, but it has been expanded
now to include most of the major river systems of the Province.
One other noticeable trend in water-resource use has been the tendency for
local areas consisting of several municipalities to think in terms of greater water
boards, such as already exist at Vancouver, Victoria, and Nanaimo. While none
of these embryo boards has reached incorporation, the Division has studied such
regions as Courtenay, Prince George, and the Lower Fraser Valley and prepared
the approximate costs of trunk water systems.
The description which follows provides a few details of the actual investigations carried out by the Senior Hydraulic and Hydraulic Engineers and the Meteorologist of the Division. In many instances they have had to work in co-operation
with survey, agricultural, and soil specialists in order to obtain detailed topographic
and land-classification maps, which are a prerequisite to engineering studies. Once
such regions have been mapped, it is interesting to note the extent of their use by
other planning agencies.
FIELD INVESTIGATIONS
Both office and field staff were engaged in a total of twenty-two projects, varying in extent from minor investigations involving a few man-days to major activities
requiring the services of a field party from May to October. A general breakdown
of the projects indicates that seven were concerned with flooding and erosion, five
for mapping control, four fall under water-supply, while the remaining six were BB 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
split equally between drainage and water power.   A brief description under these
general headings follows.
Flooding and Erosion
Interdepartmental Committee on Flooding and Erosion
A Ministerial committee representing the Departments of Highways, Agriculture, and Lands and Forests was set up during 1959 to inquire into flooding and
erosion in British Columbia. It is assisted by a Deputy Ministers' committee, which
is composed of the Deputy Ministers of Agriculture, Highways, and Lands and
Forests, and the Comptroller of Water Rights. A working committee headed by
the Assistant Deputy Minister, Department of Highways, and including representatives of the Department of Agriculture and the Water Rights Branch, reports to
the Deputies' committee.
Members of the working committee have inspected some areas of flooding,
but the main work to date has been to compile a list of the major flooding and
erosion problems in the Province.
While the committee has been preparing its inventory on erosion and flooding,
the Division has been adding to this list through further field investigations and
reports.
Comox Village
The Village of Comox, with a population of some 1,500 people, suffers from
time to time from winter floods, which are becoming more severe as housing developments occupy the watersheds. Present facilities cannot handle these floods, and,
in a recently completed report, recommendations have been put forward regarding
increased storm-sewer capacity. An attempt also has been made to project future
requirements up to 1985.
Alberni City
An investigation into flooding of the low-lying areas of Alberni City from
Kitsuksis Creek and the Somass River indicates the need for channel improvement
and dyking. The actual works would comprise a dyke along the south bank of
the creek up-stream of Margaret Street Bridge, replacement of the existing bridge
with a structure having an enlarged waterway, and dyking of both banks of the
creek down-stream of the bridge. A cut-off is also proposed below the bridge to
eliminate the double bend in the creek. Similarly, a dyke along the north bank of
the Somass from the mouth of Kitsuksis Creek to a point opposite Josephine Street
is recommended in the report.
Nanaimo River
A brief report and estimate dealing with channel improvements in the lower
reaches of the Nanaimo River was prepared for the Department of Highways. In
the first instance it was suggested that the removal of several gravel islands in the
vicinity of the highway bridge was required, but field observations indicate that a
rock section just up-stream of the bridge was actually the critical or control reach.
Cowichan River
A Cowichan River committee consisting of representatives from the Departments of Lands and Agriculture, Village of Lake Cowichan, B.C. Forest Products,
and the Federal Department of Fisheries met several times throughout the year in
connection with a study of erosion and flooding of the Cowichan River. A draft
report has been prepared, which is now in the hands of the various committee mem- WATER RIGHTS BRANCH BB 77
bers, and it is hoped that this will be ready for submission to the Minister of Lands
and Forests early in the new year. Mapping of the watershed from the lake to its
mouth is now nearing completion, and it is expected that these map-sheets will be
available in the spring of 1960.
Bilston Creek
The Improvement District of Bilston Creek was formed under the Water Act
to deal with flood-control and drainage. This watershed, immediately west of
Victoria, has suffered from heavy winter floods for many years, and the condition
is growing more acute as the region becomes urbanized.
The Water Rights Branch report prepared early in the year pointed up the
need for improvements to the main creek through deepening and widening, as well
as additional tributary drainage to pick up local run-off. Lack of hydrometric information is evident, and several gauges have been installed along the waterways,
which the local inhabitants have agreed to read during freshet periods.
Squamish River
A flooding and erosion problem of long standing duration exists along the
lower reaches of the Squamish River. However, in spite of these conditions there
is little hydrometric information on which to base an engineering study.
Nevertheless, in order to assist the Department of Highways in its maintenance
programme, a brief field investigation was carried out, with special consideration
given to road sections threatened by the river. In addition, a tentative channel-
improvement plan was drawn up which will be subject to considerable modification
as more basic data become available. Finally, recommendations regarding collection of the latter is contained within the report.
Chilliwack-Vedder River and Vedder Canal Erosion
Further field investigations were carried out for an interdepartmental committee on this river as part of a study of its behaviour, with particular reference to
its channel movements. Conditions here are rather typical of the Lower Fraser
Valley tributaries, which experience two flood peaks throughout the year—one
primarily due to heavy rainfalls which occur in the early winter months with a
second peak occurring in the spring. It is anticipated that more investigation and
study will be required before any tentative conclusions can be drawn.
Waby Lake
Inadequate drainage of the bottom-lands in the Waby Lake district northwest of Enderby and the need for irrigation during the summer dry period were the
basis of an investigation carried out by the Branch during the early fall.
In addition to providing the proposed improvement district with a preliminary
report on drainage, it was possible through the co-operation of the Department of
Agriculture to obtain a detailed soil map which will be the basis for an irrigation
study now under way.
Kicking Horse River
Erosion caused by the Kicking Horse River along its north bank near its confluence with the Columbia has been noted for a number of years by the inhabitants
of Golden. Certain remedial works, including a dyke, are suggested in a recently
completed report. BB 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Kootenay Lake
The people within the dyked areas of the Kootenay River between the International Border and Kootenay Lake have been concerned for some time with erosion of their dykes, which, in a few instances, have required their relocation some
distance back from the river. In order to more effectively combat this problem, the
dyking districts have formed themselves into " The Kootenay Valley Associated
Drainage Districts " and have retained the services of a consulting engineer to
advise them on erosion and flooding problems.
The Water Rights Branch contributed to this investigation during the last
year by placing a survey party in the field. This party completed soundings of
the river from the border to Kootenay Lake establishing some permanent reference
points for future use. All field details have now been plotted up and the completion of a brief report is under way.
Kelowna Creek Diversion
The construction and extension of the Ellison Airfield near Kelowna required
the diversion of Kelowna (Mill) Creek in that area. A brief report was prepared
on the channel capacity and erosion protection required for the information of the
District Engineer.
North Okanagan Water-supply
This investigation is a continuation of last year's work, and the region concerned includes the main Okanagan Valley north of Oyama and its tributaries, such
as the Coldstream and the B.X. Creek watersheds. The adjacent drainage-basins
of the Shuswap as far up-stream as Sugar Lake and the lower central portions of
the Salmon River are also under consideration.
The total land area involved comprises over 140,000 acres, or roughly 220
square miles, a large portion of which has now been mapped at a scale of 1 inch
to 1,000 feet.
While mapping was being carried out by the Air Surveys and Topographic
Divisions, it was recognized that an inventory of the water resources and their best
use required not only engineering, but also soil surveys and agricultural economic
studies.
In accordance with this broad approach, an engineering-agricultural committee made up of members of the Water Rights Branch and the Department of Agriculture has met from time to time to co-ordinate the work of the two agencies in
the development of a report on the North Okanagan.
The completion of the main mapping has placed in the hands of the soil surveyor an up-to-date physical inventory in which he can indicate the extent of the
various soils. At the same time, it has been possible for the hydraulic engineer
to determine some tentative routes for the conveyance of water to the areas of
greatest agricultural potential.
Finally, while these more obvious types of endeavour are going ahead, certain
hydrometric and meteorological stations have been started, from which daily temperatures, precipitation, and stream-discharge measurements are being carried out
throughout the North Okanagan.
However, time does not permit waiting some five to ten years to accumulate
representative stream-flow and climatic data, and for this reason the preliminary
report planned for completion in the spring of 1961 will probably require modification in the future as more information becomes available. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH BB 79
B.X. Creek Area Water-supply
Within the North Okanagan region already described is a small rural community immediately east of the City of Vernon known as the B.X. Creek area. This
community, unlike the surrounding countryside, is deficient in a year-round groundwater supply, and a number of the farmers have been forced during the winter
months to haul their water from town.
While the North Okanagan investigations would have included this particular
problem in its preliminary report, the urgency of the situation indicated the need
for some immediate solution. As a result, an engineering investigation was carried
out using the recently completed topographic maps as well as information obtained
from a ground-water geological survey.
Although surface water might be made available to the area, it would appear
that a drilled well of sufficient depth to penetrate the main water-table would be
the most feasible. Nevertheless, the sparsity of population makes the cost of
water relatively high for this region.
Norbury Creek
A brief study of the water resources of Norbury Creek near Cranbrook for
the Department of Recreation and Conservation indicated that minimum discharges
might fall to 10 c.f.s. or less. Frazil ice might also be a problem in winter use as
difficulties with this condition have been experienced by the East Kootenay Power
and Light Company in its near-by operation on the Bull River.
It would appear that at least one suitable dam-site exists in the lower reaches
of the river for storage up to about 20 feet of depth, although the actual volume
behind the dam would be very limited.
Hydrometric gauging has been started, and providing winter discharges can
be observed, a clearer picture of the condition here should be available by next
summer.
Hydro-electric Investigations
In recent years the two main southern rivers—namely, the Fraser and the
Columbia—have been rather intensively examined by Provincial and Federal
agencies to determine their power potential and also the effects that such electrical
systems might have in the way of flood-control.
Actual participation by the Water Rights Branch has been through the
Columbia and Fraser River Boards. At the same time a continuing programme
of northern power investigations has been carried out by this Branch in such
watersheds as the Liard, Dease, and Skeena, as will be noted in the following brief
descriptions.
Dease-Stikine Watersheds
The Stikine, which is the largest of the northerly Coastal rivers, has a length
of 305 miles and discharges into Stikine Strait through the southerly portion of the
Alaska Panhandle.
A major effort was made in 1958 to complete the mapping of the main stem
of this stream between the Klappen River down-stream to Telegraph Creek.
However, extensive forest fires during the summer hampered the two survey parties,
and the final field control and air photography were not finished until late in 1959.
At the present time, 1,000-feet-to-l-inch mapping, showing 20-foot contours,
is now under way, not only for the Stikine, but also the Dease watershed from
Dease Lake down-stream to French Creek.   The latter has been included in this BB 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
over-all study because of the possibility of diverting the Upper Dease through
Dease Lake into the Tanzilla and thence to the Stikine.
In the first reconnaissance analysis it would appear that the Stikine without
the Dease River water could produce over 790,000 prime kilowatts through the
development of some 1,650 feet of head at three sites, plus one minor development
on the Tuya tributary. However, this conservative estimate only includes the main
stem of the river below the proposed highway crossing, and undoubtedly the
potential power figure will be increased substantially as more topographic and
hydrometric information becomes available.
Liard River Watershed
This large river, which originates in the Yukon, cuts across the north-east
portion of the Province, and then swings northward again, is a tributary of the
Mackenzie River.
A brief map and air-photo study indicates that about 2,500,000 kilowatts of
prime energy may be available from this river within the Province of British Columbia. Plans are under way to complete some field investigations on this watershed
during the coming summer.
Skeena River
The Skeena River, in the west central portion of the Province, discharges into
the Pacific Ocean near Prince Rupert. Following a brief office study last year,
a field party carried out survey control for multiplex mapping during 1959 at eight
dam-sites in the reach between Terrace to about 16 miles above Hazelton and at
the Hagwilget Canyon on the Bulkley, some 2>Vz miles above the confluence.
The fifteen-year average discharge of the Skeena River as measured at Usk
(near Terrace) is 31,200 c.f.s., which is about 10 per cent less than the average
discharge of the Peace at Hudson Hope.
Considering three main dam-sites only, at Kitselas Canyon, Wilson Creek,
and Tenas Hill, with heads of 15,250, and 400 feet, a total potential of 1,400,000
firm horse-power (1,040,000 kilowatts) is indicated. Office studies are now under
way to revise the existing reports on this river's hydro-power potential.
Existing Hydro-power Developments
Investigation of the hydro-electric power stations operating in British Columbia has been continued during 1959. Consistent data are now available for the
larger stations, and the information submitted annually by all operating companies
will keep the records up-dated.
Hydro-electric plants completed and in service during 1959 include the British
Columbia Power Commission's 25,200-kilowatt Ash River plant, which commenced operation in May. Both Ash River and the 75,500-kilowatt Georgia gas-
turbine plant were commissioned on September 2nd, 1959. The British Columbia
Electric Company is continuing construction at its Bridge River No. 2 development, though the first two units (60 megawatts each) were in service by October
30th, 1959. The B.C. Electric also commissioned its 100,000-kilowatt Port Mann
gas-turbine station on September 25th and is continuing work on the large Burrard
steam plant at loco.
Plates 2 and 3 have been redrawn to give a better illustration of the development of hydro-electricity in the Province. The capacity and production figures are
plotted on logarithmic scales to show their rates of growth, which are of importance
in forecasting.   Trends may be recognized more readily in this year's graphs. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
BB 81
1000
DEVELOPMENT  OF   HYDRO-POWER
IN
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
5000
3000
BRITISH   COLUMBIA    TOTAL
GENERATING    CAPACITY
AND
ANNUAL    LOADS
fjorjs:
The peak loads of individual  power plants   rarely
occur at the same time . The  Total of Plant Peak Loads
thus exceeds  the highest simultaneous output of
all B.C. hydro plants, though  the  yearly   changes
shown in the graph should be similar in size  and
direction
2000
h
1
O
-J
u,
o
Q
o
s
BOO  Y~
1000
300
INSTALLED
GENERATING
CAPACITY
300
1320     1325      1330     1335
B40      1345      1350      OSS
CALENDAR     YEAR
1360     1365     1370       1375
Plate 2. BB 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Plate 2 shows the combined generating capacities of all hydro-electric plants
in the Province from 1926 to 1958. Graphs of average annual load and the total
of peak loads for all hydro-stations are superimposed. The note explains that
while the peak loads for the individual plants probably occur on different dates,
the graph gives an indication of the size of the simultaneous Provincial peak load.
This line demonstrates why installed generating capacity must be larger than the
average annual load.
Plate 3 compares the capacities and annual production of the major hydroelectric installations in the Province from 1920 to the present.
Re-evaluation of the Province's undeveloped power-sites and the inclusion of
feasible systems of development on the Fraser River and the British Columbia
portion of the Columbia River basin indicate a prime-power potential of 20,604,900
kilowatts (27,600,000 horse-power). An estimate of the prime power of the Province's streams is produced by adding 1,400,000 kilowatts to represent the continuous power of developed hydro-stations, which gives a total of 22,005,000 kilowatts
(29,500,000 horse-power). To take care of peak load conditions, full development of the Province's hydro capacity would require the installation of at least
34,000,000 kilowatts having turbine capacities approximating 46,000,000 horsepower.
SNOW SURVEYS
Continued demand by the Government and industry for snow-melt water-
supply predictions has resulted in an increased Provincial snow-course network.
During the past summer nine new courses were established and one was discontinued, making a total of 100 active courses now in operation on British
Columbia watersheds. Of this total, forty-five are located on the Columbia, thirty-
one on the Fraser, twenty on the Lower Coast, two on the Skagit, and one each
on the Parsnip and Yukon river drainages. All will be sampled near April 1st,
with key courses also reporting near February 1st, March 1st, May 1st, May 15th,
and June 1st. These snow courses vary in elevation from the low-level Elk River
course (1,200 feet), just west of Campbell River on Vancouver Island, to the
high-level Old Glory measurement site (7,000 feet), near Rossland in the West
Kootenay.
Of the nine newly established snow courses, four were located on the Fraser,
three on the Similkameen, and one each on the Parsnip and Lower Coastal watersheds.   There were:—
Fraser:   French Snowshoe (5,200 feet), near Keithley Creek;  Bowron
Lake (4,200 feet), north-east of Barkerville;  and Penrose (4,700
feet) and Green (5,600 feet) Mountains, both in the Bridge River
area near Gold Bridge.
Similkameen:   Lost Horse Mountain (6,300 feet), north-west of Kere-
meos; Missezula Mountain (5,100 feet), north of Princeton;  and
Hamilton Hill (4,900 feet), south of Tulameen.
Parsnip: McLeod Lake, approximately 80 miles north of Prince George.
Lower Coastal:  Mount Seymour (3,650 feet), in Seymour Park on the
Greater Vancouver watershed.
The low-level Cypress Lake snow course, located near Stave Lake on the
Lower Fraser, was abandoned.
The Water Rights Branch installed its first soil-moisture measurement station
in the Okanagan region near Osprey Lake. Ultimately, readings from this station
will provide soil-moisture values which will be used in future Okanagan Lake
inflow computations.   Also, early-season snow surveys near November 1st, Novem-
I WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
BB 83
DEVELOPMENT OF   HYDRO-POWER
IN
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
annual  production of hydro-electric energy
by major   producers
ff^
ace
ALCAN
r-r-f
CM(S
4^
3
J
1
DCPC
=£
>
/>-
^
1
f
•J
10000
4000
\
I
500
400
300
ZOO
1320     1325      1330     1335      1340     1345      1350     1355      1360     1365     1370     1375
CALENDAR    YEAR
ALCAN Aluminum   Company of  Canada.
BCE British Columbia Electric   Company / Associated Companies.
BCPC British Columbia  rower Commission.
CMi5 Consolidated Mining 4 Smelting  Company 4 W63^ hootendy fvver / Light  Company.
INSTALLED    GENERATING    CAPACITIES
OF    MAJOR      PRODUCERS
ALCA.H
JI
J
f]
/ f
f—
CMfS
i
J
If
BCPC
BCE^-'
S
■J,
ants/
~~J
M
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5000
4000
2000
1000   >
b
500
400
ZOO
1320    1325     B30     J935      1340     1345     1350      1355      1960     1365     1370      1375
CALENDAR    YEAR
Plate 3. BB 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ber 15th, December 1st, December 15th, January 1st, and January 15th were
started at the Nelson course.
To ensure measurement accuracy, our field representative, during the winter
of 1958/59, visited twenty-two snow courses and instructed the responsible snow
surveyors in the correct procedures of snow sampling. During the summer installation work, repairs were completed at fifteen existing snow courses.
Six editions of the British Columbia Snow Survey Bulletin were published
during the winter, spring, and early summer of 1959. Forecasts were for normal
to above normal river volume flows. As yet, actual discharges have not been
received, but preliminary data show that water-supplies were good in all areas.   UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
BB 87
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
M. E. Ferguson, Project Manager
The anticipated activity that would occur through the development of a new
subdivision was not realized. This was evident early in the year when it was found
that additional time and study were necessary before a final draft of proposed
legislation could be completed. This was disappointing to many who had been
anticipating the possibility of an early start on a new subdivision, but when one
stops to consider the importance of such legislation, it is readily understandable
why such a decision should not have been hurried. Present plans are to submit
the necessary legislation at the next session early in 1960.
The normal maintenance and general operational problems were encountered, with nothing too unusual to record. Perhaps the fact that these services were
maintained with only a 1-mill increase in general taxes was somewhat of an achievement. Although the benefit was entirely overshadowed due to the fact the school
rate increased by just over 5 mills, bringing the total mill rate for 1959 to 40.69
mills, as compared to 34.56 for 1958.
During the year Mr. Kaller, Project Engineer, resigned to accept a more
remunerative position with Burnaby, and, because there is no indication as to how
soon we may embark on a development plan, this position has not been filled.
During the year, one other resignation occurred when Miss Smith decided to take
an extended working holiday in the Old Country and parts of Europe.
Chief Sherlock has decided to retire at the end of this year after thirty years of
service.
The next year should be of considerable interest and activity once the proposed new legislation is approved and implementation of a future policy is defined.
The following tables give an indication of the normal average-type year that
was experienced.
Number and Value of Building Permits Issued during the Years
Ended December 31st, 1959
1957
1958
1959
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
Swimming-pools	
1
3
1
14
10
$6,500.00
67,000.00
42,000.00
31,100.00
6,850.00
1
8
13
$4,500.00
3
25
3
$17,265.00
Alterations	
16,350.00
8,650.00
41,650.00
1,550.00
29
$153,450.00
22
$29,500.00
31
$60,465.00 BB 88
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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a\ o\ PERSONNEL OFFICE  PERSONNEL OFFICE
BB 91
PERSONNEL OFFICE
J. H. Palmer, Personnel Officer
Departmental establishment was decreased by two positions this year. This
resulted from the deletion of four positions and the addition of two others. Positions deleted were those formerly occupied by the Director of Conservation, his
secretary, and the geographer. The fourth deletion resulted from the consolidation
into one of the two senior positions in the Accounting Division. The additions
were a pilot-mechanic for the Beaver aircraft and an aircraft mechanic to service
the two Ansons.
Staff turnover was slightly less than in 1958, there being only thirty-five
separations. Apart from resignations, these included one termination, one death,
four retirements, and six promotional transfers to other departments.
Replacements were obtained chiefly by the recruitment of personnel at the
beginning level and by the internal transfer of five people and the promotion of
ten in-service candidates. The most senior promotion occurred in the Accounting
Division, where the newly classified position of Departmental Comptroller was
filled for the first time on February 1st, 1959.
Mr. S. G. Wilson, Chief Accountant, retired after twenty years of service and
carried with him the best wishes of his numerous friends. Three employees elected
early retirement. These were Mr. M. P. Biggs, of the Accounting Division; Mr.
T. H. Bell, Supervisor, Air Photo Processing Laboratory; and Mr. H. L. Sherlock,
Fire Chief, University Endowment Lands, who had completed thirty years of
service.
It is with regret that we record the death of Mr. J. W. Wright, who was widely
known in the Department from his work in the Accounting Division and the Lands
and Water Rights Branches. Mr. Wright was seriously wounded overseas in the
First World War.   He will be greatly missed by his many friends in the Department.
Reclassifications implemented were chiefly in the draughting, clerical, and
survey fields after the appropriate examinations. The three Land Inspectors in
the more highly commercialized districts were appointed to the newly created
Grade 3 position. Several professional positions were studied, and these and some
technical and clerical positions were under review at the year's end.
Staff training was active during the year. Five senior employees—namely,
Mr. R. Torrance, Assistant Deputy Minister of Lands; Mr. C. T. W. Hyslop, Superintendent of Lands; Mr. D. H. Stuart, Administrative Assistant, Lands Branch;
Mr. M. B. C. Maclean, Departmental Comptroller; and Mr. A. C. Kinnear, Assistant Chief, Air Division—received diplomas in Public Administration after completing the Executive Development Training Plan, held under the auspices of the
Civil Service Commission and the University of British Columbia. Three candidates completed the second year of this course, and five, the first. Eleven members
of the Lands Branch and the Land Inspection Division successfully completed
Appraisal II and three completed Appraisal I. Both of these courses were under
the auspices of the Civil Service Commission through the co-operation of the Vocational Training Branch of the Department of Education. A one-week course in
Range Management, organized by the Federal Range Experimental Station in Kamloops, was attended by eight Land Inspectors. Mr. G. W. Barnes, Supervisor,
Trigonometric Control Section, attended the extension course at the University of
British Columbia in the use of digital computers. BB 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The Personnel Officer participated in negotiations with outside employees of
the University Endowment lands and with representatives of the University Area
Fire Department, following which salary revisions approximating those granted to
Civil Servants were implemented. Other activities of the Personnel Office consisted of maintaining records, conducting interviews, assisting with selection, performing job evaluations and organization studies, processing casual and seasonal
staff appointments, and co-operating with the Civil Service Commission, as required.   MAIL AND FILE ROOM
BB 95
MAIL AND FILE ROOM
John A. Grant
As a probable reflection of more prosperous business conditions during 1959,
the letters received in the Department rose to 228,468, as compared to 215,618 in
1958, an increase of 6 per cent.
The microfilming of Crown grants is continuing, but, unfortunately, pressure
of work from other departments, combined with loss of staff, has compelled the
Central Microfilming Bureau to extend the estimated date for completion of this
project.
The increased use of the upper and lower vaults by the staff of the Department
presented a problem in ventilation. Personnel, obliged by their duties to remain
in the upper vault all day doing intricate status work, found the lack of fresh air
a serious matter. Likewise, the recent concentration of " 0 " files in the lower
vault has caused much greater use of the premises, not only by the vault staff, but
by other members of the Department, and the inadequate supply of air was a cause
of great discomfort. The situation is now being rectified by the installation of
a modern air-conditioning system.
Letters Inward
Branch
1958
1959
10-year Average,
1950-59
38,299
134,483
26,578
16,258
41,646
141,924
26,912
17,986
34,816
94,051
Water Rights Branch	
17,937
14,996
Totals       	
215,618
228,468
161,800
Letters Outward (Recorded
)
Branch
1958
1959
10-year Average,
1950-59
11,000
1,460
1,973
12,232
2,029
1,930
14,309
8,441
2,953
Surveys and Mapping  	
Totals         	
14,433
16,191
25,703
Miscellaneous Reports Received
Designation
1958
1959
10-year Average,
1950-59
Forest-fire reports 	
Slash-disposal reports	
Logging-inspection reports	
Land-classification reports	
Stumpage-adjustment notices-
Totals _..
8,240
384
13,814
2,984
2,950
28,372
4,025
320
17,094
3,332
5,096
29,867
3,556
487
15,737
2,402
22,182
L BB 96
department of lands and forests
New Files Created
Designation
1958
1959
10-year Average,
1950-59
" n " flips
4,696
955
2,917
5,552
1,275
3,600
4,789
1,532
3,551
Totals	
8,568
10,427
9,872
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1960
1,060-460-3911

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